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HIOHEE ALGEBEA.
I2T
HIGHEE ALGEBEA
H.
S.
HALL,
M.A.,
COLLEGE
S.
KNIGHT,
B.A.,
Uonlfon
MACMILLAN AND
AND NEW YOEK.
1889
[The Right of Translation
is
CO.
reserved.]
PKINTED BY
C.
J.
CLAY, M.A.
AND SOXS,
m^'"'
^^r
and contains
PREFACE.
to the
all
Higher Algebra,
In
of nearly
solution
is
the Examples.
many
cases
is
made
and
in the Algebra.
mainly intended
but
it is
hoped
that, if ju
may
also
be found serviceable
class
of students
who read
H.
S.
S.
R.
HALL, KNIGHT.
June, 1889.
HIGHEE ALGEBEA.
EXAMPLES.
8.
I.
Pages 1012.
b = cr=dr',
Letr = ^=^ = ^;
h,
then
= dr,
a=br=dr^; and by
sub
stituting for a,
c in
terms of
d,
we have
'
c ^ d* + b^cd^ + ^^.TT ,.
= r=
d2"
9.
Let
A:
q+rp
xz
r+pq
p+qr
then
10.
, ..
_y_^y + x^x
z
sum of numerators _, i ^''' = 2(x+u) Each ratio= s^, smn 01 denommators x+y
^ 
Thus each
i + ?/ = 0.
:
In the
:
first
case
x+y
z
==2:
y
'
whence x
y "
z=i
3.
In the second
case,
y=
x, and
a:
2
:
=2/
,, 11.
T, Eaohratio=
..
iix+y + z)
,
^
(p + q)(a +
J ^\ + c)
'
^
1). '
li
tively
Multiply the numerator and denominator of each ratio by and add, then each of the given ratios
a, 6, c respec
*"''
and
(2)
12.
See Example
2, Art. 12.
H. A. K.
RATIO.
[CHAP.
iy + 2zx _ 'iz+2xy _ 2x + '2yz Multiply the numerator and c o 6 I, I,  1, 2, 2 and add ; then eacn denominator of each of the given ratios by
ratio
5x
2b + 2ca'
and to
2a+2be
14,
that is
+ chj^  2bcyz + cV + a'n^  2eazx + aV 5V  2a5a:i/ = (bz cyY + (ex  azf + (ay  bxf = 0. bzey = 0, cxaz=0, aybx = 0.
..
15,
my + nzlx mn
_ lx+mynz
Im
_(nz ~ + lx'my) +
Thus we have x _
_
l
"
m+n~ n+l~
Hence the
16,
tion,
"^
+ m"
(n +
l)
+ (l + m)(m+n) ~
y+zx
y + zx
21
result.
cross multiplica
_7.
'
^^'^
17,
From
the
first
3/
_
get
hfbg
ghaf~ abh?'
we
g(M''>9)+f{ahaf) + c(abW)=Q.
18.
From
the
first
.(1).
From
the
first
z
.(2).
lb^~ bc + a
I]
4
27.
PROPORTION.
From
the
first
[chap.
two equations, X ^ y db + a ab + b
_ ^
z
(1).
1ab
z
(2).
From
X
1
_
6c
y
bc + b
bc + c
From
(1) '
*
and
(2) '
^
,f' (6
,, + 1)
.
x .j^
a^
1bc
= .p^
1ab
yy^, 0(6 + 1)
z^
a(lbc)~ c(lab)'
28.
From
the
first
(1).
From
ftc/"
fgoh
y cag^
hfbg
(2). ^'
From
the
first
_^_=
fgch
^J
ghaf
x
;
(3).
From
(2)
and
(3)
^^ ^ =^5^^ ^^
x
x^
y^
From
(1), (2),
bcf''~ cag^' and (3) z X z X _ y y be /^ cag^' abb? fg eh ghaf hfbg'
'
'
result follows.
EXAMPLES, n.
Examples
4, 5, 6,
Pages
19, 20.
may
5
all
7c,
Example
6,
and put ^ =
so that
Tcjj^ + d^ ^ Jk'b^
Jb'^ +
all
d''
sjb^ + d^
10
may
=
Example
9,
2a + 3d_2dP + Sd 3a  4d ~ 3dk^  4d
2k^ + 3
II.]
PROPORTION.
Put j =  = k;ttiena = bk,c^r, k
11.
be
and
54
.Kp'")
13.
Componendo and
dividendo,
2a:3 x+1
15.
tions
a;
= 0,
'
or
5a;
13'
Componendo and
diyidendo,
71X
:;^_ww
"1"
5.
"T"
j^^
clearing of frac
fix
we obtain a simple
equation.
16.
We have
a bc+d=(ab){ac) a
in x
18.
/
1^ (a;l)(x+l); 1, hence
.^/
J^
a;
men
+1
days
is
proportional to
(a;l)(x + l)
9 = ^.
Denote the proportionals by x, y, 192/, 21 x. x(21x)=2/(192/) x + 3/2 + (19^)2 + (21x)2=442 and x2  2/2  21x + 191/ = 0. From (1)
19.
Then
(1),
(2).
From Add
(2)
a:+2/221x19i/ + 180 = 0.
x221x + 90=0,
x=6
Subtract
or 15.
y^19y + Q0 = 0,
y = 9 or 10.
20.
tively.
A and B
Then
21.
are
x9
Suppose the cask contains x gallons; after the first drawing there gallons of wine and 9 gallons of water. At the second drawing
of
wine
left is
 91
9fx ^
9)
(x
9)2
.
in the cask is
PEOPOETION.
X
:9,
[CHAP.
II.
X
:.
or
22.
wfi.
and
last
_ ar'~a ~ or* ~ r
r
= r^+r + 1 = 3r+(lr)2 o+
,
(1^)'
r
. 1
and
this is greater
than
3.
23.
Let
T amd C
population
is
^j^ ^> 4
country
Tnn^'^ 100
total
m^^^^'
.:
18r+4c=159(T+C).
24.
On
r^ x 5a;
the increase
J of coffee is
ryrj;
XX
and the
total increase is
r^ x 6a;.
(1).
7c
..
5o + 5=42c
On
we have
(2).
5S + a = 18c
From
(1)
and
5a + 6
(2),
56
+a
25. Suppose that in 100 parts of bronze there are x parts of copper a; of zinc ; also suppose that in the fused mass there are 100a parts of brass, and 1006 parts of bronze. 100a parts of brass contain ax parts of copper and a(lOOx) parts of zinc. Also 1006 parts of bronze contain 806 parts of copper, 45 parts of zinc, and 165 parts of tin. Hence in the fused mass there are aa; + 805 parts of copper; a (100 a;) + 45 parts of zino, and 166 parts of tin.
and 100 
a.^
111.]
VARIATION.
..
ia
Also
10 {o (100 a;)
+ 44}=16xl66;
lOflx
that
is
3846
2166'
,
lOa(lOOx)
26.
or:
16
9
lOOi"
Let X be the rate of rowing in stiU water, y the rate of the stream,
to
still
water,
xy
x+y
Thus
^=84 xy
(1), "
^
^^ = 9 X x+
y
(2). '
^
From
(1),
.
a=8i{xy),
S4(a;y)
X
.:
U(xy) ^^ x+y
'
2Sy{xy)=3x[x+y),
3i'  25w/
or
+ 28i/ = 0,
x = 7y, or Sx=iy.
If
EXAMPLES, m.
7.
Pages
26, 27.
P=^
where
f
m is constant;
hence j =
mx
= x
=
thus
=60.
9.
Here y = mx + 
where
to
whence
n =  8.
= 4m + 
and
=
= 3m + 5
o
From
these equations
we
find
m = 2,
10.
Here
y=mx+ ^,
so that
19=2m + j, and
19
= 3m + ^
whence
m=5, n = 36.
8
11.
VARIATION.
[CHAP.
hence
12.
Here
and
xy=n
j.
.
From
thus
By
addition,
2x=j^z +
14.
Here
y=m + nx+px.
0=m + n+p; l=m+27i + 4^; 4=m + 3?i + 92);
m=2, p = l; and y=l2x + x^={x~iyK
t
from
whence m=l,
15. Let s denote the distance in feet, so that s=mt^. Now 402J=m x 5', hence
oc ',
m=16l.
In 10 seconds, In 9 seconds,
s s
The
16.
Focr^
Hence
V=mr^.
179 = mx(j
7
1 r=m x n\^ = g jj
^
;
when
r= J
/TX**
"
(^^ j
= 8 x 179J=22H.
17. Let w denote the weight of the disc, r the radius and t the thickness then w varies jointly as r' and t; hence w=mtr^. If w', r', t' denote corresponding quantities for a second disc, w'=mt'r'^.
Hence
t
w = tr^ w tr^
,
rr,
If
>
y^
that
is
3r=4r'.
18. Suppose that the regatta lasted a days and that the days in question were the (^l)'^ x"", and [x + )"*. Then the number of races on the a;"' day varies as the product x(a x1). Similarly the numbers of races on the (sl)"' and (a; + l)"' days are proportional to (a;  1) (a  a;  2). and (x + \){a~x).
in.J
VARIATION.
{xl){a x2)=6k
(1), (2), (3).
Hence
x{a xl)=5k
{x
+ l){ax) = 3k
lc
2x2a = Subtract (3) 2a;a = 2A: (2), Subtract (4) 2 = k. (5), Hence from (5), 2xa = 4; that is o = 2a;4 Also from (2), a;(ax + l) = 10,  3) = 10. and substituting from (6) Thus a;=5anda = 6.
Subtract
(2)
(1),
(4).
(5).
(6).
a; (a:
19.
x y
Thus
the cost of a
the value of
x=Y
J.
20. Let P denote the value of the pension, then by the question P oo ^/Y, that is
the
number
of years;
P=m^Y
Also
(1). (2),
P + 50=mjY+y
'
and
JY
8
therefore from (1)
^"
'
equation
r=16, and
and
(2),
P=im,
Let
F denote the
force of attraction,
i^'xg.andT^xJ.
TliusDocJ'TS; that
is
M D x ^ T^^
d
^^
oi
MT^xD';
fmf
is
:.
MT^=kDK
(7 3
^=
j^tin
TflnZn
= oT
35
^=343, and
m,
SiSti^
'
{2732)2
~ 31 X 31 X 31
35x35x35
10
ARITHMETICAL PEOGRESSION.
[CHAP.
2732 X 5
1366
__
,^^
22.
Let
then
but
re be tlie rate of the train ia miles per hour, in tons; g the quantity of fuel used per hour, estimated q = kx^;
2=ix(16)i;
= 256^
2
=
..
is
x ofifl^'"
x^
* 256
'
..
 x 256~^256
Also cost for journey of one mUe. due to " other expenses,"
is
*
..
20
k"
mUe
16a;'
^^
ggg
+ jg^ )
>
and
this
Now
lO
miles
therefore is least
when
'Jl1^=Q;
i^JX
Hence the
is
^^=9.
EXAMPLES.
18.
IV.
a.
Pages
and
31, 32.
= 5 (a +
J)
thus 155
= 5 (2 + 29),
n= 10.
is,
29=2 + 9(?.
then
Hence
22.
(9d)x9x
The middle number 4+d.
is
(9
+ d) = 504.
numbers are
id, 4, Thus
IV.]
23.
ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSION.
Put n = 1 ; then the
put
first
11
term
=5
= ^x66=495.
n=15; then
way.
Putn=l; then
put
:.
the
first
term
=  + &:
a
78=2);
=  + 6;
a
sum= (first
series
f^^ +2b)
26.
.:
The
= 2a
i,
ia, 6a,
a a
lH
\a
/I
3
1
...
to
\ terms n . J
EXAMPLES.
3.
IV. b.
Pages
35, 36.
4.
a\?,M=^, a + (rel)(i=;
13
so that
d= J
6.
a = 8, ra=59.
o,
a + d, a + 2ci
o
of
3600=2400.
7.
of
means by 2m.
But
this
sum=2m+l;
.".
of
12
9.
first
ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSION.
The
is
[CHAP.
series is
Iz^
1x
and
_5_
1x
Lt^^ !
:P^
and
is
therefore an A. P. whose
term
1x
difference
l~x
{2
Hence
10.
S= ^
+ (  3) VJ.
We have
a + 3d=7. a + Sd=n.
Similarly
that
is
Thusa=l, d=2.
11.
Let
ic
first
a=x + {pl)y,
:.
and y
{2ffi
will
12.
that
Here
+ (^l)d} =2;
is,
2a + (2)l)d=?2. 2a + (jl)(?=
Similarly
Whence
d=2fi + lV
\P
qj
a=^ + ^i + l.
i
_._^^^2p^2,_2_2
/I
IM
13. Assume for the integers a 3d, these is 4a; thus 4(i=24 and a =6.
..
of
that
is,
first
14. Assume for the integers o3d, ad, a + d, a + Sd; thus from the part of the question a=5; and from the second
=3;
whence d=l.
15. Here a + (pl)d=j, and a + (gl)d=ji; whence d=  1, a=p + ql. Thus the TO* term=^ + jI + (TOl)(l)=^4.2_m.
sum
17. of
{r
is
The
IV.]
ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSION.
13
18.
thatis,
rpjj
We have
" n{2a+nl.d) ra(2a+ml .d)=m{2a+nl d); whence 2a=d. m'''term _ a + (TOl)d _l + 2(ml) 2ml ni> term ~ a + (nl)d~ 1 + 2 (re 1) ~ 2rel
19.
number
are
Let be the middle term, d the common difference, and 2^ + 1 the of terms ; then the pairs of terms equidistant from the middle ;tcrm
m,
+ 3d;
m{pl)d,
m + {pl)d.
2re.
Denote the
by
a + {2nl)d.
:
a + d, a + 2d, a + 3d,
Then we have
the equations
{2a+(rel)2d}
= 24 = 30
(1),
~{2{a + d) + {nl)2d}
(2),
(2nl)i=10i
(3).
(4).
From From
(1)
(3)
and and
(2),
nd=e
re
(4)
of terms is 8.
22.
In each
set the
1].
Denote the first set of numbers by 5d, 5, 5 + d; then the second will be denoted by 5  (d  1), 5, 5 + (d  1) hence {5d){5 + d) _7 (6d)(4 + (iJ~8' d;=2 or 16. whence
; _
set
The
23.
In the
first
case the
is
common
T (2y
difference is
5
n+1
and the
r""
mean,
1)"'
term,
x+
r""
x)
.,
mean
is
2x +
r{y~2x) ra+1
re+1
m+1
(n
..
14
24.
GEOMETBICAX PEOGEESSION.
Here
[CHAP.
or
^{2(i +
(i)
+ 2l)4=0;
that
is, tlie
is zero.
EXAMPLES.
o(r8l) 9a(r3l)
20.
V.
a.
Pages
41, 42.
Tnr
r1
..
'
, r+l=9;'=2.
21.
ar*=81, or=24;
= ^^.
r1
In
The
Ex.
25,
assume
numbers ,
r'
ft
,
a,
'
ar; then
'
a=
6,
6, 6r.
Again,
(^x6^ + (6x6r) + ^^
3
x6r"j
= 156;
1
that
is,
i3r=:10,
whence
r=3
or ^, o
27.
Let/ denote
the
first
term, x the
common
ratio
then
a=fxP\
.:
h=fxi';
c^fx'K
oS'"6'"Pc=/'^Tm'a;a>i)w'm8i)o3))+(ri)(ji)=fOa.o=
28.
Here
first
from
the
hence
64(lr)'
1ya
V.J
GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSION.
is,
15
that
The first of these values is inadmissible in the other value gives a =2.
EXAMPLES.
1.
V.
b.
Pages
45, 46.
..
=
1a
3
na".
^=l +
4
15
31
5+i6 + 6i + 256+
4^16
,
By
subtraction,
64^256 8 ,16
= 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16+
3_
..
,1111,
o =2
By
subtraction,
S=l + Sx+5x^ + 73i? + 9x*+ x + dx^ + 5x^ + 7x^+ xS= {lx)S=l + 2x + 2x^ + 2x^ + ix* + 2x _! + _
""
la;~la!'
2 3 4
4.
S = l + 2 + 25'^25 +
n
''2^^'
2'''
"2^=
By subtraction,
1 2^~''''^2'''P'''
2"
1 ""2
5.
.
^=1+1+1 + 1+
is"2
i+?+5+ 2+4+8^
= 1+2=3
By
subtraction,
2^^^'^^'^2^i'''
16
6.
GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSION.
S = l + 3x + 6x^+10x^+ xS= x + 3x'+ 6a;'+ (lx)S = l + 2x + 3x'+ ia^+
/.
[CHAP.
By
subtraction,
7.
common
= ap^,
that
is,
first series
= (2?i+l)"' term
''I
of second series.
8.
The sums
r
7 1
are
"^
r'
'
and
^
~ r^1
'
respectively;
are equal
9.
..
= sr;
r^
o=a(r + l) = a + ar.
rS=
By
subtraction,
= irbr'
(1);
10.
Wehave
a + ar+ar'' = 70 4a + 4ar''=10ar
(2);
from
(2),
r=2
shall first
{n
or .
11.
at
We
shew that the sum of an infinite G.P. commencing + iy\ is equal to the preceding term multiplied by
1r
In this particular example, the value of
r
=
1r
is
, so that r=j.
Again
+ {a+2a+3a+...);
the
first series is
in G.P.,
series are
14.
S = (a + 3a + Sa+
The
...)
+ ^+
...
J
the
first series is
in A. P.,
15. 16.
series series
may be
expressed as the
sum
of
two
infinite series in
G.P.
The
may be
mG.P.
^]
17.
B.eT6 
GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSION.
17
Thus
=  = ;
hence
b''
= ao,
c^=bd, ad=bc.
Here
^~ = 2 J^;
so that {a
+ bf = 16ab,
or a'  liab
+ 62=0;
that
is,
^y_ 14^1^+1=0.
19.
Giving to r the values 1, 2, 3,...n, we have S=3.2 + 5.22 + 7.2'+ + (2ra + l)2;
..
2Sf=
3.22 + 5.23 +
+ {2nl)2''+(2re + l)2"+i.
+ 2.2")
^^
2^+1 + 8 = M
2"+2  2"+! + 2.
to 2n terms to
The
series
terms)
to
+ a (1 + ac + a^cS +
m terms)
n terms)
We have S=
=Ar
a Ir^ '
_..
1)
,
3, 5,...
\{rl)
termsj
rl
ir+r'+r^+... to
[
terms ml
j
22.
We have
5'i=i = 2;
S.,
12
= ^=3; 13
'S3=^4,
&0.;
:Sj,=
=p + l.
+
l
'
14
4
1i)
18
23.
THE PROGRESSIONS.
Wehave
(lr)"
[CHAP.
l+r+r^+r^ +
that
is,
+i"=
1
^_y
Now
is positive;
is,
and generaUy
that is
> 0,
+'^. than
rP+r2P>2r.
+r*"
greater
..
(2m + 1) r"
< \rl^
j+',
that
is
(2m + 1) r (1  r)
< 1  ?2^+^
thus
(2m + 1) j^""*! (1  r)
w+l
Br''(lr)<r^
(lr").
is
indefinitely small,
and
therefore
m^
is
EXAMPLES.
4.
..
VI.
a.
Pages
52, 53.
Here
Jab = 12,
= 9i.
for the
two numbers.
5.
^:V^=12:13,
'
2v^_12.
a+
6~13'
whence
or
that
is,
9.
6.
We have
a
=
c
c
:
7.
Let
a,
common
diff.
then we have
=a+(ml)d, ~ = a + (nl)d;
VI.]
THE PROGRESSIONS.
a=
.7
19
whence
ntn
J and
a= nm
1
""^
nm
nm
_m + n
mn
that
is,
'
H.P.=
mn
Vl+ll'
8.
We have
a + (i)l)/3
 r, rp,
pq
respectiyely,
9,
We have
1 h
2ac
a + c'
1
1
h
1
c
a+c
ac
a+c
ac  c^
2ac
lac
a^
a+c
a+c
_
10.
a + c )1 c a la
l)_a + c_l
c)
ac
c'
Here
S = 32m^Xn
_ra(M + l)(2TO+l)
n{n+l)
2
~~2
11.
Here
S = :Zn^ + ^^n=
^^f^j
\
(n^
=Vd!!:pl{n{n + l) + 3} =ln(n + l)
+ n+S).
12.
Here
22
20
13.
THE PEOGEESSIONS.
The
..
[CHAI
n2(n + l)2
2
*"
n(+l)(2TO + l)
2
"
Here
S = S3"S2''
_3^l) _ ~ 31
2j2^^l)
21
=^^^(2+^ 2)
=1(31+1 + 1) 2"+!.
15.
The
re*
tenn=3
..
4" + 6re^4n'.
S = 324 + 6S7i24Sn3
We have
/
a + md, a + nd
a + nd a + rd'
a'
w  vir
m
H
Nos7
..
11 = n
r
2mr = nm + nr
d_
a
17,
_
in
'
We
have a+(ll)d,
a+(ml)d, a + (ml)d
H.P.
a + (ll) d _(l'm)d
_lm
mn
a+(nV)d'~ (nin)d~
= m
. ,
since
=m m n
I
.:
a _l(mn) + (lm) l m
=m + l,
,
for
^ =vu lm
llmri)
VI.]
18.
THE PKOGKESSIONS.
Putting 71=1,
2, 3,... successively,
21
we
get
i+ c=Si
+ 9c=S3
suppose;
;
sum sum
and
/.
of 2
terms=a + 26 + 4c=S3
Sj
of 3 terms = a + 35
..
the
first
a+i + c,
+ Zc,
+ 5c;
diff. is 2c.
an A. P. whose common
Also
19.
The
Let
re'"
..
1,
S=4Sji3
6Sre2
+ 4Sre K=re*,
after reduction.
20.
X,
y be the two
quantities, then
yA^^A^x,
or x + y = Ai + A2
xi/
(1),
= ^^ ^,
y
Divide
(1)
or
= Gi(?2
xy
(2),
H,
J?i
x'"
H^H^
^^'
by
(2)
and equate
to (3).
21.
We
have
b
p=
=,
t^;
by eliminating
we
For
that or
real roots
we must have
{{n + l)p +
{nl)q}'^n'pq
positive;
is,
p and
p.
22.
S=S(a + rel.d)3
=na? +
,
3a2d(rel)re
2
L__i +
3(i(2(rel) re(2rel)
!
2^
6
'
d^{nlW ^
'
4
1)=}
1) (2re
1) + d% (re 
= (2a + re^.
d) [ia^
+ i (n1) ad + n(nl)
cP}
^i^ dj
.
,
is
an
integer.
22
PILES OF SHOT.
[CHAP.
EXAMPLES.
4. Place on the given pile of the base ; then
VI.
b.
Page
56.
No. of shot
25.26.27
^
,
^77
..
5.
'^
6
'^
which
,
reduces to 21321.
6.
^^3^gg^
7.
The no.
^^ ^ ^^ ^ b
pile
of shot in a complete
^'^
,
in a side of the
tase
is
or 11 x 17 x 67, that
12529.
In a
12 X 13 X 25 ^
or 650 shot;
8.
the required
complete,
is
re
= 15, and m = 20
73, the
number
1840.
rectangular pile having 10 and 17 shot in the sides of its base, 10 X 11 X 42 , or 770. Also there are 20 then the no. of shot in this pile is ^ D courses, so that the base of the complete pile has 30 and 37 shot in its sides
9.
/.
Add a
= 12710:
10.
By formula
number
or 190.
11.
n(re+lH2m + l)
12
, ^'
VI.]
PILES OF SHOT.
to find the value of
23
and we have
XT
^5
[71 + 2
Now
whence
12.
n{n + l)
2ra
^i3 'iM =
+ l) , ^1=120'
300.
pile of 16
when
41
42
6
83
25
26
51
which reduces
13.
to 18296.
We have to
shew that
6
w(?t+l)(2re + l)
_l ~4"
2K(2?i + l)(2n + 2)
6 13
,
14
vn
^^^"^^
1,
n{n+l){n + 2)
lire"
2n(2n+l)(in+ir WS'
123ra 12) =
whence
or
(lire
 108 = 0,
;
+ 9) ( 
whence n = 12.
pile
'^ =
=4900.
..
3G4;
pile
24.25.49
^
15.
The no.
jg
= 680,
6
re(re
whence
..
^
.,
,
16.
The number
.
,
of shot
.
m square pile =^
re(re
+ l)(2re + l) .
The number
n(n+l)(n + 5'^
(
2)
.
2)
= "1)^("+1)
re
and
this is the
which has
 1 shot
in a side of the
24
SCALES OF NOTATION.
[chap.
59.
EXAMPLES.
1.
VII.
a.
Page
VII.]
SCALES 6^ NOTATION.
2
25
16.
3102 242
31141
10;
242 242
26
11.
SCALES OF NOTATION.
5)400803
5) 71872.. .2
12.
[chap.
T) 20665152
13.
TII.J
18,
SCALES OF NOTATION.
The septenary numbers 1552 and 2626
respectively;
27
and  = 5
1000
8
X9.
1..4.....4+*+...=l^(ll).J..
'*~=(?4)(J4)(^f.)_/4
20.
SN/
]^\_; 30_5
'48~8'
If be the radix of the scale, then
is r2
+ y_90=0,
then
or
r=9.
scale,
^=
or (25r2
T2
+^
that
is
+ 16)(r216) = 0;
Here
thus r=4.
5r2 + 5r+4=(2r+4)2;  llr  12 = 0, or r = 12.
22. that
is,
r^
23.
less
;
the greater,
and
;
than ten also the radix must be greater than 7 8 or 9 and by trial we find that it is 8.
24.
(4r?+7r + 9)
r'''
11?'=0,
28
,
SCALES OP NOTATION.
and we have
to express 2240
[CHAP.
2
)
2240
Thus,
2240 = 2"+
2'
+i
2)17...1
2)8.. .1
2)j4...0
2)^...0
1...0
31. We proceed as in the last Example, and express 10000 in the scale of three. In dividing 41 by 3 we have a (Quotient 13 and remainder 2; since, however, only one weight of each kind is to be used we put 14 as the quotient and  1 as the remainder, the negative sign indicating that the corresponding weight 3^ is to be placed in the opposite scale to those indicated by the positive remainders. Thus, weights 39, 3^ 3% 1 must be placed in one scale and 38, S', 36, 35 in the other scale.
10000
\
3333 i si 1111...U n ;
mi
370
..1
3)_5...l 3)_2...l
1...1
32.
33.
number
is divisible
102 + r
10 + s
by
8.
34. Since r = s  1, the number nrr in the scale of s is equal to 10000  1, and the square of this is 100000000 + 1  20000 hence we have the result, siuce s2 = q, and sl=?'.
;
35.
Hence
N ~N' r
are
is also
an
iuteger.
number
of digits ;
be
+ Zw2"2 + cr23 +
+ cr^+ir+a.
.
This expression
may
a
be written
(r'^"!
and
is
therefore divisible by r
. .,
VIII.]
29
hence
37.
IS
is
an
integer;
^~^\
also
an integer.
^
Similarly
or
? is
an
integer.
Hence
38.
^~
" is
an
integer.
The number
mU be denoted by abcabc
= a.l0 + &.10* + c.l03. +O.102+6.10 + C = a(103 + l)102 + 6(103 + l)10 + c{103 + l) = (103+1) (a. 102 + 6. 10 + c).
Thus the number
This
is
is divisible
by 1001, that
40.
is
by
7 x 11 x 13.
a particular case of
Example
be the number, S the sum of its digits, and r the radix 39. Let then J/  S = / (r  1) where I is an integer. But r  1 is even ; hence is even, and therefore and S are either both even or both odd.
,
NS
40.
Denote ten by
t,
and
let
the
number be
+Pnlt+Pn> new number
p,t'^^+p^t"'
on repeating the n
will be
= (ft*"' +P^t'^'' + +Pit+p) "+ (^i"+i>2''~''+  +i'nl +Pn) = (i'l'''+i'2'^'+  HPnl^+Pj (" + !)
...
is divisible
**+ 1.
Also, since n is odd, i" + l is divisible by * + l, that is can easily be seen that the quotient is 9090. ..9091; thus
by
eleven,
and
it
100001 = 11 X 9091
10000001 = 11 x 909091.
EXAMPLES.
1
^
VIII.
a.
Paqes
72,
7.3.
l + s/2+s/3
(1
^'
+ ^2^8
x/2
+ ^2)2 (^3)2
2.
,^2 + ^/3^5
'
_ ^a+sjb^a + b
i^a+ijb+ja +
b {s/a + ^b)''{a + b)
ija+s/b ^Ja + b
ijab
aijb __
+ bsja Jab (a + 6)
2a6
30
^
[CHAP.
^ 2 Ja + 1 {^0^+ Ja + 1 +7 2a)
^ Ja1 + Ja + l + iJ^
_ al + Ja^^+j2a{al) a1
^ 5.
^^ expressions The
.
(^/ lO
(15
+ 10^2) 3 _
(6
~(13 + 2;^30)5
6.
13.
= 32.3* + 2.3*l ^
14.
The expression
r
3+2t
(3i2^) (3^3^.2^+3^.2^3^.2^ + 3^.2^2^) 3223
'
result.
_ 2^
3^ (3^3^
2^3^
3^
2^ 3I 2^ + 8^ 2^  2*)
. .
23
16.
The expression
= =
_
1
si^
3^3^ + 3*3^+3^l
3^+3^
+l
31
2^+2^ 2f2^
(2^ + 1)
17,
The expression
2^ + 1
2^1
(2^ + 2^ + 2^+2^ + 2^ + 1) 2^1
Vin.]
31
18.
33^
3T1
321
to 24 are solved by the method of Art. 87; the results generally be vfritten down by inspection ; thus in Ex. 19 the quantities 20, 28, 35 under the radicals are the products of the numbers 4, 5, 7 taken two at a time; and the sum of these numbers is 16;
Examples 19
however
may
..
the two quantities ^5, ijl having the same sign, because of the term 21. 6
22.
23. 24.
a + Zh + i + i^aiJ^2jSab
21 + 3;V86v/36J7V24^56 + 2;^21
by
trial.
25.
= 1, = 3.
3/
^\00WB = 2;
Here
a;2
?/
and
a;'
27.
= 99, whence
a;
=3, y = %.
28.
Here
and
also a^+3x2/
= 50,
29.
here
/oca = \/ ^2*9"
'
1681
5
'^
3=
7343"
27"
=3
32
also x^ +
[CHAP.
(2+
/;t
= 2^3+x/5.
We have
Here
s2y=^2025  841
2/
x 2 = 4/343 = 7;
and
x^
= 2;
thus
(3^2)
= 3;^3^6.
;
Examples 31
31.
may
be solved by inspection
thus
a + x+V2ax + ffi^=(ffi+x) +
2^^a + j = ^^+
y'a +
l)
32.
33.
35.
36.
3a;2
32/2
37.
Theexpression=
^^^^^^^
10^76 + 10^3
3^35
10(5V3 + 1)
^ V3j5_ J_
38.
95;^3~^3"
*^^^ = i?^.=
VIII.]
33
39.
 x/3).
40.
+ 15/3
is
2 + ^/3.
= (2+^3)2 (j^j^ =
(2+^/3)2{2^3)''
= 4x2V3=8;^3.
41.
Multiply each numerator and denominator by
the expression =
,,
.
20
,
6^/6 + 2./5
20
^2 2^5 + 6 4+^y62^5
;
thus
~5J5
42.
'i#=(5W5)2.
3+V5
From
the formula
a' + b^ + c^3abc
we have
a^ +
= [a + b + c){a^ + b^ + c''bccaah); 2l + 3x4/2=x3+ (4/2)3+ ( 1)3 3a;(4/2)(l) = (a; + 4/2l)(a;2+4/4 + lx4/2 + a; + 4/2).
we have
x'
43.
As in
Art. 89
Again
+ 3xy = 9al^. (6= + 2ia?)^ (6^  Sa^) = 1728a  432o''62 + 860^64 _ (,6= (I2a2  62)3
{9ab^f 
..
!K22/
= 12a262;
or
4x(x29a=')
44.
4x4=(^+iJ4 = (>iJ;
..
2V^^=v/a4
^"'^
,
~ ~2~
l
'
EXAMPLES. Vm.
4.
b.
Pages
81, 82.
The produot = (x + w)
{x
5.
w wehave
V.
_^
1 3
V^
fi 6.
<
^2
2 ^5
V^ + ^'>/5)\ 1820
H. A. K.
34
7.
[CHAPS.
8^
_
= (3 + 2i) (2 +45i) + (3  (
 2i) (25i)
"
_ 2(6 + 10f) ^ _
29
25)
29
8.
The expression =
{a+ix)^{aix)''
iiax
^^::^,
(x
i
^^r,
2(3is2 + i3)
^^2
9.
The expression
+ ifixi)^
^^^
2i(3x2l)
+1
Sa^l
^TiT
'
2(3ia2 + i')
10. Theexpression=
j^^ = ^^ =
l)4n+3
30^^
+ 1'
^
11.
12.
Examples IB
tion as follows.
13. 14.
5 + 12
1160
J36x25 = (5  J^M)^
15.
= (48 + 1 + 2
16.
V^^ = (1+n/^^'
17. 18.
4a52(a2_62)^rT=(a + 6)2_(a5)2_2(a262)
V^l
We have 3 + 5i _ we ^_^.s/3iV2 _
2v/3is/2
^
+ 5i)
^_^.^
(2
+ 3i) _  9 + 19 i ^^
20.
14
.
behave
(l
1+i
=
= :
lz^
=i.
22.
23.
Theexpression=
gi^ +b
a^
VTII., IX.J
35
24.
Wehavel + u2=fc,;
+ t^y = {a)*=a'>=a.
The product
26. Since the expression =
is
4u'=4.
1(o* = 1(d and lu'' = l w^,
(1
 u)^ (1  u^f
27.
2 + 5ai + 2oj2 = 2
(1
(3m)
= 729ai6 = 729.
+u
alternately,
The
28. The factors are equal to 1  u+.u^ the product of each pair is 2". Ex. 25.
and
w^^
and
29.
x^
3, Art. 110.
1>\
30.
Hence
(1)
(2)
xyz = (o + 6)
(o^ _
a6 + 6^)
(3)
EXAMPLES.
13.
If the roots of
(1) ,
IX.
a.
Pages
real,
then
B^iAG
is positive.
Now in
positive quantity.
Again in
(2),
U{ab)^4:{ab + c){abc)
a positive quantity.
Applying the
x^2mx + 8m15 = 0,
wehave
15,
that is
16.
m=8m15;
If the roots are
that
is
(m 
5)
(m  3) = 0.
or Qm"

equal (1
+ 3m)' = 7 (3 + 2m)
8m  20 ^ 0,
(9m + 10)(m2) = 0.
On
reduction
we have (m + l)a;^6a;(m+l)=ox(ml)c(m
is
1),
that is
32
36
[CHAP.
be a
are rational,
B^iAC must
a perfect square.
(3a2
+ b^c^  4a6c  6a' ah + 26^) = c' {9a* + 2ia^i + lOa^b^  8a6' + b*) = c^ (Sa" + iab  6^)2 = a perfect square.
(
In Examples 18 to 20 we have
3=~, a + '^
a
1
1
be
aB=; whence
a
a^
+ ^=
b^2ac
j
_a= + S2_62_2a___c^_62j2ac
19.
a*^' +
/3)
~a5V~oj
on
20
a'
/"
^y
(a^^)^
(g
/3)
(g
 p)^ _
V;8"gy
a>^^
~
~a^\
g2/32
_j,2 /;,2_4ac\
a^
c^
 iac)
J^^^~
aV
quadratic equation whose roots are l2i. This equation Therefore x'ix + i is a quadratic expression which is vanishes for each of the values 1 +2i, 1  2i
Now
22.
x^
Now
23.
The equation whose roots are 3 i is ic^  6x + 10 = 0. ,i?%x''Sx + 15=x{x^ex + 10) + 3(x'Gx + W)15=15. The equation whose roots are o (It J 3) is x^ 2aa; + 4a^=0. x^ax^ + 2a'x + ia^=x{x^2ax + ia') + a{x^2ax + 4:a^)=0.
Here
Now
24.
Sum
Product of roots =
(g
is
25. In the equation x^{a + b)x + abh^=0, the condition for real roots that (a + 6)24(a6/i2) should be positive; that is, (o  6)^ + 4^^ must be
positive,
which
is
26.
ax + b=
From
we have
is,
IX.]
37
_
2o\
In
6)=^^=
(^i
^2)^
 2^,x, ^
1 /6.^
In
(2),
1
(^^
+ ^^)(^^2 + ^^2_^^^j
'
a) Xa'
aJ
27.
then
a
a'ii.
and axna=.
a
Eliminating
a,
we have
+ nf
a'
28.
Here
aH^5i=^". and a +
^4
a'c'
,
^=^ = 5!z;
'
and product = ^
ah'
29.
:.
Here
a^=
(m^ + n?).
(a+^)2=(m + n)2; and (,a^f={:m+nf'i{jn^ + n'')^~{mnf. Thus we have to form the equation whose roots are (m + b)^, {jnv)'';
the
sum
of roots = 4mre,
EXAMPLES.
IX. b.
Pages
93,
94
In the equation 2a'x'+2ancx+ (71^2)0^=0, the condition for real 1. roots is that aHh'^  26? (r^  2) c' should be positive, that is, 4  m'* should be positive. Therefore n must lie between  2 and + 2.
2.
Put
;
'
7:=y;
that
is,
t'henyx'^{5y + l)x
;
+ dy==Q.
Ifajisreal,
positive
{5y
be positive
..
(1
+ lly)
(1
 3/) must be
y must
lie
3. {y
Put
2^^^=^;
then (2/l)a;2+(2/ +
positive;
..
l)ii;
+ yl = 0.
Ifa;isreal,
positive.
(y
3) (1
 3y) must be
Put
V+2a7
II
is real,
..
 17)2 + (y  1) (7^  71) must be positive (2/ 8 (^2 _ liy ^ 45) must be positive 8{y5){y~ 9) must be
;
..
positive.
38
5.
[CHAP.
Ja+^ab ^a~sjab
^ ^a + ija b
,
= a(ab) b rr=ir*
;
Product of roots =
=
Ja Ja  6
"
Henoe
6.
(1)
tlie
equation
is
ic^
;a!+^=0.
o
o2(a2^ij3)+82(/32aia)
op
(2)
'
From
a;^
pa; + 2=0,
(a;i))*=(ga;i)'=?j.
Substituting o and
for
successively,
7.
then
n pa + 2a=;
pax
.
50 = y.
From
7^.
Jpq
Substituting in the
first
/. Vl
. .
equation
^tl
/ +
=o.
Dividing by
^
..
result.
2a 2m
^^'
^'^^^
'^^
9.
In the
first
a'
...
(a^)==li^.
IX.]
39
a)(, +
m==^^^^;
thatis,(a^)==ii?^;
whence the
1If
a;
result follows.
^"*
ltt!li =y'
9
(9
tten(^ + 42/)x''+3x(l^)(4+jp2/)=0.
is real,
..
..
(1  y)^ + 4 (p + iy) (4 + py) must be positive + 16^)) J/" + 2 (2^)^ 23) ^ + (9 + 16^)) must be positive {2p'+ 23)2 _ (9 + 16p)2 must be negative or zero,
positive.
Thus
that
is,
4
4
(j)2
(j)
be negative or zero
or zero.
+ 4)' (2) 
(p  7)
must be negative
"
If
^"'
is
tli^n 22/:.=i + (32/l)^ + 62/2=0. 2a:43x+6 =^' real, (3^  1)^ 8y{&y2) must be positive (1 + 13y) (1  Sy) must be positive.
.
.
its
greatest value is 5
12.
Put
=y; then
positive
;
siP2yx + 'by
..
+ cyic=0.
If
a;
is real,
(yb){yc) must be
positive.
may
be possible and
positive.
and
difierent is that
should be positive. This expression reduces to (ac  6') {462 + (a  c)^} so is contrary to that of 6^  ac. Hence the required result follows
14.
Denote the given expression by y multiply up and rearrange, then (ad  bey) x'^(ac + bd) {i.y)x+ {be ady) 0.
;
If
is real,
we must have
(ac
(be
 ady)
positive
that
or
is,
{ (ac
(ae
must be
positive for
aU values
of y.
40
[CHAP.
(ac6d)*>{(acM)22(a(JJc)2}2,
that
is, is,
(ac
6c)*,
that
that
..
is,
(a
 d') must be
sign.
positive.
Hence
a"
~ V and
c^
EXAMPLES.
Questions 1
Art. 127.
1.
ff.
Page
95.
Here
m 1 + 3 = 0,
whence
m= 2.
Or thus: the given equation may be written 2x{y + l) + y^+my3=0; hence y + 1 must be a factor of y'+my 3; that ia,y=i must satisfy the
equation
2.
y^+my3=0.
3.
roots of
should be real
root,
we must have
(1).
g'(a;2+px + 2)}(a;2+p'a;
+ 3') = o
^^'~^'^
.
(2;.
From
5.
(1)
we
get
x=^^'
and from
(2)
z=
When
the condition
is fulfilled,
the equations
h? +mxy + ny^=0 and l'x^ + m'xy + n'y^=Q must be satisfied by a common value of the ratio x y.
:
From
these equations
we have by
cross multiplication
_
mn'  m'n
^y nV  n'l
Im'
^ 
I'm
whence
6.
(nl'
{Im'
 I'm).
IX.]
7.
41
vanishes
2/ ma; is a factor of ax^+ihxy + hy^, then tins last expression when 2/ = ma;; that is, a + 2hm+bm,^=0. Similarly iimy + xisa, factor of a'x^ + 2h'xy + h'y^, we must have
a'm'2h'm + b' = 0.
From
these equations,
mi'
we have by
cross multipUcation
whence
1 _ m _ ~ 2(bh' + a'h) 2{b'h+ah') ~ aa" {aa'  bby=  4 {ah' + b'h) (a'h + bK).
20y+ 244=0
as a quad
ratic in a,
we have 9a;=
(2/
46)7(j/ 46)29
(3/220!/ + 244>
Now the quantity under the radical is only positive when y Ues between and 10; and unless y Ues between these limits the value of x wUl be
Again
j/2+2?/ (a;10)
imaginary.
+ 9a;292ar+244=0;
whence
Thus in
y={x10) J{x lO)^  (9x2  g2x + 244) = {x10)J= J 8 {x6) {x3}. order that y may be real x must He between 6 and
b')+cy + c'=0;
8.
x=
(by
{cy
+ &).
order that x may be a rational function of y the expression under the radical, namely (624oc)!/2 + 2(66'2ac'2a'c)y + 6'24a'c', must be the square of a linear function of y; {bb'  2ac'  2a'c)^ ={b^ 4ac) (6'2  4a'c') hence
Now in
Simplifying
a'c'^
..
we have + a'^a^  ac'bV  a'cbV + 2aa'cc'=4,aa'cc' acb'" a'c'b^ o'%2  2aa'cc' = ac'bb' + a' ebb'  acb'^  a'c'b' a^c'^
;
..
{ac>
 a'cf={aV X.
a.
a'b) {be'
b'e).
EXAMPLES.
1.
Pages
102, 103.
(ai  4)
(ic^
+ 2) =
whence  = 4 or  2.
42
2.
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
(a;29)(a;2l)=0; whence
[CHAP.
i=9
\/a;
or 1.
3.
(2s4 
1) (a;4
 2) =
whence
=
or
2.
4.
(3a;4
11
Putting Putting
2) (2a;4
1)
whence ijx=^ or
i_
i
whence
5.
(a:3)(a;'*2)=0.
6.
(a;2l) (a;22)
= 0.
^ ^
7.
7y + 
= ^;
y=ar
8.
'^^
 = ^! ^^ + 2/^6'
2/
9.
(Ss^l)
+ 5) = 0; wh6nce;^x=5
or
5.
25
satisfied
11. 12.
1.
13.
2.
2"=+*
+ 1 = 0;
that
is
a;
+ 4=0.
14.
8.22^65.2=: + 8 = 0; that
2^
is (8
2'l) (2'8)
2==
= 0;
whence
15.
1)2
= 3 = 2, and
= 2'.
2"^
(v/2^
= 1.
1
16.
5 = 10;
59
= 1680;
63)
(a;^
a quadratic in a? 
and gives
(os^
 2a! 
2a!
 25) = 0.
(a;+9)(a:7)(a!3)(a! + 5) = 385;
(a:2
this is a quadratic in x^ +
+ 2a;, 70)
(a;^
+ 2a!  8) = 0,
X.]
19.
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
K
(2a!
43
 3a! + 7) = 0.
3)
(2a!
+ !)( 2) = 63;
2x''
that
(2a:''
is
(2a;23a:)(2a:23x2)=:63;
9) (2x^
this is a quadratic in
 3x and
gives
 3a; 
(2x7)(a! + 3)(x3)(2a! + 5)
= 9l4
 x  8)
{2x'
(2a:2a!21)(2a;2x15) = 91;
2a:''
this is a quadratic in
 x and
gives (2x'
 x  28) = 0.
2L
6; and
N.B. In this and the following examples, the solution obtained by taking the negative value of y satisfies a modified form of the given equation.
22. Put 2/2 =3x2 4x 6; then j/^ + j/ 12=0; thus2/ = 3or 4; 3x''4x6 = 9 or 16. and therefore
23. Put y^ = Sx^lGx + 21; then 1/2 + 3^28=0; thus 3/=4 or 7; and 3i216x + 21 = 16 or 49. 24. Put ^2=3x27x + 2; then y'3i/10=0; thus y = 10 or 1; and 3x2 _ 73.^ 2 = 100 qj. i_ 25.
thus
y=l =6
26.
thus
2/
3x28x + l = 36
or
.^4x + 5  ^x =
27.
Dividing by
Jx + S;
1,
^x  4 + 3= ,Jx + Ti.
29.
we have yxl=0,
and
30.
v/2x + 7
+ v'3(x6) = Jlx + T.
and
Ja + Sx=0, JaxJa2x=sj2aix. Examples 31 to 34 may be solved as in Art. 132. 31. Use the identity (2x2 + 5x  2)  (2x2 + 5x  9) = 7.
Dividing by ija + 3x, we have
32. 33.
Use the
Use the
identity
(3x22x+9)(3x22x4) = 13.
_ 7^ + 1) (2x2
identity (2x2
 ga: + 4) = 2x  3.
the
34. Use the identity (3x2 7x4) _ (2x2 7x + 21)=x2 25. Examples 35 37 are reciprocal equations and may be solved by method of Art. 133. Example 38 may be solved by Art. 134.
44
39.
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
[CHAP.
I
We have componendo
et
dividendo
p
a:
iJ12ax
s/"'
<?
40.
+ 2^
then
5x Ja + 2x + iJa'2x =
ija + 2x ija
,
2x
"
Ja + 2x _ 5x + a
.
g + 2x
2a;
_ (5g + a)
o
'
Whence componendo
41.
et
dividendo
= nglOax
,
The
simplified
form of the
4a!
left side is
ix Jx^  1
;
thus
dividing
and
Jx + l = 2jx2.
1
l)
JI^\ _ s]I^
42.
Jx'x
(a:
sjx(x'l)
ijx{x +
is
thus
Jx
+ 1) +
=
^x
[x
x ;
which
a quadratic in ,Jx(x
+ l).
+ l)
43. "
^^+x/^ 'V
a: a:
1
/.
=
(2a:
/6 a/ 
hence
44.
45.
2^^
13a!
+ = 0,
6
;
or
 3)
(3a!
 2) = 0.
= 8 X 2= = 22>H3
Dividebya"^; then
(0^
+ 1) = (a'": + 1) a;
is (a
.
VoMiia.a^'^a,''
a"'
1) (a"^
 a) =
whence
each
side,
2tjxh= JSx  7.
solution is similar to that of Ex. 46.
(a^
47,
48,
The
 x^)^, or
(a + ar)3
(a
 x) 3, we get
2,+f=5, where
j/
(^)\
X.]
49.
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
45
We have identically
,
^x'^ +
By
Jx'^ + 6x  1 = {Ja +,Jb)x. = {Ja + Jb) x + {Ja  ^b). addition, 2 Jx'' + axl Squaring, 4 (x^ + ax  1) = {Ja + ,Jbf x^ + 2{ab)x + {^a ^Ib)^;
Jx^ + ai  1 +
+ {(^a;^6)2+4}=0.
is satisfied is j^.
Now by inspection,
by a;=l; hence by
'^^jjr^
The
simplified
thus
51.
(x^
1)
This equation
may
1)
be written x*2x'+x''x''+x=380;
;
=380
which
is
a quadratic in x (x 
1).
52.
This equation
may
is
(27xS + l)
+ 7(3x + l) = 0;
dividing by 3x + l,
EXAMPLES.
1.
X. b.
Pages
106, 107.
20 = '
'
o hence 3x
,
40 =7. X
2. 3.
+ 1) + 13^2 25.
this
4.
By
division
5, 6,
lfi
+ xy+y''=i^, combine
Examples
7 are solved
:
Art. 136.
transpose if necessary; the equations will be found to be homogeneous, and may be solved by putting y=mx.
Examples 8
to 12
Examples 13
16. 17.
to 15
may
4
2, Art. 136.
From
(1),
y=:j hence = +
;
;
4  = 25.
;
Prom (2), x+y=3 from (1), 2(xS+yS)=9xy by division 2(x2x!/ + j/2) = 3x2/, or 2x'Sxy + 2y'=0; whence (2xy) {x2y)=0.
Put ^=u, %=v; then u + v = 5, and 2 5
18. "
+ =;; D
6
whence we have
uv = 6.
19.
Put u=x^,
become
m'+5=1072; tt + D = 16.
46
20.
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
Put u=xi, v=yi; then the eijuations become
^u+i)''=20, and u^+v^=65.
[CHAP.
Multiply the
first
of these
by 3 and add
to the
whence +?; = 5.
21.
find
Mu = 6.
22. Square the first equation; thus 2x + 2 ijx''y''=16; substituting from the second equation 2a; + 6 = 16. 23.
from the
24,
;.
Square the second equation; thus 2a; 2 Jx^l=y = 2 .Jx^l hence tjx"  1 = 2 (a;  1). first equation
;
The
first
equation
is
a quadratic in
* /, and
gives
\/ y = ^
or 5
whence x=9y, or
x=^
is
25.
1
The
ti,
first
equation 5
;;
a quadratic in .
^x^y'
^^ and
,
gives
^x~^y
^=4
or
r
that
is
^=
\/^
v/2/
or
5 
3
whence 
a;
2/9
= 
first
;
25
26.
thus
Combine each
xy = 25 or
of
From
27. The first equation is a quadratic in xy, the second equation (x  y) (4a; y) = 0.
and
gives
16.
28. From the first equation, (2a; Sj/)^ (2a; 5)/) 6=0. This is a quadratic m2x5y, and gives 2a;  5y = 3 or  2. Combine with the second equation. 29.
 12.
30.
From (1), (3a;2!/)2 + ll(3a;2!/)12=0; whence 3x2y = l or Combine with the second equation.
Divide
(2)
by
,
(1);
% = 7^ = 2'
'^'
Sx^'i0xy + 3y^=0;
first
whence
(Sxy){xSy) = 0.
Thus x=32/
or .
Substitute in the
equation.
31.
By
division
^^J^/ ^l^i'
= 0.
Substitute
*^^*
"'
6:^'=13^2' +
%= = 0;
whence
(2a;j/)(3a;5i/)
!i;=
and
a;=J^ successively in
X.]
32,
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
From
(1),
47
x^xy + y^
x+y
x^+xy+y'
43a;
2x(x'+2y^)
43a;
xy
3?y^
'
Substitute
a;=^
4, Art. 136.
Here^!^gf^i^) = ^=3;
~
thus
m36m2+ 11m G = 0;
that
is,
(ml)(m2)(m3) = 0.
34,
is,
Here
_\^ = ^=21;
thus
that
(m2)(m3)(m3) = 0.
35 and 36 are solved by the method of Ex.
35,
5, Act. 136.
From
(1),
a;*9a;2/3_4x8j/i
is
From (1), (6a;<+a;V 2a;!/S) (4 x6a;2) + (4)2=0; substituting from namely i x'^ + xyy^, we have 6x* + a;y  2a;j/5  6a;2 (a;2 + a;j/  2/) + (a;2 + x)/  j>)2 = 0, whence !(;*4a;'y + 6a;'!/24aa/5 + 2/*=0; that is {xyY=0, and a;=y.
37,
From (l),x^y^=hyax;
;
dividing by
(2),
^
^^ = f^""^
a;
+ 2/
by
+ ax
whence
=
ax
38,
that
is,
77=* ?=&,
s/^
Ja
say.
'
Substitute in either of
'
the given ^
equations,
Square
(1)
and subtract
(2);
is,
2a'x^al}xyiy=0,
Combine each
or (2ax+by){axhy)=0.
Thus
x=^,
01 x = ^.
and simplifying, we obtain 39, On equating the first expression to Similarly from the second expression we find b^x + a?y = a'h + dbK
xy bx  ay + a?  ab + h^=0. y from the first of these equations in the second, we obtain 6W2a62a;_a3(a2J)=0, whence (bxa^){bx + a(a2b)) = 0.
Substituting for
40,
,
6a;
Divide
,
(1)
by
(2),
a
and we
get
^
h^x^
= 106a; +
Saw
;
^^^^^3^^
whence, by putting
lOm+3 = m for ay we obtam m=i= + 3)71 10 3m4 + 10m3=10m + 3, 3(m*l) + 10jrt(m2l) = 0; whence m?l = 0, or 3m2 + 10m + 3=0.
ti
48
41.
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
From(l), we
liave 2ax^
[CHAP.
+ {ia^l)!cyiay^=Q;
EXAMPLES.
1.
X.
c.
Pages
109, 110.
From
<1)
and
(2)
by cross multiplication,
x_y_z_
2.
From
(1)
and
(2)
by cross multiplication, X _ y _z
{xy)''z^=12;
putting
z
(3),
(1)
= 2;
From (2) and (3), (xzfhi^= 11:, putting u=xz, this gives 4. iy^u^=ll; also from (1), 2i/ + M=ll; whence 2y = Q, and =5. Thus xz = 5. Combine with a;2 = 24.
5.
From
11
,
(1)
and
(2),
(x+yfSz (x+y)z^=Z;
from
(3),
gives
v?^uzz'^=i.
or
z=2
and
m=7
Also 4 or ^
uz = 5.
These
Combine these
a;2
+ 2/2 = 21.
6.
By
by this
The
given equations
x(a;
may be written + 2j/ + 3z) = 50, y (x+2y + Sz) = 10, z(x + 2y + Zz] = 10.
^""^
5o=K=io'^ 5=1=1="'
;
^^y3,
Or, multiply the second equation by 2, the third equation by 100. (x + 2y + ^zf to the first thus
and add
Put u=yz, v=z + x, w=xy; then Mt7 = 22, ?;; = 33, )M=6; thus 8. 2^2j(,2_22x33x6; whence uvw= 66, andM= 2, d=11, >= 3.
By multiplication, !i!VsW=128 = 2'; thus 9. of the given equations by this last result, we have
xyz = b, xyu=i, xzu=,
xyzu=2.
Dividing each
yzu=.
Now
xyzu2 by each
X.]
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
10.
4.9
Divide
(1)
(1)
by
(2)
(2),
thus i^ = ?
divide by
(3),
Multiply
by
and
thus
=9.
Substituting in
(1),
11.
These equations
(x
may
be written
{x
+ l){y + l) = 24t,
+ l){z + l)=i2,
(i/
+ l){z + l) = 2S.
+ l)(z + l)=168.
These equations
may
be written
+ l) = 50,
Whence
(2a +
l){y 2)
{3z
From
(1)
and
(2),
xz
{z
Combining with
(3),
(12a)
{z
+ l] = 15z.
Subtract
(2)
(3),
thus
(a).
yz+zx+xy = (i
Subtract
(1)
(2)
and
(3),
thus
(^).
we have {^+y + z) (yz+zx+xy) = 0. Subtracting (/3) from this last result, we have Zxyz=0. Hence one of the quantities x, y, or z must be zero. Let x=0; substituting in (a), we have ys=0; thus a second of the quantities must be zero. Hence from (3) the remaining quantity must be equal to a,
Combining
(1)
and
(a),
15.
that
is,
From
the
first
From
I.
(3),
From
+ OT + a!y) = 3a2 x+y + z==i=atJ3. 3xy+z = a^3. x+y+z=asJ3 and 3xy+z = a^3,
" + 3/2 + z2 + 2 (yz
3/
wehave
Substituting in the
":,
= aJ32x.
we
find
first
equation,
3x^2^3. ax + a^=0,
that
is,
or
(x^3af=0;
x=y=.
H. A. K.
50
II.
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
From
[CHAP.
x+y + z= a^Z
we have
= 's/^'^V^
o
16.
From
the
first
I.
From
we have
Substituting in the
x''
= 2x.
a:
equation,
we have
+ ax2a'=0, whence
II.
From
x+y
we have
Substituting in the
x2
first
we have
EXAMPLES.
1.
X.
d.
Pages
^;
113, 114.
Divide by
thus
j^
3,
then x + 2y +
;
~ = 3i +
is
thus ^^
=mteger; multiply
by 2
+ ^ = integer
that
^5
=p
Divide by
as
2,
+ ;; = 26 + ^;
therefore
^  = integer =p
say
hence
3,
=2jj +
l,
y=24:5p.
by
7,
Divide
then x + 5y
say
;
integer,
and
therefore
thus
4,
by
6,
then
x 3 + ^pj= integer;
hence
ic
that is
^pp=^;
x=9 + llp
''+'!/
&nd.y = 27 13p.
^^^^
a;
5,
+ ^=^^ + oS'>
^~
= integer;
and
therefore
v9
say;
thus^=9 + 23p,
= 3025^.
X.J
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
6.
51
and
x+y + ^=53 + ~;
tlius
?^^ = integer,
7.
5,
then *  2/  "^ = ?
thus
t^ua
^^ =
integer ; multiply by
3,
then
2/
+ 1 + L^= integer;
Divide by
6,
^^=p,
=,
1
,
or y =
5pi, x = lp5.
8.
then
a;
22/
1
thus
^^  integer =p
2.
hence
9.
2/
= 6p 
and a = 13^ 
Divide by
8,
then
x2y^ = i+;
thus ^
2/
= integer;
multiply
by
5,
then
Sjz
+ ^g = integer;
o
at once
= 85,
a!=219.
10.
We have
= ^=p say
ix
11.
Divide by
a;
19,
then
y^Tq=jqj
tli"S
= integer;
multiply
by
5,
then
+ lH
=j);
?/
hence
12.
^^ = 9+g;
is
!B
tlius
i^^=^ = integer;
multiply by
then
4y5
=uiteger; that
i=p, or
^=80p25,
13.
= 77p74.
of cows;
then
+ 231/ = 752.
16
;
+ ^ = 32 + ^^
14a;
thus
fore
a;
= integer.
=
14a! 16
=j
integer,
and there;
a:
11
;r
= integer
thus
11
14.
then
2a!
Let X denote the number of shillings, y the number of sixpences; have aU values from to 100, and therefore
15. A multiple of 8 may be denoted by 8x, and a multiple of Shj 5y; thus the two numbers may be denoted by 8x and 5^; then 8x + 5y = 81, The general solution isa; = 5p + 2, y = lS8p.
42
52
MISCELLANEOUS EQUATIONS.
[CHAP.
16. Let X be the number of guineas paid, received; then reducing to sixpenny pieces, general solution is a;=5p + 3, y 21p + 21.
number by 39 and 56; 17. Let X and y represent the quotients of the then the number = 39a; + 16; and the number also = 56?/ + 27 39a; + 16 = 56y + 27, or 39x  SGy = 11. hence
Divide by 39, then  3/ 2,
^=
that
39
*li"s
^^
= integer
multiply by
8,
then
2/
+ ??^^= integer;
integer; thus
is
^^= integer;
or
multiply by
then
4_j, +
18.
?^ =
^^=P,
florins paid,
received; then
integer =p;
2__ = an
y = ipl,
x=5p + 12.
19. the
pajrt
8y + S.
Let X denote the quotient of the part divided by 5, and y that of divided by 8; then the two parts may be represented by 5a; +2 and Thus (5a; + 2) + (81/ + 3) = 136, that is 5a; I 8?/ =131. The general
solution is
20. Let X, y, z denote the number of rams, pigs, and oxen respectively; then we have x+y + z = M), aai 4a; + 2j/ H 17 = 301. Whence 2x ^ 15 = 221. The general solution is a;=15^H13, = 132p; whence y=li\Zp.
21. Let X, y, z denote the number of sovereigns, halfcrowns, and + z 27, and 40xl5j/t23=201; shillings respectively; then we have
x+y
whence
The
general solution
is
EXAMPLES.
5.
XI.
a.
Pages
Wehave
4=5(b3);
.'.
=15.
if
6.
places,
7.
and
occupy
specified
16
ways.
is
possible
The number =^0^=15; if each such selection ways to form a number, we get 15 x 14 = 360.
arranged in
all
^
^^^
2n(2ml)(22)
whence
_44 >i(nl)
. '
XI.]
53
11. The number of ways =''^C?4= 10626. When the particular man is included we have to select 3 men out of the remaining 23 this can be done
;
m 23.22.21 g g
.
^
,, or 1771 ways.
Suppose the letters a, u fastened together ; then they count as one and we have six things to arrange. This can be done in 720 ways; but since a, u admit of two arrangements among themselves we must multiply this result by 2.
12.
letter
13.
14. (1) There are 3 ways of choosing the capital, and then 5 ways of arranging the other letters; therefore 3x 5, or 360 is the no. of~arrange
ments.
is
3 X 2;
The no. of ways of placing the capitals at the beginning and end (2) and the remaining letters can then be arranged in 14 ways
..
no. of
15.
16.
wC4e=C4=230300.
We
..
m=20, and
^^G^^, "^G^
may
be
easily found.
17. Here we have 3 places in which two letters are to be placed; this Then the four consonants can be arranged in gives rise to 3 x 2 or 6 ways. 4 ways ; .. required no. of ways = 6 x 24 = 144.
1
18.
(1)
4x8C,
4xi^ =
224.
privates,
..
must have 1 officer and 5 privates, or 2 officers and 4 and 3 privates, or 4 officers and 2 privates; the required no. of ways is
(2)
We
and
3 officers
^<?3
+ 'C2,
20.
Wehave + + 2 = 18;
j?
..
21 and 22.
23.
See Ex.
2,
Art. 148.
By
number
of
ways
is
54
24.
[CHAP.
we have
of
25.
By Art. 147,
the
number
ways
is
,.,_
rrz .^a
26. The Latin boots can be chosen in ''G^ ways; the English books can be chosen in 3 ways; and they admit of 14 arrangements, since the Enghsh
..
7.6.5
^ ^ ^ [4=2520.
these can be sub
There are 5
either side;
and
1 in j^ ways.
Each
side
ll
in 14
15 is fe'
14
[4,
28. Suppose the vols, of the same work inseparable, then we have 4 works to be arranged (taken as a whole); since vols, of each work can be arranged in any order, we get 14 x 13 x IS x 12 x 12, or 3456.
29. Suppose the best and worst papers fastened together, then the no. ways in which they could come together is 2 19, since either may come before the other. We must subtract this no. from 110, the whole no. of arrangements when there is no restriction. Thus we get~ilO  2 19.
of
30.
There are 8
bow
side.
allotted to the
two sides in
'
ways.
in 3 ways,
14^
and each
or 25920.
ways
thus we get
3 x ^=^ x 4 x
1
31. If we write down all the positive signs there will he p1 places between them in which a negative sign may be placed. Also the row may begin and end with a negative sign. Therefore we have p + 1 places from which we have to choose n.
32 ^^
^^
..
56.55(51r) = 28xllxl00;
flags the
;
..
51r=10; r=41.
6.
33.
on.
With aU the
number
of signals is
With
5 flags the
number of signals is oPg with 4 flags the number Thus the number required is
of signals is
"p
and
so
XI.J
55
34 ^*that
is '
282.l2r4
'^
\2^^^ = TT'
28
.
225
27
26
25
_ 225
'
..
Put
sc
for
4?2
 6r then
;
+ 2) = 24024.
Putting ir^  6r = 154, we get r = 7.
From
this equation
x = 154, or  146.
are inadmissible.
EXAMPLES.
1.
XI.
b.
Pages
131, 132.
=4084080.
'^^
3.
151351200.
^j3Jj^,=
4. 16
If
could stand
first
the
1273
,
^^^^^
14
jT" [2
is 14
or 72.
He
5 X 5 X 5, or 125 ways.
The first place can be occupied in n ways, and then the second place 7. can also be occupied in n ways ; and so on, as in Art. 152.
8.
9.
Each
is
stall
p ways;
number
10. The first thing may be given in two ways ; so may the second ; so the third, and so on. Hence we have 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2, or 32 ways ; but this includes two cases in which either person has all the five things. If we reject these the number of ways will be 30.
may
56
11.
[CHAP.
two
6,
We have to arrange
number
a,
and four ;
therefore the
of arrangements is
or 1260.
lilili
12. The first ring can be placed in fifteen different positions; so may the second ; so may the third. Hence there are 15 x 15 x 15 different positions possible, only one of which is the right one ; therefore the number of unsuccessful attempts possible is 3374.
13.
We have to
is ^"Cj,
each triangle
number
14.
or 455.
The
number=L^^p^^
by Art. 151.
15. Each number is to consist of not more than 4 figures; and we may suppose each number to be written with four figures, because if we have less than 4 we can insert ciphers to begin the number with. Thus 24 may be written 0024. Therefore every possible arrangement of 4 figures out of the given 8 will furnish one of the required numbers, except 0000. Thus by Art. 152 the required number is 8^1, or 4095.
16.
The
...
first Classical
second
first
19 20 19
The
...
Mathematical
second
and the other two each in 20 ways the number of ways = 20* x 19^=57760000.
..
arm can be put in 4 distinct positions, so can the second; 17. thus we can with these two form 4^ signals. Then taking each arm in succession and combining the different positions each is capable of, we ultimately get iK From this result we must subtract 1 for the case in which each arm is in the position of rest.
The
first
18. (1) As we only have to consider the relative positions of the persons forming the ring, suppose one man to remain fixed; then we can permute the other 6 men about him in 16 or 720 ways.
remain fixed; then the others can but corresponding to each arrangement of Englishmen, there are 7 places in which the Americans can sit; required number of ways= 6 x 17 =3628800.
(2)
to
ways
..
19.
number
ways = 2' 
= 127.
20. By Art. 153 the number of ways of selecting one or more cocoanuts, one or more apples, one or more oranges respectively will be 2*  1, 2''  1, 2^  1 ; and any one of these selections may be associated with each of the others, giving 7 x 15 x 3, or 315 selections in all.
XI.]
21.
57
is
\mn
(m)"[n_
22.
(1)
With
one
flag,
the
number
of signals=4;
too
flags,
='*P2=12
three
four
..
=*P3=24 =^P4=24
number
of signals is 4 + 12 + 24 + 24, or G4.
the whole
(2)
With 5
number
of signals is
23. There are 6 letters of four different sorts, namely , s; e,e; In finding arrangements of three, these may be classified as follows
(1)
(2)
r;
i.
Two
(1) The selection can be made in 2 x 3 ways; for we have to select one of the two pairs s,s;e,e; and then one from the remaining three letters. (2)
The
selection can be
gives' rise to 6
made
x
13 ig=
in ^Cj
or 4 ways,
(1)
or 18 ways,
(1
(2)
..
gives rise to 4 x
3
or 24 ways;
is
24 + 18, or 42.
were no three points in a straight line we should have "Cg lines; but since q points lie in a straight line we must subtract ^C^ lines and add the one in which are the q points thus we have
24.
(1)
;
P (y 2
1)
g (g  1) 2
(2) If there were no three points in a straight line we should have pG^ triangles; from this we must subtract 'Cj which is the number of triangles lost in consequence of q points coming into one straight Hne.
25.
the
""^
method
Since three points are required to determine a plane, we have, by of (1) in the last question, ^Cj'Cj+l,
p{p~l)(p~2)
6
g(gl)(g2)
6
p; that is, we 26. In tlie case of each book we may take 0, 1, 2, 3, may deal with each book in p + 1 ways, and therefore with all the books in (p + 1)" ways. But this includes the case where all the books are rejected
and no selection
is
made
..
the required
number= {p + 1)" 
1.
58
27.
[CHAP.
4,
namely,
e, e;
s,
s;
x; p; r;
i; o; n.
For groups of
tlie letters
may be arranged as follows two others alike. (1) Two alike, different. (2) Two alike, two (3) AH four different.
(1)
(2)
(3)
The number
or 6 + 504
of
arrangements
is,
is
j^=^ + 42 x ^ + 70 x
[,
+ 1680,
that
2190.
a, a; i,i; n,
28.
Eleven
letters,
namely,
n;
e;
x; a; t;
o.
For groups of 4 we
(1)
may
(2)
(3)
Two Two
alike, alike,
gives rise to 'Cj selections, gives rise to 3 x 'Cj selections, gives rise to *C74 selections
(2) (3)
..
number
of permutations
14
14
There are
7,
15
digits,
say
there are
[ {7 +
that
is,
Proceeding in the same way with each of the other digits (1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9) X x 11111, or 6666600.
30.
in
13
we
get finally
If
Example
X 20 X
mil.
first place we should have 4 x 20 x 11111 as The sum of all the numbers in which would stand first is Hence by subtraction we obtain 519960.
31. Of the p like things we may take 0, 1, 2, ...jj; that is we may dispose of them iap + l ways. Similarly we may dispose of the q Uke things in g + 1 ways. The r unlike things may each be disposed of in 2 ways and Hence, combining therefore the r things may be disposed of in 2' ways. these results, and subtracting 1 for the case in which all the things are rejected and no selection made, we get the required result.
XIII.]
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
59
2n
32.
.
rS=
=the number
of permutations of
letters r of
which are
is
a and
2nr
when
greatest
of which are 6. But this also =^C^, r=7i, in which case 2nr=n also.
33. Of the m letters a we can take 0, 1, 2, 3,...m, that is we can deal with these letters in m + 1 ways, each of which wOl give a different factor of a. Then the other n unlike letters may each be dealt with in two ways, either taken or left. Combining the results and subtracting 1 for the case in which none of the letters are taken we obtain the result (m + l) 2" 1.
EXAMPLES.
to
XIII.
IQ
11
a.
Pages
142, 143.
13.
"CgO;!"
X (  5)3= 
2 "3
X 125a;i=  35750a;".
14.
15.
112640a;9.
^^
q
X 4a;2=  312x3.
130
16.
'"G,, (5x)3
(82,)^=J=^ {5x)H8yr.
10 8
.S6
17.
/\7
x"
on
^
sr /^"^V
/
V
'\ai)
21. The terms of the two series are numerically the same, but in the the terms are all positive, and in the second they are alternately positive and negative .. the value = 2(x*+C2. 2x2 + 4) = 2(a;* + 12a;2 + 4).
first
22.
The value = 2
{^C:^{x^a!']'x
+ '>Ca{x^a')x^ + ^CsX^}
60
24.
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
[CHAP.
25.
There are 11 terms in the series the middle term is the 6"'=i''C75=252.
..
26.
The
8'"
term
/ x'^V = ^*Oj^j =
14.13.12.11.10.9.8
i .2
.
x"
'
3 .4. 5 .6. 7
128
429
""
16
27.
.:
in the expansion of
we have
28.
The expression
= al>x^^ (l
3 j
coefficient
29.
1 \^^ ^ 1 ,
we
x28 and x" in the expansion of {lx~^)^\ these are ^^G^ and ^'Cu
respectively.
Thus the
30.
o'N*
j
5
The5"'term=''0,(3a)ii^g
(a^\
31.
21
= [^ W')
.
2 \9
5x^^
""
^
g
/,
[}
2 \9 9^')
'
=^Ce\^^j
^=
.^
33^3 = jg
12
18.17.16. 15.14.1 3
"Vi)
3. 33.
Let the {p +
l)"'
or "Cpa:""^" is the
term containing
Therefore
I"
m
22)
= r,

or p = 
nr
T"'
..
\i(nr)\i(n + r)
XIII.]
BINOMIAL THEOEEM.
IN'" [ KmA = ai'" / 1
(
61
ooefflcieut of
34.
N^"
I
IN'"
^ J
,
/IN"
1
(1
1
'
.
[2b"
Let the
(r
+ 1)'"
Then
and
2c,
(a;2)2''r
i^,
or
r = J(4n p)

2m
2n/ir
j_
'
i(4ny)i(2m+j))
EXAMPLES.
1.
XIII.
b.
Pases
147, 148.
(2/)'=a:'[ lj
;
Let T^ and
.
T^j
(u\8o
11
then
T^i
= 30r+l
is,
xT
'
numerically;
T^^>T^,
the
G""
so
long as
greatest.
2.
(2x
124 _4r
=r;
>1; that
ll?
r=8 makes
term
 ZyY^= (2^)28 (l _
ly';
,.
r^^=H8zl+i
is,
1^ X T
mr.
the 12"'
682?>3r; that
r=ll makes
(2a +
r^i>2V,
4.
(3
75>13r; that
is,
r=5 makes
the
G""
term greatest.
+ 2.)x=3^=(n)"; T,,,=li^^fxT.;
lO""
..
equal,
Tr^i>Tr, so long as 80>8r; that is, r=10 makes the and greater than any other term.
5.
Tr+i>T
is
so long as
7r
o^l;
6 5
^ 1
.
that
is,
14>5r.
Therefore the
3'^
term
the greatest, f
and
its
4 value = r^.jj = 6.
u
o Qi T y J >3r. Therefore the i"" and the T,.+i>2',, so long as 202r>3r. r Their value equal and greater than any other term.
.'.
6,
(a+x)''=a''(H
a;\"
)
;
and
T^i=
10r
.yXT,;
S""
terms are
144"
62
7.
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
[CHAP.
We have to shew
that 'i"C
^'^^G^i + 2"^C.
Nnw JNOW
2111^7
0_i
,=2"l(7
2nl = "n^j_i^.
I
2n
2n

2ml
.

2b1
By Art. 165, we have {x + a)" =A +B, ani 8. by multiplication we get the required result.
9.
{xa)"=AB
therefore
We have na;'^'
2/
bv '
get
division, ^^^ 3
'
a;
=2
and ^^^^
2
 = 3.
a;
Prom
we
'" ~
3
10.
(1
= ^^^
2
it
=2, y = 3.
+ 2a:  x2)*= 1 + 4 (2a;  x2) + 6 (2a;  x^ + 4 (2a;  x^ + (2a;  a;^)* = 1 + 8a;  4x= + 24a;2  24a;3 + Sx* + 32a;S  48a; + 24x6 _ 4a;6 + 16a;*  32a;5 + 24a;6  8a;' + x^ = 1 + 8a; + 20a;2 + 8a;3  26a;^  8x6 + 20x6  Sx' + x^.
_ 2ax + 3o2)3= {3x^ _ (2ax  3a^)}^
.
11.
(3x2
= 27x6  3 9x* (2ax  Sa") + 3 3x2 (2ax  Sa^  {2ax  Sa^f = 27x6  54ax6 + Sla^x* + SGa'x*  lOSa'x^ + 81a''x
.
is
l
the (mr +
x""!
2)"'
and
is
equal to
.
=^
a"'+^
13. There are 271+2 terms in all, and the (p + 2)* term from the end has 2n + 2  (p + 2) before it ; therefore counting from the beginning it is the {2n p + 1)"* term, which is
2i
+l
i\2iip
p + l\2np
^
x)
;
'
"^
\p
2 + 1 + l\2np
14.
15.
therefore 2r + r + 1
= 43,
or r = 14.
="G,+i or
3rl + r + l = 2re,
2r=n.
XlII.j
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
2tt
63
16.
is
is
x\
In In
This
may be written
.
^^
.
1.234 2n V
lit.
a". '
In this
reduces to
l35(2l)
2^
17.
This
,,
is
solved in the
,
,
first
a:^
18.
(l
+ a;)"+i=l + (n+l)a: +
(l + a;)+il
.,,
,.
(n+l)7i
^
^^^^
(n
^
+ l)n(nl)
1.2.S
"'+,
+ (n + l)a;+x"+i; n+1
.^
ii;+i
 +^r
,
that IS
n+1
Writing
Cj,
'^
V+ "2
n
,
ir'^
+0 3
'^
+ n+1
,
Ua,...
in full
we obtain
(n
n
=
In
+
+ (n 
n (n  1)
'
n (n  1) (n ^^ '^.,
 1)
+
2)
^
...to
nterms,
that
is,
n+
(n
1)
2)
...to
n terms.
.
20.
Wehave
Ci+C2_j^
Co
J=l + =
Cj
_?t+l
Ca
+ C3 _j^
c
_n + l,
n2'
n1
n1'
n2
..
by multiplication we
21.
As in Ex.
18,
(l
we have
+ x)"+il _^
n+1
Putting
22.
"2
c,x'
c^^
3
'"
,V'+i_ m+1
x=2, we
We have
. .
+ cx,
il + x)=''+x+i+
/.
+#'
terms which contain x
(1
. . .
O+
64
..
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
+ Cj" + Cj'' +
. . .
[CHAP.
in
Co"
+ c2
is
a;
x"
(1
+ x)'\
that
is,
23. (l+a!)"=c+Ci!i;+Cja;2+...+c^''+... + cx", also since terms equidistant from beginning and end have the same coefScient
(l
multiply these two series together and pick out the ooeffioieint of a;"+r then c^c,. + CjC^^ + c^^^ + + c_, c is equal to the coefficient of x""*^ in the expansion of (l + x)**".
. . .
Now
EXAMPLES. XIV.
a.
Page
155.
1.
(l
+ x)4=l + Jx +
l^^X^ + Lki2i^^x3+...
,11,1,
2.
(l+x)f=lHx.lfi^xHiM^^'^1
3,1,
\1
3.
...^.i.m^M^m^^(l+x=r=l + (2)x>+^^)xHl:^^^Hri)xe+...
4.
= l2x2+3x4x+...
5.
(l3x)J=li3x+l^{3x)=iii.lii_^(3:.)3+.
=1
a;
 a;2   rc^ + .
o
XIV.]
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
65
6.
;l)(H(H,.,.,..
=l+x+2x^ + ^x^+...
O 14
(i+2.ri=i+(4)2.+iiKH, .(2x)=
^(:IKJ_;Ki:!l,2,).+....i,4.._^..+.,. (2x
8.(..)=i.,.a,.<.4ti)()VM>(zi)(za()V.,.
= lx + 2 10 , ^x^^x^+...
/, 2a;\^
,
2a;
3/3 2V2
\ / f2x\^
JiH(H()%...=i..4.4^.....
10.
(i.i.)=i.(,g.).i4t^(^y
+
(_4){5)(6)/'l
[3
A 2"j
11.
(2
12.
(9
13.
(8
+ 1248t(l+^?^)^=4(l + a)^
= 4(l+aia+a3...].
H.A. K.
66
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
[CHAP.
15.
(4a8.)4 = (4a)i(l)
13.
i(HI:i
^\^
^
(2.,=
14^^2V
429
7
"16
17.
'"^
^^
21^10
i(2xT
._ 77
'^
""
"256*
^(^_l)(^_2)...(^9.l)
18.
^^^
= 16
^^"^^
3<r9^
^'
^(3ar
1040
rfa
.13.
10.7.4.1.(2)(5)(8)
~"8r"
19.
(3a
26)i
= {3a)i
(l  g )
^l)(2)(3)(4)
/ 26
Y_
16
fc*
<^)(^)(^^)(^')
20.
(xr=(rHl)x.
(4)(5)...(3r)
4.5.6...(r+3)^,
 (r + l)(r + 2)(r + 3) 
22.
'^
j7
2^1^
_ 1
1.3.5...(2r3)
^i
'"
a'lr
XIV.]
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
67
23
t{t'){t'){t^^')
( _ ^)
^,
U.8.5...(U3,)
^.,
11.8.5.2.1.4...(3r14)
""
3'[r
24.
The
13
U* term of {2i)^' ( 1  ^)
^"
(t^It'^^ + V
113
xy
23/
2?
12.10.8.6.4.2
13.11.9...(11)
213 113
^_2i3(l)(3)(5)(7)(9)(ll)^,3^_,3,g^,3.
25.
The
7'"
term of {S^f^ (l +
^^Y
=322,
'mm'U'i') '%')'
[6
V3*
_ ~
11.7.3(l)(5)(9) 2^
212 [6 212 324
=  1.2.3.4.5.6
11.7.3.5.9
3^^
^^"^
19712
''^'"''' *
"
"X^
EXAMPLES. XIV.
^(^^)(i^^)fr^)
5.6.7...(r+4)
(r
b.
Pages
161, 162.
,..
1.3.5.7...(2.1)
a;^
^.,
+ l)(r+2)(r+3)(r+4)
^,
68
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
[CHAP.
1(^0 (H(^^),
r
_._,
,.2.5.S...(B^,
3''ir
[a
7.
(a
+ Ja;)^ = oM
+ it )
Thus the
{r
+ 1)*^
term
is
(irl^s'.byAjt.
186.
8.
(2x)2=iCl'\
'.
9.
(a3x3)^=a'(l,j
/.
, (r
2(l)(4)...(53r)
2.1.4...(3i5)
a;S^
10.
(r
+ l)"'termof
(l
+ 2a;)
(sxr
^1^.5
11.
(
[^
(2,1)^
+ 1)""
term of
(1
 3a:) ^
.IMIifHh:!),.,
2.5.8... (3rl)
XIV.]
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
1
69
12.
(r
+ l)* term
of {a^nx)
_1 ~a
11
\n
7 \.
Ir
\.
/jmV
\a"/
x'
_ (B + 1) (2n + l) (3m + l)
13.
.:
{r^.n + 1)
3'^i =
7+5.1
. ;
4
r=
X T, numerically;
T^i^Ty,
so long as 2i + ir:>15r; r = 2
makes the
S"*
term greatest.
14.
.'.
T,+, =
2""'" + ^
;;
gXlV;
is
the greatest.
15.
.
T^i =
XT,;
is
the greatest.
^r+i
x) _ 12)' + l
,.
5x3
2x8'^
'
that
is,
7""
term
is
the greatest.
1/.
.:
'r+l
.gXr
2V+i>Tri so long as 12
+ 2r>5?;
thus
iS\
r=4 makes
= (Sx^)" (l + III)
4x8
15 + r 1
..
2V+i=
m^^r
numerically; that
is
is,
r,+i>Tr, so long as
the 3'^
term
the greatest.
19.
70
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
[CHAP.
20.
10
(1
 0006666  0000004)
999333x10=999333.
21.
yi003=(103 + 3)*=10^1+i^
10^"*"
102
4/2i00=(7^l)i = 7ri^,')
l\i
.7Ji:l!_i,.o(K<H,i,)+,.
[E..S,p.mi
= 7 (1
23.
 00010418) = 699927.
(128)i =
(53
+ 3)^ = g(l+)~''
53
\ ]^_2^__1 "''7
56
3. 59
23^
2'
103
10=
14 2 \ ""; 3. 109
.
= g (1  008 + 000128
OA
^*
...)
= 19842.
4
16 '' 9 106
1
=1+
^^
9V250J
+3x103"
+ ... =1 + 00133,
to five places.
= 100133.
25.
(630)i = (5^ + 5)=53^1+iy
6 io'
+ io"j
42
= p (1  006 +
000042 ...)
= ~^ X 994042 = 00795.
XIV.
BINOMIAL THEOEEM.
71
26.
Vm.5(l.i)'..(l..g....)
^
=
3\*
./,
I
3.26
"'"'106
18.212
io52"+
500096.
27.
(l7^)*(l + 2a;)S=(^lx+...Vl2a;+...")
= 1^K,
28.
V4(si)=.(ll)'4(l)
29.
(2.8.)V4^
2(lH..)2,(lJ)*
= (l4.)%(l..)\(l)*
= (1+4'^)
~
ri + a;y'x(4 +
30.
(^"2'")
('"'"s'")'
aPPJ^o^^ately;
T'
3#
^
fl
y a;^ 2 ^l+x^
8(^l + fj*
{^T^)^
1/.
10
72
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
[CHAP.
,3
103
103
(')('4;r('^')('S')
= ^120 *
32.
,
343
Expression =
'
+ 3. + 2(l+^)
1/,
\
9
3+
f
25 \
1
^"'20'"
"
\ /,
71
.^
25
= 3(^ + 20"ji^24^)=3360^
33,
Coefficient required
=
,.
\
[7
22'
1.3.5...(2rl)
2'_r
1.3.5...(2rl)
...
2r,
we
35.
(')=G4.r{i('^ra)r('^:r^
(l
*
neglecting ,
XIV.]
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
73
36.
The expression'=^
=
^ 14
;=
(1
 xy
25\
13
,/'3
13\
13
103\
= o + T^ + 32'"2
,
29
297
37.
The
.. coefficient =. "<"
^)<pJi<^"^'
The (l)
coefficient
= ""^+^>
m*
 1*)
'"^ ^^'^^
2ra2_ m
the the
(re
coefficient
coefficient
EXAMPLES. XIV.
1.
..
c.
Pages
(B5x)(l + 2!i!+3x2+... + 10099 + 10l!i;i+...); the required coefficient = 803  500=  197.
See Example
2.
1,
Art. 193.
A =4
.
ffi coefficient
^ .o = 4pi2 +
I'p^^
 Pio
y~ = 142.
3.
52
..
f.(l+a;)i=i(3a;22)(la!+a;2!es+...);
the coefficient of a;"= 3
(
 1)""!  2 (
1)"+^
1)"!.
4.
we have the
coefficient of
x"
= 2(
l)n
("+l)(" + 2)
(
l)ul.
"(" + l)

l.)n2
("l)"
= (l)(='+2re+2).
i
5.
Bxpansion=(l +
^)
/3\4 =Q = g)^
6.
v.===Gr=('i)"'
74
7.
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
The
first
[CHAP.
series=(l)""= g)~"=2".^;=2''(liy".
"
8.
The
first 861X68
9.
The expression =
/n\2
=!'4?K?)1('i'')('4r
('*l^.')(i)('i"i)
,
/'81
81
243\
t
^
10 and 11.
12.
256'^3, Art.
See Ex.
193.
13.
of
H
(
\1\!!l'
)
a;+
is
2^''2n.l.8.5...(4>tl)
3 .5...(4l)
[^ ^
^2
(2 + l)(2m + 3)..(4nl)
4"( n +
(w+n (" + 9) *o
)
ra
factors
= the
14.
coefficient of
as"
in (1
 4a;)
H).
We have
(1
..
XIV.]
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
,_,
75
>'
15.
V + x + x^
<
and in the
a multiple of 3 ; therefore in the expansion of the given expression every index is of the form 3m or 3m + 1. In the former case the ooef&cient is 1, and in the latter it is  1.
series every
index
is
16.
if
(1) (2)
is
The sum of the coefficients will be independent of a, 6, and c ; these he each equal to 1, the whole expansion is the sum required, which therefore equal to 3^ or 6561.
17.
Multiply throughout by
Ira;
Wehave
(l (l
Multiply the two series together ; the coeflScient of x*" in the product on (1)' {cCi + C3C8+ ... + ( If c,} the right is which must be equal to the coefficient of x' in (l + x)"~^, that is to
Inl
r
inrl
(2)
(l
..by multiplication, (l
ficient of x" is
+ x)"(l+ j =a
series of
This expression is therefore equal to the coefficient of x" in x^ that is it is equal to zero.
(3)
(1
+ x)"^^
(l
('"..
+ J_... + (1)E;
Hence
Cj''
 Cj^ + Ca" 
. . .
+ (  1)" cj
is
^^"(lxr x"
This term
latter case
is
when n
is odd,
and ( 
1)" c
when n
is even, since
in the
we have only
76
19.
BINOMIAL THEOREM.
(1)
[CHAPS.
(lx)5=l + 3x+^:!:2+^x8+...
1.2
2.3
3.4
4.5
Biuoe
n(n+l) s= ig
'
(2)
Multiply the two series together, and take the coefficient of a;^"~' thus *i*2?i+*2*2ni+" * 2ji terms = the coefficient of x~^ in the expansion of (lx), &c.
;
20.
(1)
It
which
is
unity;
?2j^fl
(2)
and
lie'ice
+ ffjn} x^,
together with terms containing other powers of x. Now the series in brackets consists of 2n+l terms, those equidistant from the beginning and end being equal
...
to
n terms} + ( 
1)" q,?
= the
Transpose and we get the required
21.
(Co
coefficient of x^" in
result.
(lx^) 2 = g'.
We have
.:
+ CiC2+...)=22.j=,
thanl;
+ 4 v'S)" =J) + ^, where j3 < 1. + 4,y3)''+(74;^3)''=integer, and (7 4 ^3)" must be equal to 1/3.
(7+4;^3)''x(74V3)=l;
:.
(7
 4 ^^S)"
is positive
and
less
Now
(p
+ p)(l^) = l.
XIV, XV.]
MULTINOMIAL THEOREM.
77
23.
LetS=c, + ...+izl)!:^
6
'
=n
+
+
g 3
...
to
n terms.
^n+i=( + l)o
o
1
2i2
3fi
..
^0 ra + 1
.
terma.
^n+i'S=l
+i.5i.
n(n\)
to
re
+ 1 terms
;
= ^ {1  (1  l)''+i} =
.:
^
1
'^2'^S''
EXAMPLES. XV.
1.
Pages
173,
174
As
',
.,
a'ibficyd;
that
is,
12600a2iVd.
18
2.
is
The term
involving a^b^d
is
a^b'
 d)
hence the
coefficient
168.
17
3.
IS
is
75=7^ lillli
19
hence the
coefficient
3360.
4.
xh/^z* is p^
(ax)''(62/)'(<!2)*;
efficient is
 12600=63^4.
13
5.
is
bi
S^(2)''x^'^^'* where
^ + 27=3.
Thus
..
78
6,
MULTINOMIAL THEOREM.
110
[CHAP.
is
2^ 3^ x^+^y,
where
o + (3 + 7=10, p+^=i. Thus 7=2, ^=0, a=8; 7=1, /3=2, a=7; 7 = 0, ^=4, a = 6;
110
..
110
(3)2
110
the ooeffioient=j^
7.
General term
is
,
2^ (
Thus 7=3, ,8=0, o=2; 7=2, 3=2, a=l; 7=1, /3=4, a=0. 7=0, /3=6 is not admissible, as it makes a negative;
the coefficient =TJf7;i (3
= 10 + 12080=30.
8.
General term =
.]
,. (
 2)^
(3)^
 4)'
a;P+2v+3,
where
a + j3 + 7+S=4,
/3
+ 27 + 35=8.
Thus
S=2, 7=1, /3=0, a=l; 5=2, 7=0, j3=2, a=0; a=l, 7=2, (3=1, 0=0; 5=0, 7=4, ^=0, a=0;
make a
negative
..
thecoefficient=i(B)i(4)2 +
^(2)M4)2+j(2)i(3)2(4)i
9.
coefficient
10.
10.
General
term=
(\)H^y{i'*^) i r^
p+2y=5, p=p+y.
_ 2)^
(3)1'
a!^+^^'
where
Thus
XV.J
.".
MULTINOMIAL THEOREM.
79
the coefficient
11
[~2)\~^)[2)[~2)[~2)
,5_135
105
^63_
11.
General
term=il^
i^
i i2f(S)y{ifa^+^y+^^,
where
,8=3, j)=3;
.:
(3)
+l2ll_li^ (2)'
12.
This
is
where
/3+27=4, jJ=^ + 7.
Thus
7=2,
/3=0,i) = 2;
7=1,
/3=2,
p=3; 7=0,
/3=4,
7=4;
.....o..u...tMza(i)M.ai^()g)
^ (2)
13.
ly
3/
^?
4 5 _ 27 "^81"
4 81'
{2ix + 3x^)'=^(l2x+^xA~''.
of the expansion of
f
(
 21
+  x*
X"'' is
J
i,=3 + 7.
/3=2, i)=8;
7=0, j3=4, p = 4;
80
..
MULTINOMIAL THEOREM.
[CHAP,
thecoefflcient=(^()%b2)(^(_2)=()
(2)(3)(4)(5)
14
'
^^^^^_^,^3^^59_
'
This
is eijuivalent to finding
(1
+ 4a; + 10x2+20x3)*.
^
f/""',\
/ {if (10)T {20) x^+2y+3S
General
tenn=\
^^ ^
Here
(3+27+35=3, p=j3 + 7 + S.
j)
Thus =1,7=0,8=0,
= l; 5=0,7=1,
(20)
tl^e
ooeffioient=
(  1)
 ^^ + ^1) ^
2~
15.
This
is
General term=
{5f
(6)Yx^+2v
Here
j3
Thus
..
= 211 5o
16.
= lsa;3x''x='=lixx2.
X.V.]
MULTINOMIAL THEOREM.
81
17.
(1
V\
^'
(3^2
6x3)2 +
fi
3,9
A^
4/9
9^^
WAli/9
...
,y
= lxs + 3x + ^(x32xy +
The
first
part
is
l+x+x' + ...+x=j) + l.
1 + x thus + 02{l+f+a3(l + x)3 + ...+aj,(l + x)"i> = {l + (l + x) + (l + x)2+(l + x)3+...+(l + x)!'}'' = {1 + 1 + 1 + .to (p + l) terms+ (1 + 2 + 3+.. .to i) terms) X + higher powers
part,
change x into
a + ai(l + x)
..
of x}"
of x
=(^ + 1)"
1+^+
...
of x
20. In the expansion of (l + x + x")", since the coefficient of x' is unity, evident that the coefficients of the terms equidistant from the beginning and end are equal ; hence
it is
(l
af,x^.
Writing  x for
(1
82
LOGARITHMS.
[CHAP.
Multiply together the two series on the right; the coefficient of x^ is o2< + 022a32 + ... + (l)'iaVi + (l)"a"+(l)"'aVi+or 2{a,2ai= + 02!'03='+... + (l)"^aVi} the coefficient of x^ in (l + aj + x^) {lx + egual to a. Hence the result.
x^ ^ (l + x^+x*)^;
+ (l)''V; ^^^
it is
{l + x+x^)^=ao+aiX+a^''+a^^ + 21. We have Denote the cube roots of unity by 1, u, a^. By changing x into ax, a'x successively, we have {l
(l
(1).
+ wx + a''x^)'^=aQ + ajiax + a2<J'x' + a2X^+aj(i>x*+ + i^x + oix^)''=a^ + aj(iiH + a2Wx'' + asX^ + aiUr'x*+
(1), (2),
(2),
(3).
Put
x=l
in
(3)
we have
whence we have the
Multiply
first
(1), (2), (8)
3'^=3{afi +
since l + a+(ir'=:0,
by 1,
..
respectively, put
(01
the results;
8'>=3
+ 04+0,+ ...),
by
1, w,
a;
which
is
Finally,
by multiplying
and adding, we
=l
EXAMPLES. XVI.
a.
Page
178.
Examples 1 to 14 are too easy to require full solution; the following six solutions will suffice.
1.
(2)
x = fi.
2.
(2)
25=1=41;
..
a;=l,
5.
(2)
(9^/3)=i=i=3^;
(32.34)=^= 32; 3t^=3=';
..
.:
x=^.
8.
9.
log{^^ X
^6')
=log(olx6^)=logo + log5.
=logc= Slogc.
XVI.]
LOGARITHMS.
83
=jlog5 + j^log2iaog3'+Iog2)llog2
= llog5(l + ^^)log2log3
=Jlog52log2log3.
log 4/729 4/91
,
16.
27^=log
,
(36
3t . 3*)i=log
32
(36
3'')i=log3.
17. 19.
75
32
(75
~2
21.
Here
(2)
2a;loga+32/log6 = 51ogm
3a;
(1),
log a +
2jf
(2).
Multiply
by
3,
and
(1)
by 2 and
log a
log
a=20 logm;
..x=!i?i^,and2,= '
22.
^. logo
3/==(ffl26).
We have
Whence
23.
that
is,
o
..
Wehave62i=aa;+5<3.
a;
ix^gx+i.
a;log
a;log6 =
(a;
+ l)loga;
(log 6
log a) = log a, or
 j=loga.
24.
We have
(a^
(a
+ 6)2 ~(a6p2'
6)2*=(a&)2;
8)
that
is,
1 ,
(o +
..
EXAMPLES. XVI.
7.
b.
Page
185.
log 128=log
2^
62
4l
LOGARITHMS.
13.
log (0105)^= jlog (5ii?iil)
[CHAP.
=i (log5 + log3+log74)
(I +20211893) = 16052973.
=i
14.
log
(20211893)= J
if
X be
fjie
required
7*
root,
we have
= 1 (7 + 45105452) = 16443686
..
a;
=44092888.
15.
392
72x2'
a;
=1948445.
16.
Let
log
P be
P= sum of logs of
= 15705780+ 5705780 +
..
P=191563l.
4
1
17.
logx=log
8^ 5^
.
5 = 5log3+5log5log2
I
(30103)
= 1 1998692.
logx=log7273 + log^P72alogi!y273
19.
^^g^^,
x=9076226.
XVI.]
LOGARITHMS.
log
a:
85
20.
a;
21.
log a;
X contains 9
cligits.
on 22.
oSmce
y
(
/21\"
/3x7\i
=i^^^^
/2l\ioo
^^
20 )
'
I
an
^^
than
100.
\1000
~)
..
digit.
24.
3'2=5;
..
(a;2)log3=log5;
log 5
'
'^~
log 3
"
4771213
25.
a;log5=31oglO, a;=;g^=429...
26.
(5
 8x)
..
(1
= 571og2;
289279
a;
(32Iog
= 571og2;
^ = 2^39794 = ^''^27.
Here
a:
a;
log 21
= (2a; + 1) log 2 +
a;
log
5,
(log
log
LOGAEITHMS.
28.
[CHAP.
We have
..
2. 6^==52:.
71"^,
29.
..
We have
2111
= 6''
) '
^^
=3. 2^+4
(2/
+ l)log2;
thatis,
..
by substitution,
log 2
30.
then we have
ax + (a2b)ya = 0, {2b+a)xSayb=0;
.:
by cross multiplication,
X b(2ba)Sa>
or
.
a{2b + a) + ab
Sa'{a2b){2b + a}'
.
thatis,
(6
+ o)(263a)
a{b + a)
4(6 + a)(6a)'
_ 2&3a _ 31og321og2
a;
log3 "

log2)'
Let
= log^j 200,
then
25"^
= 200,
'^=^2=16465.
2a;log5=2+log2,
32.
..
,, a.=.^^g^ = 1781.
150515
Again,
Orthus,
log,^2xlog^27=l;

XVII.]
87
EXAMPLES.
1.
XVII.
>^3
Pages 195197.
^3
In the equation
log,
(l+a;)=a;^+
^
^ j +
D
Q.i
...
puta;=l;then
l^ + ^ ^_
^1,
j+...=log,2.
2.
We have
_!_.
__!_+...
=IogJl + 2J=log,=log,3Iog,2.
log.(jno)log, (na)=log,
3.
=log,7i+log,
1+lj
log.ralog, f 1^j
=Iog.(n^)log;(lg;
and the
4.
result
log, (1
+ x), and
log, (1
 a:).
We have
y=log,{l + x),
l + x=e''=l + y
hence
+^ +
f^
+ ...
5.
The
series
on the
left
=  log,
{'"i')
3,
put
n= 1000, a=l;
J
.
18.
ji^ +
jA^ + 1
jlg^,)
;
the term =
x2
a;2
7.
In the
series
7^ +
...,
put
x=  1,
,
then
,, .i=(ll)
which gives the
result.
88
8.
[CHAP.
+ xy+''{lxy'^={l + x) log.{l+a:) + (la;) log, {1x) = X {log, (1 + x)  log, (1  a;) } + {log, (1 + x) + log, (1x)}
whence the
9.
result.
x^y^+^{x*y*) + hx^y') +
...
10.
The
thus
+ 00008686 + 00000116 +
whence log 7
is
OOOOOOOl
found.
Put
04342945 14476 87
XVII.J
'
'
21x0
81x4
4x2
8x'
16x
whence the
result.
is i
^
'
+
or
'
x^
r
15.
e"+"==(i+i^+r+3;+) + i^'^+]2;]r+j
/,
i2x2
i*x4 i'xs
t2
..
.r^
.16
the expression=l
To
+ Ti ~
Tr
+ ...
"
16.
log, (x
(x
log, (1 +i)x
+ (a + /3) X +
a^x^} =log.
;
(1
+ ax)
(1
+ /3x)
&o.
19.
log.
"^^'
(^^1)
.
(n + l)log.(l^i^)+log,(l^)
90
[CHAPS.
k=n + l, we
have
l,^
2j k
\2
3j
Ifi
\%
ijk^
Unless
log, ;,
re
is
a multiple of
4, tlie
(1a), and
is
a multiple of
4,
putm=4
then the
coefficient of
x*^
is
4m
21.
m ~ 4m ~ n
Thegeneralterm=!^ =
Ira
\nX
Thusthegivenseries=l +
\n~2
\n3'
(l +
3)+(^ +
A + i) +
(^^
+ . +
...
22.
The
(1)
from
(2).
=
24.
log
m+1
/,
1\
We have
we
obtain
log
log2=7a26 + 3c;
XVII., XVIII.]
91
Nowa=log,A=log,(ll)=l+^ + ^, + = .105360516.
^) =^  ^^ + _1^^ _
a.
c=log. (l +
...
= 012422520.
202.
EXAMPLES, XVm.
1.
Page
We have
..
Jlf
=100
(^ j
H=
2.
We
80.
we
ottain
^"
P+90
3,
P (K(;j =2P;
/21\'
whence
Ji(log21log.20)=log2, and
=nl^=14'2
4,
r = 10000 (^y^
that
is,
F= 6768 394.
Here 2500=1000 fjgj
1 = 2 log
;
5.
that
is,
10=4 fj^j
whence
2+ (log 111);
"3979400
thus ji=;^jjgg2^=96.
tween
7.
We have
r
D=
and
Z= Pnr.
^
where
is
the harmonic
mean
be
TT
thus
We have
..
M=P l^j
10211893
;
/21\ioo
f
211893
..
M=P X
is
greater than
P x 100.
8
Thus
The sum
F=1000(l06)i2; is the present worth of 1000; hence .. log F= 3  (12 X 0253059) = 26963292.
F=49697.
92
9.
INTEREST
If
AND
ANNXHTIES.
[CHAP.
is
the
number
or
10.
10=(118)'';
EXAMPLES.
1.
2VIII.
;
b.
Page
207.
A = 120, n= 5
then
Ifa;=(l045)2,
logx=201ogl045=882326;
..
x=24117;
.^^20000x14117^3^3^^^
Here 2750
the present value of a perpetual annuity of
c.
3.
is
amount A
240,
Hence by putting
r = ^^ in Art.
Here 4000 =
1 9ft
,
90
5.
By
number
;
6.
The
7.
The
let
2522 =4
g^^^"/
20'"'^
= 20.4
l 
(^gyi
or
[Art. 240.]
whence
8.
2522 = 204 x
This
is
^^^
=^ =
926^.
400
to
commence
equivalent to finding the present value of a perpetuity of Hence by Art. 242, after 10 years.
F=i5^2iM:^=10000x (104)10;
..
logF=4
XVm.]
9.
93
Let
P be the sum, then using the formula M=Pe"'", we have 500=Pc, or P =500ei= 500 X 3678.
"^
10.
^^~
^
'
we have
Hence we have
whence by division
25 =
m=
iS1
and
r,
30=
"
;
+ iJ"=^ = ^,andJS'' = i.
4.
,
25=
5 4 , whence Bl =
that
is,
11. Let A be the number of pounds paid annually, then 5000 present value of an annuity to commence at once and to run 10 years
the
..50004 5000.l
<^^""^"')
.^^
Now
104" = 676031.
12.
of an annuity of 1800
1800 f 1 B"")
is
XI
and the
thus
man
he
than 20000.
is if
Now Pl=5j;;
20
9
will
be ruined
if
9(liJ")>5; that
21
i2<,
or
if
iJ>, when
B = 17.
Now
and
log JBi7=171og
log=21og321og2.
the values of these expressions
By comparing
result.
we
13.
Thefine=^{(l06)i3(l06)=i"} =
^(4P),say.
thus
thus
Now log4=18x0253059=3289767=l'6710233;
log
4 = 4688385.
=  20 X 0253059 =
..
 5061180 = 14938820
B = 3118042.
the
94
14.
[CHAPS.
m Example 10 we have
1JJ"
^
liJ2
1JSS"
''=B3r'
..
*=b:o'
a
''=^3ra
a
l + B"=,
andl + iJ"+B=" = a a
a'
\a
15,
\a
of
2years
= yY:j^^ (105)'
'
20
and
so on
..
10
105
^J^ere
20
(105)2
'
30
40
<,
(105)3^ (105)*
= =i^. andx ^;
..
=
^^
_ ^^,
EXAMPLES. XIX.
1.
a.
Pages
213, 214.
db+xy>2 Jabxy,
2.
/
3.
1 \^
(is/xT)
>0;
thatisa; + >2.
4.
We have
2ax < a'^+x^, and 2by + y^; hence by addition, 2ax + 2iy<{a^ + l)^ + {x'' + y'); that is <2.
<P
5.
2by ^b^+y^; 2cz<:c^+z^; hence by addition, 2{ax + by + cz)<:(a' + b^ + c') + (x'+y'' + z^); that is <:2.
6.
a 6
is positive,
,.
a"'
> 1"^;
or
i;
> i^;
hence the
result.
Again,
that
is,
6(l+o)
log6+log(l+o)<loga+log{l + 6);
log6loga<log(l + 6)log(l + a),
and the
XVin., XIX.]
7.
INEQUALITIES.
95
^^^ji^
By
Art. 253,
^5^
> ^^^
Similarly,
8.
an/^+ys^+zx^^ 33^2.
(a  6) (^s
which
9.
is
thus
10. 6^+c2>25c; hence (62+c2)a>2a6c. Similarly (c" + a^) 6 > 2a6c, and {a^+V^o 2oCbc.
By addition,
that
is,
(ft^
6a5c
11. 6' + c2>26c; hence (62+c2)a2>2a26c. Similarly (c^ + a2) 5= > 2a62<;, and (a^ + 62)
By
that is
12. cording as
ac
is greater
..
or less than 2
<2.
13.
= (a;a){(s2a)2 + 5a2}.
the first factor positive; hence the result.
By hypothesis
is positive,
factor is always
14. l\Vlx + lx^!i?=(\x) (ll6a;la;2) = (la;) {2 + (3a;)2}. The second of these factors is always positive, but the first is only
positive so long as
a;
<1
is 1.
15. a;212a;+40=(a:6)2i4, and being 4. 24a:  8  9a:2 _ g _ (4 _ 31)2^ and is a being 8. 16.
It is easily seen that r (n  r
its
value
value
maximum when
;
its
+ 1) > n l.n=n
thus we have
2(ral)>n
3(ra2)>7j
(n2)2>ra n. X=n.
By multiplication
is
obtained.
96
have the n inequalities
INEQUALITIES.
Again, since the geometric
[CHAP.
mean
is less
Hence by
17.
18.
multiplication, (2.4. 6
2nf<{p,+ l)'^.
ByArt.
253, ^;ti^>(a:!/z)4.
Cube each
side.
The
{1.3.5... (2nl)}2<ji2.
2
22...
19.
By
Art. 253,
/ l + 2 + 2^+...+2'^y ^^
2"^
iy >2i+in3+Kn or>2
2" 1
hence
>2
^^
^
that
is
> J2"i;
whence the
20.
li^!^::t!^>(13.2a.33...3)L ,
ji""
!LM!>{(L)f
power.
(a
+ 6 + c)3>27a6c.
so that
Put
a + i + c=x+y + z; we
[Ex.2.]
Again
+ c)
(c
+ o) (a+6)>8aSc.
c+a=2y, a + 6=22;
substitutions, 6 + c=2x,
thus the
22.
The expression
is
maximum when
\^)
("T~)
'^
maximum.
But the sum
of 4
fj^ j and
,
^)
is
constant.
mum IS
23.
or a;=8.
+ w){l + u)
/ 2
\2
XIX.] Hence u
INEQUALITIES.
is
97
is
maximum when
u
is 9.

iijy=0; that
EXAMPLES. XIX.
1.
b.
Pages
.
218, 219:
We have
clearing of fractions
>f
^j
[Art. 258.]
By
2.
we have the
result.
ByArt.258,^^ +
^'++"^f H \
^+^ + ^ + ^+"
n
y;
J
'
and therefore
>
^
^"'
By
3
clearing of fractions
we have the n
result.
ByArt.258,
''"+'''"+
+ <'")"^
P+^+
\
'^
+  + ^" rJ
'
and therefore
> (n + 1)'".
we have the
.
By
4.
clearing of fractions
result.
11
[Art. 259.]
a p aj \ \ pj By taking the x* root we have the result; for since a>h, a must he greater than /3. Also since x may be any positive quantity, a and /3 may be any positive quantities subject to the above restriction. Thus the expression a
(
Put 
= ~, = ,
..
(1 + )
>
+ 
+
gradually iacreases as
is infinite its
increases.
When n = 1
its
value
is 2,
and
when n
5.
value
c
is e.
= by,
so that a = 
and 5=y
o
Then
c
e4:y<C4:)'..'(iHr<(;4:;)%
Art. 2G0.
a",
h'',
c', ...
fc*.
a and 6 suppose, are unequal, this expression diminished when we replace a and 6 by the two equal quantities
^i. ^i.
H. A. K.
[Art. 261.]
98
Hence the
a, b, c,
... ft
INEQUALITIES.
least
[CHAP.
when
all
the quantities
7.
if
(l
if
is
First suppose that a<l; sincem>ji, therefore a" > a, andl + a" > 1 + a" hence a fortiori (l + a")''>(l + a)". /1 \ / 1 N" Ifa>l, Dividing this inequality by a", vre have I + 11 >(^+l)
8.
T::s = l+
....
=1 +
1
=^+rTT
X
Since a;<l, each of the
riB"
X
,
X^
n terms 
^
...
is greater than
1,
and
their
sum
is
greater than n;
" 1x"
..
'l\
that
IS 
l_a;n+l
= n+ 1
<
l_a;n
9.
We have
is
~^>{^\.
the arithmetic
[Art. 257.]
But jr
mean
of
a and
c,
and
is
consequently greater
[Art. 65.]
\]
This expression
or 4a,
is
S
is
is
maximum.
(
sum
+5
which
is
constant.
is
X ^Qi X when  = =
o
or
5^
mum
The second expression is a maximum when its sixth power is a maxi a;)^ is a maximum. As in the preceding case, ; that is when x' (1
this is
when ^ = ^,
or
a;
=
is
/=
// v
XIX.]
11.
log (1 + is)
INEQUALITIES.
99
< a;
if (1
+ a;) < e* ;
e"'=l+x + T;5 +
if.
Again
log(l + !c)>,
+x
,U
+ x>e^+''.
Now
+ .=_i^=l +
1+x
^
H
+ _L.^H._L. + ...
12.
iu the
(
y
nT
 and suppose
,
z constant, so that
sum
j; X i of x + v is also constant.
xy
the
denominator
if
is greatest
+
is least
when x=y.
X
o
H
Hence
(
x, y, z are unequal,
the expression 
 can
z
be diminished, and
value
is
of
H X y
is 9,
j;
that
is,
(1
 x)
(1
~y)(lz)> Sxyz.
(o^
13.
The expression
therefore positive.
(a
+ 6 + c + d)
+ 6^ + c^ + d^) 
(a"
+ b^ + c^ + cP)''
Since both of the expressions involve the letters a, that a, b, c are in order of magnitude; then that a > 6 > c. In this case c{c a) (c  6) is positive.
14.
cally,
b, c
we may suppose
let
symmetrius suppose
Also a{ab)iac)
+ b(bc){b~a] = {ab)
{a^
 ac 
(b^
be)}
= (a6)2(a + 6c),
and
is
therefore positive.
c^ (c
Again
Also a2 (a 
a){c b) is positive.  c) + 62 (6  c) (6  a) = (a  6) 6) (a
and
{a3
 a^c 
(63
 52c)}
= (a6)2(a2 + a6 + 62ac6c);
which
is
72
100
15.
INEQUALITIES.
In Example 7 we have proved that
if
[CHAPS.
(1
m>m,
+ a'')"'> (1 + o)".
(a""
Put
sides
by
a;",
thus (a;"+2/")"'>
+ j/)".
16.
log
P^il + xy'ilx)^^;
a;)
/'a;2
x^
x^
x^
x^
\
1.
..
log
P is negative
/.
P<1
..
(1
Now proceed
17.
=a^{pq){p~r)'b^{p~q){qr) + c^{pr){qr),
and win consequently be least when the second term is greatest when b = a + c, which is the extreme case when the triangle becomes a line. The expression then
this is straight
= a^{pq){pr){a'^ + 2ac + c^){pq){qr) + c^{pr){qr) = a^{pq)^ 2ac (p q){qr) + c' {q  r)^ = { (p  g)  c (g  r)}2, which is positive.
Hence the expression
)
is
always positive.
Substituting 2 = (a; + ?/), we ha ve to shew that (a^y + 6^a;) (a; + j/) + c'xy (2 must be negative ; that is (changing the signs) we must prove that
Wx'' + a%/^ + (a^ +
is positive.
is
6''
c^) xy
positive
is
18.
Lemma.
la
16
becomes
less
and
For wr
\r
>
n
(r
+ 1)
1
r
+ l ,ifnr>r + l;
3,
that
is if
n>2r + 1.
a + 6 = 2m+l,
Hence
Thus
if
ml
a+6=2m,
\m Im
and
if
[5
Im + l m
By
2rel
l>ln
n,
2ra3
ra
3>
[m,
\n \n
11
2re5
5>
[n.
TO_n,
3
2k3>
2ml
>
re
inequalities,
we have
([135
\2nlY>(\ny\
XIX, XX.]
19.
LIMITING VALUES.
;
101
quantities, a
diminish
[a
Ic Id then if any two of the and 6 say, are unequal, we can without altering their sum [This is proved in the lemma 6^ by taking a and 6 equal.
of la
16
Ic
\d
is least
when
all
the quantities
are equal. If however n is not exactly divisible hyp this will not be the case; suppose then that q is the quotient and r the remainder when M is divided byp; thus n=pq + r={pr)q + r{q + l). Hence pr of the quantities a, 6, c, d... will be equal to q, and the remaining r will be equal to g + 1 ; thus the least value of the expression is ( W )""''( ? + 1 )''
I
228.
9
,_,..
(1)
= ^.
(2)
10
,,
_.
(2)
(3)(3) .^ Limit = ^
l'
2.
(1)
Limit =
^^ =
9.
Limit =
^^ = ^
3.
(l)Limit =
g^4.
(2)Limit=i:^ = .
(2)Limit==lf^l = G.
4.
(l)Limit =
^.^g^=M.
2^
X
5.
(1)
Limit=
1
(2)
Limit=^
^=
0.
6.
(1)
Limit=^^^^ = l =
3 2'
0.
(2)Limit = ^^3=30.
'
d'l''
8.
L ^ = l + xlog<r+LS^ +
1
,
x2(loga)2
, ....l^log6
,^
a;2(log6)2
^f
r^'
x*
j
_2g_^
s
log(l + a;)
a;2
102
10.
LIMITING VALUES.
gfnx
[CHAPS.
gnut
By
_"
putting x = a+h,
_ glut
gwiffl'+TnA
=
h
...

(ma
 +
2 2_
= me<,
x=a.
11,
Put
x=2a + ft;
Jiah
Iog(l + g + a^)
3a;2(l2a;)
Jia
'
'2
~
3x''(l2x)
g^
"
13.
"Bx^^IJ"
Put
x= 1 +
ft,
A'
14.
=
(Za?h...)^ + h^
JZcfi.h^ + h^
A,
15.
The expression
Ja + x+ Jax
Ja' + ax + x^ + Ja'ax + x^
_2ax 2ija_
~2^"~2a"^^"'
16.
(
n J
= 1+nj
\
='
"'"'i
=1+ n =1^ =
y*
=0; 00
since
e1
is greater
than
1.
XX, XXI.]
17.
103
The expression
^]~ = (\/!4f}"=
2
(<'^)^
[Ex.
3, Art. 270.]
Hence the
limit is
e".
EXAMPLES. XXI.
1.
a.
Pages
241, 242.
2.
The Beries= (l 
+/ J
+ (  j +
...
and
is
therefore
= , ^ T, ^; a;"' = n1 7^. t; n{n + lj (rjl)n ra+ M_i convergent and if x > 1, divergent.
.
4.
Hence
.,
ii
a;
<
, 1,
the series
iv
is
If
a;
= l,
first
n terms
is
m+1
=^ .
Hence the
series is con
^
'
x"^i
(2n  3)
(2ji
{2n3){2n2)
M_i
If If
a;
(2rel)2n
the series
is
 2)
x
(2ml)27i
divergent.
is
< 1,
= l,
convergent;
if
> 1,
,
a;
the series==5
1>A
104
6.
[CHAP.
the series
13
^=1 ^T
\n
nl
ir
= ~.,
n
TT^; {niy
thus iim.
2=0, and
_!
convergent.
7.
Here =
, and
is
series is divergent.
[Art. 282.] _.
8.
7i
^.ar.
Hence
j.
if
Si
If
and
9.
M 2_ =
_!
(n + 1)
'.
n
.;
ii"
(nl)P
+ l/l\P m \n + ly
re
/
and thus
j.r.
is
to unity.
But =
= ^^
n* term
ultimately, hence
is
we
^:^ and
,
when
^i
pl>l.
in
if
a;
[Art. 290.]
when
>
2.
10.
< 1,
T, If
^ =
*"'"
7
nrrr ^ 1
stttt =
(2)2+l
,
,
, x = l, .,. the
1 1 1 =1 + 5 + ^ + 1 j7i+...+
j+
...
Now
term
is
r,
n^
r 1
7;
ultimately
is
the general
n'
convergent
when
x=l.
11.
= sri,
if
n2
is
a=x,
ultimately.
;
Hence
< 1,
the series
convergent
if
so 1,
divergent.
series is divergent.
then
m^1
^
..
12.
l,
general term
^^
is is
p^ = i i
""i^^t^ly
But the
series
whose
divergent
1.
series is
divergent except
when y >
XXI.]
^^=^1
105
convergent;
if
14.
Hence
if
is
>
,."nl 1, divergent.
,
If
x = l, M=
J =
ultimately;
and the
series
is
series is convergent.
15.
K^^)"  "^l7^^
"=
,
1)~".
[See Chap.
XX. Ex.
16.]
Hence
is
"ni convergent.
16.
= (el)'"" = l
=^.
,
,,
and since
this is less
than X the
series
Here
Vn="
;r n"
= (
n \ n J
=(l) n nj
\
Thus
Hence the
'n= ~^=
series is divergent.
ultimately.
[Art. 290.
Case
n
Hence the
(2)
series is divergent.
,
Jn*+1 Vra*  1 =
= irri =
5
nltunately
Hence the 18
gent.
(2)
(1)
series is convergent.
Here u=
= .
is
diver
The series=i +
(^^ + ^) + (^^ + ^)
s
the general
term beins =
mately, and
xn
x +n
= 5
x^n^
j
""
ulti
the
the series
convergent.
series
^ be
[Ait. 288.]
106
[CHAP.
that li/u^=r,
if
ultimately. Also if r<l, the auxiliary series is convergent; auxiliary series is divergent hence the proposition follows.
;
r>l, ths
21.
The product,
may
be
written
P^tijU^u^
m_i x
^^^'^
Proceeding as in Art.
2n2 2n2
"'=2;rr32i:ri296 we have,
=lg
log_,=log {l +
hence log P
finite.
is ec[ual to
=i
"Iti^tely;
therefore
P is
22.
When x=l,
n
'
,
+'"'
J. '^
T^j
is
..
log
where
denotes the
sum
&om
1 to
r.
When
sum
of
is finite,
T^+i
also finite
an
infinite series,
which
when
infinite series
S
n+X
is
;
convergent or divergent.
[Art. 296.]
But
this
hence we
may write
,
If
n+1
is positive,
log
T^i=  oo and
,
2'^i=0; that
is,
n+ 1
is negative,
log
is
an
XXI.]
1U7
EXAMPLES. XXI.
1 1.
b.
Page
252.
uere Here
u 1 ""2
3 5 4 6
.
(46)
1
'
4n
1
u^, =
(42)4 (45)(43)
i^
= x^
if
, ""lately
,,.
Hence
If
if
x <; 1, the
series is convergent
x > 1, divergent.
x = l, then n{
is
 1
= ,^
'
^, ,.
convergent.
2 i.
Mere Here
..
3.6.9... (B.^Tl)
""T.IO.
371
13...(3n + l)
.
'^
'
M =
is
+4
=
,,.
,
ultimately.
if
Hence
If
if
convergent;
,
x>l,
divergent.
x= 1,
~  1
=  = ~
3n
3
and the
series is convergent.
\u+i
3
Here
""=
'^^"'
4 .5
(271
...
(211)27.
1
^2
^, =
M.
(2 + l)
+ 2)
(27:)2
;
= ^2.
if
, ultimately.
,^.
Hence
If
if
x < 1, the
I
series is convergent
x > 1, divergent.
X = 1, n
^  1 = "
)
=n
2
7li
ultimately,
and the
series is con
\+i
vergent.
4.
{2)'
Here
=j^;
.
xi
"
_3L
7.+i
_z
(tj
a;
=
(7i
1^
+ I)"
+ l)"i X
=
/j
=
i"
IX""^
ex
ultimately.
Hence
If
a;
if
x<,
the series
is
convergent;
if
x>,
divergent.
= .
7^ = 
(0
log
Tv^'
[Chap. XX. Ex. 17.]
Hence the
series is
3l
108
5.
[CHAP.
w,^=
.r"i;
.*.
if
h=
a;
=
is
^ =! +   = >
;
ultimately.
Hence
< c,
the series
convergent
/
it
x>e,
divergent.
n+i
IN"
^
is
divergent.
6.
"
M,^j
if
(2)1
+ 2)2
,( 2 o (2 + l)2
" a;
=a;
^iltimatelv. '
^,
Hence
is
convergent;
7T^
.
a:>l, divergent.
of
If x=l, ni  1
= K
r^
(27!
tlie
Hmit
which
is
we
therefore
test.
)i
^  i\  Ji 1 1 [log
'^n
I
(ml)logre
^^
Vn+i
+ l)(l
r^ =
mlogn
J,4n2
^
4rj
logjj
=0, ultimately. ^
Hence the
'
series is divergent.
...
[Art. 306.]
""~
_ (w2 + a) (n3 + a)
..
+ a) a(lg)
(
...
(7z2a)(rala)
'
1)2
^ = (l
;
+i
^n+l
Vn+i
IS
+ a){o) )t (m  a + a2) = 1, ultimately. (n  1 + a) ()i  a) ()i  are + a2re  o + a^) log n (l + a)(rea) _ (1  a + a2) log n
T,
r=l, ultimately.
= 0,
ultimately.
Hence the
8.
series is divergent.
Here
1"''^
"=^^re
(a + 7?a)" (a +
7i
_ ""n+i"
l!*
+ l.x)"+i
(n
+ l)?!".!;"
I
1 1
,,.
1 X
XXI.J Hence
if
109
series is convergent
if
a;
>
divergent.
This result
it will
be observed
'
is
quite independent of a,
is
and
if
we put
a = 0, we obtain x +
;; H
+ ...,
which
article
thus
series is divergent.
"
..
=
n+i

'
(a
+ n~l){^ + nl)
=1, ultimately.
,^.
", ^\ n f ^1 )
V^n+i
ultimately. J
^,
7a3=0, thennfi^l") =
V+i
,"'""
(n +
ultimately. ^
( f Jf
(
_ l\ _
/
V+i
1} lo I
=  {( ''l)(/3l)+"(+<32)(al)(^l)}log,t (n + al)(n+pl)
Hence the
10.
series is divergent.
.=x{log(M)}'=
it
.^^ =
ggf
.
.i^i.ultimately.
Hence
x < 1, the
series is convergent ; it
j > 1, divergent.
(,71
Vh4.i
1+2
)
7llOg7lJ
= ('1
\
..
('ii''l')=?=0,
Ultimately;
11
Here
+ l)(^ + 2)
711
(a
+ .2).
"
'""n+l
71
+ 01
i
= 1,
ultimately.
C JL _
\"n+i
= ~"^''~^) =
" + al
is
 a + 1,
ultimately.
if
Hence
it
divergent;
negative, convergent.
is
term 1 and
convergent.
110
12.
UNDETEEMINED COEFFICIENTS.
^=1,
n
ultimately;
[CHAP.
^  1
if
r^
TT
is
^rTa
=Aa,
if
ultimately.
divergent.
Hence
^  a > 1,
the series
convergent ;
^  a< 1
If^a=l,then^f^lV'^ + p'']r+;
= (Bba) ^^ = 0,
Hence the
It
ultimately.
series is divergent.
is
independent oiB,
b,
C,
c, ....
EXAMPLES.
1.
XXII.
a.
Page
256.
then 12 + 32+52+..
..
+ 32 + 52+. + (2l)2=4 + Bn + Cn2 + Dn3 + ... + (2 1)2+ (2)^ + 1)2 =4 + B(ra + l) + C( + l)2 + D( + l)3+... by subtraction, (2n + l)2=B + C(2 + l)+D (3n2 + 3m + i) + ...
Let
12
..
.
..
powers of
we have
..
B + G + D = l, 2C + 3I> = 4, 3D = 4;
all
vanish,
and on equating
coefficients of like
Z)
= , C=0,
find
B=\;
.:
S=A\n + ^nK
Puti=l; thus we
2.
^ = 0; hence S=^{in^l).
5
Let
..
.+m(re + l)( + 2)
Then
(B
find
we
find
1 3 11 S E = , D=, G = B = 4 2 4
,
SJ +  + ^2+ =4 4
.
" J
11
3 2
3^
.,
4.
When m = l, ^ = 0, and S
(+ reduces to "
1) ("
+ 2)
+ 3)
XXII.]
3.
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS.
Let 1.2'' + 2.d^ + 3.43+...+n{n + l)^=A + Bn +
Cn''
Ill
+ D'n?+En*;
then as before
l)
we
find
B=i D = l, C=, B = %; 4 6 4 6
o
4
_
When n = l, ^ = 0, and S
4.
rednces to
Let
13
we
find
= 2, D = 0, C=
1,
B = 0;
Whenm=l, ^ = 0;
5.
hence S=?i2(22_i).
Let
l*
whence by equating
coefficients
we obtain
When = 1, A = 0, and S
Assume x^ 6. coefficients of like
^ (k +
1)
(2n + 1) (Sn^ +
3re
 1).
Multiply out, and equate thus k + 2a = 0, a^k = 2q, Sp = 2ak + a".
.
it
Assume ax^ + l>x''+cx + d = (px + q)^. Equate coefficients of 7. Powersoft, and we obtain p'= a, Sp^q = b, Spq'=c, q^=d,
whence
like
V=27aH, and
c'=27ad''.
Assume a''x* + hafl cx^ + dx+f'=(ax'+px+f)^; 8. coefficients of like powers of x, we obtain b=2ap, c=p''
:.
whence, by equating
+ 2af, d=2pf;
ad = hf, and
"=(2^
+2o/.
112
9.
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS.
Assume ax^ + 2'bxy + cy^ + 2dx+2ey+f={Ax + By +
C)^.
[CHAP.
A^=a, B^=c, (?=f, AB = b, AG=d, BC=e; whence the required conditions foUow at once.
Then
10.
like
equate coefficients of
powers of
and we obtain
&
=^
c=ali^; .:
= ,
01 tc = ad.
11.
then we have
a2c = 0; c''+b2ac = 0;
ac''2bc + ^=0,
bc'=5q.
From
equations,
the two
and we
first of these, 30^=6; substitute for 6 in the remaining easily find r=c'', j=c^; .. r*=q^.
12.
(1) is 8'
a, b, c, as
we
easily find
equation of the second degree satisfied by the three values on trial. Therefore the equation is an identity.
(2) is
solved in the
same way.
13.
If ax''
We have,
by equating
pp' = a, qq' = b, rr'=c, qr' + q'r=2f, rp' + r'p = 2g, pq'+p'q = 2h.
Multiply the last three results together ; thus 2pp'qqW +pp' (i^r'^ + g'V) + qq' (pV^ +p'H^) + rr' 2abc + a{ip 26c)
which reduces to
14.
also
.:
,
We have
a;
by
substitution,
J=Z(J + mi; + nf)+ro(mf + J) + mf) + n(mf + B?; + Zf). Whence, by equating the coefficients of , ij, f on the two sides, we obtain
the required relations. 15.
The sum
of the products is the coefficient of a;"" in the expansion of {x + a){x + a^) [x + a?) ...{x + a^).
+ A.^^i^x'^^ + A^_rX'<+....
Write  for a
x,
(as
+ a'^'), we have
'
i (x+a^) ^x^a^)
(x
""'
+'
XXII.
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS.
113
.:
(x
+ a){ai+ A^ax"^^ +...+ A_^_^ a""*^! x^^ + ^_^ o""'' x' + = (x + a''+i){a; + ^ia;''i + ...+^_,.ia;'^i + .4_,x'+...}.
. . .
Equate
coefficients of a;'+^
; then A^_^ a"' + J_^i 0"'= 4_,.i o^i + 4_^ A., (a"'  1) = ^_^_i a'^r (ar+i ..
1)
that
is,
put
r+ 1
for
r,
then
A^ = A,a
jii
a''il
= a =
since
i4,
= l.
Now
easily obtain
multiply these resxilts together and cancel like factors, and we A^_^ in the required form.
EXAMPLES.
1,
XXII.
b.
Page
260,
Let
^=af) + aiX
1
+ 2a; = (1  a; 
(a^
+ a^x + a^ + a^ + ...).
;
2=010,,; whence aj = 3. The coefBoients of higher powers of X are found in succession from the relation a  a_i  a_2 = hence
Then
= 05,
03
u=4, and
2,
= 7;
thus
"^
'^
=l + 3x + 4a: + 7a:^+...
With the same notation we have 1  8a! = (1  X  6a!') (aj + a^ + Oj^'^ + Sga!' + ...). Then a^=\., aiOo=8; whence ai=7. The other ooefBcients determined in succession from the relation a  o_i  6a_2= 0.
3,
are
Wehave
2ai
Then 00=5,
+ a)=l; whence
^'^^ 2a3
or ai
= z^\
2 + x+a:''
16
Example 4 may be
H. A. K.
114
5
.
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS.
Let the required expansion be
.:
[CHAP.
65
Then
Also
And
+ axax^x'
. .
'
By putting i=l, 2, 3, ... successively we see that the required expan6. sion will have ooefSoients 1,4, 7, 10, that is, ;
.
10a;'
+ ..:);
by equating
7.
coefficients
we have o = l,
find that
= 42 = 2.
As
in
Example
we
a=l, 6= 3 + 2,
= 36 + 5;
or.a = l,
6=l,
= 2.
Since y = Q when a;=0, we may assume y=AjX + A2x''+A^x^+...; 8. substitute this value for y in the given relation ; thus
(AiX+Aj,x''+A^''+
Since this
is
...)^
an
identity,
2.4j
+ 2{AjX+A^^ + AsX^+ ...)=x{l + AiX + A.^'^+ ...). we may equate the coefficients of powers of
or
x; thus
we
obtain
= l,
^1=5; ^
^2=i;
8
^4=  
1,1.. ^ = 1 + 8^128^+2^
may assume
Here y=0, when x=0. Also y changes sign with x; ^=^iy + ^sy^ + ^By^ + Ajy'' + ... Now proceed as in the last Example, and we get
9.
therefore
we
or^i=;
.4,= .^.
^= ?^. 4 = . a a^ a'
;
= A '^
and so on; thus
 
 'a' I a'a^'a' a
?^% ?^
!.
^2c3
a?
a"
'
:.=^ _
_ 1!Y
XXII.
XJlirDETEEMINED COEFFICIENTS.
put
c
Now
tlie
..
= l, y = l, a=100;
...
then
a!=j^ 
113
115
...
+ Tj^,
becomes
solution of
a;'+100xl = 0;
x = 01 00000001 +
3
is
^
,
= 00999999
this
first
term rejected
and
when
is
10.
Assume
{1
+ x)
(l
+ ax)
+...
Equate
..
coefficients of
a''i
= 4,
^,(la')=^,_ia'i;
'1
'
"^
~ 1  a"
(laKla'ijag^^)
(jl+2+3H...+(i.Il
^^"^
^'=
(la^)(la^i)...(la) ^
since Ad = 1.
{la){la?)...{lar)'
11.
 ax ; thus
=^'' + '^^^^'^ +
(la''x)'l^x)...
+^^"^'''')^"+left
But by writing ax
for
thus
A^=^f^,&o.
aA
A^=
(la) (la=)
2,
'
...
(la")
(1)
Proceed as in Ex.
.
Art. 314, l +T
and we
...
find
re
In
l +
Ji+1
\.
..
\n
to
terms
=the
coefficient of x"*^
82
116
UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS.
[CHAPS.
containing higher
(/p2 + ^3 + K + T^ v^
eiw_(+
The
last
\
.
nf1
. .
= "+! + terms
powers of x. Expand the lefthand side and multiply all through by e*; then
l)e(ni)":+(tll^ecn2)a!_... to Ml2 terms = e"'" (s^+il
1.2
...).
two terms
of the series
(
on the
(
left
are
 1)" ( +
1) c is
+  l)''+i c'^
..
the coefficient of
'I"
a;"
in the series
(n
'
n (!)" i(mll)5 ^ +
/
i
Iw'Ire
a:".
+ l)n 1.2
'
(712)"
.
'
k
,
'
toTO terms
,,., + (l"+i^r^
,
^'k'
_
(1)"
and
on the righthand
\n.
side there is
no term con
taining
(3)
..
We
have
e"^
(lc^)=e^7?e2"i)'L^L:ili
gsa;
t(J
n+1
terms;
_1_
2^
[re~"'ra"''
Again the expression on the left is (  1)" e* (e"  1)", which may be written (l)"(l + a:t...)(a^^...); thus the coefficient of a;" is (1)". Equate the two coefficients, multiply up by \n, and the required result follows.
(4)
eJ'^(e'"l)'
= c"^
eM:_e(nl)a;_.!L^i:il)g(n2)a:_
^
result follows.
Equate the
coefficients of
a;",
EXAMPLES.
1.
XXIII.
1
Pages
265, 266.
Assume:;1
 2x
Then
.'.
7a;l = ^(l2s)fB(l3a;);
equating coefficients,
A + B=
1, 2A
'
2. Assume
l5a;l6x2~l3a;
^^^, _
46hl3x n^ _ 15
= 4^^ + g^Ts
b'
Then
46 + 13a;=4 (3a;5)HB(4a;l3);
XXII, XXIII.J
..34
PAETIAL FRACTIONS.
117
5,
'
5 = 7;
i
g
+ 3a; + 2a:2
(l
+ 2a;)(l + 3;) _
+ 2x
{l2x)(lx')
^ Assume
(lix)(li?) (l2x)(\x)
,
r
\ + 2x (\'ix){lx)
,
= A
(la;)
B lix^lx'
1
.:
+ 2a;=4
+ B(l2n;).
(xl){x2){x3) = ^31 + ^32 + ^^3 x=l, x=2, ir=3 successively, we get 4 = 2, B = 3, C?= 4;
^'''"^'
.'.
ic^
10a:+13
ABC
r
H
^l^^'^"'^
the expression ^
,,
.234
=
a;l
a;2
^ytjt
^y Plt"g
x3
5.
x(xl){2x + 3)
;
^=1 +
B
^^ ^^^^^ :.(xl)(2x +
2a;3
A
3)
= ^+^3l
4 = 1, = 1,
..
C=;
5
the expression = lH
ti,
1,1
a;
^,  =^ (a; 1)
jtjt
5
a;
(2a;
+ 3)
(a;
r
7.
By
;
(a;
division
we
T
2.
,
7a;
jr
.
Assume
Ixi
+ l)^(a;3)
rr,
A
x+ 1
B
7
1^^ + l) \x Of
(x
+ l)^
rr; H
x6'
wB hnd
17
17
11
^I6'^T'
'^le
*^^
^P^"="'226a;
(a;
16(^)
4(F^+ leFTi)
8.
Theexpression=pp^!^^^^.
+ 8)
^^ Now assume
=^(^^
^)
Tj
26a;^
'
(x^
3a;41 \
x^+lj'
118
9.
, Assume
PARTIAL FRACTIONS.
2a;2lla; + 5
px,a , ., {xS){x^+2x5)
,
,
[CHAP.
Bx + G
Then
2x^
whence by equating
A= 1, B = 3, 0=0
.
..
the expression =
=
3c'
Sx
tt
+ 2x5
1
5 x6
;
10.
Put
a;
1=2
2*
~
3
x1
11,
17
{xlf
~
z*
~z
z^
z^
z*
{xlf
(x1)*'
+ ^
and proceed as in
Art. 317.
23
..
the expression =
x1
4
113
x+1
=
{x+lf
1
,
(x
+ + \f^
3
2

(x
+ lf
is
12.
The expre3sion=
^^'{4.7'4'}a;'.
13.
The expression =
11 .^_
,.
.
is
ikiizm 2>i 3 X
I
a;'.
!*
term
is
(
x2 +
7 + 10=^x^ + 7x +
.
10=^+3^JT5)3F^
^he general
l)'
g jg^i
^^j} x'.
15.
{1
The expression=  =
a;"
114 +
cc''.
is
_ ( _ l)r _ 2'^2}
or {1
+  l)'^i  2''+2}
(
XXIII.]
PARTIAL FRACTIONS.
The e^pres3ion=3^jl2^g^^ +
 {9r + 8 + ( 1)'2''+2}
a;'".
119
and
the general
16.
^^,
term
is
17.
The expression=
J + ^
1
(3
is
4'1(12 + 11j)!c''.
18.
The expression =
O +
+x
O
{1
,.,
, + xy
,
+ 3x
,
is
(ir3r+5^f
19.
^',
The expression =
^_^ + ^.j^^^^)
3a;
is
a;'
if
is
odd.
on
20.
Tt
it 2
=1 1
a;,
2 =
z'
+
3
,
2 z
z^
= 2(1k)33(1!c)2+2(1x)1;
..
the coefficient of
k'"
is (r
+ 1)
(?
+ 2)  3
.,
21.
. Assume
1
jj: ,.,.,. (laa;)(l oa;)(lca:)
1ax
:;
ABC
(
r + 1)
+ 2,
or r^ + 1
1j
:r1bx
1ca;
..
1=4
(lbx){lcx)+B(lax){lex) + C(lax){lbx).
By
putting in succession
.
A=
.:
{ab){ac)'
jTT
 cx =
C;
0,
we
find that
the
+ l)"'
+
{ab]{ac)^
(lax)'+
V ^"'i
32x^
(23x+a;y~(2i!:)2"''2x^(l9;)2'''la:'
S2x'=A{lx)^+B{2x){lx)^+G{2x)^+D(2xy(lx).
BD=0.
4= 5;
and
2B + 4D = 4, and
B=D,
whence D=2,
B=2;
120
32^2
PARTIAL FEACTIONS.
5
/
[CHAPS.
1 2
(23x+a:2)2
?)
p,
xV
'i
,^+M.r^2'*"llx' x^ (lx)"^
..
the coefficient
^.
put in the
23.
(1)
The
re""
(J. J
^^ryr
J
^J.
+ X^^
and
this
may be
'' Similarly each term of the series may ~ X (1  x) {l + "+! r+^j be decomposed, and on addition we find that all the terms disappear except one at the beginning and one at the end thus
;
f^^
(l + x''+i l
x(lx)
(2)
+ xf
Li
The n* term
Assume this=
find
ABC
is
a''ix(la"x)
(1
+
,
.,
4= 
(a 1)2
5 = C,
1
B=
(
^,..
1
(aiP
l+
Thus the
2
rf"
term
1
1 *
^
If
all
~(al)2
we decompose each term
;
a''ia;"''l
+ ax
+ a'+ixj
of the series in this way, we find on addition that the terms disappear except two at the beginning and two at the end.
(alp
,,,
\
(l
+ a"x
:;
r; + a"+ix
^;
+x
1
+ axJ
f
24
The"term =
(1
7.2n2
 x2"i)(l  a^i+i)
=
a;
1 ( '
=
(1
 x^) \l  a;2"i
 a?+ij
Thus the
series
may
be written
x(lx2)la;
and
this reduces to
lx3"'"lx3
 x^)
r.
1 _a;6
^^j
(I  X) X
^=
(1
25.
The
"'
Jl
(i
r x
2x''+i
"*"
x't+s
j
 x"+J
x2
x'l+l
x''+2
XXIII, XXIV.]
RECURRING
p.
SERIES.
121
26.
We have
r^
jr
==
+ Sa;''+
where S = the sum of the homogeneous products of n dimensions which can be formed of a, b, c and their powers [Art. 190].
Assume
1ax
,=
1bx
we
= + 1cx
=
then by putting
0^
r~,
:
lax,lbx, 1cx
similar values for
find
A=
{ao)(a c)
,
and
and 0.
bx) (1
is
"
.:
(1
 ax] (1 
 ex)
,
(a
b}(a~ c)
(laa;)i +
+ ...;
c^+^
>
^n+2
J^n+'i
=^7 \ {ab){ac)
Ti rn r (6c)(6a)
+7
r? m (ca)(c6)
'which
may easily
272.
1pxqx^ be the scale of relation; then 1. 95p43 = 0; whence ^ = 2, q = l. Nowlet S = l + 5x+ 9a;2 + 13a;3 + ..., then 2xS= 2x10x'18x' ...,
x^S=
..
13
 9p + S^ =
0,
x^+ 5x3+...;
the general
term=(3r+r + l)a;''=(4r+l)ic''.
1 = j^^+^; 1
o
2.
the general
term=
{1
2)''} x''.
3.
+ 2'') a'".
3 = 3,
4.
Let
then
..270p9q = 0, 09i) + 6g=0; .: p = % 8=7 ex+ 9x2+ 0x3+..., 2xS=  14x + 12x2 18x3 ..., 21x2 + 18x3...; 3x^5=
122
RECURRING
SERIES.
[CHAP.
..
the general
term=j{3' + 27(l)''}x'.
;
5.
Let
l~pxqx^ ra?
then
27698p36g14r=0, 9836^1436r=0, 3&Up6q3r=0, whence jp = 6, g=ll, r=3; the scale of relation ialGx + Ux^ Si?, and the generating function 1 1 1 312a; + llx2 ~l6x + llx^&ifl l3(j; l2a! 1x'
..
.
3'"
(
+ 2'' + 1)
;
a;'".
we
6a;'.
= ^_^^_^q^, = fZTx +
2 5x
F^
3''
or general term
2''i.
+ 2'".
The sum
7.
of
(3"  1)
+ (2  1).
The
scale of relation is 1
5gl
The
n'"
~l5a!+6a:2i_3a,
term = 2 {Sx)"^  3
of
(2x)"i.
l_2ai*
The sum
8.
n terms
2(l3''a;")
'
3(12'j:'>)
i_2x
'
The
scale of relation is 1
 7a; + 12a;2.
1
The generating
1
function
The
..
""
l4a;
l3a;
the
^^^^
9.
The
scale of relation is 1
111
l2a;
l2"a;''
The generating
function
l3x'
1ai^
l3a;'>
XXIV.J
10.
1
EECUEEING
The
scale
SERIES.
 ^ + 2x +0x^
3
123
So?
...
is
3a;
3
(
2(1 3a;4a;2)'
..
or
iJj^
10 L0ll4a;
1
m. +
xf
'
= j^
m""
{4"!
1)"! 16 } a;"!
(8 1; (
O^'isi
1)"
""'
series
and the
sum
to
n terms
If
1 =4 ^{(1)"!} + ^
{2^1).
in the first case
11.
we denote the
series by U1 + U2+ ... +, we have %ui=2nl, (6_j_2 = 2m3; ..!* 2m_i + M_2 = 2 = M_i  2<!t_2 + tt_3 %  3_l + 3m_2  M3= 0,
;
which
is
..
which
is
12.
The sum
to infinity
is
by ^j. ggg.
Also the
sum
"n't''+(n4iP"Jai"+\
lpa;2a;^
..
'
^
and
that in Art. 325.
ao + (aij)go)a!
1 px ga;2
since an=J'<^jii +
!Z'^m5>
'
^^^
+ 2x3, and this = (1 + 2x) (1  x)^ a: + 4x^ 2 we find the generating function = ^ _ 3^, ^^^ = ^^^^ " TT^ + ^ Hence the m"' term = 2m  1 +  1)! 2"'} x".
13.
The
scale of relation is 1
3a;2
..
12 r^
;
124
RECURRING
SERIES.
[CHAPS.
m terms
=
711^
= (l + 3 + 5 +
...
+2
(2'+i
..
the
sum
of
+ l). A + px +
is
14.
and
qx''
B
l + rx
+ sx^
then the
sum
,
therefore the generating function of the series whose general term is and on reduction we find the generating function has for its denominator l + (p + r)a; + {j + s+pr)a;^ + (g?'+2)s)a^ + 2sa;*, which is therefore the scale of relation of the new series.
This
is
(a+6)a;'',
15, Let the given series be Md + j + M2+ contain & constants ; so that
...,
and
let
Let
then SS'_i=M
S=tti+2+M3+. ..+;
=Pl"l+2'2i2+
+i'ft"n*
(P2
(ill
jps)
S_2
 Ps)
"^ns
if M is formed from the preceding h terms of the series 11^ + 11^ + 11^+ formed from the preceding k + 1 terms of the series Si, S^, S^
EXAMPLES. XXV.
to give the 6.
a.
Pages
277, 278.
It will be sufficient here
XXIV, XXV.]
10.
3029 =
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
3029
10000
3
126
126
16.
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
n+1
[chap.
XXV.]
3,
CONTINUED FKACTIONS,
141421=1 +
127
111111
2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+
3 2' 7 5'
;
1,
17 12'
41 99 29' 70'
239 169"
..
[Art. 340.]
a+1
a3
+ 6a''+13a + 10
5a?+ 7a a^+ 6a + 10 a?+ 5o+ 7
a? +
a + 6a3 a + 60S
a+2
a+3
a+ a+ a+
(a +
3 3
..
the fraction
l)+
(a +
5 2)+ a+3
and the
first
3 convergents
a+1
a= + 3a + 3 a3 + 3a2 + 4a
a'
a^+a + l'
+ 2'
Pn Fl_(l)'' _^:2ti = }_i^; add these
2n
2nl
5.
= ^, ?a__^=__,
2233
22nl
results together.
6,
We have
Pn _nPnl+Pn2
=
i'u2.
i'n1
Pn1
PmI
and ^^i=_, + ^P2=3; ^P2!^=a_,+^^^;andfinally?? = a+i. ' Pna i'n2 Pn3 AS Pi ^l
Thus
Pn
128
then
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
22= *?2nl+ ?2na= * ("^32112 + ?2ns) + ?2n3
[CHAP.
<
by induotion, the
result follows.
Similarly
we may shew
that
9.
We have
"
P2Ml
= '^Pin+P2nl<
B.nd
p^^^bp^n.^+p^na,
generally
p=(a6 + 2)2i_2jj_4.
10.
The
first
expression = ax^ +
all
ax2+
H
= axT\
'
11a
X2+ 1^3+ a^4+
=01,
,111,
^i+ ax^+ x^+
x^h <ix^+
: and
so on.
448.]
[Compare Art.
11.
We have
M
N P_
rr^,
^^
Q~ a2+ S~a2S+B'
,
fractions
M 5 a^S +
=
N' Q
p.
7=
hence
^ OiQ+P
1.]
Thus
whence
and
12.
^=ai(a3P+iJ)+P=(aia2 + l)P+OiiJ.
We
t^^^s
the numerators
the
and denominators
Let
coeflfieients of
1  ox  x\
 as  o;^
'
^=
i_axx^
XXV.]
C0NTINT7ED FRACTIONS.
/3
129
Now a,
,
nence
^(lax)(lpx)~ ap\lax
'
l^xj'
is
Pm
which
is
equal to
ap
Similarly,
U S'=qiX^+q^^ + q^+
S'=z
5 1axx'
we
find
=z
1axx^
o;S
^.
13.
As in Example 9 we have
i'n=(a6 + 2)i'2i'n4.
2n=(a6 + 2) ?2?4.
Hence the numerators and denominators of the successive convergents each form a recurring series whose scale of relation is 1 (ab + 2)x^+xK
Let
+PnX'^+
+ 2ia;''+
all
But
Pj^=1, p^=h,
g4=aW + 3a6 + l;
^=
;.
l{ab + 2)x^+^
W'
,.,
and
"
^''
reciprocal equation
l{ab + 2)x^+x*=Q;
l{ab + 2)
x^ + x*=(lax'){lpx');
/^
"
{ab
"
^1  o^^
P
1
/sW
H. A. K.
ISO
Hence from
(1),
INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS.
P2= b x
(2),
[CHAP.
=b
Similarly from
q^ni = <^
(2),
a^
obvious
tliat
a;^""
2)2,14.1
Again, from
P2re4.i
(1)
and
it is
= g'2; and
also that
= coefficient
of a;^" in (3)
 coefficient of
jn ^3)
EXAMPLES. XXVI.
T 1.
, The convergents
Fi,
Pages
109 100
290, 291.
*"
775 yji
1
^^^^
12
>
JJ
'
'
thus
..
775x100711x109=1, and
775 {X  100) = 711
(2/
775a;
711)/
=1
=t,
 109)
hence
^^ = ^^
a;=711J
+ 100,
!/
= 775{ + 109.
2.
The convergents
*o
455
^"^^
>
>
gl
thus
..
455a;
519?/
=1
+ 64 = 455J.
+ 73) = 519
(2/
+ 64)
hence
a;
+ 73 = 519t,
3/
3.
The convergents
393
"^^
y
,
thus
whence
436
..
(a;
320) = 393
(2/
355);
a;
 320 = 393f,
y355 = 436t.
4.
then
ix + Sy = 79.
solution
is
One
is
= l + 5i,
2/
= 154t.
Here
0, 1, 2,
XXVI.]
5.
INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS.
trial
131
By
x=l, y = 7S
is
S
a solution; hence the general solution is can have the values 0, 1, 2, 7; thus there
Let
X,
+5=
fnT>
93i:
+ 7y = 73,
the
x=5, y = i.
Let
X,
T5~ = nT
^^^^
i^
2xiy = l,
and
since
or
2x3y = l.
l,
(i) The general solution of 2xSy = l is x = 3t + 2, y = 2t + j/<8, the values of t are restricted to 0, 1, 2, 3. Thus
x = 2,
(ii)
a:
5, 8,
11;
2/
= l,
3, 5, 7. is
re
The general
solution of
2x3y=: 1
= Si + 1,
= l,
8.
4, 7, 10;
y = l,3,5,7.
shillings is equivalent to
is,
y = 2t +
l;
thus
X pounds y
solution is a; = 6t, j/ = 13t; and as x, y are both restricted to values less than 20, it follows that t can only have the value 1; thus x = 6,
The general
2/
= 13.
Eliminating z, we have 40x + 37y = 656. By trial, one solution is 9. y 8,x = 9; hence the general solution is a; = 9 + 37f, 2/ = 840t; thus t can only have the value 0, and a; =9, y = S is the only solution. By substitution
we
find z = 3,
+ 7^ = 73; the general solution is z=3 + it. Thus t can only have the values and 1. When f = 0, y = 13, 2 = 3, but value of X is fractional; when t=l, y=6, z = 7, x = 5.
10.
Eliminating x, we have
4^/
y=13~7t,
the
11.
The general
2; 2
solution of
3i/
+ 42=34
is
2/
Thus
y = 10,e,
= 1,4,7.
we see that when ^ = 10, and when y = 2, x = i, z = 7.
is
a!
From
value of
12.
a;
= 6, the
The general
= 2 + llj,
z = 713t;
thus
a!
= 2, 2 = 7
72
is
From
13. Put 2=1, then 7a; + 4?/ =65; thesolutionsarea; = 3,2/ = llJ x = 7,j/=4. Put 2=2, then 7x + 4y = iG; here the solutions are x = 6,y=:l}x = 2,y = 8. Put 2=3, then 7x + iy = 27; here a; = 1, y = 5is the only solution. Put 2 = 4, then 7a; + 4?/ = 8, which has no integral solution.
92
132
14.
INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS.
Put X = 1, then 171/ + II2 = 107 ; solution y = 5, put a;=2, then 17j/ + llz= 84; solution 2/=3, put a; = 3, then 17y + ll2= 61, solution 2/=l, put X = 4, then 17^ + 112= 88 no solution pntx = 5, then 17)/ + 112= 15; no solution.
;
[CHAP.
z
=2 =4
2=3
2
15.
by
5, 7,
when
N is divided
then
N=5x + Z = ly + 2 = %z + 5; hence Tj/ 5a; =1 and lySz = Z. = 3 + 5s. solution of 72/  5a; = 1 is x = 4 + 7s, Substituting this value of in 72/  8z = 3, we have 35s  82 =  18, general solution of which is =2 + 8t, 2 = ll + 35t.
The general
2/ 2/
the
Substituting for
s,
we obtain
2/
x = 56 + 18,
16.
= 40J + 13,
= 35t + ll,
;^=280J + 93.
we have
W=3x + l = 72/ + 6 = ll2 + 5; hence 3x  7!/ = 5, Bxll2=4. Thus X = 4 + 7s, y = 1 + 3s, and substituting for x, we have II2  21s = 8 whence 2 = 16 + 21i, s = 8 + ll; thus = 33 + 25, 2 = 21t + 16, iV=231t + 181. x = 77S + 60,
2/
By putting t = 0, t= 1, we
and 412.
17. In the septenary scale let the the nonary scale it is denoted by s/Ox.
then in
+ 49x.
xOj/ represents the denary number y + Similarly in the nonary scale 2/Ox represents x + 81?/
3/
.7
;
+ x.V,
hence
+ 49x=x + 8l2/,
or 3x = 5y.
solution of this equation is x 5t, y 3t; but x less than 7 hence x = 5, ^ = 3 is the only solution. Thus y of the number in the denary scale, is equal to 248.
;
The general
+ 49x,
the value
18.
values
By
1, 2,
hypothesis 3
11,
=5+
5
hence 6 =
By
ascribing to a the
we
19.
coincident.
Since 250 and 243 have no common factor, no two divisions will be If a is the length of the two rods, then the distance from the
first is
^r^
and of the
2/"'
division of the
second
is
^^
divisions is
XXVI.]
INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS.
(
133
\
"
"'^
243a:~250y
to zero,
1
V250
~ 243;
will be least
when
250
to rj^ is
^.
243 (250  107)  250 (243  104) =  1 thus the values of x are 107, 143 and the values of y are 104, 139.
;
20. Let a.', y, z denote the required number of times; then the three bells tolled for 23a;, 29y, Siz times, excluding the first of each. Hence
29?/
= 23x + 39,
The general
 29?/ = 1. = l + Sit.
Now
must be
+ 29 x 34i5,
is t 'c^^
997 ;rr<2. 29 X 34
is
When
= l,
)/
= 41,
a;=50, 2=35.
21. Let o, 6 be a solution of the equation 7x + 9y = c, and let a be the smallest value of x for any particular value of c, so that 6 is the greatest value of y ; then the general solution is x = Qt + a, y = b7t. Since there are to be 6 solutions, t is restricted to the values 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Also c = 7a + 96, and will therefore have its greatest value when a and 6 have their greatest values. Now b7t is a positive integer hence 6 > 7i thus 6>35 and the greatest value of 6 is 41, for if 6 = 42, then t=6 would be an admissible value. The greatest value of a is 8, for if a =9, then t= would be an admissible value ; thus c = (7 x 8) + (9 x 41) = 425.
; ;
22. As in the preceding example, a;=llt + a, 2/ = 614*; where t may have the values 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. Thus the greatest value of a is 10, and since 6 must be greater than 4 x 14 and less than 5 x 14, the greatest value of 6 is 69; hence c = 14a + 116 = 14x 10 + 11x69 = 899. 23.
The general
t
where
may have
is
a;
= a + 14,
y = b19t;
Since zero solutions are inadmissible, a must lie between 1 and 13, and 5 must be greater than 5 x 19 and less than 6 x 19. Now c = 19a + 146, and is greatest when o=13 and 6 = 113, in which case
c
= 1829
when a = 1,
6 = 96, in
which case
= 1363.
24. Let x = h,y=hhea, particular solution of ax + by = c, and Itt h be the smallest value that x can have for any particular value of c, so that k is the greatest value of y; then the general solution is x=h + bt, y = kat, (n 1). where { is restricted to the values 0, 1, 2,
Since zero solutions are inadmissible, h must lie between 1 and 61, while k must lie between lHa(l) and al + a(n 1). Now c = ah + blc, and the greatest values of h and i> are 61 and a  1 + a {  1) respectively hence the greatest value of c = (n + 1) 06  a  6.
;
134
[CHAP.
;
The least values of h and k are 1 and 1 + a the least value of c = (nl)ab + a + i.
This Example includes Examples 21
 1)
respectively
hence
23 as particular cases.
a.
EXAMPLES. XXVII.
1.
Page
294.
1
1+ 2+ 1+ 2+
15
,
: '
11
2.
^/5
4+
,
4+
. .
,,
=
2 > 1'
9
r
4'
38 ir17'
161
72
. '
682 305'
2889 1292'
3.
2+^2 = 2+^;
:
2+ 4+ 2+ 4+
'
.,
2
1
22
,
2'
, '
4.
V8 = 2 + V82 = 2+^3L,;
^
=2H
49 218  20' 89
,
, '
485
19a'
= 1+ ^l^^l^ _J_,
^8 + 2=4 + ;^82;
..
1+ 4+ 1+ 4+
82
'
j,
14
,
_,
17
99
,
5.
+ 3 = 6+Vll3;
XXVII.J
135
;
 6+ 3 10 63 199 1257 3970 andtheoonvergentsarej, _, , _, _, ^^ ^13 = 3^133 = 3^^3; "^^ =' ^ "^ =' ^ ji^V
the continued fraction=3 + T;
^
3+ ^ 3+ 6+
;;
. i.
6.
V13 + l _.
3
n/13 + 1 _,
V132 '^ 3 ^ +
,
^13 + 2"
1
.
V133 _
x/13H
..
1 6
1+ 1+ 1+ 1+
18
'
, ^,
3
,
j, ,
11
3,
119
,
,
^/ii^ = 5
"^2
..
^^14 + 2'
=
"
"^v'14 +
3'
^/14 + 3 = 6 + V143;
1+ ^ 1+ 2+
101 116
"31
+
=
j:
4 j,
11 j' 6
15
>
27'
8.
V22=4+^224=4+^^^^
^22 + 4 ^^ ^22 + 4
2 e
^222
^^
3
^/22 + 2
^3
^^^
V22 + 2
J.
197 42
14
3,
are
J,
j.
9.
2^3=V12=3W123=3 +
^12 + 3=6+^/123;
^; t/1^^2^^
= 2+
1
x/12
+ 3'
136
/.
[CHAP.
^ 5 g
1351
anatheconyergentsajrej, ^,
,^,
45
97
^, ^,
627 jgj,
j^,
1
10.
V32=5W325 = 5+^;
,
,
^^ = 1+^ =
V325 ^
7
^;
1
^"*'V32+5'
r yt Y+ loT
^
181
,
'
6
=,
11 17 ^. g
198
^
^45 + 5 _
^'45
..
^45 + 3
9
+ 6=12 + ^456;
_L _L
114
j=,
_ __ _.
^,
161
20
g,
J , j,
y,
47
12.
V160=12+V16012 = 12 +
^; ^3^^^^0l
~
9
"*'4^10 + 4'
V10 + 4_
9
4V3.05 _ ~ * ~ 9
15
V10 + 5_
15
VIOIO
15
^4;,yi0 + 5'
~ + ~
"'2^10 + 5'
2^/10 + 5 _g,
.
_D+ 2V105 2
_L
15
4^10 + 10
15
"''iVlO + lO'
^'^
.,
4^105
15
1+?5' +
^+4v'10
XXVII.]
137
4^10 + S ^
9
'
yiQ + l
4
^10
"^
"^VlO + l'
~ ''"i =^+
=
4(V10 + 3) = 24 + 4V1012;
/.
4(V10+3)
= 12 +
13
,
^;
^,
.12
1+ 1+ 1+ ^ 1+ 1+ 1+ 5+
:;
24 +
;^
25
y,
yy
3
.
38
215
253
^y
20'
13.
V=.W2X.=..^,; ^^=1.^^=1+^^.
V213
T
,
V21 + 1
V21 + 3 _
x/21 + 3 _g,
1
V213 _
,
,
v/21
andtheconvergeutsare
x/B3 = 5 +
112
J,
g,
4+ 1+ 1+ 2+ 1+ 1+
g,
;;
;r
8 +
=
=
^, ^, ^,
l
12
14.
VB355+^;^^ = + V3i^=l+^;
8
.
V33 + 3'
10+V335;
5+ 1+ 2+ 1+
4 ^g.
+
=7^
10
andtheconvergentsareg, g,
3
j;^,
15
^/^^=l+^'=l+;A^=^/^+^=^ow3o5
='"^;^5'
\/30 + 5 _,
~5
^+"5~'
.
..
x/305
1U+
h ^+
..
andtheconvergentsarej,
11
23
^, ^,
138
1ft
[CHAP.
/7_
,
, v/77
,^v/777
13
,,
v'77 + 7 _a 4
^+^^+^77T5'T3
,
^/775 _^
J77 + 5
280
,
,,^778
1
=
^+~T3=^+;mT8
v/77
+ 5 _,
4
..
^+^r~^+V7r;7' ~7^^+^r~=
= 
1+ 3+ 1+ 16+ , 1+ 8+ 2+ 3+ 1+
4
g,

V777 _^
x/77 + 7
^s/777
'
3 , , andtheconvergentsarej, j,
1
67 71 , _,
;
17.
,^,
,4
1
8+ 8+
...
.; '
:j ,
33
268
,
^
00
pr=
is less
than
65
^rrrrx
(65)2
2(528)2
18.
\/23 =
4+ r = 1+ 0+ 45 1'
5 +
211
4
1'
..
19
24
235
1151
"240
'
4'
5'
44'
less
49' 191'
(191)2
t^ is 191
2Q
10
1
'
than
2(240p
19.
\/101 = 10 + 2jj
201
20
'
The
and
(401)2
is therefore
20.
\/15 = 3
+ J g
4 3 1' 1'
27
7
'
31 8
55
'
244 63
1677
'
433"'
differs
from ^15 by
less
than
tt
(433)2
r,; ,
and
is there
xxvilJ
21.
139
+ 2x  1 =
is
;^2
1.
Now
.',
^21=^;
^2 + 1 = 2 + ^21;
111
2
2+ 2+
is
22.
^7 + 2.
Now
+ 2 = 4+^72 = 4+^^;
;
23.
.
The
positive root of
7a;2
8a;
 3=
^
is
"^^^"""^
.
s/37
+4
,^373
3
.
^37 + 3 _
^375 _
..
^/37 + 5 _
^374

2+ 3+
.
+
1
24.
^^
The
roots of
a''
 5x + 3 =
,
,
are
^'^
3+
3+
5^13
^13 + 1
Again,
_^_=^p^;
,
V133 _,
\/13
+ 3_o^s/133

..
1+ 1+ 6+
;
 +
,
25.
Letii;
= 3+,;
6+0+
;;
thena;3=c7 gj b+(x6)
whence
a;
=^'10. ^
140
[CHAF.
1111  
7,
:theiia; = =
^^
11
S+x
.
1+
is
2x l r,TT = + vi t^ 27. Herea; = 3+; t^; ox x3 = z 3a; 1+ k 3 + (a:3) 2+ 1+ 2a; + l k + l whence we obtain 3x^  lOx 4 = 0, and the continued fraction is the positive
?
,111
5
la;
28.
fore
Here
a;
= =
1+ 1+ 1+ x + 5'
:;
There
x=4:J2.
29.
By
^+1^ 6T
whence the required Or
it
11
J =^^'' ""^
^+3T 2T
/5
Vs'
result follows.
may
be proved thus:
3(i +
30.
3T2T
)=^+3T2T
li are equal to
=^+iT6T
j^
,
on
rrv,
The expressions
9 + x/145
and
Il+Ji45
.
The
=b.
EXAMPLES. XXVII.
1.
Page
;
301.
.,.,
55
Jo' a
+a
''I
,
J'cfl^\al'
=\
sja'
i^^
a+a1 =
j
.
2 (a
.,
1)
+ {^a' aal)=
ir,
XXVII.]
141
Thus
,
, The oonvergents
VS^=(_l) + _L__i_
ol
are
y
2al
.
g
ia'Sa + l
.
8a^8a + l
4^,3
sai
3.
2(12
<l
^a'^i^+al'
N/^ +
Thus
zl^2(al)+V^^(al) = ...
^iIJZi=_l + _L
_i__L_J__ +
2a2al
>
....
a1 1
~
o
,
^
1
2a2l 2a  s 2a
;i
>
\'
Jd'+a + a
v/a^ +
a+a
Ja' + a+a
a
=^ +
Ja^ + aa

Thus
/v/ l + =l + a
A'
,1
2a + l
,
^^
^^^ g^q:^
.
,
Sa^ + SaH
2a.
Ja^b^ + 2ab
Ja%^+2ab+ab'
.
2L
Ja^b'' + ab 6
Thus
'
J,
ab + g
1
,
2a=6 +
3a
'
2a^b^ + iab
+l
'
gai + l
2al^ + 2b
142
6.
[CHAP.
Jn^n^ an
Ja^n^ =al+,
n
2an an
;
= nTitjaii^
^JaH^an + {al)n
 an + {a l)n_ ~ 2anan
,
sjd'ii^
an
(an  a)
_,
'
2anan
(ra
^
Ja;^^an+ana'
Ja'^n^ an+ana = 2
1)
'
5^
=2(ral)+
^a'n? ~ an + an  a _
ija^n^
lanan
ija^n^
~
J
I
^a^n'an +ann'
. .
an + ann _
n
ij
+
'
Thus
,
1+ 2(al)+
2aral
. '
; '
7 1
a1
, '
a
:r
2an
1
1'
2ijI
=
a1 s
2re
7.
x/9a2+3+3a'
1
;
^a + JgaF+33a=2a+
"*
V9a2 + 3+3a
3ffl)
= 6a + (V9aH3
= ....
Thus
^M+3=da + 2a+
3a
6a
^~
12a'^
~Jl...;
'
+l
'
36a3+9a
12a2 + l
'
+ 2ia' + l
'
1'
8.
2a
2ia^ + ia
144aH36aHl
'
Wehave
x=p + 
i.\y
n\ '*
^
where
=
(2),
/ov
Prom
(l
+ 2/)(lW)=2/.
^rom(l).
(l
+ y)(xp) = 2
(3);
(4).
2(lp/)j/(a;p)
XXVII.]
143
From By
+ y=
xp'
from
(4),
^
"
=^. "
x+p
;
subtraction,
xp
x+p
'
= 5^
x^j?
9.
i*
"1+
]^
=pai +
^
]^
=i'i+
where
Similarly
jB=a3 +
pBj =p
la^ +
= iiag +
and so on.
10.
From Ex.
^a^ + 1 + a;
we
any stage
is
always
/;;2TT (
\/a^ + 1
+ a) P +PnT.
a?n + ?nl=i'n
(2).
Now
; '
n+l = 2J + <?_!.
From From
11.
(1),
2(a2 + l)2=2ap+2i)_i=^^i+i),._i.
(2)
We
have
x=
ai+
a^
+x
whence
Similarly,
a^x^ + a^a^
a^ =
1)
2a^^ + ia^a^y
2a^=0
(2),
(3).
From
(1)
and
and
(2),
2a^(x^y^)
Soj (a;^ z'^)
From
(1)
(3) ,
12.
If
fractions,
0+ X
or Ix^  ahx 01
 a=Q;
and
y= "
r:
h+
a + y'
W + abya^Q.
"
"
144
Hence
a,
[CHAP.
a;(2/)
a = ^;
or
xy=~.
13.
We have
JlJ_J_J_ ~
b+ b+ a+ a+
..xo=rjy
Similarly,
1 1 _ 1 1. b+ I)+yb~b+ y'
01 bxy +
x{ab + l)ya=0.
yb = ,
oi axy
+ y{ab + l)xb = 0.
is
14.
Since
Ja' + l=a+^ ^
....
'
we have
Similarly
J'+2=2ap+i+i'n
P3=2aP2+JPiMultiply these equations by p^i, p^, ... p^ respectively, add, and erase the terms p^iP^, PnPni PsPa ^^^ ^ach side of the sum; we obtain
i'n4i'^i=2a (i)Vi+2'n'' +
or
PnrHlPvAl
+Pi) +P1P2,
+p\+i)
PiP2= 2a {Pi'+Ps^ +
hence the
result.
and similarly
15.
!F
and ^
then
is,
{l
.
Again,
that
is,
Ill ^ =
'
Hence
x,
y
''^y^=TTab'"'y=u^
XXVII.]
145
16.
^
.
= l+J J^
'^
_...;
hence
i'.n+l=i'n+i'nl>
Pn+lPnl=Pn'^
, 17.
'
T ^ Let
x=
X=
then
a+ b+
{1
111111 6+ c+ a+ b+ + a+ 111 = Vw +
,
T
...
6(c
+x
7;
{ab
.r) + l + l)(c + x) + a
%
on reduction we obtain
we have by
inter
(l
+ ab){xy)(x + y + c) + (ab)(x + y + c) = 0\
hence
{l
now x + y + c
result.
is positive,
+ ab)(x\j) + {ab) = Q;
27t"'
18.
convergent
PJ
Spn^n
'
we denote by
^
hence
San
S2n=2i'n9'n. B.nd
p^ = p^ + Nq,,".
9nl=Pn>
[Art. 338]
(
..J'n=^?==Mii'ni<Z.= (l)'';
..
Nq^' =p^ + ( 
l)"+i
l)"+i.
19.
AsinArt.364,wehaveV^=g;^;g^;.
H.A.K.
10
146
[CHAPS.
Again,
^=1
n
33
(
(<h+^f)pn+P2nl
hi
Nq^ + fP2n
(1).
Oi
+^ aw/
g^n
'
2nl
i'2
~ 22
^ra
From formula
(2)
of Art. 364,
we have
hence
l(n,+^\'^l+^dividendo,
^ = "ll^.
]
Componendo and
^7^^ = ^^^
(
for suppose
(1)
was obtained,
it is
easy
shew that
Hlln
2(1
QnJ
Qr,
\
that
is,
qnl
;
in
?!!
= _LrO
hence
^ =
,.,,
^,
, ;
311.
Solving for x,
we obtain
10)/=
5x = 5y v'385 hence
j/
= 5!/ j5{Tl2y)
is,
6.
Whenj/ = 4,
5x=2015,
5s = 30
that
x=7,
or 1;
C.
when
2.
2/
= 6,
5, that is,
x = 7, or
Solving for x,
When
2/
= l,
7i!:
7s = l13, that
is is
x = 2;
no solution.
= 3,
= 33,
and there
147
hence
x5
5.
When
x = S, x = 7,
a;
7/
= 10,
y= 6o = ll = 145 = 19 ^ = 202 = 22
x,
or 1;
or 9;
or 18.
4.
Expressing y ia terms of
we have
=? = 2h
x1
x1
y = 3.
hence
x = 2 gives
2/
gives
5.
Expressing y in terms of
x,
we have y =
14
3a;
3a;
4
3x4
10
1
hence
3x4=l,
2, 5, 10.
Hence
6.
x = i, y = i; x=3, y=l.
We have
(2x
+ y){2xy)=315.
1,
The
315;
3,
105;
5,
C3; 7, 45;
0,
Thus
2x + y = 315, 105,
2xy=
7.
1,
3,
15.
thus
a;
 hence s/14 = 3 + ,r sr rr i+ ii+ + u + = 15, y = ii3 the smallest solution.
<.
is ;;
J
is njr
170 thus ; oy
!i:;
= 170, y = Sd
is
the smallest
9.
J4:l=6 + ^
^+ ^+
Ill 1^+
r
TfK
...;
is
32 5
number
= 32,
2/
=5
is
a solution.
[Art. 370.]
102
148
10.
INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS.
As
in Art. 355,
[CHAP.
^61 = T + y6l7) = +
'j
^?;
3
.
^61 + 7
12
,x/615_
"*"
12
" *'^61+5'
~ +^61 + 7'
~ +"
^m + 7_
^61 + 5
x/61
,y615_
v/614
__9_
5
+4_
Thus 5 is tlie denominator of one of the complete quotients which occur in the process of converting ,^61 into a continued fraction; and the convergent preceding this quotient
is
^
is
a solution.
11.
7y'^
= 1 and
;
is ^
thus
x'
y 0.
12.
V3 = l + ;j =
...;
thusx = 2,
is,
=1
is
a solution
hence
a;23iy==(223); that
{x+J3y){x~^3y) = (2+^S){2J3);
13.
y^
= 2 + 4X' jr
liencex = 9,
j/
= 4is
a solution;
thus
..
2a;
14.
\/17=4 +
(a;
...;
and
a;
= 4,2/ = l
is
a solution.
Thus
+ 2/ ^17)
(a:
where n
is
any odd
positive integer.
(4
;
..
2x = (4 + sjn)" +
2ysjn = (4 + ^17)" 
(4
 ^17)".
XXViri.]
INDETEEMINATE EQUATIONS.
149
15. Fntx''3xy + ^y^>=^^, then x^z^ = 3y{xy). Put m{x + z) = 3ny, n[xz) = m{xy); then by cross multiplication
X
'6n^m?
16.
y
~m!' + 2mn
m
'imii
+ iijt'
We have
{x
Put
then
17.
I'ut
vi' + ^mn+ii'
'+"
We have
Sx^ = 2= 
j/'.
then
^=
2mn
5m^n^
bm^ + n'
18. If X and 2/ represent the two numbers, x''  y^ = 105. The factors of 105 are 1, 105; 3, 35; 5, 21; 7, 15; the solution may easily be completed as in Art. 377.
19. Denote the lengths of the two sides respectively; then x'' + y = z^, or x'''=z^y''.
and hypotenuse by
x, y, z
Put
ii
y m^ n
m+n
20.
Let
x^ +
X,
xi/
Put
then
+ !/ = perfect square=2^ say; thus x {x + tj) t= z  y'^. mx=n{z + y), n(x + y)=m(zy);
2mri + w'
m^n"
m^ + nm + n"'
21, Let X denote the number of hogs bought by any one of the men, then since x shillings is the price of each hog, x^ shillings represents the value of the hogs bought by this man. Similarly if y'^ shillings be taken to represent the value of the hogs bought by the wife of this man, we Ijave
x''y^=6S.
Proceeding as in Art. 377, we find for the solution
x = 32,
12, 8;
31, 9, 1.
Further, Hendriek bought 23 more than Catriin; thus Hendriek bought 32 hogs, and Catriin 9 hogs; also Claas bought 11 more than Geertruij thus Claas bought 12 and Geertruij 1 hog. Hence Cornelius bought 8, and Anna 31 hogs therefore we have the following arrangement
;
Hendriek 32)
Claas
Catriin
121
9)
Cornelius
Geertruij
8)
*
Anna
31/
Ij
150
22.
pression
INDETERMINATE EQUATIONS.
The sum
is
[CHAPS.
^5i!Li.
of the first
n natural numbers
is
This ex
a perfect square
that
Since
k^
+1 9 = a
is,
k^2x^= 1.
^2+2 +
J2=l +
i:
...
the
number
of k are the
^r
is
a perfect square
that
v?
hen m + 1 = k'^,
pro
vided that
_1
is,
k'^ 2x^ = 1.
EXAMPLES. XXIX.
TT
1.
/
a.
Pages
321, 322.
^^p.
when n = T we l,
1,
^
3.
Here
when
11
=, 1,
we 1, have nn 28
.:
^ = Ch 14.7.10 ^, ^ 14 thusC=.
=;;
;
7}
+ ^^.
4.
Here
i(=n(re
+ 3)
(n
+ 6) = n(7i+l)
^)
(?i
+ 2) + 6ra(ra + l) + 10.
5.
..
XXVIII, XXIX.]
and by putting n=l,
,
SUMMATION OF
vie find
SERIES.
151
(7=0;
'+3{n + 2)
,
.
..
S =n(n + l)^
,, iln
+ 2)(n + S)
+ ^j
211
6.
S=C
.'.
and and
it
will be
found that C = 1
Sn=
ttts 2) (,3)1
71+1
clearly yS
= 1.
7. '
neres(=77i "
(3;i
+ tt 1)
and
S'=C;r77r
3(3)1
+ 1)
and '5'=y
'S'
= gj,
8.
Here
,.
and S = C "
4(2)t + l)(2)i + 3)
Put
71
= 1,
then
rr=C 4.3.5 16
C'=TTT. and 12'
iS'=:rr
'
"12
4(2)1 + 1) (2)j + lj
9.
Here
"
= (3)i  2) (3)i +
1
1) (3)i
+ 4) "
3
"''n(7i
..
S=C
6(3)l+l)(37^+4)'
10.
Here
n+3
(
_
+ 2)~
+ 2
(71
( + !)
+ 1) (n + 2)
2()i
+ l)()i + 2)'
+ lJ()i + 2)
when
)7
= 1, we
find
C= j.
3
2(7i
1 5 ^"4 + 2
_
2(7i
11.
Here m
n_
(.^2)(n +
3)(7i
(ra
2
(71
+ 3)(n + 4)
+ 2) (71 + 3) (71 + 4)
&0.
152
12.
SUMMATION OF
^^'^^'^=
^,^
SERIES.
[CHAP.
+ i^n +
.^^
= (n+l){n + 2)~
n(,i
+ l)(n + 4)'
13.
&e.
14.
= ^ "' ( + ,, 1)
15.
,,
((m +
l)l ^
J
2~
" i ^^"
o,
" '
&c.
{{n
+ 2){n + 3) + 2\
When = 1, we
)i
find
C=
32,
and S reduces to
17.
4n^
16'4,t^l
4
..
16
16(4n^l)'
)
S
?i(
n+l)(2n+l) _ 3n _
24
16 3
1 Jl _ 16 I2 2(2)1 +
1))
?((n
+ l)(27! + l)
24
l)(4''
inv'
16
2(2rt
+ in _m(n + l) + l)
6(2ii + l)
j2)i (2)1
1 +l _
3
I
\
'
2)i
+ l]'
~ ?)(n +
HereM=
+ 4)i8) _
l)
(ral)?i(w + l)()t + 2)
24(2n +
18.
,',,
n()j
+ l)
=(n + l) ^
f)i
)i(ii
+ l)'
)(
rj
+ l)( + 2)
+1
XXIX.J
19.
SUMMATION OF
n'
SERIES.
153
+ 2n
n{n + l)(n + 2)
=n + l +
_
by putting n = l, we find
i(i+l)
(n + l)(n + 2)
1
n(ii
+ l){ii + A)'
G=^,
a
^
20.
Here^=
..
^"'
S= C+n
find
C = l.
21.
The
m""
ral
r1
and the
?''
term of the
n*
order =
lr+m2
,
Irl nl
(n
22.
The
+ r2
.,
,
n'"
term of the
n
,'
r"
order=
'
and the
(n
+ 2)"'
term
+ r2
,
m+lr3
' ;
..
(jl)(r2)=?i(re + l);
23.
whencer2=n.
n terms
of the
The sum
of the first
r* order
of polygonal
numbers
[Art. 390.]
.'.
'
^^
'
12
{rn  2n  r + 8}.
154
SUMMATION OF
SEEIES.
[CHAP.
332, 333.
EXAMPLES. XXIX.
1.
b.
Pages
The
14,
30,
16,
52,
80,
114,...
10,
6,
22,
6,
28,
6,
34,...
6,...
for
n the values
1, 2,
3 suc
B = l,
(7=3.
the
of
to""
term = Sn' + n.
.:
the
sum
8,
2.
We have
26,
18,
28,
48,...
10,
10,
10,...
..
10(?ll)(2) _!_v
^
'
, = 5n= + 3n;
..
3.
We have
2,
12,
10,
36,
80,
150,
252,...
24,
44,
70,
102,...
14,
20,
6,
6,
26,
32,...
6,...
Assume
w = n' + n.
(3)1
+ 1).
4.
We have
8,
8,
16,
0,
64, 64,
200,
136,
432,...
232,,..
16,
24,
48,
72,
24,
96,...
24,
24,...
XXIX.]
SUMMATION OF
SERIES.
155
.=8.f8(nl)^^'"iH"2)_
\a
2^("l)("^)("3)
'O
= 8n =
..,
24(rel)(?i2)
i
r^
'
ra3)
4n2{?i3);
5.
We
144,
420,
960,
1890,
3360,...
114,
276,
540,
930,
1470,...
1G2,
264,
390,
540,...
102,
126,
24,
150,...
24,...
..
i(
that
= 30 + 114(nl) + 81()il)(n2) + 17(nl){re2)(3) + (Kl)(2)(n3)(n4); is, =7i + 7n' + 14n* + 8n=n(n' + 7n2 + 14)i + 8) =M(n + l) {n^ + 6n + 8)=n(n + l) (n + 2) (n + 4).
n(n +
1, 2,
2,
I) {n
+ 2)
(n
+ S)
(4it
+ 21).
6.
By
the
method
of Art. 398,
3, 7,
we have
13,
6,
8,
21,
31,..,
4,
2,
10,...
2,..,
2,
Thus
is (1
 x)^.
+ 21x^+...
3x>...
x^SBy
addition,
icS
S {lx)^ = l + x^;
.
Qi5i
(1X)3"
Examples
10.
7, 8,
may
1,
We have
256,
175,
625,
1296,...
369,
671,...
110,
194,
84,
302,...
60, 24,
,.
108,...
21,...
(1
 x)'.
156
XXIX.]
14.
SUMMATION OF
SERIES.
78,...
157
We have
2,
12,
16,
6,
28, 22,
6,
50,
10,
28,...
6,...
assume u=A+Bn+Gn^ + Dn'. And as in Art. 397, we find =n'()Hl)'^ = nji(n2 + + l) = (nl){n + l})i()i + l)l. Whence S is easily found.
therefore
We may
15.
We have
2, 3,
5,
7,
12,
31, 19,
86,...
55,... 36,... 6
4,
..
.
12,
= l,c = 0;
=3i + ,
J
2
29,
21, 14,
and
16.
We have
1,
0,
1,
1,
7,
8,
80,
193,...
1,
2,
51, 30,
113,...
62,...
6,
4,
..
8,
16,
32,...
]/
=a
..
we find a=4, 6= 1, c=2, <J=0. M = 4 2"i  n^  2)1 = 2''+i  7i2  2n.
.
. . .
..
S = (22 + 23 +
=4(2l)n(+l)(2B + l)m()i + l)
= 2+2  4  g n
17.
(re
+ 1) (2n + 7)
262,
755,...
We have
4,
13,
9,
94,
22, 13,
168,
493,... 325,...
109,
72,
216,,..
..
M=a
and as
before
we
find
a = 3,
= ^, c =
3
,
d=l.
.:
n+
n(n+l)(2n + l)
j2
3re(n
r~
+ I)
= l(3+i3)+lM(^i^.
158
18.
SUMMATION OF
The
series is the
SERIES.
[CHAP.
expansion of
[L
X)
r^
.: S=l + 2x + 3x' + ix^+ ...nx"^, 2xS= 2xix^6x^...2{nl)x'^2nx^, x^ + 2x^ + ...+ (ra2)a;"i + (l)a;'' + na;'+i; x^S= .: S{lx)^=l{n+ 1) x" + ni"+i
_ 1  a"
nx^
19.
xS=
..
x + Sx^+ 6.3+...+
(^:.'+'^'^^'.";
(1
x)
mx"
n(n + l)
^
'
(1xf
20.
1x
a;",
'
behave
=_^_^^..
n(n + l)
Assume
tt=H n + n
"
re
then
^ = 2, B=
1.
_/'2
'
""~
Vb
(ft
+ 1)
L_ a"
Similarly
"i=(5rriya^;r72ii=i'
2.2'
1
(re
+ l)2"'
21.
We have
(
n2 =^_^^_^.4n.
Now
(TC+l)(n + 2)(3n + 2) _
l)( +
2)~
+ 1)(m + 2)
1
3 + 2
~(n + l)( + 2)
n+2
n+1*
XXIX.J
SUMMATION OF
41+1
SERIES,
An
159
An
ATtl
+ l
i=4J.4^ + ^.4.
.'.
S = (4 + 42+...+4")^ + 2 n+2
AtHl
_ 4''+i4
3
4"+!
_!
4"+i
~^T2''" ~ir+2"~3~'^ij"
3,
5,
2,
22.
We have
8,
7,
15,
9,
24,
35,..,
11,...
2,...
2,
..
the
n* term=3 + 5(re 1) +
4,
7, 2,
^^"~^^^"~^^
=n^ + 2n.
Again, we have
11,
9,
20,
31,
44,...
11,
2,
13,...
2,...
.*.
..
in the given
we have
3)4}
<j
_ n( + l)( + 2
(n + 8)(
+ 4)
4n{n+l){n + 2)
15
on reduction.
^.
23.
The
series is 12.3
....
3, 7, 13, 21,
31
We have
13,
6,
21,
8,
31,...
10,...
4, 2,
..
2,
2,...
n"term = 3 + 4(nl)
+ (rel)(re2) = n= + w + l;
160
..
SUMMATION OF
= re2(n!!+n +
l)
SERIES,
[CHAP.
= {nl)n{n + l){n + 2){nl)(n+l)n + {nl) (n + l) + l + n{n + 2) ji = (Bl)n(n + l)(n + 2)(nl)n(n + l) + n(2n+i);
"
As
in the last
2(3
6
_ n(n + l)
~
,
"
6 + 4n + 2 + 9TO^ + 9)t
_ ~
?i(m
+ l)(9^ + 13it + S)
12
whence, by equating
coefficients,
"2
1111
A=0,
B=  ^.
2
1
.
3...(2l)
1
3...(2rt
+ l)
'2'1.3...(2n3) "2'1.3...(2rel)'
z'1.3
2'1.3.5'
1111
Sn 7 ""2
2" 1.3...(2n + l)*
XXIX.]
26.
SUMMATION OF
Since
\n
SERIES.
1
161
+ i~
_ {n + 2) 2 _ ~ n + 2~
2"
.
2_
~,b + 2' 2+i
n
In
+l
""~
2
n
^  + 2
+l ~
2n+i
+ 2'
S=l +2*
"'"^""^^
n"'
27.
'.
The
term of the
series 2, 4, 7, 11, 16
is
t{
As
in Ex. 4, Art. 403,
..
say.
we
find
.4
= 2,
B= 2,
S=(i2ji + 4)24.
28.
Here = (2n 
1)
3"= (.in+B) 3  {^
(re
 1) +B}
3"i, suppose.
A = 3,
B=
S.
M= (3n  3) 3" 
{3 (ra  1)
..
 3} 3"' = (n 
1)
3"+!  (n  2) 3"
5'=(nl)3"+i + 3.
1.3.5...(2 + 1)
2.4.6...(2re + 2)
Pq Za.
1.3.5...(2;l)
. '
2.4.b,..2m
S'= " 2
30.
The
coefficient of 2"^ is
7l2+l
n{n + l)'
Now
re
*" m(+l)
(ri='
+ l)2"^ _
m.2'>
(rol)2'''
_
~ra + l
71.2"
'
?2
'
' S'
H. A. K.
n+ 1
11
162
31.
SUMMATION OF
SERIFS.
1
[chap.
We have
ra
_re+3
m(TO +
2)~2ra
2(m + 2)'
+3
2K{n + l)'3i
2 (n +
1) (m
"
+ 2)
'
3'
Sn = T " 4
(71
+ 1)
(71
+ 2)
'S""
32.
The
m"'
term of the
series 1, 5, 11, 19
(n
is Ji^
+ nl.
n+1
?i
Now
u.=
7i''+nl_n
n
+2
+ 2)(n + l)_ ln + 2
+2
n
In
+l
+ 2'
'2
\n
33.
^^
is
n^+Sn + l'i;
2
\
6 + 12
"""^
,6
6\
/,
^T2r=^+"T2=('+j(^+,r+2)
2( + 3)
ji
w + 4_ n + 'i'
ra + 4 + 1) (ii + 2)
2 + 6n + 12 "
+3
1
(n
m(7i + l)'2''
'
2"+!
Sn =
"
(ji
n+4 1 + 1) (n + 2)'2+i'
EXAMPLES. XXIX.
1.
c.
Pages 338340.
We have
e='=l+a,+ + +++...,
""^ _x_i ^"'' +
'^
^'
i2_~]3_+j4""l5_+
By
subtraction,
e=e=2a; + 25.
^^IX]
SUMMATION OF
SERIES.
163
2
U + + F+ji(2 + 3+4+)
=
3.
log{la;){log(la!)a;}=i^log(la;) + l.
By
writing
down
e'',
*,
e^ and
obtained.
4.
Here
_
jr
t
+ TOl
lr
\1
+ K2
'r + ral'
(r.o)"
\r
&
+ n2
(^1
"+1 + nlj
U
r
.
+ )t2 ~
1^
r
+ Hl'
Thus
(r
2)
,=^  1^;
(2 [3
and
(r
2)
5= ^^
5.
6.
WehaveeJ"'=l+2)a;+^+...+V^+ T^+..
..
^^
'?)'"
.
7,
The given
may
'
be expressed as the
1
"^
sum
'
n
1
n(nl)
J2^
n(rel)(n2)
J3^
+ na;
(T+nxp
+ ma;)^"
"
112
164
SUMMATION OF
SERIES.
[CHAP.
+ nxJ
+ nx \
+ nxJ
8.
(1
The
k)2.
relation
of
3a:
+ 5a;^ + ...
is
2a;
6a;2
. . .
(4ra
 6) xi 
{in
2)
a;",
a;2+
...
(la;)2 5'=I
= l + a!a;"{(2n + I)(2nl)a;}.
When ^ =
2^^3i.
we have
/.2
'^
i)2
= 2^^^!
n
(n
tliat is,
S=m(21).
(1
+ ar)"=l + na;+
nlnl)
'
a;^
.,
'
I)
(re
2)
.,
rf^^
x'+....
^
/
li
1
a;2
xj
1V1_?5 ""
"("!)
[2
re(rel)(ra2)
[3
1^ a;3
a;"^
+ '
.'.
of
x in
(a;
(l
+ a;)"
(a;
II
+ 1)"
1)",
that
is in (s^
1)"
Ire
is
I ^
X)^, if
is
even.
10.
The given
series is the
sum
of the
two
series e^'e,^
and
e'"''s'
 1.
Now
W=e'e<*, therefore
e>'>e.2_2^
and
e2iog,2_giog,4_4. ti^g
= (21) + (41) = 4.
XXIX.J
'^"
SUMMATION OF
""
SERIES.
165
/I
1\
/'I
1\
/I
1\
/I
1\
12.
'""
7i^2re
j^^
+ 3_ TO(nl)B+3 _
~
Q
3
ji^'
[n
]^r^ ~ nl +
R
1
I
Thus
11^11
+ 1'
"s
=
3]2+i=
13.
^ =
!/
at
ily
B^
C'
^+j2_+^+J4+5_+16_+
(="2+34+56+)
=e*log(l+a;).
a;=
x'
a*
x'
14.
(1)
Assume
16
+ 25 + 35 +
..
.=.4m'+^in8 + ^n5+...+4
()i
+ l)=^
of t^,
{(n
+ l)''}+^i
{( + l)n6}
+ ....
on
Equate
p. 320].
coefficients
re^,...
Then
= 74o;
^0 = 7
6=214 + 6^;
A^=\.
^2 = ^.
160
SUMMATION OF
SERIES.
[CHAP.
^4=  1
^5=0
1=Aq + Ai + A2+A^+Aq',
And by
putting n = l,
Aq = y2
we have
then
(n
^2=^.
5
^3=0.
^i=^4g=0.
^6=^
48 = 0.
(m +
15.
"+ij^
_6^_
_7
J.
~in3
1
17 +
]l
7
"'"]2
fl
^'
"*~l3
'"'ii'''^'
Art. 404,
S= (1 + 7 + 6 + 1) e = 15e.
XXIX.]
16,
SUMMATION OF
The required
SEEIES.
167
{1xfcx
or
(1last expression c'x'
'
becomes
ex
'
c^x^
(1xY^
(1x)*
(1a;)'
(la;)s
x"',...
respectively,
by
1, c,
c^ c^....
17.
(1)
This
is
3, Art.
404, in
which = 1,
= 2.
in
(2)
By
putting a =
6=1
and proceeding as
that example,
we have
S = the
coefSeient of x" in
:;
lx + x^
1
= the
coefficient of
x" in
1
+X + x'
,
= the
coefficient of
x"in
(l
+ x)(l+x3)i;
is
and since n is a multiple of 3 the coefficient of x" is unity and when n is odd, and positive when n is even. Hence S={ 1)".
18.
negative
(x
then
..
+ l)"=c"^ + Cie""^ + C2c"^^+...,  1)= e""  cje'""* + CaeC^i + 2{e' + C2e<' + C4e<''"^+...} = (c^ + l)" + {"^l)'*.
{e
. . .
Equating
coefficients of x',
we have
?^ = the
li
+ 1) + (e^  1)
x^
"*"
= the coefficient
that
is,
/
of x' in
I
x^ 2 + x + ^
\^
)
'
fi""*"
in
n. 2"
(x+ J + ^) +
"^^ 2 (x + f)^
.
168
.
SUMMATION OF
2S
6
SERIES.
[CHAP.
n.2i
n{nl)
"^
n{nl){n2)
'^
lb
2n3
= g
{4n + 6n(nl)
..
+ 7i(ml)(j2)};
S=n2(^.3)2n4.
19.
(1)
+ + nV'
i
(2) '
n{n + l)
;
n+1
and
terms,
i/
= "
n+1
Hence
=(M)G5)(ii)(ii)(i^)^
and
S24.i=
(i  a)
+ (2  3) +
(3
 4) + (i 1) + (2;;rri 2srr2)
thatis,
2=32il>^'^^=+^ = ^2Sr;25
"
n+1
2
1
_lfl
n(n + l)(n + 2)
2'
>,
= i^2+3j5U"3 +
x^
a?
2/a:2
a;'
x*
4j
.
1 (x^
+ ^(,34+^)
X*
x^
IV,
>
XXIX.]
21.
(e'^
SUMMATION OF
SERIES.
. .
169
{e"
..
+ 1)" = c"* + Cie**^"* + e2c'"2>"^ + CjeC''"' +  1)"= e";  Cjc("^ + cje"'^^  Cje'""* +
S denote
(e^
2{Cie'+C3e3W + C5c(''"=+...}
x^; then, if
= (e"'+l)n(e:l)".
the required series,
Equate ooefBoients of
we have
that
i,
2(S
+ l)" (e'l)"; +
"^"~^^
2''=x2;
in
f^ + x+'^X or in 2^^n(x + ^\
..
22.
(1)
When
odd,
and when n
is
2"
"(2'.l){2"+i+.l)
even,
1 \ _1 / 1 ~3 Ul''"2+i + iy
'
= ^2^i)^3+i_i) = J
(gS^ + 2^+^
and
3S,^,= (1 + 1) 
Q + ^) + Q + 1)  (^ + ^) +
+ \^22>+ii
1
...
"^
2^+2:ri j
that
is,
352ot=1
2n+i + {l)+i'
(2)
of the series
or 2n^ + inl;
,
_?_
2
..2S=(j
n + i + 1\
2
/I
IN
/I
IN
3J(2"'5+i) +
(3
+4+
5)
= i+^+(1)'^^i+M)"\T2
170
23.
SUMMATION OF SEMES.
Assume
(l
[CHAP.
{l
+ a^x)(l + a^x){l + a7x)... = l + AiW'x + A2a*x^ + A3a^x^+...; + ax)[l + A^a.^x + Asa*x^ + A^a^x^+...)=:l + Aj^x + A^^ + A^^ + ...;
.:
A,aO+A,a*=A,; hence
^,=^^, = ^j^^i^.
A,a^+A,aO=A,; hence
^3=^ = (i_.)(i!l4)(i_^.)
24.
Here(l + x)^(l+y(l+y...
Change x into
=; then
('I)'('*5)'('S)"
=i+^ix+...+^ria;'""^+^ri'''+...;
of coefficients of
x in the component
factors
[Art. 133]
Putr=2, then^2=(4 + l) = ^;
1072
3X5
25.
'
Let
(1
then
(l+!a:)"=l
{ltx)''=lic,xC2x2+ic3xS + C4X*icja:...;
..
.)
= (1 + ii)"  (1  ix).
XXIX.]
Put
a!''=3, so that also as usual let u,
SUMMATION OF
ur^
SERIES.
171
series;
a:=^S, and let Sj denote the value of the first be the imaginary cube roots of unity so that
;
w^
^^
. '
ar=
We have
2
V3
Si = (1
when n
is
a multiple of
let
6, for
then
w)''= 1,
&>'')"= 1.
then
=
26.
\^3j
401,
:
"
(
1
=0,
if
mis a multiple
of 6.
\J3J
we may shew that the given
x,
As
in
Example
3, Art.
series is
ox T UiX
where
b=p + q, a=pq.
P
1
In this
bx + ax^
_
l
{p
+ q)x+pqx
p q\lpx
i_l
qxj'
whence the
27.
P,= i>
Qr=
1
(1
 x)<p+
 x)'3f".
Hence
(1
 x)+" =
a;"''.
= the coefficient
of x''2 in (1
 x)tJ'+" x
(1
 x)w+"
S=P[3 X
'
'
^^^ .^_^
28.
Here jj
is
(1
 x)';
(1
(7i5)(n4)
[3
.g ^j^g
coefficient of x in
i
d
 x)';  x)";
(>i7)(6)(n5)
.g ^j^g coefficient
of x^ in
(1
172
and
so on.
SUMMATION OF
Henoe S=the
SERIES.
[CHAP.
coefficient of a;" in
a;=(lx)i^a;*(lx)2+ix6{la!)3jx8(lx)+...
1x
= _ 1x
1x^
If
m=6r, the
/.
x"
is
and
3r
the second,
S=
'or
2r
.
from
;;
2r + l
from the
first series,
and zero
S= 
X
29.
XXX.]
THEORY OF NUMBERS.
173
ix^ + 7xy 2y^ = {4xy) {x + 2y); since ixy is a multiple of 3, it 5. follows that ixyS{xy) or x + 2y is also a multiple of 3; thus the expression is divisible by 3 x 3 or 9.
6.
8064=2' 3
.
72;
the
number
7.
of divisors
.
= (7 + 1)
(1
+ 1)
(2
+ 1) = 48.
7056 = 2*
of
82
72 ;
the
number
8.
ways
= {5. 3
.3
+ l} = 23.
is divisible
by 161, or
15.
M(n + l)(n + 5) = n(n+l)(n^ + 6) = (7il)n(n + l) 9. each of the terms of this last expression is divisible by 6.
10.
The
difEerence between a
= n' _ n =
and
hence
71
(n
this being the product of three consecutive integers is divisible re* and re when divided by 6 must leave the same remainder.
m(re2
(re
11.
 2) (re + 2) is the product of three consecutive even integers and therefore must be divisible by 2 4 6 or 48 also 24n is divisible by 48 hence the result.
12.
Now
(n"
1)
(3re+2)=re (n +
1) (re 1)
(re
+ 2 + 2re)
first of
which
is divisible
by
4
or 24.
[Art. 418.]
is divisible
by
is
it is
also divisible
by
8, for if
re
is even,
;
divisible
by
8,
and
if
odd 2
(re
1)
(re
+ 1)
is divisible
by 8
thus
is
is
also divisible
by 24.
13. re6_53+4=(2_4)(3_x) = (n2)(rel)re(re + l)(re + 2), which being the product of five consecutive integers is divisible by 15, or 120.
is divisible
by 91
Since
re
(re
is
mS_
re
= (re 1)
+ 1),
is
prime.
Thus
Also since re^ _ 1 is divisible by 3 [Art. 421]. the product of two consecutive even integers, since the expression is divisible by 2 4 . 3 or 24.
prime
it is
16. re'  re is divisible by 5 [Art. 422]. Again re're=re(re*l) = (rel) (re + 1) (re^+l); and this expression Thus re  is divisible by 5 6 or 30. divisible by 13 or 6.
.
is
174
THEORY OP NUMBERS.
. ;
[CHAP.
Again if n is odd, the expression n{nV){n+\) (n?+l) is divisible by 240 ; for the product of  1 and ?i + 1 is divisible by 2 4 or 8 one of the first three factors is divisible by 3 ; and n^ + 1 is even, since n is odd. As in the first part of the question the expression is divisible by 5; thus it ia divisible by 2 4 3 2 5 or 240.
. . .
.
and n be any two prime numbers greater than 6. Then m' n^=(m^ l) (li? \) ; and each part of this expression is divisible by 3. [Art. 421.] Also each part is the product of two consecutive even numbers, and therefore divisible by 8. Thus m^  n^ is divisible by 24.
17.
Let
18.
N^ + l = 3n,
a multiple of
3.
But this is impossible for N^ + l = {N^l)+2, and by Fermat's Theorem ^^  1 is divisible by 3 when N is prime to 3 thus ^^ + 1 exceeds a multiple of 3 by 2; and therefore N" is of the form Sn + 1. It N is not prime to 3, it is clear that N^ must be of the form 3n. 19. Every number x is one of the forms 3g, 3gl. If x = 3q, then x^=27q^, and is of the form 9n. If a; = 3g 1 then x^ = 27s= 273^ + 9g 1, and is of the form 9n I.
,
20. Z^ is either equal to In, or else is prime to 7 ; in the latter case N^1 is a multiple of 7, and therefore either J^'  1 or ^7^ + 1 is a multiple of 7.
is of
;
the form 7n or 7n 1.
if
+6
therefore
N^
J?'
is
divided by
7,
the remainder
is
21. Let the number be N^; then if prime to 7, N''l=iln, oi N^='ln+1. 22.
is
a multiple of
7,
N=7n;
if
Let
X ix{y)
be the triangular number.
is divisible
3re
Then
x nor
this is a multiple of
3, is
3
a;
if
either
x or x + 1
of the
must be
form
by
If neither 1
is
inadmissible.
23. Let r, s represent any two of the numbers 1, 2, 3,...ra; also suppose that r^s^ is divisible by 2re + l. Now 2ra + l is prime; hence either r + s 01 rs must be divisible by 2re + 1 but r and s are each less than re, so that r + s and rs are each less than 2re + 1 ; hence r^  s^ cannot be divisible by 2)1+1, that is r^ and s^ cannot leave the same remainder when divided by
;
2re
+ l.
24.
If If
is
is
is
and a' a
25.
a;(a;
(2a;
1)
= (4a;2 + ix +
1)"
{4a;
(a;
1)
+ 1}=
(8m +
1)",
because
+ l)
26.
is
I'rom Fermat's Theorem, by putting p = 13, N^''l = M[13) = 13n, prime to 13; thus N^^=13n + 1. If Jf is a multiple of 13 then evidently ^12 =13re.
when
N is
XXX.]
27.
If
THEORY OF NUMBERS.
175
K W is not prime to 17, then N = lln. N is prime to 17, then by Fermat's Theorem W' l =
(re
Jlf
N^=nnJ^l.
1) is divisible
by
is
8,
28. We have m*  1 = (n + 1) (n  1) (" + 1) and (n + 1) being the product of two consecutive even numbers.
By
Fermat's Theorem
n''
1 is divisible
by
3,
and n* 
by 5
also n' + l
even.
Hence
n*
1
is divisible
by
8 . 3 . 5 . 2 or 240.
29. m  1 is divisible by n*  1 and therefore by 8, when re is prime. Also re^  1 is divisible by 3, from Fermat's Theorem and re  1 is divisible by 7, except when n = 7 thus re'  1 is divisible by 8 3 7 or 168.
; ; . .
30. n^l = (re" + 1) (re* + 1) (  1) and each of these 3 factors is even and of the last two factors one is divisible by 2 and the other by 4 thus  1 is divisible by 2 2 4 or 16. n^ Again re'  1 is divisible by 3, n"  1 is divisible by 19, and n^  1 is divisible by 37. [Art. 421.] Thus 3 1 is divisible by 16. 3 19, 37 or 33744.
,
31.
;
Since
is odd,
x^p1 or
(x"
+ 1) (x"  1)
is divisible
by
8.
by Fermat's Theorem x^l is divisible by p + 1, and 2p + 1 whence the result follows at once.
32.
x*  1
is divisible
Again by
By Fermat's Theorem
.:
x^'
l=M{p);
(xJ'i)P'~'= (1
.:
x!''"J'''"^=l
Here both a and b are prime to m; hence by Fermat's Theorem, and 6"'~il are both multiples of m; hence their difference must also be a multiple of m. Since a and 6 are both less than m, their difference a 6 is less than m and therefore prime to m; hence (a"*"! 6'"~^)i(a 6) must be a multiple of m; that is,
33.
(jini_l
a~' 
6"""^
^ jma
a multiple of m.
EXAMPLES. XXX.
1.
b.
Pages 356358.
(re
.
/ + 1) = IC+i + 3 4+3 + 5 = 10" (101) 43. 4''+2(4l) = 9. 10"l9. 4''+2=il/ (9). /(l) = 10 + 8.435 = 207=M(9). And = 2.7 + 3.5'5; then/(nl) = 2. 7''+i + 3. 5"5; 2. Let /(n) ../(n + l)/(n) = 2.7".6 + 3.5".4=lf(24), for 7'' + o"iseven;
../(re + l)/(re)
and
/(l)
= 2.7 + 3.55=24.
176
3.
THEORY OF NUMBERS.
Thig
Trill
[CHAP.
is divisible
follow
if
we shew
that
4.6" + 5"+!  9
l)
by
20.
Let
= 4.
6''+i
+ 5+20;
/(ji
and
4.
Let
f{n)
and
thus 7 + 22''+i
= 7" + 22"+'
then
is divisible by 3; but 7" is odd and 22+i quotient must be odd, and therefore of the form 2r  1. Thus 8.7" + 4+2 = 24 (2r  1).
is
5.
By
Wilson's Theorem,
l
.:
l+\pl = M (p);
whence the
6.
is therefore divisible by a (a^1) or a^a; hence by Art. 422 the given expression is divisible by 5. Similarly it is divisible by a (a"  1) or a'  a and therefore by 3.
a*+ia=a{o*l), and
If
is
a*'
1 is
even, the expression is clearly divisible by 2, and if a is odd, even and the expression is again divisible by 2. Thus the given
is divisible
expression
7.
by 2 3
.
5 or 30.
is
the
sum
2^
'
2'l
2''l
'
2''l
23
'
2'l
2'''
'
2~
and
is
therefore equal to
(gri
1)
=1^ 
(r
1)
= 2'  r  1.
8.
Let
/(ii
also
9.
then / (n + 1) = 34"+6 + S^^+s + l)25/(n) = 3^"+2(8125)=lf(56)=21f(14); / (1) = 3 + 5' = 729 + 125 = 854 = M (14).
/() = 32+5 + 160i256243;
Let
then
..
/( + l) = 32+7 + 160(+l)i'56(n + l)243; 9/ ()/( + 1) = 160 (82 _ 2n  1)  56 (8k  1)  1944 = 12802 _ 768ji  2048 = 256 (o)i2  3  8)
= 256(5n8)( + l);
and
it is
(5ra
8)
(ra
+ 1)
is divisible
by 2
9/(m)/( + l)=Jlf(512).
Also
/(l) = 3' +
lG056243 = 2048=M(512).
XXX.]
10.
THEOET OF NUMBERS.
Let
177
then
{lx+x'a^+x*)"''^=lCiX+c^^c^+.. Let S=e^ + Cg + Cg + ..,; by subtracting and putting a=l, we have 2S=5"~il = M(n), by Fermat's Theorem hence S is divisible by n, since n is prime and greater than 2.
;
 1 = (7), by Fermat's Theorem. Again n'  1 is divisible by n^  1 and therefore by 8. Since n must be one of the forms 3q + l or 3g  1, it is easy to see that m^  1 is divisible by 9 hence the given expression is divisible by 7 8 9 or 504.
11.
n'
. .
n'+3n'^ + 7n^ll = {n^l){n* + in' + U)=M(S) {n* + in^ + n). And n* + 42 + ll = (ni'l)(n2ll) + 16n2=M(16), for n'U is even. Thus the given expression is divisible by 8 x 16 or 128.
12.
.
13.
Cj,
o'l,
Cj, ... c,
Then
_ (Pl)(P2)(P3)(i'')
M{p) + {ir\r_M{p)
+ (!)'
\L
\L
Now
c, is
c^=Jf(i))
therefore
14.
are divided
Li Art. 426, Cor., it is proved that if the p terms of a series in A. P. by^ the remainders will be 0, 1, 2, 3, ... ,jpl.
of the terms, the series
may
be represented
op, bp + 1, cp + 2, dp + S, ..., kp + (pl); a, b, c, d, ... fc being the various quotients. With the exception of the first term all the terms of the series are prime to p; hence by Fermat's Theorem, their {p  1)"> powers are all of the form (p). (p) + 1, whilst that of the first term is of the form
of the
(612
(i)
+pl = M{p)  1.
(a" 
1)
i)=M (13),
by Fermat's Theorem.
Similarly,
(aSl)  (t'=l)
is divisible
= M(7);
and therefore by
1
91.
hence a^^b^^
16.
both by IB and
7,
By
Wilson's Theorem,
.:
+

j)l =M{p)
+ (pX)(p'2)
.:
whence the
result follows.
H. A. K.
12
178
17.
THEOBT OF NUMBERS.
[CHAP.
Since (n2) (ml) ( + !) (*s + 2) is divisible by [5 or 120; and and n+X are both prime and greater than 5, m(n2) (n+2) la divisible by 120, that is, m(n4) is divisible by 120. Again {n  1) n (n + 1) is divisible by 6, and therefore n is divisible by 6 since n1 and m + 1 are prime and greater than 5. n" {rfi  4) is divisible by 720 also 20?i is divisible by 720
n1
..
..
..
n^
(rfi
 4) + 20m2, or
by 720.
is divisible
Lastly
(1)
n= 6s, and
7i
n2
by 5.
If
n=30t12.
(2)
If If
(3)
+ ^^=r; s=5t + 2;
is
.:
n=30t + 12.
18.
equal to the
sum
of the integral
parts of
that
is,
^, ^,
,
n'l
n'l
n'l
^....^icr;
416] , [Art.
,
=^rri('i)=^
19.
n'n
,,
n''nr+rl
We have
..
c^
 a= kp,
so that
ac'  kp
2
a^^'"'l = {c'kp)
integer.
l = cPiM{p)l,
since y
1
is
an even
Also a is prime to p, so that c must be prime to p hence c'~^ 1=31 by Fermat's Theorem, and the result at once follows.
;
{p),
20.
divisible
 1 = 139i/,
139
If
j^ .
is
21.
The numbers
less
it
are given by
sum
numbers
than
N and not
XXX.]
These are given by the
THEORY OF NUMBERS.
snm
of
179
a'>+(2o)2 + (3a)s+...+
(aY
.
6=^
ftV
...
f^ abX
.
...
(^
ScV
...
(^
abcY
,',
the
sum
il
numbers
...
less
Jf3 N^
5 ^
[a
+ T++... o c
N^

11
ab
r
than
1
it is
ac
+ abc ^+...V
j 1
+^
r 172"+
I
m(ml)
m(ml)(m2)
17273
f
...},
Thus the
^ = 1(11)'=1.
.. the sum of the squares of aU numbers less than obtained by subtracting the above expression from
and prime
to it is
^{N+1)(2N+1), 01^+^+^.
.'.
the
sum
(,
required is
1
[abc
11
ab
ae
1
abc
1
f
122
180
To
As
find the
THEORY OF NUMBERS.
sum
of the cubes
[CHAP.
following
method.
in Art. 431 let the integers less than
li
N and prime to
it
be denoted by
P, i, r,..,Nr,
X stands for any one of these integers, then Sa;'=S(jy'x)'; for each of these expressions denotes the sum of the same series of terms, only the order in one is the reverse of that in the other.
If
'
Hence
is,
that
for the
number
of terms is
^{N).
;
Xx==N<p {N)
..2Zx^=^4,(N) + ^{la)[lb){lc)...
22.
\P ii
1) is divisible
Suppose that
[Pg
lyjgl)
_
W
^
QpY'\fl~(\pY'^\
qi ~ \pqp
=
(pffl)(M2)... to
Tp^T'^
p1
factors
=mteger.
But
\P
'r,
I
is
an integer; hence
7,
\l\L
23.
these
to
(l) l_
Art. 389, triangular
^
\^P
is
From
numbers are
of the
form ^n{n +
it
1);
if
numbers are
is
also square
remains
shew that k
1
lSx + x^'
From
the equation n^ + n=2k^,
it
follows that
2n + 1 = ^8k^ + 1
=t
say
so that fi8k^ = l.
Also
JS = 2 + :; 7 = J ^ 1+ 4+ 1+ 4+
r
1+4+
.
....
Hsuce by
'
of k are the ierwminators ot the even convergents of the above continued fraction.
XXX.]
THEORY OF NUMBERS.
181
Now ?j+a=gsn+l + 9'2n. 9ii+l = *?2n+?2ni; 92n=?2nl+?2naEliminating g^^i and q^ni, we have g2n+263!!n+9i!n2=0.
And since q^=l, q^ G,
the
sum
ii?"
+ Se^' +
1  6x + x^,
l6x + x2'
1).
All pentagonal
Proceeding as in
8224^2=1.
Also
J24 =
9211+2 =!2n+.l+ San!
4+jL_L^l._L....
= 8?2n + Sanl
sum
!
Here
?2n+l
92=22nl+S2n2;
whence
1
+ ?6^''+
"
llOx+x^'
24,
the
r""
Proceeding as in Example 21, we may shew that the sum of and prime to it is powers of all integers less than
SsaTS^b'^Sifa
b
...
+ (,abySy+
ab
(1);
where
Sp = l' + 2'+3'+...+j)'.
406,
Now by Art.
Hence
...
Therefore, by substituting in (1), we see that the and prime to it all integers less than
r+l
ab
m(ml) L } _j,rl_,+_L_J_..
1
+Bii^N^'i{lo6c...+a5+...}
If.
m is the number of
prime factors in N.
182
Thus the
THEORY OF NUMBERS.
coefficient of
[CHAPS.
N" is
zero,
+
If
=g
[Compare Ex.
21.]
If
B^^^\;
and
since
= ^V^ + J.
there is no term in
Again,if
these values
r=4,5,J=i,
we obtain the
b/^^^=^,;
Ex.
24.
and by substituting
result given in
(N) numbers leas than J^T and 915 Let 1, a, b, c, ... (Nl) denote the Then one of these numbers. prime to it; also let x represent any (Nl)x axe all different and aU prime to N. There are <p(N) Tr ax 6x 426, it is easily shewn that when these of 'such pmdActs, and, as in Art. the remainders are all different and aU prime products are divided by (Nl), though not remainders must be 1, u,h,c to N: thus the ./.(^) Hence x .ax .bx ....(Nl)x must differ from necessarily in this order. l.u,.b.c...(Nl) by a multiple of 2ir.
..
{a;*<^) 1} abc...
1) is
prime to
N;
N).
terms of the product
...
a;*W_l = 0(mod.
26.
het'N^a^b^o''...
(l
then
+ a+a2+...+aP)(l + 6 +
(d)
':+ci'
+ ... + c')....
[Art. 430.]
then
(hff)
(c) . . .
 + <#'K)
[Art. 431.]
^l + a(liya^{ll)^...^op{ll)
\ a/ a
XXX, XXXI.]
If the
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
series
183
terms of the
where
itself; for
only
when d is a
But
<l>
divisor of
N.
(f>
(d,)
+ {d^ + + ...=N; hence the above =y + 3y^ + 5y'^ + 7y'' + 9y^+... =y(l + y''){l + 2y^ + Sy*+iy^ + 5y + ...)
((Jj)
series
=y(l + y'){ly^'\
Writing ix for y, the required theorem at once follows.
EXAMPLES. XXXI.
a.
Pages 367369.
Assume P=anI>_i + 6P2. gn=On9l+*n?n2; 1. then, as in Art. 438, the (n + l)"" convergent
("nf^^PnlKP^i
/'
I
i'nr^i'n1
o *a+ia Sb1 n T n+l
result follows.
7,
b
r,
"n
n+l9B6+l?nl'
n+l/
2.
4x^
a;
=^ + ^^'
4a;
+ l ^^
4x + l'
a;
1_ x'
2x /
X 4+
3.
(1) *
Since
V +*+
and
V" +" +
.^^
; <*
...
2 2^
184
,
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
,
[CHAP,
b
(2)
Again,
Jd'b=a{a ^a?b)=a,
^=^\
6
a+ Ja''b=2a(aija^~b)=2a
a+isja^b
r=F=^5
^lTT
4.
As
in
Example
1,
i'i'nl=(nl)i'nl*nJ'7>2
Nowal
great as
is at least
as great as 6; therefore
p^Vni
is
at least as
But
i)2 is
6(pif2); therefore l)>pi if i'i>Pn2; a^d so on. Similarly 3> 3i. clearly greater than Pi; hence jp>2)_i.
1
definition,
**n
1
5.
By
=
is,
2
;
^n2
that
^n\
,.
=_i
= 2^^;
"^nS
^ = _i_;
"l
"n1 "n2
similarly,
'^^^ n2
=
i
and
finally
2^2=?
a3
^ = ^
2i
6.
a;
and y
then
Again,
xa=
2a + xa
x +a
whence i^a'=l, or
x=Ja'+l.
2'"=2^T^r^ =
or
^
^
..
y^a^=l,
x!/
y=Jd'l;
^\ience.x^
+ y^=a? + \ + a?l='ia^.
Finally,
= 7*^=''(a''N/*l) =
'l'"^
^2'
= "'2H^
2^
,
,
7.
The
series
P=^i+^2a;+P3a;''+;)4a;' +
and
XX.XI.]
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
185
"~
1axbx^
gl
1axbx'^'
0,+ bx
.
Q^ 1ax bx^
ax + bx^ xu = 1axbx^
+ (g2'gl)'g
\ax bx^
1
1ax bx^
=
coefficient of
x" in
1
6 2^1
^  aa;  bx^
r,
Proceeding as in Example
2
,
we
:
= coefficient
of
y^^
in
layby^'
If a,
3
and
layby^'
a+p=a, ap=
b, and
1aybxf
(\ay)(\^y)
a^\lay
ly)
9.
Let
x=a + 5
b+ c+ d+
1111
;
a+
...
b+ c+ d+ X abc + c + a abcd+cd+ad + ab + 1 7 The convergents are t ^^ " 6c + l 6cd + d + 6 _(abcd+cd + ad + ab + l) x + abc + c + a ~ (6cd + d + 6)i + 6c + l /. (6cd + 6 + (J) rc^  (abed + ab + adbc + cd)x (abc + c + a) = 0.
,
.a16
06 + 1
;
.
> '
;
_
; '
'
If
a,
a
for
6, c, cZ
(
we have
 a 6c  c  a) y" (abc
or
Now
is
by putting
y=
we
have
(6cd + 6
+ d) z^that
(abcd
is
2/
+ ab + adbc + cd)z(abc + e + a) = Q,
and therefore
= x;
or
a;?^
1.
186
10.
CONTINUED FEACTIONS.
Here
[CHAP.
v Vr5
(n'
1)^
is
or
similarly
_i =
n* {w_i
(re
 2)2 _}
M3222 = 32(Mji).
Hence, by multiplication we obtain
Now
Thus
Pi=l, gi=l;
j)2=5, 52=1.
3+i''?=0, or g4.i=n2j.
2n+i='' ( 1)^ (n2)2
...
Hence
Again
12
= (n).
(n)
(rel)'~^"+^^
and ^'"^
^2_
(\Vf
_^_o2 T^'
Hence, by addition
gil = 22 + 32+
+ (re + l)2;
(^g. = l^ +
2'
+ 32+... + (re+l)n
( ^)2_
andg = lj
^
_.
.Pn+i_x2g2
I
11.
Here
=(2n + l) _i(21)m_2;
 _! = ( + !)
{a_i
or
(n
1)
_}
33U2 = 4(22i).
Hence, by multiplication we obtain
un_i= (re+ 1) n
...
(1*2
 2i).
Now
Hence
i)i=2, gi=l;
..
J)2=10, g2=2;
re
i)
 n2)_i =
+l
 ng_i = 0.
j= 7ig_i = n (n 
1) 3_2
. . .
= n.
XXXI.]
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
187
whence,
by addition
^2 = 3 + 4 + In
..(re
+ l);
p.
1.U
that
4.
IS,
^ 2
and therefore
'
,,
= nte+ S)
' '
Sn
12.
Here
+! = (m + 2)  (n + 2) m_i
M,,.j
n+1
"
m+2
"^
71+1
"
n n n
"
' n+2
n+1
\n + l
'
Hence, by multiplication
71+2
71+1
Si = 2;
L^S
2J'
Now
i'i=2,
i>2=6, 53=8;
ff2^==
sothat^ = ^=?^... =  = l.
l!i=
^Bby addition,
1^2 7.^1=
'^tt=li=
+
[3_+
...
^=
[1^+ 2
[n
result.
Here
n+i=( + 2)Mnu_i;
Sttj
= U2 2tii.
Hence, by
multiplication
".tfi
(n
Now
^1 = 1.
9i=l;
+ 1) =a  2i. ^2=3. S2 = 2;

9+i("+l)9n=0;
188
Again
.
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
i'+i(+l)i'n=l;
Pii+l
[chap.
Pn
7i_
1
^"^^
\n
+l
+1'
j2_
(1
2_'
.^=^' = l + T^+ii+...
+ r^;
so that ?=
= cl.
14.
Here
 ( + 2) _1 =  2
{_! 
(71
+ 1) M_2}
352=2(K24i).
Hence, by multiplication
Pi = 4, ?i=l;
(l)''i2"+i, i)n(" + 2)i'i =
j)2=8,
g2=8;
?(+2)g_i = (l)22;
gni
_ (l)"^2"
n+2
 + 2
In
+i
(7!
+2
'
n
+2
In
+l
'
J>2
i>i^ (l)23
[3
[4
?2_3j_2
[4(3_4;
(
Hence, by addition
^=_+_._
1"
w
and
ij.?!_?!^?^
[3_^
+2
5_"^ [6_"
^_l/'2'_2i
25_
\_l/'4
2*
25
2Vl3
Now
4_+5
4Vl3_"*'[45
~
1^
]3+J4_
12+.2\,
)*i S.J)
_2(le'i)_2(e''l)
1
= (l=)l(l +
+ e
2+l
XXXI.]
15.
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
=nM_j + 3(7i + 2)M_3;
189
( + 3) M_i =  3
Uj  61*2=
{u_i 
(re
+ 2)
_]
 3 (uj  5ui).
Hence, by multiplication
( + 3) M_i = (  3)''2
(2
 5ui).
Now
j)i=9,
gi=l;
y2=18, 32=14;
s(n + 3) g_l=(l)=3^
_3n_
n
Pn
w + 3
ft.!

_(l)"'3"+i
n
+2
+3
+3
m
'
p^
Pi_ (1)3
2_?i_3_\
whence, by addition
p^
32
33
,
34
1 /3<
36 _
i+z
and
Sn
1
li
32
l^
33
LI
3* !*_
[n+3
^ ^
32
7~"'~27V15 Li LL
33 3*
36
Now
6 (e3 + 2)
39^' +2).
_ 6(2e3+1)
27(^1^
^11
5  2e3
16.
Here
where
+ 9n2'
Hence gi + 32^ + g3a;^ + 24a;3+ ...is a recurring series in which the scale of relation is 1  x  x''.
Also
3i
= *> q2=a +
'b.
190
Let
then
.
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
_ _o lxx2
[CHAP.
g=4o'''+B/3"i;
p^=q^_i=Aa'^^ + B^^;
'
8~.4o''i+JB3i"
Now a and j3 are to be found from the equations be the greater of the quantities, then
o+^=l,
aj3= 1;
let
/3
<1
.
is infinite
of a" is
and
of
j),_ ^a
1_
_ y5l
2
*
g~.4o''i~o~l+,v/5~
17.
that
is,
We have
series
=(r+l)_i;
M(r + l)u_i+ru=0.
Thus the
is
relation is 1
(r
l~x x^
Now
Pi=r,
qi = r + l,
p^=r[r+l),
q^=r'+r+l,
~rl\li!~la;y'
p=fri('""i)Similarly
gi
rlVlrx
licy'
Thus we have
;
^1
XXXI.
18.
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
191
We have
M=(o+l)_ia_2;
that
is,
nnl = anKI"n2);
3tt2 = a8(lt2Mi).
Hence, by multiplication
Now
Pi=ai,
2i
= ai + l,
j>2=ai(aj+l),
32=0102+ Hi+l;
Pi=<h>
Hence, by addition
i>=
2i
= l + ai.
+ OiOjOj.
.a.
'i+p=qn; and p, q are both infinite in the limit; hence the continued fraction tends to the limit 1.
.19.
The convergents
1 1'
to ^ ;r r vt 1+ z+ 1+ J +
...
are
2 3 3' i'
^
11'
11 15'
...
v j
11
are
3 1 I' 4'
15'
41 56'
Let
,...;
93
2i
22
.
,...
;
Ps='''a, i'7=''4,..
aud similarly
s.
Now
whence
but
P^iiPin3+Piin6=^>
47_i+r_2=0;
thus
P9=^P7P6 = ^i'^3='rS'
Pii=iP9P7=KU=''ai
hence generally i)a,_i=r.
SimUarly ?ani=n
'
192
20.
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
[CHAP.
We have
Psn2=^Psn3Psni'
P3n3= Pn4P3n6>
i'34= 2y3n6 Psne
three equations, p^n^ipana P^nii from the last two equations 2p3n3=P3n4 Psns^7 combining these results we have Psn^ ^Pan3 ~ P3iii 1 so that the scaleofreIationisl2a; + a;^.
From
the
first
Now
3)3=1, 33=4,
3)3
= 2, 58=7;
Similarly
ffs
= x%x + x^
'
"
l.
21.
This
may
be proved db
initio,
or
it
may
2.4
Example
12345
1+ 2+ 8+ 4+ 5+
 1+1+
1 1
11
2.8+
1
4+
2.4
2
5+
3.5
5
'
1+ 1+ 2+ 3.4+
1 1 1
+
4.6
3.5
1+ 1+ 2+ 8+ 4.0+
6+
_J_ J "1+
Thu3
If
2_
3_
1+ 2+ 3+ 4+
[Compare
Art. 448.]
el^l+^^j:^....
X denotes the value of the given expression, we have
Now
/,
1 1 ^<2and>
.,
'
gorg.
8<3e and 30>llc,
is,
X.X.XI.]
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
193
371, 372.
EXAMPLES, XXXI,
1.
b.
1
Pages
Put
{u,^.l
11
r
r+l
u^ + ^r'
then
so that
 ,)
(u^ + x^)
x=
^
,
and therefore
111
,M^i
i,
Un H
and
so
on as in Art. 447.
2.
Put
(a, + j/^)
+
then
whence , =
^]^__
and BO on as
3.
in Ex.
Art. 447.
Let
3 =
then Xi=
y;
,
replacing r by +
1,
we have
"
= r+1
r
Similarly
r
=
r
r+
2x^
,
where
^ = r + 1'
x,
x,
'
and
so on.
4.
We have
71
+1
==
;;
1Xi
,
where
,
^
2n
; '
n1
j5
2n
1 = 42/,
where yi = "^
2 (re 2) =
n1
replacing
re
by
re
 2, we have
1
,
2(re2)
re1
re3
2(re2)
and
n3
2(n2)
*
1
'
'
2(re4)
re3
(re
 2)
'
re3
2(re2)'
2(re4)
m1
re3
*"
'
re
components on the
right.
We know that
l
+ l + i+
1*1
+1
M,"
,2
uj
On
putting
= 1,
result.
H. A. K.
13
194
6.
CONTINUED FRACTIONS.
In the equation of Ex.
result.
5,
[CHAP.
on putting
we obtain the
7.
We have
''=1 +
I + p" +
iii
^+ ^+a2=2, 03=8,
...,
In Example 2 on putting a = l,
at once. 8.
= l,
Let
r=
~; thus(6l){a + /3)
= a6;
and B =
r^
"a
Similarly
, ,
aU
11
a
=
9.
r a+ 61 + 7
:;
la
+
1(4
ab
+  =
abc
z ^ a+ 61+ c1
lab
1
0(6
,
r,
+ 7)
suppose,
and so on.
From
1111 %
+ +
1
U.,
Art. 447,
we have
+
1
,.
V ^
tti
tt
!
T^
J.
+ Mj
r8
^.
2 5
1
"*"
1
'''
+
J.
^1
,.1B
+ )J _
)4
j9
^9 ^_ ^6
This
a^
is
a.^
Thus
1
^^3
a^Ug
^1
!+ 05+
11. ^'
aj
1+
a^a^+
a^
*
1+ a^+
c+ d +
ac
ac
1+ ^1+
a^'
We have
P=^ b+ a+
_
1 b
^^...
d
"'
~1+ ab+ c+ d+
_
1
1
bd
'd+
'"
~T+ oT =
bc+

1+ a+ 6+ c+ 1+ a+Q a+Q
...
[Compare f
L
a+l+Q'
XXXIl]
12.
PROBABILITY.
195
From Ex.
1
2, Art.
447,
we have
1

t'
x^
+...=
a,^x
Oj
a^x
Oj
a."x
Oj
a^x +
a^ +
04 
a.^x
Hence
1\
2l?2
1...
9233
tzii q^x
9i
92
93
X X \ !+ 2+ a3+
since
X
14 +
!
9i=%;
94=<t493 + ^92'
EXAMPLES. XXXn.
1,
a.
Pages
and
376, 377.
five
may
1
be
made up by
=^
y
may be thrown
'^3B2.
cards
may
queen and a knave can be drawn together in 16 ways; any two be drawn in ^'Cj, or 1326 ways;
jgg = g^
Three balls can be drawn from 16 in ^'Cg, or 16 x 5 x 7 ways. Three white balls can be drawn in ^C'3, or 10 ways.
3.
.'.
The total number of ways of tossing the 4 coins 4. or 6 ways are favourable to the event.
..
of these
''Cj,
= 0'
first
5.
and second
x + x=l,
or
2.
x==.
132
196
6.
PROBABILITY.
The total.number
[CHAP.
of draws
is
number
of ways in which thirteen persons can sit at a round and two particular persons can sit side by side in 2111 ways. 2 111 1 the required chance = pj's== ^
1,
.".
.'.
A and B;
place,
wherever, it may be, there are 12 places of which two are adjacent to A's place and ten are not adjacent. Thus the odds are 5 to 1 against the event.
8.
The chance
of
A
2
,
happening
34
or
is
the chance of
is
2
,
and the
chance of
is
 r^  =
are 43 to 34.
9.
The chance
With two
the
first
dice 8 can be
thrown as follows
6, 2; 5,3; 4, 4; two of these can each occur in 2 ways ; therefore 8 can be made up is
rs
With
5, 4,
3; 4, 4, 4;
the first, second, and fifth of these can each occur in 6 ways, the third and fourth in 3 ways, and the last in only 1 way
is,
in 25 ways.
25
..
rr^,
00
^77,
Jlo
which are as 36
10.
30
One
cards
may
cardfron} each suit may be dropped in 13* ways; and any be dropped in ^^0^ ways. 13* 2197 ii, J 1, ... the required chance = ;s;r = , ^2(7^ 20825
four
11.
can draw
in ^=C, ways.
blanks in 'Cg ways, and he can draw three 21 His chance of drawing all blanks is therefore rrp 55
all
,',
tickets
XXXriJ
In the same way
/.
PROBABILITY.
it
197
is
will be
found that
jB*s
jB's
chance of a prize
28
^'s chance
chance
" rr
::
ks
715.
952
12.
With two
dice, 6
1,5; 5,1;
..
With
of these
..
may
6,
1 only.
With
made up
1,1,1,3;
the
first
1,1,2,2;
of these
..
may
1.
13
4
and
admit of
f3
13
X 13x14
jg li
B will
win
if
9.
He
can throw 12 in
That is out of the 36 ways in which he can throw the two throw more than 9 in 6 ways.
..
he can
15.
There are 7
letters
7
ways.
As the two vowels are not to be separated we may consider them as a single letter; and we can then have 6 different arrangements in which the two vowels come together in the same order. Therefore, since the two vowels
may
=^ = =
16
198
PROBABILITY.
[CHAP.
16, The number of favourable ways is the same as the number of wavs in which the 9 other cards forming the hand can be chosen, which is ^C^ And the total number of ways in which the hand can be made up is ^^Cjj
/.
17.
17
The number
o''
is
~nr
'
35.
And
= =.
7
is
\m + n J^=
\m+n2 ,1 [mre2
m ~
\n
is
n(n 
1)
(m
+ n){m + n
1)'
EXAMPLES. XXXII.
1.
b.
Pages
383, 384.
The chance
is
also ^
The
throw
is
1 2 6
^
the required chance
/.
^
^
= r;
do
in i ways.
The knave, queen, king can each be drawn 2. can be drawn in ^^Cj ways.
..
Any
3 cards
,,52.51.60 = r^
o
16 , 5525
3.
first fails is
fails
:pj
i3lx =
7
11
52 =. 77
is
4.
is
4 
The chance
  x ^5
= 01
XXXII.]
The chance
,of
PROBABILITY.
of seleotiug the first 2
is
199
is
5.
compartment
chance
drawing a sovereign
=
5
,
from the
first
12 compartment s x ?
^ D
or v
is
12 ^ x a o
= 118 + =
o
or o
And
^
lo
since the
two cases
6.
The chance
of
first
time
is
the chance of
8x9
17x17
7.
first is
(1)
72 289"
is
39
the chance of the third card being of a suit differing from the
is
and second
all
26
;
of a suit differing
from
13
51
^,
'
/.
50 49
.
,^' .
= ,
20825
48
first is =T
61
not of the same value as the 44 that the third differs from the first and second is p^r and the 50
is
;
first,
second, or third
40
is
2816 m, , X,. ,. ^1 . . , Therefore the chance that no two are of equal value = =^i i . =rr7;r 51 50 42 4165
48.44.40
8.
The chance
of failing to
five trials is
1
or

all
In order that a majority may be favourable, the reviews must 9. favourable, or the first, the second, or the third must be unfavourable. chances for these four cases are respectively
be
The
5.4.3
.
2.4.3
5.3.3
5.4.4
209
is
j^ d43
200
10.
PROBABILITY.
The chance
[CHAP.
is.f..=i.
the chance that they are alternately of different colours = rr
..
14
+ :r = 14
7
11.
As
in
Example
j
cessionis 1
(^g
8,
it
mast
be
0,
0, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8.
And
these
is
the chance that each of the four numbers should not end in any of /2\'^ 16 2  . Thus the required chance ( ^ ) = en?
13. The sovereign can only be in the second purse events have happened
if
(1) the sovereign was among the 9 coins taken out and put into the second (2)
first.
it
was not among the 9 coins put from the second purse into
of (1)
is
the
The chance
.
IS
10
..
1"
,
(2)
when
9
rjj
(1)
has happened
10 9 = x =
..
is
 9
= 10
total
14.
in
and 5
of another is
number
of
of the
256
fall is 2';
63
number
of ways in which the coins may which one head can appear.
..
and
XXXII.J
PROBABILITY.
B's chance in any round
If
a;
201
*?
3
is
7
16.
of A'a chance,
and
3
C'a is
t
4
of B'a
chance.
= ^ 's
Thus
x=,
and the
^
1
3=,
=
17.
The chance
that
draws a sovereign = 
fails
and
succeeds
=4 = A B
A and B
fail,
and then
and then
twice
succeeds
= ..
7
=; 5'
3
fails twice,
succeeds = s
12
5
7
9
A and B
3
fail
and then
2
1
B
22
succeeds
,
=s
,
h 7 5
13
18. ever it
may
19.
The chance
that
rides
2 Ao
of 4's
winning on
this hypothesis
=
11 x =rides
7:.
4=^; a^^
tlie
= dob
;r
Therefore
4 's
chance =7;
+ = yblo
^^
^7;
him
are 13 to 5.
least will arrive safely if 5 are safe, or
20.
Four at
4
'
safe.
the
chance=gy + 5 (!)'(!) =
45927 50000
;
EXAMPLES. XXXII.
1,
c.
Pages
389, 390.
As in
sum
.
terms in f \ 2133
3l25"
+ 1Y
J
that
is,
3^
+5
3*
2 + 10
2= }
which reduces
to
202
PROBABILITY.
[CHAP.
x^'^
The, number of ways of obtaining 12 is the ooeffioient of 2. the expansion of {x^ + a;')^ ; also the coins can be thrown in 2^" ways.
in
Now
~ TF
In order to win three at least, he must win all four, or lose the first, 3. or the second or the third, or the fourth. The respective chances of these 5 events are
(!)'
3'3'3"3'
4
is
3'3'3'3'
3'3'3'3'
3'3"3"3'
and
their
sum
 which
,
is
4.
of the others is 
then the 4
draw=^x20 + a;
a;
shillings;
4a;
+5
X 20 = 12x9; whence
= 2.
Thus
5.
The chance
(
the
'>
sum
...
terms in the
expansion of
that
is,
the
sum
of the odd coefficients in (1 + 1)" divided by 2". 2ni X .'. = = the required chance =
^
6.
Two
..
coins can be
in 1
way
ground=Y^ x 40=4
shillings.
One
tion
on
this
sovereign and one shilling can be drawn in 6 ways, and A'& expecta3 ground=,= x 21 = 12f shillings. Two shillings can be drawn in
3 ways,
3
shillings.
shillings.
of a
draw
is
XXXII.]
In his
''^
PROBABILITY.
first
203
is r^
,
7.
'* ^^
2"
'
*^^''^f''^
Ws
chance
is
the
sum
24
+ 2"
2J
"'^iS'*'""
63
^^
8.
is
Now
(a;
Qz^Y
is,
we have
in
therefore to
=^
sum of the numbers is less than 15, the numbers must be 3 or 3, 3, 3, 5. And in this last combination of numbers the 5 may occur in any one of the four throws ; thus there are 5 cases favourable, and 16 cases in all.
9.
If the
3, 3, 3,
..
5 = ^
10. The three dice can be thrown in 216 ways. The in which the dice can be thrown so as to have a total of 10
of x'o in (x
number
is
+ x2 + a;'+... + x^)';
that
is,
in x'
/I a'N'
( ^j
)
now this
to be 27;
is
(1
 x^)^
1 ==
(1
 x)^, and
is
found
27
..
216
rrr;
11.
set,
2
.
^
2
^
1
.
3.
(Y\
\2J
J
or
16
12.
The number
ways
in
which the 3
dice
may
fall is 6',
or 216.
In order to lose, B may throw anything from 3 to 8 inclusive; the number of ways in which this may be done is the sum of the coefficients of the powers of x from 3 to 8 inclusive in the expansion of
(x +
204
PEOBABILITT.
[CHAP.
1
=a;5(l3a;8 +
=a;3(la;6)'(la;)'
3xi2a;i8)(l
of way3 = l + 3
56
loses is
^rrr.
216
;^ 27
13.
The chance
of
4
is
tt^t
12
3
10
2 or = 6
21
shillings.
and in
this case C'a
are shillings=,
13 expectation = 5 x = of 2
6
shillings =j of
shilling.
= = 44 shillings. o
2 u
shillings;
of
sum.
1
j
14.
of Art. 462,
(a)
'
""^TTTe
The chance
is
276
is ===;;
7776
15.
The chance
of
is
of
throwing i ia^r^.
Now we require B's expectation in the long run, the throwing being continued until one or other of them wins.
therefore
Let x = B'b chance on this supposition, then clearly 2x=A'b chance, and x + 2x = l.
Therefore x=^, and B's expectation = 5 of o o
1
12
5s.
 5 of
o
2s.
= id.
XXXII.]
16,
PROBABILITY.
The two
dice
of
205
may be thrown
in 4 x 6 or 24 ways.
The numbers
the coefficients
ways in which 2, 3, 4,... 10 may be thrown are given by of those powers of x in the expansion of {x+x' + afl+...+x^) {x + x^ + x' + x'^).
if
numbers from
In the question before us, the required event will happen 5 to 10 inclusive be thrown.
any
of the
A A ~
"''
24
2i
"
i. 24
"*"
i. 24
"^
A 24
"^
JL1?? 24 ~ 24 ~ 4
Then the expectation from
17.
all.
the
first
draw
is
 (M+m).
Now
n1
is
and here
it is
certain that
M
=^
;
M2 m n1
z.
..
2'"'
draw=
re
n1
=
\2I\
(
ra1
.
miJ
=
\M+
[
ra1
.
=m\
)
n 1
in
which
it is
certain
..
draw=
n~l
.
ra2
n n
(,^
re3
"^r
j
n1
last
1 /I = jl/( + _ + ...ton
\n
terms
1
\ /
I
...
to ra1 termsV
j
^,
,,
(ral)re
m
re
,,
re1
[This problem and solution are due to the Bev. T. C. Simmons, M.A.]
206
18.
Tlie total
PROBABILITY.
[CHAP.
is
number of ways in which three tickets may be drawn 6n(6nl)(6n2) , . ,,, ~ ' ^ " ^' X.2T3
'
in
is
First suppose is drawn, then we have to make up Gn in all possible of the numbers 1, 2, 3, ... 6rel ; this can be done in 3nl ways. Then suppose 1 is drawn ; we have to make up 671  1 from two of the numbers 2, 3, ... 6ml; this can be done in 3m2 ways.
drawn, we have to make up 6it 2 from two of the numbers 1; this can be done in 3;i4 ways; if 3 is drawn, there are 3m  5 ways of making up the number.
If 2 is
...
3, 4,
6m
Finally, if 2712 is drawn, there are only two ways of making up the numbers, viz. 2n2, 2ml, 2n + 3, and 2 2, 2n, 2re + 2; while if 2k1 is drawn, there is only one way, viz. 2  1, 2n, 2re + 1.
Hence the number of ways of making up 6n is the sum of 2n terms, which may be arranged in n pairs as follows {(3nl) + (3n2)} + {(3n4) + (3n5)} + ... + (5 + 4) + (2 + l) = (6re  3) + (6n  9) + (6n  12) + ... = 3n\
1)
(6n  2).
EXAMPLES. XXXII.
d.
Pages
399, 400.
[Where the wording of a question admits of two Example on page 305, we have here adopted the
there explained.]
first
There are four equally likely hypotheses, namely, the bag 1, contained 4 white balls, or 3, or 2, or 1.
may
have
And
i>i=l.
Pa=g,
1'3=J.
Pi=l
=  = .
10
o
5,
[pj
The four hypotheses here are 6 black balls, or 2. are all equally likely.
or
4,
or 3, and these
And
543
ft=l,
432
^3=654'
4
1
321
^'^Qlp
y2=65i.
.
Pi_P2_P3_n_'^p)
20
10 35
..
= Tr=
00
[PI
XXXII.]
PROBABILITY.
207
If the letter came from Clifton, there are 6 pairs of oonseontive 3. letters of which is one. Therefore the chance that this Was the legible
ON
is
2 are ON.
London
came from London, out of 5 pairs of consecutive letters Therefore the chance that this was the legible couple on the 2 hypothesis is ^
London
Therefore the a posteriori chances that the letter Was from Clifton or are
2
,
e'^S
and
6''"5
respectively.
either
by
3
winning or by
winning.
Therefore
The
^,
^
But
respectively.
5
:^a,
1 or ,
that
is,
Therefore,
ratio.
also, B'a
and
C'a
increased in the
same
of
winning =
= y^
may have
con
5.
tained any
number
of sovereigns from 1 to n. pi = ,
Thus
12
p,=,
Ps =
3 ~
Pn = .
re
..
X(p)
n(n + l)
it
6.
There are two cases: either the coin had two heads, or
tail.
had a head
and a
Thus
Also
Px=^,
i'i=l.
A=^.
^2= (2)
'
208
Therefore
PROBABILITY.
[CHAP.
 = T = n32
five oases to consider, for
Thus
7.
We
may contain
1, 2, 3, 4,
or 5 red balls,
Hence
i'a=(5)'
12
22
32
42
52
55
The chance
of
red balls
55
8.
15
+ 10+
+^7
"550it
chance of 5 shillings
lings
25
of 4 shillings
of 3 shillings
of 2 shil
XXXII.]
10. Denote A's probability is
PROBABILITY.
and B's
3
veracities by p and p(ip')+P' 0~ P)
p',
209
then the required
that
,,
18,
. 4 6
15 18 = = 4 24
1
I
11.
(ii)
(i)
it is false.
we have
p_l
^16'
_2
for in estimating p^ we both select the red ball
p_5. A6' _1
must take into account the chance that A and when it has not been drawn. Thus
PiPi
will
P22'2=8
^=40
.
40
is
true is jy
12.
is
because
not a spade
3
is
Thus
210
PROBABILITY.
;
[CHAP.
for the purse
may
cou
Now
.'.
^=6'
Pa^^i'
^3^^'
;^
X{p)
p ^
=3 5
Arrain Again
Pi
^
^iIo
^2io'
^3io
.".
15.
At
first,
is
is
is
o
2""'
race
is
known
:
to have been
won by
or D,
B'a chance
certainty
that
is,
B'a chance=7o
1x5X5 = ;
8
3
11
P losing it is
7 o
We
and
may
be
1, 2, 3, ...m
white
all
Pi=P2=Pi=...=P.
this
If there
were r white
(
case
would be
._2l=22_=
=
(n
=_2.
erer
Thus ii?
(5)'
6r^
"
+ 1)
6re
(2,1
and Q^=
XXXII.]
PROBABILITY.
21
And
= S"nr
,1
BSr*
62r'
n(?i+l)(2n + l)
1
+ 1) 3(n + l)
n
(n
(2/1
+ 1)
n^ (n + 1) (2n + 1)
1,
^^,
,
"
17.
that
B is
with
n1
is
for
of
wherever
A and 4
B.
Then the o
priori chance
is placed, there
remain
mn  1
priori
 1
Hence the a
chance that
and
^ mn1
not been examined.
If
.
Now
consider the
A and
If
B
^
m
,
.
A
is
and
B
.
purses
, ,
(mr)(mrl) m(ml)
for
m (m  ,> 1)
,
IS
the total
.,
number
of
'
can occur separately in any two purses whatever, and (m  r) (m  r  1) is the number of ways in which they can occur separately in any two of the
purses we are considering.
_ n1
mr
\nl
(mn 1
'
'
mr n{ml) m mn 1
(mr)(mrl))
'
m{m l)
B both
12
7
is
11
.
5
o
77;
12
:jt
or as 13 to
1.
19. Let p be the a priori probability of the event; then the probability that their statement is true is to the probability that it is false as
()"'^isto(l:p)(iy
Therefore

1p
Now in
order
five to one,
we must
have
that
is,
5^p
must he not
must be not
than
1.
less
than
^ 5^+1
.
142
212
PROBABILITY.
[CHAP.
EXAMPLES. XXXII.
e.
Page
405.
By writing down the different combinations it is easy to see that 1. 12 can be thrown in 1 way, 11 in 2 ways, 10 in 3 ways, 9 in 4 ways, 8 in 5 ways, 7 in 6 ways. Therefore out of the 36 possible ways of throwing the dice there are 1 + 2+3 + 4 + 6 + 6, or 21 ways favourable to throwing
7 or more.
of throwing at least 7 is
^5
The nine coins can be arranged in [9 ways; but the five sovereigns 2. can be arranged in the odd places and the four shillings in the even places in 5 X 14 ways. Hence the chance that they wiU be drawn alternately 5x4 1 beginning with a sovereign is ' = r^r^
1
when
Or thus: The number of ways in which nine things can be arranged, five are alike of one sort, and four are alike of another sort, is
,
>'..
..
3.
See
XXXn.
first
b.
Example
4.
The
person's chance is 
if
he
fails,
chance
is
n
1
n 1
and
=
If the
first
two
2
tickets,
his chance is
m1 w2
n
and so on.
5.
'
_1_
Thus each
person's chance
.
first
bag
is
chosen
is
of
is
5 x 3^^02.
that the
is
second bag
is
chosen
is
now
4x5i'(7j.
..
6.
+ . = 275
1
20 36
504
^'s chance
6 T"*" (g)
"^
(?)
+ = S
suppose;
=.iji+gy+(yv..,}=..
XXXII.]
Similarly C's chance
PROBABILITY.
is
(
213
is (
x
J
S,
is
S.
J
Thus
7.
or two black
,,
Three squares may be chosen in ^C^ ways two white and one black, and one white may be chosen '^Cj x 32 ways.
;
i^Cj
21
8.
The two
dice
which
2, 3, 4, ...10
may be thrown in 24 ways. The number may be thrown respectively are given by the
{x
of ways in
coefficients
of those powers of
x in the expansion of
+ x^ + x^ + ...+x<')(xix' + x^ + x*).
get
Multiplying out,
we
x^ + 2x3
of throwing
7 are equal.
throw
is
6.
may
The chances of throwing 10 and 2 are equal; as also the chances of throwing 9 and 3, 8 and 4, 7 and 5 and in each case the average value is 6. Therefore on the whole the average value is 6.
;
9.
When A
tries
1
is
and B's
tries
3
is
when A
tries
is
2 ; O
when A
is
B is
.
7
A may
with D,
either
win with
The chances
all three, or fail with B, or fail with G, or fail of these four cases are
214!
10.
PROBABILITY.
In order that the
i""
[CHAP.
have a throw the preceding
person
1
.
may
3 persona
must
all fail
thus i\
/7\*
is
If
he fails and
all
trial his
chance of winning
/ly
is
(
and
so
Thus
term
is
sum
ratio is
11.
Art.
In order to win,
before
wins
'
3.
Thus by
QV
+^ 1 +
fI
il)'\
"B
^^^'^^^"'^^ ^'^
chance
to B'a as 11 to 5.
There are two hypotheses ; either he has drawn two sovereigns, 12. one sovereign and one shUling.
Therefore
or
Pi = A,
Pi = l,
P,=^.
JP2=2
Also
..
Qi=Q2=lo
13.
B's chance=
1
77 ;
bo
throws and
fails
5
^
.7:. 60
C's
1.
D's
E's
F'a
Now
A, C,
E are identical,
so are B, D, F.
1
..^schance=g
5 25 + +  = 169 .
...B'schance=A +
^ + _5_^155_
XXXir.]
14.
(1)
PROBABILITY.
215
A and B.
in
equally likely places for B, namely o inside and 1 outside. Wherever A may be seated there is only 1 .case favourable to B's gaining an opposite seat.
..
==
2
is
(2)
The chance
that
are
unfavourable positions for B, all equally likely. that A and B are adjacent, B being at the end of
2
sr
A and B
are adjacent,
^
elusive
A and B
=^
also be solved as follows (2) The total number of pairs of positions in which A and can be adjacent = 4. The total number of pairs of positions they can occupy without restriction, inside or outside, is '(72 = 21.
may
..
=^
In order that a number may be divisible by 11, the difference of the of the digits in the odd and even places must be either zero, or a multiple of 11. [See Art. 84.] Here the difference cannot be zero, so that we have to divide 59 into two
15.
sum
whose difference is 11 these parts are 35 and 24. But the suin of three digits cannot be equal to 35; hence the seven digits must be such that the sum of the four odd ones is 35, and the sum of the
parts
;
three even ones is 24. Now the number of ways in which 7 digits may be arranged so as to make 59 is equal to the coefficient of a;^' in the expansion of (a;'' + a;' + j;^+ ... vx^Y and since the coefficients of terms equidistant from the beginning and end are equal, this is equal to the coefficient of ic* in the above expansion ; that is, is equal to the coefficient of a;* in the expansion of (1  x")' (1  xy. This coefficient is 210. Again, the number of ways in which 4 digits can be arranged so as to make 35 is equal to the coefficient of x^^ in the expansion of
(a;i>a;i+x'i+...la:Y,
therefore equal to 4. Similarly, the number of ways in which 3 digits can be arranged to make 24 is equal to the coefficient of x^ in the expansion oi (x^ + x^ \ x^ ^^ ... +a;')', and is therefore equal to 10. Each way of arranging the odd digits may be associated with each way of
is
and
4 X 10
216
16.
PROBABILITY.
The number
(1
[CHAP.
expansion of x^
 x^)^
of favourable oases is the coefficient of x^^ in the [See Ex. 2, Art. 466.] (1  x)"^.
we
number
 30,
or 25.
total number of drawings is 1*. The number of ways in which of the drawings will amount to 8 is the coefficient of x' in the expansion of (x + x^ + x^ + x^)*.
The
the
sum
. .
+ 165x8+...).
is
Thus the
coefficient of x^ is
18.
(1)
We must
(x"
+ x' + x^ + x')3
.
.
and divide it by 10'. Put y for x + x^ + x' + x^ + x'; then (5 + yY = 5^ + S 5Hj + 3 5y^+y^. The coefficient of x^" comes from the last two terms only, and is equal
15 + 18.
to
Thus
There are now two favourable cases, namely those in which the (2) tickets 1, 4, 5, or the tickets 2, 3, 5 are drawn. And the whole number is ^"Cj, since the chance is just the same as if the three tickets were of cases
drawn sunultaneously.
19.
(1)
2
.=j;
=^
even or end in
or 5
re
that
is,
we have a
numbers.
Thus
none of the numbers can be choice of 4 digits with which to 4" /aN" the required chance = ^ =(= I .
the last digit be 2, 4, 6, or 8, none of the numbers can end in (2) or 5 and one of the last digits must be even. Now 8" is the number of and 5 and of these we have further to ways in which we can exclude exclude the 4" cases in which the last digit can be selected solely from 1, B, gn _ 471 ^n _ 2 = . Thus the required chance = 7, or 9.
;
If the last digit is 5, one of the numbers must end in 5 and all (3) the rest must be odd. Now 5" is the number of ways in which an odd digit can be chosen to end the number, but to ensure 5 being one of them we must exclude the 4" ways in which an odd digit can be chosen solely from
1, 3,
7 or
9.
..
5n_4n
(4)
We have now to subtract the sum of the previous chances from unity.
XXXII.J
20.
in the
PROBABILITY.
This
is
217
o.
same way.
If the
dummy
drawn
first
is
nothing.
If it is
6d.
drawn
draws
ls.
=g(2. + l.
If it is
+ l.
ls.
+ l.
ls.
+ l.
+ 2s.) = l.
Is.
drawn
= j(2.
If
it is
+ 2.
ls.+l.
2s.
+ 1.
2s.)
= 1. lis.
2s.
ed.
drawn
fifth,
All these cases are equally likely ; hence the whole expectation
=i(0 + 10s.
o
6d.
+ l.
ls.
+ l.
lis.
6(j'.
+ 2.
2s.)
= l.
Is.
21.
The chance
10.]
first,
[See
XXXII.
u.
Example
throws
JS
has a throw
is
So that
is
(
if
x be
x.
And
imtU the
solution of this
Example
XXXII.
d.
23.
The chance
marked
is
1 is
^, ^jr
;
the
^,
r;
_^^,
the chance
marked
is
and
so on.
n(n + l)'
i
218
24.
PROBABILITY.
[CHAP.
the
The number of ways in whicli a man may have all 10 things is 1 number of ways in which he may have 9 things is 10 x 2, for '"0^ = 10,
Similarly
may have
10
8 things in
" .
9
.
2^
may
be given in 2^ ways.
"
Similarly a
man may
10
'
have 7 things in
7
.
2' ways,
and he may
have 6 things in
2* ways.
And
the chance of a
1
man
and
let
first it
Let the rod be divided into n equal divisions A^A^, A^Ag, A^A^ the random points of division be denoted by Pj, P^, F^, .... Then is necessary that one of the random points falls in each division the
;
Ire
chance of this
II.
is
!=
re"
number
of cases is the
number
of
ways '
in
places can be occupied by re things when repetitions are allowed, which and the number of favourable cases is the number of ways in which n places can be occupied by re things when repetitions are not allowed.
Again AiP^ must be greater than A^P^, or PiP^ would exceed rod; therefore A^P^, A^P^,... are in descending order of magnitude.
of the
The
will
occur
is
t'
for the
.
number
of orders
and
all
JJj.
a sovereign a shilling
a sovereign a shilling
may
be transferred from
JSj
^i
(4)
Then
we have
J^i2^i''
p _1
p _1
p _1
^~2^i'
1 D _1 3 32^4' ^~2^i"
XXXII.]
In
BO
tT,
PROBABILITY.
Bj has 2 sovereigns,
1
1 sliilling,
219
shillings;
13 that2)i=x = .
+
(1),
B^ has 2 sovereigns, 3
In In
shillings; so
thatp2=0.
B\ has 4 sovereigns,
B^ has 3
shillings; so that
;,3
= xl = .
B^ has
1 sovereign, 2 shillings;
In
..
(4),
Bj has
3 sovereigns, 2 shillings, 2
SO ii i that
2 4 ^4=5X3=15.
... =
^4^.henoe,,4.
Now for the second trial we have only to consider the case which corresponds to Q^, for in none of the other cases could a shilling be drawn from each purse.
..
QiXrX= = r^.
4
2
lb
27.
Draw
forming a second triangle. Then if the first triangle is acute angled, the circle is inscribed iu the second and if the first triangle is obtuse angled,
the circle is escribed to the second. Ex. 3 of Art. 481.
result follows as in
ABC
this is
J.
[Eev. T. C. Simmons.]
29.
Let
let
AB
P
^
p
and Q;
Then
..
a{x + y)<^,
or
x+y>^.
And
220
PROBABILITY.
[chap.
let
line x + y a. respectively.
Tate a pair of rectangular axes 00, OD; OG, OD be each equal to a, so that CD is the = Bisect OD, 00, OD in E, F, G
Then
GF
is
the line
y = 2' ^ = 2
Now the favourable cases are restricted to points in the triangle EGF, and the possible oases include all points in the triangle OGD.
Thus the required chance= j.
Or thus:
If the 3 parts of the line are x, y, z
while x + y>z, y
+ z>x,
+ x>y.
<.
Therefore if we take three rectangular axes OA, OB, 00, and make 01, OB, OG each equal to a, the plane x + y + z = a includes the points which give the possible oases, while the favourable cases are restricted to the are the middle points of BO, CA, AB triangle DEF, where D, E,
respectively.
30. Let Pi, P2 be the a priori probabilities of drawing i sovereigns from the 1" and 2'"' purses respectively.
"1265
21
1286"
^'~1286' ^''^i286*
is
31.
Let
AB
P,
Q be
at distances x,
let
the
random
points
line.
Now in
favourable cases
we must have
x>b + y,
or
y>b + x^
XXXII.]
PROBABILITY,
221
and <a; $f>0 and <a. _
x>0
Take a pair of rectangular axes and make OC, OD each equal to a. Draw the line y = b + x represented by in the figure; and the line x = b + y, represented by EF.
GH
rhen
OE = OG=b; CB=DO=al>.
Now the favourable cases are restricted to points within the triangles CEF, GDH, while for possible cases we may have all points in the
figure
CD.
req^uired
Thus the
chance
C^T
Q B
In the line AB let points P, Q be taken order APQB so that AP=x, BQ = y, PQ = axy. Then in favourable cases we must have x<:6, j/<6, axy<b; and in possible cases x + y<a.
in
32. the
Take a pair of rectangular axes OG, OD, and make OG, OD each equal to a.
Let
and
are the
y = b, x = b.
(1)
'When6>g,
and
3
fab\'
I
(2)
When 6<^.
tlie
This
H
F
EG=b
..
222
33.
PROBABILITY.
Let AB be the line of length a + b, and measure AP=x, PQ = a;
[chap.
on
it
also let
4R=y, ES=b.
Then for possible cases we must have x>0, and <6; y>0, and <a. If Q be beyond S the R common part is y + bx; but if S be beyond Q A the common part is x + ay; and one of these two must happen. Hence for favourable cases we must have
y + bx<c, or x + ay<c.
Take
a,
OX=b.
Draw
figure
;
Y_
the line x=y + bc, represented by and the line y=x + ac, represented by ML.
NK
in the
Thus the favourable oases are restricted to the two triangles XNK, Y3IL ; while for possible cases we have any points in the rectangle XY.
N
Thus the required chance ==.
If
RS
is
to lie within
PQ
satisfied simultaneously;
namely,
Draw
the line
the line
y=x,
y=x + ab,
TOVZ.
,:
ab
=
S.
[This solution
due to Professor E.
Heath, Sc.D.]
34.
Let
AB
AF=x, PQ=a;
made from
also let
left to right.
Then
and <.a + c.
and in possible cases we must have x > Also in favourable cases we must have
(1)
AQAP'^d'i
x + ay'idK
or
(2)
AQ'AP<:d\ b + yx<d\.,
yx>ad)
Talie a pair of rectangular axes 0(7,
xy>b~d]
OE
OB. Let 0C = 6lc, =a, E'F' = d, E'B=c.
OBa + c,
OE=b, EF=d, GE = c.
Also
let
XXXII.J
PROBABILITY.
223
P'
Q'
the line yx = ad represented by line xy = bd, represented by MF.
Draw
Then
LF'T
re
stricted to points in the triangles GFM, include all points in the rectangle 00, OD.
{c
b) + a)(c + rr
r,
35.
The chance
that
= + m + n'
I
l
.
travels in
any particular
first class
compartment = y
therefore the
chance that
C and A
same
first class
compart
The chance
that
+ A and C travel
ix.
i>)
compartment = ;
u,
fr
^.
same third
class
compartment.
Hence the
chance that
A and C being companions iu some compartment 1 + fi + v _ " (l + m + n) {\ + + v)~ l + m + n' 1 chance that A is with C, and B with D = and (l + vi + n)^
of
'K
/J.
the
is
2
is
(l+m + n)^
and
both travel
in the
class
=t
X"
,
and
(XH/it^P
first class
same compartment
=~
Thus the whole chance
\
I
^'
~r (x+f^+i^y
of their travelling together in some
compartment
1
m,
\''mn
nJ
(Xh/ilcJ^
224
PROBABILITY.
[chap.
Now
that
and
C's ehanee ie the same for every compartment ; therefore the chance are together and C also in their company
_
l
+ m + n' Imn
+ /* + vj^
and one or other of the
ladies with
are together
them
is
We have to
greater than
(l
+ m + n)'''
(X^mre + ij,^nl +
that
is, if I {/j.^n^
vHm) (l + m + n)> Imn (X + /i + v)^, + v V) + m {vH^ + \^n^ + n {X^m" + jxH^) > 2lmn
I
:
{/j.v
+ v\ + X/i),
!>.
n=\
/j.
EXAMPLES. XXXIII.
Subtracting 1. the third, we have
1
a.
Pages 419
to 421.
also from
the
first
XXXIII.]
7.
DETERMINANTS.
225
Adding together
all
which
all the columns we obtain a new determinant in the constituents of one column are zero hence the value of the
;
determinant
8,
is zero.
Add
sum from
the
first
row ; thus
b
+c
b
c c
a
b
6
c
2c
c
26
b
+a
c
+a
c
a+b
a+
which
zero ;
all the columns we obtain a new determinant in the constituents of one column are 1 + w + w^, that is, equal to hence the value of the determinant is zero.
Adding together
all
10.
Since u^
1
is
equal to
1,
we have
226
DETERMINANTS.
[chap.
14. Erom Art. 495, this determinant can be expressed as the eight determinants, all of which vanish with the exception of
b h
sum
c
of
XXXIII.]
DETERMINANTS.
;
227
Here both the first and second columns contain a + b+casa, factor hence the given determinant must be divisible by (a + b + c)'', and since it is of six dimensions the remaining factor must be of the form ]c (a + b + c). Thus the given determinant must be equal to kabc {a + b + c)'.
expanded d eter
Now the
and
20.
its coefficient
in this product is 2
{h
As in
and
2/3
Vi
Oa^i + 03X2 +
hVi + '^sh
631/2
+ b^^ + c^^
+ 0322
228
DETERMINANTS.
(  c + id) (a  i/3) + (a  ib) (y  iS), {c + id)(yii) + {aib)(a + i/3) 0 iD and A+iB respectively.
[chap.
The
Hence
{a^
+ b' + c^ + d')
{a^
+ ^^ + y^+S')
two determinants.
is
To
find the
unknown
s
quantities
we have
(as in
x+ cy +cH=a%^ + cM^.
From
these equations
=0; 5 = 0, = bc + ca + ab, t = dabc, m=1; X = 62c2 + c'w' + a^b" + abc{a + b + c), z = d^ + lc + ca + at. y= {b + c) (c + a) {a + b),
s
[Since 3 = 0,
r=0,
1
it is
and
x.]
+ ab
dabc
(6 + c)
(c
+ a)
(a
+ 6)
d^
+ bc + ca + ab
and therefore is equal to d^  {a + b + c) d'' + {bc + ca + ab) d {a + b + c){bc + ca + ab) + {b + c){c + a){a + b); d^{a + b + c)d^ + {bc + ca + ab)d abc, that is, equal to
or
{d
a){d~ b)
{d
c).
XXXIII.]
DETERMINANTS.
229
rules:
Note. The preceding equations may be easily solYed by the ordinary thus taking the equations in x, y, z, on subtracting the second equation from the first and dividing by a  6, we obtain
y+
similarly
{a
y + {a + c)
whence
The values of x and y are easily found by substitution. The solution of these and similar equations may however be sometimes more easily obtained by trial from a consideration of the fact that p, q, r, s, t, u, X, y, z must be symmetrical functions of a, b, c, or constant. Thus take the equation s + at + ahi=bc + ad; here the term be must
belong to s hence ic + ca + a6 is part of the value of s if there be any other part, denote it by s'; then (bc+ca + ab)+s' + at + a^u=bc + ad; that is, s' + at + a'u = ab ac + ad. Here the terms abac + ad arise from part of the value of at, so that t= abc + d. On substituting this value of Thus s = bc + ca + ab, *, we have s' + a'u = a", which is satisfied by s' = 0, m = 1.
; ;
t= a bc + d, u=l.
If d=a, the 24. Alternative Solution. identical; thus the determinant is divisible by
hy
second and third rows are a d; similarly it is divisible hence the determinant being a cubic in d must be equal
b, c).
b, c),
to (a  d) (6
[cd)f (a,
To
thus
put
d=0;
be
abc f(a,
b, c)
ca
ab
a^b'
This determinant vanishes when a=0, for then the second and third rows are identical; also when b = c for the same reason; hence the determinant must be equal to hahe {b  c) (c  a) (ab). It is easy to see that fe =  1 f{a,b,c)=(bc){ca){ab). hence
25.
As
law'
1 6
62
230
From
these equations,
DETERMINANTS.
we obtain
[CHAP.
x=hc + ca+ab,
y=0,
= l.
+ ca + ab
[a + b + c]
2{a + b + c)
{bc + ca + ab} bc + ca + ab
2
1
= [be + ca + ab){a + b + c)
=3
(a
+ b + c)
(bc
+ ca + ab).
25.
result to the
Alternative Solution. Multiply the second row by  1 and add the sum of the first and third rows : thus the determinant
36c
Sea
Sab
bc + ca + ab
(a
bcca + ab
{b
+ b)(a + c)
+ c){b+a)
+ ca ab (c + a)(c + b)
bc
Eemove
;
the factor 3, and multiply the new first row by 2 and add to the the new second row has now bc + ca + ab for each of its constituents
be
= S(bc + ca + ab)
(a
+ b)(a + c)
11
(b
ca
ab
1
(c
+ c)(b+a)
+ a)(c + b)
is clearly
= k(bc)
thus
(ca){ab)(a + b + c).
To
find k put
a=2,
= 1, c = 0;
6k=
111
6 3 2
=2
1 3
last
determinant
may write
(cx)^
XXXIII,]
DETERMINANTS.
we have by
inspection
231
From
these equations,
f=x^,
g=
2x
y'
232
The
coefficient of
DETERMINANTS.
x
=a
aw'
b
c
V
u'
w
a
b
a
b c
u
w'
v'
w'
V
u'
xxxiilJ
DETERMINANTS.
first
233
we obtain
On
subtracting the
(a 1)3
last,
= {al)3
234
This last determinant
6

DETERMINANTS.
[chap.
1
c
1 1
c
d
=:ab
(c
+c
7.
constituent
Adding together all the columns we obtain a column in which each is x + y + e; hence the given determinant is divisible hy x + y + z.
Multiply the columns by 1,  1, 1,  1 respectively and add the products; obtain a column in which each constituent contains z + xy as a factor: thus the given determinant is divisible hj z + xy similarly it is divisible hj x + y z, and y+zx; and therefore must be equal to
we
]e(x
+ y + z)
{y
+ zx)
{z
+ xy)
we
{x
+ yz).
By
find that
k=
1.
8.
XXXIII.]
DETERMINANTS.
235
=a
I
a+h
.
a+ b+c 2a + 6 3a + 6
a a
2a + 6 Sa + h
=a*.
a
;
10.
Replace w^ by 1
it is
236
12.
DETERMINANTS.
The
solution is similar to that of the next example.
[chap;
13. We may express the value of any one of the unlcnown quantities as the quotient of one determinant by another ; thus the value of tj is given by the equation
6
y=
a**
A^
c*
that
is,
alio
whence
Here
y= ~
_k{kc) {ka)
b{b ~c){b a)
1 b
'
14.
63
that
is,
b)
(a d)
(6
d){cd)u
(b
= {bc){c~ a) {a b){a k)
whence
k)(ck);
[Art. 50j]
_{k~a){kb){kc)
{d
a) (d
b)
(dc)'
of
Examples 15 and 16 may be solved after the manner of the first solution XXXIII. a. Ex. 24. Here however we shall give another method.
15.
When
d = a, the
S"*
3''''
row=(l)
(
2'
row;
when d = b, when d = c,
Hence the determinant vanishes in all these cases, and since in d it must be equal to f [a, b, c) x (a  d) (b  d) (cd).
it is
a cubic
To
then
/ (a,
6, c),
put d = 0;
abcf{a,
b, c)
+ ca be + a b ca a + bc ab
b
c
abc
abc abc
be
hence
f{a,
b, c)
1 1
b
c
+ ca + ab
(c
ca
a+bc
bc) 
ab
and
therefore
f{a,
b, c)
= bc
{{a +
+ ab)] +
XXXIII.J
16.
last by
DETERMINANTS.
237
2,
For tlie new second column, multiply the first column by thus the determinant 2, and add the results to the second
;
the
6c
{a^
+ b^ + e^)
be
ca
ca ab
{c
ab
= (a^ +
where / [a,
b, c)
b''
+ c^}
[bc)
a)
{ab)f{a,
b, c)
+ c).
It ia
= l.
see that the determinant is
Multiplying the columns by 1, 1,1, the results we see that ab + cd + e f
results, it follows that
1,1,1
Multiplying the columns by 1, w, m^, 1, a, w^ respectively, and adding the a + ab + u'^c + d + oie + a^ is a factor of the determinant.
Similarly
Hence the determinant is the product of these six factors and constant, which is obviously unity.
Taking these factors in
{a.
some
The
+ oi'B + wC,
{A
and the
first
factor
=A+B + C.
+ or'B + wC)
= A^ + B^+(PSABC,
which
is
238
18.
DETERMINANTS.
The determinant
in question is
[chap.
XXXIV.J
2.
MISCELLANEOUS THEOREMS.
162189 + 8o + i = 0; that
3a + 6 = 27.
239
3.
As iu
Art. 517,
we have
1
240
MISCELLANEOUS THEOREMS.
[CHAP.
11. This expression vanislieswhena=0, 6 = 0, c = 0; and also when 6 +c = 0, is equal to ia6c(6 + c)(c + a)(<H6).
This expression vanishes when a = 0, 6 = 0, c = 0. Moreover it is symmetrical and of four dimensions in a, b, c; therefore it must be equal to kabc {a + b + c) where fc is a constant. By putting a=b = c = l, we find k = 12.
12.
13.
This expression
is
equal to
If
andif
whence
14.
ft
= 80,
b^ + c^) + l{bc + ca + ab)}. a=b = c = l, then 2i0 = 3{k + l); a=l, 6=1, c=l, then 2^0= (Sk + l); = 0.
abc{k{a' +
This expression
is
equal to i (6 
c) (c
a) {a
h) {x
a){x 6) (xc).
The
= (6c)3+(ca)3 + (a6)3=3(6c)(ca)(a6).
Hence fc=3.
15.
If
is satisfied if
16. 17.
The expression
when
By
putting
18.
a=6 = c = l, we
find
When a = b + c,
a^{b
the expression
The expression
a' {6"
c=)
If
= (6c)(ca)(a6){ft(a' + 62 + c2) + J(6c + ca + a6)}. a=2, 6 = 1, c = 0, then i= 2{ok + 2l); a=l, 6=l, c = 0, then 2 = 2(2i;l);
Thus
+ (y'{ab)={bc){ca){ab){bc + ca + ab).
XXXIV.]
20.
MISCELLANEOUS THEOREMS.
shew that
241
It is easy to
= 9(6c)(<!o)(a6);
and
{bcY{b + c2a) + {c~a)^{c + a2b) + {abf{a + b2c) = 4(6c)(ca)(a6).
Since
{y
21.
we
have
+ z)''{z + xf{x+yy
= Zx* {y + zy + 2Xx^y^ + 623?y^z + lOai'i/ = Zx^{y + z)^ + 2 (2a;3t/3 + SSx^i/^ + Gx^^z^)  2x^yH'^ = Sa;< + 2)2 + 22 (a:2/)3  2x^y'^z\ [Art. 522.]
(!/
22.
On
multiplication,
we have S
{ab
 c^) (ac 
6^)
= a%c + ah^c + afto^ _ ajs _ a^s _ aSj _ 5^3 _ gS,. _ js^ + ja^s + aS^s + ^2 ja = (6c + ca + a6)2  (a'^ftc + + ab(? + 06^ + ac^ + a^i + 6c' + a^c + 6=c) = (6c + ca + a6)2  (a^ + 6^ + c^) (6c + ca + a6) = (6c + ca + a6) (6c + ca + a6a262c2).
aft",.
23.
= a6c(Sa3 + 32a26 + 6a6c)(26V + 32a'6=c + 6a262c2) = a6c 2a3 + 32a36=c  S6*c'  32a'62c
=a5c2a'26V.
This last expression
= a6c + 63 + c3)  (6V + (?a? + a%^) = 6c(a^6V) + a63(6ca=) + ac3(5ca2) = (a2  be) \bc (a2 + 6c)  06'  ax?) = (a2_6c)(62ca)(c2o6).
((js
24.
Let
to
shew that
when
a;
+ y + 2=0.
Now
ifi{y
z)
which vanishes
25.
The
solution
H. A. K.
16
242
26.
MISCELLANEOUS THEOREMS.
From
a formula given in Art. 523,
[CHAP.
we have
=4(a3 + 63 + c33a6c).
27.
Let
a:
523,
= (3sa6c){(6c)2+(c.a)H(a6n
= (a + 6 + c){(6c)2+(co)2 + (a6)y
=a' + 6' + c'3a6c.
28.
is (6
=  Sa (6  c) =
=a;Sa(62c2)
(x
 ft)
 c)
= (6  c) (c  a) (a  6) x.
Note.
It is
,
:,
r
{xa)[xb)[xc)
into partial fractions.
29.
is (6
c){c a) (06),
30.
is (6
 c) (c  a) (a 
6) (x
+ a) (x + 6) (x + c)
the numerator =  S
+ j)
(6  c) (x + &) (x + c)
2(rt+j))(a + 3){x2(6c)
+ x(i2_c2) + 6c(6c)}.
XXXIV.J
The
coefficient
MISCELLANEOUS THEOREMS.
otx'= Sa^ (6  c)  (p + q) Sa (6  c) pjS (6  c)
243
= {bc){ca){a~b).
The
coefficient of
x= j:,a''{b'c'){p + q)I,a{b^c^)pq2(b^c^)
^{p + q){bc)[ca)(ab).
 a) (ab).
Thus the numerator=(6c)(co) (a6){a;2+(pH5)a;+pg}. Note. The converse of this result is easily proved by Partial
31.
Fractions.
The numerator
6
is
 S6cd(6  c)
(6
 d)
(c
d).
This expression
is of six
a=b, or a=d, or
= d,
= a,
or
k{bc){ca){ab)(ad)(b d) [cd).
A comparison of
the coefficients of
32.
This expression consists of four terms and vanishes when 6=c, or or a = 6, or <i=(i, or 6 = d, or c=d, and therefore is divisible by
(6
= a,
c){c a)
(a
b)(a d) {b d){c^d).
Further the given expression is of seven dimensions ; heuoe the remaining factor is k{a + b + c + d). A comparison of the coefficients of a'^b^c shews that A;=l. Hence the numerator is equal to
(bc)[ca){ab){ad}{bd){cdj{a + b + c + d).
33
common
+ y+z) (yz + zx + xy)  3xyz hence {s {yz + zx + xy) 3p^}+p^s^Zyz=ip*s. 4jj*8 _ ip^s _ 4 expression
(x
;
xyzp's"
i4sa p*s
EXAMPLES. XXXIV.
1.
b.
Pages 442444.
From
we have
hence
If 6
6+c=0,
or c + a = 0, or a + b = Q.
this
it is
also 6= c, so that b^+'^= c^^+i. easy to see that each side of the identity is equal to 0^"+!.
From
162
244
2.
If
MISCELLANEOUS THEOREMS.
Wehave
[CHAP.
X^+Y^={X+T){X+uT){X+u^Y).
(ir'c,
then
The expression
x = uy,
;
(x
and
is
therefore divisible
by xy.
If
the
+ u''+(ai2)"},
Similarly it vanishes when x = oi''y. Thus the expression is divisible by  uy) (X  w^y) that is, by xy [x'^ + xy + y'').
;
X+Y+Z = 0.
+ Y^ + Z^SXYZ
Y=b(cxaz),
is divisible
by
X+ Y+Z,
and
This condition
is satisfied if
X=a{bzcy),
5.
Z=c(ay bx).
By
multiplication, (6
 ex) (c  ax)
(a
 bx)
+ a) + 0)^=0.
This theorem
is
6.
y and putting
= 0,
directly as follows
+ ab + b'')(x^+xy+y^) = {aab)(aby'b)(xt^)(xa'y).
Now {aab)(xahi) = ax + byoibx + {l + w)ay = ax + by + ayu(bxay); and (au'^b)(xuy) = ax + bya%x + (l + w^)ay = ax + by + ayu'^{bxay).
Thus the product =(AwB)(Aa'B) = A^+AB+B%
where
8.
A = ax + by + ay, B=bxay.
LetX=a'' + 2bc, Y=b' + 2ca, Z=c^ + 2ab; then
X+Y+Z={a + b + c)^
X+u>Y+a''Z=(a + u^b + ac)^,
X + ui^Y+aZ={a + ub + oi^c)\
XXXIV.]
9.
MISCELLANEOUS THEOREMS.
Y=Vca, Z=c^db,
then
245
Let X=a?bc,
Let
X= o" + 62 + c2,
where
a* + b* +
a7+b''
a^ + b^ + c^=dr^2q',
r=abc.
easy to prove Ex. 11
From
16.
these relations
_,.
it is
15.
^ abc
'
Sm'e
bc
a
+ ^ + b
ca
ab
c
= _ ~
bcibc)
'
+ ca{ed) + ab{ab)
^
{b
c)(c a){a  b)
abc
'
Now
a{a 
c)
since 6
+ c = a.
(2a^
(1).
Now
(bH +
A + a%)
(1),
(bc^
+ ca" + ab'')
= ftScS + cSflS + a3 j3 ^abe (a' + 6' + c') + Sa^bV = {{bc + ca + a6)3  SaftcSa^S  Ga^ftV^} + abc {a^ + 6' + c^) + 3a'6V.
Hence from
the expression
= {bc + ca + ab)^ 6a6c2a26 + Ga^ft^cS + abc{a^ + b3 + c^). But 2a26 = (a + 6 + c)(a2 + 62 + c2)3a6c= Ba&c, since o + 5 + c = 0. Also a' + 6' + c^ = 3a6c; hence the expression = (6c + ca + a6)' + 18a^6 V + 6abc' + 3a^6c^.
246
18.
MISCELLANEOUS THEOREMS.
'Pui,yz
[CHAP.
= a, zx=b, xy=c;
(a?
then a + 6 +
= 0, and we
have to
prove that
25 (a? + &7 + c!)
This easily follows from the Note preceding the solution of Ex. 16 ; for
a'
+ 6' + c''=72V,
a^
+ y + c^ = Zr,
+ c^=
5qr.
zx = b, xy = c,
so that a + b
+ c = 0;
then we
Since
c= {a + b),
= 8{{ab)'' + 3ab}^5iw>b^{{abf + iab} = 8(o6) + 72a6(a6)< + 162a262(a6)2 = 2(o6)2{2(a6)2 + 9a6}2 = 2(a6)2(2a2 + 5a6 + 262)2 = 2 (a 6)2 (2a + 6)2 (a + 26)2 = 2(a6)2(ac)2(6c)2, since a+5=c.
The theorem may
20. Put shew that
6
2.
c = o, ca=j3, a6=7,
o^
+ /3 + 7 = 0;
then we have
to
This
is easily
a<'+p + 7'==3r22g5,
21.
+ 0' + y''=7a^y(~^^^j
16.]
22.
c= 5;
becomes
4:b^{yz)^eb^{yz){x^ + y^ + z^)ib^{yz)(zx){xy)
XXXIV. J
MISCELLANEOUS THEOREMS.
247
Hence the lefthand side vanishes when a=0; and similarly it vanishes when 6 = 0, c=0, x = 0, y = 0, 2 = 0, and thus may be put equal to kabcxyz.
To
find k, put
Assume
{l
By proceeding
SflS
as in Art. 526,
we have
= 3r,
Sa" =  5gr j
whence
_ = _.__.
With
the notation of the preceding Example,
24.
we have
(SaS)2=9r2 = 9(Sa6c)2.
Since
d=
(o
+ 6 + c), we have
(6
bcd + eda+dab
..
+ c) (c + a) (a + 6)
But
and similarly
25.
(a
We
have 8 (s 
 c) (o^  a?)
= 3(a2 + 62 + ^2)2 + 2(6c + ca + a6)(a2 + 62 + c2) + 8 (6c + ca + a6)2 = {(a2 + 52 + c2) + 2(6c + ca + a6)}{3(a2 + 62 + c2) + 4{6c + ca + a6)} = { 202 + (4s2  202)
= 8(s2ff2)(4s2+o.2).
}
{ (6o2
+ 2 (4s2 _ 2<r2)
248
26.
MISCELLANEOUS THEOKEMS.
Wehave
A^ + B^=(A + B){A
6xh/
[CHAP.
+ aB)(A + a''B).
On
putting
we obtain
Also
for
and
B=y' + Gxy^ + Sxh/  x^, A=x^ + A + B=^9x^ + 9xy^ =9xy(x + y). A + aB=c(^{l<o) + Sx^y(2 + a) + 3xy''{l + 2w)y'{lu) = (1  w) (x^  Zu^x^y + Sufixy^  wY), 2 + u=l + u + u'=w'' + u3= w2(lu); 1 + 26)=  {a + ufl) + 2u)=u{l  u) = oi* {1  u).
+ 3xy^y\
Thug
A + wB = (lu){xu^y)K
u and w
for u^,
By
we have
A + m^B=(li^){xuyf.
.:
27.
 d) (c  d).
;
This expression is divisible by (6 c){c a) (a b){a d) (b  d) (c  d) the remaining factor must be a symmetrical function of two dimensions hence
;
the numerator
If
If
= (6  c) (c  a) {a b){a d) (hd){cd) (Tc2,a? + I2,ab). a=2, 6 = 1, c=l, d=0, then 60 = 12(6S;;) or 6fc=5. a = 3, 6 = 2, c= 1, d=0, then  300 =  12 (14 + IIJ) or 14 + Hi = 25.
J:
ft
From
these equations
we obtain S = l, 1=1.
factor
is
a^ + V^ + c^ + d^ + ab
+ ac + ad + le^bd + ed.
Since all the signs are positive, the factors consist of positive terms only. By writing 2a%^c^ in the form a%^c^ + d?h^c^, we see that the expression consists of eight terms; also it is of the sixth degree; hence the factors will be binomial expressions of the second degree, and by trial it is easy to verify that they are a' + bc, + ca, c^ + db.
28.
EXAMPLES. XXXIV.
2.
c.
Paces
449, 450.
Here
hence
mn=the
is,
x + a=0.
3.
first
+ if = a'.
XXXIV.]
4.
MISCELLANEOUS THEOEEMS.
the second
249
From
a + ap{q + r) = 2ax;
By
ap(q+r) = Sax.
;
ap^=x  3a
find
3a).
and from the third and fourth equations, we whence by eliminating p, we obtain
5.
ap = y;
y' = a
(x
From
we have by
cross multiplication
_
(a'
2a*3a~a^l~a?''
whence by eliminating
6.
x,
we obtain
7.
We
have
the
6V=xV = a^*^
first
hM
ShS
thusx''=^, y'=r^
z'^.
8.
From
ipq = {p + qY (p qf= ^ Substitute for pq from the third equation.
(1
+pqf.
9.
We
have x + =
4b* J
whence xw = 5
"^
a^
Thus
10.
first
ic^
b*
From the last two equations, we have 2x^y''=b*c*; and from the two equations 2xy=a^  b^ ; hence 2 (6*  c*) = {a'  6)^.
11.
say.
Thus
1+a
=q
"
k
=,
1+6
=1
k
,
1+c'
1+d ax + by + cz + du = h.
proceeding as in
M=5
k
,
Thus
13.
a?=2q,
It is
b^
+ y^ + z^=
5qr.
whence 6c^.5a26^
= 3 + S +2^,
yz
x^
and
= 2 + 2 + S?^
yz
x'
hence ah c + \.
250
14.
MISCELLANEOUS THEOREMS.
Wehaye
x^{y + z) = a?,
2/= (
[CHAP.
x%ji=abc;
+ a;) = 6',
e^{x
+ y) = c^,
henee
that
is,
a^6
x^y''z^ (y
+ z)(z + x) (x + y);
abc = (y
+ z)(z+x)(x + y)
=a^ + h^ + c^ + 2dbo.
15.
From
we have
by=x^ + Sy^.
we have ac^=3x''y + y^.
ax=Zx^+y^,
Multiplying the
Similarly
first
of these equations by y,
bc^=x^ + Sxy''.
{a +
2
Thus
..
(a
16.
By
multiplication,
{y
that
is,
V
z
x
z
X y
y X
..,
?/
?/
a;
Hence
17.
^ fy a6c= +  +  +  +  + y z X z y y X
<
x^
It'
z^
\2
yz
zx
xy
2)
But
=f!z^lii!+M=E!_y_f+2;
2/2
yz
'
and therefore
XXXIV.]
18.
Substitute
2/
251
equations; thus
(1), (2).
+6=
2x'cx' + a=0
From
(1)
and
and
(2),
cx^2bx + a =
(3).
From
By
(1) '
^
(3),
^
"
oc
 2^2 = a be = 26 ^ ^
^ (ac
c2
eliminating
19.
x,
we have
26^) (26
 c^) = (a  6c)'.
We
the
From
a{a + c)
+ 2abxy + b
{b
+ c)y^=(i
+ by)
;
(1).
From
hence
z= 
ax + by=.".
ax''
+ {a + bc)xy + by^ =
cross multiplication
(2).
From
(1)
and
(2),
we obtain by
x'
c) (a
xy
6
y^
6 (5
c)
is
ab {a  b)^= (a  c)
(6
 c) (a  6  c)
(a
 6 + c)
c,
we have
that
or
is,
a^ + b'
+ c^ b^c  bc^  c^a  ca"  a^b ab^ + 3abc=:0; Sa3Sa26 + 3a6c = 0.
j:a^={a + b + c)^Z^a^b6abc;
But and
or
+ 6 + c)3  4 (6 + c) (c + a) (a + 6) + 5abc = 0.
252
20.
MISCELLANEOUS THEOREMS.
[CHAP
We have
:.
c [ax^ +
6j/2)
Again,
+ by)(x + y)=xy;
(2).
From
(1)
and
rs
(2),
we obtain by
xy
6{2a6(6c)(a + 6l)}
:.
y^
..
to powers of
c,
we have
l)
c'(a +
21.
Substituting
z=
xy
we have
ax^bcx + abc = 0,
by'cay + abc=0,
abxy + abc''=0.
From
we have
^
bx)
(6^
y
abc [x^ be)
=
ax
1^
(6^
 ex)
be)';
 abex^ + x'
(ab^
It
equation by
(a^ftS
a,
bex'
and subtract
 a^ x^ +
be (6c
Multiply this equation by o, and the equation ax' bex + abe=^ by  a") x, and subtract then
;
by
ah'e'
then
(a363
is
+ a?e^ + m^ ha'^e')x'=Q;
XXXV.]
22.
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
Put
253
lixp)=}(yq)=U^r) = k;
= i, z=_fL. ak' " bk' ck Also l = {x + y + z)^=x'' + y'' + z^ + 2{yz + zx + xy) = l + 2{yz + zx + xy); therefore yz + zx + xy = 0. Thus bcqr (ak) + carp {bk) + abpq (c  ft) = rp ^^ ^^^^ ^_j^^ap{car + abqbcrbcq) whence j,^f^iir + + pq) bcqr + carp + abpq bcqr + carp + abpq ap bcqr + ca7p + abpq ^ , "^ j ^ ^ .. x= = and similar values r a and z. for " ak a{bq + cr)bc(q + r) By substituting inx + y + z = X, we obtain as the eliminant
then
x=^~,
=
1 b (cr + ap)
a{bqi cr)bc{q+r)
 ca {r +p)
1 1
+ c(ap
23.
+ bq)ab{p + q)
bcqr + carp
' t
abpq
Divide by
az?
j/'
+ bz^ + cz + d = 0,
az + b
a'z
z^
+ b'z'> + c'z+d' = 0;
+d + d"
az^
a'z^
we have
a
a'
bz^
b'z'
+ cz + d + c'z + d"
cz
c'z
+V
and
z
+ bz + c + b'z+c'
d''
EXAMPLES. XXXV.
a.
Page
456.
Corresponding to the first pair of roots there will be a quadratic 4. factor X?  2ax + (a^  b") ; and corresponding to the second pair a quadratic factor x^ + 2ax + {a^  b^)
is
+ (a2J5)}24(i2a;2=0.
is
a factor x^  8x+ 7.
By writing the
we
x^8x+S=0.
6.
a,
a, b;
9
sum
of the products
254
7.
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
Let
a,
u,,
[CHAP.
bhe
2a+6=5;
Eliminating b from the
first
= ^; a%=^.
;
whence
a==
^'S
or
equation
we
find
6=  6
or
.
It will
be found on
3
a=^. b=
o
'
23
equation
a%=
,
; henoe
11
,
;;
 6.
8.
Let ~
a,
a(r+l+ =
^
''^
whence a=2,
r=3
2, 6.
9.
Let 3a, 4a, b be the roots; then 7a + 6=i, 7a6 + 12a==ll, a^b = l.
From
the
1
first
two, by eliminating
6,
a= ^
It will
or
22
Taking
a= , we
get 6
= 4;
is
, 2,
4.
inadmissible.
10.
Let 2a,
a, i
be the roots
then
2a2 +
3a + 6=j,
3a6=, 2a%=^.
these,
By
first
two of
The
first
we
11.
Let
a,
a,
b,
c be the roots
(b
then
6 + c=i.
+ c)a^=l,
1
a='6c=.
3
Thuso=v/3, 6c=^,
+ c = t; whence 6=^, c=
a'=
1
,.
12.
Let ,
r
a,
=,
2,1
\r
hl+ri = 54
j
Thus
a= , and
12r2 + 25r +
12=0; whence r= ^
o
or
.
4
XXXV.J
13.
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
Let ad,
u,,
255
we have
Art. 541,
a=rr,
2 14.
d=. 4
;
Let
a, 6, c,
d be
the roots,
^
then
40
,.
a + o + c + a==.
6
,29
ab + (ic + ad + oc + oa + cd=
7
;; ,
o6cd=2.
cd = 2,
By
substituting
a6= 1 and
,
we have
c + 2ad + 26=D
+ a + Z+6 = 5D
29
a + 6 = 2; and
since
a6=
for
We now have c + d= ^,
15.
cd = 2;
whencec = 5, d= =
= 640; =
;
thus
d= ^
16.
^ ,
ar, wfi
then
The sum
2 =^(i + ,4 + +
'
+ r^) =
^S
thu.
1
(,.+
r^+
Q
Q
iy+(,.+ i)=^7.
and therefore
;
whence
5
= ^
13
r^
Thus aV2=  X 
= 4,
or
ar= 2
and
8
,
256
17.
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
Let
a, h,
[CHAP.
=
3,
81
ab(a + h)
10
whence, a + 6=3,
ab=;
and therefore
a=^, 6=.
18.
(1)
Here we have
a + 'b+c=p,
1
a"
db +
'bc
+ ca = q,
(a
abc r.
_ S {a%') ._  aVc' ~
V
1 d^b^
__
(ab
+ 6e + eg)'  2abc
a'b'c'
+ b + c) _
q'' 2rp
7
m
^'
19.
(1)
.:
a"
+ b^ + c' _ p'2q
d'hc^
r"
'
Here a + b + c=0,
ab + bc + ca=q,
abc= r.
(2)
Since
^)K9=^
20.
(1)
(2)
Again,
XXXIV.
b.
Ex.
23.]
21.
X,
then substitute
Here Sa=0, Sa6 = g, o&c= r. Multiply the equation through by a, i, c for successively and add the results; thus we
EXAMPLES. XXXV.
548
b.
Page
460.
depend on
As
Arts. further
XXXV.]
1,
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
1
257
1
~S
,
we have the
quadratic factor
(Zx'
x^x + 1.
a;
 7x 
6) (a"
+ 1)
The equation is now easily put in the form = 0. Thus the other roots are obtained from
3x^7xe = 0.
Here four of the roots are ^3, lJz2iJ 1. Corresponding to 5, these pairs of roots we have the factors a;^3 and x'2x + 5. Aloo the equation may be written (x + 1) (x^  3) (x^  2a; + 5) = ; hence the remaining root is  1.
6.
V^, +V3V^;
is
n/3+s/^,
a;2
^/3V^.
a;2_2^3.x + 5 and
+ 2^3.x + 5.
or s* 2a;2
(x^+2^3.x + 5)(x^2sj3.x + 5) = 0,
+ 25 = 0.
10. Here we have the quadratic factors x^  48 and x'^  lOx + 29 corresponding to the two pairs of roots hence the equation is
;
(x248)(x210x + 29) = 0.
12.
is
roots are
or x= +
^2 + ,^3 J X 62J2.x2J3^2x/6 = 0.
+ 62^2.xf(2V3.x + 2V6)2=0,
roots are x* + 8x2
is
iJ2^^3^ 1
+ 12 + 4;^2.x' = 0;
or x^
(xH8x2 + 12)2(4x/2.x3)2=0,
13. Denote the equation by /(x) = 0; then in /(x) there is one change of sign, so that there cannot be more than one positive root. Again, /( x) has only one change of sign ; therefore there cannot be more than one negative root. Hence there must be at least two imaginary roots.
[By Art. 5S4, we know that the equation has one positive and one negative
root.]
14. Here f{x) has three changes of sign, and /(x) has no change of Therefore the equation has no negative roots and at most three sign. Hence it has at least four imaginary roots since it is of the positive roots. seventh degree.
H. A. K,
17
238
15.
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
Here
f(x)=x^''ix<' + x*2x3,
[CHAP.
and
thus there are three changes of sign in f{x), and three changes of sign in f{x); hence there cannot be more than three positive roots nor more than three negative roots; henoe at least four of the roots must be imaginary.
th^e
positive roots.
Since f{x) has two changes of sign, the equation has at most two And since /( x) has only one change of sign, there cannot be more than one negative root. Therefore it must have at least six
imaginary roots.
17. (1) Let a, i, b be the roots; then a=p, V=q, aW=r; by eliminating a, b, we obtain jig=r, which is the required relation.
(2)
Let
'a
=,
u,
a^=r,
^ + a+alc=p,
K
is,
a^
j
+ a^ + a,''lc=q;
P thus 
1 
p^r
g'.
18. Let add, ad, a + d, a + 3d be the roots. have after easy reduction the relations
Then by
Art. 539 we
ia=p,
From
12a^ 
6a^~10d' = q,
ia^iOad'^ r.
d,
2aq=ia^ + r,
Multiply by
8,
transpose,
 ipq + 8r=0.
then we have
aVi^=s;
+ 7c2 + i;3)=j),
a'k'>(l
+ k + k'' + k^)=r,
whence
19.
it is
Put
lx=y,
divide
Expand and
by y
thus
yni_nyn^+
If
2/ii 2/2> 2/31 >
n (nl) j/"3
...
+  l)''ira=0.
(
2/ni
we have
thatis,
= n.
20.
2a562^(2a6)22a6c2a = 2'2rp,
XXXV.]
21.
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
Here
{i
259
2
^^^^9=^"^
={ab^ + ac' +
bc^
+ ba? + ca'
c&2)
Here
Pi ~ 3''>
24.
^s in
Example
22.
Now
Sa%c = a2(6c + 6d + c(i) + + + = a (abc + abd + acd) + + + =a(rbcd) + + + = r{a + b + B + d) 4.abcd =pr  is.
Substitute
a, b, e,
25. obtain
for
results; thus
we
Now
Also
2a=
Ex.
2.]
pq)6pr~q (p^ _ 2g) +pr  is 2a*=p* + 3p =p*  ip'q + 2q^ + ipr  is.
(3r
EXAMPLES. XXXV.
1,
c.
Pages
470, 471.
260
2.
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
[CHAP.
7
We have
112
1 1 I
179
10
 28
I
_ 
9
6 3
I
 39
I
110
 123
37
II
..
/(a;
We have
XXXV.]
10.
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
Here
261
and
f't,x)
The H.C.F.
(x
 2y
is
x2.
Thus
Now
 3, 
1.
x^^x + l; hence
Proceeding as in Ex. 10, we find that the H.C.P. ot f{x) and f'(x) (x  Vf is a factor of / (a;).
Now
12.
/(a;)
= (a!l)'(a!3);
1, 1, 1, 3.
Here
and
..
 5^ (x) = x it is
8x2 + 21x  18
and
Now
!c'8x2 + 21x18=(x3)2(x2);
therefore the roots are 3,
3, 3, 2, 2.
Here
/(x)
/'(x)
and
The H.C.F.
17^
2
ls/^3
2
2)
Here
it
will be
>
5>
~ 2'
Here
it
will
be found that
/(x)
Thus the
16.
roots are 1, 1,
1,
1, 2.
Here
^3,
1^^.
Here
/(x) = (xa)2{x2t(a6)x(i5}.
6,
a.
262
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
Then
[CHAP.
it will
18. Denote the two equations by f{x) = and F(x)=Q. found that the H.C.P. of f{x) and ^(3;) is Sx^S.
be
Also
and
Thus the
/g
^
^'"'i
\/ 2
'
"
in the
same way.
have a common
root.
(1)
(2)
has equal
roots,
f{x)=0, f'(x) =
Thus
and
have a
x^px^ + rz^O
na;i2^a; =
root,
common
(2),
will be obtained
by
elimi
From
we have x"^=
(1)
n
2p
Multiply
that
is,
by n and
(2)
x^ =
Xn2)f
nr
"1
]
/2j)Y
21.
If /(x)
roots, /(s)
mon quadratic factor, and /'(a;)=0 must have too equal roots. Now /' (x) = 2a; {2a;'i 5), so that one root of/'(a;) = is zero, and
two are the roots of 2a;''' f 3 = which are equal in magnitude but not Thus f(x) = cannot have three equal roots. sign.
22.
x^+~x + l = Q
a
(1),
and
Now
(2).
may
i
have one
first
common
a;
common imaginary
6
roots.
In the
case
=l
satisfies
and thus
2a.
a; I
must be
ratic factor x^
 a;
t
1,
and thus
 a.
23.
Here we have
f(x)=x'^+nx'<'^ + n(nl)x'^^+
...
\n
=0,
=0.
and
/'(a;)=
H In
Now
of the
form.
roots.
if f{x) has a pair of equal roots, f(x) and /' (x) must have a factor form xa. Therefore also f[x) f (x) must have a factor of this But /(x)/'(x)=x, and it follows that /(x) = cannot have equal
XXXV.]
24u
THEORY OF
Here
EQTJATIOXS.
263
(1), (2).
f'(x)=5ii!*Wa^x + h*
/"(x) = 20xs20as
and
If /(x)=0 has three equal roots f'{x) and /""(.r) must have a conimou linear factor; from (2) it is evident that this factor must hex a. Thus x=a must satisfy the given equation. On substituting for x we get the required relation.
25.
Here
/'W=
ii^ + Sax^+2bx+c,
and
if
roots, f'[x)
factor.
Hence
and
(1)
(:)
12x + 6aj;+26=0
root.
(2)
by 3 and
by x; thus by subtraction
3ar= + 16x + 3c=0
(3).
Eliminating
r'
between
bo
r
>
(2)
and
the
(3),
we
get
(Ga^
1G&) x
= 12c  2a6
whence x
= r^s ia'
which
is
common
root.
26.
Here
x^+qx^+rx*+t=0
5x^+3qx*+2rx=0
root.
(1)
(1)
(2)
and
must have a common
Multiply
(2)
by x and
by
and
subtract; thus
(3).
2jxS+3rx= + 5f =
Multiply
(2)
by g and divide by x
thus
(4).
(3)
and
(i)
thus
we
find
is
15rx^'62=x + 25f4}r=0.
27.
By
the
/(i)
xa^x6 xc
~ \x
X
x^
...
'"J
= +
X
'^,
X
+ x" +
'^.
+ '^ + ...
X
264
THEORY dF EQUATIONS,
/' (a;) = 3x^
1.
[chap.
XXXV.]
whence
ii;
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
+  =3
or
1.
265
we obtain
By
''^'
6.
Divide
all
or
4 (x +
'X 2i(x +
satisfies
Y +
i5
(a;
+ ~\ 25 = 0.
By
inspection
a;
+ =1
the equation.
On removing
the factor
(^xtV 20^x4^^ + 25 = 0.
ii;
The
+
a;
5 5 are , . 2 2
Thus
finally
we have
to
x + =:l,
X
7.
its
a;
+=
X
15 ,
2
like
x+
15 = .
2
32j/'
Put
x=,
 48j/2 + 22i/ 
3=
has
roots in A. P.,
Example
1 in Ait. 641.
Example 8 may be
9.
treated similarly.
J/''
The equation 6^' +01/ 1 = has its roots in A.P. denoted by a  d, 14, a + d ; then3a = j; thatis,a==.
Thus the mean root
10.
of the original equation
is 35.
Let them be
The equation
y* +
2y^21y^ 22y + 40 =
has
its
roots in A. P.
and proceed as in
XXXV.
a.
11. Here, since the sum of the roots of the equation is 6, we must decrease each root by 2. We have therefore to substitute x + 2 for x, which is effected by Horner's process using x  2 as divisor.
1
14
1 1
I
6 2
10
2
I
8
1
I 2
is
x'
 2x + 1 = 0.
266
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
by 1; therefore
lising
[chap.
a + l as
12, Here we have to increase each root divisor in Horner's process, we have
is
x^
1.
 4a;' + 1 = 0.
Therefore using
a;
13.
Here we have
by
+l
as
XXXV.]
18.
THEOET OF EQUATIONS.
Put
267
we have
y=x\
so that
x=ijy ; then
after transposing
whence
19.
x=^y;
2
then
y + 3y^ + 2=0; or
{y
+ 2)' = {3y^f;
k
When
y=hi
will be obtained
by substituting y = 
k
,
y
21.
If
,
=2>
^2
We have therefore to
Hence
that
or
If
13,
q)= r.
y
(
Jy \y
 + 9 )=
J J
";
T y yW + ^ +i]=i^<
a 1 =
;
x=a, then
!/
b+c = ^ =
s=
23.
TP If
a;
2/
abc + 1
1r ^ = ^;
x=
lr
y
24.
If
We have
now
x= J y
that
Thus(V^)(2^ + 9)=';
25.
1
y^2qy^+qh) + r^=0.
x=yy.
qhj;
Thus
that
is,
+ gj/" + r=0,
or {y
+ Tf=
+ T^=(i.
268
26.
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
If. = a,then, = *!^=M!2=?^2=l'2. "
'
[CHAP.
be
be
be
y=
Now x' + r=
the
{(!/
_(^!+2r)
^
^^
^^ r(2+y).
or ga;=r(2/ + l); and therefore
ga;; hence
is
2a;
+ r=7'(2 + 2/),
r^j/S
new equation
+ l)r}3=2V(2 + 2/),
Let y=x', so that
a;
or
27.
= 4'!/.
1 1
From
Cube each
(2/
..
+ a6)3= 
2/
{aSj/
+ 63 + 3a6i/3(a2/3 + 6)}
y^ +
d?b'^
2/5
+ a3j,2 + b^y + aS j3 _ 0.
=c = 5; hence one
of the roots is 5.
28.
The sum
of the roots
= 0,
or (x5)(x24)(a;2_l)=0.
Thus the
roots are
2, 1,
5.
29.
has
its
roots in A. P.
a,
a+i
then
is,
3a=
\ that
a= ?
or d=
{2
Now
Also
o (ai* 
d^)
_ 
whence 3
f^  dA =1,
3p ^^.
r
g"
%a?d? =
Thus
f^(?!_l\=L^
XXXV.]
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
269
488, 489.
EXAMPLES. XXXV.
e.
Pages
As usual, we shall denote the imaginary cube that2(j=l + ^/~3, and22=l^^; also
Putting x=y+z, we find 3yz  18 = 1. Also y' + z^ =216; thus 2/8=27, s^=S.
0,
roots of 1 by
l
w and
ur^,
so
+ w + w2=0.
or
yV = 216.
Thus the
real root is 3
+2
or 5;
and
2.
3o)^
+ 2m = i.)^2=
(
Here
3/3
Also
23.
23
2'.
Thus the
real root is
122
or 10;
roots is
= 5 + 7^/^.
 3.
yh^=  213= _ 73
y'''=7^
;
33.
whence
Thus the
real root is 7
 3=4
and one
imaginary roots
is
4.
Also
The
roots is
5.
Let
x=;
Also
2/3
2/323=27.
Thus the
values is
real
then j39{ + 28 = 0. Putting =y + 2, we have 3i/2=9, or +23=  28 whence y^=  27, and 23=  1. value of f is  3  1 or  4 and one of the imaginary
;
^ 3.
,
Thus the
6.
and
;^= or
'^
^
7
5)
2V3
5)3
 108 (x
+432 = 0;
that
is,
+ z, we have 3yz = 108, or y^z^=3&^=6^. 63. ^3+^3 _ 432; \7l1ence ^3= _ 63 and z3=  63. Thus the real value of is 66 or 12; and the  6(1)  6w^ and  60;^  6cd, which are both equal to 6. Thus the values of x are  7, 11, 11.
Also
270
7.
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
Multiply the given equation by
8a;3
[CHAP.
4,
then
or
(2a;
Here 3yz= 
12, or
yh^=  4'.
z'=4.
Thus the
Examples 9 17 may be solved by the methods given in Arts. 582, 583; but usually shorter solutions may be easily found.
9.
Here
a;*=3x''
a;^
thus
10.
that
+ 42a;40; on adding 6x^ + 9 to each side, we have + 6a;2 + 9 = 9x2 + 42x)49; that is, x^ +3 = (3x + 7) x23x4 = 0, and x2 + 3x + 10 = 0.
Here x*=10x= + 20x + 16, and therefore x*6x^ + 9 = 4x2 + 20x + 25; x23=(2x + 5). Thus x22x 8=0, audx2 + 2x + 2 = 0.
is,
11.
Here
(x2l){x2 + 10)
x^
+ 9x210 + 8x(x2 1) = 0;
or (x3l){x= +
8a;
that
is,
+ 8x(x2l)=:0,
+ 10)=0;
thus
12.
that
is,
x2l = 0, and
Here
xH8x + 10 = 0.
x7x2 + 12 + 2x(x24) = 0;
thus
13.
x24=0, and
x'i
+ 2x3 = 0.
1
that
is,
+ 2x + 2 = 0.
to each side,
Here x  2x3 = i^^^  lOx  3, and therefore by adding  Sx'' + 4a; + 4 we have (x^  x  2)''=Sx^  6x + 1 ; thus
thatis,
x2x2=(8xl);
15.
x24x,l = 0, and
x= +
2x3=0.
This
is
may
15 whence x + =z.
Thus the
roota are
2,
2,
, .
11
XXXV.]
16. By inspection factor x1, we have x*
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
;
271
that
is,
(a;
+ ) xj
17. The first derived equation is 4a;S + 27a;' + 24x  80 = ; hence by Art. 559, this equation and the given equation must have a common root. Now the highest common factor of
is easily
+ 9a;3 + 12a;2_80j;192 and 4x3 + 27x2 + 24a;  80 (x + 4)''. Thus x^ + 9x3 + 12x80x192 contains the factor x + i repeated
a;^
found to be x^ + Sx + lG or
is
three
3.
times
x3
4,
 4,  4,
18. If x*={x^ + ax + b)', we have 2ax^+{a' + 2b)x^ + 2abx position this reduces to the form x^ + gx + r = hence
;
+ b^.
By
sup
a' + 2b
= 0,
q = b,
r=^.
,
From
thus
and r=
3;
r^=%: = %, or
b4 8
q^ + Sr'^=0.
= O DO
r
=
,
=r^ ; Jil
36 9 6= = g,
and a =
=3;
462
,
;
a^2b = 0.
thatis,
or 2x2 +
Thus
hence
x*=(x'' +
3x^
9
x2=/'x2 + 3xg')
3x5 = 0,
3x^=0.
19. The required condition may be obtained by ehminating x between the two equations. [See Art. 528.]
l = 2(g2_j))')
cross multipli
4 {p^  q)
According to the second supposition, the the second without remainder. Now
(x'>
expression
is divisible
by
and
therefore
p'q=0,
272
'
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
[CHAP.
20. By the conditions of the question, ax^+Sbx^ + 3ca; + d=0, and its derived equation ax'' + 2bx + c = must have a common root; hence ix' + 2cx + d=0, and aa:^ + 2bx + c=0 must have a common root. Elimifirst
nating
x^,
'2{acb^j
r^
21.
We
^
=ef"i)"(i')Henoe
thus
(x^ + ~x+\
(?^
~
q\
x^=a'x^, say;
x^ +
x + =ax. 2
p
a;^
The equation whose roots are ;^62 is 22. other roots are given by a:*4a;' + 8x4=0.
Thus
that
is,
+ 4a;2 = 0;
henoe the
x^~ix^ + ix^=ix^8x + i,
a;''4x + 2
or
a;'!2a;=(2x2);
= 0,
and x2=2.
23.
that
Here2/=/3 + 7 +
is,
thus
if
and we have
to substitute
= x(
Now
sY + is(ls]''y^ + r(ls)^y+{lsY = 0.
a + p + y + S=p,
24.
We have
a/37
aP + a.y + ad + Py + pS + yS=q,
r,
aPyd=s.
(1)
Suppose that
3 = a^
+ (a + ^)(7 + 5)+75=a/3+{a+/3)2+75;
Thus 4g = 4 (a(3 + 78) +p^, and 2r =p (a^ + yd) whence we obtain ^q = 8T+p\
XXXV.]
(2)
THEORY OF EQUATIONS.
=
273
In this case
25.
+ 56 = 0, and
56a^  209a* +1 = 0.
Eliminating
a^,
we have
;
but
56=  1 = 57
55 = 19 11 3
. .
5 = 209 X 15
hence
a 56a + 15 = 0. and
Similarly by eliminating the constant from the two above equations dividing by a, we have 15a*  5&a^ + 1 = 0.
From
we
find
we have
a=
 4a + 1 =
whence a = 2 ^3.
26. Denote the product of the two roots by y; then these two roots are given by the quadratic equation x^5x + y = 0; hence i'409a; + 285 must be divisible by a"  5x +^. It will be found that the quotient is
+ 5x2 + (252/) a; + (125 IO1/), + 216)x + 5(2i/225?/+57), or (!/3)(y72)x + 5(2/3)(22/19). Thus the remainder vanishes when y = 3, and therefore given by x=  5x + 3 = 0.
a;3
(2/2752/
27.
If
i=s/^
then
{l
= (l+ia)(l + i6)(l + ic)... x{lia)(lib){lic)... = {1 ipi + i^p^i%+ ...) X {l + ipi + i'i)2 + v%+ ...) = {{^Pi+Pi)i{PiPs+P5)}
x{{lp.2+Pt...) + i(PiP3+P5)}
hence
thatis,
If
Tte given equation may be written (x24x + 8)2=x24x + 4 = (x2)2; x''4x + 3=J=(x2);
'
a;2_5^ + 5 = 0, or x23x + l = 0. we put x=iy, the above equations become y^3y + l = 0, and y^5y + 5 = Q respectively, and we merely reproduce the original equation.
H. A. K.
18
274
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
[PAGE
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
1.
Pages 490524.
difference,
If
is
the
first
common
we have
2sj=n{2a + (rsl)d},
hence
2s^=2n{2a+(1nl)d},
2s3=3n{2a + (3nl)(e}
2
^ n
We
have
4 r^
=2
=^^
that
is, 3s,
3ft
2ft'
+s,=3s. '13
2.
ij^
= 7^ = 94!
;
tl^^* is,
3a;
= 4j/, and
a;!/
= 24
(a;
y).
Hence 3a;^=24(4x3a;)
3.
x = 8, ^ = 6.
If r be the radix, 5r + 2
= 2 (2r + 5)
{x
whence
= 8.
(a;
4. (1)
By

rearranging,
(j/
we have
;
+ 2){x 4) {x + 3)
5)
= 44
that
is,
{y
8)
15)
= 44
hence a;^2a:4 = 0,
where y = x^ 2x. We easily obtain ?/ = 4 or 10 or a;''  2a;  19 = 0. Thus the solutions are l^a,
12V5.
(2)
We have
xy = '6,
xy + xz= 2,
2xy + yz= 21, 2xzyz=5. we obtain xz=5, 2/2= 15; whence x)/0= 15.
2a + (pl)d = 0.
5.
We have
The sum
= sum
of (p
+ g)
terms
sum oip
terms
=Pl{2a + (p + ql)d}Q.
Thus
the
sum
is
{p
+ q)\a~
(^XJIf = _ (y + g)ga
1
pX
6. (1)
One
solution
is
obviously
a;
The product ^
which
is
of the roots
^ +
a'b
ab(a +
r^
rb)

2a + b'
(2)
= a + b;
then
Sabc = c^a^b^.
is
equivalent to
3^12a;(2a;3){xl)=12(a;l)x(2a;3} = 9(a;l),
12a;(2a;3)(xl) = 27{a;l)3;
a;
whence
 1 = 0, or
4a:
(2x
 3) = 9
(a;
 1)^
491]
7.
JIISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
275
16d=
;
We have
(1
+ d) (1 + 33d) = (1 + 9d)=
that
is,
4ScP 
thus d =
ord=i.
8.
Here o+/3=
jj,
a/3=j; hence
and
+ fP) = {p^q){p^3q).
Denoting
iE = {a + oi)
(ft
10. Without altering the value of the whole expression, we each of the expressions under the radical signs. Kow 8 + 2^15=t^'5+^'3V. and 12 + 2^'35 = (^'7+^'5);
may
douhle
,."^^,.
..
^^^
+ o^'5
^7^^,
(v''+^'o)'(^'7s'o)^
^
11.
5^/5
+3
^/5.(^'S)='
^ 5+9
21
^_7_
13"
w',
3(^'T)\'5
+5
we have
= u* + 0)8 + u = w +
o,^
+ 1 = 0.
12.
This follows from the fact that r'+2rS+4r2+3r+2 = (rS+r + l)(r2 + r+2).
Let X and y denote the nnmber of yards that 176011 1760 . ,, =o7. second: then X y 1760 , 176088 . ^ y
13.
,
.
A and B
run iu a
20,
and the
first
by 19,
or,
and therefore
x=^
seconds, and
137.
B 480 seconds.
first
See Ex.
4,
Art
three equations
we have
_
a^Vc*
Sabstitnting for x, y, j in
j
y
b*(?a^
_,.
c'^a?}^
+ y+s=0, we
get
a4+64+cJ=6SgS+(J!aS+a2js.
182
276
15.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Wehave
(ab)x^ + {bc)xy + (ca)y' = 0,
[PAGE
or
{xy){{ab)x {ca)y) = 0.
Taking x=y, we have x'=y^=
r
J:,
Taking {ab)x{ca)y, we
fina^ = ^ =
where
ak^{a'+b^ + c^bccaab)
= d.
16. Suppose that the waterman can row x miles per hour in still water, and that the stream flows y miles per hour; then he can row x + y miles per hour with the stream, and x y miles against the stream. Thus
48
and
+y j^ =
x
4
xy ^
d
17.
(1)
The expression = i
{2
 2a; + 2
,^(5
 ix)
{Ix
 3)
=i {JT^ii+ J2^^)\
10 7 4 1 2 5 . 35 1 TO ,u T^ ffi 18. (1) Thecoefficient = jg..^.g. 3. 3. 3.3.3^=3.
^.
(2)
Wehave (xiy=.xs(!_^^y.
.
is
the coefBcieut of
1
jg
and
is
therefore equal to
19.
(I)
W.l,.(2^)(>J^) + (l+^j)=0,
1
X
1
X^
Xo
whence
/"^
.
14
491]
(2)
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
From
the given equations,
277
we have
1
2(a + b)'
(Sa
Thus
If
^^
xy = 0,
xy=0,
2^" _ (3^+26) =
(a
*^'^
('K+2/)(a^
i!'2/)
= 2a6(a + ^),
we have
that
is,
20.
When
the expression
a perfect square,
4ac(6c)(a6) = 62(ca)2;
to powers of
5,
we have
that
is,
b{c
+ a)~ 2ac
21.
z),
we have
Put
yz = a, zx=b, xy = c; then 6e + ca + ffl6=0, whUe a + 6 + c = 0. (a + b + c)^2{bc + ea + ab)=0; that is, a^ + + cS^O;
..
ft^
3e5826i
1
letS
2e5 281
)
3tt
3482
_3304_
3e85
)
17(61 17t61
;
of the scale
then
.. , thatis, or
r'^
 5r  36 =
whence r = 9.
278
23.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
[PAGE
We know
that
2(ab + ac + ad+...
From
tliis
24.
pence
Denote his weekly wages by x pence, and the price of a loaf by y then we have
whence s=180, y = 6.
25.
J = 6.andj^^3 =
4a =48, or a =12.
lj;
Hence
or 35 (16  d2)
(12
 3d) 
(12 +
d?)
;
3(Z)
(12
d) (12
+ (i) = 27
35
=3
By
(144
that
is
d^
= 4.
26.
.
(1)
;
IS
clab) ,, { a(bc)
^
..
inspection, one root is unity; also the product of the roots ,, , ,. clab)
is
7;
a(bc)
(2) '
By an
easy reduction
we
see that x H
xab
=xi
xcd
that is
ab(xc d) = cd (xab).
(1)
27.
By
bcxY=4,[ax)(bx);
+ + =0, we have
2/
in the present
28.
is
velocity
LT.
thatis,
J.
_J
5(xy)
3y
492]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
279
Again, the train takes IJ hours more in travelling 50 miles at the reduced speed than it does in travelling 50 miles at the original speed ; thus
r
5'
= 1J;
Therefore
x= ^.
29.
From
o
the
first
1 o
= ^ = 1=4
i
say; hence
(27
+ 64 + 125) = 216
thatis,
P=l.
30. Suppose the two mathematical papers A and B were fastened together and considered as one. We should thus obtain 2 5 permutations
j
the Jive papers, since the mathematical papers themselves admit of two arrangements, and these oases are all ineligible. Also the whole number of permutations without restriction is 16; therefore the required
among
number
of arrangements is
162
15,
or 480.
31. Let I, y, z denote the number of halfcrowns, shillings and fourpennypieces respectively; then x + 7j + z = G0. Also 30xi12i/h42=1250; that is, 15x + Gy + 2z = 625. Ehminating z we have lSx + iy = 505 ; of which the general solution is x = l + 4t, and ^ = 123 13; hence = 9t64. 64 123 Thus t must be greater than and less than ^p that is, ( may have the
values 8 and
9.
= 8;
or
x=37,
i/
= 6, a = 17.
we have
32.
Subtracting the
first expression by 8, and the second by 6, and subtractwe have 2x {x^+{iaSb) x + 2\. Thus both {ba)aP + 3x + 2 and  3i) X 2 must divide each of the given expressions, multiplied if x^ necessary by some positive integer.
Multiplying the
(4o
I
ing
I
In these two quadratic expressions the term independent of x is the same hence the coefficients of x'' and x must be the same thus ba = l, and 4(136=3; whence a = 6, 6 = 7.
;
33. Suppose that A, B, C together do the work in x hours; then A alone can do the work in x I 6 hours, B alone in x ) 1 hours, and G alone in
2x hours.
{
g O
I
J
+
aX
of the
work
hence
that
in one hour
of the
X+&
2x(2xH7)
1^
x+1
111 =
r
+ ?;2x
or
is,
= (xt6)(xll),
2
3x2+7z6=0.
280
34.
or
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Eliminating
y,
[PAGE
we have
(b^c
b'',
By hypothesis,
that
this equation
{;bH
henco
is,
Also the
+ a'd
ad
===23;;
therefore
.,
ad
''=b^^^^d
Here
(1
= ^ = 0' ?
(2a;
.
symmetry
2,
35.
 2x + 2x^)~i = 1 + ^
2x^)
+ ^.(2.2.T+^.S.(22.=)3 + ...^(2.)H...
= 1 + ^+2 2 8+36.
a?\
0'
= }.
+ a) = 52 + 33253.
(a;2
+ a!+l)=0,
we have
38.
is [x
we have
x^
 4x + 3,
1,
that
3).
Hence numerator and denominator must be divisible by x X  3, and must therefore vanish when x = 1 or when x = 3.
,
or by
If
x=l, we have a = 8, and in this case x38x2 + 19x1 2_ x'7x + 12 _ x4 x39x2 + 23x15~x28x + 15 " x  5 x=3, we
find also that
If
a=8.
39.
This equation
a2 +
j,2
is
equivalent to
or
= 0, 5 = 0.
493.]
40.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
With the notation
of Art. 187,
281
.".
2V.i>r so long as
first
+
6
4r  4
>1, or 2>Sr.
Therefore the
41.
term
is
the greatest.
2/
then
,
^^"^"^
whence
" i = ^^ that IS (xy)^ = 5352 8  y^) llTic^  260xy + Illy" = 0, or (13a;  Qy) (9a;  13y = 0.
. ,
( ^
?/) (a;^
j,2)
= 352
125
;
x' + y^
,
 y)
[x^
Thus
42.
=^
From
a^
=*say; and
whence
ft
= 1.
+ c^
^(l + 6= +
W4^^
+ i^ + c'
b'^'
a'^
b'
c'^
a
g'' (Jb"
+ 9c^)
a' + b^ + c^
whence
(2)
Thus
Similarly
li
+ 2= (!; + 8); that is, a;2a;6 = 0, or a;2 + + 10 = 0. From the given equations, we have x^y^ + xy = 0, or {xy) {x + y + l) = 0. x=y, or x + y + l = 0. a; = , or a; + x + 1 = 0.
a;
whence
It
If
a;+y + l =
and x=z, we
anda; + z
Ifa;
+ 3/ + l =
+ l = 0, we
i= 
obtain
whence
44.
1 or

log(a; + 2)+Iog{a;2i/
= log
282
,^ 45.
,
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
l
[PAGE
1.3.5 /IV
+27476(4)+
that
is,
46.
Each
,
fraGtion=
(dx
/.,
_ 9x + 8y + 1 3z ~3a + ib + oc'
_
S{x + y + z) a+ b +c
47. The first place can be filled in 17 ways, and the last place also in 17 vvays, since the consonants may be repeated. The vowels can be placed in 5 X 4 ways hence the number of ways =17x17x20=5780.
;
48. Suppose that at first x persons voted for the motion, then 600  x voted against the motion, and it was therefore lost by 600  2x votes.
Suppose that y persons changed their minds, then in the second case x + y voted for the motion, and 600xy against it; thus the motion was caiiied by 2 {x + y) 600 votes.
^^ =
yi
= 250, y=150.
left
== log {l + x)
log (1
 x)
x^
x'
= (^ + +5 +
I x^
x^
x'
7+)+n^'"4
6+)
=^+^'G+l)+'6+^)+^K5+7)+
50. Let X denote the number of men in the side of the hollow square; then the number of men in the hollow square =3;^ (a; 6)^= 12a; 36.
Hence
(12a;
andx = 81.
495.]
51.
(1)
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Divide throughout by v'a^^^;
283
thus
r/^+2 r/^=3;
r/^^= 1 V ax
(2)
whence
or 2,
and
^^= 1 or ax
{x
2'".
We have
{x
 a)i
(x
b)i
{x c)i
 d)i
then
is,
(x
 c)i =
2
b) (x
 c).
52.
We have
Sji = {2f
Q^ =
(l  1)'
series
on the
right.
Put
then
But
From
we have
these
u=j6(5a; + 6)andi;=^o(tJa!ll); Mi; = l, and 'w^=91. u' Suv {uv)v^=l; and therefore v,v = SO. equations we easily obtain u = 6 or 5, v = 5
(oa;
or 6.
Thus
finally 6
+ 6) = 216
or
 125; that
is, a;
=6
or
^777. oi)
54. After the first operation the first vessel contains wine, the second contains c gallons of wine.
ac
gallons of
and
=,
or c {a +
b)
= ab;
that
is,
after the
operation equal quantities of wine are removed from the two vessels, and therefore the amount of wine in each will always remain the same after
liny
number
of operations.
55.
From
the data,
we have
7:
=zJab=. ^
m+n
'henc6ma + nb = {m+n) ijab = 2 ijabxijab = 2ab; these equations we easily find m and n.
a,nim+n=2 Jab.
From
284
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
By
[PAGE
hypothesis (c3y){c3z)=yz;
hence
(9
We have
(!)' ^'""^V('' +
and
(l+a)3=l3a! + ^^x^^a:3+... +
+....
The given series is twice the coefficient of x^ in the product of the two series on the right; thus 4S = the coefficient of a;'' in (l + a:)"~^=""*C,; that is, S = 2x"3Cr.
have identioaUy, (2xl)  (3x 2) = 1  x = (ix  3)  (5x i); 58. (1) dividing each side of this equation by the corresponding side of the given equation, we have
We
j2x^j3x2 = Jix3j5xi.
By
then
addition, ,j2x
(2)
l=;^4x3; whence we
so that
obtain
x=l.
Put
a;2
_ 16 = yi,
x^=y* + W;
so that
Thus
2/'
the values
59.
4 (2/3 + 8) =2/1 + 16 + 16?/, or 2/441/3 + 16^16=0. 16 = 42/ (2/^ 4); whence 2/^4 = 0, and 3/242/ + 4=0; of 3/ are 2 and 2; and therefore a;^=32, and x= 4^2.
Clearing of fractions
we have
{{yz) + x{y'z^)+x^yz{yz)]
that
is,
+ ... + ... = 0;
z
hence
{y
 z)
{z
 x)
must be
equal.
60.
then
m +f=p.
Tfin
and /
respectively
Again
have
<()?,
= T^'
*^^*
'^
bm + cf=ap.
(6
From
these equations we
p.
(bc)m=(ac) p, and
Sag
 c)f= (6  a)
g.'
61.
Ifi'
=
(^fj
,thena;=U)^=^^j
follows.
496.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
(lx + a^a;S)i=,
285
62.
 i=(i + ^) (l_x4)i 1^ '^ lx + x'x' 1x* = (1 + k) (1 + 35* + + a;^"H a;<" + a;*''+ +
.
'
. . .
. .
.).
Thus the
63.
By
we have
^
'
a{xa) + b{xb)
ab
thus
a(xa) + b(xb) = 0,
64.
If
[xa){xb)=ab.
is
if
the
is
common
the
we have
= a + (nl)x.
Similarly
common
^
T b
=  + (n  1) u ""
;
whence y =
'
y,
ab {n1)
'
t
Hente the
r""
term of the A. P.
=a +
l
'\
'
n1
=^
^ ;
of the reciprocal A. P.
_1
a
_a{nr) + b{rl)
m65.
ab{nl) o (b  r) + 6 (r 
=ab.
1)
that
or
is,
thus
{p^iq){p^+{qi)'^}=0;
last factor is positive,
and as the
We have
thatis,
{a
+ b)^=9ab;
hence
286
67.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Let d te the
[PAGE
;
oommou
theu
= +(n + l)d; c~ a
Hence the
first
whence (Z=
ac (n + 1)
and
last
means
1

'
Thus the
and
last
mean
of the H. P.
,
i>
1
c
ac{n + l){ac){nl)
(a
+ nc
provided that
that
is, if
+ imj nac + n (a' + c^] + ac n'ac + n {a' + c') + ac =n^  1; n^ (1 ac)n (a' + c")  (1 + oc) = 0.
(^^ll!ilMrLzl)
5718
^
68.
*v.
We have
(n
= 57
16;
that
is,
= 19.7.6.5.4.3
Hence n + 2=21, andn=19.
69.
interest
If
I, been
.3 = 21
20. 19
18.
would be
rate of
x 6i
at {x
interest
would have
Hence
that
is,
650
650
X6
9 X 650 = 3
(a;
X
;
=3
 3)
whence x = 78.
70.
{a
we have
{x^+x + lf{x^ + l)^x^=3x{x'' + l){x^ + x + l); {x^x + lf(x^+lf + x^=3x{x' + l){x^x + l);
{x*+x^ + l)^{x*+l)3x=3x^(x^ + l){x* + x' + l);
hence
but
thus
x'{x''
+ lf(x''+x + l){x''x + l)=x^{x* + l){x^ + x'+l); x* + x^ + l = {x''+x + l)(x^x + l); x = 0, x^+x + l = 0, x''x + l = 0, and (x^+lY=x^ + l;
is
easily obtained.
496.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
287
71. From the second equation, we have y{x + l)=(lx + vi); hence by substituting in the first equation,
or
+ m)a(x + l){lx + m) + b{x + l)'=0, + x (2lm  aPam + 2bl) + {m''alm+hP) = 0. This equation is equivalent to iP+ ax + b 0, lal+b = 2lmal'am+2bl = vi'alm + bP
{lx
x2(P al + b)
b al
From
tliat is,
these equations
we have b{P{b^
al{b~tn)
 m^) = 0,
or
we put b=m, by equating the first two fractions we obtain a{Pal + m) = ilmalam,
or
al2a{P+m)+ilm=0;
is,
that
{a2l){al2m) = 0,
or
a 21,
either b =
or
al=2m.
and n =21, and
al =
Thus
or
b=m
2m;
+ m = aJ
On
^47712
,
X
(2)
On
reduction,
we have 10
k1
5==
 29
5= + 10
2
""^
whence
X
thus
^'
i
^
2
log5log2 5
5
log 5
121ok2 =Tllog2
,
.,;
whence
73.
nearly.
= 9 and 2:^ + j/' = 2417; ixhj + Gx^ + 4x!/= 9<  2417 = 4144 hence xy{2x^ + 3xy. + 2y^ = 2072; or 2x' + 3xy + 2y^= 2{x + yf xy = 162  xy but xy{l&2xy) = 2072, or {xy  14) {xy  14S) = 0. hence only admissible solution is obtained from x^ = 14 and x + y = 9, The givex = 7, y = 2.
We have
a;+j/
which
288
74.
miles,
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Suppose that n
is
[PAGe'
the
number
of hours; then
whUe B
has walked S (n  1) jl or J9 +
'
^tt
miles.
Thus "("+
ll + 4n;
thatis, n= +
3n88=0; whence
ra=8,
75. greater
1)' is an integer, and is therefore than the greatest integer in {^3 + 1), since (^3  !)* < 1. in question
1;
76. The sum of the series 1, 3, 5, 7,... to x terms is x'', hence in the n groups there are n^ terms. It will be observed that the last terms of the first, second, third,... groups are 1^ 2^, 3^,...; hence the last term of the (nl)"" group is (m1)^; thus the first term of the m* group is (n 1)^ + 1, and the number of terms in this group is m^ ( l)^=2?i 1.
Therefore the
sum = i^HlzH
{2 (re  1)^ + 2 +
(2n,
 2) (1)
11
77.
113
^
,^
We
have
(lxf=l\x~x^ ^
x^...;
also
By
we
efficient of
(1
 xf x
\
(1
 x)i
of a" in (1
 x)"^
_ 1. ~
3.5.7. (2nl)
2"
[re
497.]
78.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
289
We have
(l
l2g_ 1x + x^
n = 3m,
2.)(H.) l + a;S
If
If
tlie coefficient
of !i!"=
 1)= ( 
1) .
ril
rt=3m+l, the
K = 3m +
(1)
coefficient of
a;'=3(l)'=3(l)
If
79.
Putting
a;
have
(a
+ + c)nr A
"
= ft;
whence
= 0,
c
or + ^ + aic
''
Thus
(2)
E =  = ^ = 0,
a
Equating the
first
or^^".
abc
two
fractions,
we have
x^{!/z)
+ y^(zx) + z^{xy)=0;
that
is
2/
{y z){zx){xy) = 0.
Putting
2=0,
or
2/
=2, we obtain
 + l + ^=x + 2y=3;
a; y thus x^2xy + y'=0, and x + 2y = 3; whence
x=y = l.
6 are
80.
Sa+b
Similarly the three arithmetic
a+b
~r~' ~2~'
a + 36
4a6
'
g + 36 4
r
are
a+ &
2a6
'
3a + 4a6
^
Hence we have
^
,
ao
82g353
(a
=
we
^4
_
*'
+ 36) (a + 6) (3a + 6)
Also
that or
is
Thus
(a
+ 6)' + 4(a + 6)
+ lOab + SV') = 240, + i){3(a + 6)2 + 4a6} = 240. 80=0; whence a + b=i. Alsoa5 = 3.
19
H. A. K.
290
81.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Putting
[PAGE
xa =
and y
6= , we
that
is,
have
avbu=ciju^ + v^;
or
{avhu)^=e^{w' + v^),
For real roots we must have a%' > (c^  a') {c^  b^) > c2 (c^  a^  62) henoe c2 < a" + 62. that is
;
82. If (a! + l)2>5a;l, then x^3x + 2 or (x2)(a;l) is positive, so that X cannot lie between 1 and 2.
If {x
+ l)^<:7x~'d,
must
lie
is
negative, so that x
83.
characteristic p,
we have
fractions between
and
r^ have
cha
q,
we
see
Hence
84.
of
(a;''
p = 10!'9+i,
of
The number
is
+ a;*x* + ...)^;
that
is
equal to the coefficient of x" in the expansion to the coefficient of x^ ia {l + x+x''+ ...)^.
r^
equal to
or (1
 a;)*.
f of
ways
5.6.7.8.9 , =  = 12b.
85.
{x 3500).
elder daughter receives the accumulated simple interest on x for 4 years, the rate of interest being 4 on every 88 ; hence she receives
The
xx4xl.
Similarly the younger daughter receives {x  3500) x 7 x
^^.
^
left
2a;
thus
86.
YT
a;
3500
5
;
whence a;=7700.
,
In tte scale of 7
let
be x,y,z;
then
thatis
Now 2/ must
2
be less than
7,
and
3a:
 Sz
is
an integer
o
hence
;
3a;
 52 must
a;
and thus
a;
= 5A;,
= 3ft. But
a;
and
than 7 hence
ft
=1
that
is,
=5
and y = 3.
498.]
87. The double of the
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
sum sum
of of
291
terms are each
the
sum
of
m+p
^^
Therefore
{2a + (m+nl) d}
=s
'
suppose.
2a + {m,+nl)d=
m + n'
m'
whence
Similarly
d = s
m(iii,
pd=i!!!l^.
(7ft
+p)
lup
Hence
88.
^j.
(m + ){7np)
^ (m+p){mn) mn
u+v + w = 0;
Putj/2=u, zx = v,
xy = w,
1
so HixsA
then
,
Thus
or
u
uv
=0.
v'
w^
w^
vio
WU
uv
U'
l'
++=_+_ + _. \U
1
/I
1\2
V^
W
ID J
89.
>
n+3 + 5 +
i
[
...
+ (2nl)l'
^
^^
;
y
I
that
IS,
>">.
90.
to
(x7){xo) = 0,
(a;a)(x3) = 0;
then
P + y=Pi,
y + a=P2,
a + p=p^;
Thus pi'iq^={pyr={p.,Ps?; that is, iq^=Pi'p,'p,'' + 2p,p,. Hence Mgi + qi + ist^^iPsPa+PsPi+PiPi) Pi^PiPi91. Let X = the common rate of A and B in miles per hour, and suppose that starts y hours after A. Then when J is at i or at any previous instant B is xy miles behind A.
Now
therefore
is
x
at this rate
go 5 miles at
Hence
'
^
J.
=^
(1).
192
292
Again when
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
A
are
[PAGE
waggon
31
is
When B
+5
o
a;
miles from L.
a; J
31 + 
a:
(50
 2x) miles.
And
and the
waggon
is
+
a;
9
2"
rate while 
Hence
J^=i
=^
^x19
i
(2).
+4
By
which gives x = 9
92.
equating the values of xy from (1) and (2), we get a simple equation in x 25 whence 2/ = jr ^^^ xy = 25.
;
Since
d=  (a + 6 + c), we have
{b
+ c)(c + a)[a+b)
follows at once.
93.
difference is
ba; hence
the (n + 2)"'
term
is
a)= na+{n+l)b.
ratio is ;
is
" \a)
~ IF
term
is
1
(re+2)"'
and
therefore
ab
.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
293
94.
We have
^
(x
f^ a){xb)
=l(^
a
b\x
) xoj
Thus the
1
coefficient of a:" is
r
/
(
a~b\
a"
;;
\
1
r;
6"/
a^ "b". aH^{a~b)
,
, ,
Wehave
(1T ^
{(l^M"
Expanding the numerator by the Binomial Theorem, and dividing each term of the expansion by (1  x)^, we obtain
(1
. . .
+"
'"
^^ {1
 x)
(2a;)''2
Hence the
coefficient of rr^"
last
"*""'"
'
or 2"i (n2 + 4n +
95.
Wehave
15a;234a;2/
first
;
+ 15!/'=0; whence
(5a;
3j/)
(3x
i/^
5j/)
= 0.
1)
;
On
is,
reduction, the
+ Jx 
=2
(x
that
+ i),
or 292/2  50j/
+ 25 =
whence
Putting 3x=52/,
29!/
= 2510 v/^.
(52/2
wehave
25)/2= 9
96.
a;l =
1111
1
3+ 2+ 3+ 2+
1
3+
x+
1
2 + xl'
*^*"'
or
3a;''
+ a;4=x + l, and
The
first
'^^=3TiT1^3iT4' 3x^5 = 0.
but
97.
may
be proved
directly as follows:
n^
n=n^
(^)=  ("^)} =
^^
^,:If 4
294
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
is
[PAGE
we
also have
odd or even
but
if
is
odd,
is
a second way.
FinaUy
{n +
k=(^^
(^^Y'
is
therefore
an odd
integer, since
m(n + l)
even;
k+1 jr and
5
k~l
are integers.
98.
Hera
2S=+
i+ i+
^ + ...
99.
We
have
x=
andy==
By
subtraction, bxdy
= a c.
[See Art. 324.]
100.
Assume
Let
then
1px qx'^. S=l + 5a; + 7a;2 + 17a;3 + 31a^+...; pxS= px5px^7px^ llpx* ...;
for the scale of relation
p = l,
the quantities 3 = 2.
qx^S= qx^5qx^Tqx'^..., .: S (1px qx') = l + {5p)x; p and q being given by 5^ + 2 = 7, and 7p + 5q = n; whence
^^r^, = V X.
2x''
, 2x 1 
:;
1
'
+ ic
aii<i
{
'
sum
of
n terms =
Since 6 =
2(l2a:'') ^, ^
l2a;
,
l(l)a
'
+x
101.
(1)
by substitution we have
Therefore
a.+
r
ft
2a  6
5 2c
6
2a
2c
4,
+ jr
2 \c
+
c\
aJ
)
And
than
since 
+ >2.
500.]
(2)
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
295
We have
2ac=5(a + c).
62 (a
Thus
102.
_c)2=2{c2
(6
a)2 + a2 (06)2}.
a;
=6
hence
This latter equation gives b = c, since by hypothesis 6 and c are real and therefore a3a62 + 263=0, that is, (o 6)2{a + 26) = 0. Hence a = b, or
;
a=26.
103.
2ra
+ 3.
re^
+ (2nl)2 + (2m + l)2 + (2rt + 3j2 = l2(n2 + m + l); but hence n^ + n + 1 is odd, and the sum is an odd multiple of 12.
Now
jg
even
104.
We
a
have
ax' + 2bx + c = al x +  ] H aj \
is
a
;
if therefore
is positive,
if
is
negative,
it is
From
hence
we have
(3/2
(a;2 2/)2+
 zx^+iz"^  xyY=(i;
z''~xy
x^yz = 0,
y^zx = 0,
= 0;
and therefore
that
is,
x^ + y^ + z^yzzxxy = 0;
105.
By
*^^r
and
the required result follows at once from the Binomial Theorem, since
1 _1 2 ]_3 ^3 _ + x) l + ^x 24+2. 4'6
(1
106. Also
We have
+ g = 0, and
;32"+p;8"+e = 0;
or a" + ^'+p"=0
is
;
whence
thus
a2"82 + p''(a'*^)
= 0,
an even integer;
or
and
+l+
(ii;
'
+ l)"=0, where = 
So
.
/9
296
107.
MISCELLANEOXTS EXAMPLES.
Denote the values
of the continued fractions
[PAGE
by x and y
;
then
xa= 2a
+ (x  a)
r;
whence a;^=a' + 6.
a'd.
108. Let n be the number of persons; then the that the last person receives is
l
number
of shillings
+ l + 2 + 3 + ... + (ml),
orl+&^;
therefore
'+"9 = 67;
^
whence n12.
The number
of shillings distributed
=n+  Sn(?i 1)
= re+g(7i + l)n(ral)
= 298,
since
= 12.
The equation
obviously satisfied by x = a, y = 'b, z^c, and degree there is only one solution.
is
Or thus,
}3X
(b + c)x + ay + az = 2a(l) + c), cx + ci/ + (a + 6)z = 2c(a + 6). + (c + a)y + bz = 'ib(o + a),
their
Adding the first two equations together and subtracting the third from sum, we have bx + ay = 2ab
is,
that
 + =2. a b
Similarly
+DC =
"'
2,
and  +  = 2;
a
c
.
whence
(2)
= f =  = l.
b
c
Clearing of fractions,
we have
(1
From
The
case xy =
may be
satisfied.
500.]
110.
Divide by
oni +
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
ab;
a''2
ft
297
tlien it
mil be
. . .
sufficient to
shew that
nl
.
+ a&2 +
an1
Ji^i
>
2 (ab)
a^% + ab" ^
a''362
+ a26'i3>2(a6)
[Compare Ex.
"
;
and
so on.
89.)
111.
of 396
and
common measure
12
1
298
113.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
[PAGE
Let (7 denote the constant expenses, B the number of boarders, P the profits on each boarder then since each boarder pays 65 we have, B (65 P) = C+m, where m is some constant. If = 50, then P = 9 hence 2800 = C + 50m If JS = 60, then P=10f hence 3260 = + 60m;
and
B = 80, we have
80 (65  P)
whence
P = 12.
114.
We have y = ^^;
log(l2/'')
hence
1"
= 2{log(l + ;r!')log(l:r)};
..=4J^2
thatis,
y2
+ y^ + y^+
J + ^^+...j.
115.
thatis,
We have
(1)
x {a^x^)=y{a^~i/);
{xy){3i^
+ xy + y''a^=0.
a;
Taking
or
tion
bx=a' y',
(2)
xy = 0,we have = y= c; hence bV = (a' y^)^, we have 6'^c = (a^ c^)^
it
a:^
with xy = c', we
have
+ / = ac2. + u = 6,
since
Again we have
;
x'
y'
= ;
x'
ora;
xy
is
not zero.
.:
By
116. The first result follows at once by putting of the given relations.
x=l
in the
first
Multiplying together the two given expansions, we see that series (2) is the coefficient of a^ in the product and is therefore equal to the coefficient of x^'' in {(x^ + x + 1) (x  1) y^'', that is in (x^  Ij^"" ; this is equal to the coefficient
3r
of ^' in
(2/
 1) and
therefore to
1)''
T^pT^
117.
(1)
From
x = a or y = b.
Substitute x = a in the
first
equation
or
then
y'2ayby + 2ab = 0;
y = b, or 2a. y = b, then x = a, or
26.
501.]
(2)
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Prom
the Beoond and third equations,
299
we have
2y^zx = 13iy,
multiply this by 2 and add to the
(x
or zx = 2y^ + iy  13
first
equation; thus
+ zfy'=iy^ + 8y20;
we obtain
or
y''
and
+ yQ=0;
whence
y=2
x^
or 3.
we
find
+ z^=10, and x + z = i;
or x^ + z'' = 15,
and x + z= 1.
118.
of the
By
^
inequalities
form 2
+ a^.
sum
By adding
each of the n
these together we obtain the required result, since in the letters will occur on the righthand side n  1 times.
Thus 2
then

fja^z + V^i^s +
to '^^
terms
gi + a2+...
+ g
n{nl)
2
We have
b^x* + ah/*=a^1i'
b^x' (x"
b^x^
(x^+y^;
Buta;2o2=62_2,S; hence
'
= a?y^,
b*x*+aY=^a^bVyK
(6"^;''
and
{b^x^a'r)' = 0, or
b*x^ +
Now
aY =
+ aY)
(^'^
+ V')
Here
_^^^ = _  ^^;
(n
2r + 1
+ lf
sum
4x''2
The
series is the
(x"i
+ x"" +
. .
+ ac + 1)
..
and
(a;''i
+ 9a:'^3l. + ).
300
The second
If
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
series is
[PAGE
is
we multiply
1'~2""3'^^
shall find
that the first terms of the product are x'^^+a;""^, and that the other terms are zero with the exception of some at the end. Also
the coefficient of
i=
 Sn^ + 3 (n  If 
(n
the coefficient of
^=3n^{nlf=27v' + 2nl;
=
the coefficient of
 n\
{a"+8 + "+' (m +
1}
.:
^ g=a^^+ \X ^^
Uj
'
l)ga:^
121.
If
^"t
g^'^+tf+e ^^'
then2i/i=i + (3t,l)x
+ 62/2 = 0.
is real,
that
is,
+ lOy  392/^
or (1
+ 13y)
positive
122.
(1)
On
which
is
a reciprocal equation.
32^ + 14z
Putting x
+ =z,
X
we have
Thus
(2)
+ 15 = 0,
or (3
+ 5)
(2
+ 3) = 0.
3x2 + 5x + 3 = 0, or x2 + ax + l = 0.
We
have 3xy=2z,
and
therefore xi/2=0 or
multi
xyz = 6;
and 2z2=
Sxyz =
18.
123. Suppose that Oj, a^, a^, a^ axe the coefficients of x', x'+i, x'^^, x"^^ in the expansion of (1 + x)"; then
Ol
+ Oj
502.]
Similarly
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
5 a^+ai
301
=
71
+1
and
O2 + O3
^ = n+1
r
then
(i2
a.
a:
(1).
+ 7!c2K8 = 10a?8=30a; + 2;
Therefore
that
is,
= 4C (3x + 1) + 4Dx + 2Ca; + 2D = (14C + 4D) X + (4(7+ 2D). 30a; + 2 = (14C? + 4D) x + (4C + 2D) 7C + 2D = 15, and2C7 + D = l; whence
^
13
23
(1),
A + C=l, and
Thus
x3 +
B+D= 8;
1
whence
4= 5,
o 1
and
= 5.
o
7x2x8
l)(x23xl)
13X23
lOx1
(xi'+x +
3"x23xl
3'x2 + x + l'
(2)
^4i^=i(^)(^ir
IJ^)X , r fficoefficient of x'^= j
8(r +
l)1 \
TT Hence the
,.1,
^^F^i
\r
~ 6r8() + l)
21+2
r+4
2''+i
125.
7=5^ + 3?.
45 = J(5Z + 4)
+ 2(2J + 16),
or
or
The
T=5p + ql;
value 1=1 is the only one which satisfies the fourth equation thus i=l, ^ = 1, 2 = 2, and the scale of relation is 1  x  2x^
5_7
Hence the generating function
802
126.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
From
the
first
[PAGE
or
that is
x+y + z = a.
2a3
.:
Henoe
{z
+ x)=2yzx;
2a{zx)3
(z^x)
= 2y [zx) (z^x^).
We have
(a;
a;2
addition, (a;+y)'2
hence by 1.
By
If
subtraction,
we have
+ 1/)  2
(x
 2/) + 15 = 0.
xy=
15; whence
whence
a;=6, y=9.
If
xy = 5;
x=2, y=3.
(2)
I/)
and
log 6 log
a;
X= A,
and
Y= B;
or loga;= log a,
a;=,
y=Tx2(a;2
128.
(1)
xjx^^a'j^^a^=^^^j=^^^j=^^
_
a'x^a*
_
+ a2)(a:4 + a4)
this
becomes
,j3x
x^+x'

Ja + 2x1
(a+ 2a)  3x
=a
77
Pi
x = a.
603.]
129.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Let X and y denote the two numbers
;
803
then xy = 192.
I
their least
common
B,=^
M J.^/.
Nowsr?=xy = 192.
Thus
so that g
l
+ J)2=169xl6;
+ = 52.
common
Also gl =192; hence 3 =4 and l = i8; that is, the greatest measure is 4, and the least common multiple is 48.
The numbers may therefore be denoted by 4p and 4j where p and q have no common factor. The least common multiple is ipq; hence pq = 12, and
therefore
p = 3,
(1)
q
If
= i; orp = l,
= 12.
130.
that
is,
= a36S3a6c;
Thus
By cubing each
that
we have
169x21369 = 6912;
is,
X(2)
= 49,
or X =
7.
a,
Multiply the
first
equation by 
the second by
6,
and the
third by c
that
is,
or
 c*.
131.
= 1 + ^ + !:; 2
Therefore
2'2
2"2"2
2'2"2'2
:
2"2'2'2"2
rs
iT+
li
li
2J2 = l + ^ + 3S=~3S.
132. Let r be the radix of the scale and suppose that when the number ar' + br + c is multiplied by 2 the result is cr'^ + br + a. Then remembering that a, 6, c must aU be less than r and that c must be greater than a, it easily follows that 2c=r + a, 26 + l = r + 6, 2a + l = c. Prom the first and third of these equations we see that
{ar
+ c)x2=r{cl)+r + a = cr + a.
Again, r=2ca=2 (2o + l)a = 3a + l, and only one out of every three consecutive numbers can be of this form.
304
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
{lx){l + x){lx)
[PAGE
1x
1xJ
= l1>2x^{l~x)~^ + x*(lxy.
Hence the
coefficient of
a;'"
= 2 + (r3)=jl.
134. Let X, y be the number of yards in the frontage and depth of the rectangle ; then 3a: + 2y 96, and we have to find the maximum value of xy subject to this restriction.
Now
when
96 X 96 =
(3a;
is
is
maximum
3a; 23^=0,
xy
is
384.
135. The expression is of four dimensions, and obviously when a=0, 6=0, c = 0, d = 0, and therefore must be equal to kabcd.
Putting
vanishes
a=b = c = d=l, we
x^ + an^ +
x*
have
/c
= 4^4
2^=192.
136.
Assume
bx^+cx + llx^+^x + l)
and
b=j + 2, c = a,
Thus
hence
5
26=a2 + 2,
2c
= 2a.
+ 4=a2 + 2,
that
is,
a2=4;
a=2, c=2,
(1)
= 3.
137.
After multiplying
^x + y=2 ilxy;
Hence 
that
(x + y)=
&(xy],
01
9x=7y.
=  = *.
ji;^
=1
(2a;2
(2)
We have identically
{2x^ + 1)
1)
=2
hence by division
..
J 2%^ 1 =
0,
or 3
sj23^^ = JW+l.
504.]
138.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Suppose the number of pounds received
305
by the
digits x,
r^ pounds.
and the
^^^ pounds. o
Thus
since x
^^
10a;
+M
lOw + x
^;
that
ten.
is,
less
than
139. (1) Thesum = 2n(l + 2 + 3 + 4 + ..)(!. 1 + 2. 3 + 3. 3 + 4. 7 + ...). Nowl.l + 2.3 + 3.5 + 4.7 + = Sn(2nl) = 2Sn2Sre
.
...
_7i(n + l) (2 + l)
~
^" " Hence S=
n{n +
2
l)
3
^"
2i
+ ^) _ nln + l){2n + l)
o
n{n + l) _^
2
B(re + 1)
,] =4 r^+i[ =~
n(7i
+ l) L
4rt
+2
(2)1
+ 1)
(2)
of the series is
and we have
to
S "'^"Z^)"
4
Now
hence
U
n2(re+l)3=n(n + l){( + 2)
(re
(n + 3)
4
(re
+ 2) + 2} + 2)
(re
4S=n (ji + l) (n + 2)
+ 3)
(7i+4)7i(n +
l) (n
+ 3)
+ g)i(?i + l){ji + 2)
of the series is
 (2n ,
1) In,
or
n (2k 
1).
Hence
140.
(^
'
n(m + l) ^=
= ^n(n + l)(4nl).
1
^
,.,,
,,
+ 2t/2+rj/3=(i_2,)(i_py)(l_^y).
coefficients of a<
powers of y
a
then
^ + f_ "*'
2
a3 + ^3
+ y) _
"''
+ /3^ + 7^ _gg
4
2"
+ ;3 + 7^ _ "^''
5
20
306
141.
(1)
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Substituting for x from the
first
[PAGE
we have
equation,
27
y
that
is,
SyS
+ V;
15
21i/ 1082/+
(2)
From
x^
y'''
+ z'3xyz = 180;
xy =^12.
yz + zx + xy==71.
Thus x + y + z = lS, yz + zx + xy = ll, xyz = 105; hence x, y, z are the roots of the cubic equation fi  ISt^ + 71t  105 = 0, and are therefore equal to
3, 5, 7.
142.
equation.
When = a
a;
If therefore we put y= (q + 2x) x between this and the given equation.
a,n6i
Now
8i^
+ 8qx^ + 8r=0,
(2
2x=y + q. Hence we
have
143.
(1)
We
have
hence
xS= nx + {nl)x^+{n2)x^+...+2x"'^ + x"; S = n+{nl)x + {n2)x^ + {nS)3^+...+ ic"'; (xl) S= ~n + {x + x^ + x^ + ...+ x"'^+x").
(2)
then
S = 3
a;2a;216a;328a;*676a;5...
504.]
(3)
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Applying the method of difEerenoes, we have
6 8 2
9
307
14 5 4 9
23
17
40
8
.
Hence as
in Art. 401
we may assume = a
a = 2, 6=1, c = 3.
2"~^
+ hn + c; and we have
a + 6 + c = 6, 2a + 26 + c = 9, 4o + 34 + c = 14;
whence
Thus
M=2+n + 3; and
S=(2''+i2) + ^(n +
l)
+ 3n.
have from the first equation a(yz + zx + xy) 144. the second and third equations,
2{yz + zx + xy) = {x + y+z)^(x^ + y^ + z^)
We
= xyz;
also
from
= Vc^.
Now
cP=a? + y^ + z^
.:
Again,
= (x + y + z)'^S{x + y + z) {yz + zx + xy) + 3xyz = b^S{yz+zx+xy) (ba); 2i' = 2633(62_c2)(6a). b^cP = Z {(x + y + z) {yz + zx+xy)xyz} = S{y+z){z + x){x + y);
is
which by hypothesis
145.
not zero.
Hence
cannot be equal to
is
d.
The
first
derived function of
12a; (^2
and the H.C.F. of these two hence the first expression contains the factor (x+2)3; the remaining factor is 3a! 2. Thus Q the roots are  2,  2, 2,.
146.
1, 3, 5, 7,
From
. . .
is
the data, we see that the sum of n terms of the series equal to the sum of m  3 terms of the series 12, 13, 14, ...
hence
that
is,
m2=^
rfinn + 6Q = 0;
u We have
nr
{24 + (n4)};
so that
n=5
or 12.
,^r,
147.
that
1111 x=__^__;
x==^
10a;
Sa:^
IS,
+7
;
hence
+ 2a;  1 = 0, and
x='^ 5
202
308
148.
or
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
The given equation may be written
(x
[PAGE
+ af3bc
(x
+ a) + b^ + c^=0,
y^3bcy + h^ + c'=0,y/heiey=x + a.
By
putting
y=s +
t,
st
whence
and proceeding as in Art. 576, we have = bc, and s^ + 1?= {b^ + c^); s'= 6^ and f'= c'.
are
2/
(n) 149. By Art. 422, it foUows that a"a = M{n), and b"  b = (n) and therefore by dividing each side by a + 6, hence {a" + b")  (a + b) = b"'l=M(n), since a+b is we have o''^a''~''6 + a"*6^... a6"^ + prime to n.
But by Fermat's theorem a"^l = itf (m), and b'^~^l=M a"'b a''^b^+ ... + ab"'=M {n) + l.
150.
(n);
hence
 nbx
n
(1
 hxf)
'
The sum
of the series
a + 2a% + 3a^x^ +
a:"
+ 7ia"x''^
is easily
found to be
a  nn"+'
1ax
151.
,,
 nx)^
Here
a^ + b^
+ c''= 2p,
since a + 64c
When
y=
ft^
+ f =
o
= 0, and a'' +
bc
6''
+ ca + ab=p. + c2 2p =  a o
We
and
y= ~x,
or x^ + xy + 2p = 0.
+pxq = 0.
_ X 1 ~ ipy + q~ py'^
+ b + cf=0,
From
 qy2p^
.:
{2py
+ qr=(y^p){qy + 2p'').
{a
152.
If
a + b + c=0, we have
a''
that
is
+ b' + c^= 2(bc + ca + ab); hence a*+b*+c* + 2b^c^+2c''a^ + 2a%^ = i(bV + c'w' + a%'') + Sabc(a + b + c); thus a* + b* + c*=2{bV + c'a' + a'b''). .: {a' + + cY = a'^ + + c^ + 2(b'c^ + c''a'^ + a) = 2{a*+b* + c*). [Compare XXXIV. b. 11.]
b''
505.]
Put
then
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
309
a=y + z2x,
a' + b"
= z + x2y,
= x + y2z;
+ c' =6
f + z^= 133,
whence we obtain
and yz = 10;
z'=  8.
of the
y^= 
125,
Thus the
real root is
 2 or  7 ; and one
imaginary roots
is
50,20^=23.. = ^"^^^"^
The sum of the roots is aa + bb + c=c; but the sum is Removing the factor x  4 corresponding to this root, we have x*  lOi^ + 9 = 0; that is, {x^  9) (x'^  1) = 0.
(2)
also 4
hence c = 4.
154.
Let
be the quantity of
in
an hour;
H the number of hours he works per day then by the question Qa r = where m
and
,
is
some constant.
first
Let
hour:
whole work
then in the
case he does
^rr
W per
ttt
Let X be the required number of days ; in this case he takes 16x hours to
^,
mxli
, ;
by
division,
54
1x4x2 = = =
3X 3
whence x = 3.
155.
From
Art. 383,
we have s= = n (n+ 1)
o
ff'_i
(n
+ 2)
and from
Art. 386,
we have
= Ta
18
3n(n + l)(n + 2)
Hence
that
is,
L1
= s  2.
310
156. the factor
(1)
3a;
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Multiplying the factor
6a;
[PAGE
4a;
 1 by  3)
(j/
2,
the factor
 1 by
3,
and
 1 by
4,
(12a;
2) (12a!
(j/
(12a;
 4) = 120.
(j/
Putting 12x
or
y,
we have
 1)
 2)
3)
 4) = 120
(1/252/
is,
+ 4)
(2/2
51/ + 6) = 120;
that
(y^
 5yf + 10
(j/^
 5?/)  96 =
whence
(y''5y6)(ii^5y + l&)
(i.
Thus
(2)
,=
6,l,^^.
5, 9,
92
YiT.
OOO
=^+
O
112The Hence
t;
13
and
it
will
be found that
 r
id
1
putting x^ 2x=y,
we
shall
1
have
5'
^^'""'^
^u <. that IS,
,
_ 5^9~ ^ U'
1
=
112
+
13
y2i
y4:8'
^^"^
or
G^8,b) + (^8,^4)='''
2/
8
40
24
2/
 H
24
^ = whence y 0, *
18.
Let
a:
(A)^ = i3.
is,
x=
2
=log 3 . 2
series.
The
first series
= i}~l)
159 and
={2}
=** = 2^=Q)
=(^~l)
= the
second
a;
(x
a)
(a;
 /3) ^
(x
a) (x;8)
(a;
7)
a/3
apy
'
0/87
506.]
hence
it is
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
easy to see that the value of the
first series
311
left is
on the
xa
a
'
X/3
8
'
xy xd
7
*
The
the identity
xa
"o~
X/3
"^"
xy
'~y~
x+ a x+p x+y
"^
'
/3
7"
"'
4) is
or m(n^6'' +
161. Let X be the time occupied; y the intervals at which they begin work; n the number of men, and m the amount of work done by one man in one hour then the total work is measured by 24mre.
;
The first man works x hours, the second xy, the last x{nl)y.
Thus
that or
is,
third
y) + {x2y) +
(first
...
to
n terms = 24ji,
and therefore
But by the question,
hence
x+{x(nl)j/}=48.
x{nl)y=YTX;
x + :pj
= 48
that
is
x = 44.
162. '"'"
(1) '
^
We
have
XV
xv
If
whence
If
x^=
= y^.
In this case the solutions are obtained from the equations x^+xy + y^=3) +y' x^+xy+y^ = S\ ,
c
+ y = o]'
x^xy + y^=7]
312
(2)
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
[PAGE
We have
a?y
a^x + b''y
+ c'ii=0;
;
also
so that
+ y(c2o2) + 2(a262) = 0;
is
proportional to
c*
a^ (62
+ c2).
of the given
Put x = lc{b* + c^a^^a''c^), &o. By subtracting the second equations from the first, we obtain
[xy)
{x
+ y + z) = b'^ a'.
h,
we have
_ o2)
(a2
W
a^"^)
= \?o?;
that
is,
+ c6 
3a26c2)
= 1.
163.
The
coefficient of x"
=
The
coefficient of
x =  o^ ( 52  c^) 
a)
 c^ (a^ 
6^)
= (6  c) (c  a) (a  6) (6c + ca + uA).
The term independent
of
ahc
{a'' (5
 c) + 6^ (c  o) + c" (a 
6)
=
Heuoe the equation
is
a6c(6c)(co)(a6).
equivalent to
(a + 6
+ ca + a5)i>4a6c(a + 5 + c) = 0;
;
that
is,
fc''c2
or that
is,
(6c
+ caab= ^ija^bc;
or j,Ja
7 _ =0. Jb ^c
164.
(1)
Then''term=n(n + l)(7i + 3)
S = ^n(n+l){n+i)(n + %) + n(n+\)[n + 2)
[Art. 383]
507.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
(2)
The
m""
term
= _
{n +
l){n+2)3{n+2)+4 m + 2
_ J_
""
3_
(to+1
Ito
In
+ 2'
= (l)3(e2)+4^e2i^=2e5.
165.
By
Art. 253,
we have
that is
^i^>(6cdj*;
Similarly,
o>3(6cd)*.
sb>3
(cda)i
all
sc>3(da6)4;
sd>3 (aSc)*.
the required result.
By
multiplying together
these inequalities
we have
166.
(1)
We have
and
2ijx + a = 2
Jy a = Jy + a;
'A
and ?/=
ija;
J
Substituting for y,
we have 2
59 +
Jx + a=
n; or a;=
+ 75
a
,. that IS,
,,
x+a=
,
30^2 ^
.
51
+ 30^2
""
(2)
We have
(2/2
whence
Again
+ xy = 3.
x^+y'' + z^yzzxxy = 0;
and
therefore
a;, j/,
x^+y^ + z^3xyz = 0,
2 are
so that
Now
314
Thus
X,
y, z
l)
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
are
[page
Zl^ + it1 = ^,
or
the
roots
of
the
equation
t^
(t2)(t2t +
= 0;
f
whence
167.
= 2,
or
From
these equations
we have
z 1 1 1
X
z
y X
z
y X
z
y
that
is,
l{x^ + y^
or
Z(a;
+ ?/+2) = l.
Thus
and therefore
l=m=n=
x + y+z
3k^={x + y + z)K
168. It is easily seen that the numerator vanishes for each of the values a = 0, 6 = 0, c=0. Hence it must be of the form kabc where fc is a numerical quantity. Similarly the denominator is of the form labc; hence the value of the fraction is some constant quantity m. To find put a=6 = c = l;
then
+ m = 31 =2.
=
169.
is
'Pat
Now
+ + ) (a + 0)1/ + u%).
!/
Similarly,
170. Since he walks, drives, and rides the same distance in 22 hours, 11 hours, and 8J hours respectively, his rates of walking, driving and riding
must be proportional
to kt;.
itJi
rr> ST 11 o^
>
^ respectively.
8A;
Suppose then that he walks, drives, and rides 3ft, 6fc, hour; then if x, y, z be the distances AB, BG, GA, wo have
'^
miles in the
2'
4.
151
ik
508.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
drives,
315
an hour,
vre
1111^
Thus
whence
171.
,5
4a!
and
have
8x + iy + 3z=i&5,
+ 3t/ + 8z = 360,
a!+2/
+ z=82Jj
a = 37 J, y = SO, 2=15.
The expression = n
{{,
8) Iv?
(n"
2)
therefore divisible
is
by
15
or 120.
If
a multiple of
7,
If n is not a multiple of 7, then rfil = M(l), by Fermat's theorem ; and therefore i^8 = iK (7). In this case the expression is also divisible by 7; thus it is divisible by 7 x 120 or 840.
172.
(1)
first
equation; thus
Va;^
12a;
(a;^
+ 276+
34a;
But
hence
(x
12a;
+ 276) 
+ 529) = 11
v'a;''
 23)
identically;
^a;212x + 276 2
34a;
+ 529 = ^^111^
o
By
addition,
4^
10.
whence
that
is,
9 (a;212x + 276)
a;'^ 23a;
= (x + .38)2;
we have
+ 130=0, and
u
z
therefore
x = 13 or
(2)
From
a
b
y X
d
.
"
_ Hence
ex bd V = r. = "
d'
= ae = ad X X
y
whence
173.
x = ^
d{ab)
dc
where n
the
number
of the quantities x, y,
is,
...
316
On
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
the right side, each of the expressions within brackets
is
[PAGE
greater than
lift
''t
Thug
Put
then
+z+
,
..){
+  + +..
.2 =
s
]>n^.
x=
sa
s
y=
"
sb
5
c
,...;
s
x + y + z+
...
=
s
=nl;
result.
for
174. Suppose that he bought x cwt. of cotton, and exchanged each cwt. y gallons of oil, and sold each gallon for z shillings then he obtained
;
;
xyz shillings
hence
{X
{X
+ l)(y + 1) (2 + l){y 1) {z 
1)
1)
=xyz + 10169
=xyz
9673
and
X, y, z are in
From
the
first
two equations,
whence
But
hence
Thus
whence
175.
+ zx + xy) + (x + y + z) = Wl&%; + zx + xy)(x + y + z) = ^(:12; yz+zx + xy = 9^20, and x + y + z^iiS. yz + zx^xy=yz + y'^ + xy=y {x+y + z); 2iSy = 9920 that is, = 40. x + 2 = 208, and 2:2 = 1600; a; = 200, 2=8.
(yz
(yz
2/
and
a;'
is
The expression vanishes when x=a, when therefore divisible by (x ~a)(x b) {x  c).
is of 5
coefficient of
(xc), where /(a, b, c) is a function of a, b, c of three dimensions. Now the given expression vanishes when b=c, e = a, a=b; therefore it must be of the form
k(bc)(ca){a~b){xa){x b)
 c), where h
is
constant.
+ ca)*=  kabc {b  e) (c  a)
(ab).
.
508.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Putting y = a,
317
j) j
3\y
,
176.
the value
we have
V
=
;
oi\B\y
=  1
a
,
hence
1
if
x has
.
so that y "
=P 
1,
or 
=V+
p
+ 1 = 0, we have
177.
We have
^
for ac
{a?
(1).
Write
hd and B for 6c =f ad then (a=+62) (c2 + <i=) (e2+/2) = (42 + _B2) (c2+/2) = (^eB/)2 + (BeT4/)2
(2).
of three factors of the given form can be expressed as the sum of two squares, and the same method may be extended to the case of any number of factors. Also we may notice that since there are two and each pair gives two results in (2), we have pairs of values for A and four pairs of squares whose respective sums are equal to the product of three factors of the given form ; and so on for any number of factors.
By
we have
+ ''') = (5
^M +
'J9 =F c A)2
= C2 + B2,
suppose
where A, B; G,
C,
D gives us
tions.
each pair of values of A, B, with each pair of values of two pairs of values for p, q thus we have in all eight soluOne of these, namely that obtained by taking the upper sign
;
throughout,
is
{eg
+fh) +
(be
 aO) (fgeh),
We have
{xy){x^ + xy + y^) = 91
+ xy) = 91.
obtain
equation by
2,
and
318
Hence
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
(u l)(u' + u 182)
[PAGE
;
= 0,
or
= 1,
13,
 14
and
therefore = 30,
 54,
135
=.
Thus we have K J/ =
a;M
1,1
xy = 13,
xy=
14,^
= 30f'
a;w=54J'
135 V
179. The number of ways is equal to the coefficient of a^ in the expansion of (a;" + xi + x^ + + X)*.
. .
This expression =(
= (1  x^+'j* (1  x)*.
x^ in
('"+1)
is
Thus we have
(1
('"
 4x+i)
2) (r
(1
 x)"*.
The
 x)*
S)
Wehave
hence
Thus the
7 + 5= 3; = a^y (a + p)+y^=y''+py + l. expression = (7^+^7 + l)(52_^5 + l) = y^l^+pyd{5y)p''yd + S^ + y^p{Sy) + l = l+p{dy)p^ + + y''p{Sy) + l = (7 + 5)2^2, since 2 = 278, = g2_p2.
0(3=1, a + 8=p; 78=1,
(<iy)(Py)
S''
181.
also
We
have
(l
+ x)'=aiaiX + a2a;2+.,.
coefficient of x'"^ in the
+a,_iXi+..,
(llx)i=lx+x2+...
+ (l)'ix"i+...;
expansion of
(l
hence ( l)ijS=the
+ x)i
_ (?ti)(TO2)...(?rara+i)
ml
182.
Let
a, b, c
+ 62+c2=2331
(1).
From
Art. 431, or by reasoning somewhat in the manner indicated in Art. 432, we see that the number of integers less than the number and prime to
..
(al)(6l){cl) = 7560
(2).
509.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Art. 415,
(a
319
(3).
And by From
(2)
and
(3)
From
(1)
and
(5),
a + 6 + c = 73;
from
(4),
fl6c
= B987=ll
70, o^.
c
;
19 .43.
183.
(1)
The
roots are
;37,
x'
r
that
13
3!=
y'
hence
(2)
r
c'
ac'
be
\c
sH
= 0.
We
is
have
2{x^ +
hence
a;
= 1
or
Thus
whence
+ l)2a;(a!a + l)15x2=0;
{{x^ +
+ l) + 5x}
l)3x}=0.
184. The required result at once follows from equating the coefficients of x" in the expansions of the two series
/
x^
x^
X"
and
(e^c'')"=e7ie"'2)"'+^^^^^e("a; +
\l
....
it lies
^6  14
is
Again, [6^6 + 14)'^+^  {& ^6  U)^'^+^ is an integer, and therefore (6^614)2*^1 must be equal to the fractional part of N; that is to F; thus (6ij6 + li)^''+^=N, and (6v'614)2"+i=ii'.
Thus
186.
that
is,
We have
2{yz + zx + xy) =
{x+y + z)''x^y^z''=i;
yz + zx + xy = 2.
Again,
that
is,
320
But
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
^xh/ = 'Zx:Sy23xyz = 4:3xys;
[PAGE
Now
x,
i/,
thatis.of
(2)
f'22 + 2sl = 0,
= 0.
We
have
(xy+z)(x + yz)=a^;
(x
y + z)  x + y + z) = c^.
(
Multiplying together the second and third equations, and dividing by the
first,
Hence
ca
J=j,
x + y + z=
From
he
,
xy + z=
x + yz=
ah
all
the given equations we see that these results are to be taken the positive or all with the negative sign.
with
187.
the
number
Let X denote the numbEr of Scotch Conservatives, and therefore of Welsh Liberals. The number of Scotch Liberals is therefore
60 a;; hence the Scotch Liberal majority is 60 2a;, and therefore the number of Welsh Conservatives is 30 x; hence the number of Welsh
members
is 30.
The
= 903a;. We may
English Scotch
y, X,
Welsh
Irish
30 X,
u,
60  a; x;
M + 903X.
From
the
first
and
third equations,
we have =35
hence
Bx + yz = nO,
y2z=60,
3x + y + z = i02.
we have
2j/
first
and
= 572
or
188. It is easy to prove that the expression on the left contains the factor (6 c) {c a) {ab); the remaining factor being of thiee dimensions and symmetrical in a, h, c must be of the form k'Za^ + l2,a''b+mabc, where are numerical. k, I, and comparison of the terms involving a' shews that 4=1.
510.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
321
Again there is no term involving a* on the left; while on the right these terms arise from (bc) { a'' + a(b + c)bc} {ka.'>+la^ib + c)+ ..A; hence k{b + c)l(b + c)=0; wh.enoel=k=l.
To
a"
(c
find m, put
o=2, 5=1, c=  1
(6
in the identity
(c
 6) + 65
(a
 c) + c5
 a) = (6  c)
 a)
(a
6)
thus
that
is
2m whence m = 1.
;
189.
a3l a^l
a 1
1
3a'
a^ +
3 2a3 2a 2
3a 3 2a2
a^l a2_l
a
8a23
a2 +
a1
3a + 8
1
a2 +
2a3 2a2
3a3 2a2
a1
= {ol)
a^ + a+l
= (al)3
a+1
1
a+3
2 3 1
= (al)=
a+2
1
= (al)5
a+2
11
8 l=(al)8.
190.
that
or
is,
We have
6'i(a
^5+f ac
+ acb
'
a + c26
(a
+ c) +
=0;
l
hence
191. being 13.
(1)
= a+c,
or 6 (a + c)2a<;=0.
Since the
sum
we have
that
is,
a, a + 2, 11 2a, the sum of these roots of the products of the roots two at a time is 15, a^ + 2a + (2a + 2) (11 2a) = 15;
3a'  20a
 7 = 0,
189;
are
or (8a
+ 1)
3.
(a
7)
= 0.
by a=7, but
Again o
not by
(a + 2) (11 2a) =
.
a=

(2)
roots are 2
7)(a:='
ij^ is
a;^
 4a; + 7 = 0.
the other roots
Now
+ 4x + 5); hence
192. thus
We
have
Oj
aj
Oj
& =a .
H. A. K.
21
322
Similarly,
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
a^=a^,
,
[PAGE
'
'
=a
,
p
Oift,
ah
(I,
ab
6, q
ii
tnus
O2 +
1 1 02=a+6;
J 0262=
=
ab p;
a;
Again,
as
and
so on.
Thus
thatig,
n=(6)(3 + p + p +  + 3i);
a=o
^ (a6)
^1gSJ
Similarly
6n=6 + 2 ("*)
Ugi)
When n
and
is infinite,
a^=a^{ab)=^{a + b);
[)=J + 2(a6)=2(a +
6).
193. By an easy reduction, we see that the left side =w^ (x + y + z) + w^ {2 {x'' + y^+z^) + yz + zx + xy\ + 10 {x^ + y^ + z^2xyz) + xyz{x+y + z) = w'(x + y+z)'' + w^{2(x^+y^+z^) + yz+zx + xy\ + w {x^ + y^ + z'^ 2xyz)  xyzw =w^ {x^ + y'' + z'yzzxxy) + w {x^ + y' + z^3xyz) w { (x + y+z) {x^ + y^+z^ yz zx  xy) + (x^ + y^ + z^ Zxyz]}
= 0.
194.
is
;
3, then and 6; ,^
that
.,
.
IS,
'
= 5To
ac=
6ca2
acb^
a^ + b^
+ c^
since
a
is
not zero.
Thus
a^c' + abbc
,
+
a^
b^
+ c"
,
^,
;
that
is,
is
c.
510.]
Again,
,,
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
we have proved that bca^
.
323
+ e = l,
a''+b^ + c' = a + b + c;
be
H
if
therefore a + b
;
the expression *^
a+
5
a?
b^+c^ = o +
rs
5
a?
7
a+
b+c
= bc + ca + ab r
a+b+c
'
but 2(6c + ca + o6) = ((H6 + c)2(a2 + 6a + c2) = 0; hence the given expression vanishes.
195. Let the down trains be denoted by T^, T^ and the up trains by T3, Ti\ also suppose that they pass each other y hours after 6 o'clock. Then the number of miles which the trains Tj, T^, Tj, T^ respectively travel before they pass each other are
a'l'/.
whence
(xi
^x^^
+ x^y=m + x^.
.
From
T,
ii
iJ these equations, iy
= 4m + 5a;, = 4m + lOxj =
'
Again,
x^y=x^
V~l)
'^^^^'^^
^y = ^ ^'^
By
we
(l + \x+\xA + (l + \y + \y^\
196.
The
left
side=
=
= =
+ 2/2)~'
{x2+2/2)j.
+ (x+2/H
212
324
197.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
If Sj denotes the
[PAGE
sum
of the squares,
sum
Now
S2 = na2  2a6 {1
Si={2a(nl)6}.
= rea2  K (n  1) a6 +
Hence
if 1512
62.
= ^2, we have
(n
1)
tt2
(n
1)2
a5 +
(re
1) (3m2
7re
+ 2) 62=0
or
Hence
y=(rel) ^(re
1)2 _ (32_7,i + 2)
= (rel)^i(re+l);
putting
re
+ 1 = 3m2, we have
If re=2ro,
= 3m2 m  2 = (3m
=f 2)
(m 1).
198.
pairs
o/3,
a(2ml)(3.
Now
Hence
But
and
S=2o 2
r=l
{a2
+ 3(2rl)232}.
l).
l2
+ 22 + 82+, +^2='("' +
l)(2' + l)
6
multiplying the second of these results by 4 and subtracting from the
first,
we have
12+32+52+... + (2m i)2=?!!L(?!!LiH2!!^)
6
Thus
511.]
199.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
This
is
325
+ ^+
c'a'
6=
wr,>bc
a'b^
+ ca + ab.
^^
,
Vy
.^.
'
'= p''*^^"
^"""^
c
20=62
W^M'^^^a^b^
bh^
c^a?
Again,
_,,
\a
r
XB positive;
hence ^^
a^
+
,
,>2c^
o"
J
a^ft"
2
Thus
c2.
Finally it is well known that a?+b'' + c^>bc + ca + ab. the required result is true.
Hence a
fortiori
200. Let X be the time in hours after which B dismounts then A has gone ux miles, and B and G have each gone vx. Now B continues to walk
;
is
xH
pace
the same as A's. When C starts back to meet miles apart ; therefore if they meet in p hours we have
is
{vu)x u+v
Again they meet (x+p)u miles from the starting point, so that the distance remaining is a(x+p)v, miles, and the time occapied in driving this
tl
(x
distance is
+ ^^ p) w
hours.
Now
the
number
of hours after
dismounts
=
From
this equation
avx
U
=p +
a(x+p)u ^^
i
we obtain
x{u + v) + up = a, 01 p = 
ax{u + v)
u
By equating
this to the
v'
x=
V
^
= 3uv +
= xH
=
6U + V
hours.
201. We may represent the city by a rectangle whose sides are a and 6. a, running N. and S., be vertical, and 6, running E. and W., be horizontal. Then it is clear that whatever route is chosen the man has to travel a distance equal to a in the vertical directioa and a distance equal to b ia
Let
326
tances,
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
[PAGE
the horizontal direction. Now 6 is the aggregate of horizontal disand a is the aggregate of n1 vertical distances, and the m+n2 portions which make his whole path may occur in any order. Thus the number of ways is equal to the number of permutations of things  1 of which are of one kind and n1 are of another kind.
m1
m+n2
202.
Put u
u + v = i.
for i,'x + 27, and v for i]55x; then m* + j)<=82, and Eaise both sides of the equation to the 4"' power then we have
;
or 3.
Also
= 4;
or
3,
M=25,yn,
or 1;
81, or 1.
..
x + 27 = {2J.Sj^^y, or
203.
sum
of
2n terms of the
series
+ a;2(12 + 22 + 32+...
to
2nl
terms)
for 2m,
we have
If
is
= {2nl)x{a + b + {2nl)x}.
.:
S22S
lab=rv':2nl;
the
which proves the proposition, since Sj^iiS^ or {S2nSJS denotes excess of the last n terms over the first n terms.
204.
(1)
Let
^ be the n* convergent;
2a;
whose
+ x^.
512.]
Put
then, as in Art. 325,
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
8=pi+p^x+psx''+...;
327
we have
S=^i^^^^S=
.z
(l
x)
rj,
and p^^n.
...,
S'=qi + q^ + q^^+
we shaU
find q.
= n+l.
Thua
^ = ^
is 1
3a;
 ix^.
i_3^_4^.  l3x4a;25
a+<?^ ?i + 3ifC
Thus
"
+ a;J'
i>
i4"
+ (  1)"'}
{ay)(zx)=^, 205. Put (o)(2/2) = o, then after transposition we have to prove that
{az){xy) = y;
is zero.
Now
is
+ /3 + 7 which from
the
+ two
similar expressions]
= _ [3nS  n%S (o  ^  7) + nm^S (^y  7"  a/3) + 3m'a;87] = 3'n?'rAn{a+p + y) + nm^ffiy + ya + ap)3nv'ay =  3n' + mn'q + 3rm',
by the properties of the roots of the equation.
{fiy H
7a + ojS)  m'a/37
n'
+ nm^q + irm?,
3rm? + nm^q  3n'
rm^+nmi'q + n'
328
207.
If
MISCELLAJfEOUS EXAMPLES.
X
is
[PAGE
the population at
is
a;
tlie
lation at the
+ do j^^r
beginning of the year, then the popu1531j; X 77; = ^^ jr hence if n be the reI0J.0 4d
;
quired
number
x=2x;
that
is,
(log
208.
Equate the ooefScients of s'; then if r is not a multiple of 3 the coefiBoient of x'' on the left side is zero, and the required result follows immediately.
If r is a multiple of 3
it is
and on the
"'
left
the coefficient
ofics^is
or (1)"3
i'
(1)'
209.
hj
X, y, z,
Denote the number of Poles, Turks, Greeks, Germans, and Italians u,v respectively then we have
;
x = ^ul=^v3; y + uzv=3;
,
z + u=^{x+y
+ z + u + v)l;
+ v = Ys{x + y + z + u+v).
this
From the fourth equation, we have x + yzu + v = 2; subtracting from the third equation, we get 2u2vx = l.
But from the first two equations, m=B!<!I3, i=2a; + 6; hence 6a! + 64a! 12a; = l; and therefore = 7; whence = 24, ?;= 20.
From
fifth equations,
+ 20 = ~{y + z+51);
that
is,
i"^'
210.
(" +
V^fr' =
ffi"
fl +
_ .jn+i,
hence no
!_
=
that
is,
a;log(l
+ a!)
log(l
+ a;)a;+
x^
h
"^"2"!
^^S0 + ^)
512.]
211.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
By
the
329
l)na;.
Multiply these two results together, and equate the ooeffioients of x"^. Then, if S stand for the lefthand memher of the proposed identity, we have (l)"'S = the coefficient of x'^^ in the expansion of (1a;)'.
..
{l)''iS = l = (l)2,
that
is,
S = (l)'+i.
(1)
212.
If
we form the
6,
we obtain
24,
18,
120,
60,
210,
90,
336,...
126,...
36,
18,
24,
6,
30,
6,
36,...
6,...
Hence
18(ral)(7i2)
^
r^
[2
[b
S=jn(ra+l)(n + 2)(ml3).
;
(2)
series is recurring
and
(1
+ x)^
[Art. 398.]
Let
S=43xS=
3x^5=
9a;
then
x'S=
4x3(1
9a:*+....
By
addition,
+ x)3S= 4 + 3x + x=.
S = l 3x + 3
.
(3)
Putx=;
we
then
Sx'
+S
7xS + 7
9x*+
...;
thus
u =(2ral)(2ra + l)x".
Proceeding as in
(2),
Hence the
[Art. 398.]
330
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
[PAGE
213. Add together the first and third rows, and from the sum subtract twice the second row; also subtract twice the first row from the third row;
thus
4a!
6i + 2
8a!
+ l =0;
3
3
hence
14
that
is,
4
4x(12)(6a; + 2) (3) +
194a;
(8a;
+ l)16=0;
and therefore
214.
+ 22=0
x=
=.
(1)
6V>2a6c;
62
+ cV>2a6c;
<fi
+ a^b^>2abe.
positive, or
The two quantities aPb" and a^b^ are both (2) both negative; hence (a  6") (a 6) is positive; that is,
aJ>+i
Similarly,
a^^i + c+8
and and so
on, the
> aPb" + a%i>. > oPc' + acP jp+a + ^p+a > jPc* + bid"
+
iP+Q
;
number
of inequalities being J
re
(n
1).
By
hence
addition,
(?il)(aJ>++6i^++c'^+
m(a''++6i'++c++...)
...)
>
SaPJi;
> So'^s+Sai'fi';
Hence
216.
(n
!)"'' is
which
is
a multiple of n, since
Lj
 is
integral.
513.]
217.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
331
The number of ways of making 30 in 7 shots is the ooefacient of in (x" + x'' + x'^ + se' + x^Y for this coefficient arises out of the different ways in which 7 of the indices 0, 2, 3, 4, 5 combine to make 30.
a;'"
;
Now
(xi'
+ a^ + s^ + x2 + l)'={x4(x + l) + + x2+l}7 =x^ {x + ly + 7x^ (x + 1)6 (i3 + a;2 + 1) + 21x20 (x + 1) (x3 + x2 + 1)2 + 35x16 (a + 1)< (x' + x= + 1)3 + = 21 + 7(l + 15 + 20) + 21(2 + 5) = 21 + 252 + 147=420.
!c'
. .
218. Denote the complete square by (x + Si:)^; then since the coefficient of X* in the given expression is 0, the complete cube will be (x  2/[)*; thus
x5
6x3
Hence by equating
thus
36J;2=  5
= = = .
6
c
e^
219. There are four cases to consider for the bag may contain 8 white, 4 white, 5 white, or 6 white balls, and we consider all these to be equally
likely.
__
_^
'
5_ j. 11' 10'
p^=^, p,=^,
.
1.3=33,
^*=n
_ 55 ~ 909
220.
"*"
6 7
154
'^
909
"^
280 3 4 ^ 909
2
"*"
420_677
'^
909
~ 909
Now by
~ F "^ l"
=
"f:(n
_n^
n*
""
rfi
n
~ 30
332
Thus
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
25= ^
>
[PAGE
>^^
 ^
3^
On
c)
reduotioi,
we obtain
a;
...
...}
{o2(62_c2) +
...
+ ...} + {a25c(6c) +
...
+ ...}=0;
we must have
on the
{a2(&2c2) +
The
The
= 2 (c2  o2) (a2  62)  4a5 {ca){ab)ica{ca){ah) = 2 (c  a){ah) {{c + a){a + b)  2ab 2ca}=2{c a)^ {a  b)K
Hence the condition reduces
to
left is
now
of the
form
+ y* + 2'  22/22  22
V  2x^^,
a;^z=0.
^"~^^ ^"~^^
2",...
222.
a;"i,
Here
2i, (n2)2''3,
of x"', respectively.
a:"'*,...
the expansion of
l2x
and this may be regarded we wish to prove.
as
(1
 2a;)2 *
a"
a:
(1
2a;)3
"
result
an
infinite series
But
this series is a
~l2a:
"'l2a;j~(la X)'
a;"'
we obtain
514.]
223.
(1)
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
By
addition,
333
is, a;
we have
(x
+ j/ + z)2=225;
is,
that
+ 3/+z= 15.
x''2xz
+ i?= 3,
or
xz= ^3.
Combining
+ z= 15, we
have
!c=j/
= i(15733), z=i(15T2x/^).
If x + y2z=0, we have by combination with a + ?/ + = 15, the equations 2=5,x + j/=10. Substituting in y' + 2zx = 76, we have
is 2/2
10?/ + 24 =
z
whence ?/= 4, 6.
first
Put x = a + h, y = b + k,
h+
= c + l;
two equa
tions,
k+l=0,
h + h + i=Q. a b c
7
whence
pr r a{bc)
k
rr.
b{ca)
c{ab)
=X
say. '
From
ah + bJc + cl = bc + ca + aba''b''thus
c';
\=
224. Let the points in one line be denoted by Jj A^, Ag, ..., A, and those in the other line by B^, B^, ..., B^; and let Aj^, j be towards the same parts. Then from a diagram it will be seen that
A^Bi
will cut
m1
2(ml) 3(ml)
(nl)(TOl)
lines diverging
from A^
^JBi
A^U^;
^1,^2,^3;
A^, A^,
lines diverging
...,
ABi
A^i
Again, ^2^2 '^^ ^^^
A.
m2
2(m2) 3(m2)
(nl)(m2)
from A^
^3^2
^A
^^2
And
so on, taking all the
A^,Ai; A^,A^,A,;
A^,A^,
...,
A^.
334
Finally,
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
/^jB^.j will out
[PAGE
1 2 ^
line
^jB^i
^4^m 1
lines diverging
jIj;
^2' ^3*
ASm1
n1
Ai, A^,
...,
An.
lines
We
have now enumerated all the points; for A^B^ outs none of the from Ai, A^B^ cuts none of the lines from A^, A^, and so on.
The number
{l
of points
we have indicated
is clearly
equal to
.
..
+ !},
which
IS
equal to
^
x ^

225.
We have
obvious that the coefficient of y
coefficients of
is 1.
for
it is
Equating
powers of
a,
we have
a + l = 0, or
6
c
o= 1;
6=2a=2;
is,
+ 2a = 0;
that
is,
+ 36 + a=0; that
c= 5;
d=13;
 1_
d+4c + 36 + l = 0;
whence
226.
kinds ;
thatis,
aH  Sabc + 263= 13  30 + 16 =
respectively
Denote the price of a calf, pig, and sheep by x, x  1, a:  2 pounds and suppose that he spent y pounds over each of the different then we have the equations
;
47,
From
tion,
9x (x
we have
9x (x 1)
x2
that
iB,
3x6x + 2 x(xl)(x2)~
'
27x''
whence
(x 
(20x  34)
= 0,
and x = 5.
514.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Example
2, Ait. 447,
335
we
at once
227. If we put a; = l in the result of obtain the desired expression for log 2.
=
1
Oj
then x_ =
1
,^
Thus
1
Qj
1 !
a^+ a^a^'
a,"
1_1 + I.
Oj
1 !
1
a^ + X^
a,'
Oj
Ug
Oj + Kg
Oj
Oj
Oj
 Oi +
flj
'
flj
1
a^
1
h
ttg
1
ag
1
a^
1
a^ + ag
2
;
~ '^i +
,
% ^2
and so on.
"^
^3
By
228. The number of ways required the expansion of (x" + a;i+x''+ ... +a""')*.
= the
The
coefficient of
a;*"
coefficient of
a;^*"
in (1
 6a;ii + ISx^oa)
(i
_ a,)6.
is
\r+5
in (1
 x)'
is
:
,
lit
obtained from the product of
(1
 6x + 15x^) (1 +
...
+ J=3
5 [38
143
x3
+ ... +
J=^ .139+
1144
...
J^
1245
5 2
,.oj
i139
229.
Here
"
1 1.3.5...(4n3)(4TO5)a;''^\ 2.4.6...(4ji4)(4n2)
'
''""'^ hence
Thus
If
if
convergent;
a;
if
a;>l, divergent.
= 1,
i\ y
then
r
Lim !^= 1.
n+l
T
/ n
\"n+i
n(24n3) {4n3)(4l)
2'
hence the
series is convergent.
is
[Art. 301.]
[This series
Example
105.]
336
230.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Let the scale of relation
[PAGE
helpx qx"
whence
then
288=40p + 6g,
and the
iO=ep + q;
= 12, i)
2= 32;
scale of relation is
1  12x + 32a;''.
As in
Art. 328
we
X
6a;2
~lr2x + 32x2
and the ooefEoient of x
Therefore
is
(4''i
1 X 2(l4ai
(
l8.<,\'
+ 8''i).
{1
S={l + 4 + 4!'+...+4"i}+ 
1
+ 8 + 82+.. +8"'}
.
4"l
*"
1
1 2
~2'~W~
..
"~7~ ~ ~3~
1
8''l
2^"'
"''
2S"i
""7
5 21'
K
23;
Si +
S2+'S3+ + 'Sn=g22^"~' +
722."'i
= J(2l) + i(2''l)g.
231.
The
(2 + ^
1\^
;
and therefore
is
equal to
6
imh%
232.
2z
11 '"^243first
thus
xy = 5
zi+^^LZp^=c\
that
is,
or
4^4A2+(a262)2=0;
(a=
(22=
 cy =  a2 + 62 + c2)
(
6"
+ c")
hence
iz^=2c^2 J[a^ +
233.
Let
fc
y''yzyx = bk.
Subtract the first of these equations from the second, and multiply the result by z; thus we have
ex  cy + {a 
b)
= 0.
515.]
Similarly
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
bx + {ac)yhz = 0. = a(b + ca) h(c + ali) c(a + bc); z y, z in ax+by + cz = 0, we obtain
:
337
Thus
by substituting
.y
for x,
a^
234.
If
is
another root
hence
a?
The
scale of relation is (1
S = l + 8x + 21x^+
64xS + 125a;^ +
4xS=  4a;  32s2 108x3 25Ca;*... ex^S= 6x3+ 48x3 + 162x + ...  4x3 32X''... ix'>S=
x^S=
x* +
it is
....
On
the coefficient of x
the coefficient of
the coefficient of
=  4m3 + 6  1)'  4 (n  2)' + (re  3)3 = = 6re3  4 (re  1)' + (  2)3 = Sre^ + 62  4  1)' =  3ji3  Sre^ + 3re  1 x"+2 =  4n3 +
x'+i
(re
(ra
+ 1)^
We have
5n2
re2 (re
(re3
+ 2)3re2{re + l)
2)3
1
(re
+ l)3
;
+ l)2(re+2)3'
thus
and therefore
236.
(l
S "
rr^~, 1^.23
,,,/ (re+l)''(re
,
,
2)3 + om
In the identity
(1
..
+ aW) (1 + o'x") (1 + ai7a;32) = 1 + A^a^x^ + Jga^is + ,+ 4^^a2x8n + ___ 1 + ^4X4 + JgxS + + J8x8" + A 8+4x8+4 +' = (l + a3x<)(l + ^4a2x8 + ^8a4xi6 + ...+44a2xSn+_
.
. .
. . .
).
Equate
coefficients of x^";
then Ag^=A^a^''.
x^""*^;
then
^8?v+4=^4n''"
o3=a348.
H.A. K.
22
338 Now
Ai=a.^;
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
A^=a'A^a^\
Ai^=a^A^ ifi;
A,_^=aPA^=tt>'^;
[PAGE
A^=a*A^ = a!>;
A^ = a^A^^=a>^;
A^^=a!^A^^=aP
A^ = a?A^=aP;
Hence the
1
first
A^ = d?A^^=d^.
237. Let X and y miles be the distances from ^ to B and B to C; and suppose that the man rows u miles per hom:, and that the stream flows V miles per hour; then we have
u
while
it
u+v
uv
u+v
remains to find
uv
From
uv
and
hence by addition,
i.v
11
u+v
i
V 
1 = s;
u+v
^^ = 7:
that
4j;a;= (
\
;) > I
iv(x+y) = (u + v){^uv);
2mij
j
therefore
x+y
^ = r
11
so that
,,
u = Cv.
Thus
238. Here, with the usual notation, we have J'=2p_i + 3;)_2; thus the numerators of the successive convergeuta form a recurring series whose
scale of relation is 1
 2x  Si".
Put
then
Spjx^...
l2x3a;2
(l3s)
(1
+ x)
and
therefore
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
we
339
may shew
that
'=^^)W^y
and,=l!3n+i(l)}.
239. The equation cannot have a fractional root, for all the coefiBcients are integers, and that of .r" is 1 ; it cannot have an even root, for/ (0) or p,^ is odd, and hence / (2m) will be odd, since all the terms but the last are even. It cannot have an odd root ; for if z is odd,
=an
= an
and
odd number,
240.
(1)
By
squaring
we
obtain
ax + a + bx+p+2^f(ax + a) {bx+p)=cx + y;
2,ya6=ea6;
(2)
or
c=a+62 ,^06;
is, if
By
transposition,
(1).
j6jplax7 + Jii^8xll=(2x3)+sj2xox + 6
loj;
 7)  (4xS _ 8x  11)
hence by division,
j6j^15x1,Ji3?SxU = {2x3)J'h^ox + 5
From
whence
(1)
(2).
and
(2)
by addition,
J^^loxl = 2x  3
or
2jS_3x2=0; sothata;=2
.
241. At the first draw he may take 3 red, 3 green, or 2 red and 1 green, or 1 red and 2 green. In finding the chance that at the final draw the three balls are of different colours we may evidently leave out of consideration the first two of the above cases.
The chance
3x*C^
c^ sCj
= 20
=r,
01
^.
340
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
[PAGE
Then after the 3 blue balls have been dropped into the bag, there are either 2 red, 1 green, 3 blue ; or 1 red, 2 green, 3 blue. / I 9 q ' In each case the chance of drawing one of each colour
"
..
x ^=
9
(a;)
27
:j.
against
are 73 to 27
thus he
may lay
72 to 27 or 8 to 3 against
242.
= 4a;S  14a! + 4.
(x)
Now
by /(a;).
516.]
245.
'
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
T^=aT^il>T^;
341
We have
~ Jn=i '^n
~ ^n+1
^
nl)
=i;^{VT_i(ar6rHi)}
which
is
independent of
n.
We have
yz
(i+2/
= 6^4 Now
x^ + y^
+ z^ Zxyz = (x +y + z)
{x'^+y' + z'^yzzx
xy);
or
a'
(c3
3d3)2
247.
We shall
s=
and
Let
a, b, c,
d be the
roots,
let
=3=
a
ft.
Now
or
+ d){l + k)=p;
T
ftdfc (6
+ rf)
(1
+ J)=r;
T^
is,
b''d^h'=s.
Whence
 = bdk=Js; ^
that
5=s. p^
we have
(i
d) (l
= 12;
bdk{b+d){l +
= 72;
bdk=(j;
342
therefore b
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
+ d=r:
[PAGE
;,and bd=;
12 6
47 = J
144
7=
+6
1 k^ + z
This equation
may
be written as follows
47 = 144 ;=A_,+6
^i^'12.
Put y whence
for
J
2
y~16
^=01
6
2 ^ 9'
Thus we obtain
3; or , 2.
Take k = 3, then
therefore
+ (i=:j
=
j:
12
3,
and6d= = 2; whence
= 2, d=l;
a=6, c=3.
The 4 values
b, c,
Note.
tion between a,
hit
=f
^ 
.
=?
6
=?
=5
= 77;
The chance
that
alone misses
7 .
12 2 15 4b = r^
3
^
.
4
.
=5
..
.,1,
21215 = ^
+
lU
+ zr^ + = io
D
likely,
and
13
i'15
4
2 3
_1
;
i'24
2 3
4 3 P33 5 4!
_1
517.]
thatia,
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
p,=^.,
^, =
343
^;
13
^3=1;
"346
~13"
es=j3of differences,
249.
(1)
we have
11
2
01
1 2 6 7
28
21
51
79
14
8
30
16
[See Art. 401.]
Thus
M=a7i2 +
J+c + d.2''.
the equations
whence we
find
l = a + b + c + 2d, 0=la+21) + c + 4:d, l=Qa + 3b + c + 8d, = 16a+46 + c + 16(i; a=l, 5=0, c = 0, d=l.
therefore
S'=2"'+i2iM(re+l)(2m+l).
(2)
By
the
method
of differences 1
it is
term of the
is
series
2
18
or n^3.
2 + 3{nl) + (nl){ra2),
Hence the general term of the
series is
^^^''
thus
1^3 = 271 {A
is satisfied if .4
{n + l)
+ B} {n+S) (An+B).
;
This identity
= 1, B = 1 _
(re
hence
(re
(?t^3)2"
n{re + l)(re + 2)(re +
+2) 2"+'
(re
+1)2"
(re
3)~
(re+1)
+ 2)
(ra
+ 3)
2"
re
(re+1)
+ 2)'
2n+l
^^"^
and therefore
""
(^TT)" (^+3)
2"+i
,
,
,
"
re(re+2)
S=
.
(re
2 + l)(re+8)  ^ 3
,
344
(3)
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
The given sevies={l + x + x^ + x^ + x* + x^ + x^+
...)
[PAGE
+ (2 + 8k2 + 32a;4 +
The sum
If 1 of the first of these series is
128a;8
. .
.).
 x+i
1x
of the second of the above series is
is
even, put
m=2m, then
1
the
sum
(4a;2)"'_ 2
(1 2"^")
 ix'
14x2
series consists of
If
is
odd, put
m+1
terms and
its
=^
250.
(1)
 (ix^r+i
1ix^
2(114^2
2+i .r")
first
equation by
y and subtract
that
is,
thus x^y^ + z
(x^
y^)+z^(xy) = Q;
(i.
(xy)
(x
(x^
+ y'^ + z^ + yz + zx + xy) =
Similarly
 z)
+ xy) = 0.
Hence
or two
If
x=y=z\
a;, ?/,
or x^
z
+ y'^ + z^ + yz + zx + xy = 0;
x^ + y^ + z'^ + yz
.
of the quantities
+ zx + xy=Q.
x=y=z, we have
x'^
53fi
= ax,
x=0, or ^
the
If
+ y'' +
z'^
first
equation
x^+xy + xzvax=0;
in this case the solution is indeterminate, for the given equations hold relations a, and x''' + y^ + z'' + yz + zx + xy=:0 are satisfied.
the
x+y+z=
We
see
(2)
We have
Hence
that
is,
bz
+ cy = cx + az = ay+bx;
whence
a{a + b + c)
{ab + c)
c (a k,
+ bc)
'
we have
(~a + b + c){ab + c)
[a
+ bc) = a.
517.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
(1)
345
251.
If
l+\+~=a+b a b c
(a + b
(b
'^
+c
'
then
that
is,
If b
+ c" = 0;
in thia
a'*
(2)
From

we have
or
{u"
(v,^
v")}.
+ 4V(tt"^'B2)2 + 4D(M22)(l_4^4)}
But from the given relation, we have 4m2j,2 (2 _ ^2) +iuv(l M%*) = _ 1,6) _ 2j,2
(2
(1)_
(m6
_ ^2)
(1)
thus
V'^f= 1%UH^
2u^i)^
(6
_ 6) _ ^2^2
(2
_ j,2)2}
Here
x, y, z are
u=y+zx;
may put
u = Sp2t,
hence
or
(3p  m)^  6p
or
2f=3p;
(3^)
(3j3  m)2 + 12 j
 )  8r = 0,
V?
 3jjm2 _
(9^,2
 12g)
tt
+ 27^)3  36^)2 + 8r = 0.
;
 27j)' + 36pg  8r
first
For the second part we have to find the sum of the cubes of the (2) roots of the equation in u. Denote the roots by Uj, Mj M3 then
, ;
2 = 3^;
2m2= (s)2  22iUa= (Zpf  2 ( Again by writing
V+
12?)
= 27^^  2'kq.
f  2ir.
346
253.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
The
coefficient of
!C*
[PAGE
The
Let
coefficient
o(6c) = 4^
c{ah):=C\
= A^x* + BY + C*^*  2B''C2!/22  W^AHH"^  2A^ffx^y^ =  {Ax + By + Cz){ Ax + By + Cz){Ax  By + Cz) {Ax+By  Cz).
254.
If X, y, z are
not integers,
we can
find
an integer p which
factors,
will
make
px+py+pz
and the
x^ + y^ + z^
px+py+pz
^
x+y +z
> xP^yPi!^'.
[Art. 253.]
By
we
see solution of
Ex.
6.
XIX.
b.
255.
ia
 +2'r2/'" +
where
Pr=ji^.
we put
for
is
[See
Example
33.
XIV.
b.]
If
its
equivalent x{l
+ x)~^, we
general term
In this and
their
all
ic"
and equate
sum
to the coefficient of
in (1 +x) (1
 x)^.
Then
2=
T^(l).?r^(?yiMH:X^.
ir
!?(
rl^
lit'
Ir
mr
= S
ri
(1)"'
r 1 \nr
518.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
347
256. (1) Substitute z= ~{ax + by) in the second and third equations; thus x{ax + by) = ay + b, and y{a!ii + by) = bx + a.
From
the
first
of these equations,
y=
OiX
Ji
so that ax + by
Oi 3! ~~
&
By
we have
;
b) (a'x
b^)
of
b
;
x are
1, w, by'.
The values
(2)
of
y and
z are obtained
y= j
ax^
z=  (ax + by).
From
we have
(1);
(x+yf(zuY=96
but
(x
therefore
(a;
whence
x + y = 10, and
zu=2.
Now
and
By
From
The
this equation
xy=21,
and ZM = 24.
solutions are therefore given by x + y = 10,)
zu=
2,)
xy = 21S
257.
(n +
zu=2i.\
is
very small
then
l)p + {n~l) q
{nl)p + (n + l)q~
Taking in terms as
/
n+ 1
\(
n1
(ra1)^
(?il)3 _,
and the
nq
2n^q^
6n*j"
348
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
[PAGE
_ 6fa+l)(wl)^3(nl)38(nl)(m2) _ (wl)(3wg2K + 7)
Thus the
difference is of the order ^
3
,
and as 
is
a,
decimal beginning
with r  1 ciphers,
258.
at least 3r
3
ciphers.
shillings respectively,
Denote the prices of a lb. of tea and a lb. of cofiee by r and y and the amounts bought by u and v lbs. respectively;
=ux + vy
5 D
shiUings.
Hence
,,
.
UX
;;
that
is,
=^
5
Vll
U
,
or
;7
by
V = TT5x
(a;
Again
Also
vx + uy=ux + vy + 5; so that
Mi = 54,
 ^) (?;  a) = 5.
and 6y~2x=5.
_ '
Hence
but
v+u
vu
^ 5i(xy) ^ 27 (xy)
5
Syx
v+u
vu
5x+_% ^ ox by
70x2153x2/
5x + Gy 5x Gy'
27 (x  y) oy x
(2a;32/){35x242/)
,
therefore
or
+ 722/2=0; whence
= 0.
Combining 2xSy =
2/
= 1
By
is
inadmissible.
259.
Here
4
s
'
= 23(l)(+l)(3n + 2);
si
_ (to2)
(rol)TO(3ral)
24
518.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
\\ni^ \n3j
"349
[n
24
3
2i
260.
If
is
we have
(1),
(2),
(3).
MaHiply
(1)
by
a,
and
(2)
by
Similarly from
and
(3),
we obtain
;
(pc
pc qa
*^^*'^'
aQ + bR
'
If
we eliminate p instead
we
find
'
Let
a,
jS,
7 denote
+ gx + r = 0.
a,
jS,
for x,
and
but
and
 a^y
whence the
262.
of terms, and
The expression Z: (o  /3)^ (7  5)^ consists of three separate kinds when multiplied out and arranged is easily seen to be 2i;a2j32  22aj37' + 12Za,87S.
350 Now
and
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Sa2/32=(Sa^)222a. So^7 + 2Saj375;
[PAGE
Thus
2 (Sa^)2
or
2q''6pr + 2is.
[This solution
is
263.
spectively ; then
+ 2y2 + j.2=211,
and x+y+z=23.
Eliminating
z,
we obtain
x'' + xy + y'23{x + y) + 159 = 0; 2x={y 23) J Sy^ + i6y 107.
hence
Thus
that
is,
(1)
whence
= 23^/2083m2.
trial
Thus 2083u^=f2; hence u must be less than 9; by u=2, 6, 8. On substituting in (1), we have 3!/246j/ + 107 = 4, or 36, or 64.
we
find that
The
integral values of
264.
If
a?
Ill + +
b^
3, 11, 9.
111
;
8z)Y=G {x + y + z);
and therefore
then we have
8^^
that
or
is,
p^ 9p^(x + y + z) + 81p
or
that
is,
{pdx)(p9y) {p9z) = 8p^;, (yz + zx + xy)  729xyz = jfi  9^' + 81p (yz + zx + xy)  'J29xyz =  8p^ {x + y + z) {yz + zx + xy)~9xyz=0; x^ {y + z)+y^ (z + x) + z^ (a; +2/)  6xyz=0;
whence the
265.
We have
x+a
{x
x+c
=x+a
_
x+b
r
{ac)x
[db) X
{x + b) (x
+ a)
(x
+ c)""
+ d)
,(1).
519.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
(a
351
(2);
Thus
or a;=0.
If the given equation has two equal roots, then either equation (2) has two equal roots, or it has a root equal to zero. In this latter case, the absolute term vanishes, so that
ab(c + d)edla + b) I ^ \
'
= 0,
or
+ = + abed
,
.
The remaining
root
is
then db
, a+bcd
cd
which
is
equal to ^
a+b'
ab cd
for
a+b
c+d
a+b~cd
then
{a +
If equation
(2)
roots,
bcd)
(3);
{ac){ad){bc){bd) = 0;
for equation (3) is satisfied when a c, a=d, b=c, b dimensions in a, and also of two dimensions in b.
= d,
and
is of
two
Thus one
of the quantities
a or
6 is equal to
or d.
,=
 a.
266.
(1)
By
have
thus
yz+zx + xy = a%;
x + y + z=ab,
x, y, z are
yz+zx + xy = a^b,
xyz=a^;
hence
the roots of
or (ta){f + at + a^abt]
t^abf^+a%ta^ = Q;
(2)
= 0.
From
the
first
z (ay bx)
= ax by
we
,
,
hence by substituting
io.
ax + {bx + c)z=a + b + e,
(bx
have
ax+^
thatis,
^=a + b + c;
,
or
whence
(a +
+ c)x c)(ab)x
{b
j
,
;>
352
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
by=a + b + e, we
liave
[PAGE
(a
+.,1 +
c) (cx
b)
+ c){ab)x
1\
=a + b + cax;
or
+ Px(a + c){a+b + c) = 0.
Now
,
267.
Let
f{x) = {xa){xl3]...{xe),
;
and
let
may
degree not above the fourth then (a;) be an expression of degi [x) isolved fractions. We have, as usual, be resolved into partial fraetior
4>(^)
{x)
hf {x)
T7^ f(x)
If
7
^ w 5T7 w fw {xa)(a/3)(a7)(aS)(a)
0(")
+ similar
terms.
x=0, we obtain
0(0) /(O)
0W
a3
_a(a^)(o7)(aS)(ae)'^3{j3a)(/37){/35)(^e)"^so that
(0)
tM
= 0; "
(a/3)(a7)(a5)(ae)
(3a)(p7)(35)(;36) +
The more general theorem, which can be proved in the same way, is found by resolving x^{x)if{x} into partial fractions; where f(x) is of n dimensions in x, and ip{x} oin2 dimensions. In this case
0() (a/3)(a7)
[This solution
is
,
"^
0W
(^
"^
I
^0
a)
(;3
 7)
268.
Let
X, y, 2
respectively ; u,
v,w
x+y+z
ux + vy=39{x + y);
=36;
BO that
^,
^
a;
+ + z=60. "
ux + wz = Z6^{x + z).
vy + wz = S2^{y+z);
From
But
therefore
we have
a;
or
+ 71/^ y + 69^ z. (x + y + z); 72;!; + 72j/ + 72s = + Tlj^ + 69 Jf 2 75f 121a! 9?/ 862 = 0.
ux + vy + wz = S&
a; /
2 (ux + vy +wz) = 75
619.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
increased average age *
is is
353
The
but this
x+y+z
equal to 5
hence
ixy2z=0.
From
but
a;
=^=H
Again
that
is,
2u + 3 = 195
6u
+ 20w) =  x44;
that
is,
+ 5) = 360;
is,
4m + 5u = 330;
whence
269.
identity
a=a*+c*,
aT^=a^btcH,
as
= ab' + cd',
ai=b* + dK
Prom
these equations,
we obtain
Oodj  Oj^
aiOj
a^c' (ad
6c)''
a^^a^=bH^{adbcf\
and therefore the condition required
(aa2
is
fli^)
{a^a^  aj")
= {a^a^  a^")".
{a^b
follows
+ cH)
Similarly,
bda^ {ad+
+ aca^ = 0,
;
and
ad + bc,
flj
ac,
we have
=0.
a^
Oj
a2
Oj
"i
Oj
^2
A general theorem, of which the above Salmon's Higher Algebra, Arts. 168, 171.
[This solution
is
is
a particular case,
is
proved in
due to Professor
Steggall.]
H. A. K.
23
354
270.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
[PAGE
We have
we
(y^
on reduction
obtain
(m^
w'yz=0,
wuvy = 0,
v^=zx,
uvwz = 0.
;
From
we obtain
similar results
w'^
hence
v?=yz,
= xy;
we have
vw = ux,
wu=vy,
uv=wz.
x{x + y + z) = a'',
y{x + y + z) = b\
2 (x + 2/
'H.enae
u{x + y + z) = ic,
v {x + y+z) = ca, w(x + y + z)=ai.
+ 2) = c^,
a^
thus
;
T=
271.
u=
ic
J a + b + c^
We have m + 3 letters in
in
iJuF+W+c^
all, of which three are the vowels a, e, 0. any of the m + 3 places so long as their position does not involve an inehgible arrangement of vowels. The vowels in any word can occur in the following orders
(1)
aeo;
(2)
(2)
oea;
(3)
aoe;
(4)
eoa;
(5)
eao;
(6)
oae.
Now
cannot stand at all unless all the vowels come together. Therefore there will be 2 [m + 1 words which have the vowels arranged in
(1)
and
this order.
oe
Now consider any one of the four remaining cases, such as aoe. Here must come together in any word, and a must precede oe. Therefore in considering the number of words possible with this arrangement, we have only to select two places out of Ji + 2, and then fill up the remaining n places
with consonants. This gives rise to "^^Cj x In words. It will be found that each of the three remaining cases gives this same number of words. Thus on the whole the number of words is 2 m + l +2(re + 2) (ji+1) [ra, which
easily reduces to the required form.
272.
that
is, (a;
This equation
k(x
that
is,
l{xz) = k(zy);
Ix
+ ky (k + l)z = 0.
2
k^
By
cross multiplication,
X _ y _ 2 + J3~i2 ~ V + 2lkP ~
_r
^^'
+V~ 2
520.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Here the
n""
355
273.
convergent is ^
hence
that
is,
u=(23)_i + 2(n2)u_j;
K2(nl)^i=K_i2(n2)M_^!;
Uj  2
.
2u2=  (2  2mi) ;
2(nl)_i=(l)"2(22Mi).
S2(nl)g_i=0.
Thus
Asaia
g=2(nl)j_j=2(l)(2)j.2=... = 2"il.
y
2p_,
(1)7il
'
ml

2
2fi 7t2
2X2_ 2(l)"''
ln3
1
[1
^1
li
'
hence by addition,
...
*^^t'
2S=I^=li + 2%2% + =
(1)
and therefore
 = .i.
274.
We have
^^^:i^=  ^ + ^2
2/x^
X*
x<'
= {x+log(la:)}+ja:ylog(lx).
232
356
(2)
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
[PAGE
We have
(a 1
f
12
+ l)(a + 2)...(a + m)

(a
!" + ! + l)(a + 2) ...
1.
(a
+ m)J
'
"+1
{a
a1
275.
(1)
uvw=Z&,
Thus from the second equation uvw + (vw + wuuv) + (u+vw)  1= 12;
or
(vw
43.
From
that
vwwu + uv=
is,
and
u + vw= 10
w
and therefore u, v, w are the permutations of the quantities 3,3,4; that is, 2a,  3j/, iz are the permutations of the quantities 3, 3, 4.
(2)
From
the equations
vx + uy = 14,
{Sw' + 2v^}
i/
we have
(3m2 + 21)2)
X = 14
+ 2v),
and
= 14 (3u  v).
But
..
32 + 2i;2 = 14;
x = u + 2v,
(M
y = 3uv;
:.
+ 2t!)(3M'!)) = 10OT;
or
that
is,
3M25Mti2))2=0,
(u2v)(Zu + v) = 0.
"=jx/'
"=v^
521.J
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
357
276. Keeping the first row unaltered, multiply the second, third and fourth rows by a this is equivalent to multiplying the determinant by a?. Next multiply the first row of the new determinant by 6, c, d and subtract from the new second, third, and fourth rows respectively : thus
;
o3A=
a2
+\
z=a?\^
which reduces to
+ c^ + d' + X.
358
278.
Separate
.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
^
[PAGE
thus
i
'
+ 9!(l + + a;=)l
ii:
'
= {l + x + a;2+a;' + ...}
X
"*"
a?
x^
'
+ x~ (I+^"*'(TTxp~
...)
'
Again
In this
If
last
(2).
a:^"+'.
we
shall
have
...}
... j
Now
(2)
thus
(^"^) (^ri1)
first
vve get
see that
(3m2)(3wl)
.
(3w4 )(3ra3)(3m2)
j^^2^3
a:^''^
,
j^;^
a;'"+i,
a?'^^,
...
respectively.
1x
this series
(la;)"
+ {lxy
,
finite
number
of terms,
may
521.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
this last expression is a G.P.
359
But
whose sum
279. Let X, y denote the number of shots fired by A and B respectively; and suppose that A killed 1 bird in m shots, and killed 1 bird in v shots then  and  denote the numbers of birds u V
killed.
+ 2/2 =2880;
;
xii= '
uv
that
is, !;
= 48
 + ^=10;
From
we have
+ s" u
= lOic
5y
x" 4y^
^ = lOy + 5x
..
..
(2j/
+ x) = 576.
+ x) = 12x576.
'
that
is,
(2xy)(2y + x) aP+y^
or
(x2y){2xny)=0.
The equation 2x  llj/ =
Putting x = 2y, we have
a!
xandy.
=48, y=24.
Thus
280.
48 u
24
V
= 10,
By
Art. 253,
we know
o3
..
(1);
(2).
and
3G0
Also
that
is,
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
(63
[PAGE
_ c3)2 +
(c3
a^
whence
(a? + b^
and therefore
(3).
From
that
is,
by
addition,
we have
c3)
+ ca)
[See Solution to
XXXIV.
b. 28.]
281.
We have
u=(m + 2)_i2_2.
m  2m_i = (i  2u_2)
_i  2m_2=
(re
.
[Art. 444.]
Therefore
Similarly,
 1)
(m_2
 2_3),
32it2=3(22Mi);
Now
hence
1)1
= 2,
2i
[re,
= 3;
i)2=8,
(?3
= 8;
y  2p_i = 2
j  2?_i = \n ;
2pi2V2 = 2^
ti.
[2,
2j_i222_2 = 2 b1;
2"2 g,^ _ 2i3i = 2"2
2"i
2i
2"2iJ2
 2"!^! = 2i
2""
[2 1
Vi = 2"
[1,
= 2"i
3 = 2i
+ 2"
whence by addition,
;)
2^+
2'^2 3 +
1
. .
+2
n
2=2 + 2"i
and therefore
..
]l
+ 2"^
2_+
...
+ \n.
i'n= 2g 'i= 2
2"+'';
2"+i
;
2"
If
+ 2^^ 23+
liJ+"
v denote the
n* term
of this series
ln1
v_
= L.
Ira
2"'
and the
2+i
Thus
Zii'm.
= 0;
and
n
therefore iim.i
= 2.
in
Sn
521
MISOELLANKOUS EXAMPLES.
361
282.
We have
first
?32+3
_ J_ J^ Ji_
&
The
+l
a'
.
a6
+ l'
(''e
abc
+ a + c'
Psn+3^
+ l)g3n + fty8n
and
= *2'3+(6<! + l)33.
of a quadrilateral in which then a + c = b + d. First consider the number of quadrilaterals which can be formed when 1 inch is taken for one of the
283.
Let
a, b, c,
a = l, if c=4, there is only one case, namely b = 2, d=3; if c=5, only one case, namely 6 = 2, d=4. If c = 6, there are two oases, namely ft = 2, d = 5, or 6 = 3, d=4t; similarly if c = 7, there are two cases. If c=8, or c=9, there are three cases in each instance; and it is easy to see that if c=2m, or c = 2ro+l there are m1 cases in each instance. Hence, when one of the sides is 1 inch, the number of quadrilaterals is
When
there
is also
and
(1)
2{l + 2 + 3 + ... + (m2)}+(?rel), or (ml)^ if n=2m; 2{l + 2 + 3 + ... +(to1)}, or m(ml), if n=2m + l.
Suppose
n= 2m.
if
We have
is
seen that
is 1,
the
number
of quadrilaterals
(m1)^.
the
is,
number
2m
2m 
is 3,
,
the
number
be formed with the lines 3, be formed with the lines 1, therefore equal to (m  2)''.
If one of the sides is with the lines 4, 5, 6, ...
4,
,
...
.
that can
1,
and
is
the
is
number
(m 2)
2m
(m  3)
of quadrilaterals
= 2;(ml)'i + S(ml)(m2)
362
(2)
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Suppose
[page
n= 2m +1.
is 1,
If
is
the
number
m(ml).
As in
easy to see that the whole number of quadrilaterals
l{(2)(2n5)3}
(1)
.(2).
and
(2)
i(2?i(2)(2n5)3 + 3(l)"}.
[The following alternative solution
is
due
to Professor E. S.
off
Heath, D.Sc]
1,
and
let
on them a number of division on each line (beginning parallels to the axes be drawn
C14
13 12
11
521.J
the diagonal
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
363
(2,
AD
(1,
1),
2),....
Now
combination of two points {xy), {x'y') will be suitable if x + y=x'+y'; that is, we must select points from the same cross diagonal, such as PQ in the figure, since all such lines are represented by an equation of the form x + 2/ = constant. But in any cross diagonal each admissible combination occurs twice over; in PQ, for example, we have (1, 8) (8, 1); (2, 7) {7, 2)...; hence in any cross diagonal points must be chosen from one half of the line
only.
(1)
Let n=2m.
the point A.
these
Begin with the central diagonal and proceed towards This diagonal has m available points, and therefore from

we have
^^
combinations.
Each
tain
m 1
available points,
^^
The diagonals
last
(2, 2)
term of the
3) give
no combiterm
like
series is
and
this
the rest occurs twice. Therefore on the whole, remembering that the same combinations also occur above the central diagonal as we proceed towards D, the number we shall have
m(ml)
+*]
f(ml)(m2)
2
(m2)(m3)
2
+  + "2"1"
2.11
m (m 1)i
2
=
m(ml)
^^
2,
,,
,,,,
1)
(4m 
_.
5).
(2)
down towards A
CB and coming
m,
m1,
jre1, ...2, 2
arising
from these
m(ml)
2
'
m(ml)
2
'
(ml)(m2)
5
'
(ml)(m2)
2
'
2.1
~2~'
2.1 "2~
'
Also as before, each series of points except the central one occurs again as we pass from CB to D. Thus the whole number of combinations
_m(ml)
2
m(ml)
2
"^
(ml)(m2)
2
t...t^.
2^)
jj j
= ^(ml)m(4m + l)
on reduction.
364
284.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
From Ex.
21 of
[PAGE
XXX.
b.
we have
and
30()=J(ll)(^ll)(liy..+J(la)(l6)(lc)...;
..6nv,,t>{n)iv,'P{n)
= n^(^ll^(lfj(^lfj...=nMn);
v?  6m2
.'.
+ 4^3 = 0.
respectively
;
285.
Put
, 6.
cforj/2,sx,x2/
(1
we have
identically
 at) (1
,

where
we have
= the
{qt^
+ rt^) + ^
{qt'
rt'f
=the
If
coefficient of t" in
f(q + rt) + 
rt)'^
5
{q
+ rt)^ + ....
n=6ml,
the hinomdals in this expression, it is easily seen that the term which contains t^i"^ is divisible by qr, and the coefficient of every term which contains t6'"+i is divisible by q''r.
coefficient of every
By expanding
Now
that or
is,
since a
+ ca) = q.
when n
Therefore (a  ?/)" + (y  2)" + (z  a;)" is divisible hy x^ + y^ + z^yzzxxy, is of the form 6m 1, and by {x'^ + y^ + z^yzzxxy)' when n is of the form 6ni + l.
[Note. It is easily seen that several of the examples on pages 442, 443 are particular oases of this general result.]
523.]
286.
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
365
u, b,c, d, e, ...;
For the sake of convenience let ua denote the quantities by then as in Art. 253, we have
to
mabcdef
macdefg
m factors < a +
<
a'"
to
terms
mabcfgh
By
addition,
mP <
.
 m mS; Iral
'
for the
number
of the terms o, 6"", c, ... will appear in the sum is equal to the combinations of n 1 things taken m 1 at a time.
number
of
287.
By
eliminating
x^,
we obtain
that
is,
q(x^ +
q)=  Srx
but
.:
x{x^ + q)=r;
?=3j;, X
or
3x' + q = 0;
and
roots.
q=
 Sa^ and
r^
2a^.
or
and
roots are a,
5a,
288.
li
that
p*+ q* + r* 2q^r''  2ry  2pV=0Hence from the given equation, we have
X* (2a2 
{2a^
Sz^)
...
=0;
or arranging in powers of
2z''x^
 ixh/"^)
(1).
366
Denote
then
2a;6 _
Sa;8
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
x*+y* + i:*2yh^2z^x^2x^y^ by P;
[PAGE
and
 i'Zyh*
:2xY =(x^ + y^ + z^) P + Gx^y^z' = a'P + Gx^y^z^ ( + y^+zi + iy^z^ + izV + Ix'y'^) P + SxY^^ (x^ + y^ + z^)
{a'P + 6xY^^)
= a*P+8a'xYz^.
Thua
(1)
becomes = 4aP 
12a.^
+ 9 {a*P + 8aVyV)
a*P.
Thus
{xiy
+ z){xy + z)
(x + yz).
289.
The equation
gn ^1 _fi_,_f2_ e6i e6 ^^fl6
, I
{9ai){9a^)...{ea)
{eb{,{eb^)...{ebj'
when
cleared of fractions
the (m 1)"" degree in B; and in virtue of the is satisfied by the n values a^, Ujt "3 "^ni hence it must
is of
fl
= 61
thua
^
'
(6iai)(&ia2)...(6ia)
(6162) (6163) ...(61586.
This example
ia
an extension of Art.
290. As in the example of Art. 498, the determinant of the lefthand side is the square of the determinant
523.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
the
first
367
From
three equations,
we have
UX + 3vy 
uxvywz = 0,
whence
Subtracting the
fifth
^z =
ux
O
vy ^
J
=
x
wz
.
first,
we have
^"*
u{xy)+w(zy)=0; u w 31 = ^:
3z {x y)
hence
or
3yz 4zx
+ x{zy) = 0, + xy = 0.
or
Again
also
2x = 5y Zz;
Syz=x(izy);
Gyz = {Sy 3z) {izy);
hence
that
is,
5y^nyz + 12z^ = 0,
{yz){5y12z) = 0.
or
The
root
yz must
S{xy) = 3{xz).
Hence 5y = 12z, and
therefore
2a;
= 9z.
Thus
also
45"
so that
15u=12u = 10w.
Substituting in (a + ) 40 = 1,
we
"
find
"=^'
z=10.
292.
= 4'
"'
= Gotherefore
a;
Substituting ia {u + v + w)y = l,
=45,
Here S,
is
the coefficient of
(l
a""
in the expansion of
+ a){l + ax) ... {1 + ax^^). Thus (l + a){l + ax}...{l + ax''^) = l + Sj^ii + S3a'+...+S^'+....
Write ax for
{l
..
a,
then
+ ax)(l + ax^)... (l + aa;") = l + Siaa! + S2aV+...+S'ra'j;'+...; (l + ax"){l + Sia + Sa2+... + S'^a''+...} = (l + a){l + fi'iax + S2a2j;2+... + fi'Xj;''+...}.
368
Equate
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
coefficients of a"'' ;
[PAGE
thus
..
(1
Write
+1
for
(1
r,
then
^"'^
S_^
^"'2) (1 
(1
 a:'^!)
S^+i = (1
 a;"")
a:'
S,.
Multiply these results together; then, since the product of the binomial factors ia the same on each side, we have
293.
we can
find
an integer
which
will
The expression
of
.,
+
J
+ y
+
is
the product
ma + mb + mc
6, c is
sum
of
any two
of the quantities
of these factors is
+ {mc + ab) ma + mb + mc
and
is
is less
[Art. 253.]
294:.
(1)
= (262c2 + 2c^a^ + 2a262 _ a<  6^ _ c*) {a^ + b^ + c^)  8a6V ^ a" (6" + c") + b* (c^ + o2) + c^ (a2 + b^)    c6  2abV = {b + c^~a'){c^ + a^b'){a^ + b^c'].
ftS
523.]
(2)
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
369
We have
and
.:
+ y + z)*+ { x + y + z)*=2 {x* + 6x^ {y + zf + {y + z)*} (xy + z)* + {x + yz)* = 2{x* + Gx''{yzf + {yz)''}. {x +y + zy+ {X + y + z)* + (x y + z)* + {x + y  z)* = 4:{x* + y^ + ^ + 62/2^2 + 6a2a;2+ 6xh/).
{x
a,
z=a + p, and
dividing throughout by 4,
we
is
a;'
in the product
of the series
and therefore
to the coefficient of
111
x'' 1
in the expression
1
1x' l2x'l3a;
1
1nx
_A_
B =^
( 1)"'
(lx)(l2x)(l8x)...(l?7j;)~l^"x ^l2x"'"l3a;"
4
( 1)"
(re
1)2"'
(l)'3i
^ =rm
3 =(,
,^
1
,(rel)(n2)3"i
^
iir\
r
;
and
x*"
so on.
is
in
(nl)2''i
(rel)(n2)3"i
"''
nl
\
(1x
l2x
2
'lbx
_J
whence the
296.
equal to
,_3,_^3^(3re^4H3re^,_
J_
Now
1, ^j
l.J
l.J.o
...
...
are
of
(1
x)~
(l
,
x]"^
^'
,
...
H. A. K.
2i
370
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
,
[PAGE
3n3
(3n4)f3m5)
1
= the
This series
X^
.T*
'
coefficient of x^"~' in
1x
:
2{lx)^
1
d(lxf^
1 1
1
is
/
(
+= X Xy
x'^
\
)
,
or
^
log
X
+ a:^
X^
1
37i
a^}
^[
.
Now
log
,,^, , (l)J>i
+
x^"
,
...
X*
X6
X^P
If
is
or 
if
is even,
is
( 1)"
'
12 +
n
>
or
1
;t.
l3ng),orl3(l),
according as n
is
odd or even.
+2
respectively.
Thus
in each ease
equal to 2 ( 1)".
297.
We
have 2a  X =
so that
X = 2a
6'
;
similarly
= 2a
6^
;
= 2a
b^
;;
= 2a
^
^3
y
b^
r,
Hence
As
x = 2aT;
in Art. 438, or as in
2a 2a 2a x
a.
62
62
XXXI.
Ex.
1,
we have
The
2a
T'
ia'b^ 2a
8a"  4a62
'
16a*  120=62 + 6*
'
iw'V
8a3  4a62
'
524.]
Equating this
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
last expression to
371
ia
or
(2a2
_ 62)
x^
 Sa^
6')
x + iaV'
{2a' b')
= 0;
ia (2a2 
6^) {x''
 2ax + b")
= 0.
Similar equations hold
for y, z, If
Hence unless 2a'' 6^=0, we have x' 2ax + b''=0. V,, and therefore x = y = z = u.
however 2a^b''=0 the above equation
2a2 2a^ 2a'
is
we
have
4a*
hence the given
'"" "
that is, X (2a y) = 2a'', which is the remaining equation equations are not independent.
298.
first
From
z=
x+y
by {x
find
+ y)=c
c (x
{x
+ 1).
From
the
first
of these equations,
we
...
y=
ax'
c
,
cax
so that
x + y=
'^
1)
'
cax
On
or
we obtain
fc(ax2c)(xl)(x + l)(cax)2=0;
{ab
say.
is
oa,
1)
 c)
(x
(x
+ 1) (c  ax)'
Suppose
oa,
,
so that 
> ./  >1,
+
;
When X =  00
when
is is
x=
1,
+
ia
when x=l,
. ;
when ^ =
/,
the sign
when x = 
when x= + 00
the sign
is
Hence there are three changes of sign, and therefore three real roots. [If a < 6, the expression is negative when x= oo and positive when X = + 00 and there are still three changes of sign.]
,
372
(2)
'
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
Suppose
c
[page
< a,
so that 1
>
,
/
>
then
when x=  oo when
the sign is
is
+
;
x=
when x= when x =
is
\/ a'
the sign
is
when x = l,
the sign
,
is
when
a:
= + 00
the sign is
real roots.
The product
Similarly
of the roots is ;
ab
or a'a{ba)
.
+:
real values,
and by interchanging
a and
6,
we
values is H
b(ab)
r^;
hence the
299.
A'
left
by X; then
= A F E F B V
EDO
524.]
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
'
373
first
Multiply the second row by  a, the third by  x and add to the then the last determinant

ax  by ;<;
cz
a
hence
be
{bzcy)X= {a^ + b^ + c'} (x' + y^ + z"^) {ax + bTj + cz) [bz  cij)
On
the
r""
therefore counted
{x
+ r1) {y + r1)
words
m being
...
some constant.
to
terms} = 232000;
nxj/
+ (x + 2/)(l+2 + 3 + ...+
nxy +
nin ^
"^l)
+
1
{12
+ 2432 +
..
+ {nl)2} = 232000m;
or
1)
'
(x
+ y) + ^n{nl) (2n 
1)
= 232000m.
But
mi.
r
Therefore
n+
n{nl)/l
^
1\
= 116 ^ G
;
,,, (1 .
therefore
by
we have
,
n
2
n{n2)fl
8
\x
yj
2i
"
'
xy
b
(1),
then
r
y
n^nl) 1_4
4 \x
xy
On
therefore
{x
that
is,
'
374
or
MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES.
{nl)(~ + )+(nl)''~ = 5.
[PAGE 524.
Thus
Ti + +
^
++
Y=j;
4(l)
..
5'
5re236>i
+ 36 = 0,
from
or (5n
 6) (k 
G)
= 0.
Substituting
,
m=6, we
/I
find
(1)
and
(2),
IN 55 40 15 + ) + = ;
\x
yj
xy
1\ 5 ^n ) 13 3 + yj + xy = \x 6
1 1
whence
that
is,
1,17 _ = _; + =, 12 xy 12 y
= 3, y = i.
x + y = 7, xy = 12; or x
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