Chap 016 | Nielsen Ratings | Advertising

Chapter 16 ADVERTISING, SALES PROMOTION, AND PUBLIC RELATIONS Test Item Table

Major Section of the Chapter Level 1: Definition (Knows Basic Terms & Facts) What’s the Future of Advertising? The Answer is Personal! (pp. 343-344) Types of Advertisements (pp. 344-345) Developing the Advertising Program (pp. 345-352) Executing the Advertising Program (pp. 352-353) Evaluating the Advertising Program (pp. 353-354) Sales Promotion (pp. 354-359) Level of Learning Level 2: Conceptual (Understands Concepts & Principles) 1, 2 Level 3: Application (Applies Principles)

3, 4, 5, 7, 12, 13, 14, 18, 23, 24, 25, 27, 32, 35, 36 45, 49, 52, 56, 58, 59, 61, 63, 64, 69, 79, 82, 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 92, 94, 171 98, 105, 107, 108, 174 109, 113, 114

8, 10, 15, 16, 20, 22, 26, 28, 38, 168, 169 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 48, 50, 53, 55, 57, 62, 68, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 83, 85, 170, 172 97, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 173, 176, 177 110, 111, 112, 116, 117, 118, 119 124, 126, 127, 129, 133, 140, 141, 143, 152, 159, 179, 180

6, 9, 11, 17, 19, 21, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 37 46, 47, 51, 54, 60, 65, 66, 67, 73, 84, 90, 93, 95, 96 106, 175

115, 178

120, 121, 134, 137, 145, 148, 150, 151, 153, 154, 155, 156, 182, 183, 184 160, 162, 164, 165, 185

122, 123, 125, 128, 130, 131, 132, 135, 136, 138, 139, 142, 144, 146, 147, 149, 157, 158, 181 161, 163

Public Relations (pp. 359) Video Case: Fallon Worldwide (pp. 361-363)

166, 167

Note: Bold numbers indicate short essay questions.

1035

CHAPTER 16 ADVERTISING, SALES PROMOTION, AND PUBLIC RELATIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 16-1 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: ADVERTISING CONCEPTUAL

__________ uses a patented computer system that digitally inserts ads into sporting events and other broadcast—not as a 15- or 30-second commercial—but as a visual part of the program. a. b. c. d. e. Media convergence Interstitials The digital divide Virtual advertising Interactive television

Answer: d Page: 343 Rationale: Virtual advertising inserts ads as a visual part of sporting event programming. On ESPN’s coverage of baseball games, for example, television viewers see ads that appear to be on the backstop behind home plate that are invisible to fans at the game. 16-2 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: ADVERTISING Personal video recorders (PVRs): a. b. c. d. e. enable viewers to basically program their own personal network. are in the prototype stage of market development and may never make it to market due to copyright issues. cannot be used as one-to-one marketing tools. use video created by the PVR owner and digitally intersperses it with television broadcasts. are accurately described by all of the above. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: a Page: 343 Rationale: TiVo is an example of a PVR. Soon advertisers will be able to insert ads into PVRs that are specific to the viewer of that television. 16-3 ADVERTISING DEFINITION

__________ is any paid form of nonpersonal communication about an organization, good, service, or idea by an identified sponsor. a. b. c. d. e. Publicity Sales promotion Advertising Personal selling Direct marketing Page: 344

Answer: c

Rationale: Key term definition—advertising

1037

The ad described in the question is a product ad. Product ads focus on selling a specific good or service while institutional ads primary purpose is to build goodwill or to create or maintain an image for an organization. and reminder. pioneering. comparative. introductory. a third door designed to let passengers enter the extended cab more easily. reminder product reminder institutional informational product informational institutional creative institutional Answer: c Page: 344 Other Location: web Rationale: Advertisements can take either of two primary forms: product or institutional. institutional. The ad copy states that the new Chevy truck is the only compact pickup to offer a third door. b. d. and reminder. competitive. competitive. "Just Thought We'd Reinvent the Wheel. d. Answer: b Page: 344 Other Location: web Rationale: Key term definition—product advertisements 16-5 PRODUCT ADVERTISEMENTS Product advertisements focus on: a. advocating a political position. a. The ad headline proclaims. designed to inform consumers of the newest features of a specific product. comparative. and reminder.16-4 PRODUCT ADVERTISEMENTS DEFINITION Product advertisements focus on selling a good or service and take three major forms. The advertisement is an example of a(n) __________ advertisement. c." The advertisement emphasizes the truck's newest feature. c. persuading opinion leaders. . DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 344 Rationale: Key term definition—product advertisements 16-6 PRODUCT ADVERTISING APPLICATION An advertisement in the North American Hunter magazine shows the Chevrolet S-Series pickup. raising money for a worthy cause. competitive. introductory. They are: a. obtaining inquiries. e. selling a good or service. Starting With the Door. c. d. pioneering. and reminder. and reminder. b. b. e. e.

b. introduction decline maturity harvesting growth Answer: a Page: 344 Rationale: Pioneering advertisements are used in the introductory stage of the product life cycle to tell people what the product is. The key objective of the pioneering ad is to inform the target market. reinforce previous knowledge of a product. what the product can do. DEFINITION promote a specific brand's features and benefits.16-7 PIONEERING ADVERTISING The primary purpose of a pioneering advertisement is to: a. What form of product advertising is the company likely to use? a. b. e. d. Answer: b Page: 344 Rationale: Text term definition—pioneering advertisement 16-8 PIONEERING ADVERTISING CONCEPTUAL Pioneering advertisements would most likely be used during which stage of a product's life cycle? a. e. inform the target market show one brand's strengths relative to those of competitors. d. and where the product can be found. and effective. 16-9 PIONEERING ADVERTISING APPLICATION Yamaha Corp. b. c. e. Yamaha’s device is new and thus in the introductory stage of the product life cycle. has developed a new device that reduces the volume of trumpets by more than 30 decibels—to the level of a whisper. feeds it to an amplifier. Pioneering advertising should be used to tell the target market how the device works and where it can be found. Informative ads have been found to be interesting. A microphone picks up the sound. convincing. reminder competitive pioneering institutional objective Answer: c Page: 344 Rationale: Pioneering advertisements are used in the introductory stage of the product life cycle to tell people what the product is. and where the product can be found. d. convincing. build goodwill or an image for an organization rather than promote a specific good or service. 1039 . Informative ads have been found to be interesting. and then to headphones that allow the musician to hear the music at a normal volume. what the product can do. c. c. The key objective of the pioneering ad is to inform the target market. and effective.

what the product can do. as more natural gas lines are being laid near population centers. b.S. The key objective of the pioneering ad is to inform the target market. inform the target market.16-10 PIONEERING ADVERTISEMENT The key objective of a pioneering ad is to: a. The key objective of the pioneering ad is to inform the target market. change the target market. tell people what a product is. and effective. persuade the target market to select the firm’s brand rather than that of a competitor. e. identify the target market. e. reminder competitive pioneering institutional objective Answer: c Page: 344 Rationale: Pioneering advertisements are used in the introductory stage of the product life cycle to tell people what the product is. e. 16-11 PIONEERING ADVERTISEMENT APPLICATION TransWave International is a small company that has developed a system that uses the Web and patented electronic sensors as an early-warning device for pipeline leaks. d. c. convincing. d. c. The timing is right for this company to be extremely successful. 16-12 COMPETITIVE ADVERTISING The primary purpose of a competitive advertisement is to: a. reinforce previous knowledge of a product. state the position of the advertiser on an issue. promote the advantages of one product class over another. TransWave’s device is new and thus in the introductory stage of the product life cycle. DEFINITION Answer: c Page: 344 Rationale: Text term definition—competitive advertising . d. Informative ads have been found to be interesting. Pioneering advertising should be used to tell the target market how the device works and where it can be found. and effective. CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 344 Rationale: Pioneering advertisements are used in the introductory stage of the product life cycle to tell people what the product is. and where the product can be found. convincing. Pipeline safety is becoming a big issue in the U. but it must use __________ advertising so oil companies will know of the product's existence. a. Informative ads have been found to be interesting. c. what it can do. and where it can be found. reinforce previous knowledge. what the product can do. and where the product can be found. inform the target market. b. b.

a. which shows one brand's strengths relative to those of the competitors. d. persuade the target market. The objective of these messages is to persuade the target market to select the firm’s brand rather than that of a competitor. inform the target market. 1041 . CONCEPTUAL Answer: c Page: 344 Rationale: Advertising that promotes a specific brand’s features and benefits is competitive. b. 16-15 COMPETITIVE ADVERTISING Competitive product and brand advertising is typically used to: a. Institutional Hierarchical Pioneering Competitive Reminder DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 344 Rationale: Text term definition—competitive advertising 16-14 COMPARATIVE ADVERTISING DEFINITION __________ advertisements are competitive advertisements that show one brand’s strengths relative to those of competitors. b. a. state the position of the advertiser on an issue. d.16-13 COMPETITIVE ADVERTISING __________ advertising promotes a specific brand's features and benefits. Firms that use comparative advertising need market research to support claims made in the ads. e. c. c. d. reinforce previous knowledge. Advocacy Competitive institutional Reminder Comparative Differentiation Answer: d Page: 344 Rationale: An increasingly common form of competitive advertising is comparative advertising. Studies indicate that comparative ads attract more attention and increase the perceived quality of the advertiser’s brand. c. b. identify the target market. e. e.

which shows one brand's strengths relative to those of the competitors. b. c. e. Comparative advertisements have been banned by the Federal Trade Commission. Studies indicate that comparative ads attract more attention and increase the perceived quality of the advertiser’s brand. b. what it can do. c. This is ad is an example of __________ advertising. Answer: c Page: 344 Rationale: An increasingly common form of competitive advertising is comparative advertising. d. reinforcement comparative persuasive informative reminder Answer: b Page: 344 Rationale: An increasingly common form of competitive advertising is comparative advertising. state the position of a company on an issue. a. which shows one brand's strengths relative to those of the competitors. and where it can be found. Comparative advertisements increase the perceived quality of the advertiser's brand. Studies indicate that comparative ads attract more attention and increase the perceived quality of the advertiser’s brand. Firms that use comparative advertising need market research to support claims made in the ads. reinforce previous knowledge of a product. b. 16-18 REMINDER ADVERTISING The purpose of a reminder advertisement is to: a. d. 16-17 COMPARATIVE ADVERTISING APPLICATION An ad for Citrucel fiber supplement claimed that in a blind taste test consumers preferred the taste of Citrucel to Metamucil 2 to 1. tell people what a product is. c. e.16-16 COMPARATIVE ADVERTISING Which of the following statements about comparative advertising is true? a. Comparative advertisements attract less consumer attention to the advertiser's brand. Firms that use comparative advertising need market research to support claims made in the ads. DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 344 Rationale: Text term definition—reminder . e. CONCEPTUAL Comparative advertisements now constitute over two-thirds of all television ads. promote a specific brand's features and benefits. d. promote the advantages of one product class over another. All of the above statements about comparative advertising are true.

b. d. d. established brand in the mature phase of the product life cycle. In this case.16-19 REMINDER ADVERTISING APPLICATION An ad for Campbell's soup reads. Reminder advertising is good for products that have achieved a well-recognized position and are in the mature phase of their product life cycle. advocacy comparative persuasive informative reminder Answer: e Page: 344 Rationale: Reminder advertising is used to reinforce previous knowledge of a product. Campbell’s is a well-known. Reminder advertising is good for products that have achieved a well-recognized position and are in the mature phase of their product life cycle. 16-20 REMINDER ADVERTISING CONCEPTUAL Reminder advertisements are especially effective for products in which stage of the product life cycle? a. introduction maturity harvesting growth incubation Answer: b Page: 344 Other Location: web Rationale: Reminder advertising is used to reinforce previous knowledge of a product. a. e. b. Consumers just need to be reminded to purchase the brand. e. 1043 . c.” This is an example of __________ advertising. “We haven't changed that great taste your family's always loved. c.

parity direct sales pioneering comparative reminder Answer: e Page: 344 Rationale: Reminder advertising is used to reinforce previous knowledge of a product. c. 16-22 REMINDER ADVERTISEMENT Reminder product and brand advertising is typically used to: a. persuade the target market. 16-23 REINFORCEMENT ADVERTISING Reinforcement ads are reminder ads that: a. reassure the company it has made the right choice in advertising the product. CONCEPTUAL Answer: e Page: 344 Other Location: web Rationale: Reminder advertising is used to reinforce previous knowledge of a product. state the position of the advertiser on an issue. e. repeat the original theme in a slightly varied form to help avoid burnout. c. c.16-21 REMINDER ADVERTISING APPLICATION When Godiva Chocolates runs a magazine ad with the headline "Spend Your Birthday With The Ones You Love. inform the target market. reassure consumers they have made the correct choice in choosing the product. d. b. The Godiva ad mentioned is an example of "reminder" advertising since Godiva is a well known brand in the mature stage of the product life cycle. e. b. Reminder advertising is good for products that have achieved a well-recognized position and are in the mature phase of their product life cycle. Reminder advertising is good for products that have achieved a well-recognized position and are in the mature phase of their product life cycle. identify the target market. a. d. b. reinforce previous knowledge. e." it has created __________ advertising. reaffirm a company's position on an issue of importance or interest. d. DEFINITION Answer: c Page: 345 Rationale: Text term definition—reinforcement advertising . repeat ad campaigns that have been used before in order to remind customers of past loyalty. Consumers just need to be reminded to purchase the product.

c. advocacy ads. institutional advertisements. b. repositioning advertisements. pioneering institutional. e. c. d.16-24 INSTITUTIONAL ADVERTISEMENTS DEFINITION Advertisements whose objective is to build goodwill or an image for an organization rather than promote a specific good or service are called: a. a. Alternative d is incorrect as it is not one of the four listed forms. product institutional ads. rather than promote a specific good or service. d. reminder institutional ads. compettive institutional. e. b. competitive institutional ads. product advertisements. reminder advertisements. support worthy charities increase frequency of purchases of new products increase the total amount of products used build goodwill or an image for an organization make direct sales Answer: d Page: 345 Rationale: Key term definition—institutional advertisements 16-26 INSTITUTIONAL ADVERTISEMENTS CONCEPTUAL Institutional advertisements can take all of the following alternative forms EXCEPT: a. 1045 . pioneering institutional ads. e. rather than promote a specific good or service. Answer: d Page: 345 Rationale: The objective of institutional advertisements is to build good will or an image for an organization. public service announcements. d. Four forms of institutional advertisements are often used: advocacy. b. c. Often this form of advertising is used to support the public relations plan or respond to negative publicity. Answer: c Page: 345 Rationale: Key term definition—institutional advertisements 16-25 INSTITUTIONAL ADVERTISEMENTS DEFINITION The objective of institutional advertisements is to __________. and reminder institutional.

d. promote a specific brand's features and benefits. Pfizer was using __________ advertising. promote the advantages of one product class over another. Miller beer is encouraging the responsible use of alcohol. In this case Pfizer is stating its position on the topic of vaccination. reinforce previous knowledge of a product. A unique form of advocacy advertisement is used when organizations make a statement or request related to a particular event. b. what it can do. DEFINITION Answer: c Page: 345 Rationale: Text term definition—advocacy advertising 16-28 ADVOCACY ADVERTISEMENTS CONCEPTUAL The kind of advertisements that state the position of a company on an issue. 16-29 ADVOCACY ADVERTISEMENTS APPLICATION At the beginning of the school year in September. its position on drinking responsibly. d. b. A unique form of advocacy advertisement is used when organizations make a statement or request related to a particular event. In this case. e. c. such as the request by American Red Cross for blood donations to help terrorism victims. are __________ advertisements. c. a. such as the request by American Red Cross for blood donations to help terrorism victims. d. . e. c. such as the ads sponsored by Miller beer encouraging the responsible use of alcohol. pioneering competitive advocacy reminder comparative Answer: c Page: 344 Rationale: Advocacy advertisements state the position of a company on an issue. pioneering competitive advocacy reminder political Answer: c Page: 345 Rationale: Advocacy advertisements state the position of a company on an issue. tell people what a company is. state the position of a company on an issue.16-27 ADVOCACY ADVERTISING The purpose of an advocacy advertisement is to: a. and where it is located. e. Pfizer Pharmaceutical ran an ad in several women's magazines in which it suggested that the timing may be right for vaccination. a. b.

The ad is an example of __________ advertising. d. c." The ad shows an engineer surrounded by seven young people. A unique form of advocacy advertisement is used when organizations make a statement or request related to a particular event. d. like the pioneering ads for products discussed earlier. b. such as the request by American Red Cross for blood donations to help terrorism victims. e. This advertisement is an example of a(n): a. 16-31 PIONEERING INSTITUTIONAL ADVERTISEMENTS APPLICATION An ad for an international consulting firm.16-30 ADVOCACY ADVERTISEMENTS APPLICATION The headline of a General Motors advertisement in the Reader's Digest magazine reads. competitive product advertisement. was intended to communicate the company philosophy —that you can be big and nimble at the same time—rather than sell any one particular service provided by the company. The General Motors ad suggests its position on education and helping those young people who may not believe in themselves. a. c. advocacy institutional advertisement. advocacy product advertisement. what it can do. or where it is located. "I believe these kids will make great engineers. e. The international consulting firm is announcing that despite its size. Answer: d Page: 345 Rationale: Advocacy advertisements state the position of a company on an issue. the more society will get out of the community. are used for announcements about what a company is. pioneering competitive advocacy reminder political Answer: a Page: 345 Rationale: Pioneering institutional advertisements. an idea that many in the target market may not be aware of. The ad copy talks about how General Motors believes the more the company puts into the community. 1047 . it can be nimble. competitive institutional advertisement. Now I've got to make them believe it. b. pioneering institutional advertisement.

The ads are examples of __________ ads. what it can do.16-32 PIONEERING INSTITUTIONAL ADVERTISEMENTS The purpose of pioneering institutional advertisements is to: a. b. In this example. a. c. b. or where it is located. c. e. the California Pistachio Growers Association is suggesting eating pistachios in social situations instead of other nuts or snacks— competitive product classes to pistachios. announce what a company is. promote the advantages of one product class over another. d. reinforce previous knowledge of a product. DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 345 Rationale: Text term definition—pioneering institutional advertisements 16-33 COMPETITIVE INSTITUTIONAL ADVERTISEMENTS APPLICATION The California Pistachio Growers Association has an ongoing ad campaign in which it encourages people to think of pistachios when they think of good times and good friends. e. state the position of a company on an issue. . d. The goal of the ad is to increase consumption of pistachio nuts. Competitive institutional ads promote the advantages of one product class over another and are used in markets where different product classes compete for the same buyers. promote a specific brand's features and benefits. The ads are not designed to sell specific brands. competitive institutional competitive product advocacy pioneering product pioneering institutional Answer: a Page: 345 Rationale: Institutional ads are designed to create or maintain an image or to build good will for an organization.

The ads are not designed to sell specific brands. promote a specific brand's features and benefits. competitive institutional competitive product advocacy pioneering product pioneering institutional Answer: a Page: 345 Rationale: Institutional ads are designed to create or maintain an image or to build good will for an organization.16-34 COMPETITIVE INSTITUTIONAL ADVERTISEMENTS APPLICATION The state of Florida Department of Citrus developed the “To Your Health” campaign to show the benefits of orange juice. e. promote the advantages of one product class over another. d. what it can do. c. what it can do. promote the advantages of one product class over another. the Florida Department of Citrus is suggesting drinking orange juice instead of other beverages. c. and where it is located. b. DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 345 Rationale: Text term definition—reminder institutional advertisements 1049 . DEFINITION Answer: e Page: 345 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—competitive institutional advertisements 16-36 REMINDER INSTITUTIONAL ADVERTISEMENTS The purpose of reminder institutional advertisements is to: a. tell people what a company is. Competitive institutional ads promote the advantages of one product class over another and are used in markets where different product classes compete for the same buyers. 16-35 COMPETITIVE INSTITUTIONAL ADVERTISEMENTS The purpose of competitive institutional advertisements is to: a. The goal of these ads is to increase demand for orange juice as it competes with other beverages. reinforce previous knowledge of a product. e. a. In this case. b. b. d. e. d. state the position of a company on an issue. state the position of a company on an issue. bring the company's name to the attention of the target market again. tell people what a company is. This is an example of a(n) __________ advertisement. promote a specific brand's features and benefits. and where it is located. c.

showing only the Mercedes logo on a chocolate simply reminded the audience of the Mercedes brand automobile. e. d. There was no mention of the company name or sign of a product in the ad. c. b. set the budget. competitive institutional competitive product advocacy pioneering product reminder institutional Answer: e Page: 345 Rationale: The purpose of reminder institutional advertisements is to bring the company's name. Figure 15-5 Other Location: web Rationale: As shown in Figure 15-5. This ad was an example of __________ advertising. This can be applied to advertising. so the steps in developing the advertising program are (1) identify the target audience. (4) select the right promotional elements—media for advertising. (2) specify the objectives. select the appeal. the first step of the promotion decision process is developing the promotion program.16-37 REMINDER INSTITUTIONAL ADVERTISEMENTS APPLICATION An ad for Mercedes Benz cars showed a heart-shaped box of chocolates with one of the chocolates topped with the well-recognized Mercedes logo. (6) schedule the promotion— advertising. CONCEPTUAL Answer: c Page: 345. c. identify the target audience. or trademark to the attention of the target market again. (3) set the budget. b. e. (5) design the promotion—select the appeal for advertising. specify the objectives of the advertising program. In this case. select the media. . d. 16-38 ADVERTISING DECISION PROCESS: PLANNING The first step in the advertising decision process is: a. a.

informational and persuasional. b. schedule the advertising program. Although the marketer can use many different 1051 . Information and persuasive content can be combined in the form of an appeal to provide a basic reason for the consumer to act. the first step of the promotion decision process is developing the promotion program. specify the advertising objectives. creative and expository. 16-41 MESSAGE APPEAL Most advertising messages are made up of two types of elements. key benefits of the product that are important to the buyer. b.16-39 ADVERTISING DECISION PROCESS: PLANNING CONCEPTUAL All of the following steps are part of the planning process used to develop an organization's advertising program EXCEPT: a. d. functional and persuasional. how the company will benefit. (6) schedule the promotion— advertising. e. the models in the ad. b. e. Alternative d is a part of the implementation process when the advertising program is executed. (5) design the promotion—select the appeal for advertising. c. 16-40 DESIGNING THE ADVERTISEMENT An advertising message usually focuses on: a. write the advertising copy. informational and creative. d. The message depends on the general form or appeal used in the ad and the actual words included in the ad. This can be applied to advertising. d. so the steps in developing the advertising program are (1) identify the target audience. expository and persuasional. pretest the advertising. the problem the model is having. Figure 15-5 Rationale: As shown in Figure 15-5. CONCEPTUAL Answer: d Page: 346 Rationale: An advertising message usually focuses on the key benefits of the product that are important to a prospective buyer in making trial and adoption decisions. identify the target audience. CONCEPTUAL Answer: c Page: 346 Rationale: Most advertising messages are made up of both informational and persuasional elements. (3) set the budget. e. (2) specify the objectives. c. the product packaging. They are: a. c. (4) select the right promotional elements—media for advertising. Answer: d Page: 345.

none of the above. CONCEPTUAL Answer: c Page: 346 Rationale: Fear appeals suggest to the consumer that he or she can avoid some negative experience through the purchase and use of a product or through a change in behavior. and humorous appeals. When using fear appeals. CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 346 Rationale: Most advertising messages are made up of both informational and persuasional elements. c. 16-44 FEAR APPEALS Which of the following is an important guideline when using fear appeal? a. Information and persuasive content can be combined in the form of an appeal to provide a basic reason for the consumer to act. none of the above. Answer: a Page: 346 Rationale: Most advertising messages are made up of both informational and persuasional elements. Make the appeal so strong that it appears humorous. sex appeals. provide a basic reason for the consumer to act. e. d. explain guilt and enrichment. c. Although the marketer can use many different types of appeals. b. b. fear. common advertising appeals include fear appeals. All of the above are important guidelines when using fear appeal. Information and persuasive content can be combined in the form of an appeal to provide a basic reason for the consumer to act. Avoid any reference to death or dying. the advertiser must be sure the appeal is strong enough to get the audience's . hierarchical needs. b. e. common advertising appeals include fear appeals. sex. d. sex appeals. guilt and enrichment. Don't make the appeal so strong that consumers want to avoid the advertisement. Be sure to make it appeal to children. c. e. 16-42 MESSAGE APPEAL CONCEPTUAL Information and persuasive content can be combined in the form of an appeal to: a. d. and humorous appeals. Although the marketer can use many different types of appeals. include perceptual modifiers and need enhancers. perceptual modifiers and need enhancers. 16-43 MESSAGE APPEAL Three common advertising appeals include: a. satisfy hierarchical needs. and humor. common advertising appeals include fear appeals. and humorous appeals. sex appeals.types of appeals.

1053 .attention and concern but not so strong it will lead them to tune out the message.

Family appeals. b. b. When using fear appeals. e. the homeowners tell the target audience how disaster can be averted by purchasing and using the advertised product. sex appeals. Fear appeals. Coercive appeals Answer: a Page: 346 Rationale: Text term definition—fear appeals 16-46 FEAR APPEALS APPLICATION The testimonial type ads for carbon dioxide detectors feature parents who are discussing the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning. humorous appeals. a. the advertiser must be sure the appeal is strong enough to get the audience's attention and concern but not so strong it will lead them to tune out the message. d. . coercive appeals Answer: a Page: 346 Rationale: Fear appeals suggest to the consumer that he or she can avoid some negative experience through the purchase and use of a product or through a change in behavior. Sex appeals. family appeals. e. In many of the ads. fear appeals.16-45 FEAR APPEALS DEFINITION __________ suggest to the consumer that he or she can avoid some negative experience through the purchase and use of a product or through a change in behavior. Such advertisements are using: a. Humorous appeals. c. c. d.

Answer: e Page: 346 Rationale: Fear appeals suggest to the consumer that he or she can avoid some negative experience through the purchase and use of a product or through a change in behavior. The idea that she will not have the care she needs because she failed to consider the future when she was young is an example of a: a. women don't. and they have little impact on how consumers think. What women find sexy. 16-49 SEX APPEALS DEFINITION In advertising. c. c. When using fear appeals. b. men don't. d. b. or act. fear appeal. __________ suggest to the audience that the product will increase the attractiveness of the user.16-47 FEAR APPEALS APPLICATION An ad for Conesco Insurance asks the question. e. a. life cycle appeal. d. e. What men find sexy. e. rhetorical appeals logical appeals humorous appeals sex appeals fear appeals Answer: d Page: 347 Rationale: Text term definition—sex appeals 1055 . d. Unfortunately many commercials that use sex appeals are only successful at gaining the attention of the audience. Answer: d Page: 347 Rationale: Sex appeals suggest to the audience that the product will increase the attractiveness of the user. sex appeal. 16-48 SEX APPEALS CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements describes a problem with using sex appeals in advertising? a. b. Some advertising experts even argue that such appeals get in the way of successful communication by distracting the audience from the purpose of the ad. “How long will you wait to start planning for long-term care?” The ad shows an elderly women being assisted by a nurse as she tries to win money on a game show. the advertiser must be sure the appeal is strong enough to get the audience's attention and concern but not so strong it will lead them to tune out the message. Sex appeals have no effect on senior citizens. c. The sex appeal of the ad can distract the audience from the product. humorous appeal. feel. Sex appeal typically fails to gain audience attention. rhetorical appeal.

feel. e. b. shows an attractive woman who claims that she lost “an incredible 23 pounds. Answer: d Page: 347 Rationale: Sex appeals suggest to the audience that the product will increase the attractiveness of the user. wear out quickly. or act. e. Answer: c Page: 347 Rationale: Sex appeals suggest to the audience that the product will increase the attractiveness of the user. Unfortunately many commercials that use sex appeals are only successful at gaining the attention of the audience. Some advertising experts even argue that such appeals get in the way of successful communication by distracting the audience from the purpose of the ad. rhetorical appeal. sex appeal. d. fear appeal. 16-51 SEX APPEALS APPLICATION An ad for Hydrozycut. Some advertising experts even argue that such appeals get in the way of successful communication by distracting the audience from the purpose of the ad. d.” This ad is using a: a.16-50 SEX APPEALS CONCEPTUAL Many commercials that use sex appeals gain the attention of the audience. or act. humorous rhetorical family life cycle sex figure of speech Answer: a Page: 347 Rationale: Text term definition—humorous appeals . but they: a. an advanced weight loss formula by GNC. c. they have little impact on how consumers think. do not appeal to either men or women. e. humorous appeal. they have little impact on how consumers think. b. Unfortunately many commercials that use sex appeals are only successful at gaining the attention of the audience. feel. 16-52 HUMOROUS APPEALS DEFINITION __________ appeals imply either directly or more subtly that the product is more fun or exciting than competitors’ offerings. a. c. c. life cycle appeal. d. don't appeal to the Net generation. contain no information to help consumers. feel. b. have little impact on how consumers think. or act. boring the consumer.

d. children do not. Unfortunately for the advertiser. humorous appeals tend to wear out quickly. we're 'jeans and t-shirts' but our dressing is 'night on the town.'” This use of a ___________ appeal implies that the dressing is like what is served at the finest eating establishments. a.16-53 HUMOROUS APPEALS CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements describes a problem with using humorous appeals in advertising? a. c. eventually boring the consumer. Unfortunately for the advertiser. 1057 . c. 16-54 HUMOROUS APPEALS APPLICATION An ad for Kraft salad dressings uses a play on words in its headline. d. Most humorous advertisements offend someone. boring the consumer. “Around here. the use of humor is widespread in advertising and can be found in many product categories. Answer: d Page: 347 Other Location: web Rationale: Humorous appeals imply either directly or more subtly that the product is more fun or exciting than competitors’ offerings. humorous appeals tend to wear out quickly. adults do not. eventually boring the consumer. b. As with fear and sex appeals. the use of humor is widespread in advertising and can be found in many product categories. e. What adults find humorous. What children find humorous. humorous rhetorical family life cycle sex figure of speech Answer: a Page: 347 Rationale: Humorous appeals imply either directly or more subtly that the product is more fun or exciting than competitors’ offerings. Another problem with humorous appeals is that their effectiveness may vary across cultures if used in a global campaign. e. As with fear and sex appeals. Humor tends to wear out quickly. b. but you can enjoy it in the comfort of your home. Another problem with humorous appeals is that their effectiveness may vary across cultures if used in a global campaign. Humorous appeals are easily ignored.

Answer: e Page: 347 Rationale: Copywriters are responsible for creating the text portion of the messages in advertisements. A high-quality 30-second TV commercial typically costs about $268. Answer: a Page: 348 Rationale: Text term definition—advertising media 16-57 ADVERTISING EXPENDITURES BY MEDIA TYPE CONCEPTUAL Which of the following types of media garners the largest amount of advertising expenditures? a.000.000. b.000 small commercial production companies in the US.000) and as companies have developed global campaigns.000 to produce because actors are expensive ($12. outdoor and internet. radio magazines. e.950. c. The expenditures drop nearly in half for “other”. e.000 to $15. d. yellow pages. b. the need to shoot commercials in “exotic” locations has increased. As companies have developed global campaigns. advertising media. Figure 16-1 Rationale: As shown in Figure 16-1. and newspapers at $49. CONCEPTUAL Copywriters are responsible for creating the text portion of the messages in advertisements.000 to produce. c. the need to shoot commercials in “exotic” locations has increased. television garners the largest amount of U. micromarketing.16-55 CREATING THE MESSAGE Which of the following is true about creating the advertising message? a. All of the above statements are true about creating the advertising message. d. There are about 2. media convergence. d. newspapers radio television Internet Yellow Pages Answer: c Page: 348. reach and frequency. b. . a decoder.S. advertising expenditures at $59. e. c.838. A high-quality 30-second TV commercial typically costs about $268.050. 16-56 ADVERTISING MEDIA DEFINITION The means by which the advertising message is communicated to the target audience is through: a.000. followed by direct mail at $49.

b. In this instance the audience is one-fifth of households. e. c. b. 10 20 30 40 50 Answer: b Page: 348 Rationale: Rating as defined in the text is the percentage of households in a market that are tuned to a particular TV show or radio station. Scope Share Reach Span Rating Answer: c Page: 348 Rationale: Key term definition—reach 16-59 RATING DEFINITION __________ is defined as the percentage of households in a market that are tuned to a particular television show or radio station. what would be the movie's rating? a. a. d. e. Gross rating points Reception rate Target audience reach Rating Share Answer: d Page: 348 Rationale: Key term definition—rating 16-60 RATING APPLICATION If a local television station in your area stated it reached one-fifth of the television households in its viewing area with a prime time movie. d. c. b. which is 20 percent. or a rating for the movie of 20. c. a. 1059 . d. e.16-58 REACH DEFINITION __________ is defined as the number of different people or households exposed to an advertisement.

Answer: e Page: 349 Rationale: Key term definition—frequency 16-62 FREQUENCY CONCEPTUAL Because consumers often do not pay close attention to advertising messages. c. d. frequency. gross rating points. DEFINITION Answer: a Page: 349 Rationale: Key term definition—gross rating points . cost divided by reach. b.16-61 FREQUENCY Frequency is defined as the: a. d. sales promotions. Answer: c Page: 349 Rationale: When advertisers want to reach the same audience more than once. d. advertisers want to reach the same audience more than once. cost divided by (reach multiplied by frequency). e. the average number of times a person in the target audience is exposed to a message or advertisement. number of times an advertisement can be shown before it begins to lose effectiveness. c. reach multiplied by frequency. number of times an advertisement must be shown before a given percentage of the audience can recall key points of information. parity. average number of times a person in the target audience is exposed to an advertisement. The average number of times a person in the target audience is exposed to a message or advertisement is called: a. total number of times an advertisement is broadcast on network and cable television or radio. c. 16-63 GROSS RATING POINTS Gross rating points (GRPs) are: a. reach multiplied by rating. e. DEFINITION number of different advertisements. b. they are concerned with frequency. rating multiplied by frequency. e. rating. b. reach. or publicity events in a promotional campaign of a marketing program.

This would give a comparison of the costs (financial effectiveness) for different media. each of which are divided by the multiple of their respective reach and frequency. c. c.000). b. Thus. c. and $1.00 $4. reach rating GRPs CPM frequency Answer: d Page: 349 Rationale: Cost per thousand (CPM) refers to the cost of reaching 1.00 Answer: d Page: 349 Rationale: In this case the audience can be considered as 500 groups of 1.000 households for a cost of $1.16-64 COST PER THOUSAND (CPM) CPM with respect to advertising is defined as the: a. or outdoor). 16-66 COST PER THOUSAND (CPM) APPLICATION The vice-president of marketing of G Street Fabrics has been told to invest the company's advertising dollars wisely. Which of the following measures could be used to compare the financial effectiveness of its advertising expenditures for different media? a. Answer: c Page: 349 Rationale: Key term definition—cost per thousand 16-65 COST PER THOUSAND (CPM) APPLICATION If you ordered a commercial to run on a local station that could reach 500. the CPM = $2. b.00 $3. d. direct mail versus television. b. d.00 $1. in thousands. e. e. $5.000 individuals or households with the advertising message in a given medium.g. radio. cost per minute of television or radio time number of consumers exposed to an advertising message. e. DEFINITION cost of one medium relative to the cost of other media (e. d. 1061 .000 divided by 500 equals $2.00.00 $2. cost of reaching 1000 individuals or households with the advertising message.000 households (total 500.000. reach multiplied by frequency divided by the cost of reaching 1000 individuals or households with the advertising message.00. what would your cost per thousand (CPM) be? a.

16-68 TELEVISION CONCEPTUAL One of the advantages associated with television as an advertising medium is that it: a. c. and motion for effect. can target specific audiences. interstitials. Answer: b Page: 349 Rationale: Key term definition—infomercials . can be used to convey complex messages. frequency. has an unlimited amount of advertising time available. has a short exposure time. advertisers seeking to expose targeted consumers to advertising message more than once are interested in frequency. As such. d. advocacy ads. sound and motion. advertorials. Figure 16-2 Rationale: Television reaches extremely large audiences. cost per thousand. d. b. advertising themes. As such. communicates with sight. 16-69 INFOMERCIALS DEFINITION Program-length (30-minute) advertisements that take an educational approach to communication with potential customers are called: a. infomercials. is a low-cost medium. reach. intrusionaries. Answer: b Page: 349. e. Answer: b Page: 349 Other Location: web Rationale: Advertisers like the hardware store owners are often interested in reaching their target audience more than one time because many consumers do not pay close attention to ad messages. print. d. The owners of the hardware store were concerned with: a. b. uses picture. which is defined as the average number of times a person in a target audience is exposed to an ad. gross rating points. One of their primary advertising concerns was to expose customers in a limited market area to their advertising messages as often as possible. e.16-67 FREQUENCY APPLICATION The owners of a small hardware store had a limited advertising budget. sound. c. the owners of the store were very concerned with spending their advertising dollars wisely. e. c. b.

The peak radio listening time is during the night. it is segmented. Radio is not a highly segmented medium. use high-quality color. CONCEPTUAL Answer: e Page: 349. and compete for attention with other magazine features. its inability to use humor. Disadvantages include no visual element. A drawback of radio is that it cannot convey complex information. c. e. d. humor. All of the above statements magazines as an advertising medium are true. Radio ads can be quickly created and placed. d. b. The average college student during the day listens to radio more than he/she watches television. b.6 hours. Radio can use sound. Answer: c Page: 349 Other Location: web Rationale: There are seven times as many radio stations as television stations in the United States. The ads have long lives. its multisensory appeal. 16-71 RADIO One reason for using radio as an advertising medium is: a. Radio is highly segmented.16-70 RADIO CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about radio as an advertising medium is true? a. e. 1063 . Radio has unlimited use for conveying complex information. and intimacy effectively. difficult to convey complex information. Peak radio listening time is during drive times from 6-10AM and 4-7PM. short exposure time and perishable message. its long lead time required for the placement of an ad. d.2 hours versus 1. e. ads are relatively high cost. The average college student is a surprisingly heavy radio listener and spends more time during the day listening to radio than watching television—2. However. a long time is needed to place an ad. ads can be clipped and saved and can convey complex information. Answer: e Page: 350. its high cost. There are seven times as many television stations as radio stations in the United States. The cost of national magazine advertising is higher than comparable radio advertising. 16-72 MAGAZINES CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about magazines as an advertising medium is true? a. Figure 16-2 Rationale: Magazines can target specific audiences. Some nationally distributed magazines publish regional or metro editions to reduce the cost of ads and wasted coverage. Magazines have distinct profiles for well-defined target audiences. Magazine ads can convey complex information. c. Figure 16-2 Rationale: Radio is low cost and can target specific local audiences. b. c.

and compete for attention with other magazine features. magazines would be inappropriate. b. a long time is needed to place an ad. d. their ability to target specific audiences. Some magazines such as Time publish regional editions. . 16-74 MAGAZINES One reason for using magazines as an advertising medium is: a. c. Which medium would be the least logical choice for placement of its messages? a. use high-quality color.Some magazines such as Time publish regional editions. The ads have long lives. their low cost. e. 16-73 MAGAZINES APPLICATION Shur-Valu Supermarkets changes its ads constantly to describe new products it has for sale and different price specials it offers. ads can be clipped and saved and can convey complex information. Figure 16-2 Rationale: Magazines need a long lead time to change the copy and focus of the message. billboard (outdoor) direct mail radio magazines newspapers Answer: d Page: 350. News papers or radio may be more appropriate because it takes a short time to develop the ad. the lack of noise associated with the use of magazines in the communication channel. e. b. and because this supermarket constantly changes its ads. Figure 16-2 Rationale: Magazines can target specific audiences. d. However. c. the short lead time needed to place an ad. all of the above CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 350. ads are relatively high cost.

National companies rarely use newspapers except in conjunction with local distributors of their products. Newspapers are rarely saved by the purchaser.16-75 NEWSPAPERS CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about newspapers as an advertising medium is true? a. b. they allow advertisements to focus on specific current events. Local retailers often use newspapers as their sole advertising medium. Figure 16-2 Rationale: Newspapers are an important local medium with excellent reach potential. Color reproduction is not as good as that in most magazines. 16-76 NEWSPAPERS One reason for NOT using newspapers as an advertising medium is their: a. e. long lead time for ad placement. Figure 16-2 CONCEPTUAL Answer: c Rationale: Newspapers are an important local medium with excellent reach potential. Local retailers often use newspapers as their sole advertising medium. ability to create noise during the communication process. short life span. Color reproduction is not very good. so companies are limited to ads that call for an immediate response. high cost. Local retailers often use newspapers as their sole medium. so companies are limited to ads that call for an immediate response. e. 1065 . c. Answer: e Page: 351. Newspapers are rarely saved by the purchaser. d. Page: 351. d. Because of the daily publication of most papers. b. c. Newspapers have excellent local reach potential. National advertising campaigns rarely include this medium except in conjunction with local distributors and usually both parties share the advertising costs. they allow advertisements to focus on specific current events. National advertising campaigns rarely include this medium except in conjunction with local distributors and usually both parties share the advertising costs. All of the above statements about newspapers as an advertising medium are true. inability to cover local markets. Because of the daily publication of most papers. Color reproduction is not as good as that in most magazines.

Internet ads are similar to print ads in that they offer only a visual message. or search engines to engage viewers. effectiveness is still uncertain and difficult to measure. c. Internet advertising has the following disadvantages: animation and interactivity require large files and more time to “load”. All of the above statements about the Internet as an advertising medium are true. 16-79 INTERNET-RICH MEDIA DEFINITION Called __________. effectiveness is still uncertain and difficult to measure. b. e. animation can capture attention.16-77 INTERNET CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about the Internet as an advertising medium is true? a. The Internet provides audio and video capabilities. these internet interactive ads have drop-down menus. its video and audio capabilities. Figure 16-2 Rationale: Internet advertising has the following advantages: video and audio capabilities. e. c. built-in games. Internet advertising is the most effective form of advertising. Answer: a Page: 351. d. c. Figure 16-2 Rationale: Internet advertising has the following advantages: video and audio capabilities. d. Ads are black and white. all of the above CONCEPTUAL Answer: e Page: 351. d. Internet advertising has the following disadvantages: animation and interactivity require large files and more time to “load”. ads can be interactive and link to advertiser. the way that the ads can link customers and advertisers. 16-78 INTERNET One reason for using the Internet as an advertising medium is: a. b. animation can capture attention. interactive ads. its ability to use animation. b. drop-downs rich media game advertising interactive ads pop-ups Answer: b Page: 351 Rationale: Text term definition—rich media . a. e. ads can be interactive and link to advertiser.

e. A disadvantage is that no opportunity exists for lengthy advertising copy. Billboards often result in good reach and frequency and have been shown to increase purchase rates. c. pioneering advocacy reminder comparative differentiation CONCEPTUAL Answer: c Page: 351. flexible alternative. Billboards often result in good reach and frequency and have been shown to increase purchase rates. such as the scoreboard at San Diego’s Qualcomm Stadium. d. Figure 16-2 Rationale: A very effective medium for reminding consumers about products is outdoor advertising.16-80 OUTDOOR Billboard advertising is most effective for __________ advertising. This can be a disadvantage in that outdoor advertising has a local market focus. and it is a relatively lowcost. b. its high costs. 16-81 OUTDOOR One reason for NOT using the outdoor advertising is: a. in subways and on taxis. and it is a relatively lowcost. pithy messages. Advertisers can buy space by route or neighborhood. its local market focus. A third form of outdoor advertising is transit advertising—that on bus backs. Advertisers can buy space by route or neighborhood. its inability to communicate short. e. A third form of outdoor advertising is transit advertising—that on bus backs. in subways and on taxis. d. b. Figure 16-2 Rationale: A very effective medium for reminding consumers about products is outdoor advertising. 1067 . The visibility of this medium is good supplemental reinforcement for well-known products. such as the scoreboard at San Diego’s Qualcomm Stadium. its lack of visibility. a. flexible alternative. The visibility of this medium is good supplemental reinforcement for well-known products. all of the above CONCEPTUAL Answer: c Page: 351. A disadvantage is that no opportunity exists for lengthy advertising copy. c.

serial advertising. One disadvantage of transit advertising is that heavy travel times often do not permit riders to read advertising copy. frequency. One disadvantage of transit advertising is that heavy travel times often do not permit riders to read advertising copy. 16-84 TRANSIT ADVERTISING APPLICATION London Underground (subway) platforms are famous for their lively mix of advertisements— witty and amusing. subway cars. When done well. Transit routes can provide geographic selectivity of audiences for advertisers. c. d. d. informative. transitional advertising.16-82 OUTDOOR-BILLBOARDS The most common form of outdoor advertising is: a. transit advertising informs and entertains commuters during time on platforms or at bus stops as well as inside transport. e. These ads are examples of: a. advertising on bus backs. stadium advertising. subway and commuter trains. DEFINITION Answer: e Page: 351. advertising on taxis. e. b. b. CONCEPTUAL Answer: e Page: 351 Rationale: Transit advertising is a form of outdoor advertising that includes the interior and exterior of buses. billboard advertising. and large enough to be easily read. c. advertising in subways. Transit advertising is a form of outdoor advertising. subway cars. b. transit advertising. . and taxis. Transit advertising includes the interior and exterior of buses. d. and taxis. opportunistic advertising. All of the above statements about transit advertising are true. Ads change every few weeks. e. Figure 16-2 Rationale: Text term definition--billboards 16-83 TRANSIT ADVERTISING Which of the following statements about transit advertising is true? a. Transit routes can provide geographic selectivity of audiences for advertisers. Some are part of a series with a story line that slowly emerges for regular commuters although each ad in the series makes sense to the one-time reader. and taxis. Answer: d Page: 351 Other Location: web Rationale: Transit advertising includes messages on the interior and exterior of buses. c. as in London.

and theaters. how often new buyers enter the market to buy the product. place-based media. health clubs. e. cooperative advertising. b. DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 352 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—buyer turnover 16-87 PURCHASE FREQUENCY Which of the following is the definition for purchase frequency? a. or theaters—called: a. how often a consumer will try a competitive brand before returning to the original choice. electronic advertising. b. the less repetition is required DEFINITION Answer: e Page: 352 Rationale: Text term definition—purchase frequency 1069 . invasive placements. the less advertising repetition is required. c. d. advertisers have been attracted to a variety of nontraditional advertising options—in airports. doctors’ offices. c. e. d. the amount of time between repeat purchases of a given product. d. e. product placements. c. the ratio that shows the more frequently the product is purchased. b. Answer: a Page: 352 Rationale: Place-based media include messages placed in locations that attract a specific target audience such as airports. the amount of time it takes each generation to enter the product life cycle. doctors' offices. Beach ‘n Billboard will even imprint ads in the sand on a beach! 16-86 BUYER TURNOVER Buyer turnover is defined as: a.16-85 OTHER MEDIA CONCEPTUAL As traditional media have become more expensive and cluttered. the amount of time between trial and first repeat purchase of a given product the amount of time it takes each generation to enter the product life cycle how often a consumer will try a competitive brand before returning to the original choice how often new buyers enter the market to buy the product the more frequently the product is purchased.

school supplies. e. d. d. flighting. pulse. APPLICATION Answer: c Page: 352 Rationale: Continuous schedule advertising is run at a steady or regular schedule throughout the year when demand and seasonal factors are unimportant. 16-90 CONTINUOUS SCHEDULE Continuous scheduling would most likely be used for advertising: a. c. continuous. b. d. c. b. flexible. and infrequently. Answer: d Page: 352 Rationale: Text term definition—forgetting rate 16-89 ADVERTISING SCHEDULES The three approaches to setting advertising schedules are: a. the forgetting rate. and pulse (burst). product recall dissipation rate. snow blowers. b. and sweeping. e. c. bursting. and pulsing. DEFINITION Answer: c Page: 352 Rationale: The three approaches to setting advertising schedules are continuous (steady). e. These conditions apply to bathroom cleaner and not to the other four products. seasonal. suntan lotion. brand awareness rate. intermittent. incessant. and continuous. seasonal. and continuous. flighting (intermittent). toys. buyer turnover. sweeping.16-88 FORGETTING RATE DEFINITION The speed with which buyers forget about a brand if advertising is NOT seen is called: a. bathroom cleaner. the frequency rate. .

16-91 CONTINUOUS SCHEDULE A __________ schedule is used when seasonal factors are unimportant. a. b. c. d. e. continuous flighting intermittent pulse burst

DEFINITION

Answer: a Page: 352 Rationale: Text term definition—continuous schedule 16-92 FLIGHTING SCHEDULE DEFINITION

A basic approach to scheduling, in which periods of advertising are scheduled between periods of no advertising to reflect seasonal demand is called: a. b. c. d. e. sustaining. dripping. flighting. pulsing. bursting.

Answer: c Page: 352 Rationale: Text term definition—flighting schedule 16-93 FLIGHTING SCHEDULE Flighting schedules would most likely be used for advertising: a. b. c. d. e. wood-burning stoves. crackers bottled water. breakfast cereal bathroom cleaner. APPLICATION

Answer: a Page: 352 Rationale: Flighting schedules are used between periods of no advertising to reflect seasonal demand for a product based on market behavior. Wood-burning stoves would sell better in late fall and winter, so would need advertising at that time.

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16-94 PULSE SCHEDULE

DEFINITION

A flighting schedule combined with a steady schedule because of increases in demand, heavy periods of promotion, or introduction of a new product is called a(n): a. b. c. d. e. drip schedule. blitz schedule. pulse schedule. turnover schedule. intermittent schedule.

Answer: c Page: 352 Rationale: Text term definition—pulse schedule 16-95 PULSE SCHEDULE Pulse scheduling would most likely be used for advertising: a. b. c. d. e. bathroom cleaner. breakfast cereal. socks. motor oil. holiday candy. APPLICATION

Answer: e Page: 352 Rationale: Pulse or burst scheduling is when a flighting schedule is combined with a continuous schedule because of increases in demand, heavy periods of promotion, or introduction of a new product. Alternatives a, b, c, and d all have a relatively stable demand. Candy however, would most likely need heavier promotion before Halloween, Valentine's Day, Mother's Day, etc. 16-96 CHOOSING ADVERTISING MEDIA APPLICATION

A retail store marketing vice president is developing an advertising budget using the objective and task method. She has the objective of clearing slow-moving merchandise from her shelves and is trying to choose between radio and newspaper ads. Which of the following is an advantage of radio relative to newspaper as a means of achieving the objective? a. b. c. d. e. better reach more effective visuals ads can be saved by consumers better segmentation capability more effective in conveying complex information

Answer: d Page: 350; Figure 16-2 Rationale: Better segmentation is a radio strength. The other alternatives are advantages offered by newspapers when compared to radio.

16-97 EXECUTING THE ADVERTISING PROGRAM

CONCEPTUAL

Which of the following statements is true about executing the advertising program? a. b. c. d. e. Execution involves pretesting the copy and carrying out the advertising program. Advertising is evaluated to ensure that their advertising expenditures are not wasted. Evaluation is done before the advertisements are run in the campaign. Evaluation is done after the advertisements are run in the campaign. All of the above statements about executing the advertising program are correct.

Answer: e Page: 352 Rationale: Executing the advertising program involves pretesting the advertising copy and actually carrying out the advertising program. By evaluating advertising efforts marketers can try to ensure that their advertising expenditures are not wasted. Evaluation is done usually at two separate times: before and after the advertisements are run in the campaign. 16-98 PRETESTS DEFINITION

Tests conducted before an advertisement is placed in any medium to determine whether the advertisement communicates the intended message or to select between alternative versions of the advertisement are called: a. b. c. d. e. preliminary screenings. experience testing. exposure testing. pretests. posttests.

Answer: d Page: 353 Rationale: Key term definition—pretests 16-99 PRETESTS CONCEPTUAL

Because advertising is expensive, marketers want to be certain the advertisements they run communicate the intended message to the target audience. In order to accomplish this communication goal, marketers conduct __________ before advertisements are placed in a medium. a. b. c. d. e. market research surveys advertising matrix evaluations pretests alternative media searches

Answer: d Page: 353 Rationale: To determine whether the advertisement communicates the intended message or to select among alternative versions of the advertisement, pretests are conducted before the advertisements are placed in any medium.

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use electronic devices to measure viewer response or feelings after viewing an advertisement. and how attractive they thought it was. which they are asked to recall. and the respondents are asked to recall as much pertinent information as possible. d. The ad is then removed. c. d. etc. use electronic devices during or questionnaires after consumers view an advertisement to measure viewer response or feelings. CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 353 Rationale: Jury tests involve showing the ad copy to a panel of consumers and having them rate how much they liked it. present a panel of consumers with an ad and ask for their reactions concerning the ad's effectiveness. a test advertisement is not hidden within other ads. present consumers with a hidden ad. e.16-100 PORTFOLIO TESTS Portfolio tests: a. present consumers with a sample of a product and several different advertisements for the product. and the respondents are asked to recall as much pertinent information as possible. how much it drew their attention. place a test ad in the midst of other ads and stories. CONCEPTUAL present a panel of consumers with an ad and ask for their reactions concerning the ad's effectiveness. . and then ask consumers for their impressions of the ads. appeal. etc. They are asked to select the one they think is most effective and explain why. unlike the portfolio test. However. appeal. 16-101 JURY TESTS Jury tests: a. b. e. instruct consumers to look at the ads and stories. present consumers with a sample of a product and several different advertisements for the product. They are asked to select the one they think is most effective and explain why. c. Answer: d Page: 353 Other Location: web Rationale: A portfolio test places an ad in a portfolio with several other ads and stories and consumers are asked to read through the portfolio. This approach is similar to the portfolio test in that consumer reactions are obtained. present a panel of consumers with an ad for a limited period of time. The ad is then removed. b. present a panel of consumers with an ad for a limited period of time.

CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 353 Rationale: Theater testing is the most sophisticated form of pretesting. Consumers are invited to view new television shows or movies in which test commercials are also shown. Focus groups Portfolio tests Jury tests Theater tests Performance tests Answer: c Page: 353 Rationale: Jury tests involve showing the ad copy to a panel of consumers and having them rate how much they liked it. c. This approach is similar to the portfolio test in that consumer reactions are obtained. However. how much it drew their attention. a. e. unlike the portfolio test. b. b. 16-103 THEATER TESTS The most sophisticated form of pretest is the: a. and how attractive they thought it was. d. 1075 . d. c. Viewers register their feelings about the advertisements either on hand-held electronic recording devices used during the viewing or on questionnaires afterward. e. theater test. portfolio test. sales test. jury test.16-102 JURY TESTS CONCEPTUAL __________ involve showing ad copy to a panel of consumers and having them rate how they liked it. attitude test. how much it drew their attention. a test advertisement is not hidden within other ads. and how attractive they thought it was.

Young and Rubicam is an example of a(n): a. appeal. Consumers are invited to view new television shows or movies in which test commercials are also shown. Answer: c Page: 353 Rationale: Full-service advertising agencies provide a complete range of services including . present consumers with a hidden ad. 16-105 FULL-SERVICE AGENCY DEFINITION A(n) ___________ is an advertising agency provides the most complete range of services. media selection. d. c. present a panel of consumers with an ad for a limited period of time. This agency provided marketing research. limited-service agency full spectrum agency full-service agency multi-service agency in-house agency Answer: c Page: 353 Rationale: Key term definition—full-service agency 16-106 FULL-SERVICE AGENCY APPLICATION Young and Rubicam. in-house agency. and production services for Sears. full-service advertising agency. a. etc. Viewers register their feelings about the advertisements either on hand-held electronic recording devices used during the viewing or on questionnaires afterward. and the respondents are asked to recall as much pertinent information as possible. image consultant. d. The ad is then removed. b. e. c. b. e. Inc. present consumers with a sample of a product and several different advertisements for the product. They are asked to select the one they think is most effective and explain why. use electronic devices during or questionnaires after consumers view a TV advertisement to measure viewer response or feelings. artwork. b. consulting firm. copy development. media selection. copy development. e. limited-service advertising agency. including market research. developed the “Softer Side of Sears” campaign for Sears to target middle-income women. artwork. d. CONCEPTUAL present a panel of consumers with an ad and ask for their reactions concerning the ad's effectiveness.16-104 THEATER TESTS Theater tests: a. Answer: e Page: 353 Other Location: web Rationale: Theater testing is the most sophisticated form of pretesting. which they are asked to recall. and production. c.

copy development. media selection. 1077 . artwork and production.marketing research.

c. d. b. posttests. pretests. c. d. e. Answer: d Page: 353 Rationale: Key term definition—posttests .16-107 LIMITED-SERVICE AGENCIES DEFINITION A __________ is an advertising agency that specializes in one aspect of the advertising process such as providing creative services to develop advertising copy or buying previously unpurchased media space. control testing. c. exposure testing. full-service agency in-house agency modified-service agency promotional firm limited-service agency Answer: e Page: 353 Rationale: Key term definition—limited-service agencies 16-108 IN-HOUSE AGENCY DEFINITION An __________ made up of the company’s own advertising staff may provide full services or a limited range of services. intrafirm agency promotional department full-service agency in-house agency limited-service agency Answer: d Page: 353 Rationale: Key term definition—in-house agency 16-109 POSTTESTS DEFINITION Tests conducted after an advertisement has been shown to the target audience to determine whether it accomplished its intended purpose are referred to as: a. experience tests. b. d. e. b. a. a. e.

1079 . Aided recall posttests involve studies such as controlled experiments and consumer purchase tests. With aided recall posttests. d. In an aided recall posttest. c. a distributor. or listening. e. 16-111 POSTTESTS Which of the following is a type of posttest used for advertising messages? a. additional product information. attitude tests theater tests inquiry tests sales tests recall tests CONCEPTUAL Answer: b Page: 354 Rationale: Theater tests are a type of pretest. With aided recall posttests. e. b. respondents are first shown an ad and then asked whether their previous exposure to it was through reading. d. respondents are asked whether their previous exposure to it was through reading. In an aided recall posttest. "What ads do you remember seeing yesterday?" is asked of respondents without any other prompting to determine whether they saw or heard advertising messages. or an advertising agency to manipulate an advertising variable (such as schedule or copy) and observe subsequent sales effects by monitoring data collected from checkout scanners in supermarkets. Alternatives a. viewing. 16-112 AIDED RECALL Which of the following statements about aided recall posttests is true? a. c. or listening.16-110 POSTTESTS Which of the following is NOT an example of an advertising posttest? a. or premiums are offered to an ad's readers or viewers. respondents are asked questions to measure changes in their attitudes after an advertising campaign. viewing. such as whether they had a more favorable attitude toward the product advertised. b. b. c. a question such as. and ads generating the most inquiries are presumed to be the most effective. b. and d are pretests. d. theater tests portfolio tests sales tests jury tests all of the above CONCEPTUAL Answer: c Page: 354 Rationale: Sales tests allow a manufacturer. product samples. CONCEPTUAL Answer: e Page: 354 Rationale: After being shown an ad. e.

Elements of the ad are then tagged with the results.16-113 AIDED RECALL-STARCH TEST DEFINITION The __________ test uses aided recall to determine the percentage of those who remember seeing a specific magazine ad. e. attitude Starch prompted response inquiry concept Answer: b Page: 354 Rationale: The Starch test determines the percentage of those who remember seeing a specific magazine ad. e. d. b. d. It is a type of aided recall test. e. c. . recognition-readership testing. concept testing. who saw or read any part of the ad identifying the product or brand. inquiry testing. which ads she remembered seeing in the most recent issue of the magazine. prompted response testing. and who read at least half of the ad. and who read at least half of the ad. attitude testing. c. Then she was asked questions about the content and appearance of the ads she remembered. b. a. The researcher was using __________ to test the effectiveness of ads in the magazine. who saw or read any part of the ad identifying the product or brand. Kelly was asked by a researcher. 16-114 AIDED RECALL The other name used for aided recall tests is: a. a. b. "What ads do you remember seeing yesterday?" is asked of respondents without any prompting to determine whether they saw or heard advertising messages when using unaided recall posttests. d. 16-115 UNAIDED RECALL APPLICATION As a subscriber to Fitness magazine. inquiry testing concept testing unaided recall portfolio testing aided recall Answer: c Page: 354 Rationale: A question such as. c. DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 354 Rationale: Aided recall tests are also called recognition-readership tests.

In an attitude test. and ads generating the most inquiries are presumed to be the most effective. In an unaided recall posttest. 16-117 ATTITUDE TESTS Which of the following statements about attitude tests is true? a. e. c. With unaided recall posttests. such as whether they had a more favorable attitude toward the product advertised. additional product information. product samples. "What ads do you remember seeing yesterday?" is asked of respondents without any prompting to determine whether they saw or heard advertising messages when using unaided recall posttests. Attitude tests involve studies such as controlled experiments and consumer purchase tests. With attitude tests. "What ads do you remember seeing yesterday?" is asked of respondents without any other prompting to determine whether they saw or heard advertising messages. and ads generating the most inquiries are presumed to be the most effective. With attitude tests. CONCEPTUAL Answer: d Page: 354 Rationale: When using attitude posttests. respondents are first shown an ad and then asked whether their previous exposure to it was through reading.16-116 UNAIDED RECALL Which of the following statements about unaided recall posttests is true? a. e. respondents are asked questions to measure changes in their attitudes after an advertising campaign. respondents are asked questions to measure changes in their attitudes after an advertising campaign. respondents are asked questions to measure changes in their attitudes after an advertising campaign. c. viewing. viewing. Unaided recall posttests involve studies such as controlled experiments and consumer purchase tests. such as whether they have a more favorable attitude toward the product advertised. a question such as. or listening. respondents are first shown an ad and then asked whether their previous exposure to it was through reading. Answer: b Page: 354 Other Location: web Rationale: A question such as. or listening. b. 1081 . or premiums are offered to an ad's readers or viewers. In an attitude test. d. a question such as. additional product information. "What ads do you remember seeing yesterday?" is asked of respondents without any other prompting to determine whether they saw or heard advertising messages. product samples. b. CONCEPTUAL With unaided recall posttests. or premiums are offered to an ad's readers or viewers. such as whether they had a more favorable attitude toward the product advertised. In an unaided recall posttest . d.

a question such as. or an advertising agency to manipulate an advertising variable (such as schedule or copy) and observe subsequent sales effects by monitoring data collected from checkout scanners in supermarkets. In an inquiry test. respondents are asked questions to measure changes in their attitudes after an advertising campaign. With sales tests. a question such as. b. With inquiry tests. or an advertising agency to manipulate an advertising variable (such as schedule or copy) and observe subsequent sales effects. a distributor. additional product information. In a sales test. CONCEPTUAL Answer: c Page: 354 Rationale: Sales tests allow a manufacturer. d. respondents are first shown an ad and then asked whether their previous exposure to it was through reading. . such as whether they had a more favorable attitude toward the product advertised. "What ads do you remember seeing yesterday?" is asked of respondents without any other prompting to determine whether they saw or heard advertising messages. CONCEPTUAL With inquiry tests. e. In a sales test. such as whether they had a more favorable attitude toward the product advertised. product samples. and ads generating the most inquiries are presumed to be the most effective. product samples. d. product samples. With sales tests. Answer: a Page: 354 Rationale: With inquiry tests. respondents are first shown an ad and then asked whether their previous exposure to it was through reading. "What ads do you remember seeing yesterday?" is asked of respondents without any other prompting to determine whether they saw or heard advertising messages. or listening. viewing. e.16-118 INQUIRY TESTS Which of the following statements about inquiry tests is true? a. respondents are asked questions to measure changes in their attitudes after an advertising campaign. c. Inquiry tests involve studies such as controlled experiments and consumer purchase tests. b. a distributor. 16-119 SALES TESTS Which of the following statements about sales tests is true? a. and ads generating the most inquiries are presumed to be the most effective. or premiums are offered to an ad's readers or viewers. or premiums are offered to an ad's readers or viewers. viewing. or listening. additional product information. additional product information. In an inquiry test. Sales tests allow a manufacturer. and ads generating the cost inquiries are presumed to be the most effective. or premiums are offered to an ad's readers or viewers. c.

samples. d. personal selling. or simply consumer promotions. d. DEFINITION promotions where charitable contributions of a firm are tied directly to the customer revenues produced through the promotion of one of its products. premiums. While in the store. Answer: e Page: 354 Other Location: web Rationale: Key term definition—consumer-oriented sales promotions 16-121 CONSUMER-ORIENTED SALES PROMOTIONS DEFINITION Sales promotions. channel promotions. direct marketing. and free samples are all examples of: a. deals. b. contests. indirectly paid presentation of a company or its products. point-of-purchase displays. and sale items. sales promotion. sweepstakes. e. advertising. Examples are news releases. methods used to get a nonpersonal. Answer: d Page: 354 Rationale: Directed to ultimate consumers. public service promotions. c. manufacturers promotions. Answer: b Page: 354 Rationale: Key term definition—consumer-oriented sales promotions 16-122 CONSUMER-ORIENTED SALES PROMOTIONS APPLICATION When preparing his grocery shopping list. trade promotions.16-120 CONSUMER-ORIENTED SALES PROMOTIONS Consumer-oriented sales promotions are: a. consumer-oriented sales promotions. b. d. sales promotions that supplement advertising and personal selling but are directed to wholesalers. and product placement. e. The alternative consumer-oriented sales promotion tools include coupons. 1083 . publicity. which are directed to ultimate consumers and are used to support advertising and personal selling. continuity programs. rebates. Winston actively scans the supermarket ads in the local newspaper for coupons. sales tools used to support advertising and personal selling. rebates. retailers. consumer-oriented sales promotions. c. rebates. are called: a. are sales tools used to support a company’s advertising and personal selling. Winston also looks for free samples of new products and products he hasn't purchased previously. sale items. c. b. The coupons. e. news conferences. or distributors. and public service announcements advertisements that show actual consumers using the product.

dealer handling. encourage present customers to buy more. premiums. contests. clearinghouse costs. c. d. encourage trial. or simply consumer promotions. which encourages trial. are sales tools used to support a company’s advertising and personal selling. a trade promotion. CONCEPTUAL Answer: d Page: 355 Rationale: Coupons are sales promotions that usually offer a discounted price to the consumer. consumer feedback. rebates. e. and the time until expiration have all been increasing. consumer encoding. a consumer-oriented sales promotion. The redemption rate is typically about 2 percent. d. encourage repeat purchases. The free pizza with the purchase of one pizza at regular price is a deal or short-term price reduction. This type of incentive offer is an example of: a.16-123 CONSUMER-ORIENTED SALES PROMOTIONS APPLICATION The offer of one free pizza with the purchase of one pizza at the regular price might appeal to you one evening. continuity programs. e. . Coupons are far more expensive than the face value of the coupon because additional costs include paying for the advertisement to deliver it. increase trial and retaliate against competitor's actions. In recent years. and product placement. mass-market communication. the average face value of coupons. the primary objective of coupons is to: a. The alternative consumer-oriented sales promotion tools include coupons. samples. b. sweepstakes. consumer-oriented sales promotions. and minimize brand switching behavior. c. point-of-purchase displays. and redemption. 16-124 COUPONS For marketers. the number of coupons with multiple-purchase requirements. Answer: c Page: 354 Rationale: Directed to ultimate consumers. deals. stimulate supply. b.

rebate sample coupon deal premium Answer: c Page: 355 Rationale: Coupons are sales promotions that usually offer a discounted price to the consumer. d.25 if you clip the ad and use it at the supermarket for your next purchase of Birdseye lima beans. All of the above are methods used by coupon cheaters to defraud consumer goods manufacturers. (3) Retailers increase their refunds by adding extra coupons to those handed in by shoppers. Coupons are far more expensive than the face value of the coupon because additional costs include paying for the advertisement to deliver it. Counterfeiters print rebate forms and proofs of purchase to collect big cash rebates without buying the goods. b. Some scam artists set up a fake store and send coupons to manufacturers for payment. and the time until expiration have all been increasing. 16-126 ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ALERT CONCEPTUAL Which of the following describes a method used by coupon cheaters to defraud consumer goods manufacturers? a. (2) Coupon collectors often sell coupons by the pound to retailers who are paid full face value by manufacturers. 1085 . Retailers increase their refunds by adding extra coupons to those handed in by shoppers. Coupon collectors often sell coupons by the pound to retailers who are paid full face value by manufacturers. b. c. and redemption. or even the offer. a. Answer: e Page: 355 Rationale: Coupon scams include: (1) Some scam artists set up a fake store and send coupons to manufacturers for payment. d. (5) The coupon bar code. can be manipulated and copied with computers. downloaded from an internet site. The redemption rate is typically about 2 percent. dealer handling.16-125 COUPONS APPLICATION By placing an ad in the Sunday paper with an offer to save $. even though the products were not sold. (4) Counterfeiters print rebate forms and proofs of purchase to collect big cash rebates without buying the goods. value. even though the products were not sold. the average face value of coupons. c. e. which encourages trial. Birdseye is using a __________ to stimulate demand for its lima beans. e. In recent years. the number of coupons with multiple-purchase requirements. clearinghouse costs.

This short-term price reduction builds up the stock on the kitchen shelves of cake mix buyers and makes the competitor’s introduction more difficult. commonly used to increase trial among potential customers or to retaliate against a competitor’s actions. d. d. encourage new product trial. the company responds with a “two packages for the price of one” deal. . which should minimize brand switching behavior. get a second shirt of equal or lower value for only one dollar. increase trial among potential customers as a retaliation against competitors' actions. if a rival manufacturer introduces a new cake mix. b. a deal a contest a premium a rebate a sample Answer: a Page: 355 Rationale: A deal is a sales promotion that offers a short-term price reduction. make the coupon look as complex as possible.16-127 ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ALERT A marketer who wanted to reduce coupon and rebate fraud should: a. require hand-written redemption requests. commonly used to increase trial among potential customers or to retaliate against a competitor’s actions. This short-term price reduction builds up the stock on the kitchen shelves of cake mix buyers and makes the competitor’s introduction more difficult. "Buy one shirt. CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 355 Rationale: Some of the steps being taken to reduce coupon and rebate fraud include requiring handwritten redemption requests and requesting a proof of purchase. e. 16-129 DEALS For marketers. the primary objective of a deal is to: a. b. CONCEPTUAL Answer: b Page: 355 Rationale: A deal is a sales promotion that offers a short-term price reduction. d. encourage repeat purchases. encourage present customers to buy more. 16-128 DEALS APPLICATION The sign at the entrance to the men's store reads. c. e. For example. extend a product's life cycle. b. For example. do all of the above. e. the company responds with a “two packages for the price of one” deal. print coupons and forms in at least five colors. c. if a rival manufacturer introduces a new cake mix. include a secret code on the coupon. c." Which type of sales promotion is the men's store is using? a.

premium. b. c. coupon. companies encourage customers to return frequently or to use more of the product. companies encourage customers to return frequently or to use more of the product. By offering a premium. premium. d. sample. a deal a premium a rebate a coupon a sample Answer: b Page: 355 Other Location: web Rationale: A premium is a sales promotion that consists of offering merchandise free or at a significant savings over retail. d. rebate. deal. Answer: c Page: 355 Rationale: A premium is a sales promotion that consists of offering merchandise free or at significant savings over its retail price. This seat cushion is an example of a: a. 16-131 PREMIUM APPLICATION A print ad for Allegra allergy medication offers a free purple seat cushion to all who request additional information about the drug. e. b. e. companies encourage customers to return frequently or to use more of the product.16-130 PREMIUM APPLICATION The radio commercial said. By offering a premium. rebate. 16-132 PREMIUM APPLICATION What type of sales promotion is McDonald's using when it sells drinking glasses commemorating the 100th birthday of Walt Disney to consumers who also purchase a Happy Meal? a." This ad was offering customers a: a. c. "Send three proofs of purchase and $3 for postage and handling to receive your monogrammed T-shirt. deal. c. d. b. e. sample. Answer: c Page: 355 Rationale: A premium is a sales promotion that consists of offering merchandise free or at significant savings over its retail price. 1087 . By offering a premium. coupon.

the primary objective of a premium is to: a. e. deal. By offering a premium." This ad was promoting a: a. sweepstakes. c. Answer: a Page: 355 Rationale: A premium is a sales promotion that consists of offering merchandise free or at significant savings over its retail price. b. CONCEPTUAL encourage customers to return frequently or to use more of the product. end-run sample. .16-133 PREMIUM For marketers. d. d. Sweepstakes are based on chance (luck) while contests require some skill. a. generate store traffic. encourage present customers to buy more. b. minimize brand switching behavior. b. e. increase trial and retaliate against competitors' actions. companies encourage customers to return frequently or to use more of the product. e. d. self-liquidating cost-covered value-premium company value premium customer value premium Answer: a Page: 355 Rationale: Text term definition—self-liquidating 16-135 CONTESTS APPLICATION The ad advised readers to "try your skill at using our cream cheese to create an exciting new recipe and you may be the winner of a trip for two to Hawaii. 16-134 SELF-LIQUIDATING PREMIUM DEFINITION A premium is called __________ when the cost charged to the consumer covers the cost of the item. c. contest. premium. Answer: d Page: 355 Rationale: Contests are sales promotions in which customers apply their creative skills or analytical thinking to win a prize. c. encourage new product trial.

e. This is an example of a: a. b. premium. c. e. and guarantee that the prizes are actually awarded. Federal laws. d. the Federal Trade Commission. ensure that the chance for winning is represented honestly. sweepstakes. finding the errors and sending the list to California requires some skill and the prize is a trip to the set and a walk-on role. c. Answer: d Page: 355 Other Location: web Rationale: Contests are sales promotions in which customers apply their creative skills or analytical thinking to win a prize. and state legislatures have issued rules covering sweepstakes. 16-137 SWEEPSTAKES DEFINITION __________ are sales promotions that require participants to submit some kind of entry form but are purely games of chance requiring no analytical or creative effort by the consumer. The person who has found the most errors wins a chance to visit the set where the show is taped and have a walk-on role. Sweepstakes are based on chance (luck) while contests require some skill. b. and games to regulate their fairness. deal.16-136 CONTESTS APPLICATION The first week of April. Premiums Rebates Deals Contests Sweepstakes Answer: e Page: 356 Rationale: Sweepstakes are sales promotions that require participants to submit some kind of entry form but are purely games of chance requiring no analytical or creative effort by the consumer. trade promotion. contest. a. the Drew Carey television show premiers a show that is full of errors and asks viewers to record all the errors they can and send the list to an address in California. d. The approach is very effective. contests. In this case. 1089 .

d. The approach is very effective.16-138 SWEEPSTAKES APPLICATION The California Pistachio Growers Association has an ongoing ad campaign in which it encourages people to think of pistachios when they think of good times and good friends. companies invest more than $1. Answer: d Page: 356 Rationale: Sampling is a common consumer sales promotion which offers the product free or at a greatly reduced price. d. . The association is using a __________ to measure the effectiveness of its ads.pistachios. sampling. sampling puts the product in the consumer’s hands. Taco Bell used a sales promotion technique called: a. e. it is hoped they will remember and buy the product.org to register to win a prize of pistachios for a year. a self-liquidating premium. A trial size is generally offered that is smaller than the regular package size.2 billion in sampling programs each year. b. lottery contest premium sweepstakes deal Answer: d Page: 356 Rationale: Sweepstakes are sales promotions that require participants to submit some kind of entry form but are purely games of chance requiring no analytical or creative effort by the consumer. If consumers like the sample. 16-139 SAMPLES APPLICATION Taco Bell introduced its new low-fat Border Lights fare by giving away 8 million free tacos and burritos in one day. continuity. a. e. ensure that the chance for winning is represented honestly. c. b. Federal laws. and games to regulate their fairness. The ads ask readers to log onto www. Overall. contests. a special deal. and state legislatures have issued rules covering sweepstakes. the Federal Trade Commission. a rebate. c. and guarantee that the prizes are actually awarded. Often used for new products.

it is hoped they will remember and buy the product. A trial size is generally offered that is smaller than the regular package size. products which are classified as shopping goods products in the decline stage of their product life cycle commodity products like salt. sampling puts the product in the consumer’s hands. it is hoped they will remember and buy the product. c. d. b. sampling a deal a premium a point-of-purchase display a introductory offer Answer: a Page: 356 Rationale: Sampling is a common consumer sales promotion which offers the product free or at a greatly reduced price. and baking soda products which are in the introductory stage of the product life cycle products which are classified as specialty goods CONCEPTUAL Answer: d Page: 356 Rationale: Sampling is a common consumer sales promotion which offers the product free or at a greatly reduced price. c. companies invest more than $1. If consumers like the sample. he found the paper in a plastic bag along with a box containing one dose of Alka-Seltzer Heartburn Relief medication. e. Overall. Often used for new products. If consumers like the sample. e.2 billion in sampling programs each year. companies invest more than $1. Overall. b. A trial size is generally offered that is smaller than the regular package size. sampling puts the product in the consumer’s hands.16-140 SAMPLES CONCEPTUAL When Allyn went to get his newspaper.2 billion in sampling programs each year. Which type of sales promotion is Alka-Seltzer using? a. 16-141 SAMPLES Sampling is an appropriate strategy for which type of products? a. sugar. Often used for new products. d. 1091 .

Which method would it most likely employ? a. d. e. c. Overall.2 billion in sampling programs each year. Produce a point-of-purchase display that will be placed near a grocer's check-out register. Provide a premium to build customer goodwill by receiving reduced price merchandise. Use a demonstrator hired by the company to prepare the snack in a grocery store and give away the snacks to the shoppers. c. Use a rebate to encourage customers to purchase the snack and increase customer confidence in the product. Merchandise lining Product enhancement Continuity programs Retail positioning Experiential decoding Answer: c Page: 356 Rationale: Continuity programs are a sales promotion tool used to encourage and reward repeat purchases by acknowledging each purchase made by a consumer and offering a premium as purchases accumulate. Answer: e Page: 356 Rationale: Sampling is a common consumer sales promotion which offers the product free or at a greatly reduced price. a. it is hoped they will remember and buy the product. If consumers like the sample. and car rental services to reward loyal customers. . sampling puts the product in the consumer’s hands. companies invest more than $1. e. b. The most popular continuity programs today are the frequent flyer and frequent traveler programs used by airlines. hotels. Advertise on television showing a mother preparing the snack in less than 60 seconds in the microwave.16-142 SAMPLES APPLICATION Michael Angelo's Pepperoni Mini Calzones are easy-to-prepare snacks. b. 16-143 CONTINUITY PROGRAMS CONCEPTUAL __________ is a sales promotion designed to encourage and reward repeat purchases by acknowledging each purchase made by a consumer and offering a premium as purchases accumulate. The manufacturer is interested in employing a sales promotion technique that will communicate the ease of preparation and encourage customers to try the product. Often used for new products. A trial size is generally offered that is smaller than the regular package size. but the manufacturer believes customers are not buying the product as predicted because they are unfamiliar with calzones. d.

hotels. consumer attention displays. a two-for-the-price-of-one deal a coupon for a free soft drink with a Hero purchase a game with food prizes a trading stamp program. c. impulse racks. a restaurant chain that is known for its Extra Juicy Hero sandwich. c. wants to encourage repeat purchases and create customer loyalty. Answer: c Page: 357 Rationale: Text term definition—point-of-purchase display 1093 . The most popular continuity programs today are the frequent flyer and frequent traveler programs used by airlines.16-144 CONTINUITY PROGRAMS APPLICATION A Taste of Greece. which sometimes actually holds or displays the product. Which sales promotion should its employ? a. and which is often located in high-traffic areas near the cash register or the end of an aisle are called: a. and car rental services to reward loyal customers. action racks. d. b. b. point-of-purchase displays. d. special promotional displays. 16-145 POINT-OF-PURCHASE DISPLAYS DEFINITION A sales promotion that takes the form of an advertising sign. which allows buyers to earn free food after making a certain number of purchases free Extra Juicy Hero samples at local fairs and concerts Answer: d Page: 356 Rationale: Continuity programs are a sales promotion tool used to encourage and reward repeat purchases by acknowledging each purchase made by a consumer and offering a premium as purchases accumulate. e. e.

" Which sales promotion does this exemplify? a. coupon. Answer: d Page: 357-358 Rationale: Key term definition—product placement . 16-148 PRODUCT PLACEMENT DEFINITION The consumer promotion that involves the use of a brand-name product in a movie. e. c. and which is often located in high-traffic areas near the cash register or the end of an aisle are called point-of-purchase displays. deal. However. video. d." The offer was an example of a: a. or a commercial for another product is called: a. c. a product sample. a sample a free standing insert a premium a point-of-purchase display a deal Answer: d Page: 357 Rationale: A sales promotion that takes the form of an advertising sign. a product deal. b. “You'll probably want to take advantage of this offer. online consumers are more likely to take advantage of rebates. Answer: d Page: 357 Other Location: web Rationale: Rebates are sales promotions in which money is returned to the customers based on proof of purchase. "Mail in three UPCs and cash register tapes with the prices circled to receive a check for $25. rebate. premium. which sometimes actually holds or displays the product. e. a product premium.16-146 POINT-OF-PURCHASE DISPLAYS APPLICATION A brochure sent to retailers began with the following statement: "Retailers. d. 16-147 REBATES APPLICATION As Roderick was checking out of Office Depot. this “slippage” is less likely to occur with frequent users of rebate promotions. product continuity.” The offer read. c. e. b. When the rebate is offered on lower-priced items. b. In addition. the time and trouble of mailing in a proof of purchase to get the rebate check often means that many buyers never take advantage of it. the sales clerk said. television show. product placement. point-of-purchase. these new sunglasses come with their own attractive free-standing carousel that fits perfectly next to your cash register. d.

Answer: d Page: 358 Rationale: Product placement involves the use of a brand-name product in a movie. For example. trade-oriented sales promotions. encoding promotional tools. or a commercial for another product. promotions where charitable contributions of a firm are tied directly to the customer revenues produced through the promotion of one of its products. methods used to get a nonpersonal. television show. e. consumer promotions. manufacturers promotions. product placement. the photo on page 357 shows Beaver’s father with a cell phone in his pocket! 16-150 TRADE-ORIENTED SALES PROMOTIONS Trade-oriented sales promotions are: a. e.16-149 PRODUCT PLACEMENT APPLICATION The frequent appearance of Snapple drink on UPN's Roswell TV show is an example of: a. d. d. and public service announcements advertisements that show actual consumers using the product. sales tools directed used to support a company's advertising and personal selling directed to wholesalers. a product premium. Answer: a Page: 358 Rationale: Key term definition—trade-oriented sales promotions 1095 . d. video. a product deal. e. news conferences. or distributors are called: a. c. indirectly paid presentation of a company or its products. sales promotions. product continuity. c. retailers. or distributors sales promotions which are directed to ultimate consumers and are used to support advertising and personal selling. b. c. a product sample. Another form of product placement uses new digital technology that can make “virtual” placements in any existing program. b. Examples are news releases. retailers. b. DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 358 Rationale: Key term definition—trade-oriented sales promotions 16-151 TRADE-ORIENTED SALES PROMOTIONS DEFINITION Sales tools used to support a company's advertising and personal selling directed to wholesalers.

There are three common approaches targeted uniquely to intermediaries: (1) allowances and discounts. Answer: b Page: 358 Other Location: web Rationale: Trade-oriented sales promotions. cooperative advertising. or distributors. b. CONCEPTUAL coupons. allowances and discounts. organizational allowance merchandise allowance case allowance finance allowance manufacturer's enhancement Answer: b Page: 358 Rationale: Text term definition—merchandise allowance 16-154 CASE ALLOWANCE DEFINITION A __________ is a discount on each case of goods ordered during a specific period of time. c. b. rebates. c. a. 16-153 MERCHANDISE ALLOWANCE DEFINITION A(n) __________ reimburses a retailer for extra in-store support or special featuring of a brand. d. retailers. (2) cooperative advertising. or simply trade promotions. e. e. b. e. and merchandise allowances. and (3) training of distributors’ sales forces. allowances and discounts. and points-of-purchase displays. d. and training of distributor's sales forces. and training of distributor's sales force. are sales tools used to support a company’s advertising and personal selling directed to wholesalers. consumer promotions. cooperative advertising. merchandise allowances. consumer promotions. a. functional allowance merchandise allowance case allowance finance allowance manufacturer's allowance Answer: c Page: 358 Rationale: Text term definition—case allowance . c. allowances and discounts. d. and discounts.16-152 TRADE-ORIENTED SALES PROMOTIONS Three commonly used trade promotions are: a.

16-155 FINANCE ALLOWANCE DEFINITION A __________ pays retailers for financing costs or financial losses associated with consumer sales promotions. specialty advertising. a finance allowance. Trade promotion programs Consumer promotion programs Cooperative advertising programs Cause-related marketing programs Shared-responsibility programs Answer: c Page: 358 Rationale: Key term definition—cooperative advertising 16-157 COOPERATIVE ADVERTISING APPLICATION While reading the newspaper. e. c. c. promotional allowance merchandise allowance case allowance finance allowance failure fee Answer: d Page: 358 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—finance allowance 16-156 COOPERATIVE ADVERTISING DEFINITION __________ are programs in which a manufacturer pays a percentage of a retailer's local advertising expense for advertising the manufacturer's products. b. One common sales promotional activity is to encourage both better quality and greater quantity in the local advertising efforts of resellers through cooperative advertising. a case allowance. c. 1097 . d. a. Answer: a Page: 358 Rationale: Resellers often perform the important function of promoting the manufacturer's products at the local level. e. b. Belinda noticed an advertisement containing manufacturer's coupons from Kodak redeemable only at Target stores. e. a. cooperative advertising. This ad is an example of: a. d. b. d. a merchandise allowance. These are programs by which a manufacturer pays a percentage of the retailer’s local advertising expense for advertising the manufacturer’s products.

Sales force training can increase the reseller’s sales of the manufacturer’s products. b. The reseller’s sales force is often less sophisticated and knowledgeable about the products than the manufacturer would like. These are programs by which a manufacturer pays a percentage of the retailer’s local advertising expense for advertising the manufacturer’s products. b. Sylvania also paid 50 percent of the cost of the advertisement. camera-ready sample advertisements. It is in the best interest of the manufacturer to help train the reseller’s sales force. strategic promotional implementation cooperative advertising pre-paid publicity distributor kickbacks manufacturer incentive advertising Answer: b Page: 358 Rationale: Resellers often perform the important function of promoting the manufacturer's products at the local level. a. One common sales promotional activity is to encourage both better quality and greater quantity in the local advertising efforts of resellers through cooperative advertising. Sylvania was using __________ in an attempt to encourage both better advertising quality and greater advertising quantity in the efforts of local resellers of its product. The sales force then uses these aids in selling situations. 16-159 TRAINING OF DISTRIBUTORS’ SALES FORCES CONCEPTUAL Which of the following is true regarding manufacturer training of distributor sales forces? a. Both retailers and wholesalers employ and manage their own sales personnel. In addition to supplying the advertising formats. e. All of the above statements are true regarding manufacturer training of distributor sales forces. Sylvania provided the storeowner with several high-quality. d. Answer: e Page: 359 Rationale: One of the many functions the intermediaries perform is customer contact and selling for the producers they represent. The manufacturer provides manuals to educate the reseller’s sales force. training can increase their sales performance. c. The manufacturer provides brochures to educate the reseller’s sales force. c. Because the reseller’s sales force is often less sophisticated and knowledgeable about the products than the manufacturer might like. A manufacturer’s success often rests on the ability of the reseller’s sales force to represent its products. d.16-158 COOPERATIVE ADVERTISING APPLICATION A hardware store owner placed an advertisement for Sylvania light bulbs in the local newspaper. e. . Training activities include producing manuals and brochures to educate the reseller’s sales force.

DEFINITION methods of tying charitable contributions of a firm directly to the customer revenues produced through the promotion of one of its products. e.0 magazine. methods used to get a nonpersonal. news conferences. examples are news releases. directly paid presentation of a company or its products. In this case. or service without direct cost. b. but it must make itself known to oil companies. good. reminder advertising. good. Answer: b Page: 359 Rationale: Publicity is a method of obtaining nonpersonal presentation of an organization. This article described the company. Answer: d Page: 359 Rationale: Key term definition—publicity tools 16-161 PUBLICITY APPLICATION TransWave International is a small company that has developed a system that uses the Web and patented electronic sensors as an early-warning device for pipeline leaks. short-term inducements of value offered to arouse interest in buying a good or service. methods of obtaining nonpersonal presentation of an organization. a sales promotion.0 magazine is a presentation of TransWave International without direct cost to the company.16-160 PUBLICITY Publicity tools are: a. b. The article was an example of: a. The timing is right for this company to be extremely successful. as more natural gas lines are being laid near population centers. and public service announcements. and why the product was needed. product placement. institutional advertising. e.S. d. or service without direct cost. publicity. One method used was an article about the company in Business 2. what its product could do. d. 1099 . Pipeline safety is becoming a big issue in the U. questionable methods of influencing stakeholder opinion about some action or proposed action that may be perceived by some as unethical. the article in Business 2. c. c.

e. d. public service announcement news release lobbying sponsorship events management Answer: b Page: 359 Rationale: A news release consists of an announcement regarding changes in the company or the product line. d. a frequently used tool is the __________. In this case it is the divestiture of the household insecticide business as part of Bayer’s restructuring program. free space or time in a newspaper or on a broadcast medium. a. informational meeting to which representatives of the media are invited. publicity tool which utilizes high-visibility individuals in lobbying activities. which is an announcement regarding changes in the company or the product line. b. c. trade show news release infomercial double-page spread magazine insert Answer: b Page: 359 Rationale: Text term definition—news release 16-163 NEWS RELEASE APPLICATION An announcement that German pharmaceutical giant Bayer is looking for a buyer for its household insecticide business as part of its restructuring program is an example of which type of publicity tool? a. b. e. announcement regarding changes in a company or product line. c. 16-164 NEWS CONFERENCE A news conference is a(n): a.16-162 NEWS RELEASE DEFINITION In planning and obtaining publicity. DEFINITION Answer: e Page: 359 Rationale: Text term definition—news conference . c. e. d. b. meeting of top news executives to decide advertising policy.

Answer: a Page: 359 Rationale: Text term definition—public service announcements (PSAs) 16-166 VIDEO CASE: FALLON WORLDWIDE CONCEPTUAL What was the promotional objective of Fallon Worldwide’s campaign for Lee Dungarees? a.16-165 PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENT DEFINITION A publicity tool that is heavily relied on by nonprofit organizations. Gain favorable perceptions of Lee among young people. e. Develop similarities between Lee and Levi’s. Create a “fashion” image for Lee. and which involves free space or time donated by the media is called a(n): a. is accurately described by all of the above. c. c. b. e. c. adopted a “responsiveness” positioning for BMW. targeted 20 to 30 year-olds. b. and d all describe characteristics of the BMW campaign. d. 16-167 VIDEO CASE: FALLON CONCEPTUAL The ad campaign Fallon Worldwide advertising agency developed for BMW: a. used an IMC approach including videostreaming on the Internet. e. As a result. separated BMW from Mitsubishi and Ford. Answer: e Page: 361-362 Rationale: Research showed Fallon Worldwide that Lee jeans was so associated with older women that it could not be repositioned. d. news item. public service announcement. news conference. d. 1101 . Find a role for Buddy Lee. b. c. Gain favorable perceptions of Lee among older women. Answer: e Page: 527 Rationale: The alternatives a. it helped Lee develop Lee dungarees for 17to 22-year olds. news moment. b. quid pro quo ad.

competitive. SALES PROMOTION. what it can do. Reminder institutional ads simply bring the company's name to the attention of the target market again. what it can do. or informational. ads promote a specific brand's features and benefits. List and briefly define the four forms of institutional advertising. competitive. and where it can be found. and reminder—are often used. or persuasive. • Advocacy ads simply state the position of a company on an issue. Page: 345 . The objective of these messages is to persuade the target market to select the firm's brand rather than that of a competitor. What are their objectives? Answer: Product advertisements take three forms—pioneering. ads tell people what a product is. Page: 344 16-169 INSTITUTIONAL ADVERTISING CONCEPTUAL Describe the objectives of institutional advertising. Answer: Institutional advertisements are designed to build goodwill or an image for an organization rather than promote a specific product or service. pioneer. AND PUBLIC RELATIONS SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS 16-168 PRODUCT ADVERTISING CONCEPTUAL Describe the three forms of product advertisements. • Reminder ads help consumers remember the brands they have purchased in the past. and reminder. Four alternative forms of institutional advertising— advocacy. • Pioneering institutional ads are used for new announcements about what a company is. or where it is located. • Competitive.CHAPTER 16 ADVERTISING. • Competitive institutional advertisements promote the advantages of one product class over another and are used in markets where different product classes compete for the same buyers. • Pioneering. Their objective is to reinforce previous knowledge of a product.

the advertiser (or media planner) must balance reach and frequency. advertisers try to maximize reach in their target market at the lowest cost. Cost per Thousand is the cost of reaching 1.16-170 MEDIA SELECTION CONCEPTUAL What are the two conflicting goals advertisers face when choosing advertising media? What is the relationship of reach and frequency to these goals? Answer: The conflicting goals are maximizing exposure and minimizing costs. Page: 348-349 1103 . gross rating points (GRPs). When they want to reach the audience more than once. Rating is the percentage of households in a market that are tuned to a particular TV show or radio station. Define reach. and cost per thousand (CPM). Because advertisers try to maximize the number of individuals in the target market exposed to the message.000 individuals or households with the advertising message in a given medium or the cost of advertising divided by the number of thousands of individuals or households who are exposed. frequency. In general. Like reach. Answer: • • • • • Reach is the number of different people or households exposed to an advertisement. advertisers are also interested in exposing their target audience to a message more than once because consumers often do not pay attention to advertising messages. greater frequency is desirable but because of cost. Although reach is important. rating. Frequency is the average number of times a person in the target audience is exposed to a message or advertisement. they must be concerned with reach. Page: 348-349 16-171 BASIC TERMS OF ADVERTISING DEFINITION Media buyers use many terms to help select the right media for an advertising campaign. Gross rating points are the reach multiplied by frequency. the advertisers are concerned with frequency.

reaches up to 95 percent of U. and billboards for advertising. effectiveness uncertain. radio. poor color. high quality graphics. interactive Low cost. short exposure time and perishable message.S. ads can be placed quickly. competes for attention with other magazine features. can target specific local audiences. low cost. Disadvantages Very high cost and wasted coverage. ads can be clipped and saved. quick consumer response. No visual element. Low cost. Ads compete for attention with other newspaper features. targets specific audience. relatively high cost. humor. Outdoor Direct Mail Page: 349-352. Answer: Medium Television Advantages Use of sight and sound. local market focus. Long time needed to place an ad. Figure 16-2 . and intimacy effectively. ads can be saved.16-172 ADVERTISING MEDIA CONCEPTUAL List two advantages and two disadvantages of using television. high-quality color. criticized as a traffic hazard. opportunity for repeat exposure. Can target specific audiences. homes. can convey complex information. direct mail. can contain complex information and personalized messages. High cost per contact and poor image. ads and can placed and changed quickly. high visibility. can use sound. High selectivity of audience. difficult to convey complex message. low selectivity of audience. Excellent coverage of local market. Video and audio capabilities. newspapers. long life of ad. magazines. Radio Magazines Newspapers Internet May require a long time to “load” animation. Message must be short and simple. short life span.

and the inhouse agency. Probably the best type of agency to use would be a full-service agency such as Deutsch or Ogilvy because a full-service agency provides market research. to improve your website. To obtain your objectives. CONCEPTUAL Answer: Setting schedules requires an understanding of how the market behaves. These staff members may not have the expertise required to develop a brand. which type of agency would you use and why? Answer: There are three types of agencies—the full-service agency. Page: 353 16-175 CARRYING OUT THE ADVERTISING PROGRAM APPLICATION As the owner of a mid-sized automobile dealer. improve a website and produce a new advertising campaign if their only responsibility to date has been to place local newspaper ads.16-173 ADVERTISING SCHEDULING Identify the three different approaches used to schedule advertising. 2) Flighting (intermittent) schedule is when periods of advertising are scheduled between periods of no advertising to reflect seasonal demand. Page: 353 1105 . artwork. and production—all requirements to meet your objectives. It is used when demand and seasonal factors are unimportant. the limited-service agency. its responsibility is to place ads in the local newspapers for daily and weekly specials. Most companies tend to follow one of three basic approaches: 1) Continuous (steady) schedule is a steady or regular schedule throughout the year. heavy periods of promotion. At present the dealership has a limited service in-house agency. 3) Pulse (burst) schedule combines a continuous schedule with a flighting schedule because of seasonal demand. or the introduction of a new product. Page: 352 16-174 PRETESTING ADVERTISING DEFINITION What are the three types of pretests that can be conducted before advertising is placed in the media? Answer: The three types of pretests are: 1) portfolio tests 2) jury tests 3) theater tests. media selection. While you have an advertising department. copy development. you are interested in using your advertising dollars wisely to develop your brand. and to develop and produce a new advertising campaign.

Agencies that assist a client by both developing and placing advertisements have traditionally charged a commission of 15 percent of media costs. and theater tests. and sales tests. copy development. and in-house agencies as to services provided and composition. They are conducted to determine whether the advertisement communicates the intended message or to select between alternative versions of the advertisement. in-house agencies made up of the company's own advertising staff may provide full services or a limited range of services. Page: 353 . artwork. unaided recall. The full-service agency provides the most complete range of services. including market research. Finally. Answer: Pretests are conducted before the advertisements are placed in any medium. jury tests. Limited-service agencies specialize in one aspect of the advertising process such as providing creative services to develop the advertising copy or buying previously unpurchased media space. Page: 353-354 16-177 ADVERTISING SERVICE PROVIDERS CONCEPTUAL Differentiate among full-service advertising agencies. Five approaches common in posttests are: aided recall. Posttests occur after an advertisement has been shown to the target audience. limited-service advertising agencies. Be sure to explain why marketers should pretest and posttest ad copy. Limited-service agencies that deal in creative work are compensated by a contractual agreement for the services performed.16-176 PRETESTING & POSTTESTING CONCEPTUAL Discuss the process of pretesting and posttesting advertising copy. and production. The purpose of the posttest is to determine whether it accomplished its intended purpose. Answer: Advertising programs can range from completely external to completely internal. media selection. Methods of pretesting advertising include portfolio tests. inquiry tests. attitude tests. Results of posttesting advertising are used to reach decisions about changes in the advertising program. Include a list of methods used for pretesting and posting in you answer.

(2)unaided recall. They are typically used to encourage trial among consumers. (4) inquiry tests. a large business-to-business software provider. Which type of posttest would be the best to use to evaluate the direct mail campaign? Answer: There are five types of posttests available to evaluate the advertising program: (1) aided recall. Page: 355-356 CONCEPTUAL CONCEPTUAL 1107 . therefore. Ads generating the most inquiries or leads for the sales force are presumed to be the most effective. Page: 354 16-179 SALES PROMOTION What is the difference between a coupon and a deal? Answer: Coupons are sales promotions that offer a discounted price to the consumers. A sweepstakes requires participants to submit some kind of entry form but are purely games of chance requiring no analytical or creative effort by the consumer. do not react to competitive actions (a new product introduction.) Page: 355 16-180 SALES PROMOTION What is the difference between a contest and a sweepstakes? Answer: A contest is where consumers apply their analytical skill or creative thinking to try to win a prize.16-178 EVALUATING THE ADVERTISING PROGRAM APPLICATION SAP. The latter is accomplished because customers build up inventory as a result of the deal and. with the objective of generating leads for its sales force. sends direct mail pieces to prospective customers. for example. (3) attitude tests. and (5) sales tests. In this situation the inquiry tests would be the best to use because additional product information is offered to the ad’s readers. Deals are short-term price reductions used to increase trial among potential customers or to retaliate against a competitor's actions.

Training of Distributors’ Sales Forces Page: 358-359 DEFINITION . lessening risk to the consumer to purchase because of reducing the effective price of the cereal. 5. Coupons would stimulate sales in the long run. Answer: The student might offer many different types of sales promotions. the issue with this is obtaining the store space. which will not come without cost. or the customer will come to expect the lower price and not buy without a coupon. Page: 355-357 16-182 TRADE-ORIENTED SALES PROMOTIONS What are three types of trade-oriented sales promotions? Answer: 1. Of course. not purchase the new competitive product. the manufacturer would obtain lists of current or potential consumers from the entries that could be used in future promotions. Free samples in the store could be given out to the children (with Mom’s permission of course) to show Mom how much they like the cereal and thus encourage purchase. 4. A sweepstakes with a savings bond or money toward a college education would encourage the consumer to purchase the product.T. competitive product is being introduced. what sales promotion tool(s) would you use to ensure the product’s success? Be sure to explain why you chose the sales promotion(s) that you did. however. This sales promotion should not be overused. the consumer would buy additional product and presumably then. 3. 6. Allowances and Discounts 2. however the following would certainly be useful to the cereal manufacturer in increasing sales: 1. 2.16-181 SALES PROMOTION APPLICATION When taking a walk down the supermarket aisle containing breakfast cereals. In addition. Assuming your new chocolate frosted cereal targeted at children was allotted shelf space. Kid-interesting point-of-purchase displays could be used to make the cereal stand out from the other choices. Deals such as buy one get one free could be used. Cooperative Advertising 3. Product placement in movies targeted towards children would also be an effective way to increase sales as shown by the increase in Reese’s Pieces after the release of E. By using a deal. especially if a new. it is apparent there is extensive competition among brands.

which is based on the amount of the purchases the retailer makes of the manufacturer's products. Page: 358-359 16-184 COOPERATIVE ADVERTISING What is cooperative advertising? Answer: Cooperative advertising is a sales promotional activity to encourage both better quality and greater quantity in the local advertising efforts of resellers. 3. Answer: 1. the manufacturer often furnishes the retailer with a selection of different ad executions. and a finance allowance are. The percentage is often 50 percent up to a certain dollar limit. Page: 358-359 DEFINITION 1109 . The merchandise allowance then consists of a percentage deduction from the list case price ordered during the promotional period. A case allowance is a discount on each case ordered during a specific time period. These programs involve a manufacturer paying a percentage of a retailer's local advertising expense for advertising the manufacturer's products. A merchandise allowance is reimbursing a retailer for extra in-store support or special featuring of the brand. In addition to paying a part of the advertising space or time. The finance allowance involves paying retailers for financing costs or financial losses associated with consumer sales promotions. a case allowance. such as a picture of the product in a newspaper with a coupon good at only one store. sometimes suited for several different media. These allowances are usually deducted from the invoice. Performance contracts between the manufacturer and trade member usually specify the activity to be performed. 2.16-183 TRADE-ORIENTED SALES PROMOTIONS DEFINITION Explain what a merchandise allowance.

The objective of a news release is to inform a newspaper. or other medium of an idea for a story. radio station. 2. A recent study found that more than 40 percent of all free mentions of a brand name occur during news programs. DEFINITION Answer: Publicity tools are several methods of obtaining nonpersonal presentation of an organization. PSAs are free space or time donated by the media. The press release. 3. These include: 1.16-185 PUBLICITY TOOLS What are publicity tools? Give three examples. or service without direct cost. Page: 359 . good. consisting of an announcement regarding changes in the company or the product line. Public service announcements are used heavily by not-for-profit organizations. The news conference is where representatives of the media are all invited to an informational meeting. and advance materials regarding the content are sent.

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