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Introduction
The pond ecosystem is a fresh water environment that can reveal the health of a local area. Fresh water environments such as the pond ecosystem have specific life forms that show its overall health. Toxins or pollution can affect the pond ecosystem adversely. The importance of understanding the pond ecosystem involves the life forms and plant cultures that are part of the healthy environment. The pond ecosystem begins with what lives in the water. From the smallest microbes, single cell creatures to the guppies, leeches and midges, only clean water can sustain life. The plants that convert oxygen for these creatures are as important as the fauna. The healthy pond ecosystem will have a balance of both plant and animal living with in its parameters. Studying the balance between plant and animal and soil, sedges and underlying strata can give an overall view of the quality of the water table and land. With human activity impacting on the pond environment, toxins can affect the quality of the pond ecosystem. If toxins affect the water, plants can die. Without plants to add oxygen to the water, the creatures might perish. Without the smallest life forms in the food chain, the ripple effect can lead to other species dying out or leaving the pond environment. Leeches have long been an indicator of the pond ecosystems health status. Leeches are found where water quality is good. If the pond ecosystem is not balanced, or there are impurities in the water that the life forms cannot deal with, then one of the first to suffer or leave the environs is the humble leech. Birds, spiders, lizards, rodents, rabbits and larger mammals are all reliant on a healthy pond ecosystem. Without clear clean water, filtered by ample plant life or good drainable soil, the larger animals will need to find other sources of water. Agriculture and the impact of human activity on the pond ecosystem can affect the quality and purity of soil and water. Fertilizer, oil, introduced species, pollution; fishing can all upset the delicate balance that exists in a healthy pond ecosystem. Maintaining the balance, keeping every species alive and in good numbers will ensure a healthy, vital pond ecosystem. Fresh water, climate, drought, humidity, rising salinity are all important factors that can affect the pond ecosystem beyond the initial impact of human activity. The food chain, from tiny water borne creatures that feed midges and insects that feed birds, to the rabbits that feed foxes and the grasses that feed cattle and sheep, all depend on the pond ecosystem to sustain their lives. Water is essential to life on this planet. Fresh water and the quality of fresh water in the pond ecosystem is actually of global importance.

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2. frogs. pollution disturbs its ecosystem. and turtles. It’s water meets various demands of the rural area. The largest predator in a pond ecosystem will normally be a fish and in-between range smaller insects and microorganisms. It is also important to maintain the pond ecosystem. This is important for the environment. Problems Pond as a water body in an environment has great importance. domestic wastes. water bugs. For this reason the study of pond ecosystem is very important. As the water body is the habitat of various organisms. The balance in ecosystem is disturbed by the abolition of ecosystem or pollution of a pond. It may have a scale of organisms from small bacteria to big creatures like water snakes. beetles. But unfortunately due to lack of awareness the ecosystem of a pond is disturbed by the activities of human being. The biodiversity of lake and pond ecosystems is currently threatened by a number of anthropogenic disturbances including well-known problems such as eutrophication. The village people are dependent on pond for bathing. These are a specific type of freshwater ecosystems that are largely based on the autotroph algae which provide the base trophic level for all life in the area. washing of utensils and clothing. Pond is polluted due to cattle bathing. washing of clothing and utensils and also by human excretions etc. tadpoles. acidification and contamination from for example heavy metals and organochlorines. 3 . The pond water is even used as drinking water.

pond can resist flood by holding excess water in rainy season. they recycle nutrients.. pearl culture etc. water flow and light availability. and are very important to the tourism industry. chemical or biological alterations of the environment. Aquatic ecosystems are also used for human recreation. Human populations can impose excessive stresses on aquatic ecosystems. Biological alterations include the introduction of exotic species. For example. purify water. the importance of water body in environment is multipurpose so the study of pond ecosystem and its preservation is important. attenuate floods.3. Aquatic ecosystems perform many important environmental functions. The health of an aquatic ecosystem is degraded when the ecosystem's ability to absorb a stress has been exceeded. Pond can support a village economy through fishery. Therefore. People should be aware of soiling of natural body or pond. oxygen consuming materials. Physical alterations include changes in water temperature. A stress on an aquatic ecosystem can be a result of physical. recharge ground water and provide habitats for wildlife. and toxins. everyday somewhere at least one natural water body or pond is soiled for the construction of housing complex. Importance of Problem Due to the pressures of increased population. 4 . Its influence is long standing and this is a burning problem now. It can also act as a natural refinery of dirty water. The dry part of the water body can be used for grazing. Chemical alterations include changes in the loading rates of biostimulatory nutrients. especially in coastal regions.

mostly the bacteria and fungi are very important in the nutrient cycle as all the organic matter from the dead and decayed organisms is converted into carbon dioxide and nutrients such as nitrogen. phytoplankton and plants. which can feed on both plants and the herbivores of the first and second trophic level respectively. Furthermore. consumers and decomposers. The third and the topmost trophic level comprises of the carnivores. phosphorus and magnesium. the flow of energy is maintained in a pond ecosystem. They prepare their own food with the help of energy from sunlight through the process of photosynthesis. In addition to the three trophic levels. the carnivores consume the producers and herbivores. Another objective of this project is to know the food chain existing in the water body. there are saprotrophic organisms. which are located at the bottom of the food chain. crustaceans and invertebrates inhabiting the pond and which consume the plants. Apart from these. to aware the general people about the importance of the water body or pond in the environment.4. The first trophic level is represented by the producers or the autotrophs. Thus. for example. The second trophic level is characterized by the herbivores such as insects. These nutrients are generated in such a way that they can be readily used by algae and plants for production of food to be consumed by the herbivores. to know their producers. 5 . commonly known as decomposers. Food chain in a pond ecosystem is divided into three basic trophic levels. especially the fishes. In other words. is also an objective of the project. Decomposers. Objective Of the Project The main objective of this project is to study how a water body or a pond can form an ecosystem. simply to study the organisms going and living in the pond habitat is the main objective. namely the first. second and third trophic levels.

5. Then the collected insects. 2011. which were visible in naked eye. I took a notebook. Avijit Samanta. 6 . Firstly. small net with a handle for examination and observation of aquatic organisms. All the work was completed under the supervision of parents and guardians. transparent plastic jars. hand lens. pencil. were listed. I listed the plants growing on and around the pond. a student of class XI Science A/2 reached the neighbourhood pond on 10 th April. Then the animals. Plan of Work I. fishes were kept within a jar from the net and observed hand lens.

DATE OF OBSERVATION: 10th April 2011 4. crab. leech. crane. 7 . cormorant. water beetles. Haldia 3. NAME OF THE POND: No particular Name 2. mosquito larvae. 7. toad. Rumex dentatus (Jangli Palang). Data Collection 1. green and blue-green algae. POSITION OF THE POND: Neighbourhood. Fuirena cilliaris (Bondakola). frog. ANIMALS: Small fish. INSECTS: Water spider. Debhog. Vallisnaria spiralis (pataseola). snail. 8. Cyclops. Scoenoplectus articulates (Chatpati). Hydrilla verticellata (Jhajhi). PLANTS GROWING AROUND THE POND: Ipomoea aqatica (Kalmi).6. Persicaria hydropiper (Bihagoni). 6. Nymphaea pubescens (shaluk). Echinochlona colona (Shyamaghash). Elaeocharis dulcis (Jalmotha). lata fish. Lemma minor (kshudepana). Persicaria orientale (Panimarich). PLANTS GROWING ON THE POND: Monochoria hastate (Nilopalam). BIRDS: Kingfisher. tadpole. duck. small prawn. 5. Nelumbo nucifera (padma). Ceratophyllam demersum (chotojhajhi).

Fig: Components of Pond Ecosystem 8 .

The producers of this ecosystem are the algae and the green plants. Prawn 3. Toad 4. it is evident that a food chain between the organisms living in the pond has been formed. Data Analysis From the above data. larvae and pupa Egg and larvae 9 . mosquito larvae etc. Snail One pair webbed leg and wing Larvae and Larvae swim on pupa stage water. The tertiary consumers are large fishes. Locomotary organ is muscular foot attached with operculum Eggs Eggs. and small fishes. Small fishes 2. molluscs and small fishes Molluscs and small fishes Female sucks mammalian blood and male sucks plant sap Small aquatic organisms Eggs and tadpoles Eggs 5. Cyclops. Cormorant Lungs 6. kingfishers etc.7. Some information of few observed animals is noted in the following table: Animal 1. Mosquito 7. The primary consumers are the small insects like water spider. An ecosystem has also been formed in the pond. Duck Respiratory Organ Gills -> Intakes water dissolved oxygen Gills -> Intakes water dissolved oxygen Lungs and Skin Lungs Locomotive Organ Fins and Tail Food Water insects and algae Primary Stage Of Life Cycle Eggs Belly legs Water insects and algae Eggs Two pairs of webbed legs One pair of webbed legs Water insects Water insects. The secondary consumers are toad. adult flies respire through with wings siphon tube Ctenedium and Body covered by a pulmonary sac shell. duck. frog.

2. decomposers. The temperature of the pond water also varies from layer to layer. the temperature of pond water decreases with increase in depth. Hypolimnion: The lowermost layer where the temperature is 15˚C.e. The temperature of this layer is about 18˚C..The pond water may be divided into three layers as follows: 1. Profundal layer: It is the lowermost layer of the pond. Littoral layer: This is the marginal layer of the pond and good habitat for plants. The temperature of the upper surface of the pond is almost 20˚C. It is the habitat for fish. 2. Generally. It is the habitat of microbes i. The temperature of the different layers of a pond in summer are shown in the graph on the following page. According to the temperature of water we can classify pond water in three different layers:1. 3. 10 . Metalimnion: The second layer which is just below the Epilimnion. Limnetic layer: This is the lower layer of littoral region. The producer of this layer are the rooted plants and phytoplanktons. 3. Epilimnion: The uppermost layer of pond where the temperature is almost 20˚C.

Fig: Temperature graph of different layers of pond in summer Plants/Producers: Fig: Algae Fig: Lotus 11 .

Primary Consumers: Fig: Snail Fig: Dragonfly Fig: Mosquito Larvae Fig: Lata Fish 12 .

Secondary Consumers: Fig: Toad Fig: Rohu Fish Tertiary Consumers: Fig: Kingfisher Fig: Duck 13 .

sandy or muddy. namely shore. protozoa. plants might not be able to grow. insects like water striders and marsh traders. open water and bottom water habitats. and sometimes. organisms that are freefloating and those that can walk on the surface of water inhabit the surface habitat. For example. Open Water Habitat: Open water habitat is inhabited by fishes and the plankton (tiny organisms). snails. snails and insects inhabit the bottom. dead insects. algae and rushes can be present along with organisms such as earthworms. The producers of the pond ecosystem are grown on littoral zone. plants like grasses. Surface Film Habitat: Surface film habitat. microorganisms. The temperature of the upper layer of the pond is comparatively warmer than the lower layer. Bottom Water Habitat: Depending upon whether the pond is shallow or deep water. small fishes and microorganisms. surface film.8. In case of rocky shores. Though the consumer lives on the limnetic zone but they travel to the limnetic zone for their food. rotifers. tiny crustaceans and invertebrates are present in this habitat. Both phytoplankton such as algae and zooplankton such as insect larvae. It may be mentioned that we have not observed any pollution on the water pond supplied. organisms like earthworms. flatworm. the bottom habitat varies. feed upon each other. whereas if the pond is deep and has muddy bottom. Inference From the above collected data it is evident that each and every organism of the pond are somehow interrelated with each other and they together form one or more ecosystem. There are mainly four habitats in a pond ecosystem. 14 . rat-tailed maggot and nymphs of dragonflies mostly inhabit the bottom habitat. In general. Shore Habitat: The organisms inhabiting this habitat vary depending upon whether the shore is rocky. if a pond is shallow and has sandy bottom. insects. whereas in muddy or sandy or mixed type. They nourish on the floating plants. as the name suggests implies to the surface of the pond. Fishes feed on plankton.

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The decomposers are usually microscopic and it is difficult to identify them. students should have swimming knowledge for active works in ponds and other water bodies. from the producers to the decomposers. it is essential to observe all the organisms. 16 . Moreover. Their names are also not known to us. But we could not examine any decomposers of our studied pond due to lack of infrastructures and other references. We can only state that microscopic organisms act as decomposers in our ecosystem. This is also another limitation of our work. Again for the observation of ecosystem.9. We could not identify them inspite of our sincere efforts. This is the main limitation of our work. Limitation of the Work During observations we have found that many zooplanktons are unknown to us.

Reference and acknowledgement Reference: 1. 2. Meerut.: The Ecology and Environment. Sharma. S. 2005 Santra. 2006 Internet Sources Acknowledgement: I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my teacher.D. 1975 Singh. 17 .: Environmental Biology. et al. 3. P.10. Sumit Ghosal for his continuous help and guidance during the work. H. New Delhi. Also thanks to my parents and friends for their continuous help and cooperation for the completion of the project work.: Environmental Education.R. Viswa Bharati. Mr. 4.C.

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9. Limitation of the Work .

students should have swimming knowledge for active works in ponds and other water bodies. The decomposers are usually microscopic and it is difficult to identify them. Moreover. Again for the observation of ecosystem. it is essential to observe all the organisms.During observations we have found that many zooplanktons are unknown to us. But we could not examine any decomposers of our studied pond due to lack of infrastructures and other references. This is also another limitation of our work. Reference and acknowledgement . 10. We could not identify them inspite of our sincere efforts. Their names are also not known to us. This is the main limitation of our work. We can only state that microscopic organisms act as decomposers in our ecosystem. from the producers to the decomposers.

: Environmental Biology. 2005 Santra.Reference: 1. Mr. Viswa Bharati. Sharma. 1975 Singh. 2006 Internet Sources Acknowledgement: I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my teacher. 4.R. P. Also thanks to my parents and friends for their continuous help and cooperation for the completion of the project work. New Delhi. Sumit Ghosal for his continuous help and guidance during the work. Meerut.: Environmental Education. 3. S. H. et al. .: The Ecology and Environment.C. 2.D.

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