This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
CASE TEACHING NOTES
Vivek Gupta and Konakanchi Prashanth
The case discusses the organizational restructuring carried out by the Japanese electronics and communication giant Sony Corporation (Sony) between 1994 and 2003. Sony’s business operations were restructured five times within nine years. The case describes each of the five restructuring exercises in detail and examines their implications for Sony. It also discusses the impact of these structural changes on the financial performance of Sony.
2. Position of the case
This case focuses on the issue of structure, the main subject of Chapter 8. However, the continuous change involved makes it also relevant to issues of change (Chapter 10) and Sony’s diversified and international scope make it interesting in relation to Chapter 6.
3. Learning objectives
The case is designed to help students:
• • •
Understand the rationale behind the restructuring initiatives of large multinational corporations (MNCs) in the consumer electronics industry. Evaluate the costs and the consequences of the frequent restructuring (often accompanied by changes in top management) of large MNCs. Examine whether frequent changes in an organization’s structure in response to changes in the business environment can help improve its performance and profitability. Study the attempts of MNCs in the consumer electronics industry to adjust to increasing competition and changing business opportunities and challenges.
4. Teaching scheme
The case can be used effectively, both in classroom discussions as well as for distance learning programs. The moderator could initiate discussion through some short questions:
© Pearson Education Limited 2005
2. In order to effectively manage the entire product portfolio. It became very difficult to manage the operations of the entire product portfolio. In the light of the tough competitive environment following its dismal financial results in 2002–03. Analysts felt that frequent restructuring at Sony had a negative impact on the company’s financial performance. with one group speaking in favor of Sony’s reorganization and the other opposing it. Ohga decided to restructure Sony’s electronics business. Sony was a fairly diversified conglomerate. the product groups had to be grouped into companies with clearly defined product categories and customer bases. Do you think there was a need to restructure Sony so frequently? Critically analyze Sony’s restructuring efforts since 1999 and discuss the efficacy of each of them. Case analysis 6. In 1994. Do you think the restructuring yielded the desired results? Also explain the reasons behind the 1996 restructuring of Sony and its impact on Sony. Sony’s financial performance was not satisfactory. with operations in several countries. audio equipment. During the first half of the 1990s. Clearly explain the positive and negative implications of each exercise. Discuss in detail the restructuring exercise undertaken by Ohga. 5. 462 © Pearson Education Limited 2005 . 6. televisions and others.Instructor’s Manual • • Do you think the top management at Sony was right in implementing frequent restructuring changes? What could be the best approach for Sony to overcome its problems in the early 21st century? Students can be asked to conduct a role-playing exercise. explain the recent moves made by Sony to help revive its business. it was divided into four product groups – video equipment. both small and large. Each product group in turn produced a number of products.1 Early Links between Restructuring and Performance By the mid-1990s. This was the main reason for the 1994 restructuring. Prior to the 1994 restructuring of its electronics business. The moderator can provide inputs regarding the organizational structure of other multinational companies like ABB and HP and facilitate a comparative study of the various types of organizational structures. in an attempt to improve Sony’s financial performance. Questions for discussion 1. 3.
Sony was to be led by a team of executives at the top management level. This probably explained the development in 1995. however. While the idea of the divisional company structure was right. With the objective of enhancing the performance of the existing businesses while placing more emphasis on emerging businesses. It was noticed that during 1990 and 1994. the revenues of the video and audio equipment businesses were coming down or were at best stagnant. while the insurance business registered a CAGR of 31%. The games business registered a CAGR of 215%. video games.55%. From 1995 to 1999. This involved regrouping companies with related business operations (excluding combining the Infocom Products company and Mobile Electronics company to form Personal and Mobile Communications Company) and creating new companies that made IT-intensive products (excluding the recording media and energy company).5% while the pictures business had a CAGR of 17%. This development marked the beginning of the mid-1990s streamlining efforts of Sony. The Sony reshuffle in 1996 resulted in the creation of a 10–company structure. Sony created an eight-company structure. semiconductors and telecom equipment. The music business had a CAGR of 10. Each company targeted specific product categories and customer bases. The ‘Others’ group. while the television and ‘Others’ group were showing signs of improvement. in the electronics business. In order to focus on the high-growth businesses. 463 © Pearson Education Limited 2005 . The companies enjoyed reasonable functional and operational autonomy and had clearly defined objectives and were made accountable for their financial performance. Sony’s electronics business (on which the restructuring efforts were focused) grew at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8. when Sony created a new management framework. Vice-chairman. Sony was also affected by macro economic factors such as recession in Japan. The objective of the entire exercise was to enable quicker decision making. Significant gains were. Sony’s all time best selling product. Sony needed a proper corporate hierarchy to effectively supervise the operations of the divisional companies. Chief Officers and the presidents of divisional companies. was performing very well and had a growth rate of nearly 40%. The games business was boosted primarily by the PlayStation video games console. recorded by the games business and the insurance business. Sony announced major changes in the structure of its electronics business in April 1994. President & Chief Operating Officer (COO). The team included the Chairman & CEO. The negative financial performance of Sony in 1995 was not due to poor organizational structure implementation. which consisted of technology intensive products such as computer products.Instructor’s Manual Another reason for the restructuring was the deteriorating financial performance of maturing businesses like audio equipment and video equipment while few new businesses were showing promising results.
PS2. The role of the headquarters was restricted to supervise the various company units and look towards attracting 464 © Pearson Education Limited 2005 . Sony’s increasing reliance on the games business might negatively affect the company in the long run. which was jointly owned by Sony and Sony Music Entertainment (Japan). but also cost cutting. The head count at the headquarters was drastically reduced. Internet Explorer. etc. For this. Sony clearly demarcated the roles of headquarters and the newly created network companies. with a number of factories being closed. so that effective control could be achieved in the operations. was severely affected by the recession. movies and games) through its diverse products like TVs. a major restructuring was required. PCs. into a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony. These challenges included: • To effectively compete with cash rich companies like Microsoft (Microsoft was planning to launch the Xbox games console to compete with Sony’s PlayStation) and other leading companies which had already realized the significance of the Internet revolution. The purpose behind this was to cut down on overhead and communication time. movie theatres. Sony faced several challenges. it could create further demand for its already mature businesses like the audio and video business. This was what prompted the 1999 restructuring. along with several leading Japanese companies. MS Office. it reached a near maturity stage in Japan. with its star product – the PlayStation video games console. Sony’s first task was to become leaner and more centralized. The mantra of the time was convergence – developing complementary products and distributing them through common sources (Microsoft distributed its products like Windows.Instructor’s Manual 6. Each unit received funding for its R&D activities and was made accountable for its financial performance. audio systems. along with its PCs). Even though the PlayStation was still making waves in Western countries.. as the company was at an advanced stage in the development of the next generation PlayStation video games console. Sony had to do a similar act – distribute its content (music. the 10-company structure was dismantled and four autonomous units were created. It wanted to speed up the development process. To strengthen the management capability. During the late 1990s. • • • To effectively face the challenges. as Microsoft’s Xbox rollout was also on the cards.2 Later Links between Restructuring and Performance In the competitive business environment in the late 1990s. etc. The staff of Sony across the world was cut by 10%. Through this. Sony. emphasizing not only autonomy. To maintain its leadership in the games business. Sony’s profit margins declined significantly due to the economic recession in Japan and the Southeast Asian economic crisis. Sony converted Sony Computer Entertainment. Sony had to catch up with the digital revolution.
Sony successfully launched its PlayStation 2 (PS2) video game console in Japan in March 2000. The PS2 sold 980. several analysts were skeptical about the entire exercise. Consequently. a distinction was made between the strategic and support functions. Following the announcement of the restructuring program. personal computers.net. For fiscal 1999–2000. believed to be Japan’s third largest Internet Service Provider. The role of Group Headquarters was to oversee group operations and expedite the allocation of resources within the group. download songs from Sony Music albums and also posters of popular Sony Music stars. with a subscriber base of around 900. with hundreds of products to distribute. It launched new products while at the same time making its existing products web-compatible. were not performing well. Sony’s headquarters was split into two separate units – Group Headquarters and Business Unit Support. with the exception of the games business. Analysts felt that the low Internet penetration rate in Japan (estimated to be 13% in 1999) was proving to be a major hurdle for Sony. The main reason was that Sony was not a really strong competitor (like Yahoo) on the content side. By March 2000. its distribution system was not as thoroughly developed as companies with lesser products. While Sony’s efforts at convergence of content with its distribution setup were commendable. seen as the main logic behind the restructuring exercise. were handled by the network companies so that they could enjoy more autonomy in their operations. movies. including electronics. Accordingly. Significant long-term R&D projects were directly supervised by the headquarters. Sony’s efforts over the next couple of years indicated that it was very serious about its move. consumers could listen to songs downloaded over the Internet. instead of managing the units.000. Through www. The support functions. Given the scenario. By May 2000. Sony’s net income fell to ¥121. Sony’s stock prices nearly tripled. its stock prices were at a high of $152. human resources and general affairs. with marginal performance in the music business and movies business (Sony’s Columbia Pictures).Instructor’s Manual investments. However. Sony even purchased a major share in Sky Perfect TV in 1999. Sony’s stock prices fell by 40% to $89. such as accounting. Sony’s electronic products like PCs and digital cameras had sockets which could be connected to the Internet. was viewed with much skepticism. Sony’s restructuring efforts in 1999 were well received by investors. This resulted in a major fall in its stock prices.83 bn compared to ¥179 bn in fiscal 1998– 99. Through the new Sony Walkman.sony. like Dell Computers and Microsoft. This was Sony’s biggest bet at cashing in on the Internet and e-commerce boom in the late 1990s. and mobile telecommunications.000 units within the first three days of its launch. Analysts were quick to criticize Sony’s efforts towards transforming 465 © Pearson Education Limited 2005 . On the distribution side. the consumers could participate in online versions of noted game shows. while the immediate and short-term R&D projects were transferred to the network companies concerned. Having already offered its PlayStation game console on the Internet. Sony still faced problems since its other businesses. though it still had very good products to boast of. This positive trend continued even in 2000. Sony’s financial performance deteriorated by the end of 1990s. the idea to merge content with distribution.
Despite the above measures.75 bn in fiscal 2000– 01. Analysts commented that Sony required a new business model. Sony was still manufacturing a number of low-margin products like PC monitors and hard disk drives. Sony didn’t possess the management capability of large business conglomerates like GE and IBM. Sony also undertook a massive cost-cutting exercise. Idei became the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Sony. in an era of declining product cycles. back home in Japan. Sony’s management also felt that with the emergence of net-compatible devices like cellular phones. Sony’s net income dropped significantly from ¥121. Its global manufacturing facilities were reduced from 70 in 1999 to 65 in 2001. Sony announced an organizational restructuring in March 2001. For instance.4% increase in revenues in fiscal 2000–01 (mainly due to the improved sales of the PlayStation games console). Sony started to outsource production of Walkmans and PCs from China. Sony was involved in far too many businesses than could be effectively managed. it should have either outsourced the production of these products to contract manufacturers in neighboring countries like China or could have even divested them. To meet the demands of the broadband era. As a result.’ the demand for the above products was likely to increase in future. Analysts criticized this move as a mere show-off exercise. The company was severely affected by the slowdown in the IT industry during 2000–01. movies and music albums in the US and European countries. Further. there was need for yet another organizational restructuring.Instructor’s Manual itself into a web-enabled company. ranging from semiconductors to financial services. In response to these financial problems. there were several issues which Sony should have controlled had the company acted judiciously. Sony announced another reshuffle in its top management. a move which it should have made much earlier. Sony’s management felt that in order to boost profitability and exploit the opportunities offered by the broadband era. in recession-hit Japan. While implementing these measures. PCs were losing their charm. audio and video gadgets and laptops. They commented that the company had created more hype rather than taking significant steps in this regard. the company had to deal with severe resistance from employee unions and local governments (in areas where jobs would be eliminated). The company aimed at transforming itself into a Personal 466 © Pearson Education Limited 2005 . in spite of a 9. which managed numerous businesses effectively. The company had to immediately take concrete measures to increase its net income. was made the President. was made the Chief Financial Officer of Sony. However. which led to a decline in the demand for its computer-related products. who previously headed the PlayStation unit. where labor costs were high. who headed Sony’s PC division. In 2000 and 2001. Ando. while Tokunaka.83 bn in fiscal 1999–2000 to ¥16. This was something which couldn’t be controlled by Sony. It felt that in the emerging age of ‘broadband. even during tough times. Instead. Sony’s financial condition did not show any significant improvement in 2001. The terrorist attacks in the US in September 2001 severely affected Sony’s sales of its video games.
entertainment. a management platform was created. Sony’s continuous emphasis on restructuring exercises. information systems. and its continual focus on the consumer electronics business at a time when the industry itself was going through a slump period. legal. sales of Sony’s most profitable products – the PlayStation and the PS2 game consoles – were likely to fall. games. The management platform was headed by the Chief Administrative Officer. These business entities were given the authority to frame short-term and long-term strategies. The three businesses were under the supervision of Ando. Moreover. Sony’s operating income fell by a significant 40. external affairs and design. Sony’s financial performance did not improve in spite of the frequent restructuring by Sony’s management. rather than concentrating on cutting down on unnecessary product lines. The primary role of the Global Hub (headed by the top management) was to devise the overall management strategy of the company. Sony devised a unique strategy called ‘4 Network Gateway. In order to provide support services for the entire group. The management platform was later split into the Engineering. Sony’s launch in 2000 and 2001 of innovative products like Internet mobile phones proved to be major failures. Again. finance. Under the new structural framework. Sony was reorganized into seven business entities – four network companies and three business groups. which consisted of key support functions in diverse fields such as accounting. could be cited as the primary reasons for its continual dismal performance. several analysts were skeptical about Sony’s new found obsession – broadband. Following this announcement. human resources. Sony’s management decided to integrate all the electronics business related activities under the newly created Electronic Headquarters (Electronics HQ). In April 2003. a newly created position. Sony announced another major restructuring exercise (to be carried out in the next three years) in order to strengthen its corporate value. For the financial year 2001–02. In the end.’ Under this strategy. Management and Customer Service (EMCS) Company and the Sales Platform (which comprised the regional sales companies and region-based Internet direct marketing functions).6%. Sony’s headquarters was revamped into a Global Hub centered on five key businesses – electronics. according to a BusinessWeek report.3% while its revenues registered a marginal increase of 3.Instructor’s Manual Broadband Network Solutions company by launching a wide range of broadband products and services for its customers across the world. In order to achieve the convergence of Audio Video Products with IT (AV/IT convergence). intellectual copyrights. financial services and Internet/communication service. public relations. the games and Internet/communication service businesses were combined with the electronics hardware business so that innovative products could be developed and offered for the broadband market. 467 © Pearson Education Limited 2005 .
Through these changes. Sony Assurance Inc. Sony plans to reduce the head count by 20. In addition.3 Sony’s Recent Moves Despite announcing a major restructuring exercise in 1999. Sony aims to secure a consolidated operating profit margin of at least 10% (excluding financial business) by the end of FY06. Sony aims to implement structural reforms covering electronics. Sony also believes that these changes will lay the foundation for the creation of new value and significant growth from FY06 onwards.’ which outlined a series of fundamental reforms which the company contemplated over the next four years. Over the next three years. The initiative was termed by Sony as ‘Transformation 60. Sony projects restructuring costs of approximately ¥140 bn (electronics ¥130 bn) resulting in annualized savings of approximately ¥78 bn (electronics ¥68 bn) from FY04. convergence of the entertainment business and convergence of the finance business. Convergence of the finance business would be achieved by establishing a financial holding company which consisted of three companies: Sony Life Insurance Company Ltd. 468 © Pearson Education Limited 2005 . mobile electronics sector and semiconductor technology sector as core sectors. For FY03.Instructor’s Manual 6. with the aim of becoming a global media content company. with the primary objective of improving its profit structure significantly. and Sony Bank Inc. This would require it to drastically cut down on fixed costs to the tune of ¥330 bn by the end of fiscal 2006. close plants and outsource several products from neighboring countries like China. followed by another restructuring initiative in 2001. Sony reported dismal performance in fiscal 2002–03. Fundamentally reforming operational profit structure In Phase II of the new round of restructuring.000 (of which 7000 would be from Japan). especially in its consumer electronics business. music and games. The convergence of the electronics business would be achieved by designating the home electronics sector. cost reductions in nonproduction materials will help to achieve overall total annualized fixed cost reductions of approximately ¥330 bn (¥300 bn in electronics) in FY06 compared to FY02. Convergence of the entertainment business would be achieved by combining assets in pictures. Sony plans to spend approximately ¥335 bn (¥300 bn in electronics) to achieve annualized fixed cost reductions of approximately ¥200 bn (¥160 bn in electronics) in FY06 compared to FY02. For this. The key elements of Transformation 60 included: Clarifying the company’s operational structure and implementing growth strategy Sony aims to achieve this through the convergence of the electronics business. entertainment and other major sectors. Sony announced another round of major restructuring in October 2003.
sony.net. Sony Corporation. Madden. www.net. 10. www. Larry. BusinessWeek.idg. www. 1998.com. 7.net. www. 1998.sony. 1999.sony. October 29. Sony Announces Organizational Structure for New Network Companies. 1999.redherring. 2000. 1999. www. the results of which would be interesting to watch. 5. 15. March 30 1998. Michael and Guth.atimes. 18. December 10. Sony Announces New Group Architecture for Network-Centric Era. 6.sony. Sony’s Shake Up.com.net. 17. Tanikawa Miki.news.iht. www. www. 9.com. 1999.sony. www. www.net. Sony Announces Executive-Level Changes in Management. Irene M. www. Irene M. Sony Sets Roadmap for Technological Revival. March 9.com..sony. Sony Cuts Back to Move Forward. 1999. Sony Announces a New Corporate Structure. Sony Chairman Upbeat on Japanese Economy. 1999.news.net. 14. www.com. Latest Moves: The Stunning New PlayStation II And A Continuing Corporate Restructuring. November 1. 469 © Pearson Education Limited 2005 . March 22.sony. 12. BusinessWeek. Drexler. Sony Plans Reorganization. 23. Sony to Eliminate at Least 50 Jobs: New Hires Expected. October 1999. www. Restructuring Craze Sweeps Japan.net. Sony Announces Key Top Management Appointments. www.net. Sony Appoints New Members to the Board and New Corporate Executive Officers. www. March 8.net. Slimming Down.com. www. 2000. 1999. 19. Kunii.sony.net.sony. www. name)] to plan network related services for broadband networks.net. 1999. Sony Announces Executive-Level Changes in Management.cnn. Slick Sony Is Not What It Appears to Be. Kunii. June 29. Sony Establishes Corporate IS Solutions. March 29. Notice on Going Private of Three Listed Subsidiaries of Sony Corporation. Melinda.bbc. August 5. Electronic News. 13. 1999. www. 1999. Sony Implements Changes in Top Management..money.co.sony. 24. Sony Shifts Gears to Tap Convergence Trend. Philip. Segal. 1998. 1999. January 27. John.com. March 9.iht. 1999. www. Industry Week. 20. 2. Newman. April 10.net. Davis.sony. May 7. 8. July 24. January 16. March 16. Jim. 1995. Additional reading & references 1. Tokyu Corporation and Toyota Motor Corporation Create an [Advanced Internet Integration Planning Company (temp. Flick. Billboard. 22. 1999. 1995. Sony Corp Net Profits Drop 25%. www. 1996. 3. Rob.Instructor’s Manual Sony’s contemplated latest round of restructuring initiatives only confirm its obsession with restructuring. Teresco. March 29. Andrew. March 9. 11. June 7.uk. Here Comes the Sony Net Man. 21. March 9. 4. May 17. 16. 1999.
studiosystems. 2000. www.nctimes. July 7. Grover. Sony Eyes Net Appliance Market. www. www.sony. 33.jp. 470 © Pearson Education Limited 2005 . www.asiaweek. www. 2000.vaio. Capital Wrap up. Yahoo. March 30.satnewsasia. November 6. 51. July 26. 45.twice.net. 2000. 2001. 50. 2001. Li. Irene M. 46. Sony Appoints New Members to the Board. Sony Broadband Creates Venture Unit for Digital Media. www. Michael. June 5.internetnews.com.net.net. www. 40.com. Ron. March 29. Sony Establishes a New Network Company for Semiconductor Business “Semiconductor Network Company (SNC)”. www.com. 47. BusinessWeek.co.sony.net.sony. A New Group Structure for the Next Stage of Integrated.com. Sony Restructuring Leads to Layoff in Canada. www. May 2000. October 4. 39. Sony Computer Entertainment America Redefines the Entertainment Lifestyle with Introduction of New Playstation Model in September 2000. 26. 44. www. Sony and AOL Consider Merger of TV Assets. Weisman. August 1. June 15.com. Sony Hits the Button. www. Fortune. 28. Sony Corporation’s Business Strategy for FY 2000. Sony to Launch Broadband Service in Hong Kong. www. The Slump at Sony. Sony Plays to Win. Sony Strengthens its Management Team to Further Enhance Corporate Value. 31. New Corporate Executive Officers and Corporate Research Fellows.thestandard.digitalmediawire. Ivey Business Journal.sony. BusinessWeek.sony. 2000. www. Learmonth.vcl.jei.com. 2000. Kunii. www.com.net.sony. 37. 27. Decentralized Management..chartattack. 35.com. Thor.. 41. March 30. 2000. www. June 8. 32. July 18. 2001. Schlender. 2000. 49. 42. Sony Sales. Jeff. Crowell. Sony’s Nakamura on Structure and Decision Making. www. 2000. May 12. www. Sony Announces Executive-Level Changes in Management. BusinessWeek.sony. Mutsuko Murakami. 500 Sony Employees to Be Laid Off.sony. Sony Slides into a Slump. 38. 2000. 29. Rose.Instructor’s Manual 25. Sony in Marketing Pact.sony. www. Sony Entertainment Team Ready for New Media Push. Sony Corporation. 2000. May 2. Accelerating Reform to Meet the Needs of the Broadband Era. 2000.net. 30. June 5. Profits Climb in Fiscal Q2. Malester.. www.net. Kenneth. June 29. 2001. Brent.internetnews. www. 36. Todd. May 22. Olavsrud. July 31.. 2000.net. 2000. Ostrom Douglas. May 8. www. Recent Restructuring Initiatives. Profile: Sony Corp. 2001. May 19. 2000.twingalaxies. www. 2001. 2001. July/August 2000. May 31. Beamish. 2001. Dan. July/August 2001. 2000. Kunii Irene M.com. 43. 48.com.e-insite. Paul W. Sony Appoints New Executive Officers.com.org. April 27. Brady. 2000. 34.net. March 29.
Higher FY Restructuring Costs in Electronics – CFO.net.news. 2003. 73. 2001. Spahr. Wolfgang. Dismal Results at Japan’s Top Electronics Firm Have Stunned Investors. April 26. Edwards.000 Jobs by 2003.atimes. Mitchell.ecmgt. www.com. www. 2003. 53. Ed. www. 60. Christman. 57. Cliff. Market Talk/JP: Sony has Room to Rise on Restructuring.com. Sony Announces Executive Appointments and Organizational Reforms Effective as of April 1. www. 71. BusinessWeek. www. www. www. Sony Sees Sales Slowdown. 65. www. Emotion and Innovation in the Broadband Era. Sony to Post Growth. 62.net.. Billboard.com.com. 2001. Ed. Sony Cuts in Ahead of the Game. 2002. Billboard. Sony Analyzed Via the Value Framework. October 2002. The Economist. 64. Christman.Instructor’s Manual 52. 61. 2002. April 5. Ed. Sagging Profits at Sony.sony. April 26.com.net. 63. www. Forbes. How Sony Could Sharpen Its Picture. September 4. 2003. Reforming the Sony Group Management Structure to Strengthen Corporate Governance. www. 72. Kunii. October 28.news. 2003.” www.idg. www.net. Greene. Minister Threatens to Boycott Sony.net. www. Kunii. Guerin. 76. www. Dog Days at Sony.ananova. 54. The Scoop. 70. Kyoko Suzuki. 55. 75. Jay. Zuan. October 2002.com. January 28. Sony Restructuring Plan Begins with Layoffs. 68.co.sony. 2003. February 28. 74.asia. www. N.sony. Sony Group Corporate Strategy for Fiscal Year 2003 (April 2003–March 2004) Confirming Sony’s Position as a Leading Global Brand.sony. Sony Profits Fall 9 Per Cent.cnn.com. April 7. Accelerating Structural Reform of the Sony Group’s Electronics Business. January 28. Sony Restructures Sales. 79. 2002. 2002. October 5.bbc. Matsushita Downbeat. Sony to Cut 17. March 31. December 7.asiaweek. Sony: Losing the Magic Touch? BusinessWeek Online.uk. 66. 2002. 69.org. 2003. Todd. 2003.au. Update – Sony Profits Up Though Sales Remain Flat.sony. Jakarta Post. Levy. 67. May 28. 2001. 2002. Says It Won’t Affect Handset Biz. Sony Undergoes Restructuring. www1. 2003. Hiroshi Suzuki. August 10. 471 © Pearson Education Limited 2005 .A. Sony Pullout Plan Rocks Indonesia. October 29. Sony Earnings Eyed. 77. March 11. Sony Reveals Initiatives to Create a “Ubiquitous Value Network. 2002.com. Can Sony Regain the Magic? BusinessWeek. 59. 2003. November 12. Ienner Ascends at Restructured Sony. 58. 78.smh. 2001. May 24.com.net. Bill. October 28. www.. RCR Wireless News.excite. February 19.yahoo. 2002. 2002.com. Christman. December 4. Irene M.sony.sel. Distribution Functions.theage. 2003.bssc. Billboard. May 3. Irene M. 56. Tokyo Stocks Seen Edging Up.transnationale. 2003. www. March 8.
2003. www. 303–157–1.net.warnerbros. 3. 82. 472 © Pearson Education Limited 2005 .com. www. Reorganizing ABB – From Matrix to Customer-Centric Organization Structure (A). Reference No. 303–191–1.wired. www. 81. Transformation 60 – Confirming Sony’s position as a Leading Consumer Brand in the 21st Century. www. Reorganizing HP.com.Instructor’s Manual 80.biz. Reference No. www. Annual Reports.net. 84. Related case studies 1. 303–156–1.sony. Reorganizing ABB – From Matrix to Customer-Centric Organization Structure (B). 402–026–1.sony. Reference No.550dmv.com. www. Reference No. October 28. Restructuring P&G. www. www. 83. 87. 1995–2003. 85. 2.iwon.net.extratv.sony.com. 4. 86.yahoo.com.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?