A) URINO GENITAL SYSTEM : Male Toad: 1. Expose the anterior abdominal vein (cut) 2.

Remove heart, liver, lung, and wall of cister namagna 3. Open the cloaca (using scapula to cut the kangkang) 4. Remove alimentary canal (from oesophagus until BEFORE rectum:keep the rectum) Female Toad: ~all the steps same with the male toad, but DONT CUT THE LUNG. B) VERNOUS SYSTEM PROPER : (involve in the upper body of toad only) The following steps are both for male & female toad: 1. DONT pull the skin under forelimb (bwh ketiak) 2. Remove the pericardium (white membrane that covers the heart) 3. Remove pectoralis posterior (yg 3 segi tu) 4. Remove the wall of cister namagna 5. Remove the alimentary canal C) VERNOUS PORTAL SYSTEM: (involve in the lower body of toad only) The following steps are both for male & female toad: 1. Expose and KEEP the anterior abdomial vein 2. Open the cloaca 3. Remove the vastus internus 4. Remove the wall of cister namagna D) ARTERIAL SYSTEM : 1. Expose the anterior abdominal vein (cut) 2. Open in cloaca 3. Remove pericardium 4. Remove wall of cister namagna 5. Tie the anterior vena cava (vessel yg warna merah)on the left side of the toad. (sbelah kanan kita = sbelah kiri katak) Sorry for the rojak language, sy hnya nk pmudahkan pmblajaran smua dentist :) Kalau x phm apa yg sy tulis ni, tnye la eh. SLAMAT STUDY EVERYONE!

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