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Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal_35

Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal_35

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DIFFERENT MAC PROTOCOLS FOR NEXT GENERATION WIRELESS ATM NETWORKS

Sami A. El-Dolil Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Comm. Eng., Faculty of Electronic Eng, Menoufya Univ. Msel_dolil@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT This paper presents a comparison between three proposed Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocols for next generation multimedia wireless ATM (WATM) networks. To support the ATM CBR, VBR, ABR services to end users, a MAC protocol must be able to provide bandwidth on demand with suitable performance guarantee. The protocols have been proposed to efficiently integrate multiple ATM traffics over the wireless channel while achieving high channel utilization. The objective of the comparison is to highlight the merits and demerits of the three proposed protocols. Keywords: Medium access control protocol and ATM network. wireless ATM networks. The three protocols are as follow. 1. Dynamic Allocation TDMA MAC Protocol for Wireless ATM Networks. 2. An Intelligent MAC Protocol for next generation Wireless ATM Networks. 3. Contention and Polling based Multiple Access Control with minimum Piggybacking for Wireless ATM Network. Three performance metrics, namely cell loss probability, average cell delay, and throughput, are considered. Section II gives an overview and description of the proposed protocols. In section III, the source models are identified. Section IV, describes the resource allocation algorithm. An evaluation of the performance of the proposed protocols is presented in section V. Finally, section VI concludes the paper. 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

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INTRODUCTION

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) was recommended by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T) to be the transfer protocol of the broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN). The concept of wireless ATM (WATM) was introduced to extend the capabilities of ATM to wireless arena in [1]. A major issue of WATM network is the selection of a medium access control (MAC) protocol that will efficiently allocate the scarce radio resources among the competing mobile stations while satisfying the QoS required for each admitted connection. Several MAC protocols are proposed for wireless ATM network [2] – [9]. In [2], a novel predictive approach is used to estimate the current requirements for the connections. The variable bit rate (VBR) traffic is divided into guaranteed and best effort traffic while the time to expiry algorithm is adapted for voice and VBR slot allocation. In [3], the leaky bucket algorithm with priority as well as the cell train concept achieves a fair and efficient slot allocation. In [4], Packet Reservation Multiple Access with Dynamic Allocation (PRMA/DA) MAC protocol adopts dynamic allocation algorithm in order to resolve the contention situation quickly and avoid the waste of bandwidth that occurs when there are several unneeded request slots. However the drawback is that this protocol does not use minislots for the access request. In [6] the use of piggybacking information from VBR connection improves the slot allocation for VBR traffic and enhances the overall protocol performance. The current paper introduces a quantitative comparison of three proposed MAC Protocol for

2.1 Air Interface Frame Structure The proposed protocols use frequency division duplex (FDD) with a fixed frame length of 2 m sec. used for the uplink (UL) and the downlink (DL) channel. Fig. 1 illustrates the frame structure for the uplink channel. The channel bit rate is 4.9 Mbps and the data slot size is 53 bytes. The number of slots per frame is 24 slots. The uplink frame is divided into control and data transmission periods, each consisting of integer number of slots. Slots assigned for control purpose are further subdivided into four control mini-slots with each mini-slot accommodating reservation mini-packet.

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Control period

Data Transmission period

Figure: 1 the frame structure. In the uplink channel, control slots provide a communication mechanism for a mobile station to send a reservation request during the contention phase of the connection. The data slots are provided with contention-free mechanism during the data transmission phase. An uplink control packet is sent whenever a mobile station needs to inform the base station with its traffic characteristics and source status. Feedback for the uplink control packets is sent in the downlink control packets. 2.2 Contention Access Scheme The first and second protocols use the same contention scheme and the length of the control period is dynamically adjusted as a function of contention traffic load. The control mini-slots are used by the mobile stations to send their reservation requests in contention mode using slotted Aloha protocol. To reduce the access time of real-time connection, which greatly affects the QoS of the real-time services, we separate the control mini-slots assigned to real-time and non real-time connections. The number of control mini-slots assigned to realtime and non real-time connections is adaptively allocated with the collision status. The total number of uplink control mini-slots ranges from 4 to 12 mini-slots. A priority is given to real-time connections by assigning their control mini-slots first according to the number of collisions occurred in the previous frame. In the third protocol, the control period is further divided into contention and polling periods. Control slots assigned in the control period are further subdivided into four control mini-slots, some of them used as contention mini-slots and the others used as polling mini-slots. A fixed number of control minislots are allocated for contention and polling access. The contention mini-slots are used by voice connections to send their reservation requests in contention mode at the beginning of talk-spurt, while the poling mini-slots are used by ABR connections to send their buffer length status to the base station. The number of polling mini-slots are chosen such that the polling period will be less than or equal to the average inter-arrival time of ABR data message (100 m-sec). Number of polling mini-slots ≥ int (number of ABR users * (TF/Tint)). where, TF: Frame duration (2 m-sec). Tint: Average inter-arrival time of ABR data message (100 m-sec). Int: largest integer value. Contention period is set to a constant number of control mini-slots and this number is chosen to satisfy the required QoS for voice traffic. The contention process is divided to four stages: First Stage: When the connection becomes active it randomly selects one of the 4 subsequent frames to send its request during the contention period. Second Stage: If the connection exhibits collision in the first stage it randomly selects one of the 3 subsequent frames to send its request during the contention period. Third Stage: If the connection exhibits collision in the second stage it randomly selects one of the 2 subsequent frames to send its request during the contention period. Fourth Stage: If the connection exhibits collision in the third stage it sends its request in every frame until the base station successfully receives its request. In every stage the connection randomly select one of the available contention mini-slots in the selected frame to send its reservation request. If the connection request is correctly received during any stage the connection exit from the contention process and the base station periodically allocate slots to the connection until the end of talk-spurt. The described contention process aims to reduce the contention load during the contention period in each frame, increase the probability of successfully accessing the network, decreasing the probability of collision, reduce the access delay time and at the same time minimize the number of used contention mini-slots and utilize them efficiently. Decreasing the number of available frames for selection in each subsequent stage aiming to reduce the access delay time of the connections and hence reduce the cell loss probability.

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2.3 Traffic Integration Strategy As different wireless ATM services share the same resources, an effective interaction between the allocation algorithms is needed to maximize the utilization efficiency of the shared resources. In the first and second protocol , the voice connections have the highest priority and the VBR connections have the next higher priority. The ABR connections have the lowest priority. In the third protocol, the available transmission slots are assigned first to active voice connections, then a minimum assigned slots are allocated to ABR traffic, then VBR traffic slots are allocated, and finally, the remaining slots are distributed between ABR connections according to the buffer length of each connections. 3 SOURCE MODELS 3.1 Voice Source Model A voice source generates a signal that follows a pattern of talk-spurts separated by silent gaps. A speech activity detector can be used to detect this pattern. Therefore, an ON/OFF model can describe a voice source: the source alternates between the ON state where the source generates packets at rate 8 kbps, and the OFF state where no packets are generated. Durations of talk-spurts and silent gaps are modelled as exponential distributions with mean values of 1 and 1.35 sec, respectively. If a voice packet is not sent within its maximum transfer delay (MTD), it should be dropped The MTD is set to be 16 m-sec. 3.2 VBR Source Model The source rates are modelled as truncated Gaussian distribution between (128 – 384 kbps) with mean rate of 256 kbps. The rate of the source varies every 33 m-sec (the duration of image frame) and the MTD of the VBR packet is set to be 50 msec. 3.3 ABR Source Model It resembles a data source with messages of certain length. The length of the message is exponentially distributed with mean 2 k bit, and the inter-arrival time between messages is negatively exponential distributed with mean of 100 m-sec. The MTD of the ABR packet is set to be 6 sec. 4 BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION ALGORITHM The bandwidth allocation for uplink transmission is only considered since the downlink transmission can be scheduled in the same manner as in a wired ATM switch.

4.1 Dynamic Allocation TDMA MAC Protocol for Wireless ATM Networks 4.1.1 Slot Allocation Algorithm for Voice traffic The voice connections have the higher priority. At the beginning of a talk-spurt, the mobile sends a control packet. When the base station knows that the connection becomes active the base station periodically allocates slots to the connection until the end of talk spurt. At the end of the talk-spurt, the mobile sets a flag in the last voice packet to inform the base station that the connection is no longer active. 4.1.2 Slot Allocation Algorithm for VBR traffic VBR connections have the next highest priority. They only contend (send a control packet) at the session beginning. Next, all the control information is piggybacking on the data packets, which reduces the contention over the real-time mini-slots. At the base station, a token pool of certain size is introduced for each VBR connection. Tokens are generated at a fixed rate that is equal to the mean cell rate. A token is removed from the corresponding pool for every slot allocated to the connection After slot allocation for voice connections the base station allocates one slot for each VBR connection to send one of their cells and also to piggyback the current traffic parameter (e.g. buffer length, cell delay) of the connection. Then the base station allocates slots for each connection .The number of slots allocated for a connection is the minimum of the buffer length and the number of tokens in the pool such as; Nv= min (Av, Bv) . where Nv : number of slots allocated for the VBR connection. Av : number of tokens in the pool. Bv : number of the packets in the mobile station buffer. Each connection cannot send greater than 12 cells in the frame. Within the frame, priority is given to the connection with minimum time-of-expiry to send their cells earlier. 4.1.3 Slot Allocation Algorithm for ABR traffic The base station records the buffer length status of each connection using the control information transmitted by the mobile. When a message arrives at a mobile, it sends the number of packets in the new message either piggybacked to a data packet or in a control packet. Like VBR connections a token pool is introduced for each ABR connection. ABR connections have lower priority than voice and VBR connections. The number of slots allocated for a connection is the minimum of the buffer length and the number of tokens in the pool such as;

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Na= min (Aa , Ba). where, Na : number of slots allocated for the ABR connection. Aa : number of tokens in the pool. Ba : number of the packets in the mobile station buffer. The connection with higher number of tokens in its pool sends their cells earlier within the frame. If there are remaining slots inside the frame, the base station allocates them fairly between ABR and VBR connections. 4.2 An Intelligent MAC Protocol for next generation Wireless ATM Networks 4.2.1 Slot Allocation Algorithm for Voice and CBR traffic The voice connections have the highest priority. At the beginning of a talk-spurt, the mobile sends a control packet to inform the base station that the connection become active. At the base station, a token pool is introduced for each active voice connection and each token is increased by a fixed amount equal to Tv every frame to indicate the number of cells generated in the mobile station buffer and decreased by one for every slot allocated to the corresponding connection. Then the voice connections are arranged according to the content of its token and slots are allocated to the connection with higher value in its token first. At the end of the talk-spurt, the mobile sets a flag in the last voice cell to inform the base station that the connection is no longer active. Tv=Tf /Tp where, Tf : frame duration (2msec). Tp : packetization time of the ATM cell of voice connection (48m-sec). The number of slots allocated for voice connection in each frame should not exceed Lv . where Lv = number of voice connection*( Tf / Tp). The token poll has two advantages: First: it indicates the number of packets generated at the mobile station buffer. Second: it indicates the amount of delay of the generated packet. This helps in deciding which voice connection should send its packet early and leads to reducing the average delay of the voice connections. 4.2.2 Slot Allocation Algorithm for VBR traffic VBR connections have the next higher priority. They only contend (send a control packet) at the session beginning. Next, all the control information is piggybacking on the data packets, which reduces the contention over the real-time mini-slots. At the base station, one token pool of certain size is

introduced for all VBR connections. Tokens are generated at a fixed rate that is equal to the mean cell rate per connection multiplied by the number of VBR connections. A token is removed from the corresponding pool for every slot allocated to any VBR connection. The cell delay is piggybacking on the data packets. The number of slots allocated for a VBR connection depends on the cell delay and the number of token in the pool such as; Nvj=int ( Kv* ( Dvj/Dv)) where Nvj : number of slots allocated for the connection number j Kv : number of tokens in the pool Dvj : delay time of the last transmitted cell from connection number j Dv : total cell delay of all VBR connections 4.2.3 Slot Allocation Algorithm for ABR traffic The base station records the buffer length status of each connection using the control information transmitted by the mobile. When a message arrives at a mobile, it sends the number of packets in the new message either piggybacked to a data packet or in a control packet. Like VBR connections one token pool is introduced for all ABR connections. ABR connections have lower priority than voice and VBR connections. The number of slots allocated for an ABR connection depends on the buffer length and the number of token in the pool such as; Naj= Ka* ( Baj/Ba) Where Naj : number of slots allocated for the connection number j. Ka : number of tokens in the pool. Baj : number of cells in the buffer of the connection (buffer length). Ba : summation of the buffer lengths of all ABR connections. If there are remaining slots inside the frame, the base station allocates them between ABR and VBR connections such that Ψ % for VBR connections and the rest for ABR connections where; Ψ= (

D avg T oe

)*100.

where Davg : average delay of VBR connections. Toe : time of expiry of VBR cells (50 m-sec). 4.3 Contention and Polling based Multiple Access Control with minimum Piggybacking for Wireless ATM Network 4.3.1 Slot Allocation Algorithm for Voice Traffic At the beginning of talk spurt the voice connection sends a reservation request through the

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contention mini-slot. When the base station successfully receives the request, it periodically allocates slots to the connection up to the end of talk spurt. At the end of talk spurt the connection set a one bit flag in the last transmitted cell to indicate that the connection is no longer active. 4.3.2 Slot Allocation Algorithm for VBR Traffic Initially the base station allocates one slot for each active VBR connection and then broadcast a delay threshold value to all VBR connections every frame. One bit flag is used to indicate the delay status of the buffer and is piggybacked to the data packet (cell). Each VBR connection checks its buffer and sets the flag to one when the packet delay exceeds the delay threshold, and to zero when the packet delay is lower than the delay threshold. The slot allocation procedures are performed as follow: • The base station increases the assigned slots by one for a VBR connection each time its packet delay is greater than the delay threshold (piggybacking flag equal to one). • At the base station a counter is introduced. The counter incremented by one when the number of slots allocated for VBR traffic in the frame is greater than Vmean and decremented by one when it is lower than Vmean. where; Vmean: the mean number of cells generated from all VBR connections per frame according to the mean cell generation rate per connection. • The delay threshold can be set to a fixed value or dynamically adjusted to control the slot allocation process for VBR traffic. The counter can be used to dynamically adjust the delay threshold by increasing the delay threshold value when the counter value is increased and decreasing the delay threshold value when the counter is decreased. Since the increase in the counter value indicates the increase in the allocated bandwidth (slots), so we need to reduce it by increasing the delay threshold value which in turn decreases the piggybacking and hence decreases the number of allocated slots and vice versa. Table.1 shows the dynamic delay threshold values using the dynamic adjustment. • When some of the connection reserved slots are not used by the connection for transmitting its packets (number of generated packets become lower than the number of allocated slots) the base station release this slot and decrement the number of the reserved slots for that connection in the subsequent frames by one. • When the counter becomes greater than the upper limit value (25) the base station release some of the reserved slots for the connections that have no piggybacking in the previous frame until the number

of VBR allocated slots becomes lower than Vmean to decrease the counter. • Each VBR connection could not have lower than one allocated slot per frame. As we suggested before the delay threshold can be set at a fixed value and its value have a significant effect on the allocation process and the achieved QoS of VBR traffic. During the simulation at fixed delay threshold we take its fixed value equals to 0.5 maximum CTD of VBR cell (25msec) as an appropriate value and evaluate the performance of the allocation process in this case. Table 1: Dynamic adjustment of the delay threshold Counter Counter ≤4 4 < counter ≤ 8 8 < counter ≤12 12 < counter ≤15 15 < counter ≤18 18 < counter ≤ 20 20 < counter Delay Threshold values (m-sec) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

4.3.3 Slot Allocation Algorithm for ABR Traffic Polling control mini-slots are used by ABR connections to send their buffer length to the base station. The number of polling mini-slots is selected such that the polling period should be lower than or equal to the inter-arrival time between ABR data messages (100 m-sec) to enable the base station to efficiently monitor the buffer length status of each connection. Initially a minimum number of slots are allocated to ABR traffic. So that, each ABR connection has an allocated bandwidth equivalent to 50 % of its average cell generation rate. The base station controls this minimum assigned bandwidth by maintaining a leaky bucket for every ABR connection. Tokens added to the bucket at constant rate equals to 50% of the average cell generation rate. Every time a slot is allocated to the connection, a token is removed from the bucket. So, in each frame the connection with non empty leaky bucket has allocated slots equal to the number of tokens in its bucket. After allocating the VBR traffic slots, the remaining slots are allocated to ABR connections. ABR connections are arranged according to their buffer length where the connection with higher buffer length has its required slots allocated first.

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND SIMULATION RESULTS A comparison has been made to evaluate the performance of the three proposed protocols using the same simulation parameters. Fig. 2 through Fig. 7 illustrates the performance with integrated traffic. There are 30 voice connection and 12 VBR connections in the network, while the ABR connections are added gradually to the network. All results are presented as a function of the number of ABR connection. For voice traffic, Fig. 2 and Fig. 5 show that a good QoS is achieved by the three protocols in term of cell loss probability (lower than 10-4) and average cell delay (lower than 5 m-sec). it is clear that, approximately, the first and the second proposed protocols achieve better performance than the third one as they use the same contention access scheme, due to using lower number of control mini-slots for contention access. It is worth to mention that the third protocol uses 8.3% of the bandwidth (8 control minislots) for contention and polling access, while the first and second protocol uses 4.45% of the bandwidth (approximately 4 control mini-slots) which make the available data transmission bandwidth for the third protocol lower by 3.85 % than that of the first and second protocol. For VBR traffic, Fig. 3 shows that with low VBR traffic up to 45 connections, the second protocol achieves the best performance in term of cell loss probability as its resource allocation algorithm depends on the cell delay at each connection buffer, so that the connection with higher delay allocated more slots than that with lower delay which leads to reduce the probability that the cell delay exceeds the maximum CTD (cell transfer delay) and then lost. This decreases the cell loss probability. On the other hand this increases the average cell delay that becomes higher than the average cell delay caused by the first protocol as indicated in Fig. 6.The third protocol achieves higher loss probability than the second protocol (Fig. 3), and the highest average cell delay (Fig. 6) since the dynamic delay threshold adjustment process produces more average delay than the other two protocols. When the number of ABR connections becomes greater than 45, the offered traffic becomes higher than the available bandwidth. The third protocol achieves the lowest cell loss probability and lower average cell delay than the second one since a considerable part of ABR slot allocation takes place after VBR slot allocation, and the VBR slot allocation is controlled by the value of delay threshold which has upper limit value. So increasing the number of ABR connection has low significant effect on VBR slot allocation. The first protocol achieves the lowest performance in terms of cell loss probability (Fig. 3), while achieves the lowest average cell delay with all number of ABR connections, (Fig. 6). This indicates that the efficiency

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of its VBR Resource allocation algorithm is lower than the other two protocols. For ABR traffic, Fig. 4 and Fig. 7 show that the reduction of data transmission bandwidth of the third protocol by 3.85% due to the contention and polling periods significantly reduces the available bandwidth for ABR traffic which make the cell losses start early before 40 ABR connection and the average cell delay significantly increases with ABR connections since a considerable part of ABR resource allocations takes place after VBR slot allocation. The first and second protocols achieve good QoS for ABR traffic but the first protocol achieve slightly better performance in term of cell loss probability and average cell delay. At 45 ABR connection the first and second protocol achieve approximately 94% data transmission throughput and 98.5% total channel utilization while providing the acceptable QoS required for each traffic category. For the third protocol, at 36 ABR connection 91% data transmission throughput and 98.5% total channel utilization are achieved while preserving the required QoS for each ATM traffic type.

Figure 2: Cell loss probability of Voice connections as a function of the number of ABR connections (12 VBR and 30 Voice connection)

Figure 3: Cell loss probability of VBR connections as a function of the number of ABR connections (12 VBR and 30 Voice connection) 6 Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal

The performance with real time traffic is illustrated in Fig. 8 through Fig. 11. 12 VBR connections are presented while the voice connections are added gradually to the system. For voice traffic, Fig. 8 and Fig. 10 show that the performance is the same as with integrated traffic, where the first and second protocols perform better than the third one. For VBR traffic, Fig. 9 and Fig. 11 show that the second protocol achieves the lowest cell loss probability. The average cell delay of the first and second protocols is low with slightly different values until 112 voice connection (97% channel utilization), after that, the average cell delay of the second protocol become significantly higher since the efficiency of its resource allocation algorithm in reducing cell loss probability results in increasing the average cell delay. The third protocol has lower cell delay than that with integrated traffic because in the absence of ABR traffic, any remaining slots will be given to VBR connections.

With the third protocol the average cell delay lower than with integrated traffic because in the absence of ABR traffic if there are remaining slots they will be given to VBR connections. A cell loss probability of 10-3 for VBR traffic achieved by the first protocol at 106 voice connection (95% channel utilization), by the second protocol at 112 voice connection (97% channel utilization), and by the third protocol at 103 voice connection (94.7% channel utilization).

Figure 6: Average cell delay of VBR connections as a function of the number of ABR connections (12 VBR and 30 Voice connections).

Figure 4: Cell loss probability of ABR connections as a function of the number of ABR connections (12 VBR and 30 Voice connection)

Figure 7: Average cell delay of ABR connections as a function of the number of ABR connections (12 VBR and 30 Voice connections).

Figure 5: Average cell delay of Voice connections as a function of the number of ABR connections, (12 VBR and 30 Voice connections).

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These results indicate that the second protocol has the most efficient VBR slot allocation algorithm then the first protocol and finally the third protocol, but the third protocol uses the lowest piggybacking overhead.

protocol uses the lowest piggybacking overhead. For ABR traffic, the reduction of data transmission bandwidth of the third protocol by 3.85% reduce the available bandwidth for ABR traffic which make the cell losses and the average cell delay significantly increases with higher values than the other two protocol. Finally the three proposed protocols achieve very high channel utilization of approximately 98% for the wireless ATM channel while respects the required QoS of multimedia ATM traffic types.

Figure 8: Cell loss probability of Voice connections as a function of the number of Voice connections (12 VBR Connection).

Figure 10: Average cell delay of Voice connections as a function of the number of voice connections (12 VBR connections).

Figure 9: Cell loss probability of VBR connections as a function of the number of Voice connections (12 VBR Connection). 6 CONCLUSION We have presented an extensive performance comparison of three proposed MAC protocols to highlight the merits and demerits of each of them. For voice traffic, a good QoS achieved by the three protocols. But, the first and second proposed protocols achieve better QoS than the third protocol while using lower number of control mini-slots for contention access. For VBR traffic, the results indicate that the second protocol has the most efficient VBR slot allocation algorithm then the first protocol and finally the third protocol, but the third

Figure 11: Average cell delay of VBR connections as a function of the number of voice connections (12 VBR connection)

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REFERENCES [1] D. Raychandhuri and N. D. Wilson, “ ATM –based transport architecture for multiservices wireless personal communication networks“ IEEE J. Selected. Areas in Communication, vol.12, no.80, pp. 14011414, Oct. 1994. [2] J.F. Frigon, H.C.B.Chan and V.C.M. leung “Dynamic reservation TDMA protocol for wireless ATM networks “ IEEE J. Selected Areas in Communication, vol.19, no.2, pp 370-383, Feb.2001. [3] N.Passas, S. Paskalis, D.Vali and L.Merakos “Quality-of -Service – Oriented Medium Access Control for wireless ATM networks “ IEEE Communication Magazine, pp. 42-50, 1997. [4] J.Sanchez, R. Martnez, and M.W.Marcellin “ A survey of MAC Protocols Proposed for Wireless ATM “ IEEE Networks, pp. 52-62, Nov. 1997. [5] H. Liu, U. Cliese and L. Dittmann “ Knowledge-based Multiple Access Protocol in Broadband Wireless ATM Networks “ 50 th Veh. Tech. Conf., pp. 1685-1689, Sept. 1999 . Amesterdam, the Ntherlands. [6] S. Lee, Y. Song , D. Cho , Y. Dhong and J.Yang “ Wireless ATM MAC layer Protocol for Near Optimal Quality of Service Support” GLOBE COM. 98 Sydney, Australia, pp. 2264-2269, Nov. 1998 . [7] Y.Kwork and K.N.Lau “A quantitative Comparison of Multiple Access Control Protocols for Wireless ATM “ IEEE Transaction on Vehicular Technology, vol.50, no.3, MAY 2001.

On Circuits & Systems (The 46th IEEE International MWSCAS), December 2003, Cairo, Egypt. [12] Sami A. EL-Dolil and Mohammed Abd Elnaby " Contention and Polling Based Multiple Access Control with Minimum Piggybacking for Wireless ATM Networks, " 21st National Radio Science Conference (21st NRSC’ 2004), March 16-18, Cairo, Egypt.

[8] R. Steele and L. Hanzo, Mobile Radio Communications, Wiley and Sons, New York, 1999. [9] J. C.Chen , K.M.Sivalingam and R.Acharya “ Comparative Analysis of Wireless ATM Channel Access Protocols ” Baltzer Journals, Sept. 1997. [10] Sami A. EL-Dolil and Mohammed Abd Elnaby " Dynamic Allocation TDMA MAC Protocol for Wireless ATM Networks" Proc. of the Twentieth National Radio Science Conference (20thNRSC’ 2003), March 18-20, Cairo, Egypt. [11] Sami A. EL-Dolil and Mohammed Abd Elnaby " An Intelligent Resource Management Strategy for Next Generation WATM Personal Communication Network," The Proc. of the 46th IEEE International Midwest Symposium

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