This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

1

M. Rakib Uddin1, M. Shah Alam2 and Yong Hyub Won1 School of Engineering, Information and Communications University (ICU) Daejeon, South Korea. 2 Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) Dhaka, Bangladesh. Email: mmrakib@icu.ac.kr

ABSTRACT In this paper, the microwave properties of coplanar waveguide (CPW) for MachZehnder electrooptic modulators in presence of asymmetry, has been presented by using efficient and versatile finite element method (FEM). Two dimensional and three dimensional electric field distributions, microwave effective index, characteristic impedance, and microwave propagation losses of the modulator are investigated in this work. We observed that the above properties are affected significantly by the asymmetry of the CPW. We also observed that impedance matching and phase velocity matching were changed significantly when the modulator has asymmetry in its structure. Keywords: Modulators, asymmetry, effective index, characteristic impedance.

1

INTRODUCTION

Over the past decade, as the demand for telecommunications services and bandwidth has boomed, the need for and advantages of MachZehnder external modulation in fiber-optic transmission systems has been firmly established. In higher speed digital communication applications, fiber dispersion has limited system performance. Mach-Zehnder external modulators provide both the required bandwidth and the equally important means for minimizing the effects of dispersion. Unlike direct modulation of laser diode, Mach-Zehnder external modulators can be designed for zero-chirp or adjustable chirp operation. Zero-chirp or negative chirp modulators help to minimize the system degradation associated with fiber dispersion. The frequency response of the broad-band MachZehnder Modulators with traveling wave electrode is restricted mainly by the electrical characteristics of the electrode and the mismatch in velocity between the modulating microwave signals and optical carrier waves [1]-[4]. Microwave propagation losses, which include conductor loss and dielectric loss, are the limiting factors for bandwidth determination [2]. However, accurate analysis of coplanar waveguide (CPW) electrode is indispensable to the design of these modulators. As a mater of fact, the CPW electrodes are commonly used as traveling wave electrodes for a Ti:LN optical modulator because it provides a good connection to an external coaxial line.

In most cases [1]-[2], [5]-[7], the symmetric CPW electrode are used, however, the asymmetric CPW electrode can play a significant role in the design [7]. By introducing deliberate asymmetry, the microwave effective index, characteristic impedance, and conductor loss can be controlled to achieve velocity and impedance matching, which in turn enhance optical response of the modulator. But, analysis of such waveguides with asymmetry or arbitrary cross section is rather difficult as they do not lend themselves to analytical solutions [6]. In this paper, by using the numerically efficient and versatile finite element method (FEM), the analysis of asymmetric CPW for LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulators is carried out and two dimensional and three dimensional electric field distributions, microwave propagation characteristics such as the characteristic impedance, Z c , the microwave effective index,

N m , and the microwave

propagation losses are calculated for various structural parameters. 2 THEORY In the quasi-static approximation, the scalar potential function φ ( x, y ) is governed by the Laplace’s equation [2]

εx

∂ 2φ ( x , y ) ∂ 2φ ( x , y ) +εy =0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2

(1)

Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal

1

Where

ε x and ε y are

the permittivity in

x and y

directions respectively. By discretizing the modulator cross section with many linear triangular elements and solving the highly sparse resultant algebraic equation generated, the nodal values of the potential function φ ( x, y ) can be obtained. From the nodal potential values, the capacitance per unit length of the CPW electrode can be evaluated by using the divergence theorem [2] as

due to dielectric loss. The dielectric loss can arise from different lossy microwave regions, and in this case it is comprised of losses in silica and lithium niobate. 3 SIMULATION AND RESULTS

C=

1 V0

∫ε

S

n

∂φ dl ∂n

(2)

Where C is the capacitance of the CPW line, V0 is the applied voltage, S is the integration contour. By replacing the dielectric materials by free space, capacitance of the free-space line C a can be calculated and from these two values the microwave effective index and characteristic impedance can be calculated using [8]

Fig. 1 shows the cross sectional view of a MachZehnder modulator which is an asymmetric structure. Here S is the width of the central electrode and the gap between electrodes, G1 and G 2 are unequal. As the structure is very small in size, asymmetry may occur during fabrication process. So during analysis of the CPW optical modulator, if any asymmetry present in the structure should be considered very carefully. Besides, asymmetry of the CPW Mach-Zehnder modulator may play significant roles on the electric field distribution, the characteristic impedance, the effective index, and the microwave propagation losses which in turn may affect the bandwidth of the modulators.

N m = (C C a )1 / 2

and

(3a)

z x

Z c = 1 [v0 ⋅ (CC a )

Where

8

1/ 2

]

(3b) Fig. 1: Cross section of asymmetric CPW MachZehnder optical modulator. Buffer layer thickness and the electrode thickness are the important parameters in the design of an optical modulator. To reduce the optical loss due to the lossy metal electrodes, often a SiO2 buffer layer is used, which also assists in the phase matching. The relative dielectric constant of the SiO2 buffer layer is taken as 3.9. For a z-cut LiNbO3 substrate, dielectric constants are 28 and 43 for orthogonal directions on transverse plane. Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 show the calculated values of N m and Z c as functions of B , respectively. It is observed that with increasing of B , but

v0 =3 × 10 m/s is the speed of light.

We employ a perturbation approach [9] to solve for the attenuation constants due to conductor and dielectric losses as

α c = Pc (2 P0 )

and

(4a)

α d = Pd (2 P0 )

Where line,

(4b)

P0 is the time average power flow along the

Pc and Pd are the time average powers

N m decreases

dissipated in the conductors and dielectrics, respectively [9]. When both the conductor loss and the dielectric loss are considered, the total frequency dependent attenuation constant may be given by [2]

Z c increases for a certain value of electrode width, S and electrode thickness, T . It can also be observed that as G1 decreases while G 2 is constant, both N m and Z c decreases significantly.

However, Nm changes uniformly over the variation of B from 0.6 µm to 2.0 µm, when G1≠G2. On the other hand, Zc is more sensitive with the asymmetric gap width at higher B.

α( f ) = αc f + αd f

Where

(5)

αc

is the attenuation constant due to

conductor loss and

αd

is the attenuation constant

Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal

2

2.7 Microwave Propagation Loss (dB/cm) 2.6 2.5 Effective Index, N m 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2 1.9 0.6 G1= 8 µm G1= 12 µm G1= 15 µm 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 Buffer Layer Thickness, B (µm) 1.8 2 S = 8 µm T = 10 µm G2 = 15 µm

2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 G1= 8 µm G1= 12 µm G1= 15µm 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 Buffer Layer Thickness, B (µm) 1.8 2 S = 8 µm T = 10 µm G2 = 15 µm

0.6

**Fig. 2: Variations of microwave effective index, N m with buffer layer thickness, B.
**

52 50 Characteristic Impedance, Z c (ohm) 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 Buffer Layer Thickness, B (µm) G1= 8 µm G1= 12 µm G1= 15 µm 1.8 2 S = 8 µm T = 10 µm G2 = 15 µm

**Fig. 4: Variations of total propagation loss, α with buffer layer thickness, B .
**

2.8 2.7 2.6 Effective Index, N m 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2 2 G1=15 µm G1=12 µm G1=8 µm 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Electrode Thickness, T ( µm) 18 20

S = 8 µm B = 1.2 µ m G2 = 15 µm

Fig. 3: Variations of characteristic impedence, Z c with buffer layer thickness, B. Fig. 4 shows the total propagation loss versus the buffer layer thickness, B. Here the microwave loss decreases as B increases. However, no significant difference is observed for asymmetric structure. The electrode thickness, T is also a significant parameter for the design of optical modulators. In Figs. 5 we can see the variation of effective index as a function of electrode thickness. We observed that effective index decreases as electrode thickness increases. We also observed that when the degree of asymmetry increases, effective index decreases. In Fig. 6 we observed that the characteristic impedance decreases for increasing of electrode thickness. We also observed in Fig. 6 that the characteristic impedance is decreasing due to increasing of the degree of asymmetry. To find impedance matching, we need characteristic impedance of 50 Ω and for velocity matching we need effective index of 2.15. For best performance simultaneous impedance and velocity matching is required. But, we observed in Fig. 7 that due to asymmetry in the structure, simultaneous velocity and impedance matching is a big problem.

**Fig. 5: Variations of microwave effective index, N m with electrode thickness, T.
**

60 S=8 µm B=1.2 µm G2=15 µm

Characteristic Impedance, Z c (ohm)

55

50

45

40

35

G1= 15 µm G1= 12µm G1= 8 µm 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Electrode Thickness, T ( µm) 18 20

30 2

Fig. 6: Variations of characteristic impedance, with center electrode thickness, T.

Zc

Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal

3

2.8

Nm

55 Zc

G1=15 um

Microwave effective index, N

m

2.6

G1=15 um

50

Characteristic impedance, Z c

1

G1=12 um

Electric field (E y)

2.4

G1=8 um

G1=12 um

45

0.5

G1=8 um

0

2.2

40

2

35

-0.5 150 100 50 40 20 0 0 80 60

1.8 0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

30 2

Buffer layer thickness, B (um)

Y-axis

X-axis

Fig. 7: Variation of Nm and Zc with the buffer layer thickness, B.

Fig. 10: 3-D plot of Ey for T= 10 µm.

6 4

Potential

2 0

-2 150 100 50 40 20 0 0 80 60

Y-axis

X-axis

Fig. 8: 3-D plot of potential distribution of the modulator with asymmetric CPW.

Fig. 11: Potential distribution of the modulator with asymmetric CPW. Fig. 11 shows the contour plot of the potential distribution over the cross section of the modulator when the structure is asymmetric. As expected, the distribution here is asymmetric and that the potential field surrounds the central hot electrode. 4 CONCLUSION

2

Electric field (E )

x

1 0 -1

-2 150 100 50 40 20 0 0 80 60

Y-axis

X-axis

Fig. 9: 3-D plot of Ex for T= 10 µm. Fig. 8 shows a 3-D plot of potential distribution over the cross section of the structure. It is seen from the figure that the hot (center) electrode area is at the highest potential. Fig. 9 and Fig. 10 show 3-D plots of electric fields Ex and Ey, respectively. The electric field surrounds the central electrode. In this case, we also see that Ey component of the electric field is more dominating than Ex component.

In this paper, we investigated the electric field distribution and microwave properties, such as the effective index, the characteristic impedance, and the loss of asymmetric CPW for lithium niobate MachZehnder modulators by using the finite element method. We observed that asymmetry of CPW makes the potential distribution and hence the electric field distribution asymmetric and thus affects the microwave properties of the modulator significantly. To characterize the optical properties of the optical modulators, the microwave properties play significant roles and the further study will be done for investigating the optical properties of different materials both for symmetric and asymmetric CPW by using finite element method.

Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal

4

5

REFERENCES

[1] M. Minakata, “Recent progress of 40 GHz highspeed LiNbO3 optical modulator,” Proceedings of SPIE, pp. 21-24, Denver, Colorado, USA, Aug. 2001. [2] S. Haxha, B.M.A. Rahman, and K.T.V. Grattan, “Bandwidth estimation for ultra-high-speed lithium niobate modulators,” Applied Optics, vol. 42, no. 15, pp. 2674-2682, May 2003. [3] E. L. Wooten et. al., “A Review of Lithium Niobate Modulators for Fiber-Optic Communication Systems,” IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 69-82, Jan./Feb. 2000. [4] R. DeSalvo et. al., “Advanced Components and Sub-System Solutions for 40 Gb/s Transmission,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2154-2170, Dec. 2002. [5] T. Kitazawa, D. Polifko, and H. Ogawa, “Analysis of CPW for LiNbO3 Optical Modulator by Extended Spectral-Domain Approach” IEEE Microwave and Guided wave Letts., vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 313-315, Aug. 1992. [6] M. Goano, F. Bertazzi, P. Caravelli, G. Ghione, and T.A. Driscoll, “A General Conformal-Mapping Approach to the Optimum Electrode Design of Coplanar Waveguide With Arbitrary Cross Section,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 1573-1580, Sep. 2001. [7] W. K. Kim, W-S. Yang, and H-Y. Lee, “Effects of parasitic modes in high-speed LiNbO3 optical modulators,” Optics Express, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 2568-2573, May 2004. [8] O. Mitomi, K. Noguchi, and H, Miyazawa, “Design of ultra-broad-band LiNbO3 optical modulator with ridge structure,” IEEE Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2203-2207 (1995). [9] Z. Pantic and R. Mittra, “Quasi-TEM Analysis of Microwave Transmission Lines by the FiniteElement Method,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. MTT-34, no. 11, pp. 10961103, Nov. 1986. [10] N. Dagli, “Wide-Bandwidth Lasers and Modulators for RF Photonics,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Tech., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1151-1171, July 1999.

Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal

5

- The Battle of Concepts Ubiquitous Computing,Pervasive Computing and Ambient Intelligence In Mass Media
- UbiCC Journal - Volume 4 Number 3 - Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- Special Issue on ICIT 2009 Conference - Bioinfomatics and Image - Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal [ISSN 1992-8424]
- Special Issue on ICIT 2009 Conference – Applied Computing - UbiCC Journal - UbiCC Journal, www.ubicc.org, Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal
- Ubicc Conference Management System Flyer
- Ubicc Conference Management System flyer
- The Battle of Concepts Ubiquitous Computing Pervasive Computing and Ambient Intelligence in Mass Media
- Remote Experimentation Using Augmented Reality
- Efficent Method for Breaking Rsa Scheme
- Performance of Switched Diversity With Post-Examining Selection in CDMA System
- Design and Performance Analysis of Optical Cdma System Using Newly Designed Multiwavelength Prime Sequence Codes at 1gbps Bit Rate
- Demand Prepaging for Flash Memory Using Static Program Analysis
- An Architecture for Ubiquitous Applications
- A Novel Opportunistic Spectrum Access for Applications in Cognitive Radio
- A Pervasive Biometric Identification Services Platform Using Support Vector Machines
- A Framework for User-Centered and Context-Aware Identity Management in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (UCIM)
- Ubicc Journal - Website - Keywords
- ZaidenbergUBICC138_138
- yuwangyangMAC2_241
- xml in .NET demo_13
- volume2no474Ubiquitous_74
- WSNOPSYS Article 159 Final 159
- VC AKA-Last Version 121 121
- Variable Step Size Algorithms for Network Echo Cancellation_213
- Using Sensors Sensability-Final_50

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- LANovermicrowave
- Direct Recruitment-4 18112010[1]
- DIT VACVANCIES
- Design BH
- Wireless Charging of Mobile Phone Using Microwaves
- 2 Ch 2 Microwave Systems.1
- sralxdbrochure
- LRR
- jurnal ed
- Class1
- LMT User Guide
- alcatel lucent 9400 AWy
- Lecture Notes - Microwaves JWFILES
- Electric Power Engineering Handbook - 08 - Power System Analysis and Simulation
- 1-s2.0-S1359645414001566-main
- Question Bankeemc
- Workshop Cicese Agilent 2010
- Imp Match
- 50335625 Impedance Match
- % Impedance of Power Transformer
- % Impedance of Power Transformer
- Micro Motion of Mammalian Cells Measured Electrically
- Design and Testing of an TCSC for Distribution network applications.pdf
- Australia Practical Aspects of Electrical Protection
- A New Revolutionary System to Detect Human Beings Buried Under Earthquake Rubble Using
- Broadcast-Band RF Amplifier
- Body Driven Project
- TLW
- Line Traps CvtE231_A4
- IES CONV Electrical Engineering 1994
- High Speed Optical Modulators in Communications - Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal