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E EL LE EC CT TR RI IC C M MO OT TO OR RS S
Prepared for
Bureau of Energy Efficiency,
(under Ministry of Power, Government of India)
Hall no.4, 2
nd
Floor,
NBCC Tower,
Bhikaji Cama Place,
New Delhi – 110066.
Indian Renewable Energy Development
Agency,
Core 4A, East Court,
1
st
Floor, India Habitat Centre,
Lodhi Road,
New Delhi – 110003.
By
Devki Energy Consultancy Pvt. Ltd.,
405, Ivory Terrace,
R.C. Dutt Road,
Vadodara – 390007.
2006
2
C CO ON NT TE EN NT TS S
1 OBJECTIVE & SCOPE..........................................................................................................................................4
1.1 OBJECTIVE .......................................................................................................................................................4
1.2 SCOPE.............................................................................................................................................................4
1.3 EFFICIENCY TESTING OF A MOTOR: .....................................................................................................................4
1.4 REFERENCE STANDARDS: ..................................................................................................................................5
2 DEFINITIONS AND DESCRIPTION OF TERMS...................................................................................................6
2.1 BASIC UNITS AND SYMBOLS ...............................................................................................................................6
2.2 DESCRIPTION OF TERMS ....................................................................................................................................7
3 GUIDING PRINCIPLES .........................................................................................................................................8
3.1 PLANNING THE TEST..........................................................................................................................................8
3.2 PRINCIPLE........................................................................................................................................................8
3.3 PRE TEST REQUIREMENTS.................................................................................................................................8
3.4 PRECAUTIONS DURING TEST...............................................................................................................................9
4 INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF MEASUREMENTS ..................................................................................11
4.1 MEASUREMENT/ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS ....................................................................................................11
4.2 CALIBRATION OF INSTRUMENTS.........................................................................................................................11
4.3 POWER INPUT.................................................................................................................................................11
4.4 VOLTAGE .......................................................................................................................................................12
4.5 CURRENT.......................................................................................................................................................12
4.6 FREQUENCY ...................................................................................................................................................12
4.7 SPEED ...........................................................................................................................................................12
4.8 RESISTANCE...................................................................................................................................................13
4.9 AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE ............................................................................................................................14
4.10 SUMMARY OF INSTRUMENT ACCURACIES........................................................................................................15
5 COMPUTATION OF RESULTS...........................................................................................................................16
5.1 DETERMINATION OF EFFICIENCY........................................................................................................................16
5.2 NO LOAD TEST FOR CONSTANT LOSS ESTIMATION...............................................................................................16
5.2.1 Estimation of friction & windage losses (Non essential test) ................................................................17
5.2.1 Voltage correction factor to core losses ...............................................................................................18
5.3 STRAY LOSS ...................................................................................................................................................18
5.4 METHOD1: ESTIMATION OF MOTOR EFFICIENCY AT FULL LOAD.............................................................................19
5.5 METHOD –2: ESTIMATION OF MOTOR EFFICIENCY AT OPERATING LOAD..................................................................22
6 FORMAT OF TEST RESULTS............................................................................................................................25
6.1 METHOD1: ESTIMATION OF MOTOR EFFICIENCY AT FULL LOAD...........................................................................25
6.2 METHOD2: ESTIMATION OF MOTOR EFFICIENCY AT OPERATING LOAD.................................................................26
7 UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................................28
7.1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................................28
7.2 METHODOLOGY...............................................................................................................................................28
7.3 UNCERTAINTY EVALUATION OF MOTOR EFFICIENCY TESTING:................................................................................30
7.4 COMMENTS ON UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS: ...........................................................................................................32
8 GUIDELINES FOR IDENTIFYING ENERGY SAVING OPPORTNITIES.............................................................33
8.1 PREPARATION OF HISTORY SHEET....................................................................................................................33
8.1.1 Motor record.........................................................................................................................................33
8.1.2 Motor maintenance log.........................................................................................................................33
8.1.3 Plant records ........................................................................................................................................33
8.2 CHECKLIST OF OPPORTUNITIES.........................................................................................................................33
8.2.1 Estimate life cycle cost of equipments..................................................................................................33
8.2.2 Maintenance.........................................................................................................................................34
8.2.3 Avoiding Idle/Redundant running of motors .........................................................................................34
8.2.4 Proper sizing of motors ........................................................................................................................34
8.2.5 Operation in STAR connection for under loaded motors......................................................................34
8.2.6 Improve Drive Transmission efficiency.................................................................................................34
8.2.7 Use of High efficiency Motors...............................................................................................................34
8.2.8 Follow good rewinding practices ..........................................................................................................34
3
ANNEXURE1: UNIT CONVERSION FACTORS........................................................................................................36
ANNEXURE2: CALIBRATION TABLE......................................................................................................................37
ANNEXURE3: LIST OF NABL ACCREDITED LABORATORIES............................................................................38
ANNEXURE4: REFERENCES...................................................................................................................................41
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 31: LOCATION OF CURRENT MEASUREMENT......................................................................................................10
FIGURE 41: STAR CONNECTED WINDING......................................................................................................................13
FIGURE 42: DELTA CONNECTED WINDING...................................................................................................................13
FIGURE 51(A): THREE WATTMETER METHOD.................................................................................................................16
FIGURE 52: CONVERSION OF DELTA CONNECTED MOTOR INTO STAR CONNECTION EXTERNALLY......................................17
FIGURE 53: DETERMINATION OF FRICTION & WINDAGE LOSSES.....................................................................................17
FIGURE 54: STRAY LOAD ESTIMATION ...........................................................................................................................18
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 21: BASIC UNITS AND SYMBOLS............................................................................................................................6
TABLE 22: SUBSCRIPTS...................................................................................................................................................6
TABLE 41: REFERENCE TEMPERATURE FOR INSULATION CLASSES...................................................................................14
TABLE 42: SUMMARY OF INSTRUMENT ACCURACY..........................................................................................................15
TABLE 51: ASSUMED VALUES FOR STRAY LOSSES............................................................................................................19
TABLE 53: MOTOR EFFICIENCY ESTIMATION AT FULL LOAD ...........................................................................................21
TABLE 54: MOTOR EFFICIENCY ESTIMATION AT ACTUAL LOAD .......................................................................................23
TABLE 61: FORMAT OF TEST RESULTS & SAMPLE CALCULATION.....................................................................................25
TABLE 62: FORMAT OF TEST RESULTS & SAMPLE CALCULATION.....................................................................................26
TABLE 71: UNCERTAINTY EVALUATION SHEET1............................................................................................................29
TABLE 72: UNCERTAINTY EVALUATION SHEET2............................................................................................................29
TABLE 73: UNCERTAINTY EVALUATION SHEET3............................................................................................................29
TABLE 74: TEST MOTOR SPECIFICATIONS......................................................................................................................30
TABLE 75: INSTRUMENT ACCURACY TABLE ....................................................................................................................30
TABLE 76: EFFECTS OF INSTRUMENT ERROR FOR EACH PARAMETER..............................................................................31
4
1 OBJECTIVE & SCOPE
1.1 Objective
• To determine the efficiency of three phase induction motor, by loss estimation method,
under operating conditions in the plant where the motor is installed and running or
available as spare,
• To simplify instrumentation so that the test can be conducted with portable instruments
and facilities available with plant engineers and energy auditors.
• To provide guidelines to identify energy saving opportunities in motors.
1.2 Scope
• This code deals with Low voltage 3phase induction motors having output rating up to
and including 200 kW. These motors and driven equipments account for more than 90%
of energy consumption in industrial motor driven systems.
• This code can be used for efficiency testing of squirrel cage and slip ring induction
motors.
The following types of electric motors are excluded from the scope in this code
1. DC Motors
2. Synchronous Motors
3. Single phase Motors
1.3 Efficiency Testing of a motor:
Efficiency Testing of a motor defined and described in this code include the following:
Essential Tests:
1. No load test
2. Winding resistance measurement
3. Ambient temperature measurement
4. Electrical input measurements at actual load, if the motor is connected to load
5. Operating speed measurement, if the motor is connected to load
Nonessential Tests:
1. Friction & windage loss measurement
Estimation of total losses:
1. Stator copper losses
2. Rotor copper losses
1
3. Iron losses
4. Friction and windage losses
5. Stray losses
Estimation of motor efficiency from total losses and output/input power.
1
This term refers to ohmic losses in the rotor windings, either copper or aluminium. Squirrel cage motors of smaller
ratings generally have aluminium rotor cage.
5
1.4 Reference standards:
The following standards are widely used for efficiency testing of motors at manufacturers’ test
facilities and laboratories.
1. IEC 600 342: 1996 Rotating electrical machines Part2
2. IEC 600 342: Proposed draft document dated August 2003
3. IEEE Standard 1121996: IEEE Test procedure for poly phase induction motors and
generators
4. IS 4889: 1968 (reaffirmed 1996): Methods of determination of efficiency of rotating electrical
machines
5. IS 4029: 1967 (Fifth Reprint 1984): Guide for testing Three phase induction motors
6. IS 325: 1996: Three Phase induction motors Specification
IEC 600 342 emphasizes on estimation of motor losses to calculate motor efficiency and has
been used as the primary source for developing this code.
6
2 DEFINITIONS AND DESCRIPTION OF TERMS
2.1 Basic Units and Symbols
The basic units and symbols used in this code are given in Table2.1.
Table 21: Basic Units and Symbols
Symbol Description Units
E Energy kWh
P Power Watts/ kilo Watts
t Time duration Seconds
T Temperature ºC
P
fe
Core losses W
P
fw
Friction and windage losses W
P
k
Constant losses W
P
cust
Stator copper loss W
P
curot
Rotor copper loss W
P
s
Stray losses W
P
T
Total losses W
P
mech
Mechanical power W
U Terminal r.m.s. Voltage Volts
I Current Ampere
cos φ Power factor p.u.
f Frequency Hz
p Number of poles 
N Speed Rpm
N
s
Synchronous speed Rpm
s Slip p.u.
R Average D.C. resistance Ω
η Efficiency %
Subscripts used in this code are given in table 2.2
Table 22: Subscripts
Symbol Description
I
At input
o
At output
NL
At no load
FL
At full load
L
At operating load
ph
Referred to phase
a
At ambient temperature
R
Referred to R phase
Y
Referred to Y phase
B
Referred to B phase
7
2.2 Description of terms
Constant losses: The sum of core, friction and windage losses
Core losses: Losses in active iron and additional no load losses in other metal parts
Friction losses: Losses due to friction in bearings
Windage losses: Power absorbed by rotor rotation and shaft mounted fans
Efficiency: The ratio of output power to the input power expressed in the same units and usually
given as a percentage.
Line current: Arithmetic average of r.m.s. line currents
Line to line resistance: Average of the resistances measured across two terminals on all lines
Load losses: Copper losses (I
2
R losses) in stator and rotor
No load test: A test in which the machine is run as a motor providing no useful mechanical output
from the shaft
Stray losses: Extra losses due to flux pulsations, harmonic fields and other unaccounted losses
Slip: The quotient of (1) the difference between the synchronous speed and the actual speed of the
rotor, to (2) the synchronous speed expressed as a ratio or a percent.
% Slip=
s
s
N
N N −
x100
Terminal voltage: Arithmetic average of r.m.s. line voltages
8
3 GUIDING PRINCIPLES
3.1 Planning the Test
There are mainly two situations encountered in the field regarding testing of motors. Choice of the
method suitable for each situation shall be done properly.
Method1:
When a motor is not coupled mechanically to any load, but available as spare/newly
purchased. In this case, motor efficiency at full load can be estimated.
Motor nameplate rating of full load speed and full load output are assumed to be correct.
Measurements are done on the motor at no load conditions.
Method2:
When a motor is installed and coupled to driven equipment, say a pump, compressor etc.
In this case, motor efficiency at operating load and full load can be estimated.
In addition to the measurements at no load, measurements are also required to be done at
the actual operation of the motor on load.
In this method, actual speed and power input is measured at load condition and output is
estimated from power input and measured losses.
Details of calculations in both methodologies are given in section 5.4 & 5.5
3.2 Principle
The methods proposed in this code involve estimation of losses in a motor. These losses are:
1. Stator copper losses
2. Rotor copper losses
3. Iron losses
4. Friction and windage losses
5. Stray losses
After estimating the losses, efficiency is calculated by the following relationships.
In method1,
( ) Losses Output Rated
Output Rated
load full at Efficiency
+
=
In Method2,
power input Motor
Losses power input Motor
load operating at Efficiency
−
=
3.3 Pre Test Requirements
1. Conditions when it is not recommended to conduct the test are:
a. If the voltage is fluctuating by more than 5%
b. If the difference among phase voltages is more than 15V.
c. Frequency is below 48.5 hertz or fluctuating.
2. Ensure that the motors to be tested are in working condition.
3. Nameplate information of the motor is required for the tests. Ensure that the nameplate
information is clearly visible. If nameplate is not available, obtain the details from the
manufacturer’s specification sheets/purchase department etc., if the source of the information is
reliable.
9
4. Any Variable Frequency drive, voltage controller or soft starter installed at the motor need to be
disconnected from the line during measurements.
5. While conducting the tests at site, a qualified personone who is familiar with the installation and
operation of the motor should be present to energize, deenergize the equipment in accordance
with established safety practices.
6. While conducting no load test, ensure that the motor is completely decoupled from the load.
7. If the motor has been in operation prior to no load test, stop the motor, decouple the load and
keep the motor idle condition till the motor cools to ambient temperature. Usually, it may take
about 2 hours.
8. When efficiency test is done on a motor, which is not bolted to the foundation (as in maintenance
workshops), beware of injuries due to jerky motor starting.
9. While measurements are being taken when motor is operating, as required in method2, ensure
that the shaft load on the motor is steady and constant. If the motor is driving a pump, the
pressure and flow need to be maintained same through out the test. Similarly, if the motor is
driving an air compressor, the air pressure should be maintained constant throughout the test.
3.4 Precautions during test
1. Use appropriate safety precautions while taking measurements on live cables.
2. Make sure the clampon jaws of CTs are completely closed. The jaws do not always close
tightly, especially in tight locations. Even a small gap in the jaws can create a large error. To
ensure the jaws are fully closed, wiggle the probe a bit, making sure it moves freely and is not
bound by adjacent wires or other obstructions.
3. Measure and average the currents on all 3 phases, if possible.
4. Use properly sized CT's. Using over or undersized CTs (current transformersthe clamp on
"jaws") can result in large inaccuracies. For example, using a 2,000amp CT with 0.5% of full
span accuracy (which is good) to measure a 20amp current may result in a 50% measurement
error.
5. Average the current on fluctuating loads. Motor load, and thus current may fluctuate on some
processes. Some meters have an automatic "min/max/average" function that can be used for
this.
6. Make sure you are measuring the actual motor current. Some motors and/or motor controllers
are equipped with powerfactor correction capacitors. Refer fig 3.1. Make sure you are
measuring downstream from the power factor correction equipment and reading the actual
motor input. Measuring upstream from the powerfactor correction equipment can result in large
errorsup to a 25% or greater difference in current. In fig 3.1, if the current is measured
upstream of capacitor bank, the indicated current would be 102 Amp, instead of actual motor
current of 124.9 amp. It is recommended to disconnect the capacitors if connected at the motor.
10
Figure 31: Location of current measurement
11
4 INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF MEASUREMENTS
4.1 Measurement/estimation of parameters
The measurement of following parameters is required for efficiency testing of motor
1. Power/energy input
2. Current
3. Voltage
4. Frequency
5. Speed
6. Stator resistance
7. Ambient temperature
4.2 Calibration of instruments
Portable power analyzer, which can measure voltage, current, frequency, power, energy are
suitable for electrical measurements at site.
Calibration of power analysers/energy meters shall be done at NABL accredited laboratories.
Period of calibration is 1 year. A sample calibration data for a power analyser is given in
Annexure2. A list of NABL accredited laboratories is given in Annexure3.
The error of the instrument shall be known at various load conditions and power factor. A
calibration curve shall be plotted for each of the parameter indicating error. This curve is useful
for uncertainty analysis of test results, as explained in Section 7.
The calibration curve can be plotted with meter reading on xaxis and % error on yaxis. %
Error for any other measured value within the range can be noted from the calibration curve.
Estimation of error at measurement value is required for uncertainty analysis.
It is desired that calibration may be done at more number of points. For example, since % error
in power measurement at low power factor is likely to be significant during no load
measurements in a motor, calibration may be done at p.f varying from 0.1 to 1.0 with an interval
of 0.1 for different loads.
Power analysers are generally calibrated with CTs, which are used with the instrument at site.
Hence the errors are sum of instrument and CT error. Separate calibration of CTs is not
required in this case.
4.3 Power input
For no load power measurements, a low power factor corrected energy meter/power analyser
having fullscale error of not more than 0.5% is recommended. It should be noted that energy
meters, which are used usually in measurements above 0.7 pf might indicate errors of 5 to 10%
when used in low p.f. (0.1 to 0.3) load conditions. Hence it is important to have power analysers
with CT’s calibrated for various load currents and p.f ranging from 0.1 to 1.0.
Measurement of energy consumed during a known period can be done using a power analyser and
power can be estimated from energy measurement and time duration. This averages out
fluctuations seen in instantaneous power measurements.
The CT ratios should also be selected to read preferably above 50% or above of the input current.
For example, for measurement of 100 A current, a 200/5 A CT is more desirable than using a 500/5
A CT.
12
4.4 Voltage
Measure voltages on all the three phases and compute average voltage. Voltage shall be
measured using a power analyzer or a voltmeter with an error of not more than 0.5%. If at the time
of measurement, voltage is nearly but not absolutely balanced, the arithmetical average of the line
voltages shall be used.
Line to line r.m.s. voltages across RY, RB and YB are measured and average of linetoline r.m.s
voltage is calculated as follows.
In motors, where stator winding is connected in ∆ (delta),
Phase Voltage, U
ph
= Line voltage
In motors, where stator winding is connected in Y (star),
Phase Voltage, U
ph
= Line voltage ÷ √3
4.5 Current
The line current in each phase of the motor shall be measured using an ammeter or a power
analyzer with error not exceeding 0.5%. If current is not equal in all phases, the arithmetic average
of the currents shall be used.
Current measurements are done in the R,Y & B incoming line at the motor starter. From the
average of line currents measured, phase current is calculated as follows.
In motors, where stator winding is connected in ∆ (delta),
Phase current = Line current ÷ √3
In motors, where stator winding is connected in Y (star),
Phase current = Line current
4.6 Frequency
Frequency shall be measured by using a power analyser or a frequency meter having error not
more than 0.1 Hz. For synchronous speed estimation to calculate slip, frequency measurement
shall be done simultaneously with speed measurement.
4.7 Speed
Operating slip is measured from synchronous speed and operating speed measurements as given
below.
Slip at operating speed,
s
L
= 
¹

\
 −
S
L S
N
N N
Where, N
L
= operating speed
Ns = Synchronous speed
=


¹

\
 ×
p
f 120
Where, f = operating frequency
p = number of poles
13
Note: The frequency of power supply should be measured simultaneously with the speed
measurements.
Full load slip is estimated from name plate full load speed and synchronous speed at name plate
frequency.
s
FL
= 
¹

\
 −
S
FL S
N
N N
Where,
N
FL
= operating speed
Ns = Synchronous speed
=


¹

\
 ×
p
f 120
Where, f = rated frequency
p = number of poles
Speed of motor can be measured using a noncontact tachometer having error of not more than 1 rpm.
4.8 Resistance
The stator winding may be in ‘Star’ connection in a motor as shown below in figure 4.1
R
B Y
Star connected winding Connection at motor terminal box
Figure 41: STAR connected winding
‘Delta’ connected winding in a motor is shown below in figure 4.2.
R1 Y2
R2 Y1
B1 B2
Delta connected winding Connection at motor terminal box
Figure 42: DELTA connected winding
R1 Y1 B1
Y2 B2 R2
R1 Y1 B1
Y2 B2 R2
14
Note:
The shaded bar is a metal strip, which is used to connect R1 & Y2, Y1 & B2 and B1 & R2
as shown in the schematic of motor terminal box.
Measurement of winding resistance should be done at the winding leads available at motor
terminal box.
Measurement of winding resistance is done across line to line. i.e. Rphase & Y phase, Y & B and
R & B phases. The average value of linetoline resistance obtained is designated as R
l l
To convert the measured value of linetoline resistance to phase resistance, the following
relationships are used.
In ‘Star’ connection, phase resistance, R
ph
= 0.5 x R
ll
In Delta connection, phase resistance, R
ph
= 1.5 x R
ll
The resistance must be corrected to the operating/full load temperature by using following
relationship
1
2
R
R
= 
¹

\

+
+
1
2
235
235
T
T
where, R
2
= unknown resistance at temperature T
2
R
1
= resistance measured at temperature T
1
While estimating full load efficiency of motor, winding resistance at full load is calculated by using
the temperature given for each class of insulation. The values are given in table 4.1.
Table 41: Reference temperature for insulation classes
Thermal class of insulation Reference temperature, ºC
A 75
B 95
F 115
H 130
Ambient temperature referred to is 25ºC.
While estimating motor efficiency at actual load, the winding resistance is measured immediately
after stopping the motor. Hence temperature correction is not required in this case.
Any of the following 2 methods can be used for measurement of winding resistance.
1. Bridge method: the unknown resistance is compared with a known resistance by use of a
suitable bridge.
2. Digital resistance meters with accuracy of 1 milli ohms.
Use of digital ohm meters is recommended. It is sufficient to measure winding resistance with an
accuracy of 0.001 ohms.
4.9 Ambient Air Temperature
The air temperature shall be measured by any of the following instruments:
a) Mercury in glass thermometer
b) Thermocouple with digital indicator
c) Resistance thermometer with digital indicator
15
The temperature device shall be so chosen that it can be read with an accuracy of 1% of the
absolute temperature. Absolute value of Fullscale error shall not exceed 1°C.
Use of Calibrated mercury in glass thermometer, which can measure temperature with an
accuracy of 1°C, is preferred.
4.10 Summary of instrument accuracies
The table given below summarises accuracy requirements of various instruments.
For calibrating various instruments, visit www.nablindia.org for a detailed list of accredited
laboratories. Calibration interval suggested for instruments is 1 year.
Table 42: Summary of instrument accuracy
Instrument Accuracy
Temperature 1ºC
No load power 0.5%
Voltage 0.5%
Current 0.5%
Resistance 0.001 ohms
Speed 1 rpm
Frequency 0.1 Hz
16
5 COMPUTATION OF RESULTS
5.1 Determination of efficiency
The efficiency can be calculated from the total losses, which are assumed to be the summation of
the following losses.
1. Constant losses (Core losses, P
fe
+ Friction and windage losses, P
fw
)
2. Stator copper losses (P
cust
)
3. Rotor copper losses (P
curot
)
4. Stray losses (P
s
)
5.2 No load test for Constant loss estimation
The motor is run at rated voltage and frequency without any shaft load until thermal steady state is
attained. Input power, current, frequency and voltage are noted. Alternatively, by noting the input
energy consumption and time duration, input power can be estimated.
From the input power, stator I
2
R losses under no load is subtracted to give the constant losses,
which is the sum of friction, windage and core losses. Power input can be measured by using 3
wattmeter method (figure 5.1(a)) or 2 wattmeter method (figure 5.1(b)).
R
Y
B
I
VR
R
Y
B
Contactor
3 φ
Motor
I
I
VY
N
W2
W3
VB
W1
Figure 51(a): Three wattmeter method
R
Y
B
V
R
B
Contactor
3 φ
Motor
I
I
V
RY
YB
W
1
W
2
Figure 51 (b):Two wattmeter method
17
5.2.1 Estimation of friction & windage losses (Non essential test)
It is not necessary to separate core losses and friction & windage losses from constant losses to
estimate motor efficiency.
However, If it is required to know how much is the friction and windage losses, the no load test is
repeated at variable voltages. In case variable voltage source is not available, for delta connected
motors, two readings can be taken; one with stator in ‘delta’ and the other with stator in ‘star’.
When stator is in delta connected by manipulating terminals externally, the phase voltage = line
voltage. The connection to be made at the motor terminal box is as given below in fig 5.2
Delta connection Star connection
Figure 52: Conversion of delta connected motor into star connection externally
When stator is connected in ‘star’ externally as shown above,
Phase voltage = Line voltage ÷ √3.
Values of power vs. voltage
2
is plotted, with voltage
2
on xaxis and power on yaxis.
This is graph approximately a straight line and which if extended to touch the yaxis gives the
friction & windage loss as the y intercept. Alternatively, a plot of voltage vs. kW may also be
constructed. This curve is extended to zero voltage to find out friction and windage losses as core
losses will be zero at zero voltages.
Fig 5.3 shows a sample plot. of power vs. voltage
2
& voltage
Power
kW
Voltage, volts U or U
2
Figure 53: Determination of friction & windage losses
U
2
vs kW
U vs. kW
P
fw
R1 Y1 B1
Y2 B2 R2
R1 Y1 B1
Y2 B2 R2
18
Alternatively, if variable voltage testing is not possible, assuming friction & windage losses as
follows is also reasonably correct,
For Drip proof motors, friction & windage losses ≈ 0.8 to 1.0% of motor rated output
For TEFC motors, friction & windage losses ≈ 1 to 1.5% of motor rated output
2 pole motors have higher friction & windage losses compared to 4 pole motors.
5.2.1 Voltage correction factor to core losses
To estimate full load efficiency, voltage correction factor should be applied to core losses to correct
it to the rated voltage. Core losses vary with square of the voltage applied. Hence, core loss
corrected to rated voltage P
fe Rated
= P
fe
x (U
R
/U)
2
Where U = Applied terminal voltage during no load test
U
R
= Rated voltage
P
fe
= Core losses at applied voltage
5.3 Stray loss
Stray losses are very difficult to measure with any accuracy under field conditions or even in a
laboratory.
IEC standard 342 suggests a fixed value for stray losses as given in figure 5.4
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
0.1 1 10 100 1000
Rated output, kW
S
t
r
a
y
l
o
a
d
l
o
s
s
e
s
,
%
i
n
p
u
t
p
o
w
e
r
Figure 54: Stray load estimation
Note that stray losses are given as a percentage of input power in the above figure.
19
In method1, to estimate the stray losses, an iterative solution must be attempted because of not
knowing the full load input power or efficiency beforehand. In section 6, a spreadsheet format is
given in Table 6.1 which has been programmed to incorporate iteration.
In the iterative method, first guess a value of stray loss and estimate full load efficiency. From
this, calculate full load input power = rated output/efficiency. From the estimated full load input
power and known values of constant losses, copper losses and rated output, calculate stray
losses. Repeat the above steps till stray loss value converges.
In method2, the stray losses can be taken directly as percentage of actual input power when
motor is on operating load.
IEEE Std 1121996 gives values for stray losses as given in table 5.1 below.
Table 51: Assumed values for stray losses
Machine rating Stray loss, % of
rated output
1 – 90 kW 1.8%
91 – 375 kW 1.5%
376 to 1850 kW 1.2%
1851 kW and greater 0.9%
Use of stray loss values from IEC 342, as given in Figure 5.4, is recommended.
5.4 Method1: Estimation of motor efficiency at full load
Full load efficiency of the motor is estimated in this method.
Chronological order of measurements is as follows.
1. If the motor has been in operation prior to this test, stop the motor, decouple the load from
the motor and keep the motor idle till the it cools down to ambient temperature. Usually, it
may take about 2 hours.
2. Measure winding resistance R
pha
at cold conditions. Record the ambient temperature T
a
3. Apply voltage across the motor at no load and start the motor.
4. Measure line voltage (U), line current (I
nl
), frequency (f), energy (E
nl
) and time duration (t).
From measured energy (E
nl
), estimate power consumption (Pi
nl
) by dividing E
nl
by time
duration.
Direct power input measurement (Pi
nl
) can also be done using power meter instead of energy
and time measurements.
5. Calculate phase current (I
phnl
) from line current (I
nl
) as given below.
For Delta connected windings, phase current, I
phnl
= I
nl
√3
For Star connected windings, phase current, I
phnl
= line current
6. Calculate stator copper loss at no load and subtract this from no load power to get constant
losses
No load stator Copper loss, P
custnl
= 3 x I
phnl
2
x R
phnl
Constant loss, P
k
= Pi
nl
 P
cust
20
7. Estimate friction & windage losses, P
fw
,of the motor as explained in section 5.2.1. Generally
it is sufficient to assume the friction and windage losses as follows.
For Drip proof motors, friction & windage losses ≈ 0.8 to 1.0% of motor rated output
For TEFC motors, friction & windage losses ≈ 1 to 1.5% of motor rated output
8. Estimate core losses
Core losses, P
fe
’ = P
k
P
fw
Correct core losses to the rated voltage, U
r
, by multiplying with the factor 
¹

\

U
Ur
2
P
fe
= P
fe
’ x 
¹

\

U
Ur
2
9. Calculate stator winding resistance at full load. i.e. at temperature as defined in the class of
insulation as given in Table 4.1.
R
T
= R
pha
x (235 + T
R
)
(235 + T
a
)
10. Estimate Stator copper losses at full load, assuming nameplate full load current and
corrected stator resistance at full load.
P
cust FL
= 3 x I
phFL
2
x R
T
11. Obtain stray losses, as a % of input power from fig.5.4 corresponding to rated output as
explained in section 5.3 and calculate stray loss, P
s
by iterative procedure.
12. Calculate full load slip (s
FL
) from the rated speed (N
FL
) and synchronous speed (Ns) at the
rated frequency.
s
FL
= N
s
 N
FL
N
s
13. Calculate rotor input power from rotor output at full load.
Power input to rotor, Pi
rot
= Rotor output
( 1 s
FL
)
= P
mech
(1 s
FL
)
Rotor output at full load is the nameplate output kW rating of the motor.
14. Calculate rotor copper losses from full load slip and rotor input
Rotor copper loss, P
curot
= s
FL
x Pi
rot
15. Total losses at full load is sum of all the above losses
Total losses, P
T
= P
fw
+ P
fe
+ P
cust FL
+ P
s
+P
curot
16. Efficiency at full load is obtained from rated output and estimated total losses as
Efficiency at full load, η
FL
= P
mech
x 100 %
21
(P
mech
+ P
T
)
Table 5.3 shows above calculations with MS Excel™ programmable equations.
Table 52: Motor efficiency estimation at full load
SlNo.
Description Units Value
1
A B C
2
Motor specifications
3
Motor connection
4
No of poles
5
Output kW
6
Voltage Volts
7
Full load current Amp
8
Frequency Hz
9
Speed rpm
10
Slip % (120*C8/C4 C9)/(120*50/4)
11
Efficiency %
12
Insulation Class
13 Reference Temperature corresponding to
insulation class C
14
15
No load test Measurements
16
Voltage, U Volts
17
Line Current, Inl A
18
No load power input, Pinl Watts
19
Cold winding resistance, Rphcold Ohms
20 Stator phase resistance after no load test,
Rphnl Ohms
21
Ambient Temperature, Ta C
22
Frequency, f Hz
23
24
Calculations & Results
25
% Stray losses Full load ( from fig. 5.4) %
26 % friction & windage losses at full load ( from
para 5.2.1) %
27
Stator resistance corrected to full load Ohms C19*(235+$C$13)/(235+C21)
28
Stator Copper loss no load Watts IF($C$3="delta",3*(C17/SQRT(3))^2*C20,3*C17^2*C20)
29
Constant loss Watts C18C28
30
Friction & windage loss Watts $C$5*1000*$C$26
31
Core loss at rated voltage Watts (C29C30)*($C$6/C16)^2
32
Stator Copper loss at full load Watts IF($C$10="delta",3*(C7/SQRT(3))^2*C27,3*C7!^2*C27)
33
Slip at Full load p.u (C8*120/$C$4C9)/(C8*120/$C$4)
34
Stray losses Full load Watts C25*$C$5*1000/C40
35
Rotor input at Full load Watts $C$5*1000*(1C33)
36
Rotor copper loss at full load Watts C33*C35
37
38
Total losses Watts C31+C32+C34+C36+C30
39
40
Efficiency at Full Load load % (C5*1000/(C5*1000+C38))*100
22
5.5 Method –2: Estimation of motor efficiency at operating load
Chronological order of measurements is as follows.
1. If the motor has been in operation prior to this test for more than one hour, it can be
considered to be close to steady operating conditions. In this case, while testing, operation of
the motor for 10 to 15 minutes is sufficient to attain steady operation.
2. If the motor and load were idle before the test, continuous operation of the motor on load for
at least 2 hours is recommended to attain steady state conditions.
3. Start the motor with load and bring it up to desired steady operating conditions.
4. Measure r.m.s. line voltage (U), r.m.s. line current (I
L
), frequency (f), energy (E
L
) and time
duration (t) for energy measurements. From measured energy (E
L
), estimate power
consumption (Pi
L
) by dividing E
L
by time duration (t).
Direct power input measurement (Pi
L
) can also be done using power meter instead of energy
and time measurements.
5. Measure operating speed of motor, N
L
6. Switch off the motor. Disconnect power supply. Measure D.C. resistance of the stator (R
phL
)
winding immediately after switching off the motor.
7. Decouple motor from the load and allow the motor to cool for at least 2 hours.
8. Measure winding phase resistance (R
pha
) at cold conditions. Note the ambient temperature,
T
a
9. Apply voltage across the motor at no load and start the motor.
10. Measure line voltage (U), line current (I
nl
), frequency (f), energy (E
nl
) and time duration (t).
From measured energy (E
nl
), estimate power consumption (Pi
nl
) by dividing E
nl
by time
duration. Direct power input measurement (Pi
nl
) can also be done using power meter instead
of energy and time measurements.
11. Stop the motor. Immediately measure D.C. resistance of the stator winding (R
phnl
).
12. Calculate phase current (I
phnl
) from line current (I
nl
) as given below.
For Delta connected windings, phase current, I
phnl
= I
nl
√3
For Star connected windings, phase current = line current
13. Calculate stator copper loss at no load and subtract this from no load power to get constant
losses
No load stator Copper loss, P
custnl
= 3 x I
phnl
2
x R
phnl
Constant loss, P
k
= Pi
nl
 P
custnl
14. Calculate stator copper loss at operating load
Stator Copper loss, P
custL
= 3 x I
phL
2
x R
phL
15. Calculate stray losses, P
sL,
from fig.5.4 as explained in section 5.3.
16. Calculate rotor input power from motor input power, constant losses, stator copper losses
and stray loss.
23
Power input to rotor, Pi
rot
= Pi  P
custL
 P
k
 P
sL
17. Calculate slip (s
L
) from the operating speed (N
L
) and synchronous speed (N
s
) at the
measured frequency
s
L
= N
s
 N
L
N
s
18. Calculate rotor copper losses from slip and rotor input
Rotor copper loss, P
curot
= s
L
x Pi
rot
19. Total losses at actual load is sum of all the above losses
Total losses, P
T
= P
k
+ P
cust L
+ P
s
+P
curot
20. Output power (P
mechL
) is estimated from input and total losses measurements
P
mechL
= Pi
L
 P
T
21 Efficiency is estimated from estimated output and measured input input.
Efficiency at operating load, η
L
= P
mechL
x 100 %
Pi
L
22. Efficiency at full load can also be estimated from steps 8 to 15 and following the procedure of
calculating losses at full load as explained in Method1.
Table 5.4 shows above calculations with MS Excel™ programmable equations.
Table 53: Motor efficiency estimation at actual load
Sl.No.
Description Units Value
1
A B C
2
Motor specifications
3
Motor connection delta
4
No of poles 4
5
Output kW 37
6
Voltage Volts 415
7
Frequency Hz 50
8
Full load current Amp 66
9
Speed rpm 1465
10
Slip % (120*C7/C4C9)/(120*50/C4)
11
Efficiency % 90
12
Insulation Class Class A
13
14
No load test Measurements
15
Voltage, U Volts 421
16
Current, Inl A 23
17
No load power input, Pinl Watts 1984
18 Stator phase resistance after no load
test, Rphnl Ohms 0.39
19
Ambient Temperature, Ta C 28.9
20
Frequency, f Hz 49.2
21
24
22
Measurements at actual load
23
Voltage, UL Volts 414
24
Load current, IL A 38.7
25
Power input, PL kW 21.5
26 Winding resistance at operating temperature,
RphL Ohms 0.449
27
Operating speed, NL rpm 1463
28
Frequency, f Hz 49.4
29
30
Calculations & Results
31
% Stray losses Full load ( from fig. 5.4) % 0.0175
32 % friction & windage losses at full load ( from
para 5.2.1) % 0.01
33
Stator Copper loss no load Watts
IF($C$3="delta",3*(C16/SQRT(3))^2*C18,
3*C16^2*C18)
34
Constant loss Watts C17C33
35
Friction & windage loss Watts C5*1000*$C$32
36
Core loss at rated voltage Watts (C34C35)*($C$6/C15)^2
37
Stator Copper loss at actual load Watts
IF($C$3="delta",3*(C24/SQRT(3))^2*C26,
3*C24^2*C26)
38
Slip at actual load Watts (C28*120/$C$4C27)/(C28*120/$C$4)
39
Core losses at actual measured voltage Watts C36*(C23/$C$6)^2
40
Stray losses actual load Watts $C$31*C25*1000
41
Rotor input at actual load Watts C25*1000C40C37C39
42
Rotor copper loss at actual load Watts C38*C41
43
44
Total losses Watts C39+C37+C40+C42+C35
45
46
Efficiency at actual load % (C25*1000C44)/(C25*1000)*100
25
6 FORMAT OF TEST RESULTS
6.1 Method1: Estimation of Motor Efficiency at Full Load
Format of data collection, measurements and calculation of test results used in Method1 is given in
Table 6.1 below. The table also contains sample calculation of test results.
Table 61: Format of test results & Sample calculation
Name of Industry: XYZ Industries
Test Date: 26
th
Nov 2005
Time: 10:00 to 12:00 hours
Details of instruments used
Sl.No Description Measured parameter Description of accuracy
1 Power Analyser Voltage,
current, p.f,
power input,
frequency
0.5% for voltage
0.5% for current
5% for power at 3.0 kW
and 0.2 pf
1.0% for power at 30 kW
and 0.8 pf
2 Digital micro ohm meter Winding resistance 0.001ohm
3 Thermometer Ambient temperature 0.1C
4 Tachometer Operating speed 0.1 rpm
Motor Specifications
1 Motor ID 120330
2 Make Jyoti Ltd., 1970 make
3 Driven equipment Chilling plant
compressor
4 Frame CD 225
5 Output 37 kW
6 Full load speed 1465 rpm
7 Voltage 415 Volts
8 Full load current 66 Amp
9 Frequency 50 Hz
Insulation Class Class A
No load test
10 Line Voltage 421 Volts
11 Line Current 23 Amp
12 Frequency 49.2 Hz
13 No load power input 1984 Watts
14 Stator phase resistance measured at cold conditions 0.364 Ohms
15 Stator phase resistance after no load test 0.39 Ohms
16 Ambient Temperature 28.9 ºC
17 Winding resistance at full load 0.483 Ohms
26
Test conducted by:
(Energy Auditing Firm)
Test witnessed by:
(Energy Manager)
6.2 Method2: Estimation of Motor Efficiency at Operating Load
Format of data collection, measurements and calculation of test results used in Method1 is given
in Table 6.2 below. The table also contains sample calculation of test results.
Table 62: Format of test results & Sample calculation
Name of Industry: XYZ Industries
Test Date: 26
th
Nov 2005
Time: 10:00 to 12:00 hours
Details of instruments used
Sl.No Description Measured parameter Description of accuracy
1 Power Analyser Voltage,
current, p.f,
power input,
frequency
0.5% for voltage
0.5% for current
5% for power at 3.0 kW
and 0.2 pf
1.0% for power at 30 kW
and 0.8 pf
2 Digital micro ohm meter Winding resistance 0.001ohm
3 Thermometer Ambient temperature 0.1C
4 Tachometer Operating speed 0.1 rpm
Results
18 Friction & windage loss 370 Watts
19 Core loss at rated voltage 1448.7 Watts
20 Stator Copper loss at full load 1952.7 Watts
21 Rotor Copper loss at full load 843.2 Watts
22 Stray loss 741.2 Watts
23 Total losses 5355.8 Watts
24 Motor Efficiency at Full Load 87.4 %
25 Uncertainty in efficiency estimation 0.2 %
27
Test conducted by:
(Energy Auditing Firm)
Test witnessed by:
(Energy Manager)
Motor Specifications
1 Motor ID 120330
2 Make Jyoti Ltd., 1970 make
3 Driven equipment Chilling plant compressor
4 Frame CD 225
5 Output 37 kW
6 Full load speed 1465 rpm
7 Voltage 415 Volts
8 Full load current 66 Amp
9 Frequency 50 Hz
10 Insulation Class Class A
No load test
10 Line Voltage 421 Volts
11 Line Current 23 Amp
12 Frequency 49.2 Hz
13 No load power input 1984 Watts
14 Stator phase resistance measured at cold conditions 0.364 Ohms
15 Stator phase resistance after no load test 0.39 Ohms
16 Ambient Temperature 28.9 ºC
17 Winding resistance at full load 0.483 Ohms
Measurements at actual load
17 Line Voltage 414 Volts
18 Line current 38.7 Amp
19 Power input 21.5 kW
20 Operating speed 1463 rpm
21 Frequency 49.2 Hz
22 Stator phase resistance at actual load 0.449 Ohms
Results
23 Friction & windage loss 370 Watts
24 Core loss at actual load voltage 1441.7 Watts
25 Stator Copper loss at actual load 672.5 Watts
26 Stray loss 376.3 Watts
27 Rotor Copper loss 243.7 Watts
28 Total losses 3104.1 Watts
29 Motor Efficiency at Operating Load 85.6 %
30 Uncertainty in efficiency estimation 0.4 %
28
7 UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS
7.1 Introduction
Uncertainty denotes the range of error, i.e. the region in which one guesses the error to be. The
purpose of uncertainty analysis is to use information in order to quantify the amount of confidence
in the result. The uncertainty analysis tells us how confident one should be in the results obtained
from a test.
Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (or GUM as it is now often called) was
published in 1993 (corrected and reprinted in 1995) by ISO. The focus of the ISO Guide or GUM
is the establishment of "general rules for evaluating and expressing uncertainty in measurement
that can be followed at various levels of accuracy “.
The following methodology is a simplified version of estimating uncertainty at field conditions,
based on GUM.
7.2 Methodology
Uncertainty is expressed as X +/ y where X is the calculated result and y is the estimated
standard deviation. As instrument accuracies are increased, y decreases thus increasing the
confidence in the results.
A calculated result, r, which is a function of measured variables X
1
, X
2
, X
3
,….., X
n
can be
expressed as follows:
r = f(X
1
, X
2
, X
3
,….., X
n
)
The uncertainty for the calculated result, r, is expressed as
5 . 0
2
3
3
2
2
2
2
1
1
.......
(
(
¸
(
¸
+

¹

\

×
∂
∂
+

¹

\

×
∂
∂
+

¹

\

×
∂
∂
= ∂ x
X
r
x
X
r
x
X
r
r δ δ δ
(1)
Where:
r ∂ = Uncertainty in the result
xi δ = Uncertainties in the measured variable i X
i X
r
∂
∂
= Absolute sensitivity coefficient
In order to simplify the uncertainty analysis, so that it can be done on simple spreadsheet
applications, each term on RHS of the equation(1) can be approximated by:
1 X
r
∂
∂
x ∂X
1
= r(X
1
+∂X
1
) – r(X
1
) (2)
The basic spreadsheet is set up as follows, assuming that the result r is a function of the four
parameters X
1
, X
2
, X
3
&
X
4.
Enter the values of X
1
, X
2
, X
3
& X
4
and the formula for calculating r in
column A of the spreadsheet. Copy column A across the following columns once for every
variable in r (see table 7.1). It is conve nient to place the values of the uncertainties ∂(X
1
), ∂(X
2
)
and so on in row 1 as shown.
29
Table 71: Uncertainty evaluation sheet1
A B C D E
1
∂X
1
∂ X
2
∂ X
3
∂ X
4
2
3
X
1
X
1
X
1
X
1
X
1
4
X
2
X
2
X
2
X
2
X
2
5
X
3
X
3
X
3
X
3
X
3
6
X
4
X
4
X
4
X
4
X
4
7
8
r=f(X1, X2, X3, X4) r=f(X1, X2, X3, X4) r=f(X1, X2, X3, X4) r=f(X1, X2, X3, X4) r=f(X1, X2, X3, X4)
Add ∂X
1
to X
1
in cell B3 and ∂ X
2
to X
2
in cell C4 etc., as in Table 7.2. On recalculating the
spreadsheet, the cell B8 becomes f(X
1
+ ∂ X
1
, X
2
, X
3,
X
4
)
.
Table 72: Uncertainty evaluation sheet2
A B C D E
1
∂X
1
∂ X
2
∂ X
3
∂ X
4
2
3
X
1
X
1
+∂X
1
X
1
X
1
X
1
4
X
2
X
2
X
2
+∂ X
2
X
2
X
2
5
X
3
X
3
X
3
X
3
+∂X
3
X
3
6
X
4
X
4
X
4
X
4
X
4
+∂X
4
7
8
r=f(X1, X2, X3, X4) r =f(X1
'
, X2, X3, X4) r =f(X1, X2
'
, X3, X4) r =f(X1, X2, X3
'
, X4) r =f(X1, X2, X3, X4
'
)
In row 9 enter row 8 minus A8 (for example, cell B9 becomes B8A8). This gives the values of ∂
(r, X1) as shown in table 7.3.
∂ (r, X1)=f (X1 +∂X1), X2, X3…)  f (X1, X2, X3..) etc.
To obtain the standard uncertainty on y, these individual contributions are squared, added
together and then the square root taken, by entering ∂ (r, X
1
)
2
in row 10 (Figure 7.3) and putting
the square root of their sum in A10. That is, cell A10 is set to the formula,
SQRT(SUM(B10+C10+D10+E10)) which gives the standard uncertainty on r, ∂ (r)
Table 73: Uncertainty evaluation sheet3
A B C D E
1
∂X
1
∂X
2
∂X
3
∂X
4
2
3
X
1
X
1
+∂X
1
X
1
X
1
X
1
4
X
2
X
2
X
2
+∂ X
2
X
2
X
2
5
X
3
X
3
X
3
X
3
+∂X
3
X
3
6
X
4
X
4
X
4
X
4
X
4
+∂X
4
7
8
r=f(X1, X2, X3, X4) r =f(X1
'
, X2, X3, X4) r =f(X1, X2
'
, X3, X4) r =f(X1, X2, X3
'
, X4) r =f(X1, X2, X3, X4
'
)
9
∂ (r,X1) ∂ (r,X2) ∂ (r,X3) ∂ (r,X4)
10
∂ (r) ∂ (r,X1)
2
∂ (r,X2)
2
∂ (,X3)
2
∂ (r,X4)
2
30
7.3 Uncertainty evaluation of motor efficiency testing:
Based on above discussions, the methodology for estimating uncertainty in motor efficiency testing
is explained below. This example refers to measurements and methodology given in Method2 to
estimate efficiency of a motor at the operating load.
Specification of the motor is given in table 7.4.
Table 74: Test Motor specifications
Motor specifications Units Value
Motor connection delta
No of poles 4
Output kW 37
Voltage Volts 415
Full load current Amp 66
Frequency Hz 50
Speed rpm 1465
Slip % 0.023
Efficiency % 90
Insulation Class Class A
Reference Temperature corresponding to insulation class C 75
An instrument accuracy table can be prepared as given in table 7.5, based on instrument specified
accuracies and calibration certificates. It is necessary that all instruments are calibrated in the
measurement ranges and the error at measurement points be known.
If actual calibration certificates are used, error at the measured value should be used in the
instrument accuracy table.
Table 75: Instrument accuracy table
Instrument error table
δ δ δ δ Unl δ Ι δ Ι δ Ι δ Ιnl δ δ δ δ Pnl δ δ δ δ Rph
cold
δ δ δ δ Rphnl δ Τ δ Τ δ Τ δ Τ
α αα α
δ δ δ δ f
If % accuracy is known at operating
point, enter % value in this row
0.50% 0.50% 0.50% 0.50% 0.50% 0.50%
If % accuracy is known at full scale
only, calculate full scale error and
enter actual value in this row
2.11 0.12 9.92 0.002 0.002 1.00 0.01
In Table 7.6, absolute value each uncertainty term from the instrument accuracy table is added to
the corresponding measured value, one parameter at a time.
Table 76: Effects of instrument error for each parameter
No load test Measurements
Voltage, U Volts 421 423.1 421.0 421.0 421.0 421.0 421.0 421.0
Line Current, Inl A 23 23.00 23.12 23.00 23.00 23.00 23.00 23.00
No load power input, Pinl Watts 1984 1984.0 1984.0 1993.9 1984.0 1984.0 1984.0 1984.0
Cold winding resistance, Rphcold Ohms 0.364 0.364 0.364 0.364 0.366 0.364 0.364 0.364
Stator phase resistance after no load test, Rphnl Ohms 0.390 0.390 0.390 0.390 0.390 0.392 0.390 0.390
Ambient Temperature, Ta C 28.9 28.9 28.9 28.9 28.9 28.9 29.9 28.9
Frequency, f Hz 49.2 49.2 49.2 49.2 49.2 49.2 49.2 49.2
Calculations & Results
% Stray losses Full load ( from fig. 5.4) % 1.75%
% friction & windage losses at full load ( from para 5.2.1) % 1.0%
Stator resistance corrected to full load Ohms 0.455 0.455 0.455 0.455 0.457 0.455 0.453 0.455
Stator Copper loss no load Watts 206.31 206.31 208.38 206.31 206.31 207.34 206.31 206.31
Constant loss Watts 1777.69 1777.69 1775.62 1787.61 1777.69 1776.66 1777.69 1777.69
Friction & windage loss Watts 370 370 370 370 370 370 370 370
Core loss at rated voltage Watts 1367.85 1354.28 1365.84 1377.49 1367.85 1366.85 1367.85 1367.85
Stator Copper loss at full load Watts 1982.73 1982.73 1982.73 1982.73 1992.64 1982.73 1975.25 1982.73
Slip at Full load p.u 0.023 0.023 0.023 0.023 0.023 0.023 0.023 0.023
Stray losses Full load Watts 741.2 741.2 741.2 741.2 741.2 741.2 741.2 741.2
Rotor input at Full load Watts 36136.7 36136.7 36136.7 36136.7 36136.7 36136.7 36136.7 36136.7
Rotor copper loss at full load Watts 843.19 843.19 843.19 843.19 843.19 843.19 843.19 843.19
Total losses Watts 5355.79 5355.79 5355.79 5355.79 5355.79 5355.79 5355.79 5355.79
Efficiency at Full Load load % 87.4% 87.4% 87.4% 87.4% 87.4% 87.4% 87.4% 87.4%
Delta 0.00030 0.00020 0.00028 0.00056 0.00010 0.00043 0.00000
Delta Square 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000
% uncertainty in efficiency estimation % 0.2%
The motor efficiency at operating load is thus expressed as 87.4 ± 0.2%
7.4 Comments on Uncertainty Analysis:
The uncertainty in efficiency is 0.2%. This means that the actual motor efficiency lies
somewhere in the range of (87.4 –0.2 ) and ( 87.4+0.2). i.e. between 87.2 & 87.6%. When
calculating energy saving by replacement of this motor with a high efficiency motor,
calculate the savings using both efficiency values separately, which can help in building up
optimistic and pessimistic scenarios.
Note that the % error in no load power input measurement using the portable power
analyser in the above measurement is 5% (from calibration table). If a power analyser
which is specifically calibrated to measure power accurately at low p.f. is used, the error
can be limited to 1.0%. In that case, the uncertainty in efficiency would reduce from 0.2%
to 0.1%.
33
8 GUIDELINES FOR IDENTIFYING ENERGY SAVING OPPORTNITIES
8.1 Preparation of History Sheet
It is recommended to establish a record of all relevant information about the motor. The contents
of such a system will vary from plant to plant and can include some the following features:
8.1.1 Motor record
• Motor identifier
• Date of purchase
• Manufacturer and model
• Enclosure
• Rated power
• Synchronous speed (number of poles)
• Frame size
• Rated voltage
• Full load current
• Full load speed
• Efficiency and power factor at 50 per cent, 75 per cent and full load
8.1.2 Motor maintenance log
• Date and reasons for failure
• Repairs and repair shop details
• Motor condition
• Maintenance history
• Scheduled maintenance
8.1.3 Plant records
• Plant number, motor number and repair priority
• Plant description, manufacturer and model
• Location in plant
• Information on spare components
• Load type
• Duty cycle
• Estimated load
• Starting method
8.2 Checklist of opportunities
8.2.1 Estimate life cycle cost of equipments
Life cycle cost analysis is a proven and accepted financial principle, which involves:
• Assessing purchase price
• Assessing operating costs
• Using a method, which accounts for the time value of money.
34
Compare life cycle cost when buying new motors.
8.2.2 Maintenance
• Machine cleaning: To ensure that ventilation and motor cooling is proper
• Machine set up and alignment: To ensure that the belt drives and couplings are set up
properly,
• Bearing selection, fitting techniques and lubrication: Verify that they are lubricated and sealed
properly
• Machine condition assessment: Vibration, unusual temperature rise etc indicate problems
• Electrical performance assessment: Regularly measure supply voltage variations. Voltage
imbalance leads to higher losses.
• Maintenance of electrical connections in the starter and motor terminal box: The loose
connections are unsafe and source of heat losses.
8.2.3 Avoiding Idle/Redundant running of motors
• Prolonged idle running of machine tools, conveyors, exhaust fan, lights etc. can be avoided.
• Idle running of auxiliaries like cooling towers, air compressors, pumps etc. during prolonged
stoppage of production machines can be avoided
8.2.4 Proper sizing of motors
• The efficiency of motors operating at loads below 40% is likely to be poor and energy savings
are possible by replacing these with properly sized motors, new or interchanging with another
load.
• If purchasing new motors, purchase high efficiency motor of proper size.
8.2.5 Operation in STAR connection for under loaded motors
• At light loads (30% or less), operation of ‘Delta’ connected motor in ‘Star’ connection can
save energy. If a motor is oversized and continuously loaded below 30% of its rated shaft
load, the motor can be permanently connected in Star.
• If the load is below 30% most of the time, but if the load exceeds 50% some times, automatic
StarDelta changeover Switches (based on current or load sensing) can be used.
• Savings can be 5 to 15% of the existing power consumption
8.2.6 Improve Drive Transmission efficiency
• Vbelt drives may have an efficiency of 85% to 90%. Replace them with modern synthetic
flat belts, which have an efficiency of 96% to 98%.
• Worm gears, though have the quality of largely reducing ratios comes with inconsistent
efficiency varying from 75% to 90%. A Helical bevel gear has efficiency of about 95%.
Replacement of worm gear can be done if application is feasible.
8.2.7 Use of High efficiency Motors
• Saving vary from 5% for a 5 HP motor to 1% for a 100 HP motor.
• Values of motor efficiency as given in IEEMA Standard 192000 can be used. There are two
efficiency catagories of efficiency viz. Eff1 & Eff2. To get good high efficiency motors, users
are advised to specify efficiencies of new motors as per Eff1 values of IEEMA standards.
• Always mention efficiency values and do not just mention ‘high efficiency motor’.
8.2.8 Follow good rewinding practices
• Rewind the motors as per the original winding data.
35
• Do not allow rewinders to use open flame or heat the stators above 350°C for extracting
the old, burned out winding. This can increase core losses.
• Sand blasting of the core and/or grinding of laminations can create shorts in the core,
leading to higher core losses.
• Keep data on no load inputs (current, power at a measured voltage) for all new motors,
including motors returning after rewinding.
• Measure motor winding resistance after each rewinding
36
ANNEXURE1: UNIT CONVERSION FACTORS
Parameter SI Units METRIC Units US Units
Voltage Volts Volts Volts
Current Ampere Ampere Ampere
Resistance Ohms Ohms Ohms
Speed rpm rpm rpm
Power 1 kW 1 kW 1.341 HP
Temperature 1 K 1 ºC 1 ºF
time 1 Seconds 1 Seconds 1 Seconds
37
ANNEXURE2: CALIBRATION TABLE
Instrument: Power Analyser
Range: 0600V, 1000 A, 600 kW
Voltage:
Current:
Sr. No. Standard meter reading, Amp Test meter reading, Amp % Error
1 5 4.95 1.00
2 10 9.90 1.00
3 20 19.80 1.00
4 30 29.70 1.00
5 40 39.70 0.75
6 50 49.6 0.80
7 100 99.1 0.90
8 200 198 1.00
9 300 298 0.67
10 400 397 0.75
11 500 497 0.60
Power:
Range Standard meter reading, Watts Test meter reading, Watts % Error
415V, 5 A, 0.3 lag 622.5 648 4.1
415V, 5 A, 0.8 lag 1660 1660 0.0
415V, 5 A, UPF 2050 2075 1.2
415V, 10 A, 0.3 lag 1300 1245 4.42
415V, 10 A, 0.8 lag 3330 3320 0.30
415V, 10 A, UPF 4110 4150 0.96
415V, 20 A, 0.3 lag 2580 2490 3.61
415V, 20 A, 0.8 lag 6640 6640 0.00
415V, 20 A, UPF 8210 8300 1.08
415V, 30 A, 0.3 lag 3860 3735 3.35
415V, 30 A, 0.8 lag 9960 9960 0.00
415V, 30 A, UPF 12300 12450 1.20
415V, 50 A, 0.3 lag 6450 6225 3.61
415V, 50 A, 0.8 lag 16600 16600 0.00
415V, 50 A, UPF 20600 20750 0.72
415V, 100 A, 0.3 lag 12900 12450 3.61
415V, 100 A, 0.8 lag 33200 33200 0.00
415V, 100 A, UPF 41100 41500 0.96
415V, 200 A, 0.3 lag 25700 24900 3.21
415V, 200 A, 0.8 lag 66500 66400 0.15
415V, 200 A, UPF 82300 83000 0.84
415V, 400 A, 0.3 lag 51400 49800 3.21
415V, 400 A, 0.8 lag 13300 132800 0.15
415V, 400 A, UPF 16500 166000 0.60
415V, 550 A, 0.3 lag 70300 68475 2.67
415V, 550 A, 0.8 lag 18300 182600 0.22
415V, 550 A, UPF 22700 228250 0.55
Sr. No. Standard meter reading, Volts Test meter reading,
Volts
% Error
1 50 50.3 0.60
2 100 100 0.00
3 200 202 1.00
4 300 301 0.33
5 400 401 0.25
6 500 501 0.20
38
ANNEXURE3: LIST OF NABL ACCREDITED LABORATORIES
The following is a list of NABL accredited laboratories specialised in calibration of instruments.
Source: www.nablindia.org
Belz Calibration Laboratory
Shed No. 133 A, HSIDC Sector 59,
Faridabad, Haryana,
india. Pin – 121004
Tel No. 0129  25239060
Fax No. 0129 – 25414855
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
Technical Services Department, Piplani,
Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh,
India. Pin – 462022
Tel No. 07552506328/2506692
Fax No. 07552500419/2201590
Central Electrical Testing Laboratory
District Tiruvallur,
Kakkalur, Tamil Nadu,
India. Pin – 602003
Tel No. 04116 260384/606302
Central Power Research Institute
Prof. C. V. Raman Road,
Sadashivnanagar Sub P.O. No. 8066,
Bangalore, Karnataka,
india. Pin – 560080
Tel No. 080  3602329
Fax No. 080  3601213.3606277
Electrical Research and Development Association
P. B. no. 760, Makarpura Road,
Vadodara, Gujarat,
india. Pin – 390010
Tel No. 0265  2642942/642964/642557
Fax No. 0265  2643182
Email erda@wilnetonline.net
Electroncis Regional Test Laboratory
Okhla Industrial Area, S Block, Phase II,
New Delhi, Delhi,
india. Pin – 110020
Tel No. 011  26386219 / 26384400
Fax No. 011  26384583
Email ertln@ernet.in
Electroncis Test and Development Centre
STQC Directorate , MIT,Malviya Industrial Area,
Jaipur, Rajasthan,
india. Pin – 302017
Tel No. 0141  2751636, 2751 506,2751884
Fax No. 0141 – 2751636
Electronics Test and Development Centre
39
B108, Industrial Area, Phase 8, SAS Nagar,
Mohali, Punjab,
india. Pin – 160059
Tel No. 0172  256707,256639,256 711
Fax No. 0172 256681
Email etdc@sancharnet.in
Electronics Test and Development Centre
Agriculture College Campus, Shivajinagar,
Pune, Maharashtra,
india. Pin – 410005
Tel No. 020  25537146/5537306
Fax No. 020  5539369
Email etdcpune@pn3.vsnl.net.in
Electronics Test and Development Centre
4/2 , B. T. Raod,
Kolkata, West Bengal,
india. Pin – 700056
Tel No. 03325645520/25645370
Email etdccal@vsnl.net
Institute for Design of Electrical Measuring Instruments
Swatantryaveer Tatya Tope Marg, Chunabhatti,Sion P.O.,
Mumbai, Maharashtra,
india. Pin – 400022
Tel No. 022  25220302/25220303/25220304
Fax No. 022 – 25229016
Larsen & Toubro Limited
Quality Assurance Laboratory,
Electrical & Electronics Division, E
lectrical Sector, Powai,
Mumbai, Maharashtra,
india. Pin – 400072
Tel No. 022  28581401
Fax No. 022 – 28581023
Meter Testing and Standard Laboratory
Department of Electrical Inspectorate, Engineering College P.O,
Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala,
India. Pin – 695016
Tel No. 0471 330558
Palyam Engineers Pvt. Ltd.
"Milton Corners" No. 17, S.S.I. Area 5th Block, Rajajinagar,
Bangalore, Karnataka,
india. Pin – 560010
Tel No. 080  3355238
Fax No. 080 – 3350716
Regional Testing Centre
65/1, GST Raod, Guindy,
Chennai, Tamil Nadu,
india. Pin  600 032
Tel No. 044  2343634, 2344684
Fax No. 044 – 2344684
Regional Testing Centre (E.R)
40
111/112 , B. T. Road,
Kolkata, West Bengal,
India. Pin  700 108
Tel No. 0332577 4055, 25772482
Fax No. 033 2577 1353
Small Industries Testing and Research Centre
83 & 84, Avarampalyam Raod K.R. Puram PO,
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu,
india. Pin – 641006
Tel No. 0422  2562612
Fax No. 0422 – 2560473
Sophisticated Test & Instrumentation Centre
Kochi University P.O Kochi, 6822022,
Kerala,
India. Pin  68202
Tel No. 04842575908/2576697
Fax No. 04842575975
Yadav Metrolgoy Limited
P. O. Box No. 30, Pratap Nagar Industrial Area,
Udaipur, Rajasthan,
india. Pin – 313003
Tel No. 0249  2492300 04
Fax No. 02492492310
Email balmukund.vyas@securemeters.com
41
ANNEXURE4: REFERENCES
1. IEC 600 342: 1996 Rotating electrical machines Part2
2. IEC 600 342: Proposed draft document dated August 2003
3. IEC 61972: 2002: Method for determining losses and efficiency of three phase cage induction
motors
4. IEEE Standard 1121996: IEEE Test procedure for poly phase induction motors and
generators
5. IS 4889: 1968 (reaffirmed 1996): Methods of determination of efficiency of rotating electrical
machines
6. IS 4029: 1967 ( Fifth Reprint 1984): Guide for testing Three phase induction motors
7. IS 325: 1996: Three Phase induction motors Specification
8. Comparative Analysis of IEEE 112B and IEC 342 Efficiency Testing Standards Using Stray
losses in Low voltage Three Phase, cage Induction motors
Anibal T. de Almeda et. al  IEEE Transactions on industry Applications, Vol. 38, no.2 March
April 2002
9. Can Field Tests Prove Motor Efficiency?
Richard L. Nailsen  IEEE Transactions on industry Applications, Vol. 25, no.2 MayJune
1989
10. Performance Optimization Tips: Measuring the Heart Rate of Motor Systems: Electric Current
:Don Casada – Energy Matters US Dept. of Energy, 2001
CONTENTS
1 OBJECTIVE & SCOPE..........................................................................................................................................4 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 OBJECTIVE .......................................................................................................................................................4 SCOPE .............................................................................................................................................................4 EFFICIENCY TESTING OF A MOTOR: .....................................................................................................................4 REFERENCE STANDARDS: ..................................................................................................................................5
DEFINITIONS AND DESCRIPTION OF TERMS...................................................................................................6 2.1 2.2 BASIC UNITS AND SYMBOLS ...............................................................................................................................6 DESCRIPTION OF TERMS ....................................................................................................................................7
3
GUIDING PRINCIPLES .........................................................................................................................................8 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 PLANNING THE TEST ..........................................................................................................................................8 PRINCIPLE ........................................................................................................................................................8 PRE TEST REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................................8 PRECAUTIONS DURING TEST ...............................................................................................................................9
4
INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF MEASUREMENTS ..................................................................................11 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 MEASUREMENT/ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS ....................................................................................................11 CALIBRATION OF INSTRUMENTS.........................................................................................................................11 POWER INPUT .................................................................................................................................................11 VOLTAGE .......................................................................................................................................................12 CURRENT .......................................................................................................................................................12 FREQUENCY ...................................................................................................................................................12 SPEED ...........................................................................................................................................................12 RESISTANCE ...................................................................................................................................................13 AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE ............................................................................................................................14 SUMMARY OF INSTRUMENT ACCURACIES ........................................................................................................15
5
COMPUTATION OF RESULTS...........................................................................................................................16 5.1 DETERMINATION OF EFFICIENCY ........................................................................................................................16 5.2 NO LOAD TEST FOR CONSTANT LOSS ESTIMATION ...............................................................................................16 5.2.1 Estimation of friction & windage losses (Non essential test) ................................................................17 5.2.1 Voltage correction factor to core losses ...............................................................................................18 5.3 STRAY LOSS ...................................................................................................................................................18 5.4 METHOD1: ESTIMATION OF MOTOR EFFICIENCY AT FULL LOAD .............................................................................19 5.5 METHOD –2: ESTIMATION OF MOTOR EFFICIENCY AT OPERATING LOAD..................................................................22
6
FORMAT OF TEST RESULTS ............................................................................................................................25 6.1 6.2 METHOD1: ESTIMATION OF MOTOR EFFICIENCY AT FULL LOAD...........................................................................25 METHOD2: ESTIMATION OF MOTOR EFFICIENCY AT OPERATING LOAD .................................................................26
7
UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................................28 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................................28 METHODOLOGY...............................................................................................................................................28 UNCERTAINTY EVALUATION OF MOTOR EFFICIENCY TESTING:................................................................................30 COMMENTS ON UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS: ...........................................................................................................32
8
GUIDELINES FOR IDENTIFYING ENERGY SAVING OPPORTNITIES.............................................................33 8.1 PREPARATION OF HISTORY SHEET ....................................................................................................................33 8.1.1 Motor record.........................................................................................................................................33 8.1.2 Motor maintenance log.........................................................................................................................33 8.1.3 Plant records ........................................................................................................................................33 8.2 CHECKLIST OF OPPORTUNITIES .........................................................................................................................33 8.2.1 Estimate life cycle cost of equipments..................................................................................................33 8.2.2 Maintenance.........................................................................................................................................34 8.2.3 Avoiding Idle/Redundant running of motors .........................................................................................34 8.2.4 Proper sizing of motors ........................................................................................................................34 8.2.5 Operation in STAR connection for under loaded motors ......................................................................34 8.2.6 Improve Drive Transmission efficiency.................................................................................................34 8.2.7 Use of High efficiency Motors...............................................................................................................34 8.2.8 Follow good rewinding practices ..........................................................................................................34
2
ANNEXURE1: UNIT CONVERSION FACTORS ........................................................................................................36 ANNEXURE2: CALIBRATION TABLE ......................................................................................................................37 ANNEXURE3: LIST OF NABL ACCREDITED LABORATORIES ............................................................................38 ANNEXURE4: REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................................41 LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 31: LOCATION OF CURRENT MEASUREMENT......................................................................................................10 FIGURE 41: STAR CONNECTED WINDING ......................................................................................................................13 FIGURE 42: DELTA CONNECTED WINDING ...................................................................................................................13 FIGURE 51(A): THREE WATTMETER METHOD .................................................................................................................16 FIGURE 52: CONVERSION OF DELTA CONNECTED MOTOR INTO STAR CONNECTION EXTERNALLY......................................17 FIGURE 53: DETERMINATION OF FRICTION & WINDAGE LOSSES .....................................................................................17 FIGURE 54: STRAY LOAD ESTIMATION ...........................................................................................................................18
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 21: BASIC UNITS AND SYMBOLS ............................................................................................................................6 TABLE 22: SUBSCRIPTS ...................................................................................................................................................6 TABLE 41: REFERENCE TEMPERATURE FOR INSULATION CLASSES ...................................................................................14 TABLE 42: SUMMARY OF INSTRUMENT ACCURACY ..........................................................................................................15 TABLE 51: ASSUMED VALUES FOR STRAY LOSSES............................................................................................................19 TABLE 53: MOTOR EFFICIENCY ESTIMATION AT FULL LOAD ...........................................................................................21 TABLE 54: MOTOR EFFICIENCY ESTIMATION AT ACTUAL LOAD .......................................................................................23 TABLE 61: FORMAT OF TEST RESULTS & SAMPLE CALCULATION.....................................................................................25 TABLE 62: FORMAT OF TEST RESULTS & SAMPLE CALCULATION.....................................................................................26 TABLE 71: UNCERTAINTY EVALUATION SHEET1 ............................................................................................................29 TABLE 72: UNCERTAINTY EVALUATION SHEET2 ............................................................................................................29 TABLE 73: UNCERTAINTY EVALUATION SHEET3 ............................................................................................................29 TABLE 74: TEST MOTOR SPECIFICATIONS ......................................................................................................................30 TABLE 75: INSTRUMENT ACCURACY TABLE ....................................................................................................................30 TABLE 76: EFFECTS OF INSTRUMENT ERROR FOR EACH PARAMETER ..............................................................................31
3
1
OBJECTIVE & SCOPE
1.1
Objective • To determine the efficiency of three phase induction motor, by loss estimation method, under operating conditions in the plant where the motor is installed and running or available as spare, To simplify instrumentation so that the test can be conducted with portable instruments and facilities available with plant engineers and energy auditors. To provide guidelines to identify energy saving opportunities in motors.
• • 1.2 Scope •
This code deals with Low voltage 3phase induction motors having output rating up to and including 200 kW. These motors and driven equipments account for more than 90% of energy consumption in industrial motor driven systems. This code can be used for efficiency testing of squirrel cage and slip ring induction motors.
•
The following types of electric motors are excluded from the scope in this code 1. DC Motors 2. Synchronous Motors 3. Single phase Motors 1.3 Efficiency Testing of a motor: Efficiency Testing of a motor defined and described in this code include the following: Essential Tests: 1.
2. 3.
4. 5.
No load test Winding resistance measurement Ambient temperature measurement Electrical input measurements at actual load, if the motor is connected to load Operating speed measurement, if the motor is connected to load
Nonessential Tests: 1. Friction & windage loss measurement
Estimation of total losses: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Stator copper losses 1 Rotor copper losses Iron losses Friction and windage losses Stray losses
Estimation of motor efficiency from total losses and output/input power.
1
This term refers to ohmic losses in the rotor windings, either copper or aluminium. Squirrel cage motors of smaller ratings generally have aluminium rotor cage.
4
IS 4029: 1967 (Fifth Reprint 1984): Guide for testing Three phase induction motors 6.Part2 2. IEEE Standard 1121996: IEEE Test procedure for poly phase induction motors and generators 4. IS 4889: 1968 (reaffirmed 1996): Methods of determination of efficiency of rotating electrical machines 5. IEC 600 342: Proposed draft document dated August 2003 3. 1.4 Reference standards: The following standards are widely used for efficiency testing of motors at manufacturers’ test facilities and laboratories. IS 325: 1996: Three Phase induction motors.Specification IEC 600 342 emphasizes on estimation of motor losses to calculate motor efficiency and has been used as the primary source for developing this code. IEC 600 342: 1996 Rotating electrical machines. 5 .1.
m. resistance Efficiency Units kWh Watts/ kilo Watts Seconds ºC W W W W W W W W Volts Ampere p.2 2. Table 21: Basic Units and Symbols Symbol E P t T Pfe Pfw Pk Pcust Pcurot Ps PT Pmech U I cos φ f p N Ns s R η Description Energy Power Time duration Temperature Core losses Friction and windage losses Constant losses Stator copper loss Rotor copper loss Stray losses Total losses Mechanical power Terminal r.s.u. Voltage Current Power factor Frequency Number of poles Speed Synchronous speed Slip Average D. % Subscripts used in this code are given in table 2.C. Hz Rpm Rpm p.2 Table 22: Subscripts Symbol I o NL FL L ph a R Y B Description At input At output At no load At full load At operating load Referred to phase At ambient temperature Referred to R phase Referred to Y phase Referred to B phase 6 .1.u.1 DEFINITIONS AND DESCRIPTION OF TERMS Basic Units and Symbols The basic units and symbols used in this code are given in Table2.
line voltages 7 . harmonic fields and other unaccounted losses Slip: The quotient of (1) the difference between the synchronous speed and the actual speed of the rotor. friction and windage losses Core losses: Losses in active iron and additional no load losses in other metal parts Friction losses: Losses due to friction in bearings Windage losses: Power absorbed by rotor rotation and shaft mounted fans Efficiency: The ratio of output power to the input power expressed in the same units and usually given as a percentage. % Slip= 2 Ns − N x100 Ns Terminal voltage: Arithmetic average of r. to (2) the synchronous speed expressed as a ratio or a percent. line currents Line to line resistance: Average of the resistances measured across two terminals on all lines Load losses: Copper losses (I R losses) in stator and rotor No load test: A test in which the machine is run as a motor providing no useful mechanical output from the shaft Stray losses: Extra losses due to flux pulsations.m.2. Line current: Arithmetic average of r.2 Description of terms Constant losses: The sum of core.s.m.s.
In this case. Conditions when it is not recommended to conduct the test are: a. Details of calculations in both methodologies are given in section 5. If nameplate is not available. If the voltage is fluctuating by more than 5% If the difference among phase voltages is more than 15V. 4.3 3. actual speed and power input is measured at load condition and output is estimated from power input and measured losses.3 In Method2. Method1: When a motor is not coupled mechanically to any load. 5. These losses are: 1. Method2: When a motor is installed and coupled to driven equipment. 2. if the source of the information is reliable. efficiency is calculated by the following relationships. In this method. b. 3. Choice of the method suitable for each situation shall be done properly.5 3. Motor nameplate rating of full load speed and full load output are assumed to be correct. In this case.2 Principle The methods proposed in this code involve estimation of losses in a motor. Efficiency at operating load = Motor input power − Losses Motor input power Pre Test Requirements 1. say a pump. measurements are also required to be done at the actual operation of the motor on load. Nameplate information of the motor is required for the tests. c. 3. In addition to the measurements at no load. Frequency is below 48. 2. Ensure that the motors to be tested are in working condition. but available as spare/newly purchased.5 hertz or fluctuating. Ensure that the nameplate information is clearly visible. 8 . Efficiency at full load = Rated Output (Rated Output + Losses) 3.4 & 5. Measurements are done on the motor at no load conditions. In method1.1 Planning the Test GUIDING PRINCIPLES There are mainly two situations encountered in the field regarding testing of motors.. Stator copper losses Rotor copper losses Iron losses Friction and windage losses Stray losses After estimating the losses. motor efficiency at full load can be estimated. obtain the details from the manufacturer’s specification sheets/purchase department etc. compressor etc. motor efficiency at operating load and full load can be estimated.
it may take about 2 hours. wiggle the probe a bit. It is recommended to disconnect the capacitors if connected at the motor. 6. To ensure the jaws are fully closed. 9 . the air pressure should be maintained constant throughout the test. The jaws do not always close tightly. and thus current may fluctuate on some processes. if possible. stop the motor. While conducting no load test. especially in tight locations. Use properly sized CT's.1. ensure that the motor is completely decoupled from the load. beware of injuries due to jerky motor starting. When efficiency test is done on a motor. if the current is measured upstream of capacitor bank. Motor load.1. making sure it moves freely and is not bound by adjacent wires or other obstructions. While conducting the tests at site. if the motor is driving an air compressor. While measurements are being taken when motor is operating. Make sure you are measuring downstream from the power factor correction equipment and reading the actual motor input. ensure that the shaft load on the motor is steady and constant. Similarly. 7. Using over or undersized CTs (current transformersthe clamp on "jaws") can result in large inaccuracies. the pressure and flow need to be maintained same through out the test. If the motor has been in operation prior to no load test.4. as required in method2. In fig 3. For example. 4. 3.4 Precautions during test 1.5% of full span accuracy (which is good) to measure a 20amp current may result in a 50% measurement error. Measure and average the currents on all 3 phases. using a 2. Refer fig 3.should be present to energize. deenergize the equipment in accordance with established safety practices. 2. voltage controller or soft starter installed at the motor need to be disconnected from the line during measurements. 9. Any Variable Frequency drive. If the motor is driving a pump.9 amp. Make sure you are measuring the actual motor current. which is not bolted to the foundation (as in maintenance workshops). Use appropriate safety precautions while taking measurements on live cables. 5. Some meters have an automatic "min/max/average" function that can be used for this. 5. Some motors and/or motor controllers are equipped with powerfactor correction capacitors. 6. Usually. Even a small gap in the jaws can create a large error.000amp CT with 0. Average the current on fluctuating loads. Measuring upstream from the powerfactor correction equipment can result in large errorsup to a 25% or greater difference in current. 8. instead of actual motor current of 124. 3. Make sure the clampon jaws of CTs are completely closed. the indicated current would be 102 Amp. a qualified personone who is familiar with the installation and operation of the motor. decouple the load and keep the motor idle condition till the motor cools to ambient temperature.
Figure 31: Location of current measurement 10 .
The calibration curve can be plotted with meter reading on xaxis and % error on yaxis. (0.7 pf might indicate errors of 5 to 10% when used in low p.3 Power input For no load power measurements. For example.1 to 1. A sample calibration data for a power analyser is given in Annexure2.0. 7. 2. This curve is useful for uncertainty analysis of test results. a 200/5 A CT is more desirable than using a 500/5 A CT.f ranging from 0.2 Power/energy input Current Voltage Frequency Speed Stator resistance Ambient temperature Calibration of instruments Portable power analyzer. power. energy are suitable for electrical measurements at site. Separate calibration of CTs is not required in this case. current. Hence it is important to have power analysers with CT’s calibrated for various load currents and p. Hence the errors are sum of instrument and CT error. which are used with the instrument at site. 4. Period of calibration is 1 year. as explained in Section 7. since % error in power measurement at low power factor is likely to be significant during no load measurements in a motor. Power analysers are generally calibrated with CTs.f. 5.f varying from 0. A calibration curve shall be plotted for each of the parameter indicating error. Estimation of error at measurement value is required for uncertainty analysis.1 to 0. 3. For example. 4. calibration may be done at p. It should be noted that energy meters. Calibration of power analysers/energy meters shall be done at NABL accredited laboratories. which can measure voltage. This averages out fluctuations seen in instantaneous power measurements. A list of NABL accredited laboratories is given in Annexure3. 11 .3) load conditions. The error of the instrument shall be known at various load conditions and power factor. The CT ratios should also be selected to read preferably above 50% or above of the input current. frequency.4 4. Measurement of energy consumed during a known period can be done using a power analyser and power can be estimated from energy measurement and time duration. 4. 6. It is desired that calibration may be done at more number of points.0 with an interval of 0. which are used usually in measurements above 0. for measurement of 100 A current. a low power factor corrected energy meter/power analyser having fullscale error of not more than 0.1 to 1.1 INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF MEASUREMENTS Measurement/estimation of parameters The measurement of following parameters is required for efficiency testing of motor 1. % Error for any other measured value within the range can be noted from the calibration curve.5% is recommended.1 for different loads.
1 Hz.4 Voltage Measure voltages on all the three phases and compute average voltage. the arithmetic average of the currents shall be used. voltage is nearly but not absolutely balanced. 4. If at the time of measurement.5 Current The line current in each phase of the motor shall be measured using an ammeter or a power analyzer with error not exceeding 0.4. phase current is calculated as follows. where stator winding is connected in Y (star). Phase Voltage. sL Where.7 Speed Operating slip is measured from synchronous speed and operating speed measurements as given below. frequency measurement shall be done simultaneously with speed measurement.s. where stator winding is connected in Y (star).Y & B incoming line at the motor starter. Line to line r. Phase current = Line current ÷ √3 In motors.6 Frequency Frequency shall be measured by using a power analyser or a frequency meter having error not more than 0. From the average of line currents measured. Voltage shall be measured using a power analyzer or a voltmeter with an error of not more than 0. RB and YB are measured and average of linetoline r. For synchronous speed estimation to calculate slip. f p = operating frequency = number of poles 12 . Phase current = Line current 4. In motors. Phase Voltage. If current is not equal in all phases. NL Ns = NS − NL NS = operating speed = Synchronous speed = 120 × f p Where.5%. In motors.5%. where stator winding is connected in ∆ (delta). voltages across RY.s voltage is calculated as follows.m. Slip at operating speed. Uph = Line voltage In motors. Uph = Line voltage ÷ √3 4. the arithmetical average of the line voltages shall be used.m. Current measurements are done in the R. where stator winding is connected in ∆ (delta).
2. Full load slip is estimated from name plate full load speed and synchronous speed at name plate frequency.1 R R1 Y1 B1 Y2 B2 R2 B Y Star connected winding Connection at motor terminal box Figure 41: STAR connected winding ‘Delta’ connected winding in a motor is shown below in figure 4. R1 Y2 R1 Y1 B1 R2 B1 Delta connected winding Y1 B2 Y2 B2 R2 Connection at motor terminal box Figure 42: DELTA connected winding 13 . f = rated frequency p = number of poles Speed of motor can be measured using a noncontact tachometer having error of not more than 1 rpm. sFL Where.Note: The frequency of power supply should be measured simultaneously with the speed measurements.8 Resistance The stator winding may be in ‘Star’ connection in a motor as shown below in figure 4. NFL Ns = operating speed = Synchronous speed = = NS − NFL NS 120 × f p Where. 4.
1. Measurement of winding resistance should be done at the winding leads available at motor terminal box. In ‘Star’ connection. Bridge method: the unknown resistance is compared with a known resistance by use of a suitable bridge.Note: The shaded bar is a metal strip. the following relationships are used.9 Ambient Air Temperature The air temperature shall be measured by any of the following instruments: a) Mercury in glass thermometer b) Thermocouple with digital indicator c) Resistance thermometer with digital indicator 14 . i. Hence temperature correction is not required in this case. the winding resistance is measured immediately after stopping the motor. ºC A 75 B 95 F 115 H 130 Ambient temperature referred to is 25ºC. Table 41: Reference temperature for insulation classes Thermal class of insulation Reference temperature. Y & B and R & B phases. 4. 2. phase resistance. Y1 & B2 and B1 & R2 as shown in the schematic of motor terminal box. Use of digital ohm meters is recommended.e. Rph = 0. Rphase & Y phase.5 x Rll In Delta connection. which is used to connect R1 & Y2. Digital resistance meters with accuracy of 1 milli ohms.5 x Rll The resistance must be corrected to the operating/full load temperature by using following relationship R 2 235 + T 2 = R1 235 + T1 where. R2 = unknown resistance at temperature T2 R1 = resistance measured at temperature T1 While estimating full load efficiency of motor. Measurement of winding resistance is done across line to line. The average value of linetoline resistance obtained is designated as Rl l To convert the measured value of linetoline resistance to phase resistance. The values are given in table 4.001 ohms. phase resistance. Any of the following 2 methods can be used for measurement of winding resistance. winding resistance at full load is calculated by using the temperature given for each class of insulation. 1. It is sufficient to measure winding resistance with an accuracy of 0. While estimating motor efficiency at actual load. Rph = 1.
Calibration interval suggested for instruments is 1 year. is preferred.5% 0. Absolute value of Fullscale error shall not exceed 1°C.10 Summary of instrument accuracies The table given below summarises accuracy requirements of various instruments.001 ohms 1 rpm 0. Use of Calibrated mercury in glass thermometer.The temperature device shall be so chosen that it can be read with an accuracy of 1% of the absolute temperature.1 Hz 15 .nablindia. For calibrating various instruments. 4.org for a detailed list of accredited laboratories. which can measure temperature with an accuracy of 1°C. Table 42: Summary of instrument accuracy Instrument Temperature No load power Voltage Current Resistance Speed Frequency Accuracy 1ºC 0. visit www.5% 0.5% 0.
5 5. 4. 3. current.1(a)) or 2 wattmeter method (figure 5. 2 R VR Y VY B IR W1 3φ Motor IY W2 IB VB W3 Contactor N Figure 51(a): Three wattmeter method W R V RY Y IR 1 3φ Motor W2 IB VYB Contactor B Figure 51 (b):Two wattmeter method 16 . From the input power. input power can be estimated. which is the sum of friction. Alternatively. Input power. by noting the input energy consumption and time duration. Pfw ) Stator copper losses (Pcust) Rotor copper losses (Pcurot) Stray losses (Ps) No load test for Constant loss estimation The motor is run at rated voltage and frequency without any shaft load until thermal steady state is attained. 5.2 Constant losses (Core losses.1(b)). Power input can be measured by using 3 wattmeter method (figure 5. 2.1 Determination of efficiency COMPUTATION OF RESULTS The efficiency can be calculated from the total losses. Pfe + Friction and windage losses. stator I R losses under no load is subtracted to give the constant losses. 1. windage and core losses. which are assumed to be the summation of the following losses. frequency and voltage are noted.
volts U or U 17 2 Figure 53: Determination of friction & windage losses .3 shows a sample plot. This is graph approximately a straight line and which if extended to touch the yaxis gives the friction & windage loss as the y intercept. This curve is extended to zero voltage to find out friction and windage losses as core losses will be zero at zero voltages. Alternatively. kW may also be constructed. of power vs. Phase voltage = Line voltage ÷ √3. voltage & voltage 2 2 2 Power kW U vs kW U vs. the phase voltage = line voltage. If it is required to know how much is the friction and windage losses. two readings can be taken. The connection to be made at the motor terminal box is as given below in fig 5. In case variable voltage source is not available. a plot of voltage vs. Values of power vs. voltage is plotted.5. When stator is in delta connected by manipulating terminals externally. for delta connected motors. with voltage on xaxis and power on yaxis.2. one with stator in ‘delta’ and the other with stator in ‘star’.2 R1 Y1 B1 R1 Y1 B1 Y2 B2 R2 Y2 B2 R2 Delta connection Star connection Figure 52: Conversion of delta connected motor into star connection externally When stator is connected in ‘star’ externally as shown above. Fig 5.1 Estimation of friction & windage losses (Non essential test) It is not necessary to separate core losses and friction & windage losses from constant losses to estimate motor efficiency. However. the no load test is repeated at variable voltages. kW 2 Pfw Voltage.
Hence.5% of motor rated output 2 pole motors have higher friction & windage losses compared to 4 pole motors. Core losses vary with square of the voltage applied.0% of motor rated output For TEFC motors.5 0 0. friction & windage losses ≈ 1 to 1.4 3 Stray load losses.1 1 10 100 1000 Rated output. core loss 2 corrected to rated voltage Pfe Rated = Pfe x (UR/U) Where U = Applied terminal voltage during no load test UR = Rated voltage Pfe= Core losses at applied voltage 5. IEC standard 342 suggests a fixed value for stray losses as given in figure 5. kW Figure 54: Stray load estimation Note that stray losses are given as a percentage of input power in the above figure.5 1 0.5 2 1. For Drip proof motors. voltage correction factor should be applied to core losses to correct it to the rated voltage.Alternatively. % input power 2.1 Voltage correction factor to core losses To estimate full load efficiency. 18 . friction & windage losses ≈ 0. assuming friction & windage losses as follows is also reasonably correct. if variable voltage testing is not possible.8 to 1. 5.2.3 Stray loss Stray losses are very difficult to measure with any accuracy under field conditions or even in a laboratory.
5. From measured energy (Enl). Record the ambient temperature Ta Apply voltage across the motor at no load and start the motor. energy (Enl) and time duration (t). as given in Figure 5. 1. Chronological order of measurements is as follows. 5. line current (Inl). .8% 1. If the motor has been in operation prior to this test. a spreadsheet format is given in Table 6. Pcustnl = Constant loss. Measure line voltage (U). to estimate the stray losses. decouple the load from the motor and keep the motor idle till the it cools down to ambient temperature. phase current. Iphnl = line current 6. an iterative solution must be attempted because of not knowing the full load input power or efficiency beforehand. calculate full load input power = rated output/efficiency.1 which has been programmed to incorporate iteration. estimate power consumption (Pinl) by dividing Enl by time duration.Pcust 19 3 x Iphnl x Rphnl 2 2. the stray losses can be taken directly as percentage of actual input power when motor is on operating load. copper losses and rated output. Repeat the above steps till stray loss value converges. 3. Usually. phase current. first guess a value of stray loss and estimate full load efficiency.4 Method1: Estimation of motor efficiency at full load Full load efficiency of the motor is estimated in this method.5% 1. stop the motor. For Delta connected windings. it may take about 2 hours. Pk = Pinl .4. calculate stray losses. Iphnl = Inl √3 For Star connected windings.In method1.1 below. In section 6. Calculate stator copper loss at no load and subtract this from no load power to get constant losses No load stator Copper loss. From this.2% 0. IEEE Std 1121996 gives values for stray losses as given in table 5. Table 51: Assumed values for stray losses Machine rating 1 – 90 kW 91 – 375 kW 376 to 1850 kW 1851 kW and greater Stray loss. % of rated output 1. Direct power input measurement (Pinl) can also be done using power meter instead of energy and time measurements. frequency (f). In the iterative method. In method2. From the estimated full load input power and known values of constant losses. Calculate phase current (Iphnl) from line current (Inl) as given below. is recommended. 4. Measure winding resistance R pha at cold conditions.9% Use of stray loss values from IEC 342.
2.5% of motor rated output 8. Pcust FL = 3 x IphFL2 x RT 11. i.0% of motor rated output For TEFC motors.of the motor as explained in section 5. Estimate Stator copper losses at full load. friction & windage losses ≈ 0. . Generally it is sufficient to assume the friction and windage losses as follows. Ur.sFL) = Pmech (1. by multiplying with the factor Pfe = Pfe’ x Ur 2 U Ur 2 U 9. Estimate core losses Core losses. ηFL = Pmech x 100 % 20 12. as a % of input power from fig. Estimate friction & windage losses. Ps by iterative procedure. Calculate full load slip (sFL) from the rated speed (NFL) and synchronous speed (Ns) at the rated frequency.1.3 and calculate stray loss. Power input to rotor. For Drip proof motors. friction & windage losses ≈ 1 to 1.5. Pcurot = sFL x Pi rot 15. Obtain stray losses. Calculate rotor copper losses from full load slip and rotor input Rotor copper loss. Efficiency at full load is obtained from rated output and estimated total losses as Efficiency at full load. RT = Rpha x (235 + TR) (235 + Ta) 10. Total losses at full load is sum of all the above losses Total losses. Pi rot = Rotor output ( 1.8 to 1.NFL Ns Calculate rotor input power from rotor output at full load. assuming nameplate full load current and corrected stator resistance at full load. Pfw . sFL = Ns .7.4 corresponding to rated output as explained in section 5. 13. 14.sFL ) Rotor output at full load is the nameplate output kW rating of the motor.e.1. at temperature as defined in the class of insulation as given in Table 4. PT = Pfw + Pfe + Pcust FL + Ps +Pcurot 16. Pfe’ = Pk Pfw Correct core losses to the rated voltage. Calculate stator winding resistance at full load.
Inl No load power input.1) Stator resistance corrected to full load Stator Copper loss.u Watts Watts Watts Watts % C19*(235+$C$13)/(235+C21) IF($C$3="delta". Rphnl Ambient Temperature.2. U Line Current. Pinl Cold winding resistance. Rphcold Stator phase resistance after no load test.no load Constant loss Friction & windage loss Core loss at rated voltage Stator Copper loss at full load Slip at Full load Stray losses Full load Rotor input at Full load Rotor copper loss at full load Total losses Efficiency at Full Load load Volts A Watts Ohms Ohms C Hz % % Ohms Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts p.3*(C7/SQRT(3))^2*C27.4) % friction & windage losses at full load ( from para 5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Table 52: Motor efficiency estimation at full load Units Value A B C Motor specifications Motor connection No of poles Output kW Voltage Volts Full load current Amp Frequency Hz Speed rpm Slip % (120*C8/C4 C9)/(120*50/4) Efficiency % Insulation Class Reference Temperature corresponding to C insulation class Description No load test Measurements Voltage. SlNo.3 shows above calculations with MS Excel™ programmable equations.3*C7!^2*C27) (C8*120/$C$4C9)/(C8*120/$C$4) C25*$C$5*1000/C40 $C$5*1000*(1C33) C33*C35 C31+C32+C34+C36+C30 (C5*1000/(C5*1000+C38))*100 21 . Ta Frequency. 5.(Pmech + PT) Table 5.3*C17^2*C20) C18C28 $C$5*1000*$C$26 (C29C30)*($C$6/C16)^2 IF($C$10="delta". f Calculations & Results % Stray losses Full load ( from fig.3*(C17/SQRT(3))^2*C20.
12. Calculate stator copper loss at operating load 2 Stator Copper loss. Switch off the motor. stator copper losses and stray loss. estimate power consumption (PiL) by dividing EL by time duration (t). Measure line voltage (U). Calculate stray losses. Note the ambient temperature. frequency (f). resistance of the stator winding (Rphnl). 4. 10.C. 5. 1. resistance of the stator (RphL) winding immediately after switching off the motor.s.5. frequency (f). NL 6.m. In this case. Pcustnl = 3 x Iphnl x Rphnl Constant loss. From measured energy (EL). Calculate stator copper loss at no load and subtract this from no load power to get constant losses 2 No load stator Copper loss. from fig. energy (Enl) and time duration (t). 3.4 as explained in section 5. phase current. it can be considered to be close to steady operating conditions. line current (Inl). Start the motor with load and bring it up to desired steady operating conditions. continuous operation of the motor on load for at least 2 hours is recommended to attain steady state conditions. Measure D. 8. Decouple motor from the load and allow the motor to cool for at least 2 hours. Immediately measure D. Stop the motor. Calculate rotor input power from motor input power.5. 2. PsL. Measure operating speed of motor. Iphnl = Inl √3 For Star connected windings. line current (IL). estimate power consumption (Pinl) by dividing Enl by time duration. Ta 9. phase current = line current 13. If the motor has been in operation prior to this test for more than one hour. Measure r. Direct power input measurement (PiL) can also be done using power meter instead of energy and time measurements. line voltage (U). 7. Measure winding phase resistance (Rpha) at cold conditions. while testing. 22 . constant losses. 16. energy (EL) and time duration (t) for energy measurements.C. From measured energy (Enl). For Delta connected windings. Direct power input measurement (Pinl) can also be done using power meter instead of energy and time measurements.m. Apply voltage across the motor at no load and start the motor. Calculate phase current (Iphnl) from line current (Inl) as given below. PcustL = 3 x IphL x RphL 15. If the motor and load were idle before the test. operation of the motor for 10 to 15 minutes is sufficient to attain steady operation. r.s.5 Method –2: Estimation of motor efficiency at operating load Chronological order of measurements is as follows. Disconnect power supply. 11.Pcustnl 14. Pk = Pinl .3.
NL Ns 18. Output power (PmechL) is estimated from input and total losses measurements PmechL = PiL . ηL = PmechL x 100 % PiL 22.Pk . Ta Frequency. Efficiency at operating load.9 49.No. Table 5. Rphnl Ambient Temperature.2 Units B Value C delta 4 37 415 50 66 1465 (120*C7/C4C9)/(120*50/C4) 90 Class A kW Volts Hz Amp rpm % % 23 . Pi rot = Pi .4 shows above calculations with MS Excel™ programmable equations. Inl No load power input.PsL 17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Description A Motor specifications Motor connection No of poles Output Voltage Frequency Full load current Speed Slip Efficiency Insulation Class No load test Measurements Voltage. Pcurot = sL x Pi rot 19. U Current. Pinl Stator phase resistance after no load test.39 28.PcustL . Calculate rotor copper losses from slip and rotor input Rotor copper loss. Calculate slip (sL) from the operating speed (NL) and synchronous speed (Ns) at the measured frequency sL = Ns . PT = Pk + Pcust L + Ps +Pcurot 20. Total losses at actual load is sum of all the above losses Total losses. Efficiency at full load can also be estimated from steps 8 to 15 and following the procedure of calculating losses at full load as explained in Method1.Power input to rotor.PT 21 Efficiency is estimated from estimated output and measured input input. Table 53: Motor efficiency estimation at actual load Sl. f Volts A Watts Ohms C Hz 421 23 1984 0.
NL Frequency. 5. RphL Operating speed. f Calculations & Results % Stray losses Full load ( from fig. UL Load current. 3*C16^2*C18) C17C33 C5*1000*$C$32 (C34C35)*($C$6/C15)^2 IF($C$3="delta". PL Winding resistance at operating temperature.no load Constant loss Friction & windage loss Core loss at rated voltage Stator Copper loss at actual load % % Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts % 0.449 1463 49.4 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Slip at actual load Core losses at actual measured voltage Stray losses actual load Rotor input at actual load Rotor copper loss at actual load Total losses Efficiency at actual load 24 .22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Measurements at actual load Voltage.1) Stator Copper loss. 3*C24^2*C26) (C28*120/$C$4C27)/(C28*120/$C$4) C36*(C23/$C$6)^2 $C$31*C25*1000 C25*1000C40C37C39 C38*C41 C39+C37+C40+C42+C35 (C25*1000C44)/(C25*1000)*100 Volts A kW Ohms rpm Hz 414 38.5 0.3*(C16/SQRT(3))^2*C18.2.4) % friction & windage losses at full load ( from para 5.01 IF($C$3="delta". IL Power input.3*(C24/SQRT(3))^2*C26.7 21.0175 0.
frequency th Sl.9 0.No 1 Description Power Analyser 2 3 4 Digital micro ohm meter Thermometer Tachometer Winding resistance Ambient temperature Operating speed Motor Specifications Description of accuracy 0. power input..1 below.0 kW and 0.1 FORMAT OF TEST RESULTS Method1: Estimation of Motor Efficiency at Full Load Format of data collection.001ohm 0.483 Volts Amp Hz Watts Ohms Ohms ºC Ohms 25 .2 1984 0.5% for current 5% for power at 3. 1970 make Chilling plant compressor CD 225 37 kW 1465 rpm 415 Volts 66 Amp 50 Hz Class A 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 421 23 49.6 6. measurements and calculation of test results used in Method1 is given in Table 6. current.1 rpm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Motor ID Make Driven equipment Frame Output Full load speed Voltage Full load current Frequency Insulation Class No load test Line Voltage Line Current Frequency No load power input Stator phase resistance measured at cold conditions Stator phase resistance after no load test Ambient Temperature Winding resistance at full load 120330 Jyoti Ltd. p.8 pf 0.5% for voltage 0.39 28.1C 0.0% for power at 30 kW and 0.2 pf 1.364 0. The table also contains sample calculation of test results.f. Table 61: Format of test results & Sample calculation Name of Industry: XYZ Industries Test Date: 26 Nov 2005 Time: 10:00 to 12:00 hours Details of instruments used Measured parameter Voltage.
No 1 Description Power Analyser 2 3 4 Digital micro ohm meter Thermometer Tachometer Winding resistance Ambient temperature Operating speed Description of accuracy 0.2 Method2: Estimation of Motor Efficiency at Operating Load Format of data collection. The table also contains sample calculation of test results.8 87. p.5% for voltage 0.001ohm 0.7 1952.2 5355. current. power input.7 843.f. frequency th Sl.5% for current 5% for power at 3.1 rpm 26 .4 0.8 pf 0.0% for power at 30 kW and 0.2 741.Results 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Friction & windage loss Core loss at rated voltage Stator Copper loss at full load Rotor Copper loss at full load Stray loss Total losses Motor Efficiency at Full Load Uncertainty in efficiency estimation 370 1448. measurements and calculation of test results used in Method1 is given in Table 6. Table 62: Format of test results & Sample calculation Name of Industry: XYZ Industries Test Date: 26 Nov 2005 Time: 10:00 to 12:00 hours Details of instruments used Measured parameter Voltage.1C 0.2 below.0 kW and 0.2 pf 1.2 Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts % % Test conducted by: (Energy Auditing Firm) Test witnessed by: (Energy Manager) 6.
3 243.449 Volts Amp kW rpm Hz Ohms 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Friction & windage loss Core loss at actual load voltage Stator Copper loss at actual load Stray loss Rotor Copper loss Total losses 370 1441.1 85.2 1984 0.364 0.7 672.5 376.483 Volts Amp Hz Watts Ohms Ohms ºC Ohms 17 18 19 20 21 22 414 38.Motor Specifications 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Motor ID Make Driven equipment Frame Output Full load speed Voltage Full load current Frequency Insulation Class 120330 Jyoti Ltd.5 1463 49.7 21.7 3104. 1970 make Chilling plant compressor CD 225 37 kW 1465 rpm 415 Volts 66 Amp 50 Hz Class A 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 No load test Line Voltage Line Current Frequency No load power input Stator phase resistance measured at cold conditions Stator phase resistance after no load test Ambient Temperature Winding resistance at full load Measurements at actual load Line Voltage Line current Power input Operating speed Frequency Stator phase resistance at actual load Results 421 23 49.39 28..6 0.2 0.9 0.4 Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts % % Motor Efficiency at Operating Load Uncertainty in efficiency estimation Test conducted by: (Energy Auditing Firm) Test witnessed by: (Energy Manager) 27 .
y where X is the calculated result and y is the estimated standard deviation. Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (or GUM as it is now often called) was published in 1993 (corrected and reprinted in 1995) by ISO. X2. A calculated result.. r.7 7. 7. the region in which one guesses the error to be. r. X3 & X4. The uncertainty analysis tells us how confident one should be in the results obtained from a test.. The purpose of uncertainty analysis is to use information in order to quantify the amount of confidence in the result. ∂(X2) and so on in row 1 as shown. X3... X2. Xn) The uncertainty for the calculated result. based on GUM. Enter the values of X1. is expressed as 2 2 2 ∂r ∂r ∂r ∂r = × δx1 + × δx 2 + × δx3 + .e. assuming that the result r is a function of the four parameters X1.2 Methodology Uncertainty is expressed as X +/.. so that it can be done on simple spreadsheet applications.. y decreases thus increasing the confidence in the results. each term on RHS of the equation(1) can be approximated by: ∂r x ∂X1 = r(X1+∂X1) – r(X1) (2) ∂X 1 The basic spreadsheet is set up as follows..…. Copy column A across the following columns once for every variable in r (see table 7.. The focus of the ISO Guide or GUM is the establishment of "general rules for evaluating and expressing uncertainty in measurement that can be followed at various levels of accuracy “.1 Introduction UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS Uncertainty denotes the range of error. which is a function of measured variables X1. It is conve nient to place the values of the uncertainties ∂(X1). X2. X3.. The following methodology is a simplified version of estimating uncertainty at field conditions. X2. 28 .….5 (1) Where: ∂r δxi ∂r ∂Xi = Uncertainty in the result = Uncertainties in the measured variable Xi = Absolute sensitivity coefficient In order to simplify the uncertainty analysis.1).. As instrument accuracies are increased. i. X3 & X4 and the formula for calculating r in column A of the spreadsheet. Xn can be expressed as follows: r = f(X1. ∂X 2 ∂X 3 ∂X 1 0.
3) and putting the square root of their sum in A10. X2. X4' ) In row 9 enter row 8 minus A8 (for example. X2. X4) B ∂X1 C ∂ X2 D ∂ X3 X1 X2 X3+∂X3 X4 r =f(X1. X3. X2. To obtain the standard uncertainty on y. X2'. X4) r=f(X1. X3. cell A10 is set to the formula.. X3.f (X1. X3.X1) ∂ (r. X4' ) ∂ (r. X4) r =f(X1'. X4) r =f(X1. these individual contributions are squared. X2'. X2. That is. X3.X3)2 ∂ (r. X3. SQRT(SUM(B10+C10+D10+E10)) which gives the standard uncertainty on r. X4) r =f(X1'.X2) 2 10 ∂ (r) ∂ (r. X2. by entering ∂ (r.Table 71: Uncertainty evaluation sheet1 A B C 1 ∂X1 ∂ X2 2 3 X1 X1 X1 4 X2 X2 X2 5 X3 X3 X3 6 X4 X4 X4 7 8 r=f(X1. X4) D ∂ X3 X1 X2 X3 X4 r=f(X1. X4) r =f(X1. X4) r=f(X1. cell B9 becomes B8A8). X4) E ∂ X4 X1 X2 X3 X4 r=f(X1. X4) E ∂ X4 X1 X2 X3 X4+∂X4 r =f(X1. X1)=f (X1 +∂X1). ∂ (r. X3. X3'. added 2 together and then the square root taken. X2.X2)2 D ∂X3 X1 X2 X3+∂X3 X4 r =f(X1.2.. On recalculating the spreadsheet. X2. X1) in row 10 (Figure 7. X2. Table 72: Uncertainty evaluation sheet2 A 1 2 3 X1 X1+∂X1 X1 4 X2 X2 X2+∂ X2 5 X3 X3 X3 6 X4 X4 X4 7 8 r=f(X1. X3. X4) E ∂X4 X1 X2 X3 X4+∂X4 r =f(X1. X3.X1) ∂ (r. as in Table 7. X2. X4) Add ∂X1 to X1 in cell B3 and ∂ X2 to X2 in cell C4 etc. X3. ∂ (r) Table 73: Uncertainty evaluation sheet3 A B C 1 ∂X1 ∂X2 2 3 X1 X1+∂X1 X1 4 X2 X2 X2+∂ X2 5 X3 X3 X3 6 X4 X4 X4 7 8 r=f(X1. X3.X4)2 29 .) etc. X3. X3'.X3) ∂ (. X3. X2. X3. X2.3. X2. X2.X4) ∂ (r. X2. This gives the values of ∂ (r. X4) 9 ∂ (r. X3…) . X2. X1) as shown in table 7. X3. X2. X4). the cell B8 becomes f(X1+ ∂ X1.
If actual calibration certificates are used.5. Table 75: Instrument accuracy table Instrument error table δ Unl If % accuracy is known at operating point.50% 0.002 δ Τα δf 0. It is necessary that all instruments are calibrated in the measurement ranges and the error at measurement points be known.4.50% 0.50% 0. based on instrument specified accuracies and calibration certificates. one parameter at a time.00 0.002 1.92 δ Rphcold δ Rphnl 0.12 δ Pnl 0. calculate full scale error and enter actual value in this row 0.023 90 Class A 75 An instrument accuracy table can be prepared as given in table 7.50% 0.01 In Table 7.50% 9. the methodology for estimating uncertainty in motor efficiency testing is explained below.7. 30 . absolute value each uncertainty term from the instrument accuracy table is added to the corresponding measured value.6. This example refers to measurements and methodology given in Method2 to estimate efficiency of a motor at the operating load. enter % value in this row If % accuracy is known at full scale only.50% 2. Table 74: Test Motor specifications Motor specifications Motor connection No of poles Output Voltage Full load current Frequency Speed Slip Efficiency Insulation Class Reference Temperature corresponding to insulation class kW Volts Amp Hz rpm % % C Units Value delta 4 37 415 66 50 1465 0. Specification of the motor is given in table 7.3 Uncertainty evaluation of motor efficiency testing: Based on above discussions. error at the measured value should be used in the instrument accuracy table.11 δ Ιnl 0.
79 87.2.31 1777.023 741.00 1984.023 741.7 843.455 206.19 5355.31 1787.000000 % 0.9 49. Rphnl Ambient Temperature. Rphcold Stator phase resistance after no load test.455 206.7 843.69 370 1354.023 741.9 0.00020 0.392 28. Inl No load power input.64 0.00 1993.7 843.0 0.2 421.Table 76: Effects of instrument error for each parameter No load test Measurements Voltage.73 0. 5.0 23.69 370 1367.4% 0.9 49.85 1992.4 ± 0.19 5355.79 87.79 87.2 36136.455 206.79 87.9 49.364 0.73 0.66 370 1366.1) Stator resistance corrected to full load Stator Copper loss.7 843.0 23.no load Constant loss Friction & windage loss Core loss at rated voltage Stator Copper loss at full load Slip at Full load Stray losses Full load Rotor input at Full load Rotor copper loss at full load Total losses Efficiency at Full Load load Delta Delta Square % uncertainty in efficiency estimation Volts A Watts Ohms Ohms C Hz % % Ohms Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts p.023 741. f Calculations & Results % Stray losses Full load ( from fig.19 5355.00000 0.9 49.000000 0.62 370 1365.19 5355.0 23.28 1982.2 421.2% 0.9 49.023 741.69 370 1367.79 87.73 0.19 5355.9 49.25 0.73 0.85 1975.023 741.85 1982.00010 0.12 1984.2 36136.19 5355.2 421.2 1.2 36136.31 1777.455 206.4% 0. U Line Current.000000 0.1 23.00043 0.7 843.2 36136.390 28.457 206.00 1984.84 1982.31 1777.31 1777.364 0.2 36136.61 370 1377.49 1982.2 421.0 23.000000 423.0 0.75% 1.390 28.364 0.0 23.85 1982.4% 0. Pinl Cold winding resistance.2 421.364 0.023 741.4% 0.69 370 1367.455 207.79 87.0 23.4) % friction & windage losses at full load ( from para 5.34 1776.00 1984.364 0.364 0.9 49.38 1775.0 0.364 0.453 206.2 36136.7 843.2 421.023 741. Ta Frequency.0 0.4% 0.390 28.2% .73 0.00 1984.00030 0.31 1777.000000 0.390 29.7 843.9 49.0 0.19 5355.79 87.19 5355.390 28.000000 0.4% 0.73 0.366 0.390 28.00056 0.79 87.390 28.2 36136.2 36136.4% 0.7 843.00028 0.4% 0.455 208.2 The motor efficiency at operating load is thus expressed as 87.69 370 1367.0 0.000000 0.u Watts Watts Watts Watts % 421 23 1984 0.85 1982.0% 0.00 1984.
the uncertainty in efficiency would reduce from 0.7. . the error can be limited to 1.2 & 87. This means that the actual motor efficiency lies somewhere in the range of (87. Note that the % error in no load power input measurement using the portable power analyser in the above measurement is 5% (from calibration table). calculate the savings using both efficiency values separately. between 87.2 ) and ( 87.0%. In that case.4 –0.4+0.6%. i. If a power analyser which is specifically calibrated to measure power accurately at low p.2% to 0.f.1%.2%. When calculating energy saving by replacement of this motor with a high efficiency motor.2). which can help in building up optimistic and pessimistic scenarios.e.4 Comments on Uncertainty Analysis: The uncertainty in efficiency is 0. is used.
8 8. The contents of such a system will vary from plant to plant and can include some the following features: 8. which accounts for the time value of money.2 Motor identifier Date of purchase Manufacturer and model Enclosure Rated power Synchronous speed (number of poles) Frame size Rated voltage Full load current Full load speed Efficiency and power factor at 50 per cent.1 GUIDELINES FOR IDENTIFYING ENERGY SAVING OPPORTNITIES Preparation of History Sheet It is recommended to establish a record of all relevant information about the motor.1.2.1. 33 .2 8. motor number and repair priority Plant description. manufacturer and model Location in plant Information on spare components Load type Duty cycle Estimated load Starting method Checklist of opportunities Estimate life cycle cost of equipments Life cycle cost analysis is a proven and accepted financial principle. which involves: • • • Assessing purchase price Assessing operating costs Using a method. 75 per cent and full load Motor maintenance log • • • • • 8.1.3 Date and reasons for failure Repairs and repair shop details Motor condition Maintenance history Scheduled maintenance Plant records • • • • • • • • 8.1 Plant number.1 Motor record • • • • • • • • • • • 8.
There are two efficiency catagories of efficiency viz.2. Voltage imbalance leads to higher losses.2 Maintenance • • • • • • Machine cleaning: To ensure that ventilation and motor cooling is proper Machine set up and alignment: To ensure that the belt drives and couplings are set up properly. which have an efficiency of 96% to 98%. Replacement of worm gear can be done if application is feasible. Savings can be 5 to 15% of the existing power consumption Improve Drive Transmission efficiency • • Vbelt drives may have an efficiency of 85% to 90%. 8.2. Replace them with modern synthetic flat belts. 8. If purchasing new motors.6 At light loads (30% or less). air compressors. Operation in STAR connection for under loaded motors • • • 8.2. Maintenance of electrical connections in the starter and motor terminal box: The loose connections are unsafe and source of heat losses.7 Use of High efficiency Motors • • Saving vary from 5% for a 5 HP motor to 1% for a 100 HP motor. operation of ‘Delta’ connected motor in ‘Star’ connection can save energy. If the load is below 30% most of the time.2. new or interchanging with another load.8 Follow good rewinding practices • Rewind the motors as per the original winding data. the motor can be permanently connected in Star. Bearing selection. A Helical bevel gear has efficiency of about 95%.4 Proper sizing of motors • • 8. though have the quality of largely reducing ratios comes with inconsistent efficiency varying from 75% to 90%.2. automatic StarDelta changeover Switches (based on current or load sensing) can be used. If a motor is oversized and continuously loaded below 30% of its rated shaft load. exhaust fan.2. users are advised to specify efficiencies of new motors as per Eff1 values of IEEMA standards. Values of motor efficiency as given in IEEMA Standard 192000 can be used. lights etc. 8. Worm gears.5 The efficiency of motors operating at loads below 40% is likely to be poor and energy savings are possible by replacing these with properly sized motors.2. Always mention efficiency values and do not just mention ‘high efficiency motor’. can be avoided. unusual temperature rise etc indicate problems Electrical performance assessment: Regularly measure supply voltage variations. • 8. purchase high efficiency motor of proper size. fitting techniques and lubrication: Verify that they are lubricated and sealed properly Machine condition assessment: Vibration. during prolonged stoppage of production machines can be avoided 8. Idle running of auxiliaries like cooling towers. pumps etc. Eff1 & Eff2.3 Avoiding Idle/Redundant running of motors • • Prolonged idle running of machine tools.Compare life cycle cost when buying new motors. 34 . conveyors. To get good high efficiency motors. but if the load exceeds 50% some times.
power at a measured voltage) for all new motors. This can increase core losses. including motors returning after rewinding. Keep data on no load inputs (current.• • • • Do not allow rewinders to use open flame or heat the stators above 350°C for extracting the old. Sand blasting of the core and/or grinding of laminations can create shorts in the core. Measure motor winding resistance after each rewinding 35 . leading to higher core losses. burned out winding.
341 HP 1 ºF 1 Seconds 36 .ANNEXURE1: UNIT CONVERSION FACTORS Parameter Voltage Current Resistance Speed Power Temperature time SI Units Volts Ampere Ohms rpm 1 kW 1K 1 Seconds METRIC Units Volts Ampere Ohms rpm 1 kW 1 ºC 1 Seconds US Units Volts Ampere Ohms rpm 1.
00 0.00 1.3 lag 415V.75 0. 0. 0.55 37 .96 3.15 0.3 lag 415V. 400 A. 0. 200 A.80 0.8 lag 415V. 20 A.15 0.3 lag 415V.00 0.42 0.96 3.84 3.60 Power: Range 415V.70 49.8 lag 415V.00 1.95 9. 0. 50 A.35 0. 30 A. 200 A. 30 A. 100 A.8 lag 415V. % Error 0.60 2.67 0.00 1. UPF 415V. 550 A. UPF 415V.20 Current: Sr.8 lag 415V. 0.70 39. 200 A.1 0.60 0. UPF 415V.00 0. 550 A. 0. UPF 415V.61 0.8 lag 415V.30 0. UPF 415V. 0.08 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Standard meter reading. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Standard meter reading. 400 A.61 0. UPF Standard meter reading.00 1.3 lag 415V.80 29. 0.1 198 298 397 497 % Error 1. 0.72 3. 0. No.61 0.3 lag 415V. 0. Amp 4.00 0. 5 A. 50 A. Amp 5 10 20 30 40 50 100 200 300 400 500 Test meter reading. 10 A. 0.8 lag 415V. 0.0 1. UPF 415V. 50 A. 0. 10 A.20 3.22 0. 5 A.3 lag 415V. 600 kW Voltage: Sr.8 lag 415V.00 1. UPF 415V.2 4.00 0. UPF 415V.75 0. 0.5 1660 2050 1300 3330 4110 2580 6640 8210 3860 9960 12300 6450 16600 20600 12900 33200 41100 25700 66500 82300 51400 13300 16500 70300 18300 22700 Test meter reading. 550 A. 30 A.3 lag 415V.90 19. No.21 0.25 0. Watts 622. 20 A.8 lag 415V.33 0.3 lag 415V.3 100 202 301 401 501 reading. 20 A.3 lag 415V. 10 A.21 0.67 0. 400 A.6 99.ANNEXURE2: CALIBRATION TABLE Instrument: Power Analyser Range: 0600V. 0.8 lag 415V. 0.00 1. Watts 648 1660 2075 1245 3320 4150 2490 6640 8300 3735 9960 12450 6225 16600 20750 12450 33200 41500 24900 66400 83000 49800 132800 166000 68475 182600 228250 % Error 4. 1000 A. 100 A. Volts 50 100 200 300 400 500 Test Volts meter 50.90 1. 5 A. 100 A. 0.
no. 080 . 011 . HSIDC Sector 59.net Electroncis Regional Test Laboratory Okhla Industrial Area. Source: www. Pin – 560080 Tel No. Pin – 462022 Tel No. 04116 260384/606302 Central Power Research Institute Prof. Jaipur. 0129 – 25414855 Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited Technical Services Department. 0141 – 2751636 Electronics Test and Development Centre 38 .org Belz Calibration Laboratory Shed No. india. 011 . 2751 506. Pin – 602003 Tel No. Bhopal. india.2643182 Email erda@wilnetonline. Faridabad.nablindia. Raman Road. New Delhi. 8066. 0129 . india. Gujarat.3601213. Makarpura Road. Phase II. Piplani. India. 0265 . india.2751884 Fax No. MIT. Pin – 302017 Tel No. Pin – 390010 Tel No. 080 . Vadodara.26386219 / 26384400 Fax No. 133 A. B. 0265 . Bangalore. Tamil Nadu. Sadashivnanagar Sub P.ANNEXURE3: LIST OF NABL ACCREDITED LABORATORIES The following is a list of NABL accredited laboratories specialised in calibration of instruments. 0141 . Karnataka.3606277 Electrical Research and Development Association P. Haryana.2642942/642964/642557 Fax No. 07552506328/2506692 Fax No. No. 760. Delhi. india.3602329 Fax No.O. S Block. India.Malviya Industrial Area.in Electroncis Test and Development Centre STQC Directorate . Kakkalur. V. Madhya Pradesh. Pin – 121004 Tel No. C. Pin – 110020 Tel No.2751636.26384583 Email ertln@ernet.25239060 Fax No. 07552500419/2201590 Central Electrical Testing Laboratory District Tiruvallur. Rajasthan.
Mohali.B108. Tamil Nadu. Maharashtra. 044 . Mumbai. 020 . "Milton Corners" No. 0471 330558 Palyam Engineers Pvt. india. Pune. Guindy. 022 – 25229016 Larsen & Toubro Limited Quality Assurance Laboratory. 022 . 2344684 Fax No. Pin – 400022 Tel No. Bangalore. Industrial Area. 17. Pin – 410005 Tel No.net. india. E lectrical Sector. Pin – 700056 Tel No.28581401 Fax No. Mumbai.O. SAS Nagar. Maharashtra.Sion P. Punjab.256707.3355238 Fax No. 080 – 3350716 Regional Testing Centre 65/1.in Electronics Test and Development Centre 4/2 .25220302/25220303/25220304 Fax No. india.5539369 Email etdcpune@pn3. india. Pin – 160059 Tel No. Electrical & Electronics Division. Kerala. Kolkata.256639. Pin – 695016 Tel No. Area 5th Block.net Institute for Design of Electrical Measuring Instruments Swatantryaveer Tatya Tope Marg.in Electronics Test and Development Centre Agriculture College Campus. 080 . Engineering College P.25537146/5537306 Fax No.O. 022 . 044 – 2344684 Regional Testing Centre (E.I.vsnl. india.600 032 Tel No.R) 39 . Powai. india. India. Raod. Maharashtra. india. 0172 . 020 . Shivajinagar. Ltd. Rajajinagar. Chunabhatti. Thiruvananthapuram. Pin . Pin – 560010 Tel No. Phase 8.2343634. West Bengal.S.256 711 Fax No. Chennai. Pin – 400072 Tel No. 03325645520/25645370 Email etdccal@vsnl.. B. S. 0172 256681 Email etdc@sancharnet. 022 – 28581023 Meter Testing and Standard Laboratory Department of Electrical Inspectorate. T. Karnataka. GST Raod.
68202 Tel No. india.com 40 . B. 04842575975 Yadav Metrolgoy Limited P.R. Kolkata. Road. 02492492310 Email balmukund. Pin . Pin . Box No. 0249 . Coimbatore.2562612 Fax No. 0422 . India. 0332577 4055.700 108 Tel No. 30. India.O Kochi. Rajasthan.2492300 04 Fax No. 25772482 Fax No. Kerala. Puram PO. West Bengal.vyas@securemeters. 0422 – 2560473 Sophisticated Test & Instrumentation Centre Kochi University P. 033 2577 1353 Small Industries Testing and Research Centre 83 & 84. O. Pin – 641006 Tel No. Tamil Nadu. 6822022. india.111/112 . 04842575908/2576697 Fax No. Pratap Nagar Industrial Area. T. Pin – 313003 Tel No. Udaipur. Avarampalyam Raod K.
IEEE Transactions on industry Applications. Nailsen . no. de Almeda et. 25. IS 4889: 1968 (reaffirmed 1996): Methods of determination of efficiency of rotating electrical machines 6. cage Induction motorsAnibal T. IEC 61972: 2002: Method for determining losses and efficiency of three phase cage induction motors 4.Part2 2.IEEE Transactions on industry Applications. of Energy. IEC 600 342: Proposed draft document dated August 2003 3.US Dept. no. Vol. IEEE Standard 1121996: IEEE Test procedure for poly phase induction motors and generators 5. IEC 600 342: 1996 Rotating electrical machines. Vol.ANNEXURE4: REFERENCES 1. Comparative Analysis of IEEE 112B and IEC 342 Efficiency Testing Standards Using Stray losses in Low voltage Three Phase.2 March April 2002 9. al . 2001 41 .Specification 8. 38. IS 325: 1996: Three Phase induction motors. IS 4029: 1967 ( Fifth Reprint 1984): Guide for testing Three phase induction motors 7. Performance Optimization Tips: Measuring the Heart Rate of Motor Systems: Electric Current :Don Casada – Energy Matters.2 MayJune 1989 10. Can Field Tests Prove Motor Efficiency? Richard L.
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