CAT 100 MS DOS Notes Introduction to DOS

Tutorial 1 Summary: Understanding DOS In this tutorial, you learn that operating system software plays an important role in the management and use of a computer system. DOS is the predominant operating system software used on IBM microcomputers and IBM compatibles. The primary storage media used on microcomputer systems are the hard disk and the diskette. Diskettes differ in their storage capacities and sizes and must be used in disk drive units that support them. Documents and programs are stored in files on a diskette or on a hard disk. Each file has a filename that you provide. The filename identifies the file's location on the disk and its contents. When you save a file to disk, you might also need to provide a drive name so that a document is stored on the correct drive. After you boot a computer system, DOS displays the DOS prompt unless your computer system is customized. You can enter internal or external commands at the DOS prompt. In this tutorial the following DOS commands will be reviewed. VER command to display the version of DOS installed on a computer system DATE & TIME commands to set, or verify, the date and time used by a computer system CLS command to clear the screen DOSKEY command to load a Terminate-and Stay Resident program to keep track of commands that are entered at the DOS prompt. You recall those prior commands with the Up and Down Arrow keys FORMAT command to prepare a diskette for use on a computer system. The Format capacity switch allows for formatting double-density diskettes in high-density or extra-high density disk drives and high-density diskettes in extra-high density drives. Changing a default drive by specifying the name of the drive to be used as the new default drive DISKCOPY command used to make duplicates copies of a diskette [DOS command]/? Help switch to obtain help information on any DOS command

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we learn how to display directories. or a hard drive DIR /P command (Pause switch) to display directory listings/filenames one screen at a time DIR /W command (Wide switch) to display directory listings/filenames in five columns across the screen. extension. and can override a switch in the DOS environment C:/> We will usually work with the DOS command line interface at the DOS prompt DOSSHELL command loads and the DOS Shell graphical user interface. another drive. DIR command to display a list of the names of files stored on a diskette in the current drive. you may explore its screen features and its windows 2 . The following DOS commands will be reviewed. We also can reverse this order by placing a minus sign in front of the sort order parameter DIR /L command (lowercase switch) to display directory listings/filenames in the lowercase rather than uppercase. we use the DOSKEY to recall and edit previously entered commands We substitute the question mark ? and asterisk * wildcards for part or all of a filename to select groups of files with similar filenames. DIR /O command (Order switch) and its optional sort order parameters to display directory listings/filenames in order by name. Although we will not be using the DOS Shell. size. data. As we work with various switches for the DIR command. and time.Tutorial 2 Summary: Displaying Directories In this tutorial. We can display a directory with these default switches. We also can combine these two wildcards with each other and with switches to control the directory display SET command to specify default switches for the DIR command and to view the contents of the DOS environment.

the Prompt for Verification switch (/P) asks if you want to delete the file(s) 3 . or target. TYPE | MORE command (filter) to display the contents of an ASCII file one screen at a time PRINT command to print the contents of an ASCII (text) file COPY command copies the contents of a file (called the source file) and produces a new file (called the destination.Tutorial 3 Summary: Working with Files In this tutorial. we will learn the importance of ASCII files and study many of their features. a different diskette. TYPE command to view the contents of an ASCII file. file). and a hard drive or other storage media using a different or the same filename REN command to rename a file or a group of files DEL command to delete a file or a group of files. You can copy files to the same diskette. The following DOS commands will be reviewed.

The COPY command to copy files from one subdirectory to another.. The following DOS commands will be reviewed.Tutorial 4 Summary: Using Subdirectories In this tutorial we learn how to work with subdirectories from the DOS prompt. 4 . and the /A switch displays the lines in the directory tree with ASCII characters At the DOS prompt you can use the DIR command to display contents of subdirectories. or make. directory. MD command to create. You can also print a directory tree from the DOS prompt with the TREE command and included filenames by directory. the /F switch includes filenames with the directory tree. command to change to the directory above the current directory CD\ command to change from the current directory to the root directory MOVE command moves one or more files to another drive. a subdirectory CD command to change from one directory to another CD. or drive and directory PROMPT command customizes the appearance of the DOS command TREE command displays a diagram of the directory tree.

cleans or removes computer viruses from a diskette or hard drive 5 . a DOS utility that optimizes directories and eliminates or reduces file fragmentation. MSAV command. We will develop a plan for reorganizing directories on the Tutorial Disk. The following DOS commands will be reviewed. We will use commands at the DOS prompt to move subdirectories and their files.Tutorial 5 Summary: Managing a Hard Disk In this tutorial. Modify the directory structure from the DOS prompt so that we can more easily and quickly locate files and access information on a diskette. if necessary. DIR/S command searches through subdirectories for filenames that match the file specification and then displays the full path of matching filenames RD command to remove empty subdirectories from the directory structure of a diskette or hard drive. as well as rename and remove subdirectories. DEFRAG command. we learn how to evaluate the organization of directories on a hard disk and diskette. a DOS utility that checks for the presence of computer viruses and.

and differential backups as well as their advantages and disadvantages. incremental. BACKUP command backs up an entire hard drive. all of its subdirectories. The importance of developing a backup strategy will be emphasized.Tutorial 6 Summary: Backing Up a Hard Disk In this tutorial we learn how to use MSBACKUP to backup files from a hard disk to diskettes or other storage media and to restore files from diskettes or other storage media to a hard disk. or a single file to another disk or other storage media 6 . a group of files. or a single file onto a set of backup diskettes or other storage media RESTORE command restores an entire hard disk. a group of files. a group of files. or a single file from a set of backup diskettes or other storage media DELTREE command deletes a directory tree. a directory. The use of full. a directory. and all files in the specified directories XCOPY command copies a directory and its subdirectories and files. The following DOS commands will be reviewed. We will learn how to integrate these backups in an overall backup strategy. We learn how to perform a compatibility test and to configure MSBACKUP for the hardware in a computer system.

We will use the DIR command and its Attribute switch and the Attribute command to understand attributes assigned to files in a directory and to change those attributes. You may also use the SYS command to prepare a boot disk by copying operating system files to a newly formatted diskette. CHKDSK command examines the status of a hard disk or diskette. this command converts lost clusters to files DIR/A command displays a directory of files with a specific attribute when used with the Attribute switch 7 . examine technical information about the computer system and examine different techniques and different levels of protection for tracking deleted files. The following DOS commands will be reviewed.Tutorial 7 Summary: Using Troubleshooting Tools In this tutorial. and produces a report on disk memory usage. ATTRIB command to display and change file attributes using common switches. checks for the presence of errors. when used with the Fixup switch (/F). we learn to prepare a boot disk with the System switch when you first format a diskette. We will also check the status of hard disks.

Tutorial 8 Summary: Using Batch Files In this tutorial. we learn the importance of batch files in automating routine DOS command operations. a text editor program for creating and editing ASCII or text files PATH command displays the DOS path PAUSE command temporarily pauses the execution of a batch file and displays a message to press any key to continue REM command documents batch file operations 8 . [batch filename] command executes the contents of a batch file ECHO command controls the display of batch file commands EDIT command loads the MS DOS editor. redirect the output and modify the DOS path.exe) to create both simple and complex batch files using proper documentation. The importance of the DOS path will be examined. We will view. We use the MS-DOS Editor (Edit. Batch files will be tested to guarantee their effectiveness. The following DOS commands will be reviewed.

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