Norwegian Grammar.

1 THE SENTENCE
As in all the other Germanic languages, sentences in Norwegian can be described schematically containing three fields: a prefield, midfield and backfield. The prefield contains only one element. More often than not it is the subject. If the sentence is a question the prefield is empty. The midfield and backfield can be subdivided in three fields each. The word order and content of the subfields is different for the different sentence types.

1.1 WORD ORDER
The basic word order in main clauses in Norwegian is as follows: Prefield Han he har has Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial kanskje maybe Backfield Verb lest read Object denne boka Adverbial i forrige uke.

this book.the in last week

I forrige uke har In last week has Har

han he du

kanskje maybe kanskje maybe

lest read lest read

denne boka. this book.the denne boka? this book.the

Have you

Immediately following the prefield in the midfield is the subfield Finite which contains the tensed main verb and the auxiliary verb. Then there is a position for the subject, if it is not placed in the prefield. The final element in the midfield is an optional adverbial. In the first position in the backfield we find the verb. Next follows the object, and finally an optional additional adverbial.

1.2 THE PREFIELD
In Norwegian almost all sentence elements can be in the prefield. Typically one will find the subject here, but adverbs also frequently occupy this position, and more rarely the object or a particle. Prefield Han He fant found han han han faktisk ballen. ball.the Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial faktisk actually faktisk Backfield Verb Object pengene Adverbial under senga.

money.the under bed.the pengene. pengene under senga. under senga.

Under senga fant Faktisk Pengene Ut out fant fant

kastet han threw he

If an element occurs in the prefield its position in the mid- or backfield remains empty. Apart from the Finite-subfield, all fields can be empty. Prefield Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial Backfield Verb Object Adverbial

Vent! wait! Hun she sover. sleeps

The cleft-sentence offers the same freedom of choice with respect to what has to be said first in the sentence, with the exception of the sentence adverbial in (1d), where ‘*’ indicates ungrammaticality. Note that the subjunction is optional (indicated by the parentheses) when something other than the subject comes first. (1) a. Det var ham som faktisk fant pengene under senga. it was him that actually found monye.the under bed.the ‘It was him that actually found the money under the bed.’ b. Det var under senga (som) han faktisk fant pengene. c. Det var pengene (som) han faktisk fant under senga. d. * Det var faktisk (som) han fant pengene under senga.

1.3 THE FINITE FIELD
The verb in the finite field is always conjugated (tempus), generally by adding an ending to the stem, e.g. les-er ‘reads.’ In this way an utterance is anchored in a communicative context, i.e. before, simultaneously, or after it. Without this context it is impossible to ascertain whether an utterance is true or false. The sentence Per leser denne boka ‘Per is reading this book’ can only be true, if Per is actually reading the book at the time of speech. In contrast to English, the tensed verb is always the second element in the Norwegian main clauses. This means that only one element can precede the tensed verb in the prefield. If there is an auxiliary in the clause, this is placed in the second position of the prefield, and the main verb is placed in the backfield. Prefield Johan John har has Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial faktisk actually Backfield Verb funnet found Object pengene Adverbial under senga.

money.the under bed.the

’ Normally.Han fant faktisk pengene under senga. Prefield Anneli Anneli elsker loves Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial Backfield Verb Object Adverbial meg. there were three men in garden. The subject is often a pronoun or noun phrase. this pronoun or noun phrase is generally the subject. The order of the fields in the finite field is different in main clauses and in other types of sentences.’ b. me meg.4 THE SUBJECT All simple sentences contain two main elements: a subject and a finite verb. the subject is the agent. there’ that refers to the real subject which follows later on in the clause: (2) a. (1) a. If there are more pronouns or noun phrases in the sentence.the ‘He heard the car. John threw ball. Det er vanskelig å forstå. Det var tre menn i hagen. If there is no action in the sentence. he heard car. Han hørte bilen.12. Kanskje elsker Anneli . the subject often undergoes an experience. it is difficult to understand b.9-1.’ The subject can also be an anticipatory element: det ‘it. If there is only a pronoun or a noun phrase together with the verb.the ‘There were three men in the garden. the subject occurs either in the prefield or in the subject field of the midfield immediately following the finite field. see 1. 1. The subject and the verb constitute the core of the sentence. John kastet ballen bort.the away ‘John threw away the ball.

5 SENTENCE ADVERBIALS Sentential adverbials contribute something to the content of the clause.  (1) a.the ‘Anna cannot come along to the party. Så hadde jo formodentlig guttene nok ikke lest bøkene.the had after-all presumably probably not read books. (4) a. Guttene hadde jo formodentlig nok ikke lest bøkene.maybe loves Anneli me When the subject is either a noun phrase or a stressed pronoun.’ c. he has thus a chance ‘So he had a chance.the ‘Then the boys after all had presumably most likely not read the books. you shall in-front-of all come in time. boys. Så hadde guttene jo formodentlig nok ikke lest bøkene.E ‘You must above all be there in time.’ . it may occur between the sentence adverbials: (3) a. then had boys.’ b. Du skal fremfor alt komme i tide. d. she loves him 1.’ c.the ‘The boys had after all presumably most likely not read the books. Anna kan ikke bli med på festen Anna can not become with on party. or deny or reveal the speaker’s attitude to what he or  she is saying. Hun elsker ham.the after-all presumably probably not read books. highlight parts of a clause.’ b. They can combine  clauses. Han har altså en sjanse. he loves her b. Han elsker henne. Så hadde jo guttene formodentlig nok ikke lest bøkene. Some pronouns have a separate subject case form: nominative.

she won unfortunately Different kinds of words and phrases can function as sentential adverbials.d.’ selv ‘even. and in the final position is the negation.’ så ‘so.’ or aldri ‘never.’ b. Prefield x Jens Jens Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial Verb har sikkert møtt has surely met Jens Jens Backfield Object Adverbial Anna.’ sammen ‘together.’ bare ‘just.’ slik ‘such. Anna har nå heldigvis ikke kjøpt kjolen. Next follow adverbials that express the speaker’s attitude.’  1. Han vil vel sannsynligvis ikke hjelpe.’ .’ nå ‘now. the adverbial combining clauses comes first. he will well probably not help ‘He will most likely probably not help.’ knapt ‘hardly.’ and subordinate clauses: så vidt jeg vet ‘as far as I know.the ‘Anna has fortunately not bought the dress. For example single adverbs: kanskje ‘maybe. (2) a. only. a negative clause is used.’ Sentential adverbials most often appear in the Prefield or in the Midfield.’ da ‘then.’ The most common sentence adverbs in written Norwegian are ikke ‘not. Anna Sannsynligvis har probably has møtt Anna.’ participial phrases: ærlig talt ‘honestly speaking. Anna has now fortunately not bought dress.’ også ‘also. but they may also occur in the Backfield. often  with negative adverbials such as ikke ‘not. Hun vant dessverre. met Anna If there are more than one sentential adverbials in the Midfield.’ preposition phrases: i hvert fall ‘in any case.6 NEGATION When the speaker wants to deny that something is true.’ hvor ‘where.

Du kommer jo allikevel aldri i tide. you come after-all anyway never in time. (2) a. Ikke under noen omstendigheter vil jeg akseptere denne dommen. If there is an auxiliary in the clause. Prefield Midfield x Finite Subject Adverbial Verb Jens har x møtt Jens has met Jens Jens møter meets Backfield Object Adverbial Anna. never have I seen anything so beautiful 1.7 THE VERB PHRASE As in English.E ‘After all you never arrive in time anyway. Aldri har jeg sett noe så vakkert. and the main verb. Han kunne sannsynligvis nok heller ikke nå det. he could probably surely either not reach it ‘He probably couldn´t reach it either. this is placed in the Midfield. which is untensed. not an eye was dry b. Anna . and its position in the Backfield is empty.’ The negations ikke ‘not’ and knapt ‘hardly’ can only occur in the beginning of the clause if the clause modifies another phrase.If there are several sentential adverbials in the clause. Aldri ‘never’ can stand alone in the Prefield. However. the verb in Norwegian generally stands in the beginning of the verb phrase in the backfield. not under any circumstances will I accept this sentence. it occupies the finite position in the Midfield. stands in the verb position in the Backfield.’ b. (1) a. if the main verb is tensed. the negation always come in the  final position. Anna Anna. Ikke et øye var tørt.the c.

Nå kaster hun ballen ut igjen.’ b. * Jeg kommer ikke til København på søndag. Jeg skal stoppe. I shall stop .’ kunne ‘could’). the most important rule for the order of these is that the adverbials of place generally precedes the adverbials of time: (2) a. he lays always two meters to ‘He always adds two meters.’ There can be many different kinds of adverbials in the Backfield.’ bli ‘become’). I come not to Copenhagen on Sunday ‘I’m not coming to Copenhagen on Sunday.’ c.’ være ‘be’).the out again ‘Now she throws the ball out again.’ b.8.the up in book. Some verbs are closely connected to adverbial particles and prepositions.8 AUXILIARY VERBS Auxiliary verbs co-occur with the main verb and provide several ways of expressing time relations in the clause. tense auxiliaries (ha ‘have. Hun har skrevet adressen opp i boka. Modals  generally co­occur with the infinitive form of the main verb: (1) a.’ 1.’ skulle ‘should. Han legger alltid to meter til. and copula verbs (være ‘be.1 Modal auxiliaries Modal auxiliaries express the speaker’s attitude to what he/she is saying. There are several groups of auxiliaries: modal auxiliaries (måtte ‘must. As in English. and after that comes the adverbials.’ But they still always appear in the adverbial field: (1) a. passive auxiliaries (bli ‘become.The object always follows the verb.the on table. 1.the on Monday “You must lay the book on the table on Monday. she has written address.the ‘She has written down the address in the book. now throws she ball. such as: opp ‘up’ and ut ‘out. Du skal legge boka på bordet på mandag.’ være ‘be’). you shall lay book.

’ b. I will ask you about a favour ‘I’m going to ask you a favour. may. will. Jeg vil be deg om en tjeneste.’ b. men det er også mulig at han er på loftet. Jeg er sikker på at han kan være her. I am sure on that he can be here ‘I’m sure that he can be here. is said to. ougth to.‘I will stop. Hun må ikke gå ut i dag. Anna can swim 1000 meters b. Noen bør hjelpe henne. capability (4) ‘must. I want not eat more bananas ‘I don’t want to eat more bananas.’ necessity (3) ‘will.’ volition (4) .’ necessity (3) ‘can.’ (ii) Something that the speaker thinks is necessary: (3) a.’ Infinitive skulle kunne måtte burde ville Present skal kan må bør vil Past skulle kunne måtte burde ville Perfect skullet kunnet måttet — villet Meaning ‘shall. someone should help her b. have to. be able to. ha can be gone home but it is also possible that he is on attic.’ Modal auxiliaries can express: (i) Something the speaker thinks is possible: (2) a.’ possibility (2). Jeg vil ikke spise flere bananer. Han kan være gått hjem. she must not go out today (iii) Capability or volition: (4) a. want to.’ necessity (3) ‘should.the ‘He may have gone home but it is also possible that he is in the attic. Anna kan svømme 1000 meter.

  Time is expressed by the auxiliaries ha ‘have’ and være ‘be’ which denote that something  is completed.the ‘It will be a big problem for us in the future. he is already arrived ‘He has already arrived. Det burde kunne la seg gjøre.’ A verb in simple present tense may also express future: (2) Jeg reiser til Paris i morgen. Han er allerede ankommet.The modal auxiliaries are generally positioned initially in the verb phrase. I shall travel to Paris tomorrow ‘I’m going to Paris tomorrow. Det vil være et stort problem for oss i fremtiden. I travel to Paris tomorrow ‘I’m going to Paris tomorrow. it ought can let itself do ‘It should be possible. he must can run faster ‘He must be able to run faster.’ Passive is expressed by the auxiliaries bli ‘become’ and være ‘be. and ville ‘would’ and skulle ‘should’ which denote that something will  happen in the future. Han må kunne løpe fortere. Han har kjøpt en ny bil.2 Other auxiliaries In addition to the modal auxiliaries. (1) a. Several modal auxiliaries can co-occur: (5) a.8. Norwegian like the other Germanic languages has  auxiliaries that express time and the passive.’ c. it will be a big problem for us in future. he has bought a new car b. Jeg skal reise til Paris i morgen.’ b.’ d.’ 1. .’ followed by the past participle form of the main verb.

(3) a.the ‘She should have been able to foresee the problem.future Tense — passive As in the other Germanic languages. Hun burde ha kunnet forutse problemet. he can be become sent home by boss.the his ‘He may have been sent home by his boss.the yet ‘He has not read the book yet. passive Tense — active Tense — active . Var du i York i forrige uke? . Han ble kjørt over av en bil i går. Han er plaget av mygg. Han har ikke lest boka ennå.9 THE MAIN CLAUSE The main clause is the most basic kind of utterance. she ought have could foresee problem.’ b. Forrige uke var jeg i York. he became driven over by a car yesterday ‘He was hit by a car yesterday.’ c. he is tormented by mosquitoes Infinitive være ha ville bli Present er har vil blir Past var hadde ville ble Perfect vært hatt villet blitt Meaning Tense — active.’ b. he has not read book. There are three types of main  clauses: 1. The proper main clause. Han kan være blitt sendt hjem av sjefen sin. different auxiliaries can be combined to express different aspects of the action’s process: (4) a.’ 1.’ b. which has a tensed verb and functions as an assertion or a  question: (1) a. last week was I in York ‘Last week I was in York.

the ‘Open the window!’ b. he helps his wife Negative: . Han har kjøpt boka. Han hjelper sin kone.  and expresses a surprise or astonishment: (3) a. he has bought book. Positive: (1) a. For en flott kjole! for a nice dress ‘What a nice dress!’ b.the yet ‘Hasn’t he read the book yet?’ 2. Åpn vinduet! open window.the ‘He has bought the book. which typically has the form of an embedded clause.’ b. Din store idiot! your big idiot ‘You big idiot!’ 1.9. Vær så snill! be so kind ‘Please!’ 3. Har han ikke lest boka ennå? has he not read book. The imperative main clause. The exclamative main clause.were you in York in last week ‘Were you in York last week?’ d. which has an imperative verb and functions as a demand: (2) a.1 Declarative main clauses There are two types of declarative main clauses: positive (affirmative) and negative.

money.the pengene.’ In declarative main clauses almost any element can occur in front of the tensed verb in the Finite field: Prefield x Han he fant found han han han faktisk Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial Verb faktisk actually faktisk Backfield Object pengene Adverbial under senga. pengene under senga. the subject  generally follows immediately after the verb. he closest threw himself out from balcony.9.’ b.3. Han har ikke kjøpt boka.’ 1. and 1. affirmative main clauses have the tensed verb in the  Finite field as the second element of the clause. he helps never his wife ‘He never helps his wife.’ b. Only a few adverbs may occur in front of the  finite verb in addition to the subject. which is then no longer the second element in the  clause: (1) a. he has not bought book. Han bare gikk sin vei. Han hjelper aldri sin kone.1 Affirmative main clauses As described in section 1.the under bed.1. he just walked his way ‘He just walked away.This verb can only be preceded by one  word or one phrase. Han nærmest kastet seg ut fra balkongen.the ‘He almost threw himself out from the balcony. If any other element than the subject precedes the verb..the ‘He has not bought the book. Under senga fant Faktisk Pengene fant fant .1.(2) a. under senga.

g.’ henne ‘her. Even less common is a predicative complement or a particle in this position.’ and den ‘it’ can be placed in front of the  adverbial in the Midfield.’ deg ‘you.’ If the subject is the same in both clauses.’ ham ‘him. Prefield Midfield Light pronoun x Han he Han he Han Han he Han he Finite hjelper helps hjelper helps hjelper har has har has henne her Subject field aldri never aldri. But this is only possible if the verb position in the Backfield is empty. never aldri aldri never aldri never henne. generally personal pronouns such as meg ‘me. it may be deleted in the second clause: (2) a.the In most cases we find the subject in the prefield (in 60­70% of the cases). hjulpet sin kone. they get specific emphatic stress. he saw her and he helped her . ball.’ seg  ‘himself/herselft/itself. If these  light pronouns occur in their regular object position. helped his wife hjulpet henne. Han så henne og han hjalp henne. helped her sin kone. even though they should be placed in the object position in the  Backfield.Ut out kastet han threw he ballen. og ‘and’ and men ‘but.  Light pronominal objects. his wife Adverbial Verb Object Adverbial Backfield Main clauses can be combined with conjunctions such as e. It is a little less  common to find an adverbial in here (20­30% of the cases) or the object (5­10% of the  cases).

’ 1.the Anne Espen . only without the prefield: Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial Fant han found he Verb Backfield Object pengene? money.  The negation ikke ‘not’ is positioned in the adverbial field in the Midfield and is generally  the last of the adverbials in this position.9. Norwegian has two types of questions:  1. — * Han har noensinne sett henne. Han så henne og ____ hjalp henne..’ hvordan ‘how..1.. Yes/no­questions: (1) Er Peter her? Ja. is Peter here yes no 2. he saw her and helped her 1.9.’ hva ‘what. Questions that are introduces by a wh-word such as hvem ‘who. who knocks on door. Words expressing something absolutive.1 Yes/no-questions Direct questions that can be answered by yes or no are always introduced by a finite verb. he has never ever seen her he has ever seen her 1.’ hvor ‘where. such as  noensinne ‘ever’ normally cannot occur in positive clauses.  The word order is the same as for main clauses.2.’ når ‘when. / Nei. They must always co­occur  with the negation or in an interrogative clause: (1) Han har aldri noensinne sett henne.’ etc..b.the Adverbial .2 Direct questions Like English.2 Negative main clauses Negative main clauses have the same word order as affirmative (positive) main clauses. ‘Who is knocking on the door?’ ‘Anne/Espen/. (2) Hvem banker på døra? Anne / Espen / ..9..

’ etc. Hvilken bok har du kjøpt? which book have you bought c.1 Wh-questions Norwegian direct wh­questions are always introduced by a wh­word (hvem ‘who. and the rest of the sentence can be reconstructed from the first sentence: (2) Skal jeg gjøre det eller Stina? (=Skal jeg gjøre det eller skal Stina gjøre det?) shall I do it or Stina (= ‘Should I do it or should Stina do it?’) 1.9. The word order is  the same as for topicalised main clauses.’ når ‘when.Skal shall Er is jeg I hun she kanskje maybe ikke not hente fetch kommet come boka book.’ hvordan ‘how. If only one constituent distinguishes the second clause from the first one.’ one can  often leave something out in the second question.’ etc.9. There are two typical cases:  1.’ hvor ‘where.the til deg? to you ennå? yet When several yes/no­questions are coordinated by the conjunction eller ‘or. Hva for ei bok har du kjøpt? what for a book have you bought ‘What kind of book did you buy?’ 1. If the second clause is a negation of the first one the negation ei ‘not’ is used:  (1) Er han glad eller ei? (= Er han glad eller er han ikke glad?) is he happy or not is he happy or is he not happy 2. Hva har du kjøpt? what have you bought ‘What did you buy?’ b.3 Imperatives .’ hva  ‘what.2.).) or a phrase that contains a wh­ word (hvilke bøker ‘which books. (1) a.’ hva for ei bok ‘which book.

’ (1) c. Object he knew not who she had invited ‘He didn’t know who she had invited.g. [ At han var syk ] var åpenbart. Åpn døra! open door. It can have the function of subject.the my is that we meet her on station. (1) a. However.  (1) a. Subject that he was ill was obvious ‘That he was ill was obvious. Han kom fram [ da hun allerede hadde dratt ]. predicative. Adverbial he came forward when she already had left ‘He arrived when she had already left.’ stå ‘stand.10 THE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE The subordinate clause is a part of a main clause.’ (1) b.the ‘Open the door!’ b. and it can also be the modifier of a noun. Ikke vær så dum! not be so stupid ‘Don’t be so stupid!’ The clause starts with the verb in its basic form. Jeg kjøpte et hus [ som var rødt ].’ spis-e ‘eat. Predicative plan. e.’ (1) e.the ‘My plan is that we meet her at the station.’ (1) d.’ sov-e ‘sleep.An imperative main clause generally expresses a demand or an order. Verbs ending in a vowel have the same form in infinitive and imperative. The rest of the clause has the same word order as main clauses. gå ‘go. object. if the imperative is negated.’ 1. Verbs ending in a consonant form the imperative by deleting the ending -e from the infinitive. e. kjøp-e ‘kjøpe.’ etc. Han visste ikke [ hvem hun hadde bedt]. adverbial. as in English. Modifier of noun I bought a house that was red .g. the negation is generally in the initial position.’ se ‘see. Planen min er [ at vi møter henne på stasjonen ]. The subject or the receiver of the order is normally left out.

book. Main clause: Eva Eva ikke not ennå yet ennå.’ at that b. . Eva hasn’t read yet. (2) a.the yet my boka mi book.‘I bought a house that was red. Subordinate clause: Midfield Finite Subject Adverbial Verb har ikke lest has not read har lest has read lest read har lest has read lest read har lest has read Backfield Object Adverbial boka mi ennå. Main clause: Eva Eva ikke not ‘that Eva hasn’t read my book yet’ Har Eva ikke has Eva not ‘Hasn’t Eva read my book yet?’ b. Compare the word order in main clauses to that of subordinate clauses. Subordinate clause: (book-the which Eva not my) ‘(my book) which Eva hasn’t read yet’ Note that the subject is always in the position after the introducing element. The second position (where the finite verb is found in main clauses) is the place for the introducing element.the my boka mi book. Subordinate clause: om if c. The first position is often empty. Main clause: Prefield Eva Eva a.the my boka mi book.the my ennå yet ennå? yet ‘Eva hasn’t read my book yet.the my has Eva not ‘My book.’ Norwegian subordinate clauses normally have an introducing element (often a subjunction) and a special word order (unlike English). yet ennå yet ‘if Eva hasn’t read my book yet’ Boka mi har Eva ikke book. Note also that the finite verb is placed after negation (and other sentence adverbials). and the finite verb as well as other verbs are positioned in the Verb field.’ (boka mi) som Eva ikke c.

’ 1.1 Nominal clauses Nominal clauses have the same functions as noun phrases. når.’ 1. what. Prepositional complement I counted on that she should come on party. or complements of prepositions. Subject that Karl came on party.10. hvor. he announced that she not can come ‘He announced that she can’t come. Jeg stolte på [ at hun skulle komme på festen].’ (1) b. when. hva.1.1 At-clauses In at-clauses the introducing element is sometimes missing. main Hva skulle han gjøre? . cf. she announced that she can not come ‘She announced that she can’t come.10. why (in Norwegian hvem. Nominal clauses are primarily at-clauses and interrogative clauses. (1) a.1.1. Like noun phrases they occur primarily as subjects.2 Indirect wh-questions Indirect wh-questions correspond to ordinary main clause questions. where. (1) a. Object I wonder on who that came on party.10.the ‘I wonder who came to the party. I think (that) she knows it ‘I think (that) she knows it.’ The word order in at-clauses is normally the same as in other subordinate clauses.’ (2) b.the ‘I counted on that she would come to the party. (2) a.’ (1) c. but it may sometimes also show the same order as in main clauses. where you ask for something with words like who. hvordan.the was nice ‘It was nice that Karl came to the party. objects. Han visste ikke [ hva han skulle gjøre]. (1) Jeg tror [ (at) hun kan det]. how. Hun meddelte at hun kan ikke komme. Han meddelte at hun ikke kan komme. Jeg lurer på [ hvem som kom på festen]. [ At Karl kom på festen] var hyggelig. hvorfor).

3 Indirect Yes/no-questions Indirect yes/no-questions correspond to ordinary main clause yes/no-questions.’ 1. we talked with him that police. cf. cf. (2) Jeg lurer på hvem som har stjålet sykkelen min. Vi snakket med ham som politiet jagde.clause: he knew not what he should do ‘He didn’t know what to do. The introducing element is om ‘if.’ what should he do ‘What should he do?’ (1) b. Huset [ som står der borte ] tilhører biskopen.’ but in formal written language a wh-phrase.’ ‘When were you born?’ If the questioned element is the subject. man. house. Mannen [ som står der ] er min bror. (1) a.’ have you showered ‘Have you taken a shower?’ 1.’ or sometimes hvorvidt ‘whether’ or i tilfelle ‘in case.10.the who stands there is my brother ‘The man standing over there is my brother.’ (1) c.the ‘The house over there belongs to the bishop. a proper name. main clause: Når er du født? I wonder on when you are born When are you born ‘I wonder when you were born. In Norwegian they are normally introduced by som ‘that. som ‘that’ is obligatorily inserted after the question word.the chased . (like hvilket ‘which’ and hvis ‘whose’) also occur.’ (1) b. I wonder on who that has stolen bike.the my ‘I wonder who stole my bike.the that stands there away belongs-to bishop. Jeg lurer på [ når du er født].’ (1) Jeg lurer I på [ om du har dusjet]. or a pronoun.1.2 Relative clauses Relative clauses are typically found inside noun phrases.10. following a noun. main clause: Har du dusjet? wonder on whether you have showered ‘I wonder whether you have taken a shower.

3 Adverbial subordinate clauses Adverbial subordinate clauses express time.’ enn ‘than. comparison. then.7. der ‘where.‘We talked to the guy that the police chased.’ If the noun expresses time or location.’ hvor. da ‘when. it was that idea that Eva came on ‘That was the idea that Eva came up with. huset [ der / hvor jeg bor] house. and they are introduced by adverbs or subjunctions like når/da ‘when.’ (3) b. Han spiller piano om morgenen. he plays piano in morning.’ Relative clauses can also be used to modify the whole clause (instead of a noun phrase).’ (4) a.’ Compare § 3.the there / where I live ‘the house where I live’ Relative clauses with som are also found in the so-called cleft construction. They function as adverbials. condition.the ‘It was Eva who first came up with the idea. intention. cause. and other similar relations. location. . Det var Eva [ som først kom på idéen]. as well as noe som ‘something which.’ 1.’ der ‘there.’ (2) a. neighbour.’ hvis ‘if. sommeren [ da allting hendte] summer.’ for å ‘in order to.’ dit ‘there-to. (1) a. (3) a.the has got new car something which makes me envious ‘My neighbour has got a new car.’ fordi ‘because.’ som ‘as.10. [ Når du kommer fram].the when everything happened ‘the summer that everything happened’ (2) b. In such cases the relative pronoun hvilket ‘which’ can be used. which irritates me.the which irritates me ‘He plays the piano in the morning. har du kirken til høyre. and that makes me envious. hvilket irriterer meg. Naboen har fått ny bil. Det var den idéen [ som Eva kom på]. it was Eva who first came on idea. the relative clause may also be introduced with når. since. there.’ ettersom ‘because. noe som gjør meg misunnelig.’ (4) b.

’ 1. så kan vi begynne spise. if you want can you help her ‘If you want to.’ but they may also lack it. when you arrive so can we begin eat ‘When you arrive. [ Hvis du vil]. you have the church to your right. kan du hjelpe henne. Når dere kommer.’ (3) b. The use of så contrasts with English. you may bathe. he is as old as I am ‘He is as old as I am. Vi ble slitne [ ettersom det var veldig varmt].’ (1) d.when you come forward have you church.the to right ‘When you get there.’ Adverbial clauses that are placed in the first position of their main clause. (3) a. are often followed by the word så ‘so’ in front of the finite verb.’ (1) c. if you want so can you bathe ‘If you want to. he is older than I am ‘He is older than I am. Han er eldre [ enn jeg er]. you can help her.11 NON-FINITE CLAUSES . we became tired as it was very hot ‘We got tired as it was very hot. we can begin eating.’ (1) b.’ = H de betal d du har kjøpt må du vis n e en. Hvis du vil. Han er like gammel [ som jeg er].’ (1) e. så kan du bade.’ Conditional clauses are normally introduced by the subjunction hvis ‘if. (2) Har du kjøpt de betal d må du n e en. h yo bough m yo it pay it ave u t ust u ‘If you have bought it. In such cases they are formed like questions. you must pay for it. you must pay for it. yo h bough m yo if it pay it u ave t ust u ‘If you have bought it.

. (1) a.the ‘You don’t have to read the book. but are otherwise very similar to subordinate clauses introduced by at ‘that. en [ dårlig skrevet ] artikkel a badly written article ‘a badly written article’ 1. to get mugged is a terrible experience ‘To be mugged is a terrible experience.’ (1) c.the ‘They longed for travelling to the coast. (2) a. Vi begynte [ å forstå hans problem ]. to study Latin have I always dreamt about ‘I have always dreamt of studying Latin. you need not to read book. The verb is either an infinitive or a participle.11.’ They never contain a subject. (3) Vi hørte jentene [ synge bak låven].’ (1) a. Du trenger ikke (å) lese boka. for instance in the beginning of a clause and after negation.’ (2) b.Non-finite clauses are clauses without a finite verb. Such clauses are normally introduced by the infinitival marker å ‘to.’ (1) b.’ The infinitival marker is sometimes missing. [ (Å) ] studere latin har jeg alltid drømt om.1 Infinitival clauses In infinitival clauses the verb is in the infinitive form. we began to understand his problem ‘We began to understand his problem. they longed after to travel to coast. Det er hyggelig [ å spille bridge].’ The infinitival marker å is always missing in the so-called ‘object with infinitive’ construction. it is nice to play bridge ‘It is nice to play bridge. De lengtet etter [ å reise til kysten].’ (1) b. [ Å bli ranet] er en fæl opplevelse.

and also other elements that are not allowed in English.’ 1. behind car. happy became she not ‘She did not get happy’.the found I a bucket ‘Behind the car I found a bucket. Glad ble hun ikke.11.the sing behind barn. I morgen skal vi gå på kino. (1) a. These clauses are normally used attributively (in front of a noun). They may contain adverbials. (1) a. this book. Normally. en [ for meg svært opprivende ] hendelse a for me very agonizing event ‘an event that was very agonizing for me’ 1.the ‘We heard the girls singing behind the barn.1 Topicalisation Topicalisation is the traditional term for constructions where subjects occur in the first position of the clause.2 Participial clauses In participial clauses the verb is either a present or a past participle. . an adverbial or an object is placed in the first position. It does however not apply to wh-elements of any kind.the has she not read ‘This book she hasn’t read. Bak bilen fant jeg en bøtte. in morning shall we go on cinema ‘Tomorrow we will go to the cinema. Denne boka har hun ikke lest.12 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTIONS Keine Daten gefunden! 1.we heard girls.12. en [ dårlig skrevet ] artikkel a badly written article ‘a badly written article’ (1) b.’ (1) c.’ (1) b.’ (1) d.

1. Another reason is to emphasize the element.’ 1. ‘there’ is placed in the subject position or in the first position. in soup.12.’ (1) b. (2) a. (1) a.’ (2) b.the ‘The man opened the window. Both voices express the same event. It may be missing or it may be expressed in an av-phrase (a by-phrase). Det hadde oppstått en krangel mellom brødrene.the had it occurred a fight ‘Between the brothers there had occurred a fight. it may have been a fly in soup. Mellom brødrene hadde det oppstått en krangel. Det kan ha vært ei flue i suppa. there may have been a fly.’ The word det ‘it’ behaves as an ordinary subject.3 Passives A sentence may often have both an active and a passive voice.’ .2 Existential sentences If the subject contains new information it may immediately follow the non-finite verb and the word det. man.the ‘There occurred a fight between the brothers.(1) e. At vi kommer vet Karl allerede. between brothers.the opened window.the ‘There may have been a fly in the soup. Active: Mannen åpnet vinduet. but the element that is the subject in the active voice is suppressed in the passive voice. that we come knows Karl already ‘Karl already knows that we are coming.’ Note that the subject occurs directly after the verb when something is topicalised. it had occurred a fight between brothers.12.the may it have been a fly ‘In the soup. One reason for topicalising an element is that this element is already known by the hearer and the speaker. For instance it is placed directly after the verb if something is topicalised. I suppa kan det ha vært ei flue. (1) a.

the become sold on auction ‘The books are sold on aution. (4) a. Bøkene ble solgt på auksjon.’ The s-passive is normally only used in the infinitive or the present tense.the became opened by man. (2) a.’ which has a wide range of uses.’ (2) b. books. or the verb takes on the s-ending.(1) b. Bøkene blir solgt på auksjon.the have become sold on auction ‘The books are being sold on aution. The meaning of the værepassive often depends on the meaning of the main verb.’ (2) c. and can be used freely in all tenses.’ 1.’ Passives with the auxiliary være ‘be’ are less common. Bøkene selges på auksjon.the ‘The window was opened by the man.PASS on auction ‘The books are sent to be sold on auction. Bøkene sendes for å selges på auksjon. books. window. books.the are sold on auction ‘The books have been sold on aution.’ There are three sorts of passives in Norwegian.4 Middles . books.12. where the meaning corresponds to that of the example in the perfect above: (3) Bøkene er solgt på auksjon. books.the send.’ (4) b.PASS on auction ‘The books are sold on auction. Either one of the auxiliaries bli ‘become’ or være ‘be’ is used.the became sold on auction ‘The books were sold on aution. Consider the following example. books. The most common passive is the one with the auxiliary bli ‘become.PASS for to sell. Bøkene har blitt solgt på auksjon. Passive: Vinduet ble åpnet ( av mannen ).the sell.

which is typical of German and Dutch. Jeg så ikke Karl. If there is a verb. Denne boka går det ( lett ) å lese. Jeg tok den ikke opp. Jeg så ham ikke. and object shift Norwegian possesses a specific construction named object shift. clitics.the is easy to read ‘This book reads easily. Ordinary object: no object shift I saw not Karl ‘I didn’t see Karl. which moves unstressed object pronouns to a position in front of the negation (or other sentence adverbials).’ This movement is only found if there is nothing (or only a verb particle) in between the negation (sentence adverbial) and the object. Jeg har ikke sett ham. a preposition or the like in between.’ (1) b.’ 1. Particle does not intervene: object shift I took it not up ‘I didn’t take it up. Jeg så ikke på henne.5 Free word order (Scrambling) Norwegian.Norwegian does not have middles of the sort found in English. (2) a. Verb intervenes: no object shift I have not seen him ‘I haven’t see him. This is not possible with ordinary noun phrases. lacks the kind of free word order often called scrambling. 1.the goes it ( easy ) to read ‘This book reads easily.6 Weak pronouns. Denne boka er lett å lese. this book.12. just like English.’ (2) b. (1) a.12.’ (2) c.’ (1) b. this book. but only with pronouns. Pronominal object: object shift occurs I saw him not ‘I didn’t see him. Preposition intervenes: no object shift . Sentences like This book reads easily are translated with an adjectival construction: (1) a. the object stays in its normal position.

an adjective phrase (red. The modifying phrases may occur before and/or after the head word. almost never). (1) a.1 THE VERB PHRASE The verb phrase has a verb as its head: He bought a book yesterday. like his father). Jeg går og Lise sykler.13 COORDINATION AT THE CLAUSE LEVEL Norwegian uses og ‘and. In German and Dutch verb phrases the verb is in the final position (a). Ich muss morgens im Warenhaus einen Mantel gekaufen.the in morning ‘I must buy a coat at the department store tomorrow.’ 1. the phrases in the Germanic languages have very similar properties. Jeg må kjøpe ei kåpe på kjøpesenteret i morgen. a noun.’ . an adjective. or a preposition) which alone or together with optional modifiers constitute a verb phrase (run.’ (2) b. b. I must buy a coat on department.I saw not on her ‘I didn’t look at her. A phrase consists of a head (a verb. I walk and Lise bikes ‘I’m walking and Lise is running a bike. an adverb. with Mary).’ eller ‘or. a noun phrase (John. depending on language and phrasal type. 2. wash the car). peace in our time). This phrase constitutes the last part of the sentence.store. The overall structure of phrases is the same in Norwegian and in English. men Kari ler av alt. Ole er sjelden glad. Mary's sister from Utah. In many respects. Ole is seldom happy but Kari laughs of everything ‘Ole is seldom happy but Kari laughs at everything.’ and men ‘but’ in the same way as English to coordinate main clauses. an adverb phrase (always. following the sentential adverbials. whereas the verb phrase in Norwegian (b) and the other Germanic languages is verb initial: (1) a. or a prepositional phrase (at my door.’ 2 THE PHRASES Words belonging to different word classes function syntactically as heads in phrases.

the direct object or the associate subject. now has he probably gone on train. Finally there is a field for free content adverbials and postponed phrases. this follows next. the tensed verb (auxiliary or main verb) always appears in the finite (second) position in main clauses.the Verb bør gi should give male paint se Ind. In Norwegian. Associate subj. obj.the ‘He got on the train now. however. see the last example below for a case with both an indirect object and an associate subject. 2.1. Infinitive Subj predicative clause ei bok a book Bound adverbials.1 The order of elements in the verb phrase The order of elements in the Norwegian verb phrase is given in the scheme below.’ d. the tensed verb (auxiliary or main verb) appears in the finite (second) position (§ 1. If there is an indirect object. Examples (c-d) also illustrate the fact that the tensed verb precedes the subject (han) in topicalised sentences. The object predicative complement and the infinitive of the object with infinitive constructions share a position. followed by a field for bound content adverbials (Han bor i Lund ‘he lives in Lund’) and prepositional objects (Han ser på henne ‘he is looking at her’).In main clauses. Prep. predicative.the ham rødt red komme . Nå gikk han på toget. Postponed phrases på fødselsdagen at birthday. Nå har han nok gått på toget.3) rather than in the verb phrase in all the Germanic languages (except English) (c-d): c. ham him huset house. preceding a position where we find the subject predicative complement.’ Norwegian differs from English in being a verb-second language. Obj Direct obj. This means that the tensed verb precedes sentence adverbials and negation.the ‘He has probably got on the train now. objects Free adverbials. now went he on train.

the Particles (see §2. Direct object. Postponed Prep.the hodet head. adverbials.1.given her Nobel Prize. one immediately before the verb and  one immediately after.the snarest immediately av kongen by king. Verb Particle subject.the opp up av off på bordet on table. Obj Associate predicative.the fra ham from him snarest immediately .the ei katt a cat ei katt a cat fra ham boka from him book.see gå go him come til byen to town. objects phrases med kniv with knife med kniv with knife framfor meg in-front-of me framfor meg in-front-of me snarest immediately ta take boka book.the på bordet on table.the overrekkes henne nobelprisen is.4) allow two different locations. Particle Infinitive Subj clause predicative hogge av cut hogge cut hoppe opp jump up hoppe jump ta take off hodet head.the Free Bound adverbials.

4. be may be used with intransitive verbs indicating a change of state (c): (1) a. Jomsvikings. Marie Curie har fått nobelprisen to ganger.’ b.the ‘The Jomsvikings were captured by the Norwegians. As a main verb. In addition. He has read the book. Han var syk igår. he was ill yesterday b. As auxiliaries. they were ill yesterday . see § 1. tense.12.1. Marie Curie has received Nobel prize. and aspect (He was killed. be and have are used to express voice. Han er syk). In Norwegian. Leiv Eriksson is gone to America ‘Leiv Eriksson has gone to America.the two times ‘Marie Curie has received the Nobel Prize twice. have is generally used to express the perfect tense and the pluperfect tense with all kinds of verbs (a-b).’ However. være is used as the copula. bli ‘become’ is more common as a passive auxiliary. De var syke igår. Jomsvikingene var tatt til fange av nordmennene. He is reading the book). but in some dialects.’ c.2. when the predicative is an adjective or a past  participle. Leiv Eriksson er dratt til Amerika. Leiv Eriksson has gone to America ‘Leiv Eriksson has gone to America.2 Be and Have All the Germanic languages make extensive use of verbs corresponding closely to the English be (Norwegian være) and have (Norwegian ha). ‘be’ is also used as a copula (He is sick.the were taken to capture by Norwegians. it agrees with the subject in gender and number:  (2) a. Leiv Eriksson har dratt til Amerika.’ Be may also be used with a past participle as a passive auxiliary when the passive expresses the result of an action or a completed transition (d) d. Compare English The book is on the table with Norwegian Boka er på bordet.

a combination of an intransitive verb + a reflexive. Some verbs are only used together with a reflexive (oppføre seg ‘behave.’ With respect to word order.Whereas Norwegian sometimes allows the used of the auxiliary be in forming the perfect tense and the pluperfect tense with intransitive verbs (as in (c) above). A third group of reflexive verbs can occur with an ordinary object instead of the reflexive.4 Verb particles Norwegian particle constructions correspond closely in almost all ways to English ones. 2. Han vendte bladet. They have a meaning of their own.1. where meg is the reflexive. others are either intransitive or reflexive (angre (seg) ‘regret’).’ As English does not have reflexive verbs. This is illustrated in (a-c): (1) a. irrespectively of whether the verb is transitive or intransitive. and often correspond to one verb in English: consider the Norwegian Jeg vegrer meg for å hjelpe ham.1. gi opp (kampen) . as in He killed himself.): Han slet seg ut ‘he wore himself out.the ‘He turned the page. but with a different meaning (a -b): (1) a. However. the intransitive verb + reflexive combination in Norwegian generally corresponds to one verb in English.1. the reflexive behaves like a pronoun. 2. Thus it must precede a particle or particles (see § 2. he turned REFL to her ‘He turned towards her. he turned page. which corresponds to the English I refuse to help him without a reflexive. all the Germanic languages (except English) have reflexive verbs. kaste opp (maten) throw up (food. the reflexive pronoun may be replaced by another pronoun or a full noun phrase.the) ‘throw up the food’ b.’ innfinne seg ‘appear’). English always uses the auxiliary have .’ b.4. In this case. Han vendte seg til henne.3 Reflexive verbs A reflexive pronoun may be the object of a transitive verb.

there are many constructions whose meanings are not matched in English and which must be learned like words: h.’ Often the combination verb + particle corresponds to a prefixed verb with the same (j-k) or a related (l-m) meaning: j.the had-to lay down down-lay company. if the object is a pronoun.the went through ‘The application got through. k. Søknaden gikk igjennom.’ . kaste maten opp throw up food. the particle may either come before or after it (d-e). the particle must come beforethe object (f-g): d.the ‘He underlined the word.the ‘award the Nobel Prize’ i. application.the up ‘throw up the food’ f. If there is a nominal object. kaste opp maten e. *kaste opp den g. However. kaste den opp throw up it up ‘throw it up’ However. the position of the particle within the verb phrase depends on the form of the object. Han streket under ordet. Sjefen måtte legge ned bedriften. dele ut nobelprisen share out Nobel Prize.the) ‘capitulate’ c.give up (fight.’ l. kle på seg (ei kåpe) dress on REFL (a coat) ‘put on a coat’ Just as in English. Sjefen måtte nedlegge bedriften boss. he lined under word.the ‘The boss had to shut down the company.

the ‘The monasteries brewed beer in the Middle Ages. or it appears in the first position (a-b): (1) a. Gudene ofret vikingene til ved blot. Han understreket ordets betydning.m. It may be a noun phrase. Many nations feared them. Han holdt ikke kniven i hånda. Children like to hear fairy tales. whereas pronominal objects come before such adverbials (d).’ d. he held it not in hand.’ With respect to the position of the particle in relation to nominal and pronominal objects.’ In main clauses. all kinds of objects come before content adverbials such as adverbials of time. and manner (e): c. the object is an obligatory nominal or sentential complement of certain verbs. Vikingene ofret gaver til gudene hvert år. However. Some verbs take two objects. nominal objects follow sentence adverbials.the brewed beer in Middle Ages.the ‘He didn't hold it in his hand.the in hand.the sacrificed vikings. The vikings were Scandinavian seafarers. one indirect and one direct object: The king gave her the prize. the first object (her) expresses the one who gets what is expressed by the second object (the prize). place. . including negation (c). he underlined word. Han holdt den ikke i hånda. he held not knife. or an embedded clause.the’s meaning ‘He emphasized the meaning of the word.the to at blot ‘The vikings made offerings to the gods at the blot. 2. The Jomsvikings said that they were content to die. the object either follows the main verb. English and Norwegian are the same.1. monasteries. In this case. Klostrene brygget øl i middelalderen. an infinitival clause. In Norwegian.5 The object In Norwegian as in English. a pronoun.’ e. gods.the ‘He didn't hold the knife in his hand.’ b.

Marie Curie er svært berømt. Alfred Nobel was chemist ‘Alfred Nobel was a chemist. Ett resultat er at prisene vil stige. or it tells us the identity of the subject or the object.’ hun ‘she.’ b.’ henne ‘her’ (ham is mostly used in writing. it agrees with the word it is a complement to (subject or object) in number and gender (ef): .’ c.6 Predicative complements A predicative complement often expresse a quality or attribute of the subject or the object. an adjective phrase (b). in speech most people would use han). It may be a noun phrase (a). 2.’ When the predicative complement is an adjective (or a past participle). they elected Bush to president ‘They elected Bush as president. or a subordinate clause (d): (1) a. one result is that prices. ham ‘him.’ d.the sacrificed gifts to gods. Topicalised constructions with non-subjeccts in the initial position (such as (b)).the about to die ‘What did the Jomsvikings think about dying?’ Object pronouns bear the specific ‘oblique’ case in Norwegian.’ When the object is questioned.’ For den ‘it’ there is only one form. Alfred Nobel var kjemiker. Marie Curie is very famous ‘Marie Curie is very famous. it appears in the first position (f): f. Hva syntes jomsvikingene om å dø? what thought Jomsvikings. are much more common in Norwegian than in English.the will raise ‘One result is that the prices will raise. a prepositional phrase (c). De valgte Bush til president.vikings. cf. The corresponding subject forms are han ‘he.the every year ‘The vikings sacrificed gifts to the gods every year.1.

the was scary-sg. she is very fat ‘She is very fat. fairy tale. it looks nice PART ‘It looks nice. place. ‘The Jomsvikings were fearless. but precedes content adverbials (g). Den ser fin ut. Hun er svært tjukk. However.neut. Han hadde vært syk igår. there is no visible agreement in number and gender between the predicative complement and the subject or the object. condition. or another adverbial (c): (1) a. 2. he drives always carefully ‘He always drives carefully.’ h. Jomsvikings. an adjective (b).’ . ‘The fairy tale was scary.1. Norwegian is like English with respect to its use of adverbials in the sentence. They may modify the verb (a). Han kjører alltid forsiktig. Eventyret var nifst. Content adverbials modify the event expressed in the sentence with respect to manner. Han røyker ganske mye. he had been ill yesterday ‘He had been ill yesterday.the were fearless-pl. Jomsvikingene var fryktløse.’ b. time. etc. When combined with particle verbs. in English. the predicative comes between the verb and the particle (h): g.’ f.e.’ c. he smokes quite a lot ‘He smokes quite a lot.7 Content adverbials In general.’ English and Norwegian are very similar at this point.’ The predicative complement of the subject follows all verbs.

and imorgen is a free content adverbial: d. duration.Norwegian has two types of content adverbials.’ When there are several free content adverbials in the verb phrase. Jeg vil snakke med deg om dette imorgen. and free content adverbials (e).2 THE NOUN PHRASE . their order depends on the function of the adverbial in the communicative structure of the clause. free content adverbials may appear to the left of the main verb in Norwegian: f. When the adverbial is a subordinate clause. whereas free adverbials that refer to time. location.the without that boss. In sentences that include both. Jon worked at night.’ e. he missed her already ‘He missed her already. and iteration often come before bound adverbials (i): g. or cause usually are found after the bound adverbials. as illustrated in (d).’ However. where the underlined elements are bound content adverbials. Han har i noen situasjoner ikke snakket sant. In addition. De hadde sett surt på ham. in contrast to English. adverbials denoting time or cause usually follow other free adverbials (h). Jon arbeidet på kvelden uten at sjefen viste om det. Han hadde vært her da. free adverbials denoting manner. it is placed after other adverbials (g). he had been here then ‘He had been here then. depending on how closely bound the adverbial is to the verb: bound content adverbials (d). they had looked angrily at him ‘They had looked angrily at him. Finally. Han savnet henne allerede. the bound content adverbial precedes the free content adverbial.’ 2.the knew about it ‘Jon worked in the evening without his boss knowing it. he has in some situations not spoken truly ‘He has in some situations not told the truth.’ h. I want talk with you about this tomorrow ‘I want to talk to you about this tomorrow.’ i.

’ . the phrase may include other elements. he managed not to lift knife. 9th.the’s discovery ‘the man’s discovery’ Note that when a pronoun is the head of a noun phrase. vikings. Possessor: mannens oppfinnelse man.900.the of 1000 century.the ‘He couldn’t manage to lift the knife with his hand.The noun phrase has a noun or a pronoun as its head: the man. In addition. such as determiners.900. or as the object of a preposition. Object: Torkjel dreper mannen.og begynnelsen av 1000-tallet. its form varies according to whether it is the subject. and prepositional phrases: the young man from Paris. It may also function as a possessor: (1) a. Torkjel kills man. or has some other function: e.’ f. 9th. and the beginning of the the 10th century.the lived on 800 900 and beginning. a possessor.the with hand. they lived on 800 900 and beginning. Object of preposition: Han klarte ikke å løfte kniven med hånda.the ‘Thorkell kills the man. Subject: De levde på 800.the of 1000 century.the ‘They lived in the 8th.’ b.og begynnelsen av 1000-tallet.’ c. Torkjel kills him ‘Thorkell kills him. adjectives. The noun phrase prototypically functions as the subject or the object of the clause.’ d. and the beginning of the the 10th century.the ‘The vikings lived in the 8th. Subject: Vikingene levde på 800. Object: Torkjel dreper ham.

There may be elements in front of or after the head noun.2. but there is one striking difference. determiners. disse.the about Tromsø ‘these two old books about Tromsø’ In Norwegian. the adjectives also agree in definiteness with the head.DEF bøkene Postnominal modifier om Tromsø books.the with it ‘He couldn’t manage to lift the knife with it. as well as quantifiers and adjectives come before the noun. mi bok my book John’s book ‘John’s book’ ‘my book’ Definite: possessor follows head noun: . Possessive phrases come after a definite noun: Indefinite: possessor precedes head noun: Jons bok. Possessor: hans oppfinnelse his discovery ‘his discovery’ These different forms are referred to as different cases. dette. while prepositional phrases and relative clauses come after it: Determiner Quantifier Adjective Head disse these to two gamle old. Determiners. denne. det. he managed not to lift knife. quantifiers. Object of preposition: Han klarte ikke å løfte kniven med den. like den.’ h. etc. In addition. and adjectives all agree with the head of the noun phrase in number and gender. The word order of Norwegian noun phrases is usually very much like that of English (despite the definite suffix). 2.1 Noun phrase word order The overall order of elements in the Norwegian noun phrase is the same as in English.g.

old watch often Nobel Prize ceremony. melk three dogs milk As in English. and a prepositional phrase or a clause following the head: (1) h.’ All these three types of phrases may have an adjective in front of the head. noen hunder.2 Indefinite noun phrases The indefinite noun phrase lacks any marker of definiteness. mye melk many dogs much milk (1) b.the to John ‘John’s book’ book. mange hunder. Gamle ser ofte nobelprisseremonien på TV. Here are some examples of Norwegian indefinite noun phrases: (1) a.2. Compare the definites the milk and the dog with the indefinites milk and a dog. boka mi book. production of beer is often regulated by strong legislation . Produksjon av øl er ofte regulert av streng lovgivning.’ (1) f.the on TV ‘Old people often watch the Nobel Prize ceremony on TV. he has done something stupid ‘He has done something stupid. or an indefinite pronoun (e-f) as head: (1) d. Han har gjort noe dumt. noe melk some dogs some milk (1) c.’ (1) e.the my ‘my book’ 2. some like dark beer better than light ‘Some people like dark beer better than light. Alfred Nobel ville bli forfatter.’ But in addition. Alfred Nobel would become author ‘Alfred Nobel wanted to become an author. Noen liker mørkt øl bedre enn lyst. Norwegian indefinite noun phrases may have a nominal head (d).boka til Jon. tre hunder. Norwegian noun phrases may lack a head (g): (1) g.

‘The production of beer is often regulated by strict legislations.’ (1) j. Han har gjort noe veldig dumt. he has done something very stupid ‘He has done something very stupid.’ (1) i. Noen av Jomsvikingene ble tatt til fange av den norske hæren. some of Jomsvikings.the became taken to captive by the Norwegian force.the ‘Some of the Jomsvikings where captured by the Norwegian force.’ The most striking difference between English and Norwegian indefinite noun phrases is that Norwegian more frequently allows the omission of the indefinite article: (1) k. Norge og Sverige var i union med hverandre til 1905. Norway and Sweden were in union with eachother till 1905 ‘Norway and Sweden were in a union together until 1905.’

(1) l. Nobel var kjemiker og oppfinner. Nobel was chemist and inventor ‘Nobel was a chemist and an inventor.’ 2.2.2.1 Indefinite noun phrases with a nominal head An indefinite noun phrase may or may not include a quantifier such as en, to, ingen, alle: (1) a. en medalje, to isbjørner a medal two polarbears

(1) b. ingen kake, alle hus no cake all houses The Norwegian indefinite article comes in three different genders: en, ei, et (masculine, feminine, and neuter, respectively: sometimes the masculine can be substituted for the feminine, and some writers do not use the feminine form at all). This indefinite article is only used in the singular. It behaves very much like a quantifier, and it does not co-occur with other quantifiers: (1) c. en gutt, ei kake, et hus a boy a cake a house

(1) d. * ei ingen kake, * et alle hus a no cake a all houses The number one is written like this: én (masculine), ei (feminine), ett (neuter). Note that the feminine form is written the same as the indefinite article, but it is pronounced with more stress. (1) e. én gutt, ei kake, ett hus one boy one cake one house Note that whereas the indefinite article is more or less always included in English indefinite noun phrases, it is frequently left out in Norwegian (cf.§ 2.2.5 Bare Noun Phrases): Jenta hadde kjole på seg. vs. The girl had a dress on. Mora mi er lege. vs. My mother is a doctor. In Norwegian, there is also a three-way gender distinction on nouns, which is also expressed on the articles. English does not have such a gender distinction. 2.2.2.2 Indefinite noun phrases with a pronominal head Indefinite pronouns (noe, noen)may be the head of indefinite noun phrases. These pronouns may stand on their own, or have an adjective following them: (1) a. Har det hendt noe? Has it happened anything ‘Has anything happened?’

(1) b. Noe merkelig hendte i går. Something strange happened yesterday ‘Something strange happened yesterday.’ Noe is singular and neuter, while noen can be plural or masculine/feminine or both. In either form, it can be used both in positive and negative contexts, and thus corresponds both to English some and any. (1) c. Har noen. Ja, jeg har noen. / Nei, jeg har ikke (søsken is plural) Have you any siblings yes I have some no I have not any ‘Do you have any sisters or ‘Yes, I have ‘No, I don’t have any.’ brothers?’ some.’ du noen søsken?

(1) d. Er det noen bank her? Jeg ser ikke noen. (bank is masculine) Is it any bank here I see not any ‘Is there a bank here?’ ‘I can’t see one.’

(1) e. Vi har kjøpt noe kjøtt. / Vi har ikke kjøpt noe kjøtt. (kjøtt is neuter) we have bought some meat we have not bought any meat ‘We have bought some meat.’ ‘We have not bought any meat.’ 2.2.2.3 Headless indefinite noun phrases A headless indefinite noun phrase looks like an ordinary headed indefinite noun phrase that lacks the head (pro)noun. In these phrases, some other element, like an adjective (gamle) or a quantifier (femti) is the most important part of the phrase: (1) a. Unge leser ikke vikingesagaer lenger. young read not Viking.sagas longer ‘Young people don’t read the Viking sagas anymore.’

(1) b. Han fylte femti i går. he turned fifty yesterday ‘He turned fifty yesterday.’ Such headless indefinite noun phrases are rare but are still much more common in Norwegian than in English. This is especially true of those noun phrases where an adjective is the most important element.

2.2.3 Definite noun phrases
The definite noun phrase is generally headed by a noun with the definite ending, and it may also contain an adjective inflected for definiteness. These noun phrases express definite meaning (so do names and pronouns, just like in English). A definite noun phrase with an adjective has a definite article like in English, but also has a definite suffix on the noun. Definite noun phrases with no adjectives usually do not have any article, just the definite suffix: (1) a. Isbjørnen var vennlig. Den lille isbjørnen var vennlig. polarbear.the was friendly the little polarbear was friendly ‘The polarbear was friendly.’ ‘The little polarbear was friendly.’

a free definite article is included in front of the adjective in addition to the definiteness ending on the noun: (2) a.the winner.2.the we lay on the white beach.the ‘We lay on the beach. Vi har kjøpt det røde huset. adjectives are inflected for definiteness in front of definite nouns (this inflection only consists of an -e suffix.the ‘this knife’ ‘all the countries’ ‘the winner of the prize’ (1) b.’ ‘We lay on the white beach. denne kniven. there may be definite determiners. we have bought house. vinneren av prisen this knife.’ ‘We have bought the red house.the ‘the little bicycle’ ‘the good book’ ‘the high tree’ (1) b. while after the noun we may find prepositional phrases or clauses: (1) a. alle landene. Vi lå på stranda. den lille sykkelen. Vi lå på den hvite stranda.the all countries.’ (1) c.the who discovered X-rays ‘the smart man who discovered X-rays’ In Norwegian. Vi har kjøpt huset. den smarte mannen som oppdaget røntgenstråler the smart man.1 Definite noun phrases with a definite nominal head A definite noun may stand alone in a definite noun phrase. 2.the the high tree. or it may have elements in front of it or after it.(1) b.3. and adjectives. den gode boka. In such phrases.the ‘the white horses’ .’ The main difference between English and Norwegian concerning definite noun phrases is that whereas English expresses definiteness with a prenominal definite article.the we have bought the red house.the the good book. quantifiers. in most cases).the of prize.the ‘We have bought the house. the suffix may appear to be redundant. However. Before the noun. Norwegian expresses definiteness with a definiteness suffix attached to the noun. when the definite suffix appears in addition to a separate determiner. de hvite hestene the white horses. det høye treet the little bicycle. we lay on beach.

denne uskyldige Maria my Maria this innocent Maria ‘my Maria’ ‘this innocent Maria’ Notice that the name does not get a definite suffix.2.3. However. but other elements.’ (1) b. such as quantifiers and adjectives may come before or after it. When there is an adjective in the Norwegian definite noun phrase. Alle vi tre er like tapre som Jomsvikingene.2. (1) a. Har du sett denne? have you seen this ‘Have you seen this?’ (1) b.3.3 Definite noun phrases with a definite pronoun as its head A definite pronoun may function as a noun phrase by itself. Torkjel dreper mannen.’ . min Maria. Lorenz who laid foundation. but it may also have elements in front of it. Prepositional phrases and clauses may follow the proper name in a definite noun phrase: (1) c.the ‘Torkjel kills the man. These definite pronouns may be followed by prepositional phrases and clauses. the definite suffix still cannot be left out. Torkjel kills man. a prenominal article needs to be included. In contrast to what we find in English. all we three are as brave as Jomsvikings.This is sometimes called Double Definiteness. such as definite determiners or adjectives: (1) a. adjectives are inflected for definiteness in Norwegian. Lorenz som la grunnlaget for etologi. 2.2 Definite noun phrases with a proper name as its head A proper name may function as a noun phrase by itself.the ‘All three of us are as brave as the Jomsvikings.the for ethology ‘Lorenz who laid down the foundation of ethology’ 2.

4). when a noun phrase consists only of a word like den.2 and 2. deres biler ‘my car’ ‘your book’ ‘our house’ ‘their cars’ Secondly. and are also identical in form to pronouns.3): (1) b. it is more natural to gloss it in English as ‘the’ (here.2. Thus.4 Definite noun phrases with no definite noun or pronoun as its head There are two types of definite noun phrases in Norwegian where the definiteness is not indicated on the head noun.2.4 Noun phrases with possessors A noun phrase with a possessor is definite (cf.the should get honour.3. 2. får en fin premie. or a possessive pronoun (min bil ‘my .2. possessive noun phrases may either contain a noun phrase ending in ’s in front of the head noun (Jons bil ‘John’s car’).2. min bil.’ In Norwegian the so-called proximal demonstratives (det/den ‘that.(1) c. in definite noun phrases introduced by a possessor.2. but in English this often requires that ‘one’ be inserted: den grønne ‘the green one. Han som tok prisen bør få æren. we from Tromsø drink often Mack. Vi fra Tromsø drikker ofte mack-øl.2. As in English.4): (1) a. ‘the first’). Han fylte femti i går.3. in examples like the following: (1) e. vårt hus. gets a nice prize.’ de ‘those’) are identical in form to the preadjectival definite article. Den som kommer først i mål. When it is followed by an adjective as in den første.’ (1) d. he who took prize. di bok.2. First.the ‘He who received the prize should be honoured.3. nouns are not inflected for definiteness (cf. that who comes first in goal gets a nice prize ‘He who wins. he turned fifty yesterday ‘He turned fifty yesterday. it could be understood to mean ‘it’ (pronoun) or ‘that’ (demonstrative). 2.beer ‘We who are from Tromsø often drink Mack beer. 2.’ Note also that Norwegian uses the definite pronoun den to refer to humans. there are definite noun phrases which lack the head (cf.’ 2.’ 2.

he is chemist ‘He is a chemist. However. and it also lacks other quantifying modifiers.’ Bare noun phrases are much more common in Norwegian than in English. complement to a preposition. Such noun phrases may have a number of different functions in Norwegian: predicative. Predicative: Han er kjemiker. Complement to a preposition: De hørte på radio.5 Bare noun phrases A bare noun phrase has a nominal head without a definite or indefinite article.car’).’ (1) b. the head noun is in the definite form (bilen min ‘my car’). 2. they listened to radio ‘They listened to the radio. Note that Norwegian makes extensive use of reflexive possessives. In such phrases. the possessor marks the definiteness. grammar is difficult ‘ Grammar is difficult. Object: Min sønn spiller tennis. or subject: (1) a. This construction is not possible in English. my son plays tennis ‘My son plays tennis. 2.2.’ (1) d. the possessive pronoun frequently follows the head noun in possessive noun phrases.6 Postnominal modifiers . Subject: Grammatikk er vanskelig. The most commonly used possessive construction in Norwegian is the one with the possessive pronoun following a definite head noun. and it is followed by an indefinite noun. sin/si/sitt/sine.’ (1) c. in Norwegian. In both cases.2. object.

Eventyr er veldig spennende. en kasse fylt med klær a box filled with clothes ‘A box filled with clothes’ (1) e. the head constitutes the whole phrase. These elements may be prepositional phrases. or noun phrases: (1) a. When the adjectival phrase contains a modifier.Postnominal modifiers are elements following the head noun. adjective phrases. participial phrases. en kasse med frukt a box with fruit ‘a box of fruit’ (1) b. as in (a). this is usually a degree element (b). Haakon Magnus’ 2. den bilen du ser der the car you see there ‘the car you see there’ (1) c.’ (1) b. clauses. Norges kronprins Haakon Magnus Norway’s crown-prince Haakon Magnus ‘Norway’s crown prince. When there are no modifiers. en kasse full av klær a box full of clothes ‘A box full of clothes’ (1) d. or an object (e): (1) a. some other type of adverbial (c). Vikingenes langhus var store.3 ADJECTIVAL PHRASES The adjectival phrase is a phrase with an adjective as its head. vikings.the’s long-houses were big ‘The viking’s long-houses were big. . a prepositional complement (d).

’ (1) g. in which case the basis for the comparison usually must be expressed in the complement of the adjective (f-h): (1) f.’ (1) e. Eirik was faster than Christopher ‘Erik was faster than Christopher.’ Adjectival phrases are often used in comparative constructions. Alfred Nobel var en svært generøs mann. Eirik was fastest of Europeans. Eirik var like rask som Christopher. he is not worth anything ‘He is not worth anything. In these functions there is concord between the adjective and the noun it modifies in number (SG. Alfred Nobel was a very generous.’ (1) d.’ .’ (1) c.SG man ‘Alfred Nobel was a very generous man. Eirik was like fast as Christopher ‘Eirik was as fast as Christopher.the were not afraid for death ‘The Jomsvikings were not afraid of dying. she was surprisingly tall ‘She was surprisingly tall.’ (1) j. Eirik var raskest av européerne. Jomsvikingene var ikke redde for døden. De var svært generøse.M.the ‘Eirik was the fastest of the Europeans. Hun var overraskende høy. they were very generous. Han er ikke verd noe. PL) and gender (M for masculine gender): (1) i.fairy tales are very exciting ‘Fairy tales are very exciting.’ (1) h.’ Most adjective phrases can be used as premodifiers of nouns (attributes) or as complements of verbs (predicatives) (i-j). Eirik var raskere enn Christopher.PL ‘They were very generous. Jomsvikings.

Vikingene seilte langsomt langs kysten. The following scheme summarises the possible word orders for adjectival phrases used predicatively or as adverbials: (1) Obj. meg nå me d.the ‘The vikings sailed slowly along the coast. Adverbial Adverbial Adjective (head) Object a. the adjectives agree with the noun they modify in gender.The adjective may also function as an adverbial (k): (1) k. .1.the sailed slowly along coast. now absolutt tung heavy holdbar Adverbial absolutely tenable mer more helt totally fremmed strange overlegen superior uegnet unsuitable sin motstander his opponent for langturer for long-distance-trips enn før than before e.1 Adjectival phrase word order In addition to the adjectival head. 2. vikings.1 Adjectival phrases functioning as predicatives or as adverbials The adjectival phrase can have modifiers both before and after the adjective. 2. English does not show such agreement. number. and definiteness.’ In Norwegian. hvor how b. and another scheme for adjectival phrases that function as an adjective attribute. a Norwegian adjectival phrase may contain different kinds of modifiers. juridisk legally c.3. there is one scheme for adjectival phrases that function as a predicative or an adverbial. The order of the head and the modifiers depends on the syntactic use of the adjectival phrase.3.

’ 2.’ Finally. en veldig rik mann ‘a very rich man. The following scheme summarises the possible word orders for adjectival phrases used predicatively or as adverbials: (1) Adverbial Adverbial Adjective (head) a. juridisk legally absolutt rik rich holdbar absolutely tenable smart clever c.Immediately in front of the adjective we find adverbials of degree. are placed to the left of this adverbial position (b). Han var helt overlegen sin motstander ‘He was totally superior to his opponent. as in Avtalen virker juridisk absolutt holdbar ‘The agreement seems legally absolutely tenable.’ Phrases that can occur in the final adverbial position when the adjectival phrase is used predicatively.2 Comparison .2 Adjectival phrases functioning as prenominal attributes When used attributively. that is. Bilen er uegnet for langturer ‘The car is not suitable for long distance trips.3. In addition.’ Adjectival phrases such as the one illustrated in (c) are not possible in English.the very Adverbials of degree and manner are placed immediately in front of the adjective (a).’ Example (c) shows that there is an object position in front of the two adverbial positions. en juridisk absolutt holdbar avtale ‘a legally absolutely tenable agreement. for alderen svært for age. Hvor tung er den? ‘How heavy is it?’(a) and manner (Han var skremmende energisk ‘He was frighteningly energetic’). may sometimes be placed in front of the adjective when the adjectival phrase is attributively used (c) en for alderen svært smart jente ‘a girl who is very clever for her age. the adjective cannot have an object in front of it. the Norwegian adjective phrase must end with the head. veldig very b. including negation and other sentence adverbials. Hun er meg nå mer fremmed enn før ‘She seems more strange to me now than before. example (e) shows that there is an adverbial position to the right of the postadjectival object position. Various kinds of free adverbials may be placed in front of these (b). in this use there are no postadjectival positions.’ Free adverbials.1.’ An object may also be placed immediately after the adjective (d). 2.3.

the comparative form of the adjective is used.the was as brave as his father ‘The Jomsviking was as brave as his father.2. Lisa er den korteste blant dem. whereas when more than two objects are compared.3. we can use either the comparative form (a). Norwegian uses like Adjective som ‘as Adjective as’ (a). The objects that are compared are introduced in a postmodifying prepositional phrase beginning with av ‘of.’ (1) b. is introduced by enn ‘than’ (a): (1) Isbjørner er farligere enn vaskebjørner. 2. polar bears are dangerous-COMP than raccoons ‘Polar bears are more dangerous than raccoons. the standard against which the comparison is made is usually added as a postmodifying phrase. we have to use the superlative form.’ (1) b.’ or blant ‘among’: (1) a.’ The standard with which the comparison is made is indicated by a prepositional phrase with i ‘in’ (c): .3 Comparative and superlative When comparing only two objects. Nordmennene var ikke taprere enn jomsvikingene. The postmodifying phrase indicating the standard against which the comparison is made. Norwegians.the were not braver than Jomsvikings.When a comparison is expressed.the ‘Eva is the shorter of the two girls. Lisa is the shortest among them ‘Lisa is the shortest among them. or ikke Adjective-ere enn ‘not Adjective-er than’ (b): (1) a. or the superlative form (b).2.2.3. Jomsvikingen var like tapper som sin far.3.1 Equal comparisons For an equal comparison.the ‘The Norwegians were not braver than the Jomsvikings.2 Unequal comparisons When the things compared are different. Eva er den kortere av de to jentene. Eva is the shorter of the two girls.’ 2. Jomsviking.’ 2. that is when we for example compare two persons of the same height.

Jon må være to meter lang.2. nok may also occur after the adjective: (1) a. as illustrated in (a) above. In contrast to Norwegian.’ 2. Anna is the oldest girl. he is taller than that. As illustrated in (b).the ‘Anna is the oldest girl in her class.4 ADVERB PHRASES .’ ‘No.’ As in Norwegian. he is too rich to to travel ‘He is too rich to go travelling. Han er altfor rik til å reise. This is also possible in Norwegian.’ ‘No. too always has to be placed in front of the adjective in English.’ 2.’ (a-c). In English we have to use a referential pronoun that. Anna er den eldste jenta i klassen. Han er nok rik til å reise.’ English does not have an expressions corresponding to som så in Norwegian.2. Norwegian often uses som så ‘than that’ to refer to the standard: (1) a.3. b. 2. Nei han er lengre enn det.5 Sufficiency and excess The words nok ‘enough’ and altfor ‘too’ are used to indicate sufficiency and excess. Jon must be two meters tall No he is taller than it ‘Jon must be two meters tall. In such cases. Han er rik nok til å reise he is rich enough rich to to travel ‘He is rich enough to go travelling.’ (1) c.4 Comparison with a definite norm Sometimes a comparison is made between an object and a definite standard or norm understood in the context.3. Jon må være to meter lang. however.the in class. he is taller than that. in which case we use the referential pronoun det ‘it’: (1) b.(1) c. enough always has to follow the adjective in English. Nei han er lengre enn som så. The norm to which these words refer can be indicated by an infinitive clause introduced by til å ‘to. Jon must be two meters tall No he is taller than as so ‘Jon must be two meters tall.

she ran very fast ‘She ran very fast’ Some adverbs may also take prepositional or clausal complements: (1) c.4. food. comparative phrases (enn tidligere in (c)). and modifiers with clauses or infinitival phrases (som han gjør in (d)): (1) Premodifier Adverb head Postmodifier a. participles. When a modifier appears. adjectives. De bodde langt borte fra alle. Hun sprang veldig fort. and adverb phrases (mye in (c)).the here is very good ‘The food here is very good’ 2. we find prepositional phrases (i skogen in (b)). mye mere enn tidligere ‘much more than before’ d. but occasionally also a noun (d): (1) d.The adverb phrase is a phrase with an adverb as its head. and adverbs (a). langt borte i skogen far away in forest. the structure of the modifiers generally determines their position. akkurat sånn som han gjør exactly so as he does . it is usually an adverb of degree or manner (b): (1) a.the ‘far away in the forest’ c. Han var alltid tapper. Very often there is no other element in the phrase (a). After the adverb head. In front of the adverb head we find modifying participal phrases (utsøkt in (a)). Maten her er veldig god.1 Adverb phrase word order When modifiers are included in addition to the adverb head. he was always brave ‘He was always brave’ (1) b. adjective phrases (langt in (b)). they lived far away from everyone ‘They lived far away from everyone’ The adverb phrase usually functions as an adverbial. utsøkt vakkert ‘exquisitely beautiful’ b. modifying verbs (b).

It prototypically consists of the preposition and its complement.the about that money. Dette landet langt over Atlanteren likte han godt. or an infinitival (c): (1) a. Nå har han sannsynligvis kommet hjem. he has lived abroad in several years ‘He has lived abroad for several years’ (1) b. now has he probably come home ‘Now he has probably come home’ It may also appear as an attribute: (1) c. beslutningen om å gi pengene til prominente personer decision.the far over Atlantic.4.‘exactly like he is doing’ 2. climate. the preposition usually takes a noun phrase as its complement (a). but it may also take a subordinate clause (b).the to prominent persons ‘the decision to give the money to prominent persons’ .2 Syntactic function The adverb phrase prototypically functions as an adverbial: (1) a.the liked he well ‘This land way over the Atlantic pleased him’ 2.5 PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES The prepositional phrase is a phrase with a preposition as its head. Klimaet der var ganske tøft. this land.the there was quite rough ‘The climate there was quite rough’ (1) d. In Norwegian. i langskip ‘in longships’ (1) b.the about to give money.the should be-given to prominent persons ‘the decision that the money should be given to prominent persons’ (1) c. beslutningen om at pengene skulle gis til prominente personer decision. Han har bodd utenlands i flere år.

the for ‘What did Albert Einstein get the Nobel Prize for?’ 2. This modifier is placed in front of the preposition: (3) midt framfor meg middle in-front-of me ‘right in front of me’ 2.1 Prepositional phrase word order As in all the Germanic languages. lacking a complement.the round ‘all year round’ In addition to the preposition and its complement.’ Norwegian prepositions also take subordinate clauses as their complements: (1) a.5.5. oss kvinner imellom us women between ‘as one woman to another’ (1) b. a prepositional phrase may sometimes contain a modifier. Certain prepositions are optionally placed behind their complement when they have a particular meaning or in lexicalised constructions: (2) a. that was a sign on that Jomsvikings.’ bak meg ‘behind me.’ med hvilken penn ‘with which pen. This means that the preposition may appear at the end of the clause. the Norwegian preposition precedes its complement: (1) på tønner ‘in barrels’ Occasionally. året rundt year. Det var et tegn på at jomsvikingene ikke ville gi seg. the preposition follows its complement. Usually the complement is found as the first element of the clause: (2) Hva fikk Albert Einstein nobelprisen for? what got Albert Einstein Nobel Prize.2 Complement types The complement of a preposition is usually a noun phrase i stolen ‘in the chair.the not would give REFL ‘That was a sign that the Jomsvikings would not give in.’ .Norwegian allows preposition stranding of all kinds of noun phrase complements.

3 Case assignment In Norwegian.’ (2) c. Most of these phrases consist of the preposition til ‘to’ + genitive of a bare noun phrase til skogs ‘to the forest. turn up’ (1) b.4 Preposition stranding Norwegian prepositions may be stranded.’ Norwegian used to have a more complex case system. The other traces of the case system found in some lexicalised expressions in Norwegian are not found in English.’ (2) b. he decided REFL for to give money. or an adverb phrase (d): (2) a. Denne avisen er fra før krigen.’ over dem ‘over them.5.In addition. and we can see traces of that in some more or less lexicalised prepositional phrases. this newspaper is from before war.the ‘This newspaper is from before the war. which means that the preposition is not immediately to the left of its complement. Usually. Siden når begynte du å drikke øl? since when began you to drink beer ‘Since when did you start drinking beer?’ 2.’ There are also a few expressions where the bare noun phrase has the ending -e: (1) a. 2. Han bestemte seg for å gi pengene til prominente personer. a prepositional phrase (c). and they appear in the non-nominative form when following a preposition fra meg ‘from me.’ til deg ‘for you. komme til rette come to right. just as it does in Norwegian.’ til sjøs ‘at sea.’ hos henne ‘at her place. the complement is in the first position: .E ‘be found.5. the complement of a preposition may be an infinitival phrase (b). only pronouns show case.the to prominent persons ‘He decided to give the money to prominent persons.E ‘turn out to a man’ Pronouns show the non-nominative case after prepositions in English.’ framfor oss ‘in front of us. gå mann av huse go man of house.’av ham ‘by him.

prepositional phrases may be complements of prepositions (d) and appositions (e): . Det var Einstein de ga prisen til.5. Marie Curie who prize.the your must be-moved on ‘Your car needs to be moved. Ryktet om deres heltemot var ikke overdrevent. attributes (b). it was Einstein they gave prize. rumour.2 Function Norwegian prepositional phrases function as adverbials (a). who was awarded the prize in physics. Bygg kan man brygge øl av.’ (1) b. died of leukemia. and predicative complements (c): (1) a.the be-stored in barrels ‘The beer is stored in barrels. car. Bilen din må flyttes på. where the subject in the passive clause corresponds to the complement of the preposition in the corresponding active clause (d) (cf the active clause Du må flytte på bilen din ‘You need to move your car’): (1) d.(1) a. or in a relative clause (c): (1) b. Ølet lagres i tønner.the appointed her to laureate ‘The committee appointed her a laureate. Marie Curie som prisen i fysikk gikk til døde av leukemi.’ (1) c.’ In addition. beer.’ The preposition may also be stranded when the complement is clefted (b).the in physics went to died of leukemia ‘Marie Curie.’ A particular case of preposition stranding is found in certain passive clauses. Komitéen utnevnte henne til prisvinner.’ 2. barley can one brew beer of ‘Beer can be brewed on barley. committee.the about their bravery was not exaggerated ‘The rumour of their bravery was not exaggerated.’ (1) c.the to ‘It was Einstein they gave the prize to.

Han blir her til i neste uke. or a participal phrase: (1) b.7 AGREEMENT PHENOMENA AT THE PHRASE LEVEL . There are three main types: comparative subjunction phrases (a).’ The Norwegian concessive subjunction phrase consists of a concessive subjunction and a complement.6 SUBJUNCTION PHRASES Whereas subjunctions prototypically introduce embedded clauses (3.2).the up-button-ed went he in in room.’ 2. The most common subjunction in Norwegian is selv om ‘even though’: (1) c. it is also possible to find them in front of constructions that lack a subject and a predicate (a). and concessive subjunction phrases (c). Med skjorten oppkneppet gikk han inn i rommet. Jomsvikings.the were braver than Norwegians.the as warmest ‘Now the summer is as warm as it gets. Usually such constructions can be seen as reduced or truncated clauses. Nå er sommeren som varmest.(1) d. he was always kind although he was strict ‘He was always kind although he was strict.’ (1) e.the ‘The Jomsvikings were braver than the Norwegians.8. now is summer.’ 2. an adjective. Jomsvikingene var taprere enn nordmennene. he stays here until i next week ‘He stays here until next week. predicative subjunction phrases (b).’ The predicative subjunction phrase consists of som ‘as’ followed by a noun phrase. Han var alltid snill selv om han var streng.the ‘With his shirt unbuttoned he went into the room. with shirt. The Norwegian comparative subjunction phrase consists of a comparative subjunction (enn ‘than’ or som ‘as’) followed by a noun phrase or some other phrase that may function as a primary part of a clause: (1) a.

In Norwegian.’ or words that specify which noun is referred to. røde hus. the adjective has different forms for definite and indefinite noun phrases: Masculine/Feminine gender singular: (1) a.the ‘a red car’ ‘the red car’ ‘all the soup’ Masculine/Feminine gender plural: (1) b. the red cars. animals.0 INTRODUCTION – WORD CLASSES The words in a language like Norwegian are classified into different groups with something in common.’ Adjectives are words that denote characteristics. den røde bilen.the ‘the red cars’ alle suppene all soups.’ visse ‘certain.the ‘all the beer’ Neuter gender plural: (1) d.the all soup.the ‘the red house’ alt ølet all beer.’ . the red house. a red house ‘a red house’ det røde huset. et rødt hus. Nouns are words that refer to persons. red cars ‘red cars’ de røde bilene. their meaning. which clausal element they constitute.the ‘all the soups’ Neuter gender singular: (1) c.’ or løgn ‘lie.’ alle ‘all.g.’ gift ‘married.’ Pronouns are words that replace nouns.’ du ‘you. or their function.’ hun ‘she. for example denne ‘this.’ norsk ‘Norwegian.the ‘all the beers’ 3. there is phrase internal agreement (concord) within noun phrases: determiners.’ hund ‘dog. quantifiers. red houses the red houses. e. for example Maria.the ‘red houses’ ‘the red houses’ alle ølene all beers.’ dere ‘you. The classification may treat their inflection. and adjectives/past participles agree with the head of the noun phrase in number and gender. all suppa a red car the red car.’ lang ‘long.’ adelig ‘noble. for example jeg ‘I. røde biler. gutt ‘boy. de røde husene. en rød bil. for example rød ‘red.’ den der ‘that.’ hus ‘house.’ noe ‘some. or concrete or abstract things. In addition.

They indicate position. m de ti fra hus der borte. they lack all these characteristics.Verbs are words that denote what happens. mass nouns like melk ‘milk’ and vann ‘water’ normally lack the possibility to follow the indefinite article en/ei/et ‘a’ or to take plural ending. Though.’ Prepositions are small.’ synge eller spille ‘sing or play. time. or clauses of the same kind: Henning og Lise ‘Henning and Lise.’ undersøke ‘inspect.’ ville ‘want.’ kanskje ‘maybe. for example på (stolen) ‘on (the chair). for example at ‘that. See article 3.’ ganske ‘fairly. nye bidraget konferansen n el ann itt t l f Poland hous o th ne contribution.’ epler ‘apples’. and which can have a definiteness ending: stol-en ‘the chair.t conference.’ tredje ‘third.’ seng-a ‘the bed. etc.4.’ In Norwegian.’ Conjunctions are words that conjoin words. etc. quantity.’ et eple ‘an apple’. for example under ‘under’ (den nye stolen ‘the new chair’).’ 3.’ They may also occur before nouns with definitions. short words directly in front of a noun. and eple is neuter. The proper nouns are the ones that diverge the most.’ om ‘if.’ ei seng ‘a bed.’ kunne ‘can/know.’ nå ‘now. which can be preceded by an indefinite article: en stol ‘a chair. for example : ett ‘one. point of time.’ dit ‘there. seng is feminine. They represent space.’ sikkert ‘certainly. it is possible to enlarge them with attributes before or after: (1) e gamm m Polen.’ tre ‘three. Adverbs are words that modify verbs.’ senger ‘beds. in principle.’ Subjunctions are words that introduce a subordinate clause.’ syttiseks ‘seventy-six.’ sjuende ‘seventh.’ i (huset) ‘in (the house).’ til tross for at ‘despite.t an old man my there. e ver e w he he (= ‘the new contribution to the conference’) .’ som ‘who/which. phrases.1 NOUNS – GENERAL A typical noun is a word that refer to a person or a thing. which can be inflected in plural: stoler ‘chairs.’ Lasse spiser men Lise sover ‘Lasse is eating but Lise is sleeping. Nouns represent the main word of the nominal phrase.’ epl-et ‘the apple.’ Numerals are words that state number or order.. nouns also are classified in different genders: the word stol is masculine. or adverbs. to rom . for example her ‘here. manner.’ gi ‘give.’ puste ‘breathe. adjectives.. certain words constitute exceptions.’ ettersom ‘since.’ ofte ‘often. for example springe ‘run.1. over ‘over’ (Hennings gamle hus ‘Hennings old house’).

In these cases we are talking about compounds.1. van-. impudent person’ someone who is being impudent The endings above make the words into nouns. -en. which has its own meaning. Some examples are given below: (4) hus-båt båt-hus skrive-bord rød-vin ‘house boat’ ‘boat house’ ‘writing desk’ ‘red wine’ (4) gate-adresse koke-bok seilings-ulykke forsvars-minister ‘street address’ ‘cook book’ ‘sailing accident’ ‘minister of defence’ 3. be-. frekk-het: ‘impudence’ something impudent frekk-as: ‘bold. Note that in contrast to English compounds are generally written as one word in Norwegian.1. Here are some frequent endings of this type: (2) a. while others have a certain ending: -e.1 Form Norwegian nouns are built up around a root. -el or -er. A masculine noun gets the indefinite article en. (1) stol gat-e ‘chair’ ‘street’ våp-en ‘weapon’ nøkk-el ‘key’ søst-er ‘sister’ The different types are inflected in different ways in the plural. (3) u-flaks u-vær for-svare be-tale mis-tolke van-ære ‘bad luck’ ‘bad weather’ ‘defend’ ‘pay’ ‘misinterpret’ ‘disgrace. Sometimes also prefixes may be used. See 3.2 Gender Norwegian nouns have three different genders: masculine. Norwegian nouns can also contain a root with a special ending. .1. a feminine noun gets ei. dishonour’ Norwegian nouns may also contain two roots. compounds are very common. In Norwegian. They also decide how the words are inflected. The most common prefix is the negating u-.3. Some of these nouns contains only one root. and neuter. fisk-er: ‘fisherman’ somebody who’s fishing fisk-eri: ‘fishing’ the industry of fishing fisk-ing: ‘fishing’ the activity of fishing b.1. and a neuter noun gets et. and for-/fore-. Other common prefixes aremis-.3. feminine.

Adjectives and pronouns within a noun phrase also show gender differences.: hus-et eple-t house. Note that they have the same form in the masculine and the feminine genders.the ‘the bed’ (2) Neut. and a neuter noun gets the -et/-t.: viking viking (1) Fem.: hest horse 3.: hus et hus house a house The definite article is an ending on the noun in Norwegian.1 Concord All the three genders have different indefinite and definite article.: kvinne woman (3) Masc. and feminine when referring to females: (3) Masc.: ku cow en viking a viking ei ku a cow (1) Neut.the ‘the house’ ‘the apple’ Nouns that denote human beings and animals are normally masculine when referring to males. A masculine noun gets the ending -en/-n.the apple. a feminine noun gets -a. Indefinite article: en stol a chair Feminine: ei ku a cow Neuter: et eple an apple en mann a man ei kvinne a woman en hest a horse . Masculine: (1) a.: viking-en viking.2.the ‘the viking’ (2) Fem.: ku-a cow.the ‘the dragon’ seng-a bed.1.the ‘the cow’ drag-en dragon. (2) Masc.: mann man (3) Fem.(1) Masc.

’ hun ‘she.’ When a noun is referred to by a pronoun.the is brown ‘The cow is brown.the ‘the apple’ et brun-t eple a brown. 3. gender is visible in another way. In these cases Norwegian uses four different pronouns to refer to the noun.2. cow.1.the ‘these cows’ noen ky-r some cows noen eple-r some apples This type of congruence is also visible on adjectives after the verbs ‘be’ and ‘get.1.NEUT ‘The apple is brown. Indef. Pronoun: denne stol-en this chair. If it is a neuter noun. it is possible to use some of the pronouns han ‘he.’ or den ‘it.’ Kua er brun. See 3.the is brown.the ‘thie cow’ dette eple-t this apple.: en brun stol a brown chair d.’ When the noun refer to a mann ‘man’ the pronoun han ‘he’ is used. this gender difference is not visible on adjectives and pronouns: f. Definite article: stol-en ku-a chair.the ‘this apple’ noen ku some cow noe eple some apple In the plural. . Adjective: brune stol-er brown chairs g. apple.’ Eplet er brunt.2.2 This kind of gender concord is absent from English. Pronoun: disse stol-ene these chairs.2 Pronominal reference It is very common to refer to a noun with a personal pronoun. chair. article + adj.the cow.’ (2) Stolen er brun.the ‘these chairs’ h.the ‘these apples’ disse kyr-ene these cows. If the gender is masculine or feminine.b. Pronoun: noen stol some chair eple-t apple. Pronoun: noen stol-er some chairs brune ky-r brown cows brune eple-r brown apples disse eple-ne these apples.NEUT apple ei brun ku a brown cow denne ku-a this cow. the pronoun det ‘it’ is used.the ‘this chair’ e.the is brown ‘The chair is brown.the ‘the chair’ ‘the cow’ c.

the pronoun den ‘it’ is used. book. 3.the became not finished until they sold it ‘The house wasn’t finished by the time they sold it. Huset ble ikke ferdig innen de solgte det. and nominative nouns have no ending at all.’ otherwise den ‘it’ is used also for animals in masculine or feminine. Boka må skrives innen man kan selge den.indefinite).the became happy for that newspaper. Dronninga ble glad for at avisen skrev om henne. (2) — Hva er klokka? what is clock. it is possible to use han ‘he’ or hun ‘she.’ A common exception is that Norwegian speakers may use hun when talking about time. (1) a. If the noun refers to animals with a certain kind of personality.1. Singular.’ c. When the noun refer to a thing or something inanimate.nominative: stol chair Fem.’ d. boy. All three inflections are visible as endings on common. and case (nominative . and nouns in genitive. Gutten kunne ikke vite hvem som skulle møte ham. she is half seven ‘It’s half past six. concrete nouns.the could not know who that should meet him ‘The boy couldn’t know who would meet him. definite nouns.’ Han and hun are much more commonly used about things in spoken and (partly also) in written Norwegian than it is in English. definiteness (definite . but on plural nouns.the ‘What time is it?’ — Hun er halv sju. house.indefinite . Singular .genitive).’ b. flue fly Neut.When the noun refer to a kvinne ‘woman’ the pronoun hun ‘she’ is used.the must be-written before one can sell it ‘The book must be written before it can be sold. eple apple . (1) Masc. queen.the wrote about her ‘The queen was happy because the news paper wrote about her. three endings are visible. indefinite.plural).3 Inflection Norwegian nouns can be inflected in number (singular .

the ‘the apple’ eple-t-s apple.indefinite .’ or nouns with the ending -else: fristelse .definite .the fly.the’s ‘the chairs’’ flue-ne flies. which means a change of the root vowel: fot .fristelser ‘temptation temptations.’ hånd .definite .senger ‘bed .genitive: stol-en-s chair.claws.indefinite .Singular .definite . They are followed by the ending for genitive case -s.the ‘the apples’ eple-ne-s apples.the’s ‘the flies’‘ Thus the plural endings -er/-r and -ene/-ne come first.the’s ‘the apples’’ flue-r-s flies’ Plural .’ Some words get umlaut in plural.clergymen.føtter ‘foot .1 Number Most Norwegian nouns are inflected in number. There are three different ways of forming plural in Norwegian.bøker ‘book .1. above all monosyllabic words that end with a vowel: klo .definite . singular or plural.indefinite .beds.genitive: stol-ene-s chairs.genitive: stol-s chair’s flue-s fly’s eple-s apple’s eple-t apple.’ linje linjer ‘line .books.klør ‘claw .genitive: stol-er-s chairs’ flu-a-s fly.the ‘the chairs’ Plural .tær ‘toe .hands.feet. 3.nominative: stol-ene chairs.hender ‘hand .the’s ‘the fly’s’ flue-r flies eple-r apples eple-r-s apples’ eple-ne apples.’ The ending -r: Only a few nouns belong to this group.the ‘the chair’ ‘the fly’ Singular .nominative: stol-en flu-a chair.’ tå . The ending -er: Most nouns ending in a consonant belong to this group: prest prest-er ‘clergyman .toes.3.the ‘the flies’ flue-ne-s flies.the’s ‘the apple’s’ Singular .lines.nominative: stol-er chairs Plural .’ seng .the’s ‘the chair’s’ (2) Plural .’ .’ bok .

(1) mannens hest man.the ‘book’ ‘the book’ eple eple-t apple apple.’ søster .2 Definiteness Norwegian nouns normally have one definite and one indefinite form.’ and there are for that reason quite a few expressions with til ‘to’ followed by a genitive noun . Proper nouns as Peter.’ smil .the’s decision ‘today’s decision’ hus hus-et house house.hus ‘house . and -et/-t in neuter.1.houses. The genitives have one single function. -a in feminine.the ‘house’ ‘the house’ stol stol-en chair chair.bakers. and Europa ‘Europe’ have a definite meaning in themselves and cannot co-occur with a definite article. genitive was used after the preposition til ‘to.the ‘apple’ ‘the apple’ 3. (1) kjempe kjempe-n giant giant.suggestions.the’s horse ‘the man’s horse’ min brors kone my brother’s wife ‘my brother’s wife’ Hennings bil Henning’s car ‘Henning’s car’ Jupiters måner Jupiter’s moons ‘Jupiter’s moons’ husets rom house. namely to indicate possession and similar relations between two nouns or between two noun phrases.1.3.the ‘giant’ ‘the giant’ bok bok-a book book. the suffix -s is attached at the end of the word (after other endings).mønstre ‘pattern .the ‘chair’ ‘the chair’ In ancient Norwegian. Indefinite nouns have no ending while nouns that are definite take the ending -en/-n in masculine.søstre ‘sister .’ 3.The ending -e: Most nouns ending in -er in singular belong to this group: baker bakere ‘baker .’ forslag .3.forslag ‘suggestion .’ mønster .3 Case Norwegian makes a distinction between two cases: nominative and genitive. The genitive endings are very easy to learn.the’s room ‘the rooms of the house’ dagens beslutning day.smiles.smil ‘smile .’ No ending: Almost all neuter nouns that end in a consonant belong to this group: hus . Maria.sisters.patterns.

while place names are normally neuter. Hedda er vakker.1.’ b. they can constitute the head of a noun phrase.1. Tromsø is beautiful.2 Number Proper nouns are not inflected for number.1.GEN ‘to/at the table (only about meals’ 3.1.GEN ‘by sea (only about sailors’ til bords to table. Hedda is beautiful ‘Hedda is beautiful. (1) a. Mjøsa. while place names can be either singular or plural. but they may have attributes both before and after them. Bergen.4. Mongolia Plural: Færøyene ‘the Faeroe Islands.GEN ‘on foot (only when it is referred to the movement)’ til sjøs to sea. such as Peter and Hedda. Names of persons are always in the singular. Min Hedda my Hedda ‘my Hedda’ 3. Accordingly. They are fundamentally devoid of meaning (even though Peter always must indicate a man and Hedda a woman). Many of these expressions have a special meaning.4.NEUT Tromsø ‘my Tromsø’ .’ Mitt Tromsø my. In writing proper nouns are spelled with an initial capital letter. in the same way as common nouns.4.’ Filippinene ‘the Philippines. Tromsø er vakkert.1 Gender Names of persons are always masculine or feminine nouns.3 Syntactic function Proper nouns are very often used on their own.NEUT ‘Tromsø is beautiful.’ 3.with the -s suffix. Singular: Oslo.4 Proper names Proper nouns are partly names of persons. and partly place names such as Norge ‘Norway’ and Tromsø. 3. and therefore they can be used only in special cases: (2) til skogs to forest.’ Alpene ‘the Alps.GEN ‘to the forest’ til fots to foot. without attributes.

1 Form Adjectives often only contain a root.(1) a. So are the more abstract words farlig ‘dangerous. However.’ liten ‘little/small. and they inflect in accordance with this noun (concord): (1) en stor hest a big horse ei god bok a good book et stort hus a big house Adjectives may also be inflected for comparison: (2) stor større størst big bigger biggest svak svakere svakest weak weaker weakest 3. by adding the genitive suffix -s.4. form. such as bra ‘good. (1) Henning-s bror Henning’s brother Eva-s stil Eva’s essay Lise-s idé Lise’s idea 3.’ stor ‘big/large.the with hat.’ and aktuell ‘current.the from Tromsø ‘the boy from Tromsø’ 3. up-todate. gutten fra Tromsø boy. such as colour.2. they can be inflected in the genitive. min mann my husband b.’ Many adjectives are also derived by suffixes. . size.’ Adjectives modify nouns.’ ung ‘young.1.2 ADJECTIVES A typical adjective is a word that denotes a property.’ kritisk ‘critical. The words rød ‘red.’ vidunderlig ‘wonderful.’ and norsk ‘Norwegian’ are thus adjectives. or nationality.the ‘the lady with the hat’ d. dama med hatten lady. den lille jenta the little girl.the ‘the little girl’ min Espen my Espen den lille Karin the little Karin ‘the little Karin’ Lise med flettene Lise with plaits.4 Inflection Proper nouns are normally not inflected for number or definiteness.’ stor ‘big/large.’ and gammel ‘old.’ rund ‘round.the ‘Lise with the plaits’ Hedda fra Narvik Hedda from Narvik ‘Hedda from Narvik’ c.

2. number.PL cars Contrastive notes: The English group should note that concord is lacking in English .’ intensiv ‘intensive.’ and -iv: massiv ‘massive. such as -abel: riskabel ‘risky. the comparative. and definiteness: (2) en stor bil a big car et stort hus a big.DEF car flere store biler many big. and the superlative forms: (1) stor større størst big bigger biggest They are also inflected for concord with the noun they are modifying in gender.’ diskutabel ‘questionable.2 Inflection Adjectives are inflected in two ways. masculine’ -sk: engelsk ‘English’ -isk: erotisk ‘erotic’ statistisk ‘statistical’ årlig ‘annually’ -som: hjelpsom ‘helpful’ -et(e): klossete ‘clumsy’ -ende: levende ‘alive’ slitsom ‘tiresome’ Norwegian also has many words with the international (latin) suffixes. They are inflected for comparison taking the positive.’ 3.(1) -bar: merkbar ‘noticable’ -ig: lydig ‘obedient’ bærbar ‘portable’ -lig: mannlig ‘manly.NEUT house den store bilen the big.

Comparative is formed by adding the suffix -ere. o becomes ø.2. it can have neuter singular -t: stort. number. Differences in gender are only found in singular. 3. (3 gamm eldr eldst ) el e olde olde old r st mindr minst e smal small smalle l er st liten bedr e g bette ood r bra b est b est dårli dårlige dårlig g re st bad worse worst Some adjectives are inflected for comparison with mer ‘more’ and mest ‘most.2 3. or it can have -e: stor-e. et stort hus a big house to store biler two big cars ‘two big cars’ de store bilene the big cars. or in the superlative. (1) svak svakere svakest weak weaker weakest sterk sterkere sterkest strong stronger strongest Some common adjectives form their comparative by adding -re and their superlative by adding -st.’ See the adjective phrase 2. and both the definite form and the plural has the ending –e.2. in the comparative.2.2 Concord Norwegian adjectives normally agree with the noun/pronoun they are modifying.the ‘the big cars’ de store husene the big houses. or u becomes y.the to store hus two big houses . They are then inflected for gender. In these cases the stem vowel is mutated (i-umlaut): a becomes e. en stor bil den store bilen a big car the big car. (1) a. (2) lang lengre lengst long longer longest stor større størst big bigger biggest ung yngre yngst young younger youngest Some common adjectives have one root in its positive form and another root in its comparative and superlative forms. in the superlative the suffix -est is added.the det store huset the big house.1 Comparison Norwegian adjectives are inflected for the comparison. Comparative and superlative forms express a comparison.the ‘a big car’ ‘the big car’ b. They can be in the positive. Therefore there are only three different types: the adjective can lack the ending: stor ‘big’. and definiteness.The German and Icelandic groups should add that concord involves the category case.3.2.

’ du ‘you. They constitute the nucleus or attribute of a noun phrase. such as alle ‘all.3 PRONOUNS Pronouns are used to replace nouns or to identify them (to point them out). Pronouns which identify a noun may for instance be demonstratives.3.the is big cars. car.1 Definite pronouns When the speaker uses definite pronouns. We identify the following types: (1) Personal pronouns: jeg meg min du I me my you Definite articles: den det de the the the Demonstrative pronouns: denne dette den this this that Reflexive pronouns: seg sin . it means that he/she believes that the listener knows which person or thing is being referred to. such as hvem ‘who.’ få ‘few.’ hva ‘what. In this reading grammar. Typical pronouns that replace a noun are the personal pronouns. house.’ ‘The cars/houses are big.’ hun ‘she.’ noen ‘some.’ interrogative.the are big ‘The house is big. like denne ‘this. but also when the adjective is a predicate.’ mange ‘many.the is big ‘The car is big. Bilene / husene er store. we sort them into the following four main types: Definite pronouns Interrrogative pronouns Quantitative pronouns Relational pronouns 3. like jeg ‘I..the / houses.’ Huset er stort.’ etc.’ Pronouns can be divided into groups in many different ways.’ 3.‘a big house’ ‘the big house’ ‘two big houses’ ‘the big houses’ The agreement that is illustrated in the two first examples is found in indefinite noun phrases. any. or pronouns expressing amount or number.’ han ‘he.’ den her ‘this.’ etc. (2) Bilen er stor.

the my ‘Henning ate up my ice cream. Neut. Additionally. Masc. Since the 1970s.’ Norwegian personal pronouns are the following: (1) Singular: 1. mine ‘my’ din. Masc. du ‘you’ 3. Henning met me c. Fem. dine ‘your’ hans ‘his’ hennes ‘her’ dens ‘its’ dets ‘its’ vår. the possessive form to denote possession and the object form in all other cases./Neut. jeg ‘I’ 2. they can have different cases. and one possessive form. de ‘they’ oss ‘us’ dere ‘you’ dem ‘them’ Previously a more polite form of du ‘you. second person (the listener). The subject form is used when the pronoun constitutes the subject. den ‘it’ 3./Fem.’ De . I met Henning b. irrespective age and status. . ditt. or third person (the mentioned). mitt. han ‘he’ 3. Henning spiste opp isen min.1.3. dere ‘you’ 3./Fem.himself/herself his/her Reciprocal pronouns: hverandre each other Relative pronouns: som hvilken that which 3. was used. det ‘it’ meg ‘me’ deg ‘you’ ham ‘him’ henne ‘her’ den ‘it’ det ‘it’ min. Henning traff meg. hun ‘she’ 3.1 Personal pronouns Norwegian personal pronouns belong to first person (the speaker). våre ‘our’ deres ‘your’ deres ‘their’ Plural: 1. These three persons can be in the singular or in the plural. The have one subject form. Jeg traff Henning. vi ‘we’ 2. Masc. though. (1) a. du is used almost exclusively to everybody. vårt. Henning ate up ice-cream. one object form.

Singular masc. this suffix has to be complemented with an independent article. it sits a cat on stairs. namely when an adjective.1. however.2 The pronoun det is used as a subject in clauses like the ones below.The pronouns han ‘he’ and hun ‘she’ only denote human beings and some animals.the ‘the car’ ‘the white cars’ ‘the many cars’ senga den myke senga de myke sengene bed. paragraph 3. it rains ‘It’s raining.2 Free definite article In Norwegian.3 Demonstrative pronouns Norwegian has two demonstrative pronouns: denne ‘this’ and den ‘that.’ b.the the many cars. This article is den in singular masculine and feminine.3.the.2. or a numeral precedes the noun./fem. and de in plural.: denne Singular neut.: dette Plural: disse .1.3. it was nice that you came c. a pronoun.the the red house.the ‘the house’ ‘the red house’ ‘the three houses’ See also section 2.1.the the soft beds.the ‘A cat is sitting on the stairs.en ‘car. Things and abstract phenomena are denoted with the pronoun den or det. (1) bilen den hvite bilen de mange bilene car.’ (1) a. (2) a. Det sitter ei katt på trappa.’ 3.’ huset ‘house.1 3.the ‘the bed’ ‘the soft bed’ ‘the soft beds’ huset det røde huset de tre husene house. the definite article is generally a suffix to the noun: bil.the the three houses. Det regner.’ In some cases. den ‘it’ for masculine and feminine words. Det var hyggelig at du kom. det ‘it’ for neuter words. det in singular neuter.the the soft bed.3.’ sko-ene ‘shoes-the.2.the. Cf.the the white car.

’ dette året ‘this year. sitt.the her in mirror. si. child. boy. while the latter is inflected according to the number and gender of the nucleus: sin. Singular masc.’ de husene ‘those houses. seg ‘REFL’ and sin ‘REFL. boy.’ c.’ Many verbs demand a reflexive seg: . Gutten så føttene sine i speilet. Jentene vasket seg.’ det huset ‘that house. The former is indeclinable.the ‘The boy saw his watch in the mirror.3.the saw feet.’ disse årene ‘these years. Barnet har vasket seg.’ 3.4 Reflexive pronouns Norwegian has a 3rd person reflexive.’ d.the saw arm.’ g.the ‘The girl saw her arm in the mirror.the ‘The boy looked in the mirror.this b.the has washed REFL ‘The child had washed itself. Gutten så seg i speilet.the saw watch.’ b.’ which refer to the subject in a clause.the saw knee. sine. boy.’ den boka ‘this book.: den that this Singular neut. REFL girls.the saw REFL in mirror. Gutten så kneet sitt i speilet.: det that these Plural: de those When preceded by a demonstrative pronoun. the Norwegian noun is in the definite form: denne mannen ‘this man.’ f.the his in mirror. Gutten så klokka si i speilet.1.the ‘The boy saw his knee in the mirror. girl.’ den veien ‘that way.the his in mirror./fem. (1) a.the washed ‘The girls washed themselves. Jenta så armen sin i speilet.the ‘The boy saw his feet in the mirror.’ e.the his in mirror. boy.

’ hva ‘what.’ See sections 3.’ 3.2 Interrogative pronouns Norwegian interrogative pronouns are primarily hvem ‘who. However.2 and 1. Han har hva vi mangler. this use of these pronouns is rather formal. (1) a.(2) a. and a reciprocal action or state is described.1.8. In addition. Erik blandet seg i andres affærer. REFL in others’ business Erik mixed ‘Erik interfered with other people’s business.’ expressing possession. Erik and Hedda love each other b. Eva og Jan låner ofte hverandres sykler. Erik og Hedda elsker hverandre.2.’ c. while hva ‘what’ refers to a thing or something abstract. and hva ‘what’ may be used when the relative clause lacks a word which can be referred to.3. Vi diskuterer ofte med hverandre. the pronoun hverandre ‘each other/one another’ or hverandres ‘each other’s’ is used: (1) a.the whose owner recently had died ‘the house whose owner had died recently’ b.’ The pronoun hvem ‘who’ refers to a person.3. Hedda angret seg.3. we discuss often with each other ‘We often discuss with each other.’ b.’ 3. huset hvis eier nettopp hadde dødd house.2.6 Relative pronouns Norwegian relative clauses are usually initiated with the subjunction som ‘that. Hedda regreted REFL ‘Hedda was sorry.’ 3.1. Eva and Jan borrow often each other’s bikes ‘Eva and Jan often borrow each other’s bikes. and is rarely found in speech and informal writing. Hvem ‘who’ may have the genitive form .10. Norwegian has the relative pronouns hvis ‘whose.’ and hvilken ‘which.5 Reciprocal pronouns When the subject is in the plural. he has what we lack ‘He has what we lack.

the my ‘Who has stolen my slippers?’ b. Hvilken jente mener du? which girl mean you ‘Which girl do you mean?’ .hvems ‘whose.’ Unlike hvem ‘who’ and hva ‘what. (2) a. Hva skjer på mandag? what happens on Monday The pronoun hvilken ‘which’ refers to persons as well as to things. Hvilke er dine votter? which are your mittens ‘Which ones are you mittens?’ d. Hvem sine bøker er dette? who his/her books are this ‘Whose books are these?’ e.’ it requires a limited quantity to choose from. Hvilket er ditt hus? which is your house c. It is inflected according to gender and number: hvilken/hvilket/hvilke ‘who/which.’ but it is more common to use hvem followed by the reflexive pronoun sin/si/sitt/sine. Hva har du kjøpt? what have you bought ‘What did you buy?’ f. Hvem snakket du med? who talked you with ‘Who did you talk to?’ c. Hvem har stjålet tøflene mine? who has stolen slippers. Therefore hvilken ‘which’ is frequently an adjunct of a noun. (1) a. Hvems bøker er dette? whose books are this ‘Whose books are these?’ d. Hvilken er di kusine? which is your cousin ‘Which one is your cousin?’ b.

the ‘all milk’ ‘all the milk’ begge spillerne both players ‘both players’ alle spillere all players ‘all players’ alle spillerne all players.3. Hvilke biler er eldst? which cars are oldest? ‘Which cars are the oldest?’ 3.the ‘all the players’ hele spillet whole play.’ and hele ‘whole’ to indicate that the set of referents is in its totality without exclusion. Begge ‘both’ and hele ‘whole’ can only be combined with definite form. 3.2 Distributive pronouns The most common distributive pronoun in Norwegian is hver ‘every/each.’ alt smøret ‘all the butter.1 Totality pronouns Norwegian uses the pronouns all/alle ‘all.’ In general. like alle ‘all.3.’ mange ‘many.’ It also occurs independently at the end of the clause.3.’ hver ‘every.the ‘the whole play’ samtlige spillere all players ‘all players’ 3. Hver student må kunne dette. and it agrees in gender with this noun: hver mann ‘each man. Common pronouns. (1) all melk all melken all milk all milk.3.’ and ingen ‘nobody’ belong to this group.’ hele dagen ‘the whole day. The word all ‘all’ in the singular refers to uncountable nouns: all melka ‘all the milk.’ mye ‘much.’ The words samtlige ‘all’ and begge ‘both’ are both used in the plural. these words are used in the plural.’ This pronoun always occurs together with an indefinite noun in the singular. The word all/alle ‘all’ can be combined either with indefinite or with definite form. (1) a.’ hver kvinne ‘each woman. and samtlige ‘all’ normally just with indefinite form.3 Quantitative pronouns Quantitative pronouns give information about share or quantity.’ få ‘few.’ hvert hus ‘each house.3.’ begge ‘both.’ samtlige ‘all the…. To express the totality of a countable singular noun. the pronoun hele ‘whole’ is used: hele huset ‘the whole house. however.e. Hvilket hus er størst? which house is biggest ‘Which house is the biggest?’ f. .’ begge ‘both.

De kjøpte hver sine to aviser.’ 3. (2) a. hver sin ‘each’ is used to express this.3.’ b. Vi betalte 50 kroner hver. we payed 50 Crowns each Other distributive pronouns are hver eneste ‘every’ and the combined forms hver og en ‘each’ and hver sin/hvert sitt’each. ones partner is often the worst critic.the ‘Ones/Your partner is often ones/your worst critic.’ c. Om noen prater med en i byen . if somebody talks with one in town. .’ b.’ (1) a.’ The word man ‘one’ is often used instead of jeg ‘I. boys.’ If something is equally shared. they bought each their house ‘They bought one house each. there are many pronouns that consist of an interrogative and som helst ‘anyhow/anyway/any time’ etc.’ b. one can often blame on ones partner ‘One/you can often blame ones/your partner.3..the ‘If somebody talks to you in town…’ c. Ens partner er ofte den verste kritikeren.’ In addition.every student must could this ‘Every student must know this.3 Generalising pronouns A very common pronoun in Norwegian is man ‘one/you. Guttene fikk hver sin is.’ Without further specifications. it refers to a person. De kjøpte hvert sitt hus..the got each his ice-cream ‘The boys were given an ice cream each. they bought each their two newspapers ‘They bought two papers each. The direct object form of the pronoun is en and the genitive form ens ‘ones. Man kan ofte skylde på sin partner.

boys.3.3.’ which refer to uncountable nouns or nouns that indicate a quantity. Jeg vil ikke bo hvor som helst.4 Multitude pronouns The most common multitude pronouns are mange ‘many’ and få ‘few. it is unstressed. Hvem som helst kan gjøre dette. ei in feminine. I accept what that ever ‘I accept anything. (1) mange bøker få bøker many books few books mye vin lite vin much wine little wine mye epler lite epler much apples little apples Partly. it is impossible to separate it from the numeral en/ei/ett.’ which refer to countable nouns and mye ‘much’ and lite ‘little. mange bøker flere bøker flest bøker many books more books most books b.3. få bøker færre bøker færrest bøker few books fewer books fewest books c. who that ever can do this ‘Anyone can do this.3. Vi har kjøpt en ny bil.’ c. I will not live where that ever ‘I don’t want to live just anywhere. (1) a. (2) a. lite vin mindre vin minst vin little wine less wine least wine 3.the stole a bike . Guttene stjal en sykkel. Normally. Jeg aksepterer hva som helst.’ 3.(2) a. these pronouns can be compared. we have bought a new car b. mye vin mere vin mest vin much wine more wine most wine d.5 The indefinite article The indefinite article in Norwegian is en in masculine. but in writing.’ b. and et in neuter.

the ‘She ticked off the box. Det ligger ei bok på bordet. someone has stolen slippers my ‘Someone has stolen my slippers.3.’ e. we drove passed a church ‘We passed a church. she placed a cross in square. Hun satte et kryss i ruta.’ c. (2) a. it refers to a person.6 Indefinite pronouns The most common indefinite pronoun is noen/noe ‘someone/something/anyone/anything.’ When used independently in masculine and feminine. it signifies a thing or a phenomenon. Lena wrapped it in in a red paper ‘Lena wrapped it in a red wrapping paper.the ‘There is a book (lying) on the table. The plural form normally signifies persons.’ f. Lena pakket dem inn i røde papir.the ‘There are books (lying) on the table. it lies a book on table. Lena wrapped them in in red papers ‘Lena wrapped them in red wrapping papers. when used independently in neuter. something has happened c.‘The boys stole a bike.’ There is no indefinite plural article in Norwegian. we have bought new cars b. (1) a. .’ d. Noen har stjålet tøflene mine. Noe har hendt. Noen ble irriterte.’ c.’ b. Lena pakket den inn i et rødt papir. Vi kjørte forbi ei kirke. it lies books on table. Vi har kjøpt nye biler.’ 3.3. Det ligger bøker på bordet.

Adskillige (barn) håper at han kommer til å snuble.7 Negating pronouns The pronoun ingen/intet ‘nobody. Han sprang noen kilometer. Ingen vet hva vi skal gjøre. In neuter it refers to a thing or a phenomenon.’ They are normally only used in the plural. Then it means ‘some. and it is not very common in speech and in informal writing. (1) a. some men believe that he comes to to manage it ‘Some (men) believe that he’ll succeed.’ 3.3. certain women believe that he comes to to fail ‘Certain (women) believe that he’ll fail.’ b. no/nothing’ can be independent.’ c. Har du noen penger? have you any money ‘Do you have any money?’ d. several children hope that he comes to to trip ‘Several (children) hope that he’ll trip. Visse (kvinner) tror at han kommer til å mislykkes.3. some fishermen stood and talked on bridge. any (more than nothing). Kari behøver ikke noen penger. Kari needs not any money ‘Kari doesn’t need any money.’ adskillige ‘several. (3) a. Enkelte (menn) tror at han kommer til å klare det.’ c. The neuter form is rather formal.someone became irritated ‘Someone was irritated. Noen fiskere stod og pratet på brua.’ Other indefinite pronouns in Norwegian are enkelte ‘some. he ran some kilometers ‘He ran a few kilometers.’ b. nobody knows what we shall do .the ‘Some fishermen were talking on the bridge.’ (2) a.’ and visse ‘certain.’ The pronoun is often used together with a noun. and in masculine and feminine it then refers to a person.

with the negation (ikke ‘not’) and a positive pronoun (noenting ‘something/anything’) or a noun phrase with noen (noen sykkel ‘some/any bike’). he had no bike bought Han hadde ikke kjøpt noen sykkel. we got no money The pronoun ingenting ‘nothing’ refers to things.’ c. no book became sold ‘No book was sold. are generally preferred: (4) a. Vi fant ingenting. he had nothing seen * Han hadde kjøpt ingen sykkel. Intet forslag kunne være dummere. The examples in (4b) are rarely used in speech. However.’ b. he had not bought any bike c. he had bought no bike Han hadde ingen sykkel kjøpt. he had not seen anything 3.’ b. Han hadde ingenting sett.3. Ingenting har hendt. Han hadde ikke sett noenting. we found nothing When the object is a negated pronoun (ingenting ‘nothing’) or a noun phrase with ingen (ingen sykkel ‘no bike’) it cannot be placed further to the right than the negation.’ It is also possible to combine a negative pronoun with a noun. but may be found in literary texts. he had seen nothing b. Intet er mer ubehagelig enn en lungebetennelse. as illustrated by the ungrammaticality of (4a). (2) a. nothing has happened b. no suggestion could be stupid.er ‘No suggestion could be more stupid. * Han hadde sett ingenting. (3) a. nothing is more unpleasant than a pneumonia ‘Nothing is more unpleasant than pneumonia. Ingen bok ble solgt. Vi fikk ingen penger.4 Relational pronouns .‘Nobody knows what to do. the constructions in (4c).

’ likedan ‘similar. while the remaining ones agree with the gender of the noun: annen/annet/andre ‘other.’ etc. such as første ‘first.3.’ likedan ‘similar.’ midterste ‘middle.’ and slik ‘such. such as selv ‘self.’ slik/slikt/slike ‘such.’ forrige ‘former.3. while samme ‘same. such as borterste ‘further.’ 3.’ succession.’ likedan/likedant/likedanne ‘similar.’ likedan ‘similar.4.’ or focus.4.3. et likedant / slikt forslag ( som Hedda presenterte ) a similar / such suggestion as Hedda presented ‘a similar/such a suggestion (as that Hedda presented)’ 3. samme forslag ( som forrige gang ) same suggestion as last time c. (2) a. they are indeclineable.’ neste ‘next.’ (1) en annen bil an other car et likedant hus a similar house et slikt hus a such house (= ‘such a house’) Annen ‘other’ can be combined with a enn ‘than’-phrase.Norwegian has a number of relational pronouns. (1) den siste romanen the last novel. They include words such as første ‘first.the ‘this first try’ det siste forsøket the last try.4.the ‘the last try’ neste gang next time ‘next time’ min forrige hustru my last wife ‘my former wife’ 3. Normally.1 Comparative pronouns The most common comparative pronouns are annen ‘other. such as samme ‘same.the ‘the latest novel’ dette første forsøket this first try.’ Samme ‘same’ is principally indeclinable.’ and slik ‘such’ can be combined with a som ‘as/that’-phrase.3 Perspective pronouns .’ siste ‘last.’ samme ‘same.2 Ordinative pronouns Ordinative pronouns express succession in time or space. They can express comparisons.’ spatial comparisons. et annet forslag ( enn dette ) an other suggestion than this b.

the ‘the very king’ selve det innerste self the innermost ‘the innermost itself’ .the the wall. and then it precedes the noun: selve ‘self. and then it follows its noun.the r ‘the nearest chair’ ‘the further corner’ ‘the middle lift’ ‘the exterior wall’ de bortre hjørnet t de midterst heise n e n 3. and a definiteness suffix). på / i høyre hånd on / in right hand ‘on/in the right hand’ den høyre hånda.’ fremre ‘front. they generally combine with an indefinite noun without any article. Used in preposition phrases. (1) a. like øvre ‘upper.4 Focusing pronouns The focusing pronouns in Norwegian are selv ‘self.the thefurthercorner. They include høyre ‘right’ and venstre ‘left.’ egen ‘own. Otherwise they behave like an adjective.4.’ In addition.’ nedre ‘lower. i feil retning in wrong direction ‘in the wrong direction’ den feile retninga the wrong direction. the right hand.’ (1) kongen selv king.’ midterste ‘middle.the the middle lift.3.the self ‘the king himself’ vi selv we self ‘we ourselves’ selve kongen self king. and require double definiteness (both a prenominal definite article.’ hitre ‘the one nearer.’ Selv ‘self’ can be indefinite.the ‘the right place’ d.the ‘the wrong direction’ Most of the words mainly occur only in definite phrases.the ‘on the southern side ‘on the south side’ c. på søndre side (= på sørsida ) on southern side on south-side. and a number of pronouns that state position.’ the points of the compass. the words rett ‘right’ and feil ‘wrong’ belong to this group. (2) de nærmest stolen n e de ytre veggen n exterio the nearest chair.Perspective pronouns state position in proportion to something else.the ‘the right hand’ den søndre sida the southern side. på rett sted on right place ‘on the right place’ det rette stedet the right place.’ eneste ‘only. It can also be definite. These pronouns can occur with both indefinite and definite nouns.the ‘the southern side’ b.’ blotte ‘mere.

’ kjøpe ‘to buy. this pronoun always has strong inflection: egen/eget/egne. and they may also have a specific form for commands (the imperative). (2) min egen bil my own car hans eget forslag his own suggestion hennes egne romaner her own novels det egne forslaget suggestion (= the own ‘his/her own suggestion’) 3. The verbs kjøpe ‘to buy’ and gi ‘to give’ may be inflected for all these categories. Principally.4 VERBS Verbs denote events or actions: snø ‘to snow.1 Form In Norwegian. (1) Present kjøper buy(s) gir give(s) Past kjøpte bought ga gave Imperative kjøp! buy! gi! give! Passive present kjøpes is-bought gis is-given 3. verbs may have different forms in the infinitive and in the imperative.’ falle ‘to fall.’ They are inflected for tense (present or past).4.’ arbeide ‘to work.’ gi ‘to give. Root: gå go tro believe .The pronoun egen ‘own’ intensifies a phrase with a genitive attribute.but only in the present tense. Sometimes the weak egne occurs after the definite article. The infinitive generally ends in -e. Norwegian verbs also have a passive form. (1) Imperative snakk! talk! bytt! change! kjenn! feel! syng! sing! Infinitive snakke talk bytte change kjenne feel synge sing Verbs may be formed in the following way: (2) a.

presses REFL well ‘He expresses himself well. When the particle is placed before the verb. (1) a.1 Compounding with particles Norwegian has verb particles.’ The prefixed variant (to the left above) is more formal and common in written language. he out.the placed forward a hypothesis ‘The teacher put forward a hypothesis. and it is then often used in a more abstract sense. teacher.’ b.’ Han trykte ut majonesen fra tuben.’ Hun ble sagt opp. whereas the variant with the particle to the right is more natural and common in spoken language.’ Lyset gikk av.the ‘He pressed the mayonnaise out of the tube. Læreren fremsatte en hypotese.the forward. Root + derivational suffix: svartne become black. Regjeringen avgikk.4.said ‘She was fired. it normally has a more concrete interpretation. teacher. government. she became up. Root + -e suffix: snakke talk kaste throw smalne become narrow c.the from tube. . he pressed out mayonnaise. Derivational prefix + root: be-høve need e.’ b. Han uttrykker seg bra.placed a hypothesis ‘The teacher put forward a hypothesis. Compound: støv-suge dust-suck ‘vacuum’ av-bryte off-break ‘interrupt’ for-akte despise Compounds with a particle and a verb root. When the particle is placed after the verb.1 3. it is prefixed to it.went ‘The government resigned.4. light. and we then get a stylistic difference.the went off ‘The light went off.1. she became said up ‘She was fired. like av-bryte have special properties. Hun ble oppsagt.b.the off.’ Sometimes both variants can be used in the same expression.’ Læreren satte frem en hypotese. (2) a. blacken d. which may be placed both before and after the verb.1. see paragraph 3.

Henning broke off branch. she drives fast Hun så på ham. Else gave a book to Knut Intransitive verbs: (2) a.2 Transitive and intransitive verbs In Norwegian clauses. only one of the variants is allowed. Henning off. Linda så på Erik. Linda kjører fort. there is always a subject. * Henning brøt av taleren.’ c. I kissed you Du ga meg ei bok. Knut kysset Else.’ oss ‘us.broke branch. The verb may also have one or two objects and additionally they may have prepositional objects.4.’ Some intransitive verbs may have a cognate object. Erik snakket med Linda om Else. Henning brøt av greina.the Henning avbrøt taleren.’ etc. Verbs that take an object are called transitive. Henning broke off speaker. you gave me a book Du ga ei bok til meg.’ Han snakket med henne om deg. Else ga Knut ei bok. you gave a book to me b. Transitive verbs: (1) a.Often.the * Henning avbrøt greina.’ b. he talked with her about you ‘He talked to her about you. Vi danset. she looked on him ‘She looked at him.’ Jeg kysset deg. (3) a. Knut kissed Else b. that is an object which means approximately the same as the verb.the ‘Henning interrupted the speaker.’ 3. (3) a. we danced a dance / a tango . we danced Vi danset en dans / en tango. Linda drives fast Hun kjører fort. Henning off. Linda looked on Erik ‘Linda looked at Erik. Else ga ei bok til Knut.broke speaker. Erik talked with Linda about Else ‘Erik talked to Linda about Else.the ‘Henning broke off the branch. If the object is a personal pronoun it occurs in the object form: meg ‘me. Else gave Knut a book c.

sleep Many verbs may take a reflexive pronoun.’ b.the ‘She hid herself. cf. It refers to the subject of the clause.the ‘Eva washed herself.the ‘They shaved themselves. Lena må skynde seg. They can be used to express. The Norwegian verbs used to express time are the following: (1) Infinitive skulle komme ha Present skal kommer har Past skullet kom hadde Past participle skullet kommet hatt future future past .4. REFL she hid she hid refugee. Hun gjemte flyktningen.’ b. (4) a. Lise giftet seg.b. Lise married REFL ‘Lise got married. Eva vasket seg. REFL they shaved they shaved patient.’ c. Henning regretted REFL ‘Henning regretted it. De barberte seg. Lena must hurry REFL ‘Lena must hurry.’ 3.3 Auxiliaries In Norwegian there are auxiliaries and modals of different kinds. time (tense).’ Some verbs have a reflexive pronoun that cannot be exchanged for an ordinary object. cf. she slept Hun sov sin skjønnhetssøvn. (5) a. for instance. Eva washed REFL Eva washed child. Henning angret seg. Eva vasket barnet. This is seg in the third person. she slept her beauty.’ c. or to make the clause passive. De barberte pasienten.’ ‘Eva washed the child. Hun gjemte seg. cf.’ ‘She hid the refugee. Hun sov.’ ‘They shaved the patient.

Skal ‘shall’ is followed by the infinitive and it expresses future (often with a certain sense of intention).’ Norwegian also has several modal verbs. Han skulle springe en runde.) The verb bli inflects in the following way: (3) Infinitive bli Present blir Past ble Past participle blitt (4) Hun ble kjørt til sykehuset. be able to’ ‘want to’ ‘must. Kommer ‘comes’ is followed by til å ‘to’ and the infinitive. you shal help me ‘You will help me. (5) Infinitive skulle kunne ville måtte burde la få Present skal kan vil må bør lar får Past skullet kunne ville måtte burde lot fikk Past participle skullet kunnet villet måttet — latt fått ‘shall’ ‘can.’ which is followed by the past participle. he should run a lap b. permit’ ‘get to. Du kommer til å hjelpe meg. you have helped me To create a passive sentence. she became driven to hospital. Du har hjulpet meg. see paragraph 3. be allowed to’ (6) a.9. Norwegian may use the verb bli ‘become. The most common modal verbs are inflected like this. permission. and it expresses that something has happened. obligation.’ c. They are always followed by the infinitive. she could not save REFL .4. These are used to express intention. it expresses future (without any intention). Hun kunne ikke berge seg. Du skal hjelpe meg. you come to to help me ‘You will help me.’ b. Ha ‘have’ is followed by a past participle.1. (Norwegian also uses the special s-form of the verb to make a clause passive in many cases.the ‘She was sent to the hospital. or the like. have to’ ‘ought to’ ‘let. (2) a. wish.

and future (after now) by using special verb forms or by combining an auxiliary with a certain verb form.’ Present uses the present tense of ha. Vi lar dem gå. Only the present and past tenses have their own verb forms.’ c. Skal normally expresses intention. present (now). Perfect and pluperfect are formed with the auxiliary ha ‘have. har. (2) Perfect har kastet has thrown har has kjøpt bought Pluperfect hadde kastet had thrown hadde had kjøpt bought Future is formed with the auxiliary skal ‘will. is going to throw’ skal kjøpe shall buy ‘will buy. hadde. we let them walk. is going to throw’ kommer til å kjøpe comes to to buy ‘will buy. or the auxiliary kommer ‘comes.’ which is followed by the infinitive. shall. (3) skal kaste shall throw ‘will throw. which kommer does not. and the pluperfect uses the past tense of ha. is going to buy’ kommer til å kaste comes to to throw ‘will throw.4 Tense Norwegian expresses three tenses.’ which is followed by til å and the infinitive. ‘We will let them walk.‘She could not save herself. The auxiliary ha is always followed by the past participle (which always ends in -t).’ 3. (1) Simple present kaster throw(s) kjøper buy(s) Simple past kastet threw kjøpte bought The other tenses are formed by using an auxiliary. past (before now).4. is going to buy’ Future is also very often expressed by just the present form: .

Past: Hun hentet den i går.’ flytte ‘move. Present: Han henter ikke avisen sin.’ hente ‘fetch.’ jobbe ‘work.4. claim. Most Norwegian verbs are inflected this way. we close shop.’ havne ‘end up. trade.’ handle ‘buy. (1) a. 3. The different forms are illustrated with the verb hente ‘fetch’ below.’ hevde ‘maintain.the ‘Don’t fetch the car. we can fetch Per b. Infinitive: Vi kan hente Per. we have already fetched it Many other very frequent verbs are inflected in the same way. she fetched it yesterday e. sparke 2. Past participle: Vi har allerede hentet den. Imperative: Ikke hent bilen! not fetch car.’ huske ‘remember.’ c.’ håpe ‘hope.the his ‘He doesn’t fetch his newspaper. (1) Infinitive 1.’ kaste .(4) Vi stenger butikken om ei stund. he fetches not newspaper.the about e while ‘We close (will close) the shop in a while.’ 3. kjøpe bygge sy 3. gå Imperative spark! kjøp! bygg! sy! gå! Present sparker kjøper bygger syr går Past sparket kjøpte bygde sydde gikk Past participle sparket kjøpt bygd sydd gått ‘kick’ ‘buy’ ‘build’ ‘sew’ ‘walk’ See the following paragraphs.’ d.1 First conjugation The first conjugation has -et in the past tense. arbeide ‘work. The strong verbs change the stem vowel in the past.5. The three most common ways to inflect verbs are shown below.5 The conjugations The weak verbs in Norwegian have a -de or -te in the past form.4.

’ regne ‘rain. want.’ utvikle ‘develop.’ stoppe ‘stop. she bought it yesterday e. we shall buy it tomorrow ‘We will buy it tomorrow.’ lande ‘land.5.’ passe ‘fit. speak.’ sikte ‘aim. harm. or -te.’ samle ‘collect. Below the verb forms are illustrated for kjøpe ‘buy’ and bygge ‘build.2 Second conjugation The smaller class of weak verbs in Norwegian contains two subclasses: The first subclass As in the first conjugation has imperative forms ending in a consonant and past tense forms in -de.’ virke ‘seem. they have already bought it (2) a.’ understreke ‘emphasize.4.’ .‘throw. Present: Han kjøper ofte bøker he buys often books ‘He often buys books.’ 3.’ b.the ‘Don’t buy the car. Infinitive: Vi skal kjøpe den i morgen.’ åpne ‘open.’ koste ‘cost.the ‘Don’t build the house. Imperative: Ikke bygg huset! not build house.’ ønske ‘wish.’ (1) a.’ b. Imperative: Ikke kjøp bilen! not buy car.’ d.’ ramme ‘strike.’ vente ‘wait.’ miste ‘lose. Infinitive: Jeg skal bygge den i morgen. I shall build it tomorrow ‘I will build it tomorrow.’ mangle ‘miss.’ skaffe ‘provide. lack.’ c.’ støtte ‘support. Present: Han bygger ofte hus he builds often houses ‘He often builds houses.’ snakke ‘talk.’ lede ‘lead. arrive.’ c.’ satse ‘bet. count. ensure.’ tyde ‘interpret. Past: Hun kjøpte den i går.’ starte ‘start.’ skade ‘hurt. Past participle: De har allerede kjøpt den.’ sikre ‘secure.

’ stille ‘place.’ sydde ‘sewed’ — sydd ‘sewn’: (3) a. Both the infinitive and the imperative are identical to the stem ro ‘row.’ c. they have built it Several common verbs are inflected like kjøpe: begynne ‘begin.’ vare ‘last. Past participle: De har bygd det. they get the ending -r: ror ‘rows.’ tøye ‘stretch. they sew a blouse ‘They are sewing a blouse. think.’ mene ‘mean. he has already sewn it One of the most common verbs.’ reise ‘travel. they sprinkle salt on it ‘They are sprinkling salt on it. we shall sew it tomorrow ‘We’ll sew it tomorrow. they sprinkled salt on it De har strødd salt på den.’ følge ‘follow.’ feie ‘sweep. .’ skape ‘create.’ The past and the past participle show the ending -dde and -dd: rodde ‘rowed’ — rodd ‘rowed.’ gjøre ‘do.’ fortelle ‘tell.’ øve ‘practice.’ betale ‘pay. hear.’ sende ‘send.’ bygge ‘build.’ Strø salt på den! sprinkle salt on it De strør salt på den.’ kjenne ‘feel.’ like ‘like.’ The second subclass This subclass contains verbs with stems ending in a stressed vowel.’ høre ‘listen.’ finnes ‘exist. Infinitive: Vi skal sy den i morgen.’ tape ‘lose.’ bruke ‘use. consider. know.’ syr ‘sews.’ kjøre ‘drive. Present: De syr en bluse. they have sprinkled salt on it.’ In the present tense.’ eie ‘own.’ sy ‘sew.’ hete ‘be called.’ synes ‘think.’ b. e.d.’ tygge ‘chew. Imperative: Sy en bluse! sew a blouse Vi skal strø salt på den.’ kjøpe ‘buy.’ vise ‘show. she sewed it yesterday De strødde salt på den.’ d.’ føle ‘feel. Past participle: Han har allerede sydd den.’ bøye ‘bend.’ føre ‘lead.’ møte ‘meet.’ trenge ‘need.’ øke ‘increase. Past: Hun bygde det i går.’ Several common verbs are inflected like bygge: behøve ‘need. pose.’ selge ‘sell.’ lage ‘make. she built it yesterday e. Past: Hun sydde den i går.’ tenke ‘think.’ leve ‘live.’ spille ‘play.’ klare ‘manage. we shall sprinkle salt on it ‘We’ll sprinkle salt on it tomorrow. ha ‘have’ is inflected according to this conjugation.’ velge ‘choose.

’ skryte ‘boast.’ fryse ‘freeze.’ gjøre ‘do.2 Third conjugation The third conjugation includes several verbs which end in a consonant.’ lyve ‘lie.’ ride ‘ride.’ følge ‘follow. drift. be. Below you find examples of the verbs: velge ‘choose.’ burde ‘ought to.’ finnes ‘exist.’ The following verbs are conjugated like drikke ‘drink’: binde ‘bind. Many of them are quite common.’ sitte ‘sit.’ smørre ‘grease.(4) Infinitive ha Imperative ha! Present har Past hadde Past participle hatt ‘have’ Sometimes the stem vowel is changed in the past forms of the verbs in the second conjugation.’ . have time to.’ (5) Infinitive velge selge følge gjøre smørre burde Imperative velg! selg! følg! gjør! smørr! — Present velger selger følger gjør smører bør Past valgte solgte fulgte gjorde smurte burde Past participle valgt solgt fulgt gjort smurt — ‘choose’ ‘sell’ ‘follow’ ‘do’ ‘grease spread’ ‘ought to’ 3.’ rekke ‘reach.’ stige ‘step. smear.’ synke ‘sink.’ springe ‘run.4. (1) Infinitive bite skrive bryte synge drikke finne ta slå bære skjære ligge se komme sove Present biter skriver bryter synger drikker finner tar slår bærer skjærer ligger ser kommer sover Past beit skreiv brøt sang drakk fant tok slo bar skar lå så kom sov Past participle bitt skrevet brutt sunget drukket funnet tatt slått båret skåret ligget sett kommet sovet ‘bite’ ‘write’ ‘break’ ‘sing’ ‘drink’ ‘find’ ‘take’ ‘hit’ ‘carry’ ‘cut’ ‘lie’ ‘see’ ‘come’ ‘sleep’ The following verbs are conjugated like bite ‘bite’: drive ‘drive.5. They typically have a vowel change in the past tense.’ selge ‘sell. Some of them also have a vowel change in the past participle. rise. make.’ The following verbs are conjugated like bryte ‘break’: flyte ‘float.

3.4.6 Mood
Norwegian only has two modes: imperative and indicative. The imperative expresses a command. (1) Gå! ‘Walk/Go!’ Spring! ‘Run!’ Sitt! ‘Sit (down)!’

The indicative is the form that is used in all other circumstances. The indicative can be either present or past tense, see further paragraph 3.4.4.

3.4.7 Non-finite forms
The non-finite forms of a verb in Norwegian are infinitive, present participle, and past participle. The infinitive is preceded by the infinitival marker å ‘to’ or by an auxiliary. The present participle follows the verb være ‘be’ or bli ‘become,’ and the past participle follows the auxiliaries ha ‘have,’ være ‘be,’ or bli ‘become.’ (1) a. Infinitive: (å) fascinere (to) fascinate b. Present participle: (de) er fascinerende, (de) blir værende (they) are fascinating, (they) become staying ‘they are fascinating,’ ‘they are staying’ c. Past participle: (han) er fascinert, (hun) er dratt, (vi) ble sett (he) is fascinated, (she) is gone, (we) became seen ‘he is fascinated,’ ‘she has gone,’ ‘we were seen’ The auxiliary være ‘be’ is possible with the past participle of intransitive verbs. Often these verbs express some kind of movement or transition: (2) a. Han er reist. he is gone ‘He has gone.’ b. Jenta er sovnet. girl.the is fallen.asleep ‘The girl has fallen asleep.’ c. Pengene er forsvunnet. money.the is disappeared ‘The money has disappeared.’

The past participle form can also be used in passive clauses with passive, and then the auxiliary bli ‘become’ is used: (3) a. De ble avhørt. they became interrogated ‘They were interrogated.’ b. Sofaen blir flyttet fra rom til rom. couch.the becomes moved from room to room ‘The couch is moved from room to room.’ c. Pengene ble stjålet. money.the became stolen ‘The money got stolen.’ The past participle can also precede a noun. (4) ei (ny)bygd hytte, et (opp)spist smørbrød a (newly)built cottage, an (up)eaten sandwich When the present participle is used with the auxiliary være ‘be’ it denotes an experience. When it is used with bli ‘become’ on the other hand it expresses continuous aspect. (5) a. Filmen var skremmende. film.the was terrifying ‘The film was terrifying.’ b. Situasjonen var opphissende. situation.the was exciting ‘The situation was exciting.’ c. Hun ble gående aleine. she became walking alone ‘She ended up walking alone.’ d. De ble sittende i ro. they became sitting in peace ‘They kept sitting still.’ Present participle is mainly used before nouns. (6) en smittende latter, en arbeidende mann an infectious laughter, a working man

3.4.8 Agreement

Norwegian verbs do not show agreement with the subject. All forms are the same, regardless of what subject is used. (1) Singular: Plural: 1. jeg røyker ‘I smoke’ vi røyker ‘we smoke’ 2. du røyker ‘you smoke’ dere røyker ‘you smoke’ 3. han/hun/det røyker ‘he/she/it smokes’ de røyker ‘they smoke’

3.4.9 S-forms
In Norwegian many verbs may take an s-form. The -s is added to the inflected form of the verb and it either turns an active sentence into a passive one or it expresses reciprocity. (1) a. Passive: Døren åpnes plutselig. door.the is.opened suddenly ‘The door is suddenly opened.’ b. Reciprocity: De møttes. they met ‘They met each other.’ See the following paragraphs. Adding the -s to the inflected verb creates the s-form of the verb, so it will always be the last (rightmost) element. When the verb is in the present tense and ends in an -r, this -r disappears when adding the -s. (2) Active S-form Active S-form a. Infinitive: snakke, snakkes; synge, synges talk be.talked sing be.sung

b. Present: snakker, snakkes; synger, synges talks is.talked sings is.sung c. Past: snakket, —; sang, — talked sang d. Past participle: snakket, —; sunget, — talked sung 3.4.9.1 S-passive In Norwegian the s-form of the verb is a common way to create passive sentences. However, the –s-passive is only possible in the present tense. Compare the active sentences on the left below to the passive ones on the right.

(1) i: Henning bor i Tromsø. These verbs have no s-less form with similar meaning.bought by Henning ‘The book is bought by Henning.’ 3. Huset bygges ( av Lise ).the house. but they may also denote time relations or more abstract relations. they are short words that denote a local relation.the ‘She sat on the chair. vasen i skapet in Henning lives in Tromsø vase. They are never inflected.2 Other s-forms The s-form of the verb may be used to express that the plural subject does things to each other (reciprocity).the ‘Henning buys the book. Henning buys book. Henning kjøper boka. (1) a. The most common are: finnes ‘be.5 Prepositions Prepositions denote a relation between two things. they met.’ ‘the branches of the tree’ .built by Lise ‘Lise builds the house.4 on the passive construction. grenene på treet on she sat on chair.9.(1) Active a. The most common prepositions are the following.S every Friday ‘We talk to each other every Friday. 3.the is.S in Paris ‘They met (each other) in Paris.the is. Lise builds house. Vi snakkes hver fredag.’ Some verbs always have the s-form.12.the on tree.the ‘Henning lives in Tromsø.’ Passive Boka kjøpes ( av Henning ).’ ‘the vase in the cupboard’ av: De er lagd av marmor.’ b. De møttes i Paris.4. Typically. book.’ b.’ ‘one of the boys’ på: Hun satt på stolen. exist. en av guttene of it is made of marble one of boys.’ lykkes ‘succeed.’ See paragraph 1.the ‘It is made of marble. we talk.’ ‘The house is built by Lise. Lise bygger huset.the in cupboard.the branches.

3. moten for tiden for it was easy for Lise fashion. vessel.the ‘He wrote with the pen.’ The preposition av is often used in abstract contexts when a noun is derived from a verb salget av huset ‘the selling of the house.’ ‘the fashion of today’ med: Han skreiv med pennen.the for time.’ The preposition til is used with verbs like gi ‘give’ and sende ‘send’: Gi den til Karin ‘Give it to Karin.’ See further paragraph 2.’ The preposition på is sometimes used to express that something is a part of something else: beina på stolen ‘the legs of the chair. brevet til Hedda to we traveled to Lund letter.’ The preposition med is sometimes used to express content of a case.5 on prepositional phrases.the from Reykjavík ‘She is from Salzburg.’ or how long something takes: arbeide i tre timer ‘work for three hours.the ‘It was easy for Lise.’ It is also used to express the agent of a passive clause: Prisen deles ut av kongen ‘The price is awarded by the king.the lady.’ or when one wants to denote a member of a group: en av guttene ‘one of the boys.6 ADVERBS .’ ‘the letter to Hedda’ om: Legg den om halsen.for: Det var lett for Lise.’ ‘the woman from Reykjavik’ The preposition i is often used in temporal expressions to denote the time of the day i kveld ‘tonight.’ The preposition om is often used in temporal expression to tell how long it is left until something will happen: Jeg kommer om tre timer ‘I will arrive in three hours. around put it around neck.’ ‘the lady with the dog’ til: Vi reiste til Lund.’ ‘the book about Emil in Lønneberget’ fra: Hun er fra Salzburg.the with dog. boka om Emil i Lønneberget about.the about Emil in Lønneberget ‘Put it around your neck. or the like: ei flaske med melk ‘a bottle of milk. dama med hunden with he wrote with pen.the book.the to Hedda ‘We went to Lund. kvinnen fra Reykjavík from she is from Salzburg woman.

time. .’ Several of the adverbs that are inflected for comparison have a different root in comparative and superlative than they have in the positive form. place. Albert is very old f. Adverbs may modify clauses. Henning drives fast b. or degree. Linda bor her. but a few of them may be inflected for comparison. Tiril kjører fortest.1 Morphological properties Adverbs are normally not inflected. A few of them can however be inflected for comparison. Lena runs fast d. Henning can perhaps help you b. or other adverbs. Linda lives here c. Henning kan kanskje hjelpe deg. Henning drives faster than Lise c. Lena springer fort. that is they have specific forms that denotes higher degree (comparative) and highest degree (superlative) in a comparison. this happens quite seldom Adverbs are normally not inflected.6. Henning kjører fort. Henning kjører fortere enn Lise. Dette skjer ganske sjelden. 3. Tiril drives fastest ‘Tiril drives the fastest. and they can be used to negate the clause. for instance. (1) a. now shall Espen read ‘Now Espen will read. Albert er svært gammel. (1) a.The word class of adverbs contains many different sorts of words. They express. verbs. Nå skal Espen lese.’ e. adjectives. or modify it in another way.

’ straks ‘immediately. which.’ da ‘then.’ hit ‘here.’ nå ‘now.’ can be changed to av det. her ‘here.’ når ‘when.’ hvordan ‘how. whom’ 3. this way. there’ deretter ‘afterwards’ derimot ‘on the other hand’ derfra ‘from there’ herav ‘of this’ hvorav ‘of (from) what.’ slik.’ (1) a. Adverbs like derav ‘of that.’ så ‘so. I am here du? you Jeg drar nå.’ ennå ‘yet.’ fort ‘fast. sånn ‘so.’ hvor ‘where.’ der ‘there. Especially common are the prefixes der or sometimes her eller hvor followed by a preposition. I leave now .6. Hvor er du? where are you b. for a long time.’ lenge ‘long.(1) Positive fort sakte lenge ofte mye lite nær gjerne vel/bra ille Comparative fortere saktere lengre oftere mere mindre nærmere heller bedre verre Superlative fortest saktest lengst oftest mest minst nærmest helst best verst ‘fast’ ‘slowly’ ‘long. Among these suffixes we find: (2) -vis: gradvis forsøksvis -lig: egentlig virkelig ‘gradually’ ‘tentatively’ ‘actually’ ‘really. like this/like that.’ dit ‘there. (3) dertil ‘to that. place or manner.2 Various types of adverbs Among the most common adverbs we find adverbs that denote or ask for time. truely’ ‘somewhere’ ‘nowhere’ -steds: noensteds ingensteds Compounding is a productive way to form adverbs.’ allerede ‘already. for a long time’ ‘often’ ‘very. that way. much‘ ‘little’ ‘near’ ‘willingly’ ‘well’ ‘badly’ Suffixes are often used to form adverbs. Når when drar leave Jeg er her.

’ Among the most common adverbs we also find some that denote or ask for degree.’ mest ‘most. ‘This company is as big as yours.’ egentlig ‘actually.’ bare ‘just. Hvor interessert er du? where interested are you ‘How interested are you?’ Jeg er svært/ganske interessert.’ kanskje ‘maybe.’ Legg ned våpnene.the ‘Drive the car into the garage. Adverbs may also be so called verb particles.the is as big as yours.’ ganske ‘pretty.the ‘Let in the dog. that.’ hvor ‘where.’ ‘Drive out the car. perhaps. take in dog.4.’ jo ‘as we know. drive in car.’ Some adverb of place are build by adding an -e to particles like these. They can also connect to something previously said. which follow the verb. Kjør inn bilen i garasjen.’ opp ‘up.’ vel ‘I think.’ virkelig ‘really. direction.the ‘Lay down the weapons. (4) a.’ ned ‘down.’ mindre ‘less.’ b. one does such ‘You do it like this. and normally not translated into English at all.’ minst ‘least.’ (2) a.’ Man gjør slik.’ Adverbs also express that something is true.’ like ‘as. Kjør fram bilen.’ absolutt ‘absolutely.’ ut ‘out.the in garage.’ også ‘also. much.’ fram ‘forth. ikke ‘not. inn ‘in. or credible. svært ‘very.’ så ‘so.’ mer ‘more.’ (3) Ta inn hunden. Hvordan gjør man dette? how does one this ‘How do you do this?’ ‘I’m leaving now. lay down weapons.’ . for example.’ which denotes where something is placed.‘When are you leaving?’ c.the drive forth car. The particle inn denotes direction and corresponds to inne ‘inside.1. false. this company. short words denoting. See further paragraph 2. only. I am very/quite interested ‘I’m quite interested.’ bak ‘back.’ sannsynligvis ‘probably. Dette firmaet er like stort som ditt.’ lite ‘little.’ The last two adverbs are quite vague.

the stands here in in garage. Vi var nede i byen.b. we were down in city.the ‘Come forth into the light.’ 3. car. (1) Cardinal numbers: en ‘one’ to ‘two’ tre ‘three’ fire ‘four’ fem ‘five’ seks ‘six’ sju.’ d. syvende ‘seventh’ åttende ‘eighth’ niende ‘ninth’ tiende ‘tenth‘ ellefte ‘eleventh’ tolvte ‘twelfth’ trettende ‘thirteenth’ fjortende ‘fourteenth’ femtende ‘fifteenth’ sekstende ‘sixteenth’ syttende ‘seventeenth’ attende ‘eighteenth’ . go down to city. Still deg framme på scenen. Bilen står her inne i garasjen.the ‘Place yourself in the front of the stage.’ f. place you forth on stage.the ‘The car is here inside the garage.the ‘Walk down to the city. syv ‘seven’ åtte ‘eight’ ni ‘nine‘ ti ‘ten’ elleve ‘eleven’ tolv ‘twelve’ tretten ‘thirteen’ fjorten ‘fourteen’ femten ‘fifteen’ seksten ‘sixteen’ sytten ‘seventeen’ atten ‘eighteen’ Ordinal numbers: første ‘first’ andre ‘second’ tredje ‘third’ fjerde ‘fourth’ femte ‘fifth’ sjette ‘sixth’ sjuende. Gå ned til byen.’ e.the ‘We were down in the city.’ c.7 NUMERALS Numerals indicate how many there are of something (cardinal numbers: for example tre ‘three’) or which one in an ordered set something is (ordinal numbers: for example tredje ‘third’). come forth in light. Kom fram i lyset.

‘billion’ nittende tjuende. and only rarely in indefinite noun phrases.nitten tjue. Predicatively: Cardinal numbers: Antallet medlemmer var tolv.7.2 Morphology: cardinal numbers . both in indefinite and definite noun phrases. They may be predicates. tyve tjueen tjueto tretti trettien førti femti seksti sytti åtti nitti hundre tusen million miljard ‘nineteen’ ‘twenty‘ ‘twenty-one’ ‘twenty-two’ ‘thirty’ ‘thirty-one’ ‘forty’ ‘fifty’ ‘sixty‘ ‘seventy‘ ‘eighty’ ‘ninety’ ‘hundred’ ‘thousand’ ‘million’ Br. Independently: alle tre all three Ordinal numbers: — b.the members was twelve ‘The number of members was twelve. ‘milliard’ Am. Indefinite noun phrase: en tredje gang a third time den fjerde boka the fourth book.the ‘the four books’ c. tyvende tjueførste tjueandre trettiende trettiførste førtiende femtiende sekstiende syttiende åttiende nittiende hundrede tusende millionte — ‘nineteenth’ ‘twentieth’ ‘twenty-first’ ‘twenty-second’ ‘thirtieth’ ‘thirty-first’ ‘fortieth’ ‘fiftieth’ ‘sixtieth’ ‘seventieth’ ‘eightieth’ ‘ninetieth’ ‘hundredth’ ‘thousandth’ ‘millionth’ — 3.the ‘the fourth book’ den tredje the third (one) 3.1 Syntactic function Numerals can be used in three ways. Finally. typically after the verbs være ‘be’ or bli ‘become.’ They may also occur in front of nouns.’ tre hus three houses Definite noun phrase: de fire bøkene the four books. (1) a. Ordinal numbers do not occur as predicates. they may be used independently. that is without a noun.7. number.

Det er fint å seile. (3) a. Henning bikes but Lise drives car ‘Henning bikes but Lise drives a car.8 CONJUNCTIONS.NEUT house Other numerals ending in -en do not agree in gender with the noun. these words link elements of the same kind. SUBJUNCTIONS. kjører bil. Han visste at han ville komme for seint. Du får den.The numeral en/ei/ett ‘one’ agrees with its noun.’om ‘if. these words introduce subordinate clauses.3 Morphology: ordinal numbers Ordinal numbers are uninflected. Henning og Lise sykler Henning and Lise bike Subjunctions are words like at ‘that. (2) a. (2) Masculine: tjueen biler twenty-one cars Feminine: tjueen senger twenty-one beds Neuter: tjueen hus twenty-one houses 3. The masculine form is used with all nouns. AND THE INFINITIVAL MARKER Conjunctions are words like og ‘and. Knut begynte å lese. (1) Masculine: en bil a. you get it since you are my friend The infinitival marker is å and it introduces infinitival clauses.MASC car Feminine: ei seng a.’ eller ‘or’. (1) a. Henning sykler.FEM bed Neuter: ett hus a. 3.’ men ‘but.7.’ b. ettersom du er min venn.’ettersom ‘since’. he knew that he would come too late b. Knut began to read b. men Lise. .

’ for ‘for. Lise sings and Espen plays b. Lise og Henning er ganske livlige. because.the and dog. Henning and Espen take military.1. The Norwegian conjunctions are: og ‘and.’ samt ‘and (also).the his ‘the old man and his dog’ b.8.’ (1) a. den gamle mannen og hunden hans the old man. (2) På bryllupsreisen dro Lena og Jan samt Lenas fetter Per.the ‘Henning and Espen are doing their military service. Vi arbeider og tenker på deg.’ .’ fordi ‘for.1 Conjunctions All conjunctions connect two elements of the same kind.’ skjønt ‘though. Lise synger og Espen spiller.’ They may connect two main clauses. although.the went Lena and Jan as-well-as Lena’s cousin Per ‘Lena and Jan as well as Lena’a cousin Per went on the honey-moon.’ Conjunctions can also connect to phrases.8.’ The conjunction og ‘and’ can be emphasised by både ‘both. Lise and Henning are pretty lively but very kind 3.’ b. (1) a. Eva er vakker. although she has got no self esteem. on honey-moon. skjønt hun har ingen selvtillit. (2) a.’ The conjunction samt ‘and (also)’ is mostly used to mark that something is separate from the other elements. as.1 Copulative conjunctions Copulative conjunctions connect elements of the same type without implying any difference between them. men svært snille.service.’ eller ‘or. Eva is beautiful although she has no self-esteem ‘Eva is beautiful.it is nice to sail 3.’ men ‘but. Copulative conjunctions are og ‘and’ and samt ‘and (also). we work and think on you ‘We are working and thinking of you. Henning og Espen tar militærtjenesten.

1. Boka er vanskelig. There is only one conjunction of this sort in Norwegian: eller ‘or. Both Henning and Espen take military.’ The expression can be emphasised with enten ‘either’ or the negation hverken ‘neither.8. In Norwegian men ‘but’ and skjønt ‘but. still.lot though eats little ‘He drinks a lot though he eats little.(3) Både Henning og Espen tar militærtjenesten. (1) a. both meaning ‘nevertheless. though’ are used.1.’ b.the is difficult but interesting ‘The book is difficult but interesting. men likevel ganske flott. Om du sykler eller går spiller ingen rolle.’ (1) a.8.’ The expression may be emphasised by riktignok meaning ‘admittedly’ in the first part of the co-ordination. he drinks a.’ b. Svein er riktignok tjukk. Enten Espen eller Henning må gå av. skjønt spiser lite.’ (2) a. I know not whether it is a man or a woman ‘I don’t know whether it is a man or a woman.service. or by likevel or dog.’ 3.’ b. .’ 3. men interessant. whether you bike or walk plays no part ‘Whether you bike or walk doesn’t matter. neither Espen nor Henning must go off ‘Neither Henning nor Espen must resign.3 Adversative conjunctions Adversative conjunctions express a contrast.the ‘Both Henning and Espen are doing their military service. Jeg vet ikke om det er en mann eller ei kvinne. anyway’ in the second. either Espen or Henning must go off ‘Either Henning or Espen must resign. Han drikker mye. (2) a. book. Hverken Espen eller Henning må gå av.2 Disjunctive conjunctions Disjunctive conjunctions express an alternative.

’ om ‘if.’ and om ‘if’ lack content almost entirely.2. The typical subjunctions at ‘that.’ b. we have admittedly many friends but can still not be quite sure ‘We admittedly have many friends but we still cannot be sure.1 Syntax and inflection Subjunctions are not inflected. for han hadde ingen penger. Vi har riktignok mange venner.’ til tross for at ‘although.8. Knut was worried because he had no money 3.1.8.8. They are sometimes written as two or more words: fordi at ‘because. so she stayed at home.2 Subjunctions Subjunctions are words that introduce subordinate clauses. for han orker ikke. as.’ slik at ‘so that’ for at ‘in order to.’ 3.’ som ‘that.8.8. (1) Eva var trøtt.’ .4 Explanative conjunctions Explanative conjunctions imply that the second part of the co-ordination is an explanation of the first one. Han vil ikke. which. Knut var bekymret. time: mens ‘while’.’ 3. men kan dog ikke være helt sikre. he wants not because he manages not ‘He doesn’t want to because he is tired. Others denote a specific relation between the subordinate clause and its main clause. etc. which.’ 3. whether’ and enn ‘than. Eva was tired so she stayed home ‘Eva was tired. Norwegian uses for ‘for. 3. så hun ble hjemme.5 Conclusive conjunctions Conclusive conjunctions imply that the second part of the co-ordination is a conclusion or a consequence.Svein is admittedly fat but anyway quite handsome b.2.’ som ‘that. such as cause: ettersom ‘since’.1.’ (1) a.2 The most common subjunctions Among the most common subjunctions in Norwegian are at ‘that.

’ c.’ (2) a.’ is used to introduce relative clauses or comparative clauses (and phrases). In the latter case it is normally translated by ‘as’ in English. Det gamle huset.PASS became voted down ‘The proposal that the house should be demolished was turned down.the should demolish. mannen som står der borte man. som er bygd i 1870. and it is almost always preceded by an adjective modified by like ‘as. (3) Vi vet hvem som har kjøpt den.’ Om is used to introduce conditional clauses or interrogative clauses. Han var så lykkelig at han danset. has been moved twice. Jeg kjenner ei jente som bor i Tønsberg. if it not rains then go we on picnic ‘If it doesn’t rain. which was built in 1870. he was so happy that he danced Som ‘that. har blitt flyttet to ganger. In the latter case it is almost always preceded by an adjective modified by så ‘so. he told that he had got a three kilo heavy pike ‘He told us that he had got a pike of three kilos. proposal. I know a girl that lives in Tønsberg c.the that is built in 1870 has been moved two times ‘The old house. who. I have as expensive trousers as you have Som is also used to double a questioned subject in a subordinate clause. the old house. Han fortalte at han hadde fått ei tre kilo tung gjedde. Om det ikke regner så drar vi på utflukt.’ (1) a.the about that house. which. we will go for a picnic. or clauses that denote a consequence. Forslaget om at huset skulle rives ble stemt ned.At ‘that’ is used to introduce clauses that tell or report something.’ b.’ d. Jeg har like dyre bukser som du har. which correspond to yes-no questions.’ . as. (4) a. we know who that has bought it ‘We know who has bought it.the that stands there away ‘the man standing over there’ b.

Eva spurte om vi ville være med. since.’ (2) Han gikk ettersom hun ikke snakket med ham. Temporal subjunctions: når/da ‘when.’ Enn is used to introduce comparative clauses (or phrases).’ .’ mens ‘while. They are almost always preceded by a comparative adjective or an adjective modified by mer ‘more. you have a better bike than I have b. Du må hjelpe meg med klesvasken før vi kan gå. since.3 Subjunctions grouped according to their meaning Subjunctions may signal many different sorts of connections between the main clause and the subordinate clause.’ fordi (at) ‘because. In a similar way they can express that the subordinate clause constitutes a condition for or a reason to the event of the main clause. Eva asked if we wanted be with ‘Eva asked if we wanted to come along. They may for instance express time.the before we can go ‘You must help me with the laundry before we can go.’ (5) a.’ så vidt ‘insofar as. earlier. because. Du har en bedre sykkel enn jeg har. Hun smilte da han gikk.’ (3) Jeg hjelper deg om/hvis du vil.’ (1) a. The most common subjunctions are listed below. she smiled when he left Causal subjunctions: ettersom ‘as.’ Conditional subjunctions: om ‘if.’ til ‘until. he left since she not talked with him ‘He left since she didn’t talk to him.’før ‘before.’ hvis ‘if. you must help me with laundry. or later than the event of the main clause.’ forutsatt at ‘provided that. that is that the event in the subordinate clause is simultaneous to.’ av at ‘in that. this is more interesting than I thought 3.’ siden ‘after.2.8.’ b. I help you if you want ‘I’ll help you if you want me to. Dette er mer interessant enn jeg trodde.’for (at) ‘because.b.

without.. Han ble reddet av at kameratene grep inn..8. he became saved of that friends.the grabbed in ‘He was saved because his friends intervened. he worked such that he became red in face.’ (8) a. even though we don´t get paid.’ enn ‘than.som ‘as.desto/dess/jo ‘the. we must sell car.the for that we shall manage it ‘We must sell the car.’ liksom ‘as.’ jo.’ b.’ (slik/sånn) som ‘as. desto hardere faller de.’ skjønt ‘even though.Concessive subjunctions: til tross for at ‘though. he did as they asked him about to do ‘He did what they asked him to do. we must help Henning without that teacher. the bigger they are the harder fall they ‘The bigger they are..’ 3.’ Final subjunctions: for at ‘in order to.’ som om ‘as if.the notices it ‘We must help Henning without the teacher noticing.’ b. Det er hyggelig å seile.’ uten at ‘not that...3 The infinitival marker The infinitival marker in Norwegian is å ‘to. the harder they fall..’ (6) Han jobbet slik at han ble rød i ansiktet.’ Descriptive subjunctions: av at ‘in that.’ Comparative subjunctions: (like)..the. Vi må hjelpe Henning uten at læreren merker det.’ selv om ‘although.’ It is used to introduce infinitival clauses.’ (4) Vi arbeider til tross for at / selv om vi ikke får noen lønn. in order to make it. (1) a. Han gjorde som de ba ham om å gjøre..the ‘He worked so that his face became red.’ (5) Vi må selge bilen for at vi skal klare det.as. . we work to despite for that even if we not get any salary ‘We are working.’ (7) a. Jo større de er.’ Consecutive subjunctions: slik at ‘so that.

’ c.’ See further paragraph 1.it is nice to sail ‘It is nice to go sailing. he promised to not sing ‘He promised not to sing.’ b.11.1 on infinitival phrases. . we became tired of to sing ‘We became tired of singing. Han lovte å ikke synge. Vi ble lei av å synge.

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