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15464
(10/2009)
Method for pointtoarea predictions
for terrestrial services in the
frequency range 30 MHz
to 3 000 MHz
P Series
Radiowave propagation
ii Rec. ITUR P.15464
Foreword
The role of the Radiocommunication Sector is to ensure the rational, equitable, efficient and economical use of the
radiofrequency spectrum by all radiocommunication services, including satellite services, and carry out studies without
limit of frequency range on the basis of which Recommendations are adopted.
The regulatory and policy functions of the Radiocommunication Sector are performed by World and Regional
Radiocommunication Conferences and Radiocommunication Assemblies supported by Study Groups.
Policy on Intellectual Property Right (IPR)
ITUR policy on IPR is described in the Common Patent Policy for ITUT/ITUR/ISO/IEC referenced in Annex 1 of
Resolution ITUR 1. Forms to be used for the submission of patent statements and licensing declarations by patent
holders are available from http://www.itu.int/ITUR/go/patents/en where the Guidelines for Implementation of the
Common Patent Policy for ITUT/ITUR/ISO/IEC and the ITUR patent information database can also be found.
Series of ITUR Recommendations
(Also available online at http://www.itu.int/publ/RREC/en)
Series
Title
BO Satellite delivery
BR Recording for production, archival and playout; film for television
BS Broadcasting service (sound)
BT Broadcasting service (television)
F Fixed service
M Mobile, radiodetermination, amateur and related satellite services
P Radiowave propagation
RA Radio astronomy
RS Remote sensing systems
S Fixedsatellite service
SA Space applications and meteorology
SF Frequency sharing and coordination between fixedsatellite and fixed service systems
SM Spectrum management
SNG Satellite news gathering
TF Time signals and frequency standards emissions
V Vocabulary and related subjects
Note: This ITUR Recommendation was approved in English under the procedure detailed in Resolution ITUR 1.
Electronic Publication
Geneva, 2009
© ITU 2009
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, by any means whatsoever, without written permission of ITU.
Rec. ITUR P.15464 1
RECOMMENDATION ITUR P.15464
Method for pointtoarea predictions for terrestrial services in the
frequency range 30 MHz to 3 000 MHz
(20012003200520072009)
Scope
This Recommendation describes a method for pointtoarea radio propagation predictions for terrestrial
services in the frequency range 30 MHz to 3 000 MHz. It is intended for use on tropospheric radio circuits
over land paths, sea paths and/or mixed landsea paths between 11 000 km length for effective transmitting
antenna heights less than 3 000 m. The method is based on interpolation/extrapolation from empirically
derived fieldstrength curves as functions of distance, antenna height, frequency and percentage time. The
calculation procedure also includes corrections to the results obtained from this interpolation/extrapolation to
account for terrain clearance and terminal clutter obstructions.
The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly,
considering
a) that there is a need to give guidance to engineers in the planning of terrestrial
radiocommunication services in the VHF and UHF bands;
b) that, for stations working in the same or adjacent frequency channels, the determination of
the minimum geographical distance of separation required to avoid unacceptable interference due to
longdistance tropospheric propagation is a matter of great importance;
c) that the curves that appear in Annexes 2, 3 and 4 are based on the statistical analysis of
experimental data,
noting
a) that Recommendation ITUR P.528 provides guidance on the prediction of pointtoarea
path loss for the aeronautical mobile service for the frequency range 125 MHz to 30 GHz and the
distance range up to 1 800 km;
b) that Recommendation ITUR P.452 provides guidance on the detailed evaluation of
microwave interference between stations on the surface of the Earth at frequencies above
about 0.7 GHz;
c) that Recommendation ITUR P.617 provides guidance on the prediction of pointtopoint
(PP) path loss for transhorizon radiorelay systems for the frequency range above 30 MHz and for
the distance range 100 to 1 000 km;
d) that Recommendation ITUR P.1411 provides guidance on prediction for shortrange (up
to 1 km) outdoor services;
e) that Recommendation ITUR P.530 provides guidance on the prediction of PP path loss for
terrestrial lineofsight systems,
2 Rec. ITUR P.15464
recommends
1 that the procedures given in Annexes 1 to 8 should be used for pointtoarea prediction of
field strength for the broadcasting, land mobile, maritime mobile and certain fixed services
(e.g. those employing pointtomultipoint (PMP) systems) in the frequency range 30 MHz to
3 000 MHz and for the distance range 1 km to 1 000 km.
Annex 1
Introduction
1 The propagation curves
The propagation curves in Annexes 2, 3 and 4 represent fieldstrength values for 1 kW effective
radiated power (e.r.p.) at nominal frequencies of 100, 600 and 2 000 MHz, respectively, as a
function of various parameters; some curves refer to land paths, others refer to sea paths.
Interpolation or extrapolation of the values obtained for these nominal frequency values should be
used to obtain fieldstrength values for any given required frequency using the method given in
Annex 5, § 6.
The curves are based on measurement data mainly relating to mean climatic conditions in temperate
regions containing cold and warm seas, e.g. the North Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The
landpath curves were prepared from data obtained mainly from temperate climates as encountered
in Europe and North America. The seapath curves were prepared from data obtained mainly from
the Mediterranean and the North Sea regions. Extensive studies reveal that propagation conditions
in certain areas of superrefractivity bounded by hot seas are substantially different.
However, the methods for interpolation and extrapolation between the families of fieldstrength
curves are general. Therefore, if families of curves exist for regions with different climates which
experience substantially different prevailing radio propagation conditions, accurate characterization
of radio propagation in these regions may be attained using the methods found in this
Recommendation.
This Recommendation is not specific to a particular polarization.
2 Maximum field strengths
The curves have upper limits on the possible value of field strength which may be obtained under
any conditions. These limits are defined in Annex 5, § 2 and appear as dashed lines on the graphs
reproduced in Annexes 2, 3, and 4.
3 Computerbased tabulations
Although field strengths may be read directly from the curves presented as figures in Annexes 2, 3
and 4 of this Recommendation, it is intended that computer implementations of the method will use
tabulated field strengths available from the Radiocommunication Bureau. See that part of the ITUR
website dealing with Radiocommunication Study Group 3.
Rec. ITUR P.15464 3
4 Stepbystep method
The detailed stepbystep procedure to be used in the application of this Recommendation is given
in Annex 6.
5 Designation of antennas
In this Recommendation, the term “transmitting/base antenna” is used to deal with both the concept
of transmitting antenna as used in the broadcasting service and the concept of base station antenna
as used in the terrestrial mobile services. Similarly, the term “receiving/mobile antenna” is used to
deal with the concept of a receiving antenna as used in the broadcasting service and a mobile
antenna as used in the terrestrial mobile services. More information on the designation of the
terminals can be found in Annex 5, § 1.1.
6 Transmitting/base antenna height
The method takes account of the effective height of the transmitting/base antenna, which is the
height of the antenna above terrain height averaged between distances of 3 to 15 km in the direction
of the receiving/mobile antenna. For land paths shorter than 15 km where the information is
available the method also takes account of the height of the transmitting/base antenna above the
height of representative clutter (i.e. ground cover) at the location of the transmitting/base station.
The transmitting/base antenna height, h
1
, to be used for calculations is obtained using the method
given in Annex 5, § 3.
7 Transmitting/base antenna heights used for curves
The field strength versus distance curves in Annexes 2, 3 and 4, and the associated tabulations, are
given for values of h
1
of 10, 20, 37.5, 75, 150, 300, 600 and 1 200 m. For any values of h
1
in the
range 10 m to 3 000 m an interpolation or extrapolation from the appropriate two curves should be
used, as described in Annex 5, § 4.1. For h
1
below 10 m, the extrapolation to be applied is given in
Annex 5, § 4.2. It is possible for the value of h
1
to be negative, in which case the method given in
Annex 5, § 4.3 should be used.
8 Time variability
The propagation curves represent the fieldstrength values exceeded for 50%, 10% and 1% of time.
A method for interpolating between these values is given in Annex 5, § 7. This Recommendation is
not valid for field strengths exceeded for percentage times outside the range from 1% to 50%.
9 Mixedpath method
In cases where the radio path is over both land and sea the estimate of mixedpath field strength
should be made using the method given in Annex 5, § 8.
10 Receiving/mobile antenna height
For land paths the curves give fieldstrength values for a receiving/mobile antenna height above
ground, h
2
(m), equal to the representative height of ground cover around the receiving/mobile
antenna location. The minimum value of the representative height of ground cover is 10 m. For sea
paths the curves give fieldstrength values for h
2
= 10 m. To allow for values of h
2
different from
the height represented by a curve a correction should be applied according to the environment of the
receiving/mobile antenna. The method for calculating this correction is given in Annex 5, § 9.
4 Rec. ITUR P.15464
11 Terrain clearance angle correction
For land paths, improved accuracy of predicted field strengths can be obtained by taking into
account terrain near the receiving/mobile antenna, if available, by means of a terrain clearance
angle. When a calculation for a mixed path has been made, this correction should be included if the
receiving/mobile antenna is adjacent to a land section of the path. More information on the terrain
clearance angle correction is given in Annex 5, § 11.
12 Location variability
The propagation curves represent the fieldstrength values exceeded at 50% of locations within any
area of typically 500 m by 500 m. For more information on location variability and the method for
calculating the correction required for percentages of location other than 50%, see Annex 5, § 12.
13 Equivalent basic transmission loss
Annex 5, § 14 gives a method for converting from field strength for 1 kW e.r.p. to the equivalent
basic transmission loss.
14 Variability of atmospheric refractive index
It is known that median field strength and its variability over time varies in different climatic
regions. The field strength curves given in Annexes 2, 3 and 4 apply to temperate climates. Annex 8
gives a method of adjusting the curves for different regions of the world based on the vertical
atmospheric refractivity gradient data associated with Recommendation ITUR P.453.
15 Compatibility with the OkumuraHata method
Annex 7 gives the Hata equations for field strength prediction for mobile services in an urban
environment, and describes the conditions under which this Recommendation gives compatible
results.
Annex 2
Frequency range 30 MHz to 300 MHz
1 The field strength versus distance curves shown in this Annex are for a frequency of
100 MHz. They may be used for frequencies in the range 30 MHz to 300 MHz but the procedure
given in Annex 5, § 6 should be used to obtain improved accuracy. The same procedure should be
used when the tabulated values of field strength versus distance (see Annex 1, § 3) are employed.
2 The curves in Figs. 1 to 3 represent fieldstrength values exceeded at 50% of the locations
within any area of approximately 500 m by 500 m and for 50%, 10% and 1% of the time for land
paths.
3 The field strength distribution as a function of percentage location may be calculated using
the information in Annex 5, § 12.
4 The curves in Figs. 4 to 8 represent fieldstrength values exceeded at 50% of the locations
for 50%, 10% and 1% of the time for sea paths in cold seas and warm seas, for example, those
observed in the North Sea and the Mediterranean, respectively.
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5 In areas subject to pronounced superrefraction phenomena, account should be taken of the
information contained in Annex 1, § 14.
6 The ionosphere, primarily through the effects of sporadicE ionization, can influence
propagation in the lower part of the VHF band, particularly at frequencies below about 90 MHz. In
some circumstances this mode of propagation may influence the field strength exceeded for small
percentages of the time at distances beyond some 500 km. Near the magnetic equator and in the
auroral zone, higher percentages of the time may be involved. However, these ionospheric effects
can usually be ignored in most applications covered by this Recommendation and the propagation
curves of this Annex have been prepared on this assumption. (Recommendation ITUR P.534
provides guidance on sporadicE propagation.)
Annex 3
Frequency range 300 MHz to 1 000 MHz
1 The field strength versus distance curves shown in this Annex are for a frequency of
600 MHz. They may be used for frequencies in the range 300 MHz to 1 000 MHz but the procedure
given in Annex 5, § 6 should be used to obtain improved accuracy. The same procedure should be
used when the tabulated values of field strength versus distance (see Annex 1, § 3) are employed.
2 The curves in Figs. 9 to 11 represent fieldstrength values exceeded at 50% of the locations
within any area of approximately 500 m by 500 m and for 50%, 10% and 1% of the time for land
paths.
3 The field strength distribution as a function of percentage location may be calculated using
the information in Annex 5, § 12.
4 The curves in Figs. 12 to 16 represent fieldstrength values exceeded at 50% of the
locations and for 50%, 10% and 1% of the time for sea paths in cold seas and warm seas, for
example, those observed in the North Sea and the Mediterranean, respectively.
5 In areas subject to pronounced superrefraction phenomena, account should be taken of the
information contained in Annex 1, § 14.
14 Rec. ITUR P.15464
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Annex 4
Frequency range 1 000 MHz to 3 000 MHz
1 The field strength versus distance curves shown in this Annex are for a frequency of
2 000 MHz. They may be used for frequencies in the range 1 000 MHz to 3 000 MHz but the
procedure given in Annex 5, § 6 should be used to obtain improved accuracy. The same procedure
should be used when the tabulated values of field strength versus distance (see Annex 1, § 3) are
employed.
2 The curves in Figs. 17 to 19 represent fieldstrength values exceeded at 50% of the
locations within any area of approximately 500 m by 500 m and for 50%, 10% and 1% of the time
for land paths.
3 The field strength distribution as a function of percentage location may be calculated using
the information in Annex 5, § 12.
4 The curves in Figs. 20 to 24 represent fieldstrength values exceeded at 50% of the
locations and for 50%, 10% and 1% of the time for sea paths in cold seas and warm seas, for
example, those observed in the North Sea and the Mediterranean, respectively.
5 In areas subject to pronounced superrefraction phenomena, account should be taken of the
information contained in Annex 1, § 14.
Rec. ITUR P.15464 23
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Annex 5
Additional information and methods for implementing
the prediction method
1 Introduction
This Annex describes separate stages of the calculation. A stepbystep description of the overall
method is given in Annex 6.
Sections 2 to 7 of this Annex describe how field strengths are extracted from the curve families with
interpolation for distance, h
1
, frequency and percentage time. Section 8 describes how field
strengths are combined for a mixed landsea path. Sections 9 to 13 describe corrections which can
be added to the field strength predictions for additional precision. Sections 14 to 17 provide
auxiliary information.
1.1 The terminal designations
This Recommendation is not reciprocal with respect to designations of the transmitting/base station
and the receiver/mobile station/terminal. This Recommendation is primarily intended for use with
broadcasting and mobile services where the transmitter/base antenna is above the level of local
clutter. When this Recommendation is used to calculate the coverage of, or for the coordination of,
broadcasting and/or basetomobile stations, then the actual transmitting/base station should be
treated as the “transmitting/base”. In other cases where there is no a priori reason to consider either
terminal as the transmitting/base, then the selection of which terminal to designate as the
transmitting/base station for the purposes of this Recommendation can be as follows:
a) if both terminals are below the levels of clutter in their respective vicinities, then this
Recommendation will not give accurate predictions to the problem at hand. Users should
seek guidance from other, more appropriate, ITUR Recommendations;
b) if one terminal is in an open location or above the surrounding clutter, whereas the other
terminal is below the level of clutter, then the open/uncluttered terminal should be treated
as the transmitting/base station for the purposes of actual identity as the transmitter/base or
receiver/mobile;
c) if both terminals are open/uncluttered, then the terminal with the greater effective height
should be treated as the transmitting/base station for the purposes of this Recommendation.
As noted above, this Recommendation is not reciprocal. However, in some special cases, it may be
treated as such. For these particular cases, for example, which may be encountered for the
monitoring and prediction of receiver/mobiletotransmitter/base coverage and/or interference, it
may be useful, under items b) and c) of the previous discussion, to designate that terminal in the
open location, which should also always have the higher effective height, as the transmitter/base as
the “high” antenna, whilst designating the terminal in the cluttered location as the receiver/mobile
as the “low” antenna, without regard to which terminal is actually the transmitter/base and
receiver/mobile. Users of this Recommendation should note, for the purposes of calculation, that if
these “high” and “low” designations are to be used, the high antenna termination will always be
synonymous with (and equivalent to) the transmitter/base station’s effective height, h
1
, whilst the
low antenna termination will always be synonymous with (and equivalent to) the receiver/mobile’s
height, h
2
, with the same qualifier, in the subsequent calculation of field strength or basic
transmission loss.
32 Rec. ITUR P.15464
2 Maximum fieldstrength values
A field strength must not exceed a maximum value, E
max
, given by:
fs max
E E = dB(μV/m) for land paths (1a)
se fs max
E E E + = dB(μV/m) for sea paths (1b)
where E
fs
is the free space field strength for 1 kW e.r.p. given by:
) log( 20 9 . 106 d E
fs
− = dB(μV/m) (2)
and E
se
is an enhancement for sea curves given by:
{ } ) / 50 log( ) 94 . 8 / exp( 1 38 . 2 t d E
se
− − = dB (3)
where:
d : distance (km)
t : percentage time.
In principle any correction which increases a field strength must not be allowed to produce values
greater than these limits for the family of curves and distance concerned. However, limitation to
maximum values should be applied only where indicated in Annex 6.
3 Determination of transmitting/base antenna height, h
1
The transmitting/base antenna height, h
1
, to be used in calculation depends on the type and length of
the path and on various items of height information, which may not all be available.
For sea paths h
1
is the height of the antenna above sea level.
For land paths, the effective height of the transmitting/base antenna, h
eff
, is defined as its height in
metres over the average level of the ground between distances of 3 and 15 km from the
transmitting/base antenna in the direction of the receiving/mobile antenna. Where the value of
effective transmitting/base antenna height, h
eff
, is not known it should be estimated from general
geographic information. This Recommendation is not valid when the transmitting/base antenna is
below the height of surrounding clutter.
The value of h
1
to be used in calculation should be obtained using the method given in § 3.1, 3.2 or
in § 3.3 as appropriate.
3.1 Land paths shorter than 15 km
For land paths less than 15 km one of the following two methods should be used:
3.1.1 Terrain information not available
Where no terrain information is available when propagation predictions are being made, the value
of h
1
is calculated according to path length, d, as follows:
a
h h =
1
m for d ≤ 3 km (4)
12 / ) 3 )( (
1
− − + = d h h h h
a eff a
m for 3 km < d < 15 km (5)
where h
a
is the antenna height above ground (e.g. height of the mast).
Rec. ITUR P.15464 33
3.1.2 Terrain information available
Where terrain information is available when propagation predictions are being made:
b
h h =
1
m (6)
where h
b
is the height of the antenna above terrain height averaged between 0.2d and d km. Note, it
is possible that, using this method to determine h
1
, there will be nonmonotonic behaviour in the
predicted field strength with distance, out to a distance of 15 km. While this may happen in reality,
it may be an undesirable behaviour of the model for certain applications. Therefore, if
nonmonotonic behaviour must be avoided, then the value of h
1
should be fixed at a representative
value for these cases.
3.2 Land paths of 15 km or longer
For these paths:
eff
h h =
1
m (7)
3.3 Sea paths
The concept of h
1
for an allsea path is that it represents the physical height of the antenna above the
surface of the sea. This Recommendation is not reliable in the case of a sea path for h
1
values less
than about 3 m, and an absolute lower limit of 1 m should be observed.
4 Application of transmitting/base antenna height, h
1
The value of h
1
controls which curve or curves are selected from which to obtain fieldstrength
values, and the interpolation or extrapolation which may be necessary. The following cases are
distinguished.
4.1 Transmitting/base antenna height, h
1
, in the range 10 m to 3 000 m
If the value of h
1
coincides with one of the eight heights for which curves are provided, namely 10,
20, 37.5, 75, 150, 300, 600 or 1 200 m, the required field strength may be obtained directly from the
plotted curves or the associated tabulations. Otherwise the required field strength should be
interpolated or extrapolated from field strengths obtained from two curves using:
) / log( / ) / log( ) (
1 inf sup inf inf sup inf
h h h h E E E E − + = dB(μV/m) (8)
where:
h
inf
: 600 m if h
1
> 1 200 m, otherwise the nearest nominal effective height below h
1
h
sup
: 1 200 m if h
1
> 1 200 m, otherwise the nearest nominal effective height above
h
1
E
inf
: fieldstrength value for h
inf
at the required distance
E
sup
: fieldstrength value for h
sup
at the required distance.
The field strength resulting from extrapolation for h
1
> 1 200 m should be limited if necessary such
that it does not exceed the maximum defined in § 2.
This Recommendation is not valid for h
1
> 3 000 m.
34 Rec. ITUR P.15464
4.2 Transmitting/base antenna height, h
1
, in the range 0 m to 10 m
The method when h
1
is less than 10 m depends on whether the path is over land or sea.
For a land path:
For a land path the field strength at the required distance d km for 0 ≤ h
1
< 10 m is calculated using:
) ( 1 . 0
10 1 zero zero
E E h E E − + = dB(μV/m) (9)
where:
) ( 5 . 0
10 1 1020 10 neg h zero
C C E E + + = dB(μV/m) (9a)
20 10 1020
E E C − = dB (9b)
C
h1neg10
: the correction C
h1
in dB calculated using equation (12) in § 4.3 below at the
required distance for h
1
= −10 m
E
10
and E
20
: the field strengths in dB(μV/m) calculated according to § 4.1 above at the
required distance for h
1
= 10 m and h
1
= 20 m respectively.
Note that the corrections C
1020
and C
h1neg10
should both evaluate to negative quantities.
For a sea path:
Note that for a sea path, h
1
should not be less than 1 m. The procedure requires the distance at
which the path has 0.6 of the first Fresnel zone just unobstructed by the sea surface. This is given
by:
) 10 , , (
1 06 1
h f D D
h
= km (10a)
where f is the nominal frequency (MHz) and the function D
06
is defined in § 17.
If d > D
h1
it will be necessary to also calculate the 0.6 Fresnel clearance distance for a sea path
where the transmitting/base antenna height is 20 m, given by:
) 10 , 20 , (
06 20
f D D = km (10b)
The field strength for the required distance, d, and value of h
1
, is then given by:
max
E E = dB(μV/m) for d ≤ D
h1
(11a)
) / log( / ) / log( (
1 20 1 ) 1 20 1 h h Dh D Dh
D D D d E E E − = = dB(μV/m) for D
h1
< d < D
20
(11b)
s s
F E F E ′ ′ + − ′ = ) 1 ( dB(μV/m) for d ≥ D
20
(11c)
where:
E
max
: maximum field strength at the required distance given in § 2
E
Dh1
: E
max
for distance D
h1
as given in § 2
E
D20
= E
10
(D
20
) + (E
20
(D
20
) − E
10
(D
20
)) log (h
1
/10)/log (20/10)
E
10
(x) : field strength for h
1
= 10 m interpolated for distance x
E
20
(x) : field strength for h
1
= 20 m interpolated for distance x
E' = E
10
(d) + (E
20
(d) − E
10
(d)) log (h
1
/10)/log (20/10)
E′′: field strength for distance d calculated using equation (9)
F
S
=
(d − D
20
)/d.
Rec. ITUR P.15464 35
4.3 Negative values of transmitting/base antenna height, h
1
For land paths it is possible for the effective transmitting/base antenna height h
eff
to have a negative
value, since it is based on the average terrain height at distances from 3 km to 15 km. Thus h
1
may
be negative. In this case, the effect of diffraction by nearby terrain obstacles should be taken into
account.
The procedure for negative values of h
1
is to obtain the field strength for h
1
= 0 as described in
§ 4.2, and to add a correction C
h1
calculated as follows.
The effect of diffraction loss is taken into account by a correction, C
h1
, given by cases a) or b) as
follows:
a) In the case that a terrain database is available and the potential for discontinuities at the
transition around h
1
= 0 is of no concern in the application of this Recommendation, the
terrain clearance angle, θ
eff1
, from the transmitting/base antenna should be calculated as the
elevation angle of a line which just clears all terrain obstructions up to 15 km from the
transmitting/base antenna in the direction of (but not going beyond) the receiving/mobile
antenna. This clearance angle, which will have a positive value, should be used instead of
θ
tca
in equation (30c) in the terrain clearance angle correction method given in § 11 to
obtain C
h1
. Note that using this method can result in a discontinuity in field strength at the
transition around h
1
= 0.
b) In the case where a terrain database is not available or where a terrain database is available,
but the method must never produce a discontinuity in the field strength at the transition
around h
1
= 0, the (positive) effective terrain clearance angle, θ
eff2
, may be estimated
assuming an obstruction of height h
1
at a distance of 9 km from the transmitting/base
antenna. Note that this is used for all path lengths, even when less than 9 km. That is, the
ground is regarded as approximating an irregular wedge over the range 3 km to 15 km from
the transmitting/base antenna, with its mean value occurring at 9 km, as indicated in
Fig. 25. This method takes less explicit account of terrain variations, but it also guarantees
that there is no discontinuity in field strength at the transition around h
1
= 0. The correction
to be added to the field strength in this case is calculated using:
) ( 03 . 6
1
ν − = J C
h
dB (12)
where:
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

− ν + + − ν + = ν 1 . 0 1 ) 1 . 0 ( log 20 9 . 6 ) (
2
J (12a)
2
0
eff
K
ν
= ν (12b)
and
) 000 9 / arctan(
1 2
h
eff
− = θ degrees (12c)
ν
K = 1.35 for 100 MHz
ν
K = 3.31 for 600 MHz
ν
K = 6.00 for 2 000 MHz
36 Rec. ITUR P.15464
The above correction, which is always less than zero, is added to the field strength obtained for
h
1
= 0.
5 Interpolation of field strength as a function of distance
Figures 1 to 24 show field strength plotted against distance, d, the range 1 km to 1 000 km. No
interpolation for distance is needed if field strengths are read directly from these graphs. For greater
precision, and for computer implementation, field strengths should be obtained from the associated
tabulations (see Annex 1, § 3). In this case, unless d coincides with one of the tabulation distances
given in Table 1, the field strength, E (dB(μV/m)), should be linearly interpolated for the logarithm
of the distance using:
) / log( / ) / log( ) (
inf sup inf inf sup inf
d d d d E E E E − + = dB(μV/m) (13)
where:
d : distance for which the prediction is required
d
inf
: nearest tabulation distance less than d
d
sup
: nearest tabulation distance greater than d
E
inf
: fieldstrength value for d
inf
E
sup
: fieldstrength value for d
sup
.
This Recommendation is not valid for values of d less than 1 km or greater than 1 000 km.
6 Interpolation and extrapolation of field strength as a function of frequency
Fieldstrength values for the required frequency should be obtained by interpolating between the
values for the nominal frequency values of 100, 600 and 2 000 MHz. In the case of frequencies
below 100 MHz or above 2 000 MHz, the interpolation must be replaced by an extrapolation from
the two nearer nominal frequency values. For most paths interpolation or extrapolation for log
(frequency) can be used, but for some sea paths when the required frequency is less than 100 MHz
it is necessary to use an alternative method.
For land paths, and for sea paths where the required frequency is greater than 100 MHz, the
required field strength, E, should be calculated using:
) / log( / ) / log( ) (
inf sup inf inf sup inf
f f f f E E E E − + = dB(μV/m) (14)
Rec. ITUR P.15464 37
where:
f : frequency for which the prediction is required (MHz)
f
inf
: lower nominal frequency (100 MHz if f < 600 MHz, 600 MHz otherwise)
f
sup
: higher nominal frequency (600 MHz if f < 600 MHz, 2 000 MHz otherwise)
E
inf
: fieldstrength value for f
inf
E
sup
: fieldstrength value for f
sup
.
The field strength resulting from extrapolation for frequency above 2 000 MHz should be limited if
necessary such that it does not exceed the maximum value given in § 2.
For sea paths where the required frequency is less than 100 MHz an alternative method should be
used, based upon the path lengths at which 0.6 of the first Fresnel zone is just clear of obstruction
by the sea surface. An approximate method for calculating this distance is given in § 17.
The alternative method should be used if all of the following conditions are true:
– The path is a sea path.
– The required frequency is less than 100 MHz.
– The required distance is less than the distance at which a sea path would have 0.6 Fresnel
clearance at 600 MHz, given by D
06
(600, h
1
, 10) as given in § 17.
If any of the above conditions is not true, then the normal interpolation/extrapolation method given
by equation (14) should be used.
If all of the above conditions are true, the required field strength, E, should be calculated using:
max
E E = dB(μV/m) for d ≤ d
f
(15a)
) / log( / ) / log( ) (
600
600
f f d d df
d d d d E E E
f
− + = dB(μV/m) for d > d
f
(15b)
where:
E
max
: maximum field strength at the required distance as defined in § 2
:
f
d
E maximum field strength at distance d
f
as defined in § 2
d
600
: distance at which the path has 0.6 Fresnel clearance at 600 MHz calculated as
D
06
(600, h
1
, 10) as given in § 17
d
f
: distance at which the path has 0.6 Fresnel clearance at the required frequency
calculated as D
06
( f, h
1
, 10) as given in § 17
:
600
d
E field strength at distance d
600
and the required frequency calculated using
equation (14).
7 Interpolation of field strength as a function of percentage time
Fieldstrength values for a given percentage of time between 1% and 50% time should be calculated
by interpolation between the nominal values 1% and 10% or between the nominal values 10% and
50% of time using:
) /( ) ( ) /( ) (
sup inf sup t inf sup inf t inf sup
Q Q Q Q E Q Q Q Q E E − − + − − = dB(μV/m) (16)
where:
t : percentage time for which the prediction is required
t
inf
: lower nominal percentage time
38 Rec. ITUR P.15464
t
sup
: upper nominal percentage time
Q
t
= Q
i
(t/100)
Q
inf
= Q
i
(t
inf
/100)
Q
sup
= Q
i
(t
sup
/100)
E
inf
: fieldstrength value for time percentage t
inf
E
sup
:
fieldstrength value for time percentage t
sup
where Q
i
(x) is the inverse complementary cumulative normal distribution function.
This Recommendation is valid for field strengths exceeded for percentage times in the range 1% to
50% only. Extrapolation outside the range 1% to 50% time is not valid.
A method for the calculation of Q
i
(x) is given in Annex 5, § 15.
TABLE 1
Values of distance used in the tables of field strengths (km)
1 14 55 140 375 700
2 15 60 150 400 725
3 16 65 160 425 750
4 17 70 170 450 775
5 18 75 180 475 800
6 19 80 190 500 825
7 20 85 200 525 850
8 25 90 225 550 875
9 30 95 250 575 900
10 35 100 275 600 925
11 40 110 300 625 950
12 45 120 325 650 975
13 50 130 350 675 1 000
8 Mixed paths
The following description of the mixedpath method uses E
land
(d) and E
sea
(d) to represent the field
strength at distance d from the transmitting/mobile antenna at the representative clutter height, R,
for allland and allsea paths respectively, with interpolation/extrapolation for transmitting/base
antenna height h
1
, frequency and percentage time, as required.
The following steps should be followed to determine the field strength of any path with a mixture of
land and sea parts. If the path contains both warm sea and cold sea portions, the warm sea curves
should be used when calculating E
sea
(d). The value of h
1
should be calculated using Annex 5, § 3,
taking the height of any sea surface as though land. Normally this value of h
1
will be used for both
E
land
(d) and E
sea
(d). However, if h
1
is less than 3 m it should still be used for E
land
(d), but a value of
3 m should be used for E
sea
(d).
The mixed path field strength, E, is given by:
( ) ( ) ( )
total sea total land
d E A d E A E ⋅ + ⋅ − = 1 (17)
with the mixed path interpolation factor, A, given in § 8.1.
Rec. ITUR P.15464 39
The following part up to the equation (21) is relevant to the propagation prediction method
approved by the Regional Radiocommunication Conference RRC06 only and not to this
Recommendation.
This guidance completes the discussion of the mixed path method employing the basic curves given
in Annexes 24. In this case, continue with § 8.1. However, the coastal land type of the IDWM
coastal zone area maps should not be interpreted as coastal land zones in the following context.
The mixed path method, given in equation (17), is general. It may also be applied to situations in
which families of fieldstrength curves are defined for various propagation zones. (For example,
different propagation zones might be specified by modifications to the basic fieldstrength curves,
found in Annexes 24, using the method contained in Annex 8, or another, alternate, method of
zonal specification, such as that found in the GE06 Agreement. These different zonal specifications
may, possibly, include coastal land zones, however they are defined, as separate propagation zones,
with propagation conditions that are more applicable to sea paths than land paths.) If, in addition, it
is necessary to compute the field strength for a mixed path traversing two or more different
propagation zones, then the following mixed path method is recommended:
a) for all frequencies and all percentages of the time and for those combinations of
propagation zone which do not involve any land/sea or land/coastal land transitions, the
following procedure for calculating the field strength shall be used:
) (
total
i
i
total
i
d Ε
d
d
E
¿
= (18)
where:
E : field strength for the mixed path (dB(μV/m))
( )
total i
d E : field strength for path in zone i equal in length to the mixed path (dB(μV/m))
i
d : length of path in zone i
total
d : length of total path;
b) for all frequencies and all percentages of time and for those combinations of propagation
zones which involve only a single land propagation category and a single sea or coastal
land propagation category, equation (18) should be used;
c) for all frequencies and all percentages of time and for those combinations of three or more
propagation zones which involve at least one land/sea or land/coastal land boundary, the
following procedure for calculating the field strength shall be used:
( )
sT
n
j
j sea j
lT
n
i
i land i
d
E d
A
d
E d
A E
s
l
¿
¿
=
=
⋅ + ⋅ − =
1
,
1
,
1 (19)
where:
E: field strength for mixed path (dB(μV/m))
E
land,i
: field strength for land path i equal in length to the mixed path, i = 1, ..., n
l
; n
l
is
the number of land zones traversed (dB(μV/m))
E
sea,j:
field strength for seaandcoastalland path j equal in length to the mixed path,
j = 1, ..., n
s
; n
s
is the number of seaandcoastalland zones traversed
(dB(μV/m))
40 Rec. ITUR P.15464
A: interpolation factor as given in § 8.1 (note that the fraction of path over sea is
calculated as:
total
sT
d
d
)
d
i
, d
j
: length of path in zones i, j
d
lT
:
length of total land path =
¿
=
l
n
i
i
d
1
d
sT
:
length of total seaandcoastalland path =
¿
=
s
n
j
j
d
1
total
d : length of total propagation path =
sT lT
d d + .
8.1 The mixed path interpolation factor, A
The following notation will be used:
N
s
: total number of sea zones and coastal land zones
n: seapath or coastal landpath zone number; n = 1, 2, ..., N
s
M
l
: total number of land zones
m: landpath zone number; m = 1, 2, ..., M
l
d
sn
: distance traversed in sea or coastal land zone n (km)
d
lm
: distance traversed in land zone m (km).
Then:
¿
=
=
s
N
n
sn sT
d d
1
: total length of sea and coastal land paths traversed (20a)
¿
=
=
l
M
m
lm lT
d d
1
: total length of land paths traversed (20b)
lT sT T
d d d + = : length of the total propagation path. (20c)
The following fieldstrength values are needed:
E
sn
(d
T
): fieldstrength value (dB(µV/m)) for distance d
T
, assumed to be all of sea or
coastalland zone type n
E
lm
(d
T
): fieldstrength value (dB(µV/m)) for distance d
T
, assumed to be all of land zone
type m.
End of the part relevant to the propagation prediction method approved by the Regional
Radiocommunication Conference RRC06 only.
Rec. ITUR P.15464 41
The interpolation factor
1
, A, is given by:
V
sea
F A A ) (
0
= (21)
where A
0
(F
sea
) is the basic interpolation factor as shown in Fig. 26, given by:
( ) ( )
3 / 2
0
1 1
sea sea
F F A − − = (22)
The fraction of path over sea, F
sea
, used in Fig. 26 and equation (22) is given by:
T
sT
sea
d
d
F = (23)
and V is calculated using the expression:
(
¸
(
¸
Δ
+ =
0 . 40
0 . 1 , 0 . 1 max V (24)
with:
( ) ( )
¿ ¿
= =
− = Δ
l s
M
m
lT
lm
T lm
N
n
sT
sn
T sn
d
d
d E
d
d
d E
1 1
(25)
Figure 26 shows A
0
(F
sea
), which is applicable for all time percentages.
9 Correction for receiving/mobile antenna height
The fieldstrength values given by the land curves and associated tabulations in this
Recommendation are for a reference receiving/mobile antenna at a height, R (m), representative of
the height of the ground cover surrounding the receiving/mobile antenna, subject to a minimum
height value of 10 m. Examples of reference heights are 20 m for an urban area, 30 m for a dense
urban area and 10 m for a suburban area. For sea paths the notional value of R is 10 m.
Where the receiving/mobile antenna is on land account should first be taken of the elevation angle
of the arriving ray by calculating a modified representative clutter height R' (m), given by:
) 15 000 1 /( ) 15 000 1 (
1
− − = ′ d dR R
h
m (26)
where h
1
and R (m) and distance d (km).
Note that for h
1
< 6.5d + R, R′ ≈ R.
The value of R' must be limited if necessary such that it is not less than 1 m.
1
The interpolation factor is applied to all frequencies and to all time percentages. It must be noted that the
interpolation is only applied to:
– landsea paths
– landcoastal land paths
– land(sea + coastal land) paths
and not to:
– landland paths
– or any combination of sea and/or coastalland paths.
42 Rec. ITUR P.15464
When the receiving/mobile antenna is in an urban environment the correction is then given by:
Correction ) ( 03 . 6 ν − = J dB for h
2
< R′ (27a)
) / log(
2 2
R h K
h
′ = dB for h
2
≥ R′ (27b)
where J(ν) is given by equation (12a),
and:
ν =
clut dif nu
h K θ (27c)
dif
h =
2
h R − ′ m (27d)
clut
θ = ) 27 / arctan(
dif
h degrees (27e)
2 h
K = ) log( 2 . 6 2 . 3 f + (27f)
nu
K = f 0108 . 0 (27g)
f: frequency (MHz).
In cases in an urban environment where R' is less than 10 m, the correction given by equation (27)
should be reduced by K
h2
log(10/R′).
Where the receiving/mobile antenna is on land in a rural or open environment the correction is
given by equation (27b) for all values of h
2
with R' set to 10 m.
In the following, the expression “adjacent to sea” applies to cases where the receiving/mobile
antenna is either over sea, or is immediately adjacent to the sea with no significant obstruction in
the direction of the transmitting/base station.
Where the receiving/mobile antenna is adjacent to sea for h
2
≥ 10 m, the correction should be
calculated using equation (27b) with R' set to 10 m.
Where the receiving/mobile antenna is adjacent to sea for h
2
< 10 m, an alternative method should
be used, based upon the path lengths at which 0.6 of the first Fresnel zone is just clear of
obstruction by the sea surface. An approximate method for calculating this distance is given in § 17.
The distance at which the path would just have 0.6 Fresnel clearance for the required value of h
1
and for h
2
= 10 m, d
10
, should be calculated as D
06
(f, h
1
, 10) in § 17.
If the required distance is equal to or greater than d
10
, then again the correction for the required
value of h
2
should be calculated using equation (27b) with R' set to 10 m.
If the required distance is less than d
10
, then the correction to be added to the field strength E should
be calculated using:
Correction = 0.0 dB for d ≤ d
h2
(28a)
= ) / log( / ) / log(
2 10 2 10 h h
d d d d C dB for d
h2
< d < d
10
(28b)
where:
C
10
: correction for the required value of h
2
at distance d
10
using equation (27b) with
R' set to 10 m
d
10
: distance at which the path just has 0.6 Fresnel clearance for h
2
= 10 m
calculated as D
06
(f, h
1
, 10)as given in § 17
d
h2
: distance at which the path just has 0.6 Fresnel clearance for the required value
of h
2
calculated as D
06
(f, h
1
, 10)as given in § 17.
Rec. ITUR P.15464 43
This Recommendation is not valid for receiving/mobile antenna heights, h
2
, less than 1 m when
adjacent to land or less than 3 m when adjacent to sea.
The above complete correction for receiver/mobile antenna height can be summarized by the
flowchart given in Fig. 27.
44 Rec. ITUR P.15464
10 Correction for short urban/suburban paths
If a path of length less than 15 km covers buildings of uniform height over flat terrain, a correction
representing the reduction of field strength due to building clutter should be added to the field
strength. The correction is given by:
Correction = )) 1 log( 46 . 0 1 ))( log( 85 . 0 1 ))( (log( 3 . 3 R h d f
a
− + − − − (29)
where h
a
is the antenna height above ground (m) (i.e. height of the mast) and R is representative of
the height of the ground cover surrounding the receiving/mobile antenna as defined in § 9, which
also represents the height of ground cover surrounding the transmitting/base antenna. This
correction only applies when d is less than 15 km and h
1
− R is less than 150 m.
11 Terrain clearance angle correction
For land paths, and when the receiving/mobile antenna is on a land section of a mixed path, if more
precision is required for predicting the field strength for reception conditions in specific areas,
e.g. in a small reception area, a correction may be made based on a terrain clearance angle. The
terrain clearance angle θ
tca
is given by:
θ = θ
tca
degrees (30)
where θ is the elevation angle of the line from the receiving/mobile antenna which just clears all
terrain obstructions in the direction of the transmitter/base antenna over a distance of up to 16 km
but not going beyond the transmitting/base antenna.
The calculation of θ should not take Earth curvature into account. θ
tca
should be limited such that it
is not less than +0.55° or more than +40.0°.
Where the relevant terrain clearance angle information is available, the correction to be added to the
field strength is calculated using:
) ( – ) ( Correction ν ν′ = J J dB (30a)
where J(ν) is given by equation (12a):
f 036 . 0 = ν′ (30b)
f
tca
θ = ν 065 . 0 (30c)
θ
tca
: terrain clearance angle (degrees)
f : required frequency (MHz).
It should be noted that the land fieldstrength curves take account of losses due to typical shielding
of the receiving/mobile antenna by gently rolling terrain. Thus the terrain clearance angle
corrections are zero at a small positive angle typical of receiving/mobile antenna positions.
Figure 28 illustrates the terrain clearance angle correction for the nominal frequencies.
12 Location variability in land areacoverage prediction
Areacoverage prediction methods are intended to provide the statistics of reception conditions over
a given area, rather than at any particular point. The interpretation of such statistics will depend on
the size of the area considered.
When one terminal of a radio path is stationary, and the other terminal is moved, path loss will vary
continuously with location, according to the totality of influences affecting it. It is convenient to
classify these influences into three main categories:
Rec. ITUR P.15464 45
Multipath variations: Signal variations will occur over scales of the order of a wavelength due to
phasor addition of multipath effects, e.g. reflections from the ground, buildings, etc. The statistics of
these variations are typically found to follow the Rayleigh distribution.
Local ground cover variations: Signal variations will occur due to obstruction by ground cover in
the local vicinity, e.g. buildings, trees, etc., over scales of the order of the sizes of such objects. The
scale of these variations will normally be significantly larger than that for multipath variations.
Path variations: Signal variations will also occur due to changes in the geometry of the entire
propagation path e.g. the presence of hills, etc. For all except very short paths, the scale of these
variations will be significantly larger than that for local ground cover variations.
In this Recommendation, and generally, location variability refers to the spatial statistics of local
ground cover variations. This is a useful result over scales substantially larger than the ground cover
variations, and over which path variations are insignificant. As location variability is defined to
exclude multipath variations, it is not dependent on system bandwidth.
In the planning of radio systems, it will also be necessary to take multipath effects into account. The
impact of these effects will vary with systems, being dependent on bandwidth, modulation and
coding scheme. Guidance on the modelling of these effects is given in Recommendation
ITUR P.1406.
Location variability has been variously defined. Some texts define it as relating to the variation in
excess path loss over the entire service area of a transmitter, thus including all terrain effects, in
addition to more local shadowing. In other cases, it relates to the variation in path loss for all points
at a given radius from the transmitter. A third definition relates to the variability of field strength
over a small area, typically represented by a square with a side of 500 m to 1 km.
46 Rec. ITUR P.15464
As the prediction method given in this Recommendation includes an environmentdependent
correction for h
2
(Annex 5, § 9) and allows the use of terraindependant TCA (Annex 5, § 11) there
is a risk of doublecounting of these effects in applying corrections for location variability.
The method below estimates the location variability over a small area, and is appropriate for cases
where TCA is applied to allow the more accurate determination of local median field strengths.
Where TCA is not applied, the appropriate value of location variability will be greater, and will
generally scale with service area radius, as a wider variety of terrain and clutter are included.
Extensive data analysis suggests that the distribution of median field strength due to ground cover
variations over such an area in urban and suburban environments is approximately lognormal.
Thus for a land receiving/mobile antenna location the field strength, E, which will be exceeded for
q% of locations is given by:
) ( ) 100 / ( ) median ( ) ( f q Q E q E
L i
σ + = dB(μV/m) (31)
where:
Q
i
(x): inverse complementary cumulative normal distribution as a function of
probability
σ
L
: standard deviation of the Gaussian distribution of the local means in the study
area.
Values of standard deviation are dependent on frequency and environment, and empirical studies
have shown a considerable spread. Representative values for areas of 500 m × 500 m are given by
the following expression:
) log( 3 . 1 f K
L
+ = σ dB (32)
where:
K = 1.2, for receivers with antennas below clutter height in urban or suburban
environments for mobile systems with omnidirectional antennas at carroof
height
K = 1.0, for receivers with rooftop antennas near the clutter height
K = 0.5, for receivers in rural areas
f : required frequency (MHz).
As noted above, if the area over which the variability is to apply is greater than 500 m × 500 m, or if
the variability is to relate to all areas at a given range, rather than the variation across individual
areas, the value of σ
L
will be greater. Empirical studies have suggested that location variability is
increased (with respect to the small area values) by up to 4 dB for a 2 km radius and up to 8 dB for
a 50 km radius.
Percentage location q can vary between 1 and 99. This Recommendation is not valid for percentage
locations less than 1% or greater than 99%.
The location variability correction is not applied when the receiver/mobile is adjacent to sea.
It should be noted that, for some planning purposes (e.g. multilateral allotment plans) it will
generally be necessary to use a definition of “location variability” that includes a degree of
multipath fading. This will allow for the case of a mobile receiver, stationary in a multipath null, or
for a rooftop antenna where a number of frequencies are to be received and the antenna cannot be
optimally positioned for all. Additionally, such planning may also need to consider variability over
a greater area than that assumed in this Recommendation.
Rec. ITUR P.15464 47
In this context, the values given in Table 2 have been found appropriate for the planning of a
number of radio services.
TABLE 2
Values of variability used in certain planning situations
Standard deviation
(dB)
100 MHz 600 MHz 2 000 MHz
Broadcasting, analogue 8.3 9.5 –
Broadcasting, digital 5.5 5.5 5.5
13 Correction based on tropospheric scattering
There is a possibility that the field strength calculated using the methods given in § 1 to 12 of this
Annex is an underestimation, due to not taking full account of tropospheric scattering.
If terrain information is available, a correction for tropospheric scattering should be calculated
using the following procedure.
Calculate the path scattering angle in degrees, θ
s
, using:
θ + θ +
π
= θ
eff s
ka
d 180
degrees (33)
where:
θ
eff
: the h
1
terminal’s terrain clearance angle in degrees calculated using the method
in § 4.3 case a), whether or not h
1
is negative (degrees)
θ: the h
2
terminal’s clearance angle in degrees as calculated in § 11, noting that
this is the elevation angle relative to the local horizontal (degrees)
d: path length (km)
a: 6 370 km, radius of the Earth
k: 4/3, effective Earth radius factor for median refractivity conditions.
If θ
s
is less than zero, set θ
s
equal to zero.
Calculate the field strength predicted for tropospheric scattering, E
ts
, using:
t f s ts
G N L d E + + − θ − − =
0
15 . 0 10 ) log( 20 4 . 24 dB(μV/m) (34)
where:
L
f
: frequencydependent loss
= ( )
2
3 . 3 ) log( 5 . 2 ) log( 5 − − f f (34a)
N
0
= 325, median surface refractivity, Nunits, typical of temperate climates
G
t
: timedependent enhancement
= ( )
7 . 0
) 02 . 0 log( 1 . 10 t −
(34b)
d: path length or required distance (km)
f: required frequency (MHz)
t: required percentage of time.
48 Rec. ITUR P.15464
14 Fieldstrength predictions for distances less than 1 km
If this Recommendation is used where values of d less than 1 km may occur and where the of a
shortrange propagation model is not practicable and a simple means is required to converge
towards freespace field strengths for arbitrarily short distances (recognizing that this is purely a
convenience, not a valid propagation model), the following procedure can be used.
Estimate the field strength, E, at a distance less than 1 km using:
nf max
E E = dB(μV/m) for d ≤ d
nf
(35a)
d max
E E = dB(μV/m) for d
nf
< d ≤ 0.1 km (35b)
( ) ) 1 . 0 / log(
km 1 . 0 km 1 km 1 . 0
d E E E − + dB(μV/m) for 0.1 km < d < 1.0 km (35c)
where:
E
max nf
: maximum field strength at a distance of d
nf
km given by equations (1a) or (1b)
E
max d
: maximum field strength at the required distance given by equations (1a) or (1b)
E
0.1 km
: maximum field strength at a distance of 0.1 km given by equations (1a) or (1b)
E
1 km
: field strength at a distance of 1 km,
and d
nf
is an estimate of the nearfield distance of the transmitting/base antenna given by:
) 10 /( 10
1 . 0
f d
G
nf
= km (35d)
where:
G: antenna gain (dBi)
f: frequency (MHz).
The value of d
nf
should be limited such that d
nf
≤ 0.1 km.
A default value of d
nf
= 0.01 km is suggested.
The corrections relating to the receiver/mobile remain valid. If used, they should be applied for the
actual location of the receiver/mobile, not at 1 km from the transmitter/base station.
15 An approximation to the inverse complementary cumulative normal distribution
function
The following approximation to the inverse complementary cumulative normal distribution
function, Q
i
(x), is valid for 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.99:
) ( ) ( ) ( x x T x Q
i
ξ − = if x ≤ 0.5 (36a)
{ } ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) ( x x T x Q
i
− ξ − − − = if x > 0.5 (36b)
Rec. ITUR P.15464 49
where:
[ ] ) ln( 2 – ) ( x x T = (36c)
[ ]
[ ] 1 ) ( ) ( ) ) ( (
) ( ) ) ( (
= ) (
1 2 3
0 1 2
+ ⋅ + ⋅ + ⋅
+ ⋅ + ⋅
ξ
x T D x T D x T D
C x T C x T C
x
(36d)
C
0
= 2.515517
C
1
= 0.802853
C
2
= 0.010328
D
1
= 1.432788
D
2
= 0.189269
D
3
= 0.001308
Values given by the above equations are given in Table 3.
TABLE 3
Approximate inverse complementary cumulative
normal distribution values
q% Q
i
(q/100) q% Q
i
(q/100) q% Q
i
(q/100) q% Q
i
(q/100)
1 2.327 26 0.643 51 –0.025 76 –0.706
2 2.054 27 0.612 52 –0.050 77 –0.739
3 1.881 28 0.582 53 –0.075 78 –0.772
4 1.751 29 0.553 54 –0.100 79 –0.806
5 1.645 30 0.524 55 –0.125 80 –0.841
6 1.555 31 0.495 56 –0.151 81 –0.878
7 1.476 32 0.467 57 –0.176 82 –0.915
8 1.405 33 0.439 58 –0.202 83 –0.954
9 1.341 34 0.412 59 –0.227 84 –0.994
10 1.282 35 0.385 60 –0.253 85 –1.036
11 1.227 36 0.358 61 –0.279 86 –1.080
12 1.175 37 0.331 62 –0.305 87 –1.126
13 1.126 38 0.305 63 –0.331 88 –1.175
14 1.080 39 0.279 64 –0.358 89 –1.227
15 1.036 40 0.253 65 –0.385 90 –1.282
16 0.994 41 0.227 66 –0.412 91 –1.341
17 0.954 42 0.202 67 –0.439 92 –1.405
18 0.915 43 0.176 68 –0.467 93 –1.476
19 0.878 44 0.151 69 –0.495 94 –1.555
20 0.841 45 0.125 70 –0.524 95 –1.645
21 0.806 46 0.100 71 –0.553 96 –1.751
22 0.772 47 0.075 72 –0.582 97 –1.881
23 0.739 48 0.050 73 –0.612 98 –2.054
24 0.706 49 0.025 74 –0.643 99 –2.327
25 0.674 50 0.000 75 –0.674
50 Rec. ITUR P.15464
16 Equivalent basic transmission loss
When required, the basic transmission loss equivalent to a given field strength is given by:
f E L
b
log 20 3 . 139 + − = dB (37)
where:
L
b
: basic transmission loss (dB)
E : field strength (dB(μV/m)) for 1 kW e.r.p.
f : frequency (MHz).
17 An approximation to the 0.6 Fresnel clearance path length
The path length which just achieves a clearance of 0.6 of the first Fresnel zone over a smooth
curved Earth, for a given frequency and antenna heights h
1
and h
2
, is given approximately by:
D
06
=
h f
h f
D D
D D
+
⋅
km (38)
where:
D
f
: frequencydependent term
=
2 1
0000389 . 0 h h f km (39a)
D
h
: asymptotic term defined by horizon distances
= ) ( 1 . 4
2 1
h h + km (39b)
f : frequency (MHz)
h
1
, h
2
: antenna heights above smooth Earth (m).
In the above equations, the value of h
1
must be limited, if necessary, such that it is not less than
zero. Moreover, the resulting values of D
06
must be limited, if necessary, such that it is not less than
0.001 km.
Annex 6
Procedure for the application of this Recommendation
The stepbystep procedure given below is intended to be applied to values derived from the field
strength versus distance tables available from the Radiocommunication Bureau. They may,
however, also be applied to values obtained from the curves in which case the distance interpolation
procedure of Step 8.1.5 is not needed. Table 4 contains a minimal list of input parameters (and their
limits) that would serve as the basis for deriving values from the field strength versus distance
tables. The stepbystep procedure follows.
Rec. ITUR P.15464 51
TABLE 4
List of input parameters and their limits
Parameter Units Definition Limits
f MHz Operating frequency 303 000 MHz
d km Path length 11 000 km
p % Percentage time. Defined in Annex 1, § 8 150%
h
1
m Transmitting/base antenna height as referenced in
curves. Defined by Annex 5, § 3, equations (4)
to (7)
Limits are defined in § 4.1
Land – No lower limit,
upper limit of 3 000 m
Sea – Not less than 1 m,
upper limit of 3 000 m
h
a
m Transmitter antenna height above ground. Defined
in Annex 5, § 3.1.1. Limits are defined in Annex 5,
§ 3
Must be greater than local
clutter height
h
b
m Height of base antenna above terrain height
averaged 0.2 d and d km, where d is less than 15 km
and where terrain information is available
None – But note this
parameter only exists
for land paths where
d < 15 km
h
2
m Receiving/mobile antenna height above ground.
Defined in Annex 1, § 10
Land – Not less than 1 m,
and less than 3 000 m
Sea – Not less than 3 m,
and less than 3 000 m
Clutter height
surrounding
transmitter
m Representative clutter height (around transmitter) None
R m Representative clutter height (around receiver) None
θ
tca
degrees Terrain clearance angle 0.5540°
θ
eff
θ
eff1
θ
eff2
degrees Transmitter/base effective terrain clearance angles.
Annex 5, § 9
Must be positive
Step 1: Determine the type of the propagation path as land, cold sea or warm sea. If the path is
mixed then determine two path types which are regarded as first and second propagation types. If
the path can be represented by a single type then this is regarded as the first propagation type and
the mixedpath method given in Step 11 is not required.
Step 2: For any given percentage of time (in the range 1% to 50% time) determine two nominal
time percentages as follows:
– wanted time percentage > 1 and < 10, the lower and higher nominal percentages are 1
and 10, respectively;
– wanted time percentage > 10 and < 50, the lower and higher nominal percentages are 10
and 50, respectively.
If the required percentage of time is equal to 1% or 10% or 50%, this value should be regarded as
the lower nominal percentage time and the interpolation process of Step 10 is not required.
Step 3: For any wanted frequency (in the range 30 to 3 000 MHz) determine two nominal
frequencies as follows:
– where the wanted frequency < 600 MHz, the lower and higher nominal frequencies are 100
and 600 MHz, respectively;
– where the wanted frequency > 600 MHz, the lower and higher nominal frequencies are 600
and 2 000 MHz, respectively.
52 Rec. ITUR P.15464
If the wanted frequency equals 100 or 600 or 2 000 MHz, this value should be regarded as the lower
nominal frequency and the interpolation/extrapolation process of Step 9 is not required.
Step 4: Determine the lower and higher nominal distances from Table 1 closest to the required
distance. If the required distance coincides with a value in Table 1, this should be regarded as the
lower nominal distance and the interpolation process of Step 8.1.5 is not required.
Step 5: For the first propagation type follow Steps 6 to 11.
Step 6: For the lower nominal percentage time follow Steps 7 to 10.
Step 7: For the lower nominal frequency follow Steps 8 and 9.
Step 8: Obtain the field strength exceeded at 50% locations for a receiving/mobile antenna at the
height of representative clutter, R, above ground for the required distance and transmitting/base
antenna height as follows:
Step 8.1: For a transmitting/base antenna height h
1
equal to or greater than 10 m follow
Steps 8.1.1 to 8.1.6:
Step 8.1.1: Determine the lower and higher nominal h
1
values using the method given in
Annex 5, § 4.1. If h
1
coincides with one of the nominal values 10, 20, 37.5, 75, 150, 300,
600 or 1 200 m, this should be regarded as the lower nominal value of h
1
and the
interpolation process of Step 8.1.6 is not required.
Step 8.1.2: For the lower nominal value of h
1
follow Steps 8.1.3 to 8.1.5.
Step 8.1.3: For the lower nominal value of distance follow Step 8.1.4.
Step 8.1.4: Obtain the field strength exceeded at 50% locations for a receiving/mobile
antenna at the height of representative clutter, R, for the required values of distance, d, and
transmitting/base antenna height, h
1
.
Step 8.1.5: If the required distance does not coincide with the lower nominal distance,
repeat Step 8.1.4 for the higher nominal distance and interpolate the two field strengths for
distance using the method given in Annex 5, § 5.
Step 8.1.6: If the required transmitting/base antenna height, h
1
, does not coincide with one
of the nominal values, repeat Steps 8.1.3 to 8.1.5 and interpolate/extrapolate for h
1
using the
method given in Annex 5, § 4.1. If necessary limit the result to the maximum given in
Annex 5, § 2.
Step 8.2: For a transmitting/base antenna height h
1
less than 10 m determine the field
strength for the required height and distance using the method given in Annex 5, § 4.2. If h
1
is less than zero, the method given in Annex 5, § 4.3 should also be used.
Step 9: If the required frequency does not coincide with the lower nominal frequency, repeat Step 8
for the higher nominal frequency and interpolate or extrapolate the two field strengths using the
method given in Annex 5, § 6. If necessary limit the result to the maximum field strength as given
in Annex 5, § 2.
Step 10: If the required percentage time does not coincide with the lower nominal percentage time,
repeat Steps 7 to 9 for the higher nominal percentage time and interpolate the two field strengths
using the method given in Annex 5, § 7.
Step 11: If the prediction is for a mixed path, follow the stepbystep procedure given in Annex 5,
§ 8. This requires use of Steps 6 to 10 for paths of each propagation type. Note that if different
sections of the path exist classified as both cold and warm sea, all sea sections should be classified
as warm sea.
Rec. ITUR P.15464 53
Step 12: If information on the terrain clearance angle at a receiving/mobile antenna adjacent to land
is available, correct the field strength for terrain clearance angle at the receiver/mobile using the
method given in Annex 5, § 11.
Step 13: Calculate the estimated field strength due to tropospheric scattering using the method
given in Annex 5 § 13, and, if necessary, adjust the final predicted field strength accordingly.
Step 14: Correct the field strength for receiving/mobile antenna height h
2
using the method given in
Annex 5, § 9.
Step 15: If applicable, reduce the field strength by adding the correction for short urban/suburban
paths using the method given in Annex 5, § 10.
Step 16: If the field strength at a receiving/mobile antenna adjacent to land exceeded at percentage
locations other than 50% is required, correct the field strength for the required percentage of
locations using the method given in Annex 5, § 12.
Step 17: If necessary, limit the resulting field strength to the maximum given in Annex 5, § 2. If a
mixed path calculation has been made for a percentage time less than 50% it will be necessary to
calculate the maximum field strength by linear interpolation between the allland and allsea values.
This is given by:
total se s fs max
d E d E E / + = dB(μV/m) (40)
where:
E
fs
: freespace field strength given by equation (2) in Annex 5, § 2
E
se
: enhancement at small time percentages for a sea path given by equation (3) in
Annex 5, § 2
d
s
: the total sea distance (km)
d
total
: the total path distance (km).
Step 18: If required, convert field strength to equivalent basic transmission loss for the path using
the method given in Annex 5, § 16.
Annex 7
Adjustment for different climatic regions
The curves given in Annexes 2, 3 and 4 are based on measurements in temperate climates. Field
strengths in regions of the world where the vertical atmospheric refractivity gradient is significantly
different will not, in general, be so accurately predicted.
The following method may be used to apply vertical refractivity gradient information from
Recommendation ITUR P.453 to correct the curves in Annexes 2, 3 and 4 for use anywhere in the
world. The Recommendation ITUR P.453 data files give refractivity gradients in Nunits/km in the
lowest 65 m of the atmosphere as negative values.
For the purpose of this adjustment the curves in Annexes 2, 3 and 4 are considered to represent
reference values of gradient dN
0
given by:
For fields exceeded for 50% time: dN
0
= – 43.3 Nunits/km (41a)
For fields exceeded for 10% time: dN
0
= – 141.9 Nunits/km (41b)
For fields exceeded for 1% time: dN
0
= – 301.3 Nunits/km (41c)
54 Rec. ITUR P.15464
To adjust a family of fieldstrength curves for a different radioclimatic region of the world,
calculate the difference in gradient ΔN given by:
N N N d d
0
− = Δ (42)
where:
dN : gradient exceeded for the time percentage of the curves to be adjusted obtained
from the Recommendation ITUR P.453 data files DNDZ_50.TXT,
DNDZ_10.TXT, DNDZ_01.TXT for 50%, 10% and 1% time, respectively.
dN
0
: reference gradient for the percentage time of the curve to be adjusted given by
equations (40).
For any distance, d (km), if dN is less than –301.3, add an adjustment to the maximum field strength
given by:
{ } ) 000 6 / exp( ) 50 / exp( 1 ) d 3 . 301 ( 007 . 0 d d N E
max
− − − − − = δ dB (43)
Note that no change is made to maximum field strengths if dN is greater than or equal to –301.3.
Calculate the scaling factor K given by:
2 6
) 494 1 ( 10 693 . 6 94 . 14 N K Δ − × − =
−
ΔN > 0 (44a)
N Δ = 08 . 0 ΔN ≤ 0 (44b)
For the lowest curve in the family to be adjusted, that is for h
1
= 10 m, add an adjustment, δE
1
,
given by:
{ } ) 000 6 / exp( ) 50 / exp( 1
1
d d K E − − − = δ dB (45)
If necessary, the value of δE
1
must be limited as follows:
− δE
1
must be limited such that the adjusted field strength does not exceed the adjusted
maximum field strength.
− If ΔN is greater than zero, δE
1
must be limited such that the difference between the adjusted
maximum and h
1
= 10 m field strengths is not greater than it is in the unadjusted curves.
Note that this condition must not be applied when ΔN is less than zero.
Adjust field strengths for other values of h
1
such that they occupy the same proportional position
between the maximum and h
1
= 10 m field strength as the corresponding field strength in the
unadjusted curves, using:
( )( ) ( )
1 1 1 1
/ E E E E E E E E
max max n n
− ′ − ′ − + ′ = ′ (46)
where:
E
1
: field strength for h
1
= 10 m
E
n
: field strength for h
1
values greater than 10 m
E
max
: maximum field strength
Rec. ITUR P.15464 55
and primes indicate adjusted values.
Annex 8
Comparison with the OkumuraHata method
The OkumuraHata method is given by:
b
d H H a H f E ) )(log log 55 . 6 9 . 44 ( ) ( log 82 . 13 log 16 . 6 82 . 69
1 2 1
− − + + − = (47)
where:
E : field strength (dB(μV/m)) for 1 kW e.r.p.
f : frequency (MHz)
H
1
: base station effective antenna height above ground (m) in the range 30 to
200 m
H
2
: mobile station antenna height above ground (m) in the range 1 to 10 m
d : distance (km)
a(H
2
) = (1.1 log f − 0.7) H
2
− (1.56 log f − 0.8)
b = 1 for d ≤ 20 km
b = 1 + (0.14 + 0.000187 f + 0.00107
1
H′ ) (log [0.05 d])
0.8
for d > 20 km
where:
2
1 1 1
0.000007 1 / H H H + = ′
This Recommendation produces similar results to the OkumuraHata method for distances up to
10 km, h
2
= H
2
= 1.5 m, R = 15.
ii
Rec. ITUR P.15464
Foreword
The role of the Radiocommunication Sector is to ensure the rational, equitable, efficient and economical use of the radiofrequency spectrum by all radiocommunication services, including satellite services, and carry out studies without limit of frequency range on the basis of which Recommendations are adopted. The regulatory and policy functions of the Radiocommunication Sector are performed by World and Regional Radiocommunication Conferences and Radiocommunication Assemblies supported by Study Groups.
Policy on Intellectual Property Right (IPR)
ITUR policy on IPR is described in the Common Patent Policy for ITUT/ITUR/ISO/IEC referenced in Annex 1 of Resolution ITUR 1. Forms to be used for the submission of patent statements and licensing declarations by patent holders are available from http://www.itu.int/ITUR/go/patents/en where the Guidelines for Implementation of the Common Patent Policy for ITUT/ITUR/ISO/IEC and the ITUR patent information database can also be found.
Series of ITUR Recommendations
(Also available online at http://www.itu.int/publ/RREC/en)
Series BO BR BS BT F M P RA RS S SA SF SM SNG TF V
Title Satellite delivery Recording for production, archival and playout; film for television Broadcasting service (sound) Broadcasting service (television) Fixed service Mobile, radiodetermination, amateur and related satellite services Radiowave propagation Radio astronomy Remote sensing systems Fixedsatellite service Space applications and meteorology Frequency sharing and coordination between fixedsatellite and fixed service systems Spectrum management Satellite news gathering Time signals and frequency standards emissions Vocabulary and related subjects
Note: This ITUR Recommendation was approved in English under the procedure detailed in Resolution ITUR 1.
Electronic Publication Geneva, 2009 ITU 2009
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, by any means whatsoever, without written permission of ITU.
Rec. ITUR P.15464
1
RECOMMENDATION ITUR P.15464 Method for pointtoarea predictions for terrestrial services in the frequency range 30 MHz to 3 000 MHz
(20012003200520072009)
Scope This Recommendation describes a method for pointtoarea radio propagation predictions for terrestrial services in the frequency range 30 MHz to 3 000 MHz. It is intended for use on tropospheric radio circuits over land paths, sea paths and/or mixed landsea paths between 11 000 km length for effective transmitting antenna heights less than 3 000 m. The method is based on interpolation/extrapolation from empirically derived fieldstrength curves as functions of distance, antenna height, frequency and percentage time. The calculation procedure also includes corrections to the results obtained from this interpolation/extrapolation to account for terrain clearance and terminal clutter obstructions.
The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly, considering a) that there is a need to give guidance to engineers in the planning of terrestrial radiocommunication services in the VHF and UHF bands; b) that, for stations working in the same or adjacent frequency channels, the determination of the minimum geographical distance of separation required to avoid unacceptable interference due to longdistance tropospheric propagation is a matter of great importance; c) that the curves that appear in Annexes 2, 3 and 4 are based on the statistical analysis of experimental data, noting a) that Recommendation ITUR P.528 provides guidance on the prediction of pointtoarea path loss for the aeronautical mobile service for the frequency range 125 MHz to 30 GHz and the distance range up to 1 800 km; b) that Recommendation ITUR P.452 provides guidance on the detailed evaluation of microwave interference between stations on the surface of the Earth at frequencies above about 0.7 GHz; c) that Recommendation ITUR P.617 provides guidance on the prediction of pointtopoint (PP) path loss for transhorizon radiorelay systems for the frequency range above 30 MHz and for the distance range 100 to 1 000 km; d) that Recommendation ITUR P.1411 provides guidance on prediction for shortrange (up to 1 km) outdoor services; e) that Recommendation ITUR P.530 provides guidance on the prediction of PP path loss for terrestrial lineofsight systems,
2 recommends
Rec. ITUR P.15464
1 that the procedures given in Annexes 1 to 8 should be used for pointtoarea prediction of field strength for the broadcasting, land mobile, maritime mobile and certain fixed services (e.g. those employing pointtomultipoint (PMP) systems) in the frequency range 30 MHz to 3 000 MHz and for the distance range 1 km to 1 000 km.
Annex 1 Introduction
1 The propagation curves
The propagation curves in Annexes 2, 3 and 4 represent fieldstrength values for 1 kW effective radiated power (e.r.p.) at nominal frequencies of 100, 600 and 2 000 MHz, respectively, as a function of various parameters; some curves refer to land paths, others refer to sea paths. Interpolation or extrapolation of the values obtained for these nominal frequency values should be used to obtain fieldstrength values for any given required frequency using the method given in Annex 5, § 6. The curves are based on measurement data mainly relating to mean climatic conditions in temperate regions containing cold and warm seas, e.g. the North Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The landpath curves were prepared from data obtained mainly from temperate climates as encountered in Europe and North America. The seapath curves were prepared from data obtained mainly from the Mediterranean and the North Sea regions. Extensive studies reveal that propagation conditions in certain areas of superrefractivity bounded by hot seas are substantially different. However, the methods for interpolation and extrapolation between the families of fieldstrength curves are general. Therefore, if families of curves exist for regions with different climates which experience substantially different prevailing radio propagation conditions, accurate characterization of radio propagation in these regions may be attained using the methods found in this Recommendation. This Recommendation is not specific to a particular polarization. 2 Maximum field strengths
The curves have upper limits on the possible value of field strength which may be obtained under any conditions. These limits are defined in Annex 5, § 2 and appear as dashed lines on the graphs reproduced in Annexes 2, 3, and 4. 3 Computerbased tabulations
Although field strengths may be read directly from the curves presented as figures in Annexes 2, 3 and 4 of this Recommendation, it is intended that computer implementations of the method will use tabulated field strengths available from the Radiocommunication Bureau. See that part of the ITUR website dealing with Radiocommunication Study Group 3.
Rec. ITUR P.15464 4 Stepbystep method
3
The detailed stepbystep procedure to be used in the application of this Recommendation is given in Annex 6. 5 Designation of antennas
In this Recommendation, the term “transmitting/base antenna” is used to deal with both the concept of transmitting antenna as used in the broadcasting service and the concept of base station antenna as used in the terrestrial mobile services. Similarly, the term “receiving/mobile antenna” is used to deal with the concept of a receiving antenna as used in the broadcasting service and a mobile antenna as used in the terrestrial mobile services. More information on the designation of the terminals can be found in Annex 5, § 1.1. 6 Transmitting/base antenna height
The method takes account of the effective height of the transmitting/base antenna, which is the height of the antenna above terrain height averaged between distances of 3 to 15 km in the direction of the receiving/mobile antenna. For land paths shorter than 15 km where the information is available the method also takes account of the height of the transmitting/base antenna above the height of representative clutter (i.e. ground cover) at the location of the transmitting/base station. The transmitting/base antenna height, h1, to be used for calculations is obtained using the method given in Annex 5, § 3. 7 Transmitting/base antenna heights used for curves
The field strength versus distance curves in Annexes 2, 3 and 4, and the associated tabulations, are given for values of h1 of 10, 20, 37.5, 75, 150, 300, 600 and 1 200 m. For any values of h1 in the range 10 m to 3 000 m an interpolation or extrapolation from the appropriate two curves should be used, as described in Annex 5, § 4.1. For h1 below 10 m, the extrapolation to be applied is given in Annex 5, § 4.2. It is possible for the value of h1 to be negative, in which case the method given in Annex 5, § 4.3 should be used. 8 Time variability
The propagation curves represent the fieldstrength values exceeded for 50%, 10% and 1% of time. A method for interpolating between these values is given in Annex 5, § 7. This Recommendation is not valid for field strengths exceeded for percentage times outside the range from 1% to 50%. 9 Mixedpath method
In cases where the radio path is over both land and sea the estimate of mixedpath field strength should be made using the method given in Annex 5, § 8. 10 Receiving/mobile antenna height
For land paths the curves give fieldstrength values for a receiving/mobile antenna height above ground, h2 (m), equal to the representative height of ground cover around the receiving/mobile antenna location. The minimum value of the representative height of ground cover is 10 m. For sea paths the curves give fieldstrength values for h2 = 10 m. To allow for values of h2 different from the height represented by a curve a correction should be applied according to the environment of the receiving/mobile antenna. The method for calculating this correction is given in Annex 5, § 9.
4 to 8 represent fieldstrength values exceeded at 50% of the locations for 50%. The field strength curves given in Annexes 2. ITUR P. § 12. 2 The curves in Figs. § 12. to the equivalent basic transmission loss.r. 4 The curves in Figs. 3 and 4 apply to temperate climates. 10% and 1% of the time for sea paths in cold seas and warm seas.4 11 Rec. They may be used for frequencies in the range 30 MHz to 300 MHz but the procedure given in Annex 5. § 14 gives a method for converting from field strength for 1 kW e.15464 Terrain clearance angle correction For land paths. 1 to 3 represent fieldstrength values exceeded at 50% of the locations within any area of approximately 500 m by 500 m and for 50%. those observed in the North Sea and the Mediterranean. More information on the terrain clearance angle correction is given in Annex 5. 14 Variability of atmospheric refractive index It is known that median field strength and its variability over time varies in different climatic regions. Annex 2 Frequency range 30 MHz to 300 MHz 1 The field strength versus distance curves shown in this Annex are for a frequency of 100 MHz. § 11. For more information on location variability and the method for calculating the correction required for percentages of location other than 50%. see Annex 5. The field strength distribution as a function of percentage location may be calculated using 3 the information in Annex 5. 15 Compatibility with the OkumuraHata method Annex 7 gives the Hata equations for field strength prediction for mobile services in an urban environment. When a calculation for a mixed path has been made. by means of a terrain clearance angle.p. The same procedure should be used when the tabulated values of field strength versus distance (see Annex 1. 13 Equivalent basic transmission loss Annex 5. and describes the conditions under which this Recommendation gives compatible results. if available. 12 Location variability The propagation curves represent the fieldstrength values exceeded at 50% of locations within any area of typically 500 m by 500 m. 10% and 1% of the time for land paths. this correction should be included if the receiving/mobile antenna is adjacent to a land section of the path. § 3) are employed. respectively. improved accuracy of predicted field strengths can be obtained by taking into account terrain near the receiving/mobile antenna. § 6 should be used to obtain improved accuracy. Annex 8 gives a method of adjusting the curves for different regions of the world based on the vertical atmospheric refractivity gradient data associated with Recommendation ITUR P.453. . for example.
15464 5 .Rec. ITUR P.
6 Rec. ITUR P.15464 .
Rec. ITUR P.15464 7 .
8 Rec. ITUR P.15464 .
ITUR P.15464 9 .Rec.
ITUR P.10 Rec.15464 .
ITUR P.Rec.15464 11 .
12 Rec.15464 . ITUR P.
However. § 12. 6 The ionosphere. 2 The curves in Figs. ITUR P.) Annex 3 Frequency range 300 MHz to 1 000 MHz 1 The field strength versus distance curves shown in this Annex are for a frequency of 600 MHz. account should be taken of the information contained in Annex 1. § 14.534 provides guidance on sporadicE propagation. particularly at frequencies below about 90 MHz. these ionospheric effects can usually be ignored in most applications covered by this Recommendation and the propagation curves of this Annex have been prepared on this assumption. The same procedure should be used when the tabulated values of field strength versus distance (see Annex 1. can influence propagation in the lower part of the VHF band. those observed in the North Sea and the Mediterranean.Rec. 5 In areas subject to pronounced superrefraction phenomena. § 14. In some circumstances this mode of propagation may influence the field strength exceeded for small percentages of the time at distances beyond some 500 km. (Recommendation ITUR P. . § 6 should be used to obtain improved accuracy. § 3) are employed. 9 to 11 represent fieldstrength values exceeded at 50% of the locations within any area of approximately 500 m by 500 m and for 50%.15464 13 5 In areas subject to pronounced superrefraction phenomena. higher percentages of the time may be involved. 10% and 1% of the time for sea paths in cold seas and warm seas. 10% and 1% of the time for land paths. They may be used for frequencies in the range 300 MHz to 1 000 MHz but the procedure given in Annex 5. 12 to 16 represent fieldstrength values exceeded at 50% of the locations and for 50%. primarily through the effects of sporadicE ionization. respectively. Near the magnetic equator and in the auroral zone. account should be taken of the information contained in Annex 1. 4 The curves in Figs. 3 The field strength distribution as a function of percentage location may be calculated using the information in Annex 5. for example.
15464 . ITUR P.14 Rec.
ITUR P.Rec.15464 15 .
15464 .16 Rec. ITUR P.
15464 17 .Rec. ITUR P.
15464 .18 Rec. ITUR P.
15464 19 .Rec. ITUR P.
15464 .20 Rec. ITUR P.
15464 21 . ITUR P.Rec.
The same procedure should be used when the tabulated values of field strength versus distance (see Annex 1. ITUR P. respectively.15464 Annex 4 Frequency range 1 000 MHz to 3 000 MHz 1 The field strength versus distance curves shown in this Annex are for a frequency of 2 000 MHz. 10% and 1% of the time for land paths. account should be taken of the information contained in Annex 1. 4 The curves in Figs. § 6 should be used to obtain improved accuracy. 5 In areas subject to pronounced superrefraction phenomena. 20 to 24 represent fieldstrength values exceeded at 50% of the locations and for 50%. 2 The curves in Figs.22 Rec. 10% and 1% of the time for sea paths in cold seas and warm seas. § 14. for example. 17 to 19 represent fieldstrength values exceeded at 50% of the locations within any area of approximately 500 m by 500 m and for 50%. those observed in the North Sea and the Mediterranean. . 3 The field strength distribution as a function of percentage location may be calculated using the information in Annex 5. § 12. § 3) are employed. They may be used for frequencies in the range 1 000 MHz to 3 000 MHz but the procedure given in Annex 5.
ITUR P.15464 23 .Rec.
24 Rec. ITUR P.15464 .
Rec.15464 25 . ITUR P.
26 Rec. ITUR P.15464 .
Rec.15464 27 . ITUR P.
28 Rec.15464 . ITUR P.
Rec.15464 29 . ITUR P.
15464 . ITUR P.30 Rec.
which should also always have the higher effective height. for example. Sections 14 to 17 provide auxiliary information. it may be useful. ITUR Recommendations. without regard to which terminal is actually the transmitter/base and receiver/mobile. As noted above. this Recommendation is not reciprocal. h2. h1. for the purposes of calculation. in the subsequent calculation of field strength or basic transmission loss. broadcasting and/or basetomobile stations. In other cases where there is no a priori reason to consider either terminal as the transmitting/base. to designate that terminal in the open location. as the transmitter/base as the “high” antenna. . h1. Sections 2 to 7 of this Annex describe how field strengths are extracted from the curve families with interpolation for distance. 1. it may be treated as such. frequency and percentage time.15464 31 Annex 5 Additional information and methods for implementing the prediction method 1 Introduction This Annex describes separate stages of the calculation. then this Recommendation will not give accurate predictions to the problem at hand. whereas the other terminal is below the level of clutter. ITUR P. that if these “high” and “low” designations are to be used. Sections 9 to 13 describe corrections which can be added to the field strength predictions for additional precision. Section 8 describes how field strengths are combined for a mixed landsea path.Rec. Users should seek guidance from other. For these particular cases. under items b) and c) of the previous discussion. A stepbystep description of the overall method is given in Annex 6. with the same qualifier. in some special cases. then the terminal with the greater effective height should be treated as the transmitting/base station for the purposes of this Recommendation. the high antenna termination will always be synonymous with (and equivalent to) the transmitter/base station’s effective height. When this Recommendation is used to calculate the coverage of. then the actual transmitting/base station should be treated as the “transmitting/base”. more appropriate.1 The terminal designations This Recommendation is not reciprocal with respect to designations of the transmitting/base station and the receiver/mobile station/terminal. then the open/uncluttered terminal should be treated as the transmitting/base station for the purposes of actual identity as the transmitter/base or receiver/mobile. This Recommendation is primarily intended for use with broadcasting and mobile services where the transmitter/base antenna is above the level of local clutter. whilst the low antenna termination will always be synonymous with (and equivalent to) the receiver/mobile’s height. or for the coordination of. b) if one terminal is in an open location or above the surrounding clutter. which may be encountered for the monitoring and prediction of receiver/mobiletotransmitter/base coverage and/or interference. whilst designating the terminal in the cluttered location as the receiver/mobile as the “low” antenna. then the selection of which terminal to designate as the transmitting/base station for the purposes of this Recommendation can be as follows: a) if both terminals are below the levels of clutter in their respective vicinities. Users of this Recommendation should note. c) if both terminals are open/uncluttered. However.
1. 3 Determination of transmitting/base antenna height. heff. heff. the value of h1 is calculated according to path length. However.3 as appropriate.1 Terrain information not available Where no terrain information is available when propagation predictions are being made.15464 Maximum fieldstrength values A field strength must not exceed a maximum value. given by: Emax = E fs Emax = E fs + Ese dB(μV/m) dB(μV/m) for land paths for sea paths (1a) (1b) where Efs is the free space field strength for 1 kW e. dB(μV/m) (2) dB (3) In principle any correction which increases a field strength must not be allowed to produce values greater than these limits for the family of curves and distance concerned. as follows: h1 = ha m for m for d ≤ 3 km 3 km < d < 15 km (4) (5) h1 = ha + (heff − ha )(d − 3) /12 where ha is the antenna height above ground (e. the effective height of the transmitting/base antenna. 3.32 2 Rec. Where the value of effective transmitting/base antenna height. d.g. 3.r. is defined as its height in metres over the average level of the ground between distances of 3 and 15 km from the transmitting/base antenna in the direction of the receiving/mobile antenna. height of the mast).2 or in § 3. .38{ − exp(− d / 8. h1. to be used in calculation depends on the type and length of the path and on various items of height information. given by: E fs =106. ITUR P. For land paths. For sea paths h1 is the height of the antenna above sea level. The value of h1 to be used in calculation should be obtained using the method given in § 3. is not known it should be estimated from general geographic information.9 − 20 log(d ) and Ese is an enhancement for sea curves given by: Ese = 2.1 Land paths shorter than 15 km For land paths less than 15 km one of the following two methods should be used: 3.p. h1 The transmitting/base antenna height. limitation to maximum values should be applied only where indicated in Annex 6. Emax. This Recommendation is not valid when the transmitting/base antenna is below the height of surrounding clutter.1.94)}log(50 / t ) 1 where: d: t: distance (km) percentage time. which may not all be available.
300.2 Land paths of 15 km or longer For these paths: h1 = heff 3. While this may happen in reality. h1. out to a distance of 15 km.1 Transmitting/base antenna height. 3. This Recommendation is not reliable in the case of a sea path for h1 values less than about 3 m.3 Sea paths m (7) The concept of h1 for an allsea path is that it represents the physical height of the antenna above the surface of the sea. Otherwise the required field strength should be interpolated or extrapolated from field strengths obtained from two curves using: E = Einf + ( Esup − Einf ) log(h1 / hinf ) / log(hsup / hinf ) where: hinf : hsup : Einf : Esup : dB(μV/m) (8) 600 m if h1 > 1 200 m. there will be nonmonotonic behaviour in the predicted field strength with distance. . ITUR P.5. 20. it is possible that. otherwise the nearest nominal effective height below h1 1 200 m if h1 > 1 200 m. Note.2d and d km. h1 The value of h1 controls which curve or curves are selected from which to obtain fieldstrength values. 150. if nonmonotonic behaviour must be avoided.1.2 Terrain information available h1 = hb m (6) Where terrain information is available when propagation predictions are being made: where hb is the height of the antenna above terrain height averaged between 0. the required field strength may be obtained directly from the plotted curves or the associated tabulations. This Recommendation is not valid for h1 > 3 000 m. it may be an undesirable behaviour of the model for certain applications. and the interpolation or extrapolation which may be necessary. namely 10. The following cases are distinguished. 600 or 1 200 m. Therefore. otherwise the nearest nominal effective height above h1 fieldstrength value for hinf at the required distance fieldstrength value for hsup at the required distance. 37. and an absolute lower limit of 1 m should be observed. then the value of h1 should be fixed at a representative value for these cases. 4 Application of transmitting/base antenna height.15464 33 3.Rec. using this method to determine h1. 75. 4. The field strength resulting from extrapolation for h1 > 1 200 m should be limited if necessary such that it does not exceed the maximum defined in § 2. in the range 10 m to 3 000 m If the value of h1 coincides with one of the eight heights for which curves are provided.
2 Rec. For a land path: For a land path the field strength at the required distance d km for 0 ≤ h1 < 10 m is calculated using: E = E zero + 0. 10) E = Emax dB(μV/m) km (10b) The field strength for the required distance. ITUR P.5(C1020 + Ch1neg10 ) C1020 = E10 − E20 Ch1neg10: E10 and E20: dB dB(μV/m) (9a) (9b) the correction Ch1 in dB calculated using equation (12) in § 4. given by: D20 = D06 ( f .6 of the first Fresnel zone just unobstructed by the sea surface. in the range 0 m to 10 m The method when h1 is less than 10 m depends on whether the path is over land or sea. The procedure requires the distance at which the path has 0. .6 Fresnel clearance distance for a sea path where the transmitting/base antenna height is 20 m. 20. 10) km (10a) where f is the nominal frequency (MHz) and the function D06 is defined in § 17. h1. h1 should not be less than 1 m.1h1 ( E10 − E zero ) where: dB(μV/m) (9) E zero = E10 + 0. This is given by: Dh1 = D06 ( f .15464 Transmitting/base antenna height. If d > Dh1 it will be necessary to also calculate the 0.1 above at the required distance for h1 = 10 m and h1 = 20 m respectively. is then given by: for d ≤ Dh1 (11a) (11b) (11c) = EDh1 = ( ED 20 − E Dh1) log(d / Dh1 ) / log(D20 / Dh1 ) = E ′(1− Fs ) + E ′′Fs where: Emax : EDh1 : ED20 = E10(x) : E20 (x) : E' = E′′: FS = dB(μV/m) dB(μV/m) for Dh1 < d < D20 for d ≥ D20 maximum field strength at the required distance given in § 2 Emax for distance Dh1 as given in § 2 E10(D20) + (E20(D20) − E10(D20)) log (h1/10)/log (20/10) field strength for h1 = 10 m interpolated for distance x field strength for h1 = 20 m interpolated for distance x E10(d) + (E20(d) − E10(d)) log (h1/10)/log (20/10) field strength for distance d calculated using equation (9) (d − D20)/d. h1. and value of h1. d. Note that the corrections C1020 and Ch1neg10 should both evaluate to negative quantities.3 below at the required distance for h1 = −10 m the field strengths in dB(μV/m) calculated according to § 4. For a sea path: Note that for a sea path.34 4.
9 + 20 log ( ν − 0. This method takes less explicit account of terrain variations. b) In the case where a terrain database is not available or where a terrain database is available. The effect of diffraction loss is taken into account by a correction.35 K ν = 3. given by cases a) or b) as follows: a) In the case that a terrain database is available and the potential for discontinuities at the transition around h1 = 0 is of no concern in the application of this Recommendation. Note that using this method can result in a discontinuity in field strength at the transition around h1 = 0.1) 2 + 1 + ν − 0.3 Negative values of transmitting/base antenna height. This clearance angle. Thus h1 may be negative. even when less than 9 km. 25. may be estimated assuming an obstruction of height h1 at a distance of 9 km from the transmitting/base antenna.Rec. θeff1. The procedure for negative values of h1 is to obtain the field strength for h1 = 0 as described in § 4. θeff2. but it also guarantees that there is no discontinuity in field strength at the transition around h1 = 0. the (positive) effective terrain clearance angle. but the method must never produce a discontinuity in the field strength at the transition around h1 = 0. ITUR P.1 dB (12) (12a) (12b) ν = K ν 0eff 2 and θeff 2 = arctan(−h1 / 9 000) K ν = 1. Note that this is used for all path lengths.15464 4. the ground is regarded as approximating an irregular wedge over the range 3 km to 15 km from the transmitting/base antenna. In this case. Ch1. The correction to be added to the field strength in this case is calculated using: Ch1 = 6.2. which will have a positive value.00 degrees (12c) for 100 MHz for 600 MHz for 2 000 MHz .31 K ν = 6. with its mean value occurring at 9 km. should be used instead of θtca in equation (30c) in the terrain clearance angle correction method given in § 11 to obtain Ch1. the effect of diffraction by nearby terrain obstacles should be taken into account. since it is based on the average terrain height at distances from 3 km to 15 km.03 − J (ν) where: J( ν) = 6. That is. from the transmitting/base antenna should be calculated as the elevation angle of a line which just clears all terrain obstructions up to 15 km from the transmitting/base antenna in the direction of (but not going beyond) the receiving/mobile antenna. as indicated in Fig. and to add a correction Ch1 calculated as follows. the terrain clearance angle. h1 35 For land paths it is possible for the effective transmitting/base antenna height heff to have a negative value.
d. unless d coincides with one of the tabulation distances given in Table 1.36 Rec. In the case of frequencies below 100 MHz or above 2 000 MHz. In this case. but for some sea paths when the required frequency is less than 100 MHz it is necessary to use an alternative method. 600 and 2 000 MHz. the range 1 km to 1 000 km. field strengths should be obtained from the associated tabulations (see Annex 1. 5 Interpolation of field strength as a function of distance Figures 1 to 24 show field strength plotted against distance. the interpolation must be replaced by an extrapolation from the two nearer nominal frequency values. No interpolation for distance is needed if field strengths are read directly from these graphs. E. the required field strength.15464 The above correction. should be linearly interpolated for the logarithm of the distance using: E = Einf + ( Esup − Einf ) log(d / dinf ) / log(d sup / dinf ) where: dB(μV/m) (13) d : distance for which the prediction is required dinf : nearest tabulation distance less than d dsup : nearest tabulation distance greater than d Einf : fieldstrength value for dinf Esup : fieldstrength value for dsup. should be calculated using: E = Einf + ( Esup − Einf ) log( f / finf ) / log( f sup / finf ) dB(μV/m) (14) . is added to the field strength obtained for h1 = 0. 6 Interpolation and extrapolation of field strength as a function of frequency Fieldstrength values for the required frequency should be obtained by interpolating between the values for the nominal frequency values of 100. E (dB(μV/m)). § 3). and for computer implementation. For most paths interpolation or extrapolation for log (frequency) can be used. This Recommendation is not valid for values of d less than 1 km or greater than 1 000 km. For greater precision. For land paths. which is always less than zero. the field strength. ITUR P. and for sea paths where the required frequency is greater than 100 MHz.
h1. – The required distance is less than the distance at which a sea path would have 0. h1. 10) as given in § 17 field strength at distance d600 and the required frequency calculated using equation (14).6 Fresnel clearance at the required frequency calculated as D06( f. For sea paths where the required frequency is less than 100 MHz an alternative method should be used.6 Fresnel clearance at 600 MHz. h1. given by D06(600. 10) as given in § 17. based upon the path lengths at which 0. The alternative method should be used if all of the following conditions are true: – The path is a sea path. 37 The field strength resulting from extrapolation for frequency above 2 000 MHz should be limited if necessary such that it does not exceed the maximum value given in § 2.15464 where: f: finf : fsup : Einf : Esup : frequency for which the prediction is required (MHz) lower nominal frequency (100 MHz if f < 600 MHz. ITUR P.6 of the first Fresnel zone is just clear of obstruction by the sea surface. If all of the above conditions are true. then the normal interpolation/extrapolation method given by equation (14) should be used. 7 Interpolation of field strength as a function of percentage time Edf : d600 : df : Ed600: Fieldstrength values for a given percentage of time between 1% and 50% time should be calculated by interpolation between the nominal values 1% and 10% or between the nominal values 10% and 50% of time using: E = Esup (Qinf − Qt ) /(Qinf − Qsup ) + Einf (Qt − Qsup ) /(Qinf − Qsup ) where: t: tinf : percentage time for which the prediction is required lower nominal percentage time dB(μV/m) (16) . An approximate method for calculating this distance is given in § 17. – The required frequency is less than 100 MHz. should be calculated using: E = Emax dB(μV/m) dB(μV/m) for d ≤ df for d > df (15a) (15b) = Edf + ( Ed 600 − Ed f ) log( d / d f ) / log( d 600 / d f ) where: Emax : maximum field strength at the required distance as defined in § 2 maximum field strength at distance df as defined in § 2 distance at which the path has 0.Rec. 600 MHz otherwise) higher nominal frequency (600 MHz if f < 600 MHz. 2 000 MHz otherwise) fieldstrength value for finf fieldstrength value for fsup. 10) as given in § 17 distance at which the path has 0. the required field strength.6 Fresnel clearance at 600 MHz calculated as D06(600. If any of the above conditions is not true. E.
Extrapolation outside the range 1% to 50% time is not valid. The following steps should be followed to determine the field strength of any path with a mixture of land and sea parts. § 3. Normally this value of h1 will be used for both Eland(d) and Esea(d). A method for the calculation of Qi (x) is given in Annex 5. The mixed path field strength. but a value of 3 m should be used for Esea(d). given in § 8. with interpolation/extrapolation for transmitting/base antenna height h1. as required.1.38 tsup : Qt = Qinf = Qsup = Einf : Esup : Rec. However. ITUR P. frequency and percentage time. § 15. the warm sea curves should be used when calculating Esea(d). This Recommendation is valid for field strengths exceeded for percentage times in the range 1% to 50% only.15464 upper nominal percentage time Qi (t/100) Qi (tinf /100) Qi (tsup /100) fieldstrength value for time percentage tinf fieldstrength value for time percentage tsup where Qi (x) is the inverse complementary cumulative normal distribution function. for allland and allsea paths respectively. (17) . if h1 is less than 3 m it should still be used for Eland(d). If the path contains both warm sea and cold sea portions. taking the height of any sea surface as though land. is given by: E = (1− A)⋅ Eland (dtotal )+ A⋅ Esea (dtotal ) with the mixed path interpolation factor. The value of h1 should be calculated using Annex 5. R. A. E. TABLE 1 Values of distance used in the tables of field strengths (km) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 425 450 475 500 525 550 575 600 625 650 675 700 725 750 775 800 825 850 875 900 925 950 975 1 000 8 Mixed paths The following description of the mixedpath method uses Eland(d) and Esea(d) to represent the field strength at distance d from the transmitting/mobile antenna at the representative clutter height.
These different zonal specifications may.) If. alternate. or another. nl. method of zonal specification. nl is the number of land zones traversed (dB(μV/m)) field strength for seaandcoastalland path j equal in length to the mixed path. as separate propagation zones.15464 39 The following part up to the equation (21) is relevant to the propagation prediction method approved by the Regional Radiocommunication Conference RRC06 only and not to this Recommendation. ns is the number of seaandcoastalland zones traversed (dB(μV/m)) . i = 1... equation (18) should be used. then the following mixed path method is recommended: a) for all frequencies and all percentages of the time and for those combinations of propagation zone which do not involve any land/sea or land/coastal land transitions. it is necessary to compute the field strength for a mixed path traversing two or more different propagation zones.. given in equation (17). ns.1. possibly. using the method contained in Annex 8. j j =1 ns d sT (19) where: E: Eland. found in Annexes 24. Ei (dtotal ) : field strength for path in zone i equal in length to the mixed path (dB(μV/m)) di : dtotal : b) c) for all frequencies and all percentages of time and for those combinations of propagation zones which involve only a single land propagation category and a single sea or coastal land propagation category.i dlT + A⋅ nl d j Esea. The mixed path method.. with propagation conditions that are more applicable to sea paths than land paths... continue with § 8. in addition. In this case. However.Rec. the coastal land type of the IDWM coastal zone area maps should not be interpreted as coastal land zones in the following context. is general. the following procedure for calculating the field strength shall be used: E = (1− A) ⋅ i =1 di Eland . different propagation zones might be specified by modifications to the basic fieldstrength curves. . . It may also be applied to situations in which families of fieldstrength curves are defined for various propagation zones. include coastal land zones. however they are defined. (For example. for all frequencies and all percentages of time and for those combinations of three or more propagation zones which involve at least one land/sea or land/coastal land boundary. the following procedure for calculating the field strength shall be used: E = i di dtotal Εi (dtotal ) (18) where: E: field strength for the mixed path (dB(μV/m)) length of path in zone i length of total path.j: field strength for mixed path (dB(μV/m)) field strength for land path i equal in length to the mixed path. This guidance completes the discussion of the mixed path method employing the basic curves given in Annexes 24. such as that found in the GE06 Agreement. j = 1.i: Esea. ITUR P.
2. The following notation will be used: Then: d sT = d sn : n=1 Ml Ns total length of sea and coastal land paths traversed (20a) dlT = dlm : m=1 total length of land paths traversed (20b) dT = d sT + dlT : Esn(dT): Elm(dT): length of the total propagation path. dj: dlT: dsT: dtotal : 8. (20c) The following fieldstrength values are needed: fieldstrength value (dB(µV/m)) for distance dT.. . . A Ns: n: M l: m: dsn: dlm: total number of sea zones and coastal land zones seapath or coastal landpath zone number.15464 interpolation factor as given in § 8. End of the part relevant to the propagation prediction method approved by the Regional Radiocommunication Conference RRC06 only. 2. The mixed path interpolation factor. .... n = 1. m = 1.40 A: Rec..1 (note that the fraction of path over sea is d calculated as: sT ) dtotal length of path in zones i. j length of total land path = di i =1 nl di. assumed to be all of sea or coastalland zone type n fieldstrength value (dB(µV/m)) for distance dT. ITUR P. assumed to be all of land zone type m. Ns total number of land zones landpath zone number.1 length of total seaandcoastalland path = d j j =1 ns length of total propagation path = dlT + d sT . Ml distance traversed in sea or coastal land zone n (km) distance traversed in land zone m (km)..
Note that for h1 < 6. used in Fig. Where the receiving/mobile antenna is on land account should first be taken of the elevation angle of the arriving ray by calculating a modified representative clutter height R' (m).Rec. ITUR P.5d + R.0 + 40. R (m). It must be noted that the interpolation is only applied to: – landsea paths – landcoastal land paths – land(sea + coastal land) paths and not to: – landland paths – or any combination of sea and/or coastalland paths.0 with: l d d Δ = Esn (dT ) sn − Elm (dT ) lm d sT m=1 dlT n=1 (24) Ns M (25) Figure 26 shows A0 (Fsea). is given by: 41 A = A0 ( Fsea )V where A0 (Fsea) is the basic interpolation factor as shown in Fig. 9 Correction for receiving/mobile antenna height The fieldstrength values given by the land curves and associated tabulations in this Recommendation are for a reference receiving/mobile antenna at a height. subject to a minimum height value of 10 m. which is applicable for all time percentages. Examples of reference heights are 20 m for an urban area. For sea paths the notional value of R is 10 m. The value of R' must be limited if necessary such that it is not less than 1 m. 26 and equation (22) is given by: (22) d Fsea = sT dT and V is calculated using the expression: (23) Δ V = max 1. . R′ ≈ R.1. 30 m for a dense urban area and 10 m for a suburban area. A. representative of the height of the ground cover surrounding the receiving/mobile antenna. 26.0. Fsea.15464 The interpolation factor1. given by: R′ = (1 000dR −15h1 ) /(1 000d −15) where h1 and R (m) and distance d (km). m (26) 1 The interpolation factor is applied to all frequencies and to all time percentages. given by: (21) A0 (Fsea ) =1− (1− Fsea )2 / 3 The fraction of path over sea.
and: ν= K nu hdif θclut dB dB for h2 < R′ for h2 ≥ R′ (27a) (27b) (27c) m degrees (27d) (27e) (27f) (27g) hdif = θclut = K h2 = K nu = f: R′ − h2 arctan(hdif / 27) 3.0108 f frequency (MHz). then the correction to be added to the field strength E should be calculated using: Correction = 0. Where the receiving/mobile antenna is on land in a rural or open environment the correction is given by equation (27b) for all values of h2 with R' set to 10 m. should be calculated as D06(f. ITUR P. In cases in an urban environment where R' is less than 10 m. Where the receiving/mobile antenna is adjacent to sea for h2 < 10 m. h1. then again the correction for the required value of h2 should be calculated using equation (27b) with R' set to 10 m. h1. An approximate method for calculating this distance is given in § 17. the correction should be calculated using equation (27b) with R' set to 10 m. 10)as given in § 17.6 of the first Fresnel zone is just clear of obstruction by the sea surface.03 − J ( ν ) = K h 2 log(h2 / R′) where J(ν) is given by equation (12a). the correction given by equation (27) should be reduced by Kh2 log(10/R′).15464 When the receiving/mobile antenna is in an urban environment the correction is then given by: Correction = 6. h1.2 log( f ) 0.2 + 6. based upon the path lengths at which 0. 10) in § 17. In the following. d10. an alternative method should be used.42 Rec. the expression “adjacent to sea” applies to cases where the receiving/mobile antenna is either over sea. Where the receiving/mobile antenna is adjacent to sea for h2 ≥ 10 m.6 Fresnel clearance for the required value of h1 and for h2 = 10 m.0 dB dB for d ≤ dh2 (28a) (28b) = C10 log(d / d h 2 ) / log(d10 / d h 2 ) where: C10: d10: dh2: correction for the required value of h2 at distance d10 using equation (27b) with R' set to 10 m distance at which the path just has 0. for dh2 < d < d10 . 10)as given in § 17 distance at which the path just has 0. If the required distance is less than d10. If the required distance is equal to or greater than d10.6 Fresnel clearance for the required value of h2 calculated as D06(f.6 Fresnel clearance for h2 = 10 m calculated as D06(f. or is immediately adjacent to the sea with no significant obstruction in the direction of the transmitting/base station. The distance at which the path would just have 0.
15464 43 This Recommendation is not valid for receiving/mobile antenna heights. ITUR P. 27. The above complete correction for receiver/mobile antenna height can be summarized by the flowchart given in Fig. h2. less than 1 m when adjacent to land or less than 3 m when adjacent to sea.Rec. .
0°.g. θtca should be limited such that it is not less than +0. This correction only applies when d is less than 15 km and h1 − R is less than 150 m. if more precision is required for predicting the field strength for reception conditions in specific areas. The calculation of θ should not take Earth curvature into account. path loss will vary continuously with location.55° or more than +40. 12 Location variability in land areacoverage prediction Areacoverage prediction methods are intended to provide the statistics of reception conditions over a given area. a correction representing the reduction of field strength due to building clutter should be added to the field strength.85 log(d ))(1 − 0. When one terminal of a radio path is stationary. Where the relevant terrain clearance angle information is available.15464 Correction for short urban/suburban paths If a path of length less than 15 km covers buildings of uniform height over flat terrain. and when the receiving/mobile antenna is on a land section of a mixed path. ITUR P.46 log(1 + ha − R )) (29) where ha is the antenna height above ground (m) (i.065 θtca f θtca : f: terrain clearance angle (degrees) required frequency (MHz). the correction to be added to the field strength is calculated using: Correction = J (ν′) – J (ν) where J(ν) is given by equation (12a): dB (30a) ν′ = 0. rather than at any particular point. a correction may be made based on a terrain clearance angle. which also represents the height of ground cover surrounding the transmitting/base antenna. The interpretation of such statistics will depend on the size of the area considered. The terrain clearance angle θtca is given by: θtca = θ degrees (30) where θ is the elevation angle of the line from the receiving/mobile antenna which just clears all terrain obstructions in the direction of the transmitter/base antenna over a distance of up to 16 km but not going beyond the transmitting/base antenna.036 f ν = 0. height of the mast) and R is representative of the height of the ground cover surrounding the receiving/mobile antenna as defined in § 9. and the other terminal is moved. (30b) (30c) It should be noted that the land fieldstrength curves take account of losses due to typical shielding of the receiving/mobile antenna by gently rolling terrain.44 10 Rec. It is convenient to classify these influences into three main categories: . Thus the terrain clearance angle corrections are zero at a small positive angle typical of receiving/mobile antenna positions.e. 11 Terrain clearance angle correction For land paths. e. according to the totality of influences affecting it. in a small reception area.3(log( f ))(1 − 0. The correction is given by: Correction = − 3. Figure 28 illustrates the terrain clearance angle correction for the nominal frequencies.
Some texts define it as relating to the variation in excess path loss over the entire service area of a transmitter. and generally.1406. thus including all terrain effects. etc. the scale of these variations will be significantly larger than that for local ground cover variations. In other cases. location variability refers to the spatial statistics of local ground cover variations. being dependent on bandwidth. it relates to the variation in path loss for all points at a given radius from the transmitter.Rec. Path variations: Signal variations will also occur due to changes in the geometry of the entire propagation path e. in addition to more local shadowing. The scale of these variations will normally be significantly larger than that for multipath variations. Location variability has been variously defined.g. over scales of the order of the sizes of such objects. Guidance on the modelling of these effects is given in Recommendation ITUR P.g. reflections from the ground. and over which path variations are insignificant. For all except very short paths. buildings. buildings. modulation and coding scheme. etc. The statistics of these variations are typically found to follow the Rayleigh distribution. Local ground cover variations: Signal variations will occur due to obstruction by ground cover in the local vicinity. ITUR P. This is a useful result over scales substantially larger than the ground cover variations. e.15464 45 Multipath variations: Signal variations will occur over scales of the order of a wavelength due to phasor addition of multipath effects. . it will also be necessary to take multipath effects into account. As location variability is defined to exclude multipath variations. etc. In this Recommendation. In the planning of radio systems. e..g. it is not dependent on system bandwidth. A third definition relates to the variability of field strength over a small area. typically represented by a square with a side of 500 m to 1 km. The impact of these effects will vary with systems. trees. the presence of hills.
Empirical studies have suggested that location variability is increased (with respect to the small area values) by up to 4 dB for a 2 km radius and up to 8 dB for a 50 km radius.2.15464 As the prediction method given in this Recommendation includes an environmentdependent correction for h2 (Annex 5. as a wider variety of terrain and clutter are included. the value of σL will be greater.3 log( f ) dB (32) where: K= 1. and is appropriate for cases where TCA is applied to allow the more accurate determination of local median field strengths. the appropriate value of location variability will be greater. Extensive data analysis suggests that the distribution of median field strength due to ground cover variations over such an area in urban and suburban environments is approximately lognormal. § 9) and allows the use of terraindependant TCA (Annex 5.5. and will generally scale with service area radius. for receivers in rural areas required frequency (MHz). which will be exceeded for q% of locations is given by: E (q ) = E (median ) + Qi (q /100)σ L ( f ) where: Qi (x): σ L: inverse complementary cumulative normal distribution as a function of probability standard deviation of the Gaussian distribution of the local means in the study area. Thus for a land receiving/mobile antenna location the field strength. . multilateral allotment plans) it will generally be necessary to use a definition of “location variability” that includes a degree of multipath fading. for receivers with antennas below clutter height in urban or suburban environments for mobile systems with omnidirectional antennas at carroof height 1.0. This Recommendation is not valid for percentage locations less than 1% or greater than 99%. such planning may also need to consider variability over a greater area than that assumed in this Recommendation. It should be noted that. This will allow for the case of a mobile receiver. The method below estimates the location variability over a small area. E. for some planning purposes (e.46 Rec. or for a rooftop antenna where a number of frequencies are to be received and the antenna cannot be optimally positioned for all. and empirical studies have shown a considerable spread. stationary in a multipath null. The location variability correction is not applied when the receiver/mobile is adjacent to sea. rather than the variation across individual areas. Percentage location q can vary between 1 and 99. for receivers with rooftop antennas near the clutter height 0. Additionally. ITUR P. or if the variability is to relate to all areas at a given range. if the area over which the variability is to apply is greater than 500 m × 500 m. Representative values for areas of 500 m × 500 m are given by the following expression: σ L = K + 1. Where TCA is not applied. dB(μV/m) (31) Values of standard deviation are dependent on frequency and environment. K= K= f: As noted above. § 11) there is a risk of doublecounting of these effects in applying corrections for location variability.g.
analogue Broadcasting.1(− log(0.5 5.5 600 MHz 9. whether or not h1 is negative (degrees) the h2 terminal’s clearance angle in degrees as calculated in § 11. TABLE 2 Values of variability used in certain planning situations Standard deviation (dB) 100 MHz Broadcasting. using: Ets = 24.5 2 000 MHz – 5.4 − 20 log(d ) − 10 θs − L f + 0. Ets. ITUR P. using: θs = where: θeff: θ: d: a: k: 180d + θeff + θ πka degrees (33) the h1 terminal’s terrain clearance angle in degrees calculated using the method in § 4. If θs is less than zero. θs. digital 8.5 13 Correction based on tropospheric scattering There is a possibility that the field strength calculated using the methods given in § 1 to 12 of this Annex is an underestimation.15N 0 + Gt where: Lf : = N0 = Gt: = d: f: t: frequencydependent loss dB(μV/m) (34) 5 log( f ) − 2. radius of the Earth 4/3.5(log( f ) − 3. noting that this is the elevation angle relative to the local horizontal (degrees) path length (km) 6 370 km.Rec. Calculate the path scattering angle in degrees. Nunits.3 case a). typical of temperate climates timedependent enhancement (34a) 10. (34b) . Calculate the field strength predicted for tropospheric scattering. the values given in Table 2 have been found appropriate for the planning of a number of radio services. set θs equal to zero. a correction for tropospheric scattering should be calculated using the following procedure.02t ) )0.3 5.3)2 325.7 path length or required distance (km) required frequency (MHz) required percentage of time. If terrain information is available. median surface refractivity. due to not taking full account of tropospheric scattering.15464 47 In this context. effective Earth radius factor for median refractivity conditions.
The corrections relating to the receiver/mobile remain valid.0 km maximum field strength at a distance of dnf km given by equations (1a) or (1b) maximum field strength at the required distance given by equations (1a) or (1b) maximum field strength at a distance of 0. A default value of dnf = 0.5 if x > 0.99: Qi ( x) = T ( x) − ξ( x) Qi ( x) = −{T (1− x ) − ξ(1− x)} if x ≤ 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.1G /(10 f ) where: G: f: antenna gain (dBi) frequency (MHz).15464 Fieldstrength predictions for distances less than 1 km If this Recommendation is used where values of d less than 1 km may occur and where the of a shortrange propagation model is not practicable and a simple means is required to converge towards freespace field strengths for arbitrarily short distances (recognizing that this is purely a convenience. ITUR P. km (35d) The value of dnf should be limited such that dnf ≤ 0.1 km + E1 km − E0. E. the following procedure can be used. is valid for 0. they should be applied for the actual location of the receiver/mobile. If used. and dnf is an estimate of the nearfield distance of the transmitting/base antenna given by: d nf =100. at a distance less than 1 km using: E = Emax nf E = Emax d dB(μV/m) dB(μV/m) for for d ≤ dnf dnf < d ≤ 0. not at 1 km from the transmitter/base station.1 km < d < 1. Qi (x).1) where: Emax nf : Emax d : E0.01 km is suggested.1 km (35a) (35b) (35c) E0. not a valid propagation model).48 14 Rec.1 km : E1 km : ( ) dB(μV/m) for 0.1 km log(d / 0.1 km.1 km given by equations (1a) or (1b) field strength at a distance of 1 km. 15 An approximation to the inverse complementary cumulative normal distribution function The following approximation to the inverse complementary cumulative normal distribution function.5 (36a) (36b) . Estimate the field strength.
175 1.279 –0.100 0.751 1.125 –0.555 –1.612 0.202 0.125 0.553 –0.881 –2.054 –2.036 0.075 0.495 –0.385 –0.582 0.227 1.802853 C2 = 0.751 –1.878 0.080 1.467 –0.227 –1.025 –0.674 q% 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Qi (q/100) 0.227 0.881 1.582 –0.772 –0.439 –0.439 0.176 0.227 –0.841 –0.151 –0.175 –1.025 0.15464 49 where: T ( x) = ξ( x) = [–2 ln(x)] (36c) (36d) [(C 2 ⋅ T ( x ) + C1 ) ⋅ T ( x ) ]+ C 0 [( D3 ⋅ T ( x ) + D 2 ) ⋅ T ( x ) + D1 ] ⋅ T ( x ) + 1 C0 = 2.080 –1.010328 D1 = 1.176 –0.050 –0.075 –0.643 –0.050 0.495 0.612 –0.674 q% 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Qi (q/100) –0. ITUR P.739 –0.841 0.915 0.358 –0.954 –0.036 –1.341 –1.994 0.054 1.000 q% 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 Qi (q/100) –0.412 0.405 1.331 –0.706 –0.524 0.282 –1.706 0.772 0.126 1.100 –0.202 –0.739 0.643 0.001308 Values given by the above equations are given in Table 3.151 0.385 0.476 –1.476 1.327 .253 –0.405 –1.305 0.467 0.432788 D2 = 0.Rec.954 0.524 –0.645 –1.282 1.341 1.994 –1.878 –0.331 0.126 –1.305 –0.189269 D3 = 0.253 0.358 0.553 0.915 –0.515517 C1 = 0. TABLE 3 Approximate inverse complementary cumulative normal distribution values q% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Qi (q/100) 2.555 1.327 2.412 –0.806 –0.806 0.279 0.645 1.
In the above equations. The stepbystep procedure follows. Table 4 contains a minimal list of input parameters (and their limits) that would serve as the basis for deriving values from the field strength versus distance tables. ITUR P. such that it is not less than 0. also be applied to values obtained from the curves in which case the distance interpolation procedure of Step 8. Annex 6 Procedure for the application of this Recommendation The stepbystep procedure given below is intended to be applied to values derived from the field strength versus distance tables available from the Radiocommunication Bureau.3 − E + 20 log f where: Lb : E: f: 17 dB (37) basic transmission loss (dB) field strength (dB(μV/m)) for 1 kW e. h2 : frequencydependent term D f ⋅ Dh D f + Dh km (38) 0. the resulting values of D06 must be limited. .1. the value of h1 must be limited.6 Fresnel clearance path length The path length which just achieves a clearance of 0. such that it is not less than zero.r.1( h1 + h 2 ) km km (39a) (39b) asymptotic term defined by horizon distances frequency (MHz) antenna heights above smooth Earth (m). frequency (MHz). An approximation to the 0.001 km.15464 Equivalent basic transmission loss When required. Moreover. if necessary.0000389 f h 1h 2 4.50 16 Rec.p. for a given frequency and antenna heights h1 and h2. They may.5 is not needed. is given approximately by: D06 = where: Df : = Dh : = f: h1. however. the basic transmission loss equivalent to a given field strength is given by: Lb = 139. if necessary.6 of the first Fresnel zone over a smooth curved Earth.
the lower and higher nominal frequencies are 100 and 600 MHz. – where the wanted frequency > 600 MHz. respectively. the lower and higher nominal percentages are 10 and 50. § 9 None 0. the lower and higher nominal frequencies are 600 and 2 000 MHz.15464 TABLE 4 List of input parameters and their limits Parameter Units Definition Limits 51 f d p h1 MHz km % m Operating frequency Path length Percentage time. and less than 3 000 m None ha m hb m h2 m Clutter height surrounding transmitter R θtca θeff θeff1 θeff2 m Representative clutter height (around transmitter) m degrees degrees Representative clutter height (around receiver) Terrain clearance angle Transmitter/base effective terrain clearance angles. Limits are defined in Annex 5. Step 2: For any given percentage of time (in the range 1% to 50% time) determine two nominal time percentages as follows: – wanted time percentage > 1 and < 10.2 d and d km. where d is less than 15 km and where terrain information is available Receiving/mobile antenna height above ground. upper limit of 3 000 m Sea – Not less than 1 m. ITUR P. equations (4) to (7) Limits are defined in § 4.5540° Must be positive Step 1: Determine the type of the propagation path as land. § 3. § 10 303 000 MHz 11 000 km 150% Land – No lower limit. §3 Height of base antenna above terrain height averaged 0.1. Step 3: For any wanted frequency (in the range 30 to 3 000 MHz) determine two nominal frequencies as follows: – where the wanted frequency < 600 MHz. Defined by Annex 5. upper limit of 3 000 m Must be greater than local clutter height None – But note this parameter only exists for land paths where d < 15 km Land – Not less than 1 m. § 3. cold sea or warm sea. – wanted time percentage > 10 and < 50. § 8 Transmitting/base antenna height as referenced in curves. If the path is mixed then determine two path types which are regarded as first and second propagation types. this value should be regarded as the lower nominal percentage time and the interpolation process of Step 10 is not required. If the required percentage of time is equal to 1% or 10% or 50%. . respectively.Rec. If the path can be represented by a single type then this is regarded as the first propagation type and the mixedpath method given in Step 11 is not required. Defined in Annex 5. Annex 5. Defined in Annex 1. and less than 3 000 m Sea – Not less than 3 m. respectively. the lower and higher nominal percentages are 1 and 10. respectively. Defined in Annex 1.1 Transmitter antenna height above ground.1.
600 or 1 200 m. If h1 is less than zero.5 and interpolate/extrapolate for h1 using the method given in Annex 5. Step 6: For the lower nominal percentage time follow Steps 7 to 10.2: For a transmitting/base antenna height h1 less than 10 m determine the field strength for the required height and distance using the method given in Annex 5. Step 8. Step 7: For the lower nominal frequency follow Steps 8 and 9. § 2. ITUR P. and transmitting/base antenna height. § 5. 300. .1. this should be regarded as the lower nominal value of h1 and the interpolation process of Step 8.1. repeat Step 8 for the higher nominal frequency and interpolate or extrapolate the two field strengths using the method given in Annex 5. If necessary limit the result to the maximum given in Annex 5. § 8. repeat Step 8. If h1 coincides with one of the nominal values 10. repeat Steps 7 to 9 for the higher nominal percentage time and interpolate the two field strengths using the method given in Annex 5. Step 8. 37.5 is not required. This requires use of Steps 6 to 10 for paths of each propagation type. 20. § 6. above ground for the required distance and transmitting/base antenna height as follows: Step 8. 150.4.1.5.52 Rec. Step 4: Determine the lower and higher nominal distances from Table 1 closest to the required distance. If necessary limit the result to the maximum field strength as given in Annex 5.6 is not required.1.1. Step 8.1.1.1.1 to 8. § 4. Step 10: If the required percentage time does not coincide with the lower nominal percentage time.3 to 8. Step 8: Obtain the field strength exceeded at 50% locations for a receiving/mobile antenna at the height of representative clutter.1. § 7. h1.1.4 for the higher nominal distance and interpolate the two field strengths for distance using the method given in Annex 5. § 4.6: Step 8. Step 8.5. repeat Steps 8.6: If the required transmitting/base antenna height.15464 If the wanted frequency equals 100 or 600 or 2 000 MHz.1.1: Determine the lower and higher nominal h1 values using the method given in Annex 5. R. Step 9: If the required frequency does not coincide with the lower nominal frequency. Step 11: If the prediction is for a mixed path. d. all sea sections should be classified as warm sea. If the required distance coincides with a value in Table 1.2: For the lower nominal value of h1 follow Steps 8. follow the stepbystep procedure given in Annex 5. Step 5: For the first propagation type follow Steps 6 to 11.4: Obtain the field strength exceeded at 50% locations for a receiving/mobile antenna at the height of representative clutter. Note that if different sections of the path exist classified as both cold and warm sea. § 2. Step 8.1. § 4.1.3: For the lower nominal value of distance follow Step 8.3 to 8. h1.1. for the required values of distance.1.1. the method given in Annex 5. Step 8.1. this should be regarded as the lower nominal distance and the interpolation process of Step 8.1. § 4. 75.2.5: If the required distance does not coincide with the lower nominal distance. R. this value should be regarded as the lower nominal frequency and the interpolation/extrapolation process of Step 9 is not required.3 should also be used. does not coincide with one of the nominal values.1: For a transmitting/base antenna height h1 equal to or greater than 10 m follow Steps 8.
§ 11.453 data files give refractivity gradients in Nunits/km in the lowest 65 m of the atmosphere as negative values. Step 18: If required. be so accurately predicted. adjust the final predicted field strength accordingly. § 2. reduce the field strength by adding the correction for short urban/suburban paths using the method given in Annex 5. 3 and 4 are based on measurements in temperate climates. Step 16: If the field strength at a receiving/mobile antenna adjacent to land exceeded at percentage locations other than 50% is required. Step 15: If applicable. § 12. Field strengths in regions of the world where the vertical atmospheric refractivity gradient is significantly different will not. Step 14: Correct the field strength for receiving/mobile antenna height h2 using the method given in Annex 5. § 2 the total sea distance (km) the total path distance (km). 3 and 4 for use anywhere in the world. and.3 For fields exceeded for 10% time: dN0 = – 141.3 Nunits/km Nunits/km Nunits/km (41a) (41b) (41c) . If a mixed path calculation has been made for a percentage time less than 50% it will be necessary to calculate the maximum field strength by linear interpolation between the allland and allsea values. The following method may be used to apply vertical refractivity gradient information from Recommendation ITUR P. correct the field strength for the required percentage of locations using the method given in Annex 5. correct the field strength for terrain clearance angle at the receiver/mobile using the method given in Annex 5. This is given by: Emax = E fs + d s Ese / d total where: Efs : Ese : ds : dtotal : dB(μV/m) (40) freespace field strength given by equation (2) in Annex 5. § 16. limit the resulting field strength to the maximum given in Annex 5.453 to correct the curves in Annexes 2. § 9. For the purpose of this adjustment the curves in Annexes 2. 3 and 4 are considered to represent reference values of gradient dN0 given by: For fields exceeded for 50% time: dN0 = – 43. The Recommendation ITUR P. convert field strength to equivalent basic transmission loss for the path using the method given in Annex 5.Rec. § 2 enhancement at small time percentages for a sea path given by equation (3) in Annex 5. § 10. ITUR P. Step 13: Calculate the estimated field strength due to tropospheric scattering using the method given in Annex 5 § 13.15464 53 Step 12: If information on the terrain clearance angle at a receiving/mobile antenna adjacent to land is available. Step 17: If necessary.9 For fields exceeded for 1% time: dN0 = – 301. Annex 7 Adjustment for different climatic regions The curves given in Annexes 2. in general. if necessary.
that is for h1 = 10 m.TXT. reference gradient for the percentage time of the curve to be adjusted given by equations (40).693 × 10−6 (1 494 − ΔN )2 ΔN > 0 ΔN ≤ 0 (44a) (44b) = 0. (42) dN0 : For any distance.94 − 6. Adjust field strengths for other values of h1 such that they occupy the same proportional position between the maximum and h1 = 10 m field strength as the corresponding field strength in the unadjusted curves. 10% and 1% time. calculate the difference in gradient ΔN given by: ΔN = dN 0 − dN where: dN : gradient exceeded for the time percentage of the curves to be adjusted obtained from the Recommendation ITUR P.08 ΔN For the lowest curve in the family to be adjusted.3 − dN ){ − exp( −d / 50)}exp( −d / 6 000) 1 dB (43) Note that no change is made to maximum field strengths if dN is greater than or equal to –301.453 data files DNDZ_50. add an adjustment to the maximum field strength given by: δEmax = 0.007( −301.3. given by: δE1 = K { − exp( − d / 50 )}exp( − d / 6 000 ) 1 dB (45) If necessary.15464 To adjust a family of fieldstrength curves for a different radioclimatic region of the world. δE1. Note that this condition must not be applied when ΔN is less than zero.54 Rec. DNDZ_10. If ΔN is greater than zero. add an adjustment. the value of δE1 must be limited as follows: − − δE1 must be limited such that the adjusted field strength does not exceed the adjusted maximum field strength. δE1 must be limited such that the difference between the adjusted maximum and h1 = 10 m field strengths is not greater than it is in the unadjusted curves. ITUR P.TXT. DNDZ_01.3. Calculate the scaling factor K given by: K = 14. if dN is less than –301.TXT for 50%. using: ′ ′ ′ ′ En = E1 + (En − E1 )(Emax − E1 ) / (Emax − E1 ) where: E1 : En : Emax : field strength for h1 = 10 m field strength for h1 values greater than 10 m maximum field strength (46) . d (km). respectively.
9 − 6. R = 15.00107 H1 ) (log [0.8) b = 1 for d ≤ 20 km ′ b = 1 + (0.Rec.16 log f + 13.82 log H1 + a ( H 2 ) − (44.56 log f − 0.14 + 0. h2 = H2 = 1.r.5 m.05 d])0.p.000007 H1 for d > 20 km This Recommendation produces similar results to the OkumuraHata method for distances up to 10 km.000187 f + 0.15464 55 and primes indicate adjusted values.82 − 6.7) H2 − (1.1 log f − 0. frequency (MHz) (47) base station effective antenna height above ground (m) in the range 30 to 200 m mobile station antenna height above ground (m) in the range 1 to 10 m distance (km) a(H2) = (1.8 where: 2 ′ H1 = H1 / 1 + 0.55 log H1 )(log d )b where: E: f: H1 : H2 : d: field strength (dB(μV/m)) for 1 kW e. Annex 8 Comparison with the OkumuraHata method The OkumuraHata method is given by: E = 69. . ITUR P.