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"Science is the study of the world as it is. Engineering is the creation of the world tomorrow". Science is basically "passive" observation of the universe, as it exists to generate knowledge. Engineering is making use of that knowledge to meet human needs by creating machine, systems, process and technologies that have not previously existed. Design and manufacturing are the synthetic part of engineering practice. Manufacturer has received a lot of attention recently for very good economic reasons. Due to literacy awareness the number of colleges, schools and institutions are rapidly increasing. In present system bells for periods or recess are operated manually. After every class, one employee is engaged into alarming bell. To avoid this, automisation of college bell is possible so the bell would ring automatically at the scheduled time. This project deals with the preparation of circuit for scheduling of bell.
Government Polytechnic, Amravati
Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller
This Project takes over the task of ringing of the bell in colleges. It replaces the Manual Switching of the Bell in the College. It has an Inbuilt Real Time Clock (PCF 8583) which track over the Real Time. When this time equals to the bell ringing time, then the relay for the bell is switched ONN. The Bell Ringing time can be edited at any Time, so that it can be used at Normal Class Timings as well as Exam Times. The Real Time Clock is displayed on four 7-segment display. The Microcontroller PIC16F877A is used to control all the Functions, it get the time through the keypad and store it in its Memory. And when the Real time and Bell time get equal then the Bell is switched on for a predetermined time.
Government Polytechnic, Amravati
Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller
An electric bell is a mechanical bell that functions by means of an electromagnet. Principle
In DC electric bells, when power is applied, current flows through the coil. The coil becomes an electromagnet, attracting the metal strip. This moves the clanger to hit the bell/gong, but also breaks the circuit. The coil is no longer a magnet, so the clanger moves back. The circuit is thus restored. The process repeats continuously until the power is removed. Government Polytechnic, Amravati 3
Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller AC electric bells do not have interrupting contacts and their coils are powered directly by the source. Their hammers vibrate at same frequency as the frequency of voltage that they are powered by. Lack of contacts makes them more reliable than DC bells. Some electric bells have two cups which generate different tones. When the hammer goes in one direction, it hits one cup, when it moves back, it hits another cup. The sound of such two-tone electric bells is more pleasant.
Applications Two early applications of the electric bell were the telephone and doorbell. Early telephones used electric bells to indicate that there was an incoming call. Doorbells were used by visitors to indicate their presence at the external door of a dwelling or business. Though still in use, the electric bell mechanisms in both telephones and doorbells now compete with nonmechanical noisemaking technologies including electronic oscillators and digitally recorded sounds played back through a speaker. A common style of doorbell uses an AC solenoid coil and a plunger. When the doorbell button is depressed, the plunger is drawn into the solenoid and strikes a gong; a shading coil on the solenoid prevents the Government Polytechnic, Amravati 4
Amravati 5 . giving a two-tone sound.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller plunger from vibrating at the same frequency as the power supply. When the button is released. A variant has a second solenoid which is wired to the back door and only strikes one gong. a spring retracts the plunger which then strikes a second gong. allowing front or rear door callers to be identified. Government Polytechnic.
Amravati 6 . 1K Government Polytechnic.876 Keypad Voltage regulator 7805 Transformer 09 750mA Capacitor 1000mf.2K.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller COMPONENT LIST & DESCRIPTION Component List Microcontroller PIC 16F877A Real Time Clock (RTC) PCF 8583 Transistor BC547 Relay 12v LCD Crystal 32. 25v LED Resistor 2.
which may be obtained from your local Microchip Sales Representative or Government Polytechnic.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Microcontroller PIC 16F877A PIC16F873A/876A devices are available only in 28-pin packages. Block diagrams of the PIC16F873A/876A and PIC16F874A/877A devices are provided in Figure 1-1 and Figure 1-2. All devices in the PIC16F87XA family share common architecture with the following differences: • The PIC16F873A and PIC16F874A have one-half of the total on-chip memory of the PIC16F876A and PIC16F877A • The 28-pin devices have three I/O ports. while the 40/44-pin devices have eight • The Parallel Slave Port is implemented only on the 40/44-pin devices The available features are summarized in Table 1-1. Additional information may be found in the PICmicro Mid-Range Reference Manual (DS33023). The pinouts for these device families are listed in Table 1-2 and Table 1-3. while the 40/44-pin devices have fifteen • The 28-pin devices have five A/D input channels. while the 40/44-pin devices have five • The 28-pin devices have fourteen interrupts. Amravati 7 . while PIC16F874A/877A devices are available in 40-pin and 44-pin packages. respectively.
PWM modules .Compare is 16-bit. can be incremented during Sleep via external crystal/clock • Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register. max.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller downloaded from the Microchip web site. max. resolution is 200 ns . Peripheral Features: • • Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler. Compare.PWM max.5 ns . Amravati 8 .Capture is 16-bit. The Reference Manual should be considered a complementary document to this data sheet and is highly recommended reading for a better understanding of the device architecture and operation of the peripheral modules. prescaler and postscaler • Two Capture. resolution is 12. resolution is 10-bit Government Polytechnic.
Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller • Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI™ (Master mode) and I C™(Master/Slave) • Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART/SCI) with 9-bit address detection • Parallel Slave Port (PSP) – 8 bits wide with external RD. WR and CS controls (40/44-pin only) • Brown-out detection circuitry for Brown-out Reset (BOR) Government Polytechnic. Amravati 9 .
Amravati 10 .Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Block Diagram Government Polytechnic.
Amravati 11 .Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Pin Diagram Government Polytechnic.
5 V to 6 V • Clock operating supply voltage (0 to +70 °C): 1. The built-in word address register is incremented automatically after each written or read data byte. FEATURES • I2C-bus interface operating supply voltage: 2.0 V to 6 V Government Polytechnic. allowing the connection of two devices to the bus without additional hardware. Address pin A0 is used for programming the hardware address. Amravati 12 .768 kHz oscillator circuit and the first 8 bytes of the RAM are used for the clock/calendar and counter functions.0 V to 6. The built-in 32. The next 8 bytes may be programmed as alarm registers or used as free RAM space. The remaining 240 bytes are free RAM locations.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller RTC PCF 8583 GENERAL DESCRIPTION The PCF8583 is a clock/calendar circuit based on a 2048-bit static CMOS RAM organized as 256 words by 8 bits. Addresses and data are transferred serially via the two-line bidirectional I2C-bus.0 V • 240 × 8-bit low-voltage RAM • Data retention voltage: 1.
timer and interrupt function • Slave address: – READ: A1 or A3 – WRITE: A0 or A2. Government Polytechnic. Amravati 13 . 50 µA • Clock function with four year calendar • Universal timer with alarm and overflow indication • 24 or 12 hour format • 32.768 kHz or 50 Hz time base • Serial input/output bus (I2C) • Automatic word address incrementing • Programmable alarm.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller • Operating current (at fSCL = 0 Hz): max.
Amravati 14 . a serial two-line bidirectional I2C-bus interface and a power-on reset circuit. The first 16 bytes of the RAM (memory addresses 00 Government Polytechnic.768 kHz oscillator circuit. an on-chip 32.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Block Diagram FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION The PCF8583 contains a 256 by 8-bit RAM with an 8-bit autoincrement address register. a frequency divider.
date. Government Polytechnic. other counters are not affected. The event counter stores up to 6 digits of data. The memory addresses 01 to 07 are used as counters for the clock function. The event counter mode is used to count pulses applied to the oscillator input (OSCO left open-circuit). a 32. The memory addresses 08 to 0F may be programmed as alarm registers or used as free RAM locations. When a counter is written. Counter function modes When the control/status register is programmed.768 kHz clock mode. faulty reading of the count during a carry condition is prevented. a 50 Hz clock mode or an event-counter mode can be selected. when the alarm is disabled. Amravati 15 . The timer register stores up to 99 days. When one of the counters is read (memory locations 01 to 07). the contents of all counters are strobed into capture latches at the beginning of a read cycle. Therefore.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller to 0F) are designed as addressable 8-bit parallel special function registers. In the clock modes the hundredths of a second. hours. minutes. month (four year calendar) and weekday are stored in a BCD format. The first register (memory address 00) is used as a control/status register. seconds.
Days are counted when an alarm is not programmed. When the alarm is disabled (Bit 2 of control/status register = 0) the alarm registers at addresses 08 to 0F may be used as free RAM. the timer register (address 07) may be programmed to count hundredths of a second. minutes. a daily alarm. seconds.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Alarm function modes By setting the alarm enable bit of the control/status register the alarm control register (address 08) is activated. Control/status register The control/status register is defined as the memory location 00 with free access for reading and writing via the I2C-bus. By setting the alarm control register a dated alarm. A timer alarm event will set the alarm flag and an overflow condition of the timer will set the timer flag. All functions and options are controlled by the contents of the control/status register. The open drain interrupt output is switched on (active LOW) when the alarm or timer flag is set (enabled). Amravati 16 . Government Polytechnic. Whenever an alarm event occurs the alarm flag of the control/status register is set. In the clock modes. hours or days. a weekday alarm or a timer alarm may be programmed. The flags remain set until directly reset by a write operation.
Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Pinning Government Polytechnic. Amravati 17 .
Government Polytechnic. The LM7805 series is available in an aluminum TO-3 package which will allow over 10A load current if adequate heat sinking is provided Current limiting is included to limit the peak output current to a safe value Safe area protection for the output transistor is provided to limit internal power dissipation If internal power dissipation becomes too high for the heat sinking provided the thermal shutdown circuit takes over preventing the IC from overheating.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Voltage Regulator 7805 General Description The LM7805 series of three terminal regulators is available with several fixed output voltages making them useful in a wide range of applications One of these is local on card regulation eliminating the distribution problems associated with single point regulation The voltages available allow these regulators to be used in logic systems instrumentation HiFi and other solid state electronic equipment Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents. Amravati 18 .
Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Considerable effort was expanded to make the LM7805 series of regulators easy to use and mininize the number of external components It is not necessary to bypass the output although this does improve transient response Input bypassing is needed only if the regulator is located far from the filter capacitor of the power supply For output voltage other than 5V. 12V and 15V the LM117 series provides an output voltage range from 12V-57V. Features Output current in excess of 1A Internal thermal overload protection No external components required Output transistor safe area protection Internal short circuit current limit Available in the aluminum TO-3 package Government Polytechnic. Amravati 19 .
In an ideal transformer. Amravati 20 . This effect is called mutual induction. by making it less. the induced voltage in the secondary winding (VS) is a fraction of the primary voltage (VP) and is given by the ratio of the number of secondary turns to the number of primary turns: By appropriate selection of the numbers of turns. 750mA A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled electrical conductors.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Transformer 09. a transformer thus allows an alternating voltage to be stepped up — by making NS more than NP — or stepped down. This changing magnetic field induces a changing voltage in the second circuit (the secondary). electric charge will flow in the secondary winding of the transformer and transfer energy from the primary circuit to the load. If a load is connected to the secondary circuit. Government Polytechnic. A changing current in the first circuit (the primary) creates a changing magnetic field.
transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed for household ("mains") voltage. Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission. 1K A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component designed to oppose an electric current by producing a voltage drop between its terminals in proportion to the current. in accordance with Ohm's law: V = IR.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of national power grids. While new technologies have eliminated the need for transformers in some electronic circuits. Other characteristics include temperature Government Polytechnic. The primary characteristics of resistors are their resistance and the power they can dissipate. Resistors 2. The resistance R is equal to the voltage drop V across the resistor divided by the current I through the resistor. although the range of designs is wide.2K. that is. All operate with the same basic principles. Amravati 21 . which makes long distance transmission economically practical.
Practical resistors can be made of resistive wire. resistors must be physically large enough not to overheat when dissipating their power. and articles. most of which have names. the resistance of photoresistors varies with illumination. the resistance of a Quantum Tunnelling Composite can vary by a factor of 1012 with mechanical pressure applied. and they can be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits. are also used. Size. Amravati 22 . making them suitable for over-voltage protection. Government Polytechnic. Resistors are used as part of electrical networks and electronic circuits. the resistance of a strain gauge varies with mechanical load. metal oxide varistors drop to a very low resistance when a high voltage is applied. noise.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller coefficient. adjustable by changing the position of a tapping on the resistive element. There are special types of resistor whose resistance varies with various quantities. of their own: the resistance of thermistors varies greatly with temperature. and position of leads are relevant to equipment designers. either adjustable by the user of equipment or contained within. and inductance. so they can be used for temperature or current sensing. whether external or due to dissipation. and so on. and resistors with a movable tap ("potentiometers"). Variable resistors. and various compounds and films.
telephone. A transistor is made of a solid piece of a semiconductor material. with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. Because the controlled (output) power can be much larger than the controlling (input) power. and is used in radio. a transistor is a semiconductor device commonly used to amplify or switch electronic signals. Government Polytechnic. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. computer and other electronic systems. the transistor provides amplification of a signal. Some transistors are packaged individually but most are found in integrated circuits. Amravati 23 . A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Transistor BC 547 In electronics.
this is called an "amplifier". This property is called "gain". where the amount of current is determined by other circuit elements. collector and emitter. Or. A transistor can control its output in proportion to the input signal. A bipolar transistor has terminals labelled base. Amravati 24 . The two types of transistors have slight differences in how they are used in a circuit. A small current at base terminal can control or switch a much Government Polytechnic. the transistor can be used to turn current on or off in a circuit like an electrically controlled "switch".Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller How transistor works? The essential usefulness of a transistor comes from its ability to use a small signal applied between one pair of its terminals to control a much larger signal at another pair of terminals.
and is referred to as Vbe. and a voltage at the gate can control a current between source and drain. to resonate with a signal. This field can be used to store energy. and drain. an electric field occurs in the dielectric. source.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller larger current between collector and emitter terminals. Charge will flow between emitter and collector terminals depending on the current in the base. The image to the right represents a typical bipolar transistor in a circuit. The size of this voltage depends on the material the transistor is made from. Since internally the base and emitter connections behave like a semiconductor diode. When a voltage potential difference occurs between the conductors. but any two conductors linked by an electric field also Government Polytechnic. the terminals are labelled gate. For a field-effect transistor. Amravati 25 . 25v A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric. Capacitors are manufactured as electronic components for use in electrical circuits. a voltage drop develops between base and emitter while the base current exists. or to link electrical and mechanical forces. Capacitor 1000mf.
The capacitor has become ubiquitous within electronic and electrical systems. This is defined as the ratio of the amount of electric charge in each conductor to the potential difference between them. The unit of capacitance is thus coulombs per volt. The properties of capacitors in a circuit may determine the resonant frequency and quality factor of a resonant circuit. and the dielectric has an electric field strength limit resulting in a breakdown voltage. power dissipation and operating frequency in a digital logic circuit. Amravati 26 . capacitance. Government Polytechnic. parallel. The conductors add an additional series resistance (specifically called equivalent series resistance). In practice. narrowly separated conductors. flat. or farads.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller display the fundamental property of capacitance. The effect is greatest between wide. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value. Higher capacitance indicates that more charge may be stored at a given voltage. and many other important aspects. the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current. energy capacity in a highpower system.
The capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits. An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C. In this case. and the dielectric contains an electric field. capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes: Government Polytechnic. The non-conductive substance is called the dielectric medium.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Theory of operation A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region. although this may also mean a vacuum or a semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the conductors. A capacitor is assumed to be selfcontained and isolated. causing the capacitance to vary. defined as the ratio of charge ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them: Sometimes charge buildup affects the mechanics of the capacitor. with no net electric charge and no influence from an external electric field. Amravati 27 . The conductors thus contain equal and opposite charges on their facing surfaces.
Crystals are often symmetrically intergrown to form crystal twins. Using this type of crystal is slightly different comparing Government Polytechnic. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is crystallography. which had the same meaning. such as ice. Crystal 32. but according to the ancient understanding of crystal.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller In SI units. At root it means anything congealed by freezing. or "rock crystal". a capacitance of one farad means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt across the device. Amravati 28 . The word crystal is derived from the ancient Greek word (krustallos). For cost reason using an overtone crystal is 5 to 6 times cheaper than a fundamental one.876 A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituent atoms. The word once referred particularly to quartz. Most metals encountered in everyday life are polycrystals. molecules. or ions are arranged in an orderly repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions.
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) 16 x 2 A liquid crystal display (LCD) is an electronically-modulated optical device shaped into a thin. The frequency of an overtone crystal is adjusted on the fundamental one and this one must be trapped by a LC pass–band filter.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller to a fundamental one . Amravati 29 . flat panel made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light Government Polytechnic. The typical schematic is shown below.
• In corporation of a refreshing controller into the LCD. parallel ASCII data bus necessary features such as character generation Display RAM addressing.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller source (backlight) or reflector. • The ability to display numbers. cursor scrolling Blanking. This is in contrast to LEDs. and Handshake are call included user programmable fonts are supported summary Government Polytechnic. LCD better known as alpha-numeric modules. numbers. Amravati 30 . Interface is achieved via a bidirectional. It is often utilized in battery-powered electronic devices because it uses very small amounts of electric power. In recent years LCD is finding wide spread use replacing 7 segment LEDs or other multisegment LEDs. display characters. symbols and some limited graphics. graphics. • Ease of programming for characters and graphics. characters. A comprehensive classification of the various types and electro-optical modes of LCDs is provided in the article LCD classification. This is due to following reasons: • The declining process of LCDs. In contrast the LED must be refreshed by the CPU to keep displaying the data. Which are limited to numbers and a few characters. thereby relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing LCD.
Amravati 31 . VLSS –0V Interfacing of LCD Government Polytechnic.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Pin no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Symbol Vss Vcc Vo RS Riw E Dbo Db1 Db2 Db3 Db4 Db5 Db6 Db7 VLED VLSS Description Ground potential Power supply for logic LCD (+) Constant adjustment Resistor select pin Read write Enable pin Code I/O data LSB Code I/O data 2nd bit Code I/O data 3rd bit Code I/O data 4th bit Code I/O data 5th bit Code I/O data 6th bit Code I/O data 7th bit Code I/O data MSB Power supply for LED backlight VLED –5V.
but modern LEDs are available across the visible. smaller size and faster switching. The LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2) with integrated optical components to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection. they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources. Government Polytechnic.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller LED A light-emitting diode (LED) is an electronic light source. All early devices emitted low-intensity red light. LEDs are based on the semiconductor diode. improved robustness. longer lifetime. LEDs present many advantages over traditional light sources including lower energy consumption. electrons are able to recombine with holes and energy is released in the form of light. However. and introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962. The LED was discovered in the early 20th century. with very high brightness. When the diode is forward biased (switched on). ultraviolet and infra red wavelengths. Amravati 32 . This effect is called electrolumine scence and the color of the light is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor.
The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed. They are used as low-energy replacements for traditional light sources in well-established applications such as indicators and automotive lighting. Government Polytechnic. Amravati 33 . while their high switching rates are useful in communications technology.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Applications of LEDs are diverse.
fifth from the left) is the most common. estimated at 80% of world production. Amravati 34 . The color of the plastic lens is often the same as the actual color of light emitted. Government Polytechnic. For instance. but not always. purple plastic is often used for infrared LEDs. The 5 mm cylindrical package (red. There are also LEDs in SMT packages. and most blue devices have clear housings. such as those found on blinkies and on cell phone keypads.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Construction of LED Types of LEDs LEDs are produced in an array of shapes and sizes.
5K 2 2 D3 D4 LED LED J2 PC_RXD PC_TXD 1 2 3 CON3 10 RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/VREFRA3/AN3/VREF+ RA4/TOCK1 RA5/AN4/SS RE0/AN5/RD RE1/AN6/WR RE2/AN7/CS 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CON12 1 2 3 J7 T1OS0/T1CK1/RC0 T1OS1/CCP2/RC1 CCP1/RC2 SCK/SCL/RC3 SDL/SDA/RC4 SD0/RC5 TX/CK/RC6 RX/DT/RC7 TXD RXD CONT VCC CON3 INT/RB0 VCC 2 R6 2 10K PC_RXD 1 R9 10K 2 D5 1N4148 C6 VCC 2 R7 100uF R10 10K 10K 1 10K 1 1 2 2 R8 Q1 BC547 RXD 1 12 31 1 TXD C3 33pF 1 4MHz 13 X1 2 C4 33pF 14 OSC2/CLKOUT GND GND OSC1/CLKIN PGM/RB3 PGCLK/RB6 PGDA/RB7 RB1 RB2 RB4 RB5 Q2 BC557 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 PC_TXD Government Polytechnic.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller CIRCUIT DIAGRAM & WORKING VCC U1 LM7805C/TO220 +12vu R1 4. Amravati 35 .5K LCD_14 LCD_13 LCD_12 LCD_11 E J5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 VCC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CON10 J4 CON8 VCC RS CONT R5 15E J6 2 12 11 10 11 32 VCC + C2 VCC 1.7k 1 + C1 470uF/16V D2 LED 2 1 IN GND OUT 3 +12vu 2 D1 + BRIDGE 3 1 J1 1 2 3 4 CON4 4 So1 2 VCC 1 R2 100E 2 So1 VCC TEMP 1 2 3 CON3 1uF J3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 CON12 PIC16F877 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 U2 So1 VCC +VE MCLR_ +VE 1 2 RRST 1k 1 1 PSP0/RD0 PSP1/RD1 PSP2/RD2 PSP3/RD3 PSP4/RD4 PSP5/RD5 PSP6/RD6 PSP7/RD7 19 20 21 22 27 28 29 30 15 16 17 18 23 24 25 26 LCD_11 LCD_12 LCD_13 LCD_14 E R3 RS 1 1 R4 1.
year. sec. min. Government Polytechnic. When we schedule the alarm register. And then scheduling register is used for schedule. This interruption is read by the microcontroller and according to process schedule the bell is ring. Hrs. In this RTC there are several registers (eg. Amravati 36 . it equals with the main register and if it equals the interrupt is generated. month).Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller WORKING The main working of the project is based on real time clock ie PCF 8583. In start we edit the actual time in the RTC register. The alarm register is same as this register. Interfacing of microcontroller chip with this RTC is done by IIC protocols. The start and stop conditions of PCF 8583 is shown below For the initialization of RTC. send the control word to the RTC bit by bit serially. In this protocol there are only two lines connected to the microcontroller ie SCL (Serial Clock) and SDA (Serial Data). day.
But the microcontroller works on hex and LCD works on ASCII so giving data should be in hex to ASCII conversion form. second is for Vcc. Firstly. scheduling and actual time displaying. Particular subroutine is called according to the pin which goes low. First pin is used for ground. Sixth pin is used for enabling data/command. Pin 7-14 is used for data/command bus. The second command is cursor movement ie left to right/right to left according the our application. This LCD have 16 pins. If RS bit is in high condition then LCD treat as data and if RS bit is low LCD treat it as a command byte. Keyboard is used for editing the time which is directly connected with microcontroller port pins. Next command should be sent for location selection in which we can display the data to that location. so we have connected fifth pin directly to ground. Government Polytechnic. Fifth is for read/write bar. Third is used for contrast control. Forth is for RS bit. to interface to the LCD the first command of ‘CLEAR DISPLAY’ should be sent by microcotroller for clearing the display. 15 and 16 pin is used for back LED. Amravati 37 .Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller LCD 16x2 is used for editing time.
microcontroller.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller For ONN/OFF the AC bell. For this we have used step down transformer but output of the transformer is AC so we use bridge for DC source and capacitor for filter. Government Polytechnic. Relay requires 12v. the relay becomes OFF to stop the bell. Amravati 38 . LCD. When pin of microntroller gets low. The driving capability of the microcontroller and voltages is less than 12v relay so we use the transistor for the driving of relay. When the microcontroller pin gets high the relay becomes ONN and bell starts ringing. 7805 is used for 5v regulator. the relay is used. The power supply of the whole circuit is 5v and 12v for relay. PCF 8583 requires 5v which is supplied by voltage regulator 7805.
Government Polytechnic. For preparing the PCB layout. We can not use readymade PCB for our project. Also the track of the PCB. the general method that should be carried out is as follows. Making such precise PCB is easy. Amravati 39 . To make the PCB with professional touch. The performance of an electronic circuit depends upon the layout and design of PCB. we used the PCB layout manufacturing by the Vega company with a help of computerized equipment. soldering points and components mounting should be very correct and that will be of great help to success the project. Also high package density of components can produce stray which should be avoided by proper circuit designing and components should be spread in such a way that two-component produce minimum stray. The trackside of the PCB is shown in figure. The PCB design of the circuit operation should be very precise to work it properly. The soldered point should be small enough so that any stray between these points should not exist.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller PCB DESIGN INTRODUCTION Printed circuit board is a piece of art.
Besides the components outlines.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller LAYOUT PLANNING: The layout of the PCB has to incorporate all information on the board. which is called layout sketch. Accordingly the size of the artwork will be equal to four times or sixteen times of that actual PCB. before one can proceed further for the artwork preparation. components holes and interconnection line (patterns) the layout should also include the information on. Government Polytechnic. LAYOUT SKETCH: The end produced of the layout design is the pencil sketched component and conductor driving. LAYOUT SCALE: Depending upon the accuracy required artwork produced should be at 1:1 or 2:1 scale. • Diameter of component hole. It contains all relevant information for preparation of artwork. • Minimum spacing between the conduction lines that must produced. This planning procedure depends on many factors. The layout is best prepared on the same scale as artwork. IC transistor pads. Amravati 40 .
Amravati 41 .Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller Bottom Layer Top Layer Government Polytechnic.
Amravati 42 . SOLDERING AND SOLDERING TECHNIQUE There are basically two types of soldering techniques: Manual soldering with iron. Using red and blue transparent tapes. It is necessary to use molten metal known as solder.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller ARTWORK: Preparation of artwork is considered as first step in preparation of PCB. Using block tapes and sticking patterns. The artwork is then converted to photonegative of proper size. Mass soldering. A polyester foil and tracing paper may be used. SOLDERING: Soldering is a process used for jointing metal parts. Government Polytechnic. Basic methods of preparing artwork are: Ink the drawing. Following steps are included while designing the artwork.
keep plate in open to dry. keeping the glass epoxy side on rub away the dirt. check the drawing carefully. Government Polytechnic. grease and oxide wish a sand paper. Amravati 43 . relative positioning of the surfaces to be joined.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller During soldering. Since the tracing paper is transparent you can now reproduce carbon print over the PCB. excess paint should be scratched off wish of a blade. After tracing the PCB layout now paint the tracks wish the help of oil paint and brush. The various types of soldering are Mass soldering: Dip soldering: Wave soldering: PRINTING OF PCB The drawing so prepared has to imposed over the glass epoxy. After the paint on a copper side has dried. Now keep carban paper of the same size on PCB taking glass epoxy surface on the top carban paper. Take a PCB terminated sheet and cut the of required size of PCB by using hacksaw place the glass epoxy plate sheet on a table. wetting of this surface with molten solder and cooling time for solidification is important.
Now the next process is soldering. DRILLING. Drill the board by using hand drill or machine drill. remove the paint with a soft piece of cloth or cotton. After the etching process drilling is done for mounting the components. Take out the PCB from the solution only when the unmarked portion of copper is completely dissolved in this solution wash the PCB wish water. Immerse/dip the PCB in this solution keep the PCB in this solution for about 40-50 min. MOUNTING AND SOLDERING.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller ETCHING OF PCB In a tray. After washing PCB.2FeC13+2Cu=2CuC12+Fe2Cl Observe the changing color of copper surface. Amravati 44 . In this process. For this tussible Government Polytechnic. Before inserting the leads of the components are placed on the irrespective position (according to the circuit Diagram) this process is called as component mounting. Reaction . take water and mix a few tea spoons of ferric chloride powder and few drop of HCL. the leads of components are joined/ soldered with the copper tracks of PCB. Now the plate is what we call it as printed circuit board.
Amravati 45 . soldering gun is used. Government Polytechnic. It gives mechanically strong point for soldering the components. Flux is used as an inorganic solvent.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller alloy metal which is known as 'SOLDERING WIRE1 is required soft solder has 37% of lead and 63 % of zinc and is used because of its excellent drying action. Its melting point is very low.
Amravati 46 . Easy to install.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller ADVANTAGES 1) 2) Automatic scheduling of college bell is possible The components used for the assembling of this circuit are very cheap and are easily available in the market. institutions etc. 3) 4) 5) 6) Compact in size so takes less space. Hence the initial cost of setting up the circuit is minimal. Government Polytechnic. schools. Time editable facility is available. This project is much suitable college.
The main disadvantage of this is one person is to be keep alert for this. At the same time during that time he could not be engage in another task. We can say that it will be much useful for colleges or schools or other educational institutions. The time input can be edited as per requirements. This circuit is simple to prepare and easy to install. Amravati 47 . To overcome from this.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller CONCLUSION Present day manual operation for ringing the bell in colleges or schools are carried out. we have decided to prepare the circuit which will be operated automatically and the ringing of bell will start by its own time. Government Polytechnic.
K.com www. “Design with Microcontroller”. Mc Graw Hill.datasheet4u. V. 3. Intel Inc.org www. Joan B.google.com www. Amravati 48 . “Intel’s MCS 51 Data Book ”.crutchfield. Peatman.Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller REFERENCES Books: 1. 2.sciencetoday.wikipedia.com Government Polytechnic. Mehta & Rohit Mehta “Principle of Electronics” Websites: www.com www.
......... 7................. 9.......Scheduling of College Bell using Microcontroller CONTENTS 1..................................................1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Circuit Diagram & WORKING............................. ABSTRACT........................................36 ADVANTAGES............................................. 8.................................. Amravati 49 .............................................................................................................. 10.............................................. 5.............................................. 3... 6....2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................... 2.......48 CONTENTS............................................................46 CONCLUSION...........................47 REFERENCES........................................................................................................................................................................ 4............35 WORKING.................................................49 Government Polytechnic........................3 COMPONENT LIST & DESCRIPTION ........................
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