This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
liberal than a country's typical economic laws. An SEZs is a trade capacity development tool, with the goal to promote rapid economic growth by using tax and business incentives to attract foreign investment and technology. Today, there are approximately 3,000 SEZs operating in 120 countries, which account for over US$ 600 billion in exports and about 50 million jobs. By offering privileged terms, SEZs attract investment and foreign exchange, spur employment and boost the development of improved technologies and infrastructure.
SEZs (Special economic
EVOLUTION-FROM EPZs TO SEZs
The first EPZ in India was set up in Kandla, Gujarat in 1965. The Santacruz EPZ in Mumbai came into operation in 1973. However, the EPZ policy was deficient by several factors like limited power of zonal authorities,absence of single window facility, rigid custom procedures for bank guarantees, restrictive FDI policy, procedural constraints and severe infrastructural deficiencies. Thus, the EXIM Policy (1997-2002) introduced a new scheme from April 1, 2000 for establishment of the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in different parts of the country.
The SEZs Policy
1. An SEZs may be set-up in the public, private, or joint sector and/or by a state government. 2. The policy requires the minimum size of an SEZs to be 1000 hectares.
3. Within these zones, units may be set-up for the manufacture of goods, provisioning of services, and other activities including processing, assembling, trading, repairing, reconditioning, making of gold/silver, platinum jewellery etc.
NORMS FOR SETTING UP SEZ –
1. Every unit in an SEZ is required to make a minimum investment of Rs 5 million (around USD 100,000) towards plant & machinery. 2.Units within SEZs are required to be net foreign exchange earners, cumulatively in the first five years of operation. 3. Trading units within SEZs are required to ensure a turnover of at least USD 1 million within five years from the commencement of operation.
APPROVAL MECHANISM OF SEZS
Any proposal for setting up of SEZ in the Private/Joint/State Sector is routed through the concerned State government who in turn forwards the same to the Department of Commerce with its recommendations for consideration of the Board of Approval. On the other hand, any proposals for setting up of units in the SEZ are approved at the Zonal level by the Approval Committee consisting of Development Commissioner, Customs Authorities and representatives of State Government. Approvals have so far been given for setting up over 180 new Special Economic Zones spread over 15 States and 2 Union Territories in the Private/Joint Sector or by the State Governments and its agencies.
BENEFITS TO UNITS AND DEVELOPERS
1. Tenants within the SEZs can procure goods required for setting up of units, from domestic or foreign markets, without payment of any customs/import duties. 2. No requirement of minimum net foreign exchange earning, as percentage of exports. 3. Duty-free material is permitted to be utilized over a period of five years, unlike EOU/EPZ schemes where the period is limited to one year. 4. 100 per cent FDI to be allowed under the automatic route in the manufacturing sector. 5. Developers of SEZs will be granted full autonomy to develop townships within SEZs. Allocation and pricing of land, facilities and services in SEZs are not governed by existing regulation. 6. SEZ developers would be accorded infrastructure status, and thereby entitled to claim all concessions and incentives available to
BENEFITS DERIVED FROM SEZ
1. Investment of the order of Rs.100,000 crores including FDI of US $ 5 – 6 billion is expected by the end of December 2007. 2. 500,000 direct jobs are expected to be created by December 2007
Year Value (Rs. Crore) Growth Rate 3. Exports from the functioning SEZs during the last three ( over previous years are as under: year ) 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-07 13,854 18,314 22 840 34,787 39% 32% 24.7 52.3%
4. Projected exports from all SEZs for 2007-08: Rs. 67088 crores
Investment and employment in the SEZs set up prior to the SEZ Act, 2005:
At present, 1087 units are in operation in the SEZs providing direct employment to over 1.85 lakh persons; about 40% of whom are women. (c) Investment and employment in the SEZs notified under the SEZ Act 2005: Current investment and employment: Investment: Rs. 43123 crores Employment: 35053 persons Expected investment and employment (by December 2009): Investment: Rs. 2,59,159 crores Employment: 17,43,530 additional jobs (d) Expected investment and employment if 341 formal approvals becomes operational: Investment: Rs. 3,00,000 crores Employment: 4 million additional jobs
Special Economic Zones
1. The Commerce Ministry says it is a great real estate
Boon or Disaster?
opportunity for commercial complexes, offices, malls, golf courses and so on but SEZ’s need land to build such a massive infrastructure but all the contiguous land that is easily available and connected to the mainland is productive, fertile, agricultural land.
2. SEZ’s are estimated to end up with the Finance Ministry losing revenue to the tune of over Rs. 1,00,000 crore annually once the zones are up and running, with its huge fiscal deficit, India can hardly afford the loss. 3. The SEZ’s will mainly come up in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Orissa, Karnataka and Haryana. Many backward states that are underdeveloped will continue to be sentenced to remain so. This could lead to regional imbalances that will throw up complicated problems. NO SEZ for example, will come up in the north-
The enthusiasm that the government has in setting up the SEZ’s underline an ugly fact that even after five long decades of independence, we still do not have the kind of decent infrastructure in the country that should have normally been the case. Many of them are IT related software parks and technology hubs. The argument put forward by critics is that there is no need for a SEZ for IT as they would have done well. In India, farmers are emotional about the land that they have farmed for years and just giving it up so that industry can be set up, is not something that can be easily digested. Another argument being used to dent the critics is how farmers could be rehabilitated with jobs in the zones. Most of them are going to be Information Technology related and how are farmers going to do a nine to six job at a desk or with machines they do not understand?
Nandigram SEZs controversy
The Nandigram SEZs controversy started when the West Bengal government decided that the Salim Group of Indonesia would set up a chemical hub under the SEZs policy at Nandigram, a rural area in the district of Purba Medinipur The chemical hub would require the acquisition of over 14,000 acres (57 km²) of land. The special economic zone would be spread over 29 mouzas (villages) of which 27 are in Nandigram. Probodh Panda, a CPI MP from the district has said that most of the land to be acquired is multi crop and would affect over 40,000 people. Expectedly, the villagers, who had been predominantly supporters of the party in power, CPI(M), turned against it and organized a resistance movement under the banner of the newly formed Bhumi Uchhed Pratirodh Committee or BUPC (literally, Committee for the Resistance to Eviction from Land). The differences soon heated up and from remaining a
The establishment of SEZs has helped to increase international trade,exports,employment in the country and boost the Indian economy. Due to the policy of SEZs India gain the foreign investment technology in the country but their are still some arguments in this policy which has to be clear by the Government. It is better if we establish the SEZs in few places due to which no crime or exploitation of peoples will be occur by SEZs.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?