A # generally means ‘commented out’ in a configuration

‘SIGHUP’ usually tells a process to re-read its config files

Use more or less to read large amounts of output

Don’t forget to review your updates carefully!

GPG (GNU Privacy Guard) adds integrity to packages

Always verify that no updates got ‘stuck’ or broken after

Showing all screen windows with ctrl + a “

Killing your current screen window with ctrl + a K

Set a screen window’s title with ctrl + a A

“Detach” your screen session with ctrl + a d

An MOTD is a great way to tell users about updates

Verify the next time you login that you see the MOTD

Commented values are normally the default values!

Don’t forget to uncomment lines you change values on

man pages are great for programs and configuration files

service sshd restart or /etc/init.d/sshd restart would work

netstat is a very useful troubleshooting application

lsof can look at open: files, sockets, and ports!

Most services can run on non-standard ports fine

New servers will always make you accept a fingerprint

“...invalid user root...” means our sshd configuration works

sshd running on a non-standard port with an MOTD

CentOS has a standard firewall enabled by default

We have to change port ’22’ to become port ‘2222’

As with sshd you could do service iptables start too!

Verify that port ‘2222’ is there now and not port ’22’