Draft

DRAFT

Lecture Notes in: STRUCTURAL CONCEPTS AND SYSTEMS FOR ARCHITECTS

Victor E. Saouma
Dept. of Civil Environmental and Architectural Engineering University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0428

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Contents
1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Science and Technology . . . . . . 1.2 Structural Engineering . . . . . . . 1.3 Structures and their Surroundings 1.4 Architecture & Engineering . . . . 1.5 Architectural Design Process . . . 1.6 Architectural Design . . . . . . . . 1.7 Structural Analysis . . . . . . . . . 1.8 Structural Design . . . . . . . . . . 1.9 Load Transfer Mechanisms . . . . 1.10 Structure Types . . . . . . . . . . 1.11 Structural Engineering Courses . . 1.12 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 25 27 29 29 29 30 30 32 33 33 33 39 40 44 45 47 47 47 48 48 49 49 49 49 50

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2 LOADS 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Vertical Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Dead Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 2-1 Live Load Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Snow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Lateral Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 2-2 Wind Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Earthquakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 2-3 Earthquake Load on a Frame . . . . . . . . . . E 2-4 Earthquake Load on a Tall Building, (Schueller 2.4 Other Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 Hydrostatic and Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 2-5 Hydrostatic Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2 Thermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 2-6 Thermal Expansion/Stress (Schueller 1996) . . 2.4.3 Bridge Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.4 Impact Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Other Important Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.1 Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2 Load Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS 5.4

5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 112 113 113 113 114 114 116 117 117 123 123 126 126 127 129 129 133 133 133 135 136 138 138 139 140 140 142 142 144 144 145 147 147 149 150 150 150 150 151 151 152 152 153

Flexure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.1 Basic Kinematic Assumption; Curvature . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2 Stress-Strain Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.3 Internal Equilibrium; Section Properties . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.3.1 ΣFx = 0; Neutral Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.3.2 ΣM = 0; Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.4 Beam Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 5-10 Design Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.5 Approximate Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 5-11 Approximate Analysis of a Statically Indeterminate beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Case Study II: GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE 6.1 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 The Case Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.2 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.3 Cable Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.4 Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE 7.1 Before the Greeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Greeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Romans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 The Medieval Period (477-1492) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5 The Renaissance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.1 Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.2 Brunelleschi 1377-1446 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.3 Alberti 1404-1472 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.4 Palladio 1508-1580 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.5 Stevin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.6 Galileo 1564-1642 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 Pre Modern Period, Seventeenth Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6.1 Hooke, 1635-1703 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6.2 Newton, 1642-1727 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6.3 Bernoulli Family 1654-1782 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6.4 Euler 1707-1783 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.7 The pre-Modern Period; Coulomb and Navier . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8 The Modern Period (1857-Present) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8.1 Structures/Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8.2 Eiffel Tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8.3 Sullivan 1856-1924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8.4 Roebling, 1806-1869 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8.5 Maillart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8.6 Nervi, 1891-1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8.7 Khan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8.8 et al. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

. . . . . . . 235 . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .1 Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . E 13-2 Semi-Circular Arch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Rigid Frames . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . .2 Buildings Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . .1 Introduction . . . .1 Portal Method . . . . . . .4 Tendon Configuration . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . E 13-1 Three Hinged Arch. . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . 14. . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Arches . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . to Vertical and Horizontal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . .2 Behavior of Simple Frames . . . . . (Gerstle 1974) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2. 14. . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . .1 Statically Determinate . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Kinney 1957) . . . 14. . . . . . . 229 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2 Shaft Systems . . . .2 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Flexural Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Theory . . 236 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 12. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .3.2 Horizontal Loads . . . . . . .2 Prestressing Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 . . . 239 . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 13 ARCHES and CURVED STRUCTURES 13. . (Gerstle 1974) 14 BUILDING STRUCTURES 14. . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 13-4 Semi-Circular Box Girder. . .3. Point Loads. . . . . . . Victor Saouma . . . . E 14-1 Approximate Analysis of a Frame subjected 14. . . . . . . . . . . 241 Loads243 . . . . . . . . . 253 Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 . . . . . (Gerstle 1974) . . . . .3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 . . . . . . .1 Beam Column Connections . .1 Vertical Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . (Gerstle 1974) . . . . . . 14. . . . 13. . . . . . . . . 12. 233 . . .3. 13. . 14.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Example: Concrete Shear Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Example: Tube Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 13-3 Statically Indeterminate Arch. . . 230 .1. .1. . . . . 14. . .1 Cross-Section Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Equivalent Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .2 Curved Space Structures . . . . . . 236 . . . .1. . . . . .2. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 229 . 229 . . . . . . .2 Prestressing . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . 14. . 13. .3 Eccentricity of Applied Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Load Deformation . . . . . . . . . E 13-5 Internal Forces in an Helicoidal Cantilevered Girder. . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . .2 Statically Indeterminate . . 233 . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . .1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Flexural Stresses . . .Draft CONTENTS 7 197 197 197 200 200 200 200 202 202 204 206 206 208 209 209 211 211 214 214 215 217 217 220 220 222 222 223 224 12 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 12. . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . 14. . . .1. . .2 Example: Trussed Shear Wall . . . . . .1 Wall Subsystems . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . E 12-1 Prestressed Concrete I Beam 12. .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Lateral Deflections . . . . . 12. . . . 237 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . Types of Trusses . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . . . . 33 . . . prefabricated Steel Joists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 2. . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . ubc . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 2. . . . . (UBC 1995) . . . . . . . . . 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influence of Residual Stress on Average Stress-Strain Concrete microcracking . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load Transfer in R/C Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 . . . . . .Draft List of Figures 1. . 52 . . . . . . . . . . . .11 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. .9 2.4 3. . . . .14 2. . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . Standard Rolled Sections . . . . . . . . . . .8 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 2. . . . . . . . Basic Aspects of Cable Systems . . . . . . Concept of Tributary Areas for Structural Member Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . One or Two Way actions in Slabs . Basic Forms of Frames . . .10 2. . 51 . . . . . . . Earth and Hydrostatic Loads on Structures . . . 35 . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . Two Way Actions . . . . . . . . . (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) . . Snow Map of the United States. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 2.6 2. . . . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 . . . . . . . (UBC 1995) . . . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . . .6 3. Variations in Post and Beams Configurations Different Beam Types . . . . . .15 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Approximation of a Series of Closely Spaced Loads . . . . .8 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Types of Forces in Structural Elements (1D) . . . . . . . . . Residual Stresses in Welded Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load Life of a Structure. . . .16 2. . . . Seismic Zones of the United States. . Approximate Design Wind Pressure p for Ordinary Wind Force Vibrations of a Building . Examples of Air Supported Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . .3 3. . . . Curve of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . Wind Map of the United States. 41 . . . . . Truck Load . . . . . . . Effect of Wind Load on Structures(Schueller 1996) . . . . . .7 3. . . .4 2. . . . . . . . W and C sections . . . . . . Basic Forms of Shells . . . . . . . . Vertical and Normal Loads Acting on Inclined Surfaces . Load Placement to Maximize Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 . . . Example of Load Transfer . . . Loads on Projected Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . 51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1. 36 Resisting Building Structures 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Aspects of Arches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .18 3. . a Rolled Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residual Stresses in Rolled Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 58 60 60 60 62 64 73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1. . . . . . .1 1. Stress Strain Curves of Concrete and Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . (Billington and Mark 1983) . . . . . (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) . . . . . . . Plastic Hinges . .4 9. . . . Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. . . . . . .8 8. . . . . . . 207 Walnut Lane Bridge. . .7 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Billington and Mark 1983) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Lin and Stotesbury 13. . . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cover Leonhard Euler . Whitney Stress Block . . .7 8. . . .3 8. .6 12. . . . . . . .2 Statics of a Three-Hinged Arch. . . . . . 201 Load-Deflection Curve and Corresponding Internal Flexural Stresses for a Typical Prestressed Concrete Flexural Stress Distribution for a Beam with Variable Eccentricity. . . . . . . . . . . . 11 145 146 146 148 149 153 Overall Dimensions. . . . . . . . .1 Moment Resisting Forces in an Arch or Suspension System as Compared to a Beam. (Billington and M Equilibrium of Forces at the Beam Support. . . . . . . . . . . . 162 . . . .1 9. . 212 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . . . and Cumulative Distribution Function Frequency Distributions of Load Q and Resistance R . . 198 Posttensioned Prestressed Concrete Beam. . . . .1 11. . . . Magazzini Magazzini Magazzini Magazzini Magazzini Magazzini Magazzini Magazzini Magazzini Generali. Stress distribution at different stages of loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . Generali. . . (Billington and Mark 1983) . Local Buckling . . . . . . . . . 208 13. . . . . . . 160 Similarities Between The Frame Shape and its Moment Diagram. . (Billington and Mark 1983) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Moment Section and Supp Walnut Lane Bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Generali. . .12 7. . . . . . . . . .3 9. . Failure Modes for R/C Beams . . . . Definition of Reliability Index . . . .13 7. . .3 11. . .3 12. . . . . . . . . . (Billington and Mark 1983) . . . . . Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Beam. . . Isaac Newton . . . . . . . . . . . Normalized Gauss Distribution. . . . . . . . . Generali. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lateral Bracing for Steel Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 8. .4 12. . . . . . Cracked Section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page . . . .2 8. . . . . .15 7. 158 Support System. . . . . . . . Lateral Torsional Buckling . . . . (Nilson 1978)201 Determination of Equivalent Loads . .4 10. . . Generali. . . Internal Equilibrium in a R/C Beam . . . . . . . . . Reinforcement in Continuous R/C Beams . . . . .2 9. . .1 10. .9 LIST OF FIGURES Experimental Set Up Used by Hooke .4 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Beam Reactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 10. .8 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Shear and Moment Diagrams (Billington and Mark 1983) . . . .2 11. . . . . . . Generali. . . . . . . Coulomb . . . . . . .9 9. . . . .2 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 11. . . . . . . . Nominal Moments for Compact and Partially Compact Sections . . . . . Generali. Probability of Failure in terms of β . . Limit State . . . . . . . . . .1 12.2 12. 199 Alternative Schemes for Prestressing a Rectangular Concrete Beam. . . .Draft 7. . . . . . . . . . . .16 7. Failure of Steel beam. . . . . . . . 160 Internal Moment. . . . . . . . . . Stress-strain diagram for most structural steels . . . . 164 166 167 167 168 173 175 175 176 176 177 179 184 185 187 187 194 Load Life of a Structure . . . . . (Billington and Mark 1983)161 Effect of Lateral Supports. . . . . . . . . (Nilson 1978) . . . . . Failure of Steel beam. . . . . . . Generali. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . Generali. .5 12. .5 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Loads (Billington and Mark 1983) . . . . . . . . . . Nervi’s Palazetto Dello Sport . . . . . . . . . . Failure of Steel beam. . . .3 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 7. . . . . .5 8. . . Cross Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 7 Wire Prestressing Tendon . . . . . . . . . . . Plan View . . . . . . . (Nilson 1978) . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .6 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3.3 Structural Engineering Coverage for Architects and Engineers . . . . . . . . 169 Strength Reduction Factors. 165 Selected β values for Steel and Concrete Structures . . .7 2. . . . . .2 2.9 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . (UBC 1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Wind Velocity Variation above Ground . . . . . . . . ubc .2 Girders Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads . . . . . . . . . . Joist Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . 87 Static Determinacy and Stability of Trusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Importance Factors for Wind and Earthquake Load. . . . . . . 43 Coefficients of Thermal Expansion . . . 94 Section Properties .8 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Ce Coefficients for Wind Load. . . .3 2. . . . . . . . .4 5. . . . . . 115 Allowable Stresses for Steel and Concrete . . . . . . . . 31 Minimum Uniformly Distributed Live Loads. . . . . . . 37 Wind Pressure Coefficients Cq .11 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 2. . . . . . .10 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Properties of Major Structural Steels Properties of Reinforcing Bars . . . . . . . . . . . (UBC 1995) . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . (UBC 1995) . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . (UBC 1995) . . . . . 254 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 S Site Coefficients for Earthquake Loading. . . . . . . . . 31 Average Gross Dead Load in Buildings .13 3. . . . .5 2. . . . . . . 26 Unit Weight of Materials . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . (UBC 1995) . . Joist Series Characteristics . . . . . . . (UBC 1995) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tab:secae . . . . . . 59 61 73 75 Equations of Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . .Draft List of Tables 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . 30 Weights of Building Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 2. 255 . . . . . 38 Approximate Design Wind Pressure p for Ordinary Wind Force Resisting Building Structures 38 Z Factors for Different Seismic Zones. 169 14. . . . . . . .1 Columns Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads . 42 Partial List of RW for Various Structure Systems.1 2. . Φ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Civil Infrastructures: Bridges. Naval structures: aeroplanes. whereas scientific results are informations of what exists independently of human intentions. Sound and structure interact: • A dome roof will concentrate the sound • A dish roof will diffuse the sound . houses. Major movements: For example. spacecrafts. They must work in close cooperation with an architect who will ultimately be responsible for the design. ships. For those structures they play the leading role. Technological results are forms that exist only because people want to make them. Aerospace.3 3 Structures and their Surroundings Structural design is affected by various environmental constraints: 1. factories. nuclear and other engineers.2 2 Structural Engineering Structural engineers are responsible for the detailed analysis and design of: Architectural structures: Buildings. science with the natural.Draft Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1. whereas science is the discovering of things that have long existed. elevator shafts are usually shear walls good at resisting lateral load (wind.” (Billington 1985) 1.1 1 Science and Technology “There is a fundamental difference between science and and technology. submarines to ensure the structural safety of those important structures. 2. hydraulic. dams. Mechanical. Technology deals with the artificial. 1. Engineering or technology is the making of things that did not previously exist. earthquake). pipelines. cars. They work with transportation. offshore structures.

torsional. deflections. 15 Thus the basic structural requirements are: Strength: stresses should not exceed critical values: σ < σf Stiffness: deflections should be controlled: ∆ < ∆max Stability: buckling or cracking should also be prevented 1. A preliminary design is made using rules of thumbs (best known to Engineers with design experience) and analyzed. we check for 17 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . iterative process between analysis and design. restaurants. stadium. flexural. This in turn can place severe limitations on the structural system. etc. dimension the structural element. airport. parking. 1. Steel/wood Structures Select appropriate section. 13 Buildings may have different functions: Residential: housing. Reinforced Concrete: Determine dimensions of the element and internal reinforcement (number and sizes of reinforcing bars). chruch. manufacturing. Aesthetics: The architect often imposes his aesthetic concerns on the engineer. For new structures. shopping centers. shear.7 14 Structural Analysis Given an existing structure subjected to a certain load determine internal forces (axial. hotels. prisons. mid-rise (up to 6-8 floors) and high rise buildings.6 Architectural Design 17 Architectural Design Architectural design must respect various constraints: Functionality: Influence of the adopted structure on the purposes for which the structure was erected. Institutional: Schools.6 12 1. or stresses). Design cost is comparatively negligible. Following design. Industrial: warehouses. Special: Towers. Economy: It should be kept in mind that the two largest components of a structure are labors and materials. hospitals.8 16 Structural Design Given a set of forces. and verify that no unstable failure can occur. which includes low-rise (up tp 2-3 floors).Draft 1. government buildings. Commercial: Offices. retail stores.

and dish roofs.2.10 Structure Types 19 Tension & Compression Structures: only. flexure/shear is minimized and most of the load is transfered through axial forces only. Fig. A cable structure develops its load carrying Figure 1. Arches (mostly compression) is a “reversed cable structure”. makes cables ideal structural elements to span large distances such as bridges. Those are the most efficient types of structures. 1. combined with the efficiency of simple tension. no shear.Draft 1. In an arch. Care should be exercised in minimizing large deflections and vibrations. Cable (tension only): The high strength of steel cables. or torsion. flexure. Arches are Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .2: Basic Aspects of Cable Systems capacity by adjusting its shape so as to provide maximum resistance (form follows function).

Draft 1.10 Structure Types 21 Figure 1.4: Types of Trusses Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

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1.10 Structure Types

23

VIERENDEEL TRUSS

TREE-SUPPORTED TRUSS

OVERLAPPING SINGLE-STRUT CABLE-SUPPORTED BEAM

BRACED BEAM

CABLE-STAYED BEAM

SUSPENDED CABLE SUPPORTED BEAM

BOWSTRING TRUSS

CABLE-SUPPORTED STRUTED ARCH OR CABLE BEAM/TRUSS

CABLE-SUPPORTED MULTI-STRUT BEAM OR TRUSS

GABLED TRUSS

CABLE-SUPPORTED ARCHED FRAME

CABLE-SUPPORTED PORTAL FRAME

Figure 1.6: Different Beam Types

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

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1.11 Structural Engineering Courses

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Folded plates are used mostly as long span roofs. However, they can also be used as vertical walls to support both vertical and horizontal loads.

Membranes: 3D structures composed of a flexible 2D surface resisting tension only. They are usually cable-supported and are used for tents and long span roofs Fig. 1.8.

Figure 1.8: Examples of Air Supported Structures Shells: 3D structures composed of a curved 2D surface, they are usually shaped to transmit compressive axial stresses only, Fig. 1.9. Shells are classified in terms of their curvature.

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22

Structural Engineering Courses

Structural engineering education can be approached from either one of two points of views, depending on the audience, ??. Architects: Start from overall design, and move toward detailed analysis. Emphasis on good understanding of overall structural behavior. Develop a good understanding of load trans-

Victor Saouma

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23

1.12 References

27

fer mechanism for most types of structures, cables, arches, beams, frames, shells, plates. Approximate analysis for most of them.

Engineers: Emphasis is on the individual structural elements and not always on the total system. Focus on beams, frames (mostly 2D) and trusses. Very seldom are arches covered. Plates and shells are not even mentioned.

References

Following are some useful references for structural engineering, those marked by † were consulted, and “borrowed from” in preparing the Lecture Notes or are particularly recommended. Structures for Architect 1. Ambrose, J., Building Structures, second Ed. Wiley, 1993. 2. Billington, D.P. Rober Maillart’s Bridges; The Art of Engineering, Princeton University Pres, 1979. 3. †Billington, D.P., The Tower and the Bridge; The new art of structural engineering, Princeton University Pres,, 1983. 4. †Billington, D.P., Structures and the Urban Environment, Lectures Notes CE 262, Department of Civil Engineering, Princeton University, 1978 5. French, S., Determinate Structures; Statics, Strength, Analysis, Design, Delmar, 1996. 6. Gordon, J.E., Structures, or Why Things Do’nt Fall Down, Da Capo paperback, New York, 1978. 7. Gordon, J.E., The Science of Structures and Materials, Scientific American Library, 1988. 8. Hawkes, N., Structures, the way things are built, MacMillan, 1990. 9. Levy, M. and Salvadori, M., Why Buildings Fall Down, W.W.Norton, 1992. 10. †Lin, T.Y. and Stotesbury, S.D., Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects and Engineers, John Wiley, 1981. 12. Petroski, H., To Enginer is Human, Vintage Books, 1992. 11. †Mainstone, R., Developments in Structural Form, Allen Lane Publishers, 1975.

13. †Salvadori, M. and Heller, R., Structure in Architecture; The Building of Buildings, Prentice Hall, Third Edition, 1986. 14. Salvadori, M. and Levy, M., Structural Design in Architecture, Prentice hall, Second Edition, 1981. 15. Salvadori, M., Why Buildings Stand Up; The Strength of Architecture, Norton Paperack, 1990. 16. †Sandaker, B.N. and Eggen, A.P., The Structural Basis of Architecture, Whitney Library of Design, 1992. 17. †Schueller, W., The design of Building Structures, Prentice Hall, 1996. Structures for Engineers Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft Chapter 2 LOADS 2. Fig. 2. (UBC 1995).1 1 Introduction The main purpose of a structure is to transfer load from one point to another: bridge deck to pier. 2 There can also be secondary loads such as thermal (in restrained structures). but also to assign different factor of safety to each one. dead load (DL) 2. P-Delta effects (additional moment caused by the product of the vertical force and the lateral displacement caused by lateral load in a high rise building). foundation to soil.1 . differential settlement of foundations. it is customary to treat them as a uniformly distributed load rather than as discrete loads. Wind load (WL) 2. girder to column. Lateral Loads which act horizontally on the structure 1.2 Vertical Loads 6 For closely spaced identical loads (such as joist loads). slab to beam. 3 Loads are generally subdivided into two categories Vertical Loads or gravity load 1. 5 For a detailed coverage of loads. refer to the Universal Building Code (UBC). beam to girder. column to foundation. Earthquake load (EL) this also includes hydrostatic and earth loads. 2. 4 This distinction is helpful not only to compute a structure’s load. live load (LL) also included are snow loads.

Hollow concrete block (heavy aggregate) 4 in. Wood studs 2x4 (12-16 in.c.2 Vertical Loads 31 Material lb/ft2 1 1 2-10 12 1 4 1-5 6 3 9-14 3 2 17 40 14 2 10 5 40 120 30 55 80 21 38 55 Ceilings Channel suspended system Acoustical fiber tile Floors Steel deck Concrete-plain 1 in.3: Average Gross Dead Load in Buildings Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Hollow concrete block (light aggregate) 4 in.) Plaster 1 in. gypsum Walls Bricks 4 in. cement Plaster 1 in. Linoleum 1/4 in. Hardwood Roofs Copper or tin 5 ply felt and gravel Shingles asphalt Clay tiles Sheathing wood Insulation 1 in. Table 2.2: Weights of Building Materials Material Timber Steel Reinforced concrete lb/ft2 40-50 50-80 100-150 Table 2.Draft 2. 8 in. Bricks 12 in. 8 in. 12 in. 12 in. Clay tile 10 in. o. poured in place Partitions Clay tile 3 in. Gypsum Block 5 in.

32 80 38. 2. the lower the snow retention. thus the total reduction in load is 740−410 740+600 × 100= 25% .4 80 46.3.9 7 42. 2.3 Snow 19 Roof snow load vary greatly depending on geographic location and elevation.3 2. 5. They range from 20 to 45 psf. Fig.8 80 32. shape of the building.3 Lateral Loads Floor Cumulative R (%) Cumulative LL Cumulative R× LL Roof 8.2) 22 Other examples of loads acting on inclined surfaces are shown in Fig.4. 2.44 80 59.Draft 2.48 20 18.08 6 51. height. geographical location. 2.1 Lateral Loads Wind 23 Wind load depend on: velocity of the wind. The total dead load is DL = (10)(60) = 600 Kips. Figure 2. ubc 20 21 Snow loads are always given on the projected length or area on a slope.2 4 60 80 32 3 60 80 32 2 60 80 32 33 Total 740 410 The resulting design live load for the bottom column has been reduced from 740 Kips to 410 Kips .3.92 80 52.3 10 16. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .9 5 59.2: Snow Map of the United States. The steeper the roof. For snow loads greater than 20 psf and roof pitches α more than 20◦ the snow load p may be reduced by R = (α − 20) p − 0.4 9 25.96 80 66. texture of the building surface and stiffness of the structure.5 40 (psf) (2. Fig.6 8 33.2.2. 2.

00256V 2 (2.0765)lb/ft3 (5280)ft/mile qs = V (2. 27 28 29 Wind pressure increases with height.4) 2 (32. wind velocities may reach values up to or greater than 150 miles per hour.5. Table 2. V can be obtained from wind maps (in the United States 70 ≤ V ≤ 110). At sea level and a temperature of 15o C (59o F). Wind load will cause suction on the leeward sides. 2.2)ft/sec2 (3600)sec/hr or qs = 0. the stagnation pressure (or velocity pressure) qs was derived by Bernouilli (1700-1782) 1 qs = ρV 2 2 (2. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .7 This magnitude must be modified to account for the shape and surroundings of the building. 2. 1 The primary design consideration for very high rise buildings is the excessive drift caused by lateral load (wind and possibly earthquakes). Fig. (UBC 1995) 26 During storms.5. 35 When a steady streamline airflow of velocity V is completely stopped by a rigid body.Draft 24 25 2. Fig.5) where V is the maximum wind velocity (in miles per hour) and qs is in psf.3 Lateral Loads Wind loads are particularly significant on tall buildings1 .2 ft/sec2 .0765 lb/ft3 this would yield a pressure of 2 1 (0. the air weighs 0.3) where the air mass density ρ is the air weight divided by the acceleration of gravity g = 32.5: Wind Map of the United States. Figure 2. which corresponds to a dynamic pressure qs of about 60 psf (as high as the average vertical occupancy load in buildings).

(UBC 1995) I Importance Factor as given by Table 2. II Hazardous Facilities: Structures housing.6.7 Walls 0.62-1.4 Horizontal Projections −0.Draft 2. or surface irregularities 20 ft or more in height Table 2.e the wind pressure is not steady).39-2.19 0.34 1.7 for gabled frames. communication centers.8 Buildings (height < 200 ft) Vertical Projections height < 40 ft 1.7 −0. exposure and gust factor. capacity > 300 persons. Ce 1.06-2. supporting or containing sufficient quantities of toxic or explosive substances to be dangerous to the safety of the general public if released. (UBC 1995) Cq Pressure Coefficient is a shape factor which is given in Table 2.7 −0. Windward Side Gabled Frames (V:H) Roof Slope <9:12 −0.7 Leeward Side −0. Table 2.7 9:12 to 12:12 0.3 Lateral Loads Thus.6: Ce Coefficients for Wind Load. standby power-generating equipment. Tanks. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Emergency vehicle shelters. the design pressure p (psf) is given by p = Ce Cq Iqs The pressure is assumed to be normal to all walls and roofs and 37 (2.7 −0.4 −0. flat terrain facing large bodies of water Flat open terrain. Fire and police stations. where I Essential Facilities: Hospitals.3 height > 40 ft 1.3 −1. III Special occupancy structure: Covered structures whose primary occupancy is public assembly.80 Exposure D C B Open.8. extending one-half mile or open from the site in any full quadrant Terrain with buildings.4 >12:12 0. forest.6) Ce Velocity Pressure Coefficient accounts for height.7: Wind Pressure Coefficients Cq .5 −1. Structures and equipment in government.7 Table 2. It accounts for the fact that wind velocity increases with height and that dynamic character of the airflow (i.

2.7: Approximate Design Wind Pressure p for Ordinary Wind Force Resisting Building Structures Example 2-2: Wind Load Determine the wind forces on the building shown on below which is built in St Louis and is surrounded by trees. 80 mph Height Above Grade (ft) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Approximate Design Wind Pressure (psf) 45 50 Figure 2.7.54 psf. since the building is protected we can take Ce = 0. The base wind pressure is qs = 0.5 the maximum wind velocity is St. 70 mph Exposure B. I = 1.00256 × (70)2 = 12. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Louis is 70 mph.Draft 2. 80 mph Exposure C.. Solution: 1.3 Lateral Loads 39 400 350 300 Exposure B. 70 mph Exposure C. From Fig.

Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft 2. 2. Figure 2.10.8: Vibrations of a Building 36 The horizontal force at each level is calculated as a portion of the base shear force V V = ZIC W RW (2.9 and Table 2.8.9: Seismic Zones of the United States.8) where: Z: Zone Factor: to be determined from Fig.3 Lateral Loads 41 Figure 2. (UBC 1995) I: Importance Factor: which was given by Table 2.

L. (UBC 1995) 65 65 240 160 240 65 65 240 160 160 65 N.L. 160 - N. N.12: Partial List of RW for Various Structure Systems. 160 160-N. N. 160 - Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft 2.L. L.L.L. N.3 Lateral Loads 43 Structural System RW H (ft) Bearing wall system Light-framed walls with shear panels Plywood walls for structures three stories or less 8 All other light-framed walls 6 Shear walls Concrete 8 Masonry 8 Building frame system using trussing or shear walls) Steel eccentrically braced ductiel frame 10 Light-framed walls with shear panels Plywood walls for structures three stories or less 9 All other light-framed walls 7 Shear walls Concrete 8 Masonry 8 Concentrically braced frames Steel 8 Concrete (only for zones I and 2) 8 Heavy timber 8 Moment-resisting frame system Special moment-resisting frames (SMRF) Steel 12 Concrete 12 Concrete intermediate moment-resisting frames (IMRF)only for zones 1 and 2 8 Ordinary moment-resisting frames (OMRF) Steel 6 Concrete (only for zone 1) 5 Dual systems (selected cases are for ductile rigid frames only) Shear walls Concrete with SMRF 12 Masonry with SMRF 8 Steel eccentrically braced ductile frame 6-12 Concentrically braced frame 12 Steel with steel SMRF 10 Steel with steel OMRF 6 Concrete with concrete SMRF (only for zones 1 and 2) 9 Table 2.

The total seismic base shear is ZIC (0. Since T < 0.17) (2.5(400)) (20) = 16000 lbs 6. For this investigation. The rigid frames are spaced 25 ft apart in the cross section and 20 ft in the longitudinal direction. The load on each floor is thus given by F2 = F1 = (1375)(24) = 916. rigid space frame concrete structure in the short direction. an average building total dead load of 192 psf is used. The plan dimension of the building is 175x100 ft.25)(2. there is no whiplash.7 sec. (Schueller 1996) Determine the approximate critical lateral loading for a 25 storey.3 lbs 12 + 24 45 (2. The total vertical load is W = 2 ((200 + 0.18-b) (2.3)(1.086)(16000) = 1375 lbs 7.19-a) (2.19-b) Example 2-4: Earthquake Load on a Tall Building. This office building is located in an urban environment with a wind velocity of 70 mph and in seismic zone 4.7 lbs 12 + 24 (1375)(12) = 458.086W RW 12 = (0.Draft 2. 8.3 Lateral Loads 5.75) V = = = 0.18-a) (2. and the structure is 25(12)=300 ft high. Soil conditions are unknown. 470 k 2638 k 1523 k 300/2=150’ 2(300)/3=200’ 84000 k 3108 k 5(20)=100’ Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects 7(25)=175’ 25(12)=300’ . ductile.

4. K = 40 1−sin Φ 1+sin Φ is the pressure coefficient.4 Other Loads 47 Other Loads Hydrostatic and Earth Structures below ground must resist lateral earth pressure. (2. what thickness concrete slab is required to exactly balance the hydrostatic uplift? Solution: The hydrostatic pressure must be countered by the pressure caused by the weight of concrete. it must also resist hydrostatic pressure of water. q = Kγh (2.29) Example 2-5: Hydrostatic Load The basement of a building is 12 ft below grade. Figure 2.976 in Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . h is the height.10: Earth and Hydrostatic Loads on Structures q = γW h where γW = 62. 2.4 lbs/ft3 . 41 If the structure is partially submerged.Draft 2.28) where γ is the soil density.4) lbs/ft 3 (150) lbs/ft 3 (3) ft(12) in/ft = 14. Ground water is located 9 ft below grade.4) lbs/ft3 × (12 − 9) ft = (150) lbs/ft3 × h ⇒ h = water concrete 15. For sand and gravel γ = 120 lb/ ft3 . Since p = γh we equate the two pressures and solve for h the height of the concrete slab (62.0 inch (62.4 2. Fig.1 39 2.10. and Φ ≈ 30◦ .

the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building design code (318) (318 n. 47 48 Furthermore.Draft 2. Figure 2.1 45 46 Other Important Considerations Load Combinations Live loads specified by codes represent the maximum possible loads.5 2. T= temperature. This loading must be placed such that maximum stresses are produced. L= live. Denoting D= dead. structures should be designed to resist a combination of loads. E= earthquake.) requires that the following load combinations be considered: 1. design loads are given by the AASHTO (Association of American State Highway Transportation Officials). Hence. The HS-20 truck is used for the design of bridges on main highways.5. The likelihood of all these loads occurring simultaneously is remote.d.4D+1.3. Lr= roof live. H= soil: 49 For the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) method of concrete structures. building codes allow certain reduction when certain loads are combined together.4 Impact Load 2. Fig.5 Other Important Considerations 49 Bridge Loads For highway bridges.4. 1.11: Truck Load 2. W= wind. Either the design truck with specified axle loads and spacing must be used or the equivalent uniform load and concentrated load.3 2.4.7L Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 6. S= snow.

12: Load Placement to Maximize Moments Figure 2. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .13: Load Life of a Structure.Draft 2.5 Other Important Considerations 51 Figure 2.

2. Load transfer in a structure is accomplished through a “hierarchy” of simple flexural elements which are then connected to the columns.5 Other Important Considerations 1. 58 An example of load transfer mechanism is shown in Fig. 2.16 or by two way slabs as illustrated in Fig.17. Fig.Draft 57 2. The section is part of a beam or girder. 2. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .18. 53 2. The beam or girder is really part of a three dimensional structure in which load is transmitted from any point in the structure to the foundation through any one of various structural forms.

5 Other Important Considerations 55 Figure 2.Draft 2.17: Two Way Actions Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

1 2 Characteristics of the most commonly used structural materials will be highlighted.1. W or wide flange sections have a much smaller inner slope which facilitates connections and rivetting. density of 490 lb/cu ft.65 × 10−5 /deg F. Fig. For example W 27× 114 is a W section. 3. 27 in. their depth and their weight. 9 Common sections are: S sections were the first ones rolled in America and have a slope on their inside flange surfaces of 1 to 6. W sections constitute about 50% of the tonnage of rolled structural steel. Most commonly used structural steel are A36 (σyld = 36 ksi) and A572 (σyld = 50 ksi). manganese and copper. 5 The yield stress of steel can vary from 40 ksi to 250 ksi. Usually the most desirable members are those which have a large section moduli (S) in proportion to their area (A). 8 Sections are designated by the shape of their cross section. C are channel sections MC Miscellaneous channel which can not be classified as a C shape by dimensions. Fig. 3.1 6 Structural steel can be rolled into a wide variety of shapes and sizes. nickle.000 ksi.Draft Chapter 3 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS Proper understanding of structural materials is essential to both structural analysis and to structural design.2. 7 Steel can be bolted. 4 Practically all grades of steel have a Young Modulus equal to 29. and a coefficient of thermal expansion equal to 0. Its properties can be greatly varied by altering the carbon content (always less than 0. deep weighing 114 lb/ft. 3. riveted or welded.5%) or by adding other elements such as silicon.1 3. .1 3 Steel Structural Steel Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon.

5 to 4 in. Plates and bars 1 in and 2 less thick.) (32 σu (kksi) A500 Cold formed welded and seamless sections. 13 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .) Table 3.) and 90 (over 2.1: Properties of Major Structural Steels 12 Rolled sections.5. Grade E 80 Grade 36: 36 (to 4 in. Grade B: 42. the stress-strain curve of a rolled section exhibits a non-linear segment prior to the theoretical yielding. A36 Shapes Available Shapes and bars Use Riveted. 3. Cold rolled sheet in cut lengths Structural shapes. Fig3. ASTM Desig.1. Bolted and welded Atmospheric corrosion resistant Cold formed sections Bridges σy (kksi) 36 up through 8 in.1) (3. plates and bars Grade A: 33. Fig.5in. Buildings and bridges General structural purpose Riveted.Draft 3. Grade D 40. Fig. welded or bolted.1 Steel 10 59 HP is a bearing pile section. it cools unevenly because of varying exposure.2) Properties of structural steel are tabulated in Table 3. 3. The section modulus Sx of a W section can be roughly approximated by the following formula Sx ≈ wd/10 or Ix ≈ Sx and the plastic modulus can be approximated by Zx ≈ wd/9 11 d ≈ wd2 /20 2 (3. bolted. welded. L are angle sections which may have equal or unequal sides. Hot formed welded and seamless sections. Grade C: 46 36 42 A501 A529 A606 A611 A 709 45-50 Grade C 33. The area that cool first become stiffer. This would have important implications on the flexural and axial strength of beams and columns. Those originate during the rolling or fabrication of a member. Grade 50: 50. Hot and cold rolled sheets.4 have residual stresses. The member is hot just after rolling or welding. WT is a T section cut from a W section in two.3 and welded ones.). The remaining regions continue to cool and contract in the plastic condition and develop tensile stresses. Bolted and welded Building frames and trusses. resist contraction. above 8. Grade 100: 100 (to 2. and develop compressive stresses. Due to those residual stresses. M is a miscellaneous section.

a coefficient of thermal expansion of 2.57 1.44 0. 1 Stirrups which are used as vertical reinforcement to resist shear usually have a yield stress of only 40 ksi. A rope consists of multiple strands helically wound around a central plastic core.625 6/8=0. and an ultimate strength of 220 ksi.79 1.875 8/8=1.54 3.043 1.2.668 1.2 14 3. cable-stayed bridges. and usually have a yield stress of 60 ksi 1 . and a modulus of elasticity of 20.313 7. F 15 16 Steel is also used as wire strands and ropes for suspended roofs.Draft 3.60 0.2 Aluminum 61 Reinforcing Steel Steel is also used as reinforcing bars in concrete.693 18/8=2. 2 No.400 4.5202 2.750 7/8=0.270 11/8=1.650 13. along with its resistance to corrosion have made it the material of choice for airplane structures. 3 No.00 Perimeter in 0. bolting and to a lesser extent by welding.303 5.000 ksi.250 3/8=0. light roof framing.2: Properties of Reinforcing Bars Steel loses its strength rapidly above 700 deg. 7 No.11 0. 11 No.167 0. and becomes brittle at −30 deg.500 5/8=0.257 Area ( in2 ) 0.20 0. 9 No. Table 3. 6 No. 8 No. fabric roofs and other structural applications.670 3.044 2.14 3. 14 No.09 Weight lb/ft 0.96 2.000 psi) but with the addition of alloys it can go up. Those properties. 21 The ultimate strength of pure aluminum is low (13. 4 No.18 1.43 5.375 4/8=0. 10 No.4 × 10−5 and a density of 173 lbs/ft3 .75 3.) 2/8=0.05 0.31 0.376 0.27 1. 5 No.128 10/8=1. 18 Diameter (in. F (and thus must be properly protected from fire). A strand is a helical arrangement of wires around a central wire.56 2.000 9/8=1.2 Aluminum 18 Aluminum is used whenever light weight combined with strength is an important factor.25 4. Bar Designation No. 17 Prestressing Steel cables have an ultimate strength up to 270 ksi. Those bars have a deformation on their surface to increase the bond with concrete. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .79 1.36 2.32 7. Aluminum has a modulus of elasticity equal to 10.000 ksi (about three times lower than steel).1.60 Table 3.99 4. 3. 19 20 Aluminum members can be connected by riveting.00 1.410 14/8=1.

4 Masonry 30 31 32 33 63 Density of normal weight concrete is 145 lbs/ft3 and 100 lbs/ft3 for lightweight concrete. this is called creep. hemlock and larch. 41 Members can be laminated together under good quality control. 3. 3. all modern structural masonry blocks are essentially compression members with low tensile resistance. and flexural strengths as high as 2. Timber is a good shock absorber (many wood structures in Japan have resisted repeated earthquakes). and the strength is time dependent. southern pine.4 34 Masonry Masonry consists of either natural materials.6 42 Steel Section Properties Dimensions and properties of rolled sections are tabulated in the following pages. then cracking will occur 3 . masonry cement. 3. and one of the few natural materials with good tensile properties. can reduce the shrinkage by 75%. When concrete is poured (or rather placed). This should be taken into consideration when computing the deflections (which can be up to three times the instantaneous elastic deflection). 38 39 The properties of timber vary greatly. Thus if the concrete is restrained. 40 The most commonly used species of timber in construction are Douglas fir. 4 Mud bricks were used by the Babylonians.7.05% after one year (strain). As for concrete.5 Timber 37 Timber is one of the earliest construction materials. This shrinkage is about 0.Draft 3. or of manufactured products such as bricks and concrete blocks4 . 35 36 The mortar used is a mixture of sand. the free water not needed for the hydration process evaporates over a period of time and the concrete will shrink. and a 2% reinforcement.65 × 10−5 /deg F for normal weight concrete.. 3. such as stones. Concrete will also deform with time due to the applied load. and ice blocks by the Eskimos. Coefficient of thermal expansion is 0.500 psi can be achieved. stones by the Egyptians. ============== 3 For this reason a minimum amount of reinforcement is always necessary in concrete. stacked and bonded together with mortar. and either Portland cement or hydrated lime. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .. Fig.

0 922.3 W 24x 94 27.65 29.2 1600 151 71 17 hc tw 2.4 W 21x201 59.8 W 24x279 82.0 1010.2 3.5 W 24x229 67.0 62.0 394.6 5.0 28.0 1240.26 24.4 22900 1440 1890 250 14.0 6.8 W 27x194 57.8 W 24x492 144.6 Architects .6 6260 491 530 82 28.0 154.0 30.5 5.0 W 27x336 98.0 97.0 W 21x364 107.5 172.0 238.0 W 27x494 145.9 2370 196 94 21 49.8 6820 531 578 89 26.2 1550.2 4.9 11900 811 953 133 24.0 169.98 28.0 24.6 333.0 105.0 296.0 3620 267 139 28 49.0 W 27x368 108.2 W 24x 55 16.3 2960 273 305 49 34.0 13.1 6760 569 694 109 18.0 1380.53 24.4 W 24x306 89.0 816.0 589.0 210.3 1130.3 2.2 13400 957 1160 170 15.36 21.6 9600 718 823 124 20.5 5.9 2700 222 109 24 45.0 W 24x450 132.5 4090 299 159 32 47.7 W 24x162 47.9 13100 884 1050 146 22.42 30.51 21.4 W 24x 68 20.97 31.5 8.2 3000 245 119 26 41.0 351.52 27.00 24.8 5.9 3.7 4.6 7.5 7.24 bf 2tf 65 Ix Sx Iy Sy in4 in3 in4 in3 12.38 27.0 461.3 305.9 W 21x300 88.0 933.8 W 21x122 35.53 24.09 26.0 136.8 10800 846 1120 168 12.5 W 27x102 30.2 W 24x207 60.0 850.0 1830 154 70 16 50.92 26.8 W 21x223 65.7 7.0 93.6 9660 674 768 108 29.4 7620 632 785 122 17.0 189.74 23.4 289.1 3630 329 376 60 28.5 7650 588 651 99 24.2 14500 970 1170 161 20.5 3.0 432.0 122.52 31.0 835.0 115.2 370.0 300.59 27.8 4.0 187.39 30.0 663.0 6.2 3.0 468.34 26.1 2.6 11900 864 1030 152 17.0 2.0 171.00 29.9 3220 295 333 54 31.0 1410.0 337.02 25.7 8490 644 724 110 22.1 1550 131 34 10 54.81 27.1 3100 258 259 41 39.8 2.0 W 24x408 119.7 W 27x 84 24.29 27.0 437.48 24.6 4020 329 340 53 39.5 3.8 244.0 1120.0 61.9 6.0 237.47 25.6 200.7 W 24x 76 22.6 Zx Zy in3 in3 1880.7 7.9 W 27x129 37.0 214.3 2070 192 93 22 36.06 24.5 2.3 5.83 21.0 119.0 511.71 29.9 19100 1290 1670 237 11.24 25.7 6280 455 497 71 40.0 744.2 5.0 108.6 W 24x103 30.13 26.68 21.73 23.0 1020.47 25.0 5.0 133.0 3.11 27.7 W 24x 84 24.06 21.6 W 27x258 75.0 628.43 21.4 W 27x146 42.0 154.3 W 27x161 47.00 24.09 28.0 373.92 23.0 708.9 2.6 4730 417 483 77 24.0 567.6 279.0 34.4 278.3 307.5 327.7 W 21x101 Victor Saouma 29.7 5.7 W 27x307 90.1 7.0 43.7 3.0 W 24x370 108.0 68.0 92.54 27.1 2.9 W 21x111 32.4 280.0 W 27x448 131.0 1020.71 25.3 W 21x 73 21.0 82.0 4.87 30.2 2.0 915.5 4.2 253.0 137.63 27.6 W 21x166 48.61 29.8 12200 937 1270 189 11.1 4.0 37.9 4280 380 435 70 26.3 2.9 6.2 3540 291 297 46 43.2 W 27x281 82.0 313.9 3.57 26.0 1250.72 22.0 512.74 24.7 W 24x146 43.0 W 24x335 98.Draft Designation 3.0 530.7 20400 1300 1670 224 15.0 57.3 7820 556 618 88 33.0 81.03 22.10 23.5 2.0 126.35 23.1 15100 1060 1320 191 14.0 26.3 W 24x176 51.2 W 21x182 53.5 d in 32.7 Systems for 221.1 2670 249 274 44 37.7 4.6 343.74 23.1 W 24x 62 18.9 4.7 2.0 75.0 33.4 6990 502 555 79 36.0 741.3 W 21x 83 24.5 7.0 606.4 3270 243 124 25 52.66 28.0 W 24x250 73.6 5170 414 443 68 33.3 25500 1570 2110 277 13.0 109.8 W 21x 93 27.0 418.2 8480 692 873 134 15.4 W 24x104 30.0 193.99 27.0 49.0 149.7 134.6 1350 114 29 8 10.0 41.1 10700 789 919 137 18.8 W 27x114 33.3 2.6 5310 461 542 86 22.6 177.7 2850 213 106 21 10.2 W 21x132 38.0 227.43 28.6 Steel Section Properties A in2 W 27x539 158.7 196.0 1130.8 W 21x147 43.48 22.1 W 27x217 63.7 W 24x192 56.2 8870 624 704 100 32.0 263.9 18100 1170 1480 200 17.0 168.0 1710.0 W 21x333 97.5 3.7 5680 450 479 74 30.4 1830 171 81 20 41.0 W 27x 94 27.0 W 24x131 38.5 W 24x117 34.4 6.0 279.4 4.8 5950 510 609 96 20.8 W 21x248 72.2 4.0 15.7 10800 742 859 120 26.31 24.2 5.2 4580 371 391 60 35.0 252.0 476.0 W 27x178 52.0 6.0 375.2 W 21x275 80.0 1530.4 6.73 26.5 395.6 5.2 3.0 559.29 28.9 17100 1170 1490 214 13.62 21.5 224.5 2.6 16100 1060 1310 179 19.0 71.5 2420 227 248 40 Structural Concepts and 32.0 5630 411 443 64 39.5 153.0 206.7 6.0 267.0 W 27x407 119.13 23.0 32.0 769.2 W 21x402 118.8 9610 769 994 151 14.02 25.7 W 27x235 69.7 2.0 38.7 4760 345 184 37 42.0 2100 176 82 18 52.9 6.4 4.5 254.0 676.

6 6.6 85.8 86.10 9.1 29.89 13.0 214.0 126.2 41.4 36.3 28.7 22.5 8.6 31.0 7.6 23.5 4.6 Zy in3 40.3 17.2 6.4 64.9 6.6 8.1 35.1 6.7 6.38 14.4 3.8 16.92 13.4 19.4 147.41 15.7 4.9 32.0 4.92 9.7 18.6 Steel Section Properties A in2 21.7 6.0 27.6 7.8 7.5 30.9 20.8 6.2 4.84 13.0 31.5 29.0 5.98 13.6 60.2 61.0 4.0 7.7 61.9 69.99 9.0 2.0 17.0 6.10 10.3 31.4 75.5 d in 14.2 28.3 5.7 5.2 9.2 9.85 15.Draft Designation 3.3 20.8 4.0 96.99 11.4 9.3 7.3 74.3 2.0 5.3 13.0 28.4 3.03 13.1 5.4 48.3 8.8 2.79 13.0 14.7 7.32 15.0 113.8 38.2 8.5 7.2 14.6 20.0 12.6 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .0 19.2 10.2 29.4 54.7 20.38 12.0 102.1 21.9 7.6 11.9 35.6 24.22 12.4 8.9 38.1 7.6 13.50 12.0 481.5 4.3 10.53 12.0 348.74 16.1 3.1 67.98 10.0 428.0 44.47 10.7 8.5 60.3 24.04 13.6 15.71 12.17 10.8 55.3 1.9 29.0 8.0 17.1 3.7 W 14x 74 W 14x 68 W 14x 61 W 14x 53 W 14x 48 W 14x 43 W 14x 38 W 14x 34 W 14x 30 W 14x 26 W 14x 22 W 12x336 W 12x305 W 12x279 W 12x252 W 12x230 W 12x210 W 12x190 W 12x170 W 12x152 W 12x136 W 12x120 W 12x106 W 12x 96 W 12x 87 W 12x 79 W 12x 72 W 12x 65 W 12x 58 W 12x 53 W 12x 50 W 12x 45 W 12x 40 W 12x 35 W 12x 30 W 12x 26 W 12x 22 W 12x 19 W 12x 16 W 12x 14 W 10x112 W 10x100 W 10x 88 W 10x 77 W 10x 68 W 10x 60 W 10x 54 W 10x 49 W 10x 45 W 10x 39 W 10x 33 W 10x 30 W 10x 26 W 10x 22 W 10x 19 W 10x 17 W 10x 15 W 10x 12 6.1 78.2 33.5 5.8 22.0 53.0 164.2 23.6 47.6 4.6 8.3 7.0 115.8 50.71 14.4 39.11 9.8 14.1 32.5 9.7 6.5 6.1 45.9 7.3 1.3 49.73 10.7 57.25 12.1 67.0 36.8 46.2 49.0 147.40 10.0 243.4 25.0 16.7 18.91 11.5 46.41 13.9 74.7 7.91 13.0 108.1 53.9 40.0 15.94 12.7 4.0 177.33 10.5 37.05 14.36 11.8 89.2 21.4 77.6 18.9 22.16 11.1 6.0 7.1 17.2 25.6 81.9 35.6 36.0 98.7 21.7 2.4 8.10 13.4 13.0 220.1 37.5 2.9 46.2 11.6 7.1 22.2 29.8 7.22 10.82 16.1 12.2 603.6 6.4 11.5 6.5 9.4 54.1 26.7 13.3 26.2 5.1 45.5 5.9 3.7 6.06 11.0 186.0 132.0 7.9 72.5 9.12 12.4 8.8 47.2 41.0 311.4 2.0 275.09 9.60 10.2 10.9 27.6 61.34 12.31 12.0 9.6 5.5 51.3 2.5 98.8 36.7 6.7 39.9 36.0 196.5 8.0 97.24 10.8 11.0 143.6 14.1 11.7 16.17 14.0 119.3 27.0 130.1 17.7 6.2 43.5 25.1 10.0 85.6 43.4 274.7 15.1 19.19 12.5 54.9 17.3 12.6 8.4 25.3 11.3 40.0 21.0 87.0 159.5 5.19 12.7 3.3 7.5 6.8 7.2 12.4 30.6 17.71 13.0 537.0 32.4 7.4 69.5 34.84 10.8 7.2 32.0 111.2 44.4 54.6 5.0 5.2 3.66 14.9 6.0 386.0 244.8 20.9 15.0 8.8 33.06 12.6 14.8 10.12 12.89 12.8 8.6 9.87 bf 2tf hc tw 67 Ix in4 796 723 640 541 485 428 385 340 291 245 199 4060 3550 3110 2720 2420 2140 1890 1650 1430 1240 1070 933 833 740 662 597 533 475 425 394 350 310 285 238 204 156 130 103 89 716 623 534 455 394 341 303 272 248 209 170 170 144 118 96 82 69 54 Sx in3 112 103 92 78 70 63 55 49 42 35 29 483 435 393 353 321 292 263 235 209 186 163 145 131 118 107 97 88 78 71 65 58 52 46 39 33 25 21 17 15 126 112 98 86 76 67 60 55 49 42 35 32 28 23 19 16 14 11 Iy in4 134 121 107 58 51 45 27 23 20 9 7 1190 1050 937 828 742 664 589 517 454 398 345 301 270 241 216 195 174 107 96 56 50 44 24 20 17 5 4 3 2 236 207 179 154 134 116 103 93 53 45 37 17 14 11 4 4 3 2 Sy in3 27 24 22 14 13 11 8 7 6 4 3 177 159 143 127 115 104 93 82 73 64 56 49 44 40 36 32 29 21 19 14 12 11 7 6 5 2 2 1 1 45 40 35 30 26 23 21 19 13 11 9 6 5 4 2 2 1 1 Zx in3 126.6 66.

6 1.70 0.0 36.7 18.81 2. 12.34 0.4 2. 5.47 0.80 13.63 0.0 9.13 4. 10.2 78.12 7.31 0.50 13. 19.2 15.28 2.23 8.53 1.65 1.8 7.x 12 C 7.9 44.16 1.0 129.x 40 C 15.37 3.x 21 C 10.7 11.x 30 C 10.9 1.8 46.98 1.87 0.28 0. 9.17 1.x 20 C 10.x 34 C 12.3 10.36 1.x 10 C 6.0 47. 10.26 6.x 25 C 10. 3.73 1. 12. 8.17 0.36 2.Draft Designation 3. bf 2tf hc tw 69 Ix in4 404.4 1.40 26.4 4.0 24.5 1.x 30 C 12. 8.20 Sy in3 3.51 2.0 3.87 6.13 5. 4.68 8. 7. 9.2 1.93 1.0 27.x 20 C 9.2 13.8 1.33 3.6 2.60 29.1 21.20 Zx in3 8.54 0. 6.3 5.17 6.0 8. 4. 9.80 10.50 1.15 0.64 1.6 2.94 3.x 7 C 4.8 2.8 10.70 0.90 9.8 5.9 7. 5.57 0. 8.26 1.6 11.0 8.92 0.4 3.60 23.5 42.x 13 C 6.0 349.1 Iy in4 11.73 1.40 33.80 16.30 Zy in3 8.x 15 C 7.56 0.x 5 C 3.5 5.x 12 C 7.15 5.78 0.4 15.01 0.x 9 C 5.x 8 C 5. 10. 12.9 4.0 162.85 0.32 1.43 0.48 0.9 51.76 0.1 7.36 3.78 0.0 103.69 0.71 2.48 1.20 57. 6.3 17.78 3.x 19 C 8.43 1.49 3.32 1.95 2. 9. 7.30 15. 15.x 6 C 3.88 1.05 1.5 13.5 20.05 0.x 11 C 6.11 2.9 4.25 0.81 2.0 315.2 21.7 Sx in3 53.8 3.x 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .84 3.14 4.99 0.9 67.x 14 C 8.72 1.1 8.64 0.9 6.4 60.2 24. 3.23 0.8 13.38 0.0 144.47 3.x 7 C 4.1 1.6 3.97 1.40 C 15.88 3.58 1.40 7. 15.19 2.x 13 C 8.1 32.x 15 C 9. 3.2 d in 15.x 15 C 9.1 1.3 6.06 1.20 25.8 6.3 1. 10.0 2.38 1.50 12.x 5 C 3.78 3. 7.x 50 C 15.6 Steel Section Properties A in2 14.32 0.1 2.3 3.0 91.17 1.76 1.6 3.49 0.1 8.x 25 C 12.6 27.35 2.1 4.47 2.5 11.45 0.9 3.20 50.9 1.9 5.5 4.63 0.23 4.26 1.42 1.55 9.01 0.96 1. 6.5 4.0 2.4 3.1 5.8 7.27 0.

0x3.7 1.0x5.0x0.06 2.5x0.9 1.0x0.68 4.40 2.375 5.3 4.47 2.79 71 5.70 7.0x0.3 1.0x0.7 Iy in4 17.79 2.8 2.5 Sx in3 5.438 4.2 1.94 5.250 4.5x0.49 2.5 1.8 1.33 8.0x0.250 4.25 1.4 9.39 1.375 5.09 2.72 5.9 12.10 3.80 15.55 5.438 4.0x0.44 7.6 2.5x0.0 8.625 5.0x0.83 4.94 3.89 0.52 1.38 4.06 4.18 Sy in3 5.00 16.0x3.10 9.16 0.63 3.94 5.95 5.30 12.1 4.53 3.50 15.81 4.56 3.04 3.80 Ix in4 17.11 1.3 5.40 8.42 5.4 8.00 8.0x0.40 1.36 3.20 6.32 2.31 2.5 1.87 wgt k/f t 27.7 3.0x3.500 5.0 5.0 1.17 4.50 3.80 11.03 Zy in3 9.313 4.0x3.35 1.20 6.61 2.6 2.7 7.42 2.16 1.0x3.0 1.05 2.0x0.20 14.0 4.500 5.1 7.9 1.02 0.0x0.0x5.49 2.0x4.03 4.31 2.88 2.97 3.438 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .90 10.0x4.56 1.36 3.39 1.74 2.71 3.21 1.58 2.44 4.55 2.625 5.29 1.79 3.97 1.32 1.625 4.42 2.9 1.0x5.0x3.313 4.5x0.0x3.8 6.875 5.78 1.4 13.47 2.0x0.313 5.99 0.81 2.5 2.0 10.67 6.60 1.73 2.65 6.30 10.0x3.80 8.00 10.9 2.500 4.80 11.33 3.95 2.60 11.61 3.6 3.438 5.0x5.5x0.750 5.09 2.0x0.36 2.0x0.500 4.250 4.07 4.75 1.Draft L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L 3.0x3.0x3.86 3.500 4.0x0.0x3.86 2.0x4.75 1.40 1.2 3.75 4.10 7.5x0.57 3.30 19.4 3.9 3.500 5.0x3.60 20.750 5.04 1.67 2.04 2.0x4.68 5.68 5.18 3.0x3.3 1.86 4.625 5.0x0.4 2.16 4.5x0.75 3.20 11.05 3.32 1.250 5.0x4.7 6.0x4.0x3.33 8.83 2.375 4.14 3.15 1.55 4.40 1.5x0.35 1.3 10.03 1.88 3.6 2.25 2.98 6.0x5.74 7.5x0.30 9.0x0.750 4.70 12.0x5.6 5.5x0.0x5.90 1.5x0.6 Steel Section Properties Designation A in2 7.0x3.09 5.7 3.8 4.9 5.60 18.60 12.375 5.82 1.99 Zx in3 9.81 3.97 4.68 7.00 15.83 6.61 3.438 5.0x0.4 6.80 8.0 1.0x0.375 4.80 16.30 10.60 11.2 2.95 5.0x0.18 2.7 13.83 1.23 3.0x3.0x0.4 2.3 1.74 2.75 3.313 5.53 3.22 1.03 4.27 5.0x4.4 7.70 12.00 3.30 9.438 5.86 1.16 6.36 3.0x3.44 2.29 1.8 2.86 2.75 0.72 2.81 1.92 4.56 3.61 3.8 15.0 8.0x3.41 3.313 5.4 11.9 1.03 5.6 5.2 4.7 5.3 3.0 4.12 0.0x3.80 13.0x0.70 13.05 1.42 2.86 3.60 9.71 2.16 6.6 11.52 1.0 2.70 6.61 2.0x0.56 4.5x0.56 2.16 2.77 4.02 0.20 23.50 3.66 5.11 2.11 1.5 2.16 2.5 3.9 7.07 4.0x3.16 2.33 3.

Draft
3.7 Joists

73

3.7

Joists

43 Steel joists, Fig. 3.8 look like shallow trusses (warren type) and are designed as simply supported uniformly loaded beams assuming that they are laterally supported on the top (to prevent lateral torsional buckling). The lateral support is often profided by the concrete slab it suppors. 44

The standard open-web joist designation consists of the depth, the series designation and the chord type. Three series are available for floor/roof construction, Table 3.3 Series K LH DLH Depth (in) 8-30 18-48 52-72 Span (ft) 8-60 25-96 89-120

Table 3.3: Joist Series Characteristics
[Design Length = Span – 0.33 FT.]

Figure 3.8: prefabricated Steel Joists
45 Typical joist spacing ranges from 2 to 4 ft, and provides an efficient use of the corrugated steel deck which itself supports the concrete slab. 46 For preliminary estimates of the joist depth, a depth to span ratio of 24 can be assumed, therefore

d ≈ L/2 where d is in inches, and L in ft.

Table 3.4 list the load carrying capacity of open web, K-series steel joists based on a amximum allowable stress of 30 ksi. For each span, the first line indicates the total safe uniformly
47

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

4" 4"

Span

4"

(3.5)

Draft
3.7 Joists
Joint 8K1 10K1 12K1 12K3 12K5 Desig. Depth 8 10 12 12 12 (in.) ≈ 5.1 5 5 5.7 7.1 W (lbs/ft) Span (ft.) 8 550 550 9 550 550 10 550 550 480 550 11 532 550 377 542 12 444 550 550 550 550 288 455 550 550 550 13 377 479 550 550 550 225 363 510 510 510 14 324 412 500 550 550 179 289 425 463 463 15 281 358 434 543 550 145 234 344 428 434 16 246 313 380 476 550 119 192 282 351 396 17 277 336 420 550 159 234 291 366 18 246 299 374 507 134 197 245 317 19 221 268 335 454 113 167 207 269 20 199 241 302 409 97 142 177 230 21 218 273 370 123 153 198 22 199 249 337 106 132 172 23 181 227 308 93 116 150 24 166 208 282 81 101 132 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 14K1 14K3 14K4 14K6 16K2 16K3 16K4 16K5 16K6 16K7 16K9 14 5.2 14 6 14 6.7 14 7.7 16 5.5 16 6.3 16 7 16 7.5 16 8.1 16 8.6 16 10.0

75

550 550 511 475 448 390 395 324 352 272 315 230 284 197 257 170 234 147 214 128 196 113 180 100 166 88 154 79 143 70

550 550 550 507 550 467 495 404 441 339 395 287 356 246 322 212 293 184 268 160 245 141 226 124 209 110 193 98 180 88

550 550 550 507 550 467 550 443 530 397 475 336 428 287 388 248 353 215 322 188 295 165 272 145 251 129 233 115 216 103

550 550 550 507 550 467 550 443 550 408 550 383 525 347 475 299 432 259 395 226 362 199 334 175 308 56 285 139 265 124

550 550 512 488 456 409 408 347 368 297 333 255 303 222 277 194 254 170 234 150 216 133 200 119 186 106 173 95 161 86 151 78 142 71

550 550 550 526 508 456 455 386 410 330 371 285 337 247 308 216 283 189 260 167 240 148 223 132 207 118 193 106 180 96 168 87 158 79

550 550 550 526 550 490 547 452 493 386 447 333 406 289 371 252 340 221 313 195 289 173 268 155 249 138 232 124 216 112 203 101 190 92

550 550 550 526 550 490 550 455 550 426 503 373 458 323 418 282 384 248 353 219 326 194 302 173 281 155 261 139 244 126 228 114 214 103

550 550 550 526 550 490 550 455 550 426 548 405 498 351 455 307 418 269 384 238 355 211 329 188 306 168 285 151 266 137 249 124 233 112

550 550 550 526 550 490 550 455 550 426 550 406 550 385 507 339 465 298 428 263 395 233 366 208 340 186 317 167 296 151 277 137 259 124

550 550 550 526 550 490 550 455 550 426 550 406 550 385 550 363 550 346 514 311 474 276 439 246 408 220 380 198 355 178 332 161 311 147

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects Table 3.4: Joist Properties

Draft
Chapter 4

Case Study I: EIFFEL TOWER
Adapted from (Billington and Mark 1983)

4.1

Materials, & Geometry

1 The tower was built out of wrought iron, less expensive than steel,and Eiffel had more expereince with this material, Fig. 4.1

Figure 4.1: Eiffel Tower (Billington and Mark 1983)

2 Loads Location Support First platform second platform Intermediate platform Top platform Top 4 79 Width Estimated Actual 328 216 240 123 110 40 2 0 Height 0 186 380 644 906 984 Width/2 164 108 62 20 1 0 dy dx . and is approximated as follows.Draft 4. Fig.115 .3: Figure 4.6o 1.5o 0o The tower is supported by four inclined supports. An idealization of the tower is shown in Fig.2. 4. The dead load is not uniformly distributed.205 .4o 15.000 β 18.1o 11.2: Eiffel Tower Idealization.270 .2 5 6 Loads The total weight of the tower is 18. (Billington and Mark 1983) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .6o 6. each with a cross section of 800 in 2 .3: Eiffel Tower. 800 k. (Billington and Mark 1983) 4.333 . ACTUAL CONTINUOUS CONNECTION IDEALIZED CONTINUOUS CONNECTION ACTUAL POINTS OF CONNECTION Figure 4.0264 0. 4. Dead Load Idealization.

5: Eiffel Tower. Reactions. Wind Loads.Draft 4.3 Reactions 81 LOADS TOTAL LOADS P P=2560k Q L/2 Q=22. (Billington and Mark 1983) + = WINDWARD SIDE LEEWARD SIDE VERTICAL FORCES WIND FORCES TOTAL Figure 4.280k V0 Figure 4.6: Eiffel Tower. (Billington and Mark 1983) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects ¤ £¡¤ ¤¡ £¡ ¤¡£ £¡¤ ¤¡ £¡£ ¤¡¤ £¡£ ¤¡¤ £¡¤£ ¤¡£ £¡ ¢ ¡£¤£¤£¤ ¢  ¡ ¡¡ ¤¡ £¡ ¢¡¢¡¡  ¡ ¡¡ ¢¡¢¡¢¡¢  ¡ ¡¡ ¡¡ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢  H0 REACTIONS M0 .

4.4o ) = 3.4o H tan β = ⇒ H = V tan β V H = 11.6o thus the axial force (per pair of columns) will be = 1.7: Eiffel Tower.300 2 k . 4. 140 k N = = 11.700 kip cos β = The horizontal forces which must be resisted by the foundations. Internal Gravity Forces. (Billington and Mark 1983) 12 Gravity load are first considered.4 N V INCLINED INTERNAL FORCE: N CONSEQUENT HORIZONTAL COMPONENT: H KNOWN VERTICAL COMPONENT: V H FORCE POLYGON Figure 4.8. remember those are caused by the dead load and the live load.4 Internal Forces β=18. 200 = 3.12-d) H 3700 k H 3700 k Figure 4. Fig. 300 k (tan 11.4 0 83 β=18.13-a) cos 11.12-a) (4. would lead the designer to reduce (or taper) the cross-section. Horizontal Reactions.730 kip cos 18.6o ) = 339 k (4.Draft 4.12-c) (4. the total vertical load is Q = 1. which for a given axial strength. the axial force will also decrease with height.6o 3. 300 k and at that height the angle is 11.13-b) Hvert = 2 Note that this is about seven times smaller than the axial force at the base. Fig. (Billington and Mark 1983) 13 Because the vertical load decreases with height. 140 k(tan 18. (4.12-b) (4. 685 k (4. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects Nvert = 3. 14 At the second platform.7: V V ⇒N = N cos β 11. 100 + 2.8: Eiffel Tower.

5.1 1 Reactions In the analysis of structures (hand calculations).Draft Chapter 5 REVIEW of STATICS To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.1.1 5 6 Equilibrium Reactions are determined from the appropriate equations of static equilibrium.1. Fig. Fixed Support: will prevent rotation and displacements in all directions. in 3D structures a roller may provide restraint in one or two directions. 2 Once the reactions are determined. A roller will allow rotation. In the stiffness method. Newton’s third law of motion 5. This method is most suitable to computer implementation. finally. 5. Hinge: allows rotation but no displacements. there can be different types of support conditions. Summation of forces and moments. 2 In a dynamic system ΣF = ma where m is the mass and a is the acceleration. Reactions are necessary to determine foundation load. internal forces are determined next. we determine displacements firsts. 1 This is the sequence of operations in the flexibility method which lends itself to hand calculation. Roller: provides a restraint in only one direction in a 2D structure. in a static system must be equal to zero2 . 3 4 Depending on the type of structures. then internal forces and reactions. internal stresses and/or deformations (deflections and rotations) are determined last 1 . it is often easier (but not always necessary) to start by determining the reactions. .

2: Inclined Roller Support Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . no axial forces 2D Truss. Frame. Thus the net force/moment is equal to zero. then the reaction R would have. 17 5.Draft 5.3) Figure 5. 20 In an inclined roller support with Sx and Sy horizontal and vertical projection. Fig. then this will provide an additional equation (ΣM = 0 at the hinge) which can be exploited to determine the reactions. Beam Equations ΣFx ΣFy ΣFy ΣMx ΣMx ΣMy ΣMy ΣMz ΣMz ΣMz 87 ΣFz ΣFx ΣFy ΣFz Alternate Set A B ΣMz ΣMz A B ΣFx ΣMz ΣMz A B C ΣMz ΣMz ΣMz Table 5. The external forces give rise to the (non-zero) shear and moment diagram. then it will be in a direction opposite from the one assumed. no axial Force 2 D Truss.2 18 Equations of Conditions If a structure has an internal hinge (which may connect two or more substructures). The right hand side of the equation should be zero If your reaction is negative. 19 Those equations are often exploited in trusses (where each connection is a hinge) to determine reactions. Assume a direction for the unknown quantities 3. Sy Rx = Ry Sx (5.1 Reactions Structure Type Beam.2.1. Beam Grid 3D Truss. 5.1: Equations of Equilibrium 2. Frame. Frame Beams. 16 Summation of external forces is equal and opposite to the internal ones.

(60)(6) + (48)(12) − (Rdy )(18) = 0 ⇒ Rdy = 52 k 6 ¡  ) ΣM d = 0. Many of those problems are taken from Prof. Example 5-1: Simply Supported Beam Determine the reactions of the simply supported beam shown below.4: Geometric Instability Caused by Concurrent Reactions 5.) ΣFx = 0.5 29 Examples Examples of reaction calculation will be shown next. we have 3 equations of static equilibrium.Draft 5. (R )(18) − (60)(12) − (48)(6) = 0 ⇒ R = 56 k (+  ¡ ay ay 6 z Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Gerstle textbok Basic Structural Analysis.1 Reactions 89 Figure 5. Each example has been carefully selected as it brings a different “twist” from the preceding one. ⇒ Rax − 36 k = 0 (+ 6 ΣFy = 0.1. ⇒ Ray + Rdy − 60 k − (4) k/ft(12) ft = 0 )   c (+ ) ΣMz = 0. Some of those same problems will be revisited later for the determination of the internal forces and/or deflections. ⇒ 12Ray − 6Rdy − (60)(6) = 0 ¡ or through matrix inversion (on your calculator)   Rax   36   Rax   36 k  1 0 0           1  Ray 108 Ray 56 k = ⇒ =  0 1       R   52 k     0 12 −6  Rdy   360  dy         Alternatively we could have used another set of equations:   a (+ ) ΣMz = 0. hence it is statically determinate. (+ . Solution: The beam has 3 reactions.

Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft 3. Due to symmetry.7 k 6 12 91 ΣFy = 0.3 = 16. Check 5.1 Reactions 2.7 = 0 .7)(18) − (40)(15) − (4)(8)(8) − (30)(2) + R cy (12) = 0 ¡ ⇒ Rcy = 1. Determine the critical design values for the vertical and horizontal reactions.7)(6) − (40)(3) + (4)(8)(4) + (30)(10) − R (12) = 0 (+  ¡ c dy ⇒ Rdy = 201. −(17. on center. 2) Snow load. Isolating bd:   (+ ) ΣMd = 0. of 30 psf of horizontal projection.2 − 40 − 40 + 103 − 32 − 30 + 16. −(17. of 20 psf of roof area. √ Example 5-3: Three Hinged Gable Frame The three-hinged gable frames spaced at 30 ft. Solution: 1. we will consider only the dead load on one side of the frame. 3) Wind load of 15 psf of vertical projection. Determine the reactions components on the frame due to: 1) Roof dead load. 622.236 = 103 k 6 12  ) ΣM = 0.

Joints are frictionless hinges4 . Stress-Force: σ = P A Stress-Strain: σ = Eε Force-Displacement: ε = ∆L L 4 In practice the bars are riveted. they can be under either tension or compression. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5 Figure 5.1 30 Cables and trusses are 2D or 3D structures composed of an assemblage of simple one dimensional components which transfer only axial forces along their axis. Depending on the orientation of the diagonals. or welded directly to each other or to gusset plates. Fig. On a truss the axial forces are indicated as forces acting on the joints. 3. long span roofs.2 Trusses 93 5. 34 In a truss analysis or design. 31 32 33 A truss would typically be composed of triangular elements with the bars on the upper chord under compression and those along the lower chord under tension.2.Draft 5. electric tower.2. we seek to determine the internal force along each member. compression negative.2 Trusses Assumptions 5.5: Bridge Truss 5. thus the bars are not free to rotate and so-called secondary bending moments are developed at the bars. 5. space structures. Loads are applied at the joints only.2 Basic Relations Sign Convention: Tension positive. Bars are pin-connected 2. it is assumed that 1. bolted. Trusses are extensively used for bridges. For trusses. Another source of secondary moments is the dead weight of the element.

4) 44 Always keep track of the x and y components of a member force (Fx . 5. Fy ). ΣFy and ΣFz in 3D). and that the member should have been under compression (or tension). Sketch a free body diagram showing all joint loads (including reactions) 4. F Fx Fy = = l lx ly (5. the resultant force ( F = Fx + Fy ) must be along the member. Fig.7: X and Y Components of Truss Forces This method should be used when all member forces should be determined. and starting with the loaded ones. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . If after analysis.2 Trusses 95 Figure 5. 45 46 In truss analysis. A member is assumed to be under tension (or compression). the force is found to be negative. apply the appropriate equations of equilibrium (ΣFx and ΣFy in 2D. as those might be needed later on when considering the force equilibrium at another joint to which the member is connected.7. Because truss elements can only carry axial forces. Figure 5. ΣFx . there is no sign convention. For each joint. 5.Draft 5.6: A Statically Indeterminate Truss 3. then this would imply that the wrong assumption was made.

5 Tension ly 32 Node B: (+ . ⇒ −FAH + FAB = 0 (+ x FAB = lx (FAHy ) = 24 (58) = 43.5 Tension FHG = 52 Compression Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5 32 .) ΣFx = 0. ⇒ FAHy + FHCy − 12 − FHGy − 20 = 0 ) 58 + √2432 2 (FHC ) − 12 − √2410 2 (FHG ) − 20 = 0 (II) 2 +32 2 +10 Solving for I and II we obtain FHC = −7. ⇒ FAHy − 58 = 0 ) FAH = ll (FAHy ) y √ ly = 32 l = 322 + 242 = 40 Compression ⇒ FAH = 40 (58) = 72. ⇒ FBH ) Node H: = 43.2 Trusses 97 Node A: Clearly AH is under compression.) ΣFx = 0.) ΣFx = 0.5 − √2424 2 (FHC ) − √2424 2 (FHG ) = 0 (I) 2 +32 2 +10 (+ 6 ΣFy = 0. and AB under tension. ⇒ FAHx − FHCx − FHGx = 0 43.5 Tension = 20 Tension (+ . (+ 6 ΣFy = 0. ⇒ FBC (+ 6 ΣFy = 0.Draft 5.

or “down” on a positive one.3. Shear. Axial: tension positive. Flexure A positive moment is one which causes tension in the lower fibers. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects ¦¥   §§  ¥¦ ¥¥¦ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥¥¥¥ ¨  ¨  §   §§  © © © © © ¨¨  ¨   ©© © © . 51 There are no axial forces. 52 Since dx is infinitesimally small.1. shear and moment. the small variation in load along it can be neglected.11.10: Sign Conventions for 3D Frame Elements 5. and compression in the upper ones. Forces and moments (including torsions) are defined with respect to a right hand side coordinate system. 6 In this derivation. a pair of positive shear forces will cause clockwise rotation. Torsion Counterclockwise positive 3D: Use double arrow vectors (and NOT curved arrows). therefore we assume w(x) to be constant along dx. thus we only have two equations of equilibrium to satisfy ΣF y = 0 and ΣMz = 0. Considering an infinitesimal length dx of a beam subjected to a positive load6 w(x).3 Shear & Moment Diagrams 99 +ve Load + Axial Force + +ve Shear +ve Moment Figure 5.10. Moment Relations Let us (re)derive the basic relations between load. as in all other ones we should assume all quantities to be positive. that is positive upward. Fig. The infinitesimal section must also be in equilibrium. Draft Figure 5. a positive moment is one which causes tension along the inner side. 5. Fig. Alternatively.9: Shear and Moment Sign Conventions for Design Load Positive along the beam’s local y axis (assuming a right hand side convention). 5. Shear A positive shear force is one which is “up” on a negative face. For frame members.2 50 Load.Draft 5.

or Between Shear and Moment Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .12 and 5. Figure 5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams The change in moment between 1 and 2. 101 Note that we still need to have V1 and M1 in order to obtain V2 and M2 respectively. is equal to the area under the shear curve between x1 and x2 .13: Slope Relations Between Load Intensity and Shear. ∆M21 . Fig.13 further illustrates the variation in internal shear and moment under uniform and concentrated forces/moment. 5.12: Shear and Moment Forces at Different Sections of a Loaded Beam Positive Constant Negative Constant Positive Increasing Positive Decreasing Negative Increasing Negative Decreasing Load Shear Positive Constant Negative Constant Positive Increasing Positive Decreasing Negative Increasing Negative Decreasing Shear Moment Figure 5.Draft 57 58 5.

−14 k is also the reaction previously determined at F . At B the shear drops (negative load) by 11 k to 2 k.Draft 5.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams 103 Reactions are determined from the equilibrium equations ) ΣF (+  x = 0. ⇒ (11)(4) + (8)(10) + (4)(2)(14 + 2) − R (18) = 0 ⇒ R = 14 k (+  ¡ Fy A Fy (+ 6 ΣFy = 0. or ∆MB−A = (13)(4) = 52. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . ⇒ −RAx + 6 = 0 ⇒ RAx = 6 k  ) ΣM = 0. 5. The change in moment between A and B is equal to the area under the corresponding shear diagram. The moment at A is zero (hinge support). It stays constant up to D and then it decreases (constant negative slope since the load is uniform and negative) by 2 k per linear foot up to −14 k. 4. 2. Moment is determined last: 1. At A the shear is equal to the reaction and is positive. 3. ⇒ RAy − 11 − 8 − (4)(2) + 14 = 0 ⇒ RAy = 13 k ) Shear are determined next. 2. At C it drops again by 8 k to −6 k. 1. As a check.

3 Shear & Moment Diagrams 105 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .Draft 5.

If this is a reinforced concrete frame.22 max Thus MB−C = −432 + 64. Finally along C − D. Hydrostatic Load The frame shown below is the structural support of a flume. 601.06(25. maximum moment occurs where the shear is zero. show the location of the reinforcement. Assuming that the frames are spaced 2 ft apart along the length of the flume. we obtain at node C MC = 139.5 − 937. the moment first increases (positive shear). Solution: The hydrostatic pressure causes lateral forces on the vertical members which can be treated as cantilevers fixed at the lower end. The moment along C − D is given by x MC−D = MC + 0 VC−D (x)dx = 139.8 + 2 = 139.0) − 3 (25. we know that dx = 0 at the point where VB−C = 0. the moment varies quadratically (since we had a linear shear).3 − 337.06 − 3x = 0 ⇒ x = 64.8 + 13. 2 Substituting for x = 15.Draft 5.8 + 198.0 ft. If we need to determine the maximum moment along B−C.22(15) − 3 15 = 2 √ 139. Determine all internal member end actions 2.8 + 13. Locate and compute maximum internal bending moments 4.06 = 3 25. 1.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams dM 107 B−C 3. and then decreases (negative shear).5 = 232 k.22x − 3 x 2 x 0 (13. that is VB−C (x) = 64.ft 2 2 − 3x)dx which is a parabola.0) = −432 + 1. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 4. In other words.5 = 0 Example 5-7: Frame Shear and Moment Diagram. Draw the shear and moment diagrams 3.

the sign convention for design moments is the opposite of the one commonly used in the U.ft as determined above. The shear to the left of C is V = 0 + (−. 8 Shear reinforcement is made of a series of vertical stirrups. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Mc = −4.749)(5)( 5 ) = 1. The figure below schematically illustrates the location of the flexural8 reinforcement.50 k.246 + 5.246 k. At the support C. Reinforcement should be placed where the moment is “postive”. Base at B the shear force was determined earlier and was equal to 2.ft 3.749)(3)( 2 ) = −7.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams 109 2. 1.864 + (.A. that is on the side of the negative moment7 . Moment diagrams 3 2. The shear to the right of C is V = −2.493 + (−.Draft 5.246 k. Based on the orientation of the x − y axis. The maximum moment is equal to Mmax = −7.S..749)(3) = −2.744 k 1. 4.864 k.99 = 3.ft 2 Design: Reinforcement should be placed along the fibers which are under tension. At the base: B M = 4.493 k. The vertical shear at B is zero (neglecting the weight of A − B) 3. this is a negative shear. Example 5-8: Shear Moment Diagrams for Frame 7 That is why in most European countries.

4k BC 29.5 -39 .1 .1k 19.1 (28.6)(5)/(12)=11.2k 26k 10k 24k 48.8k 23.6k -0.72 (26)(12)/(13)=24 (26.72k 7.1)(12.58)(13) k’ 800+(25.1)(12.8k 800’k Fy 60-(2)(20) 20k 20k (20)(20)+(60-20)(20)/2 19.8k (20)(15)/13=7.58 -26 -0.4)(13) 1122 777 800’k 13 ’k 1130 777k ’ (39.2k 7.6-26 2 25.1)(5)/(4)=48.7+ .46k 7.1k 8k 26.2)(12)/(13)=17.4 k -23 .28 (20)(4)/(5)=16 (20)(3)/(5)=12 (39.1)(3)/(4)=29.6)(13) 3.8 (26.9k 10 +25 k k -26.130-(.5) k’ +20k +25.8k 17.122-(26.1 (28.46 (19.6k 11.1k 778k’ 20k 24k 0k 28.2 8k 12k 16k 5 6 20-10-10 800k’ 17.69k 18.38 (19.2)(5)/(13)=7.7 0k’ 20k 0k CD -23 .4 8 B-C 1.1k -16 11 C-D 1.6 -0.7 17.3k 7 48.Draft 5.5) 488’k 9 B-C 12 C-D 14 (20)(12)/(13)=18. 11 1k 11 30’k 22k ’ 800’k Victor Saouma +60k Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 26k 10k 778k’ 28.38k 26.6)(13)/(12)=28.3 Shear & Moment Diagrams Example 5-9: Shear Moment Diagrams for Inclined Frame 26k 13’ 13 12 111 26k 13’ B 13’ C 5 10’ 10’ 20k 3 5 4 15’ D 20’ 2k/ft A Va (60)(20)-(2)(20)(20)/2 Ha 36’ 20’ E Ve 48.8)(4)/(5)=23.1k -2 39 39.8)(3)/(5)=17.2k 800k’ Fx F z y x F/Fy=z/x F/Fx=z/y Fx/Fy=y/x 0k’ 2k/ft 60k AB 60k 1 2 ED 3 4 1k 19.9 (39.3 777k’ 48 8’ k 488+(23.

Since there are no external axial forces (unlike a column or a beam-column).4 Flexure 64 113 where y is measured from the axis of rotation (neutral axis). yet later on we will need to consider equilibrium in terms of the stresses.1 70 71 ΣFx = 0. Thus strains are proportional to the distance from the neutral axis.17) 5.15 we obtain σx = −Eκy (5. Neutral Axis The first equation we consider is the summation of axial forces.Draft 5. the internal axial forces must be in equilibrium. with equation 5.3 68 Internal Equilibrium. Hence we need to relate strain to stress. 5. 69 The internal forces are determined by slicing the beam. 5. ρ (Greek letter rho) is the radius of curvature. ΣFx = 0 ⇒ σx dA = 0 (5.18) A where σx was given by Eq. 67 Combining Eq.16) where E is Young’s Modulus.3.2 Stress-Strain Relations 65 So far we considered the kinematic of the beam.4. the internal forces must also satisfy the equilibrium equations.14) ρ thus.19-a) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . substituting we obtain A σx dA = − EκydA = 0 A (5. the curvature κ (Greek letter kappa) is also used where 1 κ= (5. εx = −κy (5.17. 66 For linear elastic material Hooke’s law states σx = Eεx (5. The internal forces on the “cut” section must be in equilibrium with the external forces.4.4. Section Properties Just as external forces acting on a structure must be in equilibrium. In some textbook.15) 5.

Draft 5.4 Flexure Y x Y 115 h y b X A x y Ix Iy = bh b = 2 h = 2 3 = bh 12 3 = hb 12 x h h’ y b’ b X A x y Ix Iy = bh − b h b = 2 h = 2 3 3 = bh −b h 12 3 3 = hb −h b 12 Y a c Y x h(a+b) 2 h(2a+b) 3(a+b) h3 (a2 +4ab+b2 36(a+b) h y b X A = y = Ix = h A x y X I x y Iy = = = = = b Y bh 2 b+c 3 h 3 bh3 36 bh 2 36 (b − bc + c2 ) Y r X A = πr 2 = 4 Ix = Iy = πr = 4 πd2 4 πd4 64 t r X A = 2πrt = πdt 3 Ix = Iy = πr3 t = πd t 8 Y b X b a a A = πab 3 Ix = πab 3 3 Iy = πba 4 Table 5.3: Section Properties Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

Draft 5. A zero moment correspnds to an inflection point in the deflected shape. 82 Hence.67 (5.14.65 = = 0. and compare your results with the exact solution. A positive and negative moment would correspond to positive and negative curvature respectively (adopting the sign convention shown in Fig. Identify inflection points. 5. 2.51 in r 18 3 65.14). Perform an approximate analysis. We now set those two values equal to their respective maximum ∆max = σmax L (20) ft(12) in/ft 65. M From Fig.4. 5. 5. Statically indeterminate structure. 5. 2. Example 5-11: Approximate Analysis of a Statically Indeterminate beam Perform an approximate analysis of the following beam. Fig.15. Locate those inflection points on the structure. we recall that that the moment is directly 81 Thus. 1. 3.31-a) in 0. approximate their location. 20k 16’ 12’ 28’ Victor Saouma 28’ Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . for Statically determinate structure.67 in = ⇒r= 360 360 r3 764 764 = (18) ksi = 2 ⇒ r = = 6. we can determine the deflected shape from the moment diagram. Plot the deflected shape.31-b) 5. 4.61 (5.5 80 Approximate Analysis 1 ρ ).25 ( EI = κ = proportional to the curvature κ.65 = 4. we can: 1. which will then become statically determinate. and Eq.4 Flexure 117 5.

Draft
5.4 Flexure

119

Figure 5.16: Approximate Analysis of Beams

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
5.4 Flexure 6. Check
  (+ ) ΣMA = 0; (20)(16) − (RC )(28) + (RD )(28 + 28) = ¡

121

320 − (17.67)(28) + (3.12)(56) = √ 320 − 494.76 + 174.72 = 0

(5.34-a)

7. The moments are determined next Mmax = RA a = (5.45)(16) = 87.2 M1 = RD L = (3.12)(28) = 87.36 (5.35-a) (5.35-b)

8. We now compare with the exact solution from Section ??, solution 21 where:L = 28, a = 16, b = 12, and P = 20 R1 = RA = = R2 = RB = = R3 = RD = = Pb 4L2 − a(L + a) 4L3 (20)(12) 4(28)2 − (16)(28 + 16) = 6.64 4(28)3 Pa 2L2 + b(L + a) 2L3 (20)(16) 2(28)2 + 12(28 + 16) = 15.28 2(28)3 P ab − 3 (L + a) 4L (20)(16)(12) (28 + 16) = −1.92 − 4(28)3

(5.36-a) (5.36-b) (5.36-c) (5.36-d) (5.36-e) (5.36-f) (5.36-g)

Mmax = R1 a = (6.64)(16) = 106.2 M1 = R3 L = (1.92)(28) = 53.8

9. If we tabulate the results we have Value RA RC RD M1 Mmax Approximate 5.45 17.67 3.12 87.36 87.2 Exact 6.64 15.28 1.92 53.8 106.2 % Error 18 -16 63 62 18

10. Whereas the correlation between the approximate and exact results is quite poor, one should not underestimate the simplicity of this method keeping in mind (an exact analysis of this structure would have been computationally much more involved). Furthermore, often one only needs a rough order of magnitude of the moments.

Victor Saouma

Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects

Draft
Chapter 6

Case Study II: GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE
6.1
1

Theory

Whereas the forces in a cable can be determined from statics alone, its configuration must be derived from its deformation. Let us consider a cable with distributed load p(x) per unit horizontal projection of the cable length (thus neglecting the weight of the cable). An infinitesimal portion of that cable can be assumed to be a straight line, Fig. 6.1 and in the absence of any horizontal load we have H =constant. Summation of the vertical forces yields ) (+ ? ΣFy = 0 ⇒ −V + wdx + (V + dV ) = 0 (6.1-a) (6.1-b) dV + wdx = 0

where V is the vertical component of the cable tension at x (Note that if the cable was subjected to its own weight then we would have wds instead of wdx). Because the cable must be tangent to T , we have V tan θ = (6.2) H Substituting into Eq. 6.1-b yields d(H tan θ) + wdx = 0 ⇒ −
2

d (H tan θ) = w dx

(6.3)

But H is constant (no horizontal load is applied), thus, this last equation can be rewritten as −H d (tan θ) = w dx
dv dx

(6.4) which when substituted in Eq. (6.5)

3

Written in terms of the vertical displacement v, tan θ = 6.4 yields the governing equation for cables − Hv = w

4 For a cable subjected to a uniform load w, we can determine its shape by double integration of Eq. 6.5

− Hv

= wx + C1

(6.6-a)

9-b) = Eliminating H from Eq. Furthermore.8 we obtain1 . thus Tmax = V 2 + H2 = wL 2 2 + H2 = H 1 + wL/2 H 2 (6. 2! 2! 3! √ 1 b Thus for b2 << 1. this relation clearly shows that the horizontal force is inversely 8 proportional to the sag h. the tension T is not.8 we obtain v = 4h − x2 x + 2 L L (6. the equation would have been one of a catenary2 . as h H . Thus 2 w v= x(L − x) (6. Recalling that (a + b)n = an + nan−1 b + n(n−1) an−2 b2 + · or (1 + b)n = 1 + nb + n(n−1)b + n(n−1)(n−2)b + · · ·.6-b) 2 and the constants of integrations C1 and C2 can be obtained from the boundary conditions: v = 0 at x = 0 and at x = L ⇒ C2 = 0 and C1 = − wL . −Hv = 5 Since the maximum sag h occurs at midspan (x = H= wL2 8h L 2) we can solve for the horizontal force (6.7 and 6. 7 Whereas the horizontal force H is constant throughout the cable.1 Theory 125 wx2 + C1 x + C 2 (6. 6.13) The cable between transmission towers is a good example of a catenary.8) we note the analogy with the maximum moment in a simply supported uniformly loaded beam 2 M = Hh = wL .12) 8 Had we assumed a uniform load w per length of cable (rather than horizontal projection). we can rewrite this equation as r wL H 6 def = h L 8r (6.11) Combining this with Eq.Draft 6.10) Thus the cable assumes a parabolic shape (as the moment diagram of the applied load). 6. 1 2 3 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . v= H w cosh w H L −x 2 +h (6. Tmax = H 1 + 16r 2 ≈ H(1 + 8r 2 ) (6.7) 2H This equation gives the shape v(x) in terms of the horizontal force H. The maximum tension occurs at the support where the vertical component is equal to V = wL and 2 the horizontal one to H. Finally. 1 + b = (1 + b) 2 ≈ 1 + 2 2 Derivation of this equation is beyond the scope of this course.9-a) (6.

we estimate that there is a total of 12 lanes or LL = (12)Lanes(.3.Draft 14 6. I Because the cables are much longer than they are thick (large L ). design loads are given by the AASHTO (Association of American State Highway Transportation Officials). Fig. Fig. 6. The HS-20 truck is often used for the design of bridges on main highways. Either the design truck with specified axle loads and spacing must be used or the equivalent uniform load and concentrated load.64) k/ ft/Lane = 7. 6. or wind loads in this analysis. Assuming an average width of 100 ft.4: T L = 39 + 8 = 47 k/ft Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects Victor Saouma . they can be idealized a perfectly flexible members with no shear/bending resistance but with high axial strength.2. the towers will be subjected only to axial forces.68 k/ft ≈ 8 k/ft (6. 15 The towers are 578 ft tall and rest on concrete caissons in the river.15) We do not consider earthquake.3: Truck Load 18 With two decks. this would be equivalent to DL = (390) psf(100) ft for the main span and 40 k/ft for the side ones. 6. 17 k (1. 19 Final DL and LL are. Figure 6.2 The Case Study 127 tower supports and are firmly anchored in both banks by huge blocks of concrete.2 16 Loads The dead load is composed of the weight of the deck and the cables and is estimated at 390 and 400 psf respectively for the central and side spans respectively. the anchors. 000) lbs = 39 k/ft (6. Because of our assumption regarding the roller support for the cables.14) For highway bridges. This loading must be placed such that maximum stresses are produced.

500)2 ft2 From Eq.5: Location of Cable Reactions 22 The vertical force in the columns due to the central span (cs) is simply the support reaction.6: Vertical Reactions in Columns Due to Central Span Load 1 1 Vcs = wLcs = (47) k/ft(3. 200) k 1 + (16)(0.500 FT Figure 6.12 the maximum tension is 327 r = Lh = 3.3 20 6. 200) k(1.16) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .000 k 6.4 21 Reactions Cable reactions are shown in Fig. POINTS WITH REACTIONS TO CABLES Figure 6. 6. 500) ft = 82.6 wTOT = 39 + 8 = 47 k/ft A POINT OF NO MOMENT B REACTIONS AT TOP OF TOWER L = 3. 000 k (47) k/ft(3.Draft 6. 6.500 = 0.2. 6.8 wL2 cs H = 8h = (8)(327) ft = 220.5.2 The Case Study 129 Cable Forces The thrust H (which is the horizontal component of the cable force) is determined from Eq. 250 k 2 2 Victor Saouma (6.0934 cs √ Tmax = H 1 + 16r 2 = (2.2. 6.0934)2 = (2.0675) = 235.

03017 in2 (6. 200) in2 ss Ttower (262. 000) k H = = 68. 000) in2 = = 77.75 ksi (6. 474)wires/cable(0.2 ksi (6. 200 in2 (6.000) k(1. 000 ft3 or a cube of approximately 91 ft 3 150 28 lbs/ft The deck.8: Awire = Atotal = Central Span σ = ss Side Span Tower σtower = ss Side Span Anchor σtower = 131 πD2 (3.22-d) A (3. 500) in2 = 82 ksi = (6.8: Cable Stresses If the cables were to be anchored to a concrete block. the volume of the block should be at least equal to V = (112. 29 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .000) lbs/ k = 747.22-e) A (3.9. 200) in2 73.22-b) (220. 200) in2 ss Tanchor (247. 6.2 ksi Figure 6.2 The Case Study The cable stresses are determined last. 6.9 ksi 77.196)2 = = 0.22-c) A (3. Fig.14)(0.03017) in2 /wire = 3. This is often idealized as a beam on elastic foundations.22-a) 4 4 (4)cables(26.4 ksi 68. for all practical purposes can be treated as a continuous beam supported by elastic springs with stiffness K = AL/E (where L is the length of the supporting cable).Draft 27 6.75 ksi 81. and the resulting shear and moment diagrams for this idealization are shown in Fig.

which were passed from generation to generation.1 2 Before the Greeks Throughout antiquity. No record exists of any rational consideration. either as to the strength of structural members or as to the behavior of structural materials. at Crotona in southern Italy. one of only two commoners to be deified. 4 7. it was because I stood on the shoulders of giants.C. At his school he allowed . Architecture/Mechanics/Structures is the proud outcome of a of a long and distinguished history. aqueducs. would be better appreciated if we were to develop a sense of our evolution.1. Gothic cathedrals to name a few). Fig. Despite this. Hamurrabi’s code in Babylonia (1750 BC) included among its 282 laws penalties for those “architects” whose houses collapsed. 3 The first structural engineer in history seems to have been Imhotep.C. which was primarily a secret religious society. guarded by secrets of the guild. Sir Isaac Newton 1 More than any other engineering discipline. 7. Our profession. Via Appia. and seldom supplemented by new knowledge. structures erected before Galileo are by modern standards quite phenomenal (pyramids. second oldest. He was the builder of the step pyramid of Sakkara about 3.. The builders were guided by rules of thumbs and experience.2 5 Greeks The greek philosopher Pythagoras (born around 582 B.Draft Chapter 7 A BRIEF HISTORY OF STRUCTURAL ARCHITECTURE If I have been able to see a little farther than some others. Colisseums. 7.) founded his famous school. and yielded great influence over ancient Egypt.000 B. structural engineering existing as an art rather than a science.

The great vaulted dome is 43 m (142 ft) in diameter. in the center of the dome.3: Pantheon preserved major edifice of ancient Rome and one of the most significant buildings in architectural history. Aurelia.3 10 Romans Science made much less progress under the Romans than under the Greeks. topped with a dome and fronted by a rectangular colonnaded porch. 7. and stadium (Colliseum). the Romans built great roads (some of them still in use) such as the Via Appia.3.Draft 7. called an oculus. In shape it is an immense cylinder concealing eight piers. Cassia. 12 11 One of the most notable Roman construction was the Pantheon. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . and were not as interested in abstract thinking though they were excellent fighters and builders.3 Romans 135 Figure 7. The Romans apparently were more practical. As the roman empire expanded. 7. Fig. Also they built great bridges (such as the third of a mile bridge over the Rhine built by Caesars). The Pantheon was erected by the Roman emperor Hadrian between AD 118 and 128.2: Archimed conqueror of Syracuse. It is the best- Figure 7. and the entire structure is lighted through one aperture.

in which arching and intersecting stone ribs support a vaulted ceiling surface that is composed of mere thin stone panels. which ultimately absorbed the ceiling vault’s thrust. separate widely spaced vertical piers to support the ribs could replace the continuous thick walls.Draft 7. first to an attached outer buttress and then to a freestanding pier by means of a half arch known as a flying buttress. The problem was that the heavy stonework of the traditional arched barrel vault and the groin vault exerted a tremendous downward and outward pressure that tended to push the walls upon which the vault rested outward. A building’s vertical supporting walls thus had to be made extremely thick and heavy in order to contain the barrel vault’s outward thrust. thin-walled buildings whose interior structural system of columnar piers and ribs reinforced an impression of soaring verticality. Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects Victor Saouma . Since the combination of ribs and piers relieved the intervening vertical wall spaces of their supportive function. and terminated in the freestanding buttress pier. crossed over the low side aisles of the nave. First and foremost they developed a ribbed vault. This greatly reduced the weight (and thus the outward thrust) of the ceiling vault. these walls could be built thinner and could even be opened up with large windows or other glazing. The flying buttress leaned against the upper exterior of the nave (thus counteracting the vault’s outward thrust). The round arches of the barrel vault were replaced by pointed (Gothic) arches which distributed thrust in more directions downward from the topmost point of the arch. The skillful use of flying buttresses made it possible to build extremely tall.5: Hagia Sophia dieval masons’ efforts to solve the problems associated with supporting heavy masonry ceiling vaults over wide spans. and since the vault’s weight was now carried at discrete points (the ribs) rather than along a continuous wall edge. These elements enabled Gothic masons to build much larger and taller buildings than their Romanesque predecessors and to give their structures more complicated ground plans. A crucial point was that the outward thrust of the ribbed ceiling vaults was carried across the outside walls of the nave.4 The Medieval Period (477-1492) 137 Figure 7. thus collapsing them. 19 Vilet-Le-Duc classical book. (le Duc 1977) provided an in depth study of Gothic architecture. Medieval masons solved this difficult problem about 1120 with a number of brilliant innovations.

6: Florence’s Cathedral Dome inside the other. proportion. to fix dimensions of structural elements by relying on experience and judgment. and lost. circular windows. and perspective make him a key artistic figure in the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern era. He was born in Florence in 1377 and received his early training as an artisan in silver and gold. these important findings. Fig. Brunelleschi 1377-1446 32 Brunelleschi was a Florentine architect and one of the initiators of the Italian Renaissance. and engineers in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries continued. The dome. carrying them over to the exterior of the dome.5 The Renaissance 139 31 Unfortunatly. Brunelleschi made a design feature of the necessary eight ribs of the vault. elaborate Gothic mode that still prevailed in his time. 7. He then turned to architecture and in 1418 received the commission to execute the dome of the unfinished Gothic Cathedral of Florence.5. which also include architectural reliefs. Its shape was dictated by its structural needs one of the first examples of architectural functionalism. were buried in his notes. as in the Roman era.2 7. and a beautifully proportioned cupola. His revival of classical forms and his championing of an architecture based on mathematics.6 a great innovation both artistically and technically. In 1401 he entered. where they provide the framework for the dome’s decorative elements. This was the first time that a dome created the same strong effect on the exterior as it did on the interior.Draft 7. consists of two octagonal vaults. 34 Completely different from the emotional. also called the Duomo. the famous design competition for the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery. Brunelleschi’s style emphasized mathematical rigor in its use of straight lines. flat Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . one 33 Figure 7.

Draft 7.5 The Renaissance 141 Figure 7.7: Palladio’s Villa Rotunda Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

9: Galileo was born. In Padua he achieved great fame. 50 When he was almost seventy years old. he received a semiofficial warning to avoid theology and limit himself to physical reasoning. He subsequently became interested in astronomy and built one of the first telescope through which he saw Jupiter and became an ardent proponent of the Copernican theory (which stated that the planets circle the sun as opposed to the Aristotelian and Ptolemaic assumptions that it was the sun which was circling Earth). The same year. In 1592 he wrote Della Scienza Meccanica in which various problems of statics were treated using the principle of virtual displacement. condemned and had to read his recantation (At the end of his process he murmured the famous e pur se muove). (Galilei 1974). This theory being condemned by the church.10: Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences.5 The Renaissance 143 Figure 7. Fig. His first science was the study of the forces that hold objects together 51 Figure 7. Cover Page Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . he was appointed to the chair of mathematics at the University of Padua. and lecture halls capable of containing 2. where he remained until 1610. probably because he contradicted Aristotelian professors.000 students from all over Europe were used.Draft 7. Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences. His contract was not renewed in 1592. 7. he retired to his villa near Florence and wrote his final book.10. When he published his books dealing with the two ways of regarding the universe (which clearly favored the Copernican theory) he was called to Rome by the Inquisition. his life shattered by the Inquisition.

extension varies directly with force.12: Experimental Set Up Used by Hooke “Take a wire string of 20. and grasped. Newton. This became Hooke’s Law σ = Eε. and was the first paper in which the elastic properties of material was discused.e. 1642-1727 Born on christmas day in the year of Galileo’s death.Draft 57 7. Because he was concerned about patent rights to his invention. It contained results of his experiments with elastic bodies. After the Great Fire of London in 1666. but did not develop mathematically. He formulated the theory of planetary motion as a problem in mechanics. and to the other end fasten a Scale to receive the weights: Then with a pair of compasses take the distance of the bottom of the scale from the ground or floor underneath. or 30. Ut tensio sic vis (at the time the two symbos u and v were employed interchangeably to denote either the vowel u or the consonant v).13 was Professor of Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects Victor Saouma . Hooke anticipated some of the most important discoveries and inventions of his time but failed to carry many of them through to completion.then put inweights into the said scale and measure the several stretchings of the said string. i. 58 His most important contribution was published in 1678 in the paper De Potentia Restitutiva. or 40 ft long. he did not publish his law when first discovered it in 1660. Fig. Fig. and he designed many buildings. Instead he published it in the form of an anagram “ceiinosssttuu” in 1676 and the solution was given in 1678. Figure 7. and fasten the upper part thereof to a nail. and set down the said distance. 59 7. Seventeenth Century 145 appointed Gresham Professor of Geometry at Oxford in 1665.2 60 Newton. the fundamental theory on which Newton formulated the law of gravitation. 7.6.12. 7. Then compare the several strtchings of the said string. he was appointed surveyor of London.6 Pre Modern Period. and set them down. and you will find that they will always bear the same proportions one to the other that the weights do that made them”.

Newton also compiled the book of evidence that the society published. and the third by the letter six away. The logogriph reads Portio axis applicatem. mysticism. However. Seventeenth Century 147 63 The Principia’s appearance also involved Newton in an unpleasant episode with the English philosopher and physicist Robert Hooke. Fig. The effects of the quarrel lingered nearly until his death in 1727. In 1691 he published a logogriph Qrzumubapt dxqopddbbp . 69 7. In addition to science. Newton used his position as president of the Royal Society to have a committee of that body investigate the question.6 Pre Modern Period.6. Jacob Bernouilli is also credited in being the first to to have assumed that a bf plane section of a beam remains plane during bending. Jacob and John were brothers. However.3 Bernoulli Family 1654-1782 66 The Bernouilli family originally lived in Antwerp. and the decoded is that the radius of curvature at any point of an initially straight beam in inversely proportional to the value of the bending moment at that point. historians have found little connection between these interests and Newton’s scientific work.. 67 68 Bernoulli made the first analytical contribution to the problem of elastic flexure of a beam. A letter is replaced by the next in the Latin alphabet. which charged Leibniz with deliberate plagiarism. this “necessary truth” follows from the metaphysical principle that the whole equalts the sum of its parts. Another hypothesis defined the sum of two “conspiring” forces applied to the same point.4 Euler 1707-1783 70 Leonhard Euler was born in Basel and early on caught the attention of John Bernoulli whose teaching was attracting young mathematicians from all over Europe. the second by the letter three away. 64 Newton also engaged in a violent dispute with Leibniz over priority in the invention of calculus.Draft 7. and Euler his pupil..15. and theology. Near the end of the seventeenth century this family produced outstanding mathematicians for more than a hundred years. and he secretly wrote the committee’s report. In 1687 Hooke claimed that Newton had stolen from him a central idea of the book: that bodies attract each other with a force that varies inversely as the square of their distance. Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) made calculation of their deflection (Stiffness) and did not contribute to our knowledge of physical properties. they left Holland and settled in Basel. John was the father of Daniel.. but because of religious persecution.6. but assumed rotation to be with respect to the lower fiber (as Galileo did) and this resulted in an erroneous solution (where is the exact location of the axis of rotation?). Whereas Galileo (and Mariotte) investigated the strength of beams (Strength). Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) first postulated that a force can be decomposed into its equivalent (“Potentiis quibuscunque possunt substitui earundem aequivalentes”. most historians do not accept Hooke’s charge of plagiarism. Many pages of his notes and writings particularly from the later years of his career are devoted to these topics. 65 7. Newton also showed an interest in alchemy. (Penvenuto 1991). so that aaaaa would be encoded as bdgbd. He Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . He also showed that the curvature at any point along a beam is proportional to the curvature of the deflection curve. According to Bernoulli. 7.. whose secret was revealed in 1694.

In 1777 he invented the torsion balance for measuring the force of magnetic and electrical attraction. Coulomb and Navier 149 The pre-Modern Period.16: Coulomb the correct analysis of the fiber stresses in flexed beam with rectangular cross section (Sur une Application des R´gles de maximis et minimis a quelques probl`mes de statique relatifs e ` e a l’architecture in 1773). Coulomb was able to formulate the principle.. was named for him.7 75 7. 76 77 Navier (1785-1836) Navier was educated at the Ecole Polytechnique and became a professor there in 1831. the coulomb. ` developed the equilibrium of forces on the cross section with external forces. Coulomb did also research on magnetism. 80 Three other structural engineers who pioneered the development of the theory of elasticity from that point on were Lam´. Lam’e published the first e book on elasticity in 1852. placed the neutral axis in its exact position.. combined with high mathematical ability an essentially practical outlook which gave direction to all his work”. and credited Clapeyron for the theorem of equality between external and internal work. He used Hooke’s law. Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects Victor Saouma . Whereas the famous memoir of Coulomb (1773) contained the correct solution to numerous important problems in mechanics of materials. as was the first to publish Figure 7.7 The pre-Modern Period. it took engineers more than forty years to understand them correctly and to use them in practical application 78 In 1826 he published his Le¸ons (lecture notes) which is considered the first great textbook c in mechanics for engineering. 7. In 1855-6 he published his classical work on torsion. friction. Fig. Coulomb and Navier Coulomb (1736-1806) was a French military engineer. Clapeyron and de Saint-Venant. The unit of quantity used to measure electrical charges. With this invention.Draft 7. 79 It should be noted that no clear division existed between the theory of elasticity and the theory of structures until about the middle of the nineteenth century (Coulomb and Navier would today be considered professional structural engineers). and electricity. and then correcly determined the stresses. an analysis of friction in machinery. He also worked on friction (“Coulomb friction”) and on earth pressure. flexure. now known as Coulomb’s law. In it he developed the first general theory of elastic solids as well as the first systematic treatment of the theory of structures. de Saint-Venant was perhaps the greatest elasticians who according to Southwell “.16. After the war Coulomb came out of retirement and assisted the new government in devising a metric system of weights and measures. In 1779 Coulomb published the treatise Theorie des machines simples (Theory of Simple Machines). governing the interaction between electric charges.

Draft 88 89 7. Switzerland. when the Salginatobel and Landquart Bridges were completed.8. thereafter. educated at the Royal Polytechnic School of Berlin and immigrated to the States in 1831. until his death in 1940. one of his lowest grades was in bridge design.5 Maillart From (Billington 1973) 93 Robert Maillart was born on February 6. He meant that an architect should consider the purpose of the building as a starting point.8.8 The Modern Period (1857-Present) 151 His famous axiom. In the summer of 1914. Sullivan. Maillart stayed and worked in Russia until 1919. Forced to flee. 91 92 Roebling utilized steel cables in the construction of numerous suspension bridges and is generally considered one of the pioneers in the field of suspension-bridge construction. he returned to Switzerland penniless and lonely. and from 1930.4 90 Roebling. Since the World War prevented their return to Switzerland. in Bern. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 95 96 During the twenties he began to develop and modify his ideas of bridge design. In 1902. In his first job he was employed by the Pennsylvania Railroad Corp. 7. He studied civil engineering at the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich and graduated in 1894. 94 For eight years following his graduation. He opened an office in Geneva in 1919 and branches in Bern and Zurich in 1924. who was one of the pioneers in the construction of suspension bridges. however. He was born in Germany. he took his wife and three children to Russia. 1872. did not apply it literally. not as a rigidly limiting stricture. Ironically. was a banker. Form follows function became the touchstone for many in his profession. 1806-1869 John Augustus Roebling was an American civil engineer. even though he is regarded today as one of the half dozen greatest bridge designers of the twentieth century. his business grew rapidly and expanded as far as Russia and Spain. when his business was liquidated by the Revolution. He then demonstrated the practicability of steel cables in bridge construction and in 1841 established at Saxonburg the first factory to manufacture steel-wire rope in the U. a Belgian citizen. he founded his own firm for design and construction. He also had tremendous respect for the natural world which played an enormous role in forging his theories about architecture (he spent all of his first summers on his grandparents’ farm in Massachusetts where he developed this love and respect for nature) expressed in his Autobiography of an Idea). 1924).S. He built railroad suspension bridges over the Ohio and Niagara rivers and completed plans for the Brooklyn Bridge shortly before his death. to survey its route across the Allegheny Mountains between Harrisburg and Pittsburgh. where his father. his wife having died in Russia. he worked with different civil engineering organizations. Because of these misfortunes Maillart felt unable to take up the construction business again and henceforth concentrated on design alone. 7. Roebling was the author of Long and Short Span Railway Bridges (1869).

Calatrava.. Torroja. and King Abdul Aziz University.8.8 102 et al. Jiddah. .8 The Modern Period (1857-Present) 153 Figure 7. Pei. Candella. and permitted freer organization of the interior space. Johnson. His later projects included the strikingly different Haj Terminal of the King Abdul Aziz International Airport. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . eliminated the need for internal wind bracing (since the perimeter columns carried the wind loadings).Draft 7. also in Jiddah (1977-78).. To name just a few of the most influential Architects/Engineers: Menn. Isler.17: Nervi’s Palazetto Dello Sport needed for high towers. 7. Saudi Arabia (1976-81).

per se. through their writings. No longer did I need to believe whatever was in print. check the results and confirm the accuracy of my judgement or correct my mistakes. Kist. something I could rarely find in other engineering articles. with their emphasis on simple statics and their bearing on the actual properties of construction materials and their behavior in the plastic range. I devoured his articles about ”Reinforced Concrete Design and Calculation” (he was very careful to differentiate the meaning of such words and to avoid the more than semantic confusion prevalent nowadays in English-speaking countries). The discovery of rupture methods. Van der Broek. Therefore. being tired perhaps of performing long and tedious routines whose results were not always meaningful. If a rebel was able to produce such beautiful and sound structures there could not be anything wrong with becoming also a rebel.” Very short papers. to produce Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . my only way to break the mystery surrounding shell analysis. where the building industry has been thoroughly and irreversibly fragmented and the responsibility diluted among so many trades. but never touch fundamental dogmas. indeed.Draft 7. since most structures I was building were of modest scale. I learned later that to express personal opinions is considered bad taste among technical writers. Johansen. as draftsman. working alone. it may be shocking to think of a contractor as an artist. and then I got Max Bill’s book with its invaluable collection of Maillart’s essays. I understand that this was also true of Maillart who in many cases was the actual builder of his designs..8 The Modern Period (1857-Present) 155 than my bare hands and no further addition to my academic background. I discovered him in Giedion’s Space. about the engineer as an architect (as if the title of architect could confer. allowed me to trust in simplified procedures to understand and analyze the distribution of stresses in shell structures. I was working with full scale models. artistic ability to its holder). in countries like this. ”The Engineer and the Authorities” which expresses his position in front of the establishment and ”Mass and Quality in Reinforced Concrete Structures. in a fashion curiously similar to what could be expected of the councils of the Church or the meetings of any Politbureau. with no direct help from any university or engineering office. which was besides. I recalled my old fancy with shells and began to collect again papers on the subject. This was exactly my case and. I started to follow the bibliographic tread and met. Following the general trend to mess up issues. Saliger. But I am indebted to many people who did help me through their writings and Maillart was one of the foremost. I could control what was happening. but it is indeed the only way to have in your hands the whole set of tools or instruments to perform the forgotten art of building. but well provided with opinions. no matter how high-sounding the name of the author. especially for somebody who builds his own structures. Kacinczy and so many others who showed me there was more than a single and infallible manner to approach structural analysis. It also helped me to get out of my naive belief in the indisputable truth of the printed word and to start reading with a new critical outlook. I could not afford nor had time for complex calculations and did welcome Maillart’s advice that simpler calculations are more reliable than complex ones. Since I was working practically alone. with Freudenthal. Thus. Whatever I learned from then on was to be the hard way. Time and Architecture. I found Maillart’s thoughts delightfully sympathetic and encouraging. designer and contractor. In a way. like in the case of Nervi. but few people realize that the only way to be an artist in this difficult specialty of building is to be your own contractor. Any discussion should be restricted to insignificant details. I could make my own judgements about what methods of stress analysis were better suited for my practice. After several years of general practice in Mexico. But my attitude with respect to calculations of reinforced concrete structures was becoming unorthodox. there has been a lot of speculation about the engineer as an artist and in some instances.

6 kips. the total uniform load becomes. 2 The most strking feature of the Magazini Generali is not the structure itself. built by Maillart in Chiasso in 1924.1-c) qtotal = 1.4 k/ft (13.1-a) (8.7) ft = 1.6) k = 0. Fig.6 k/ft . Whereas the beam itself is a simple structural idealization. and that the roof load is 98 psf.2 4 Loads The load applied on the frame is from the weights of the roof slab.3: qroof qf rame = (98) psf(14.Draft Chapter 8 Case Study III: MAGAZINI GENERALI Adapted from (Billington and Mark 1983) 8.2.1 1 Geometry This sotrage house.2 = 1. 8. The frame can be idealized as a simply supported beam hung from two cantilever column supports.1-b) (8. 8. 8. but rather the shape of its internal supporting frames. Given the space between adjacent frames is 14.2 k/ft = (63. Fig. and that the total frame weight is 13. provides a good example of the mariage between aesthetic and engineering.1. 3 8.7 ft.6) ft (8. Fig. and the frame itself. the overhang is designed in such a way as to minimize the net moment to be transmitted to the supports (foundations).4 + 0.

6 ft 51 k 51 k Figure 8. Those can be easily determined for a simply supported uniformly loaded beam.6) k/ft(63. 8. however there is a net internal couple.3: Magazzini Generali. Fig.3 Reactions q ROOF = 1. 8. 8. Loads (Billington and Mark 1983) 8. Fig.2-b) We note that these reactions are provided by the internal shear forces.Draft 8.4: Magazzini Generali.4 Forces 6 The internal forces are pimarily the shear and moments.ft 8 8 (8.2 k/ft q TOTAL = 1. q TOTAL = 1.3 5 Reactions Reactions for the beam are determined first taking advantage of symmetry. The shear varies linearly from 51 kip to -51 kip with zero at the center.3) The externally induced moment at midspan must be resisted by an equal and opposite internal moment. and tensile ones on the lower.6) k/ft(63.6.6) ft2 = = 808 k. This can be achieved through a combination of compressive force on the upper fibers. Beam Reactions.2 k/ft 159 q ROOF = 1.6 k/ft 63.5. and the moment diagram is parabolic with the maximum moment at the center. Fig. Thus the net axial force is zero.4: W = (1.4 k/ft + q FRAME = 0.2-a) (8.4 k/ft + q FRAME = 0. (Billington and Mark 1983) 8. 7 Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .6 k/ft Figure 8. equal to: Mmax = qL2 (1.6) ft = 102 k W 102 R = = = 51 k 2 2 (8.

8: Magazzini Generali.8. Fig.4-a) (8. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .9 This is analogous to the forces transmiited 88 k 88 k 88 k 88 k Tension Compression Tied Arch Horizontal Component Cable Force Axial Force Vertical Reaction Figure 8. then the axial forces are constants along the entire frame. it was determined that the supports are contributing a compression force of about 8 kips which needs to be superimposed over the central values. M MOMENT DIAGRAM d FRAME CABLE : CURVE OF DIAGRAM FRAME : SHAPE OF DIAGRAM Figure 8. 8.9.7. 8.4-b) (808) k. Fig.Draft 8. Similarities Between The Frame Shape and its Moment Diagram. and the 88 kip compression must be transmitted to the lower chord.ft = ± 88 k (9. Equilibrium of Forces at the Beam Support.2) ft 8 Because the frame shape (and thus d(x)) is approximately parabolic. 8. (Billington and Mark 1983) to the support by a tied arch. 10 It should be mentioned that when a rigorous computer analysis was performed. Fig. (Billington and Mark 1983) 9 The axial force at the end of the beam is not balanced. Fig. 8.7: Magazzini Generali. and the moment is also parabolic.4 Forces Mext = Cd ⇒ C = T =C = 161 Mext d (8.

either to humans or goods. 3. a higher safety factor must be adopted. if no redistribution of load is possible (as would be the case in a statically determinate structure). The purpose of safety provisions is to limit the probability of failure and yet permit economical structures. Seriousness of a failure. 2. Effect of simplifying assumptions made in the derivation of certain formulas. Alternatively the failure of a column is likely to trigger the failure of the whole structure. This is to account for Variability in Resistance: The actual strengths (resistance) of structural elements will differ from those assumed by the designer due to: 1.Draft Chapter 9 DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES of ACI and AISC CODES 9. Some types of loadings are very difficult to quantify (wind. 2 3 The following items must be considered in determining safety provisions: 1. Variability in the strength of the material (greater variability in concrete strength than in steel strength). Finally. Alternatively. the failure of certain components can be preceded by warnings (such as excessive deformation). Differences between the actual dimensions and those specified (mostly in placement of steel rebars in R/C). whereas other are sudden and catastrophic. There is a greater variation in the live loads than in the dead loads. The collapse of a beam is likely to cause a localized failure. Consequences of Failure: The consequence of a structural component failure must be carefully assessed. Variability in Loadings: All loadings are variable. .1 Safety Provisions 1 Structures and structural members must always be designed to carry some reserve load above what is expected under normal use. earthquakes).

3 9. Effective Net Area∗ Ft = 0.1.2) 4.3 Ultimate Strength Method 165 σ < σall = where F. AISC/ASD Tension. is the factor of safety. Gross Area Ft = 0. Major limitations of this method σyld F.3) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .1 12 Ultimate Strength Method The Normal Distribution The normal distribution has been found to be an excellent approximation to a large class of distributions.Draft 10 9. Table 9. The probability that xmin < x < xmax is given by: xmax P (xmin < x < xmax ) = Victor Saouma f (x)dx xmin (9. stresses are not linearly proportional to strain beyond 0. but are the result of experience and judgment.S. 2. 11 Allowable strengths are given in Table 9. An elastic analysis can not easily account for creep and shrinkage of concrete. For concrete structures. Safety factors are not rigorously determined from a probabilistic approach.45f c . f (x) is symmetric with respect to the mean µ. 3.66Fy Shear Fv = 0.1) 1. 3. f (x) is a valid probability distribution function as: ∞ −∞ f (x) = 1 (9. f (x) is a “bell curve” with inflection points at x = µ ± σ. and has some very desirable mathematical properties: 1.40Fy Concrete. ACI/WSD Tension 0 Compression 0.45fc ∗ Effective net area will be defined in section ??. (9.1: Allowable Stresses for Steel and Concrete 9.3. 2. Steel.5Fu Bending Fb = 0.6Fy Tension.S.

m 21 22 We define the safety index (or reliability index) as β = X σ For standard distributions and for β = 3.000 structural members designed with β = 3.2. 25 Target values for β are shown in Table 9. 24 Structures with relatively high reliable indices will be expected to perform well.5. and in Fig.5 Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects Victor Saouma .4: Definition of Reliability Index 20 R If X is assumed to follow a Normal Distribution than it has a mean value X = ln Q and a standard deviation σ.3: Frequency Distributions of Load Q and Resistance R Failure would occur for negative values of X 19 The probability of failure Pf is equal to the ratio of the shaded area to the total area under the curve in Fig. Figure 9. then the structure may be classified as a hazard.5 will fail because of either excessive load or understrength sometime in its lifetime. If the value is too low. 9.Draft 9. 23 Reliability indices are a relative measure of the current condition and provide a qualitative estimate of the structural performance. it can be shown that the probability of failure is 1 Pf = 9.4. That is 1 in every 10.3 Ultimate Strength Method 167 Figure 9.1 × 10−4 .091 or 1. 9.

85 0.2: Selected β values for Steel and Concrete Structures Φ is a strength reduction factor. Tension Fasteners.0 4. other Shear and Torsion Bearing on concrete AISC Tension.5 3.75 0.5 3.9 0.3 Ultimate Strength Method Type of Load/Member AISC DL + LL.75 3-3. Members DL + LL. Shear Φ 0.3: Strength Reduction Factors.3.85 0. spiral reinforcement Axial Compression. Table 9. Σαi Qi is the required strength based on the factored load: i is the type of load 32 The various factored load combinations which must be considered are AISC Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Type of Member ACI Axial Tension Flexure Axial Compression. Φ Rn is the nominal resistance (or strength).75 0.Draft 9. αi is the load factor corresponding to Qi and is greater than 1.9 0.5-4 169 Table 9.9 0. yielding Tension. fracture Compression Beams Fasteners.75 0.70 0. Members DL + LL +EL. Connections DL + LL + WL.5 1.9 0.70 0. Members ACI Ductile Failure Sudden Failures β 3.65 Table 9. less than 1. and must account for the type of structural element. ΦRn is the design strength.

1.6 ksi.6 USD we consider the largest of the two load combinations Σαi Qi : 1.6σyld = 0.65 in2 Φσyld (0.9)Aσyld .4 Example Example 9-1: LRFD vs ASD To illustrate the differences between the two design approaches.6(80) = 248 k  From Table 9. From Table 9.6L = 1. let us consider the design of an axial member. 9.2(100) + 1. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .9 the cross sectional area should be A= Σαi Qi 248 = = 7.9)(36) Note that whereas in this particular case the USD design required a smaller area.3 Φ = 0. the allowable stress is 0. ASD: We consider the total load P = 100 + 80 = 180 k. Use A36 steel. subjected to a dead load of 100 k and live load of 80 k.6 ∗ 36 = 21.4(100) = 140 k 1.Draft 9. Hence.33 in2 21.2D + 1.4D = 1. this may not be the case for different ratios of dead to live loads.4 Example 171 9. Thus the required cross sectional area is A= 180 = 8. and ΦRn = (0. applying Eq.9.

Draft Chapter 10 BRACED ROLLED STEEL BEAMS 1 This chapter deals with the behavior and design of laterally supported steel beams according to the LRFD provisions. Fig.1: Lateral Bracing for Steel Beams torsional buckling. 10. . we will have a failure mode governed by lateral 2 3 A) COMPOSITE BEAM B) OTHER FRAMING C) CROSS BRACING Figure 10. 4 By the end of this lecture you should be able to select the most efficient section (light weight with adequate strength) for a given bending moment and also be able to determine the flexural strength of a given beam.1. Thus overall buckling of the compression flange as a column cannot occur prior to its full participation to develop the moment strength of the section. A laterally stable beam is one which is braced laterally in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the web. If a beam is not laterally supported.

2: Failure of Steel beam.Draft 10.2 Failure Modes and Classification of Steel Beams 175 w 2 M=(wL )/8 + σy σy wu + 2 σy Figure 10. Plastic Hinges hf hc COMPACT Figure 10.3: Failure of Steel beam. Local Buckling Victor Saouma #$%$%" !"$% !#" "!#!#$% Mp σy M p=(wL )/8 bf tw FLANGE BUCKLING WEB BUCKLING Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

23 as S I = def I d/2 y 2 dA A (10.3) When across the entire section. 15 A ydA = Fy Z (10.4) def ydA (10.6: Stress-strain diagram for most structural steels 13 When the yield stress is reached at the extreme fiber. the nominal moment strength M n .7) and the plastic modulus can be approximated by Zx ≈ wd/9 Victor Saouma (10.6-b) = 16 The section modulus Sx of a W section can be roughly approximated by the following formula Sx ≈ wd/10 or Ix ≈ Sx d ≈ wd2 /20 2 (10. is referred to as the yield moment My and is computed as Mn = M y = S x F y (assuming that bending is occurring with respect to the x − x axis). the strain is equal or larger than the yield strain (ε ≥ ε y = Fy /Es ) then the section is fully plastified. 5.3 Compact Sections 177 Figure 10.Draft 10.6-a) (10. and the nominal moment strength Mn is therefore referred to as the plastic moment Mp and is determined from 14 Mp = F y where Z = is the Plastic Section Modulus.8) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . (10. Eq.5) The plastic section modulus Z should not be confused with the elastic section modulus S defined.

5 Slender Section 179 Draft & ( & QRP6 P I9 & () WX cde V Y`Y WXaWb V 4H7 GE DB@ 9 67849 53 F CA 4 (0 S& e WX ` T V WX TU V pq ir fg hig 4H7 FBE CDA t Ps QvPw 4 5u 9 0 S 1 ' 2 1 10. Victor Saouma ) 1 Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5 23 Figure 10. Since the slender sections involve a different treatment. it will not be dealt here.7: Nominal Moments for Compact and Partially Compact Sections where: Mr Residual Moment equal to (Fy − Fr )S λ bf /2tf for I-shaped member flanges and hc /tw for beam webs. the element is referred to as slender compression element. Note that we use the λ associated with the one being violated (or the lower of the two if both are). Slender Section If the width to thickness ratio exceeds λr values of flange and web. 10. 22 All other quantities are as defined earlier. width b and depth d.6 Examples Example 10-1: Z for Rectangular Section Determine the plastic section modulus for a rectangular section.Draft 10.

or 0. Mu = wu L2 /8 = (1.222) + 1. 9 9 4.16-c) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects ./ft.2 + 0.52)(20)2 /8 = 76 k.6 Examples 181 2.6(0.88 in A 6.8 640 = √ = Fy 640 √ 36 = 107 √ 5. since a vast majority of rolled sections satisfy λ ≤ λ p for both the flange and the web.1 k.55 k/ft Mu = (1.ft Mn = M p = Z x F y = (29.222 k/ft wu = 1.022 kip/ft wD = 0. Required Zx is Zx = Mu 76(12) = = 28.5 300 ry Fy 300 √ 0. Compute the factored load moment Mu . Self weight of the beam W12X22 is 22 lb.16-b) (10.7 65 = √ = Fy 65 √ 36 = 10.8) = 1.88 = 43 ft 36 (10.ft Assuming compact section.9 k.022 = 0.55)(20)2 /8 = 77. √ = 87.2(0. Check the Strength by correcting the factored moment Mu to include the self weight.1 in3 φb Fy 0.Draft 10.ft > Mu Therefore use W12X22 section.3 k.3) in (36) (12) in/ft 3 ksi φb Mn = 0. We finally check for the maximum distance between supports. For a simply supported beam carrying uniformly distributed load.8 > λ √ λp = 41. we select a W12X22 section which has a Zx = 29.3.16-a) (10. ry = Lp = = Iy 5 = = 0.9) = 79. Check compact section limits λp for the flanges from the table λ= bf 2tf λp and for the web: λ= hc tw = 4. combing those two equations we have: φ b Zx F y = M u 3.3 in3 Note that Zx is approximated by wd = (22)(12) = 29.ft 6. The design strength φb Mn is φ b Mn = φ b Mp = φ b Z x F y The design requirement is φ b Mn = M u or.90(36) From the notes on Structural Materials.90(87.

1 Introduction 1 Recalling that concrete has a tensile strength (f t ) about one tenth its compressive strength (fc ). Steel is almost universally used as reinforcement (longitudinal or as fibers). 11. Other concerns.1 6 Notation In R/C design. and deflections are left for subsequent ones. cracking. 4 5 We will focus on determining the amount of flexural (that is longitudinal) reinforcement required at a given section. For that section. such as shear.Draft Chapter 11 REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS 11. To provide tensile resistance to concrete beams. 2 The following lectures will focus exclusively on the flexural design and analysis of reinforced concrete rectangular sections. but in poorer countries other indigenous materials have been used (such as bamboos). torsion. it is customary to use the following notation . the moment which should be considered for design is the one obtained from the moment envelope at that particular point. concrete by itself is a very poor material for flexural members.1. of the American Concrete Institute (ACI-318). a reinforcement must be added. 3 Design of reinforced concrete structures is governed in most cases by the Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. Some of the most relevant provisions of this code are enclosed in this set of notes.

Design: Given an external moment to be resisted. 2. the following basic relations will be used.003 in compression irrespective of fc . 14 Basic assumptions used: Compatibility of Displacements: Perfect bond between steel and concrete (no slip).Draft 11. 11. 1) ΣFx = 0 or Tension in the reinforcement = Compression in concrete. and 2) ΣM = 0 or external moment (that is the one obtained from the moment envelope) equal and opposite to the internal one (tension in steel and compression of the concrete).2: Internal Equilibrium in a R/C Beam 1. Material Stress Strain: We recall that all normal strength concrete have a failure strain u = . 12 We often consider the maximum moment along a member. determine what is the maximum moment which can be applied. Note that those two materials do also have very close coefficients of thermal expansion under normal temperature. Fig.1 Introduction 185 Analysis vs Design In R/C we always consider one of the following problems: Analysis: Given a certain design. Equilibrium: of forces and moment at the cross section. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Plane section remain plane ⇒ strain is proportional to distance from neutral axis. Note that in many cases the external dimensions of the beam (b and h) are fixed by the architect. determine cross sectional dimensions (b and h) as well as reinforcement (As ).1. and design accordingly.4 13 Basic Relations and Assumptions In developing a design/analysis method for reinforced concrete.3 11 11. ??: Compatibility Equilibrium C d εy T T=C M_ext=Cd Figure 11.1.

Draft 11.3: Cracked Section. Ultimate Strength Design Method 187 Figure 11.2 Cracked Section.4: Whitney Stress Block Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Limit State Figure 11.

11) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .9) MD = Φρfy bd2 1 − . † If ρact > ρb is not allowed by the code as this would be an over-reinforced section which would fail with no prior warning. fs = fy ) s a = . ρact = As bd 11.85f yb From Equilibrium c MD = ΦAs fy d − a 2 A f MD = Φ As fy d − 0. If ρact < ρb (that is failure is triggered by yielding of the steel.003 + εs Those two equations can be solved by either one of two methods: (a) Substitute into one single equation (b) By iteration Once c and fs = Eεs are determined then MD = ΦAs fs d − β1 c 2 (11.12) (11. fc .003. and fy determine the design moment: fc 87 2. Ultimate Strength Design Method 189 Analysis Given As .2. Thus from similar triangles we have c .85fc bβ1 (11.Draft 11.10) Strain compatibility: since we know that at failure the maximum compressive strain εc is equal to 0.003 = d . then we have two unknowns: (a) Steel strain εs (which was equal to εy in the previous case) (b) Location of the neutral axis c.85)β1 fy 87+fy 3. and we need to determine its moment carrying capacity.59ρ 4.2 Cracked Section.59 Mn A s fy fc b Combining this last equation with ρ = As bd yields fy fc (11. We have two equations to solve this problem Equilibrium: of forces c= A s fs . ρb = (. b. However. if such a section exists. d.3 1.

147 ) = 2. Check equilibrium of forces in the x direction (ΣFx = 0) a= A s fs .35 (10)(23) = .85)(4)(10) = 4.003 d−c = ⇒ fs = Es .ft 4 Example 11-2: Beam Design I Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .in = (2.35)(60)(23) 1 − (. 950 k.17) where c = a β1 . Iterate until convergence is reached. Check assumption of fs from the strain diagram εs .85β1 fy 87+fy = (. 660 k.59ρact fy c a 4.01021) = 2. d = 23 in.59) 60 (. 660 k.35)(60)(23 − 4.Draft 11. 000 psi and fy = 60 ksi.147 in (2.85 f f c MD = ΦMn = (.in 2 As bd = .85 0.35)(60) .59ρact fy = As fy d 1 − .414 = = 4.02885 > ρact √ a = Mn = MD = ΦMn = (.85fc b = (. As = 2.in = 245 k. 950) = 2.in Note that from the strain diagram c= Alternative solution Mn = ρact fy bd2 1 − .35 in2 .16) 6. Ultimate Strength Design Method 5.85)(.85fc b 191 (11. 950) = 2.0102 fc 87 4 87 . Solution: ρact = ρb = 2. Example 11-1: Ultimate Strength Capacity Determine the ultimate Strength of a beam with the following properties: b = 10 in.87 in 0.003 < fy d−c c c (11.9)(2.85) 60 87+60 = As f y (2.9)(2. 7. fc = 4. 950 k.2 Cracked Section.

037 = (.85)(3) ksi(11.5 33 fc ( psi) for values of Wc between 90 and 155 lb per cu ft. Check equilibrium of forces: a= 7.4D + 1.3.If resistance to structural effects of a specified wind load W are included in design.011 11. except as modified according to Section 8.Draft 11. 8.85β1 2.1.5)(20) 193 √ A s fy (2.Required Strength 9. Actual ρ is ρact = 9.2.3 Continuous Beams 6.3 Continuous Beams 28 Whereas coverage of continuous reinforced concrete beams is beyond the scope of this course. ρb is equal to ρb = . using load factors and strength reduction factors Φ specified in Chapter 9.037) = .85) fy 87 + fy 40 87 + 40 √ thus fs = fy and we use As = 2.42) in2 (40) ksi = = 3.3 in .1 .In design of reinforced concrete structures.85fc b (.7L + 1.Structures and structural members shall be designed to have design strengths at all sections at least equal to the required strengths calculated for the factored loads and forces in such combinations as are stipulated in this code. we have converged on a.75ρ = (0.5.000 psi.Modulus of elasticity Ec for concrete may be taken as Wc1.011 fc 87 87 3 = .9 may be used.85)(.1 .75)(0. Simplifying assumptions of Section 8. members shall be proportioned for adequate strength in accordance with provisions of this code.0278 > 0.2 . 11. 9.75(1. Ec may be taken as 57.42 (11. 8.1.1 .42 in2 10.2. For normal weight concrete. L. 8.Required strength U to resist dead load D and live load L shall be at least equal to U = 1. ?? illustrates a typical reinforcement in such a beam.4. 8.2 .4D + 1. 9.5. ρmax = .6 through 8.7L 9.1 . 000 fc .7W ) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . the following combinations of D.5) in = .2 . Fig.4 ACI Code Attached is an unauthorized copy of some of the most relevant ACI-318-89 design code provisions.All members of frames or continuous construction shall be designed for the maximum effects of factored loads as determined by the theory of elastic analysis. 8. and W shall be investigated to determine the greatest required strength U U = 0.1 .Modulus of elasticity Es for non-prestressed reinforcement may be taken as 29.

2 . 10.Concrete stress of 0. For strengths above 4.Balanced strain conditions exist at a cross section when tension reinforcement reaches the strain corresponding to its specified yield strength fy just as concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate strain of 0. 10. shear.2. See Section 10. for deep flexural members with overall depth to clear span ratios greater than 2/5 for continuous spans and 4/5 for simple spans.Maximum usable strain at extreme concrete compression fiber shall be assumed equal to 0.2.2 . 10. 10.3 .3 .000 psi.Requirements of Section 10.75 of the ratio ρ b that would produce balanced strain conditions for the section under flexure without axial load.2. except when meeting requirements of Section 18.Stress in reinforcement below specified yield strength fy for grade of reinforcement used shall be taken as Es times steel strain.003.3W but for any combination of D.2 . a non-linear distribution of strain shall be considered.6 .2 .9D + 1.2. shall be taken as the nominal strength calculated in accordance with requirements and assumptions of this code. For strains greater than that corresponding to f y .3.3. except.1 .10fc Ag ) or (ΦPb ).2.Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in flexural calculations of reinforced concrete.85 for concrete strengths fc up to and including 4. its connections to other members. the ratio of reinforcement p provided shall not exceed 0.4 . 10.Relationship between concrete compressive stress distribution and concrete strain may be assumed to be rectangular. β1 shall be reduced continuously at a rate of 0. except for prestressing tendons.Compression reinforcement in conjunction with additional tension reinforcement may be used to increase the strength of flexural members.7.Design strength for reinforcement Designs shall not be based on a yield strength of reinforcement fy in excess of 80. and for members subject to combined flexure and compressive axial load when the design axial load strength (ΦPn ) is less than the smaller of (0.1 .4 ACI Code 195 where load combinations shall include both full value and zero value of L to determine the more severe condition.75 factor.000 psi. 9.2. and torsion.85fc shall be assumed uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone bounded by edges of the cross section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at a distance (a = β1 c) from the fiber of maximum compressive strain.4 .5 may be considered satisfied by an equivalent rectangular concrete stress distribution defined by the following: 10.5 .2. required strength U shall not be less than Eq.7.Strain in reinforcement and concrete shall be assumed directly proportional to the distance from the neutral axis.2. 10.Design strength provided by a member. the portion of ρb equalized by compression reinforcement need not be reduced by the 0.000 psi.4 .4.3. trapezoidal. stress in reinforcement shall be considered independent of strain and equal to f y . without axial load 0.Draft 11.7. axial load.7. 10.For flexural members.Strength reduction factor Φ shall be as follows: 9.003. or any other shape that results in prediction of strength in substantial agreement with results of comprehensive tests.000 psi. 10.2. For members with compression reinforcement. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .3 .Flexure. 10.3.2.90 9. parabolic.Factor β1 shall be taken as 0.1 .Distance c from fiber of maximum strain to the neutral axis shall be measured in a direction perpendicular to that axis. multiplied by a strength reduction factor Φ.7 . 10. but β1 shall not be taken less than 0. 10. and W.3.3.05 for each 1000 psi of strength in excess of 4.65.2. 9. (9-1). and U = 0. L. in terms of flexure. and its cross sections.

In prestressed concrete (P/C) this can be achieved through prestressing of a tendon placed below the elastic neutral axis. However. then to take full advantage of this higher yield stress while maintaining full bond between concrete and steel.000 psi.1 1 Introduction Beams with longer spans are architecturally more appealing than those with short ones.1. concrete is then poured around the stressed bars. Prestressed beams can have fc as high as 8. 8 The importance of high yield stress for the steel is illustrated by the following simple example. will result in unacceptably wide crack widths. 3 One way to control the concrete cracking and reduce the tensile stresses in a beam is to prestress the beam by applying an initial state of stress which is opposite to the one which will be induced by the load.Draft Chapter 12 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 12. it would have to have to be relatively deep (and at some point the self weight may become too large relative to the live load). Fig.1 Materials 7 P/C beams usually have higher compressive strength than R/C. then when enough strength has been reached a steel cable is passed thru a hollow core inside and stressed. 12.1. durability. if we were to use a steel with f y much higher than ≈ 60 ksi in reinforced concrete (R/C). Postensioning: Concrete is first poured. or higher grade steel and concrete must be used. 4 For a simply supported beam.2. When enough concrete strength has been reached the steel restraints are released. longer spans. 6 There two type of Prestressed Concrete beams: Pretensioning: Steel is first stressed. 2 However. for a reinforced concrete beam to span long distances. we would then seek to apply an initial tensile stress at the top and compressive stress at the bottom. fatigue strength. Fig. . Large crack widths will in turn result in corrosion of the rebars and poor protection against fire. 12. 5 Main advantages of P/C: Economy. deflection & crack control. 12.

1) we want to make sure that this amout of deformation is substantially smaller than the stretch of the steel (for prestressing to be effective). we will use Strands usually composed of 7 wires.90 × 10−3 )(29 × 103 ) = 26 ksiin each case 9 Having shown that losses would be too high for low strength steel.3: 7 Wire Prestressing Tendon Tendon have diameters ranging from 1/2 to 1 3/8 of an inch.90) × 10−3 (29 × 103 ) = 4 ksi Thus the total loss is 30−4 30 30 29.03 − . Figure 12. Note that yield stress is not well defined for steel used in prestressed concrete. usually we take 1% strain as effective yield. 4. resulting in a stressed length of concrete and steel equal to ls = lc . there will be a change in length ∆lc = (εsh + εcr )lc (12. Note that the actual loss is (.2) = 87% which is unacceptably too high. The residual stres which is left in the steel after creep and shrinkage took place is thus (1. Prestress the beam with the cable. Assuming ordinary steel: fs = 30 ksi. 5. A concrete beam of length lc 3.3. 10. The total steel elongation is εs ls = 1.03 × 10−3 in/ in (12. Due to shrinkage and creep. 10 Steel relaxation is the reduction in stress at constant strain (as opposed to creep which is reduction of strain at constant stress) occrs. Wires come in bundles of 8 to 52. 12. Fig. Relaxation occurs indefinitely and produces Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects ƒ‚ ƒ‚ ƒ‚ ƒ‚ ƒ‚ „… „… „… „… „… ‚‚ƒ‚ƒ‚‚ƒ ‚‚ƒ‚ƒ‚‚ƒ ‚‚ƒ‚ƒ‚‚ƒ ‚‚ƒ‚ƒ‚‚ƒ ‚‚ƒ‚ƒ‚‚ƒ „„……„… „„……„… „„……„… „„……„… „„……„… †‡ †‡ †‡ ‚ƒ‚‚ƒƒ‚ƒƒ †‡ ‚ƒ‚‚ƒƒ‚ƒƒ †‡ ‚ƒ‚‚ƒƒ‚ƒƒ €€€€ ‚ƒ‚‚ƒƒ‚ƒƒ €€€€ ‚ƒ‚‚ƒƒ‚ƒƒ €€€€ „…„„……„„…… €€€€ „…„„……„„…… €€€€ˆ‰ˆ „…„„……„„…… €€€€ˆ‰ˆ „…„„……„„…… ˆ‰ˆ „…„„……„„…… ˆ‰ˆ ˆ‰ˆ ˆ‰ˆ ‡†††‡‡†‡‡ ‡†††‡‡†‡‡ ‡†††‡‡†‡‡ ‡†††‡‡†‡‡ ‡†††‡‡†‡‡ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€ €€€€‰ˆˆˆ‰‰ˆ‰‰ €€€€‰ˆˆˆ‰‰ˆ‰‰ ‰ˆˆˆ‰‰ˆ‰‰ ‰ˆˆˆ‰‰ˆ‰‰ ‰ˆˆˆ‰‰ˆ‰‰ ‰ˆˆˆ‰‰ˆ‰‰ †‡††‡‡††‡ †‡††‡‡††‡ †‡††‡‡††‡ xxyyxxxyyxy †‡††‡‡††‡ xxyyxxxyyxy †‡††‡‡††‡ xxyyxxxyyxy €€€ xxyyxxxyyxy €€€ ‘‘‘‘‘xxyyxxxyyxy €€€ ‘‘‘‘‘ €€€ ‘‘‘‘‘ €€€ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰ˆˆ‰ ‘‘‘‘‘ €€€ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰ˆˆ‰ ‘‘‘‘‘ ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰ˆˆ‰ ‘‘‘‘‘ ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰ˆˆ‰ ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰ˆˆ‰ ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰ˆˆ‰ xy xy xy xy ‘xy ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ xyxxyyxy xyxxyyxy xyxxyyxy xyxxyyxy ‘‘‘‘xyxxyyxy ‘‘‘‘ ‘‘‘‘ ‘‘‘‘ ‘‘‘‘ ‘‘‘‘ . 000 ksi. εs = 6.03 × 10−3 ls 7. Grade 250 or 270 ksi. Alternatively if initial stress was 150 ksi after losses we would be left with 124 ksi or a 17% loss. Es = 29. The creep and shrinkage strains are about εcr + εsh .1 Introduction If we consider the following: 199 1. Grade 145 or 160 ksi.000 = 1. An unstressed steel cable of length ls 2. 9.9 × 10−3 8.Draft 12.

5: Determination of Equivalent Loads Member θ h/3 P cos θ P P P cos θ P Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects P P P P P P P cos θ θ M P cos θ Equivalent load on concrete from tendon Moment from prestressing Pe P sin θ P sin θ P sin θ P sin θ 2 P sin θ 2 P sin θ h/2 P sin θ P sin θ P sin θ P sin θ Pe fc P cos θ P cos θ P cos θ P cos θ M P + Ends 0 None None = = = = = = fc 2f c 2f c fc fc fc 2f c fc fc 201 .1 Introduction Q ““ ““k lllkkk “lk “llkk “l“kk l“ ““ ™d ™d™d ““ ““™d ““ ““™d™dd d™™dd “ d™d “ —˜ “ “—˜ “ “—˜—˜˜ ˜——˜˜ P P 2Q W P P h 2h/3 h/2 0 2f c 0 fc + + 2f =2f t c fc =f t 2f c “r“ rqq “r“ r“ “rqq “r“qq ““qq rrqq “qq “p“ ppoo “ppooo “p“o p“ ““ooo p“ “p“ p“ “o oo 0 0 ““““““ ““““““ ““““““ ““““““{| {{|| {{|| {{|| {{|| {{|| {{|| ““““““ ““““““{| ““““““ ““““““{{||| {{||| {{||| {{||| {{||| {{||| {{||| 2f t =2f c 2f c “ “ “ “gh ghgh “ “ “gh “ghghg ghghg “ “ “}~ }~}~ “ “}~ “}~}~ }~}~ “ “ “ “ef eeff “ “ef “ “eefff eefff P 2Q h/3 P h/2 2f c fc fc + Midspan + 0 Ends f c ““ tsss ts “t“s t““ “t“s t“ “tss “t“sss ss tt“ss ““ ““ ““ ““wx wwxwx “ wwxwx ““ ““ ““wx ““wxwxw xwxwx xwxwx P Q P 0 fc 2f c + ft =f c Midspan “v“ vu “vu “v“u ““u vvuuu u “v“uu v“uu “ “ “ij ijij “ “ij jiij “ijij Victor Saouma (g) (f) (e) (d) P (c) (b) (a) e θ P P P P P P e Figure 12.4: Alternative Schemes for Prestressing a Rectangular Concrete Beam.“n“ ““““““ “ yzz yz yzz yzz yzz yzz •– “n“m ““““““yz “•– nnmmm nm ““““““ “ “n“mm ““““““yzyz “•–•– nn“mm yzyz yzyz yzyz yzyz yzyz yzyz •–•– fc fc ““ ““ ““ ““ ’”’” ’”’” ““’”’” ““ ”’’” ”’’” ““’”’” f’ y Draft 12. (Nilson 1978) Figure 12.

Pe and M0 + MDL + MLL P f2 = − Ae 1 + c P f1 = − Ae 1 − c Pi Ac ec1 r2 ec2 r2 Pi e c 1 Ic + − M0 +MDL +MLL S1 M0 +MDL +MLL S2 Pi (1Ac €€€’€€€€€ “ €€€“€€€€€ €€€’€€€€€ ’“’“€’“’“€’“’“€€’“’“€’“’“€’“’“€’“’“€’“’“ €€€“€€€€€ €€€’€€€€€ €€€’“€€€€€ ’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“ €€€“€€€€€ €€€’“€€€€€ “ €€€’€€€€€ €€€“’€€€€€ €€€’€€€€€ ’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“ €€€“€€€€€ €€€’€€€€€ €€€’“€€€€€ ’’““’“’“€’’““’“’“€’’““’“’“€€’’““’“’“€’’““’“’“€’’““’“’“€’’““’“’“€’’““’“’“ €€€“€€€€€ €€€’“€€€€€ “ €€€’€€€€€ €€€“’€€€€€ €€€’€€€€€ €€€“€€€€€ €€€’€€€€€ ’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“€’“’“’“ e c1 ) r2 €€Ž€€  €€€€€ €€Ž€€€ €€Ž€€€ ŽŽŽ€ŽŽŽ€€ŽŽŽ€ŽŽŽ€ŽŽŽ €€€€€ €€Ž€€ €€Ž€€€ €€Ž€€€ ŽŽŽ€ŽŽŽ€€ŽŽŽ€ŽŽŽ€ŽŽŽ €€€€€ €€Ž€€€ €€€€€ €€Ž€€€ €€Ž€€€ ‘€‘€‘ ŽŽŽ€ŽŽŽ€€ŽŽŽ€ŽŽ€ŽŽ €€€ € ‘‘ ‘‘€€€ ‘Ž€Ž ‘‘€€‘‘€ ‘€‘€€‘ €€€€ ‘€‘€€‘€ € ‘‘ €€€€ ‘€‘€€‘€ €€‘‘€ ‘€‘€€‘€ €€€ €€€€  Œ€ € Œ€ € € Œ€Œ Œ€ŒŒ € €Œ ŒŒ€ Œ€Œ € Œ€ €Œ € Œ€Œ € Œ€ŒŒ € €Œ ŒŒ€ Œ€Œ € Œ€Œ € Œ€ €ŒŒŒ Stage 1 e c2 c1 Pi (1Ac €€€€€€†€†€ †‡€€€€€€†‡€†‡€ €€€€€€‡€‡€ †‡ ‡ ‡ €€€€€€†€†€ €†‡€†‡€†‡€†‡€€‡€‡€†‡ †‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€€€€†‡†‡†‡ €€€€€€‡€‡€ †‡†‡†‡ €€€€€€†‡€†‡€ €€€€€€†€†€ €€€€€€‡†€‡†€ €€€€€€†€†€ †‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡€†‡†‡€†‡†‡€†‡†‡€€‡€‡€†‡†‡ €€€€€€‡€‡€ †‡†‡†‡ €€€€€€†€†€ €€€€€€†€†€ €†‡€†‡€†‡€†‡€€‡€‡€†‡ †‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€€€€†‡†‡†‡ €€€€€€‡€‡€ †‡†‡†‡ €€€€€€†‡€†‡€ €€€€€€†€†€ €€€€€€‡†€‡†€ €€€€€€†€†€ †‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€†‡†‡†‡€€€€†‡†‡†‡ €€€€€€‡€‡€ †‡†‡†‡ €€€€€€†€†€ €€€€€€‡€‡€ €€€€€€††€††€ ††‡†‡€††‡†‡€††‡†‡€††‡†‡€††‡†‡€€€€††‡†‡ ††‡†‡ Pi Ac e c1 ) r2 Stage 2 Pe (1Ac Pi (1+ Ac e c1 Mo )r2 S1 e c2 ) r2 + Mo S2 - Md + Ml S1 €€€€„€ … €€€€„…€ €€€€…€ „…„…„…€„…„…„…€„…„…„…€„…„…„…€€„…„…„… €€€€…€ €€€€„€ €€€€„…€ €€€€…„€ €€€€„€ „…„…„…€„…„…„…€„…„…„…€„…„…„…€€„…„…„… €€€€…€ €€€€„€ €€€€…€ €€€€…„€ „„……„…„…€„…„…„…„…€„…„…„…„…€„…„…„…„…€€„„……„…„… €€€€…€ €€€€„€ €€€€„…€ €€€€…„€ €€€€„€ €€€€…€ €€€€„€ „…„…„…€„…„…„…€„…„…„…€„…„…„…€€„…„…„… €€€€…€ €€€€„€ €€€€„„…€ „„…„…€„„…„…€„„…„…€„„…„…€€„„…„… Pe (1Ac Pi (1+ Ac €€€€€€€€€€ ƒ‚ƒ€€€€€€€€€€ ‚€€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€ ‚‚ƒƒ€€€€€€€€€€ €‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ €€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€ ‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ €€€€€€€€€€ ‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ €‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ ƒ‚ƒ€€€€€€€€€€ ‚€€€€€€€€€€ €‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ ‚ƒƒ€€€€€€€€€€ €‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ ‚‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚ƒ‚ƒ €€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€ €€€€€€€€€€ ‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ €‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ ƒ‚ƒ€€€€€€€€€€ ‚€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ ‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ€‚ƒ ‚€€€€€€€€€€ €‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ€‚‚ƒ‚ƒ €€€€€    €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ €€€€€ Victor Saouma 18 Figure 12. t.2 Flexural Stresses 4. Maximum Moment Section and Support Section.45fc tensile stress at initial stage 6 fc or 12 fc fc only if appropriate deflection analysis is done. 12. 17 Based on the above.60fci fti permitted concrete fcs permitted concrete fts permitted concrete Note that fts can reach 12 would be cracked. initial and service respectively): fci permitted concrete compression stress at initial stage . because section Pe (1+ Ac Mo e c2 )+ r2 S2 Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects + Md + Ml S2 Mo S1 Pi e c 2 Ic Pe (1+ Ac Pi (1Ac Pi (1+ Ac e c2 Mt )+ r2 S2 Mo e c1 )r2 S1 e c1 Mt )r2 S1 e c2 ) r2 Mo e c2 )+ r2 S2 (12. 12. i and s refer to compression.7: Flexural Stress Distribution for a Beam with Variable Eccentricity.7) 203 . (Nilson 1978) Those (service) flexural stresses must be below those specified by the ACI code (where the subscripts c.€€€Š€€ ‹ Š‹€Š‹€Š‹€€Š‹€Š‹ €€€‹€€ €€€Š€€ €€€‹€€ €€€‹Š€€ ŠŠ‹‹Š‹Š‹€ŠŠ‹‹Š‹Š‹€ŠŠ‹‹Š‹Š‹€€ŠŠ‹‹Š‹Š‹€ŠŠ‹‹Š‹Š‹ €€€‹€€ €€€Š‹€€ €€€Š€€ €€€‹Š€€ €€€Š€€ €€€‹€€ €€€Š€€ Š‹Š‹Š‹€Š‹Š‹Š‹€Š‹Š‹Š‹€€Š‹Š‹Š‹€Š‹Š‹Š‹ €€€‹€€ €€€Š€€ €€€‹€€ €€€‹Š‹€€ ŠŠ‹Š‹‹Š‹€ŠŠ‹Š‹‹Š‹€ŠŠ‹Š‹‹Š‹€€ŠŠ‹Š‹‹Š‹€ŠŠ‹Š‹‹Š‹ €€€‹€€ €€€Š€€ €€€Š€€ €€€‹Š€€ €€€Š€€ €€€‹€€ €€€Š€€ Š‹Š‹Š‹€Š‹Š‹Š‹€Š‹Š‹Š‹€€Š‹Š‹Š‹€Š‹Š‹Š‹ €€ €€ €€ €€ ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰€ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰€ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰ €€ €€ €€ €€ ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰€ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰€ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰ €€ €€ €€ €€ ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰€ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰€ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰ €€ €€ €€ €€ ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰€ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰€ˆ‰ˆˆ‰‰ €€ €€ €€ €€ €€ ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰€ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰€ˆ‰ˆ‰ˆ‰ - Draft The internal stress distribution at each one of those four stages is illustrated by Fig. tension. we identify two types of prestressing: Stage 4 tensile stress at initial stage < 3 fci compressive stress at service stage .7.

398 psi √ = .14) (0.2 = Thus.2 Flexural Stresses (.15-a) (110)(12.11-e) (12. 837) respectively.183)(40)2 = 36.12-b) (12.19)(12) = − 1+ + 439 176 68.6 k.ft 8 205 M0 = (12.85)(−1. 400 3. 000) = 1.10) f1 = − fti Pi ec1 M0 1− 2 − Ac r S1 = −83 − 439 = −522 psi √ = 3 fc = +190 (12. 561 are respectively equal to (0.ft 8 (12.12-d) (12. then the effective force Pe is equal to (1 − 0.11-b) (12. 000 (5.2 (36.9-b) The flexural stresses will thus be equal to: w0 f1.2 = M0 = S1.6)(12. Pe and M0 . 000) = 1.12-a) − 439 (12.11-c) (12.11-d) (12. 122 psi note that −71 and −1.12-f) f2 = − ec2 Pe M0 1+ 2 + Ac r S2 144.Draft 12. 837 + 439 = −1. 000 (5.11-a) (12.6fc = −2. f1 = − Victor Saouma ec1 Pe 1− 2 Ac r − M0 + MDL + MLL S1 (12. 000 439 psi (12. 320 psi (12. 561 + 439 = −1.13) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .85)(−83) and (0.2 = −71 − 439 = −510 psi (12.15)169 = 144 k f1 = − ec1 Pe M0 1− 2 − Ac r S1 144. Pe and M0 + MDL + MLL MDL + MLL = and corresponding stresses f1.12-c) (12.11-f) f2 = − fci M0 Pi ec2 1+ 2 + Ac r S2 = −1. If we have 15% losses.55)(40)2 = 110 k.2 = −1. 000 1.12-e) (12. 4.19)(12) = − 1− 176 68.

SECTION OF BEAM TRANSVERSE DIAPHRAGM 10" 7" 6’-7" SLOTS FOR CABLES Figure 12.25’ SIDEWALK BEAM CROSS SECTIONS TRANSVERSE DIAPHRAGMS CROSS .8: Walnut Lane Bridge. Plan View Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .SECTION OF BRIDGE 52" 10" 3" 7" 3’-3" 6 1/2" 3 1/2" 7" 30" CROSS .Draft 12.3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge 207 80 ft CENTER LINE ELEVATION OF BEAM HALF 9.25’ 44 ’ ROAD 9.

15) k/ ft3 = 0.15) k/ ft3 = 0. 504 k. psi (12.15 k/ ft3 ) road has a thickness of 0.25 feet wide and 0.45 feet.25-c) = −3.72)(160)2 = 5. Pi and the self weight of the beam M0 (which has to be acconted for the moment the beam cambers due to prestressing) M0 = (1. 000) = 943.4 Flexural Stresses ec1 Pi 1− 2 Ac r 6) (2 × 10 (31.tot = 1 (2)(9.25-a) = 490. 50.8)(39. 445.20) 28 Similarly for the sidewalks which are 9.45) ft(0. Thus for a 44 foot width.27) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .8)(39. 354 943. ec2 Pi 1+ 2 = − Ac r (2 × 106 ) (31.6 feet thick: qs.21) We note that the weight can be evenly spread over the 13 beams beacause of the lateral diaphragms.2 = M0 = S1.45 k/ft 13 (12. thus over a width of 62.ft 8 (5. 354 943.Draft 12.5) = − 1− 1.5) ft = 0.26) The flexural stresses will thus be equal to: w0 f1.25) ft(0.3 26 27 12. The concrete (density=.60) ft(0.72 k/ft.5 feet this gives a uniform live load of wLL = 31 1 (0.25-d) f2 2.25-b) (12.36 + 0.24) 12.22) 30 The live load is created by the traffic.81 k/ft (12.2 2. psi (12. Prestressing force. and is estimated to be 94 psf.45 = 0.3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge 209 Loads The self weight of the beam is q0 = 1.23) Finally.4)(12. the combined dead and live load per beam is wDL+LL = 0.3. (12.13 k/ft 13 (12.36 k/ft (12.13 = 0.23 k/ft 13 (12.094) k/f t2 (62.23 + 0. 1.3. 043 psi (12. 29 The total dead load is qDL = 0. Pi only f1 = − (12. the total load over one single beam is qr.5) = − 1+ 1.tot = 1 (44) ft(0.

Essentially. Taking moment about the crown. 7 Long span structures can be built using flat construction such as girders or trusses. Due to symmetry. the vertical reaction is simply V = wL . The basic issues of static in arch design are illustrated in Fig. mankind has tried to span distances using arch construction.2 where the vertical load is per unit horizontal projection (such as an external load but not a self-weight). masonary. 13.Draft Chapter 13 ARCHES and CURVED STRUCTURES 1 This chapter will concentrate on the analysis of arches. an arch can be considered as an inverted cable. 2 The concepts used are identical to the ones previously seen. but can also resist flexure through its flexural rigidity. 13. bricks). for spans in excess of 100 ft. hence an arch. however the major (and only) difference is that equations will be written in polar coordinates. and is transmits the load primarily through axial compression. A semi-circular arch unifirmly loaded will have some flexural stresses in addition to the compressive ones. However. suspended cable. 3 4 5 A parabolic arch uniformly loaded will be loaded in compression only. it is often more economical to build a curved structure such as an arch. Essentially this was because an arch required materials to resist compression only (such as stone. 9 M = Hh − wL 2 L L − 2 4 =0 (13. suspended cable or thin shells. long span structures should have their shapes approximate the coresponding moment diagram.1) . arches can be used to reduce the bending moment in long span structures.1 Arches 6 In order to optimize dead-load efficiency. 13. 8 Since the dawn of history. Fig. or tendon configuration in a prestressed concrete beam all are nearly parabolic.1. and labour was not an issue. and there is no shear across the midspan of the arch 2 (nor a moment). Like cables.

However. 11 Three-hinged arches are statically determinate structures which shape can acomodate support settlements and thermal expansion without secondary internal stresses. An arch carries the vertical load across the span through a combination of axial forces and flexural ones.Draft 13. A well dimensioned arch will have a small to negligible moment. it is obvious that one should use as high a rise as possible. a parabolic curve would theoretically result in no moment on the arch section. 12 13 An arch is far more efficient than a beam. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 15 Since H varies inversely to the rise h. live loads may act on portion of the arch. For a combination of aesthetic and practical considerations. then due to the inclination of the arch the actual self weight is not constant. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 16 In a parabolic arch subjected to a uniform horizontal load there is no moment. Fig. or if it has no hinges. Since h is much larger than d. This last effect can be neglected if the live load is small in comparison with the dead load. Finally.3: Two Hinged Arch. 10 Since equilibrium requires H to remain constant across thee arch.3. 13. the depth (and thus the weight) of an arch is not usually constant. and relatively high normal compressive stresses. is frequently used. H will be much smaller than C − T in a beam. APPARENT LINE OF PRESSURE WITH ARCH BENDING EXCEPT AT THE BASE APPARENT LINE OF PRESSURE WITH ARCH BENDING INCLUDING BASE w w h’ H’ H’=wl /8h’< wl /8h 2 2 M h V V h h’ M base M crown L M base h H’<H H’<H H’<H V V Figure 13. a span/rise ratio ranging from 5 to 8 or perhaps as much as 12. and the arch advantage diminishes. thus the line of action will not necessarily follow the arch centroid. we may have buckling problems.2) We recall that a similar equation was derived for arches. and possibly more economical and aesthetic than a truss in carrying loads over long spans. and h is the overall height of the arch. 14 If the arch has only two hinges. as the ratio goes higher. then bending moments may exist either at the crown or at the supports or at both places. and H is analogous to the C − T forces in a beam. First. They are also easy to analyse through statics.. and the section would then have a higher section depth.1 Arches Solving for H H= wL2 8h 213 (13. However. in practice an arch is not subjected to uniform horizontal load.

5) (+ ) ΣMz = 0. Horizontal Reactions are determined next   (+ ) ΣMB ¡ = 0.1 Arches      215 Solving those four equations simultaneously we have: 140 26.2)(33. where ds = rdθ).6-a) ⇒ Cy = = = moment arm wR wR θ=π θ=π (1 + cos θ)dθ = [θ − sin θ] |θ=0 2 2 θ=0 wR [(π − sin π) − (0 − sin 0)] 2 π 2 wR (13.9)(60) = 0 ¡  RCy    RCx         15.7-a) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 13.6 B θ r B dP=wRdθ R A R A θ θ R cosθ C Figure 13.Draft 13.25 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 80 60 0 0   RAy   R   Ax    RCy               2.1 k      29. −(Cx )(R) + (Cy )(R) − θ= π 2 θ=0 wRdθ dP R cos θ moment arm =0 (13. (Gerstle 1974) Determine the reactions of the three hinged statically determined semi-circular arch under its own dead weight w (per unit arc length s.6: Semi-Circular three hinged arch Solution: I Reactions The reactions can be determined by integrating the load over the entire structure 1. −(20)(20) − (50. Vertical Reaction is determined first:   (+ ) ΣMA = 0. −(Cy )(2R) + ¡ θ=π wRdθ R(1 + cos θ) = 0 θ=0 dP (13.8 k   =   34.9 k          50.6-b) 2.4) Example 13-2: Semi-Circular Arch.2 k  (13. 000          ⇒   RAy    RAx We can check our results by considering the summation with respect to b from the right: √   B (13. 900        = RCx 80 50 3.75) + (34.

1 Arches III Deflection are determined last 217 θ α=0 wRdα · R(cos α − cos θ) + M = 0 π 2 (1 (13.000 k/in2 . that it has a web area of 13. Fig. (Kinney 1957) Determine the value of the horizontal reaction component of the indicated two-hinged solid rib arch. application of the virtual work equation yields: 1 ·∆ = 2 π 2 δP θ=0 wR2 π π R (1 − sin θ) + (θ − ) cos θ · · [1 − cos θ − sin θ] Rdθ EI 2 2 2 dx M =φ EI δM = = wR4 7π 2 − 18π − 12 16EI . a moment of inertia equal to 4. Consider shearing. The axial and shearing components of this fictitious force and of the vertical reaction at C. as shown in Fig.2 Statically Indeterminate Example 13-3: Statically Indeterminate Arch. and flexural strains. Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . causing a virtual internal moment δM = R [1 − cos θ − sin θ] 2 0≤θ≤ π 2 (13. The real curvature φ is obtained by dividing the moment by EI φ= wR2 π π M = (1 − sin θ) + (θ − ) cos θ EI EI 2 2 (13. The virtual force δP will be a unit vertical point in the direction of the desired deflection. Solution: 1.13) ⇒ M = wR2 − sin θ) + (θ − π ) cos θ 2 1.21 in2 .16-a) 13.000 in4 .15) p 2. and a shearing modulus G of 13. acting on any section θ in the right half of the rib. Hence.12) (13.Draft 13.0337 wR EI 4 (13. ?? A unit fictitious horizontal force is applied at C.70 in2 .1. axial. Consider that end C is placed on rollers.14) 1. are shown at the right end of the rib in Fig.000 k/in2 .8 as caused by a concentrated vertical load of 10 k at the center line of the span. 13-7. Assume that the rib is a W24x130 with a total area of 38. E of 30. 13.

18-a) (13.19) 5. for the rib from C to B.20-b) 6.76 k 2. and a real horizontal force of 1 k is assumed to act toward the right at C in conjunction with the fictitious horizontal force of 1 k acting to the right at the same point.309 + 0. If only flexural strains are considered.22) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . The expression for the horizontal displacement of C is B 1 ∆Ch = 2 δP δM C M ds + 2 EI B δV C V ds + 2 Aw G B δN C N ds AE (13.313 (13.002 = 2.023 − 0.002 + 0.309 (13. M δM V δV N δN = = = = = = P (100 − R cos θ) 2 1(R sin θ − 125.20-a) (13.18-f) (13. 22.36) P sin θ 2 cos θ P cos θ 2 − sin θ (13. the result would be HC = Comments 1.55 = 9. 13.17 and integrated between the limits of 0.313 in B B δM δN C N ds AE (13.57 ∆Ch = = 9.18-e) (13. For the given rib and the single concentrated load at the center of the span it is obvious that the effects of shearing and axial strains are insignificant and can be disregarded. The value of the horizontal reaction component will be HC = 22.17) 3.55 + 0. The load P is now assumed to be removed from the rib.1 Arches 219 2. If the above values are substituted in Eq. the result will be ∆Ch = 22. 13.18-b) (13. From Fig.75 k δChCh 2.21) 7.18-c) (13.898 and π/2.003 = 22.Draft 13.18-g) ds = Rdθ 4.18-d) (13. The horizontal displacement of C will be given by δChCh = 2 B M V ds + 2 ds + 2 δV EI Aw G C C = 2.57 (13.9.

Noting that the member will be subjected to both flexural and torsional deformations. 3.2 Curved Space Structures 221 with respect to the x and y axis are BP and AB respectively. 1. Hence b E E G = 2(1+ν) = 2(1+.28-b) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . Assuming a unit virtual downward force δP = 1.26) III Deflection are determined last we assume a rectangular cross-section of width b and height d = 2b and a Poisson’s ratio ν = 0. Shear Force: θ (+ 6 ΣFz = 0 ⇒ V − ) 2. we seek to determine the two stiffnesses. Considering both flexural and torsional deformations.23-a) (13.24) ΣMR = 0 ⇒ M − 3.23-c) (wRdθ)(R sin θ) = 0 ⇒ (wRdθ)R(1 − cos θ) = 0 ⇒ II Internal Forces are determined next 1.27) Flexure Torsion where the real moments were given above. and k a factor equal to .23-b) (13.229b4 ) = . 5.28-a) (13. Bending Moment: θ 0 wRdα = 0 ⇒ V = wrθ (13.176Eb4 . d the longer. The torsional stiffness of solid rectangular sections J = kb3 d where b is the shorter side of the section.385E)(. 4.385E. and replacing dx by rdθ: π δP ∆ = δW ∗ δM 0 M Rdθ + EIz δU ∗ π δT 0 T Rdθ GJ (13. we have δM δT = R sin θ = −R(1 − cos θ) (13. Torsion: θ 0 (wRdα)(R sin α) = 0 ⇒ M = wR2 (1 − cos θ) (13. 2. Applying three equations of equilibrium we obtain A Fz − A Mx − A My − θ=π θ=0 θ=π θ=0 θ=π θ=0 wRdθ = 0 ⇒ A Fz = wRπ A Mx = 2wR2 A My = −wR2 π (13.25) ΣMT = 0 ⇒ + 0 (wRdα)R(1 − cos α) = 0 ⇒ T = −wR2 (θ − sin θ) (13.Draft 13.3.229 for d = 2.667Eb4 . The flexural stiffness EI is given by EI = E bd = E b(2b) = 12 12 3 3 2Eb4 3 = .3) = . and GJ = (.

Vs and Vw are all three components of the force vector F along the N.2 Curved Space Structures 223 Figure 13. we consider the free body diagram of Fig. The resultant force vector F and resultant moment vector M acting on the cut section B are determined from equilibrium ΣF = 0.34-a) (13. and thus its unit vector is determined from w = n×s (13.1.34-b) The axial and shear forces N.2. and W axes and can be found by dot product with the appropriate unit vectors: N = F·n (13.11: Geometry of Curved Structure in Space 24 The weak bending axis is normal to both N and S.35-c) Vs = F·s Vw = F·w Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .33) Equilibrium 13. M = −L×P where L is the lever arm vector from B to A.12 an applied load P is acting at point A. 26 F = −P (13.2 25 For the equilibrium equations. 13.Draft 13. ΣM = 0. S. B P + F = 0.35-b) (13.35-a) (13. L×P + M = 0.

2 Curved Space Structures 225 Figure 13.Draft 13.13: Helicoidal Cantilevered Girder Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .

47-f) Vs = F·s = 0 1 Vw = F·w = − K P T = M·n = − P R (1 − cos θ) K PH πK (1 Ms = M·s = P R sin θ Mw = M·w = − cos θ) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .47-c) (13.47-d) (13.Draft 13. the components of the force F = −P k and the moment M are obtained by appropriate dot products with the unit vectors N H 1 = F·n = − K P πR (13.47-a) (13.47-e) (13. Finally.47-b) (13.2 Curved Space Structures 227 6.

Draft Chapter 14 BUILDING STRUCTURES 14.1 1 Introduction Beam Column Connections The connection between the beam and the column can be. In this case we really have cantiliver action only. 14.1: Flexible. Furthermore.1.θc ) s s θ b = θc Semi-Flexible Flexible Rigid Figure 14. the difference in rotation is resisted by the spring Mspring = Kspring (θcol − θbeam ). Mcol = Mbeam = 0. the end moments and rotations are equal (unless there is an externally applied moment at the node). In a flexible connection the column and beam end moments are both equal to zero. 14.2 Behavior of Simple Frames 2 For vertical load across the beam rigid connection will reduce the maximum moment in the beam (at the expense of a negative moment at the ends which will in turn be transferred to .1 14. Rigid: The connection is such that θbeam = θcol and moment can be transmitted through the connection. Rigid. θbeam = θcol . θcol = θbeam . In a rigid connection. Semi-Rigid: The end moments are equal and not equal to zero. Mcol = Mbeam = 0. Fig. θcol = θbeam . but the rotation are different. The end rotation are not equal.1: θb θb θb θc θc θc θb = θc θb = θc M=K(θ b .1. Mcol = Mbeam = 0. and Semi-Flexible Joints Flexible that is a hinge which can transfer forces only.

45M 0.Draft h 14.4M 0.4M w/2 -w/2 -M/L 0.45M 0.3: Deformation.68M/h k l RIGID FRAME 0.36M/h 0.64M 0.68M/h w/2 w/2 -0.5M’/L p/2 p/2 M’/4 M’/4 p/2 -M’/L M’/4 M’/4 Figure 14. and Axial Diagrams for Various Types of Portal Frames Subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects -M’/2L M’/2L M’/L p/2 M/L p/2 M’/L M’/L .55M 0.4M/h w/2 w/2 i j -0. M=wL/8. Shear.36M/h -M/L p/2 M’/2 M’/2 p/2 TWO-HINGE FRAME w/2 -w/2 0.68M/h -0. M’=Ph 2 Moment M Axial -w/2 w/2 w/2 a b POST AND BEAM STRUCTURE P p M’ w/2 -w/2 M w/2 w/2 c d SIMPLE BENT FRAME p -M’/L M’ w/2 -w/2 M w/2 w/2 e f p THREE-HINGE PORTAL -M’/L M’ -M’/L w/2 -w/2 M M M/h -M’/L g h -M/h -M/L p/2 M/h M’/2 M’/2 w/2 w/2 p/2 THREE-HINGE PORTAL 0. Moment.1 Introduction 231 Frame Type L w Deformation w/2 Shear W=wL.

Maximum shear force and bending moment at the base Vmax = wL = (0.ft 2 2 2.2. ecr = Victor Saouma (14.G.8-b) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . paneled or braced timber.2 11 14. 760 k.8) k. 14.1. we assume a uniform horizontal force of 0.8-a) (14.Draft 14. As a result of wind. then there will be torsional design problems.10) M (5.ft = = 14. it is best if the center of orthogonal shear resistance is close to the centroid of lateral loads as applied. Rigid Frame: which consists of linear vertical components (columns) rigidly connected to stiff horizontal ones (beams and girders). The tubular structure may be interior (housing elevators. The critical eccentricity is (20) ft L = = 3.ft(120)2 ft2 Mmax = = = 5. Fig. 14.1 Example: Concrete Shear Wall 15 From (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 16 We consider a reinforced concrete wall 20 ft wide. staircases) and/or exterior. or steel trusses constitute a rigid subsystem. 1 ft thick. When shear-walls subsytems are used.8 kip/ft of vertical height acting on the wall. Vertical Shafts: made up of four solid or trussed walls forming a tubular space structure.ft(120) ft = 96 k wL2 (0.2. 760) k. The resulting eccentricity is eActual = 3. 1. 14. 13 14 If the wall is braced by floors.3 ft < eActual N.2 Buildings Structures 233 Buildings Structures There are three primary types of building systems: Wall Subsytem: in which very rigid walls made up of solid masonry. then it can provide an excellent resitance to horizontal load in the plane of the wall (but not orthogonal to it). both of them can also have a structural role in trnsfering vertical and horizontal loads. This is not a very efficient structural form to resist lateral (wind/earthquake) loads.5. Most efficient for very high rise buildings. 6 6 thus there will be tension at the base.8) k. If this is not the case. and 120 ft high with a vertical load of 400 k acting on it at the base.4 ft P (400) k (14. This is only adequate for small rise buildings.9) (14. Walls are constructed out of masonry. It is required to compute the flexural stresses and the shearing stresses in the wall to resist the wind load. timber concrete or steel.1 12 Wall Subsystems Whereas exterior wall provide enclosure and interior ones separation.

6. and use an allowable stress of 20 ksi. If we now add the effect of the 400 kip vertical load. compression at one end.16) σall = (20) = 26. we can compute the compression and tension in the columns for a lever arm of 20 ft. The design could be modified to have no tensile forces in the columns by increasing the width of the base (currently at 20 ft). 1. the forces would be C = − T (400) k − 288 = −488 k 2 (400) k = − + 288 = 88 k 2 (14. 14. The compressive stress of 740 psi can easily be sustained by concrete. In addition. 10. The total tensile force inside this triangular stress block is 1 T = (460) ksi(7.2 Example: Trussed Shear Wall From (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 17 We consider the same problem previously analysed.7 ft 460 460 + 740 460 + 740 12.17) (14. The stress distribution is linear.ft = ±288 k (20) ft (14. and tension at the other. F =± (5. 14. The total amount of steel reinforcement needed is As = (250) k = 9. Given that those stresses are service stresses and not factored ones.18) 13. as to the tensile stress of 460 psi.4 in2 (26.21-b) 3.8-b). Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .22) 4. it would have to be resisted by some steel reinforcement.7) ksi (14.2. but use a trussed shear wall instead of a concrete one.2 Buildings Structures 235 9. The length of the tension area is given by (similar triangles) x 20 460 = ⇒x= (20) = 7.7 ksi 3 11. Fig.Draft 14. Using the maximum moment of 5. 4 (14.20) 2. which in turn will be increased by 4/3 for seismic and wind load. 760) k.21-a) (14. the foundations should be designed to resist tensile uplift forces (possibly using piles). The force in the diagonal which must resist a base shear of 96 kip is (similar triangles) F = 96 (20)2 + (24)2 ⇒F = 20 (20)2 + (24)2 (96) = 154 k 20 (14.1.7 × 12) in (12) in = 250 k 2 width (14. 760 kip-ft (Eq. 14.19) This amount of reinforcement should be provided at both ends of the wall since the wind or eartquake can act in any direction. we adopt the WSD approach.

7: Design Example of a Tubular Structure. Victor Saouma ”•¡¡¡”•¡¡¡–—¡¡¡¡–— ”• ”• ”• –— ” –— –— –— ”•¡”• ”• ”• –— ” –— —–— —–— •¡•”¡•”¡”•¡¡—–¡–—¡—–¡¡¡–— ”¡¡¡•¡•” ¡—¡¡¡¡— ” —– —– ¡•¡•¡”¡¡—¡–¡—¡¡¡– ”•¡”¡”¡¡ –¡¡–¡¡¡ •¡”¡”¡•”•¡”•¡–¡—–—¡–¡¡¡—–— •¡•¡¡”• —¡¡—¡¡¡ ”” –—– –—– •”¡•”¡•”¡”¡”¡—–¡–¡—–¡¡¡– ”¡¡¡•”¡•¡¡—–¡¡¡¡–— ” —– —– ”•¡”• ”• –— ”” –— –—–— –—–— ¡•¡•¡•¡”• —¡—¡—¡¡¡— ”•¡”¡”¡•”¡”•¡–¡—–¡–¡¡¡—– •¡•”¡•”¡”¡¡—–¡–¡—–¡¡¡– ”¡¡¡•¡•” ¡—¡¡¡¡— ” ——– ——– ¡•¡•¡”¡¡—¡–¡—¡¡¡– ”•¡”¡”¡•¡”• –¡—¡–¡¡¡— ”•¡¡¡”•”¡¡¡–—–¡¡¡¡–—– ”•¡”•¡¡”•¡–—¡¡–—¡¡¡ ”” –—– –—– ”•¡”• ”• ”• –— ” –— —–— —–— ¡•¡•¡”•¡¡—¡–—¡—¡¡¡–— ”•¡”¡”¡•¡”• –¡—¡–¡¡¡— ” – – •¡•”¡•”¡”¡¡—–¡–¡—–¡¡¡– ”¡¡¡•¡• ¡—¡¡¡¡— ” ——– ——– ¡”¡”¡”¡”•¡–¡–¡–¡¡¡– •¡•¡¡” —¡¡—¡¡¡ ”•¡”•¡”•¡•¡”•¡–—¡—¡–—¡¡¡— ”•¡•¡•¡”•”¡¡—¡–—–¡—¡¡¡–—– ”” –—– –—– ”•¡•¡•¡¡ —¡¡—¡¡¡ ” ” – ”” – –—–— –—–— ¡”¡”¡•¡”• –¡—¡–¡¡¡— ”•¡¡¡•”¡”•¡¡—–¡¡¡¡—– •¡¡¡•”¡•”¡¡—–¡¡¡¡—– ” •” •” —– ” —– ——– ——– •¡•¡•¡”¡¡—¡–¡—¡¡¡– ”¡”¡”¡¡”• –¡¡–¡¡¡ ¡¡¡”•¡¡¡–—¡¡¡¡–— ” – – 120 ’ N.27) thus we do not have any tensile stresses.3 Rigid Frames 21 Rigid frames can carry both vertical and horizontal loads. The vertical load of 1. 600) k = = −20 ksf = −140 psi A (4(20)(1) ft2 (14.26) 6. Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .28-a) (14.2 Buildings Structures ~ 20 ’ 237 20 ’ 20 ’ ~ 20 ’ w = 0. The total stresses are thus σ = σax + σf l σ1 = −140 + 87 = −53 psi σ2 = −140 − 87 = −227 psi (14.28-c) P −(1.5 ksf = ±87 psi =± I (4. 600) ft4 (14. 760) k. 14. The maximum flexural stresses: σf l = ± MC (5.4 ksf = 17 psi = A 2(20)(1) ft2 (14. however their analysis is more complex than for tubes.ft(20/2) ft = ±12.A.8 k/ft H = 96 k 60 ’ Figure 14. The average shear stress is τ= V (96) k = 2.28-b) (14. and those stresses are much better than those obtained from a single shear wall.600 k produces an axial stress of σax = 7. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 4.25) 5.2.Draft 14.

(Note that for a rigidly connected member. 4. L s equal to 0. 32 33 End forces are given by Maximum positive moment at the center of each beam is. depending on the nature of the connection one could consider those values as upper and lower bounds for the approximate location of the hinge). (b) Mid-height of the columns 3.8L)(0.08wL2 s 8 8 Maximum negative moment at each end of the girder is given by. Based on the first assumption. Unbalanced end moments from the girders at each joint is distributed to the columns above and below the floor. 14.30) (14.1L 0. Girders at each floor act as continous beams supporting a uniform load. Axial forces and deformation in the girder are negligibly small.1 30 31 14.211 L. and at the support for a simply supported beam.3.1L) = −0. hence.9 w M lft Mrgt Vrgt Vlft 0. Fig. Inflection points are assumed to be at (a) One tenth the span from both ends of each girder. Fig.1L)2 − (0. 14.29) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .1L Figure 14.8)2 L2 = 0. 2. and columns are assumed to resist the resulting unbalanced moments from the girders. the inflection point is at 0.8L L 0. L.Draft 14.9 w w M lef t = M rgt = − (0. all beams are statically determinate and have a span.9: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings 239 Vertical Loads The girders at each floor are assumed to be continuous beams. Basic assumptions 1.045wL2 2 2 Victor Saouma (14. Girder Moments 1 1 M + = wL2 = w (0.8 the original length of the girder.

have predominantly shear deformations. with possible exception when the columns on the first floor are hinged at the base.2. 14.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings 241 Column Shear Points of inflection are at mid-height. then Fig. Thus. Location of inflection points.35) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . or at the base if hinged. 14. 14. the deflected shape is dominated by overall flexural deformation.11 V = M top h 2 (14. (b) Mid-height of floor columns if rigid support. 14. (c) At the center of each girder.3. Inflection points are located at (a) Mid-height of all columns above the second floor. where the height is at least samller than the hrizontal dimension. of bays V int = 2V ext (14.3. 2. the approximate analysis of this type of structure is based on 1. Low rise buidlings.1 Portal Method 35 Low rise buildings under lateral loads. Fig. Distribution of horizontal shear forces. 36 The portal method is based on the following assumptions 1. 2. where the height is several times greater than its least horizontal dimension. the deflected shape is characterized by shear deformations.12 V ext = F lateral 2No.2 34 Horizontal Loads We must differentiate between low and high rise buildings.Draft 14.34) Girder axial forces are assumed to be negligible eventhough the unbalanced column shears above and below a floor will be resisted by girders at the floor. High rise buildings. Total horizontal shear at the mid-height of all columns at any floor level will be distributed among these columns so that each of the two exterior columns carry half as much horizontal shear as each interior columns of the frame. 37 Forces are obtained from Column Shear is obtained by passing a horizontal section through the mid-height of the columns at each floor and summing the lateral forces above it.

3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings Pabove 243 Vrgti-1 Vlfti Figure 14.Draft 14. and moment diagram for the following frame. Approximate Analysis of a Building Vertical Loads Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .39) Example 14-1: Approximate Analysis of a Frame subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads Draw the shear. Column Axial Force P Column Axial Forces are obtained by summing girder shears and the axial force from the column above. ?? below P = P above + P rgt + P lft (14. Solution: 0.25K/ft 15 30 K K 5 12 9 6 0. Fig.15: Example.14: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads.50K/ft 13 7 14 11 8 14’ 16’ 1 2 10 3 4 20’ 30’ 24’ Figure 14.

5’k -5.25K/ft 5 12 9 6 0.50K/ft 13 7 14 11 8 14’ 16’ 1 2 10 3 4 20’ +8.6’k -6.6’k -5.5’k -13.0’k +23.5’k +4.16: Approximate Analysis of a Building. Moments Due to Vertical Loads Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5’k +4.5’k +16.5’k k +3.0’k -9.5’k +5.2’k -20.5’ k 30’ +18.1’k -6.6’ k -3.6’ +6.0’ -20.0’ k -10.6’k +3.0’k -4.6’k +6.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings 245 0.6’k -6.0’k 24’ +11.0’k -9.5’k +5.5’ k -3.2’ -4.5’k Figure 14.0’k -6.Draft 14.5’k k -4.1’k -10.5’ +32.0’ k k k -13.6’k -4.

0K -0.0 K -3.0K -7.5 17.51K +0.5) V1 = = = = = = = = 2.5 k 15 k 15 k 7. Top Column Moments top M5 bot M5 top M6 bot M6 H = V12 5 = top = −M5 H = V62 6 = top = −M6 V up H (2.5 k.5 K 247 +3.5) 2(V5 ) = (2)(2.75K +6.0 k.5K -6.5 35.ft Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .0 k.5 k.5) V5 15+30 (2)(3) 2(V1 ) = (2)(7.5 K -3.ft = − 17.5K +5.ft k.0 35.75K -2.56K -0.ft = 35.ft k. Column Shears V5 V6 V7 V8 V1 V2 V3 V4 = = = = = = = = 15 (2)(3) 2(V5 ) = (2)(2.70K +0.45K +0.ft = 17.5 k 7.93K -0.0 K +3.5 k 2.0K -5.5)(14) 2 top M7 = 72 7 = bot = −M top M7 7 top M8 = 82 8 = bot = −M top M8 8 V up H = =− = =− 17.5) 2(V1 ) = (2)(2. Portal Method 1.81K Figure 14.5 k 5k 5k 2.80K +0.64K -0.0 K +7.ft k.Draft 14.ft = − 35.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings +2.0 k. Shears Due to Vertical Loads Horizontal Loads.17: Approximate Analysis of a Building.5)(14) 2 (5)(14) 2 (5)(14) 2 (2.

08*N4*N3*N3 =N10 =-0.045*I5*I3^2 =0.045*N4*N3^2 =0.25 0.08*N5*N3*N3 =+N13 =-N22 Rgt =-N20 Col Col Col =-P10 =-Q11 =-P13+Q12 =-Q14 =2*Q14/A5 =2*Q11/A4 =+D10 =-C11 SHEAR Bay 1 Col MOMENTS Bay 1 Col =2*C14/A5 =2*C11/A4 =+C28+D22 0 Beam 0 =-F20+I20 Beam 0 Beam 0 =+G28-F22+I22 0 =-K20+N20 =+L28-K22+N22 0 =-P20 =+Q28-P22 =+D13+C12 =-C14 AXIAL FORCE Bay 1 Col ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¶¶¶ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ¶¶½½½ ¶¶ ¶¶ ¶¶ ¶¶ ¶³¶³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ¬¬¬ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½ ½½ ³³ ³³ ³³ ³³ ³³ ³³ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ½½½ ½½ ½½ ½½ ½½½ ½½½ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½·½ · · · · ³³³· ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ½½½ ·½½·½ ·· ·· ·· ·· ³³·³· ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³ ³³³­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ½½½ ½½½½ ½½½½ ½½½½ ½½½½ ·½·½·½·½ ···· ···· ···· ···· ³·³·³·³· ³³³³ ³³³³ ³³³³ ³³³³ 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¨¨¨ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ žž¡¡ž¡ žžž žžž žžž žžž žžž ««« ««« ««« ««« ««« ¨«¨«¨« ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ž¡ž¡ž¡ žžž žžž žžž žžž žžž ««« ««« ««« ««« ««« ¨¨««¨« ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ žž¡¡ž¡ žžž žžž žžž žžž žžž ««« ««« ««« ««« ««« ¨«¨«¨« ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ¡¡¡ ž¡ž¡ž¡ žžž žžž žžž žžž žžž « « « « « ¨« ¨ ¨ ¨ ¥¨¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¡¥¥ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ž¡ ž ž ž ž ›ž› ›› ›› ›› ›› ›› ¥¥¥ ¥¥¥ ¥¥¥ ¥¥¥ ¥¥¥ ¥¥¥ ››› ››› ››› ››› ››› ››› ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ›› ›› ›› ›› ›› ››› ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ¥¥ ›› ›› ›› ›› ›› ›› Draft Victor Saouma Approximate Analysis Vertical Loads A 1 2 3 Height 4 14 5 16 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 B Span Load Load C L1 20 0. Equations in Spread-Sheet Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects 29 30 24 25 26 27 28 22 23 16 17 18 19 20 21 13 14 15 .045*D5*D3^2 =0.5 I J K L M L3 24 0.19: Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads.5 N O P Victor E.045*D4*D3^2 =0.XLS L2 30 0.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings Figure 14.045*I4*I3^2 =0.08*I5*I3*I3 =+I13 =-I22 Rgt =-I20 Column Column =2*L14/A5 =2*L11/A4 Beam Column Lft Cnr Rgt =-0.25 0.ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÇÇÇ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ÇÇËËË ÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇ ÇÇÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÀÀÀÄÄÄ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ÀÀÀ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËË ËË ÄÄ ÄÄ ÄÄ ÄÄ ÄÄ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ËËË ËË ËË ËËË ËËË ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ËËË ËËËË ËËËË ËËËË ËËËË ÄÄÄÄ ÄÄÄÄ ÄÄÄÄ ÄÄÄÄ ÄÄÄÄ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ËËË ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ ÄÄÄ Ë Ë Ë Ë ÈÈË ÈÈ ÈÈ ÈÈ ÈÈ ÈÈ ÈÈÄ Ä Ä Ä ÁÄÁ ÁÁ ÁÁ ÁÁ ÁÁ ÁÁ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÈÈÈ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÁÁÁ ÌÌ ÌÌ ÌÌ ÌÌ ÈÈÌÌ ÈÈ ÈÈ ÈÈ ÈÈ ÈÈ ÈÈÅÅ ÅÅ ÅÅ ÅÅ ÁÁÅÅ ÁÁ ÁÁ ÁÁ ÁÁ ÁÁ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÌÌÌ ÌÌ ÌÌ ÌÌ ÌÌ ÅÅ ÅÅ ÅÅ ÅÅ ÅÅ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÌÌÌ ÉÌÌÌ É É É É É ÉÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÅ ÅÅÂÅ Â Â Â Â Â ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ Â Â Â Â Â Â ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ Â Â Â Â Â Â ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ Â Â Â Â Â Â ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ Â Â Â Â Â Â ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ ÉÉÉ Â Â Â Â Â Â ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ Â Â Â Â Â Â ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÉÉÍÍÍ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉ ÉÉÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÂÂÆÆÆ Â Â Â Â Â ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÍÍÍ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ ÆÆÆ Í Í Í Í ÊÊÍ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊÆ Æ Æ Æ ÃÆà Ãà Ãà Ãà Ãà Ãà ÊÊÊ ÊÊÊ ÊÊÊ ÊÊÊ ÊÊÊ ÊÊÊ ÊÊÊ ÃÃà ÃÃà ÃÃà ÃÃà ÃÃà ÃÃà ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ Ãà Ãà Ãà Ãà Ãà ÃÃà ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ ÊÊ Ãà Ãà Ãà Ãà Ãà Ãà =+D20 =+D3*D5/2 Beam Lft =+D3*D4/2 =-0.08*D5*D3*D3 =+D13 =-D22 Rgt =-D20 Column Column Beam Column Lft Cnt Rgt =-0. Saouma Q 14.045*N5*N3^2 =0.5 D E F G H APROXVER.08*D4*D3*D3 =+D10 =-F10+I10 =-G11 =2*G14/A5 =2*G11/A4 =-F13+I13+G12 =-G14 Bay 2 Bay 2 Bay 2 =+I3*I5/2 Beam Lft =+I3*I4/2 =-0.25 0.08*I4*I3*I3 =+I10 =-K10+N10 =-L11 =-K13+N13+L12 =-L14 Bay 3 Bay 3 Bay 3 =+N3*N5/2 Beam Lft =+N3*N4/2 Beam Lft Cnt Rgt =-0.

20: Approximate Analysis of a Building.5 K -120’K +17.3 Approximate Analysis of Buildings 251 15K 30K 5 12 9 6 13 10 7 14 11 8 14’ 1 2 3 4 16’ 20’ 30’ 24’ +17.5’ K -17.5’K -60’K -120’K +17.5’K Figure 14.5’K -77.5’K +77.5’K +35’K +35’K +17.5’K -17.5’K -77.5’K +60’K -17.5K +77.5K +77.5’K +120’K -35’K +120’K -35’K +60’K -17.Draft 14.5’ K -60’K +17. Moments Due to Lateral Loads Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .5’K -17.5’ K -77.

Lateral Deflections Figure 14. Table 14. Equations in Spread-Sheet Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects 253 .22: Portal Method. Force C =SUM($C$9:C12) =+D12/(2*$F$2) =2*E12 =+C9 Tot D =+D9/(2*$F$2) Ext Shear E =2*E9 Int 2 3 F G =+H28-I21 =-I18 Col Bay 1 AXIAL FORCE =+H22 =+E12 =+H19 =+E9 Col Bay 1 SHEAR =-H12 =+E12*B12/2 =-H9 =+E9*B9/2 Col Bay 1 MOMENTS H 0 0 Beam =-2*I11/I$3 =+I21 =-2*I8/I$3 Lft Beam =+H12-H10 =-I11 =+H9 Lft Beam 20 L1 I PORTAL. for example ∆ < h/500 where h is the height of the story or of the building. Saouma S Victor Saouma 14. how much is carried by the shaft compared to the frames). Since all systems are connected.4 Lateral Deflections Design Parameters On the basis of the two approximate analyses. Portal Method 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 H2 11 10 9 H1 8 7 6 5 # of Storeys 4 3 2 # of Bays 1 PORTAL METHOD 3. A building that deflects severly under lateral forces may have damage problems associated with vibration (as with vertical defelctions of beams).e.XLS =+I18 Rgt =-I8 Rgt J =+K28+J21-M21 =+J18-M18 Column =+K22 =+F12 =+K19 =+F9 Column =-K12 =+F12*B12/2 =-K9 =+F9*B9/2 Column K Bay 2 Bay 2 Bay 2 L 0 0 Beam =-2*M11/M$3 =-2*M8/M$3 Lft Beam =+K12-K10+J11 =-M11 =+J8+K9 Lft Beam 30 L2 M =+M21 =+M18 Rgt =-M8 Rgt N =+O28+N21-Q21 =+N18-Q18 Column =+O22 =+F12 =+O19 =+F9 Column =+K13 =+K12 =+K10 =+K9 Column O Bay 3 Bay 3 Bay 3 P 0 0 Beam =-2*Q11/Q$3 =-2*Q8/Q$3 Lft Beam =+O12-O10+N11 =-Q11 =+N8+O9 Lft Beam 24 L3 Q =+Q21 =+Q18 Rgt =-Q8 Rgt R =+S28+R21 =+R18 Col =+S22 =+E12 =+S19 =+E9 Col =+H13 =+H12 =+H10 =+H9 Col Victor E.Draft 38 Even at schematic or preliminary stages of design.2. one may also get some idea of the relative horizontal load carried by the various vertical subsystems in a building (i. 1. it is important to estimate the lateral deflections of tall buildings for the following reasons 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pppp¤eee ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ iiii‡¤‡‡‡‡‡‡‡ddd ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ hhhh††††††††™™™¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ gggg…¤…………………˜˜˜ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ffff„¤„„„„„„„——— ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤eeeeƒƒƒƒƒƒƒƒ––– ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ‚  € y x w v u t s r q p i h g fe A 16 30 14 15 H B Lat. 2. they must move together and through their stiffness (deformation per unit load) we can determine the contribution of each subsystem. we now seek the design parameters for the frame. Lateral deflections are often limited by code requirements. vertical and lateral load.4 14. This is important because occupants should not experience uncomfortable horizontal movements. Through the evaluation of deflection.

23: Shear Deformation in a Short Building.75 6.40) Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . 14.00 4.00 11.00 5.00 12.00 6.50 0.4 Lateral Deflections Mem. For a V ∆ WALL ELEVATION Figure 14.75 97.25 27.00 3.50 0. 9.00 4.17 77.46 22.0 23.46 17.00 20.1 39 Short Wall In short structures (as with short beams).00 1.00 1.46 255 9 10 11 12 13 14 Table 14.Draft 14.50 0.67 90.50 13.50 16.46 Design Values 86. 77. Victor Saouma ´³´³³´³´³´³´³´³ ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ³´³³´³´³´³´³´³ ³²³´³²³²³²³²³²³´ ²´³´³²³´³´³´³´³´³² ³²³²´³²³²³²³²³²³²´ ´²´³´³´³´³´³´³´³´³´ ²³²³²³²³²³²³²³²³² ´³´³´³´³´³´³´³´³´ ²³²³³²³²³²³²³²³ ³³²´²³³³³³³²´² 1.50 11.17 17.50 0.00 7.00 1.00 16. Fig.70 36.50 3.00 12.2V h GA h (14. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) concentrated load ∆≈ 2 where for concrete and steel G ≈ 5 E.00 5.75 17.00 12.23 dominates.75 77.50 23. -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear -ve Moment +ve Moment Shear Vert.50 8.00 6.50 10.00 2.20 36.92 24.2: Girders Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads 14.00 Hor.60 18.50 0.4.50 0.50 4.00 4. shear deflections.10 18.00 8.00 7.

45-a) (14.4 Lateral Deflections LINTELS L ∆ 257 w a 2 WALLS CONNECTED BY LINTELS Figure 14.45-b) (14. Fig.44-a) (14. From the portal method we can estimate those deformations. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) and δ ≈ αh (14.45-c) = ∆colI + ∆gdr = Victor Saouma ·¶¶ µ¶¶ µ· ¶¶ µ·¶¶µ· ¶¶µ· µ·µ· ·µ·¶¶ µ¶¶ ¶¶µ· ¶¶ µ·¶¶µ· µ·µ· ¶¶ µ·¶¶µ· ¶¶µ· µ·µ· ·µ·¶¶ µ¶¶ ¶¶µ· ¶¶ µ·¶¶µ· µ·µ· ¶¶ µ·¶¶µ· ¶¶µ· µ·µ· ·µ·¶¶ µ¶¶µ· ·¶¶ µ¶¶ ¶¶µ·µ· µ·µ· ¶¶ ¶¶ ¸¹ ¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¸¹¸¹ ¶¶ ¶¶¸¹ ¶¶ ¹¸¸¹ ¹¸¸¹ ¶¶¸¹¸¹ α h LINTEL BENDING α α RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WALL AND LINTEL DEFORMATION Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .43) 14.44-c) 44 = ∆colE + ∆gdr = 45 For the interior joint: ∆col = ∆gdr = ∆totI VcolI h3 12EIcolI Vgdr L2 h 2VcolI Lh2 = 12EIgdr 12EIgdr h L VcolI h2 + 12E IcolI Ig dr (14.Draft 14.4 43 Frames Deflection of a rigid frame is essentially caused by shear between stories which produces vertical shears in the girders.26. 14.25: Deflection in a Building Structure Composed of Two Slender Walls and Lintels.4. The deformation for the first story at the exterior joint can be approximated from ∆col = ∆gdr = ∆totE VcolE h3 12EIcolE Vgdr L2 h 2VcolE Lh2 = 12EIgdr 12EIgdr 2L h VcolE h2 + 12E IcolE Ig dr (14.44-b) (14.

Fig. A and E the corresponding cross sectional area and modulus of elasticity.Draft 14. and at the point in question.4. H1 H2 H3 H4 P1 C ∆c C 1 δT ΣH a a T ∆ δc h C Figure 14. we can neglect the web deformation and consider only the axial deformations in the colums: ∆ ≈ δt +δc h a Th δt + δc = 2 AE (14.47) 49 where: P is the force in any member due to loading on the whole system.4 Lateral Deflections SIDE SWAY P 259 Figure 14.5 48 Trussed Frame The cantilever deflection due to column shortening and lengthening (produced by overturning moment) is usually of secondary importance until the building is some 40 stories or higher.29: Axial Elongation and Shortening of a Truss Frame.48) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .28: Side-Sway Deflection from Unsymmetrical Vertical Load. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) The total deflection ∆ at C is given by ∆=Σ PPL AE (14. 50 Alternatively. ??. P the force in the same member due to a unit (1) force applied in the direction of the deflection sought. (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) 14. L is the length of the member.

but in order to be really effective.8 + 34.50-b) (14.ft(156) ft = 41.Draft 14. and s within h the usual index for concrete buildings. which decreases linearly to the top.50-d) (14.7 k/col (2)(9) (41.8) k. Furthermore. Since the story drift varies with the shear in the story. Proportioning the lateral load to the relative stiffnesses.52-b) 4.50-a) (14. 000 ksf (4. the frame would carry about 1/6 of the load.500. 000) ksf(9. We next consider the deflection of the top of the frame. then: ∆ = Icol = Igdr = ground VcolI = VcolE h2 h 2L + 12E IcolE Ig dr bh3 (20/12)(20/12)3 = = 0. 2.087 1 √ ∆ = = h 156 1. If the wall thickness is reduced.40 ft (14. the deflection will be correspondingly smaller.4 Lateral Deflections E = 3 × 106 psi = 432.49-d) (14. Assuming that each frame takes 1/9 of the total wind load and shear.7) k(12)2 2(60) ft (12) ft 4 + (3.8) k.46) ft4 12(432. 000) ksf (0. especially for the top floor.4) ft 1 = 400 (156) ft (0.51) which indicates a drift ratio of Drift Ratio for Building = Drift Ratio for Ground Floor = (0. 800 261 (14. which ranges between 1/1.ft(156)4 ft4 ∆ = = 0. the value of 1/1.00116(18.49-e) (14.64 ft4 (4.64 ft4 12 12 3.49-f) The ∆ ratio is much less than 1/500 as permitted in most building codes. 400) ft4 0. it is seen that the frame is about five times more flexible than the shaft.087 ft. The deflection due to moment increases rapidly at the top.52-a) (14.062/2 = 0.062) ft 1 = 194 (12) ft (14.50-c) (14.50-e) (14. and neglecting column shortening.31 ft per story and the deflection at top of the building is approximately ∆ = (13)(0.062 ft (14.087 ft 8(432.031) = 0. whereas the story drift index may be higher. Comparing the frame deflection of 0.50-f) ∆ = = 3.800 indicates only the average drift index for the entire building.64) ft 0. the average drift will be 0. Increasing the column size will stiffen the frame. and if door openings are considered.7) = 0. since thegirders contribute about 2/3 of the Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects . the frame would not be stiff enough to carry all the lateral load by itlself.40 ft with the shaft deflection of 0.000 and 1/2. the girder stiffness will also need to be increased. and the remaining 5/6 will be carried by the shaft.

HEIGHT BRACE WITH CANTILEVER CORE BENDING TIEDOWN RESISTANCE ARM OF CORE SHAFT ONLY TOTAL RESISTANCE ARM IS INCREASED BY COL.TRUSS TRUSS TENSION COMPRESSION T C C T CORE WITH BRACING EFFECT BRACING REDUCES OVERALL DEFLECTION OF BUILDING HEIGHT MID . (Lin and Stotesbury 1981) Victor Saouma Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects .32: Effect of Exterior Column Bracing in Buildings.4 Lateral Deflections 263 TUBE HAT FULL CANTILEVER DEFLECTION WIND HAT .Draft 14. ACTION DEFLECTION Figure 14.

Department of Civil Engineering. Gerstle.: 1957.: 1996. Entretiens sur L’Architecture.Draft Bibliography 318. Belgique. Springer-Verlag.: 1985. Mark and J.d.: 1978. G. Penvenuto. Dover Publications. Billington. Dover. UBC: 1995.: n. I. Department of Civil Engineering. University of Chicago. An Introduction to the History of Structural Mechanics. S. A. The design of Building Structures. Technical report. Kinney. Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects and Engineers. J. Basic Structural Analysis. E. Technical report. Out of Print. T. Envyclopaedia Brittanica. The Maillart Papers. Addison-Wesley. Uniform building code. Lin. Out of Print. (ACI 318-83). Drake translation. History of Strength of Materials. W. Indeterminate Structural Analysis. The Tower and the Bridge.: 1974.: 19xx. Abel (eds). The Four Books of Architecture. Anon. Schueller.: xx. xx. Palladio. A. of Steel Construction. C. American Institute of Steel Construction. Design of Prestressed Concrete. Billington. Princeton University. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete.: 1991. Pierre Mardaga. Vitruvius: 1960. . Princeton University.: 1981.: 1983. John Wiley. Dover Publications. Structural studies. Madison.: 1973. D. Prentice Hall. Timoshenko. Load and Resistance Factor Design.. le Duc. Billington. and Stotesbury.: 1982. Bruxelles. V. S. American Concrete Institute. Second National Conference on Civil Engineering: History. Including Centers of Gravity and Forces of Percussion.: 1974. R. Wisc. Two New Sciences. Nilson. A. Heritage and the Humanities.: 1977. International Conference of Building Officials. and Mark. Galilei. XX. S. K. University of Wisconsin Press. John Wiley and Sons. A. in D.: 1986. Billington. D. The Ten Books on Architecture. Manual of Steel Construction. D. R.

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