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By: Stephen Casey
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for: TCDH 541: Church History and Renewal II On-Campus Professor: Dr Peter E. Prosser Regent University School of Divinity Spring 2004
in this particular instance to benefit the kingdom of God. untamed expression of combined energy and restlessness in a general fight. finds its birth in the days of medieval pageantry and festivals. The traits that they possessed were set apart. he inherited a family background of "…forceful personalities. among others. These traits have a marked and observable continuity in Loyola's life before and after his conversion. The second form was a team event. cheval). The first form had only one winner. "chivalry. Ignatius of Loyola became a knight devoted to God as his “fair lady. or the knightly code." 2 . or mêlée. Ignatius of Loyola. with the latter period expressed in submission to God. Born in 1521. the last man left standing. Etymologically from the Old French word chevaler (which came from the word for horse.” the one to whom he owed his actions of spiritual chivalry and conquest. In examining Loyola's life. chivalry passed through many stages and developments.1 Early knights demonstrated the pure.v. staunch family traditions and loyalties. were craftsmen among the Israelites to whom God gave skill for preparation of the tabernacle. and values and ideals" which shaped his early character. yet sanctified way following salvation. These two men.Chivalry…Sanctified Introduction The first recorded instance of the Spirit of God endowing a person to accomplish a task happens in Exod 31:3. with 1 Webster's New World Dictionary (1995). or used. s. Bezalel and Oholiab. more popularly known by his canonized name. This fight could take place in two manners. An analogous circumstance existed in the life of Iñigo de Loyola. ideas and desires in a similar. in Spain. one may see how God often uses a person's pre-conversion experiences. Backgrounds of Chivalry Chivalry.
1989)."2 Following the Middle Ages came the Renaissance. Chivalry and Pageants in the Middle Ages. gold chain.forces taking separate sides as in a normal team sports competition. in which individuals or teams proclaimed their intention to defend a given place against all comers. or other prize of value. 18 on the development of women as sources of inspiration. The battle was fought by knights in devotion to their feudalistic lord. 40. and relishing of older traditions. a "rebirth. in a history of the Jesuits. …of the deeds of Jaime I. 1956). which in a great way formed the ethos of Spanish noble life into which Iñigo de Loyola was born. circulated widely during the Renaissance in Spain. caused a transition into a very "distinctive form of the sport…[called] the pas d'armes. Tournaments: Jousts. however. St. Roman Catholic domination of culture through the later Middle Ages. and."4 Amadis formed part of the cultural vision that young Iñigo adopted for himself. (London: Burns and Oates. Fundamental in the post-Middle Ages development of chivalry lay a new goal: obtaining the favor and/or love of a particular woman. (New York: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. most importantly. a knight who reflected the ideals of the age. Brodrick. …"who [being] young. 3 . The prize in a competition like this would be a golden fleece. Yet the martial atmosphere alone of the medieval pageant does not complete the scene. 2 Richard Barber and Juliet Barker. cf. pg. courageous man who sought glory in love and life. the valiant. and [he] did so much that he made his love evident to all. 91." strengthening. 4 James Brodrick. The earliest apparent record of Spanish participation in tournaments comes from Aragon.'3 The story of Amadis. describes Amadis as a work laying the foundation for "the finished caballero…[and] the code of honour which moulded many generations. 107."[sic] One of these was a lady of Montpellier for whom Pedro [Jaime I] is said to have 'held tourneys and knightly exercises. 3 Ibid. became enamoured of other gentlewoman. within the culture during Loyola's formative years. Ignatius Loyola: The Pilgrim Years.
1-2. 4 .stark. A Popular History of the Jesuits. trans." (Class paper. …and he was to place little value on material objects. "[when] pieced together the knights chivalric ideals were to defend and protect his [feudal] lord. Flint and D. describes Loyola's early days as "less spectacular than that of the sinful Augustine of the early chapters of the Confessions. the ideal of the knight. 6 G.kent. and hence to God. writes René Fülöp-Miller.htm. Knights. April 1999). in search of more noble conquests. and libidinousness. 34. glory."7 By this time. The Power and Secret of the Jesuits.F. Inc. (New York: The Macmillan Co. 7 René Fülöp-Miller."5 Chivalry Manifest While G.]… he was to be brave and courageous in battle. his God. This required emulating the humility towards worldly possessions shown in the Bible." they were nonetheless full of pride.. Internet. Dennis Meadows. Dennis Meadows. accessed 19 April 2004. in his book. Soaking up the court culture. Loyola's concept of obedience merged with that of romantic love for his "fair lady. …and his lady[. had transformed a substantive.. Kent State University. had to maintain loyalty to the Church. Therefore.Another significant change in chivalry came again from the influence of Christianity.6 His early years he spent as a page in the court of the queen of Spain. (New York: George Braziller. Tait." and his triumph in service would be "…a lace kerchief thrown from her hand to him as victor in the joust. noble institution into one of "cheap delight in all kinds of knavish tricks against defenceless citizens. men and women. "The Evolution of the Chivalric Code. upon his assumption of knightly duties he carried the colors of the queen during tournaments. 1958). …[Yet] among themselves they observed a ceremonial courtesy which was 5 Steve Heckman. by F. available at http://www. 1956).edu/~jmoneysmith/gbi/ourweb/heckman. through the lavishness and lethargy of court life.S. A Popular History of the Jesuits.
he spent countless hours immobilized in the rack to stretch his now shorter leg to match the other one. Loyola's chivalric value of holding out against all odds rallied the Spanish troops to fight the French invaders. Therefore. Iñigo asked for some reading material to provide more food for his adventurous imagination. this happened after the battle of Pamplona in 1521. Loyola had surgeons saw off the protrusion in the standard non-anesthetic manner of the day (in addition to rebreaking the leg when it set wrong the first time!). Crisis It is said that when finally hitting the bottom of life one has to look up. 8 9 Ibid. and seriously wounded the other. and their source of inspiration gone. Meadows."8 Thus. while holding to the concept of an ancient chivalrous ideal. Meissner. thus in his eyes living a true Renaissance style." as he would later describe it.10 These long hours of healing and primitive physical therapy provided ample solitary time. With Loyola injured. 10 W. 2. In the eyes of a noble hidalgo. In Iñigo's case. external perceptions meant everything. when the bones of his leg healed wrong. 44. Never once in this period of agonizing physical ordeal did he cry or emit a sound. Ignatius of Loyola: The Psychology of a Saint. To his dismay. in reality Loyola lived as a pre-Romantic.9 In the face of overwhelming forces. After countless hours of romantic daydreaming.almost ridiculous. the troops lost morale and the rally failed. It would be this injury that set the stage for Loyola's conversion. 1992). a cannonball shot broke one of his legs. leaving an external protuberance. 5 . (New Haven: Yale University Press. It was from this empty shell of idealism Loyola was ripe for conversion. After this "butchery. seeking the extravagance of the courtier life in all of its excesses. W. However.
11 Reluctantly Loyola read them." however. Loyola had a shell of the great values of chivalry. Loyola's chivalrous cultural commitment to "staying the course. 45. like most people. unsatisfying examples that lacked the moral substance on which to support those values. "having an outward form of godliness but having denied its power. would be key to achieving that point of internal conversion. . and would take time. He had grown up in a culture of religiosity.only two works were available: the Life of Jesus by Ludolph of Saxony and a book about the lives of the saints called the Flos Sanctorum. but from empty. for these were not of his taste. Yet this change was merely the first step in his new way of life. material humility. but he had nothing better to do. Commitment Departure 11 Ibid."12 He now had an example to follow. but one that was devoid of meaning. the more he realized that his former way of life left him feeling empty. still needed to realize the internal shift in motive that happens when a person commits his life to Christ. 2 Tim 3:5 (ALT). Loyola. This would be a process. and the pursuit of a goal greater than oneself Iñigo was transformed. 12 6 . Conversion Within these stories of spiritual conquest. obedience to a noble cause. and the more he read.
made what Iñigo considered to be a dishonorable remark in an apologetic against the Virgin Mary. Through meditation. his meditations kindled in 13 14 Meissner.By February 1522. Ibid. the once proud knight found himself a humble student in the local monastery. In many ways engulfed in spiritual battle. he took a vow of chastity. Formerly Loyola would have immediately challenged and most probably slain the Moor for such a remark. "More and more. Loyola took his vow of poverty. Held up in Manresas due to a plague outbreak. fastings. 62. Afraid of the potential to sexually sin along the way. the inner attitude of dependence upon God for peace. hanging up the sword and dagger from his waist on the grille of the chapel.14 God's Knight Iñigo set out on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.13 Arriving at Montserrat. Loyola began to find the true substance of conversion. in the manner of the saints he had read about in the Flos Sanctorum and gave his extravagant clothing to a poor man in exchange for the robe and hemp belt of a pilgrim. 64. in the medieval tradition. and the physical and spiritual sufficiency that flow from that dependence. 7 . Iñigo fell alongside a Moor who. After the Eve of Annunciation. amidst conversation. While journeying to the shrine. yet this time he contemplated what the man said and ultimately did him no harm. this new knight of God committed his life to the Lord. Meissner points out here of proof for the true substance of his conversion. ascetic behavior. with his legs healed. Loyola left home for a Catholic shrine in Montserrat. and midnight prayers the very methodical Loyola found himself calling out to God in despair for deliverance of the impure motives still lingering within his soul.
the survivor of a grim battlefield. as it were. The Origin of the Jesuits. Internalization Externals for Loyola gradually ceased to be displays of humility. which only caused pain. all to appearance so like the dreary paraphernalia of a Latin grammar. a summary of the devotional and meditation practices by which Loyola found true internal meaning to the Christian life. 1943). and selfmutilation. Loyola even stopped rising at night to pray. What came over him was the realization that God's work was that. but a way of life. Brodrick speculates: Could we get behind the letter to the history of its many rules and annotations and additions..him a great eagerness to bring others to the knowledge and love of Christ."15 From Jerusalem. which had both grown quite long. so the extravagant self-neglect of his hair and nails. & Co. a war-worn veteran…. he ceased to perform. This is the victory that a knight in the service of the Lord had to conquer. the fight between human pride driven to prove faith through externals against the life of a godly man manifesting itself externally via internal spiritual regeneration. (London: Longmans. Ibid. work. 19."16 Post-conversion Spiritual Exercises 15 16 James Brodrick. and the true devotion which had been born in the custom of chivalry was not one of externals. 8 . He recorded and redacted his journal during this period into what came to be known as the Spiritual Exercises. 20. Loyala returned via Cyprus to Spain. seeing that there was some external pride associated with intentional loss of sleep. we would see how each of them is. Green.
(San Francisco: HarperCollins. Foster. is the fervency of action and commitment of resources to that path which." the shortest distance is a straight line. However. 22. causes Richard Foster to mention Loyola's call to "apply all our senses to the task. This impassioned approach to holiness. particularly in the realm of meditation. as stated above. the authorities took notice of it through the suspicious eyes of the Spanish Inquisition. the list of triumphs of a gallant knight. 1998). Yet for a warrior attempting to dispatch his enemy with the least amount of effort. however. Therefore. where his help among the poor inspired others to do as he did."17 The reading of the Spiritual Exercises is very methodical and dry. bent on conquering the inner man with all of his selfish ambitions. any literary embellishment or romantic "fluff" runs counter against the goal of the Exercises. It is in reality a battle record. "Ignatius saw in self-conquest and self-denial the indispensable preconditions of an active. Celebration of Discipline. Coupled with this economy of effort. When put up against the romantic literature that Loyola steeped himself with in early life. 29.The Spiritual Exercises remains the most enduring contribution Loyola left to those who would come behind him. 9 ."18 Society of Jesus The desire to advance his scholastic background led Loyalo to Barcelona. proves the most effective. The effect of God's love upon his life gained a following. conservation of energy and movement is a priority. Richard J. enduring love of Our Lord. For the spiritual sojourner wanting to go from "point 'A' to point 'B'. the contrast is stark. 17 18 Ibid. and after two arrests Loyola left for Paris to study further.
Ibid. bringing their passion for the Lord to the lost.21 Even to the casual observer. a shepherd from Savoy. 21 John LaFarge. and Francis Xavier. 1956). in order to ask the pope for a mission charge. the attitude of the Turks permitting. This desire to serve God in and by any means necessary inspired Pierre Favre. From this small beginning. Straus and Cudahy. They were stoned. not accepting their release. who shared the cultural background and vision common to Loyola. also chains and imprisonment. A Report on the American Jesuits. A change of heart came to each of them through the personal life-witness and apologetic of Iñigo. 1 passim. so that they might obtain a better resurrection. With their sovereign Lord being Christ. They had to decide upon a name for their brotherhood. yes. the "Hall of Faith. with Ignatius and two others continuing on to Rome. scores of valiant men would be inspired to cross the globe.19 In time his following band of brothers was eleven-strong. Their annals read much like the following excerpt from Hebrews chapter eleven. they decided to disband. rooming with two others. and others experienced mockings and scourgings. chap. a fellow Spanish nobleman. 21. Most difficult was the conversion of Xavier.20 The Order of the Jesuits In 1540 Pope Paul III confirmed the Order of Jesus. (New York: Farrar. they chose a name with military overtones. they were sawn in two. that of the noble hidalgo. or else to Rome. the La Compañía de Jesús.": …[many] were tortured. and following graduation with a master of arts they all decided to pilgrimage to Jerusalem. to serve God with selfless abandon. the cognates of "regiment" and "military" can be seen in its title. the Society of Jesus.In Paris. 38-40. the "fishing for men" began. in order to give when asked. known in Latin as Regimini Militantis Ecclesiae. When circumstances did not permit their reaching Jerusalem. they were 19 20 Bobrick. 10 . The Origin.
made to wear a red-hot iron necklace. They then poured several volumes of boiling water over his head. Gabriel Lalemant. Fr. An Iroquois warrior finally killed him with a hatchet blow to the face and cut out his heart in order to gain. details many instances of the noble lives of Jesuit missionaries. Brébeuf himself was forced to run the gauntlet. 11 . (Chicago: Loyola University Press. in goatskins. and began to eat his charred flesh as Brébeuf looked on.22 Joseph N. 1984). One example is sufficient to demonstrate the stoic. by eating it. Jesuit Saints & Martyrs. and had his body wrapped in resin and set ablaze. Having been captured by Iroquois Indians. holy. Fr. the Iroquois cut off his nose. cut off his feet. in the tradition of Loyola's dignified hidalgo mold. 80. ill-treated (men of whom the world was not worthy). Tylenda. and forced a hot iron down his throat to silence his words of encouragement. John de Brébeuf was assigned to evangelize the Huron Indians of pre-colonial North America. Fearing that his death was imminent.23 The Holy Chivalry of Loyola 22 23 Heb 11:35b-38 (NASB). Tylenda. wandering in deserts and mountains and caves and holes in the ground. along with many martyrs who endured horrifying tortures without crying for mercy or pity from their captors. during inhuman torture.tempted. a measure of the priest's courage. Still commending his brothers to endure for the sake of heaven. knightly courage in this order. Fr. These martyrs stood their ground. like a distant Iñigo at Pamplona. lips. a Jesuit historian. afflicted. Brébeuf continued to encourage the Christian Hurons as well as his fellow Jesuit brother. being destitute. the captors scalped him. they went about in sheepskins. they were put to death with the sword. and refused to retreat in the dutiful service of their Lord. Joseph N.
Loyola lived and breathed this way of life. and Spain with no fear of dying for Christ. 110-111. Loyola's concept of loyalty to a feudal lord transferred into devotion to Christ. Every meditation. Nothing could dissuade him from a mission when he was convinced it lay in furthering the kingdom of God. and used Iñigo de Loyola to further the kingdom of God. the ideals of a Renaissance chivalric code are prominent. hardship and death through months or years for the sake of their country. sanctified them.. The consummation of salvation in heaven with God formed the prize for his performance in the "tournament" of life. France. He traveled across Europe both alone and with his early companions during the tumultuous years of war between England. In fact. God took the raw material of his attitudes and convictions. 1923). (London: Macmillan Co. "As patriots in time of war steel themselves to face dirt. so these men of delicate conscience and iron will were fixed on dying daily all the years of their life in the great war between God and evil. he often took what little he received via begging and gave it to others. and act of kindness that flowed from Loyola's ministry lay in his desire to please God as a servant. and the Jesuit order he founded. Quite capable of living a life of luxury in the Spanish court. affording them the opportunity to live better."24 The "fair lady" image for whom a knight battled and gave his all transferred to Christ as well. Ignatius Loyola. and it formed the rubric about which God put him into action following his conversion and commitment to Jesus. prayer. his life. 12 . Loyola resigned himself from attachment to material possessions or fame.As can be gleaned from a brief encounter with Loyola. This attitude is evident in his desire to sink into anonymity following the founding 24 Henry Dwight Sedgwick.
I have a deeper understanding of what a personal commitment to holiness means. rather. in the same vein of thought as the code of chivalry. The Lord was his master. To study the life of this great Christian can not fail to leave an impression of humility. May we recognize that obedience to external actions are not the true message of Christ. love of the ideal. The discipline required to go through the extensive meditation of Spiritual Exercises alone is staggering. However."25 May we all be inspired by Loyola's example to investigate the meaning of this verse as it applies to our lives. His fervent effort. he assumed the role of leader for the order. much less to continue through it day after day of one's life. and a great insight into Jesus' challenge in Luke 9:23. and then as the internal changes occur our external actions will follow.of the order. he must deny himself. and dedication to a goal greater than himself. and take up his cross daily and follow Me. as Loyola testified by his life. " "If anyone wishes to come after Me. 25 Luke 9:23 (NASB) 13 . Conclusion and Application The code of chivalry manifested itself internally in the life of Iñigo de Loyola. and with God's sanctifying touch all of Loyola's preconversion attitudes and attributes found a holy use. we are to have a relationship with God that grows as we spend time before Him each day in spiritual exercise. after much personal prayer and pleading from his fellows. led to a legacy that spread the name of Christ over the world. called General.
.." Class paper. Heckman. London: Burns and Oates. Tournaments: Jousts. G. Tait. W. Meissner. Online: http://www. Joseph N.kent.S. Zeolla. New York: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. London: Longmans. Sedgwick. Straus and Cudahy. & Co. James. 1958.. Richard J. St. Ignatius of Loyola: The Psychology of a Saint. John. New York: Simon and Schuster. New York: Farrar. New American Standard Version. Ignatius Loyola. New York: The Macmillan Co. Webster's New World Dictionary. trans. 1995. ed. Kent State University. Ignatius Loyola: The Pilgrim Years. 1943. Fülöp-Miller. 1998. Celebration of Discipline. W.stark.Bibliography Barber. Analytical-Literal Translation.htm [19 April 2004] Holy Bible. 14 .. New York: George Braziller. A Report on the American Jesuits. Meadows. Richard and Juliet Barker. Foster. Jesuit Saints & Martyrs. Steve. LaFarge. The Power and Secret of the Jesuits. René. Chivalry and Pageants in the Middle Ages. Inc. 1923. San Francisco: HarperCollins. Dennis. Tylenda. Victoria Neufeldt. Brodrick. 1989. Flint and D. trans. April 1999. Chicago: Loyola University Press. 1992. A Popular History of the Jesuits. by F. 1984. Green. London: Macmillan Co. 1956.edu/~jmoneysmith/ gbi/ourweb/heckman. 1956. Henry Dwight. New Haven: Yale University Press. Holy Bible. "The Evolution of the Chivalric Code. by Gary F. ________. The Origin of the Jesuits. 1956.F.
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