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Paint School

Training Course Handouts


Course held by Jotun Marine Coatings Sandefjord 10 -11 January 2001

Jotun Paint School

Course Handouts
Contents
Chapter Title
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Introduction What is Paint? Generic Paint Types Steelwork Pre-treatment Paint Application Inspection and Control Paint Failures Antifouling Safety, Health and Environment (SHE) Corrosion Cathodic Protection

Page
2 3 8 15 19 26 33 41 47 53 59 65

Jotun Paint School

Course Handouts

Page 1

1. Introduction
Why paint?
There are two main reasons for painting. For many people, the most important reason is that we want pleasant surroundings (decorative painting). In other contexts, paints are applied because it is financially very important to protect structures against corrosion. For these purposes, corrosion-protective paints are used. A good paint system will be a cost-effective method of protecting the structure: The life of the structure is extended, maintenance costs are reduced and the risk of accidents which affect people and the environment is reduced.

Painting and cathodic protection


For most applications, painting has been found to be the simplest and most economical way of protecting structures, regardless of the exposure environment and your location in the world. When a structure requires protection, it is important to select a paint system suitable for the purpose. Paint is a semi-finished product and the protection will be no better than the quality of the finished coating. The human factor applies during both pre-treatment and application. A paint system is also often exposed to mechanical wear, which can cause weakness/damage to the paint film. Where damage occurs, the substrate (normally steel) begins to rust. Jotun has therefore developed a concept called the "Single Source Solution". This concept enables us to provide cathodic protection as a back up for corrosion-protective paints. The aim is to ensure optimum cost solutions for protecting structures exposed to water. Cathodic protection protects damaged areas in the paint film.

Jotun
Jotun is one of the world's leading suppliers of corrosion-protective paints for industry, shipping and oil-related sectors. We also supply paints for decorative purposes and powder products, based on a worldwide network of factories and companies. To support customers, we have established a wide range of services. This ensures that the customer receives the right paint products from our corrosion-inhibiting systems at optimum cost.

Jotun Paint School


As part of our service, Jotun arranges paint courses. These can be courses of more general character or specific customer-related courses. They focus on the practical use of paint. To find out more about these courses, contact your local Jotun office for more information.

Course Handouts
The course handouts contain a brief introduction to the main topics of paint technology. Each section consists of an introductory section and a copy of selected overhead slides. Not all topics in the handout will necessarily be discussed on the course you follow.

Welcome to the Jotun Paint School !

Jotun Paint School

Course Handouts

Page 2

2. What is Paint ?
Definition of paint and varnish
Paint is a product in liquid or powder form which contains pigments and which is applied to a substrate to form an opaque film. The film has protective and/or decorative properties and can also be given special functions as required. Paint is described as opaque if it hides the substrate completely. Varnish is a product which, when applied to a substrate, gives a solid transparent film and has protective, decorative or special properties. Varnish does not contain covering pigments and is therefore regarded as "clear paint".

What is paint made of?


The main constituents of paint are binder, pigment, extender (filler), solvent and additives (auxiliary substances). The binder is the most important component of paint. The binder gives the paint most of its properties such as adhesion to the substrate, resistance to weathering, water, chemicals, temperature etc. Binders can be divided into groups (generic types) depending on the drying or curing process which takes place after the paint has been applied to the substrate. The first group are known as oxidatively drying, as the paint absorbs oxygen from the air and dries. Example: alkyd paints. The next group are called physically drying. When the paint is applied to the substrate, the solvent simply evaporates. Examples: chlorinated rubber and acrylic. The third and final group contains chemically curing paints. These paints are usually twocomponent, e.g. epoxy. Pigments in a paint can be colour pigments which give the paint opaqueness, the desired shade etc. Colour pigments, both organic and inorganic, are available in many shades. Titanium dioxide is a strong colouring, white pigment with good opaqueness and is used in white and pale colours. Rust-inhibiting pigments include zinc (cathodic protection) and zinc phosphate (inhibiting protection). Such pigments are used only in primers (first coat). Extenders or fillers such as dolomite, talcum etc. have little or no opaqueness and are transparent in the binder. They have different forms e.g. balls, needles, fibres etc. and are used to give a sealed film, the right gloss etc. In antifouling paints, for example, copper oxide is used as a pigment to prevent fouling of ships hulls. Solvents are added to the paint to adjust the viscosity so the paint can be applied by brush, roller or spray gun. Different binders require special solvents or solvent mixtures to be able to dry or cure in such a way that the paint properties are not damaged. Additives are a small, but important, part of the paint. Such substances include antisettling agents (to prevent fouling), thickeners (to prevent sagging / running), antifoaming agents (to prevent air entrapment), etc.

Jotun Paint School

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How does paint protect the substrate ?


Paint protects the substrate in three main ways: barrier effect, inhibitor effect and galvanic effect. Paints which have a barrier effect only form a barrier between the substrate and the environment and no rust-inhibiting pigments are added. Most paints come under this group: many primers, all intermediate coats and top coats. Aluminium and glass flakes are often used in primers to increase the barrier effect. Paints which use the inhibitor effect contain inhibiting pigments e.g. zinc phosphate. Such pigments are only used in primers. Paints in this group are not suitable for use under water. Paints with a galvanic effect contain pure zinc pigments and are used only as primers. The basic principle is that the zinc makes metallic contact with the steel so that the zinc can act as an anode. If the paint system is damaged, the zinc pigments will protect the exposed steel cathodically (see section on Cathodic Protection).

What does a paint system consist of?


In most cases, a paint system consists of 2 to 4 coats and is built up from a primer coat, one or two intermediate coats and a top coat. The three main constituents in the paint system can be three different paints, but it is not unusual to use a particular paint as both primer and intermediate coat. Each part of the system has a specific function and it is therefore important to follow the instructions of the paint manufacturer and the recommended system structure to achieve the best possible result. The main purpose of primers is to ensure good adhesion of the system to the substrate. Intermediate coats usually ensure that the system is sufficiently thick to create a good barrier from the surrounding environment. The top coat gives the surface the right colour, a good durable gloss and protection against the external environment. A paint system can include more coats than stated above. In brief: Shop primer, primarily for the temporary protection of steel from production through to the construction stage. Tie coat, which is applied to porous surfaces to prevent pinholes or to ensure good adhesion between coats (tie coat). Mid coat. More than two are used for paints which cannot be applied in thick coats.

Personal notes

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Course Handouts

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Chapter:
Paint consist of:

What is Paint ?
The properties of a paint will be decided by the binder

Describes the type of paint/coating Bind pigments and extenders to a solid film Provides the adhesion to the substrate Provides the water, chemical, solvent and UV resistance

Binder Colour pigments Extenders Solvents Additives

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Curing mechanism of binders


Oxidising Alkyd Physically drying Chlorinated rubber Vinyl Acrylic Asphalt Tar
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Curing (drying) through oxidation

Chemically curing Epoxy Polyurethane Polyester Silicate

Solvents evaporating

Oxygen enter. Reaction starts:

Polymer molecules linked together through chemical bonds


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Physical drying. Solvent borne paints


Solvents evaporating

Physical drying Waterborne paints


Water evaporating

= Dispersed droplets

Polymer molecules are packing:

Droplets are packing

Polymer molecules stick together (no chemical bonds):

Droplets melt together, co-solvents evaporate

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Chapter:
Curing mechanism of two -pack paints
Solvents evaporating

What is Paint ?
The surface tolerance depends on the penetrating properties of the binder
Vinyl Chlorinated rubber Epoxy Polyurethane

= Polymer

= Curing agent (hardener)

Polymer & hardener molecules reacted to form a new chemical substance:

Urethane alkyd Surface tolerant paint: Epoxy Mastic Alkyd Boiled linseed oil Raw linseed oil

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Pigments, examples
Rust preventing pigments: Red Lead Zinc Zinc Chromate Zinc phosphate Coloured pigments (hiding power / opacity): Inorganic; red, yellow, brown, black Organic, all colours Titan dioxide (white)

The Gloss of a paint depends on the PVC (Pigment - Volume - Concentration)


Binder Colour pigments Extenders Semigloss PVC 30 - 40 Glossy PVC 15 -25

Extender pigments (non/limited hiding/opacity properties): Talcum Barium sulphate Microdol (dolomite)
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Flat PVC 35 - 50

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Solvents / diluents
Solvent

Solvent or diluent

Single or blended Disolves the binder completely (Forms a solution)

Dissolve the binder Give lower viscosity Give application properties


for brush, roller, spray

Diluent Single or blended Does not dissolve the binder


(Forms a mixture)

Used in conjunction with solvents


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Chapter:
Addition of thinner
Evaporation rate and solubility of a thinner will influence a paints: Drying time Film-forming properties Quality of the film

What is Paint ?
Additives
Wetting agent Anti-foam Anti-settling Anti-skin Anti sagging Catalysts UV-absorbers
etc.
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Most paints are ready to be applied as


supplied by the manufacturer.

Never add an unspecified thinner to a paint,


it may lead to disastrous results

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Corrosion protection by paints


For corrosion prevention with paints, three main principles are employed:

An impervious coating serves as an inert barrier to protect the surface


Impervious to ions, oxygen, carbon dioxide Low moisture transmission
2nd coat 1st coat Primer Steel No voids at interface Strong adhering to accumulate water coating thoroughly wets steel surface Physical as well as Clean surface - no salts to create osmotic blistering chemical adhesion

Barrier effect Inhibitor effect Galvanic effect

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Inhibition
Moisture Absorption Ionisation of Inhibitor Reaction with Steel Surface Passive layer forms 2nd Coat 1st Coat Inhibitive Primer Steel Moisture may penetrate to reach the inhibitive primer where the reactive pigments are activated, which in turn passivate the metal substrate at the coating/metal interface.
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Cathodically protective pigments


Damage in coating to steel surface Moisture allows Zinc to ionize, cathodically protecting the steel. Superior adhesion prevents coating undercut
2nd Organic Topcoat 2+
Inorganic Zinc Primer

Zn

Steel An inorganic Zinc primer reacts to protect the steel substrate when the topcoat is damaged.

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3. Generic Paint Types


It is not possible to develop a "universal" paint which fulfils all possible functions. Paints are therefore developed for different jobs. As a result, each paint has a different set of properties. Paints are often grouped according to the chemical composition of the binder, which we refer to as generic paint types. To ensure that you choose the right paint or paint system with the right properties, it is important to know the strengths and weaknesses of the various generic types.

Alkyd paints
Alkyd paints are made from alcohol and acid with the addition of fatty acid or oil. The addition of fatty acid and/or oil can be varied to give alkyds with different properties. Alkyd paints can only be used above water (not submerged) as the water resistance is poor. They are not used on zinc primer or galvanised steel as a chemical reaction - saponification would occur with the binder, with subsequent blistering and flaking. The drying/curing process is also temperature-dependent. This is because alkyd paints dry or cure by absorbing oxygen from the air. This is a chemical reaction and such reactions are always influenced by temperature. The degree of pre-treatment required for the substrate can vary from St 2 to Sa 2, depending on the purpose of the paint and the environment to which the paint is exposed. By modifying the alkyds for example with styrene or silicon, other properties can be achieved.

Physically drying paints


The group of physically drying paints contains generic types such as chlorinated rubber (CR), vinyl and acrylic-based paints. These are being withdrawn from the market due to the high content of volatile organic compounds (VOC). The chlorinated compounds in CR paints also give off chlorine on ageing. Physically drying paints are single-component, and dry by pure evaporation of the solvents. This means that these paints are not so sensitive to the ambient temperature during application and drying (does not apply to waterborne acrylic). They are also resoluble by other paints which contain strong solvents or in contact with thinners. CR paints are used outdoors both above and under water. Vinyl-based paints are used only above water. Acrylic is used as a top coat, as it retains its gloss better than chlorinated rubber or vinyl in such systems. acrylic is also used as primers in waterborne systems.

Chemically curing paints


Chemically curing paints are thermosetting plastics, unlike physically drying paints which are thermoplastics. Thermosetting plastics are more resistant to chemicals than thermoplastics as they form an insoluble three-dimensional network after curing.

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These paints are normally two-component. The supplier provides these paints in two separate containers, one for the base and the other for the curing agent. We often refer to these as component A and component B. Before painting, the two components must be mixed. It is particularly important to mix the components in the correct ratio and to ensure good agitation. The curing process is a chemical reaction between the base and curing agent, so application and curing are temperature-dependent. It is equally important to apply the paint to the substrate before the chemical reaction has proceeded for too long after mixing of the components. We often talk of the usage time (potlife) of paints. When the potlife has elapsed, the paint becomes dry and finally completely hard and cannot be applied.

Some chemically curing paint types


Epoxy paints have excellent chemical resistance, particularly to alkalis. They have good adhesion both to steel and concrete and good water resistance. Epoxy can be modified using phenol, coal tar and hydrocarbon resin to give special properties, e.g. better chemical resistance, better penetration, better water resistance etc. One drawback with many epoxy paints is that they contain large quantities of solvent. However, other types have now been developed with a high solids content (mastic products) with excellent "all round" properties. There are also a solvent-free epoxy paints which are used for drinking water tanks. Waterborne Epoxy paints are increasingly being used today because they give a better working environment. Chemical resistance however is slightly reduced. Zinc epoxy (organic) or zinc ethylsilicate (inorganic) are used as cathodic protective primers on blast-cleaned substrates. Zinc ethylsilicate (solvent-based) and alkali silicate (waterborne) are also often used inside storage tanks for solvents because of the extremely good solvent resistance. Polyurethane paints are also thermosetting plastics. They are used as top coats on epoxy (which chalks in sunlight) as they have excellent weather-resistance and durable gloss. Polyester paints are thick coat paints used in areas where a high degree of wear resistance is required. For example gangways, production decks, dam walls (concrete) for power stations etc. These paints are applied in thick coats (e.g. 2 x 750 m) and cure quickly (a few hours). They also have good chemical resistance. Vinylester is also a thick coat paint (2 x 750m). It has good chemical resistance and is often used inside storage tanks for chemicals. Such paints can be used on both steel and concrete. Personal notes

Jotun Paint School

Course Handouts

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Chapter:
Alkyd paints

Generic types
Alkyd paint

Properties
Advantages Good application
properties 1-component Good weather durability Good wetting properties Good recoatability Good levelling properties Good gloss retention Dry heat resistant up to 120 C.

Where to use
Segments

Limitations Poor chemical resistance


(especially against alkaline) Limited water resistance (submerged) Limited solvent resistance Limited film thickness per coat Poor adhesion to CR Never to be used on Zinc
2

Ships Industry Newbuildings / Maintenance All exterior and interior objects Only above water St 2 to Sa 2 or shop primed
steel

Objects

Surface preparation

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Chlorinated Rubber paints

Chlorinated Rubber paints

Properties
Advantages Physically drying Not temperature
dependent

Where to use
Segments

Limitations Poor solvent resistance Low solid content Relatively poor wetting
properties

Ships Offshore Industry Newbuildings / Maintenance Below and above water All external surfaces Blast-cleaned to Sa 2 or shop
primed steel

Easy to recoat One component Very good water


resistance

Thermoplastic Dry heat resistant up to


approx. 70 C

Objects

Relatively good chemical


resistance Surface preparation

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Vinyl paints

Vinyl Tar - Modified type

Properties
Advantages
Physically drying Good chemical resistance Good water resistance Quick drying Not temperature dependent One-component
Used for:
Exterior objects above water Offshore on top of Zinc-ethylsilicate
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Properties
Advantages Higher content of
solids Higher water resistance Better wetting properties Cost advantages

Limitations
Low solid content Poor resistance against
strong solvents

Disadvantages Bleeding Dark colours Tar on cancer list

Dry heat resistant up to


approximately 80 C

Used for: Under water areas


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Chapter:
Pure Epoxy paints

Generic types
Pure Epoxy paints

Properties
Advantages Limitations
Segments

Where to use
Ships Offshore Industry Newbuildings / Maintenance Chemical cargo tanks Blast-cleaned to Sa 2 or shop primed steel

Chemical curing Very good chemical resistance High alkali resistance Moderate resistance to acids Good adhesion Very low permeability High mechanical strength Dry heat resistant up to 120 C

Chalking Temperature dependent 2 - component Requires blast cleaning Overcoating time

Objects

Surface preparation

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Epoxy Coal Tar

Epoksy - acrylic

Properties
Advantages:
Chemically curing More flexible Excellent water resistance Better wetting properties Dry heat resistant up to 90 C

Properties
Positive
Very good weather
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Limitations:
Dark colour Temp. dependent 2-component Recoating interval Bleeding when overcoated Coal Tar is carcinogenic

Limitations
2-pack Overcoating time

resistance Very good gloss retention Very good chemical resistance Very good solvent resistance Cures down to 0 C Potlife (24 timer)

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Epoksy - acrylic pints

Epoxy Mastic paints

Where to use
Segments Ships Offshore Industry Newbuildings / Maintenance Above water Indoor and outdoor Top coat on Epoxy, Epoxy Mastic, Polyester glass flake

Properties
Advantages
Chemically curing Surface tolerant Light colours Very good water resistance Very good wetting properties Good chemical resistance High solid content High build (Thick coats) Winter curing agent Dry heat resistant up to 90 C
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Limitations
Chalking Temperature dependent Not to be applied on
thick coats of physically drying paints Minimum DFT 150 m by airless spray

Objects

Surface preparation

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Chapter:
Epoxy Mastic paints

Generic types
Experience When using Epoxy paints

Correct mixing ratio Good mixing Potlife Induction time Correct pre-treatment Correct film thickness Adequate ventilation

Where to use
Segments

Ships Offshore Industry Newbuildings / Maintenance Ballast tanks and Cargo tanks All exterior and interior surfaces,
above and below water

Objects

Surface preparation

St 2 to Sa 2 or Water jetted,
Magnesium descaled or shop primed steel

Temperature dependent curing Avoid high humidity Minimum and maximum curing times Time for fully cured Use epoxy thinner Health and epoxy

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Polyurethane paints

Polyurethane paints

Properties
Advantages Limitations
Segments

Where to use
Ships Offshore Industry Newbuildings / Maintenance All exterior substrates above
water (Also internal at times) Surface preparation


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Very good weather resistance Excellent gloss durability Very good chemical resistance Very good solvent resistance Cures down to 0 C

2-pack May cause skin irritation Overcoating time

Objects

On top of Epoxy, Epoxy Mastic


and Polyester coatings

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Zinc Epoxy

Zinc Epoxy paints

Properties
Advantages

Chemically curing Good corrosion protection Good adhesion Require min. Sa 2 Good mechanical strength May be recoated with all types of paint, except Alkyd Dry heat resistant up to 120 C
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Where to use
Segments

Limitations

Temperature dependent 2-component Film thickness: 25 - 50 m Not acid- and alkaline resistant (Resistant between pH 5-9)

Ships Offshore Industry Newbuildings / Maintenance All exterior and interior objects
above and below water (as holding primer for underwater use 20-30 microns).

Objects

Surface preparation

Blast-cleaning to minimum Sa 2

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Chapter:
Zinc Ethylsilicate paints

Generic types
Zinc Ethylsilicate paints

Properties
Advantages
Very good solvent resistance Very high heath resistance
(max 400 Very high mechanical strength Very good adhesion to blast cleaned steel Relatively good recoatability
oC)

Where to use
Segments

Limitations
Requires humidity for
curing

Ships Offshore Industry Newbuildings / Maintenance All exterior objects above the
waterline.

2-pack Max. DFT: 100 m


At higher DFT tendency of mud-cracking or checking

Objects

Tank coating and Water ballast tank


(No paint on top) Surface preparation

Blast-cleaning to minimum Sa 2

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Aluminium Silicone paints

Waterborne acrylics

Properties
Pure aluminium silicone:
Resistant up to approximately 600C

Advantages and Limitations



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Modified aluminium silicone:


Resistant up to approximately 400C

To be applied in thin coats only (20 m)


Heavier coats may give blistering

Remember:
To be applied on Sa 2 Overcoating only on fully cured Zinc silicate
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Advantages Good corrosion protection Reduce the emission of solvents Low VOC content Flash point above 100 C Water as thinner / cleaner Good water resistance Good UV - resistance Good adhesion to other generic type of paints No risk of saponification

Due to water-soluble
groups, more sensitive to aqueous solutions (more blistering/earlier corrosion) Slower drying compared to solvent based types at high relative humidity Need good ventilation Need good pre-treatment Less chemical resistance

Limitations

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Waterborne epoxy

Waterborne paints

Advantages and limitations


Advantages Limitations

Conditions during application


Relative humidity (%) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 50 Temperature ( oC) 60

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Good corrosion protection Reduced emission of solvents Low VOC content Flash point above 100 C Water as thinner / cleaner Good water resistance Cures down to 5 C Good adhesion to steel, galvanized steel, Aluminium and concrete Good sprayability

Need good ventilation at high


humidity

Must be stored above 0 C Shorter potlife compared with


solvent borne The same health hazards as solvent borne Epoxies Due to water-soluble groups, more sensitive to aqueous solutions

Recommended conditions during application and drying Application and drying possible Application not recommended

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Chapter:
Glassflake Reinforced Polyester

For protection of steel and, in certain cases, Aluminium and concrete. The glass-flakes are 3-5 microns thick and 400 microns across. Potlife : Approximately 45 minutes. Curing time: Approximately 3 hours. Thickness 600 - 1500 microns per coat.

Generic types
Glassflake Reinforced Polyester

Properties
Advantages Limitations

Quick curing Variable curing time Application with airless Excellent mechanical strength Glass-flakes reduce shrinkage, increases mechanical strength and water resistance. resistance

Temperature dependent Short potlife Recoating interval


2 - 12 hours

Bad curing may be


experienced on Zinc primers and galvanised surfaces.

Very good chemical


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Glassflake Reinforced Polyester (Styrene free)

Properties
Advantages Limitations

Vinyl ester coatings

Styrene free Dry to handle in 2 hours Cures down to 5 C


(2-component pump)

Cures down to 10 C
(normal airless spray)

Short potlife Recoating interval


1 hour to 2 weeks (23 C )

Excellent mechanical
strength

Glass-flake reinforced Vinylester coating for protection of steel and concrete in aggressive environments.

Require Sa 2 and a roughness

of 50-100 microns Very good adhesion Bad curing may be experienced Very good water resistance. on Zinc primers and galvanised surfaces. Very good chemical resistance
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Vinyl ester coatings

Advantages and limitations


Advantages Limitations

Application of Polyester and Vinyl ester coatings


Capacity of pump, min.
12 l/min (airless) Material hose: 3/8 Use teflon gaskets Nozzle: 0,035-0,053 Angle 40 - 80 o Remove filters Check the W.F.T.

Very fast curing Very good adhesion Very good abrasion


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Very fast curing Very good adhesion Very good abrasion


resistance Very good chemical resistance Very good solvent resistance Can be applied by normal airless spray

Check ventilation, light etc. Thinner No. 17 or 15,


Acetone for flushing or cleaning Only on blast-cleaned steel Proper mixing Short potlife

resistance Very good chemical resistance Very good solvent resistance Can be applied by normal airless spray Glassflakes improve abrasion resistance

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4. Steelwork
Before a structure is painted, a number of operations must be performed on the substrate. The initial work required is generally known as "steelwork". Steelwork is a very important part of the surface treatment and must be carried out before cleaning and priming of the steel. Good steelwork will ensure that the life time of the paint system meets expectations. In practice, it is impossible to achieve a long life time for a paint system if the steelwork is omitted or poorly performed. The requirements for preparation will always be part of the paint specification. A steel structure should be designed so that all parts of the structure are accessible for cleaning, pre-treatment and painting. It is particularly important to ensure that these requirements are taken into account at the newbuilding / construction stage. Designers often forget that structures require maintenance. Steelwork involves the following stages before cleaning and priming: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. All sharp edges are rounded to a radius of at least 2 mm by grinding. All welding beads and slag are grinded off. Surface defects such as lamination etc. are removed by grinding. Undercutting in the weld is repaired before priming. Rough manual welds to be grinded. Gas-cut edges are to be grinded before priming.

To avoid contamination and damage to the coating, steelwork should be performed in the welding shop and not in the paintshop. Production times will also be reduced if sharp edges in notches, manholes etc. are rounded before welding work is performed. All welds should be inspected and if necessary repaired before cleaning is carried out. The welds must be free from weaknesses such as undercut, hole, craters and welding splashes. Notched, drainage holes etc. should have a radius of at least 50 mm to ensure good priming and correct paint application.

Personal notes

Jotun Paint School

Course Handouts

Page 15

Chapter:
Pre-blasting preparation involves the following activities
Rounding or smoothing of: Sharp edges Corners Welds Grinding of: Laminations Flame cut edges Weld spatter Notches minimum diameter: 30 mm Inspected and approved before cleaning
See ISO 8501 Visual assessment of surface cleanliness
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Steel work
Steel preparation

Edges and weld spatters


Sharp edge
Gas cut edge
A A. Remove by grinder or disc sander. B. Rolled steel sections normally have round edges. Therefore can be left untreated. A. Remove visible spatter before gritblasting with grinder or chipping hammer. B. For spatter not readily removed, remove using grinder/disc.

B A

Weld spatter
B

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Pre-blasting preparation

Rounding sharp edges


Coating applied to a square-cut section Sharp edge Coating
Reduced coating thickness at sharp edges due to tension created during drying / curing

Grinding of sharp edges, welds etc. Disc sander and disc grinder
Sander for removing mill scale, paint and rust Grinder for heavy grinding, such as edges and weld beads

Steel

Rounded edge Even coating thickness

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Steel support after blast-cleaning to Sa 2


The sharp edges should have been rounded prior to blast-cleaning

Steel support after blast-cleaning to Sa 2


The sharp edges have been rounded prior to blast-cleaning: Good !

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Chapter:
Manholes in a tank
Section manholes Well grinded edges

Steel work
Severe corrosion due to a combination of several effects
Sharp edges Rough welds (not grinded) Missing stripe coating

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Grinding of notch with rotating file


Easy access with a rotating file

Steel preparation

Weld spatter, welding smoke

Weld spatter

Weld Areas at risk

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Disc grinding of weld beads, sharp edges etc. by means of a disc grinder.
Other types of discs are available. Some of them will reduce the amount of sparks.

Steel substrate after disc grinding


Weld beads etc. has been removed to form an acceptable substrate for the paint system

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Chapter:
Pre-blasting preparation

Steel work
Unacceptable weld. Too rough and full of pinholes / pores
Weld spatters close to weld Rewelding and grinding must be carried out
prior to reblasting and painting

Laminations, undercuts, welding seams


Lamination
Remove using grinder

Undercut
Undercuts exceeding classification ruling should be repaired by welding and grinding.

Manual weld bead


Sharp profile peaks to be smoothed using grinder

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Paint on a very poor weld. Pinholes and holidays visible after second stripe coating

Early corrosion of welds in a water ballast tank


Rough weld seams.
Should have been grinded Probably in combination with poor stripe coating Mud can be seen, particularly on the bottom

Neither rewelding nor grinding have been


carried out prior to application

Remedial Actions: Reblasting, rewelding,


grinding and blast -cleaning: COSTLY

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Spot welding leads to crevices which are susceptible to corrosion


Not recommended solution for exposure to severe / aggressive environments painted

Sharp edge an spot welds. Early corrosion attack


Construction newly Exposed to humid
atmosphere

Corrosion initiates
after a short period of time on weak areas: Sharp edges, crevices and spot welds

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5. Pre-treatment
After the steelwork on the steel structure has been completed, inspected and approved, pretreatment can begin. The purpose of preparation is to ensure that the substrate is suitable for application of the paint, i.e. the steel is sufficiently clean and rough. Contaminants such as oil, grease and salts for example cannot be removed by blast-cleaning. Before preparation begins, the steel must be properly cleaned. Cleaning removes contamination and impurities such as oil, grease, salt, dust and dirt. Salts from a marine atmosphere which are deposited on the structure, and welding fumes from manual welding are examples of salts which should be washed off before preparation. Salts can cause osmotic blistering and oil will reduce the adhesion of the paint. Salts must be removed with plenty of fresh water. Oil and grease cannot be removed with water alone; strong alkali washing agents and solvents must be used. Once the substrate is clean, pre-treatment can begin. There are countless methods which can be used, all of which have advantages and disadvantages. Here is a brief list of some methods: Blast-cleaning. To ensure maximum paint adhesion, a rough surface is required. In view of this, blast-cleaning is the best preparation method. Blast-cleaning removes old paint, rust and scales and gives a clean rough surface. Possible blast-cleaning methods are dry blast-cleaning, slurry blast-cleaning (addition of water) and wet blast-cleaning (water with addition of abrasives). Dry blast-cleaning gives a clean dry surface and the required roughness but causes considerable dust which contaminates the immediate environment. Slurry and wet blastcleaning give a rough, clean surface without dust, but create flash rust. It has been found that much of the abrasives remain on the substrate after blast-cleaning. Such contaminants may on some alloys cause a risk of corrosion at these points. For preparation of stainless steel, aluminium and galvanised steel, it is important to use non-metallic abrasives. Ultra high-pressure water cleaning. This preparation method is becoming increasingly common. The method consists of removing contamination, corrosion products and old paint by applying water to the substrate under extremely high water pressure (up to 2500 bar). The method has two essential advantages: no cloud of blasting dust is created to contaminate the immediate environment as in traditional blast-cleaning, and water-soluble salts are removed from the substrate. It is important to use clean water so that the substrate is not contaminated by the water used. The method gives a clean surface but will not give any extra roughness to steel. The original roughness of the steel is retained where intact paint is removed, but the corrosion pattern on corroded areas will be considered as roughness where corrosion has occurred. One disadvantage with water cleaning is that the tendency to form flash rust on the steel will increase as moisture is added to the substrate. The degree of flash rust depends on the relative humidity, the temperature of the steel and atmosphere, and the cleanliness of the surface. Mechanical cleaning. Use of mechanical cleaning tools such as steel brushes, grinding equipment or machining, does not achieve the same degree of cleanliness and roughness as blast-cleaning and the adhesion between the substrate and the paint system will therefore be reduced. Needle guns for example often cause excessive roughness or break-up of the substrate.

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Electrolytical descaling. There is a special preparation method where magnesium strips are used to remove rust. This has proved particularly useful in severely corroded ballast tanks on sailing ships where thick rust layers can be removed at sea. However, the procedure requires a knowledge of how to calculate the number of anodes needed, installation of the anodes, treatment periods and cleaning after the procedure. Such treatment should therefore be carried out in collaboration with Jotun. The method to be used will be described in the paint specification and is primarily selected on the basis of: Purpose of the structure Exposure conditions Required life time Restrictions related to environmental requirements and safety. One essential element of the entire pre-treatment process is care when performing the work. Today, the inspection is performed with reference to various standards. The most common standards are ISO 8501 which gives a visual description of the appearance of a steel surface both before and after blast-cleaning and wire brushing. For water-blasting/water-jetting, separate standards have been prepared by ISO and SSPC/NACE.

Personal notes

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Chapter:
Surface treatment may include the following operations
Steel work (Pre-blasting preparation) Removal of: Rust and mill scale Salt Grease, oil, dirt Old / unwanted paint Flattening of glossy paint Special pre-treatment of new aluminium
and galvanised surfaces
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Pretreatment
Work to be carried out in the cleaning shop
Remove prior to pre-treatment:

Salt and soil: Oil - grease:

Clean water Solvent with emulsifying agent or alkaline cleaner

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Degreasing side bottom with emulsifying detergent to remove oil, grease etc.
Should always be carried out before blast-cleaning The detergents must be removed by Low pressure
water cleaning, LPWC (Around 250 - 300 bar)

Equipment contaminating the surface

Oil contamination from grinder


Reasons may be: Oil leaking out of equipment Equipment has been stored with oil Lack of oil trap. (Air from compressor contains oil) Must be removed prior to surface preparation

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Welding smoke is water soluble and can only be removed by water


Welding smoke Area washed with water

Blisters close to weld, probably due to welding smoke remaining on the the steel
Welding smoke is resoluble in water and will
create osmotic blistering

Galvanic difference between steel plate and weld


may aggravate the attack

Solvents will not


remove the welding smoke completely If not removed, osmotic blistering may occur.

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Chapter:
Pre-treatment

Pretreatment
Rotary impact or scarifying tools
Equipment with rotating abrasive head

Evaluation of methods
Blast cleaning Power grinding Power wire-brushing Manual wire- brushing. Needle hammer Power chiseling Manual scraping
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Ideal Not as good as blast cleaning, but best alternative. Great risk of unwanted polishing. Not recommended. Very poor. Usable, but risk of unwanted rough surface, Good in combination with other methods Usable in combination with other methods.
8

Peening flaps (Roto-Peen) - Creates a surface profile, 25 to 75 microns Rotary hammers - cutters Nylon non-woven abrasive wheels
Rotary impact tools is the best choice for removing coatings

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Grinders and sanders



Coated abrasive discs - To remove paint, mill scale and rust Non-woven abrasive discs - To remove paint and rust and for feathering of paint Wire brushes - To remove loose rust (tends to polish surface)

Steel substrate treated by hand and mechanical power tool cleaning equipment

Mechanical wire brush approximately St 3

Hand wire brush, approximately St 2

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Pre-treatment

Illustration of various blasting methods

Dry blasting Benefits and limitations


Advantages Disadvantages

Surface remains dry Good anchor pattern for paint No pre-rusting profile

Does not remove salt Does not remove oil Creates dust

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Chapter:
Blast cleaning

Pretreatment
Blast - cleaning

Factors influencing the production rate


Productivity is directly proportional to: Pressure at Nozzle Capacity of the air compressor

Measure the air pressure at the nozzle


Pressure gauge

Nozzle

Nozzleholder Air

Pressure at Nozzle

7 kg/cm = 100% productivity

Pressure at Nozzle 5,6 kg/cm = 66% productivity Pressure at Nozzle 4,2 kg/cm = 50% productivity

Rubber hose
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Blast cleaning: Effect of nozzle pressure on cleaning rate.


Nozzle pressures, Kg / cm

Blast Cleaning

Rule of thumb: To avoid loss of pressure


The blast hose shall have an opening which is 3-4 times bigger than the orifice of the nozzle.

Hose opening 3 - 4 times Cleaning time: 2 minutes


Source: Clemtex Ltd. Paint School
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Nozzle opening

Remaining Removed
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Blast cleaning Impact damages may destroy overlapping zone


Corroded area. Subsequent spot blasting Solid coating Originally corroded area

Blast cleaning

Abrasives will damage the coating


Cracks due to direct impact by abrasives 3-Coat paint

Area require feathering

Impact by abrasives Feathered required


(SOURCE: Munger, C.G. Practical aspects of Coating Repair. Materials Performance, Vol. 19, No 2 p. 46 (1980)

Steel
Area with reduced adhesion Corroded and blast cleaned

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Chapter:
Blast cleaning

Pretreatment
Blast cleaning

Abrasives will damage the coating


Impact of abrasive Star crack areas 3-coat paint system

Correct and incorrect sweep blasting


Abrasives approx. 0.5 mm Pressure approx 2-3 kg / sqcm

Star cracks

Areas with reduced adhesion Steel


May be caused by direct impact or rebounding abrasives (ricochet)
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Often abrasives of 0.2 - 1.4 mm and too high pressure is used

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Corrosion has taken place Almost the total area has been spot blasted
Spot blasting in this way result in many loose
edges that needs to be feathered

Loose edges resulting from spotblasting carried out some time ago
Edges has not been feathered prior to application of the paint The edges are weak points in the paint film Corrosion attack initiates on such areas

Recommendation: Blast - clean larger areas


Top coat Bare steel Antifouling

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Surface has not been well cleaned Over painting grit or foreign matters

Weak point in paint film Entrapped air Less adhesion Corrosion will develop rapidly

Poor cleaning of ballast tanks


Abrasives remaining from blast cleaning 300 m Coal Tar Epoxy Blistering and rust penetration after 10 months of exposure

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Chapter:
Slurry and wet blasting Benefits and limitations
Advantages Disadvantages

Pretreatment
Water-jetting Advantages
Salt level on steel surface drastically reduced. No dust produced. No grit cost (water is usually cheaper).
Grit blasting uses 55 kg/m, costing 63,-/ton = 3,46/m. Ultra High Pressure Water Jetting, UHPWJ needs 130 l/m, costing 0,80/ton = 0,10/m). Close working of other trades possible. Abrasives can be introduced if improved surface profile is required. Lower noise level than with grit blasting.

Surface profile is achieved Removes salt Creates no dust.

Flash rust may develop on surface

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Pre-treatment of Stainless steel

Pre-treatment of Aluminium
Degreasing and washing Sweep blasting with non-metallic abrasive
or

Degreasing and washing Sweep blasting with non-metallic abrasive Abrading through other means, e.g.
mechanical tools, emery paper etc

Abrading through other means, e.g.


mechanical tools, emery paper etc or

Washing with a strong alkaline cleaner


followed by washing with clean water or

Wash primer (Not in combination with


Epoxy paint)
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Pre-treatment of hot-dip galvanised steel.



T-wash Sweep blasting Etch primer, single or two - pack Natural weathering for at least twelve months

Electrolytic de-scaling. Working process



Empty the ballast tank Mount the Magnesium strips Fill the tank with seawater Ballasting period of 1-2 weeks Empty the tank Remove calcareous deposit immediately (Water pressure: 250 to 300 bar) Remove loose rust and scale Remove iron cores Dry the tank Start application of paint

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6. Paint Application
It is important to understand that paint is a semi-finished product. Only once the paint has been applied to a structure will the real properties of the paint system become apparent. How well a system works largely depends on the skill of the painter. The protective properties of a paint can be significantly reduced if the paint is applied incorrectly.

Application technique
To apply the paint to achieve the optimum properties, it is important to select the right application tool and method. Generally application tools are selected according to the size of the object, complexity, accessibility, type of paint and environmental aspects. Painting always begins with "stripe coating". Stripe coating means applying an extra coat of paint on areas where experience has shown that it is difficult to achieve the specified film thickness by spray. Typical areas which should be stripe coated are sharp edges, notches, welds (particularly manual welds) and areas which are difficult to reach with a spray gun. This is a very important job but it is often skipped or done badly as it is a time-consuming process. Stripe coating on bare steel should always be carried out with a round or oval brush and not a roller. The aim is to ensure good wetting of the substrate. Stripe coating should also be used between each coat. A stripe coat can be applied with a roller on the previous coat where suitable. The film thickness achieved using brushes or rollers is normally in the range of 35 - 40 m. Airless spraying is the most effective and cost-saving application method. It is possible to paint large areas in the minimum of time and paint can be applied in greater and more even film thicknesses per coat than with a brush and roller. The application technique and experience of the painter are very important for achieving a good result. This includes factors such as the right distance between the gun and object (normally 30 to 60 cm), the right angle to the object (normally 90 degrees), good overlapping (approx. 50% overlap) and sensitivity in use of the trigger. When spraying, the paint is applied at as low a pressure as possible to achieve an even spread. Too high a pressure leads to dry spraying and a lot of dust.

Checks to be carried out during application


The painter only has one instrument available for checking the film thickness during application: wet film gauge (comb or wheel). It is important to use the cam regularly. This ensures good checking during the entire application process so that the correct film thickness is achieved over the entire structure. The atmospheric conditions should always be checked during application of paint, and the correct ventilation ensured, especially in tanks. These conditions must be monitored throughout the application process and whilst the paint is drying / curing.

Mixing and thinning


Do not add unnecessary quantities of thinner to the paint as this causes slower drying and you will have to apply the paint in greater wet-film thicknesses to achieve the same dry film. Use
Jotun Paint School Course Handouts Page 26

of the correct (specified) thinners is important as adding the wrong thinner can cause poor results in terms of corrosion protection. When applying two-component paints, the mixing process itself is also important. Use mechanical agitators and not stirrers. Good agitation or mixing of the two components and the correct mixing ratio are important. Follow the instructions on the technical data sheet for the product. Plural component spray (two-component spray) are also available for applying special two-component paints, where the components are mixed in the correct ratio in the unit itself.

Health
The painter is exposed to solvents and various other components in the paint. Make sure that approved protective equipment is used and that ventilation is adequate. Personal notes

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Chapter: Paint Application


Application
Cleanliness and good housekeeping before, during and after application are one of the most important factors to have a good result

Tools for mixing of paints


Always use mechanical
agitator to ensure proper mixing. Proper mixing will not be achieved by a stirrer A stirrer may also contain dirt and loose parts that may contaminate the paint and clog the spray equipment

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Consequence of inferior mixing: Poor coating performance


To the right: Correct mixing and mixing ratio. To the left: Insufficient mixing and / or incorrect
mixing ratio.

Methods for paint application

Airless spray: Good Paint brush: Good Roller: Poor, particularly for the first coat

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Application by paint brush


Benefits

Application by roller
Benefits

Good wetting of the substrate Forces the paint into the surface Better than roller on the first coat Good on areas with poor accessibility Gives low film thickness, many coats required Creates an uneven film Application speed is slow

Application speed is faster than with paint brush Good on areas with poor accessibility Poor wetting of the substrate Never use for the first coat May incorporate air and pinholes Gives low film thickness, many coats required
in the paint film

Limitations

Limitations

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Chapter: Paint Application


Application

Stripe coating prior to each full coat


Stripe coat with paint brush:

Stripe coating of superstructure between first and second full coat


Note the contrasting colours. Excellent work

Where difficult access with spray Profiles Inside edges Holes, notches Corners, angles Sharp edges Manual welding seams

Pipes Supports Windows Reeling

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Poor workmanship: Stripe coated welding seam


Many holidays The paint must be worked properly into the rough
substrate using several strokes with the paint brush.

Paint application.

Rules when spraying


Correct distance between spray gun
and substrate: (30-60 cm)

Correct angel (90) Overlapping


(50% or cross application)

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Seek to keep the gun at a right angle to the substrate


The distance should be between 30 and 60 cm. The optimal distance will vary, among other things with wind, temperature, pressure at the nozzle and viscosity of the paint .

Paint application. Airless spraying with overlap


50 % Overlap Overlapping ensures an even film thickness

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Chapter: Paint Application


Application with a spray gun.

Stroke and triggering


Structure

Formation of a paint film


As the coating droplets hit the
substrate they will become flat.

Then, they will overlap and form a continuous paint film

Start stroke Pull trigger

Release trigger

End stroke

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Overspray or dry-spray
Dry-spray will develop at the edges of a wide spray fan. This may give a rough film and pinholes
Outside area of effective spraying: Low impact Poor flow of paint Result: Dry-spray

Incorrect application technique. Waving with the gun

Result:

Area of effective spraying


16

Uneven paint film Dry-spraying will occur The loss factor will be high The roughness will increase

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Incorrect use of airless spray equipment will result in:


A rough surface Too much paint dust Pinholes in the paint film Entrapped air Entrapped solvents Too high paint consumption

Spraying of a ships bottom. Very poor application technique


Too long distance Dry spraying Uneven film thickness
Running water along side the ship while painting. (Scupper plug missing)

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Chapter: Paint Application


Poor application technique serves nobody Spot-blasting and poor application technique.
Direction of application

Contamination of
the environment High loss factor Poor corrosion protection Waste of money

Loose paint edges Application has been


done in only one direction Corrosion has developed on shadow sides shortly after application

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Application Technique With Spray Gun


Positioning of the spray gun Correct Wrong
Parallel Perpendicular Arcing Tilting Light

Spray application technique. Apply one extra coat to corners


Wrong Correct

Over spray

Heavy

Light
Source: Corr. Control Principles and Metodes, Sect. 7, Ameron Inc., Monterey Park, Ca.)

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Application of inside corners


Air cushion is formed Area with thin layer of paint

Application of inside corners


Spray each side of the corner separately Use a vertical spray pattern This will give an even film thickness
2 3

Area with thick paint film Application directly into the corner gives an uneven film thickness, but may still be satisfactory for many types of service
(Source: Industrial Maintenance Painting, National Association of Corrosion Engineers; Houston TX, p. 88, 1973.)

4 5

1
(Source: Industrial Maintenance Painting, National Association of Corrosion Engineers; Houston TX, p 88, 1973)

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Chapter: Paint Application


Application technique:

Surfaces with deep pits

Inside a tank Runs leading to cracking of paint


Paint has collected
in the corner

Several mm thick
paint

The paint cracked,


corrosion will develop Air will be compressed in pits and push the paint back. This makes use of airless spray on such areas almost impossible
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Paint not applied according to the specification. Close up of paint film (2 of 2)


Specification : 50 m Thickness of topcoat:
100 - 150 m Result: Entrapped air Entrapped solvents Porous film Blisters and delamination will occur in future
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What factors influence the drying / curing process ?


Relative humidity, % Ventilation Temperature Film thickness Number of coats Evaporation speed of solvents

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Main rule for pre-treatment and paint application:


Temperature of substrate should be at a temperature of min. 3oC above dew point of the air in the vicinity

Temperature and humidity of air used for drying.



Supply of heated air immediately after application may lead to skin drying and entrapped solvents Cold air will keep the film open longer and ensure proper evaporation Avoid high air temperature (especially epoxy) High humidity will slow down the drying time Exhaust from heating equipment using propane or paraffin oil contain water and Carbon dioxide and may create Amine sweating

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7. Inspection and Control


The human factor is an important element in the process to ensure the specified quality of the paint system. It is therefore very important to inspect and control all work performed in connection with surface treatment. During the manufacture of a structure, inspections and control should be performed at the following critical phases: Steelwork Pre-treatment Before, during and after application.

For all activities, the inspector should verify and document that the work complies with the specification and has been performed professionally, and that the paint supplier's instructions for use of the product have been followed.

Steelwork
Activities which are normally included in the preparation are described in chapter 4. The inspector should verify that the steelwork has been performed according to specification or ISO 12944-3. In particular, this includes the rounding of edges, grinding of welds, removal of weld spatters and grinding of laminations.

Pre-treatment
The inspector must check and ensure that the structure is free from oil, grease and salt and that the washing procedure has been followed. Visual assessments shall be made of the degree of rust on the steel before preparation and the condition of the structure after preparation. Standards ISO 8501-1 or ISO 8501-2 (for repair work) apply. Before and during pretreatment, the atmospheric conditions are checked according to ISO 8502-4. Other checks to be performed usually include inspection for invisible contamination on the surface such as salts (ISO 9502-6 and 9), dust (ISO 8502-3) and specified roughness (ISO 8503). All data and records shall be entered in a daily log.

Application of paint
The inspector's task during application of the paint is to ensure that all work proceeds in the specified manner. This includes all work operations from opening of the paint tin to the application of the final coat. It is important to have a good overview of all technical documentation. Check technical data sheets and check for use of the right thinners, the right curing agent for the base, mechanical agitators and a good mix when using two-component paints. Check the specified pre-reaction time if given in the technical data sheet. Check that stripe coating has been performed properly before application of the full coat by spraying. Ensure that the painter carries out careful checks with using wet film gauge so that the specified wet film thickness is applied. The atmospheric conditions should be monitored during the painting work. Ensure adequate ventilation to remove solvents. All data and records must be entered in a daily log.
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Drying / curing
After drying / curing, the dry film thickness is checked (ISO 2808). Pay particular attention to areas where access with an airless spray gun is difficult, and ensure that the dry film thickness lies within the specified limits. Check that the overpainting intervals are observed for the paints, and that the surface is clean before overpainting. After a structure is painted, the total film thickness should be checked. Individual specifications also require adhesion testing for example to ISO 4624, or holiday detection to ASTM G62-85. It is very important to have good test routines and enter all data and records in a daily log.

Personal notes

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Chapter:
What is QA - QC ?

Inspection and Control


An inspectors work includes:
Be capable of interpreting

QA = Quality Assurance (A documented management system) QC = Quality Control (Inspection and testing routines)

the specifications

Understand the objective


2

of the inspection Inspect all structures to be painted Ensure that all specified requirements are met Document the results from the inspections In case of non-conformance: Issue written reports

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Daily logs

Steel temperature Air temperature % Relative Humidity Dew point Object no. and name Exact specification Pre-treatment, specified and actually conducted.

An inspector needs to know


All paints that will be used All relevant inspection
methods and inspection tools

Film thickness (to be


measured also at spot repair) Area, m Product name, place of production and batch no. Name of relevant persons What was discussed Non conformance report (remember signatures) Other comments

Relevant standards Relevant TDS and MSDS Methods involved in cleaning, pre-treatment
and paint application

The equipment used for pre-treatment and


application: Benefits and limitations
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What needs to be inspected ?


If relevant, the following stages of the production need to be inspected

Inspection of steel work (Pre-blasting preparation)


The following items need to be inspected during construction

Shop-priming of the steel The steel work


(Pre-blasting preparation) and surface preparation prior to paint application Application of paint The applied paint film and its curing/drying conditions.

Rounding of sharp edges. Smoothing of rough welding seams. Removal / grinding of weld spatter Cracks and pittings. Surface faults like laminates etc. ISO 12944 - 3 , or ISO 8501 - 3
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Cleaning

and beads.

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Chapter:

Inspection and Control


ISO 8501 - 1

Inspection of cleaning and surface preparation prior to application


If relevant, the following conditions must be inspected / verified

Surface preparation

Visual assessment of surface cleanliness after blast cleaning, hand or power tool cleaning or flame cleaning Rust grades and preparation grades of uncoated steel Photographic examples of steel when blast cleaned with different abrasives

Cleanliness (salt, oil, grease and dust/dirt) Evaluation of present condition (rust grade) Surface preparation (e.g. blast cleaning) Cleanliness of prepared surface (salts, oil, grease, dust and dirt) Climatic conditions (temperature, relative humidity etc.)

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ISO 8501 - 2

ISO 8501 - 2
Standard for deciding preparation grades

Surface preparation

As for ISO 8501-1, but: For steel where previous coating has been removed locally, not completely.

PSa : Localised blast cleaning (grades 2, 2 and 3) PSt : Localised hand and power tool cleaning (grades 2 and 3)

PMa : Localised machine abrading (one grade)


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ISO 8502
Assessment of surface cleanliness (1 of 2)
Part 1 Field test for soluble iron corrosion products Part 2 Laboratory determination of chloride on cleaned surfaces. Part 3 Assessment of dust on steel surfaces prepared for painting (pressure- sensitive tape method) Part 4 Guidance on the estimation of the probability of condensation prior to paint application. Part 5 Measurement of chloride on steel surfaces prepared for painting. Ion detector tube method.
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ISO 8502
Assessment of surface cleanliness (2 of 2)
Part 6 Extraction of soluble contaminants for analysis. The Bresle method.

*
Part 9 Conductometric measurements of soluble salts .

*
* Part 7, 8 and 10 are not prepared

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Chapter:

Inspection and Control


Ambient temperature and steel temperature
Is the temperatures important ? YES !

Atmospheric conditions. Requirement during blasting and painting

Surface temperature of the structure must be minimum 3 C above the dew point of the surrounding atmosphere

Ambient temperature will influence: shelf life pot life viscosity/sprayability steel temperature Steel temperature will affect: speed of cure degree of cure recoating interval service life of the coating
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ISO 8502 - 6

The Bresle method.


A method for extraction of soluble contaminants on steel substrates for analysis: The Bresle method This is a quantitative test

ISO 8502 - 9 Conductometric measurement of soluble salts.

Field method for measuring soluble salts by conductivity ( S) of solutions containing water soluble salts

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Calculation of salt level on the substrate


Formula: (L2 - L1) x 6 = mg salt per m2
L2 = S after cleaning L1 = S before cleaning Water sample, ml.: 10 Constant in formula: 4 15 6 20 8 50 20

Instruments for measuring surface roughness



Stylus instruments Elcometer Mod. 123 Testex Press-O-film Microscope Comparator Rugotest No. 3 ISO 8503 etc.

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Chapter:
ISO 8503 Surface roughness
Example of a reference
comparator Surface profile comparator comprising four segments. Grit (G) Shot (S) Check if the profile is according to specification and the paint manufacturers recommendation

Inspection and Control


Inspection during application
The following must be verified, inspected or tested:


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Record name of coating and batch no. Ensure proper mixing of 2-pack paints Ensure use of the correct thinner Measuring the wet film thickness (WFT) Number of coats as given in the specification Cleanliness between coats (salts, dust, oil etc.) Drying time / recoating intervals Control of equipment: Pressure, nozzle etc. Climatic conditions (Ventilation, Air and steel temperature and the relative humidity)

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Information to be found from the technical data sheet, TDS


Product description Generic type etc. Recommended use Where to use the product Technical information Solids by volume, WFT,
DFT

ISO 2808 - 97

Determination of film thickness (1 of 2)


Method 1: Method 2: Method 3: Method 4: Method 5: Determination of wet film thickness. Determination of dry-film thickness by calculation from mass Measurement of dry-film thickness by mechanically contacting method Measurement of dry-film thickness by the profilometer method Measurement of dry-film thickness using microscope method

Conditions during
application

Drying and overcoating time


at different temperatures

Typical recommended
system Storage Handling Packing control Health and safety Details in MSDS
22

Application data Methods, mixing, potlife Surface preparation Different methods given
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Paint School

ISO 2808 - 97

Determination of film thickness: (2 of 2)


Method 6: Method 7: Method 8: Method 9: Method 10: Magnetic method Eddy current method Non-contact methods Gravimetric method (dissolving methods) Determination of dry-film thickness on blast-cleaned steel substrates
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Calculations : Paint Abbreviations


WFT DFT % VS LF DV = = = = = Wet Film Thickness Dry Film Thickness Percent Volume Solids Loss Factor Dead Volume

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Chapter:

Inspection and Control


Consumption of Paint with loss
To be painted: Tank, area of 500 m2 , 40 % loss 40 % loss implies that only 60 % will remain on the surface. The correction factor, Loss factor, will be 0.6 Formula: Area, m2 x DFT 10 x % VS x loss factor 500 x 200 10 x 85 x 0,6 500 x 50 10 x 50 x 0,6

Formula for determining the DFT


Formula: DFT Example: WFT = % VS = DFT
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WFT x % VS 100

250 m

Epoxy mastic
50 % 250 x 50 100 = 125 m

= 196 litre = 83 litre

Polyurethane topcoat

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Dead volume increases the volume of paint required


Smooth (polished) steel surface Even film thickness

How much paint should we order ? calculation of paint consumption with loss
A loss of 40 % means that only 60 % will be applied on the surface

Steel
Specified thickness Uneven steel surface Paint will fill the valleys Dead volume

Example: 100 litre is needed, loss is 40 % We have to order


100 x 100 60

= 0,6 (loss factor) = 167 litre

100

Not 100 litre + 40 % extra = 140 litre


Steel
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Inspection after application


After application the following must be checked

ISO 2808 - 97

Determination of film thickness


Method No. 10 - On blast cleaned steel substrates

Climatic conditions (Ventilation,


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Temperature and humidity) Curing / drying of the film Dry film thickness (DFT) Adhesion Holiday detection (if required)

Electromagnetic instruments Calibration on a smooth steel surface min. 1,2 mm thick For DFT measurement, not less than 25 and preferably
above 50 microns

Number of readings, as a guide: 1 reference area: At least 3 readings evenly 2 reference areas for every square meter for flat plates 4 reference areas for every length for a web 2 reference areas every metre length for a flange 2 reference areas every metre length for a pipe
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Chapter:

Inspection and Control


ISO 2409

ASTM D 3359-87 Adhesion testing by knife and adhesive tape

Cross-cut test
Cutting tool Single bladed knife or Multi-blade cutting tool with 6 cutting edges spaced 1 mm or 2 mm apart Spacing of cuts 0 - 60 microns: 0 - 60 microns: 60 - 120 microns: 121 - 250 microns:
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There are two test methods The method to select depends on the DFT
Method A: DFT above 125 microns Method B: DFT below 125 microns (Above 125 if wider cuts are used) Method A: X - cut. Tape test Method B: Cross - cut. Tape test

1 mm spacing, hard substrates 2 mm spacing, soft substrates 3 mm spacing, hard/soft substrates 3 mm spacing, hard/soft substrates

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ISO 4624

ASTM G 62 - 85 Method A

Pull-off test for adhesion


Procedure:

Pinhole detection. Low voltage.


Low voltage: < 75 V DC To detect pinholes, voids or metal particles to be
in the range of 25-250 microns. Effective for paint films up to a DFT of 500 microns if a wetting agent is used in the water. This is a non-destructive test.

Test dollies glued onto the coating Adhesive: Cyano-acrylate or solvent free epoxy Remove adhesive and coating around the dollies Pull off test-dollies vertical to the surface Read adhesion value and report the type of fracture

Fractures:

Adhesion failure - fracture between coats or substrate and 1. coat Cohesion failure - fracture within a coat
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ASTM G 62 Method B

ISO 12944

Holiday detection. High voltage.

General standard for corrosion protection:


Paints and varnishes - Corrosion protection of steel structures by protective paints systems.

High voltage: 900 - 20.000 V Used to detect pinholes, voids and areas with thin paint films This is a destructive test.

Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 Part 7 Part 8

General introduction. Classification of environments. Design considerations. Types of surface and surface preparation. Protective paint systems. Laboratory performance test methods. Execution and supervision of paint work. Development of specifications for new work and maintenance.

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8. Paint Failures
As we have already said, paint supplied in containers is a semi-finished product. The finished product only exists once the paint has been applied to the structure in a complete paint system. This is where we see how good the protection is. The most important and most common paint failures occur as a result of poor or insufficient steelwork, preparation or application. Some of these faults are revealed during or shortly after application but some only appear after a certain period in service. The most common failures during and just after application are: Insufficient film thickness Sags / runs Dry spraying Pinholes Amine sweating

Insufficient film thickness is often the result of non-systematic application and inadequate checks with a wet film gauge. Sags / runs occur when the paint is applied too thickly or too much thinner has been added to the paint. This is probably because the specification has not been followed. Occasionally, faults are also found in the paint. The inspector must note the production number in the daily log. Sags / runs should be repaired immediately with a brush. Dry spraying is normally a result of poor application or difficult weather conditions. The most common application fault is too great a distance between the spray gun and the structure. High temperature combined with low relative humidity will also contribute to dry spraying as the solvents evaporate en route from the gun to the object. Strong wind or strong ventilation also contributes to an increased risk of dry spraying. Pinholes often occur on porous substrates, for example zinc silicate. On these substrates, it is important to apply a thin layer of paint, normally called a tie coat or by using the mist coat full coat technique. Pinholes are also found if there is too strong ventilation during application. Amine sweating can occur on epoxy paints during curing in particularly humid environments. The phenomenon results in a sticky surface, occasionally visible as white stains. These must be removed before overpainting using rags and tepid water (thinners for some paints). The risk of amine sweating is reduced by observing the specified induction time after mixing the two-component paint and ensuring good atmospheric conditions during application and curing. The most common paint faults after exposure are: Blistering Rust penetration Cracking Flaking Chalking

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Such faults can be assessed using standard ISO 4628. Blistering is normally an adhesion-related problem and is due to poor cleaning before application of the paint. The most common cause of blistering is the application of the paint to a substrate contaminated with salt (osmotic blistering). After blisters have formed, they burst and the underlying unprotected material begins to rust if rust formation has not already started. Osmotic blistering occurs on exposure under water or in areas with heavy condensation. In particular, the salts sodium chloride and ferric chloride, and welding smoke, cause blistering. Other causes of blistering can be dust or grit on the surface (reduces adhesion), voids between the steel and the paint or trapped air in the paint film. Blistering is evaluated according to ISO 4628-2. Rusting occurs after a blister in the paint film bursts. The failure will occur most quickly where the paint film is too thin. Particularly susceptible areas are sharp edges, rough welds and places which are difficult to access for application. If rusting occurs after a very short time without prior blistering, there will be an opening through to bare steel, i.e. a pinhole. Rust penetrationevaluated according to ISO 4628-3. Cracking occurs after a certain ageing of the coating. The causes can be: The top coat is harder than the coats underneath Excessively thick system combined with temperature variations Excessively fast curing of two-component systems Excessively thick zinc silicate gives "mud cracking".

There are various degrees of cracking. Cracks can either form in the top coat only or throughout. The time before the fault occurs can vary. Mud cracking occurs immediately after application but cracking occurs only after a certain time. Cracking is evaluated according to ISO 4628-4. Flaking is normally the result of a poorly cleaned substrate (oil, grease) or the paint being applied onto condensation or surfaces with amine sweating. Paint will frequently flake off from areas with blistering or cracking and occurs where adhesion is poorest. Flaking is evaluated according to ISO 4628-5. Chalking is an ageing problem. The binder is degraded by UV radiation from the sun and the pigments appear as dust on the surface. The paint's ability to resist chalking will vary according to the binder used. Epoxy will chalk in sunlight after just a few months whereas polyurethane will retain its gloss for many years. Chalking is evaluated according to ISO 4628-6. Personal notes

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Chapter:
Most common paint failures

Holidays, too low DFT Sags and runs Orange peel Dry spraying Overspray Pinholes, popping Fish-eyes Wrinkling / lifting

Paint Failures
Sags and runs
Appearance

Sweating (Amine) Blushing Poor drying / curing Blisters Rust penetration Cracking Flaking Chalking Discolouration/bleeding
2

Paint running or hanging like curtains on vertical surfaces


Caused by

Too high Wet film thickness Too much thinner added to the paint Airless spray gun too close to surface
Repair

Avoid above Use paint brush to smoothen or remove excessive paint


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Orange peel
Appearance Caused by

Dry spray
Appearance Porous, sandpaper like surface of the paint Caused by Poor atomisation of the paint Spray gun too far away from the object High air temperature and low relative humidity: Too fast
evaporation of the solvents

Paint surface is rough, like an orange peel Poor flow / levelling properties of the paint
(Paint too thick or too low temperature)

Poor atomisation of the paint Too fast evaporation of the thinner Airless spray gun too close to surface
Repair

Repair

Strong wind during application Inorganic Zinc: Re-blast and apply new paint Physically drying paints: Apply thinner on the painted
surface and apply a new coat

Improve application technique Use correct thinner Grind surface and apply new paint
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Oxidativly drying paints: Remove loose dust and apply


topcoat

Two-pack paints: Remove loose dust, sandpaper to


smooth surface, apply topcoat

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Pinholes
Appearance Tiny holes through one or more coats, or even down to the substrate, as if perforated by a needle Caused by Dry spraying Entrapped solvents or air Porosity of previous coat Incorrect application technique or viscosity of the paint Repair Grind top layer of the paint Recoat
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Pinholes / popping
Appearance Solvents or air try to evaporate through the upper part of the film, which has already nearly dried, leaving small bubbles /craters on the surface Very porous substrate (e.g. Zinc silicate primer) Entrapped solvents or air in the paint film Usually in connection with too high film thickness, too long application distance or too strong ventilation.

Caused by

Repair

Reduce film thickness or ventilation and adjust


application technique (Tie coat / mist coat technique.

Remove paint on painted surfaces and repaint


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Chapter:
Fisheyes
Appearance Spots of paint on the surface with no wetting of the surface around the spots. Appearance of a fisheye. Caused by Paint applied on oil, silicone or other contaminants Painted on incompatible paint (Glossy paint giving poor wetting) Repair Grind top layer of the paint Recoat
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Paint Failures
Wrinkling
Appearance Small wrinkles through or partly through the paint film Caused by Skin drying of the paint film, which is usually applied too thick Repair Grind top layer of the paint Recoat

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Lifting
Appearance Small wrinkles through the paint film Caused by Softening and raising or swelling of a previous coat by the application of an additional coat Normally when overcoating Alkyd Lifting often caused because the solvents in the new coat is too strong for the previous coat Repair Remove the paint Recoat
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Sweating and carbonisation (Amine blooming)


Appearance Tacky and sweating film, often with white stains Caused by High humidity, particularly on Epoxies during curing Poor ventilation The Amines react with CO2 and humidity and form Amine carbamate. Too low temperature Repair Wash with warm water or thinner, using rags Preventive measure: Induction time before application start
Paint School

Bloom and blush (Blushing)


Appearance

ISO 4628

Content of the Standard


The standard consists of six parts
Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Part 5 Part 6 General principles and rating schemes Designation of degree of blistering Designation of degree of rusting Designation of degree of cracking Designation of degree of flaking Designation of degree of chalking

Surface looks milky


Caused by

Condensation on cold steel surfaces at high humidity Air pollution, sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia
forming ammonium sulphate on the paint film.

Fast thinners
Repair

Grind top layer of the paint Recoat


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Chapter:
ISO 4628 - 2

Paint Failures
ISO 4628 / 3 Designation of degree of rusting
Rating Designate the degree of rust formation by reference to the pictorial standards
Degree Area rusted %
0 0,05 0,5 1 8 40/50 Ri 0 Ri 1 Ri 2 Ri 3 Ri 4

Degree of blistering
Blisters of size 5

Density 2

Density 3

Density 4
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Density 5
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Ri 5

ISO 4628 / 3

Designation of degree of rusting


Test report:
The test report shall contain at least the following information: a) the type and identification of the product tested b) a reference to this International Standard (ISO 4628/3) c) the numerical rating of the rusted area d) the numerical rating of the size of the rust spots, if desired, for example: Rust: Ri 3 (S4) = rusted area, as a percentage of rust, approximates standard 3, the sizes of the individual rust spots of the order of a few millimetres. e) the date of the examination
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Pinpoint rusting
Appearance

Points of rust
Caused by

Small pores (pinholes), openings or defects in


the paint film down to bare steel

Holidays due to overspray, dry spraying etc. Too high substrate roughness
Repair

Grind down to bare steel Recoat


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ISO 4628 / 4 Designation of degree of cracking


Test report:
a) the type and identification of the product tested b) a reference to this International Standard (ISO 4628/4) c) the numerical rating of the quantity of cracking d) the numerical rating of the size of cracking e) the depth of cracking (a. b. or c), where possible, for example: cracking 2 (S3) b If necessary, the standard assessment may be amplified in words, for example linear cracking. The use of such comments shall, however, be avoided wherever possible e) the date of the examination
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ISO 4628 - 4

Evaluation of cracking
Quantity 1 2 3 4 5

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Chapter:
ISO 4628 / 5 Designation of degree of flaking
Test report
The test report shall contain at least the following information: a) b) c) d) e) the type and identification of the product tested a reference to this International Standard (ISO 4628/5) the numerical rating of the quantity of flaking the numerical rating of the size of flaking the depth of flaking (a or b), for example: flaking 3 (S2) a

Paint Failures
ISO 4628 - 5

Evaluation of flaking.
Quantity 1 2 3 4 5

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Chalking
Appearance Almost like dust on top of the coat
Appearance Caused by

Bleeding
Discolouration of a paint, particularly in
topcoats

The gloss will be reduced


Caused by


Repair
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Pigments and extenders exposed on the paint surface, due to Exposure to sun / UV light Degradation of the binder Weathering of the paint Insufficient mixing of the paint

Coloured ingredients in a previous coat or on


the substrate is dissolved by solvents in the subsequent coat, e.g. Soluble pigments (Poor solvent resistance) Tar, Bitumen, etc. Surface contaminants (coloured) Re-blasting and re-application

Repair

Grind and/or wash top layer of the paint Recoat


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Note: Bleeding may continue through additional coats unless source is removed

Delamination (Adhesion failure)


Appearance Loss of adhesion: Intercoat delamination: Between coats Substrate delamination : Between primer and substrate Caused by Primer not compatible with subsequent coat Contamination of substrate or between coats Recoating interval too long Blooming / sweating Repair Remove loose paint layer or down to substrate Recoat
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Mud-cracking
Appearance Cracks occurring during the drying process of the paint Appearance of the surface of cracked mud Caused by Particularly for inorganic Zinc applied at a too high film thickness Repair Re-blast to Sa 2 or grind off Apply the inorganic Zinc

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9. Antifouling
All surfaces exposed to seawater will be "attacked" by marine organisms. When these organisms attach and grow, they cause a significant increase in surface roughness. On a ship's hull, this results in greater friction resistance and hence increased fuel consumption. It is therefore extremely important to prevent marine fouling when assessing a ship's fuel economy. The types of organisms and their growth rates vary with the temperature of the seawater, salinity and the light intensity in the sea. Plant organisms are normally diatoms or green/brown algae, whereas the most common animal organisms are Cirripedia (barnacles), bryozoa and hydroids. The most common way of preventing the fouling of marine structures is to apply a preventative coating or antifouling as we often call it. This contains one or more toxins (biocides) which are normally sufficient to make the antifouling effective against most organisms. Antifouling paint can be divided into three categories: conventional, long life and selfpolishing antifouling paints. 1. Conventional antifouling paints also known as "soluble matrix" antifouling paint, have been in use for many years. The main binder is resin, a natural product which dissolves very slowly in seawater. The Resin is brittle but although these formulations contain various additives, this type of antifouling often takes the form of a very weak film and the paint can only be applied in relatively low film thickness. The effective protection against fouling varies from 12 to 18 months. 2. Long life antifouling paints are also known as "insoluble matrix". The binder is not completely insoluble in seawater. The active components (biocides) and resin are released but the binder remains on the structure as a porous frame. The porous film left after the biocides have been released forms a weak substrate for a new coat of paint. It is therefore recommended that a sealer coat be applied at each dry docking to create a better substrate for the new antifouling. One risk with this type of antifouling is that year after year, coat after coat, many layers of paint are built up. This build up of layers can cause the paint to break away from the surface or from earlier coats, which increases the roughness of the hull. This condition is called "sandwich coating" and, after fouling, is the main cause of increased roughness on a ship's hull. Long-term antifouling paints are effective for about 24 months. 3. Self-polishing antifouling paints hydrating type are based on a mixture of watersoluble and water-sensitive binders. These react with seawater to form a soft layer which dissolves relatively easily in water. This type of antifouling was first developed when the need arose for tin-free antifouling paints. The effective life is about 36 months. In today's market, conventional, long-term and self-polishing hydrating antifouling paints are largely tin-free. 4. Self-polishing antifouling paints hydrolysing type contain a binder which is initially insoluble in seawater. When the paint film is exposed to seawater, a thin layer on the surface of the film absorbs water and a chemical reaction occurs between the binder and the water (hydrolysis). This is the main difference compared with other antifouling paints. The reaction product is water-soluble and will slowly dissolve or be washed away. Thus fresh, new
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antifouling paint is constantly being exposed. This results in a linear/predictable rate of biocide release which ensures a highly effective antifouling action. This type of antifouling is available both tin-free and with tin. Both variants can give effective protection for up to 60 months. One very important reason for using self-polishing antifouling paints is to avoid the "sandwich coating", which often occurs when using conventional or long-term antifouling paints. With a self-polishing antifouling paint, the surface will not become porous and it is not normally necessary to use sealers. When a ship is in dock, the hull is rinsed with fresh water to remove slime and other contamination, and the new antifouling paint is then applied directly onto the old paint film. Self-polishing antifouling paints are often based on copper with tin and/or other biocides. Those based on tin are restricted in most countries due to the environmental effects in the sea and will be prohibited from use within a few years. Copper-based products are more "environmentally friendly".

Personal notes

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Chapter:
What is fouling ?
(1 of 2)

Antifoulings
What is fouling ?
(2 of 2)

There is an estimated 4 - 5000 fouling species and these can be classified into: Fouling is the settlement and growth of marine plants and animals on manmade structures in the sea

Microfouling

generally referred to as slime, a complex


viscous mixture of bacteria and microscopic organisms

Macrofouling which includes animals and plants


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What is the consequence of fouling


On a ships hull
Increased fuel consumption

Why do ships need anti-fouling systems?

On a marine structure
Increased drag Structural failures Heavier load on the structure

Fouling leads to an increase in fuel consumption of up to 40%, due to the increase in drag resistance A clean ship sails faster and with less energy Fouling will eventually damage the primer system

Seawater pipe systems Increased corrosion Reduced pipe diametres


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Pump failures

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Selection of Antifoulings

Legislation / Environment Type of ship Speed Trade / Voyage factor Dry-docking interval: Conventional antifoulings: TBT-containing antifoulings (tributyltin): TBT-free, self polishing antifoulings:

Hull roughness
Roughness can be divided in two main groups

1 - 2 years 5 years 3 years

Permanent roughness welding seams, valve openings, bulging plates etc. Temporary roughness flaking, dry spray, cracking, sagging, fouling etc.

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Chapter:
Frictional resistance depends on:
The speed of the ship The area of the underwater hull The shape of the hull The roughness of the hull
Hull roughness is the only one of these factors which can be varied to a significant degree
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Antifoulings
Antifoulings and hull economy
Calculation example: Panamax vessel
Antifouling 7,000 litres at a cost of $ 40,000 - $ 50,000 10% saving represents $ 4,000 - $ 5,000 Fuel cost 10,000 HP at $ 100 / ton, sailing 250 days a year Would save 5% or $ 100,000 in the same period

20-25 times better return


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Application faults

Typical application faults that increase roughness: Overspray Sagging Dry spray Paint spatter Poor application has a greater ill effect on the drag of a hull than wear and tear

Antifouling challenges

Main threat on sidebottom is fouling Main threat on flatbottom is roughness

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Development of Antifoulings
Influencing factors the past thirty years:

Main types of antifoulings

Demands from shipowners for better performance with


economy Increased emphasis on surface roughness and hull performance Increases in fuel oil prices over the period Technological achievements by many antifouling manufacturers The trend to extend periods between dry-dockings The increasing awareness of environmental issues
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1. Conventional Antifouling 2. Long-life Antifouling 3. Selfpolishing Antifouling

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Chapter:
The composition of Antifoulings

Binder Biocide Extenders Pigments Solvents Additives

Antifoulings
Conventional Antifoulings

Soluble matrix paints Rosin as a binder Approximately 12 months protection Binders dissolves in water and biocide is released Often called: Tropic, Super Tropic etc. NOTE: Danger of cracking and flaking Needs to be quickly immersed in water
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Long-life Antifouling

Insoluble matrix paints Only biocides are released Effective protection is up to 24 months Leaves weak substrate for subsequent coat Sealer coat normally required Binder: CR, Vinyl (possible to add small amount of colophonium) Often called Sargasso etc.

Self polishing Antifoulings



Predictable performance Extended dry docking period Control of roughness and smoothing No sandwich coatings problems Fouling control due to linear biocide release Lifetime directly proportioned with dry film thickness

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Selfpolishing Antifouling with TBT



Introduced in the 1970s Contains chemically bound organotin Released by hydrolysis in seawater In addition, biocides like cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and organic boosters are used The rest of the copolymer is water soluble and is worn off, usually by friction Reduce hull roughness No sealer coat required for recoating

Self-polishing Antifouling - Tin free


Blend of water soluble and water sensitive
binders or hydrolysable binders.

With respect to performance the early ablative


antifoulings have been refined close to those containing tin. Not identical to tin based antifouling in performance yet.

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Chapter:
Release rate for Anti-foulings Anti-foulings
Comparison of release rate of biocide for different A/F-types
Release rate (g/cm2 / day)
40

Antifoulings
Why is hydrolysis so important ?
Because:

Conventional A/F
30

Long life A/F Selfpolishing A/F

Minimum release level for fouling protection

30

10

Linear erosion rate assures long term antifouling property No skeletal layers means good adhesion Continual smoothing of the surface ensures good fuel efficiency Hard film maintains its good appearance

Time, years

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Rules and regulations

MEPC approved a draft assembly resolution in November 1998 agreeing that:

New tin-free technology


SeaQuantum -- Advanced tin-free anti-fouling SeaQuantum Advanced tin-free anti-fouling
Based on a unique hydrolysing silyl polymer

The application of all anti-fouling systems containing TBT The application of all anti-fouling systems containing TBT should be prohibited throughout the world by 1.1.2003 should be prohibited throughout the world by 1.1.2003 A complete prohibition on the presence of TBT antiA complete prohibition on the presence of TBT antifouling systems on ships hulls to be in place by 1.1.2008 fouling systems on ships hulls to be in place by 1.1.2008

Meets the draft IMO regulations for 2003 and 2008 Matches tin-containing selfpolishing performance With performance that exceeds what has gone before With a track record of success in newbuilding and drydocking
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New tin-free technology Why is hydrolysis so important?


Because linear polishing rate
assures long term antifouling property Because no skeleton layer means good adhesion Because continuous smoothening of the surface ensures good fuel efficiency Because hard film maintains its good appearance

Anti-fouling for Aluminium hulls


Special requirements:

Steel hull
Newly applied

Must be free from Copper Must perform at speeds up to 50 knots Preferably selfpolishing
Can also be used on steel hulls:

Steel hull
After exposure in the sea

When port calls are frequent When service distances are short For laid up ships

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10. Safety, Health and Environment (SHE)


In recent years, awareness of SHE-related matters has increased. This is reflected in legislation and by companies and individuals becoming involved in such matters. At the Paint School, we have decided to focus on health problems in connection with the surface treatment of structures. General guidelines During the preparation and use of paint, it is important to be aware of the risks associated with the activity. In brief: Follow current legislation from local and national authorities. Read the safety data sheets for all products. Know the risks and how to protect yourself. Obtain the necessary training in the use of the products and equipment to be used. Use the necessary protective equipment to protect the respiratory system, eyes, skin and hearing. Inspect all areas where work will take place to reveal possible SHE faults. Ensure correct storage and handling of products and associated thinners before, during and after the work. The products should be collected in a specially allocated area.

Safety Safety aspects are particularly important in connection with the use of solvent-based paints. Solvents are flammable and in the right environment and under unfavourable conditions can cause both fire and explosion. Be aware that solvents are heavier than air and will sink down to areas which lie below the painting work. In general, the following aspects should be checked in connection with painting work. Plan the work and co-ordinate this with other activities in the area. Inspect the area where the work is to be performed. Shut off the areas affected. Remember areas which are lower than that where the painting is to be performed. Check the equipment to be used, including safety and protective equipment. Closed rooms must be declared gas-free before work begins. Take extra safety precautions when painting in tanks and confined areas: Adequate ventilation, explosion-proof working lights and equipment, an assistant with a line and adequate breaks in fresh air.

Health Surface treatment represents a health risk. The risk can however be reduced to a minimum if the operators and people in the vicinity of areas where such work is in progress proceed as follows: Read the safety instructions and SHE documentation for the product (safety data sheet) Follow the instructions given. In particular: use adequate approved protective equipment e.g. fresh air masks, gloves, protective goggles and anti-static footwear/clothing. The most serious health risks are associated with the following:
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Solvents Irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory organs Can be absorbed through the skin. Degrease the skin. Can cause eczema Negative effects on the liver, kidneys, respiratory organs, blood, central nervous system and reproductive organs Can cause headaches, dizziness and fatigue Epoxy Irritation of eyes and skin Causes skin allergy For sensitive persons: epoxy allergy can be life-long Isocyanates Irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory organs Causes allergy to the skin and respiratory organs For sensitive people: allergies can be life-long At high temperature: toxic gases such as free isocyanates can be emitted Heavy metals: Dust and vapours Metals harmful to health are mainly: chromium (IV), lead, iron, cadmium, cobalt, copper, zinc and nickel. The organs which can be affected (examples of symptoms/effects): Respiratory organs (metal fever) Skin (eczema) Blood cells (anaemia) Nervous system (fatigue) Heart (irregular pulse) Kidneys (reduced function) Bone structure (accumulation) Dust Dust is a factor which must be taken into account both during pre-treatment and spray application. Dust is inhaled through the nose and mouth and can cause lung damage (dust disease, silicosis) and irritation of the eyes. Dust on the skin can also cause irritation depending on what the substance contains. Noise Noise is primarily linked with steelwork and preparation. Many tools produce noise levels over 100 decibels. A lower limit for the use of ear protectors is often set at around 80 decibels. Personal notes

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Chapter:
Many risks are involved when working with paints
Safety Explosion and Fire Health Manufacturing and Surface treatment Environment Emission to air (VOC) Emission to water (Maintenance) Emission to soil (Waste handling)
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SHE
Safety hazard: Solvents
Solvents are heavier than air A fire may start in lower
areas or compartments

Ignorant personnel below


can be affected

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Safety risk: High pressure equipment


Surface treatment involves equipment with very high pressures Blast cleaning
- Mixture of air and particles Water Jetting - Water up to above 2500 Bar Airless spray application - Paint

How can we reduce the possibility for accidents to happen ?



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Never point any high pressure unit at another person or at yourself !!


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Read the Safety Data Sheet and follow the given precautions and advices Check the surrounding areas for nearby activities, particularly welding, machining etc. (remember lower levels) Ensure proper ventilation and check the direction where solvents may move Always use approved and sufficient personal protection equipment of approved type

How flammable is a paint ?


The Flash point tells how flammable a Paint is. The flash point is the lowest temperature at which the fumes from the solvents ignite or explode Classification: Extremely flammable: Flash point below 0 C Highly flammable: Flash point between 0 and 21C Flammable: Flash point between 21 and 55 C This information can be found in the Safety Data Sheet
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Precautions when painting in confined spaces.


Ensure good ventilation Exhaust points for fumes / solvents must be close
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to the bottom Start application from the bottom and up Always use non-sparking tools Use antistatic clothing with hood Use masks with air supply Use boots and gloves Never smoke Safety lines or use naked flames ! Sufficient rest periods

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Chapter:
Symbols Fire and explosion hazards
These symbols can be found in Safety Data Sheets and on the paint tin label E O F+ F

SHE
Symbols Health hazards
These symbols can be found in Safety Data Sheets and on the paint tin label T+ T C Xn Xi

Explosive

Oxidizing

Extremely flammable

Highly flammable

Very Toxic

Toxic

Corrosive

Harmful

Irritant

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Types of information to be found in the safety data sheet (16 points).


1. Identification of the company 2. Composition and ingredients 3. Hazard identification 4. First aid measure 5. Fire fighting Measures 6. Accidental release measures 7. Handling and storage 8. Exposure control and personal protection 9. Physical and chemical properties 10. Stability and reactivity 11. Toxicological information 12. Ecological information 13. Disposal considerations 14. Transport information 15. Regulatory information 16. Other information

Evaporation of solvents during application of an object


Litres of Solvents
5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

Area: Dry Film thickness:

20.000 m 300 microns

Mastic

Tar Epoxy
65 %

Alkyd
50 %

CR
40 %

Vol. % Solids 82 %
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General precautions for surface treatment (1 of 3)


Before the work starts
Do not start the work without proper training or experience Know all safety routines and where to find
necessary equipment if an accident should occur Read and understand all Safety and Technical Data Sheets Know all the hazards involved (R phrases) Know all protective measures requires (S phrases) Availability of appropriate, personal protection equipment Evaluate the work place regarding - Other nearby activities, warning signs, mixing station, first aid kits, ventilation, housekeeping
12

General precautions for surface treatment (2 of 3)


During work
Always use appropriate, approved
personal protection equipment

Use the tools and equipment correctly to avoid


injuries to others or to yourself

Keep all containers / tins closed The work can be exhausting: Take sufficient rests Keep the work place tidy during the work

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Chapter:
General precautions for surface treatment (3 of 3)
After work

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SHE
Filter types
Dust P1: Lowest degree of protection P2: Medium degree of protection P3: Highest degree of protection Gas from organic solvents A1 Lowest degree of protection A2 Medium degree of protection A3 Highest degree of protection

Close all Containers / tins Clean the equipment properly Store unused paint and thinners safely (Paint store) Throw waste in designated containers. (Hazardous waste) Clean the personal protection equipment and store it properly to avoid contamination Clean yourself with water and cleaning cream

Other types might be required for products classified as corrosive.

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Health hazards when using paints. paints.


Binders Skin contact. Particularly Epoxy, Amines and Isocyanates may cause skin irritation and Allergic reactions Solvents: May enter the body in three ways: By inhalation Skin contact Ingestion Other constituents: Tar, Heavy metals
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Health hazards from solvent exposure


Acute effects Long term effects

Headache Abnormal tiredness Dizziness Nausea

Irritability Loss of memory Organ damages


(kidneys, liver, CNS)

Reduced reaction ability Reduced evaluation ability


Skin irritations

Eczema Dry and cracked skin


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Health hazard: inhalation of solvents


The most dangerous hazard Solvents will be transported by the blood stream to internal organs of the body. Amount absorbed and the effect on the body will depend on: Type of solvent, period of exposure, concentration and work load. May cause damage to: Central nervous system, respiratory system, liver, kidneys and reproductive systems, Protective measures: Proper ventilation. Use approved, protective mask
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Health hazard: Skin contact with solvents


The most frequently occurring health effects Causes: - Reddening - Swelling - Drying and cracking of skin - Absorption through intact skin: Some, like Xylene - Absorption through damaged skin: Several, like White Spirit Protective measures: Avoid direct contact Protective clothes, gloves and boots
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Chapter:
Health hazards when working with Epoxies. Epoxies.
Hazards : Eczema and allergic reactions on the skin Liquid Epoxies with low molecular weigths (below 700) are most likely to give an allergic reaction An allergic reaction to Epoxy is irreversible. Hyper-sensitive persons must stay away from epoxies. Protective measures Protective clothes covering the whole body and gloves Proper cleaning with water, soap and cleaning cream Use disposable overalls

SHE
Health hazards when working with tar containing paints. paints.
Hazards The main hazard with tar containing paints is the risk for developing cancer, especially when exposed to strong sunlight Long term exposure to vapours may damage internal organs, cause heritable genetic defects and birth defects Short term exposure to fume and vapours may cause irritation to nose, throat and eyes Splashes to skin causes irritation Protective measures Protective mask to avoid breathing vapours Protective clothes covering the whole body and gloves
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Health hazards when working with paints containing Isocyanates. Isocyanates.


The monomer is more volatile than the pre-polymer and is therefore more dangerous Isocyanates are found in Polyurethane paints Hazards Irritation of eyes skin and airways Sensitization by inhalation and skin contact Asthma Protective measures Protective mask to avoid breathing of vapours Protective clothes covering the whole body, boots and gloves
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Health hazards when working with paints containing heavy metals. metals.
Some times used in pigments, additives or driers. Hazards (Metal fumes,dust from hot work) Zinc. Dust and fumes: Zinc fever, chills, coughing, irritation Copper. Fumes: Metal fever and chills Lead. Dust and fumes. Damage blood cells, Anemi, skeleton, reduced fertility and central nervous system Chromium. Dust and fumes: Sensitisation, cancer Nickel / Cobalt. Sensitisation General Protective measures Protective mask to avoid breathing of vapours Protective clothes covering the whole body, boots and gloves
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Health hazards when working with antifoulings. antifoulings.


Antifoulings are generally looked upon as Toxic Some antifoulings contain Tin Tin may cause irritation to skin and eyes the central
nervous system and effect the immune system General Protective measures Protective mask to avoid breathing of spray mist / droplets Protective clothes covering the whole body, boots and gloves
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How dangerous is a chemical or a paint ?


Different persons will respond differently In general the hazard will depend on: The toxicity and amount of the compound The concentration and risk of exposure The contact period with the chemical

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11. Corrosion
What is corrosion?
To give materials satisfactory protection against corrosion, it is important to understand what corrosion is. Only once we know when, how and why a material corrodes (rusts) can we specify the right material and give the material a cost-effective protection. Corrosion is defined as "a materials reaction with the surrounding environment during the formation of corrosion products". From this definition, it is clear that it is not enough to know the properties of the material, we also need knowledge of the exposure environment. This means that we need to know how corrosive the environment surrounding the material is. To illustrate the different material properties, consider the following example: gold will not corrode in seawater and therefore we call this an inert material in this environment. Zinc however is far from inert. Similarly a particular material will have a totally different longevity in two different environments: unprotected steel corrodes quickly in seawater but will be almost everlasting in a dry indoor atmosphere.

The corrosion process


The corrosion process is caused by the supply of energy to metals when they are produced and processed. This is an undesirable energy state and the metal will try to return to its natural condition. This can involve the material dissolving into metal ions and electrons. For such a reaction to occur, the metal must form part of a corrosion cell. A corrosion cell consists of two different materials connected together via a conductive electrolyte and a metal conductor. A conductor can be another conductive material or it can be a direct contact between the two metals. The conductive electrolyte can for example be seawater or condensation with some form of contamination or salts which make the condensation conductive. If we regard the corrosion process as an electrical circuit, it is easy see that we can stop or at least reduce the corrosion by either breaking the electrical circuit or by increasing the resistance in the circuit. This is the principle behind the use of many paints as corrosion protection. When paint is applied to the metal, we apply an insulating layer and it becomes more difficult for the conductive ions in the electrolyte to reach the surface of the metal. The ohmic resistance in the circuit increases. Another method is to change the surrounding environment. We can for example prevent condensation forming by changing the temperature of the metal or by ensuring better ventilation.

Corrosion types
There are many different forms of corrosion. Although we will not discuss all of them, we should briefly mention the two most common types on steel structures: galvanic corrosion, general corrosion and crevice corrosion. Galvanic corrosion occurs when two different alloys are connected together in an electrical circuit, as described for corrosion cells. In such a circuit, it is always the most negative metal which corrodes. This metal is called the base metal or the anode in the circuit. The noble
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metal or cathode will actually acquire a certain degree of protection (see cathodic protection). Typical examples of galvanic corrosion are aluminium which corrodes when connected to steel or a cast iron valve which is connected to an aluminium-brass pipe. In principle, general corrosion is very similar to galvanic corrosion except that the corrosion process occurs on one metal only. The galvanic cell occurs when either various alloy elements or contaminants are present in the metal or the metal surface is uneven. The corrosion will occur on the most base elements on the alloy surface. Crevice corrosion is a type of corrosion which is mostly found on passive materials such as stainless steels. The attack takes place in narrow gaps or crevices. Critical crevices for initiation of corrosion are between plates, pores in welds, between gasket and flange in pipe systems, under various types of settlements (marine mud) and contamination (paint splashes). The reason for the attacks is that the environment inside the crevice is different from the environment outside. A corrosion cell will be formed between the two areas. A ondition that will increase the risk of attack even furter is the presens of aggressive ions such as chlorides found in seawater. Once initiated the crevice corrosion attack may propagate at a very high speed and cause rust penetration within a surprisingly short period of time. Personal notes

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Chapter:
Definition of Corrosion
Corrosion is a reaction between Material and Surrounding environment under formation of corrosion products

Corrosion
Production and degradation of steel
Reaction between the material and the surrounding environment takes place Plates, pipes, profiles, etc.
g gy in er tur En fac u an M
Raw material Iron ore

W ate r Ox /hu yg mi en dit y


Rust

The presence of water / humidity and Oxygen is a pre-requisite for corrosion of steel
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How is rust formed ?

Freely corroding steel


Electrolyte (Water or soil)

Painted surface exposed to humidity

The water molecules penetrate the paint Due to osmotic forces blisters are formed

Paint Steel

The blisters break and corrosion is initiated

Anode Cathode Cathode

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Pre-requisites for corrosion


A galvanic cell consists of:
A Cathode:
The noble metal / alloy (or part of metal) An Anode: The less noble metal / alloy An electrical connection between the two metals. Conducting electrical current (by electrons) An electrolyte: Conducting electrical current (by ions) Cathode: Steel

A galvanic cell
2e-

Zn = Zn + 2 e

2+

Anode: Zinc

O2

O2 + H2 O + 2e - = 2OH -

In seawater, a calcareous deposit is formed on the steel surface


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Chapter:
Corrosion speed differ when exposed to the same environment
In a strong alcaline environment Aluminium and Zinc will corrode rapidly, while steel will be passive
Aluminium Zinc Steel

Corrosion
Galvanic potentials in seawater

Protective Iron oxide


pH > 10

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Steel in Seawater
Potential versus Zinc & Ag/Ag Cl ref. electrodes
Ag / Ag Cl

How to measure the corrosion potential of a structure


Volt meter

Potentials in volt
Rapid corrosion

Zinc

Cu / CuSO4

- 0.55

+ 0.50

- 0.60

Structure

General corrosion
- 0.80

Some corrosion 100% Cathodic protection

+ 0.25

- 0.85

-1.05

Increasing polarisation Overprotection Possible coating damage

+ 0.0

-1.10

- 1.30

- 0.25

- 1.35

Sea water
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Reference electrode

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Elements influencing the corrosion speed of metals


Submerged materials

pH-scale
Acidic

Temperature Salinity Oxygen content Water velocity Acidity (See below) Type of electrolyte ( e.g. cargo or chemicals) Content of contaminants / pollution that
promotes corrosion Micro-organisms.
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Neutral

Alcaline

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Chapter:
Parametres influencing the corrosion speed. Atmospheric corrosion
Humidity Temperature Concentration of salts Amount of air pollution,
including acid rain, soot and dust particles

Corrosion
Apart from using paint and CP: How to protect against corrosion ?
Corrosion protection can be achieved in many ways


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Good design Avoid corrosion traps Improved accessibility - maintenance Proper materials selection Insulate between dissimilar materials Change the surrounding environment Remove water / humidity Apply metallic coatings Use corrosion inhibitors (closed systems)

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Avoid stagnant water at bottoms of tanks and containers


Unfortunate Better Best solution

Corrosion Properties of the materials



All materials have their strong sides But, they also have their weak points

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Most frequently occurring types of corrosion


On carbon steel

Uniform corrosion Uneven corrosion (deep pits) Galvanic corrosion Stress corrosion cracking

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Knowledge is required for selecting the correct material for a given application

Most frequently occurring types of corrosion


Stainless steels Titanium

Crevice corrosion Pitting corrosion Stress corrosion cracking


Aluminium

Hydrogen embrittlement Fatigue

Copper based alloys

Pitting corrosion Galvanic corrosion

Erosion corrosion

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Chapter:
Steel with mill scale
Outdoor exposure The mill scale cracks Corrosion will develop on the steel Mill scale is more noble than steel Mill scale Corrosion

Corrosion
Crevice corrosion occurs under paint spillage or plates
Crevice corrosion occurs in narrow gaps where the oxygen concentration is lower than on the freely exposed part of the material

Seawater
Ingress of seawater Plate Paint

Stainless Steel
Steel Steel

Corroded areas
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Galvanic corrosion is to a large extent determined by the conductivity of the electrolyte


The corrosion attack decreases with increasing distance from the cathode due to an increased ohmic resistance

Pitting corrosion

Pitting corrosion is a localised attack on a material normally protected by a passive film The passive film may be destroyed mechanically or by aggressive ions in an electrolyte Severe corrosion may take place beneath the passive layer Passive layer

Corroded area
Electrolyte (Seawater)

Pitting corrosion

Anode

Cathode
Stainless steel Seen from above Cross section

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Corrosion fatigue
Corrosion Fatigue is a combined effect of an aggressive environment and dynamic loads on a structure Load
Quay

Stray current corrosion


Welding transformer

- +

Welding on board Stray current


Pontoon

Fatigue only

No failure above line

To earth Corrosion

Corrosion fatigue

Seawater

No. of dynamic cycles


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12. Cathodic Protection


Basic conditions
Cathodic protection (CP) is one of the most common forms of corrosion protection. To understand how this method works, you need to be familiar with a few basic facts. The first is the mechanism behind the corrosion process (see the section "Corrosion"). Remember that the very occurrence of the corrosion process means that when a metal corrodes (rusts), the metal breaks down into ions and electrons are released. It is also necessary to understand what an electrochemical cell (corrosion cell) is. This is a conductive circuit which consists of a noble metal (cathode) and a base metal (anode) in metallic contact with each other. In addition, the metals must be in contact with each other via a conductive electrolyte (for example seawater). In such a circuit, it is always the anode which corrodes, while the cathode will be protected.

Which metal will corrode in a cell ?


When two metals are connected together, we can predict which will corrode and which will be protected. This is due to the electrochemical voltage level of the metal, or corrosion potential. The potential for a metal can be measured by putting the metal in seawater and measuring the voltage between the metal and a reference electrode. When we have measured the potential of several metals, we can classify them. The most noble is placed at the top of the list and the most base at the bottom. This classification is called the Galvanic series. In a connection between two metals, the most negative metal will be the anode whilst the metal higher up in the table will be the cathode.

Principle of cathodic protection


Cathodic protection is based on preventing a metal from dissolving. By ensuring that electrons cannot be released from the metal we want to protect, the corrosion can be limited or stopped. This is done by connecting a more negatively charged metal (e.g. aluminium) to the metal we want to protect (e.g. steel). Aluminium will release electrons more readily and will have enough power to propel the electrons into the steel and thus prevent dissolution. Aluminium is therefore the anode and will corrode instead of the steel. The aluminium is sacrificed, hence the name sacrificial anode. When the negatively charged electrons enter the steel, the steel will of course have a more negative potential than it has in its free state. It is this change in potential which protects the steel. To ensure protection, the steel must fall below a certain negative potential level. This level is called the protection potential and is specified as a design criterion. The protection potential is normally of the order of -800 mV relative to a silver/silver chloride reference electrode. An anode can only release a certain number of electrons before it is consumed. To ensure that the anodes work as long as necessary, we must calculate how many anodes are required. These calculations are called designing a cathodic protection system. A design requires
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knowledge of some important parameters. The most important ones are the area to be protected, the type of material to be protected, the type of anode to be used, the lifetime of the system and the area of the structure which has been painted. A painted structure requires fewer anodes than an unpainted one. Finally: cathodic protection can be achieved by a forced voltage system. These systems supply DC current to the steel in the same way as anodes.

Personal notes

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Chapter:
Corrosion of a metal or alloy

Cathodic Protection
How to protect a structure
Corrosion Protection can be achieved by : Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection System Impressed Current Cathodic Protection System

Corrosion is a reaction between the metal and the surrounding


environment The corrosion rate depends on the properties of the metal and the corrosivity of the environment. Corrosion is dissolution of the metal, among other things involving the release of electrons:

Fe Fe

2+

+ 2e

Both systems supply electrons to the structure. The structure will become more negative and metal dissolution will be prevented

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Type of sacrificial anodes

Zinc Noranode Coral Z Aluminium Coral A Coral A high grade Magnesium

Marine Objects to be protected: protected:



Ships FPSO / FSU Mobile rigs Floating dry-docks Barges

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Offshore and industry (Norwegian sector). sector).

Objects to be protected:
Offshore platforms Fixed/floating Concrete/steel Subsea installations Templates/manifolds/
modules. Subsea pipelines

The principle of cathodic protection. protection. potentials vs. different reference electrodes vs.
Cu / Zn + 500 +400 +300 +200 +100 0 CuSO4 - 600 - 700 - 800

Harbour facilities Piles Sheet piles Buried tanks and


pipelines (onshore)

mV Freely corroding steel

Above ground storage


tanks

Mixed potential
- 900 - 1000 - 1100

Freely corroding Zinc

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Chapter:
Cathodic Protection Steel protected by a sacrificial anode

Cathodic Protection
Corrosion potentials in seawater
Zinc, Ag/Ag Cl and Cu/CuSO4 Reference electrodes Zinc, Cu/CuSO
Ag / Ag Cl

Potentials in volt
Rapid corrosion

Zinc

Cu / CuSO4

- 0.55

+ 0.50

- 0.60

Electrolyte (Water or soil)


- 0.80

General corrosion Some corrosion 100% Cathodic protection


-1.05 + 0.0 -1.10 + 0.25 - 0.85

- 1.30

Overprotection Possible coating damage

- 0.25

- 1.35

Cathode
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Anode
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Reduction of corrosion rate of steel by cathodic protection. Moving seawater protection.


Free corrosion

Marine Design criteria



Design lifetime Coating system and condition Current density (Coating type and damages) Electrolytic resistivity Environmental conditions / impacts Ballasting period.

100 Corrosion rate (per cent) 50

10 -600 -650 +500 +450 -700 +400 -750 +350 - 800 +300

Full cathodic protection mV -850 Cu / CuSO4 +250 Zn

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Protective

Design criteria

Design lifetime Coating system and condition Protection potential Anode capacity Electrolyte resistivity Environmental conditions/impacts

Current density requirement depends on:


A. Environmental parameters Sea water composition and salinity Sea water temperature Resistivity of sea water Sea water flow velocity Other factors, marine growth

B. Steel surface Painted / not painted Steel temperature Coating system, if any Condition of coating system

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Chapter:
Sacrificial anode material selection
Anode material selection Chemical composition Electrochemical performance - Anode potential - Stable current - Consumption Anode corrosion pattern Price Class requirements

Cathodic Protection
Comparison of cathodic protection systems general advantages: advantages:
Sacrificial anode systems Simple, reliable and free from in-service operator surveillance System installation is simple Low installation cost for short term protection Impressed current systems

Main Types Zinc Aluminium Magnesium

Flexibility under widely


varying operating conditions

Weight advantage for large


capacity, long life systems

Low friction (reduced sea


water drag)

Low life cycle cost (LCC)

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Comparison of cathodic protection systems general limitations


Sacrificial anode systems Large weight for large capacity, long life systems. Impressed current systems Relative complexity of system demands high level of design expertise.

Why choose an ICCP system on hull



Smooth hull, no drag Flexible dry-docking intervals Low cost for long term operation Long lifetime, minimum of maintenance No welding required at dry docking No risk of damaging internal Paint systems Fully automatic corrosion protection

Response to varying
operating conditions is limited.

In-service operator
surveillance required.

Hydrodynamic loadings can


be high (Seawater drag)
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Vulnerable to component
failure or loss of power.
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Why choose a SACP system on hull


Simple installation Maintenance free between dry docking Low cost for short term operation World-wide availability
100 80 60 40 20

Ship hull: Current density at different paint damage


Paint damage, %

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

Anodes
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ICCP

Current density, mA/m

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Chapter:
Principle : Effect of using CP
Corrosion Curves depend on - Coating condition - CP-design Corrosion
CP and coating at newbuilding

Cathodic Protection
Corrosion in broken blister Passivation by CP
Without Cathodic Protection Seawater Rust

Paint
Steel

CP installed Coating breakdown

With Cathodic Protection Seawater Anode current Anode

Paint
Time
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Steel
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Calcareous layer

Ships hull: Current density as function of coating breakdown


Coating breakdown Current density
2-5% 5-10 % 10-15 % 15-20 % 20-25 % 25-30 % 10 mA/m2 15 mA/m2 20 mA/m2 30 mA/m2 40 mA/m2 50 mA/m2

Sacrificial anode system


Aluminium alloy anodes Zinc alloy anodes (technically equal)

Aluminium is recommended prior to Zinc because:


Aluminium anode weight is approx. 1/3 of Zinc Total price for equal protection: Al. anodes
approx 1/2 of Zinc anodes

Lower installation costs due to weight difference

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Cathodic protection
ICCP - Impressed Current SACP - Sacrificial Anodes EAF - Electrolytic Antifouling System for
seawater systems (CUPROBAN)

Location of Pitguard anodes


Web frame Tank bottom

Slip ring arrangement for propeller shaft


Coatings and Cathodic Protection

Web frame

Seawater Anode

The Single Source Solution


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Water level

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