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NTheodossiev Ancient Thrace

NTheodossiev Ancient Thrace

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Introduction to the Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to the Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of Abbreviations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of Illustrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 1 Ancient Thrace during the First Millennium BC Nikola Theodossiev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Getae: Selected Questions Alexandru Avram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Black Sea: Between Asia and Europe (Herodotus’ Approach to his Scythian Account) J.G.F. Hind. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Scythians: Three Essays Gocha R. Tsetskhladze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The American-Ukrainian Scythian Kurgan Project, 2004– 2005: Preliminary Report N.T. de Grummond, S.V. Polin, L.A. Chernich, M. Gleba and M. Daragan Skeletal Analyses: A.D. Kozak Faunal Remains: O.P. Zhuravlev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Persia in Europe John Boardman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Etruscan Impact on Ancient Europe Larissa Bonfante . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


















Hallstatt Europe: Some Aspects of Religion and Social Structure Biba Terzan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Elusive Arts: The Study of Continental Early Celtic Art since 1944 Ruth Megaw and Vincent Megaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . An Archaic Alphabet on a Thasian Kylix M.A. Tiverios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Iron Age in Central Anatolia Hermann Genz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Role of Jewellery in Ancient Societies Iva Ondrejová. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Mushroom, the Magi and the Keen-Sighted Seers Claudia Sagona and Antonio Sagona . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .












List of Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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The territorial extent of Thrace is discussed and the chronology of this period is outlined. Greek and Roman historical sources on ancient Thrace are examined. the American Academy in Rome. particularly to illustrate the dynamic relations and long-distance contacts of the region throughout the eastern Mediterranean. and lastly Thracian coinage. The various cultural interactions and ethnic interrelations between Thracians and Greeks.ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC* Nikola THEODOSSIEV Abstract The paper provides a general discussion of ancient Thrace in the 1st millennium BC. Ancient Thrace. especially the rich aristocratic burials and the numerous Late Classical and Hellenistic Thracian monumental tombs. Economic contacts and trade are also discussed. and was inhabited by a number of tribes known as Thracians. . So too are Thracian metalwork and its iconography. particularly the significant gold and silver treasures/hoards. Attention is paid to the social structure of the tribal communities and to Thracian religion. the urbanisation process and sanctuaries. as are the various tribes and the political history of the most powerful tribal kingdoms. Jan Bouzek. examining a variety of topics and publishing important work. Since the early 20th century. the Maison des Sciences de l’Homme in Paris. I am pleased to offer an overview of ancient Thrace in a volume in honour of Prof. was among the most dynamic regions of the eastern Mediterranean and played an important role in ancient history and culture. together with such topics as settlement patterns. and the Centre d’Étude des Peintures Murales Romaines in Soissons for their generous support and the various fellowships which have enabled me to work on my research projects. Mellon Foundation. Macedonians. a number of scholars from different countries have studied the region. the Institute for Advanced Studies in the Humanities at the University of Edinburgh. the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences in Wassenaar. a brilliant * I would like to thank Gocha Tsetskhladze for his kind invitation to contribute to this volume dedicated to Jan Bouzek. Illyrians. the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts at the National Gallery of Art in Washington. the Council of American Overseas Research Centers. the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. in the northern part of southeastern Europe. Persians. I wish to extend my gratitude to the Andrew W. Thracian funerary practices are examined. Scythians. located on the northern fringe of the Greek world. DC. Thrace was located on the northern fringe of Greece. Celts and Romans are outlined.

Mihailov 1972. and the Chalkidiki peninsula (in the south). Hoddinott. the area between the middle river valleys of the Struma/Strymon and Vardar. variable and quite dynamic. except for present-day north-eastern Bulgaria. A. During the 1st millennium BC Thrace spread from the West Pontic coast (in the east) to the Morava river valley. It covered the following modern countries (from north to south): Moldova. where he has been personally involved for many years in both theoretical and field research. R. and from the Transylvanian Alps and the Moldavian Carpathians (in the north) and the Dniester river (in the north-east). ancient Thrace was not a homogeneous region inhabited by homogeneous ethnic groups.2 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV scholar whose career is closely related to the region. Also. the Achaemenid empire. Historically. D. Moreover. The frontiers of ancient Thrace were relative. Fol 1972. A. including the islands of Samothrace and Thasos. but in antiquity these areas belonged to other historical and geographical regions. Macedonia and the Roman Republic. eastern Serbia. Popov 1999). ‘Thracians’ is a cumulative and relative ethnonym that included a great number of various tribes. including the Gallipoli peninsula. and the North Aegean coast. Archibald 1998. 1975b. See A. separate Thracian tribes were attested in central Greece. parts of northern Greece and the European part of Turkey (Danov 1976. to the Bosporus (in the southeast). often sharing a common culture. and the ancient Thracians never formed a unified nation or entirely centralised kingdom controlling their whole territory. 1981. Fol and Spiridonov 1983. In fact. the eastern part of the Republic of Macedonia. the eastern and southern parts of Romania. 1974. and during the 1st millennium BC certain Thracian areas belonged to the Greek colonies. and on which he has written many works of the greatest importance. the northern coast of the Sea of Marmara. . Spiridonov 1991. Oppermann 1984. 1997. I do not deal with an area of south-western Thrace which became a constituent part of the Macedonian kingdom during the Classical and Hellenistic periods. religion and language. north-west Anatolia and some Aegean islands. Bulgaria. TERRITORIAL SCOPE AND CHRONOLOGY1 Ancient Thrace was an extensive but variable historical and geographical region of south-eastern Europe (Fig 1). and the lower Axios (Vardar) river valley (to the west). but 1 In this article I do not deal with the North Thracian territories inhabited by the Getae and the Daci. Avram’s chapter in the present volume. the south-western part of the Odessa Province of the Ukraine.

16. 43 Pomorie. Philippi. Gotse Delchev. 10. . 20. Strelcha. Mumdyilar. 3. [Cambridge 1994]. 75. Archibald. Seuthopolis. 32. 58. Glozhene. 38.H. 15. 57. 24. Razlog. Svilengrad. Panagyurishte. 11. 71. 45. Lovech. Vulchitrun. Topolovgrad. Derveni. 37. Tatarevo. Krivodol. Svetlen. 5. 55. 2nd ed. Lukovit. Gradnitsa. Brezovo. Opulchenets. Vetren. Letnitsa. Branichevo. 6. Edirne. 59. Zlokoutchene. Dulboki. Ezerovo. 7. Velingrad. Chirpan. Asenovgrad. 66. Thracian sites and tribal territories of the Classical period (after Z. 18. 69. Kyolmen. 3 1. 33. Nevrokop.ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC Fig. 44. Staro Selo. 47. 26. Beroea. Daskal Atanassov. Purovay. Didimotikhion. 1. Smolyan. Madara. 30. 60. 36. 28. Yourukler. Toros. Teteven. Novoselets. Vurbitsa. Tarnevets. ‘Thracians and Scythians’. 61. 446. 35. 12. Chernozem. Oryahovo. 14. 52. 68. Kaloyanovo. 77. 9. Pazardyik. 65. Stoyanovo. Novo Mahala. 50. Izgrev. 25. Boukyovtsi. 13. Duvanli. Voinitsine. 56. 67. Kirklareli. 27. 51. Bednyakovo. map 14). Turnovo. 48. 49. 21. 39. Slavyanovo. 31. Troian. Kazanlak. Pudriya. 53. Dolno Sahrane. Yankovo. Pastousha. Alexandrovo. 64. 17. 34. 62. 74. Stara Zagora. Skalitsa. 2. 22. Arzos. Mezek. 54. Rozovets. 70. 29. 19. CAH VI. 46. Kabyle. 63. 8. Topolovo. 23. 72. 76. 42. Pustrovo. 41. Kozarevo. 73. 4. 40. Koprinka.

the production of new types of pottery. increased productive activity among the Thracian tribes. and the second from the 8th to the late 6th or early 5th century BC. Persians. Stoyanov 2000.4 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV sometimes being quite different. Borislavov 1999. – all the result of dynamic internal developments of the tribal communities. 11–13). . Taylor 1989b. The Late Iron Age covered the period from the middle of the 6th or middle of the 5th century BC down to the late 1st century BC or into the first several decades of the 1st century AD. Theodossiev 2000c. during which various major developments occurred: the gradual political consolidation of the Thracian tribes and the rise of tribal kingdoms. Nikov 2000). Archibald 1998. cf. 17–20. economic and cultural features in the different areas of Thrace. Gergova 1986. such as the adoption of iron metallurgy. 26–34. 1987. 5–12. important historical events in Thrace. besides various multilateral contacts and interactions throughout the eastern Mediterranean. 11–13. depending on the specific historical. although some studies on specific areas of Thrace during the Early Iron Age provide more detailed chronology and precise division by phases and sub-phases. such as the lasting Greek colonisation on the North Aegean and West Pontic coasts. The Late Iron Age in Thrace is usually divided into the Classical and Hellenistic periods. The Early Iron Age is usually divided further into two phases – the first from the late 11th or early 10th to the 9th  century BC. The recent studies clearly demonstrate that the beginning of the Early Iron Age should be placed between 1050 BC and 950 BC. following the model of classical archaeology. Archibald 1998. The 1st millennium BC in Thrace is defined as the Iron Age. which were turned into zones of interaction. often related to the La Tène phases (Theodossiev 2000c. the North Pontic regions and Central Europe. A number of important publications deal with the chronology and periods of the Early Iron Age (Chichikova 1974b. but several detailed studies on the northern areas of Thrace clearly demonstrate that the Late Iron Age chronology and periodisation here was somewhat different. the appearance of rich aristocratic burials. while mixed groups consisting of local people who lived besides the Greeks. and distinctive changes in Thracian material culture. The Thracian Iron Age divides into two: Early and Late. Macedonians. when the main part of ancient Thrace was annexed by the Roman empire (Domaradzki 1994b. toreutics. Illyrians. jewellery. etc. 1998a). a developing economy and intensive trade. Domaradzki 1994b. Toncheva 1980a. Bouzek 1997. Celts and Romans inhabited particular areas of Thrace. its end between 550 BC and 450 BC. Scythians. Gotsev 1990. weaponry. Paeonians. 7–18. 1998a. the most significant being the Odrysian kingdom. Hänsel 1976.

Xenophon. A. study of ancient written sources about Thrace advanced significantly. During the 20th century and since. Fol and Spiridonov 1983. Moreover. for example Pomponius Mela. 1997. Mihailov 1972. Many scholars have published important works. Tacheva 1987. religion and society. Diodorus. Fol 1972. Todorov 1933 Danov 1976. foreigners. exaggerated or biased information as their Greek or Roman authors. Loukopoulou 1989.ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 5 LITERARY AND EPIGRAPHIC SOURCES While the ancient Thracians were a non-literary people and no domestic historical sources are known. Casson 1926. culture. Spiridonov 1991. usually receiving first-hand information from Greeks and Romans living in the region or having personal experience in Thrace – like Thucydides and Xenophon. a number of Greek and Roman authors give information on the region and the local tribes. Delev 2004). Livy. although this information does not seem to be sufficiently reliable from an historical point of view. Gocheva 2002). discussing a number of sources and studying various theoretical and methodological issues (Katsarov 1916. several volumes have provided collections of translations of ancient written sources (Katsarov and Dechev 1949. relying on second-hand and fragmentary information to compile their accounts. D. Euripides. the earliest literary evidence on Thrace was given in Homer’s epics. In fact. Popov 1999. Some Thracian personal and tribal names have turned up in Mycenaean documents (Best 1989). 1981. Ancient writings provide some possibility to study Thracian political history. Papazoglu 1978. Yordanov 1998. but. on the other hand. although further work is necessary to collect all the information available in ancient writings. Many ancient writers living during the Imperial age also described various earlier events related to Thracian history and culture of the 1st millennium BC. Boshnakov 2003. 1975b. Alongside these. Velkov et al. However. Stronk 1995. Boteva-Boyanova 2000. Strabo. 2003. although not complete accounts. a number of ancient authors – Herodotus. the ancient authors rarely discuss Thrace. Lewis 1958. . Polybius. 1998. Later. among many others – provide reliable and relatively objective. Thucydides. Conon and Pompeius Trogus. sought to understand and explain a ‘barbarian’ reality in a peripheral region which most had never visited and whose language they did not speak. Theodossiev 2000c. ancient written sources sometimes contain uncertain. Archibald 1998. A. mentioning it but incidentally. they do not contain sufficient data to enable those studying Thrace to draw comprehensive conclusions and to reconstruct the whole situation. 1930. Aeschines. usually when the local tribes interfered in some event related to Greek or Roman history. Plato. Demosthenes. Yordanov and Velkov 1984.

34–42). 566–82) and on a stone funerary slab from Kyolmen (Theodossiev 1997b). Mihailov 1980. 3) (Kitov 2002. Fol 1972. Plutarch. living in emporia or among the local people. Seuthes III and others (Venedikov 1972. while a certain number of Greeks inhabited inland Thrace. A. Arrian. 2004a. Der thrakische Silberschatz 1988. Fol and . Tacheva 1987. Pistiros (Velkov and Domaradzka 1994. Delemen 2004b. religion and topography. Domaradzki 1995. Theodossiev 1997a. 317. a number of Greek inscriptions provide reliable information on Thrace in the Classical and Hellenistic periods (IGBulg. like those found at Seuthopolis (D. Manov 1998a). Sboryanovo (Chichikova 1990) and Mesambria (Galabov 1950). Pausanias. 1997. Although the Thracians never created literature of their own. several inscriptions with Greek letters but in the Thracian language are known.d). Fol 1972. Kersebleptes. 2) (Atanasov and Nedelchev 2002) and Alexandrovo (Fig. contain valuable information on Thracian history. Fol 1990. 174. Ptolemy and Athenaeus. In addition. Kitov and Theodossiev 2003. 1975b. Polyaenus. these inscriptions are usually brief and contain the names of local aristocrats or some Odrysian kings. both of the 5th or the early 4th century BC. a significant number of Thracian silver vessels of the late 5th and 4th centuries BC were inscribed in Greek. A.6 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV Pliny. consist of relatively long texts. Zournatzi 2000. and much more epigraphic material and bilingual data are needed before proper translation of anything written in the Thracian language can be made. Appian. which date to the 4th or the early 3rd century BC. Dimitrova 2006). 7–11. Kitov n. TRIBES AND POLITICAL HISTORY Several scholarly works have provided comprehensive analyses of the ethnonymic situation in ancient Thrace and locate the separate tribes known from the written sources (Danov 1976. Vassileva 1992–93. such as Cotys I. Loukopoulou 1989. but all attempts at translation have been highly uncertain. A. and in certain cases the script was used in the funerary ritual for recording the names of the dead aristocrats – as in the tombs at Smyadovo (Fig. Manov 1998b. Dimitrov and Chichikova 1978. Julius Florus. Fraser 1960. in the course of various contacts and interactions they adopted the Greek alphabet quite extensively. Following various political and ritual practices in the eastern Mediterranean. Mihailov 1987. Velkov 1991. 60–69. While literary works are often ambiguous. Archibald 1998. 1975b. Boshnakov 1999). the inscriptions on a gold ring from Ezerovo (Detschew 1976. and clearly demonstrate that Greek was the official language of the Thracian aristocracy. Some of them. A. Thus.

2. 3. Graffito in the tholos burial chamber of the Alexandrovo tomb. 4th century BC (after Atanasov et al. 2002).ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 7 Fig. Inscription on the facade of the tomb at Smyadovo. second half of the 4th or early 3rd century BC (courtesy Georgi Kitov). . Fig.

Astai. Spiridonov 1991. One of the major problems in studying the ethnonymic reality in ancient Thrace is to propose an exact chronological ‘stratigraphy’ of the different ethnonyms for the separate regions and to explain clearly the quite dynamic ethnonymic situation. Danthaletai. Simultaneously. It is clear also that the ethnonymic situation as attested in Greek and Roman sources does not depict the true reality. Apsynthioi. this might be simply a result of a deficiency of knowledge and error. Stronk 1995. Some modern scholars consider that the actual number of the different Thracian tribes throughout the entire 1st millennium BC was up to 80. where the ethnonyms attested in written sources are less numerous. Pliny (Natural History 4. Bisaltai. Theodossiev 2000c. 40) wrote that Thrace was separated into 50 strategiae (these might reflect some ethnic division. they are the Agrianes. ancient writers usually had more complete knowledge of the eastern and southern areas of Thrace. in alphabetical order. 11. Brenai. Dakoi. while in the Imperial age. frg. Tacheva 1987. than with the western and northern hinterland. Dolonkoi. 48) counted 22 tribes. while disappearance was due to military weakness when certain tribes fell under the political control of other more powerful communities. spread across extensive areas of ancient Thrace and covered the names of the minor tribes who existed at the same time. very often the names of powerful tribes. Yordanov and Velkov 1984. . The appearance of the ethnonyms in Greek and Roman sources depends also on geographical location: thus. Dersaioi. and why certain ethnonyms spread far beyond their initial geographical location. besides being administrative units) and Ptolemy (3. Archibald 1998. where they described a number of tribes. Boteva-Boyanova 2000. While the Odrysians. Sometimes. at the end of the 1st century BC Strabo (7. It is not always easy to understand why in ancient literary works different tribal names appear and disappear in one and the same region. Popov 1999. a number of other tribes played political roles and are mentioned or relatively well described in ancient sources. Papazoglu 1978. Dioi. such as the Odrysians. D. Bessoi. 6) described 14 strategiae. as attested in Greek and Roman sources. The exact number of the Thracian tribes will never become known – for example. in most cases the appearance of any Thracian tribe in the written sources was a result of its political advance and significant military power – which were good reasons for ancient authors to take note and to record the tribe. However. the dynamic situation might reflect tribal migration. Bistones.8 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV Spiridonov 1983. Bottiaoi. the Getae and the Triballi were among the most powerful ethnic communities that established strong tribal unions and kingdoms. the tribes living near the North Aegean and West Pontic shores were noted much earlier by the ancient authors than the tribes located deep in the Thracian interior. In other cases. 11. Boshnakov 2003).

Serdoi. 560 BC. who were. An interesting example of a joint ThracoAthenian state-community. far to the north. Laiaioi. One of the most powerful Odrysian . 1972. Boshnakov 2003. Yordanov and Velkov 1984. Trausoi. Their first king known to ancient authors was Teres. Tilataioi. like Getas and Pittakos. Another powerful tribal union was established in the north-western Thracian lands by the Triballi. Popov 1999. Remax and Byrebistas. who reigned during the first half of the 5th century BC. In fact. Mygdones. Thynoi. Nipsaioi. Papazoglu 1978. D. and others (cf. Paitoi. Satrai. Miltiades the Elder. strong rulers of the second and third quarters of the 4th century BC. Treres. the Edonoi established one of the most significant early Thracian kingdoms in the lower Strymon valley. the most significant supra-tribal state in Thrace was the Odrysian kingdom. Casson 1926. the Getae formed a powerful tribal union. the true ethnic reality in Thrace and the names of all minor tribes will never become clear. Stronk 1995. Chales and Syrmos. Mihailov 1972. Undoubtedly. Seuthes I. Korpiloi. such as Kotelas. obviously. The political history of the Thracian tribes has been studied thoroughly by several scholars (Katsarov 1916. Hoddinott 1981. Karpoi. Zoltes. Ancient sources inform us of two Triballian kings. Lund 1992. some of the Getic kings. the daughter of the Thracian king. Fol. Later. Krestonaioi. Terizoi. Medokos (known as Amadokos I as well) and Hebryzelmis. Krobyzoi. Kikones. Kebrenoi. 1997. Boteva-Boyanova 2000. 1975b. A. Theodossiev 2000c. were attested in the records. as attested in written sources. many other tribes are only mentioned briefly in ancient sources. Oloros. Delev 2004). At the same time. played important roles in the political events of north-eastern Thrace. Tacheva 1987. Kainoi.ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 9 Edonoi. The Odrysians inhabited south-east Thrace and were historically attested in the late 6th century BC at the earliest. this Athenian ruler was succeeded by his relatives Stesagoras and Miltiades the Younger. who established his rule in Thracian Chersonesos in ca. Sithones. in the extensive areas of north-eastern Thrace. Yordanov 1998. Oppermann 1984. Detschew 1976). Todorov 1933. Saioi. Melanditai. Maidoi. Skaioi. Dromichaites. R. Loukopoulou 1989. Gattinoni 1992. is related to the political activity of the Athenian aristocrat. Archibald 1998. From the middle of the 4th century BC down to the end of the Hellenistic period. In the late 6th century BC. Sapaioi. Sintoi. 1930. being tyrant of both the Athenian colonists and the Dolonkoi. who married Hegesipyle. which was already known to Greek writers at the end of the 6th century BC. Tranipsai. Danov 1976. Of course. who had significant military power by the last quarter of the 5th century BC. Some of the Edonian kings. Sitalces. Odomantoi. to be succeeded by Sparadokos. Zalmodegikos.

Theodossiev 2000c. The literary and epigraphic evidence. From the beginning of the 3rd century BC onwards. Lysimachus continued Macedonian control over a significant part of the Thracian lands and declared himself ‘king of Thrace’ but. ruled respectively by Kersebleptes. Roimetalkas II and Roimetalkas III. the last Thracian ruler. Danov 1976. The upper consisted of kings. After his murder.10 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV kings was Cotys I (383–359 BC). 94–108. SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND RELIGION A number of studies have dealt with the social structure of the Thracian tribes during the 1st millennium BC (Katsarov 1916. by Amadokos II and Teres II. Domaradzki 1988. 2003. Local chieftains controlled the great number of separate Thracian tribes known from the sources. and by Berisades and Ketriporis. In AD 45. conquered the Odrysian kingdom. in certain regions and at certain times some Thracian communities gained independence from the tribal kingdoms and were ruled by their own leaders. at the same time. A. 48–53. Reskouporis II. Spiridonov 1991. Popov 1999. Bouzek and Domaradzka 2003. as well as certain archaeological data. Fol 1970. and Alexander the Great took possesion of almost the entirety of Thracian territory soon afterwards. These semi-dependent peasants were the main producers of goods and the main resource of the armed forces recruited in time of war. Tacheva 1987. Cotys V. enable us to conclude that the Thracian communities usually comprised two main social strata. 41–63). 1997. It seems that through the weakness of the royalty or some other circumstances. the Odrysian kingdom split into three parts. the aristocracy and elite groups. Porozhanov 1998. After 42 BC. the Roman emperor Claudius annexed the Thracian kingdom. 115–29. In 341 BC the Macedonian king. Reskouporis I established the Sapaian dynasty with its capital at Bizye. The Thracian aristocracy consisted of various noble clans who had different levels of power and control during the 1st millennium BC. he was succeeded by Roimetalkas I. The lower comprised semi-dependent peasants who were small landowners within the frames of the royal economy. 1930. he imposed his political control upon extensive regions of ancient Thrace and maintained diplomatic relations with the local Triballian and Getic rulers to the north. Seuthes III. Archibald 1998. tribal chieftains. and many different kings are attested in the written sources. Philip II. a powerful Odrysian king emerged. the Odrysian kingdom declined and split further. In the time of the Diadochi. they were the main owners of the lands and the production. Stefanovich 2003. D. The tribal chieftains often came under some supreme political control .

1997. 1998. R. Hoddinott 1989. However. Pittioni 1977. Katsarov 1916. Fol 1986. literary and epigraphic sources attest that in the different regions of Thrace a male deity was worshipped. some ancient authors. Rabadzhiev 1994. Simultaneously. The best example of such a structure is provided by the Odrysian kingdom during the second half of the 5th and first half of the 4th century BC. Zerynthia and others. Archibald 1999. Ganea. Thucydides 2. usually with hereditary power. The written records provide some names of Thracian goddesses: Bendis. Roller 2002. was a central deity in the Thracian religion. 317). known by different local names in different regions. Vassileva 1994. Domaradzki 1995. Gocheva 2003. his band of military warriors. Their quite different interpretations of the written and archaeological evidence and the contradictory results of their studies clearly demonstrate the significant difficulties in examining the religion of any ancient non-literary ethnic community that inhabited the fringes of the Graeco-Roman world during the 1st millennium BC. 53–70. 3). such as Zalmoxis. which is usually interpreted as the literary device of ‘translating’ the Thracian religious reality for their readers. which included paradynasts (paradynastoi) – local tribal chieftains or governors who controlled separate regions of the kingdom – and tribal aristocrats called eupatridai and gennaioi (cf. Marazov 1992. servants and others. . 2003. He was surrounded by an entourage. Danov 1976. B. Rhesos and Orpheus. 1). Sîrbu and Florea 2000a. like Herodotus (4. A number of literary sources and toreutic works show that a female Great Goddess. 1989. Ursu Naniu 2004). Beschi 1990. Thracian religion has been examined by a great number of scholarly works. Bogdanov 1991. 5. 1990. 1936. 97. gave Greek or Roman theonyms to the gods worshipped by the Thracians. Rheskyntis. Theodossiev 2000c. Lozanova-Stancheva 1993. 5. Cole 1984. several 4th–early 3rd-century BC inscriptions from the Thracian hinterland. Dimitrova 2002.ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 11 and economic dependence when a stronger ruler managed to incorporate the separate tribes into some form of tribal union or kingdom (in fact. 2000b. Very close to the supreme king were his wives and kin. etc. Popov 1981. displaying different patterns of study and deploying various methodologies (Perdrizet 1910. Brown 2002. 7. known as Deloptes. were considered as anthropodaimones and deities. 2002. Kotys/Kotytto. while toreutic works and funerary paintings clearly reveal the cult of the king-hero. 1994. A. The Odrysian state was ruled by a supreme king from the royal dynasty. Darzalas. Seuthopolis (Velkov 1991. 33. Delemen 2004a. D. In addition. Archibald 1998. Hoddinott 1989. the kingdoms were supra-tribal states). Zerynthios. A number of written sources testify that mythical Thracian kings and priests. Özbayoglu 2004. such as those from Pistiros (Velkov and Domaradzka 1994. as in Phrygia. 2002. 1995.

Rhodes. 2004. Stoyanov et al. beeswax. Sinope. wine. at least in the circles of the Thracian aristocracy. the Thracian tribes were involved in active trade with each other and with neighbouring regions. . as attested in the inscription from Vetren (Velkov and Domaradzka 1994. luxury bronze tableware. Bozhkova 1987. Chios. Isaac 1986. Archibald 1998. timber. Theodossiev 2000c. Bozhkova 1992. 2. Archibald 2001a. Apollo. such as Thasos. Getov 1995. 2001b. Ainos and others (Lazarov 1978. Amphipolis. 177–96. Corinth. The great number of imported Classical and Hellenistic amphorae in Thrace provides clear information of regular economic contacts with significant Greek trade and production centres. ECONOMIC CONTACTS AND TRADE During the 1st millennium BC. 1988. wine. 16–23. 2004.12 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV 7–11. the Greeks established inland market-places and trade settlements (see Thucydides 1. grain. besides being engaged in longdistance contacts (Bozhkova 1987.) such as Pistiros and the Belanian emporia of the Prasenoi. Kos. being maintained via the Greek colonies on the Thracian shores. 92–100. Tsetskhladze 2000).and red-figure pottery. 2003. long-distance trade contacts were usually indirect. Balabanov 2000. 1992. Manov 1998a) and Sboryanovo (Chichikova 1990). most important for the Thracians were economic relations with the Greek colonies on the North Aegean and the West Pontic shores. Mihailov 1972. although both forms of exchange were always used in trade between the Greeks and the Thracians. 92–100. Boardman 1980. Stoyanov et al. Stoyanov 2000. tar. Lazarov 2003). Cnidus.. During the Classical period. Scythian Chersonesos. Nehrizov and Mikov 2000. testify to the cults of Dionysos. It is usually supposed that the initial barter/commodity exchange was gradually replaced by the introduction of money. Arrian Anabasis 1. Colophon. Reho 1990. olive oil and other goods (Danov 1976. Supposedly. Bozhkova 1987. 16–23). Heracleia Pontica. Domaradzki 1995. 1. gold and silver jewellery. silver and gold vessels. L. charcoals. 97–99. 317. 6. etc. Bouzek and Domaradzka 2003). Artemis Phosphoros and the Samothracian Great Gods. The usual exports from Thrace included slaves. Oppermann 2004).-Scylax Periplus 67. which maintained large-scale trade with Thracian coastal areas and with the interior (Danov 1976. D. 1984. Ps. 100. metals. Boshnakov 1999. Theodossiev 2000c. Undoubtedly. Acanthus. Domaradzki 1995. livestock. weapons. Dimitrov et al. honey. 2000. etc. Tsetskhladze 1998a-b. Archibald 1998. which clearly reveals the Hellenisation of Thracian religion. while imports into the Thracian hinterland consisted of Attic black.

Loukopoulou 1989. Lazaridis 1997. while a significant number of Roman Republican denarii clearly indicates that the Roman military conquest of the northern Balkans was preceded by economic and trade expansion (Thompson et al. Youroukova 1979. a significant quantity of gold. Owen 2000. penetrated into Thrace from the 6th century BC onwards. Although abundant historical and archaeological evidence is available and in receipt of continued examination. Paunov and Prokopov 2002.ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 13 A number of coins. Daux 1967. 1994. 1963. 1973. Manov 1998b. Markov 1977. Musielak 2003. Porozhanov 1985. Thompson et al. further analysis of it is needed to obtain an overview of the exchange of ideas and the level of multilateral interaction. Venedikov et al. Panayotova 1994. Dimitrov 1997. Theodossiev 2000c. Cole 1984. Theodossiev 2000c. Balabanov 1983. Certain areas of Thrace came to be occupied by ethnically different groups or by mixed populations. 92–100. Damyanov 2003. Bonias and Dadaki 2002. Tsatsopoulou-Kaloudi 2001. 2003. Dimitrova and Clinton 2003. clearly testifying to intensive trade (Thompson et al. 1976. most of which became part of the Macedonian kingdom for several decades or more (Mushmov 1912. 92–100. minted both in Greek poleis and in Anatolia. Tsetskhladze 1998a. Tacheva 1999. silver and bronze coins minted by the Macedonian kings circulated within the Thracian territories. the Greek colonies in Thrace issued their own coins for the needs of the local trade (Mushmov 1912. Gerasimov 1975. Samsaris 1985. CULTURAL INTERACTIONS AND ETHNIC INTERRELATIONS During the 1st millennium BC. Archibald 1998. Prokopov 2006). 1973. Draganov 2000–01). K. During the Early Hellenistic period. One of the most important historical events with a significant impact upon the Thracian tribes was the Greek colonisation of the North Aegean and West Pontic shores (Danov 1947. In addition. Svoronos 1919. Gaebler 1935. Pelekidis 1994. 1980. 1992. ancient Thrace was a place of various interrelations and dynamic interactions between the different ethnic groups that inhabited or settled the region. KoukouliChrysanthaki 1985. In the 2nd–1st centuries BC. for example Thasian tetradrachms were widespread. 2002. . 1973. and to understand more completely the complex web of ethnic and cultural contacts and relations that took place. Graham 2002. Lehmann 1998. Ognenova-Marinova 1985. Isaac 1986. Triantaphyllos 1994. Gerasimov 1975). 2004. Maroneia (Schönert-Geiss 1987) and Mesambria (Karayotov 1992) among many others. Youroukova 1979). Avram et al. Late Hellenistic Greek coins were in continuous use in Thrace. Boardman 1980.

Maroneia. Alcock 1993. On the other hand. Chambers 1999. Yordanov 1998. Archibald 1998. 2000a. Tacheva 1987. Borza 1999. Babic 2004). Babic 2004). Hatzopoulos and Loukopoulou 1992. Danov 1976. a great part of Thrace was gradually annexed by the Macedonian kingdom. Brown 2002). 1996. Fol 1972. 1997. Fol 1975a. Dimitrov 1999. Popov 1981. Archibald 1998). Greenwalt 1997. usually mercenaries or slaves.14 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV Oppermann 2004. Beschi 1990. 1975b. were established between the middle of the 8th and the end of the 7th  century  BC. Melyukova 1976. Velkov and A. Simultaneously. Potidaea. At the same time. Toncheva 1980a–b. Actually. 1997. Yordanov . such as Mende. A. the earliest Greek colonies in Thrace. 2000. Domaradzki 1998a. Thracian culture also influenced Greek literature. Gergova 1987. Mihailov 1972. 2000). as well as some literary sources. Archibald 1998. Mihailov 1972. A. Byzantium. Archibald 1998. From the 8th–7th centuries BC onwards. Gergova 1987. Other very important contacts between the ancient Thracians and the Macedonians. Bouzek and Ondrejová 1988. Boshnakov 1999. Hatzopoulos 1980. 1991. Greek colonisation stimulated multifarious ethnic and cultural relations and interactions between the Greeks and the Thracians. the whole process followed the typical model of interaction between centre and periphery throughout the ancient world (cf. Abdera. spread throughout ancient Greece and the entire Hellenistic world (Griffith 1935. and even more intensive colonisation lasted throughout the 6th and 5th centuries BC. Domaradzki 1995. Fol 1977. 317. iconography and cult (Danov 1976. Dimitrova 2006). 1997. Adams 1997. Badian 1980. Samothrace. Paeonians and Illyrians occurred within the interaction zone in the western frontier areas of Thrace (Bouzek 1986. Acanthus. Bouzek 2000a–b. Apollonia and Istros. which in fact led to Hellenisation of the Thracian interior – especially during the Late Classical and Early Hellenistic periods (Casson 1926. Vasic 1987a–b. in the course of the Argead political expansion northward and eastward from the late 6th century BC onwards. While various archaeological material indicates active pre-colonial contacts between the Greeks and the Thracians (Bouzek 1985. 1979. D. Borza 1990. Nikov 1999. clearly testifies that in the Classical period the Greeks had already settled in the Thracian hinterland and established emporia such as Pistiros. Thasos. Tsetskhladze 2000). Stoyanov 1999). Selymbria. and led to gradual Hellenisation of the Thracian aristocracy and certain tribes who inhabited the coastal areas. Fol 1997. Randsborg 1993. Tsiafakis 1998. intensive cultural and ethnic processes occurred in north-eastern Thrace where the local tribes interacted and mingled with the Scythians (A. K. 2002. 2000c. while being politically engaged with the Thracian kings (Velkov and Domaradzka 1994. Sestos. The inscription from Vetren. Best 1969. Domaradzka and Domardzki 1999. Theodossiev 1998a. Cardia. a number of Thracians.

which adopted a number of La Tène elements. Zazoff 1991.ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 15 1990. Stoyanov 2000. Danov 1975–76. 53–80. 1992. The settlement pattern in ancient Thrace was quite dynamic and consists of various types of habitation. 1990. Triantaphyllos 1988. 13–21. Fol 1970. 1998a. Georgieva and Bachvarov 1985. After the fall of Macedonia in 168 BC. Cunliffe 1997. Tonkova 2000. V. Damyanov 1998. Gergova and Iliev 1982. 163–74). the Roman state launched regular military campaigns against the Thracian tribes and annexed most of the Thracian territories. 2002. 1995. Yordanov and Velkov. 2000. Kissyov 2004). intensive archaeological investigation has brought to light abundant evidence that has enabled scholars to study and publish. 14–19. Changova 1981. Lehmann 1998. These political events clearly mark the end of the Iron Age in Thrace and the beginning of a powerful process of Romanisation and the adoption of Roman civilisation (Tacheva 1987. 13–15. Kitov and Agre 2002. 1997. Theodossiev 2000c. Zournatzi 2000. Yordanov 2003). which were set up as Roman provinces in AD 15 and AD 45. Andruh 2000). Popov 2002. 1994. Tacheva 1987. 2000. Szabó 1991. Agre 1994. Gergova 1986. Boardman 2000. Another significant event for the political and cultural development of the local tribes was the Persian occupation of Aegean Thrace during the late 6th and the first decades of the 5th century BC (Venedikov 1969. In addition. Fialko 1995. Megaw 2004. Later. Balabanov 1986. Ivanov 1985. Illyrians and Scythians appeared in certain areas of Hellenistic Thrace. Gotsev 1990. Theodossiev 2000c). Fischer 1983. Luschey 1983. the large-scale Gallic invasion in Thrace at the very end of the 280s and the early 270s  BC. descriptively and analytically. Megaws et al. 2000. Zahrnt 1997. H. Bobcheva 1985. Delev et al. The Celtic inrush and settlement had quite a strong impact upon Thracian culture. was followed by Celtic settlement in certain Thracian areas and the establishment of a Gallic kingdom with its capital Tylis that existed till 213 BC (Katsarov 1919. located on the plains as . 169–73. Spiridonov 1979. Balcer 1988. Marazov 1977. Archibald 1998. Bozhkova and Delev 2002. Borislavov 1999. Theodossiev 2000c). while mixed populations of Thracians. 1990. SETTLEMENT PATTERN AND URBANISATION Many ancient literary and epigraphic sources provide information on various settlements and some towns in inland Thrace (A. Celts. on a wide variety of topics covering the whole of Thracian territory or specific regions (Chichikova 1974a–b. 1992. Most widespread during the 1st millennium BC seems to be the slightly fortified and open settlement. Domaradzki 1982. Domaradzki 1984.

Most settlements were inhabited for one to two centuries. . Philip II. mountain hillforts with strategic locations were undoubtedly used as strongholds to control important passes and roads or to defend tribal frontiers. while sometimes up to four-course fortification walls were built to protect particular sites. although further stratigraphic investigations are needed in order to identify whether there is true cultural continuity on such sites or not. Actually.16 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV well as on hills or mountain slopes. Additionally. which displays remarkable monumental domestic architecture of stone-built quadrilateral buildings. as the literary sources attest. Very important as well is the settlement at Koprivlen. and were presumably built by the Macedonian king. known as tyrseis in the literary sources (see Xenophon Anabasis 7. In addition. One of the most representative open settlements was excavated at Pshenichevo: it dates to the Early Iron Age and covers about 6 ha. Vrychos in Samothrace. Some of these may be specified as Thracian villages. Some hillforts. although the dating of their fortification walls is still questionable. 4). while the usual domestic architecture included dugouts and rectangular huts constructed with posts and lath-andplaster or. were inhabited right through from the 8th–6th centuries BC to the Imperial period. usually built on barely accessible elevations most often in the mountains. dating from the middle of the 4th century BC – were constructed entirely using Greek architectural techniques and style of masonry. rarely. While most Thracian hillforts display quite primitive fortification walling. dated to the 7th–6th centuries BC. together with their kin. Some of the hillforts were residential centres. well-described in ancient written sources (for example Xenophon Anabasis 7. and quite a few display greater continuity (throughout the entire 1st millennium BC or even from the Late Bronze Age down to the Imperial period). some inland fortresses – like Krakra at Pernik and Kastro at Kalyva. Other hillforts with larger areas were presumably fortified settlements inhabited by various social groups. the larger hillforts were used as refuges for the population from the surrounding open settlements in case of military danger. with dry stone masonry. Also widespread were hillforts. presumably they were production centres. military bands and servants. and others. The fortification walls were up to 3–4 m in thickness and were constructed of roughly cut and irregularly arranged dry free stone blocks. 21). 2. the fortification walls of most Thracian hillforts were constructed in the Late Iron Age and fewer fortresses in the Aegean regions of Thrace were built in the Early Iron Age – before Greek colonisation: Kremasto at Ergani. Sometimes the settlements were quite extensive. inhabited by local tribal chieftains or kings. The archaeological material clearly indicates that many mountain hillforts were related to the extraction of ore and to metallurgy. for instance Gradishteto at Leskovets.

100. while another town called Myrkinos was established by the Ionian Greeks at the time of the Persian king Darius (Herodotus 5. Thus. Other significant Late Classical and Hellenistic towns in southern Thrace were Kabyle (Velkov 1982. 2). Tacheva 1987. Tsetskhladze 2000. H. which was typical of the northern regions of Thrace and differed from the Early Hellenistic towns in southern Thrace (Stoyanov 1999. One of the most important sites is the Greek emporion Pistiros near Vetren. 44). 1984.ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 17 Among the earliest examples of Thracian towns on the North Aegean coast is Ismaros. the Greek historians mention the Edonian towns of Daton (Herodotus 9. Domaradzka and Domaradzki 1999. Popov 2002. 2000. H. SANCTUARIES AND RITUAL PLACES Some ancient historical sources provide scarce information on Thracian sanctuaries. 156–65). inhabited by a mixed population of Greeks and Thracians (Velkov and Domaradzka 1994. 111. but further archaeological investigation is necessary to obtain a clear picture of their overall architectural appearance.  6. which was built entirely in accordance with Hellenistic architecture and comprised insulae including houses with pastas. 4. Strabo 7. Later. 102. Archibald 1998. 260 BC (Dimitrov and Chichikova 1978. H. Dimitrov et al. another was Seuthopolis. 39–42. 3). . prostas and peristylon. Stoyanov et al. 1996. 93–111). the most famous was the sanctuary of Dionysos. Velkov 1991. 75) and Drabeskos (Thucydides 1. H. 320 BC to ca. Bouzek 1999. 3. In ancient sources. frg. Ismaros is described as a Kikonian polis (Homer Odyssey 9. H. starting in the Archaic period and continuing through the Classical into the Early Hellenistic (Balabanov 1986. Domaradzki 1991. Boshnakov 1999. the capital of the Odrysian king. 1994). Popov 2002. Domaradzki 1995. Suetonius Divus Augustus 94. 1991. a process of urbanisation began in certain regions of the Thracian hinterland. 2002. The Getic town at Vodnata Tsentrala in Sboryanovo displays another kind of urban model. 122–34). Popov 2000. 124. which is located on the Agios Georgios hill at Maroneia and existed already in the 9th–8th centuries BC (Triantaphyllos 1988. 11. Stoyanova 2002b). because of multilateral contacts and interaction at the time when Aegean Thrace became part of the Achaemenid empire. later it was known as an Edonian polis (Thucydides 4. H. 2). 111–22) and Philippopolis (Koleva 2000. Seuthes III. and of interrelations with the Greek colonies on the North Aegean and West Pontic coasts and with Macedonia. 77–92). 5. 2004. 107. Seuthopolis existed from ca. Popov 2002. Undoubtedly. whose exact location is still unclear (Herodotus 8. 7–11. 129–47. 2002. 2. Bouzek et al. Popov 2002.  Popov 2002.

bothroi. Dimitrov and Chichikova 1978. . such as the grove at Ismaros dedicated to Apollo (A. Fol 1976. D. they consist of various combinations including enclosing stone walls. Triantaphyllos 1985. The sanctuaries consist of stairs. Among several pertinent inscriptions. In addition. while similar ritual hearths are known in other settlements from inland Thrace. Kissyov 1998a–b. 2003. and they clearly demonstrate the strong relationship in cult practices (Vassileva 1994. Fol 1990). like the grottoes of Zerynthia. many decorated ritual escharai. 1997. 19–24. Velkov 1991. Rabadzhiev 2002. De Francovich 1990). escharai. frequently adjacent to rock-cut tombs or megalithic dolmens from the Early Iron Age. remains of ritual feasts and animal sacrifices. D. 1994a. 25–30. V. Many sanctuaries in other parts of Thrace are also situated on hills or mountain peaks. cut into the rock massifs. votive deposits of metal objects. the most important is that from Seuthopolis (D. 1998. Pistiros and Kabyle. Archibald 1999. A number of very similar rock sanctuaries are known in Anatolia. Tonkova 1997. at least in towns inhabited by a mixed population. Fol 1982. Rabadzhiev 2002. 38–66. cf. 1984. thrones. A. Most impressive are the rock sanctuaries. Fol 1993. Haspels 1971. 10–54). and in sacred forests. while an altar of Apollo and a phosphorion existed in Kabyle. the Seuthopolis inscription indicates well the Hellenisation of Thracian ritual and cult during the Early Hellenistic period. Other ancient writings state that the Thracians worshipped their deities in various natural places: in sacred mountains. A. etc. Dimitrov and Chichikova 1978. Many of the peak sanctuaries functioned without major interruption through the entire 1st millennium BC and even from the Late Bronze Age to Roman Imperial times. ritual basins. presumably associated with the cult of Hestia. Borislavov 1999. many of them related to contemporary settlements or necropoleis. 7–11. Popov 1989. solar discs. Theodossiev 2000c. Archibald 1999. 1990. Rheskyntion and Kogaionon. Rhesos and Salmoxis. 2002). such as Philippopolis. Gotsev 1990. Archibald 1999. which records that two temples – of Dionysos and of the Samothracian Great Gods – were situated within the city of Seuthes III. Intensive archaeological excavation over recent decades has yielded important evidence. in cult caves.18 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV cf. are found within the most houses and the ‘palace’ in Seuthopolis (D. Actually. seats and other elements. revealing the great variety of Thracian sanctuaries and ritual places. Theodossiev 2000c. Fol 1990. Domaradzki 1986. Georgieva 1991. 53–54). Dimitrov et al. coins and pottery. such as Ganos. Manov 1998a. especially in Phrygia. 16–17. platforms. 1995. predominantly located in southeastern Thrace. 19–24). A number of recent scholarly studies have brought together the investigations and analysed the material (Venedikov and A. altars.

illustrate what ancient literary sources have to say about sacred caves in Thrace. During the 1st millennium BC the most common type seems to have been the open-air pit sanctuaries and ritual places. Some of this mythological evidence contains quite reliable descriptions. the remains of human sacrifices (human body-parts or whole skeletons) dating to the Late Iron Age are found inside the bothroi. followed the completion of the tumuli. Earlier. as in the sanctuaries at Gledachevo and Staliiska Mahala. most probably coming from the Late Bronze or Early Iron Age. The bothroi vary significantly in size and shape. coins and metal objects. in addition. MORTUARY PRACTICES AND MONUMENTAL TOMBS The funerary rites of the Thracian tribes were not well described by ancient authors. Later information by Xenophon (Hellenica 3. different contests. Unfortunately. being respected by sacrifices and by other things used in worshipping the gods. including single combat.ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 19 Some archaeological investigations may. show personages that could represent a female goddess and a male deity. 1). usually located in the plains area. the mixed inhabitants of Thracian Chersonesos – Dolonkoi and Athenian colonists – followed the custom. 8. In certain cases. making sacrifices and arranging horse races and other athletic games in memory of Miltiades the Elder (Herodotus 6. 2–5) supplements Herodotus’ description: in 399 BC. after three days of prothesis during which numerous sacrifices were made and funeral feasts were arranged. drank a lot of wine and arranged horse racing in memory of deceased. which was a heroon and later became a sanctuary. 2. . ritual hearths. the Thracian Odrysians buried their dead fellows. in the late 6th century BC. the remains of ritual feasts. 4–6). 38. the excavated material is so far too sparse for us to be able to specify the exact Thracian rituals performed inside the caves. embers. after a battle in Bithynia. and contain pottery. Rhesos and Orpheus provide additional information on the eschatological conceptions of the Thracian aristocracy and testify that some Thracian kings and priests were deified after death and were worshipped as immortal heroes and anthropodaimones who would return from the underworld (Theodossiev 2000b). such as Conon (45. etc. Herodotus (5. Some of the sites consist of hundreds of bothroi dug into the ground and were in continued use from the Late Bronze Age down to late antiquity. 1) wrote that deceased Thracian nobles were buried by cremation or inhumation in tumuli. A number of other ancient sources related to the mythological figures of Zalmoxis. animal sacrifices. who wrote that the grave of Orpheus was a large tumulus encircled like a temenos. but the cult drawings in the Magurata Cave.

1997. the intensive archaeological excavations underway continue to reveal significant amounts of information on the great variety of the rites and practices of the Thracian tribes during the 1st millennium BC. 1998. Kitov 1993. Gergova 1986. remains of funerary feasts. but it is clear that both flat graves and small burial mounds were used. hearths. Gotsev 1990. While megalithic funerary monuments were typical of the eastern Rhodope. animal or sometime human sacrifices. 1994a. Another type of megalithic funerary monument spread through south-eastern Thrace is the rock-cut tomb consisting of a single burial chamber of irregular shape. The burial rites of the Early Iron Age are well examined. Yılmaz 1997. Nehrizov 1996. Bobcheva 1975. 1989. multiple or secondary inhumation and cremation burials and various kterismata. 1998a. Venedikov 1976b–c. 1995. 1965. Gocheva 1994. the . Kulov 2002. The usual constructions were small tumuli. similar to neighbouring Paeonia (cf. Borislavov 1999. Many tumuli in the western Rhodope were used for multiple or secondary burials. cf. Mitrevski 1997). Totevski 1994. 169–70. these display their closest similarities with the rock-cut tombs of Anatolia (Vassileva 1994. Kitov and Agre 2002. Delev 1984. 1998). Triantaphyllos 1980. like those at Sboryanovo. with single. However. Özdogan 1988. Petropoulou 1986–87. Many general studies of Thracian funerary rituals have appeared. Dobrina. 1999. ritual gifts placed within the tumular embankments. Stoyanov 1992. 1997. De Francovich 1990).. Among the most remarkable funerary constructions are the megalithic dolmens widespread in south-eastern Thrace and Samothrace. with complex layout. etc. Bouzek 1997. Lehmann 1998. analysing both archaeological and written sources. Radev 1992. Toncheva 1980a–b. 1998a–b. Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1992. Information on Early Iron Age mortuary practices in south-western Thrace is sparse. Fol 1993. 1994. etc. Panayotova 1994.20 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV While ancient written sources are relatively scarce. with antechamber and funeral chamber. while certain necropoleis display remarkable continuity and sometimes functioned throughout the entire 1st millennium BC. Koicheva 1994. Chichikova 1974b. They were usually covered with small tumuli and come in three types: single chamber. 1991. V. Kissyov 1993. Georgieva 2003. Georgieva et al. Kragulevo. Archibald 1998. Domaradzki 1988. Theodossiev 2000c. North-eastern Thrace is a region where intensive archaeological investigation has provided a relatively complete picture of burial rites in the Early Iron Age. 1998. Haspels 1971. Kull 1997. the practices in the western part of the mountains were quite different: burial constructions were usually small tumuli with both cremation and inhumation burials and with various remains of ritual activities – bothroi. as have other studies exploring in detail these practices in individual regions of Thrace or publishing particular burial sites (Mirchev 1962. Ravna. Stanchev 2002.

human sacrifices (equine and canine sacrifices were most common). the remains of funerary feasts. a number of innovations are evident throughout Thracian territory. like those at Leskovets. Altimir and Tarnava. bothroi. Both flat graves and tumuli were widespread during the period. the tumuli at Belogradets indicate contacts with the Scythians. In certain regions. it yielded significant amount of gold and silver objects. ritual deposits of metal or ceramic objects. However.ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 21 burial mounds at Belogradets. The constructions within the burial mounds were multifarious: grave pits.or early 7th-century BC burial mound at Polsko Kosovo. the Late Iron Age continued the traditions of the Early Iron Age in some way. Sofronievo. sarcophagi. Some burial mounds. and a rich burial inventory. and small tumuli. At the very end of the Early and the beginning of the Late Iron Age. The archaeological discoveries in north-western Thrace show that during the Early Iron Age the local tribes made extensive use of flat graves. and practised both cremation and inhumation. are larger and have monumental stone-built funeral and ritual constructions. etc.). luxurious Greek imports. display significant variety of funeral rites. following the traditions of the Late Bronze Age. etc. and many others. rarely. and many other . and contain various combinations of different funerary constructions. such as animal or. which appeared in the 8th–7th centuries BC. The most remarkable Thracian royal cemetery from the late 6th to the early 4th century BC is the tumular necropolis at Duvanli. Very often. 2000a). in particular spectacular golden funeral masks. urns. stone-built chambers. imported Greek pottery and bronze tableware. A number of additional ritual activities and constructions were also typical of the tumuli. similar to the late 8th. platforms. various weapons. Thracian elite graves usually contain gold and silver vessels and jewellery. non-burial stone constructions. cist graves. the Rhodope mountains and north-western and northeastern Thrace. Among the earliest rich aristocratic necropoleis is the burial ground at Sindos (Bouzek and Ondrejová 1988. sometimes up to 25 m in height and more than 100 m in diameter. anthropomorphic funerary stelai. Theodossiev 1998a. besides a number of other funerary gifts. rich aristocratic and royal burials appeared in Thrace. the tumuli were used for multiple and secondary burials. displaying regional differences in the correlation of cremations to inhumations and some unusual practices (partial cremation. pyres. The tumuli of the Late Iron Age were bigger than the earlier ones. ritual hearths. dating to the 8th–6th centuries BC. In addition. being typical for the period from the late 6th to the first half of the 3rd century BC. inhumation of individual parts of the human body. located in the interaction zone between Thrace and Macedonia and providing an impressive burial inventory.

yielding various grave constructions and burial inventories: gold and silver jewellery. Another aristocratic burial of this time was excavated in tumulus No. Examples include the tumuli at Koprivets (Stanchev 1994. Fig. vessels and appliqués of horse trappings. Golden funerary mask from the Svetitsata tumulus at Shipka. 4. . Other rich elite burials of the last quarter of the 5th century BC are found at Dalboki (Vickers 2002. it contains significant local and imported gravegoods. a gold pectoral (Fig. Greek bronze tableware. During the 4th and the early 3rd century BC. etc. rich aristocratic tumular burials spread through the entire Thracian territory. this last includes an impressive gold funeral mask (Fig. red-figure Attic pottery. 5). 56–75) and in the Svetitsata tumulus at Shipka (Kitov 2004b).22 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV finds (Filov 1934. 7) being very spectacular. 6) and silver kylix (Fig. last quarter of the 5th century BC (after Kitov 2004b). Bouzek and Ondrejová 1988). 1 at Chernozem (Kissyov 2005). weaponry. 4) as well as other precious grave-goods (Fig. 2004).

5. last quarter of the 5th century BC (after Kissyov 2005). Gold pectoral from tumulus No. last quarter of the 5th century BC (after The Valley of the Thracian Rulers [Calendar. Fig. 6. .ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 23 Fig. Greek gold ring from the Svetitsata tumulus at Shipka showing a spear-carrying athlete. 2005]). 1 at Chernozem featuring a Gorgon and animal figures.

see Kurtz and Boardman 1971. Pandermalis 1972. Tomlinson 1974. forthcoming). last quarter of the 5th century BC (after Kissyov 2005). etc. .2 The appearance of the Thracian monumental 2 For comparanda. Venedikov 1974a–b. 2001.24 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV Fig. Tsetskhladze 1998c. Chichikova 1999. Miller 1972. 7. Fedak 1990. 145–47. no.or barrel-vaulted. Theodossiev 2004. rectangular tumular (corbel. Oleson 1982. 1973. Staikova-Alexandrova 2004). 2002a–b. 1985. 1993. 248). Torelli 1985. Mikov 1955. More than 100 monuments are known so far (Filov 1937a. 104–11. 2000. 118–21). 1999. Gossel 1980. Marazov 1998. Ceka 1975. Bouzek and Domaradzka 2003. Stoyanova 2002a–b. Rousseva 2000. Valeva 1993. 205–06). Greek silver kylix from tumulus No. 2002. Kralevo (Ginev 1983. 1994. Gergova 1996. Delemen 2001. Yılmaz 1996. Steingräber 2000. 1 at Chernozem showing Bellerophon and Chimaera. Dolna Koznitsa (Marazov 1998. In the same century and a half. Mansel 1943. Golemani (Marazov 1998. Bittel 1942. and Mogilanskata Mogila in Vratsa (Theodossiev 2000c. Steingräber 1999. 1976a.) and beehive tholos tombs spread across Thrace. Hat¥as 1997. Stoyanov 1990. Onurkan 1988.

Kitov and Theodossiev 2003). some with clear iconographic parallels throughout the eastern Mediterranean (cf. relations and interactions.ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 25 tombs and their architectural features were definite results of the economic advance of the local aristocracy and multilateral contacts. 2004a. a small graffito (Fig. second half of the 4th or early 3rd century BC (after Kitov et al. Hunting horseman from the paintings in the tholos chamber of the Alexandrovo tomb. 2) and clearly identifies the deceased. 2003). Borchhardt 1968. 8. . Another significant monument is the painted tholos tomb at Alexandrovo of the second half of the 4th–early 3rd century BC (Kitov 2002. but also with Illyria and Italy. Greece and Macedonia. A 4th-century BC rectangular tomb discovered at Smyadovo (Atanasov and Nedelchev 2002) displays the rare use of the Greek script in the Thracian funerary ritual: a two-line inscription GONIMASJHJ SEUQOU GUNJ (‘Gonimaseze the wife of Seuthes’) is placed on the facade (Fig. while the impressive funerary paintings show heroic banqueting. Thus. predominantly with Anatolia. hunting and combat scenes (Figs. 8–10). Delemen 2004a). 2001. 2) in the beehive chamber depicts the deceased and gives his name – Fig. Sevinç et al. many of the Thracian tombs were built entirely in the manner of Late Classical and Early Hellenistic architecture.

second half of the 4th or early 3rd century BC (after Kitov et al. . 2003). 9. 2003). second half of the 4th or early 3rd century BC (after Kitov et al. Fig. Hunt of a stag from the paintings in the tholos chamber of the Alexandrovo tomb. 10.26 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV Fig. Hunt of a boar from the paintings in the tholos chamber of the Alexandrovo tomb.

Clinton for his consultation. while the Zhaba Mogila tumulus at Strelcha comprises two funerary monuments of 350–300 BC: a tholos tomb (Fig.ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 27 KOHIMACJC XRJCTOC. Early Hellenistic period (after Kitov et al. The barrel-vaulted tomb at Sveshtari (A. coming from the second quarter of the 3rd century BC. 11. 3 I would like to thank Prof. 2003a. is the most remarkable funerary monument in northern Thrace. and decorated with caryatids in relief and a drawing depicting scene of heroisation. Valeva 1997). Kitov and Theodossiev 2003) and Mezek (Filov 1937a–b) are among the most impressive burial constructions known in Thrace and display quite monumental funerary architecture.3 The Early Hellenistic tholos tombs at Starosel (Figs. Monumental staircase and facade of the tholos tomb at Starosel. 11–12) (Kitov 2001–02. 2003). . 14) showing two lions in relief (Kitov 1979). Chichikova 1989. 13) and a rectangular corbel-vaulted tomb with impressive pediment (Fig. 1992. K. Another Early Hellenistic rectangular tomb with remarkable architecture and an intact elite burial is found in the Naip tumulus near Tekirdag (Delemen 2004b). Fol et al. 1986. Fig.

Early Hellenistic period (after Kitov et al.28 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV Fig. . 330–300 BC (photograph: N. Antefix from the tholos tomb in Zhaba Mogila at Strelcha. 13. 12. Tholos burial chamber with Doric semi-columns and frieze of the tomb at Starosel. Theodossiev). Fig. 2003).

) that dates to ca. 1997. A number of significant monuments were excavated in the Kazanlak region. 1995. 15–16). . Parts of a pediment showing two lions from the corbel-vaulted tomb in Zhaba Mogila at Strelcha. Theodossiev). Barbet et al. 18–19) on the ceiling of the monolithic rectangular burial chamber. two inscribed silver vessels from the burial chamber. Kitov and Krasteva 1994–95. The monumental tomb in the Golyamata Kosmatka tumulus (Kitov n. second half of the 4th century BC (photograph: N. 1999. Seuthes III (ca.ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 29 Fig. while the sarcophaguslike tomb of 330–320 BC (Fig. entirely in the spirit of Early Hellenistic art. 20–22). 2003b) from the second half of the 4th century BC displays an unusual combination of Greek architectural orders (Figs. rectangular corbel-vaulted antechamber. indicate that the monument was related to the Odrysian king. Kitov et al. 330–300 BC). 300 BC has a unique layout consisting of a dromos. second beehive tholos antechamber and monolithic rectangular burial chamber.d. Thus. the tholos tomb in the Shushmanets tumulus (Kitov 1996. 1997. Valeva 2002) provides remarkable paintings (Figs. part of a rich funeral inventory (Figs. 17) in the Ostrusha tumulus (Kitov 1994b. 14.

The tholos tomb in Kazanlak (Frova 1945. 16. is a masterpiece of Early Hellenistic sculpture and is most probably a portrait of Seuthes himself. is among the latest examples of Thracian painted funerary monuments. entirely in the spirit of Early Hellenistic art. Barbet and Valeva 2001). Verdiani 1945. while a bronze head (Fig. D. Mikov 1954. Dimitrov 1966. The beehive burial chamber with Doric semi-columns and supported by non-fluted Doric column of the tomb in the Shushmanets tumulus at Shipka. The barrel-vaulted entryway supported by Ionic column of the tholos tomb in the Shushmanets tumulus at Shipka. Zhivkova 1974. broken from a lifesize statue.30 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV Fig. 23) found in front of the tomb. second half of the 4th century BC (after post-card). . Picard 1947–48. second half of the 4th century BC (after Kitov 1997). 1953. The rectangular corbel-vaulted tomb at Maglizh (Getov 1988. from the very end of the 4th or the first decades of the 3rd century BC. contained remarkable funerary paintings showing an heroic banquet and combats. dated to the middle of the 3rd century BC. Fig. Blázquez 1994). Ognenova-Marinova 1977. 15.

The monumental tomb in the Ostrusha tumulus at Shipka. 330–320 BC (courtesy Philip Sapirstein). 17. 330–320 BC (after Kitov 1994b). 18. Portrait of a woman on the ceiling of the sarcophagus-like burial chamber in the Ostrusha tumulus at Shipka. .ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 31 Fig. Fig.

.32 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV Fig. 330–320 BC (after Valeva 2002). Gold appliqué of horse trappings featuring human face. 19. from the tomb in the Golyamata Kosmatka tumulus at Shipka. 20. Fig. 300 BC (after The Valley of the Thracian Rulers). Scene showing two men on the ceiling of the sarcophagus-like burial chamber in the Ostrusha tumulus at Shipka. ca.

21.ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 33 Fig. ca. Gold appliqué of horse trappings showing stag head in the Thracian ‘Animal Style’. . from the tomb in the Golyamata Kosmatka tumulus at Shipka. 300 BC (after The Valley of the Thracian Rulers).

Bronze greave with the head of Athena.34 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV Fig. from the tomb in the Golyamata Kosmatka tumulus at Shipka. 22. . ca. 300 BC (after The Valley of the Thracian Rulers).

ca. 23.ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 35 Fig. found in front of the tomb in the Golyamata Kosmatka tumulus at Shipka. Bronze head of a life-size statue most probably depicting Seuthes III.d.). 300 BC (after Kitov n. .

1979. The most spectacular works come from the Classical and Hellenistic periods. von Bülow 1997. 1989a–b. Stoyanov 1991. 2003. 1991. Byvanck-Quarles van Ufford 1966. 1990. 1934. 1987. 181–219. Bergquist and Taylor 1987. Luschey 1983. 261–74. Marghitan 1976. Kitov and Agre 2002. Marazov 1977. etc. Special attention must be given to the images of Kybele. Zazoff et al. 1989a. They have received intense scrutiny from specialists world wide who have use different methods of examination and proposed various interpretations within the contexts and contacts of the eastern Mediterranean. Schneider 1989. Hoddinott 1989. rhyta. 1990. calyxes. Amandry 1959. B. both of local Thracian production and imported. A number of treasures and burial hoards comprising silver and gold objects. while the images of the Great Goddess show more diversity. BarrSharrar 1982. 24). Anatolian and Scythian art. Alexandrescu 1983. Abka’i-Khavari 1988. Shefton 1993. but many other representations find a number of iconographical comparanda throughout the eastern Mediterranean. Kemenczei 1995. skyphoi. Melyukova 1976. Zournatzi 2000. Ewigleben 1989. Venedikov and Gerasimov 1976. Strong 1966. Ebbinghaus 1999. Schneider and Zazoff 1994. Heracles and Bellerophon. Rabadzhiev 1994. Archibald 1985. A very important focus of research is on the rich iconography of the local toreutics from the 4th century BC onwards. Fischer 1983. The Thracian king was usually depicted as a hunter-rider (Fig. 2000. 2002. Minchev 1978. The shapes known in Thracian toreutics were usually borrowed from Achaemenid and Greek metalware and ceramics. Venedikov 1969. 1992. 1998. 1990. the Near East and the Pontic region (Filov 1917. Damyanov 1998. Some images of the Great Goddess and her male companion – the king-hero – remain without parallels beyond Thrace. form the legacy of the Thracian aristocracy and provide options to examine a variety of topics. Theodossiev 2000c. Taylor 1982. goblets. Other Classical and Early Hellenistic representations in Thracian metalwork are indicative of even stronger foreign influence and originated in Greek. which clearly shows the creativity and influences that formed the indigenous art. jugs. who appeared in the Early Hellenistic period. 89–102. Artemis (potnia theron). Pittioni 1977. Pfrommer 1983. Sîrbu and Florea 2000a–b. Boardman 1994. Kull 1997. Dörig 1987. 2003. kantharoi. 1993. The presence of these characters testifies to the . Kaul 1993. 1986. Ursu Naniu 2004). Tsetskhladze 1999a. Berciu 1974. 1987. and seem to belong to local tradition. Zazoff 1991. and include phialai. 1985. Vickers 1989. 1978. 1984. Fialko 1995. 1989.36 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV TOREUTICS AND TREASURES The toreutics of ancient Thrace are among the most attractive of archaeological materials.

Gold ring from Peichova Mogila at Starosel featuring a hunting scene. that some local deities and heroes were represented in the form of Greek and Anatolian personages. Thracian toreutics also influenced the art of the Celts and the Scythians. 24. of course on the basis of local traditions. Some Early Hellenistic figures in Thracian toreutics. The strong syncretism evident in the iconography. Presumably. like the Lamassu. In fact. obviously originated in Iranian art and indicate cross-cultural contacts. the cultural diversity and free exchange of ideas between different ethnic communities in the eastern Mediterranean. most of these connections were a result of the Eastern campaigns of Alexander the Great. who were aware of Greek myths. second half of the 4th century BC (after Kitov 2001–02). especially the Thracian elements. however. may suggest.ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 37 Fig. Hellenisation of local craftsmen and of the local aristocracy. when some members of the Thracian aristocracy participated in the actions of the Macedonian army and returned home with new syncretic ideas. Simultaneously. This is why the metalwork appears to be . Near East and the Pontic region during the 1st millennium BC gave rise to various interactions that influenced the forms and features of Thracian metalwork.

Gold of the Thracian Horsemen 1987. who presumably offered the precious objects as political gifts to the Triballi chieftains during negotiations. three rhyta with Greek and Achaemenid shapes and decoration. Archibald 1998. Archibald 1998. Cotys I (383–359 BC) and Kersebleptes (359–341 BC). A number of stippled or incised inscriptions show that some vessels were possessions of the Odrysian kings. comprising a bronze cauldron. and another one gives the name of Didykaimos. ByvanckQuarles van Ufford 1989b. 54 jugs and three cups (goblet. comprising a silver pitcherrhyton decorated with two friezes showing Dionysiac scenes but with a form originating in the Persian toreutics. not attested in the literary sources.050 kg in weight (Gold of the Thracian Horsemen 1987. One of the most significant hoards is the Rogozen treasure. Theodossiev 2000c. being dated to the period from the 11th to the 8th–7th centuries BC (Gergova 1982. Three inscriptions . 264–65. Achaemenid. Two inscriptions mention Satokos. 265–69. 1. and the 7th–6th-century BC hoard from Kazichene. 162). presumably. which shows schematic decoration and dates to the beginning of the Early Iron Age (Gold of the Thracian Horsemen 1987. Theodossiev 1998b). Marazov 1998. nos.900 kg (Der thrakische Silberschatz 1988. Macedonian and. others are of imported origin: Greek. Het Goud der Thraciërs 1984. Gold of the Thracian Horsemen 1987. Another important find is the Borovo treasure. The vessels are heterogeneous and some of them may originate from toreutic workshops in north-western Anatolia. 196). Some vessels are decorated with mythological scenes and images and obviously were produced in northern Thracian workshops. 139–41. Ancient Thrace 2000). 159–161). comprising 165 silver vessels: 108 phialai. 338–342. 205–07. and a two-handled bowl (Gold of the Thracian Horsemen 1987. 129–30. kotyle). skyphos. a total weight of some 19. no. Most of the Thracian treasures have been well illustrated in a number of exhibition catalogues (Gold der Thraker 1979. Sitalces. The hoard is quite heterogeneous and belonged to the Triballi aristocracy. presumably the son of the Odrysian king. ones that deserve special attention are the gold cup from Belene. 130. Among the earliest finds. Another important find is the treasure from Barzitsa. nos.38 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV among the best evidence showing that Thrace was closely related to the rest of the ancient world and actively participated in syncretic cultural processes and multilateral interaction. nos. Stoyanov 1998. a ceramic vessel and a decorated gold cup. no. 185–189). The vessels from the Rogozen treasure were accumulated over a long period and date from the middle of the 5th to the beginning of the 3rd century BC. Berti and La Porta 1997. 1990. 135. of which a pair of gold earrings and one gold and three silver hoops (presumably spiral bracelets) survived.

The rhyton ending with a ram’s head shows Dionysos. Kitov and Atanasov 2000. it was produced in some prominent workshop in north-western Anatolia. Simon 1960. Eriope and Maenads. 220–33. comprising nine gold vessels with a total weight of 6. some of them showing the images of the kingrider and the Great Goddess. while the rhyton with a male-goat protome depicts Hera. 197–203. Theodossiev 2000c. Apollo and Nike. The last vessel is a phiale decorated with circles of African heads in relief. Gold of the Thracian Horsemen 1987. 269). round appliqués. Archibald 1998. date to the second half of the 4th–early 3rd century BC and contain a wide variety of silver objects of Thracian origin: appliqués of horse trappings decorated in the ‘Animal Style’ or showing Thracian mythological scenes and vessels (jugs and phialai). Archibald 1998. Concev 1959. Gold of the Thracian Horsemen 1987. Gold of the Thracian Horsemen 1987. The amphora-rhyton is decorated with Greek mythological scene. 494–502. which form a reliable source for studying political history. Venedikov 1996) and Lukovit (Chichikova 1980. The Panagyurishte treasure dates to the last decades of the 4th century or the early 3rd century BC. nos. no. nos. those found at Letnitsa (Pittioni 1977. 147– 48. 114–15. Gold of the Thracian Horsemen 1987. iconography and religion. 260–64. Cotys I. Venedikov 1961. 70) and Yakimovo (Marazov 1979. Aphrodite and Hera. 472–483. economy. 250) come from the 2nd–1st centuries BC and consist of silver objects typical of Late Hellenistic Thracian toreutics: bracelets. most probably. 375–410. Stoyanov 2004). 271–74. trade. The most spectacular hoard from Thrace is the Panagyurishte treasure. indicating that the objects belonged to the Odrysian king. COINAGE The Thracian coinage provides a great variety of types minted in silver and bronze. but its shape undoubtedly originates in Achaemenid metalware. Two other important treasures. 420–428. who presumably offered the silver vessels as diplomatic gifts to unknown Getic ruler. nos. 315–333. Theodossiev 2000c. nos. The three anthropomorphic head-vases display the images of Athena. Artemis. a kantharos and conical bowls. presumably showing the Seven against Thebes. 268–71. The two rhyta ending in stag heads depict the Judgment of Paris (Alexander) and two Labours of Heracles (the Hind of Ceryneia and the Cretan Bull). The hoards from Galiche (Gold of the Thracian Horsemen 1987. no. 237–41. nos.ANCIENT THRACE DURING THE FIRST MILLENNIUM BC 39 in Greek were stippled on the pitcher-rhyton and two rhyta.164 kg (Svoboda and Concev 1956. The earliest coins appeared at the end of the .

Medokos (known as Amadokos I as well). Sariakos) and Celtic (Kauaros) kings who dominated in certain regions of Hellenistic Thrace. Gerasimov 1975). 1925. Haraspos. king of the Thracian Edonoi. during the 4th–2nd centuries BC some inland towns (Kypsela and Kabyle) coined their own emissions. Reskouporis I. Cotys II. minted various coins throughout the entire Hellenistic period until the last Thracian kingdom was annexed by Rome in AD 45. Saratokos. Peter 1997).40 NIKOLA THEODOSSIEV 6th century and in the first decades of the 5th century BC and were minted in silver by the tribal kingdoms of the Derrones. While the Early Hellenistic Macedonian kings. a number of Odrysian kings. Kersebleptes. Tacheva 1998). Amadokos II. Seuthes I. Roimetalkas II and Roimetalkas III. besides some kings who ruled other tribal states. and there were also coins minted by Scythian (Kanitos. Cotys V. the relationship between the early Thracian and Macedonian coinage (Greenwalt 1997). Ketriporis. * * I hope that this article has provided a general picture of Thrace during the 1st millennium BC and has described recent developments in scholarly research. and the coins minted in Seuthopolis (K. Other publications provided comprehensive studies of the coinage of ancient Thrace. or examined aspects such the earliest tribal emissions (Gerasimov 1937. Seuthes III and Spartokos. silver and bronze coins. Sadalas II. Among the most important coins from the Classical and Early Hellenistic periods are those of Sparadokos. on the border with Macedonia and Paeonia. Hebryzelmis. such as Lysimachus. A number of other rulers. 2000. Topalov 1994. 1998. Of special interest in this period are the silver coins of Getas. Youroukova 1976. minted different bronze and silver coins from the middle of the 5th century BC down to the first decades of the 1st century AD. several scholars published important numismatic studies discussing some of the Thracian coins (Svoronos 1919. Cotys III. Roimetalkas I. 1984) and Kabyle (Draganov 1993). combining written sources and archaeological data. reigned in Thrace and issued numerous gold. Bisaltai. and are one of the earliest examples displaying the use of the title basileus in ancient coinage. both attested in historical or epigraphic sources but unknown in ancient written sources. which read: GETAS JDONEON BASILEUS (in several variants). Dimitrov et al. 1992. Gaebler 1935. such as Adaios. Later. Teres II. Tyntenoi. * . Ichnai and Orreskioi in south-western Thrace. some of them showing quite realistic portraits of the kings. During the 20th century. Mostis. Further detailed studies. in particular of the Odrysian Kingdom (Mushmov 1912. Cotys I.

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