Death is to us change, not con Heart of Midlothian.

A change! no, surely, not a ch The change must be before Death may confer a wider ran From pole to pole, from sea It cannot make me new or stra To mine own Personality!

For what am I? -- this mortal f These shrinking nerves, this For ever racked with ailments And scarce from day to day A fly within the spider's mesh

Personality:Every individual is said to have a personality of his own which is unique and distinct from every other personality. In a popular sense, by personality we mean that an individual has some striking qualities to traits in which he differs from other i.e., in appearance, in aggressiveness or pleasant manners etc. But, these are not the only points that make up the person. Every individual has a typical and distinctive style of behaving. This unique quality of his behavior constitutes shape to his personality i.e., feelings, values, reactions, prejudices, attitudes, perceptions etc. are the basis of one’s behavior. Thus, personality includes physique, habits, temperament, sentiments, will and intelligence etc. Personality pervades every aspect of human life and influences every behavior. It is on this ground that Woodworth calls personality as the quality of one’s behavior. The personality of the individual is much more complex and goes deeper. Personality is meant the individuals characteristic and reaction to social situations and his adaptation to his social features of his environment. Hence, personality is not only what we do in relation to others, but something more than that.

Psychologically, personality is all that a person is. It is the totality of his being and includes physical, mental, emotional and

temperamental make-up. We often hear an adolescent admiring the ‘good looking’ personality of a film star,

Amitabh Bachchan of the great personality, Smita Patil or the great personality of a national leader like Indira Gandhi and Subhash Chandra Bose.

Dashiell says it is a “system of reactions and possibilities in toto as viewed by fellow members of the society. It is the sum total of behaviortrends manifested in his social adjustments.” It does not exist as an entity by itself. It is one’s “habitual modes of response.” CONCEPT AND MEANING OF PERSONALITY The word ‘personality’ has been derived from the Latin word Personae which means ‘to sound through’. The term was used to described the voice of an actor speaking through a mask. This term slowly began to be applied to the actors themselves. About a century before Christ, this term became common in connection with the actors participating in plays. By personality it is now generally meant that it is the organization and integration of a large number of human traits. The concepts of personality differ widely among different people. Some people consider that personality is that something with which an individual is born, which remains unaffected by environmental influences and which permeates all his actions. The other people regard an individual’s personality as a person himself. They use the two terms, personality and person, interchangeably.

Thus. Some of in one there is beard. On the contrary. However. not great because he had beard but because he was a great thinker. reformer and an ideal politician. in another there is none. It is not very correct. any definition which separates the physical from the mental or leads to a dualistic interpretation of the facts of human existence cannot be acceptable to us.There are many other views which are expressed regarding personality and it is because the concept of personality is so widely different among different people that to give a concise definition of personality is extremely difficult. The picture with beard shows an effective personality Lincoln was. Warren defines Personality “as the entire mental organization of a human-being at any stage of his development. On analysis it will .” This definition is erroneous in the sense that the human-being is not made up of sets compartments or organizations out of which some are mental and some are physical. however. the human-being is a completely integrated functioning unit or a complete whole. The definition given by Rexroad explains personality as the balance between socially approved traits. DEFINITION OF PERSONALITY Many attempts have been made to define personality. here we will try our best to arrive at such definition of personality that may be acceptable to most of the psychologists.

the definition describes personality as a system of reactions and behavior and takes into consideration not only the individual but also those who surround him. It can be said with confidence that human personality does not exist unless there are other individuals to react to the individual and to whom he may respond. According to this position. seen that it leads inevitably to the concept of a personality. It is the sum total of behavior trends manifested in his social adjustments. If we reflect on this position. This means that as a man has a body. an individual’s personality is defined as “his system of reactions and reaction-possibilities in total as viewed by fellow members of society. Thus. The definition given by Dashiell seems to be more adequate. a head. . similarly he has a personality. According to this definition. a nose. this definition is not acceptable to us because it presents a static view of personality and also because it presents an oversimplified view of it which leads us towards ambiguity.” Thus. we may take this definition as describing personality correctly to quite an appreciable extent. we will have to recognize that these factors are not stable commodities and that social approval and disapproval are not such attributes of an individual who is being analyzed which are fixed and dependent upon the experiences of the person who is analyzing the personality. personality is considered as a static balance between two well-known factors. Another definition arrived at by Gordon Allport (1927) after an examination of 50 definitions of personality is worth mentioning here.

If the individual fails to achieve one or more of these behavior goals.” . The definitions which seems to be correct. there may occur a disorganization of his personality unless a changed made of action results in the satisfaction of the need or drive or unless itself modified or replaced in such a way that satisfaction is made possible. Each definition suggests a different approach towards personality.Warren & Carmichael .” . This is also quite an adequate definition and explains the personality quite clearly and correctly.” This definition emphasizes the adjective processes in the development of an individual personality. They represent as interaction between inherited potentialities and environmental influences.Kemph “The entire organization of a human being at any stage of development is personality. In other words. we may say that Psychologists too have added to the confusion by offering a large number of divergent definitions. A few of them are given below – “Personality is the integration of those systems of habits that represent one individual’s characteristic adjustment to his environment. an individual’s inherent needs.Allport suggested that “Personality is the dynamic organization with the individual of those psycho-physical system that determine his unique adjustment to his environment. consider personality as dynamic and refer to integrated behavior. or drives serve as motivation of behavior towards satisfied goals. According to this definition. urges. There are numerous definitions of personality.

R. appetites and instincts of the individual and the acquired dispositions and tendencies. impulses.” -Stagner “By personality we refer to a pattern of traits rather than to a mere list or collection of characteristics.Valentine “We shall define personality as the pattern of responses which characterizes the individual. “The personality of an individual may be defined as his persistent tendencies to make certain qualities and kinds of adjustment.“Personality is that which permits a predication of what a person will do in a given situation.” .Gates .Morton Prince “It is an individual’s typical or consistent adjustment to his environment.” .” .” -Shaffer & Shober “Personality is sum total of all the biological innate disposition. tendencies.” -Cattel.B.” .Boring “It is the sum total of innate and acquired dispositions.

tendencies.Allport Watson (1930).” . Personality cannot be described through merely summing up the various elements involved in it and if this definition is accepted. concluded. it would be like describing a house as a collection of bricks. Personality is the sum total of all the biological innate dispositions. This definition of Morton Prince was criticized on the ground that it does not present an integrated and organizational view of personality. Personality is a dynamic organization within the individual of those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment. the father of behaviourism on the basis of his behavioural studies.“Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment. Although Allport tried to give a comprehensive definition of the term personality by recognizing its dynamic nature and organizational . Personality is the sum of activities that can be discovered by actural observations over a long enough period of time to give reliable information. impulses. appetites and instincts of the individual and the dispositions and tendencies acquired by experience.

In Eysenck’s definition character signified conative behavior or will. residing within him. it gives a complete picture of human behavior by involving all of its aspect-conative. Personality is the more or less stable and enduring organization of a person’s character. temperament stood for affective behavior based on emotions. Finally. physique meant bodily configuration and neuroendocrine endowments. it aims at making personality somewhat . which determine his unique adjustment to the environment.aspects and by emphasizing the role it can play in an individual’s adjustment to his environment. Personality to him is something put into the individual like water is put into a jug and it takes the shape of the jug. his definition suffered from some serious defects. In emphasizing the dynamic organization within the individual he seems to view personality as somewhat different from the individual. Thirdly. it stresses the need of integration and organization of the behavioural characteristics. Personality is that which permits a prediction of what a person will not in a given situation. rather than as an integrated unity of mind and body. cognitive and affective. temperament. and intellect implied the cognitive behavior or intelligence. intellect and physique. The definition given by Eysenck has very strong point in its favour. Secondly. it tries to provide personality with a physiological base and given a balanced consideration to role of heredity and environment in building the personality. First.

Personality is something unique and specific. thus giving it a scientific base. the uniqueness of an individual’s personality does not mean that he has nothing to share with others in terms of traits and characteristics of personality. Every one of us has specific characteristics for making adjustments. It is true that personality should be evaluated on the basis of generality of the behavior but at the same time. However. changes cannot be denied. 1. Man is described as a person or as having a personality when the idea of ‘self’ enters into his consciousness. He may have certain characteristics which he may share with others and at the same time many others which are unique to him. it does have some weaknesses also in that human personality cannot be supposed to necessarily possess a physiological base and it cannot be considered to be as static and fixed as advocated by this definition. In this connection Bhatia (1968) writes: We do not attribute personality to a dog and even a child cannot be described as a personality because it has only a vague sense of personal identity. Personality exhibits self consciousness as one of its main characteristics. Distinguishing Features & Characteristics of Personality The results of various experimental studies and observations have led to the identification of the following characteristics of personality. on the other hand. Every one of us is a unique person in oneself.measurable and assessable. However. . 2.

i. by only counting the bricks. Therefore. it cannot be said to be static.3. Just as an elephant cannot be described as a pillar only by examining its legs. The personality of an individual can be assessed only by going into all the aspects that comprise his totality. 4. It gives him all that is needed for his unique adjustment to his environment. Personality is not just a collection of so many traits or characteristics. cognitive and affective and covers not only the conscious activities but goes deeper to the semi conscious and unconscious also.e. the external and the non-essential but also the vital. The process of making adjustment is continuous. it is dynamic and continuously in the process of change and modification. Although the personality of an individual remains stable to a large extent. It is all what a person has about him. it includes all the behaviour patterns. For instance. It includes everything about a person. an individual’s personality cannot be judged by only looking at his physical appearance or his sociability. “Personality”. One has to struggle . as stated by Allport (1948): It is not only the assumed. As we have said earlier. personality is more than this: it is an organization of psychophysical systems or some behaviour characteristics and functions as a unified whole. the internal and the essential. personality is the ‘everything’ that a person has about him. 5. how can we describe the wall of a house? Actually. conative.

one has to modify and change one’s personality patterns and this makes the nature of personality dynamic. leading to severe personality disorders on account of factors and conditions like severe anxiety. prolonged illness. 6. 8. 7. Personality is sometimes subjected to disorganisation and disintegration. not only heredity but also factors like constitutional make-up.with the environmental as well as the inner forces throughout one’s life. The personality of an individual can be described as well as measured. social and cultural influences as well as experience and training etc. Every personality is the product of heredity and environment. all affect one’s personality. It represents a moral estimate of the . Both these contribute significantly towards the development of the child’s personality. 10. As a result. 9. and damage to the brain and nervous system. Every personality is the endproduct of this process of learning and acquisition. Therefore. infections. A child is not born with a personality but develops one as a result of continuous interaction with his environment. Learning and acquisition of experiences contribute towards growth and development of personality. Character is an ethical concept. stress.Personality should not be taken as synonymous with one’s character. traumatic experiences.

as the psychoanalytic view of personality advocated by Freud explains.Personality should also be viewed differently from the ego or the individual self. therefore. This system of emotional disposition represents only the affective side of one’s personality and so personality must be taken as being much beyond one’s temperament. 13. that is. However. while personality as a psychological concept is a more comprehensive term which includes character as one of its constituents.Personality may be further distinguished from temperament which can be termed a system of emotional disposition. 12.individual.Every person’s personality has one more distinguishing feature. it is only a small aspect of one’s total personality. The word ego is generally used for that unified part of one’s personality which in ordinary language we call “I”. Personality. aiming to an end or towards some specific goals. 11. stands for more than what the ego carries. .

The ethical conduct of an individual is as much part of his personality as it is a consequence of his character. A well-adjusted personality does not merely signify the satisfaction on one’s needs. the delinquent. The character-development and personality integration are almost similar processes in the life of a normal human being. may often be considered as of well-adjusted personality. has recognized ‘personal responsibility’. It is however. wishes.NATURE OF PERSONALITY Klausmeier says. desires. etc. not desirable to differentiate too much between the character of a person and his personality. beside inculcating an idealvalue system. with character used to denote ethical attitudes. The person with above qualities will also be classified as a person of good character. in practice a distinction is frequency made between personality integration and character. If satisfaction of selfish motives is taken to be the sign of personality adjustment. value and motives. the thief. etc. ‘social responsibility’ and democratic ‘social interest’. A person is considered of good characters when he conforms to the ethical standards set in his society and obeys the laws of the land. A person achieves personality integration when he develops ‘self-control’. .” Thus. the character refers to the conformity to the ethical values and the observance of the laws set up by the society. “Though personality integration includes internalization of ethical values. the murderer.

we also talk of character-development. the infant begins to develop and understanding of the effect of his behaviour upon himself and other people and his personality begins to emerge out. DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY A new-born infant comes to this world equipped with certain seriated capacities for personality development. In fact. Character is embedded in the total structure of personality. It is rather the day-by-day experiences of the individual. the kinds of environment in which he was developed and the opportunities for all kinds of learning that are responsible for his personality development. As personality is not fixed and permanent. According to Cronbach “Character is not really a cumulation of separate habits and ideas. in personality development we cannot ignore the ethical values. It is to describe the closeness of character and personality that Shoben used the term ‘integrative adjustment’. When we talk of ethical values. The older persons who come in his contact interpret his untutored responses in the light of heir own personality reactions. The infant develops his . Slowly.” To understand character. In the very beginning of his life. the structure of the personality just be thoroughly examined. it follows that heredity days a small part in its development.But we know how false is this situation. he lacks a differentiated personality.

” The following are the most important determinates in which lies the origin of personality. DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY There are innumerable factors that affect the development of personality. Psychological Determinants 3. Cultural Determinants . take shape slowly. Social Determinants 4. 1.. viz. Biological Determinants 2. Environmental Factors and Learning. like oak trees.personality with every movement that he makes during a day. Here we will discuss those under four heads. Physique. There are various influences which effects the development of personality of individual. “Personalities. chemique.

Hereditary factors may be summed as constitutional (physique) and chemical or Glandular Bases (Endocrine Glands). It is possible to know about the intelligence of children but their emotional and social development is so largely determined by environmental influences that it is not possible to say how much an individual owes to heredity. The fact is that we have no clear means of knowing what children inherit individually. Biological Determinants Heredity provides the individual with a fund of potentialities and certain organismic conditions that determine. Earnest Kretschmer. weight. a German Psychiatrist distinguishes three ‘body types’ of personality (a) the ‘Pyknic’ is short and shout (b) the ‘Leptosome’ or ‘Asthenic’ is tall and thin (c) the ‘Athletic’ is muscular and well-proportioned. (i) Constitutional Factors (Physique) The constitution of the body is said to be an effective factor in determining the type of one’s personality. The physique of a child helps to determine his .1. Overt aspects of an individual’s personality like his height. All that can be stressed is that the teacher should be on the look out for indications of innate abilities and tendencies of children. the type of his personality. body-built. have some colour and other on physical characteristics influence personality development. to a large degree.

He gains recognition and status in his group. even if he has some merits. Fatty persons are often of an entertaining and ease-loving nature. People take them as their leader in times of crisis. brain disorders may cause remarkable changes in personality. The excess or shortage of sugar in blood also affects personality. these are overlooked because of his physique. It flatters his ego. A stulterer’s speech is affected by his handicap. lack encouragement to work. A fatigued and hungry man loses his temper for nothing. again alter the whole personality. A blind man has to depend upon another person. We thus have the examples of an extrovert and in introvert personality because of physique. An individual with an imposition body-built and a healthy appearance definitely influences those around him. . application of drugs like alcohol. Factors like fasting and disease may also produce changes in it. produces bodily changes and alter personality.self-concept. Tall and fair persons enjoy an advantage over their short and ugly associates. It is said that introverts have vertical body growth and extroverts horizontal growth. Also. A bodily defect or deformity may. Contrary to this is the small. Persons whose blood-circulation is abnormal and whose oxygen supply runs short. lean and thin person. This leads him to self-pity and gradual self-withdrawl. Last but not the least.

They are aroused by an emergency. Their secretion ‘adrenalin’ intensifies bodily reactions. Co-operation between these is very important. existing between the brain and the roof of the mouth. Berman describes two pituitary personalities-pre- pituitary and post-pituitary. the glands and the blood chemistry largely determine the characteristic and habitual modes of behavior.(ii) Chemical or Glandular Bases The biological basis of behavior makes some aspects of behavior consistent. The pre-pituitary type. irritability and indecisiveness. sees that they are working in harmony. They exist near kidneys. Adrenal women have masculine traits. Endocrine glands secret ‘hormones’ or the ‘exciters’ into the blood. and excel as administrators. It influences our emotions. Postpituitary caused by the over-activity of the posterior lobe is excessively feminine. The nervours system. Pituitary gland. caused by its anterior lobe over-activity. These factors from the biological basis of personality. . is predominantly masculine. Lack of their secretion results in the lack of energy.

uninhibited often abnormal glandular conditions seriously affect personality. lack of initiative and concentration of attention. On the contrary. Hyper-thyroids are restless. energetic. Berman says sub-thyroids are under-developed physically. 2. A child is a natural object of love and affection within a family. an unfortunate child who is denied the blessings of love and affection during infancy and childhood finds it rather difficult to adjust to other children and adults around him. A denial of this privilege . A child who gets plenty of love and efficient has better opportunities of becoming a good mixer and a socially efficient person. dull and susceptible to disease. keen and impulsive The thymocentric personality dominated by the thymus gland in the upper chest is physically fragile. Psychological Determinants The role played + by love and affection in the development or personality can’t be over – emphasized. Given a proper dose of parental affection he feels quite secure and happy. Deficiency in thyroid gland leads to sluggishness in mental activity. listless. Excitability and nervousness result from the over-enthusiasm and over-activity of this gland. pets objects etc.The thyroid gland in two parts exists in the base of the neck in front of each side. Affection is the positive emotion towards persons.

In the field of friendship few children are liable to develop certain undesirable tendencies e. affectionate and loving. The sense of personal achievement also plays a vital role in child’s personality development. He must learn how to be considerate. He is not simply to be patted and loved but is also to be taught to display the same feelings towards others. jealousy. fame. . The bases of friendly relations. success.lead to a number of serious personality problems. Friendship and social relations also influence a child’s personality development. selfishness. prestige. recognition. contribute immensely towards the growth of a child’s personality. skill etc. Human beings have a natural fascination for the attainment of reputation.. the social interaction between friends. over-attachments. Children residing in the same home or street are usually chums. Such a learning is indispensable for a healthy development of his personality. distinction. exploitative attitudes towards friends etc.g. honour. hostility. the quality and duration of friendly contacts etc. During infancy the basis of friendship is nearness in space. Such developments should be critically watched by the parents and teachers. Early friendships are usually short-lived.

As he grows older he needs to be taught gradually that thwarting another’s desires in order to fulfil one’s own is an undesirable attitude.As an infant. if parents adopt unhealthy and unwholesome attitudes towards children their personality development is liable to be affected very adversely. . competitive activities and even occasional theoretical social instruction at school and home enables the child to grasp the truth that one can often harmonize the demands of personal achievement with those of love and affection for others. neglect to perform their duties properly and thus harm child’s personality. the child snatches and grabs everything he can possibly lay hands on it. and Parental Over-Protection Parental Negligence It is the fundamental duty of every parent to provide affection (I) and security to a child at home and looking after his basic needs. Some parents. group recreations. On the contrary. however. Organized sports. Parental attitudes to wards children also affect the course of their personality development. They develop into cheerful and adjusted personalities. Two of such wrong parental attitudes which prove personality spoilers are – (I) (II) Parental Negligence. children feed secure and happy. If the general attitude of the parents is affectionate and balanced.

Social rules and prohibitions or taboos regulate the individual’s customs. The child. over-solicitude or over-indulgence is as injurious for the personality growth as negligence and rejection. but also the product of the individual’s nature. for example. 3. . if he violates the social code. On telling a lie he is disbelieved. Personality is no mere social product. The school environment consists of social code and social role of a person. The individual acquires social code in his childhood. He abides by the rules and prohibitions of his society and finds in it a place of his own. he deems it prudent to abide by it. So. Over-protection means excessive caring for. Usually mothers are more guilty of this excessive parental attitude towards children. manners and conduct. loving and shielding the child by one or both the parents. He acts in response to environment stimuli. Even the child at play has to obey the rules of the game. punishment and even expulsion. Yet in spite of being regulated by it each individual develops in his own way. Social rules and prohibitions of his society and finds in it a place of his own. Social Determinants An individual is born and nurtured in society.(II) Parental Over-Protection Parental over-protection. has to court ridicule.

discussions. fail to achieve a good adjustment to the demands of their culture. competitive activities etc. certain children. which might seriously clash with another equally strong inner or outer force.4. however. He finds that in order to become a successful participant in the life of the group he must accept their ideas. debates. outlooks. Cultural Determinants Culture gives a permanent mould to the personality of the child. If they feel that certain personal demands or other forces are clashing with a cultural demand they are usually able to achieve harmony by making some sort of a compromise. Soon after birth he is gradually conditioned to the demands and expectancies of that culture. A child is born in a particular cultural group. attitudes. . This process of accepting or identifying oneself with the modes of thought and behavior in vogue in one’s group determiners considerably the formation and development or children’s personality. reconciliation adjustment etc. etc. The cultural group of the child also conditions him to socially acceptable modes of expressing aggression and anger through sports. habits. This phenomenon is known as a ‘culture conflict’.

who had more colourless and thick phlegm as the dominant humour. dejected. not easily excited and rather dull. (d) Melancholic . were said to be lighthearted. He classified persons in four types as under – (a) Sanguine . pensive. happy. (c) Choleric .who had more blood in the body. were said to be cold.TYPES OR CLASSIFICATION OR PERSONALITY A large number of studies advocated the theory of type of personality by classifying human beings into more or less clear cut types based on their temperament. accommodating. sad. depressed. (b) Phlegmatic . mental make up or the objectives they pursued or aimed at in life.who had more black bile as the dominant humour. the medical man in ancient Greece. was of Hippocrates. ways of behviour. were surly or bad-tempered. angry but were passionate and strong with active imagination. pessimistic. optimistic. miserable and self-involved. confident. First Type:The earliest attempt to classify human beings into types based on temperamental qualities caused by what were called “humours” or fluids in the body and its build.who had more yellow bile in their system and were said to be irritable. slow or sluggish. ardent and . hopeful. body build. calm. placid. deplorable. indifferent.

Second Another types Type into classification based was on bodily by structure Kretschmer given who divided human being into the four types as under(a) Athletic .who were short limbed with large head.who were lean. weak or sick. their face was soft and broad with broad hands and feet but they had slender neck and crooked nose. . (c) Pyknic . with wide chest and shoulders. typical of a ‘devil’. frail. They had plump body roundish and fatty. large hands and feet. as it were.who were strongly muscular built body. lacking in strength with debility. (d) Dysplastic developed who were rather lanky with ill-balanced and under body. chest and ahdoman. (b) Ashletic . They had underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics and were incompatible in sex relations. flat-chested.

competitive and aggressing or struggling to achieve their goals. restrained. classification variations was based given Sheldon according to whom the types of persons were(a) Endomorphic or Viscerotonic who had big viscera.who had strong muscles and bones but were slim. assertive.H. .Third Type - A on by similar bodily W. with lack of confidence. afraid. (b) Mesomorphic or Somatotonic . The were stiff. comfort and support from others. frail and skinny. (c) Ectomorphic or Cerebrotonic . They liked ease. They had nervous and retiring nature and they suppressed their emotions and were sorrowful.who were weak. were flabby with weak bones and muscles but were fatty. These persons were active.

unsympathetic and eccentric but often intelligent and imaginative. feelings. (b) Schezoidswho were self-centered. hot-tempered. Jung who thought that there were four important functions in the individual through which libido expressed itself inwardly or outwardly. They could develop symptoms of schzophrenia.Fourth Type - Another classification was made by Kraeplin from the point of view of mental structure as under (a) Cycloids – who were social. Fifth Type .G. sentimental. good natured.A similar classification based on mental structure or in terms of the mental energy or libido flowing inwardly or outwardly was given by C. They were helpful. co-operative with feelings for others and friendly. thinking and intuition and so there were really eight types of people - . These functions were sensations. emotional and rather restless. unsocial. They could develop mental symptoms of manic depressives.

in which category were introverted sensorial. thinking. there were(b) Extroverted. introverted feeling.Those who struggled for political power like-political leaders. Seventh Type .Who wanted to keep busy themselves in the pursuit of art creation and art appreciation. (d) Aesthetic. on the basis of the style of life they adopted by virtue of their ordinal position in the family and which style of life became the style even in adulthood for the . introverted thinking and introverted intuitive types of persons. Sixth Type. feeling. (b) Social . study and meditation.Those who aimed at economic gains or wealth.(a) Introverted .Those who pursued studies and academic gains. (f) Religious . status or name and fame. This classification was according to the following six values(a) Economic . (e) Political.Spranger made a classification of human beings on the basis of values they held dear and whose objectives in life were the pursuit of those values. statesman etc.Who pursued religious experience and devoted more time in religious practices.Those who wanted to have social prestige or position.Adler made a classification of children.sensorial. Similarly. (c) Theoretical . and intuitive types of personality.

who dominate and demand from others and consider it their privilege. They escape the solution of problems and make excuses. volatile and gustatile in accordance with their capacity to recall experiences or imagery pertaining to vision. categorized people as visuile. power seeking was the chief aim in life of everybody. (c) Getting Type . for example. He named the following four types(a) Demanding Type . looking to others for help.are the youngest children who being everybody’s pet are given things easily. audile. The eldest child. as according to Adler. adopts this style of life. William James also thought of tough-minded and soft-minded persons. (b) Escaping Type .Classification of human beings has been done by many other people also. they were not getting any help or advantage and so they struggle in later life also.sake of gaining power or position. hearing and Sensations of touch. But the attempt for classification of human being into types seems futile as there are no such clear cut types. according to Adler.are the other children in the family who know that unless they try on their own. olfactile. Eighth Type . They are dependent.are the only children who are pampered and who are not taught how to struggle or face the difficulties. Francis Galton. All human beings are of mixed types though it is quite understandable that in some people one or two attributes or qualities are more predominant and there too it is more the . smell and taste respectively. (d) Struggling type .

indecisive and emotionally insecure. tendency towards insomnia depression and night Marish dream good artists and enjoy travelling. collectively called “panchamahabhutas”. poor in memory. Ayurveda. earth and ether (space). have dry rough and chapped skin. the ancient system of medicine Ayurveda classifies man based on the presence of combination of elements of Nature. water. fire.Need a lot of sleep. ANCIENT INDIANS (AYURVEDIC) CLASSIFICATION Even in India. air. Ayurvedic’s Classification of Personality Types Dominance Personality Physiological/ of the type Somatic elements of characteristics the body Air & ether Vata Slightly built. rheumatic problems and constipation Personality characteristics Restless with active minds. Big boned. . solitary and Water & Kapha rebellious. a little (space) pigeon chested with dull dark hair and eyes. advocates that the entire Universe (living and non-living) is made of up five elements. often over.situation where those qualities or attributes emerge more easily and persistently when in other situations they may remain hidden or in the background. suffer from stiff joints. Human body contains these elements as its constituents.

hunting and polities and have vivid dream. smooth complexion. Intense. Fire & water Pitta Hippocrate’s classification. haris are lustrous and wavy and eyes are wide and attractive. suffer from sinus problems. emotionally secure. lethargy and nausea. have a ruddy complexion or red hair. freckles or acne. Dominance of Personality type Temperamental characters . The predominance of one of these four types of fluids in one’s body gives him unique temperamental characteristics leading to a particular type of personality as summarized in Table. Average build. tendency to go grey and bald early in life and often have green or very piercing eyes. enjoy sports. phlegm (mucus) and black bile. experience romantic and sentimental dreams. calm and loyal. make good leaders.Earth weight with a pale. at their worst they can be passionately angry. rational speak and move slowly. argumentative and precise with a critical sharp intelligence. According to Hippocrates the human body consists of four types of humours of fluids-blood. with moles. yellow bile.

Bad tempered. shy. calm. and strong with active imagination. reserved. . Cold. Phlegm (mucus) Black bile Phlegmatic Melancholic Kretshmer’s classification. angry but passionate. slow or sluggish and indifferent. dejected. depressed. sensitive and pessimistic. like Kretschmer. optimistic. Kretschmer classified all human beings into certain biological types according to their physical structure and has allotted following definite personality characteristics associated with each physical make-up Table. Energetic. sad. happy. Kretschmer’s Classification Personality types Pyknic (hving fat bodies) Athletic (balanced body) Leptosomatic (Lean and thin) Personality characteristics Sociable. classified human beings into types according to their physical structures and attached certain temperamental characteristics to them as shown in table. optimistic and adjustable. Sheldon’s classification. Unsociable.fluid type in the body Blood Yellow bile Sanguine Choleric Light-hearted. jolly. pessimistic. Irritable. hopeful and accommodating. easy-going and good natured. deplorable and self-involved. Sheldon too.

(like Kretschmer’s athletic type) Weak somatic structure as well as undeveloped viscera. THEORIES OF PERSONALITY The search for understanding the meaning and nature of personality would be incomplete if we do not discuss some important theories of personality. unsociable and reserved. Sheldon and Jung belong to this category. (like Kretschmer’s Leptosomatic) Personality characteristics Easy-going. . try to describe the basic structure and underlying entities or constructs involved in personality along with the processes by which these entities interact. loves risk and adventure Ectomorphic Pessimistic. These theories in one way or another. The viewpoint of Hippocrates. sociable and affectionate. Kretschrner. Balanced development of viscera and somatic structure. (like Kretschmer’s athletic type). Mesomorphic Craving for muscular activity.Sheldon’s Classification Personality types Endomorphic Somatic description Person having highly developed viscera but weak somatic structure. self-assertive. The theories of personality in general can be classified into the following broad categories: Theories adopting the type approach.

social relationship theory of Homey and Erickson’s theory of psychosocial development may be included in this category. Let us now briefly discuss the viewpoints propounded in these theories. Theories like psycho analytic theory of Freud. Theories adopting the type-cum-trait approach. Theories adopting the psycho-analytical approach. depending upon his behavioural characteristics. Dollard and Miller’s learning theory and Bandura and Walter’s theory of social learning can be put into this category. somatic structure. Theories adopting the humanistic approach. Theories like Eysenck’s theory of personality can be put under this category.Theories adopting the trait approach. . Theories like Carl Roger’s self theory and Maslow’s self-actualization theory belong to this category. Theories adopting the learning approach. Type approach Theories adopting the type approach advocate that human personalities can be classified into a few clearly defined types and each person. theory of individual psychology by Adler. analytical psychology of Jung. Theories like Allport’s theory and Cattell’s theory of personality are based on the trait approach.

Each of us develops a unique set of such organized tendencies termed as traits in the course of our continuous and gradual development. Allport’s theory and Cattell’s theory are said to be the best examples of the trait approach. Traits. the physician of ancient India broadly categorized all human beings into three types. are the basic units of personality. or personality traits can be described as belonging to a certain type. Allport . Traits may be defined as relativity permanent and relatively consistent general behavior patterns that an individual exhibits in most situations. dull. and kuf (mucus). shy. his behavior my be generalized and he may be labeled as honest and honestly is then said to be a behavioural trait of his personality. vat (wind).blood types. dependent etc. lazy. This classification was based on the three basic elements of the body. TRAIT APPROACH In the trait approach the personality is viewed in viewed in terms of various traits. fluids in the body. Allport (1897-1967) was the first theorist who by rejecting the notion of a relatively limited number of personality types adopted the trait approach for the description of highly individualized personalities. namely pitt (bile). Allport’s theory. Gordon W. according to Allport. Based on such an approach. In our day-to-day conversation we ascribe traits to our friends and near one’s as being honest. If a person behaves honestly in several situations. aggressive.

These traits combined with a few central traits from the core of characteristic traits responsible for giving uniqueness to one’s personality. They appear in only a relatively small range of situations and are not considered strong enough to be regarded as integral part of one’s personality.distinguished three types of traits namely. For example. Cardinal traits are the primary traits so dominant is one’s personal disposition that they colour virtually every aspect of one’s behviour and attributes. These traits. Odbert (1936) analysed about 18. Allport and one of his colleagues.000 terms taken from a dictionary that could be used by people to describe each other and they finally came up with a total of 4541 psychological traits from describing human behavior. are limited in number to just one or two. cardinal traits. if a person has humorousness as a cardinal trait. The other remaining traits. In order to find out how many traits are responsible for defining personality. he will bring a sense of humour into almost all situations irrespective of its actual demands. if found in an individual. . central traits and secondary traits. Cardinal traits are thus central to the description of one’s personality. Secondary traits are not as dominant as the cardinal or central traits. not so generalized and consistent may also be found in other people and may thus be categorized as common traits.

but for the time being allows itself to be dominated by the demands of the situation. Allport focused on these large number of behavioural traits to describe personality instead of explaining it like other developmental and psychoanalytical theorists. they become functionally autonomous when the goals are achieved. individualized approach in the study of personality. Instances of inconsistency thus do not mean the nonexistence of a trait. Though motives are goal-oriented to begin with. what originally began as an effort to reduce hunger. pain or anxiety may become a source of pleasure and motivation in its won right. It is very much there in the behavior of the person. Allport (1961) showed that traits lead towards the consistency in one’s behavior though this does not mean that trait of personality must be regarded as fixed and stable operating mechanically to the same degree on all occasions. The drinks or intoxicating . A behavior that once satisfied some specific need later serves only itself. To him personality was the dynamic organization of all the behavioural traits that an individual possessed and it was that organization. and the discontinuous nature of the development of personality etc. Allport’s theory of personality is known not only for its emphasis on traits but also for its stress on concepts like functional autonomy.In this way. For example. The concept of functional autonomy suggests that functions or means which once served a purpose may attain autonomy at a later stage. Which could be considered responsible for his behavior in a particular situation.

emotional reactions. Traits unique to a person such as temperamental traits. The most recent advanced theory of personality based on the trait approach has been developed by Cattell (1973). He has defined a trait as a structure of the personality inferred from behavior in different situations and described four types of traits. What matters during childhood is certainly different from the value during adolescence and adulthood and. Personality is not a continuation from childhood to adulthood rather it is a discrete and discontinuous development. . the childhood. he mentioned three stage in the growth and development or personality namely. the adolescent’s or adult’s functioning is not constrained by his or her past. a British-born American researcher. therefore according to Allport. Cattell’s theory. In his book “Pattern and Growth in Personality”.substances originally taken to reduce pain or anxiety may thus attain autonomy by becoming an end in themselves. adolescence and adulthood personalities. The traits found widely distributed in general population like honesty. The past cannot decide the functions of the present. • Common traits. Allport also emphasized another important concept of the discrete and discontinuous nature of the development of personality. aggression and cooperation. • Unique traits.

i. he compiled a list of over 17. he identified some 35 specific groups and called them surface traits.000 traits and by eliminating similarities and synonyms reduced the list to 171 dictionary words related with personality and called these treatments. Cattell began by attempting to make a complete list of all possible human behaviours.• Surface traits. dependability. His next step was to ascertain how they are related. In this ay. In 1946. tactfulness. etc. • Source traits. 3. 2. Hefurther analyzed these surface traits in terms of their interrelations and eliminated those which were overlapping. These are the underlying structures or sources that determine behavior such as dominance. The theory propagated by Cattell attributes certain specific dimensions to personality so that human behavior related to a particular situation. submission emotionality. Cattell has adopted factors analysis as a technique for this work. can be predicted.e. 1. the real structural influence underlying personality. . He found that each trait element has high correlation with some traits and low with others. The removal of such overlapping gave him the desired basic dimensions which he called source traits. Let us see how this is done. These can be recognized by manifestations of behavior like curiosity.

this may be expressed as: The trait theory of Cattell. After obtaining the source traits (which are 16 in number) he tried to use them to predict behavior employing what is called the specification equation. that academic performance (AP) is predictable from two source traits namely intelligence (I) and Reading habits (R).4. Suppose. TYPE-CUM-TRAIT APPROACH . then. Basically. for example.e. traits) and then developing instruments to measure these dimensions. tried to describe and predict the behavior of individual on the basis of their personality traits (the fundamental building blocks of human personality). Cattell’s work as a whole. thus. The response or behavior of an individual is thus predicted from the degree to which he exhibits each source trait (T) modified by the importance of the trait for that response (s). involves the identification of basic dimensions of personality (by applying factor analysis techniques to the observable behavior i. Now also suppose that intelligence (I) is more important for this behavior than reading habits (R) in the ratio of 5:3.

1. it yields definite personality types. For instance. 1. H. Eysenck’s theory of personality. At the lowest level are the specific responses. While Cattell has tried to use the factor analysis technique to give some basic dimensions to personality by enumerating 16 basic traits. They grow out of particular responses to any single act. Blushing. for example. According to Eysenck. Habitual responses form the second level and comprise similar responses of an individual. 2.J. Introversion . How individual behavior is organized and acquires the shape of a definite type is revealed by the following illustration Fig. Eysenck. or (b) hesitancy in talking to strangers are habitual responses. went a step further in the adopting factor analysis technique by extracting second order factors and grouping traits into definite personality type.This approach tries to dynthesize the type and trait approaches. (a) the inability to easily strike friendships. there are four levels of behavior organization. a German-born British psychologist. Starting with the trait approach. to similar situations. is a specific response.

give birth to a group of traits called ‘shyness’. Behavior acts which have similarities are said to belong to one group and are called traits.Persistence Shyness Rigidity Irritability Subjectivity Habitual response level Specific response level 3. A type is defined as a group of correlated traits. rigidity. Eysenck’s work has clearly demonstrated that human behavior and personality can be very well-organized into a hierarchy with specific response at the bottom and the definite personality type at the top. have been grouped into a type termed as Introversion. Traits which are similar in nature give birth to a definite type just as figure 1 traits like persistence. In the above example the habitual responses (a) and (b) etc. 4. At the third level is the organization of habitual acts into traits. The fourth level is the organization of these traits into a general type. Introversion-extroversion . shyness etc. The three basis dimensions (defined as clusters or groups of correlated traits) derived by Eysenck through his work are: 1...

anxious or restless and at the upper end are persons who are stable. touchy. The second major dimension suggested by Eysenck involves emotional instability at the lower end and emotional stability at the upper end describing people as neurotic and not neurotic. Eysenck has also tried to make use of Cattell’s basic dimensions for the measurement of one’s personality by developing an appropriate set of questions in the form of two well-known inventories the Maudsley personality inventory and the Eysenck personality inventory. Thus. impulsive and opposed to accepted social norms while those scoring low are found to be more empathic and less adventurous and bold. The contribution of Eysenck’s theory to describing. Neuroticism (emotional instability-emotional stability) 3. at its lower end are the persons who are moody. insensitive. explaining.2. calm. and predieting one’s behavior and personality are notable and worthy of praise. extrovert. Psychoanalytical Approach The psychoanalytic approach to personality was first created and advocated by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) by viewing people as being engaged in a constant stuggle to tame their biological urges. egocentric impersonal. introvert. The people high on this dimension tend to be solitary. carefree. Psychoticism These three basic dimensions refer to definite personality types i.e. neurotic and psychotic. even-tempered and dependable. The third dimension is psychoticism. .

there are provinces or divistions which are always moving and interrelated. id. ego and superego (Fig. ego and superego The id is the raw. and Super Ego Ego Id Relative positions of id. Freud’s theory of personality is built on the premise that the mind is topographical and dynamic. Freud also believes that the anatomy of our personality is built around the three unified and inter-relating systems. follows . namely. tendencies and appetites as are guided by the pleasure-seeking principle. semiconscious and unconscious. the conscious. It has no values. desires. knows no laws. It consists of such ambitions. The human mind has three main divisions namely. ) Super ego Relative position of ID. Ego. savage and immoral basic stuff of a man’s personality that is hidden in the deep layers of his unconscious mind.Frend’s psychoanalytic theory of personality.

continuously presses for the immediate discharge of bodily tension. he is bound to have a maladjusted personality. Here two situations may arise. If. 1. Individuals who have a strong or powerful ego are said to have a strong or balanced personality because the ego is capable of maintaining a balance between the superego and the id. The extent to which the ego is able to discharge its responsibilities decides the personality make-up of the individual. the id is more powerful than the ego. does not recognize right or wrong and considers only the satisfaction of its needs and appetites to be paramount. Perfection rather than pleasure is its goal. In one situation. on the other hand. Freud put forward a dynamic concept of personality by conceptualizing the continuous conflict among the id. ego and superego. It is a decision-making entity which decides what is good or bad to the social norms and therefore acceptable or otherwise. The third system of personality is the superego. It is the ethical or moral arm of the personality. In case an individual possess a weak ego. It is idealistic and does not care for realities. While the id operating on the pleasure principle. the superego concerned with morality prohibits such gratification. the superego may be more powerful than the ego and so does not permit desirable fulfillment of the repressed wishes and impulses which results in a neurotic personality. the individual may . rules.

It believes in the goodness of man and reposes optimistic confidence in man’s positive nature.indulge in unlawful or immoral activities leading to the formation of a delinquent personality. the appreciation of beauty. the pattern of human behavior is always governed by the satisfaction of our needs from the lower. The Humanistic Approach This approach to personality came from a group of psychologists subscribing to the humanistic school of psychology. Abraham H. According to his theory. The goal is to seek self-actualization that usually comes from the pursuit of knowledge. Maslow. The self-actualization theory of Abraham Maslow. an American psychologist. playfulness. Thus. the so-called third force in psychology (the other two being behaviourism and psychoanalysis) reflects a humanistic trend in dealing with and understanding human behavior. self-sufficiency. The behavior or personality of a human being thus depends upon his style of striving towards the ultimate goal of self-realization. has been the major theorist adopting the humanistic approach for studying human behavior and personality. base level to the upper top level. Humanistic psychology. We have to satisfy our biological needs for our survival and for our social . human beings are basically good or neutral rather than evil and there lies in every one an impulse craving towards growth or the fulfillments of one’s potentials. insight into the truth or other constructive and creative expression.

.g. 1962): 1. This select group had included the well-known personalities past and present. Abraham Lincoln. Albert Einstein. Ability to attain transcendence. Maslow concluded that the self-actualized peopled have the following common characteristics which distinguish them the average person (Source: Maslow. Ability to perceive reality accurately. e. Roosevelt etc. nonstereotyped appreciation of objectives. Self-sufficiency and independence. These values or characteristics of a self-actualized person to which one’s efforts are directed in terms of the development of his personality have been enumerated by Maslow through sixteen basic characterizes. Need for privacy. LEARNING THEORIES OF PERSONALITY The learning theories of personality depiect a new development approach quite different from psychoanalytic and phenomenological . we have to strive for the satisfaction in the sociopsychological context. Willingness to accept reality readily. 3. 4. 7. 5. 2. spontaneous.. Ability to focus on problems rather than on themselves. Naturalness and spontaneity. 6. 8. and also his own professors and persons who were known for self-actualization in their respective fields. Capacity for fresh.and psychological needs.

The notable psychologists who are known to have developed personality theories are Pavlov. the concept of ego with the concept of learned drive and learned skills. In this theory they tried to substitute Freud’s concept of a pleasure principle with the principle of reinforcement. Skinner. By combining the psychology of learning with aspects of psychoanalytic theory. Watson. Dollard and Miller’s theory stressed the development of a personality on the basis of the responses and behaviour learnt through the . etc. Guthrie. the concept of conflict with competing reinforces etc. The child at birth is equipped with types of basic faculties: reflexes and innate hierarchies of responses and a set of primary drives. Dollard & Miller. Thus impelled by drives (both conditioned and unconditioned) one acquires responses to the extent that they reduce the drives. The theory of Dollard and Miller tries to describe the development of personality from simple drives to a complex function from a learning theory angle. Dollard and Miller’s Learning theory of personality. Thorndike.theories of personality in the sense that they emphasize the importance of learning and objectivity to understand personality. Bandura & Walters. John Dollard and Neil Miller (1950) in the institute of human relations at Yale University put forward their theory of personality. which are internal stimuli of great strength and are linked with known physiological processes which impel him to action. It emphasizes that what we consider as personality is learned.

process of motivation and reward. Dollard and Miller’s theory of personality did not really ascribe any static structure to personality, and emphasized, instead, habit formation through learning as a key factor in the development of personality. Bandura & Walters’ Social learning theory. Albert Bandura and Richard Walters (1963) came out with an innovative approach to personality in the form of their social learning theory. They advanced the view that what an individual presents to the world at large as his personality, is acquired though a continuous process of structuring and restructuring of experiences, gathered by means of social learning and later imitated in corresponding. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES Local or environmental factors also affect the personality of an individual. We regard that particular definition and adequate one which lakes into consideration the other persons around the individual. Thus we see that personality cannot be defined properly unless the environmental factors are taken into consideration. Personality development in keeping with the conditions of the environment in which an individual is placed and out of the experiences which grow in his relationship with other individuals. Social or environmental factors affect the personality even of your infants. This has clearly been established by the studies of their behavior

investigations of the changing of, or the persistence of reactions, such as crying, negativism, jealousy, irritability and quietness seem to indicates that biological as well as environmental factors are responsible for a very young child’s personality tendencies. It is rightly said that the individual has the personality be possesses mainly because of the kind of social environment and social experience had during his development. The kind of family in which he grew the teachers in the schools he attended, the people in his community playmates and indeed all people with whom he comes in contact have their imprint on him. Family influences. There are some social contacts which are more important for personality development than others. Among there are family influences. The attitude of parents towards the child, towards one another and toward other people, events and objects exercise a present influence upon the child’s developing personality. Scott’s study of adolescents in rural area of Nebraska indicates the effect of home life upon high school pupils. Factors, such as, enjoyment of group family life, little if any, work done away from home by mother, amount of punishment, emotional control and good health of the parents etc. lead to good adjustment. School Experiences. Similar to the home influences are the school experiences which influence to a great extent the developing personality of the child. If there are good teachers, well-furnished laboratories adequate play-grounds, etc., there are more chances that the personality of the child

will develop properly. If the student has offered some objects which he does not like, then also his personality will be affected adversely. The teacher is to guard against this. Assessment of Personality Why ‘Assessment of Personality’ rather than measurement personality has been chosen as the title of this section is a question that needs to be answered. This has been done because the accurate measurement of personality is itself problematical. The accuracy of any process of measurement depends on the following: 1. The nature of the thing to be measured. 2. The instruments to be used. 3. The person who will do the measurement. Let us now evaluate the measurement of personality in terms of these criteria.

The nature of the ‘thing’. Personality is a complex characteristic that it is hardly possibility to measure it. First, personality is not a ‘thing’; it is an idea, art abstraction, and in an attempt to measure it, we would have to wrongly, try to give it a concrete shape. Secondly since psychologists are not agreed upon the dimensions or content of personality, what would be measured? Thirdly, personality is not static. How can we accurately measure something which is constantly in the process of change and modification? Its

. In personality measurement.measurement would vary from time to time and hence would not be the same from one moment to the next. The process of measurement requires appropriate tools and satisfactory units of measurement. The nature of the instruments. the results of any evaluation of personality are bound to be influenced by the subjective views and the norms. No such reliable instruments are available for measurement of personality. In the absence of standard tools or units of measurement. . we encounter difficulties in this direction as well: (a) There is no zero (starting point) for reference in case of personality. likes and dislikes of the person carrying out the measurement. centimeters etc. temperature is measured in degrees but in psychological measurement we do not have any such equal or regular units of measurement. 2. No child is born with zero personality. The dependability. 3. (b) Length is measured in units like inches. (c) Accurate measurement requires exact scales or measuring instrument. accuracy and validity of any process of measurement largely depend on the competence and detachment of the person doing the measurement. The nature of the person.

In this way the actual measurement (which defines itself in terms of objectivity, reliability and validity) of personality is not possible. Also, it is very difficult to go round in search for all the constituents or elements of personality, most of which are unknown. Moreover, prediction of the future status is the most essential aim of measurement. In case of a dynamic phenomenon like personality, such prediction is not possible and hence it is not justified to use the term measurement. We can only have the estimate or assessment of personality. Techniques and Methods of Assessment of Personality The methods used for the assessment of personality may be termed as ob or projective. As it is not possible, however, to clearly demarcate subjectivity from objectivity and even effectively insulate projective processes against the subjectivity and personal biases of the examiner, it is necessary to look for other ways to classify the techniques of personality assessment. The commonly employed assessment techniques may be classified- as follows: 1. Where an individual’s behaviour in actual life situations can be observed, namely observation techniques and situation tests. 2. Where the individual is required to speak about himself namely, autobiography interview. questionnaire and personality inventory and

3. Where other people’s opinions about the individual whose personality is under assessment are ascertained. These are biographies, case history, rating scales and socio-metric techniques. 4. Projective techniques involving fantasy which aim at assessing the individual’s reaction to imaginary situations. 5. Indirect techniques in which some personality variables may be determined in terms of physiological responses by the use of machines or technical devices. Let us discuss some of the important techniques in detail. Observation Observation is a popular method to study the behaviour pattern of an individual in an actual life situation. The observer decides what personality traits or characteristics he needs to know, and he then observes the relevant activities of the subject in teal life situations. The observation can be done in two ways. In one the observer does not hide from the subject or subjects and even becomes more or less a part of the group under observation. In the other, he takes a position where his presence is least disturbing to the subject but from where he can clearly observe every detail of the behaviour of the individual under observation. He may also use a tape-recorder, photographic cameras, a telescope etc. To ensure reliability of the observed results, the observer may repeat the observations in the same situation

several times, or the subject may be observed by a number of observers and the results may be pooled together. Situational Tests Here situations are artificially created in which an individual is expected to perform acts related to the personality traits under testing. For example, to test the honesty of an individual, some situations can be created and his reaction can be evaluated in terms of honesty or dishonesty. Does he feel the temptation to resort to copying? Does he try to pick up the ten-rupee note which is lying there? His behaviour would lead to an assessment of how honest he is. Questionnaire The nature of a questionnaire is explained by the description given by Goode and Hatt (1952): In general the word questionnaire refers to a device for securing answers to questions by using a form which the respondent fills in himself. This definition makes it clear that in collecting information from the subject himself about his personality characteristics, a form consisting of a series of printed or written questions is used. The subject responds to these questions in the spaces provided in columns of yes, no or cannot say etc.

e. . set in the questionnaire are generally worded in the second person. Second.. No. Do you often feel lonely? Yes. personality inventory is specifically designed to seek answers about the person and his personality. First. scoring. No. are included in the questionnaires: Yes. it is different in two ways. interpretation etc. the questions. Do you enjoy being alone? Do you enjoy seeing others succeed? Do you laugh at a joke on yourself? ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ (Cannot say) __________ __________ __________ __________ Do you get along well with your relatives? ___ This is the most popular method and is quite useful in collecting both quantitative as well as qualitative information. like the following. Personality Inventory While this resembles the questionnaire in many respects such as administration. while the questionnaire is a general device and can be used for collecting all kinds of information not connected specifically with personality traits or the behaviour of an individual. Items.g.These answers are then evaluated and used for personality assessment.

There is something wrong with my sex organs. The subject reads the questions and then. they may be worded in the first person such as.) developed by Cattell are some of the other well-known inventories. no or doubtful in the space provided for the purpose. according to his response puts it down as yes.F. Hathaway of the Minnesota Medical School. The best known personality inventory is the Minnesota Multiphasic personality Inventory (MMPI) developed by J. I often feel lonely. I have never been in love with any one. I like to talk about sex.While in the personality inventory. Each hem is printed on a separate card. The items included in this inventory are such that their answers are known to indicate certain specific personality traits.R. The questionnaire and personality inventory technique suffer from the following drawbacks: .C. the Eysenck personality inventory and the Sixteen personality factor inventory (16 P. Evaluation of the important personality traits can then be done in terms of these responses. The California personality inventory. It consists of 550 items some of which are: I sweat very easily even on cool days. McKinley and S.

from high to low is termed as a rating scale . The specific trait or traits to be rated. poor.1. He may be ignorant of his own traits or qualities which he may possess. 2. First of all. which have to be evaluated by the judges are to be stated and defined clearly. the traits or characteristics. It reflects the impression the subject has made upon the person who rates him. 2. on equal intervals. The subject may give selective responses rather than genuine ones (hide his weaknesses etc. How it is done can he understood from the example which follows: Suppose we wish to rate the students of a class for the quality leadership. very poor etc.) 3. 3. We can rate the degrees of this quality as divisions such as very good. The rating scale is used to assess where an individual stands in terms of other people’s opinion of some of his personality traits. Now the arrangement of these divisions along a line. The scale on which the degree of possession or absence of the trait has to he shown. There are three basic factors involved in this technique: 1. The appropriate persons or judges for rating. It is difficult to get the responses to all questions. Rating scale. Then a scale for the rating has to be constructed. average.

and under the halo effect. 1 to 5 or 1 to 7. The seven-point scale is of the following type: 7 Excellent 6 Very good 5 Good 4 Average 3 Below average 2 Poor 1 Very poor Now the raters. To bring some reliability into rating scale technique. than he may actually be. the raters hesitate to give very high or very low ratings and tend to keep their ratings in the middle. subjective bias and halo effect etc. Subjective bias leads to their own likes and dislikes. . who are in a position to properly rate the individuals may be asked to give them scores. Rating techniques suffer from some obvious drawbacks like the error of central tendency. parents etc. they may rate an individual (on the basis of general impression) to be more honest or the like. colouring their assessment of the individuals under rating. we an assign the rating more judges . classmates. Usually the divisions of the scale are indicated by numbers.for example to different teachers. it has been that instead of having rating by only one judge. 1 to 3. five-point or seven-point scale. ranging from 1 to 7.for assessment of the quality of leadership. according to the degree of leadership they possess. In the former. – the rating may be done by pooling the individual assessments. comprising a threepoint.

Here the interviewer asks the interviewee any question on any subject relevant to the situation. is prepared for this purpose and after taking the subject into confidence. the psychologist tries to seek answers to these pre-planned questions. a list of questions. The structured interview on the other hand.Interview Interview is a technique of eliciting information directly from the subject about his personality in face-to-face contacts. . An unstructured interview is an open interrogation. the psychologist tries to arrange a meeting with the person or persons under assessment. It gives an opportunity for mutual exchange of ideas and information between the subject and the psychologists. and to clarify any bought that may emerge in the broad assessment of his personality. The face to face interaction in the interview is of two types viz. He does not attend to only the content of the responses but also to the tone. Usually. The interviewer here is not restricted to a particular set of predetermined questions hut is free to drift along the paths opened up by the interviewee to explore any issue that may arise. structured or unstructured. Here the interviewer is definite about the personality traits or behaviour he has to assess and then plans accordingly. adopts a systematic and predetermined approach instead of riding on the tides of the situation. For this purpose..

can also be obtained. This was. It also suffers from the subjective bias of the interviewer. like questionnaire and personality inventory. Here also. To his perception of the outer world is determined largely by the feelings. and money. for the total evaluation in terms of the designated personality pattern of the individual. which subjects may hesitate to put in writing. The limitations of this technique are that it calls for a well-trained competent interviewer and is costly in terms of labour. time. It permits explanation. The points in favour of the technique are that answers are obtained to every question which is put to the subject. thoughts and . adjustment and variation according to the situation and thus has proved to be one of the essential and more important tools of personality assessment. interview is a relatively flexible tool. we cannot have any safeguard to prevent the subject from hiding his feelings or from giving selective responses. In fact. meaning reflection of one’s own inner self upon the external objects. Freud was first to use this word. fears. In fact. desires. according to Freud.behaviour and other similar factors. responses even to intimate questions. one of the defence mechanisms used by the individual to solve his own mental conflicts. Techniques and methods of assessment of personality Projective Techniques The title is derived from projection.

may beat a male rubber doll. for example. Conscious mind is only a segment. “to ascribe to the external world the repressed mental process. A child. a part of our total personality.ideas of the inner world which is unknown. According to it the quality of personality is much affected by the unconscious motives and emotions.” Through this technique is let out the hidden quality of the personality. wishing-to hit his cruel father. kick it or break its neck or the neck of a toy elephant by calling it a devil. Here the toys symbolized the cruel father and the child expressed his anger against him. Thus. The conscious mind derives its strength from the unconscious mind. This is based upon depth psychology. Following are the devices used in Projective Techniques – (i) The Rorschach Test . To test the whole personality we must have some technique to measure and elicit this unconscious and depth-character of personality. certain unconscious dispositions that determine behaviour and the quality of the personality are disclosed and we have an idea of type of personality one has. Projective techniques makes this possible which according to Waiter is a tendency. This tells us as what lies at the back of our conscious behaviour. It was Freud who first made inquiry into hidden motives. the psychology of tile unconscious. We must measure this depth of personality below the forbidden crust of consciousness.

) (iv) Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Test (v) Role-playing and Psycho-drama (vi) Free Association or Word-Association Test (WAT) (vii) Picture Completion Test (PCT) (viii) Sentence Completion Test (SCT) (ix) Story Making (x) Play-Therapy (xi) Expressive Movement Test-Drawing.(ii) Thematic Apperception Test (T. Dramatics Or. The above techniques will be dealt with here briefly. and (xiii) Autobiography Or. Novels Writing.T.T. Biography. Hand writing and Sculpture (EMT) (xii) Poetry. Painting.A.A.) (iii) Children’s Apperception Test (C. (I) The Rorschact Test .

Binet and Simon. Kener (1857). Dearborn and G. 1922. Whipple. above all. Prior to him J. 1 884. Hall. what was called as a shorthand method by Beck-later. But.This test is also known as ink-blot test.them and in 1921 he published his studies called Psychodiagnostic before his premature and early death on April 2. also made use of these ink-blots. Herman Rorschach was born in Zurich in Nov. Galton (1883). . Prof. Britin (1907).S. for understanding the responses of an individual. medicine After this He till he studied 1910. pursued the study of ink-blots for ten years starting in 1911 using hundreds of. Rorschach was the first to develop a workable method. He was the son of an art teacher. Bartlett (1916). Rorschach was not the only man who used ink-blots for evolving his series as a systematic diagnostic test known by his name.

The examiner records all the verbal responses. Then all the responses are arranged to find out the percentage of each category . Determinants mean whether it was human movement. total time and the card turnings. or small details in it. Contents mean whether the response pertains to human beings or to parts of the human body.Rorschach Test consists of 30 pictures. After the responses have been tabulated they are scored in accordance with the four categories of Location. the whole of it. on the left or on the right. the time taken for the first response. Location means the portion of the card seen that is. major part of it. Content and the Determinants. Originality or popularity stands for the response being popular or being very unusual or original. two black and red and the rest fully coloured. Out of 700 pictures he selected only 30 which are standardized. ten for women. Every response is judged in terms of these four categories and the symbols for them are given to each response. animal movement or inanimate movement. time spent on each card. and ten for men and women both. three dimensional vista or loose expanse like clouds or smoke and so on as given in the chart. He is also told that he can turn the cards upside. animals or some part of the animal body and so on. five are black and grey. The cards are shown to the subject one by one and is asked to look into each card carefully and report what it looks like to him or what he sees in it or what it makes him think of. down. ten for men. Of the ten common cards or ink-blots.

excessive reaction upon colour expresses the subject’s impulsiveness. reaction upon whole block indicates abstract. All the figures on these ten cards bear no specific meaning. all the scoring is not quite so simple. five cards bear black figures two cards bear red and black figures and rest of the cards bear the figures of mixed coloures. Secondly. reaction upon colour and shape as well indicates his spontaneity of emotional expression. On behalf of protocol a Clinician infers about personality traits. Thus. (i) Material of the Test – There ten cards in this test. theoretical knowledge while the same upon a part suggests compulsion neurosis. For example. Again. perception of movement suggests introversion while that of animal shapes indicates narrow thinking. Test Details This test was constructed by Herman Rorschach a Swiss Psychologist in 1921. However. The reactions regarding the printed figures on these cards are noted. Thirdly. (ii) Administration of the Test .and the protocol is made about each person and interpretation is given. in administering and interpreting Rorschach Test only trained personnel is needed. This test is considered the most successful test. These cards bear unstructured figures like blots. Out of these ten cards.These ten cards are given to the individual whose personality is to be evaluated one by one. The individual is asked about what they see in the figures of those .

This is seen in the context that which part of the figure printed on the card an individual includes in his reaction. For this analysis. If the individual has reacted on the basis of whole of the figure. if he explains excessively it is denoted as ‘D’. The individual can see these cards from any angle. (b) Contents .After the test is over. If an individual reacts regarding blank places that reaction is represented by the word’s’. The human figures are . The sharp observations of the individual are marked as ‘d’. that reaction is designated as ‘W’. animal. There is no restriction ‘to see the cards from the same angle. the following four steps should be taken in view(a) Location . figures of objects or of natural sceneries. (iii)Analysis of the Responses .in this all what an individual looks into the figures printed on the cards are noted such as a figure or a person. the responses received from the individual are analysed. The reactions of the individual after looking at the figures. his style of holding the cards and face readings of that individual are recorded. It is seen whether an individual is making his reactions on the basis of whole of the figure or on looking at the basis of its part only. The time which an individual wants to see each card is given to the individual. the responses are scored. For the scoring of

umbrella etc. as ‘O’. (iv) Validity and Reliability .g. All can not use this test. if it is colour it is denoted by ‘C’ motion by ‘M’ and the variation in colours as ‘K’. . mental and social aspects of the individual.The utility of Rorschach’s test is as below – test proved useful to know the reasons of complicated (a) This unsocial activities. (d) Originality . (b) This test reveals the intelligence of the testee. (c) This test familiarizes us regarding the emotional. (v) Utility . (vi) Criticism (a) This method is not useful for small children.The already declared or familiar responses are denoted by ‘P’ and if original response are made.Its reliability has been calculated ranging from . (b) It needs more time and finance.49.Determining elements are those factors which help the individuals in perceiving the figures printed on the cards. e. these are marked as ‘o’.97 and its validity is .denoted as H.67 to . (d) This test lacks objectivity. (c) To conduct this test.. animal figures as A. natural scenes as N and other objects like pots. efficient and trained persons are needed. (c) Determining Elements .

he has to reveal a picture of his private world.(II) Thematic Apperecption Test (TAT) Thematic Apperception Test is an another important test in the family of projective techniques. He has also to say how the. The pictures depict common life situations of tussels between children and parents. First conceived by Morgan it was developed by Murray in 1935. the other exclusively for women. rivalry. . One is exclusively meant for men. which are divided into three sets. These pictures are presented one by one to the subject who is asked to narrate a story centred round the incident portrayed in the picture. and the third is used with both of them. incident may have taken place and what might follow as a result thereof. love affairs. frustrations in achieving or securing things of interest. One blank card is also there. parental relations. jealousy. each set contains 10 pictures. In short. aggression and hostility as in Oedipus and Electra situations and so on. The test consists of 30 pictures in the original.

an individual exposes all that which he would be reluctant to express voluntarily. the interrelationships of the hero with other figures. he also tries to find the needs and goals (Trends). the frustrating or facilitating situations or persons (Press). Thus.The fun is that the subject happens to identify himself with one or other character depicted in the picture and his narration becomes a sort of autobiography. As a procedure. The technique of interpretation of the stories is not one and rests on understanding of personality dynamics which can be gained only from intimate or first hand association with diagnostic and therapeutic work. for each card. and the way various figures have been depicted (Figures). the nature of the outcome (sad or happy. the theme or the ‘plot’ of the story. the psychologist first tries to find the ‘Hero’ or the central character with whom the subject has identified himself (Identification). Besides these. It differs from person to person. .

TAT seems to be more organized than the Rorschach Test as here. the pictures are presented one by one.real or unreal) and certain formal characteristics (vocabulary.). one gives expressions to a wide variety of his feelings and actions to the figures shown in the picture which are a part of everybody’s life. Only the original imagination is seen . Test Details This test was constructed by Morgan and Murray in 1925. There is no correct or incorrect response in this test. ten are for females and rest 10 are for both. 10 pictures are for males. Thus. Administration of the Test . The stories are read and re-read carefully several times until meaningful whole emerges.This test also possesses 30 pictures in these. These cards are shown in two turns.In this test. etc. (i) Material of the Test . These pictures are vague. imagination. Every person is shown 20 pictures.

The story regarding a picture is to be written on the following aspect - (a) What is going on in the picture? (b) What the causes of it can be? (c) Its result etc. the persons who are unable to express themselves before others can be able to express themselves through these stories. The individual is given a definite time. expectations. through these stories. An individual can express his feelings. The testee is to write a story after looking at that picture on the card in a definite time.The stories are anaiysed on the of the basis of the following facts (a) How the personality of the hero of the story was? . Analysis and Interpretation . etc. this test.

and is useful for elders only. . sibling rivalry. printed on cards depicting animals in various 4 different’ situations as of children from 3-10 (of both sexes) years for whom this test is devised to elicit responses to problems presented by children such as feeding fads. primal scene. It consists of 10 pictures. This test is not fit for children. well trained persons are needed. to conduct this test. (c) Style and language of the story. This may affect the complete interpretation of the personality. (iv) Criticism. reactions towards parents. Secondly. parental attitude.In this method. (d) Contents of the story. (e) Behaviour of the individual while writing the story. (III) Children’s Apper-ception Test (CAT) Children’s Apperception Test (CAT) is the test on the lines of TAT developed by Leopold Bellak of the school of Education. edipus situation. New York University. (f) End of the story. child’s fantasies around aggression.(b) Theme of the story. some untrained testers may interpret incorrectly the stories written after looking at the pictures.

in an Indian adaptation (by Uma Chaudhary) fox is substituted for Kangaroo. (h) A lion sitting with a pipe in mouth and a stick by his side. (b) Mother fox going shopping with the little young one of the fox following her on a cycle. For example.acceptance by adult world. (f) Two bears as mother and father sleeping in a double bed and two younger ones are seen talking. (c) Bears pulling at a tugof-war and the little cub siding with one parent. . as it were. In such cases some items. fear of being rejected and being lonely. (e) Dog mother is beating the pup for going to the pot. toilet behavior etc. for instance. (d) Two monkeys sitting on a bench are seen conspiring. (g) A little rabbit is shut in a room alone. I Two bears are shown together and a cub sitting in the corner. animals and situations are changed. European type of toilet seat in bath room is changed into Indian style. Here animals are shown since children are more interested in animals and the test was to be culture free to be used for children of all except for those groups which might not be familiar with things like bicycle. The chicken are shown eating without spoons. The 10 pictures are (a) Mother hen at the breakfast table watching chicken (as children) eating from plates.

(I) The main theme (ii) The main Hero (ii) Attitudes towards parental figures (iv) Family member’s role (v) The figure or objects (vi) Nature of anxieties (vii) Significant conflicts (viii) Nature of punishment (ix) Outcome of the story (x) The objects or figures omitted. The application of this test and the interpretation of it cannot be done as in the case of ordinary tests it requires special experience. (iv) Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Test Picture-Frustration Test of Saul Rosenzweig is devised for assessing the degree of frustration. the test is found to be very useful revealing about the problems which children present and this diagnostic information is found very handy to deal with those problem children or the problem presented by some children. study of human nature and insight as in the case of TAT. guilt feelings and punishment for something going wrong by presenting to children certain .To study the reproductions or stories of children after seeing these pictures one by one and to interpret them. In the hands of an experienced and trained personnel. 10 variable are kept in view viz.

Moreno provide an opportunity to live through an experience which the patient wishes to live through. the subject examines the situations and writes in the blank space the first reply that enters his mind as likely to be given by the anonymous figure. each depicting a situation which might occur in any ordinary day. as if he were cutting the throat . An enquiry is conducted at the end of the test. Each picture represents two persons who are involved in a mildly frustrating situation of common occurrence. Frustration may be of any type. popularised by J. He may play the role of a tyrant. This test can be administered individually as well as in a group and is designed to assess reactions to stress-situations. (v) Role-Playing and Psycho-drama Role-playing as in Psycho-drama. wielding his sword and hitting a dummy with full force. In each picture. The material consists of an eight page booklet of 24 cartoonlike drawings.frustrating situations through pictures like a child trying to find something nice in a cupboard by getting on a stool and not finding anything.L. missing the bus just on reaching. breaking something etc.

how she was brought up by him when she was hardly tow months old when her mother died. because the therapeutic technique consisted in making her to abuse her father as much as she could as she through that it was he who stood in her way to marry the young man. she through necessary. The case in this psychodrama was that the father of the girl was objecting seriously to the proposal of the girl to marry the young man. sobbing and crying. She was his only consolation and hope. she was consoled by the father. hostility and aggression against the father by giving him hard hits of verbal blows in the abusive language as “you son of nun. telling her not to feel so bad but to think of the whole situation. To illustrate this technique one true example is here.of the winner in a race or competition where the patient lost some years ago and the patient may have harboured the grudge and may have felt agitated looking for a chance to wreak his revenge.” and so on. Moreno’s wife and the couple were asked to come up on the stage and Moreno’s friends was also asked to play the role of the father of the girl. Once in the clinic of Moreno there was a couple where some other persons were also sitting round a stage in the centre of big room. and for her sake he did not remarry and found everything possible for her best . After she had finished and exhausted with tears in her eyes. Here the chance was given in the role the girl was playing to express herself freely and she expressed her anger. And the father’s role was just to allow her to speak up as long as. bastered.

Munsterberg etc.comforts and for nourishment. Cattell. Galton (1879). This was Freud’s technique both for diagnosis and treatment of mental patients. (VI) Free Association or Word Association Test (WAT) Iinterest in the association of ideas began with the associationistic school before the advent of experimental psychology. Jastrow. food and clothing and gave her the best education. as the speculations of John Locke. Galton began his more systematic study in 1885. Freud used free association when the patient was required to freely associate his ideas and go on speaking about himself freely by lying in a couch in a relaxed mood. . Wundt (1980).

multi-words. It thus becomes and index of all the psychical process which we have but to decipher in order to understand the complete man. While drawing the list. a numbe3r of significant words are chosen and mixed up with a number of neutral words. as quickly as possible. Responses with reaction times are noted in each case. He is then told to respond. Some testers repeat the procedure immediately after the first administration. He assumed that the deviant behavior occurred because the stimulus word had touched off a deep conflict or complex. is kept free from all noise. asked to explain any obscure connections between stimulus and response words. The subject is. The room in which he is seated. The subject is seated comfortably on a chair with his eyes closed and mind relaxed. A stop watch is used to record the reaction time of each response word. requesting the examinee to reply as far as possible with the responses given originally. also sometimes. usually numbering between 50 and 100 items. “In the activity of association there is mirrored the whole psychical essence of the past and of the present with all their experiences and desires.Bleuler writes. after hearing the stimulus word given by the examiner. definitions or their opposites. with the first word that comes to his mind.” Jung utilized this technique to investigate the unconscious. The reaction words may be any words except that they should not be sentences. The test material consists of a standardized list of words. .

Each standardized list has got its own norms with which an individual response are compared. he will imagine the lines to mean something and this imagination will be his own phantasy and he will project himself on those outlines of incomplete picture to complete it. draw up a special list to meet the requirements of a particular case or selected words may be interpolated in one of the standard lists. The . (VII) Picture completion Test (PCT) Picture completion is another method to study the unconscious contents. bare If mental certain or outlines incomplete pictures are given and the subject is asked to fill in the gaps or complete the picture.Sometimes the continuous method of free association is also used at doubtful words revealing complexes. An examiner may. He showed that every individual added something of his own and did not reproduce only what he saw. This procedure was long time ago studied by Bartlett for serial reproduction of certain outlines of vague pictures by presenting the reproduction of one person to the next and his to another and so on through many hands. also sometimes.

............ as a projective method the reproductive attempt to complete the picture give some data about one’s mental make up......................................... The future .............................. But.................................................................... For example........................................ When somebody weeps I .... This process also explained how rumours spread. The completed sentence indicate the hidden desires...... interests....... I wish I ...........bare and vague outline of something like a fish........................................................ .................... (VIII) Sentence Completion Test (SCT) A semi-projective technique used for assessment of personality is the Incomplete Sentence Blank (JSB) or the Sentence Completion Test (SCT)............................................... for example............................................ They reveal emotional disturbances..................... when passed through serial reproductions of a number of children became a clear picture of a bird eating from a cup.............. incomplete sentences like these – I failed .................... feelings or the attitudes of the subject toward himself and others........... My mother wants to ............... When I am alone I .. The method requires giving a series of stems or the first part of the sentence and on the basis of these stems subject is asked to complete the sentence in any way he sees fit..............................................................................................


as was used by Symonds to have a peep into the mental working of the individual. as in a child guidance clinic. The central idea is the same. the play therapist not only finds the clue for the mental problems of the child but helps him to have some catharsis for his pent up feelings. Play is for diagnosis and for therapy for children as psycho-analysis is for adults. Doll playing is also a form of play where instead of having a free . Rotler. A well known Incomplete Sentence Blank has been prepared by J. guilt.B. hostility or anxiety. It is observed that sentence completion method can be used with children from about a years of age and upward. In this blank the scoring method is based on a classification of responses in three categories-conflict or unhealthy responses. the subject projects itself on the pictures or persons shown therein by identifying himself with anyone of them and so interpreting the scene in the picture in terms of his own hidden desires. This method is elaborately made use of in TAT as discussed previously. hostility. (IX) Story Making Story making or story writing by seeing pictures is used as a projective device. and positive or healthy responses. jealousy or anxiety. repressed feelings or unconscious motives. that is.And the material used to complete them can make an individual to reveal himself in many ways. (X) Play-Therapy Through play. neutral responses.

In a similar manner clay-modelling like-playing with mud -in the child guidance play room enables the child to have a free expression to his phantasies.choice of toys. devils or other frightening objects. . The various emotional cross-currents of an inhibited. The dolls many represent the father or mother or elders with whom he is living and also siblings. the child plays with dolls and gives free vent to his phantasies which reveal his unconscious mind. ghosts. repressed and unconscious nature flowing in the child’s mind pertaining to people in his social environment find easy outlet. friends. hidden desires and other troubling thoughts. classmates.

. paintings. and thus projected themselves through these media. it has his own personal stamp. colours and chisel. frustrated in love. The frustrated desires burst open in songs or in strokes on the canvas. paints the picture of his beloved and feels as if he is in union with her while painting her arms. Great masters wept out their own heart through brush. as a poet uses his pen to express himself and a painter uses his brush. Drawings of children have been extensively used in guidance clinics both for diagnostic and therapeutics purposes. An artist. sculpture and such art media. Art creation in many cases is the story of the artist’s ‘own personality make up. when freely used by the artist are used to point his own mental contents. breasts or cheeks. as no one can jump out of himself what he makes in his own.(XI) Expressive Movement Tests (EMT) Expressive Movement Tests include drawings.

‘Khoshboo’. expresses the inner life of the writer. ‘Kora Kagaj’. the movies like. ‘Thori Si Bewafai’ etc. ‘Aandhi’. An individual’s for one choice of language reveals self-expression aspect of his personality. in a way. reflect the inner or emotional level of the speaker. ‘Abhimaan’. ‘Dard Ka Rista’. the autobiographic: portions of his complex life. Dramatics and Novel Writing Poetry. Many novels of Sarat Chander like ‘SHRIKANT’ are. After all every writer writes what he is and he cannot be other than himself. dramatics.. According to Piaget the manner in which the child uses the language forms. ‘Aap Ki Kasam’. as in egocentric expressions. ‘Kinara’. Similarly. are all based on egocentric theme. What the writer of poems or novels or stories writes. Language is said to be the vehicle of thought. ‘Samay Ki Dhara’. he cannot jump out . story and novel writing reveal the personality both through the language used as well as the theme or contents of the writing. In the psycho-analytical sense Meera’s Poems and Bhajans are the expressions of her frustrated love.(XII) Poetry.

The biographer of an ‘Unknown Indian” e.g. Shakespeare himself minus the Prince of Denmark. the writer forgets himself and digs up unconscious and pours out his heart about his failures. . in some respect. the biographer projects himself on paper with pen and ink. Shakespeare’s Hamlet is. While writing. as in the heat of the moment while writing on certain events.of himself to be something entirely different. The literary critics analyse the personality of the writer from his creations. (XIII) Autobiography or Biography Autobiography or Biography provide sample material which give insight into the working of the mind of the biographer. writes all about himself and like as a patient in free association sessions in the room of the psycho-analyst the writer as a patient is revealing his unconscious.. frustration and ambitions. episodes or experiences.

both conscious and unconscious behaviours can be studied. This instrument produces low level sounds which resemble speech. De-merits of Projective Techniques 1. One cannot know which aspect of personality is being looked into. 4. 3. 2.A unique device introduced by Skinner and adopted by Shakow and Grings is the so called Tautophone or Verbal summator.” . 2. Merits of Projective Techniques 1. With these methods. It takes much time in scoring. In these tests. These methods and the material used in these tests are much costlier. Subjects hear it and are asked to tell what the voice is saying and they thus project their own preoccupations and meanings into an auditory medium. an individual performs an activity which is un structured. With this method. 4. These tests lack objectivity. 3. For the administration of these tests trained persons are needed and scarcity of such persons often exits. The nature of these methods is much secret. “Intelligence is the ability to make profitable use of past experience. various aspects of one’s personality can be evaluated. The projective methods have wide field.

There is no doubt that the scope of projective testing is unlimited.” On behalf of this statement and from the diversity of techniques it can be said that some psychologists have given penetrating accounts of the dynamics of personality on their basis. ideas and feelings which underlie behaviour. but without a standard mirror to validate one’s genuine self. Also. psychiatrists and clinicians.. and they can reveal hidden wishes. they probe into the region of the unconscious and present a broader and fuller picture of personality. At the same time reliability and validity of these tests is woefully lacking. . “A journey through these various personality tests may seem more like a visit to the fairground’s hail of distorting mirrors. but the only disadvantage is that these tools can be handled only by trained psychologists. But. even they are not suitable for use by teachers.Thorndike CONCLUDING My Friend says.

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