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1.

0 OBJECTIVE

The sieve analysis determines the grain size distribution curve of soil sample by passing them through a stack of sieves of decreasing mesh opening sizes and by measuring the weight retained on each sieve. The sieve analysis is generally applied to the soil fraction larger than 75m.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME

At the end of this experiment, students are able to: 2.1 Understand the methods used to determine the size of soil particles in the laboratory; 2.2 Carry out the calculation processes used in particle size determination; 2.3 Understand the methods used to determine the consistency properties of fine grained soils in the laboratory; 2.4 Carry out the calculation and plotting processes used in consistency limit methods of classification; 2.5 Appreciate the way in which particle size and consistency properties are used to classify and predict the probable behavior of soils and also to indicate the type of tests needed to assess their engineering characteristics.

3.0 THEORY

(BS1377 : Part 2:1990:9.3), Sieving can be performed in either wet or dry conditions. Dry sieving is used only for soil with a negligible amount of plastic fines such as gravels and clean sands, where as wet sieving is applied to soils with plastic fines. According to the British Standard, dry sieving may be carried out only on materials for which this procedure gives the same results as the wet-sieving procedure. This means that it is applicable only to clean granular materials, which usually implies clean sandy or gravelly soils that is, soils containing negligible amounts of particles of silt or clay size. Normally the wet-sieving procedure should be followed for all soils. If particles of medium gravel size or larger are present in significant amounts, 1

the initial size of the sample required may be such that riffling is necessary at some stage to reduce the sample to a manageable size for fine sieving.

BS 1377: 1990, allows either wet or dry sieving to be used, but the wet method is preferred. After oven drying, the test sample mass is determine before being separated into two parts, the first comprises that retained on a 20 mm sieve and the second that passing 20 mm. That greater than 20 mm is dry sieves, while that smaller is wet sieve prior to being re-sieved dry. The sieves used are generally chosen from the range (in mm) of 75, 63, 50, 37.5, 28, 20, 14, 10, 63.5, 3.35, 2, 1.18, 0.6, 0.425, 0.3, 0.212, 0.15 and 0.063. The mass retained on each sieve is recorded, from which the percentage of the sample passing each sieve can be calculated. Material passing the 63 micron (0.063 mm) sieve is retained for a fine particle analysis, if the amount justifies the further test. The combined results of the coarse and fine analyses are plotted on a semi-logarithmic graph of the form show in Figure 1.0, to give the particle size distribution curve.

Figure 1 : Particle size grading curves of some typical soil

4.0 TEST EQUIPMENTS

1. Series of standard sieves with opening ranging from 7.5cm to 75m including a cover plate and bottom pan. 2. Test sieve having the following aperture size 10mm, 6mm, 1mm, 0.6mm, 0.3mm, 0.15mm, 0.063 mm. 3. Mechanical sieve shaker 4. Balances sensitive 0.5g 5. Soft wire brush

Figure 2 : Typical stack of sieve for grain size analysis

5.0 TEST PROCEDURE

1. Write down the weight of each sieve as well as the bottom pan to be used in the analysis.

2. Record the weight of the given dry soil sample.

3. Make sure that all the sieves are clean, and assemble them in the ascending order of sieve numbers. Place the pan below #200 sieves. Carefully pour the soil sample into the top sieve and place the cap over it.

4. Place the sieve stack in the mechanical shaker and shake for 10 minutes.

5. Remove the stack from the shaker and carefully weigh and record the weight of each sieve with its retained soil. In addition, remember to weight and record the weight of the bottom pan with its retained fine soil.

6.0 DATA SHEET:

Sieve no. size (mm) 10.000 6.300 1.180 0.600 0.300 0.150 0.063 Pan

Mass Retained (g) 0 50.8 66.4 236.1 84.8 32.3 16.4 10.3

Mass Passing (g) 500 449.2 382.8 146.7 61.9 29.6 13.2

Cumulative Percentage passing (%) 100 90 77 29 12 6 3

How to calculate mass passing

Mass passing when sieve no size 10.00mm is (500 - 0) = 500g Mass passing when sieve no size 6.30mm is (500 50.8) = 449.2g Mass passing when sieve no size 1.18mm is (449.2 66.4) = 382.8g Mass passing when sieve no size 0.60mm is (382.8 236.1) = 146.7g Mass passing when sieve no size 0.30mm is (146.7 84.8) = 61.9g Mass passing when sieve no size 0.15mm is (61.9 32.3) = 29.6g Mass passing when sieve no size pan is (29.6 16.4) = 13.2g

How to calculate cumulative percentage passing ( % )

Formula :

mass passing

x 100

Mass of dry sample

Sieve no size = 10.00mm Cumulative percentage passing : 500 x 100 500 : 100% Sieve no size = 6.30mm Cumulative percentage passing : 449.2 500 : 90% Sieve no size = 1.18mm Cumulative percentage passing : 382.8 500 : 77 % x 100 x 100

Sieve no size = 0.6mm Cumulative percentage passing : 146.7 500 : 29% x 100

Sieve no size = 0.3mm Cumulative percentage passing : 61.9 x 100 500 : 12% Sieve no size = 0.15mm Cumulative percentage passing : 29.6 500 : 6% 7 x 100

Sieve no size = 0.063mm Cumulative percentage passing : 13.2 500 : 3% = 100 - % Retained. x 100

% Passing

Mass of dry sample =

500

gram

Plot particles size distribution chart.

Cu

d 60 d 10

= ____________ .

d Cc 30 =___________. d 60 d10

TABURAN SAIZ ZARAH


120 100

80

60

Perjumlahan Kumulatif (%)

40

20

0 0.63 0.15 0.3 0.6 1.18 6.3 10

7.0 QUESTIONS

1. What is the purpose of grain size analysis?

The purpose of sieve analysis is to determine the grain size distribution curve if soil sample by passing them through a stack of sieves of decreasing mesh opening sizes and by measuring the weight retained on each sieve. The sieve analysis is generally applied to the soil fraction larger than 75m.

Meanwhile, student would be able to used methods that are thought in lecture class determine the size of soil particles in the laboratory. Moreover, students will understand a lot more on a method used to determine the consistency properties of fine grained soils in the laboratory, and even this method will be helpful in the future when they work.

Nevertheless, grain size analysis have its own type of graph, and those who had settle the calculation and plotting graph process for this experiment, they absolutely will master on consistency limit methods of classification. Lastly, student also should appreciate this analysis experiment for showing the way in which particle size and consistency properties are used to classify and predict the probable behavior of soils and also to indicate the type of test needed to assess their engineering characteristics.

2. Under what conditions should you use wet sieving instead of dry sieving?

Sieving can be performed in either wet or dry conditions. Dry sieving is used only for soil with a negligible amount of plastic fines such as gravels and clean sands, where as wet sieving is applied to soils with plastic fines.

According to the British Standard, dry sieving maybe carried out only on materials for which this procedure gives the same result as the wet-sieving procedure. This means that it is applicable only to clean granular materials, which usually implies 9

clean sandy or gravelly soils that is, soils containing negligible amounts of particles of silt or clay size. Normally the wet-sieving procedure should be followed for all soils. If particles of medium gravel size or larger are present in significant amount, the initial size of the sample required may be such that riffling is necessary at some stage to reduce the sample to a manageable size for fine sieving.

3. What is the smallest and largest mesh openings used in practice for determining grain size distribution?

For this dry sieving experiment, the kind of opening that we used are the series of standard sieves and opening ranging from 7.5cm- 75m including a cover plate on the top of those sieves and a bottom pan. Then, to shake those sieves, we used the mechanical sieves shaker and vibrate those sieves by layers for 10 minutes.

4. Is it possible to carry out a sieve analysis on a sample of clay?

A sieve analysis is a practice or procedure used to assess the particle size distribution of a granular material. The size distribution is often of critical importance to the way the material performs in use. A sieves analysis can be performed on any type of non-organic or organic granular materials including sand, crushed rock, clay, granite, feldspars, coal and soil, a wide range of manufactured powders, grain and seeds, down to a minimum size depending on the exact method. Being such a simple technique of particle sizing, it is probably the most common method. So, we can see that we can absolutely carry out a sieves analysis on a sample of clay.

Most sieves analysis is carried out dry. But there are some applications which can only be carried out by wet sieving. This is the case when the sample which has to be analyzed is e.g. a suspension which must not be dried or when the sample is very fine powder which tends to agglomerate (mostly < 45m) in a dry sieving process this tendency would lead to a clogging of the sieve meshes and this would make a further sieving process impossible. 10

A wet sieving process is set up like a dry process: the sieves stack is clamped on to the sieves shaker and the sample is placed on the top sieve. Above the top sieves a water-spray nozzle is placed which supports the sieving process additionally to the sieving motion. The rinsing is carried out until the liquid which is discharges through the receiver is clear. Sample residues on the sieves have to be dried and weighted. When it comes to wet sieving it is very important not to charge in its volume (no swelling, dissolving or reaction with the liquid).

5. Classify the type of soil that you use in the laboratory according to BS 5930.

From the graph that been plotted with the data have, we can classify the type of soil that have been in the lab experiment. Here, we can probably saw that the soils used are contained of coarse sand and fine gravel. It is because that the dots that plotted in the graph are mostly in the coarse sand and fine gravel area.

8.0 SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (BS 5930)

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