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Airport Operations And Federal Aviation Regulation Part 139—Certification
2004/2005 @All Rights Reserved American Association of Airport Executives
These modules were originally written by Stephen Quilty, A.A.E., and have been updated by the AAAE BOE, AAAE staff, and industry experts.
Module Objectives ................................................................................................1 Airport Certification .............................................................................................2 FAR Part 139 ..................................................................................................2 Airport Certification Manual .................................................................. 3 Requirements and Contents of an ACM ..................................................4 Airport Self-Inspection ...................................................................................7 Pavement Surfaces ..........................................................................................8 Pavement Condition and Inspection ........................................................9 Pavement Skid-Resistance .....................................................................11 Pavement Friction Measurement ...........................................................13 Movement and Safety Areas .........................................................................14 Markings, Signs and Lighting ......................................................................15 Airfield Lighting ....................................................................................16 Airfield Signs .........................................................................................17 Airfield Markings ..................................................................................19 Snow and Ice Control.............................................................................23 Snow and Ice Plan ........................................................................................24 De-ice and Anti-ice Compounds............................................................25 Aircraft De-icing ....................................................................................26 Snow Removal Equipment ...........................................................................28 Rotary Snowblowers .....................................................................................28 Snow Plows ............................................................................................28 Sweepers ................................................................................................29 Material Spreaders ........................................................................................30 Snow and Ice Removal Techniques .......................................................30 Airport Condition Reporting ........................................................................32 Notices to Airman (NOTAM). ...............................................................32 Airport Construction Activity ................................................................34 Pedestrians and Ground Vehicles .................................................................35 Public Protection ..........................................................................................35 Wildlife Hazard Management .......................................................................36 Summary .......................................................................................................40 Study Questions ............................................................................................43 Tables
Table A: Subpart D-Operations .............................................................................................. 5 Table B: Runway Marking Elements ................................................................................... 19
Figure 1: Signing Examples for a Complex Airport ............................................... 18 Figure 2: Runway Markings ................................................................................... 20 Figure 3: Special Runway Markings ....................................................................... 20
Appendix A: Standard for Airport Sign System ......................................................................... 41 Appendix B: ACM Elements - Section 139.203 (B) .................................................................. 42
1. 2. 3 identify the certification requirements as stipulated in FAR Part 139? distinguish the four classes of airports as defined by the most recent FAR Part 139? explain what purpose an airport certification manual (ACM)serves, what it should provide, and what it should emphasize? identify the key components of an airport safety self-inspection program and the types of activities they address? identify those factors that affect pavement strength and wear and how to mitigate deterioration?
explain the effects of poor pavement conditions on aircraft and how pavement traction and friction can be maintained and improved? explain how pavement conditions are measured and the effect of different readings? delineate the movement and safety areas of an airport and the criteria that affects them?
identify the different types of approach lighting systems that exist and their operating criteria?
10. identify the marking and signage requirements at airports and delineate their inscriptions or color? 11. describe the effects of snow and ice on pavement surfaces and the responsibility of airport operations to mitigate their effects? 12. explain the purpose of snow and ice plans and their basic components? 13. explain the various methods and timing for removing snow and ice from pavement surfaces? 14. describe the basic properties of anti-ice and de-ice compounds? 15. identify when and what information is conveyed in a NOTAM? 16. determine when to conduct a Wildlife Hazard Assessment at an airport and strategies for resolving or mitigating wildlife hazards? 17. explain the acronyms, terms, and common phrases used in the module? 18. interpret and explain the basic concepts presented in the various tables?
The heart and soul of any airport organization is Airport Operations. The operations departments of most airports were created following the promulgation of federal airport certification in the early 1970’s. Prior to this regulation, airport maintenance departments generally performed airfield inspections and then repaired any deficiencies found. The formal certification program now requires the operating departments to keep the airport functioning safely and efficiently. These responsibilities include daily inspections; reporting of problems; informing tenants, users, and staff of current conditions; monitoring corrections and the coordination of overall activities.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has the statutory authority, originally approved by Congress in the Airport and Airways Development of 1970, to issue Airport Operating Certificates (AOCs) to airports serving certain air carriers and to establish minimum airport safety standards. This authority has been codified Airports that are served in the Code of Federal Regulations as Part 139, Certification of Airports.
by scheduled air carrier aircraft designed for more than 9 passenger seats or airports serving unscheduled air carrier aircraft designed for at least 31 passenger seats are subject to certification and annual safety inspection.
Under the most recent revision to FAR Part 139, airports that are served by scheduled air carrier aircraft designed for more than 9 passenger seats or airports serving unscheduled air carrier aircraft designed for at least 31 passenger seats are subject to certification and annual safety inspection. All federally certified airports are required to be operated and maintained in a safe and serviceable condition in accordance with minimum standards required or prescribed in Part 139. The purpose of these inspections is to determine compliance with regulatory safety standards.
The new FAA regulations expanded and clarified existing requirements by reclassifying airports into four categories according to the type of air carrier operations. Air carrier aircraft was redefined to include large air carrier aircraft (designed for at least 31 passenger seats) and small air carrier aircraft (designed for more than 9 seats but fewer than 31 seats). Objective 2
FAR Part 139
In 2004, the FAA, as directed by Congress in the Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st century (Air 21-Public Law 106-181), issued revised rules for the certification of airports. The new regulations expanded and clarified existing requirements by reclassifying airports into four categories according to the type of air carrier operations. The term air carrier aircraft was redefined to include large air carrier aircraft and small air carrier aircraft. An aircraft that is being used by an air carrier is categorized as large if it is designed for at least 31 passenger seats and small if designed for more than 9 seats but fewer than 31 seats. The four classes of airports defined by Part 139 are as follows: Class I is an airport certificated to serve scheduled operations of large air carrier aircraft. It can also serve unscheduled passenger operations of large air carrier aircraft and/or scheduled operations of small air carrier aircraft. 2
Class II is an airport certificated to serve scheduled operations of small air carrier aircraft and the unscheduled passenger operations of large air carrier aircraft. This class may not serve scheduled large air carrier aircraft. Class III is an airport certificated to serve scheduled operations of small air carrier aircraft. This class may not serve scheduled or unscheduled large air carrier aircraft. Class IV is an airport certificated to serve unscheduled passenger operations of large air carrier aircraft. This class may not serve scheduled large or small air carrier aircraft. An air carrier operation is a takeoff or landing of an air carrier aircraft. It includes the period of time from 15 minutes before until 15 minutes after the takeoff or landing. All airports in each class that are certificated under Part 139 must prepare and operate under an Airport Certification Manual (ACM) approved by the FAA. The ACM is structured to help an airport comply with the statutory requirements. The intent of the ACM is to provide necessary information to personnel who are responsible for operating the airport or who are affected by the regulations. Air carriers are specifically precluded from using an airport for operations that is not Part 139-certificated, and an airport is required to have an Airport Operating Certificate in order to accommodate air carrier activity. Exceptions to the rule that may allow the use of a noncertificated airport involve cases of an aircraft emergency, training flights, or an airport approved as an air carrier alternate.
ACM—Airport Certification Manual
Airport Certification Manual
Because Part 139 is written in broad terms to accommodate all airports covered by the regulation, it does not define how an airport is to be operated. It is the ACM that functions as an extension of the Federal Regulations and provides the bridge between the general requirements of Part 139 and the application at each airport, taking into account the airport’s specific site, activity, and configuration. By requiring an airport to develop an ACM, the FAA places the burden and responsibility for compliance on the airport operator. The FAA then administers Part 139 by enforcing the contents of the approved ACM. The ACM should provide enough direction to achieve compliance with the regulation but not be so detailed as to lack operational flexibility or result in constant violation of the manual. It is suggested that airport management’s approach be comprehensive yet conservative. Only details necessary to show how regulatory compliance is to be achieved is required. A good path for airport
management to take is to write the ACM as though they are leaving instructions for someone to carry out.
What to emphasize when developing, writing, and revising ACM—establish responsibility, authority, and procedures for Part 139 compliance
When developing, writing, or revising the ACM, emphasis is placed on establishing responsibility, authority, and procedures for Part 139 compliance. This is accomplished by identifying who is going to perform the tasks, what the tasks will be, how the tasks are to be performed, and when they will be accomplished. Beyond that, excessive levels of detail can restrict the flexibility of airport personnel to meet unforeseen circumstances, or even create unnecessary commitments under the regulation. This is because, upon approval, the ACM becomes a document with considerable legal significance. Part 139 requires airport management to furnish all applicable portions of the airport’s ACM to those airport personnel responsible for its implementation. It is not intended that the ACM provide complete instructions on how to do a job. If the ACM is well prepared and followed, it will result in job performance that maintains the airport in regulatory compliance.
Requirements and Contents of an ACM
As a working document that reflects an airport’s current condition and operation, changes to the certification manual or specifications are to be expected. Part 139 requires that the ACM be typewritten or printed, but it is not specific on the form or material. However, it should be in a format that is easy to revise. The ACM is normally bound in a loose-leaf, standard size, three-ring binder so it can be easily organized and maintained. The FAA requires that each page show the approval date, either as part of the original document or as a revision or addition. Either the certificate holder or the FAA through the Regional Airports Division Manager may initiate an amendment to the ACM. Amendments to the ACM should be submitted to the FAA 30 days before their effective date. An airport may petition the FAA for an exemption from any Part 139 requirement. A request for an exemption becomes a rulemaking action and requires the submittal of information demonstrating that compliance with the requirement would be unreasonably costly, burdensome, or impractical. If approved, an exemption issued to an airport effectively changes the manner in which the airport complies with its operating certificate. On occasion, an airport may be faced with a situation that could result in a deviation from the regulations. Whether the deviation results in an actual violation depends on the circumstances involved. Under Part 139, any deviation requires that airport management inform the FAA not later than 14 days of the occurrence. Deviations are permitted in circumstances that primarily emanate from an aircraft emergency. For example, if as the result of an onboard safety problem, an air carrier used a runway that did not meet 4
Amendments to the ACM—must be submitted 30 days before the effective date. Under Part 139, an airport manager must inform the FAA of a deviation from regulations not later than 14 days of the occurrence. An example of violation of regulations—Allowing air carrier operations while the airport’s firefighting equipment is participating in an off-airport training exercise.
the safety requirements of the ACM. This type of deviation from a regulation may be acceptable because of the emergency circumstances. However, the allowing of air carrier operations while the airport’s firefighting equipment is participating in an off-airport training exercise is not a deviation, but a violation. A few sections of Part 139 demand actions beyond the authority of the airport operator. Qualifying language such as “to the extent practicable” or “which agrees to provide” highlights these sections and targets an attempt to achieve the desired result. Examples are obstruction lights outside airport boundaries or medical assistance and transportation from community resources. Each airport, in accordance with its specific classification, must include in its ACM a description of the operating procedures, facilities and equipment, responsibility assignments and other related information needed by key personnel to comply with the applicable provisions of Subpart D—Operations. Table A lists the major elements included in Subpart D.
Each airport, in accordance with its specific classification, must include in its ACM a description of the operating procedures, facilities and equipment, responsibility assignments and other related information needed by key personnel to comply with the applicable provisions of Subpart D
Table A: Subpart D—Operations
Section 139.301 Records. Section 139.303 Personnel. Section 139.305 Paved Areas. Section 139.307 Unpaved Areas. Section 139.309 Safety Areas. Section 139.311 Marking, signs and lighting. Section 139.313 Snow and ice control Section 139.315 ARFF: Index determination. Section 139.317 ARFF: Equipment and agents. Section 139.319 ARFF: Operational requirements. Section 139.321 Handling and storing of hazardous substances and materials. Section 139.323 Traffic and wind direction indicators. Section 139.325 Airport emergency plan. Section 139.327 Self-inspection program. Section 139.329 Pedestrians and Ground Vehicles. Section 139.331 Obstructions. Section 139.333 Protection of Navaids. Section 139.335 Public Protection. Section 139.337 Wildlife hazard management. Section 139.339 Airport condition reporting. Section 139.341 Identifying, marking and lighting construction and other unserviceable areas. Section 139.343 Noncomplying conditions.
The regulations also describe the specific manual elements for each class of airports. See Appendix B. 5
The FAA Airport Certification Branch annually inspects all Part 139 airports. However, FAR Part 139 authorizes FAA to inspect at any time. The FAA requires airports to employ sufficiently qualified personnel to operate the airport in a safe manner. This regulation is met if all the requirements in the ACM are properly performed. Those individuals who are authorized to carry out the responsibilities of ACM compliance are specifically identified, and they are required to be well trained and educated in the requirements. Training records for operating and emergency personnel must be kept for twenty-four consecutive calendar months.
The safety area section refers to requirements for the areas of and immediately surrounding the runway and taxiway surfaces. Three sections under Part 139 address the airport’s responsibilities for aircraft rescue and firefighting (ARFF): (1) the level of ARFF response necessary, (2) the type of equipment and agents appropriate, and (3) the performance requirements for ARFF response.
The section on paved areas includes several specific requirements for surfaces available only for air carrier use. Outside of Alaska a section on unpaved areas is not frequently found in an ACM. Safety areas were redefined to include runway or taxiway areas and the surrounding surfaces that are prepared or suitable for reducing the risk of damage to an aircraft in the event of an undershoot, overshoot, or excursion from a runway or unintentional departure from a taxiway. Because different criteria exist for the type of aircraft landing approaches to an airport, the section on marking, signs, and lighting reflects the requirements for runways and taxiways to fulfill the criteria. Weather conditions may also affect safe air carrier operations, and therefore snow and ice control is addressed. Three sections under Part 139 address the airport’s responsibilities for aircraft rescue and firefighting (ARFF). The sections detail the level of ARFF response necessary, the type of equipment and agents appropriate, and the performance requirements for ARFF response.
The handling and storage of hazardous substances and materials are also covered. Hazardous materials include two different situations found at airports—one ARFF—aircraft concerns hazardous materials such as aircraft cargo, and the other concerns rescue and firefighting hazardous materials in the form of fuels that are for the operation of the aircraft and are not considered cargo.
Part 139 certificated airports are required to have traffic and wind direction indicators that assist a pilot in determining safe conditions for landing or taking off. AEP—Airport Emergency Plan addresses several different conditions besides an aircraft emergency.
Part 139 airports are required to have traffic and wind direction indicators that assist a pilot in determining safe conditions for landing or taking off. In the event of emergencies, certificated airports must have a detailed emergency plan to respond to the situation. The section on Airport Emergency Plans (AEP) contains technical information that helps airport management develop an AEP. An AEP addresses several different conditions besides an aircraft emergency. The section on an airport’s self-inspection program is very important because it affects so many other areas of Part 139 compliance. It identifies what needs to be monitored in order to be in compliance with the regulations. The safety requirements for ground vehicles operating on the airfield and terminal areas and the responsibilities of airport management to monitor obstructions that fall within the airport’s authority must be described within the ACM. A 6
separate section covers the requirement to protect navaids from electrical interruption, signal interference, and vandalism. Partly for these reasons, the FAA stipulates that airports prevent inadvertent entry into an area containing hazards for the unwary trespasser under the section on public protection. If wildlife activity exists or can exist in or around an airport, the activity can have serious consequences for the safe operation of aircraft. As a result, sections on how to address wildlife hazard assessment and the reporting of a specific problem is required. In order to ensure safe airport operations during periods of construction or maintenance, airport managers are required to identify, mark, and report construction or other unserviceable areas as they exist on the airport. More detailed information on several of the ACM requirements follows in the paragraphs below. Many special advisory circulars exist for each of the sections identified. Guidelines and standards may be obtained through the FAA Regional or Local Airports District Offices, FAA’s and AAAE’s Internet Web sites, the Government Printing Office, and airport seminars and workshops.
Regular self-inspections of the airport for hazardous conditions or those which have the potential to become hazardous are the most critical actions that can be taken to ensure the safety of airport operations. The airport manager’s primary responsibility is to implement self-inspection and corrective procedures. Primary attention in a self-inspection is given to operational items such as pavement areas, safety areas, markings and signs, lighting, aircraft rescue and firefighting, fueling operations, navigational aids, ground vehicles, obstructions, public protection, wildlife hazard management, construction, and snow and ice control. Inspection of areas which have been assigned to individual air carriers, fixed-base operators, or other tenants can be made the responsibility of the user, but airport management is required to retain overall inspection supervision. This is because airport management cannot delegate responsibility for operating the airport safely. A successful safety self-inspection program has four key components: (1) Regularly scheduled inspections of airport operating areas at least daily or more often if operational activities or airfield lighting systems warrant. (2) Continuous surveillance of certain airport activities such as fueling, construction, and airfield maintenance. (3) Periodic evaluation of approach slopes, obstructions, or other activities and facilities. The time interval could be weekly, monthly, or quarterly, depending on the activity or facility. (4) The monitoring of issues such as changing weather, high flight activity, wildlife migration, or receipt of a complaint.
Regular self-inspections of the airport are the most critical actions that can be taken to ensure the safety of airport operations.
Objective 4 An inspection of the approach slope surfaces for tree growth would require periodic evaluation. If a control tower reports a flock of birds in the area, it is necessary to conduct a special inspection. Such airport activities as fueling, construction, and airfield maintenance require continuous surveillance. A special event such as the arrival of the President of the United States requires special inspection.
Under Part 139, inspectors must receive training and all training records for inspectors must be kept for a 24-month period. At certificated airports, inspections are necessary before the first air carrier operation in the morning, upon any major change in airport surface conditions, when braking action reports by pilots or others are stated to be deteriorating, and after an incident or accident.
Part 139 requires that inspectors be given initial and recurrent training regarding the self-inspection program used by the airport. The regulation also defines the items on which the individuals must be trained. All training records for inspectors must be kept for a 24-month period. At certificated airports, inspections are necessary before the first air carrier operation in the morning, upon any major change in airport surface conditions, when braking action reports by pilots or others are stated to be deteriorating, and after an incident or accident. Other inspections may be required by the ACM or a construction safety plan. An effective safety inspection program establishes deficiency-reporting procedures for prompt correction. This includes a checklist of items to be inspected, a dissemination plan for informing others of the hazards, a work order system to correct the deficiencies, and a maintenance log for monitoring the status and currency of the process. Certificated airports must retain the regularly scheduled inspection checklists for at least twelve consecutive calendar months.
The airport’s paved surfaces are included in a self-inspection program. Pavement falls within two general categories: flexible or rigid. Flexible pavements such as asphalt, dirt, or grass tend to compress under load, while rigid pavement resists such compressibility. Portland cement concrete (PCC) is an example of a rigid paved surface.
Certificated airports must retain the regularly scheduled inspection checklists for at least twelve consecutive calendar months. Asphalt can be laid without expansion joints or seams. Compared with asphalt, concrete is more rigid, but it can withstand much higher aircraft loads than an equivalent thickness of asphalt. Objective 5
The two types of pavement, asphalt and concrete, have different characteristics. Asphalt can be laid without expansion joints or seams and is generally less expensive than concrete to install, but requires higher maintenance. Since asphalt is primarily a petroleum product, it is susceptible to oxidation from the sun’s ultraviolet rays and the solvent action of fuel or oil. Being more rigid, concrete is poured into distinctive slabs that require seams or joints to allow for expansion and contraction. This contributes to its higher cost. The advantage of concrete, however, is that it can withstand much higher aircraft loads than an equivalent thickness of asphalt. It also resists weathering and oil or fuel spillage. The wear characteristics and longevity of any pavement surface will be affected by a number of different factors. When designing pavement surfaces, engineers consider: Type of load (critical aircraft: utility, transport, military) Distribution of load (landing gear type: single, dual, tandem) l Volume and frequency of load (how often load is imposed) Material quality (ratio of cement and stone or asphalt and bituminous aggregate) Climatic effects (temperature variations, type of weather) Mix of traffic (demands by different types of aircraft) 8
Roughness (smooth, coarse, porous) Maintenance capabilities (preventive, routine, sealing) Of the above factors, the two major elements contributing to pavement deterioration are weathering and imposed loads. The most detrimental factor to a paved surface is water which seeps through and erodes the sub-base material. The water weakens the supportive pavement resulting in pavement breakup. General aviation pavement surfaces can suffer the same consequences, even though they experience lighter loads, because the pavement is designed to carry the most demanding aircraft expected to use the facility. Any sub-base deterioration, therefore, will result in normal loads now exceeding the pavement’s ability to support them. Pavement potholes are typically formed when loads are imposed over a pavement sub base area, weakened by water erosion.
Erosion caused by water seepage is the most detrimental factor affecting pavement surfaces and consequent maintenance. Pavement potholes are typically formed when loads are imposed over a pavement sub base area, weakened by water erosion. If pavement failure occurs because the airport allowed aircraft operations that exceeded the pavement limitations, the cost to restore the pavement to satisfactory condition may not be eligible for federal funding. ACN—aircraft classification number PCN—a corresponding pavement classification number, indicating the maxi-mum pavement bearing strength for unrestricted aircraft operations Objective 6 Reflective cracking occurs when an underlying pavement crack works its way through a new overlay due to different coefficients of expansion, contraction, or movement of the two surfaces. HMA—hot-mix asphalt, one form of pavement overlay that is used to correct deteriorating pavement surfaces or increase the strength of existing runways, taxiways, or ramp areas
Pavement Condition and Inspection
Part 139 requires that airport management maintain and promptly repair any pavement surface available for air carrier use. If the airport is not certificated, any pavement surface using federal grant dollars requires a similar level of response. Airport management’s obligation is to prevent the overstressing of airport pavements. Should pavement failure occur because the airport allowed aircraft operations that exceeded the pavement limitations, the cost to restore the pavement to satisfactory condition may not be eligible for federal funding. Acceptable aircraft weights are identified in the runway data table on the airport layout plan. The ACN-PCN system of classification provides a standardized international airplane/pavement rating system replacing the various S (single), D (dual), T (tandem), DT (dual tandem), LCN (load classification number), and other rating systems used throughout the world. The ACN-PCN system applies only to pavements with bearing strengths of 12,500 pounds or higher. For pavements having lower bearing strengths, an older system using letters still applies in the United States. ACN is the aircraft classification number and PCN is a corresponding pavement classification number. An aircraft having an ACN equal to or less than the PCN can operate without restriction on the pavement. Therefore, the PCN is the maximum pavement bearing strength for unrestricted aircraft operations. To correct deteriorating pavement surfaces, or increase the strength of existing runways, taxiways, or ramp areas, a pavement overlay is commonly used. Overlays can be either hot-mix asphalt (HMA) or concrete. Before an overlay can be applied, any existing cracks or joint faults must be sealed to mitigate reflective cracking. Reflective cracking occurs when an underlying pavement crack works its way through a new overlay due to different coefficients of expansion, contraction, or movement of the two surfaces. To help delay the 9
progression of reflective cracks, pavement engineers have used different methods such as coarse mix binder and engineering fabrics.
The FAA design standards for pavements—20-year design life Rehabilitating pavements at the 11-15 year mark is projected to take less time and extend pavement life at a lower cost than replacing the pave-ment at 20 years. Asphalt pavement maintains good resiliency to ten years but quickly deteriorates at a faster rate the second ten years. PMS—Having a Pavement Management System in place is a federal requirement.
Until 1997, the FAA would not participate in the maintenance expense funding of pavement surfaces. However, congressional reauthorization of airport improvement funding in that year provided for a pilot program to fund several maintenance projects at selected airports in an effort to determine its cost-benefit. The FAA design standards for pavements are based on a 20-year design life. Asphalt pavement normally maintains good resiliency for 10 years, but quickly deteriorates at a faster rate the second 10 years. Rehabilitating pavements at the 11-15 year mark is projected to take less time and extend pavement life at a lower cost than replacing the pavement at 20 years. Since 1995, federal law has required airport management seeking funding for pavement rehabilitation or reconstruction to have a Pavement Management System (PMS) in place as a grant assurance condition. The establishment of a Pavement Management System (PMS) helps to guide airport management and FAA decisions on use of federal monies for maintenance. A PMS provides a consistent objective and systematic procedure for setting priorities and schedules, allocating resources, and budgeting for pavement maintenance and rehabilitation.
The regulations are specific for certificated airports regarding pavement conditions that can affect the safety of aircraft. The regulations call for the removal of pavement edges exceeding three inches between abutting pavement and/or other areas, and cracks or holes that could impair directional control. A hole is defined as an opening larger than five inches in diameter, exceeding three inches in depth with an inside side slope greater than 45 degrees. Any pavement crack or surface deterioration that produces loose Spalling—fractured edges in and around the aggregate or other contaminants must be repaired immediately.
joint area of concrete as a result of to the tremendous pressures generated during expansion and contraction of the slabs
When inspecting pavement surfaces, airport management should be looking for other types of surface deterioration. These include spalling, raveling, and alligatoring; debris and/or foreign objects. These could cause aircraft or engine damage; pavement depressions, undulations and/or bumps. Airport management should also be observant for any pavement-edge obstruction that Pavement depressions, could impede water runoff; the buildup of rubber deposits from aircraft tires; the condition and/or visibility of pavement markings; the presence of erosion undulations and/or bumps, erosion of soil of soil at runway edges allowing water to seep underneath; and vegetation at runway edge, growth through open or silted-in joints or cracks. Inspection of pavement vegetation growth, surfaces is required daily during air carrier activity. etc., are all potential
runway problems. Daily inspection of pavement surface is required during air carrier activities.
Asphalt pavement does not necessarily wear out, but it ages through the oxidation of the asphalt binder and by water causing it to loosen the fine surface aggregates. A seal coat protects asphalt against the highly damaging effects of gas, oil seepage and other pavement chemicals. Sealing asphalt 10
helps prevent water seepage in the porous asphalt structure, slowing water damage caused by rain, snow, frost, freezing, and thawing. Different means exist for the testing and evaluation of pavement surfaces. A records and site inspection are the simplest means of evaluation. The sampling and testing of material provide a more accurate assessment. Direct sampling involves the removal of core samples and subjecting them to lab compression tests, while another sampling method uses Non Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques which does not require material replacement or subsequent sealing around areas removed during coring. Ground penetrating radar and the use of infrared thermography are examples of NDT testing. An evaluation of a complete runway using inspection, surveying, sampling, and NDT techniques helps to establish a Pavement Condition Index (PCI). PCI is a numerical rating of the surface condition of a pavement along its entire length and width. A PCI of 100 indicates no defects, while a PCI of zero indicates no useful pavement life exists. The FAA conducts an annual inspection of all Part 139 airports and arranges for the annual inspection of most other public-use airports, either through the state aviation organizations or by themselves. The results are reported as part of the Airport Safety Data Program, using FAA Form 5010, Airport Master Record. Runway pavement condition is classified as good (all cracks and joints sealed), fair (mild surface cracking, unsealed joints, and slab edge spalling), or poor (large open cracks, surface and edge spalling, vegetation growing through cracks and joints).
NDT—Non Destructive Testing techniques, such as the use of ground penetrating radar and infrared thermography, are used for evaluating pavement surfaces
PCI—Pavement Condition Index, a numerical rating of the surface condition of a pavement along its entire length and width
Guidelines and standards exist for the design and construction of skid-resistant pavement, for pavement evaluation with friction measuring equipment, and for the maintenance of high skid-resistant pavements. The braking performance on pavement surfaces for aircraft, especially turbojet aircraft, is critical to safe operations. Wet pavement, snow or ice covered pavements, and those with rubber deposits or other contaminants can result in aircraft hydroplaning or unacceptable loss of traction. These conditions can result in poor braking performance and possible loss of directional control. Research into improved braking action has resulted in two major areas of attention: (1) high skid-resistant pavement surface design and evaluation, and (2) the application of proper maintenance techniques and procedures. Hydroplaning occurs (1) when tires lose contact with the pavement surface due to contamination of some form such as water, snow, ice, or rubber and (2) when the right combination of aircraft speed, loading, and surface conditions exist. It can occur at low speeds and to small piston aircraft as well as much larger aircraft. There are three types of hydroplaning: dynamic, viscous, and rubber reversion. 11
Hydroplaning occurs (1) when tires lose contact with the pavement surface due to contamination of some form such as water, snow, ice, or rubber and (2) when the right combination of aircraft speed, loading, and surface conditions exist. Three types of hydroplaning— dynamic, viscous, and rubber reversion.
In dynamic hydroplaning, a wave of water builds up in front of a rolling tire and allows the tire to ride up on a cushion of water and lose contact with the runway surface. This results in loss of traction, steering ability, and braking.
Dynamic hydroplaning is a phenomenon that occurs on any surface. It generally occurs at high speed and is dependent upon aircraft load, speed, aircraft tire pressure, and footprint area. A minimum fluid film density is also required. In dynamic hydroplaning, a wave of water builds up in front of a rolling tire and allows the tire to ride up on a cushion of water and lose contact with the runway surface. This results in loss of traction, steering ability, and braking. Viscous hydroplaning is a lubricating effect that occurs when a thin film of oil, grease, dirt, rubber particles, or a smooth runway having water or other liquid on the surface make the surface more slippery. Viscous hydroplaning prevents a tire from making positive contact with the pavement and results in skidding. Rubber reversion hydroplaning is less commonly known. It is caused by the heat buildup beneath a tire footprint area due to friction. The heat causes the tire to revert to its uncured state and form a seal that traps high-pressure super-heated steam caused by the resultant friction. Rubber reversion hydroplaning occurs primarily during landing and prevents a spin-up of the tire on touchdown.
Runway grooving is the most effective, economical method of reducing hydroplaning.
Pavement grooving, asphalt porous friction courses, and the wire combing of concrete surfaces have measurably improved the ability of runway surfaces to shed water and provide for better traction. The most effective, economical method of reducing hydroplaning is runway grooving. Pavement grooving consists of forming or cutting closely spaced transverse grooves on the runway surface. A porous friction course is a layer of asphalt aggregate with voids in it that allow for better water drainage. Wire combing Portland cement just after it is poured provides a coarser texture for concrete surfaces, which provide better friction capabilities. The accumulation of contaminants in runway grooves reduces their waterchanneling capabilities, thereby decreasing the skid-resistance potential. In simple terms, the water remains on the runway longer. For many airports, the most persistent runway contaminant problem is rubber deposits from the tires of landing jet aircraft. This requires maintenance to remove the rubber. Rubber deposits occur primarily at the runway touchdown areas and can build up rapidly. The removal of rubber deposits and other similar contaminants can be accomplished through a high-pressure water spray, the use of chemical solvents, high velocity abrasive impact techniques, or mechanical grinding. The effects of mechanical wear and the polishing action are directly dependent upon the volume and type of aircraft traffic. Other influences on the rate of deterioration are local weather conditions, the type of pavement; the materials used in original construction, any subsequent surface treatment, and airport maintenance practices. Structural pavement failure such as rutting, raveling, cracking, joint failure, settling, or other indicators of distressed pavement can also contribute to runway friction losses. The FAA expects prompt repair by airport maintenance of these problems. 12
For many airports, the most persistent runway contaminant problem is a deposit of rubber from the tires of landing jet aircraft
The effects of mechanical wear and the polishing action are directly dependent upon the volume and type of aircraft traffic.
Pavement Friction Measurement
The operator of any airport with significant jet aircraft traffic should schedule annual friction evaluations of each runway that accommodates jet aircraft. Depending on the volume and type (weight) of traffic on the runways, evaluations may become more frequent and necessary. There are two basic types of friction measuring equipment available for conducting friction surveys on runways during winter operations— Decelerometers (DEC) and Continuous Friction Measuring Equipment (CFME). Decelerometers, which can be either mechanical or electrical, are used primarily to assess friction properties of runways during winter operations. They are not approved for conducting runway pavement maintenance surveys or for providing consistent measurement of wet runway surfaces. The Bowmonk and the Tapley are the most commonly used decelerometers at airports. They are normally placed or mounted inside the inspection vehicle. CFME devices provide a continuous graphic record of the pavement surface friction characteristics with friction averages for each one-third portion of a runway length. The devices are either towed or installed in ground vehicles capable of conducting the friction test at speeds of 40 mph or 60 mph for the full length of the runway. (This compares to speed of 20 mph for decelerometers.) Several CFME devices have the ability to carry water and provide self-wetting capabilities for conducting and evaluating wet pavement conditions. Both DECs and CFMEs are eligible for federal funding under the AIP program. The Greek letter Mu is used to identify friction values. It is a measurement that gives an indication of the slipperiness of a paved surface. Mu values range from zero to 100 where zero Mu has no friction properties and 100 represents a full contact and action between a tire and the pavement. Generally, Mu readings below 60 on normal runways are considered to be below the FAA’s maintenance planning levels and corrective action is required. During snow and ice conditions, Mu readings below 40 are reported to pilots, because that is when the braking action of aircraft begins to be compromised. A friction report of Mu 27 or less means that an aircraft may experience directional control and/or braking difficulties and the airport must apply surface treatment to increase the friction coefficient. Airports without CFMEs often have devices that report braking action as Good, Fair, Poor or Nil. Those readings can be conveyed, but not if a device having Mu reading capability is available. In those cases, only the Mu value is conveyed since no correlation exists between the two different ratings. This is because braking action is subjective, whereas a Mu value is quantitative. What is considered a “Good” braking action for one person may be “Poor” or “Nil” to another. Three friction measurements are taken and reported by CFMEs for each runway (one measurement for each third of a runway’s length) in the direction of takeoff and landing. The reporting of friction readings is found under the section on Airport Condition Reporting. 13
DEC—either mechanical or electrical, decelerometers are used primarily to assess friction properties of runways during winter operations.
CFME—Continuous friction measuring equipment provides a continuous graphic record of the pavement surface friction characteristics with friction averages for each one-third portion of a runway length. Objective 7 Mu is a measurement that gives an indication of the slipperiness of a paved surface; Mu readings of less than 60 on normal runways are generally considered to be below the FAA’s maintenance planning levels. Mu readings below 40 are reported to pilots, because that is when the braking action of aircraft begins to be compromised. Three friction measurements are taken and reported by CFMEs for each runway in the direction of takeoff and landing.
Movement and Safety Areas
Objective 8 AMA—Aircraft Movement Areas— include runways, taxiways, and other areas of the airport that are used for taxing, takeoff, and landing of aircraft. AOA—Air Operations Area— includes the runways, taxiways, ramps, aprons, grass landing strips and parking areas, helipads or hovering routes, and tie-down areas. Only those areas identified in the ACM as being movement areas for air carrier aircraft are subject to the Part 139 regulations. ATCT—Air Traffic Control Towers LOA—Letters of Agreement MOU—Memorandum of Understanding. A safety area is a defined area comprising either a runway or a taxiway and the surrounding surfaces, an area that is prepared or suitable for reducing the risk of damage to airplanes in the event of an undershoot, overshoot, or excursion from the runway or the unintentional departure from a taxiway
FAR Part 139 requires management to identify those areas of the airport that are to be used for air carrier operations. Known as aircraft movement areas (AMA), they include runways, taxiways, and other areas of the airport that are used for taxiing, takeoff, and landing of aircraft. They do not include loading ramps, aircraft parking aprons, unpaved areas, or other areas that are not structurally capable or that airport management has decided to preclude air carrier aircraft from using. Those areas are known as non-movement areas. A term commonly used at airports is the Air Operations Area (AOA). An AOA, which really is a term originally identified under security regulations, encompasses all portions of the airport designed and used for landing, taking off, or surface maneuvering of aircraft. In that sense, AOA encompasses both movement and non-movement areas. The AOA includes the runways, taxiways, ramps, aprons, grass landing strips and parking areas, helipads or hovering routes, and tie-down areas. The distinction between movement and non-movement areas is necessary because not all areas of an airport available for aircraft maneuvering may be able to meet the requirements of Part 139. Therefore, only those areas identified in the ACM as being movement areas for air carrier aircraft are subject to the regulations. Airport management is obligated to maintain to the standards and conditions of the AMA as defined in an approved ACM. However, liability and practicality concerns dictate that non-movement areas should not be neglected. At airports with Air Traffic Control Towers (ATCT), the AMA generally corresponds to those areas that are under the positive control of the ATCT. Airport and tower management sign Letters of Agreement (LOA) or Memorandums of Understanding (MOU) to identify those movement areas which will be under the positive control of the ATCT, and those non-movement areas that are the responsibility of airport management. A safety area is a defined area comprising either a runway or a taxiway and the surrounding surfaces, an area that is prepared or suitable for reducing the risk of damage to airplanes in the event of an undershoot, overshoot, or excursion from the runway or the unintentional departure from a taxiway. This safety area is cleared, drained, and graded because it must be able to support aircraft in the event they veer off the pavement. It must also be able to support emergency and maintenance equipment responding to the aircraft. The safety area includes the runway’s structural pavement, shoulders, blast pad, and stopways. Safety areas have a total width range of 120 to 500 feet, depending on the aircraft design group and the approach to the runway. Taxiway safety areas range from 49 to 262 feet in total width. Airport management is required to inspect daily the safety areas for items such as rutting, rough and/or uneven terrain, mounds of dirt, debris, and obstructions not mounted on frangible couplings. Objects lo14
cated in the safety area because of their function (i. e., lights, signs) must be mounted on frangible couplings that have breakaway points no higher than three inches above grade. An often-cited statistic from on-airport aircraft accidents shows that about 90 percent of the aircraft involved remain within about 1,000 feet of the runway departure end and 250 feet from the runway centerline. For this reason, runway safety areas have extensions past the runway ends to provide a greater safety margin for aircraft, which undershoot or overshoot the runway. Those dimensions vary from 250 feet at general aviation airports to 1,000 feet for airports with precision approach runways. Some airports may have less than the FAA standard dimension since they were grandfathered when the design standards changed. Efforts are being made to reduce the severity of airport accidents and incidents by improving the overrun areas where the majority of these situations occur. Newer technology or alternative systems have been developed for those airports not able to develop the 1,000 foot overrun due to existing structures, bodies of water, large drop-offs, railroads, or highways. One is a soft ground arrestor system. It is a porous cellular concrete bed area at the end of a runway that deforms under the weight of a heavy aircraft, resulting in major drag and deceleration of the aircraft. It is designed to not deform under normal ground vehicle loads.
Safety Areas have a total width range of 120 to 500 feet; taxiway safety areas range from 49 to 262 feet in total width. The safety areas at certificated airports extend past the runway end by 1,000 feet
Markings, Signs and Lighting
The FAA classifies runways in a number of ways. They can be categorized according to their pavement surface (asphalt or concrete), intended aircraft usage (utility, transport, heliport, STOL port, or seaplane), or by type of aircraft approach. The most common is according to the type of aircraft approach used for the runway (visual, non-precision, or precision instrument). A visual approach runway does not require navigational aids to assist the pilot. It is intended to be used solely under Visual Flight Rules (VFR) conditions; therefore, only visual cues for landing are necessary. A non-precision runway approach is one that uses horizontal navigational guidance to help a pilot line the aircraft up with the runway. A precision instrument runway approach has both vertical and horizontal navigational guidance provided by an Instrument Landing System (ILS) or Precision Approach Radar (PAR). Both precision and non-precision approaches require FAA approval and publication of the procedures to use the approaches. The published approach establishes criteria for the type of lighting and markings to be used for the runway and associated taxiways. In the 1920s, airfields were first lighted by the use of fire pots or regular white electrical lights placed around the perimeter of the whole open landing field. There were no taxiways. As aircraft weights increased in the 1930s, paved surfaces transformed the normally open grass or dirt landing area into very distin15
The most common runway classification is by the type of aircraft approach—visual, nonprecision, or precision instrument. A non-precision runway approach is one that uses horizontal navigational guidance to help a pilot line the aircraft up with the runway, whereas a precision instrument runway approach has both vertical and horizontal navigational guidance provided by an Instrument Landing System (ILS) or Precision Approach Radar (PAR). VFR—Visual Flight Rules ILS—Instrument Landing System PAR—Precision Approach Radar
guishable landing surfaces. The perimeter lighting then outlined the paved or graded surface rather than the whole landing area. Since those early days, the lighting and marking of runways and taxiways have evolved, to increase the level of safety through standardization and uniformity. This ensures pilot understanding. Airport management’s job is to maintain the standards and uniformity through routine inspection and maintenance.
Objective 9 Depending on the type of approach, the intensity of runway lighting system ranges from high to low.
Runway lighting systems are classified according to their intensity or brightness. Depending on the type of approach, the systems will have High Intensity (HIRL), Medium Intensity (MIRL), or Low Intensity Runway Lights (LIRL). The HIRL and MIRL systems have different intensity levels or “steps,” whereas the LIRL systems normally have one intensity setting or step. Intensity settings can be 1, 3, 5 or 7 steps, depending on the visibility conditions. Many airports, not staffed 24-hours, have pilot-controlled lighting systems installed. Keying the aircraft radio’s microphone switch several times in rapid succession on a predetermined and published frequency activates these systems. They provide a greater degree of pilot safety and reduce the airport’s operating and maintenance costs.
NOTAM—Notice to Airmen If more than three lights in a row or more than 10 percent of a runway or taxiway route system are inoperative, a NOTAM is required.
In the ACM, clear instructions are required on how many and in what sequence lights may be out before a system is considered inoperative. If more than three lights in a row or more than 10 percent of a runway or taxiway route system are inoperative, then standards are not being met. Snow, ice, or other conditions obscuring the lights or causing outages may also make the system inoperative. A Taxiway edge lights Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) is required if standards are not met. The ACM is to have solid blue lenses. have detailed information on the lighting systems in place at the airport.
Runway edge lights are white. Amber lights replace the white ones in the direction of landing for the last 2,000 feet or for one-half the runway length, whichever is less. Runway lights are directional in their focus through what is known as a Fresnel lens. Lights marking the end of a runway to a departing aircraft—red Lights marking the start of a runway to a landing aircraft—green
Runway edge lights are white. On instrument runways, amber lights replace the white ones in the direction of landing for the last 2,000 feet or for one-half the runway length, whichever is less. This provides visual safety information to a pilot as he or she approaches the end of the runway. Taxiway edge lights have solid blue lenses. Threshold lights which mark the ends of the runway are of the colored split lens type. The lens indicating the end of a runway to a departing aircraft is red while the other lens, which indicates the start of the runway for landing aircraft, is green. Runway lights are directional in their focus through what is known as a Fresnel lens. This lens requires the light bases to be properly aligned with the runway and angled toward the landing approach. In addition to the runway lights, several other lights can be found associated with runways, depending on the approach. Precision runways can have Touchdown Zone Lighting (TDZL), Runway Centerline Lighting (RCLS), and taxiway 16
turnoff lighting. TDZL are in-pavement lights on both sides of the runway centerline starting at 100 feet past the threshold and extending up to 3,000 feet down the runway. RCLS are in-pavement lights on the centerline of the runway. White in color for the majority of the runway, the white lens is alternated with red starting 3,000 feet from the end of the runway. With 1,000 feet remaining, they all become red. Taxiway turnoff lights are in-pavement green lights that lead from the runway centerline onto a taxiway or vice versa. Some airports have the green taxiway center lights mark the complete route between the terminal and the active runway. At U. S. airports having the capability of allowing air carriers to conduct operations when the visibility is less than 1,200 feet Runway Visual Range (RVR), Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (SMGCS) are being implemented. SMGCS is a system of guidance, control, and regulation of all aircraft, ground vehicles, and personnel on the movement areas during low visibility conditions. The intent of the SMGCS is to prevent collisions and ensure that traffic flows smoothly and freely in low visibility conditions. Guidance and regulation of aircraft are accomplished through surface markings, stop-bar lights, clearance-bar lights, hold-position lights, training, and installation of advanced technologies such as Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) systems, Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS), Head Up Displays (HUD), and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). Another light of importance to an airport is the rotating beacon. Rotating beacons help to identify the airport location and area to a pilot. The light emitted from a beacon is angled from two to ten degrees above the horizon, depending on the surrounding terrain. Civil land airports have a white-green beacon. As a safety measure, beacons are designed and built so that if one bulb burns out, a backup bulb will activate. The system also provides information by a secondary light or signal that indicates a bulb has burned out. If a beacon is activated during the day, it represents conditions below those for flight under visual flight rules. It could be that the ceiling is below 1,000 feet and/or the visibility is less than three miles. Any changes to the lighting systems of a public-use airport, including pilot-controlled lighting, require revision in the Airport Facilities/Directory (AF/D).
TDZL—Touch-Down Zone Lighting RCLS—Runway Centerline Lighting
Taxiway turnoff lights are in-pavement green lights that lead from the runway centerline onto a taxiway or vice versa SMGCS—Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems— is a system of guidance, control, and regulation of all aircraft, ground vehicles, and personnel on the movement areas during low visibility conditions. GPS—Global Positioning Systems A rotating beacon should be activated when conditions exist at an airport below those established for flight under visual flight rules. Changes to the lighting systems of a public-use airport require revision in the Airport Facilities /Directory (AF/D).
Airfield signs provide useful information to ground vehicle operators when driving on the airport and to pilots during takeoff, landing, or taxiing. Airfield signs, normally located on the left handside in the direction of travel (except for runway exit signs), are intended to provide easy determination of where a pilot or ground operator is, where he or she needs to go, and/or where he or she needs to stop until further clearance is given. Signs and markings also identify boundaries of approach areas, ILS critical areas, runway safety areas, and/or obstacle free zones.
Mandatory signs— have white inscriptions on a red background and require an individual at a controlled airport to obtain clearance before proceeding
Location signs—(1) those with yellow inscriptions on a black background are used for identifying the taxiway or runway where the aircraft or vehicle is located (2) those with black inscriptions on a yellow background are used for identifying the boundary of the Runway Safety Area, Obstacle Free Zone, and ILS critical areas.
Mandatory signs have white inscriptions on a red background and require an individual at a controlled airport to obtain clearance before proceeding, or at an uncontrolled airport to continue only with appropriate precautions. Mandatory signs are used only in conjunction with runways with the exception of the no entry sign. Location signs identify the taxiway or runway upon which the aircraft or vehicle is located. They have yellow inscriptions on a black background. A different type of location sign has black inscriptions on a yellow background; these signs identify the boundary of the Runway Safety Area (RSA), Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ), and ILS critical areas. The RSA, OFZ, and ILS signs are installed only at airports with operating control towers and where pilots or vehicles are often asked to report clear of a runway or critical area.
Directional signs provide information on the location and orientation of other taxiways from the one where the pilot or ground operator is. They always contain an arrow. Black inscriptions on a yellow background identify taxiways Black inscriptions on a leaving a runway or the direction of taxi routes. Where a taxiway ends, a taxiyellow background way-ending marker is normally installed. Destination signs are similar to direcidentify taxiways leaving a runway or the tion signs except that they point toward a general location on the airport rather direction of taxi routes. than a specific route. Sample destination signs are: APRON, FUEL, TERM(inal Taxiway directional area), CIVIL (aircraft area), MIL(itary area), PAX (passenger handling), signs—with an arrow CARGO, INTL (international area), and FBO (fixed base operator).
and black inscription against a yellow background
Destination signs— similar to directional signs but point toward a general location on the airport rather than a specific route, e.g., APRON, FUEL, TERM (inal area), CIVIL (aircraft area), MIL(itary area), PAX (passenger handling), CARGO, INTL (international area), and FBO (fixed base operator). A dot (%) between inscriptions mean “and.” Special informational signs have black inscriptions on a yellow background, e.g., noise abatement procedures.
A dot (%) between the inscriptions on a destination sign is read to mean “and” while a hyphen (-) is used only on mandatory signs. A solid black vertical line separates adjacent directional or destination insignia. Special informational signs such as noise abatement procedures are black inscriptions on a yellow background. On runways, distance-remaining signs are placed along the runway at
Figure 1: Signing Examples for a Complex Airport
intervals of 1,000 feet. Located 20 to 75 feet from the pavement edge, depending on the size of the sign, they have single white numbers on a black background. Where signs cannot be installed and/or where there is a need for additional information, directional guidance or location can be painted on the pavement.
Similar to signs, pavement markings provide information that is useful to both pilots and ground vehicle operators. They can be grouped into four categories: runway, taxiway, holding position, and others. Markings for runways are white, as are helicopter-landing areas with the exception of hospital helicopter pads, which are red. Taxiway centerlines, closed and hazardous areas, and holding position indicators are yellow, even though they may be located on a runway. Similar to pavement lighting, runway markings are determined by the type of approach to the runway. Those common to all runways include centerlines, designator, and holding indications. A non-precision instrument runway will include threshold and aiming point markers. Those for a precision instrument runway include all the previous plus touchdown zone and side stripes markings.
Distance-remaining signs are placed along the runway at intervals of 1,000 feet. These signs have single white numbers on a black background. Four categories of pavement markings— runway, taxiway, holding-position, and others Runway markings and helicopter-landing areas—white, except for hospital helicopter pads, which are red Taxiway centerlines are yellow.
Table B: Runway Marking Elements (Source: FAA).
Visual Marking Element Runway Designation Centerline Threshold Aiming points Touchdown Zone Side Stripes x x x1 x2 x x Non-precision Instrument Runway x x x x x x Precision Instrument Runway x x x x x x Visual runways, 4000 feet and longer, used by jet aircraft require aiming-points. Touchdown zone markers—Spaced at 500 feet intervals, these markers provide distance information according to the number of rectangular bars. Runway threshold bars—from eight to sixteen longitudinal lines that identify the beginning of a runway
1 On runways used or intended to be used, by international commercial transport 2 On runways 4,000 feet or longer used by jet aircraft
Visual runways, 4000 feet and longer, used by jet aircraft require aiming-points. Located 1,000 feet past the approach end of the runway, aiming-points spot where a jet on a normal glidepath will touch down. Touchdown zone markings are spaced at 500 feet intervals and provide distance information according to the number of rectangular bars. Runway threshold bars are a number of longitudinal lines (usually eight but as many as sixteen depending on runway width) that identify the beginning of a runway. Visual approach runways do not have threshold markings. In the event of construction, maintenance, or other activity causing a partial runway closure, the threshold is relocated and airport management is required to file a NOTAM 19
and possibly remark the runway depending upon the duration of the activity. A solid 10-foot wide white bar across the runway would identify a threshold that has been relocated.
Figure 2: Runway Markings When it is necessary to site a threshold other than at the runway end, a displaced threshold is used. This relocation is primarily needed because of an obstruction in the runway approach. It is a white bar 10 feet in width across the runway.
A demarcation bar is a different type of marking across the runway. It distinguishes a displaced threshold from a stopway, blast pad, or taxiway that precedes the runway. The bar is three feet wide and painted yellow. Leading up to Demarcation bar— 3- the demarcation bar is a series of yellow chevrons indicating an unusable area feet wide yellow bar for landing, takeoff, or taxiing. Arrows and arrowheads help to identify and used to distinguish a locate a displaced threshold. If the arrows are used in a displaced threshold, they displaced threshold from a stopway, a blast are white in color.
pad, or a taxiway that precedes the runway
Displaced threshold— a 10-feet wide bar placed across the runway when there is an obstruction in the runway’s approach.
Figure 3: Special Runway Markings 20
Other types of markings exist for the runways and taxiways. Shoulder stripe markings are used on both runways and taxiways to identify non-structural adjacent pavement. Sidestripes are used on runways and taxiways to provide a visual contrast between the usable surface boundaries. They are one continuous, solid white line on runways and two parallel continuous yellow lines on taxiways. An exception is where a taxilane is defined on an apron area. Instead of two solid lines, the markings consist of broken lines. Taxiways at public-use airports are required to have taxiway centerlines and runway hold-position markings. A taxiway centerline is a single continuous yellow line, even where it extends onto the runway (called lead on/off lines). Taxiway hold-position bars are four yellow parallel lines—two dashed lines and two solid ones. The two dashed lines are closest to the runway. Aircraft or vehicles approaching the runway will encounter the two double solid lines, which require authorization from the ATCT to cross if a control tower is in operation at the airport. Yellow in-pavement lights help to further distinguish the hold-position marking. At non-controlled airports, extreme diligence is used when approaching a holdposition line. Safe practices would have the pilot or vehicle operator announce over the radio his or her entry onto the runway before crossing the hold lines. Upon exiting the runway, the pilot encounters the double dashed lines first, and once passing both the dashed and solid lines, the pilot would announce being clear of the runway. Some airports have critical areas associated with navigational equipment. An aircraft, piece of equipment, or vehicle in the critical areas can disrupt the navigational signal. To keep aircraft and vehicles clear during IFR conditions, a yellow ladder-type marking is used. Airports with VOR facilities may have VOR ground checkpoint markings and signage installed. The checkpoints allow pilots to calibrate aircraft instruments on the ground. The checkpoint marking is a circle with an arrow directed toward the navigational aid and is located within one-half mile of the VOR. The marking is two concentric circles—the outside white and the inside yellow—with a yellow arrow. It is supplemented by a sign identifying the checkpoint and giving the VOR identification letters and the course radial. If available, DME information is also listed. The signage letters are black on a yellow background. Closed runways and taxiways are marked by yellow X’s placed to obscure each runway number, or are placed at the beginning and end of a taxiway. New technology has resulted in raised lighted X’s as a substitute. Permanently closed runways or taxiways additionally require disconnecting lighting circuits and obliterating pavement markings. The marking of construction areas requires special attention in the construction safety plan to ensure visibility and meaning.
Sidestripe markings— one continuous solid white line on runways and two parallel continuous yellow lines on taxiways, used to provide visual contrast between the boundaries of the usable surface Taxiways at publicuse airports are required to have taxiway centerlines and runway holdposition markings. A taxiway centerline is a single continuous yellow line, even where it extends onto the runway. Taxiway hold-position bars—four yellow parallel lines, two broken and two solid. Solid are on the taxiway side and broken are on the runway side.
Checkpoint marking—a circle with an arrow directed toward the navigational aid, located within onehalf mile of the VOR Markings for closed runways and taxiways—yellow X’s covering up each runway number or at the beginning and end of a taxiway
LAHSO—Land and Hold Short Operations
At airports having authorized Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO) for two intersecting runways, or where the runway is used as a taxiway to another runway, a yellow double solid and double dash hold-position marking extends across the runway to identify the hold-short position. It is supplemented with white on red signs adjacent to the runway. In-pavement lights help to distinguish the hold-position line on Category II and III ILS runways. For airports required to have a SMGCS, the stop-bar lights would be red. One component of a SMGCS is painted taxiway markings that complement the lighted guidance and informational signs. A SMGCS also requires elevated or in-pavement runway guard lights, green centerline, and lead-on lights for preferred taxi routes, taxiway lights, clearance bar lights, gate-designator markings, geographic hold-position markings (“ spots”), and yellow elevated runway guard lights at hold positions (“ wig-wags”) along with in-pavement lights. Vehicle roadway markings are intended to reduce the risk of an aircraft and vehicle accident on the AMA or AOA. Driving lanes are normally like those on highways, solid white boundary lines with a white broken centerline. An alternative is to use white “zippered” (required for SMGCS) markings. Outside of the AOA, markings should conform to those in the Department of Transportation’s Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. For pavement markings two choices of paint exist: water-based (latex) or oil based. Similar to the application of pavement sealers, pavement paint has less friction than the asphalt or concrete it covers. The addition of silica sand or glass bead can provide added texture to improve the friction properties of the painted surface. Glass beads, which reflect light, are required to be added to the paint to make the markings more conspicuous.
A compass rose marking is used to help calibrate aircraft magnetic compasses.
Two other types of markings/piloting aids can be found at airports: a compass rose and a segmented circle. A compass rose is a painted or other marking that is located on a surface large enough for aircraft to maneuver and be aligned to the different magnetic headings marked on the pavement. The compass rose is used to help calibrate aircraft magnetic compasses. The segmented circle marking is actually a series of objects on the ground designed to give traffic pattern and wind information to pilots in the air. A segmented circle is a series of highly visible white or yellow markers arranged in a circle to help a pilot identify important landing pattern and wind direction information. A segmented circle is required for airports serving any air carrier operation and when there is no control tower in operation. Inside the segmented circle is a wind indicator. Wind indicators pivot in the wind and can be a tetrahedron, a wind cone (windsock), or a combination of both. A landing strip indicator extends from the segmented circle for each runway. If a right-hand traffic pattern exists, a traffic pattern indicator extends from the landing strip indicator. 22
Segmental circle marking—a series of highly visible white or yellow markers arranged in a circle, with a wind indicator inside, to help pilot identify important landing pattern and wind direction information
Depending on the model, wind cones (socks) at airports have a minimum opening diameter of 18 inches, which provides an indication of wind speeds from 5 to 50 miles per hour. The cones have a distinguishing color of white, yellow, or orange. The support structure should be orange in color. Additional wind cones are required at airports certificated under Part 139 for each runway available for air carrier use. These supplemental wind cones are installed at the end of each runway, or at least at a point visible to the pilot while on final approach and prior to takeoff. For those airports open for air carrier operations during hours of darkness, all wind direction indicators require lighting.
Snow and Ice Control
Airport managers have a duty to ensure the safety of operations at their facilities. Part 139 requires a snow and ice removal plan that is current and complete, to meet local conditions. Snow, ice, slush, and standing water degrade the coefficient of friction; reduce braking and directional control; and impede aircraft acceleration. Acceptable limits vary by aircraft, but most jet aircraft flight manuals limit their particular aircraft to landing with no more than one inch of slush or standing water on the runway, and to taking off with no more than one half inch accumulation. The requirement for airport operators, therefore, is to remove as expeditiously as possible all snow, ice, and slush so as to maintain runways, high-speed turnoffs, and taxiways in a “no worse than wet” condition. Although snow is an important and serious problem in airport maintenance operations, ice is the most difficult problem to cope with and presents the greatest hazards to aircraft operations. A NOTAM is issued whenever contaminants exist on the runway. The snow and ice control plan required in an ACM includes instructions and procedures for the following: 1. The prompt removal or control of snow, ice, and slush on each AMA. 2. The positioning of snow off AMA surfaces so that all air carrier aircraft propellers, engine pods, rotors, and wingtips will clear any snowdrift or snow bank. 3. The selection and application of approved materials for snow and ice control. 4. The timely commencement of snow and ice control operations. 5. The prompt notification to all air carriers using the airport when there is less than a satisfactorily cleared AMA for the safe operation of aircraft. Since snow and ice conditions are considered an emergency situation, the timely removal or treatment of either is important. A snow plan identifies and classifies priority areas according to operational needs. Priority 1 areas generally are ARFF access routes to the primary runway in use, the primary runway and its associated taxiway routes to and from the terminal, and emergency service roads into the airport if ARFF services are located off the airport. Clearance times are based on the ability of the maintenance staff and the capability of equipment to clear pavement surfaces. 23
Objective 10 Most jet aircraft flight manuals limit their particular aircraft to landing with no more than one inch of slush or standing water on the runway, and to taking off with no more than one half inch accumulation. Ice is the most difficult problem to cope with and presents the greatest hazards to aircraft operations.
Snow is first removed from the primary runway in use and its associated taxiway routes to and from the terminal, ARFF access routes and emergency service roads into the airport if ARFF services are located off the airport.
Snow and Ice Plan
Objective 12 Basic components of a snow and ice plan— (1) preseason preparation, (2) snow committee composition, (3) snow desk or snow control center location, (4) equipment, (5) personnel training, (6) weather reports, (7) field condition reports, (8) clearance criteria, (9) clearance priorities, (10) supervision, and (11) communications.
Every fully certificated airport located where snow or ice regularly occurs is required to have a written plan stating the procedures, equipment, and materials to be used by the airport in removing snow and ice. Elements included in the plan are: preseason preparation, snow committee composition, snow desk or snow control center location, equipment, personnel training, weather reports, field condition reports, clearance criteria, clearance priorities, supervision, and communications. A snow plan needs to be flexible enough to allow snow and ice removal operations to change with weather and operational conditions. Airports that are required to have a snow plan should have a snow committee as part of the plan. The committee should be composed of representatives of airport management, the airline flight operations department, fixed-base operators, the ATCT, the flight service station, Airway Facilities (AF), the National Weather Service, other meteorological services, and/or other interested or concerned parties. Air carriers normally provide information on aircraft operational limitations and assist in evaluating pavement surface conditions. Airports in frequent or heavy snowfall areas have a “Snow Desk” or “Snow Control Center,” which is a special operation for coordinating all snow and ice control activities. All snow removal vehicles operating on runways and taxiways must be in radio communication or under the control of a radio equipped vehicle. The snow control center facilitates communication between the ATC tower, snow and ice control equipment and/or supervisors’ vehicles, and other support elements. The snow control centers are to inform air carriers and the ATC of expected runway opening and closing times, and to serve as a prime source of field condition information. They also ensure a timely response to a snow or ice removal event by obtaining and monitoring accurate information about an approaching storm and its likely effect on airport surfaces. The snow or ice removal task can be reduced and costs lessened by a prompt, effective response to a storm warning. Proper application of approved chemicals on the pavement before or during the very early stages of a snowfall will reduce the likelihood of compacted snow bonding to the pavement. Prompt treatment will also reduce the effort needed for either mechanical or chemical means of removing the snow. Freezing rain will bond to a cold pavement surface and requires special treatment, depending on the pavement surface temperature. If the pavement surface temperature is below freezing, chemical application may be the most effective control measure. If the pavement surface temperature is above freezing and a frozen rain (slush) develops, brooming is a more effective method of control. To help determine the best timing for de-/anti-ice application or snow removal, the use of friction measuring equipment can be beneficial, or instruments that 24
detect pavement conditions can be installed. Pavement condition sensing instruments are sensors, which are embedded in the pavement to measure surface conditions. They serve three functions: (1) they provide a precise measure of the pavement temperature; (2) they indicate the presence of water, ice, or other contaminants; and (3) they transmit this information to the snow control center for incorporation into the decision-making process for the most appropriate snow and ice control strategy. Both friction measuring equipment and surface sensing instruments are eligible for funding under AIP. Many factors influence a pavement’s temperature. Factors such as surface color and composition, wind, humidity, solar radiation, traffic, and the presence of residual deicing chemicals or other contaminants all need to be taken into consideration. Since pavement temperature lags behind air temperature, use of air temperature to infer the condition of the pavement surface is imprecise and can be misleading. Ice will not form unless the pavement temperature reaches the freezing point; therefore, knowledge of the direction and rate of change of pavement temperature can provide a predictive capability for the formation of ice. This is the benefit of a pavement sensor system.
Objective 13 Both friction measuring equipment and surface sensing instruments are eligible for funding under AIP.
De-ice and Anti-ice Compounds
The formation of frozen precipitation on an airport’s paved surfaces and on aircraft is a serious concern. Snow and ice can degrade an aircraft’s performance to the point where (1) surface maneuvering is impeded, (2) the generation of speed or lift is diminished for takeoff, or (3) braking action and stopping distance become marginal when landing. For the air carriers, the FAA prohibits takeoff when snow, ice, or frost is adhering to wings, propellers, control surfaces, engine outlets, or other critical surfaces on the aircraft. For airport pavements, different types of chemicals or liquids may be used for preventing or removing snow and ice accumulations. Chemicals that are available for use are: urea, acetate-based compounds, and sodium formate. Urea is a solid synthesized crystalline granular compound that is often used as fertilizer. It works for temperatures down to about 15 degrees Fahrenheit. Acetate-based compounds are potassium acetate (Cryotech), calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), or sodium acetate (Clearway 2). Another compound, sodium formate, is marketed under the Safeway SF name. Potassium acetate can work down to -50 degrees Fahrenheit depending upon the dilution strength. Polypropylene glycol and ethylene glycol are the two liquids approved for use as deicing existing buildups or for the prevention of ice formation (anti-ice). Deicing chemicals and liquids work by lowering the freezing point of the water or liquid mixture. Anti-ice chemicals or fluids are applied prior to ice formation to prevent bonding of the ice to the pavement. Application rates of de-/anti-icing fluids vary depending on ice and snow accumulations and overall weather conditions. The chemical costs to deice a runway and taxiway can become very expensive. 25
Chemicals available for deicing and snow removal—urea, acetate-based compound, and sodium formate
Liquids approved for deicing—polypropylene glycol and ethylene glycol
In applying de-icing compounds, whether on pavement or on aircraft, the ratio of water and glycol mixture is dependent upon the eutectic point desired. The lowest temperature that a chemical melts ice occurs with a specified amount of chemical mixture. That temperature is called the eutectic temperature, and the The eutectic composi- amount of chemical is called the eutectic composition. Combined, they are called the eutectic point. Ice will form on a pavement or aircraft surface in one tion—the amount of chemical mixture that of four methods: (1) radiation cooling, (2) freezing of cold rain, (3) freeze-thaw melts ice at the of compacted snow, or (4) freezing of ponded or melted water. All anti-icing and eutectic temperature de-icing compounds are dispensed on the basis of the pavement temperature or the temperature of the aircraft skin, not air temperature.
The eutectic temperature—the lowest temperature that a chemical melts ice
Compared with liquid de-icers, solids can be spread simultaneously with sand and require less equipment and fewer operators to spread. Liquid de-icers generally require special tanks and pumping stations. Chemical snow and ice control is expensive and affects the environment. Urea and potassium acetate do different things to the environment.
BOD—biochemical oxygen demand Using liquid deicers—more expensive than using chemical deicers
As urea degrades, it turns into ammonia nitrate, which has high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity. Both properties are detrimental to the environment. The benefits of liquids are for lower BOD and toxicity. Among the acetates used on runways, ammonia acetate has the greatest toxicity effect. A drawback to using liquid, however, is that it adds bulk to snow and slush, thereby allowing greater potential for windrow dams to be formed. Also, using liquid deicers is more expensive than using solid de-icers. Because each airport’s snow and ice conditions will vary, sometimes a combination of the two methods is most effective. Safety should always come first when considering the application of anti-/de-ice material. The airport operator should work closely with the state’s environmental departments to ensure the legality and effects any chemical used will have on the environment.
Because aircraft cannot take off when snow, ice, or frost is adhering to the wings, propellers, control surfaces, engine outlets, or other critical surfaces, the aircraft must be de-iced. Aircraft de-icing is accomplished by spraying one of several types of heated aqueous solutions (water/glycol) onto critical aircraft surfaces. The heat of the solution and the force of the spray melt and remove the ice/snow/frost, and the antifreeze properties of the solution prevent refreezing. The spent solution falls to the ground and follows whatever natural drainage course exists. The two most common types of aircraft anti-/de-icing fluids are distinguished by their thickness or viscosity. The first solution, known simply as Type I, is a mixture of glycol and water that is heated to 180 degrees F. Applied to clean frozen precipitation on the aircraft, Type I fluid protects aircraft from snowfall for approximately 15 minutes, but it provides only 3 to 5 minutes of holdover protection from freezing rain. Type I is orange in color. 26
Anti/de-icing fluids are distinguished by their thickness or viscosity. Type I fluid—a mixture of glycol and water heated to 180 degrees F; protects aircraft from snowfall for about 15 minutes and from freezing rain for 3 to 5 minutes
Type IV fluid is a thicker water and glycol mixture that uses a polymer as a thickening agent and is green in color. It does not need to be heated before it is applied. Considered an anti-icing solution, Type IV fluid is used mostly during heavy snowfall. Once it is applied, the fluid adheres to the aircraft’s outer surface and does not run off until take off. However, if ice or snow has formed on the aircraft, it must be cleaned off first using Type I fluid. Type IV fluid holdover times can protect aircraft from heavy snowfall for up to 45 minutes. Airport operations personnel should be familiar with the types of chemicals used on their airport, the correct response to spills, cleanup requirements and the proper techniques for handling such chemicals. The use of Type I and IV fluids is expedient and efficient, though the cost of the solutions has made it expensive and there are environmental concerns associated with them. Neither ethylene glycol nor propylene glycol is particularly toxic, though the EPA lists ethylene glycol as a hazardous substance. A greater concern exists for the environmental effects of de-icing. Each glycol compound is known for its biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and for aquatic toxicity. Of the glycols, Type IV has higher toxicity and BOD. Air carriers and airports have a leading role and joint responsibility in the glycol mitigation process. The carriers must produce and update a plan of operations that is acceptable to the airport operator and the environmental agencies. To help minimize the effects of aircraft deicing on the environment, airports are encouraged and even required to construct separate de-icing facilities or to acquire equipment that can collect the fluid on the ground. Airport management can construct, within FAA standards, either centralized or remote aircraft de-icing facilities. De-icing facilities at terminals or on apron areas are considered centralized. Those located on taxiways or near departure runways are considered remote. Siting remote facilities near departure runways minimizes the taxiing time between treatment and takeoff. Such facilities also compensate for changing weather conditions when icing conditions or blowing snow is expected to occur along the taxi route taken by aircraft to the departure runway. The primary factor for siting deicing facilities is aircraft taxi time. Beginning with the start of the last de-/anti-icing treatment and ending with a takeoff clearance, the taxi time must be within the holdover time of the fluid in order to remain effective. The acquisition or use of vehicles that vacuum or otherwise collect glycol is another technique for mitigating the effects of glycol runoff. Many airports use this method because it is an economical approach to the problem of glycol recovery. The collected glycol is then stored or otherwise deposited into a facility that will recycle or process the glycol. Another system for de-icing aircraft has been developed. Installed in a large open-ended hangar, this system contains infrared sources suspended from the 27
Type IV fluid—a thicker water and glycol mixture that (1) uses a polymer as a thickening agent, (2) does not need to be heated before it is applied, and (3) has higher toxicity and BOD
Siting remote facilities near departure runways minimizes the taxiing time between treatment and takeoff.
Acquiring or using vehicles that vacuum or collect glycol mitigates the effects of glycol runoff.
ceiling to melt ice and snow from the surfaces of aircraft towed through it. The technology continues to be tested.
Snow Removal Equipment
Snow removal equipment requirements are based on the annual operations at an airport and the amount of Priority 1 surface area to be cleared in a specified time period.
Snow removal equipment requirements are based on the annual operations at an airport and the amount of Priority 1 surface area to be cleared in a specified time period. Commercial service airports that provide scheduled air carrier service and experience snow conditions as presented in AC 150/5200-30A should have sufficient snow and ice control equipment, chemicals, and personnel to meet the removal standards established in the ACM.
Snow and ice can be removed in one of two ways, either mechanically or chemically. The four mechanical methods of snow removal include rotary blowers or The four mechanical throwers, plows, broom sweepers, and loaders. The chemical methods include methods of snow removal include rotary material spreaders that disperse de-/anti-ice granules or liquid.
blowers or throwers, plows, broom sweepers, and loaders.
The rotary snow blower or thrower is the primary mechanical device for removal of hazardous snow accumulations such as windrows and snow banks. Rotary snowblowers are used primarily to cast heavy concentrations of snow away from airport operational areas such as the runways and taxiways. The equipment can be self-propelled or attached to a carrier vehicle and uses either one or more rotating elements (single or two-stage units) to break up and discharge the snow. The term carrier vehicle represents the various self-propelled prime movers (combination truck chassis, body, and engine) that provide the power necessary to move snow and ice control equipment during winter operations. Single-stage rotary plows use one rotating device to accomplish both the breakup and the casting of snow. Two-stage rotary plows break up the snow in one step and discharge in the second. Impellers, which cut and gather the snow, can be of blade, auger, or ribbon type. Impellers, which cast the snow, can be of a web or disk design. There are various types of snowblowers available. Their different snow removal capacities are based on their speed and casting distance.
Displacement plows consist of a cutting edge to shear snow from the pavement and a moldboard to lift and cast the dislodged snow to the side of the cleared path. The cutting edge may ride in contact with the pavement or be held a small distance above it by means of shoes or caster wheels. Displacement plow sizes are classified as follows: small (6-10 feet), intermediate (10-15 feet), large (1522 feet), and extra large (greater than 22 feet). The plows themselves can be further classified as to their function and purpose. Typical plows are: one-way fixed angle, power reversible, rollover power reversible, 28
power reversible with folding wings, flexible reversible, ramp dozer, expressway, and vee type. Plows are most commonly mounted on the front of a carrier vehicle, but they may also be mounted on the side or underneath the vehicle. A ramp dozer is used primarily in confined areas that require wide to extra-wide swath plowing, but it may also be used to transport and dump snow. A ramp blade can be equipped with side plates to contain snow and prevent spillage. An expressway plow provides the speed characteristics of a rigid plow and the cleanup ability of a reversible plow. The plow has bulldozing capabilities and, if horizontally adjusted, has the ability to cast snow to the right or left. Vee-type plows can tackle high drifts and heavy snow. Side-mounted extension wings increase the swath of the front-mounted plow. Leveling wings are used for windrow and snow bank leveling/trimming operations. Underbody mounted scraper blades provide constant ground pressure on the pavement surface. Combined with serrated cutting edges, they are especially useful in scarifying ice which helps to retain applications of deice chemicals or liquids.
Snow sweepers or brooms are used primarily to clean up the residues left on the pavement surface by a plow or blower, or in sweeping and cleaning debris from airport operational areas. They incorporate high-speed brooms that consist of a number of brush sections, which may be front-mounted to a carrier vehicle (attached or integral), underbody-mounted, or mounted on a trailer towed by a carrier vehicle. All are capable of sweeping wet, slushy snow as well as fine dry snow from pavement surfaces. A sweeper can be complemented by an airblast system, which is located behind the brush assembly. A sweeper airblast system is used to sweep the pavement area clean of snow, slush, sand, and other debris; help dry the pavement surface, and clear snow from around runway lights. Four different types of sweepers are used on airports: (1) pushed, (2) towed, (3) underbody, and (4) band sweepers. The pushed sweeper precedes the carrier vehicle while the towed sweeper is fixed to a trailer and is towed by a conventional carrier vehicle. Towed sweepers are available in three types of drives: straight mechanical, variable speed mechanical and variable speed hydrostatic. The underbody airport sweeper is a large multipurpose unit that is pulled by a carrier vehicle and is capable of plowing and sweeping snow and debris simultaneously. The band sweeper is similar to a front-mounted broom except it uses a continuously turning horizontal band that is made of reinforced rubber. The band has a number of protruding vertical ribs that are capable of moving snow to the right and left of the travel path. The focal point of any sweeper is the brush assembly. It must not only sweep snow and slush from pavement surfaces at a specified speed, but also lift and cast these materials off the surfaces and away from the path of travel. Brushes come in different shapes and sizes. They can be mounted on a single tubular 29
Snow sweepers or brooms are used primarily to clean up the residues left on the pavement surface by a plow or blower, or in sweeping and cleaning debris from airport operational areas
core or on several abutting cores, both of which receive power directly from the carrier vehicle engine or an independent engine. The choice in brush design and bristle composition depends on an airport’s particular needs and the nature and type of snow normally received. Generally, brushes having a mixed polypropylene/wire bristle composition will provide the best overall sweeping results. Brushes are most effective when their contact with the pavement surface produces a “flicking action” that dislodges snow and slush and leaves a clean dry surface behind. Brush bristles are made of polypropylene plastic (poly), wire, or a combination of one-half poly and one-half wire. Three different types of brushes are available for use on airport sweepers: wafers, tufted wire sections, and cassettes. Wafers are by far the most popular type of brush used on airports.
The best type of snow sweeper—made of polypropylene and wire bristle
The function of a material spreader is to provide a continuous, unrestricted, accurately metered flow of granular or liquid material to a pavement surface over a predetermined spread area. A spreader unit consists of a material storage compartment, a feed mechanism to carry the material to the discharge opening, a metering device to control the discharge rate, and a distribution mechanism. Depending on the type, spreaders are capable of spreading dry and liquid chemicals and abrasives. Liquid material spreaders apply fluids to the pavement surfaces through a spray applicator system consisting of a supply tank, pump, flow rate monitor, and a spray bar equipped with nozzles. Tank capacities usually range from 500 to 4,000 gallons. Two methods exist to increase the friction coefficient of an iced or snow-packed surface: (1) scarify the ice with a serrated blade and (2) apply granular material (abrasives) to the surface. The use of abrasives needs to be carefully controlled to reduce engine ingestion in turbojet aircraft. When applying abrasives, care is used to help them adhere to the ice or snow since they can easily be blown away by wind or scattered by aircraft operation. There are three approaches to reducing loss of abrasives: (1) they can be heated to enhance embedding into the cold surface, (2) the granules can be coated with an approved de-icing chemical in the stockpile or in the distributing truck hopper, or (3) diluted de-icing chemical can be sprayed on the granules or the pavement at the time of spreading.
Snow and Ice Removal Techniques
It is important that any snow plowed off the runways not be of a height that will interfere with pilot visibility or the wings, engines, and propellers of aircraft. Furthermore, snow cleared from the runways should not be deposited within a NAVigational AID (NAVAID) critical area.
Snow should be plowed to the prevailing downwind side of the runway to reduce drifting. Eliminating windrows at the runway edge can also reduce the formation of drifts onto the runway. These drifts, often called finger drifts, frequently take the form of long, intermittent, and possibly narrow snow projections, which taper in width and height and can cause loss of aircraft directional control. Snow fences can be used to minimize snow accumulation around NAVAIDs and other sensitive facilities. Snow fences should not be placed so that they penetrate any critical surfaces, and they should be outside of the runway safety area. If there is insufficient storage space for snow near the areas to be cleared and no melting or flushing means are available, hauling snow to a disposal site may be necessary. Careful consideration must be given to drainage when selecting a land disposal site, as the ground can remain snow covered or wet long after all other snow has melted. Seasonal vegetative growth can be delayed. Some airports have disposal pits with melting devices in the ground to handle snow removal demands. In heavy snow areas, the marking of edge lights by the placement of flexible markers near the lights helps snow removal crews and pilots. The markers are normally of a high contrast color such as international orange, which enhances visibility. The height of the markers should be six inches outside the propeller arc of the most critical airplane using the airport, and the markers need to be securely fastened in place to avoid creating a foreign object damage (FOD) hazard. A NOTAM should be issued for the following winter operating conditions: braking action reports, friction measurements, snow depths, plowed runways, runway sanding or de-icing, snow banks, and runway light obscuration. The procedures for pilot braking action reporting and runway friction reporting are given in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM). Relative to snow and slush, depths normally greater than one-half inch require NOTAM publication. The ACM is also the source for information regarding the placement of snow banks near a runway, taxiway, or apron; though a snow bank exceeding 12 inches is considered the norm for requiring a NOTAM. The height of a snowbank on an area adjacent to a runway, taxiway, or apron should be reduced to provide wing overhang clearance and preclude operational problems caused by ingestion of ice into turbine engines or propellers striking the banks. The maximum snow height profile developed for safe operations should be for the most demanding airplanes using an airport. This ensures that props, wing tips, etc., do not touch the snow when a main wheel is located at the edge of the full-strength pavement. Some airports contract with private companies or municipal crews to conduct snow removal operations. The principles of ensuring safety of operations apply to them also. Any agreement needs to be clear and specific regarding (1) duties and procedures for snow and ice control, (2) responsibilities for communications and control, and (3) contingencies. Contractors should be given a copy of those 31
The height of the markers placed next to edge lights should be six inches outside the propeller arc of the most critical airplane that uses the airport. Objective 15 AIM—Aeronautical Information Manual A NOTAM should be issued when there is more than one-half inch of snow on paved surfaces and when a snow bank exceeds 12 inches.
portions of the ACM that apply to them, such as the snow plan and ground vehicle operations. In addition, all airport leases and agreements should cover the duties and responsibilities of lessees to carry out their snow and ice control duties. It remains the responsibility of airport management to monitor all contractor activities.
Airport Condition Reporting
Airport management is responsible for the timely notification of airport users and the FAA of any conditions adversely affecting operational safety at the airport. Several sections of Part 139 regulations require airport management to have a system in place that will expediently notify users of any condition that is not up to standard or that can affect aircraft operations. Airport management is required to report deficient airport conditions, which could have an immediate and critical impact on the safety of aircraft operations. Should it happen that some element of Part 139 is not met, or an unsafe condition exists on the airport, air carrier activity for that area must be halted.
Notices to Airman (NOTAM)
The primary system used to convey safety information to airport users is known as the Notice to Airman (NOTAM). The purpose of the NOTAM system is to disseminate information on unanticipated or temporary changes to components of, or hazards in, the National Airspace System until associated aeronautical charts and other related publications can be amended. The NOTAM system is important because airport operators have a duty to notify users of any change in published airport procedures or changes in the physical facility. As an example, an airport manager should give timely and proper notice of pavement or visual aids, which may have been damaged by a snowplow. If the full width of a runway cannot be cleared of snow, the situation should be reported in a NOTAM by giving details of the cleared width. This information then allows each aircraft operator to judge the suitability of conducting operations since aircraft requirements differ. The NOTAM system is not intended to be used to impose restrictions on airport access for the purpose of controlling or managing noise, or to advertise data already published or charted. NOTAM processing and dissemination are the responsibility of FAA Flight Service Stations (FSS). When corrective actions have been taken at the airport, the NOTAM should be canceled. The National Flight Data Center (NFDC) in Washington, D. C. has overall management responsibilities for the NOTAM system. At certain airports NOTAM issuance may occur through the FAA air traffic control tower. However, airport management is responsible for condition reporting and in these cases a letter-of-agreement should be entered into, outlining the responsibilities for the NOTAM issuance and dissemination. 32
The NOTAM system is not intended to be used to impose restrictions on airport access for the purpose of controlling or managing noise, or to advertise data already published or charted.
The FAA Flight Service Station (FSS) is the processing agency for NOTAM.
NOTAMs cover a variety of topic areas that fall under one of the following: movement areas, lighting aids, air navigation aids, communications, services, special data, and Flight Data Center NOTAMs. It is airport management’s responsibility to promptly distribute information about any condition on or near the airport that would prevent, restrict, or otherwise present a hazard to arriving and departing aircraft. NOTAMs are often not the complete solution to providing adequate notification at a particular airport. An internal communications system such as telephone, computer, facsimile, or hand-carried written method that directly notifies air carrier offices and tenants can be more timely and efficient. Two types of NOTAM dissemination exist for airport condition reporting. A NOTAM (L) is disseminated locally by the FSS to the area affected by the hazard, aid, or service being advertised. A user of the airspace system may become aware of a NOTAM (L) existence only by calling the FSS that has jurisdiction for the issuing airport. A NOTAM (D) is one that carries distant (national) dissemination by the FSS, thereby allowing someone outside the local FSS area to become aware of the NOTAM without specifically requesting it. If an airport is listed in the Airport Facility/Directory (AF/D), either of the NOTAM dissemination methods can occur depending on the facility, equipment, or condition being reported, though exceptions do exist. Generally, conditions qualifying for NOTAM (L) dissemination are those associated with (1) runway and taxiway information that does not restrict or preclude their use, (2) personnel and equipment on or adjacent to the runway or taxiways, or (3) taxiway edge lights. NOTAM (D) is issued in cases of an airport closure or the presence of conditions that restrict or preclude the use of any portion of a runway or waterway. These can include runway braking action reports; existence of runway contamination such as snow, ice, slush, standing water, or rubber accumulation; changes in friction measuring values; friction measuring equipment out of order; restrictions or permanent changes to Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting (ARFF) index; and outages of various airport lighting and navigation aids, especially obstruction lighting outages. Specific to snow or icing conditions, a NOTAM should include information on the type of contaminant (wet snow, dry snow, slush), the depth of contaminant, whether full or partial coverage; snow banks exceeding height standards, pavement temperature (if a SSI system is in place), type of device used and friction measurement readings, braking action reports, chemical or abrasive treatments, runway closure times, and obscuration of lights or markings. When issued, a NOTAM will include the following information:
1. Identification of the affected airport facility and component; 2. Description of the affected component condition, which prompted the NOTAM; 3. The effective time period the component will be affected; 4. Name, address, and phone number of the person issuing the NOTAM; 5. To whom copies are distributed;
A letter-of-agreement outlining the responsibilities for the NOTAM issuance and dissemination should be entered into by an airport and the FAA air traffic control tower when the latter is involved in NOTAM issuance. Two types of NOTAM dissemination— NOTAM (L) and NOTAM (D)
NOTAM (D) is issued in cases of an airport closure or the presence of conditions that restrict or preclude the use of any portion of a runway or waterway.
When reporting friction measurements, airport managers are to convey the runway identifier, the type of device used, followed by the Mu number for each of the three runway segments, time of report, and a word describing the cause of the runway friction problem. An example of a Mu report in the format used by ATC is as follows: “Runway two seven, type of CFME, Mu 39, 37, 38 at one zero one eight Zulu, de-iced.” Airports, certificated under FAR Part 139, must describe NOTAM issuance proceThe time and duration dures and required documentation in the ACM. Documentation of compliance is of a NOTAM—noted necessary. A NOTAM log is required so that a manager can quickly access those in Universal Time NOTAMs that are in effect and those that are not. When the FAA issues the Coordinated (UTC), NOTAM, the time and duration of a NOTAM issuance is noted in Universal Time which replaced Coordinated (UTC). The UTC system is stated in 10 digits (year, month, day, hour, Greenwich Mean and minute). UTC replaced Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) in 1985. The acronym Time (GMT) in 1985 ZULU continues in use, however, and it now represents the UTC date-time groups. ZULU—represents All times are expressed in the 24-hour clock. It is important that an airport document the UTC date-time the individual at the FAA facility who accepted the NOTAM information.
groups Objective 15
Airport Construction Activity
Periods of construction and maintenance on an airport present special problems in keeping aircraft, construction machinery, and personnel safely apart. Obtaining contractor cooperation in this matter at the beginning is much easier than trying to catch up later. The marking and lighting of construction areas need to be spelled out clearly in the contract for incorporation into the bid requirements. Planning for construction projects should always include avoidance of damage to utilities. Each bidding document (construction plans and/or specifications) for airport development work or NAVAlD installation involving aircraft operational areas should incorporate an Airport Construction Safety Plan for the project. Construction activities on an airport that are close to, or that affect aircraft operational areas or navigable airspace, are required to be coordinated with the FAA and airport users before activities begin. Construction areas located within safety areas require special attention in the project plans. Safety area encroachments, improper ground vehicle operations, and unmarked or uncovered holes and trenches near aircraft operating surfaces are the three most recurring threats to safety during construction. Airport management is required to closely monitor construction activity throughout its duration to ensure continual compliance with safety requirements. Certain airport projects, such as the construction, realigning, altering, activating, or abandoning of a runway, landing strip, or associated taxiway, or construction, or alteration of objects that affect navigable airspace, require formal written notification to the FAA. On all AIP or PFC funded airport projects, a safety plan must be developed. Key to the safety plan is the training of contractors and their employees on how to operate safely on the airport.
Pedestrians and Ground Vehicles
Vehicular activity on airport movement areas should be kept to a minimum. Airport Movement Areas (AMA) are the runways, taxiways, and other areas of an airport which are used for taxiing or hover taxiing, air taxiing, takeoff, and landing of air carrier aircraft, exclusive of loading ramps and aircraft parking areas. Where vehicular traffic on movement areas cannot be avoided, it should be carefully controlled. A basic guiding principle is that the aircraft always has the right-of-way. At certificated airports, vehicle access to the AMA must be controlled and identified easily. This includes vehicle markings, key or code access, two-way radio communication, signal lights, traffic signs, flagmen, escorts, or other means suitable for each particular airport. The control of pedestrian and vehicular activity on airport operations areas is of high importance. Airport management is required to establish and implement procedures for access to, and operation on, movement areas and safety areas by both pedestrians and vehicles. To heighten awareness of this safety issue and minimize runway incursions and surface incidents, FAA requires an airport operator to provide specific training on these operational procedures and requires that individual training records be kept. The training requirements apply to airport employees, tenant employees, construction crews, vendors and contractors. With respect to vehicular traffic, aircraft safety is likely to be endangered by four principle causes: increased traffic volume, non-standard vehicle traffic patterns, vehicles without radio communication and markings, and operators untrained in the airport’s procedures.
The requirements of Part 139 pertaining to public protection are oriented toward inadvertent entry by persons or vehicles onto the AOA and the hazards that exist. The prevention of intentional infiltration of airport security areas is within the purview of the regulation on airport security, (Transportation Security Administration—TSA) Part 1542. The ACM should provide for surveillance of all of the safeguards on the airport for compliance with this provision. Airport design requires the consideration of jet blast when locating facilities and forming operational areas. The forces of jet blast far exceed the forces of prop wash due to the high velocities of jet exhaust. In terminal, maintenance, and cargo areas, personnel safety is the overriding consideration in design. The jet exhaust velocities of most turbofan and turbojet engines can exceed 100 m.p.h. for distances up to 200 feet behind an aircraft trying to break away from a standstill. To mitigate the effects of jet blast on personnel safety, including vehicular traffic near runway and taxiways, blast fences are used to deflect the jet exhaust.
TSAR Part 1542— contains stipulations for prevention of intentional infiltration of airport security areas.
Wildlife Hazard Management
Estimates by the FAA indicate that the economic cost from bird strikes are significant— exceeding 400,000 hours of aircraft downtime and $216 million in direct losses. Though bird strikes have been reported as high as 25,000 feet, the vast majority of wildlife strikes occur below 600 feet above ground level. Birds are not the only problem at airports. Other types of wildlife exist, including domestic animals. For airports, wildlife includes mammals, birds, and reptiles, which exist free in nature, and any domestic animals that are out of the control of their owners. Wildlife becomes a hazard when the potential exists for a damaging aircraft collision on or near the airport, or when certain conditions exist that can serve as an attraction to wildlife that could pose an aircraft strike potential. FAR Part 139 requires airport managers to show that they have established instructions and procedures for the prevention or removal of factors on the airport that attract—or might attract—wildlife. A wildlife attractant is considered to be any man-made structure, land-use practice, or natural geographic feature that can attract or sustain hazardous wildlife within the landing or departure airspace, aircraft movement area, loading ramps, or aircraft parking areas of an airport. These attractants can include, but are not limited to, architectural features, landscaping, waste disposal sites, wastewater treatment facilities, agricultural or aqua cultural activities, surface mining, or wetlands. Part 139 requires airport management to conduct a Wildlife Hazard Assessment when any of the following events occur on or near the airport: 1. An air carrier aircraft experiences multiple bird strikes. 2. An air carrier aircraft experiences substantial damage from striking wildlife. 3. An air carrier aircraft experiences an engine ingestion of wildlife. 4. Wildlife of a size or in numbers capable of causing an accident event is ob served to have access to any airport flight pattern or aircraft movement area. A Wildlife Hazard Assessment must be conducted by a wildlife damage management biologist who has professional training and/or experience in wildlife hazard management at airports or an individual working under the direct supervision of such an individual. FAA Form 5200-7, Bird Strike Incident/Ingestion Report, is used to report bird strikes to the FAA. It is available in the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM), from a Flight Service Station (FSS) or from the FAA Airports District Office (ADO). The form is also used to report other types of wildlife collisions or incidents. A Wildlife Hazard Assessment consists of (1) analyzing the events or circumstances that prompted the research; (2) identifying the species, numbers, locations, local movements, and daily and seasonal occurrences of wildlife observed; (3) identifying and locating features on and near the airport that attract wildlife; (4) describing the 36
FAR Part 139 requires airport managers to show that they have established instructions and procedures for the prevention or removal of factors on the airport that attract—or might attract—wildlife. A wildlife attractant— any man-made structure, land-use practice, or natural geographic feature that can attract of sustain hazardous wildlife Objective 16 An assessment of wildlife hazard is required when any of the following events occur on or near the airport: (1) an air carrier aircraft experiences multiple bird strikes, (2) an air carrier aircraft experiences substantial damage from striking wildlife, (3) an air carrier aircraft experiences an engine ingestion of wildlife, and (4) wildlife of a size or in numbers capable of causing an accident event is observed to have access to any airport flight pattern or aircraft movement area.
wildlife hazard to air carrier operations; and (5) recommended actions for reducing the identified hazards on air carrier operations. Upon completion the Wildlife Hazard Assessment, the document must be submitted to the FAA Administrator for approval and a determination if a Wildlife Hazard Management Plan is needed. In addressing wildlife hazards at a certificated airport, one of three types of entries is needed in the ACM: (1) a statement of negative activity; (2) a brief statement of the no-hazard findings of a Wildlife Hazard Assessment; or (3) a Wildlife Hazard Management Plan. In any event, the ACM should contain instructions for reporting observed wildlife activity. If no wildlife activity exists or none that triggers the Wildlife Hazard Assessment, a statement to that effect must be recorded in the ACM. If it has been determined that an airport must have a Wildlife Hazard Management Plan, it then becomes a permanent part of the ACM. Two other requirements are placed on the airport operator if a Wildlife Hazard Management Plan is mandated by FAA. The first is that a training program must be conducted for airport personnel involved in wildlife management by a qualified wildlife damage management biologist in order to provide these individuals with the knowledge and skills needed to successfully carry out the Plan. Secondly, the Wildlife Hazard Management Plan must be reviewed and evaluated annually. The basic ingredient in an effective wildlife control program is not the techniques used, but rather the abilities of airport personnel and the support of management. Wildlife control is based primarily on two approaches: (1) habitat modification and (2) active control. Active control includes scaring, dispersal, trapping, and lethal control. Since birds are the primary hazard to aircraft, reducing the potential for bird strikes at airports involves one or more strategies. Elimination of a food source and habitat modification are the primary method. Habitat management is a planned activity, which begins with the identification of habitat, consideration of alternatives for modification or elimination of the habitat, and then the incorporation of changes into a long-term land-use management practice. Habitat modification may require keeping grass at 10-14 inches for gulls, or 6 inches for other birds of prey. It could require removing trees, ponds, building ledges, and other unnecessary perches and roosting areas. Other means for minimizing wildlife interference may include (1) installing at least a ten-foot perimeter fence with barbed wire to prevent wandering wildlife, (2) placing glycol storage basins and storm water ponds underground or providing netting over them to keep birds out, (3) draining all standing water areas, (4) designing ponds with a 4: 1 slope, and (5) using sweepers to remove worms from airport hard surfaces.
FAA Form 5200-7, Bird Strike Incident/ Ingestion Report, is used to report to the FAA not only bird strikes but also other types of wildlife collisions or incidents.
Secondary strategies involve the active control of the birds through harassing or frightening techniques and lethal control. These methods can be bird distress call tapes, pyrotechnic devices, propane cannons, whistles, decoys, shotgun blasts with screamers shells, high pressure water from fire hoses, and even papier-mâché owls to frighten birds. There is also the use of chemical treatment to cause dispersal and movement of flocks. Lethal control or the killing of wildlife through the use of chemicals, firearms or other mechanical means normally requires a depredation permit from a state or federal Fish and Wildlife Service. Since birds and animals adapt to the various strategies, effective wildlife control requires continuous changes to the method used. Large numbers of wildlife that are hazardous to aircraft are known to be attracted to such things as waste disposal operations, waste water treatment facilities, settling ponds, and artificial marshes. When located within certain distances of the airport, they are considered incompatible with safe airport operations. Accordingly, measures to minimize hazardous wildlife attraction should be developed. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires any operator proposing a new or expanded waste disposal operation within five statute miles of a runwayend to notify the appropriate FAA Regional Airports District Office and the AIP funds can be used airport operator of the proposal. The EPA also requires owners or operators of for wildlife control. new Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) units—or lateral expansions of existing MSWLF units that are located within 10,000 feet of any airport runway-end used by turbine powered aircraft or within 5,000 feet of any airport runway-end used only by piston-type aircraft—to demonstrate successfully that such units are not hazards to aircraft.
MSWLF—Municipal Solid Waste Landfill
The FAA recommends that, to the extent practicable, operators of AIP funded airports oppose off-airport land-use changes or practices within the distances noted above that may attract hazardous wildlife. Failure to do so could place the airport in noncompliance with applicable grant assurances. It is the responsibility of airport operators, sponsors, planners, and land-use developers to consider whether any proposed land uses, including new airport development projects, would increase the wildlife hazard. Because grant assurances and certification are affected, AIP funds can be used for wildlife control. All species of wildlife can pose a threat to aircraft safety. However, some species are more commonly involved in aircraft strikes than others. Gulls, waterfowl, raptors, doves, vultures, blackbirds/starlings, corvids, wading birds, and deer are the most common wildlife groups reported as being involved in damaging strikes to aircraft in the United States. Airports often experience other localized wildlife problems with diverse animals such as cows, armadillos, rabbits, alligators, moose, prairie dogs, coyotes, and groundhogs. Because the wildlife species and the size of the populations at38
tracted to the airport environment are highly variable, it is important for airport management to identify those land-use practices in the airport area that serve to attract any such hazardous wildlife. The U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has expertise in the management of wildlife problems. The Wildlife Services Department of the USDA can provide assessments and advice for dealing with wildlife problems and control. Airport operators with wetlands located on or near airport property should be alert to any wildlife use or habitat changes that could affect safe aircraft operations. When expanding existing airports in or near wetlands, the wildlife hazards should be evaluated and minimized through a wildlife management plan. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) can assist and make a determination as to whether or not an area would qualify as a wetland. The movement of storm water away from runways, taxiways, and aprons is a normal function on most airports and is necessary for safe aircraft operations. Both detention and retention ponds are used for the purpose of controlling runoff and protecting water quality. Detention ponds hold storm water for short periods (typically three hours or less), while retention ponds hold water indefinitely. They both can attract hazardous wildlife. Retention ponds are more attractive to hazardous wildlife than detention ponds because they provide a more reliable water source. To facilitate hazardous wildlife control, the FAA recommends using steep-sided, narrow, linearly shaped, riprap-lined, water detention basins rather than retention basins. When possible, these ponds should be placed away from aircraft movement areas to minimize aircraft-wildlife interactions. All vegetation that provides food or cover for hazardous wildlife in or around detention or retention basins should be eliminated. Airport management often promote revenue-generating activities such as agricultural crop production on airports. Any proposed on-airport agricultural operations need to be carefully reviewed as to its attraction to wildlife since such use may create potential hazards to aircraft by attracting wildlife. If a problem with hazardous wildlife develops, an on-site inspection by the USDA, Animal Damage Control or other qualified wildlife biologist should be conducted. Regardless of the source of the attraction, prompt remedial actions to protect aviation safety are recommended. The key to effective wildlife control is not only detecting wildlife on the airport but also anticipating its presence. It is important to pay attention to weather, increased bird activities associated with migration, seasonal differences, and attractiveness of activities being performed on the airport. If an existing land-use practice creates a wildlife hazard and the land- use practice or wildlife hazard cannot be immediately eliminated, airport management is obligated to issue a NOTAM and encourage the land owner or manager to take steps to control the wildlife hazard and minimize further attraction. If 39
To facilitate hazardous wildlife control, the FAA recommends using steep-sided, narrow, linearly shaped, riprap-lined, water detention basins rather than retention basins.
Key to effective wildlife control— detecting wildlife and anticipating its presence
the condition is expected to last indefinitely, the NOTAM can become a permanent record within the Airport/Facility Directory. Such an entry in the A/FD needs to be accompanied by a Wildlife Hazard Assessment.
Airport Operations is at the heart of an airport’s dynamic environment. In that capacity, the operators of all federally certificated airports are required to meet minimum safety standards required or prescribed by Part 139 of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR), Certification of Airports. To accomplish this task of operating the airport in a safe and efficient manner, airport operating departments are required to develop an Airport Certification Manual (ACM). The ACM covers key airport operational issues and describes how the airport intends to comply with the statutory requirements of FAR Part 139. The central theme and purpose of the ACM is to be a useful working document, to help personnel maintain a safe airport, and complying with the regulations. The most critical element to ensure safe operations is regular self-inspections of the airport in order to identify those conditions that are hazards or have the potential to become hazards. Establishing procedures to correct deficiencies noted during the inspections is also the responsibility of the operating departments. Because of the day-to-day attention to details by personnel in Airport Operations, the United States airports are a major component of the safest aviation system in the world.
Appendix A: Standard for Airport Sign System
Appendix B: ACM Elements - Section 139.203(B)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. What are the changes in certification requirements under the most recent FAR Part 139? How are the four classes of airports defined in the most recent FAR Part 139? What is the purpose of an airport certification manual (ACM)? What does it provide? What does it emphasize? What are the key components that an airport self-inspection program? What type of activities do these components address? What affects pavement strength and wear? How does poor pavement affect aircraft? How can traction and friction be maintained and improved? What are the major causes of pavement deterioration? How can deterioration be mitigated? How are pavement conditions measured? What is the effect of different readings? What are airport movement and safety areas? What criteria affect them? What types of approach lighting systems exist? What are their operating criteria? What are the marking and signage requirements at airports? What inscriptions and colors are used for markings and signs? How do snow and ice affect pavement surface? What responsibility does airport management have to mitigate the effects? Why is it important to have a snow and ice plan? What does such a plan consist of? What are the various methods for removing snow and ice from pavement surfaces? What are the basic properties of anti-ice and de-ice compounds? What does NOTAM mean? When should a NOTAM be issued? What information does a NOTAM convey? When should a Wildlife Hazard Assessment at an airport be conducted? What should such a study contain? What does each of the acronyms or abbreviations in this module mean? What information is presented in each of the tables in this module? 43