Second Edition

Former Senior Lecturer Department of English and Comparative Literature School of General Studies Columbia University

Emeritus Professor of English City University of New York

New York Sun Francisco Washington, D.C. Auckland Bogota' Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan Montreal New Delhi Sun Juan Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto

EUGENE EHRLICH served as Senior Lecturer in the Department of English and Comparative Literature, School of General Studies, Columbia University.

DANIEL MURPHY is a retired Associate Professor in the Department of English, Baruch College, CUNY.

Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of ENGLISH GRAMMAR Copyright O 1991, 1976 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
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ISBN 0-07-019V04-X
Sponsoring Editors: John Aliano, Patricia Andrews Production Supervisor: Leroy Young Editing Supervisors: Meg Tobin and Maureen Walker
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Ehrlich. Eugene H. Schaum's outline of English Grammar 1 Eugene Ehrlich, Daniel Murphy.-2nd Edition. p. cm.-(Schaum's outline series) Includes index. ISBN 0-07-0 19484-X I . English language-Grammar-1950 - I. Murphy, Daniel Joseph, 1921- . 11. Title. 111. Series. PE1112.E33 1991 90-6533 428.2 - dc20 CPI

A Division of TheMcGmw+ii.llCoatpomes

The study of English grammar has two principal advantages. It facilitates mastery of writing and enables students to study the grammar of other languages more efficiently. This second edition of English Grammar was developed to make the study of English grammar as current and as effective as possible for all students, whether or not English is their first language. A Glossary of Grammatical Terms is provided as a reference to be used at any time. We hope that students will continue to find our exercises and explanations helpful Chapter 1 discusses the principal elements of the sentence, and the next six chapters provide information and practice in all the parts of speech: nouns and articles, verbs and verbals, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions and conjunctions. Each chapter of the book first presents necessary definitions and discussions, complete with examples. This presentation is then followed by exercises designed to help the student achieve mastery of the subject. Answers to all exercises are provided at the end of the book. The student is advised to work step by step through each chapter, doing each exercise in turn and checking the answers before proceeding further.



PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE 1 Verb .......................................................................................................................................... 1 Subject ...................................................................................................................................... 1 Direct Object ............................................................................................................................1 Complement .............................................................................................................................1 Indirect Object .......................................................................................................................... 6 Modifiers .................................................................................................................................. 7 Multiple-word Modifiers ..........................................................................................................8 Clauses ...................................................................................................................................... 14 Phrases ...................................................................................................................................... 15 NOUNS AND ARTICLES 17 Nouns ........................................................................................................................................ 17 Noun Functions ....................................................................................................................... 18 Types of Nouns ......................................................................................................................... 25
Plural Forms of Nouns .............................................................................................................. 28 Possessive Forms of Nouns Noun Clauses



...................................................................................................... 29

Collective Nouns ......................................................................................................................30

............................................................................................................................ 31 Articles ................................................................................................................................... 32 Definite Article. Omission of the Definite Article.
Indefinite Article. Choosing between a and an.



VERBS AND VERBALS Verbs ......................................................................................................................................... Predicate .................................................................................................................................. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs .............................................................................................. Copulative (Linking) Verbs ...................................................................................................... Auxiliary Verbs ......................................................................................................................... Shall and Will. Should and Would. Mood ........................................................................................................................................ Uses of the Subjunctive Mood. Voice ......................................................................................................................................... Number ..................................................................................................................................... Agreement of Subject and Verb. Compound Subjects and Their Verbs. Collective Nouns and Their Verbs.


................................ .. ......................... .......................................,.....,.,................,..., . . . Tense ...... ................................................. ...........................................................................,.... .
, ,

Principal Parts of the Verb. Selection of Tense. Agreement of Tenses Present Tense for Ideas True for All Time. Consistency of Verbs ................................................................................................................. Consistency of Voice. Consistency of Person. Consistency of Tense. Consistency of Mood.

. ...... ........................... ..................................... ......... .............. .... . Verbals ..................... ........... .. Infinitive ................... .... . ..................... ............. ....,. ...............,................,.,....,,.,.,...,.,.....,.,
Infinitive Phrases. Tenses of the Infinitive. Split Infinitives. Participle ..................... ................ .... .......... ... ............................................,...,...,.,. .... ..,....... ... .... Tenses of the Participle. Gerund

......................... . ..........................,......................................................................... . .

Verbals Used as Modifiers ........................................................................................................ Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers .......................................................................................... Dangling Participles. Misplaced Participles. Dangling Infinitives. Auxiliary Verbs and Infinitives in Compound Constructions .................................................. Auxiliary Verbs. Infinitives. Parallel Structure and Verb Foms




Types of Pronouns ............................................................................................................. Personal and Impersonal Pronouns. Relative Pronouns. Demonstrative Pronouns. Interrogative Pronouns. Reflexive Pronouns. Intensive Pronouns. Reciprocal Pronouns. Indefinite Pronouns. Pronoun Agreement ......................... . ................................................................. Plural and Singular Antecedents. Antecedents Joined by And. Or, or Nor. Collective Nouns. Singular Pronouns as Antecedents. Pronouns in the Subjective Case ............................................................................................ Pronouns in the Objective Case .............................. 90 91 86 76

. . .......................................

Pronouns as Objects of Verbals. Pronouns as Objects of Prepositions. Pronouns in the Possessive Case ............................................................................................. Pronouns as Appositives ......... ........ ....... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .....,.., 93 93



Types of Adjectives ........................................................................................................ Limiting Adjectives. Predicate Adjectives. Position of Adjectives ..................................................................................................... Adjective Phrases ..................................... Adjective Clauses .....................................




Comparison of Adjectives ................................................................................................ 99

. .................................................................

99 100


Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses. That and Which with Adjective Clauses.

CONTENTS Nouns Used as Adjectives Participles as Adjectives Dangling Participles.



Adjectives Used as Nouns.

........................................................................................................... 103

Infinitives as Adjectives ............................................................................................................ 105



Recognizing Adverbs .............................................................................................................. Adverbs Ending in .ly . Recognizing Adverbs by Their Functions.

............................................................................... Comparison of Adverbs .......................................................................................................... Nouns and Phrases Used as Adverbs ........................................................................................ Adverbial Clauses ...................................................................................................................
Distinguishing Adverbs from Adjectives Conjunctive Adverbs ................................................................................................................ Intensifiers ................................................................................................................................ Infinitives as Adverbs




Prepositions Commonly Used Prepositions. Object of Preposition. Differentiating Prepositions from Other Parts of Speech. Prepositional Phrases as Modifiers. Conjunctions

.............................................................................................................................. 119

............................................................................................................................ 125


adjective. Clause. Clauses are either dependent: The man who came to dinner left early. He was slaughtered. Verb used with other verbs to form tense or voice: We should go to the movies. Word or words to which a pronoun refers: Alice (antecedent) asked for her (pronoun) dessert. Word or words used to modify a noun. Comparative: better. poor fishing. an. Group of words containing a subject and verb. Word or words used to modify a verb. Adverb. Complex sentence. whom. Their function is to modify a noun or noun substitute. Adjective clause. A. Article. . treated as plural when the members of the group are considered individually. her. Adverbial phrase. them. famous. Form of a pronoun showing that the pronoun is the object of a verb or preposition: me. Comparison. Richard the Lion Hearted. Case. and the are articles. A and an are the indefinite articles. Also known as predicate complement: She is sick (predicate adjective). quite fresh. Adverbial clause. genitive (possessive). pronoun. Treated as singular when the group is thought of as a unit. Nominative I saw. Active voice. him. A noun that appears to be singular but refers to a group. and accusative (objective). Form of a noun or pronoun to show function. The three cases are nominative (subjective). Complement. Accusative The dog bit me. us. most famous. Subordinate clause used as adverb: John left whenever he felt like it. Antecedent. quickly. Phrase used as adjective: The woman in the red dress is beautiful. Adjective phrase. Phrase used as adverb: She sent her son to the store. Inflection of adverbs or adjectives to show degrees of quality or amount. Apposition. more famous. Absolute: good. The is the definite article. Superlative: best. The Empire State and the Lion Hearted are known as appositives. Auxiliary verb. Placement of a noun or noun substitute next to another to explain or identify it: New York. Genitive my hat. to sit quietly.Glossary of Grammatical Terms Accusative case. quickest. See Voice. Sentence containing one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. verbal. Adjective. Noun or adjective used to complete the meaning of a copulative verb. the Empire State. She is an opera star. Subordinate clause used as adjective: Everyone who approves should vote for him. (predicate noun). or entire clause or sentence: run quickly. adverb. or independent: The milkman left two bottles of cream. or verbal: good food. Also called objective case. Collective noun. Naturally he was elected. quicker. nlonderful you.

Form of verb used to make a statement or ask a question: She drives well. she. although she loved no one in particular. Most common copulative verb is be. Gerunds are verbals. f Independent clause. Coordinate. Descriptive adjective. Direct object. -ing form of a verb used as a noun or performing a noun function: Swimming is more fun than lying on the beach. Word or words that receive the action of a verb: The speaker hit the table. Ethel. Gender. Imperative mood. He believed that the boy would return the book. They gave a present to me. Verb that links a subject and its complement. hand me the case. Most common examples are: however. Direct address. Copulative verb. this one. thus. Sentence containing two or more independent clauses. it. Word or words used to join words. etc. Dependent clause. Sentence containing two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. Demonstrative adjective. Gerund. her. or clauses. Of no consequence in English grammar. Is he baking bread? Indirect object. and therefore. their. Adjective that names the condition or quality of noun it modifies: green trees. Personal pronouns in English have gender in third person singular: he. Demonstrative pronoun. Coordinating conjunction joins elements of equal value. anyone. Conjunction. Genitive case. Subordinating conjunction joins dependent clauses to independent clauses. everyone. Clause that can stand alone and convey meaning as a simple sentence: She was fond o all her friends. each. Also known as possessive case. that is too much. his. two phrases. Indicative mood. See Subordinate clause. Refers to masculine. Compound-complex sentence. two clauses. hers. Adjective that indicates a particular noun or pronoun: this hat. Of equal grammatical or syntactical importance: two nouns. The subject of the verb is usually lacking: Go home! Stop smoking! Indefinite pronoun. etc. Conjunctive adverb. .x GLOSSARY Compound sentence. Verb construction used in giving commands. neuter nouns in certain other languages. They both love boating andfishing. leave the room. wrecked wagon. feminine. Also known as main clause or principal clause. Pronoun that does not specify a particular referent: any. that boat. Construction in which the writer addresses the reader directly: Paul. Adverb used as conjunction. Form of a noun or pronoun to show possession: woman's. Pronoun that specifies a particular referent: this is what I want. Also known as linking verb. hour's. Noun or pronoun receiving the direct object: They gave me a present. etc. phrases.

still rows every day. action.first anniversary. Also known as strong verb.GLOSSARY xi Infinitive. Nominative case. Adjective used in asking question: whose book? which street? Interrogative pronoun. you jtourselves. . Infinitives are verbals. thing. Word or words that limit. Infinitive plus its modifiers and object: to swim gracefully. She argues well. the man whom you saw. (to) jump. Pronoun used in asking a question: whose was lost? which was stolen? Intransitive verb. they walked silently. Inflection of adjectives and adverbs is known as comparison. See Indicative mood. Nouns function as subjects. Singular and plural aspects of nouns. pronouns. See Subjective case. and Subjunctive mood. Infinitive phrase. objects of verbals. the bee itself. Modifier of a word or group of words already limited or restricted: Jane's father. I came. to read a book . there's no more to eat. who rowed for Yale. Ejaculatory word or expression: Alas. Verb that forms its past tense and past participle by a change of vowels: be. sang. quality. was. Linking verb. or idea. I saw. Imperative mood. or make more precise the meaning of the words modified: blue hat. objects. Noun phrase. Verb that does not take an object: I smiled all day. Inflection of nouns and pronouns is known as declension. Noun. and as adjectives. adjectives. ran. Name of a person. were. Objective case. Mood. Intensive pronoun. run. I brought him to my house. usually preceded by to: (to) run. which is in Pittsburgh. Heavens above. See Accusative case. Simple form of the verb. Pronoun used to strengthen a noun or pronoun: the manager himself. Many verbs function transitively as well as intransitively. place. sing. sung. objects of prepositions. Characteristic of a verb that shows the manner in which a statement is regarded by the writer. Infinitives function as nouns. is there no shame in the man? Interrogative adjective. I conquered. Interjection. Change in form to indicate grammatical relationships. Nonrestrictive modifier. Adjective that numbers the word it modifies: six Indians. Parallel construction. Modifier. and adverbs. Phrase that functions as a noun: afternoon tea. and verbs. (to) attempt. Inflection of verbs is known as conjugation. Numerical adjective. See Copulative verb. describe. Irregular verb. run. Repetition of grammatjcal construction for coherence and emphasis: flying and swimming. Inflection. Infinitive phrases have the same functions as infinitives. All copulative verbs are intransitive. the train to Denver: Number.

Limiting adjective introducing subordinate clause: The bookseller whose store burned is Relative pronoun. In these prepositional phrases. The infinitive (look). Present participle ends in ing: running. with them. See Complement. Finland. etc. person spoken of: he is third person. Preposition. place. past tense (looked). complement. Predicate adjective. worked. Passive voice. or thing: Elizabeth. talked. he. Possessive adjective.xii GLOSSARY Participle. Verb that forms its past tense and past participle by adding ed: worked. Principal parts of a verb. the verb with its modifiers. Together with a noun or pronoun and its modifiers. it forms a prepositional phrase. walking. run. object. etc. A word or words that convey a meaning of position. See Complement. Predicate noun. In a clause or sentence. Regular verb. eaten. and them function as objects of prepositions. shore. We spoke to one another yesterday. your. Proper adjective. Name of a specific person. Modifier that limits or restricts a word or group of words: Henry the Eighth. from the shore. Each other and one another. or indirect object. Proper noun. Predicate complement. Restrictive modifier. she. Forms of verbs and pronouns to indicate person speaking: I am first person. Monument. and past participle (looked). front. Adjective formed from a proper noun: Italian restaurant. Also known as weak verb. American history. Relative adjective. Our hats. talked. Adjective used to indicate possession: my. Soldiers and Sailors Reciprocal pronoun. or other abstraction. you. it. her. his. . person spoken to: you are second person. Predicate. Pronoun. A word that takes the place of a noun: I. hers. Pronoun introducing subordinate clause: The man who hired you has been promoted. direction. Participles are verbals. the man who worked for you. The book that you gave me is missing. Used only as the object of a verb or preposition: They saw each other regularly. See Antecedent. See Complement. etc. despondent. time. See Genitive case. which serves as a modifier: to the front. Pronoun used to indicate people: I. Person. Past participle ends in ed if the verb is regular. typewriter. See Voice. changes a vowel if the verb is irregular: walked. his Possessive case. Adjective form of a verb. its. Personal pronoun. I saw her. talked.

expressing an assertion. adjective. See Participle. cannot stand alone as a sentence. See Copulative verb. Active voice: The lecturer emphasized her main points. they. Word derived from a verb. See Regular verb. the smallest error. etc. Subjective case. Verb. or exclamation. Highest degree of comparison used when comparing three or more units: my best effort. The family will have received notice by this time tomorrow. They are going home. I ran. Voice. she. . wish. the oldest child in the family.. also known as a dependent clause. he. Sentence element consisting of a subject and predicate and functioning as a noun. Element in a sentence performing the action indicated by an active verb. Verbal.GLOSSARY Xlll . Group of words normally containing a subject and predicate. Subjunctive mood. Transitive verb. Tense. Sentence. She is willing. See Intransitive verb. Characteristic of verbs that differentiates between the subject as performer of the action of the verb (active voice) and the subject as receiver of the action of the verb (passive voice). Form of pronoun showing that the pronoun is the subject of a verb: I. See Comparison. Weak verb. desires. command. element in a sentence receiving the action of a passive verb: Jane saw her sister. we. question.. See Infinitive. this problem would vanish. A subordinate clause. and conditions contrary to fact: I doubt that she will ever become chairperson. possibilities. I will run. Also called nominative case. See Irregular verb. Jack and Jill carried the water. Word or words used to express action or state of being of the subject: Anne studied hard. Verb that takes an object: She bought the car. If he were here. Characteristic of verb forms that shows differences in time of action performed: I run. Subject. She was received in court. Subordinate clause. He wondered when he would hear of his appointment. Form of verb used to express doubts. I will have run. Strong verb. Superlative. or adverb: That he wasfired is no surprise to me. who. See Gerund. but functioning as a noun or modifier. The book you sent me never anived. Passive voice: The main points were emphasized by the lecturer. Infinitives may also take subjects: Mother asked him to return home.

or linking. (The verb was played describes the action of the subject organ. Automobiles are polluting cities. Expensive is the complement of are. and direct object of the verb or complement of the verb. question mark.) Rare books are expensive. Other important elements are the indirect object and modifiers.) The organ was often played during chapel.Chapter 1 Principal Elements of the Sentence A sentence is a group of words that makes a statement and can be followed by a period. or exclamation point. but does describe a state of being. Note that all forms of the verb to be are copulative except when used as auxiliary verbs (see pages 38-40). He seems sick. VERB A verb is the word or words that describe the action or state of being of the subject. This sentence has only a subject safe and a verb was robbed.) The safe was robbed. (Trees and shrubs is the subject of the verb line. verbs. being. subject of the verb. Who or what are expensive? Books are. Copulative verbs. The principal elements of a sentence are the verb.) COMPLEMENT A complement is the word or words that complete the meaning of verbs that express not take a direct object. Complements are discussed below. Trees and shrubs line the driveway. and seeming. and sick is the complement of seems . They are completed by complements. Cities is the direct object of the verb are polluting.) DIRECT OBJECT A direct object is the word or words that receive the action indicated by the verb. Rats eat mice. Many sentences have only a verb and a subject. (Books is the subject of the verb are. What receives the action? Cities. Seems links the subject he with sick. which are discussed fully on page 37. (The verb eat describes the action performed by the subject rats. Such verbs are classified as copulative. Lawn and trees is the object of fertilized . appearing. answering the question Who or what line? Trees and shrubs line. (There is no direct object. Note that it occupies the position 1 . (The verb has felt describes the state of being of the subject John . (What is the action? Are polluting.) SUBJECT A subject is the person or thing that performs the action indicated by the verb or that is in the state of being described by the verb.) The gardener fertilized the lawn and trees.) John has felt well recently. (What receives'the action? The lawn and trees. (The verb seems does not describe action.

You may want to review the material presented above before beginning work on this exercise. verbs. - Juan and Maria appeared happy. The verb seems conveys no meaning without a complement. (The verb is links the subject he with carpenter. then. direct objects.2 PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE [CHAP. They will be discussed shortly.) She feels fine early in the morning. Play ~ r i g h t s authors receive acclaim. Verb appeared Subject Juan. The sentence He seems sick can best be understood by imagining that a physician is receiving a report on a patient's health. Thus. the action of feeling. No action is being reported. 1 in the sentence that an object would occupy. and Verb Subject Direct object Complement - .) It should be noted that the verb feel does not always function as a copulative verb. table is the direct object of felt. Verb have Subject dogs Direct object fleas Complement none - . A verb that takes a complement cannot take a direct object. To find the principal elements of a sentence: (1) Find the verb or verbs by asking yourself: What is happening? What state of being is indicated? (2) Find the subject or subjects by asking yourself: Who or what is performing the action described by the verb or verbs? Whose state of being is described by the verb or verbs? (3) Find the direct object of the verb or verbs by asking yourself: Who or what is receiving the action of the verb or verbs? (4) Find the complement of a copulative verb by asking yourself: What element of the sentence completes the verb? Note that a verb that takes a direct object cannot take a complement. (The copulative verb feels links she withfine. (The sentences include certain elements not yet discussed. In this sentence. identify the principal sentence elements as shown in these examples: Many dogs have fleas. only a state of being. 1. Maria Direct object none Complement happy 1.) He is a carpenter. In the sentence She felt the table. This exercise tests your ability to identify subjects. Carpenter complements-completes-the copulative verb is. No action is being performed. a noun. and complements.) In the following sentences. the complement of feels. an action is being performed. sick completes the meaning of seems and is called the complement of the copulative verb seems.

Verb Subject Direct object Complement - 4. Subject Direct object Complement .Buenos Aires has the largest opera house in the world. Verb Subject Direct object Complement . I] PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE 2. Verb Subject Direct object Complement - 5. Jane called her brothers and sisters. Wars have produced death and destruction. Verb Subject Direct object Complement - 3. Verb Subject Direct object Complement 8.CHAP. Religion is a required course in many colleges. The waiter sewed seltzer to his customers. Verb Subject Direct object Complement 6. Verb Subject Direct object Complement - 9. Libraries contain the wisdom of civilization. - ---- - 7. Eli and Samuel were Old Testament prophets. Accountants are busiest at tax time.

..- .-- . The house was ransacked.- . Verb . . ~ - ~ 17. - - -- .- --- . - - . .- -- - -- . - - - ... - --. . Verb .- ----. Complement .. . Verb .-- - - . -- - . - - . - - - . .- -- .. ..... -. - -- -. -. . .. .. ---.- -~ --.--- -- .- -- - -- 13. -.--..- ...... - - - ..-- -- - -.PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE [CHAP. --.-. --- 12.- -.-. ~- -- - ~- - . -.... -- . . . A ..-. -. -- - - ~~ - - Subject Direct object Complement . - -- ---. - -. - . Complement --.. . . . . - .- - -. - . - - .-.. - -. .. -Direct object .. The defendants called their lawyer.-- - - - . .-.~ -.- . Verb Subject . -- .. -- - ~- -.-..- - -- .- . -. . - Subject . . -.-.-. - -- - - - -. - .-~ ~ ...-- - - . . -- . .-..-- - - -.-~ ..-- . Verb -.. ..- -... A - - - - - -- . - - --- -. . -- -~ - -- ..- .. Transistors have revolutionized the television industry. An orderly mind ensures success in business. . . . . She felt the lining of her coat.-- - --- - -. Verb Subject Direct object Complement - - ..-- -- .-- -- . - -- ~ . . .. . ... .-.--.--.. -. -.. - .--- ...- -- - --- . Emma studied Italian in Switzerland. . - -.. .---. - ~ . --. 1 10. - ... .-- -. - - . -. . - - - -- . ... Subject -. --- -.. - -- - - -- --- - - -- 15.. . ..- .-.. - - - . - -. ..-- - 16. -. .--- --- . - -. - - -- - - .--. -- - ..-.. .. - .-. Verb Subject Direct object Complement -- -.. -- ~ - -- . - - .- -- .-.- -- Subject Direct object Complement - .Direct object .. Verb .-- - -- .--- -- . - - .. - - -. .- - .-- - --- -- -- -- -- -- --- . --. .---. ..--- -- 14.-- ...-- -. .- ---~ - - - - .- - .- Subject Direct object Complement ~- . -. Burglars were ransacking the house. She felt well again. . - -- I I. - -~ . .- . -- - - --- .- - -- -.. - --- .Direct object Complement - - .-. . -- . ---.

Verb Subject Direct object Complement . Air conditioning cleans and cools buildings. Verb Subject Direct object Complement Although Polish. A bibliography is a list of books and articles. Many homes now are air conditioned. Matadors are highly respected in Spain. 11 PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE 18. Verb Subject Direct object Complement 24. Verb Subject Direct object Complement 19. Verb Subject Direct object Complement 20. Verb Subject Direct object Complement 23. Verb Subject Direct object Complement 22. Conrad wrote in English. The shirt and tie suited him well. Even teenagers have checking accounts today. Professionals in England still wear bowler hats.CHAP. Verb Subject Direct object Complement 21.

Guatemala provides excellent facilities for vacationers.) The professor asked her a question. 3. and show. 1 INDIRECT OBJECT An indirect object is a word or words that receive the direct object. (Her is the indirect object and is preceded by of. the indirect object. the indirect object will appear without to.) Many florists send orchids to their best customers on New Year's Eve. Notice that of is omitted. Her receives question. Me receives honk. (The direct object of gave is book. 8. or of. The indirect object is preceded by to. or of Indirect objects occur most often with such verbs as ask. Attorneys ask their clients searching questions. give. 4. He gave his Chinese vase to the Museum of Art. Me receives book. 6. He gave the museum a rare vase.6 PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE [CHAP. The storekeeper sent his customer a red carpet.) Television commentators give audiences the news. underline the indirect objects as shown in these examples: The bride threw her bouquet to the bridesmaids. receives question. because the indirect object appears between the verb gave and the direct object book. (The direct object of send is orchids. (The direct object of gave isbook.-- 1. We supplied him food and drink. Consider the following sentences: He gave the book to me. send. tell. (The direct object of asked is question. the indirect object will be preceded by to. (The direct object of the verb give is news. Me is the indirect object. The indirect object is customers. Gladstone delivered a major address to the House of Commons and House of Lords. She showed her professor her paper.) The professor asked a question of her. for. the direct object.) 2. (The indirect object customers receives orchids. The indirect object audiences receives news.-. 5. Librarians provide services for readers. 9. the direct object. 11.) Many florists send their best customers orchids on New Year's Eve.) He gave me the book. 7. . In the following sentences. She showed her stamp collection to Marie. (The indirect object audiences receives news. The storekeeper sent the carpet to the hotel. I wrote a poem for him. the direct object.) Television commentators give the news to audiences. Me is the indirect object and is preceded by to. (2) When an indirect object appears hemeen the verb and the direct object. 2. Notice that to is omitted. for. the direct object. We paid her many compliments. the direct object. You will encounter indirect objects in two different ways: (1) When an indirect object follows the direct object. . The dog handler showed the Russian wolfhound to the judges. Her. 12. 10.

) Copyright lawyers forward their findings to waiting clients. (The direct object typew-riter is modified by that Andrew's wife had given him. he continued to pose as an expert. or describe a verb. A regularly serviced car makes driving safer. . (The verb ran is made more precise-is modified-by as quickly as he could.) Copyright lawyers forward their findings to clients who pay their bills. MODIFIERS All words in a sentence that are not verbs.) Uninformed by any standard. The patient dog greeted him joyfully. An outdoor market attracts enthusiastic visitors. Cargo ships give reliable service to most clients. (The subject latzyers is modified by Copyright. or other modifier. identify. I never hear the wolves. indirect objects. (The subject hat is described-is modified-by blue. (The modifier uninformed is modified by by any standard. complement. make more precise. Modifiers may be single words or groups of words. (The subject hat is modified by that she wore. underline the single-word modifiers as shown in these examples: Three-large stores were 1. 15. (The complement anxious is modified by to an extreme degree.) Sean appeared anxious to an extreme degree. opened simultaneously. and the indirect object clients is modified by who pay their bills. (The subject lawyers is modified by Copyright. (The modifier grateful is itself modified by excessively.) 3. The grocery store opened early and closed late.) The blue hat suited the woman. 2. Mother always folded clean sheets neatly. The tired driver came home very late. 7.) Sean appeared overly anxious. 3. direct object. subjects. Susan opened the large package carefully. 14.) A thief stole the typewriter that Andrew's wife had given him. or complements are modifiers.) He ran as quickly as he could. 5. (The complement anxious is modified by overly. indirect object.) The thief stole an electric typewriter. 6.CHAP. and the indirect object clients is modified by waiting. 4. The open book lay on the professor's desk. Children may tell their parents many strange stories. A tasty spaghetti dinner is welcome.) The hat that she wore suited the woman. modifiers define. Typically. direct objects. subject.) Excessively grateful people embarrass others. 8. (The verb ran is made more precise-is modified-by quickly. District attorneys may ask embarrassing questions of witnesses. 9. (The direct object typewriter is modified by electric. The subject he is modified by uninformed by any standard. In the following sentences. Consider the following sentences: He ran quickly. 11 PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE 13.

The red paint dries slowly. the phrase in the hospital modifies awoke. (In this sentence. (In this sentence. MULTIPLE. 18. The expert who identified the forgeries was rewarded by the art collector. (none) The dress that the champion wore on the tennis court was trimmed with green piping. 19.) 4. the clause whose arm was set modifies girl. the clause who entered the room modifies man. He went out at night without a coat. 14. 15. Happy schoolchildren study hard. 16. 17. The flanker of the visiting team ran around right end. the phrase with the gabled roof modifies house. the phrase to the parson modifies belongs. so it is a phrase. 6. The man with blond hair ran down the stairs. (In this sentence. 1 1. White wine improves roast chicken. The stormy winds raised high waves. 5. ' . 22. Our weekly paper prints only local news. The tall policeman gently comforted the frightened child. The first multiple-word modifier has both subject who and verb entered. Please bring two cold beers. p p p p p p p - . The teamsters will meet tonight.PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE [CHAP. 13. Note that there is no subject or verb in either multiple-word modifier. The man wearing the brown suit left his papers on his desk. In the following sentences. To the hostess has neither subject nor verb. They sell a million hamburgers annually. 24. the phrase to the hostess modifies hastened. underline the multiple-word modifiers as shown in these examples: 1. The building in which we live has been condemned. The blond skater almost fell.) The girl whose arm was set awoke in the hospital. 12. 23. A car that is double parked blocks traffic in the entire street. Gloria clung to the arm of the boy in the football uniform.WORD MODIFIERS Multiple-word modifiers are composed of sentence elements known as phrases or clauses. 1 10. A phrase is a logical grouping of words that does not contain a subject or verb. 25. I find him guilty. For this reason. 3. 20. 21. Herman's band was playing good dance music.) The man who entered the room hastened to the hostess. I never saw him before. Late-night television shows old movies. 7. 2. the modifier is a clause. Bertha's diary has a blue binding. Robert's black car needs new tires. Consider the following sentences: The house with the gabled roof belongs to the parson. 4. Peter quickly repaired the broken pipe. A clause is a logical grouping of words that does contain a subject and verb.

16. Verb passed Subject Joe Montana Direct object ball Complement none Indirect object fullback Modifiers none John Kennedy was an able man. indirect objects. 20. The shop on the comer sells newspapers from many cities. direct objects. 5. The girl in the red dress walked down the street. subjects. 25. identify verbs. during the storm Modifiers Joe Montana passed the ball to the fullback. The salesman who spoke only English could not communicate with many customers. Verb was Subject John Kennedy Direct object none Complement man Indirect object none Modifiers able . A skier who knows what she is doing moves with great caution. The batter who hit to left field reached second base before the ball was thrown in. The rain we had yesterday left floods on many streets all over the city. Verb was flooded Subject basement Direct object none Complement none Indirect object none of the house. The light of morning shone through the window. Students from our class visited the museum. 9. 13. Helen will have dinner at our house on Saturday. 21. People of all ages enjoy swimming. The girl with brown eyes pointed across the room with her left hand. 14. 1 1 . Garbage had fallen across the sidewalk. 12. A line of unemployed men appeared outside the office door. 10. 22. complements. 24. The priest in our parish helps everyone who comes to him. 23. 15. and mod$ers as shown in these examples: The basement of the house across the street was flooded during the storm. across the street. 11 PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE 8. The driver of our bus was pleasant to all the passengers. In the following sentences. The window box Mary planted is full of red flowers. A flock of black birds nests under that bridge. A dog that is well trained obeys a well-trained master. 17. 19.CHAP. 18.

. - .--- -. -.. - --- --- - -- --- ..- - . ..-- -- . Complement Indirect object . . -.-- --..- - - - - -.- .-- ...--- - . Verb -.-.-. .-- - - - -- - - .-.. -- .-.- . Albert gave Maria a very expensive present. -.-- . .. -. ---. - -.-~ - - . -- -- -.... . --.-. . . .--..--. .. -- --- Subject . Verb .---- .PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE [CHAP.- . -.Direct object .- - ..- -. .3.-- Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers ~ - ... - - ~ - -.- . - - - -.------ Direct object -... -- - . . . .- -- ~ - ~~ - - -- - - - - -- .---- ~ ~- 2.- -.- -- - ----- .- - - - -. 1 met another old friend. . -- ~- - . . . --- ~ .- - - -. . While I was waiting for Jon..... - -- -- - . ---. -~ .- Subject . - Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers - .-----~ Modifiers - 6. -- ~ - - Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers 4. . . .-..p .. -- -- . ....-.- . -- -. --. --~ -.- ~ - - - Subject - -- - . - -- - .. . .-- - .. --- -.. -. . -- - ..- - - -- - -- . - ------ . .. .. -.. - - -- -- .- ... Verb -- - - --.. - - .--. - - - - - . .-- - - .. Verb -~- . Susan hastily wrote an angry letter to her mother... - ... . Beethoven is the greatest composer of all time....- .. . . -- .- - - ---- . Subject ------- -- -~- .. . .-.-. . .- -..-..p .. ---. -.. ---- -- -- - ..---. - ... . . Verb -.. - . . -- .---. ---.--- - ..-..- ..-.- ~ - ~ Complement Indirect object Modifiers ~ - - ~ ----- . Mayor Dinkins gave an important speech on the radio.-- -- -. ..- . ... ~ .- . .--- .-- - 5. ~~ -- .. .. - -- - --.- -- - - ---- ... Verb Subject .-. . .. - . . - .. --- ... -.-. - - -. -.. -- .. --- - -- ....-- - Michelle is the best student in the senior class.. - - - - Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers --..-. .-.. .- - - -.. . 1 1.... .-.- -- -- --. --- -- .. - - - - - . -- . . - - -- -- - ...

The old man rose from his comfortable chair. Verb Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers - 8. Verb Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers 1 1. - -- - 10. 11 PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE 7. Verb - - Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers 12. Verb Subject Direct object Complement tp. Literary critics often are frustrated authors.CHAP. Most Third World nations experience economic difficulties. Verb Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers . The omithologist identified many rare birds. Working hard gave Gary bad headaches. Margaret Drabble has written many novels on modem English life. Verb Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers 9. - - - - -.pp Indirect object Modifiers - - - .

1 13. H. Mencken was an irreverent critic. Verb Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers -. . Old typewriters are a burden to their users. The brown puppies are the cutest of the lot.-- . Verb Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers - 18. Tracy made good pottery for herself and her friends. Verb Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers 16.PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE [CHAP. I never study on time. Verb Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers 14. L. Verb Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers - 15. Life has never been better for this generation. Verb Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers -- - - 17.

-. When Dick cuts himself.- .. Verb Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers - -- .CHAP. Paper airplanes rarely fly for more than five minutes. Verb Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers 22.- p~ - 23. Verb Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers 2 1. We went to the theater as often as possible. - 24. 1) PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE 19. he bleeds for a long time. ---- . Congressmen receive many letters every day. Verb Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers -- p p - - - - - 20. Verb Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers . Fires endanger the lives of many city families.. Verb Subject Direct object Complement Indirect object Modifiers - -.-. Food prices are high everywhere.

--. Direct object .. and many people were enthusiastic about it. Either clause can stand as a complete sentence. . 2. A sentence may consist of one or more independent clauses plus one or more subordinate clauses. they stayed. Consider the following sentences: Before he sat down. .. .. so he tried to restate his position. In the following sentences. Note further that the independent clause can stand as a sentence: He removed his coat. 5. .. . but his time had come to die.. for.- . The word Before connects the subordinate clause to the independent clause. Note that both clauses have their own subjects and verbs: he sat. A clause that cannot stand alone as a sentence is called a subordinate. . (This sentence consists of a subordinate clause Before he sat down and an independent clause he removed his coat. Indirect object . The subordinate clause cannot stand as a sentence: Before he sat down. or dependent. Verb Subject . -- 1. a clause contains a subject and verb. Each clause has its own subject and verb: We went. The subordinate clause does not make a complete statement but depends on the independent clause for its meaning. or. Fishing is fun once you have learned the fundamental skills. -. underline the independent clauses as shown in these examples: We stayed. You know from the previous discussion of modifiers that. . Complement .attended . . . 3. While we were walking home. 6. The conjunction here is and. . the subordinate clause modifies the verb removed in the main clause.~ -- . 4. and modifiers. which is classified as a coordinating conjunction.-.- - - - ~ - - - - . Before here is classified as a subordinating conjunction. Many women misinterpreted the remarks of the candidate. Conjunctions are discussed in Chapter 7. an indirect object.) We went to the movies and they stayed home.PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE [CHAP.Even though he was sick.-.. clause.. Some of us liked the program that night. he-. (This sentence consists of two independent clauses. A clause that makes a complete statement and can stand alone as a sentence is called an independent clause...-. .---. nor. class regularly.. Each makes a statement that does not depend on the other. on the -.dock long after the ship had gone. we considered the problem carefully. It may also contain an object or complement. so. 1 25. in this sentence. he removed his coat. yet many people continue to smoke them. they had many happy experiences. Other coordinating conjunctions are but. --. -.) 6. and yet. Cigarettes are known to be dangerous to health. During the years they spent raising their children.--. Modifiers .- - - CLAUSES Like a sentence. he removed. .. Pooch lived a long and happy life.

which is one of the three types of verbals. subjects. 6. 9.) The child in front will win. 7. He agreed to join her in the new business. At every opportunity he downgrades his associates. which functions as a logical grouping of words that conveys a single meaning. 60. PHRASES A phrase is a group of two or more words that does not contain a subject and verb. and objects. 4. underline the dependent clauses as shown in these examples: Most of the seniors will be graduated before they reach eighteen. even though her mother and father do. We decided that she was not a friend of ours and that he was. Some of them have been driving carelessly although they all passed Driver Education. The movie held all of us spellbound except for Kate. but the audience later began to applaud. My wife could barely manage to get home on time from her job at school. a copulative verb. 10. In these roles they are classified as verbals.) Eileen wanted to finish her work early. Note that tofinish is an infinitive. where she taught reading improvement. 61.CHAP. and modifiers. 62. 7. It is useful here to learn to recognize phrases and to identify their functions as modifiers. which are discussed at length on pages 59. 3. but he had little capital to invest. 112.) Her hobby was flying airplanes. 2. complements. They left California before their children entered school. 8. 100. Consider the following sentences: She hid behind the building. 11 PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE 7. (The phrase in front modifies child. (The phrase Eating apples functions as the subject of has been called . and 113. Flying is also a gerund. 10. their quality was poor. In the following sentences. 8. Note also that the phrase has no subject or verb. Aspens and poplars grow rapidly but are not useful in building. since they save the traveler little time and contribute heavily to air pollution. one of the three types of verbals. In this sentence Eating is a gerund. (The phrase to finish her work early is the object of wanted. The mayor told her constituents that she would do her best to meet the town's financial needs. Typewritten papers usually get higher marks than handwritten papers. (none) 1. (The phraseflying airplanes functions as the complement of nlas. 5. 99. Phrases have many forms and functions. Note that words such as Eating often function as subjects. objects. His first remarks were greeted with derision. (The phrase behind the building modifies hid. Note that no single word within the phrase conveys the meaning intended by the entire phrase. 9.) .) Eating apples has been called a sure way to avoid doctors' bills. See pages 59-68. who yawned audibly from the time the movie began. I have reserved two seats for tonight's performance. Although there were enough instruments to go around. Sally never eats meat. Supersonic transport airplanes have little to recommend them.

7. 5. Books were his best friends. 10. . 2. The glider soared skyward. A simple country doctor was all she wanted to be. 9. After her downfall. A cup of tea in late afternoon enabled him to survive until evening. all mention of her name was forbidden. 1. 6. We swam across the winding river. He saw himself pinned to the wall. 8. Winning the peace is more important now than winning the war. They baited the trap in hope of snaring something for dinner. soon enough to return to earth. time his greatest foe. She decided to spear an octopus for dinner. In the following sentences. The captain ordered us to pick up our gear and retreat to the nearest town as quickly as possible. underline the phrases as shown in these examples: The children were taken to the store. 4. 1 8. 3. In the library the boy found peace and quiet.16 PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE [CHAP.

quality. She discerned deceitfulness in his proposal. . One of the best books on studying is now out of print. The actor portraying Tarzan has a simple task. the Brazilian football player. thing. Quality I admire her childlike innocence. Students of logic study Socrates. The committee gathered around the conference table. Activity Fishing had become a major sport. Dogs perform an important function for the blind. Travelers find Scotland one of the beautiful sections of the British Isles. Place Lima is the capital of Peru. activity. A man's house is his castle. The shopkeeper accused the salesman of opportunism. or condition.Chapter 2 Nouns and Articles NOUNS A noun is the name of a person. Colombia is noted for marvelous coffee. scored more goals than any other player in history. Writing is an art too often neglected. Cervantes created one of the great comic novels. A thing of beauty is a joy forever. Russians enjoy tea brewed in a samovar. Afghanistan is no longer visited by many tourists. place. Dublin experienced a literary renaissance just after the turn of the century. of which jumping was most important. Thing A beach is unsurpassed for relaxation. He made his fortune in manufacturing. Pel&. The House of Representatives is not noted for its integrity. Person Abraham Lincoln is known throughout the world for his humanity. The horse show listed six events. Leisure has become increasingly important for the middle class. concept.

13. His hotel was near the casino. The sky was full of parachutes. Mary is allergic to roses. Harpo M a n was a great comedian. 24. The football bounced off the statue of Marx. 19. 2. 25. 1 . Football is often a game of inches. Ballpoint pens do not flatter the handwriting. 5. The cleaning fluid did not take out the stain. Our puppy has black spots on his nose.18 NOUNS AND ARTICLES [CHAP. 6. He washed his hands as thoroughly as he could. 3. Planning takes all my time. but she still loves them. 22. . object of a preposition. Lois found that no one would offer her a seat. NOUN FUNCTIONS A noun can have many functions in a sentence: (I) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) subject of a verb.order to be heard. Will the world ever forget Mikhail Gorbachev? Love makes the world go round. 18. 23. The avenue is undergoing restoration. direct object of a verb. object of a verbal (gerund. A woman who misses her bus is in danger. 16. Mary refused to knit the sweater for her father. indirect object of a verb. 9. Some chairmen fail to keep order. 8. The newspaper carried a major article on perestroika. infinitive. Charity begins at home. Buffalo cuisine features chicken wings. The speech lasted nearly one hour. In the following sentences. 2 Concept or Condition Christianity is one of the great religions of the world. Allied Armies invaded Normandy in 1944. Bill wore a tweed coat. 17. modifier of another noun. Actors must study . Bridge is not my cup of tea. 1 1. underline all nouns as shown in these examples: --- Intellect alone never provides an adequate answer. Monarchy was the form of government in Europe at that time. 10. The train may get us to Chicago in time to catch the show. voice in - 1. 4. participle). My neighbor drives a small car. Joe changed the tire and got back into his car. 7. 15. predicate complement (complement of a copulative verb). 20. 21. 12. 14.

New York City appears to have reached a stable size. The consulting engineer offered another suggestion for solving the problem. preposition during.) The couple decided to ski the upper slope before lunch. Teachers assign to their classes enough work to keep anyone busy.) For his part. Improper education may cause delinquency. object of prepositibn chores. . Indirect Object of a Verb The lawyer gave her secretary a brief letter. The pitcher threw the ball to the fielder. (Subject Houses. The pitcher threw the fielder the ball. direct object deer. Up and down the river. object of preposition afrernoon. African hunters found agriculture impossible to sustain.) Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder. In all these sentences. there was solid ice. indirect object secretary. 21 NOUNS AND ARTICLES Subject of a Verb Houses built before 1950 are usually of good construction. Indian art has many admirers. he decided to retire for the night. Having found his wallet. The messenger gave Juan an envelope. Fighting the rain. Critical acclaim too early in her career may impede a novelist's development. object of the verbal channel.) To pass his examinations easily was all he wanted. Teachers assign their classes enough work to keep anyone busy. (Verb gave. (Preposition about. he slowly made his way home. he would remember that day forever. (Preposition of. (The gerund dancing functions here as the direct object of liked. They liked dancing. The messenger gave an envelope to Juan. Swimming was his greatest pleasure.CHAP. Object of a Verbal Swimming the channel was more than he could manage.) Direct Object of a Verb The hunter shot three deer. She performed most of her chores during the afternoon.) The automobile forced the cows off the road. verb are. Despite all assurances.) Object of a Preposition They walked about the mall. the young dancer found his debut trying. the word order can be rearranged so that the indirect object can be made the object of a preposition: The lawyer gave a brief letter to her secretary. (Verb shot. We showed the new acquisition to the curator. object of preposition mall. (Verbal Swimming. (The gerund Swimming functions here as subject of was.) We showed the curator the new acquisition.

Modifier of Another Noun Stone walls were built throughout Britain. is a copulative verb.) The peace talks settled the costly strike.) Christianity is the religion of many Europeans. subject of verb direct obiect Rosa sent her bloodhound to the veterinarian. subiect of verb object of preposition object of preposition The college has graduated many notedscholars. The verb is. (Noun Stone. 2. The main difficulty of that country is the poverty of most of the population.NOUNS AND ARTICLES [CHAP. Tennis champions played many tournaments that year. She is the youngest teacher in our school. In the following sentences. modifying noun walls. (Verb is. of course. Word processors can be a blessing for those of us who write illegibly. Glass doors were installed in the kitchen. 2 Predicate Complement In the eyes of many of her clients. underline nouns and identify their functions in respective order as shown in these examples: Utamaro was one of the greatest artists of Japan. predicate complement lawyer. John collected postage stamps. she is the best lawyer in town. subject of verb direct object object of preposition (indirect object) .

- obiect of verbal subject of verb - modifier - direct object - Jane gave all her admirers a brief talk. . . - subiect of verb .CHAP. We went to the zoo on the first Saturday of the month. direct. - 2. - - - 1. - 3. -. -.-. . - subject of verbindirect obiect -. MacDonald had a flourishing farm. predicate complement... 21 NOUNS AND ARTICLES To obtain a new halfback. . the manager offered his star center.-. Librarians like to help people find books. --object - - Sven is an excellent carpenter.

9. .NOUNS AND ARTICLES [CHAP. Violin music goes well with a bottle of wine and candle light. We rode up the mountain on a chairlift. All he said was that he thought we made beautiful clothing. Mother was annoyed because we stayed up so late to watch television. The dog ran in front of the car before we had a chance to stop. 7. 2 4. Carl tried hard to become a painter. but only succeeded in becoming an illustrator. 5. 8. 6.

12. Manying Avis changed his life. Attending church on Sundays was not the custom in our family. laundry day is an everyday event. Please give Harry a ticket for the baseball game. 15. he thought. 21 NOUNS AND ARTICLES 10. My wife likes to prepare elegant meals. 14. I will knit Alfred a sweater even though I really should knit one for my father. 13. 11.CHAP. . In a large family.

Sculpture is a useful and interesting hobby. .- - - -- - - -- - -- - 18. but a practical one if you can afford the initial investment. .NOUNS AND ARTICLES [CHAP.- - - - 2 1.~ . . 2 16. Fine wine can be made of California grapes. . A Bentley is not only a beautiful car. - ~ -- . - 20. Eyeglasses are not a sure sign of age. .--- -- - 17.- - - 19. . bifocals are. - - - - .- -- . Term papers really should be called research papers. --. - - - .. I fail to see the advantages of color television.

or concepts: Sculptors and painters work hard for recognition. The new couch fits right into our living room. Zucchini is easy to grow if you have room for it in your garden. places. 24. to be in England! Lincoln Center attracts many visitors. Mary had drunk too much Scotch whisky. 21 NOUNS AND ARTICLES 22.CHAP. 23. She was a Communist in her youth. A proper noun is the name of a specijlc person. A common noun is the name used for any unspecified member of a class of persons. things. 25. Despite the advice of his doctor. qualities. Fred went on smoking cigarettes until the day he died. . place. Oh. or thing: Michelangelo is universally admired. We all admire the work of fine novelists. TYPES OF NOUNS Nouns are classified as proper nouns or common nouns.

-- . . Proper nouns are capitalized. Oh.- Thomas Edison slept only four hours a night throughout the major portion of his life. 2. --. common ..- -.. He flirted briefly with communism in his youth. to be in a faraway country. underline all nouns and identify them as proper or common as shown in these examples: Mary submitted her paper in a folder --- proper common .-- - 3. unless they are the first word in a sentence.- -. The road was icy. 3.. Tall mountains challenge experienced hikers. -- - . - .NOUNS AND ARTICLES [CHAP. In the following sentences..- - . --. common. The Atlantic is polluted with congealed oil from New York to Portugal.-- - . The museum exhibited only some of its treasures..- 1.. . . Siberia supports thousands of migratory deer.. common nouns are not.-..---- .. - proper . --. 2 The city was known for its ugly architecture. so Jane advised her husband to have chains put on the car. common---. .-- .

Roger Casement was an Irish patriot. Bernard Malamud was the author of many fine stories and books. Physics textbooks. Theaters in England are so inexpensive that tourists can attend every night of the week.CHAP. Harding coined the word "normalcy" and made lexicographers unhappy. - 8. 6. . according to Smith. 9. 7. 10. 5. Many students are dropping out of school because of the high cost of tuition. Rich people ordinarily find that restaurants are eager for their patronage. an English traitor. do not supply students with sufficient exercises. 21 NOUNS AND ARTICLES 4.

cupful 15. absence 14. Consult a dictionary if necessary. 1 1. alumna. woman. etc. lens. the plural of memorandum is now more often memorandums than memoranda. fuzzes. home. crisis 17. 2 PLURAL FORMS OF NOUNS Most nouns form their plurals by adding s to the singular: time. Thus. goods. lunches. 7.NOUNS AND ARTICLES [CHAP. harmonies. 6. girls. (5) Certain words that have come down from Anglo-Saxon retain their Anglo-Saxon plurals: foot. (3) For certain words taken directly from foreign languages. thievery. There is a tendency to drop this practice and use the letter s to form plurals of words taken directly from foreign languages. scissors. etc. 8. children. 10. oxen. fox chief attorney potato spoonful valley formula genus addendum knife laboratory vocabulary 13. 4. form the plural as it is formed in those languages: alumnus. athletics 20. 5. library 21. mixes. datum 24. Give the plural forms of the words and phrases in the following list as shown in the examples. teeth. Jones 22. boxes (2) When a noun ends in y preceded by a consonant. species. thieveries. A current dictionary will be useful in deciding questions of pluralization. girl. synopsis 19. errata. hashes. lenses ends in z: fuzz. stimuli. bear. 9. quiz. alumnae. phenomenon. women. erratum. bunch. kindnesses. day days hoot hoots wilderness wildernesses sleigh sleighs acre acres yeoman yeomen - 1. quota 23. ox. 2. baby sitter 16. There are many exceptions to this practice: (1) Add es when a noun ends in s: kindness. 4. phenomena. homes. bunches ends in x: mix.flashes ends in ch: lunch. headquarters. men. diagnosis 18. babies. child. tooth. 3. feet. quizzes (note the doubling of z) ends in sh: hash. stimulus. bears. box. change the y to i and add es: harmony. alumni. booth . times. (4) Certain words do not change in forming plurals: deer. man. 12.flash. baby.

-- -. Yeats. . The child of my next-door neighbor had a party today. 45. Most meetings of the United Nations begin on time. 37. - - - - .- -. 1. Who has not admired the batting of the Yankees? batting? Who has not admired the 6.-- - . Jane's. in forming possessive nouns: (1) With singular nouns and with plural nouns that do not end in s. The performance of the team in the first half was disappointing. Jane. 39. child had a party today. He objected to the reunification of Germany. child's. 5. John 2. hrvthren. . He objected to reunification ..- -- --.CHAP. . (2) With plural nouns and with singular nouns that end in s. 46. - . - - - -. -. . add ' or 's to form the possessive: boys. My next-door The ambitions of most men are never realized. - -- . -- - - - - -- . Charles's. 7. 34.. 44. -- - - -- 50. - - - . Yeats's. Russians. .. . One hour's delay will not bother me. 21 NOUNS AND ARTICLES 29 25.. levity POSSESSIVE FORMS OF NOUNS Two rules are helpful. children's. -. The shirt that John will wear needs ironing. . sisters-in. child. . 30.-~ . In the following sentences.. --- - - .la^: sisrers-inlaw's.. - -- -- . A delay of one hour will not bother me. 31. Russians'. 47. . Years'. 32. The United 4.shirt needs ironing. axis 27. girls.- . 5. Charles. 42. freshman parenthesis attorney general analysis psychosis thesis chassis quantum Smith symphony . add 's to form the possessive: boy. 40. Most ambitions are never realized. 8. 43. boy's.-- . 41. - - -.. locus sky echo preference loaf life matrix actuary basis neurosis privilege 38. 35. children. axe secretary - - - -- - -- . . 29. 33. Charles'. ax. 36. 48. meetings mostly begin on time. performance in the first half was disappointing The 3. brethren's. supply the missing possessive forms as shown in these examples: The music of the Beatles did not appeal to everybody.-- - . 49. 28. The Beatles' music did not appeal to everybody. reputation extended beyond art criticism. buzz 26. John Ruskin was known for more than art criticism.-. girls'. boys'. . .

my scrambled eggs will resemble the real thing. When a collective noun is singular. as individuals. 14. appear to be plural because they end in s. In this case. its verb must be singular. (The entire band as a unit. committee. The best dishes of our cook are reserved for nights when company is expected. COLLECTIVE NOUNS A collective noun represents a group or class considered as a unit.NOUNS AND ARTICLES [CHAP. Eve with my family. Such a collective noun is considered singular. remarks bored everyone at the meeting. Our The poetry of John Keats will never go out of style. of course. best dishes are reserved for nights when company is expected. (The members of the audience are thought of as individuals. The following sentences show both uses: Singular The army is advancing slowly. athletics. they are treated . Mr. Some of the most common collective nouns are: army. The committee has not taken a single stand as a unit. audience. The Mr. With a little luck. majority. couple. group. the collective noun is treated as plural. 12. the scrambled eggs my wife makes will resemble the real thing. (The entire army as a unit. Retirement for the Johnsons did not last long enough. With a little luck. I shall be celebrating New The shoes Corky wore had seen better days. When plural. Yet they are treated as singulars when they are intended as singulars and. The writer must decide how he or she intends a collective noun to be understood and must be consistent in the treatment of the noun. 2 9.) The band has played well. shoes had seen better days. contents. 10. its verb must be plural. jury. 13. and Mrs. 11. (The members of the committee are thought of as individuals.) Certain collective nouns.) The young couple were unhappy with the apartment they rented.) The committee disagree with the stand taken by the minority. A collective noun may also represent a group or class of individuals considered as individuals. (Both husband and wife. At midnight on December 31st. retirement years were too few and too late. and politics.) The jury has reached a verdict. I shall be celebrating with my family. 15. for example. were unhappy. Jones said all they could at the meeting. band. and team.) The audience are leaving their seats now. (The entire jury as a unit. Note that these nouns may be treated as singulars or plurals. and Mrs. John poetry will never go out of style.

In the following sentences. The team has decided to appoint a new captain. (object of insisted) She insisted she would change her ways. 10. when.CHAP. where. or which.) Statistics are said to mislead the unwary. His oflspring surprises him every day. 2. He asked the group to take their time in reaching a decision. 5. what. singular The public makes known its wishes slowly but forcefully. The class agreed that their teacher should be encouraged to permit early adjournment. He decided that he would cut the herd so that its weakest members would not deprive the strongest of food. identify the collective nouns as singular or plural as shown in these examples: Humankind is coming to a decisive era in its history. We wonder whether the remainder is sufficient to pay her way for the rest of her life. who.) Plural The contents of the valise were thrown about the room. (subject of mystifies) As Objects (subject of She insisted that she would change her ways. 9.) Statistics is not my best subject. His oflspring are now going their separate ways. As Subjects That a politician can act that way after years in office never occurred to me. how. 7. (The writer is discussing a. why. (The writer treats contents as a unit. (object of insisted) . NOUN CLAUSES A noun clause has a subject and verb and functions as a noun. A minister may find that his congregation speaks with one voice in parish matters. whatever. the writer must treat them consistently either as singulars or plurals: Singular The contents of the valise was examined thoroughly by the guard. Again. athletics is funded from football receipts. 1. 6. whoever. (The writer is thinking of individual computations that constitute what we call statistics. 8.) 6. 3. 21 NOUNS AND ARTICLES 31 as plurals when they are thought of as plurals. singular plural The remainder are going to be left behind. (The writer is thinking of the individual objects that make up the contents of the valise. Noun clauses are usually introduced by that. occurred) Why he acts the way he does mystifies me. course called statistics. In many schools. 4. The opposition are meeting quietly to organize their forces.

How he can achieve his ambition bewilders me. Definite Article The definite article is the. Whether we go tomorrow or stay depends on the weather. Teachers assign homework. 5. . (He gave me a specific assignmet~t. underscore the noun c. Walter insisted that we pool our remaining capital. (An indefinite number of teachers assign an indefinite amount of homework. Alice cannot be held responsible for everything her children do.) He gave me the assignment I requested. Whoever attends the meeting will have a vote in the election..) Salt is an important commodity.) The salt on our table is rarely used.) .blame. (object of of) I purchased the book for which you hid. (The nfhaleas distinct from other species. Whatever you do will affect the remainder of your academic career. (object of for) 7. He feels unhappy about what happened to him yesterday. 2.) Reagan is the president I remember best. . 10. (The writer has not specified an amolrnr of salt. (In specifying a particular amount of salt.- I. In the following sentences. They are the ones who own the property. a specific class. 6. Articles are considered modifiers of nouns and pronouns. 7. a specific week. the writer uses the definite article.lauses as shown in these examples: His position is that he was not to .32 NOUNS AND ARTICLES [CHAP. This building is what modem architecture represents. 2 As Predicate Conzplements Life is n*hateveryou make it. Omission of the Definite Article The definite article is omitted when the writer does not specify a particular amount or quantity of the noun. (A specific reacher. (complement of is) You now are nfhereI n~ould love to be. . When the picnic is held is no concern of yours. ARTICLES There are two types of articles: definite and indefinite.) The teacher gave the class enough homework for the week. 9. It is used to indicate a specific class of nouns or pronouns or a specific member of a class of nouns or pronouns: The whale is still an endangered species. 4. 8. 3. (complement of are) As Objects clf Prepositions He is taking action on all the problems of n'hichyou complait~ed. His answers usually were whatever came into his head first. The librarian told me that the book was on reserve.

as in our. 11. but I dropped three coins.) A one-hour lecture is more than I can take. 12. trouble I have seen. best she could. 9. My brother asked me whether I could spare few dollars. ability to operate it. 14. One of my dreams is to have seaworthy sailboat. 10. One of cabdrivers warned me not to stay at Gideon Hotel. (Consonant sound s.) He used a hammer to nail the board. In the following sentences. 15. Writing a letter to editor is not easy for all of us. (This means any unspecified steak. 6.) An is used before a word beginning with a vowel sound: She was an able person. The lawyer stated that shooting was accidental. 13. They are used as modifiers to indicate an unspecified class or member of a class of nouns: Miss Smith gave her department enough work for a week. (One begins with the consonant sound w. Frederick considered it honor to receive Alumni Award for Service. The doctor cured her of tuberculosis. charge. (Hour begins with a vowel sound ou. One simply cannot live on five dollars day in Europe anymore. 1. 7. and time to enjoy it. 3. Ballpoint pens have revolutionized penmanship.NOUNS AND ARTICLES Indefinite Article The indefinite articles are a and an. the emergency room. insert a. (The week is unspecified. 8. 2.) He talked for an hour. Nowhere else in the world can one find food as good as his wife's.) Carpenters may one day again be paid $20 an hour in New York. The conductor found His first job paid less than $4 an hour. a discarded wallet on the floor.) Choosing between a and an A is used before a word beginning with a consonant sound: A stereo played all night. (Vowel sound a. (Consonant sound h.) 8. No one knows 4. Ellen decided to do the Acid rock is not the best music to play in an. as in won. (This means any unspecified hour regardless of when the work is performed. Many potential investors are frightened by prospect of a new depression. (Useful begins with the consonant sound y as in yet.) A steak costs $25 in some restaurants.) He was a useful person. an. or the where needed as shown in these examples: She gave the correct change to me. 5. ambitious young man should not work so hard that he damages his health. The defendant decided to plead guilty to Poverty does not always lead to unrest. . hour in her company goes by in no time at all.

sailed.) The ship sailed last Wednesday for France. found Subject We Efforts in his behalf have proven useless. sentence. the subject of the subordinate clause. subject All. (Verbfeel. (Verb campaign. Verb dug. In the following sentences. subject Politicians. Verb have Droven Subject Efforts Both gladiators remained on their feet for an hour. (Verb sailed.Chapter 3 Verbs and Verbals VERBS A verb is the word or words that describe the action or state of being of the subject of a sentence or clause. Verb Subject - - . campaign. (Verb hadfinished. are. Mrs. feel. subject I.) Things are not just what they seem. identify the verbs and their subjects as shown in these examples: We dug for many hours and found nothing. Despite the attorney's arguments.) I feel well this morning. Verb was scraoed Subject paint 1. Verb remained Subject gladiators The paint was scraped from the building. Richard boarded the boat an hour before it sailed. unhappy and without hope.) (The verb loves makes a statement about the subject of the Politicians campaign actively for election. Consider the following sentences: Mrs. (Main verb are makes a statement about its subject Things. had finished---describes an action performed by the subject or describes the state of being of the subject. Jackson loves her daughter. Verb Subject 2.) All the artists had finished their paintings for the show. Jackson. The verb seem in the subordinate clause what they seem makes a statement about what. the defendant found himself alone in his cell. The verb makes a statement about its subject. 1. subject ship. seem.) Each verbloves.

Two verbs that have the same subject are referred to as a compound predicate. A verb that has no modifiers. or complements is referred to as a simple predicate. Verb Subject 6. 31 VERBS AND VERBALS 3.CHAP.) He is a great man. underline the complete predicate as shown in these examples: Emily has written many letters to us. (Compound predicate. or you will have no dinner. The unread books remained on their shelves year after year. 2. (Predicate consisting of verb and its object. Verb Subject 10. Verb Subject -- PREDICATE Apredicate is the verb in a clause or sentence plus the modifiers and objects or complements of that verb.) The sun shone brightly. objects. The sun shone. 1. The lawnmower is no longer sharp enough to cut grass. As the clock in the tower rang out. The door closed behind her as she left the dining room. (Predicate consisting of copulative verb and its complement. Verb Subject 5. Verb . Veronique must leave for home. the people gathered quickly for prayer.) Amanda cooks and bakes every day. Butter your bread now. Verb Subject 7. City life has not improved her attitudes.) He hit the ball. . Verb Subject 4. That train never leaves on time. (Predicate consisting of verb and its modifier. In the following sentences. 3. Subject 9.) 2. Verb Subject 8. but knowledge of accountancy earned bread and shelter for him. Fresh vegetables are much superior to canned produce. Philosophy was his first love. The children played at their games until they were called home. Eileen decided that a trip to the college was worth her time. (Simple predicate.

ate is intransitive. 2. In the following sentences. She smiled at last. Men's hats will one day reappear as a stylish fashion. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS A transitive verb must have a direct object. The crowd indicated its approval. Their rudeness incensed him. 5. Wars go on and on in all modem countries. An intransitive verb does not have a direct object. 7. intransitive -. since it has the direct object strarvberries. -- -- -- 3. Some verbs function transitively and intransitively. 9. - - . (In this sentence. Lech Walesa gave a memorable speech. He sat alone all afternoon. 4.VERBS A N D VERBALS [CHAP. The stream ran through the valley. (In this sentence.) She ate for hours on end. Consider the following sentences: She ate the pudding. 10. since it has no direct object. (Grew is intransitive. transitive transitive 1. The farmer steered his tractor right into the hay pile and cursed his luck. I have not yet seen any proof of his supposed guilt. -- -- . since it has no direct object. -. -. Television has helped him through lonely hours. The churches of Rome always attract many visitors.. Divorce hurts many children. . since it has the direct object pudding. ate is transitive. Noisy dogs are an abomination.) 3. 6. 10. Professional sports has become big business all over the world. 8. 9. since it has the direct object roots.- - . --6.) The tree grew for many years even though concrete covered all its roots. . The second verb covered is transitive. (Here grew is transitive. Can you imagine a world without war? 7. underline the verbs and identify them as transitive or intransitive as shown in these examples: Stray dogs often menace children in our town. 5. Video appears to be the main interest of America's young. 8. Cigarette smoke blackened his lungs.) Her gardener grew the finest strawberries. The automobile struck the wall directly and burned. 3 4.

- - -- - . -. taste and. 31 VERBS AND VERBALS COPULATIVE (LINKING) VERBS A copulative. seem. -~ -- 5.. That tone does not sound correct to me. underline copulative verbs and identify their cornplertzerzts as shown in these examples: They are culprits.) (The verb felt is a copulative verb linking she with ill.- -. with rnorose as predicate adjective.-- - 4.-... in all its forms. The dictionary became more important as he learned English. Emma's eyes grew lively as she listened to the sonata. the manner in which some verbs are used determines whether they are copulative. a predicate noun. having part as direct object. The child's ability to differentiate colors appeared uncanny. -. In the following sentences. Jon was the only single man in the room.- - - -.- -- 10.-. verb joins a subject with its complement.-- - - -- 7. .- -- .-- . The dog acted sick after the veterinarian checked him over. She felt the dog S coat. act. doing nothing more than linking you with man. . - -. Engineers act childish when they are busy.- --. predicate adjective 1. Books seemed his only trustworthy companions. The complement is either a predicate noun or predicate adjective.- 9. . - . is always copulative except when it is used as an auxiliary verb. soutzd. He acted the part well. (The verb acted is transitive.-. become. taste. . . a predicate She felt the fabric..predicate noun - A cup of coffee tastes bitter when it stands too long. bitter. (The verb felt is a transitive verb having fabric as its direct object.) Thus.CHAP.fee1: I tasted the egg..- 2.- - - 6.--. . for example. culprits. -. The verb be. (The verb acted is a copulative verb. or linking.-- 3.- 8.-- .) She felt ill during the play.-- -. appear. -- -- . . adjective. .) Consider the following sentences: Now you are a man. She seemed eager to take the job. and grott: (Note that some of these copulative verbs may also be used transitively. A copulative verb does not take an object. feel. ) 4. Leonard was the only physician who was available at the time. (The verb are is a copulative verb.) He acted morose. The most common copulative verbs are be.

might. ought. They will slave until they are rich. and moods of those verbs. underline the auxiliary verbs as shown in these examples: He . should. I do go. Where shall we put the television set? Can anyone in his right mind think that prices are coming down? Where is she going now? Teaching someone to play the piano is more easily said than done. could. they) in asking questions: Will you be able to find your way? Will she have enough time to finish her thesis? Will it be the only cat in the house? Will they buy the food needed for the week? . 12. I could go. must. 8. she. 14. Consider the following sentences: I may go to the movies. and have.38 VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP. I have gone.) I shall go to the movies.) I will go to the movies. he. 2. shall. I ought to go. Corporate mergers have accelerated. and would.) Auxiliaries alter the meaning or time of the action of the verb: I am going. voices. I might go. will. Grammar is taught badly in most schools. 10. Music does not often find its proper audience. does Alice can have the job if she wants it. (The auxiliary verb may indicates a possibility of future action. we) in asking questions: Shall I leave money for you? Shall we depart now? Will is used in the second and third persons (you. 5. Would you accompany me to the movies? She should find herself out of funds by now. In the following sentences. Might I have a little more soup. please? Do you study as much as you wish? Most teachers are forced to teach large classes. (The auxiliary verb shall indicates an intention to undertake future action. it. 3. The most common auxiliary verbs are be. 5. 9. 6. do.want the book after all. Shall and Will Shall is used in the first person (I. 7. 3 AUXILIARY VERBS Auxiliary verbs are used with other verbs to form the tenses. 4. (The auxiliary verb will indicates firm intention to undertake a future action. Less common auxiliary verbs are can. may. 15. I should go. Artists have found their income rising in recent years. Ed is studying French this summer. 13. 1. The best of his work is ignored. 11.

CHAP. (condition) If they should find no merit in the application. would) always head straight for the rail. would) use your car sparingly to preserve gasoline. (Shall. would) find her purse. Will is used in the second and third persons to express future actions or expectations: You will be with us this evening as usual. We shall probably meet you at the museum. I expect. (condition) If you should disregard all their requests. (customary action) 6. the bride or the groom? 5. Who (shall. his fellowship will be withdrawn. You shall not be permitted to return. would) enter the cathedral first. (condition) Would is used to express a wish or customary action: Would that I had spent more time with him. All through those winters. They will find their way easily. (obligation) They should clean the apartment thoroughly before moving. When the horse (should. underline the correct form of the verb as shown in these examples: If Jane (should. (wish) Would that you made decisions more carefully. would) forget his tickets. 31 VERBS AND VERBALS Shall is used in all persons for emphatic statements: I shalldo no such thing. They shall not pass! Shall is used in the first person to express future action or expectation: I shall be seeing him tomorrow. would) prepare hearty breakfasts and ample dinners. 4. (wish) We would walk together every day after we came home from work. (customary action) They would decline every invitation that did not include a full meal. will) enter the cathedral first. (obligation) If we should leave them penniless. they will no longer trust you. (obligation) You should pay more attention to your studies. If he (should. (wish) Would that he were still with us now. he (should. In the following sentences. Should and Would Should is used to express an obligation or condition: I should repair the hole in the fabric without charge. would) leave the starting gate. the bride or the groom? . 3. they may starve. she will never be careless about her possessions again. (customary action) You would always remember to call on Mother's birthday. they (should. Will) I ever hear from him again? 1. if you expect to get through the year without getting into debt. You (should. I give him little chance of making the Concorde on time. Who (should. 2.

They also express wishes. Mood is the characteristic of a verb that tells the reader which of these functions a writer intends. and conditions contrary to fact. Jane and Kenyon (shall. so were is in the subjunctive mood. would) always leave his possessions lying about. will) be on time or run the risk of losing their privileges. so the writer uses the indicative mood to state it as fact. will) join us for tea tomorrow afternoon.) (The verb is is in the indicative mood because it asks a The subjunctive mood appears in relatively few constructions. 15. and doubts. apparently in order to annoy his older brothers and sisters. Annette and Warren (shall.) . victory would be ours. the condition is contrary to fact. They (should.) If Helen Wills Moody were representing us at Wimbledon today. The indicative mood makes statements of fact or what is believed to be fact. suppositions.) Suppose he were still alive. (The conjunction I introduces a conditional statement. would) pay their share of the bill. The verb were representing indicates that this condition is contrary to fact. The youngest child (should.) The subjunctive appears most often in formal writing and in the speech of educated people. will) compete equally for the prize. make the most of it! (The speaker firmly believes he or she is not guilty of treason. John Donne was born in London. (The uses of the subjunctive are discussed fully in the next section. The faculty (shall. I wish my father were still alive. Would) that she finally learns to keep her room in some semblance of order. It is used most often to express conditions contrary to fact and to express wishes. the verb is shows that she believes her statement to be true. (Shall. doubts. and imperative. because the writer of the sentence is reporting what she takes to be fact. 3 6. will) meet at its regular time. (This is a wish. (Shall. 8. The indicative mood almost always replaces the subjunctive mood in informal writing and everyday speech. The youngest child (should. MOOD Verbs make statements of fact and what is believed to be fact.) Is her physician at her bedside? question. suppositions.) If this be treason. but there may be doubt in the minds of others. 7. The verb believes is in the indicative mood. I I.) She believes that her physician is well qualified. both by parents and siblings. The indicative also asks questions. The three moods in English are indicative. (There is ample evidence to support this statement. would he be in favor of that action? (were is in the subjunctive mood because he were still alive is a supposition.40 VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP. (Whether she is correct or not. 14. Since Helen Wills Moody is not alive to represent f us at Wimbledon. subjunctive. Will) both of us leave the room at the same time next week? 13. I suppose. since they indicated that they expected to do so. I hope that you (shall. (Should.) Was John Donne born in London? (This verb asks a question and so is in the indicative mood. The subjunctive be expresses this doubt. Will) the club be able to reach a consensus on this matter? 12. 9. 10. commands. would) always be treated with some respect.

she. 15. . he must work. Are you really supporting yourself comfortably by painting? Were you the oldest person in the room? Stay away from video games. (2) wishes. 14. in correct usage. 1. 31 VERBS AND VERBALS 41 The subjunctive mood is distinguished from the indicative in the third person singular of all verbs and in certain forms of the verb be. 7. In the following sentences indicate the mood of each of the italicized verbs as shown in these examples: indicative Are they really at home every evening? imwrative Send them to bed at once! subjunctive I wish I were sixteen years old again. He will be honored with a new position provided he make a substantial donation. 8. 4. it we YOU they Indicative Subjunctive Present Tense want want want want wants want want want want want want want Indicative Present Past am was are were is was are were are were are were Subjunctive Present Past be were be were be were be were be were be were The imperative mood expresses a command or makes an urgent demand: Leave the room! Call an ambulance! Let them die! The imperative mood is used only in the second and third persons. 3. 5. 9. you willfind the access road. 7. Dictionaries provide As long as you remain alert. 6. Never give up the fight! Swimming against the tidefatigued him greatly. 10. 11. singular and plural. work hard. Corporationsfind that interest rates fluctuate widely. I YOU he. I would do things differently. 13. If I were not the boss here. They will remain home provided that Father consent. and demands in clauses introduced by that or in clauses in which that is implied. Uses of the Subjunctive Mood The subjunctive mood is used for (1) conditions contrary to fact. If he wants to succeed. Wild flowers give us much pleasure. and (3) certain idiomatic expressions. If you want to succeed. The following table shows a typical verb want in the present tense and the verb be in the present and past tenses. 2. recommendations. American history has been his specialty. 12.CHAP.

1 request that the Board of Elections (pay. he would find that many of the policies he followed are still in force today. demands. The subjunctive is used in these clauses. These constmctions include: be that as it may. forbids) that she should marry a clone of her first husband. (Subjunctive be laid. and sufice it to say. (Subjunctive take. If I (was. orders. I would be the happiest man on earth. were) going to law school in my place. 2.) She moved that parliamentary procedure be laid aside. were) not here. not indicative are silenced. In the following sentences.) Resolved.) We demand that they be silenced.42 VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP. insists) on paying the bill. 4. the subjunctive were is used.) Iffresident John 1C: Kennedy were still alive. good writing and speech still employ the subjunctive. were) King. not indicative is hid. where all the town cemeteries are located. pays) particular attention to votes cast in the Twelfth District. Because the condition is contrary to fact. recommendations. or parliamentary resolutions. the subjunctive mood is being replaced by the indicative mood or by simplified constmctions that avoid verbs entirely. 1. (The presence of a condition is signaled by the conjunction If. If she (insist. (The subjunctive were. Idiomatic Errpressions The language has certain constructions that remain fixed in the subjunctive mood. be it said. Conditions Contrary to Fact A condition that cannot be true is known as a condition contrary to fact.) That Clauses Clauses introduced by that or clauses in which that is implied frequently express wishes. 3 The subjunctive has few uses in modem English. I would take up water polo. More and more. (Subjunctive be silenced. not indicative are punished. If1 were ten years younger. God bless you.) (Subjunctive be admitted. I would be able to walk there. underline the correct form of the verb as shown in these examples: I wish that he (was. far be it from me. . leaves). come what may. (Subjunctive be punished. We demand they be silenced. I demand that she (leave. I recommend he take a trip abroad.) I recommend that he take a trip abroad. 3. formal motions. (Condition contrary to fact requires the subjunctive were. 8. that a fifty-first state be admitted to the union. Consider the following sentences: I wish that I were President of the United States. why not let her do so? 5. If the theater (was. Nevertheless. . not indicative was. 1 wish she (was. not indicative takes. Heaven (forbid. not The relative pronoun that can be omitted from the first three of the preceding sentences without changing meaning and without altering the requirement for employing the subjunctive mood: I wish I were President of the United States. indicative is admitted. were) any closer to my house.) We ask only that the guilty be punished.

of course. indicate the voice of each of the italicized verbs as shown in these examples: They have gone home. 10. The votersperceive politicians in various ways. 8. is) adjourned. 8. Many countries are experiencing severe drought. Many countries have experienced drought. to have been found (There are other tenses in English. 13. 3. 15. were) here. The judge ordered that the innocent children (are. VOICE Voice is the characteristic of a verb that tells the reader whether the subject of the verb is performing the action of the verb (active voice ) or whether the subject of the verb is acted upon (passive voice). I ask only that I (am. be) treated with respect. 4. 10. (Come. and they are discussed on pages 49-56. 12. When will you paint the exterior of your house? Is your house being painted? The barn door must be rehung. That mountain has been climbed before. he would defend himself. Present Past Future Infhitive Active voice he finds he found he will find to find. Flies c a r v disease. I think James (was. Comes) what may. 6. 7. If he (was. active passive 5. I would make the situation clear to him if he (was. were) counterfeit. be) admitted to the meeting. 2. 31 VERBS AND VERBALS 6. were) on the beach when the poor boy died.) 9. 14. 9. The checks will be delivered when they are ready. 11. apologizes) at once. We request that they (are. to have found Passive voice he is found he was found he will be found to be found. 7. Politicians are perceived by the voters in various ways. I shall forever believe you meant to do what was right. I recommend that he (apologize. . be) protected. 9. were) here. We believe that the bill (was. 1. The passive voice is identified by some form of the verb be and a past participle.CHAP. A member of the opposition moved that the meeting (be. In the following sentences. active He has climbed that mountain many times. Novels of quality entrance many readers.

5. singular Our neighbors have-for the beach. verbs have singular and plural forms. are Cats (have) an extraordinary ability to get their own way. In the following sentences. . The Seine is one of the most beautiful rivers in Europe.) We work hard. plural verb have fallen. we will be having tea and cakes. 9. (Since the subject I is singular. supply the correct form of the verb as shown in these examples: I (be) in complete agreement with everything you say. 3.) 11. 7. The number of the subject determines the number of the verb. England (be) no longer a world power in the minds of many. . underline each verb. 2. 5.The countries of Europe finally (desire) economic unity. (Singular subject skater. Snow and ice (collect) in our driveway every winter. Vermont and New Hampshire cooperate in few ways. Have you and Anne been sitting there together? He will be leaving right after dinner. the verb work is plural. They will be going home early tonight. Economic strength and political vitality (go) hand in hand. - 1. 4. 3 NUMBER Like nouns and pronouns. 1. .) 10. 3. 8.left plural . Alice (have) always been a good lawyer. A cat (have) complete freedom to roam in our neighborhood. the verb work is singular. am - We (be) completely opposed to all your ideas. Agreement of Subject and Verb A singular subject must have a singular verb. 7. They find themselves at a loss for words. 10. (Since the subject We is plural. A plural subject must have a plural verb. Consider the following sentences: I work hard. In the following sentences. as shown in these examples: singular The cat raised its back high.) The skaters have fallen through the ice. Nothing is better than blueberry pie and ice cream. 8. and indicate its number. The house is up for sale. Two sentences are sufficient to illustrate its proper application.44 VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP. The skater has fallen through the ice. singular verb has fallen. 6. 2. Have you been sitting there all alone? - 6. the judge said. This machine has seen better days. - . Unpaid parking tickets (be) my greatest problem right now. 4. This rule for agreement in number of subject and its verb is easy to learn. (Plural subject skaters. Instead of lunch.

3. 4. The necessity of assuring adequate stores of food and drink (be) not recognized by many of the inexperienced hikers who undertook the climb. (The subject of was is applause.) There was little applause for the sopranos. ammunition. In such cases. there (be) going to be two long speeches by the candidates. the verb was overlooked is singular. 1. 6. the plural verb were is used. there (be) few of us still awake in the room. and food supplies modifies importance and has nothing to do with the number of the verb. Consider the following sentences: The importance of men. plural words may intervene between subject and verb. After the dinner.CHAP. large cats. The phrase of men. . (The singular subject slum requires the singular verb stretches. Of primary importance (be) clear drinking water. so the singular verb was is used. as well as other members of the string section. 31 VERBS AND VERBALS 9. (The subject of were is men. Since men is plural. (The plural subject miles requires the plural verb lie.) Concerning the acrobats there was little discussion. Mary's principal hobby (be) all types of stitchery. and other mammals (be) also reported by was other investigators.) The safety of her many children was her first concern.) Beyond the broad river stretches the ugly slum. 10. are He found that there (be) little use in continuing work on his novels and plays was The aggression he observed in apes. because the conductor is so difficult to work with.) Across the plains lie miles of untracked wilderness.) 12. supply the correct form of the verb as shown in these examples: At the time of her death. Jane and Richard now (be) in agreement. if one is selecting a home site.) Another problem in agreement may occur when the subject of a verb follows the verb instead of preceding it. Many countries of South America (be) beginning to exploit valuable natural resources. (Because the subject importance is singular. The first violinist. (The subject safety is singular. (be) not ready to play when the conductor raised his baton. The first violinist and the entire string section (be) ready to resign. After the principal address was given. so the verb was is singular. 7. the writer must remember that the subject is singular and must have a singular verb. the singular verb was is used. In the following sentences. 2. there (be) going to be work for all of us. and food supplies was not overlooked by the general. 8. Once the sap begins to flow next spring. was On most subjects. 5. Mark Twain still (find) a large readership in the Soviet Russia. ammunition. (The subject discussion is singular. In many sentences containing a singular subject. Since applause is singular. Beyond the knoll (lie) deposits of rock of the right type for the beautiful house he wants to build. Consider the following sentences: There were three men ahead of me in the check-out line.

hearts andflowers. the verb must be plural: provide. so a plural verb is needed: are. . Sometimes. which would be plural. (Because onions. People are our main concern. a plural. Compound Subjects and Their Verbs A compound subject is two or more nouns. is singular and the verb must be singular: is. a plural verb is used: are going.) Singular A hot dog and sauerkraut is all I want for lunch. therefore.) When the singular part of the compound subject is closer to the verb. they are always singular. This is true whether and or or is used to connect the parts of the compound subject. however. Compound subjects connected by or or nor usually take a singular verb.) (The singular garlic is closer to the verb. verb is singular: is used. 3 9.VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP. Compound subjects connected by and usually take a plural verb. (The subject of this sentence. Plural Either one leek or several onions provide the necessary flavor in most of Warren's recipes. The following sentences illustrate both types: Plural Jack and Bill are going up the mountain. Jack and Bill. as in the following sentence: Singular Neither onions nor garlic is used in this dish. the verb must be singular. For this reason. even though there (be) many other problems facing us. can be replaced by two boys or two men. or noun phrases acting together as the subject of a verb: Jack and Bill. so the When compound subjects are modified by each or every.) When or connects the parts of a compound subject. he and I. health or sickness. they are usually intended as plurals. The compound subject Jack and Bill. pronouns. pounds of potatoes or onions. (Both parts of the compound subject candies or fruits are plural. (The subject of this sentence is a single dish: hot dog and sauerkraut. The subject. they are intended as singular constructions. Inflation and recession (be) the most serious public concerns this year. they are singular unless the parts of the compound subject are themselves plural. so a singular verb is needed: is. therefore. basket are singular. is plural. the verb takes its number from the part of the compound subject closer to it. is closer to the verb than leek.) When compound subjects are connected by or.) Plural (Both parts of the compound subject box or Candies or fruits are equally acceptable. Consider the following sentences: Singular A box of candy or a basket of fruit is all I want. 10. When compound subjects are connected by and. a singular.

Plural Each boy and his friend are bringing presents. A pound of potatoes (go) far when no hungry children are at home. Two big lamb chops or one small steak (feed) our little family. Every boy or girl is bringing a friend. Every boy and his friend are bringing presents. Either Anne or her brothers (be) welcome here. 20. Either Henry or his father (carve) the turkey at our house. is 1. 9. 31 VERBS AND VERBALS Consider the following sentences: Singular Each boy and girl is bringing a friend. the compound is a plural. 19. 13. 14. When only one part of a compound subject is modified by each or every. Neither Alfred nor Bill (want) to be present when the bill arrives. The employees and their elected leader (agree) on the terms of the contract. 2. 18. 16. 6. All good brothers and sisters (take) their turns at doing the dishes. He has applauded most of the television scripts and movie scripts that (perform) by that company. 8. 5. . 15. Every boy and girl is bringing a friend. Flowers or cards (comfort) the bereaved. Neither goats nor sheep (permit) to graze now in the upper pasture. One duck and three geese (swim) outside the hotel window every morning. 3. Spokane and Takoma (be) in the State of Washington. 12.CHAP. 13. Neither Kate nor her friends (play) the piano. 10. Every man and woman (have) a single vote. In the following sentences. Twelve votes for or one vote against (be) all we need for an acceptable decision in the matter. Each boy or girl is bringing a friend. 7. Each member of the group and their friends (carry) part of the load. Three carrots and one parsnip (be) all you need to complete the stew. 17. 4. Every edition of the New Testament (have) admirers and attackers. play Every boy and girl alive (be) either a little Liberal or else a little Conservative. One bus and three taxi cabs (stand) ready to take the delegates to the meeting. is Pie or cake (be) the perfect dessert after such a meal. Strawberries and cream (be) all I want to eat. Ham and eggs (be) my favorite dish. supply the correct form of the verb as shown in these examples: are An apple and an orange (be) in every lunch box. 1 1 .

(The collective noun class is treated as a single unit. In the fbllowing sentences. but so does many another human enterprise. The pronoun its emphasizes the singularity of class. The minority always (vote) with a single voice. 8. Politics (make) strange bedfellows. politics. classes: grotrp. class. The team (work) well as a unit and will probably win most of its matches.-.- was The majority (realize) that they have no more power than the smallest minorities. The table of contents (be) never omitted from our company reports. The plural pronoun them emphasizes the plurality of couple. group. A dozen (be) much too expensive for my poor pocketbook. Personal pronouns also have the characteristic of person. statistics. 14. but they are considered a single unit in this sentence. they have different meanings and are treated as plurals. then. 9.48 VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP. 3. class. He says that his committee no longer (expect) to vote tomorrow. -votes Athletics (be) one of her great interests when she was an undergraduate. 6.) The class was given its assignment.. . While a number (be) defecting. The writer must also resist the temptation to treat as plurals all collective nouns that have the appearance of plurals--clthletics. so the verb is singular: rvas given.. . -10. 4. An American crowd (leave) most of its garbage behind once it has dispersed.. groups. so we saw much of them. slcpply the correct form of the verb as shown in these examples: The group always (vote) the way its leader tells it to vote.--2. the correct verb form is singular: is treated. (The collective noun couple is made up of two people. - . the writer must decide the meaning he or she intends in a collective noun and must then be consistent in the use of verbs and pronouns that relate to that collective noun.- PERSON Person is the characteristic of verbs that indicates the speaker (first person). the writer must remember that collective nouns that are singular in appearance can also be made plural--cluclience. -7. Committees often (have) no other function than to meet and issue useless reports. The contents of a shopping bag always (amaze) me. When they are made plural in this way. --. 3 Collective Nouns and Their Verbs A collective noun takes a singular verb when the noun refers to a group as a unit. The writer must resist the temptation to treat as singular all collective nouns that have the appearance of singulars-aldience.) As is apparent. . (The is collective noun col~ple considered to be two individuals in this sentence.) The couple were living in our neighborhood at that time. the person spoken to (second person). Since mcple is singular. u~idiences. many others will stay behind to reform the present administration for the good of the nation. . . Finally. Consider the following sentences: A married couple is treated differently from the way in which a husband or wife is treated alone.. and the person spoken of (thirciptrson). . 5.- - ~- realize 1. A collective noun takes a p k r u l verb when the noun refers individually to the members of a group.

I shall be calling you one day soon after I return. past perfect.CHAP. Can you find your way alone? Michael and I will be looking for rooms. Tense Present (present action. John smiled at the child. first person plural Dick and Lucy were good friends. simple future action true for all time) Past perfect (action completed before a previous past action) Past (action completed in the past) Active voice I call You call He calls We call You call They call I am called You are called He is called We are called You are called They are called I had called You had called He had called We had called You had called They had called I called You called He called We called You called They called I was called You were called He was called We were called You were called They were called Passive voice I had been called You had been called He had been called We had been called You had been called They had been called . or it calls Plural We call You call They call 15. We return on the day after Labor Day. 31 VERBS AND VERBALS Singular First person Second person Third person I call You call He. There are six tenses in English: present. You never achieve everything you desire. In the following sentences. future. present perfect. indicate the person and number of each of the italicized verbs as shown in these examples: third person singular Thoreau is a favorite of few young people. Cows provide milk and cream. and future perfect. she. TENSE Tense is the characteristic of verbs that indicates the time of the action or state of being described. They decided against supporting us. Books have been his best friends. habitual action. third person singular We cannot condone such outrageous behavior. past. You and Karen will be welcome for dinner. The progressive forms of these tenses indicate ongoing action.

5. In the following sentences. Compliments have been exchanged regularly by political friends and enemies alike. present. Shakespeare continues to interest scholars. 3 Tense Progressive active Present I am calling You are calling He is calling We are calling You are calling They are calling I am being called You are being called He is being called We are being called You are being called They are being called Past perfect I had been calling You had been calling He had been calling We had been calling You had been calling They had been calling Past I was calling You were calling He was calling We were calling You were calling They were calling I was being called You were being called He was being called We were being called You were being called They were being called Progressive passive (exists only in present and past) Present perfect (action begun in the past that continues in the present) Future (simple future action) Future perfect (action completed before a future action) I will have called You will have called He will have called We will have called You will have called They will have called Active voice I have called You have called He has called We have called You have called They have called I have been called You have been called He has been called We have been called You have been called They have been called I will call You will call He will call We will call You will call They will call Passive voice I will be called You will be called He will be called We will be called You will be called They will be called I will be calling You will be calling He will be calling We will be calling You will be calling They will be calling I will have been called You will have been called He will have been called We will have been called You will have been called They will have been called I will have been calling You will have been calling He will have been calling We will have been calling You will have been calling They will have been calling Progressive active I have been calling You have been calling He has been calling We have been calling You have been calling They have been calling 16. p p p p p p p .50 VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP. active The plays of Shakespeare have continued to interest scholars. 3. present perfect.Ian will be forty years old on his next birthday. 4. indicate the tense and voice of each of the italicized verbs as shown in these examples: present. . active Many plays of Shakespeare are produced each year. 1. 2. Is private enterprise in its unregulated form still possible in the modem industrial state? They have been calling for justice for all men and women. passive Research and teaching supplement and reinforce one another.

The principal parts of draw are draw. drawing. and past participle (called). The verb call used in these examples is classified as regular. 15. verbs: Infinitive arise be bear begin bid (offer) bid (order) bite blow break bring burst catch choose come dig dive do draw dream drink eat fall find flee fly forget Present participle arising being bearing beginning bidding bidding biting blowing breaking bringing bursting catching choosing coming digging diving doing drawing dreaming drinking eating falling finding fleeing flying forgetting Past tense arose was bore began bid bade bit blew broke brought burst caught chose came dug dove. Many of their books had been mutilated. You soon will receive your final grades. verbs. By the time he was promoted.CHAP. dove done drawn dreamed. 8. and drawn. or strong. or strong. past tense (called). drew. present participle (calling). 9. 7. 11. but few are chosen. The following is a list of the most common irregular. Many soldiers are being called to active duty. You will soonfind yourself in great peril. 14. Many are called. he was old and tired. Regular verbs are also known as weak verbs. 13. She had decided to forgo any further fruitless discussion. Alice has failed to comprehend the true situation. dreamt drank ate fell found fled flew forgot Past participle arisen been borne (carried) born (given birth to begun bid bidden bitten. Principal Parts of the Verb Verbs form their various tenses from their four principal parts: the infinitive (call). Architects are found only in metropolitan areas. dreamt drunk eaten fallen found fled flown forgotten. 31 VERBS AND VERBALS 6. 10. dived did drew dreamed. 12. forgot . An example of an irregular verb is draw. The minister will be calling on you soon. Verbs that form their past tense and past participle by a change of vowel in the infinitive are classified as irregular. because it forms its principal parts by adding ing or ed to the infinitive. bit blown broken brought burst caught chosen come dug dived.

woken worn woven. showed shrunk sung sunk sat slid sown. 3 Infinitive freeze get give go grow hang have hear know lay lead lend let 1ie light lose Pay plead prove ride ring rise run say see set shine show shrink sing sink sit slide SOW Present participle freezing getting giving going growing hanging having hearing knowing laying leading lending letting lying lighting losing paying pleading proving riding ringing rising running saying seeing setting shining showing shrinking singing sinking sitting sliding sowing speaking spitting springing standing stealing stinking swimming swinging taking tearing throwing treading waking wearing weaving winning speak spit spring stand steal stink swim swing take tear throw tread wake wear weave win Past tense froze got gave went grew hung. woke. spit sprang. rung rose ran said saw set shone. lit lost paid payed (ropes) pleaded. wove won . shrunk sang. spat sprung stood stolen stunk swum swung taken tom thrown trodden. shined showed shrank. trod waked. sunk sat slid sowed spoke spat. sung sank. stunk swam. hanged had heard known laid led lent let lain lighted. swum swung took tore threw trod waked. pled proven. shined shown.VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP. weaved won Past participle frozen got. woke wore wove. gotten given gone grown hung. hanged had heard knew laid led lent let lay lighted. lit lost paid payed (ropes) pleaded. sprung stood stole stank. proved ridden rung risen run said seen set shone. sowed spoken spit. pled proved rode rang.

9.-sometimes regret words we have --- . (present action) The 747 flies smoothly.. even though it came in second. 8. The horse (run) a good race. had eaten is past perfect tense. 10. (habitual action) The 8:10 commuter train leaves in five minutes. Selection of Tense The tense of the verb must indicate the appropriate time of action or state of being described by the verb. -. - - You can be sure that they (get) all that was coming to them.The bells in the tower (ring) for fifteen minutes yesterday. Helen (lie) in her bed until noon that day. -. He (dive) three times trying to reach the automobile. 7. written I (see) a good movie last week. (action true for all time) (2) Past perfect tense-action completed before a previous past action: She had left before I arrived. (simple future) The sun rises in the east. 12. (arrived is past tense. We spent the afternoon (dive) for shells off the reef. had lefr is past perfect tense. . In the following sentences. 5. 4. and the old women (wring) their hands. 31 VERBS AND VERBALS Infinitive wind wring write Present participle winding wringing writing Past tense wound wrung wrote Past participle wound wrung written 17. (walked is past tense.. Why did the unripe apple (fall) to the ground? The bell tolled mournfully. Jane (shrink) the dress until it fitted her.CHAP. --.) The dog had eaten all the cat's food before I walked into the kitchen. We have (lay) in a good supply of potatoes. The hangman (lead) the patriot to the gallows. 3. . 14. Codfish can be (eat) all winter. supply the required verb forms. -- 2. 11. 6.. 13. It is worthwhile to review here the six English tenses: (1) Present tense: I like you. Helen ate everything on her plate. .) (3) Past tense-action completed in the past: The movie ended at 9:45. as shown in these examples: She has (write) a letter home every week. Savings and Loans have (lend) money unwisely. I have (show) you all the shoes in the store. saw 1.

-. --(be) there any way out of the economic troubles that beset us? -. supply the appropriateforms of the verbs as shown in these examples: I (eat) many great meals since arriving in Paris. . 3 (4) Present perfect tense-action begun in the past that continues in the present: The tree has grown rapidly since last spring. closed is future perfect. The language you speak (hurt) my ears. The time of the principal action or state of being described in a sentence is established by the tense of the verb in the main clause.--. -. - -. Max (be) eighty years old before long.. By the time the policeman arrived. As difficult as it is to believe. (5) Future tense-simple future action: I now will eat my dinner. Cigarettes are harmful to the health especially when smokers (inhale).) The library will have closed before we get there.) (get indicates future action. -. erupts - 2. . the criminal (escape). Since subordinate clauses depend on the main clause.have eaten have passed.. Pomegranates (eat) by many people in recent years.- - - - -- - - - - - - - Agreement of Tenses The tense of the verb in the main clause of a sentence determines the tense needed in a subordinate clause. so will have 18. -. . ---. Nursing homes (become) a permanent part of our lives once families stopped caring for their older members. Every dog must (have) its day. (6) Future perfect tense-action completed before a future action: Emily will have eaten by the time we leave. the ship (leave). 1. --.-3. -.. . so will have eaten is future perfect.VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP. -.. .. (leave indicates future action. Consider the following sentences: . -By the time the passengers arrive.- The volcano no longer (erupt) regularly. Margaret (learn) to swim when she was three years old. Dick (be) thirty-eight years old next December. Hurry. In the following sentences. will have passed Two hours (pass) since you called..-. the school bus (leave) on time this morning. The book will be returned.He never (call) his broker during the business day.-4. The stores (raise) their prices again and again. the verb tenses in subordinate clauses must agree logically with the tense of the main verb. children. --. I have found myself troubled by his actions. The earth (turn) continuously on its axis.

the tense of the main verb must govern.) He coughs because he smokes so much. Obviously the actions of both clauses will begin in the future. When most plays (act) no more. Oak leaves stayed on the trees long after winter (arrive). In the following sentences. present tense begin in subordinate clause.) He coughed because he smoked so much. she never changes it. 10. it left the gate on time. I have always eaten meat because I (like) it. (Present tense coughs in main clause. 8. occurs. 7. The subordinate clause is whenever she is hungry. Even though many passengers (miss) the plane. indicating habitual action. Freud identified fundamental drives that are found in all of us. the works of Ibsen will continue to be popular. Consider the following sentences: He proved once more that truth is stranger than fiction. Snow remains on the ground in Vermont until spring (be) well under way. 3. which (be) the final date for the project. even though many customers (like) it. Students find their work piling up when the term (come) to a close. most of the children left the bus. 13. 5. 2. (Future perfect will have finished in main clause. 9.CHAP. Large automobiles did not disappear even though the manufacturers (learn) gasoline economy. 14. will begin. Jane found the letter that (deliver) to her secretary. As he (watch). is must also be present tense.) They will have finished their dinner before we begin to eat our own. returned 1. many of the guests sat down to eat. While we (wait). Present Tense for Ideas T h e for All Time The present tense is always used when we wish to express ideas that are true for all time. The verb in the subordinate clause can also be future. but the future action of the main verb will havefinished will have been completed before begin. makes Once she (make) up her mind. The present tense here indicates simple future action. 6. regardless of the tense of the main verb. 31 VERBS AND VERBALS 55 My dog cries whenever she is hungry. . 19. Since cries is present tense. supply the appropriate forms of the verbs as shown in these examples: She had decided to go to the country by the time her mother (return).) Thus. They will have completed their jobs by Tuesday. in establishing the proper tense of a verb in a subordinate clause. 15. the second future action. The book was delivered in a wrapper that (give) no indication of its contents. The courtesy car was no longer used. present tense smokes in subordinate clause. past tense smoked in subordinate clause. This holds even in subordinate clauses. 12. The lecturer emphasized that the Romantic Period (be) rich in poetry. (Past tense coughed in main clause. (The main clause is My dog cries. Deirdre believed that imagination (be) the key to successful fiction. and logic must be used. 4. 11.

tense. He found that the endless sand of the desert (be) too much for him. Consistency of Voice Acceptable After I completed the treatment. supply the correct form of the verb as shown in these examples: Peary established that man (be) the master of the Arctic ice. 5. --. in which the statements of the subordinate clauses are not true for all time: He proved once more that he was untrustworthy.) 20. 2. 8. -- - 9. The growing cost of education means that taxes (continue) to increase in the next decade. 4. The skier found through experience that there (be) more to skiing than having the best equipment. . 7. Yet the main clauses have verbs in the past tense: proved and identified. is was My aunt once said that Gulliver's Travels (be) her favorite book in childhood. (The verb was disturbing is correctly formed in the past tense. Were the statements of the subordinate clauses not true for all time. the other passive. and he may one day reform and become trustworthy. Engineers and scientists always agreed that the accuracy of the slide rule (be) sufficient for most of their work.56 VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP. 6. and mood should be avoided within a sentence. 10. Consider the following sentences. The argument that the defendant (be) the slave of his habits did not sway the jury in this case. 3 The present tense is used in the subordinate clauses of both these sentences: is and are found. I was troubled with pain no longer. The dictionary has always given the meanings of all words that students (use). person. I. In the following sentences.) Freud identified the condition that was disturbing his patient. CONSISTENCY OF VERBS Shifts of voice. Her speech will emphasize that freedom (entail) responsibility. The radio weather report did not say that we (have) snow tomorrow. then the past tense would have been used instead of the present. (The verb was in the past tense is correct. . I experienced no more pain. He intends to take the early flight. . 3. which (depart) tomorrow at 9 o'clock. (One verb is active. The lecturer went on at great length to prove that Hardy and Conrad (know) the lives of ordinary people and (portray) those lives accurately. since proper medical treatment can be expected to cure the condition and the condition therefore is not true for all time. because proved is past.) Improved After I completed the treatment.

Some writers work only four hours a day. progress toward general recovery began. Note too that studies is active voice. (The main verb should study is third person. Investors often will reinvest in declining stocks. and mood. .) 21. but the subordinate verb are is second person.) Correct His advice was in two parts: discover what you want to do and then find your way toward that goal. Restructure the following sentences as necessary to achieve consistency of voice.) Consistency of Mood Incorrect His advice was in two parts: discover what you want to do and then you will find your way toward that goal. 31 VERBS AND VERBALS Consistency of Person Incorrect A student should study whenever you are fresh. (Both verbs in present tense. (The verb discover is in the imperative mood. active voice. because they are willing to throw good money after bad.) Consistency of Tense Incorrect An actress usually studies new roles during the run of a play. 2. tense.CHAP. After I had succeeded in overcoming the virus. Investors often will reinvest in declining stocks. because you cannot do creative work for longer periods. even though she was gainfully employed. but was employed is passive. I began to recover generally. and then you should examine the brakes. (Both verbs in imperative mood. person. even though she is working. (Incorrect shift from present tense studies to past tense was employed.) Correct A student should study whenever he or she is fresh. because they were willing to throw good money after bad.) Correct Study whenever you are fresh. (Both verbs third person. the verb will find is in the indicative mood. as shown in these examples: After I succeeded in overcoming the virus. (Both verbs second person.) Correct An actress usually studies new roles during the run of a play. 1. The first thing to do is remove the wheel.

participles. . - - . He selected the material for the coat. the judges had ruled against him. It is usually preceded by to: to swim. 3 3. and adverbs. When one has little money to spend. (To eat modifies the noun something.) Infinitive as Adjective Julia gave me something to eat. to play. 9. as an adverb. If you go to the dance. one will find unescorted women welcome. do. must ask. The infinitive has both tense and voice. as an adjective. you are careful about every purchase..~ - -- - 6. VERBALS Verbals-infinitives. - 7. since you always make mistakes when you first try to learn a new skill. may. p~ -~ - -- 5.) They asked to see the patient. (to see is the object of the verb asked. 4. Nightmares disturb his sleep night after night. Infinitive as Noun To swim is my greatest pleasure. Active voice Present tense Perfect tense (to) call. The infinitive often appears without to. especially after can. may play. INFINITIVE The infinitive is the form of the verb that appears in the dictionary. and he will find no relief in sedatives. or as a complement. and the lecturer will tell you all you need to know. and gerunds-are verb forms that can function as nouns.) . The women had insisted on admitting men to their group. and the tailor is then told to begin work on it.-- -- . (to) be calling (to) have called (to) have been calling Passive voice (to) be called (to) have been called The infinitive functions as a noun.) They have a desire to be saved. (To be saved modifies the noun desire. - 10. but the men find the meetings dull. They found that they could not sew the seams well. to ask.VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP. shall. Sit down. Because he considered the design perfect. (To swim is the subject of the verb is. and will: can swing. must. 8. adjectives.

object or complement. next year modifies to graduate. Within the infinitive phrase. 10. complement. 4. They watched us pour the wine. (To be expected is the complement of is.) Ambition is to be expected of young executives. identify the functions of the italicized infinitives as noun. object. (The infinitive phrase To mow the entire lawn is the subject of the verb required. (The infinitive phrase to row the choppy lake is the object of hoped. To learn grammar is not easy. or complement as shown in these examples: To teach well is an art. 7. To have understood her was my earnest desire. She was content to take half the money. 31 VERBS AND VERBALS Infinitive as Adverb I am happy to wait. lake is the object of to row. adverb. Infinitive Phrases In some sentences. adjective. Within the infinitive phrase. The Oxford American Dictionary will have to be included. noun adverb adjective She has a cross to bear. 6.) Kate hoped to row the choppy lake. 1. Consider the following sentences: To mow the entire lawn required three men. the choppy modifies lake. (To be is the complement of is. and modifiers. Such a construction is called an infinitive phrase.CHAP. and next modifies year) They have enough firewood to last the winter.) Deirdre is to graduate next year. 8. 2. The modifies winter) . Can we expect tofind happiness? He wants to speak before the others. lawn is the object of to mow. 5. (The infinitive phrase to graduate next year is the complement of the copulative verb is. (To go modifies the adverb enough. complement He is to be congratulated. Within the infinitive phrase. The entire modifies lawn. and it may function as subject. She helped him work the calculus problem. The instructor may have to delay the final examination. That book is small enough to be carried in one's pocket. In the following sentences. winter is the object of to last. 9. The seeds are to be planted in shallow beds. (The infinitive phrase to last the winter modifies enough. Within the infinitive phrase.) Infinitive as Complement Henry's ambition is to be a playwright. the infinitive itself has a subject.) 22. 3. or modifier of another sentence element. (To wait modifies the adjective happy.) The baby is heavy enough to go home.

Function of phrase Functions of words Tenses of the Infinitive The present infinitive is used if its action occurs at the same time as the action of the main verb or after the action of the main verb. The perfect infinitive is used if its action precedes that of the main verb. and promptly modifies to submit. she must have had some unfaithful friends. and identify the function of each word within the phrase as shown in these examples: Fred wanted me to buy snowshoes immediately. Within the infinitive phrase. grades is the object of to submit. To identify priorit&. immediately modifies to buy To judge by her skeptical nature. In the following sentences. Alex told her to ignore her problems completely. Function of phrase Functions of words 2. To achieve his ambition required hard work.) 23. Active Present Perfect (to) tell. by introduces preposiFunctions of words tional phrase. (to) be telling (to) have told. nature is object of preposition by 1. her skeptical modifies nature. identity itsfunction. Function of phrase modifies she by her skeptical nature modifies to judge. snowshoes object of to buy. Function of phrase Functions of words 3. She asked me to answer the phone in her absence. underline each infinitive phrase. Function of phrase Functions of words - 4. the President met with the National Security Council. The company executive ordered the employees to complete the job on schedule.VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP. instructor is the subject of to submit. 3 They wanted the instructor to submit his grades promptly (The infinitive phrase the instructor to submit his grades promptly is the object of wanted. (to) have been telling Passive (to) be told (to) have been told . Function of phrase Functions of words - 5. his modifies grades. object of wanted Function of phrase Functions of words me subject of to buy.

at the same time as or. In each of these sentences. The elephants ought (feed) hours ago by the keepers. splitting an infinitive with lengthy phrases or clauses may also result in awkwardness. At the same time. He is reluctant (admit) that he intentionally ruined their chances. the present infinitive to continue is used. the infinitive never employs the preposition to. It is senseless to have told such a story. The elephants ought (feed) now by the keepers. p - - Split Infinitives An infinitive should not be split when the result is awkward. 10. He is inclined (hold) the line at least for one more monthly meeting. Because the action described by the infinitive occurred at the same time as the action of the main verb. 7. 4. English teachers and grammarians may have overstressed the idea of keeping the parts of an infinitive together. Yet the action that was considered senseless occurred before the statement was made. the perfect infinitive to have told is used. For this reason. 8. She did not want to continue the conversation. in the second example. awkward infinitive constructions. In English. It was senseless to tell such a story. the present infinitive to tell is used. You recall that the infinitive has the following forms: Active Present Perfect (to) find. too strict compliance with the advice never to split an infinitive may result in awkward constructions. The writer of the sentence is stating something he or she believes to be true now and forever. the main verb is is in the present tense. because its action occurs either. and impossible infinitive constructions: . This old-fashioned approach to style probably stems from Latin grammar. Can you think of any gentle way for us (tell) them all the gory details of the ugly incident? I was unable (tell) them all the sordid facts of the case. however. The meaning intended here is that telling the story was senseless at the time the story was told. 3. to eat to reveal He decided (reveal) the whole truth. supply the correct form of the infinitive as shown in these examples: 1. afer the action of the main verb. (to) have been finding Passive (to) be found (to) have been found Consider the following examples of good infinitive constructions. There is no way possible (eat) all that food in one sitting. It is their intention always (play) fair with their opponents. In this sentence. 2. In the following sentences. In Latin. 9. (to) be finding (to) have found. in the first example. How could he have been stupid enough (take) such a position on an issue that grave? There will be time enough (forgive) all those who bolted the party. 5. 31 VERBS AND VERBALS Consider the following sentences: She does not want to continue the conversation. Everyone agreed it was useless (study) for such an examination. 6. so there is no possibility of splitting an infinitive. 24.CHAP.

(Surely this sentence makes no sense at all.) Awkward To clearly think at all times was her goal. remembering that long modifiers that split infinitives almost always result in awkward constructions. the sentence has some meaning. 25.) Impossible To clearly at all times think was her goal. underscore and correct any awkward injinitive constructions as shown in these examples: The advice of the group was to moderately drink. (By placing the modifier more than in the midst of the infinitive. day after day thinking about the problems they face. (This construction is awkward because clearly appears to modify think rather than to think. Consider the following sentences: Awkward Their advice was to double more than our energies. (Clearly modifies to think. What else were we supposed to double?) Good Their advice was to more than double our energies. 3 Good To think clearly at all times was her goal. The writer must seek the best position for modifiers.) Modifiers can generally be placed in more than one position in a sentence. to drink moderatelv She made it a rule to never hurriedly eat her meals. Good He hoped to find his hat quickly. Good They see no need to be thinking constantly and exclusively. a construction may be awkward because care has been taken not to split an infinitive. Awkward He hoped to quickly find his hat. day after day about the problems they face. to never eat her meals hurriedly .62 VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP. In the following sentences. Impossible They see no need to be constantly and exclusively. In some cases.

CHAP. she left on an extended vacation. After the game. (Annoying modifies child. - 2. I picked up my belongings and left the office. There was nothing worthwhile left to do under the circumstances. 31 VERBS AND VERBALS 63 1 . 6. the team was instructed to not board the bus for the trip home. 9. To have within a period of ten minutes walked around the park was impossible. Consider the following: Laughing at us. underline the participles and identify the word or words they modify as shown in these examples: The book relied on most by writers is the dictionary. (Laughing modifies he. To relax and think quietly was her practice most afternoons.) (Sustained 26. She has decided to firmly but respectfully demand that the ruling be overturned. 8. PARTICIPLE Participles are verbal adjectives that have present and past tenses: calling. book she Having written a best-selling novel. Laughing is modified by the prepositional phrase at us.) The annoying child finally left the dining room. 4. At us all modifies throwing . They expect to more than lose ten thousand dollars. Crying is modified by happily. In the following sentences.-they indicate tense (see pages 49. he threw us a penny. called. crying happily and throwing kisses at us all. It is the condition he is in when he performs the action of throwing. she has called. (Having received modifies I. Kisses is the direct object of throwing.) Having received my termination notice.) The actress left the room. The Smiths were impatient to without delay integrate the neighborhood.) Sustained for more than an hour by her life belt. When participles are I combined with auxiliary calling. etc. 3. 10. 5.50) and do not function as adjectives. modifies she. (Crying and throwing modify actress. The hope of the search party was to safe and sound find the child before darkness set in. To more than one hour work overtime in a day is against company policy. she made her way to shore. They describe the condition the actress was in when she left the room. He decided to without hesitation tell the entire story. 7. .

. William had little chance of keeping negotiations open. . -- 1. he was surprised that it took him three months to find work. supply the correct form of the purticiple as shown in these examples: (stare) at him severely.. 6. the attorney found herself unable to continue.. . Navratilova left the court. --. Having concluded -. 9. because the action of the participle is occumng at the same time as the action of the verb knew. he sat down. 4. (refuse) the honorary degree. the physicist returned to his hotel. he reached for the rifle. Congratulating her opponent. . Rushing through both rooms. - Left on her own. - - 4. - 3. having been told Consider the following sentences: Telling the story as well as he could.-. The present participle telling is used. the subject of the sentence knows as he is telling the story that he cannot get away with it.- . the defense attorney rested her client's case.. The past participle is used to indicate action prior to that of the main verb.. he knew he would not get away with it. 8. he looks about for an emergency exit. For this reason. (tell) he was no longer needed.- Sustained by my faith. 27. . 3 1.. 10. the action of the participle having told precedes the action of the main verb sur. -. he decided to ask for a transfer. Having told the story as well as he could. Staring . Christopher slammed the door.. . Active Present Past telling having told Passive being told told. In the following sentences. Tired by the long argument. 2. he left the room. In the second sentence. Having been told the news. Swallowing hurriedly. she began to mature.- -- .. In the first sentence.- (conclude) her summation of the evidence. - .VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP.---. .-Having refused the second offer. 5. 7. the past participle is csed. --. I shall go on as though nothing happened.. Found money most often is spent foolishly. (leave) the Army with an honorable discharge. . Tenses of the Participle The present participle is used to indicate action occurring at the same time as the action of the main verb. the child refused to answer. 3. A child locked in a room will find mischief. -- 2. (find) the door closed behind him.

In the following sentences. and objects. of the italicized gerunds. (Equivocating is the object of the preposition to. Not (realize) your problem was that difficult. (offer) the house for $5000 less than its market value.) Hoarding groceries in times of shortages leads to greater shortages. 31 VERBS AND VERBALS 5. the modifier is either an adjective or adverb.) Your future depends on working vigorously toward a realistic goal. 8. object of a preposition. Use the following examples as guides: Hours of dull editing ruined her day. The auditors will be concerned with entries (omit) from the books. Remember that a gerund may function as the subject of a verb. Customers (arrive) after five o'clock will find the store closed. If a gerund is modified. 9. if any. may be modified. 10.) This porch is used only for sunning. (The gerund dialing is the subject of the verb is. (retire) from the stage. (The gerund boxing is the object of the verb likes. modifiers. function object of preposition modifiers adiective dull object none Economicforecasting is far from precise function subiect of verb modifiers adjective economic object none . he expected to sell it quickly.CHAP. and may take an object: My favorite hobby is gardening.) A gerund may function as a complement.) My new interest is organic gardening. I wondered why you were so long in arriving at a reasonable solution. my wife is often called on to perform. A gerund may function as the subject or object of a verb and as the object of a preposition: Dialing is no longer necessary.) 28. GERUND A gerund is the -ing form of a verb used as a noun. 6. Our new dean will find the new position (challenge).) He is given to equivocating. 7. (Hoarding has as its object the noun groceries. (gardening is modified by the adjective organic. object of a verb.) She still likes boxing. (gardening is the complement of is. identify the functions. or complement. (Sunning is the object of the preposition for. (working is modified by the adverb iigorously.

..-- -.. function .-- . .. Good writing is not easy to find. -... . modifiers -..-. object .-.. . Mr.-. function modifiers -object -. . . ~- -- 4. - . modifiers -object -- - -..-- -- .--- 2..--~ ... 7 ..--..... . -- . -..-. -. .. -. function . . ..--. Her principal occupation was finding enough to eat. For relaxation. -~ --. function -- - ..VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP.. . function -.-. - ~ -. .modifiers ~. .-...-.. Writing scholarly papers rapidly is not as important as writing them well.- .- -- --- - 5.-.~ -object ---- ---. .. . .- - -. function -. .. . .- -- . -- -.. He also enjoyed bricklaying from time to time.. -. object ... ..-.. .-.--. -. p p . . . Cutting quickly to the bone helped the surgeon find the source of the infection that threatened the patient's life... object ----~ -.-- - - 9. -.- -- I .-. . .----.. -. .- ---... -.- .- - -. . -. . . 3 Swallowing food hastily can lead to disaster.. Churchill often turned to painting.P ..- -- -- .. - -- - . . function -..- -- ---- - - - - . .--modifiers ...-- - -- . --modifiers -. . .. -... ----- . . -------~ - food - - - - -. .. object -..--...-. . Preparing specimens for dissection is not enjoyable before lunch.-- - - . .-.-. .. -.-. - 3.. --. . ---- 8..- - -- .-- - ~- ~ -. function modifiers object -function modifiers object - - -- ~~ - . . . He found cooking interesting for a while.. function modifiers object .. --- . -.- --- - . 6.-- -- -... Plo~ing was hard work when a man had to depend on an animal instead of a tractor.~ . - -. subject of verb adjective hastily - - -- .-. -. . -..- - - .-. . . - - .. .

object . 31 VERBS AND VERBALS 67 10. the golfer scored his first birdie. they must be clearly identified with the words they modify. or noun phrase for the participle to modify: Correct Having eaten Chinese food many times before. (The participle driving modifies the noun gayer. there was no reason for me to become ill.CHAP. (Having eaten is a participle that is part of the participial phrase Having eaten Chinese food many times before.-.-- . so to complete functions as an adjective. there was no reason to become ill. therefore..qttment.-- -- - -. Like all modifiers. is considered a dangling modifier.) The teeming rain flooded the streets. The 1 entire phrase acts as a modifier. Another way to repair the sentence is to convert the participial phrase into a dependent clause: Correct Since I had eaten Chinese food many times before.) We repair the sentence by supplying a noun.) The grocer telephoned the wholesaler to order supplies. I had no reason to become ill. pronoun. -- -- . (The infinitive m complete modifies the noun assi. the soldier knew all his habits.) DANGLING AND MISPLACED MODIFIERS Modifiers not clearly identified with words they modify are called dangling modifiers or misplaced modifiers. Consider the following sentences: Driving for the tee.) Mary had an assignment to complete.- - . Correct Since I had eaten Chinese food many times before. but has nothing to modify in the principal clause there n>as10 reason to become ill.) Having served the general for six years. -. I found his writing tedious. (The participle teeming modifies rain . The phrase. (The participle having served modifies the noun soldier. so to order functions as an adverb. Dangling Participles Having eaten Chinese food many times before. (The infinitive to order modifies the verb telephoned. .-- VERBALS USED AS MODIFIERS Participles and infinitives are verbals that are used as modifiers. I had no reason to become ill.

Correct I swam as fast as possible and finally saw the boy ahead of me. the gate opened. I saw the boy ahead of me.) Correc. the gate opened. correct the dangling and misplaced modifiers as shown in these examples: Stretching across the yard. modify anything in the sentence. The construction is faulty and must be corrected. Having run for many weeks. To sell that many automobiles. I considered the play a success. or noun phrase to modify.. Consider the following sentence: Swimming as fast as possible. In the following sentences.- --- - After showing my pass. possible-the boy or I?) Correct (Who was swimming as fast as I saw the boy ahead of me. 3 Misplaced Participles Even when modifiers have a noun.onvey information does not To convey information. pronoun.VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP. -. . Dangling Infinitives Thus far the discussion has centered on dangling and misplaced participles. 29.--- ~ I.. Correct A writer who wishes to convey information must consider the reader.- - - -- To reach my office by 8:15. the writer may mislead the reader if the modified element is not clearly identifiable. the reader must be considered. - 2. The train must be on time if I am to reach my office by 8: 15. I saw a clothesline. the writer must consider the reader. But what is true for participles is also true for infinitives. Such a modifier is classified as a misplaced modifier. a plane will hit somebody 3. - ~ ~ - . - . swimming as fast as possible. a great many people must like the design . . Consider the following sentence: To convey information. the train must be on time. Standing in the runway.t (To c. After I had shown my -pass. I saw a clothesline stretching across the yard.

.-- - -.----. -- - - .-- - -- 5. . all ingredients must be fresh. She was told to submit her application and to report for a physical examination.- - .. .- 9. (Note that have is not needed before practiced. When the same tense is used throughout a compound construction.) Infinitives In compound constructions employing infinitives. To prepare a fine dinner. the auxiliary verbs must usually be supplied in full. I saw a man appear. Having helped the old man across the street. Consider the following sentences: Basketball has become and always will be the favorite sport of Americans. The second part is in the future w<illhe . . If the second infinitive is also preceded by to. In most series. . 31 VERBS AND VERBALS 4. ~ -- - - - .- -- - 6.. however. . report for a physical examination. the rest of the walk was uneventful.~d both in e are the perfect tense. --. AUXILIARY VERBS AND INFINITIVES IN COMPOUND CONSTRUCTIONS Auxiliary Verbs When different tenses are used within a compound construction. all aspects of the painting must be considered carefully. repetition of the auxiliary verbs is not usually necessary. -. . a bell must be rung.---- - - .tic. Stumbling blindly in the fog. - - -- . Consider the following sentences: Correct She was told to submit her application.- - - . To interest a good audience. the first infinitive is always preceded by to. To achieve even modest acceptance. (The first part of the compound verb is in the perfect has hecome . 8. Because the two tenses are different. 7. 10. a fine dinner is certain.) All the players will be given uniforms if they have studied hard and practiced regularly. . the performers must try their best. .- -- -. The second to can be omitted if emphasis is not desirable: She was told to submit her application and report for a physical examination. because k a ~ *studied and [have] p. the initial to is usually sufficient. to can be used before each infinitive to emphasize the parallel structure. the auxiliary verbs has and will must be supplied.-. Before gaining admittance to his - -- -- .- - - ~-.CHAP. and present suitable references from recent employers. then all the rest must be preceded by to. In a series employing infinitives. Having assembled all the ingredients.

to report for a physical examination.- The various radical groups are joining forces to demand equal treatment of men and women. .- . and present suitable references from recent employers. . . .-. .. - .. have employment and that their economic goals been met by the end of this century.-.) 30. met . .. 3 C'orrec? She was told to submit her application. Teachers who have studied their students closely repor! that all the children have been under strain and going to do badly on their final examinations.70 VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP. The couple decided to abandon their life in the country. to increase welfare payments for the needy. will have been. . .- - . . - - - -- -- - -- 7.. skifining them alive and to leave their dyingbodies behind to be eaten by scavenging birds. inspire the young. . -.. Large houses have been and continued to be expensive to heat in cold weather. to skate. and fish..- - - - 10. They have been preparingfor the expedition all year and leaving by January. - .-- - - 8. -. .- - - 5. (The sentence can be corrected by de!eting the to before report or by inserting to before present.-- - -- 6 .. to fish .~ - . .. . .- . and to present references from her recent employers.- 1. Job applications are available for dis&ibution to those who have passed the qualifying examination and now desire employment. Applications will be given to those who have passed the examination and willing to take jobs immediately. to report tor a physical examination. Where appropriate in the following sentences.-- - -- --- -- - 4.. The fire fighters must be given sufficient time off to regain their strength and repair their equipment....- 9.. Seal hunting has always been considered inhumane.-.-.- . Reading Scripture is are said to comfort the invalid and guide the student. and t-'. . ..-- -.-~ -~ Many of the new nations of Africa have been struggling to ensure that their populations wiii . . . supply all necessary parts of the verbs and infinitives as shown in these examples: She loves to swim. . to sell their possessions.----- 3.. Incorrect She was told to submit-her application. - . . . Books are said to comfort the bereaved.- -- -. but men continue to hunt these beautiful animals. --. .- ~ - - .- ane apaitment in the city.. -- - --- . to establish . and guide the perplexed. and establish day care centers for the children of working parents.

) Consider the following sentences: Correct I often swim. the helicopter has been used to save lives and to kill the innocent. as shown in these examples: Marianne Moore was an outstanding American poet.) I like to swim.) Correct I like swimming. Rhododendrons must not be planted in northern climates or be cultivated closely. or.) Incorrect andfishing are gerunds. and to hunt. second person.) The coach stressed two ideas: playing hard and winning. (Three infinitives. correct 1.CHAP. Parallel grammatical constructions are used to express parallel ideas.) Correct Paradoxically. loved classical music. (Two infinitives. and adored beautiful women. fish. This requirement is especially important for verbs and verbals.) Incorrect The coach stressed two ideas: play hard and winning. sw~imming an infinitive. was a Dodger fan -. (It is easy to recognize a compound construction by the presence of a coordinating conjunction: and. nor. . people who want to work must look for work constantly. underline the mistakes in parallel construction and correct them. and hunt. combined with the participle winning.-- 2. keep their spirits up. the present indicative. Poor direction by management can cause employees to make many mistakes and creating poor morale. (Three gerunds. -- - 3. . and be alert to every opportunity.) (The imperative play incorrectly 31. . The structure is not parallel. and hunting. (The three verbs are in identical form. fishing. loved baseball. (Two participles modifying ideas. and a Dodger fan.) The coach stressed two ideas: play hard and win.. He admired good books.--. fishing. but. -- - - When jobs are hard to find. fish. to hunt is I like swimming. (In the series. and hunt. 31 VERBS AND VERBALS PARALLEL STRUCTURE AND VERB FORMS Parallel structure must be preserved in sentences using two or more verbs or verbals. This means that compound constructions must contain grammatically identical forms. (Play and win both imperative. In the following sentences.

- - - - .-- - --.. . ~ -- - . She spent her days peacefully.-. - . - ~- ~ - ~. -- - -. - -~ . . Ketchup is an all-purpose food disguise. - -- - -. George felled the apple tree and then went right to his father to ask forgiveness... . ~~ - . . . ~--- -- -.-- - .. 6. but she was finding that the evenings dragged.. To help other nations and preserving the independence of her own people was the president's goal.. capable of masking the worst in a meat loaf and to ruin the best scrambled eggs. . . Commencement exercises seemed to Jack both a bore and annoying. 9.-.72 VERBS AND VERBALS [CHAP.. Blending an acceptable spaghetti sauce and cooking it properly are easy tasks even for a novice cook.~ ~ -- 5.-- 8. 3 4. -- - - -- - - 7. 10. Neither borrowing nor to lend will lead to happiness.

The element replaced is called the antecedent of the pronoun. They vowed to vote no additional funds. (him is a pronoun with the antecedent He. He gave the money to her. or another pronoun. (her and her are pronouns with the common antecedent She. Kate and Leonard saved regularly for the house they would purchase one day. identify the pronouns and their antecedents as shown in these examples: . The painter prepared five brushes and then he finally got to use them. John gave the money to Jane. It is accepted unquestioningly by the voters.Chapter 4 Pronouns A pronoun is a word or words used in place of a noun. Consider the following sentences: Secrecy characterizes every action of the leading political parties. pronoun antecedent .) The voters of the community refused to approve the bond issue. pronoun antecedent 3. He antecedent Jane.) She baked bread so well that her customers bought exclusively from her. John Deirdre balanced her checkbook. The dog chased the ball and finally caught it.) 1 In the following sentences. Heinrich Boll was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature after he had achieved worldwide recognition for his work. pronoun she antecedent Deirdre 1. The noun Secrecy in the first sentence is the antecedent of the pronoun It. pronoun antecedent 2. pronoun antecedent pronoun antecedent 4. (They substitutes for the noun voters and its modifier of the community. pronoun her.) He worked so well that his boss promoted him. The voters of the communiry in the first sentence is the antecedent of They. (The word It substitutes for Secrecy. She then deposited additional funds. a noun and its modifiers.

-.- . pronoun . - -- . pronoun antecedent .. pronoun pronoun antecedent - -- - .. ..-- -- 6. - . They shared the work fairly.... the war veteran found that he was still troubled from time to time.-. . He did the physical labor... John and Sally worked hard together. - - antecedent 1 I. pronoun antecedent - -.. --.- - -- .. -.. -- - - - . pronoun pronoun antecedent - - .-.. pronoun antecedent pronoun antecedent -- .. 8. Long after he had returned to civilian life. . He did the physical labor... -- . It consisted of nothing more than repeating a few words over and over until they were memorized. -.PRONOUNS [CHAP.. .- pronoun pronoun - . .-.-. - .-. .- . Extraction of a wisdom tooth can cause great pain if it is impacted.. pronoun -~ -. -- -- - 10..- antecedent antecedent -.-- . -.-..- - - - .--.- - 9.. The children found their game tiresome. antecedent .. . and she attended to the records. - . 4 5. -. .--.- - . and she attended to the records. - . Anne and Alice found they were working harder than they had expected..- 7. John and Sally worked hard together. antecedent pronoun antecedent -- . - -.-- - -- ... . The governor signed the proclamation even though he did not understand the reasons why it was drafted.-.. - - -. . 12. -. Teachers and students alike agreed that they had the same interests.

pronoun pronoun pronoun antecedent Textbooks cost money. - - . pronoun pronoun antecedent The doctor removed Jon's tonsils when he was five years old.antecedent pronoun antecedent Danny told his father that he needed a watch that would help him while he planned his hike. but they are worth it pronoun antecedent Mary left all the dishes in the sink. pronoun pronoun pronoun antecedent pronoun antecedent Marjorie's mother gave her a bracelet to wear when she attended the party. pronoun antecedent - - - -- Ruth is bound to sell some antiques if she tries long enough. even though she knew that she would have to d o them when she returned from the movies.CHAP. pronoun antecedent Paris has its advantages. pronoun antecedent Mr. Cunningham is known for music lessons of quality. They have a liveliness of their own that he never fails to communicate. pronoun . but they cost tourists dearly when they are not careful.pronoun antecedent .. 4 1 PRONOUNS Zebras are prized for the beauty they display. pronoun -- - antecedent .

themselves. whoever. what. itself Intensive pronouns: myself. yourselves.. .antecedent - - 23. reji'e.intensive. . case. Personal pronouns also indicate gender.vitve. and gender: Subjective First person Singular Plural Second person Singular Plural Third person Singular Masculine Feminine Neuter Any gender Plural All genders I we YOU Possessive mine ours yours yours Objective ours US YOU YOU YOU he she it one they his hers its one's theirs him her it one them . one another Indefinite pronouns: each.-. that. yourselves. they Relative pronouns: who.-. which. Impersonal pronouns: it. pronoun . examine the following examples of each type: Personal pronouns: I. Vermont imposes heavy income taxes when it needs funds. anyone. impersonal. demonstrative. 4 22. ourselves. whichever Demonstrative pronouns: this. herself. reciprocal. she. TYPES OF PRONOUNS There are many types of pronouns.76 PRONOUNS [CHAP. interrogative.- 24. itself Reciprocal pronouns: each other... someone. . The most important are: personal.. that. Personal and impersonal pronouns can be singular or plural. all Personal and Impersonal Pronouns Personal pronouns refer to people.-~ ~ 25. and they are still discussed today. one they. either. or objective case. They can also be in the subjective. -. pronoun -. whoever. yourself. In a democracy. whatever Reflexive pronouns: myself. Two atomic bombs ended World War 11. which. but it lacks proximity to New York. pronoun . San Francisco is a beautiful city. relative. citizens have equal rights. antecedent . ourselves. himself.---antecedent . possessive. those Interrogative pronouns: who. he..-. ~ v . yourself. herself. As a first step in learning these terms. pronoun -. any.-. some. Impersonal pronouns refer to everything but people. but not all of them exercise their rights. these. himself. and indefinite. The tbllowing table summarizes personal and impersonal pronouns in number. themselves. you.-.

Your view of London and my view differ widely. . one. They) see the entire scene. did not prescribe careful attention to detail.) The mistake was mir?e(ours. his. ) must observe all scholarly (or traditions. American ballet is particularly interesting since is not confined by tradition. It. In writing biography and criticism. He (She. 5. 2. The agents agreed that John's gift was worth more than expected.CHAP. 41 PRONOUNS 77 The following sentences illustrate the uses of personal and impersonal pronouns in each of the three cases: Subjective Case I (We. Hers. had several children. theirs). differ widely. Mrs. him. Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt had several children. the author must observe all scholarly traditions. Miss Grant did not prescribe careful attention to detail. Objective Case The editor criticized me (us. yours. I decided to give the portrait they admired so much. She graded the student's paper. His. Your view of London and differ widely. her. Mine (Ours. 4. signed it I . For very young children. it). 2. Few valid studies of Margaret Thatcher are concerned with the conditions under which live. Few valid studies of Margaret Thatcher are concerned with the conditions under which the British live. Yours. One) sees the entire scene. In the following sentences. He William Jones graded it The Governor signed the proclamation. John's view of London and mine differ widely. Theirs) was the only part that required revision. agreed that was worth more than expected. supply the missing personal and impersonal pronouns as shown in the examples: William Jones graded the student's paper. 7. I decided to give Alice and Bob the portrait they admired so much. hers. 6. For very young children. You. is responsible for overseeing both the restaurant and the accounting office. Possessive Case (See pages 97-98 for a discussion of possessive adjectives. 3. them. 9. 8. Kaye is responsible for overseeing both the restaurant and the accounting office. 10. In writing biography and criticism.

16. Bill's information was less complete than the information supplied to -.. there is a wine suitable for . Jane was instructed to give the paper to no one but Joe.. . 20..-. Do you know when Dubliners was first published? Do you know when was first published? 15. --. Is there no way of forcing the hands of the opposing attorneys? Is there no way of forcing hands? . Has the cat made a mess again? Has . whose Objective whom that which. . I cannot recall whether the poem you refer to is by either Robert or Elizabeth Browning. . -. 4 11. Jane was instructed to give the paper to no one but 2 1.PRONOUNS [CHAP.. Whatever preference you may have. It is time to give Pooch the medicine ) prescribed. Bill's information was less complete than the information supplied to Louise.. are going to have an annual reunion..-made a mess again? 24. 13. 14. Does the painting belong in the neighbors' collection? ? Is the painting one of -25.. whom . 22.- ~ - - ~ Relative Pronouns Relative pronouns refer to people and objects. the writer must supply at least one clear copy. 0 .---.. -. In preparing manuscripts for publication. ~ can do that job properly. .) must supply at least one -(or clear copy. Whatever your preference. It is characteristic of . there is a suitable wine. . It is characteristic of Kate that she agreed to go to the dinner party even though the invitation arrived late.. I am certain the poem you refer to is by one of 18.23. 19. . No one but . Does this book belong to Norma and Ethel? ? Does this book belong to Is this book . It is time to give Pooch the medicine the veterinarian prescribed. 12.--? 17. In preparing manuscripts for publication. They are used in the three cases: Subjective who that which Possessive whose of that of which. The Lopez family is going to have its annual reunion. No one but Phyllis can do that job properly. Was the portrait of his first wife? ? Was the portrait -~ ~ - - .-that she agreed to go to the dinner party even though the invitation arrived late.

will surely be judged unworthy of publication. and Faulkner. 2. Actresses regional theatres. which to animals.CHAP. you will be in refinished is standing in the study. Of I have no opinion worth declaring. that . and whatever are also classified as relative pronouns: Whoever thought that Amy would become an outstanding computer programmer must have had a crystal ball. Give it to whomever you deem most worthy. American authors to whom respect is due include Hemingway. 3. You have three choices: whichever you overlook. objects. Whoever. is the best I have ever written. In the following sentences.- . . and which in all their cases: Subjective Case The man who wants to succeed in politics must dedicate himself to that end. 8.. thar. -. are good enough for the Broadway stage must surely be good enough for 3. Fitzgerald. People in . Whatever men do. they must be prepared to stand by their actions. The board of trustees. Plays plots are that obvious cannot hold the interest of an audience. whomevet. whose approval was needed. whichever. Objective Case The literary figures to whom you refer merit no further study. The boat that won the race had an outstanding crew. 9. ~- 1. 6. The answer to is clearly beyond my limited knowledge. 4.. You cannot object to that! The journals to which he contributes value his scholarship. 41 PRONOUNS Who refers to people.---you place great trust are surely special people. thar to people or objects. The story I told you must not be repeated. failed to act in time. Which of the contracts was witnessed by the notary public? Possessive Case Whose automobile was abandoned? I have had enough of that. The antiques of you boast so often are worthless. 5. This essay. supply the missing relative pronouns as shown in these examples: Whoever The table - - turns in the best essay will receive the award. or collective nouns. The problem of which you spoke has no solution. The following sentences illustrate the uses of who. The paragraphs to you allude have been lost or stolen.

that. finds the dog will demand a reward for its return. 24. 1 1 . The house I live in is for sale at any reasonable price. for 16. I have a special fondness. and strength. 15. I decided to like she chose as her fiance. Coats and hats are left in the cloakroom must be claimed by their owners immediately after the performance. pages 96-97. but they do have case. is for sale. 18. find their way home cannot be thought of as dumb To Demonstrative Pronouns Den~otr. These and those are plural. 12. these. beauty. That remains my last obstacle to success. work. 14. Of those. 13. none is worthy of comment. be certain that your footnote fully credits the source. My house. Those were the bequests that caused so much wrangling. Horses of the two paintings you buy is going to please her. . and those. Pos. are not often found in her garden. 2 1. Despite her protests. Houses she did not want. Demonstrative pronouns have no gender. designs are unconventional may not be readily marketable. 19. Blue flowers. I proceeded to buy the chair signed the agreement lived to regret doing so. 10. only a few are worthy of full deliberation. Of these. Subjective this that these those Possessive of of of of this that these those Objective this that these those The following sentences illustrate the uses of the demonstrative pronouns in all their cases: S~lhjec~ti\~c~ Cuse This is more than I can possibly read in one sitting. 22.80 PRONOUNS [CHAP. 17.strwti\~~ pronouns replace nouns and function in the same manner as nouns in a sentence. 4 10. you cite. These are my only objections to the entire plan.e Cuse The principal advantages of this are economy. of these minor masterpieces do you prefer'? shall I address the letter of sympathy? 25. sits on a large and attractive plot.sessi\. Young men is willing to undertake this project will find that he has contracted for a great deal of 23. The partners you see in bars may not be spending their time wisely. (See denzorlstrative adjecti\.) This and that are singular. The principal demonstrative pronouns are: this.

we no longer have full employment.hich. 6. and the ordinal numbers: first. 7. Such is not the case. before I went on to I sewed a few of Let stand as my best effort. and what. These pronouns do not have gender. Indeed. I would not have told you. even though the fourth and sixth also caught my eye. supply the missing demonstrative pronouns as shown in these examples: This suits me better than the previous choice. He told her so. 10. etc.CHAP. Picture . former . despite what she said. suc. 9. other. 41 PRONOUNS Objective Case We decided to give this our full attention. - - who are willing to stand for office must be willing to debate in public. Who is used for people.11. if it were not . The principal interrogative pronouns are wvho. 4. The following sentences illustrate the uses of these demonstrative pronouns: The formerwas the one I intended. second. 3. Subjective who which what Possessive whose of which of what Objective whom which what . 8.When you consider famous thoroughbreds of all time. They decided against that years ago. instead of these.) The first was my choice. w. He decided to sell me --.We ate a few of and a few of When conditions are-that airlines close down flights to our city. (Old-fashioned business correspondence usage. it is doubtful that Secretariat would be the that comes to mind. -- The latter suits me better than the 1.- 5. Whoever and ~vhatever occur less frequently. 2. standing in your living room. The weather killed these last month. Other demonstrative pronouns commonly encountered are former. In the following sentences. We ate a little of and a little of . latter. Interrogative Pronouns Interrogative pronouns are used in asking questions. 4. Now give me the other. Which and what are used for things. Enclosed find payment for same. third. not the latter. Choose among those and let me know your decisions.

82 PRONOUNS [CHAP.- Reflexive Pronouns ReJe-riw pronouns are used in sentences containing verbs whose actions are directed toward the subjects of the verbs.e Case Whose did you take? Which did you despair of first? What do you think of all day long? Objective Case Whom did you take to the graduation party? Which did you select? What have you decided to do about the problem? 5. I. one and the impersonal pronoun it. 4 The following sentences illustrate the uses of interrogative pronouns in all their cases: Subjective Case Who stole the compact disks? Which performs best when the stock market is going down? What is going to happen after she leaves the company? Possessi\. 2. them. He discovered himself after a period of intense introspection. In the following sentences. to the personal pronouns Y F I ~ yolo. These pronouns are formed by adding -self or -selves. him. supply the missing interrogative pronouns as shown in these examples: - Who - What has completed the English assignment? can I tell you about her situation? is your favorite classical composer? should we do about the broken window? of those birds did Al shoot? were you talking with when I walked by? -. --- can you see through the telescope? was playing baseball in the rain? do you want me to do for you? is the man Edith loves so much? were you about to do when I interrupted you? do you think of him as a candidate for president? .her. The following sentences illustrate the uses of reflexive pronouns: I cut myself while shaving.. our. . as appropriate. You are losing yourself in your work.

1 1. 41 PRONOUNS Janice supported herself by teaching karate. You owe are to blame for our faults. Erica herself found little of interest in the new symphony. Ask yourselves whether you have done right by your family. They told themselves only what they wanted to hear. You yourselfwill have to take full responsibility for your budget. Gary helped a long vacation far from home. Intensive pronouns have the same forms as reflexive pronouns: myself. 10. She will end up hurting at loose ends after completing her first novel. 6. No matter how badly the merchandise was displayed. we have been told. 15. Saunders made Spanish and French. themselves. In the following sentences. 3. doesn't one always give the I usually give same advantage? God helps those who help After every meal she ate. himself. 13. ourselves. herself. Henry was not at fault himself. he excused himself early. supply the missing reflexive pronouns as shown in these examples: Unfortunately. and itself. You will have to take full responsibility yourself. We are forcing if she is not careful. We fail ourselves when we fail others. 9. 2. Mr. yourself. The following sentences illustrate the uses of the intensive pronouns: I myself can see little use in following a poorly conceived plan. to another large piece of cake. the cat washed about your health. If one only did what was right for oneself! The giraffe found itself in trouble after its habitat was sprayed. yourselves. Erica found little of interest in the symphony herself.CHAP. Henry himself was not at fault in that matter. 4. . it sold 1. 14. 7. oneself. Many a writer has found by permitting neighboring towns to discharge waste into its The town was ruining sewage system. 8. You men should not blame to lose weight. Our wishes in the stream. 6. 12. Intensive Pronouns intensive pronouns are used as appositives (see page 93)to strengthen the subject of a verb. I can see little use in that action myself. Nancy washed the benefit of the doubt. Pam taught for what went wrong. itself 5. You should stop fooling successful through hard work.

12. Neighbors up and down the road stopped speaking to one another. 14. Mary herself found the situation ludicrous.--. and their daughter caught themselves shouting at one another. are responsible for our own actions. He. 2. . You can find the answers yourselves. they would be happy. HughWe concluded that we --. You yourselves can find the answers if you try hard enough.. You -You will have to show him the way will do this work? Do you mean that you - Reciprocal Pronouns The reciprocal pronouns are one another and each other. Television -- - -- will have to act as strong leaders. 3. You must Alice was determined to complete the meal designed and built the house. Both reciprocal pronouns have possessive and objective cases. The following sentences illustrate uses of these pronouns: John and Jerry found each other's company satisfying. The Jones family understood the problem. he.another A - .am to blame. supply the missing reciprocal pronouns as shown in these examples: We have only each other or one another to blame. You cannot consider that the two of you have completed the exercise. supply the missing intensive pronouns as shown in these examples: He could do little. one If the triplets could see --.himself to ease the pain.PRONOUNS [CHAP. was a good horseman. One must -.would find the answer. If he be alert to people's needs. 9. When I -- 6. 1. I do what I can to help out. The magazine itself is of little value. The French are abusing their language themselves. Oscar ---. 7. The magazine is of little value itself. --does little to raise the literacy level in this country. 15. We was not invited. We are content ourselves to let the matter drop. his wife.were free of guilt. 7. 10. The French themselves are abusing their language. 8. In the following sentences. 13. One another is generally used when writing of more than two people. . He and his wife caught themselves shouting at each other. find an acceptable solution. frequently. 8.. All the students sought one another's assistance. 4 We ourselves are content to let the matter drop even though we have been hurt. 5. In the following sentences. 1 I. 4.-.

eral. -.. there would be no problem. each one. another.-. neither: nobody.-- -- -- - - Indefinite Pronouns Indefinite pr-ono~rns comprise a large number of imprecise words that can function as pronouns. 6. fen: little..who wants to contribute to the charity. anyone. and such. . The most frequently used are: all.each -one or everyone . some. 3.-.. This suit fits anybody six feet tall. He and Mary found what we would like to have others do for us.--company to that of adults. anybody.something The police suspected that ---was taken by the intruders. The party is open to . -. 10. -.e\veryotle.otzoltt1s as shown in these examples: portrayed in this manner can sue for libel. .. somebody. because it was exceptionally difficult. bodl. .--. nothing. e\<er:\. Though many wanted to go aboard. If others were as concerned as he. much. The youngest child and his older brothers and sisters ail made things as difficult as possible for - . others.. I began cleaning the auditorium.--.--. but she insisted on having ------ .7. were indicted for perjury. 1 gave her most of what I had. The following sentences illustrate some uses of indefinite pronouns: Allwe can do is try our best. other. I gave him nothing for his labors. oneself. was able to complete the crossword puzzle.-- bread. 2. . many. mot-e. Music and art complement .. no one. . -was permitted to do so.. company almost unbearable. - - during much of their 3. 8. 4. none. When - - . 7. 9.--. Children tend to prefer . They find -. All the senior faculty members agreed that there was no way they could consult on all problems that had to be resolved... but only two were convicted. We must do for houses more interesting than their own. sonleone.. -. Each one is reviewed in turn. se\. Sam said he would give her she asked for as long as the present would cost less -than a hundred dollars.bods. had left.. 4.. supply the missing indefinite pr. any. All the kitchen staff helped in slicing and buttering - - - - - . Gilbert and Sullivan had an intense dislike for collaboration. In the following sentences. 5. anything. We spoke to . sonlething. either. in . 6.turn.--. 41 PRONOUNS 85 1.---. .CHAP. Someone must be held responsible for this deed. everything. The crowd was such that the police feared a break-in at the gate 9.. -- Anyone - -- - - 1.. The three wives discovered that there was much they liked about in the lives of many people.- .

(The pronouns he and he are singular. People always need 20. but did exceptionally well.~p~ - 25.) The interesting thing about John is that he always completes his jokes whether or not he has an audience..- - -~ - - 22. and now . When I got through with it. . .-. 16. because its antecedent.--who works long enough and hard enough is bound to succeed. In the following sentences supply the missing pronouns as shown in these examples: A file folder must be put in the place where belongs. because its antecedent.. .. John.. Richard told . was done. but .. Tamara wanted to buy the brown shoes for Sam. (The pronoun they is plural.will have to wait and hope. -.-. about the robbery. Investigators finally decided that left.that can be done. I can.. 12. 9. 17. 18. 24.. but I probably will not believe you. 10. College professors state that . 2.--. is plural. 14. because their common antecedent. is singular. 11.. 23. institutions. The Mexican government relies heavily on the tourists . but he preferred the PRONOUN AGREEMENT Plural and Singular Antecedents A pronoun is singular when its antecedent is singular..he knew.) All three judges stated that they believed the convict had been accused unjustly. --.--. that Books.. You can tell me you want. (The pronoun they is plural. Only a to blame their troubles on. --.. plural when its antecedent is plural.-not even his wife. is plural. - 1.. judges..-. 15..who is completely sane could have committed such a crime. North America. there was . . Peter asked -. (The pronoun who is singular. Singular Any woman who is friendly with her neighbors will be well regarded.was thrown into the water in turn. to read them.-. woman. The smoke bothered almost who was there. 8.) 10. Unfortunately.- can attract from the rest of believe the quality of their students is improving year . waiting for .. The weather was were able to qualify for the Olympics track events on the first day. but 13. 2 1. was discussed. 4 . . - -. . --.-. I have done . there is .. is singular. because its antecedent..) Mental health institutions care for patients as well as they can. 19. .had been taken.are widely read are frequently stolen.. The books are sitting there. were able to pass the examination.-~ . that a turbulent flight was inevitable. -gave him a straight answer.86 PRONOUNS [CHAP.

18. Anne Frank recorded her deepest fears and hopes in a diary published. The policeman said that of the largest enterprises in the world. 20. Graham Greene is much admired for his early novels. In the middle of the examination. that boards . After Hazel and Hany had finished their work. . Many experts deny the authenticity of that Vermeer. King Lear is the one I like best. was the hero of all young boys. events of World War 11. but never saw 24. 8. frequently longing for 6. Egyptian king studied in Egypt in 1922. After fighting the fish for hours. When Joe DiMaggio was in his prime. is true to his own conscience may find in trouble with the 14. do not often admit their debt. have always 7. but many tourists complain that on most days are not able to see 23. Roger left on a trip to Peru without remembering to carry the Spanish dictionary needed so badly. 15. 13. 10. the fisherman found that 25. Radioactive wastes can be a threat to the residents of a town if safeguard their water supply. flourished during the era of Babe Ruth. kept during the tragic could not bring in. A man authorities. 5. is proving valuable. Howard Carter. but many say that work ~ublished. but not 16. I broke my pencil and could not sharpen 17. English teachers continue to make the same mistakes in the classroom made. lacks the quality of 1 1 . After an electrical storm leaves an area. the brown or the gray? I found in a secondhand book store.CHAP. public image it projects. although the other tragedies surpass as far as my wife is concerned. Fujiyama is a famous tourist attraction. discovered the tomb of Tutankhamen. of Dora's cats is gentler. is always conscious of the caught all three burglars as were leaving the store. General Motors. My neighbor is good at training her own two horses. do not take steps to went to the movies. the died when was only eighteen. dreamed of seeing play one day. 9. like all the 21. Although could not turn to their freezers a half hour before starting dinner. This book. many Americans would be lost if 12. have found of the three violinists is best known by concertgoers? either dissipates or goes on to another area. 4. 22. Of all the plays of Shakespeare. claiming that light associate with the master. The New York Yankees. 41 PRONOUNS 87 3. 19.


[CHAP. 4

Antecedents Joined by And, Or, or Nor
Plllr-a1 A pronoun is plural when its antecedent is two or more words joined by and. Richard and Deirdre are completing undergraduate degrees they hope to put to use. Boys and girls are finding themselves disenchanted with school. Singrrlur
A pronoun is singular when its antecedent is two or more singular words joined by or or nor.

I don't know whether Joan or Eileen made herself clear in the argument. Neither Sinclair Lewis nor Thomas Wolfe has yet received the final critical judgment he deserves.
When a singular antecedent and a plural antecedent are joined by or- or nor; the pronoun agrees in number with the antecedent that is closer.

Either Barbara or the twins will have to do what they can. Neither the salesmen nor the manager learned that he was at fault. Neither the manager nor the salesmen learned that theywere at fault.
If use of this rule risks ambiguity, the sentence must be recast.

11. In the f'ollowing sentences supply the missing pranouns as shown in these examples:

A brother and his sisters sometimes go through life without knowing what they really believe. I cannot understand how the brothers believe they will work together harmoniously. If a hotel or motel opens its doors next year, it -. will be operating profitably within six months.
I. Neither Idaho nor Montana can boast of the winter weather receives. The mountains and beaches are crowded by tourists every year even though becoming increasingly inaccessible. Father raises cows and sheep even though are not profitable.


We have been given our paychecks, but neither Carole nor Susan has received additional credit.


Either the brothers or the sister will have to pay her debt before the credit manager will give Either the sister or the brothers will have to pay their debt before the credit manager will give additional credit. Neither the union members nor their leaders showed any interest in a quick settlement of the dispute between Either the union president or the members will have to show interest in a quick settlement if are to have labor peace. The librarians and the library board are meeting tonight to adopt the budget we offered for next year. Neither Ted nor his brothers found were entirely happy.

CHAP. 41


Collective Nouns
If an antecedent is a collective noun treated as singular, the pronoun is singular.

The committee is meeting next week to reach the decision it wants. The board of trustees has decided to name as chairperson the candidate it first met.
If an antecedent is a collective noun treated as plural, the pronoun is plural.

The committee are meeting next week to reach the decision they want. The board of trustees have decided to reverse the chairperson they chose.
Collective nouns must be treated consistently within a given unit of writing. They must never be treated as both singular and plural.

12. In the following sentences, supply the missing pronouns as shown in these examples:
it recessed in January. The board of directors has not met since The board of directors have been in constant consultation, because -they

anticipate a

fiscal problem.
was organized. intend to strike. 3. No organization is effective if its members are not willing to support 4. I would be willing to be a member of a group that stands up for the positions believes in. 5. The contents of the box are stamped on the top, but can scarcely be read by a person of normal vision.
1. The debating team is having its best season since 2. The steering committee are meeting to declare that

6. Across the street live a couple who soon will find are grandparents. 7. A dozen is too much for a small meal and too little for a large one, but right for a bedtime snack.

might be just

8. My offspring are going to g o to the theater 9. The company has sponsored a picnic every summer since started inbusiness. 10. A jury is not unanimous in its judgment unless one attorney or the other is extremely skillful in arguing before

Singular Pronouns as Antecedents
A singular pronoun is used with any of the following pronouns as antecedent: one, anyone, anybody, someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, each, kind, sort, either, neither, no one, nobody.

Everyone who thinks he or she can write professionally needs an agent. (Everyone is the antecedent of he or she.) Each of the actors recited the lines he knew best. The right sort of book will find a market for itself.

13. In the following sentences, supply the missing pronouns as shown in the examples:
Neither Manuel nor Juan was willing to say that Anyone who works hard will receive the reward
1. I would like to locate somebody

he knew the answers. he or she deserves.

does house painting.


[CHAP. 4

2. Somebody has to do his (her) work better than out of a job.

has been doing it, or somebody will find

3. No one can do more than . . -. - has done to help the unfortunate. 4. He recommended the sort of program that usually commends . ..
- -



to the uninformed a

viewer. 5. Anybody who finds lawyer.

in conflict with the law is well advised to find

6. Mary found For Whom the Bell Tolls the sort of book that works its way deep into the conscience of any sensitive person who reads

7. One of the eggs was sticking to the pan, asserting that had a right to remain uneaten. 8. Either of the girls considers - - lucky when she has enough to eat. 9. Students were asked to share their dorm rooms, but nobody wanted to be the first to offer

- -

10. The kind of woman who asserts position.


is the kind of woman needed for an executive
- -

was pointed out. 12. The Dean of Women claimed that no one in the women's dormitory was interested in stepping forward to declare available for the job.

11. He found that each of the defects became immediately apparent once

13. Each of the organizations desired to review the entire spectrum of policies 14. Everybody in the extended community was going to assert 15. One of the fellows was denied permission to complete the project by 16. Any sort of food is acceptable as long as 17. Anyone who wants to use my razor can do so if 18. Either was acceptable, provided that 19. Everybody will be permitted to join as long as is palatable. is willing to clean it. met the full test of credibility. has the initiation fee.

stood for.

20. She declared that no one had established full claim to ownership, because no one had filed the papers was obliged to supply.

A pronoun used as the subject of a verb is in the suhjec.tivecase.

She was one of the brightest pupils in the school. I know that most people want to marry. The people who were willing to wait in line found that they were able to purchase tickets at a reduced rate. The concert that he attended was rewarding.
14. In the following sentences supply the missing pronouns as shown in these examples: By the time their dinner was over, we or you or they were exhausted. Mary found that she was unable to complete her work.

is the most beautiful flower in the entire greenhouse. among you is willing to take over the job I am leaving?

Pablo Casals was able to perfom even when always have enough to eat and drink.) . -. Is there any way we can find of helping when she needs help? . because she smiled at him winningly.) Fighting herwas difficult. Gilbert testified that I had misled her.. Veterinarians inspect them each year.-him or her or them or us or you or me for no apparent reason. trouble. PRONOUNS IN THE OBJECTIVE CASE A pronoun used as the object or indirect object of a verb is in the objective case. They decided to give 5. 2. . The boy to I gave the book is no longer a member of the group. as hard as she could when she realized that he had told lies. played made Barrymore sought after by all producers. . (if direct object of past participle having offer . The Tempest appeals to me more and more each time--aids customers in times of emergency is eligible for a special A telephone operator -. (him indirect object of infinitive to give. 3. (me direct object of present participle questioning. Although Mrs. must we send the last five copies to? 10. . 7. because I would not be a party to their conniving. I told her that -The roles - was the most talented artist in the class. Would you find it wrong of. 8. Going to the theater gave my hand when you are leaving a bus? 7. 8. -.--. I will grant that he tried hard. 41 PRONOUNS see it.qhting. The United States Senator . Lawyers give us competent interpretations of the penal code.) To give him all the credit he deserves. 9.-- 3.-. Baseball can distract from our legitimate work. . 6. serves. -- Owners of little dogs see to it that -Persian melons are not always as succulent as appear to be.- Pronouns as Objects of Verbals A pronoun used as the object or indirect object of a verbal is in the objective case. . the accountant found many more legitimate tax deductions. much pleasure in their old age. as is valuable to the community -- .) While questioning me. (her direct object of gerundfi. 10. supply the missing pronouns as shown in these examples: The firm dismissed -. The outfielder tossed her - 1. In the following sentences. Having surveyed it. 15.--- - - -- -- the entire truth before asking --to sign my petition. 4. 6.shall we invite to the office party? .is present on the floor of the Senate during debate is as rare . the general decided that the river could not be forded. She slapped .9. 4. I insist that I told - . award.--.CHAP.. 5. -the ball. . -was in his nineties.

10. 4.stay for breakfast. Within were storms of music waiting to be released by the young composer.92 PRONOUNS [CHAP. Among--are two or three lucky individuals who will win substantial amounts. his due. we are having difficulty in eradicating 8. 1. he realized that all he had to do was reach out and grasp what lay before 5. After learning that Rebecca had paid for the book. as much as possible. . 6. In the following sentences. We spoke to her as forcefully as possible.. we must do all we can to treat our guests well. The librarian gave the manuscript to him promptly. The cat trailed after me often.them or you ---- it . Memorizing a role is not as difficult as performing5. Annie never cares whether people are talking about 2. a l l day long. Juan has been faithful to the people.them We wanted to distract her is not going to make your students happier. Inside 9. even though I tried to get away from her or him or me or us or. Elizabeth found herself facing all her problems honestly. To whom did you deliver the corsage? 17. 4 16. we also have the responsibility to pass 9. we must also treat humanely. The staff insists that everything possible be done for the students to give the opportunity they need in order to succeed. 1. 3. supply the missing pronouns as shown in the examples: Constantly quizzing. the rest will insist their fees had been taken from without a chance of winning. While we have been able to describe child abuse. As Dick looked out upon the city. . -. Having invited . Her guest had stayed so late that Eileen decided to invite -. to -- Pronouns as Objects of Prepositions A pronoun used as the object of a preposition is in the objective case. 2. By was this written? once again was the fear he had known for so long. Try as hard as we can. we cannot choose among 3. Capturing prisoners is not the end. To prepare for examinations is only half the job. so I decided to switch to a topic I understood better. 6. His mother was adamant: he had received the last dollar he was to get from 7. To give 7. we returned it to . In the following sentences supply the missing pronouns as shown in these examples: Susan's mother asked for. so she would spend her last days contentedly. Troublemakers are not going to be changed by confining to certain areas. The subject was clearly beyond . but failing in her efforts to solve--10. 4. 8.

-- - was used. (I is in the subjective case because it is in apposition with We.) Objective All the damage incurred in the accident was caused by us. but not . 6. When the big contributor announces her gift. (Me is in the objective case because it is in apposition with us. Our book had been left unopened all those years.-. Jon made full restitution because the book was mine.--. If you will do without yours. the subject of the verb ill ruzdem~rite. Whose are you carrying? 18.- - 1.--- PRONOUNS AS APPOSITIVES A pronoun used as an appositive is in the same case as the word with which it is in apposition.) Possessive She asked whose bicycle had been broken. Margaret's or mine. She found us. Yours is the last one I will accept. which is a possessive adjective. In the following sentences supply the n7issing pronolms as shown in the examples: We found Theirs . . mine had been damaged. will underwrite the cost of Sam's education. We took everything they made. John and I . All things considered. (Mine is in the possessive case because it is in apposition with whose. his or mine? ---- . -was best because we had thought through the problem. supply the missing pronouns as shown in these examples: We. Carole and me I asked him whose class met first. Several artists entered paintings. can do all the work. Harry told us 5. In the folldwing sentences. -- did you choose? 3. so 2. Hugh and Alice enjoy their new home more than we enjoy 8. 4.-. were the least expensive and most reliable . because she admires the work we do. I will do without 10. in the midst of preparing dinner. Reading is valuable for their children as well as for 9. Amy prefers to market 7. - --- his the best of the entries. - . Ellen phrased carefully that mine was totally ignored by all the people on the committee.-. Subjective We.. Linda and I. the object of a preposition.) 19.. Mickey and me. we will announce . because tables available.CHAP. 4) PRONOUNS PRONOUNS IN THE POSSESSIVE CASE A pronoun indicating possession is in the possessive case.

Robert and . but I believed we should take care of our own. . the defense attorney and regard to personal relationships. yours or . yours and 4. 3. The election of 1988 found us. We both have an interest in the matter. she in regard to financial matters and . The judge was stem to both of us.PRONOUNS [CHAP. . 10. ill prepared for another four years of that philosophy of government. 6. 8. Both of us. We could find no valid answers. his and 9. Jenny and . and I wonder whose understanding is closer to the truth. were not invited to the party. were called before the judge. before we worried about a stranger's. The two of us. Emma nor 7. are overjoyed at the thought of another festive reunion . as "good sons and worthy. Both our families. 4 1. the district attorney and . my wife and . The will referred to the two of them. Walsh invited neither of us. I did not know whose interests were being considered.." 5.

that. (The adjective sad completes the copulative verb is. Proper adjectives are descriptive adjectives that are derived from proper names: Indian customs. his. as shown in these examples: The lecturer spent his time on French culture. The only one I saw was a little child. an honest attorney. because her son pays her little attention. many illnesses. TYPES OF ADJECTIVES There are three types of adjectives: descriptive. present company. . proper Many volumes have appeared in that series. French perfume. running water. 5. his love. Oaken buckets were used by early settlers.) The first one to finish receives a prize. limiting. Limiting adjectives identify or enumerate the element modified: that table. a red dress. Many. French. Underline the adjectives in the following sentences as shown in these examples: Green leaves are one sure sign of spring. 4. limiting 1. Such an adjective is called apredicate adjective. 2.) 1. not history. Austrian cuisine. Careful analysis uncovered several flaws in his experimental data. Chinese checkers. and proper: Descriptive adjectives name a quality or condition of the element modified: a perfect marriage. 3. a pronoun. a broken axle. Hard cheese can be eaten with great delight. limiting. limiting. a noun. or proper. - 2. Weak men feel strong when they achieve success. 2.) Adjectives may also be used to complete a copulative verb: Alice is sad.Chapter 5 Adjectives Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns: A happy man faces each day optimistically. limiting. (The adjective happy modifies man. seven days. 1. (The adjectivefirst modifies one.fifth stanza. . One apple is enough for a single tart. An orange jacket is useful on a ski slope. - Improper manners almost ruined his business career. classify the adjectives as descriptive. American Indians. In the following sentences.

ssit3eadjective denotes ownership as it modifies a noun or pronoun: my mistake. The clause is introduced by the relative adjective w~hose. ~ . 2 . Poor Willy lost his Irish setter. Thut shirt goes well with all my suits. these men. nluny pennies. mvnty-four ounces. his elbow. her prerogative. that one. mother before serving breakfast to her first. . t~rimeric~al. one's serve. Which side are you on? interrogative My first bad mistake was followed by many others. its aroma. His folly was matched by his overbearing pride. One dish does not aperfect meal make. setver.) 3. A cfen~onstruti~~e adjective indicates or specifies the noun or pronoun it modifies: this one. There are many other indefinite adjectives.sian features are not admired by all people. their pride. those women. nlost people. 5 3. indefinite. or rel~ti\~e. In the following sentences. 3. each one.sessi\. She spoke to her. indefinite 1 . jir. Numerical adjectives may be either cardinal or ordinal.v robins. An indefinite adjective indicates more broadly the noun or pronoun it modifies: all people. identify the italicized limiting udjectives as demonstrutitqe. inte1.rnguti1. t~iin~eric. pos.qutil~eadjective asks a question as it modifies a noun or pronoun: Whose hat is missing? What time is it? Which one will you take? A nrin~~ric~crl adjective specifies a number as it modifies a noun or pronoun. thirtyfhlrr. no violin. (The subordinate clause nthose mother.tlt President of the United States. Olzlinal: third horse.e. 5. interrogative. Its function is illustrated in the following sentence: The lad whose mother died has left school. A relatit5eadjective introduces a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun.e. died modifies lriri.alothers. indefinite. An interro. Carrc-a.e as shown in these examples: ~o or \ . Curdinul: si. Limiting Adjectives Limiting adjectives are classified according to their functions as demonstrative.96 ADJECTIVES [CHAP. numerical: many. 4 . our company. s s ~ J s s ~relati\. 4. any person.. sonle support. Eleven players are needed if we are to have a good game. which is part of the modifier. A po. Whose is the only relative adjective.sse.

No decent person would voice such opinions. (none) 1. 15. physician is a predicate noun. Parents whose children play baseball have been known to carry on like maniacs. She felt bad. 51 ADJECTIVES 5. Thefirst point to remember is that her role is worthy of recognition. Their turn is next in the examining room. (Because physician is a noun. That boy is not the only one in your class. Each sentence he uttered revealed his ignorance. 9. What nonsense are you now up to? 6. (Because happy is an adjective.) Anne is a physician. 4. 14. (The copulative verb acts has as its complement sick. Which channel did you waste your time on last night? 13. Any student who uses material without proper attribution is guilty of plagiarism. seem. happy is a predicate adjective. underline the predicate adjectives as shown in these examples: He will act happier as time goes by. Your shoelaces are untied once again. 10. 12. be. . 7 . 3. Copulative verbs are also completed by predicate nouns. Henry's first novel was an exciting mystery thriller. In the following sentences. Firemen whose only duties are clerical receive the same pay that all regular firemen receive. become.) Harry is happy. Dick became an editor. The following sentences illustrate both types of predicate complements: She acts sick whenever Monday arrives.) Together.) 4. feel. 8. Jane's story was excellent. 2. predicate adjectives and predicate nouns are referred to as predicate complements. Predicate Adjectives Predicate adjectives complete copulative verbs: act. etc. 11. sick is an adjective. so sick is a predicate adjective. prove.CHAP. (See page 20. This print looks fine to me.

ltulian 4. rare ---. most poetry. . six months (limiting adjectives) French grammar. ripe The Metropolitan no longer relies solely on opera. 6. 10. 8. Pogo acts sad when Ray leaves.-- . predicate adjectives follow the verbs they complete: Jack looked doubtful. Italian cooking.ADJECTIVES [CHAP. and the most common position of all is immediately before the element modified: red shoes.-. fresh 2 . --- Many patients in mental hospitals appear despite their troubles. appear happy We hoped that trout would satisfy his hunger. John felt hopeless. Her hair appeared radiant.-. oldest brother -. POSITION OF ADJECTIVES Except for predicate adjectives.) attorney general. ~~ 5 . This is the best novel in the library. .--. 7. .) a tale so sad that all who heard it cried (Because the adjective sad is itself modified by the clause that follows. Russian music (proper adjectives) In some constructions adjectives can also be placed immediately after the element modified: a poem short and beautiful (The writer has chosen this construction for the sake of rhythm. happy child. 5 5. old man (descriptive adjectives) this book. court-martial (These terms were expressed this way in French and are accepted as English expressions. -. Insert adjectives in appropriate positions in the following sentences as shown in these examples: oldest happy - The brother played the role of father to the five children. 3. Innocent was the Child. I feel better this morning.- The pear was treat enough for the child.-... Barbara seemed angry. Bob's nose has become longer.- 1 .) Except in rare constructions. (This type of construction is reserved for special stylistic effect. exciting Some novels are so that I cannot put them down.--.-. ..) 5. 9.. adjectives are usually placed next to the nouns or pronouns they modify. Jenny appears disconsolate. Books were his sole source of satisfaction. its normal position is changed. -. -- --.

7. Of the fifty states. 5. Hawaii may have the (broad) ethnic mixture of any state. best. the superlative form when discussing three or more: Of the two sisters. Of all the paintings by Renoir in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. I believe California has the (long) coastline in the country.CHAP. 8. She is a better student than her brother. - 1. She is the best student I know. The (young) student in the class is not always the most precocious. comparatille. Supply the proper comparative or superlative forms of the adjectives in the following sentences. worse. 51 ADJECTIVES 99 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES Adjectives have three comparative forms: absolute. Richard finds his new assistant (competent) than he expected. as shown in these examples: better Dorothy is a (good) cook than her sister. Julian is the (good) copywriter in New York City. the (good) one is practically ignored by the public. and superlati. worst. best Broccoli usually tastes (good) when cooked in oil than in butter. 2. The comparative form is used when discussing two items or individuals. 4. 6. I believe the coastline of California is (long) than that of any other state in the country. bad. A fine painting is worth more than the (good) photograph money can buy. That mountain is taller than any of the mountains in our state. better. Jane is the more intelligent. Vermont is the most beautiful. I found his style (suitable) to fiction than to journalism. ~. Adjective phrases are formed by combining a preposition with a noun or pronoun and its modifiers: .ve to indicate greater or lesser degrees of the quality described: Absolute sweet fine intelligent beautiful Comparative sweeter finer more intelligent more beautiful Superlative sweetest finest most intelligent most beautiful The comparative form of the great majority of adjectives can be achieved in two ways: by adding -er to the absolute or by adding the adverb more. 3. The comparative is used when comparing a single item or individual with a class of items or individuals: She was a better swimmer than any of the men in her school. My social security checks will be (small) than yours. -. 6. -. ADJECTIVE PHRASES An adjective phrase is a phrase used to modify nouns or pronouns. Some adjectives change forms radically to express comparison: good. 9. the superlative can be achieved in two ways: by adding -est to the absolute or by adding the adverb most. Similarly. . 10.

nlhir-h. and object if appropriate. to. They usually are placed immediately after the words they modify. 8.: The preposition in has room as its object. In the following sentences. adjective clauses usually consist of subject. Adjective phrases must be kept near to the word or words they modify in order to ensure clarity. 9. 6. (The adjective clause that is mude hetnreen non3a n d opening night modifies the noun chan~e. (in the rear modifies the pronoun one. I. Those with substantial interests are happiest about the economy. Hats are not worn as often as milliners with failing businesses would like. verb. Gardens he has tended have never won horticultural prizes. (The adjective clause who insists on gettitlg his due modifies the pronoun anyone. 7. 5 The chair in the living room needs to be repaired. Consider the following sentences: Every change that is made between now and opening night will cause difficulty for the actors. . hy. and with. underline the adjective clauses as shown in these examples: The evidence they left was enough to incriminate them. ) Anyone who insists on getting his due must be persistent. 7. through. 4. who. Instructors who wish to teach well must prepare their lectures carefully. in. He found that the wart on his right thumb was growing rapidly. ADJECTIVE CLAUSES An adjective clause is a clause used to modify nouns or pronouns. modifiers.) The most common prepositions are at. 3. Adjective clauses must be kept close to the word or words they modify in order to ensure clarity. hetnveen. Many times the relative pronouns are omitted: shown in the The woman I have shared my life with all these years is standing beside me now.) Adjective clauses are often introduced by relative pronouns-that. 2. 8. of. Assistance for homeless children is a social The one in the rear is my choice. The applicants with the least hope are complaining loudly. Gardens between houses are well tended in my town. The best of the Scotch whiskies have never been Communication between you and me is no longer good. They usually are placed immediately after the words they modify. 5. underline the adjective phrases as shown in these examples: The girl with the flaxen hair is my daughter The light at the end of the tunnel is dim. on.100 ADJECTIVES [CHAP. In the following sentences. (The phrase in the living room modifies the noun cshai. etc. Room is modified by the living. The telephones lines to Europe are out. The view through my window is drab no longer. Like all clauses. 10.-as preceding examples.

underscore the adjecti~gec. . They found the photographs that had been missing for many years. The nonrestrictive modifier n. 51 ADJECTIVES 1.- I. (The modifying clause is nonrestrictive. (The restrictive modifier I horrght is not set off by commas and cannot be omitted from the sentence without changing its meaning in a critical way.500 for years ago.- . The meal he plans to cook today is too rich for his guests' tastes. and supply any punctuation needed.ti1.-- restrictive nonrestrictive Apple trees. which 1 have nurtured for many years.) 9. 5. Engineers. who are skillful in interpreting scientific data. information.CHAP. A nonrestrictive adjective clause is one that is not essential in defining or limiting a noun or pronoun: This one.beautiful and productive. .-. Curries that have been left unrefrigerated lose their attractive taste rapidly. Panamanian ships which were active in the period between the two world wars are still seen today. identify them as restrictive or nonrestr-ic. is still working well. which are indigenous to Africa.. 2. 4.lartses.most. limiting the general noun girl to one particular girl.) Nonrestrictive modifiers are set off by punctuation. (The pronoun one is modified by ~ ' h i c I ha\le nrutured for nlany years. 7. Anyone who has found himself unable to find a job will sympathize with those who are habitually unemployed. 3. 10. both --. do notlive forever. The research papers he did in his English courses taught him little. while restrictive modifiers are not. The modifier that does make one distinctive is This. - . Consider the following sentences: The word processor I bought makes too much noise.hich I hu\*e nurtrrr-ed for nlarly years gives us useful. The tree she felled with her hatchet is surprisingly large. will not survive in a cold climate. which I paid $1. In the following sentences.c. Wines that have been stored properly will retain their bouquet for years. are not usually capable of original research. 3. 9. 6. which are . He found a wounded animal that had managed to survive without care. These animals.) ( I ahuire most identifies girl.--. I bought is needed to identify the word processor. 2. as shown in these examples: I gave the money to the one who needed it . The book I rely on most is the dictionary. Pets that have served their masters well are often allowed to die in pain. but not essential. It can be omitted without changing meaning. 6. is not a particularly attractive shrub. Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses A restrictive adjective clause is one that is essential in defining or limiting a noun or pronoun: The girl 1 admire most is one who stands up for her rights.) My word processor. but the modifier does not identify h one in a way that makes one distinctive. She smiled a smile that conveyed gratitude but little warmth. Books I have treasured since childhood no longer please me today. 5. 8. Children who find their immediate desires blocked may react by throwing temper tantrums. 4.

4. Insert that or which in the following sentences and supply needed punctuation. In the following sentences. the stationery store.) Cabell's first book. The pipe I left behind was one of the best I ever owned. No commas are used to set off the clause. h i c has one of my favorites is nonrestrictive. 2. The relative pronoun ~1hic. 1. For this reason it is introduced by ~ ~ h i and is set off ch by commas. Two bottles of milk cost about half as much as a pound of meat have more food value as far as I am concerned. 11. fits like a stolen ring. the toy store. -. it is introduced by that. The message the NAACP conveys is not to be ignored.- 10. NOUNS USED AS ADJECTIVES Nouns often function as adjectives: the Kennedy years. which was one of my favorites. 3. Give me the bachelor life. which I bought in a pawn shop. 5. Because the clause is restrictive. the clause is restrictive. When the relative pronoun can be omitted before an adjective clause. Yesterday's newspaper was left on my doorstep belongs to my neighbor. That and Which with Adjective Clauses It is customary to use that to introduce restrictive adjective clauses.) 10. since it cannot be omitted without making book unidentifiable. The African-Americans who have made many important cultural contributions to our country are often reviled by the ignorant. As a restrictive clause. --- -- - 9. . 5 7. the barber shop. which to introduce nonrestrictive adjective clauses.h cannot be omitted. the relative pronoun thut can be omitted: The book I bought yesterday has been stolen. underline the nouns used as adjectives as shown in these examples: Such a woman was once known as a grass widow. More maple syrup is processed in New York State than in Vermont which is the self-proclaimed world leader in maple syrup production. 8. Consider the following sentences: The book that I bought yesterday has been stolen. Swiss cheese which has a distinctive texture and appearance is sold throughout the world. the Reagan administration.~. This coat. orgmtizution man. (The adjective clause ~ . college life. the tailor shop. is no longer in print. (The adjective clause that I bought yesterday is restrictive. My last dollar I wanted to spend on food was supposed to keep me alive until payday. street smarts. as shown in these examples: Clothing that we buy with our own money fits well.ADJECTIVES [CHAP. The multinational corporation which is a relatively new phenomenon has become a powerful force in international politics as well as economics.. -- . the Nison White House.

1. underline the adjectives used as nouns. Changing quickly to his official uniform. 2. 3. 3. 4. Our country has always been known for its sympathy for the poor. 5. Like other adjectives. he quickly learned the secret of her tennis stroke. (The participle pursuing modifies detective and has as its object clue. worn tires. The participle pursuing is modified by the adverb alertly. He was expert in treating the old as well as the young. 12. Who is there among us who does not respect the learned? PARTICIPLES AS ADJECTIVES Present and past participles are often used as adjectives: used cars. The Best and the Brightest. finally decided that the butler had not committed the crime. (The past participle adored modifies Marilyn Monroe and is itself modified by the prepositional phrase by many. of course. The race is not always to the swift. 2. they may themselves be modified by adverbs and prepositional phrases. It is also modified. leaning tower. by carefully. (The participle watching modifies he and has as its object her. the rich. Consider the following sentences: Watching carefully. Phonograph records are losing out to compact discs in music stores. (The present participle n*atchingmodifies the pronoun he and is itself modified by the adverb carefully. many adjectives can be used as nouns: the high and mighty.) The ham.) Marilyn Monroe.) The detective. as shown in these examples: Running water is often fit for drinking by animals. alertly pursuing every clue. the poor. gave off tantalizing aromas. The indigent are turned away along with the wealthy. died prematurely. the destitute. underline the participles used as adjectives. adored by many. The proud will have their day to learn humility. Superman began to fly after the criminals. 51 ADJECTIVES I. In the following sentences. Farmer cheese is no longer made daily in our area. The Naked and the Dead. (The present participle baking modifies the noun ham and is itself modified by the adverb slontly. Adjectives Used as Nouns Just as nouns can be used as adjectives. growing pains. as shown in these examples: The lame and the halt gathered before her. After he left the police force.) Participles used as adjectives may also take an object. 4. 5.) 13. he saw everything the men did. baking slowly. - . Progressive furniture manufacturers employ industrial designers. Watching her carefully.CHAP. The Just and the Unjust. In the following sentences. but not by human beings. The vice president could do with a little book learning. he became a store detective.

Alice managed to reach shore. Dangling While watching closely. 10. 5 I . Policemen. (Obviously my handbag was not M-atching anything. 4. Undeterred by the teacher's warnings. the writer's mistake is referred to as a dangling participle. sold as safe investments. 6.7 I was watching. Junk bonds. my handbag was stolen. Sprinkled lightly on a salad. Once achieved. Who was natc. Assuming that the scorpion was. . 5. Swimming hard against the current. because it was cooked rare. ought to be given to hospitals or to the Salvation Army. But I is not in the sentence. She finally abandoned the project. unopened on my library shelves. The steak was. finding it dull and unrewarding. Gasping for breath. Many of my books. I could not chew the steak. Dangling participles are corrected. (Who was strolling:' Assuming that I was. I saw a scorpion blissfully strolling down the garden path. or (3) rewriting the sentence completely.ADJECTIVES [CHAP. rosemary can bring out the flavor of the most common garden lettuce.) Correcr While I was strolling blissfully down the garden path. (Obviously I was not cooked rare. the marathon runners completed the long race. 2. care must be taken to make sure that the reader can easily identify the noun or pronoun the participle modifies. soon fell into default in many areas. the sentence can be recast one way. I saw a scorpion. 7. Harassed and dispirited. When the reader is made uncertain of what is being modified. my handbag was stolen. the class continued to delay work on the final project. 9. victimized by crime themselves. Consider the following sentences: Dangling Cooked rare. 8. often harbor fear and hostility toward ordinary citizens.) Correct While I was watching closely. Dangling Strolling blissfully down the garden path. 3. While walking today. (2) inserting the words to be modified. the sentence can be recast another way. I saw a scorpion.hing. therefore. Lucy decided to give up the oboe.) Correct I could not chew the steak. by (I) rearranging the sentence to bring the participle closer to the nouns or pronouns being modified. a college education can be regarded with some affection. Dangling Participles When a participle functions as an adjective. But rare is too close to I.

a feeling of despair is no surprise. -- 4. I am quite content to sit dreaming at the opera. correct 1. Completely taken by surprise. my class came to an abrupt end. one's natural response is pleasure. (The infinitive to pray modifies urge. 5.CHAP. (The infinitive phrase to defeat the enemy force modifies action. After having walked in circles for three hours. my breath was hard to catch. Upon meeting old friends. Running as hard as possible.- - . 7. -. the way was lost. Consider the following sentences: She has the most to gain of anyone on the staff. 6. 2.) That store has cutlery to carve every type of roast. Where necessary.) Infinitive phrases-infinitives together with their modifiers and objects or complements-may also function as adjectives: The general ordered his army into action to defeat the enemy force.) The way to proceed has not been determined.) Her urge to pray was overwhelming.) . correct the following sentences as shown in these examples: While thinking of the approaching examinations. she offered no resistance to the mugger. (The infinitive to proceed modifies way. Being studious scholars. 3. (The infinitive phrase to use in opening clams modifies device. 10. INFINITIVES AS ADJECTIVES Infinitives often function as adjectives. While sitting quietly before a wood fire.) For Christmas. the noisy children are a nuisance to young and old. 9. Once cooked. his defeat was a complete surprise. he was given a device to use in opening clams. WhileI was thinking of the approaching examinations. Stuck in traffic for hours. 8. I ignored him completely. (The infinitive to gain modifies most. (The infinitive phrase to carve every type of roast modifies cutlery. Considering him the least likely candidate in the race. I can enjoy a fine roast. 51 ADJECTIVES 14. my class came to an abrupt end. After I have dined. Considering everything he has done for the party. the library was heavily used.



[CHAP. 5

15. In the following sentences, underscore the infinitives and the itfinitive phrases used as adjectives and identify the elements they modify, as shown in these examples: We all have our own lives to lead. . . lives She wanted permission to- -- - - offending motorist. arrest the . -- ~


permission --. .

1. The full jury reconsidered its vote to acquit. 2. Food to suit the happy occasion was served all day long.


3. Cats have owners to feed them.

- ---


4. His work consisted solely of music to dance to. 5. Judy hoped to find a good biography to read. 6. She always had a joke to meet every situation.


7. 8. 9. 10.

The proper tool to use for this job is a rubber mallet. The minister gave her parishioners permission to miss Sunday services. Eileen said she had no clothes to wear. The first reporter to cover the story will get a byline.
- - --

Chapter 6
Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.

He walked quickly. (The adverb quickly modifies the verb nealked.) They snored melodically. (The adverb melodically modifies the verb snored.) They were really unhappy. (The adverb really modifies the adjective unhappy.) My daughters are completely fearless. (The adverb conzpletely modifies the adjective fearless.) He plays tennis very well. (The adverb very modifies the adverb n1ell.) Children are almost always hungry. (The adverb almost modifies alw~ugs, which is an adverb that modifies the adjective hungry.)
Adverbs also can modify entire clauses:

Perhaps you are wrong, but'l will listen further. are wrong.)
Adverbs also can modify all the rest of a sentence:

(The adverb Perhaps modifies the clause yo14

Surely the train will be on time, but I hope not. (Surely modifies the train nil1 he or2 tinre.)

Perhaps you are wrong. Surely the train will be on time. I. In the following sentences, underscore the adverbs and identify the elements of the sentences they modify
as shown in these examples. Note that there can be more than one adverb in a sentence.

They play their instruments lovingly. play we will Certainly we will come to dinner. - come to dinner careful I thought she was extremely careful, She was completely exhausted and thoroughly wet. exhausted, wet ---- ---

I. She began to weep quietly when she heard the bad news.



2. She was completely honest in her work and in her dealings with everyone.

3. Ideally, the doctor would have completed her examination.

- - -- - . -- - -


4. A partially closed mouth is usually ineffective against quietly spoken rumors. 5 . Although they practice diligently, they never achieve excellence. 6. He sat patiently through the spectacle but finally withdrew.



-- -




7. Hugh works quite carefully at his drawing.
8. Subsequently, we discussed the bill with the manager.
-. -- -

. -. -

9. The district attorney openly rebuked the witness for what was an extremely obvious exaggeration.

10. You can never work too carefully.


[CHAP. 6

RECOGNIZING ADVERBS Adverbs Ending in -ly
The easiest adverbs to recognize are those that end in -1y. The only pitfall to avoid is confusing -1y adverbs with -1y adjectives. Remember that adjectives modify only nouns and pronouns. Adverbs modify everything else. The following words are some of the adjectives that end in -1y: comely, costly, early, lively, lovely, surly. See how they are used in these sentences:

A comely lass is always admired.

Costly jewelry is beyond the reach of most students. The early bird catches the worm. The fiddler played a lively tune. The lovelysunset provided a fitting climax to our day. The trainer was a surlyone, all right.
In the first five sentences, the italicized adjectives modify nouns: lass, jewelry, bird, tune, sunset. The last italicized adjective, surly, modifies one, a pronoun. Adverbs that end in -1y are formed by adding -1y to an adjective, a present participle, or a past participle.

beautiful hateful quick sure

beautifully hatefully quickly surely

Present participle
fitting swimming terrifying willing

fittingly swimmingly terrifyingly willingly

Past participle
advised affected assured deserved

advisedly affectedly assuredly deservedly

Note that when an adjective ends in -able or -ible, the adverb is formed by changing the final e to y: peaceable, peaceably; horrible, horribly; terrible, terribly. Consider the following sentences:

He regarded her hatefull Surely they will reconcile their differences. Rose will finally receive her permanent appointment. They were terribly mangled in the accident.
All the italicized words in these sentences perform adverbial functions. Surely modifies the entire sentence it appears in. The others modify the verbs in their sentences. They must not be confused with adjectives.

time. The manager closed his first year successfully. 7. The decline in output was considerably greater than we would have liked. Ad~terbs degree answer the question how much? of You are inadequately prepared for medical school. adverb He regarded the world hostilely. -- 14. In the following sentences. He added parenthetically that he was pleased with the overall outcome. y 3. the copy editor made a costly error. 6 1 ADVERBS 109 2. She will consequently be dismissed. . Edith inferred correctly that she was no longer wanted. . 6. - adverb . Homely virtues are disappearing from city life. 9. 8. place. They went along unwillingly to school. 1. classify the italicized words ending in -1y as adjectives or adverbs as shown in these examples: adjective The lively melody was typical of Schubert. Recognizing Adverbs by Their Functions Adverbs answer the following questions: how? how much? when? where? why? tnre or false? We thus can classify adverbs as adverbs of manner. Adverbs of time answer the question when? They arrive late. Most mothers look lovingly at their new infants. Ad~lerbs place answer the question where? of He walked downstairs. She closed her program fittingly by singing the national anthem. He will assuredly find fault with my work. or assertion. 11. -10. She has not played tennis recently. The dog will find its way home eventually. He was slightl upset by the incident. Norma cooks well.CHAP. Adverbs of manner answer the question how? He works carefully. 13. 12. One could question whether the address was favorably received. They went south for the winter. To everyone's surprise. Disorderly conduct is a charge that covers many types of actions. Adwrbs of cause or purpose answer the question why? I will therefore quit the team. 15. 5. cause or purpose. He looked about him calmly and proclaimed his innocence. 2. A lovely dessert is a fitting end to a good meal. adjective A friendly gesture is always welcome. 4. degree. He has completely exhausted his inheritance.

-. adverbs modify everything else. He fell awkwardly to the kitchen floor. - - . -- --- -- - p - . 12. .- - ~ - - - DISTINGUISHING ADVERBS FROM ADJECTIVES Many words in English function both as adjectives and adverbs. Lately I have had many colds..-. 15.I am guardedly optimistic. 7.--- - - - - -. 5. In the following sentences. 11.. 4.. He lived carefully.-. 6 Adverbs of assertion answer the question true or false? She will surely be hired for the job..He almost lost his way. Teachers sometimes make bad mistakes. . -. ..I will go to sleep. . You must move quickly.Finally our train arrived.-.-.. The following list supplies some of the words that are used both as adjectives and adverbs: bad better bright cheap close deep doubtless early enough even fair far fast first hard high late little loose loud low much near quick right rough second sharp slow smooth straight third tight well worse wrong .. The surest way to tell whether a particular word is an adjective or an adverb in a given sentence is to determine what its function is in the sentence. Men never make passes at girls who wear glasses.-The bus leaves soon. 6. as shown in these examples: degree I cannot forgive you completely.. I may possibly join the two of you. 8.. Yes. You will undoubtedly be reprimanded. -. 10. young man. -.110 ADVERBS [CHAP. 9. . 3. time She certainly is our best speaker. assertion -- 1. For this you must go back to the fundamental distinction between an adjective and an adverb: adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. She is not acceptable in my home. 2. . 13. 14. Go west.. -. Have you ever gone there? He has been paid less than I.. -. underline all adverbs and identify their functions. 3.

closely and hardly are never used as adjectives. . 12. 61 ADVERBS 111 Many of these words also have forms ending in -1y: badly.comparative. are used exclusively in certain idiomatic constructions. adverb 1. In the following sentences. Hard times are upon us. He was much better than I was. 15.CHAP. Hard modifies the noun times. You can easily learn to swim well. I hope you have better luck next time. Closely modifies the verb observe. 11. The -1y forms are preferred in formal English by some grammarians and. hard. and superlative--to indicate greater or lesser degrees of the characteristics described. 8. 3. cheaply. closely. Close modifies the verb fell. in many instances. He was a smooth talker. they both are adjectives here. Thus. Of course. brightly. close and hard are used as adjectives in the following sentences: Close work strains my eyes. they are all adverbs. Are you sure you are well? Are there enough knives and forks for dinner? He slept enough for two. 6. Try harder and you will succeed. In both pairs of sentences. 14. Consider the following sentences: The arrow fell close to the mark. adjective He will doubtless be fired. Hard modifies the verb practices. She was fair and well groomed. We went to see her late in the afternoon. 2. By contrast. She practices hard all day. 7. 13. the modifiers close. 4. Hardb modifies the verb bend. I was better rested that afternoon. identify the italicized modifiers as adjectives or adverbs as shown in these examples: She was a bad writer. Drive slow if you want to enjoy your vacation trip. She could hardly bend her fingers. Close modifies the noun work. - COMPARISON OF ADVERBS Like adjectives. 5. 9. Even a small amount of that chemical will hurt you. The table top was as smooth as I could make it. 4. Observe him closely. and hardly perform adverbial functions. etc. deeply. He was an even-tempered man. Thus. adverbs have three comparative forms-absolute. 10.

particularly to indicate time and degree She stayed home evenings. 1.) He swam two hundred meters farther than any other swimmer. 6 Adverbs that are identical with adjectives form their comparatives and superlatives in the same manner: bud. 3. 8. Renoir painted (colorfully). better.e . Adverbs also employ more and most before the absolute form to express the comparative and superlative degrees: tinridly.ttvorst: n'ell. 6. n70rse. which was more than any other swimmer could manage. supply the proper c. modified by the noun phrase trtlo h~oltlretl nreter. 5. deeper. nVorse. 7. NOUNS AND PHRASES USED AS ADVERBS Nouns and phrases are often used as adverbs. because he had by far the softer bed. deepest. Jon slept (comfortably) than she. (The adjective n. When in doubt. Rembrandt painted (vividly) than Delacroix. 4. deeply. nzorc huppily. Even when the absolute form of an adverb ends in -ly. Corky stayed under water (long).) They jogged a mile.112 ADVERBS ICHAP.) (The adverbfarther is The suit is not worth one hundred dollars. happily. deepest. the comparative and superlative are iden!ical with the corresponding forms of the adjective: badly. Of all the Impressionists. tleepel. (The verb jo. best.) She always worked in the morning.srrperlutive form of the adverb or enclosed in parentheses as shown in these examples: Of all the boys.) is He swam two hundred meters.tiitig. consult a dictionary. (The infinitive to practice is modified by the noun mornings .ot.s.) .tlr is modified by the noun phrase ol1c1hlrrirlrcd tlollurs. The nights in the tropics affected him (deep) than the nights in Vermont. (The verb stuyed is modified by the noun evenings. Some say the role is so passionately portrayed that the play will be the (heavily) patronized offering of the season. 5.) I would like to practice mornings. nzo. most tinrid1.onzpulwtir~.y~ed modified by the noun phrase a mile. Dorothy took (long) to dress than she expected.v.sn9unris modified by the noun phrase tn'o ir~ttzdr~tl metenv. The women's sixty-yard dash was the (hotly) contested race of the entire afternoon.rt happily. Adverbs also add -rr and -@stto the absolute to make their comparatives and superlatives: deep. longest more keenly She felt the loss (keenly) than her sister. She certainly treated her sisters (lovingly) than they treated her. worst. 2. More and most are commonly used with adverbs containing more than one syllable. (The verb nlorked is modified by the prepositional phrase in tir~ niot. In the following sentences. The school bus is the (heavily) overloaded of all the buses on this route. That dog eats (hungrily) than any dog I ever have seen.. 10. The dictionary is the ultimate authority for the comparison of adverbs. 9. nrore tinridl~. because she was closer to the child. etc. (The verb .

because. She weighed twenty pounds more than her sister. question why? It modifies the entire main clause.adtarbs. since: As there was no other way to accomplish her purpose.) Had she given her consent earlier. That house costs fifty thousand dollars. (The adverbial clause answers the question why? It modifies the entire main clause. even (The adverbial clause modifies the adverb if. 2.CHAP. (The adverbial clause modifies the entire main clause. Sundays they always watched football on television. 3. 6. In the cool evenings.) . 1. Adverbial clauses are best classified according to the type of modification they provide: cause. The subject and verb in the adverbial clause are inverted-had she instead of she had. (The adverbial clause modifies the entire main clause. result. provided that. and time. All the children had been warned not to walk beyond the last house. Coleridge wrote in the morning. (The adverbial clause modifies the entire main clause. on condition that. 4.) Concession4ntroduced by although. concession. purpose.) Conditio&ntroduced by if. 9. though: Although I am poor. (The adverbial clause modifies the entire main clause. 6 1 ADVERBS 113 6.~petzsive.) We went home because there was nothing else to do. Vemeer painted in the Flemish manner. comparison. They paid three dollars at the counter.) That car costs more than I had expected to pay more. I am quite content. underline the nouns and phrases used as ad\vrhs as shown in the following examples: Have you ever seen France the French way? He decided to go to the beach. 8. 10. place. condition. 5.) They offered to go on condition that we supply the food and drink. Cause-introduced by as. They waited ten minutes and then attacked the enemy.) Comparisodntroduced by as and than: (The adverbial clause answers the Nuclear energy is as expensive as fossil energy. Coleridge wrote mornings. elyenthough. (The adverbial clause modifies the verb would have complied. In the following sentences. and adjectives. she finally reached a decision.) I shall attend the concert even though I can ill afford it. they walked before dinner. unless: I shall be glad to conclude this agreement if you are willing to make a small concession on some of the terms. 7. (The verb is is understood in the adverbial clause as fossil energy [is]. The adverbial clause modifies the adjective e. manner. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES Adverbial clauses modify \lerhs. but they most often modify other clanses. we would have complied as well.

while.- - - - -- - . as. she picked up her hat and left. . (The adverbial clause modifies the adverb there.- 3. as shown in these examples: She received preferential treatment though --.eintroduced by where.) Pi~rpose-introducedby in order rhat. . ----- time-modifies verb have been. there suck I.-attending ~ -- - . (The adverbial clause modifies the verb runs. -- . . 4. - - .--- I .- -. 6 Manner--introduced by as.) She delayed so many years that he grew tired of waiting.. . (The adverbial clause modifies the verb act in the main clause. entire main clause.-.- ~ We have been attending classes since the term began.) Result-introduced by so. n2herever: Where the bee sucks. -. I met Harriet and Clara.- -- -- - -- -. when.114 ADVERBS [CHAP. -- concession-modifies main clause -.) 7. Faulkner is still considered a more profound novelist than most of his contemporaries. . her grades-were poor.-. (The adverbial clause modifies the entire main clause. before.--.. underscore the adverbial clauses and indicate their functions and what they modify. Cindy was allowed to stay out late provided that she signed the register upon leaving.) We sent him to college so he could earn a good living and lead a full life. ..-. - - - -- p~ .) Timeintroduced by after.) I meet him wherever l go. (The adverbial clause modifies the verbs picked and left. (The adverbial clause modifies the entire main clause. since.) P/at. . as if.-. until: After dinner was finished. - 5. In the following sentences. .. .- - - . that: We prepared dinner early in order that the team would not be held up.) As I was walking downtown.. As always. Ethel behaved as if she did not care at all about my feelings.- - - -. (The adverbial clause modifies the entire main clause... I might have done better on the final examination.) He runs as if the devil were after him.- -. The air was so fetid that I could not remain in the room. 2. a s though: Many corporate officers act as they are instructed to act. (The adverbial clause modifies the main clause.-. -. so. Had I paid adequate attention in class.--. so we shivered all night.-. . that: (The adverbial clause modifies the The electricity was turned off. (The adverbial clause modifies the verb met.

I have been in this room only once since it was dedicated. I am permitted to leave my station whenever I can find a replacement. I will eat all the food myself. I would have finished the examination with plenty of time to spare. 17. I had to register for the draft because I had reached the age of eighteen. a friend walked in. The rebel would not submit even though the committee questioned him all night. Since there are only four of us. the troops laid down their arms. If no one shows up for the picnic. Before you gather up your books.- 8. 61 ADVERBS 6. - 10. 11. She pleaded silently as if she had too much to tell me. puppies do not behave as their masters have taught them. . 12. Wherever I go in New York. 18. 15. 21. it would not start. 7. Open admissions is a splendid policy if the college maintains its academic standards. You will find a gas station wherever you look in New Jersey. he could not manage to put the side out. 22. 14. no votes may be taken. 20. I meet old friends. 24. 9. why not play bridge instead of poker? 23. Since a quorum is not present. WhileI was eating my lunch. 13. Although nothing appeared to be wrong with the car. I lost the heel of my right shoe as I was crossing the street. 16. Under the stressful conditions of a dog show. - 25. Because there was nothing left to do but capitulate. . Although he tried every trick he knew. Had I remembered what the instructor told me.CHAP. 19. I never again had as good a record as I had in my first term. be certain your notes are complete.

also. howletver.) This use of conjunctive adverbs between independent clauses requires a semicolon before the conjunctive adverb and a comma after it as shown in the two examples above. The patient shows no signs of recovering despite all the medical treatment he has been given thus there is nothing to do but hope that careful nursing and the processes of nature will see him through. Therefore.) When used at the beginning of a sentence. The word however is a conjunctive adverb. still. nantely. however. When conjunctive adverbs are placed within a clause. 1.) They join elements of a sentence and affect meaning in a way that conjunctions cannot: The committee had formally rejected his application. furthermore. otherwise. therefore. Punctuate the following sentences as shown in these examples: The United States celebrated its bicentennial in 1976. I insist on going to the movies I insist moreover that you go with me. moreover. (Again.moreover. hut. (This use of a conjunctive adverb suggests that something has been said in the preceding sentence that justifies the use of therefore. 5. henceforth. hence. (Conjunctions are treated in Chapter 7. commas are used to set them off: She will. consequently. many nations. Complete agreement between the two contestants is not likely however we can always hope that both parties will somehow see that their interests lie in mutual trust. 2.116 ADVERBS [CHAP. theref~re. establish etc. The most common conjunctive adverbs are: acc-ordingly. likecc~ise. . joins two independent clauses. (While however joins two independent clauses.) She relinquished her position as chairman of the group. moreover: a conjunctive adverb. meanwhile. he decided to exercise his right of appeal. nevertheless. she will establish her identity before the interrogation begins. establish her identity before the interrogation begins. 6 CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Conjunctive adverbs are adverbs used as conjunctions. and thus. indeed. For example. but indicates a special relationship between the two clauses. meanwthile. nevertheless. She will. etc. anyhow'. instead. The experience gained in that war should have proved conclusively that colonial wars always end in disaster. a conjunctive adverb is set off by a comma: The rules of interrogation are quite rigorous in demanding that the witness be identified fully. 4. or. it indicates a relationship between the clauses that is not indicated by the most commonly used conjunctions: and. the preceding sentence may have been: The rules of interrogation are quite I-igorousin demanding that the witness be identified fully. many cities and towns celebrated their tricentennials. besides. pursue policies that lead to war far from their shores. The organization treasury is completely empty it will nevertheless continue to attempt to raise funds so that it can honor its debts. The final date for submittal of proposals has not yet passed we will therefore receive all properly executed offers until that date arrives. she severed all connection with the party that sponsored the group. 8. 3. therefore.

6.) The Senator returned to Maine to seek her reelection. such. 4. - keep 1. 8. delete He is the least likely candidate for that office.) (The infinitive phrase to pass as (The infinitive phrase to seek her He works to survive and reads to live. extremely. You are too beautiful for words. Underscore the intensifiers in the following sentences and indicate whether they should be kept or deleted. underscore the infinitives and infinitive phrases used as adverbs. This car is quite new in design. Intensifiers may do little to enrich adjectives and adverbs that are already meaningful. least. tremendously. reelection modifies the verb returned. 2. I am extremely eager to continue until the year 2000. The message is clear: use intensifiers when they add to meaning. She is an extremely capable student. as shown in these examples: I had such trouble finding my way. intensifiers sometimes convey important meaning: I am too fat to get into my clothes. somenlhat. 61 ADVERBS 117 INTENSIFIERS Certain adverbs. and very. much. and identify the elements they modify as shown in these examples: . (Does very add much to pretty?) I am not too interested in his -remarks. The crowd was tremendously fascinated by the fine addresses delivered that day.) 10. I am somewhat embarrassed by all the attention I have been getting. but it still makes bad mileage. too. are used to emphasize the meaning of an adjective or adverb. (Why not say I am not interested or I am uninterested?) Yet. The infinitive to live modifies reads. He is too big for his britches. 7. In the following sentences. 3. 10. quite. highly. omit them when they do not. such as certainly. 9. (The infinitive to survive modifies the verb nlorks. They are classified as intensifiers. 9.CHAP. INFINITIVES AS ADVERBS Infinitives and infinitive phrases function as adverbs in many sentences: Edward knows French well enough to pass as a Frenchman. He found himself in much the same poverty he had known before entering graduate school. a Frenchman modifies the adverb enough. I was quite disappointed in my grades. Consider the following sentences: She is a very pretty girl. This color scheme is too violent. 5. I am very sorry the former president died.

The landlord tried to evict his tenant.. ~.118 ADVERBS [CHAP. He bats left-handed to utilize his great speed.- -. Librarians are eager to stock their shelves with worthwhile books.- . -. --. . 7. 6 The Japanese diplomat felt confident enough to return home. 6. sold -.-.. . Jerry tends to become violent when he is frustrated.. --. . ..She seems to cover a lot of territory. Most children love to travel on their own. 3.. . Resolutions were introduced to repeal the abortion laws.- - - - - - - -- - . . .-. - enough - 1. 8. 9.They intend to travel to China this summer. . . They sold to realize a profit. 4. 5. she was too gentle a person. -..-..-- . 2. She didn't dare mock anyone. Dogs are inclined to drink a great deal of water. 10.

its object. 2. She often goes to the theater with her father. I'm just a little girl from Little Rock. in. (Where did she find the baby? In her room.) I want something by that author. 7. from. 1. (Whose hatred? The hatred of the entire family. and any modifiers of the object. (In what sense young? Young in heart.Chapter 7 Prepositions and Conjunctions PREPOSITIONS A preposition is a word that conveys a meaning of position. 4. This money wiIl be reserved for charitable purposes.) The book was considered profane in intent. 10. 6.) Relating to Nouns and Pronouns She felt the hatred of the entire family. There are many more. 1. and the modifiers of the object are the greatest German. I hope you reach the airport in time for the late flight. to. In the following sentences. For all we know. 5. (In what sense profane? Profane in intent. and with. pronouns.) The nine most commonly used prepositions are: at. by. Prepositional phrases are used to modify verbs. It serves to relate its object to another sentence element. identify the prepositions and the objects of prepositions as shown in these examples: . 9. and you will shortly be given a list of other frequently used prepositions. In the following sentences. nouns. There are three peopIe in the house who will stay for lunch. 2. 8. the object is musician. for. On two occasions. direction. underscore all prepositional phrases as shown in these examples: We have worked hard all week for our cause. of. you have forgotten your appointment with the dentist. 3. (What do I want by that author? Something. In the prepositional phrase by the greatest German musician. and adjectives: Relating to Verbs She found the baby in her room. on. life will never be the same. A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition.) They stored their files on the table. We went to the store yesterday at noon. The trees are alive with color in the autumn. or other abstraction. She was treated for hepatitis by the doctor. time. The Gardners will be at the seashore this summer. (Where did they store their files? On the table.) Relating to Adjectives She was young in heart. the preposition is by.

Among the words listed here are the nine prepositions that were given previously.-. aboard aboard the ship. Elementary decency is never recognized by some people. Commonly Used Prepositions The following list identifies those prepositions most commonly encountered.. The postal service has not delivered the mail for which I have been waiting. .-. 9. about people above above all. -.--. By the end of the performance..... - 5...-- . 7 The surgeon operated for appendicitis. In addition to the single words that constitute most of the entries in this list. in addition to. or adjectives modified. nouns.. - 4. - --- ~ - . 6. two phrases are supplied to illustrate use of the prepositions. -. . With each entry in the list. 7. -. . Few (pronoun) ---- - . During the raid three guards were wounded. above my head according to according to the newspapers.-..- respect (noun) ~. Literature was one of her favorite studies. . pronouns.-. We shall be leaving for Scotland in a few months. yet she was also fond of the sciences. . 8. ..-.. Your enthusiasm for hard work is not the greatest. -. - 1.. there are some phrases that function as prepositions: in back of. . it is by no means complete.. - These are the precursors of a business recession.---He took great delight in his coin collection. . etc. aboard the airplane about about town.. A symphony by Beethoven is always a fresh experience.--- - . 2. 3. They lost their purses in the bus station.--- .. I removed my hat before the flag passed by the reviewing stand. . . -. They went . .. - . Daffodils tell us of the arrival of spring. Some of my friends will not be at the next reunion.. after meals . -. She went once again to the stadium in dread of a boring afternoon. In the following sentences underscore the prepositional phrases and identify the verbs. no one was left in the audience. He was rewarded for his courtesy by the old woman..- Few of the later poems show any special qualities.-. She went from the nursery to the emergency care room.- - -- - - -- - .. according to custom across across the way.-- - -- -- -.. She selected her European itinerary with great care. Is this the most direct way to the station? .PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS [CHAP. . . but say nothing of how cold spring can be. . .-.. 10. 3..the planetarium in time for the afternoon showing. across our front yard after after a while. ..- Close to our school is a new housing development. to . as shown in these examples: His respect for his elders was apparent. -. -.

near despair of of pioneer stock. along the route alongside alongside the caravan. at the final moment back of back of the speech. in lieu of a full-time chairman in light of in light of her accomplishments. as to the performance itself at at no point. concerning her obstinacy contrary to contrary to my advice. behind closed doors behind in behind in the rent. during the Reagan years except except me. as far as the train depot aside from aside from his published writings. but a handful of people by by the same writer. below the living room beneath beneath my standards. behind in his payments below below the roof. beyond the mountains but but me. for the sake of God from from nowhere. down the street due to due to lack of sleep. among the crowd apart from apart from my own feelings. beneath respect beside beside a garden wall. due to habitual absences during during his tenure. in regard to her request inside inside his head. from the western sky in in back. instead of going home into into a deep depression. in back of her mind in front of in front of it. into the French quarter in view of in view of her prejudices. contrary to the Constitution despite despite all our best efforts. besides the immediate family between between you and me. ahead of his time along along the street. in spite of his good intentions instead of instead of the marines. inside the vault in spite of in spite of his mother's request. before leaving behind behind his smile. amidst the local people among among other things. apart from the expense involved apropos apropos your lecture. in view of your demands like like a bee. back of the objection because of because of his poverty. because of our great apathy before before dinner. despite his lateness down down the stairs. like an angel near near the old house.CHAP. around her waist as far as as far as Washington. 71 PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS against against public opinion. beside herself besides besides the dean himself. apropos the opinion you gave around around the comer. amid our activity amidst amidst all my activity. in front of the store in lieu of in lieu of loving care. by tomorrow concerning concerning taste. in expectation in addition to in addition to her efforts. aside from my own thoughts as to as to the point you raised. in place of the current exhibit in regard to in regard to your letter. against the wall ahead of ahead of the crowd. in light of the child's age in place of in place of the flowers. of great reputation . in addition to AIDS in back of in back of the house. between July and September beyond beyond my ken. alongside the prison amid amid our preparations. except my brother for for your own safety.

until death unto unto each other. 6. over the party owing to owing to your anxiety. 5. Your request will be granted if it is within reason. underline the prepositional phrases as shown in these examples: He was found smoking behind the barn. I am sure you had a good time. Margaret lived near the city center. per minute round round the barnyard. Paula had had no life of her own. with no friends wlithin within his hearing. . he found her behavior utterly incomprehensible. 7. unto ourselves 1p up the staircase.~ 1. past my comprehension per per second. I shall go instead of you. Out of the pitch black night came a creature of threatening appearance. 9. throughout the night till till death. under suspicion until until morning. The VCR I wanted was . to New York tow~ard toward better understanding. till today to to no purpose. The Cadillac swerved past the guardrail and onto the lawn. without assistance 4. 14. out the window out of out of mind and out of sight. In the following sentences. 11. within the time without without arms. via Route 66 wvith with care. up to the limit of his ability \?ia via the Alcan Highway.122 PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS [CHAP. They swept past the maitre d'h6tel and demanded to be seated near the orchestra. electrical service has been terminated. Italian vintners are known for their delicious white and red wines. 15. out . towards the north under under two flags. 3. out of the hall over over your head. through the gate throughout throughout her life. up the wall 1 upon upon well-founded suspicions. 7 off off the roof. Inside his private mind. owing to his eagerness past past the school yard. toward late afternoon towrards towards New York.-of stock. despite my repeated warnings. 2. The actress fell off the stage and broke both her legs. He went straight toward the pit. upon further thought up to up to now. but she played no part in it. since the turn of the century through through my thoughts. on board the Orient Express onto onto the platform. 12. on account of the inconvenience on hoard on board the ocean liner. on occasion on account of on account of the delay. Because of his lateness in paying. 8. off his outstanding debt on on my account. He turned the problem into a major exercise. 13. onto her shoulders out out the door. 10. In spite of everything you say. 4. round my head since since her death. Since her husband's death. Across town there is a little restaurant that serves food like that of France.

William addressed his letter to (she) because he knew no oneelse. The way to differentiate the various uses of these words is to examine the roles they play in a sentence. 8. 9.) (The object of the preposition to is the pronoun me. (adjective) After I find the place I want. 4. Differentiating Prepositions from Other Parts of Speech Many prepositions.) 5. afer years. it is followed by a clause: Afer I j i n d the place I want. (adverb) They lived happily ever after. (Who) are you referring to? 10. after. (preposition) Do not follow after him. whom - - 3. (adverb) Do you believe there is an afterlife? (adjective) The after years often are terrible. Ruskin had admiration for (he) as a painter. her. (preposition) She was named after her aunt. 5. after her. when used as an adverb or an adjective. (who) will you do it for? 1. When used as a preposition. why don't you tell me? 7.for.CHAP. afer him. after lqe. are also used as adverbs. directly modifies a word or words: came after. afrer introduces a prepositional phrase: afer another. him If you won't do this for (she). He gave the book to me. ajier dinner. . or conjunctions. Shirley told him she would give the present to (we). (conjunction) In the above examples. In the following sentences. adjectives. supply the proper forms of the pronouns as shown in these examples: I found the child with (he). objective case. If you lack confidence in (they). I will not go to see you if you have her with (you). I shall buy it and settle down. and since. (preposition) Have you inquired after her? (preposition) After dinner we were treated to cups of superb coffee. lived after. The committee decided to award the plaque to (whoever) we chose. (preposition) Jill came after. 6. which is in the Whom did you give the book to? (Whom is the object of the preposition to and is in the objective case. The letter you sent has been forwarded to (I) at the address I gave to (she). 7 1 PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS Object of Preposition The object of the preposition is always in the objective case. after her aunt. one after another. . such as after. Do you think anyone but (she) can do it? 2. I will go with (she) when she calls upon (they).- . In the sentence in which after is used as a conjunction. but. . Consider the following sentences: The ducks were in a row.

. 3. Consider the following sentences: We decided at the last minute. He followed after her dutifully. 2. 4. but no matter how hard they tried. 7. adjective. I have not seen anything of him since. hoping to have complete privacy. since it represents her fondest dream. After the ball was over. Her attitude tonjard the excellentjob offer staggered those of us who. for she has not lived here long enough. the thief got away. (adverb modifying vacationed) People of quality do not gossip all the time. (adjective modifying Training) 7. For all we know. were unemployed. (adjective modifying People) The people in mourning wore black clothing. 2. as shown in these examples: This has been the warmest winter since 1940. A house in a neighborhood that is well maintained can only appreciate in value. We dined in an elegant restaurant. 9. 4 . She will not be eligible.-- - . She will compete for the prize. like her. Shirley began to shout for joy. 5. adverbThe picture in the window was stunning. 10. underline the prepositions. (adverb modifying come) Some government officials speak with caution. He behaved in a manner that can charitably be described as poor taste. (adjective modifying people) The hero as anti-hero characterizes American detective fiction. (adverb modifying speak) The family vacationed in Saratoga Springs. wishing nothing else but her happiness. . 5. The sailor in dress uniform sauntered into the cafe and ordered a glass of milk. They followed closely after. After her departure I have not been the same. No one but her can even be considered.124 PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS [CHAP. 3. Prepositional Phrases as Modifiers Prepositional phrases function as adverbs or adjectives. 7 6. 1. In the following sentences. In the following sentences. adverb -- A - 1. many a heart was broken. On Thursdays I dine alone in a neighborhood restaurant. (adjective modifying hero) Training in martial arts is becoming popular again. we may never meet again. but everything they try to paint pleases no one with any taste. They have an eye for beauty. but soon stopped because of her sore throat. (adverb modifying decided) They come from Puerto Rico. 6. She has since left this part of the country. 8. identify the italicized prepositional phrases as adverbs or adjectives as shown in these examples: She was recognized as a leader. if any.

10. 6. She stood by the firehouse. underscore all prepositionalphrases. 9. the pair worked to repair the damage to the sidewalk. The trees were in full leaf and looked as though they were happy that spring had come. The cottage stood on a little hill behind the wall. phrases. he left the library and walked home. 11. . 4. I had to spend most of my time on chores that left little evidence of completion once they were done. In the afternoons. A pipe filled with good tobacco can help a lonely man. the red car or the blue car (coordinating conjunctions joining phrases) She has been nominated. waiting for someone to come along and buy it. 10. as shown in these examples: When my clothes need laundering. Subordinating conjunctions join only clauses. (coordinating conjunction joining clauses) . Coordinating conjunctions join words. In the following sentences. For days on end. or clauses.CHAP. Of all the members. but I usually cannot afford to use the dryers. In the afternoons. she is the first I would accuse of doing such mischief. 13. she found that the sunlight was too strong for her eyes. 9. 7. Paper is wasted by typists who believe that they must finish their work at any cost. 1. looking for some diversion that would cheer him in his misery. - 8. A maple tree will give sweet sap if the nights are cold and the days are warm. CONJUNCTIONS Conjunctions join words. 5.Can you manage to inspect and repair plumbing in a single visit? Little in this world can be accomplished without hard work. The only flaw in his solution is that he has completely overlooked the best of clues. Near the farm stood three unused kilns once devoted to the making of lime. 12. which were more accustomed to the half light of the nursing home where she worked. 7. The apartment was filled with smoke after the firemen stopped playing their water on the upper floors. but I hope she withdraws. Once he had completed his essay. 2. 15. as we all know. phrases. and clauses: He and I. The trees behind our house need professional care for survival. 14. She or I (coordinating conjunctions joining words) The chair in the living room and the one in the den. if any. 8. for we have fifteen minutes. wondering whether the alarm would ring during her lunch hour so she could see how quickly the firemen would respond. 3. since nothing was left of the money. 71 PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS 6. The traditional attitude towards graduate studies has shifted somewhat in light of the recession. often find amusement in tormenting other children. I take them to the automatic laundry for quick and inexpensive washing. so I put my washed clothes on a line. They are classified as coordinating or subordinating. 8. Besides hoping. (coordinating conjunction joining clauses) There still is time to get to the game. Children. there was little I could do. he would walk about the city.

5.. but she also writes poetry.. 9. coordinating . and yet.. although I will accept partial responsibility. because life is much too hectic with both of them forever fighting. . . since. which occur in pairs: either. how. but we have lost the will to live. but his wife objected to the strenuous and lonely life.---. .-. .. I did all this so that you might have a better life. though. . as if. why.---.126 PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS [CHAP.. -- . In the following sentences underscore the conjunctions and indicate whether they are coordinating or subordinating as shown in these examples: Helen worked as an engineer and designer.- - -- 3. Neither Jane nor Alice deserves to be fired.) Other conjunctions classified as coordinating are the so-called correlatives. We have been studying Latin since we entered second grade. They arrived in our town before the others did. where. but our reputation abroad is poor. unless.or.. while her husband continued his graduate studies. while. - . because. if. coordinating conjunctions are used to connect sentence elements having equivalent value. .... as. The most common subordinating conjunctions are after. as long as.--. you cannot say you have reached adult status. not only. nlhich... Richard sat in the library while Jon was out on the playing field. but. nor. so.. Not only have we wasted our health.-. -.but also.nor.-. ~ ~ ~ 4.neither.. for.. .-. and both. . Subordinating conjunctions connect sentence elements--clauses--of less than equal value. As can be seen. . nothing has been the same except for the condition of your room and the cost of feeding the family.--- 1. till. The following sentences show some uses of subordinating conjunctions: I will take care of her after the doctor has gone. so that. The relative pronouns that. Both coffee and tea were drunk to excess.. and yet. There comes a time when all bills must be paid. Not only does she write novels.. (So and yet sometimes act as subordinating conjunctions. although.. -. -- . .-... and who also act as subordinating conjunctions. Until you find that you have work to do and responsibility to maintain.. Not onty has the nation suffered domestically. until..... when. so. or. Since you left home. subordinating -He enjoyed working on the farm. coordinating. in order that.. . what... 7 The most common coordinating conjunctions are and. and: Either you leave at once or I shall call the police. . Either the dog or the cat will have to make peace with the world. I cannot take all the blame. before. but. wherever... .. coordinating. .....not only. -- 2.

without complaining or claiming we were kept in the dark. 8. So there will be no misunderstanding. 71 PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS 6. Henry or Deirdre will have to be present when we select a delegate to the national convention. we must be prepared to go. 10. 9. Wherever the job takes us.CHAP. . 7. let me explain that we all must work together and choose our words carefully as we address one another. please let me know so I can arrange to have you paid. The chair you gave me has no springs or cover. yet it has a charm all its own. When you decide to complete the project.

Chapter I
Verb receive, Subject. Playwrights, authors, Direct object acclaim, Complement none Verb contain, Subject Libraries, Direct object wisdom, Complement none Verb are, Subject Accountants, Direct object none. Complement busiest Verb has, Subject Buenos Aires, Direct object house, Complement none Verb is, Subject Religion, Direct object none, Complement course Verb were, Subject Eli, Samuel, Direct object none, Complement prophets Verb have produced, Subject Wars, Direct object death, destruction, Complement none Verb called, Subject Jane, Direct object brothers, sisters, Complement none Verb served, Subject waiter, Direct object seltzer, Complement none Verb was ransacked, Subject house, Direct object none, Complement none Verb were ransacking, Subject Burglars, Direct object house, Complement none Verb studied, Subject Emma. Direct object Italian, Complement none Verb felt, Subject She, Direct object lining, Complement none Verb felt, Subject She, Direct object none, Complement well Verb called, Subject defendants, Direct object lawyer, Complement none Verb ensures, Subject mind, Direct object success, Complement none Verb have revolutionized, Subject Transistors, Direct object industry, Complement none Verb is, Subject bibliography, Direct object none, Complement list Verb have, Subject teenagers, Direct object accounts, Complement none Verb wear, Subject Professionals, Direct object hats, Complement none Verb suited. Subject shirt, tie, Direct object him, Complement none Verb are respected, Subject Matadors, Direct object none, Complement none Verb are air conditioned, Subject homes, Direct object none, Complement none Verb cleans, cools, Subject Air conditioning, Direct object buildings, Complement none Verb wrote, Subject Conrad, Direct object none, Complement none


1. vacationers, 2. hotel, 3. clients, 4. customer, 5. him, 6. museum, 7. judges, 8. Marie, 9. professor, 10. Museum of Art, 11. him, 12. readers, 13, witnesses, 14. clients, 15. parents 1. outdoor, enthusiastic; 2. patient, joyfully; 3. tired, very, late; 4. tasty, spaghetti; 5. regularly, serviced, safer; 6. large, carefully; 7. grocery, early, late; 8. always, clean, neatly; 9. never; 10. blond. almost; 11. tonight; 12. weekly, only, local; 13. Late, night, old; 14. quickly, broken; 15. White, roast; 16. Herman's, good, dance; 17. Bertha's, blue; 18. never, before; 19. tall, gently, frightened; 20. Please, two, cold; 21. red, slowly; 22. stormy, high; 23. Happy, hard; 24. Robert's black, new; 25. million, annually 1. that the champion wore, on the tennis court, with green piping; 2. with blond hair, down the stairs; 3. at night, without a coat; 4. of the visiting team, around right end; 5. in which we live; 6. that is double parked, in the entire street; 7. wearing the brown suit, on his desk; 8. across the sidewalk; 9. of all ages; 10. on the comer, from many cities; 11. of unemployed men, outside the office door; 12. in the red dress. down the street; 13. of morning, through the window; 14. we had yesterday, on many streets, all over the city; 15. of red flowers; 16. of black birds, under that bridge; 17. from our class; 18. with brown eyes, across the room, with her left hand; 19. of our bus, to all the passengers; 20. at our house, on Saturday; 21. who spoke only English, with many customers; 22. who hit to left field, before the ball was thrown in; 23. that is well trained, well-trained; 24. in our parish, who comes to him; 25. who knows what she is doing, with great caution



CHAP. 11


Verb nfrote,Subject Susan, Direct object letter, Complement none, Indirect object mother. Modifiers hastily. angry, her Verb is. Subject Beethoven, Direct object none, Complement composer. Indirect object none, Modifiers greatest, of all rime Verb met, Subject I , Direct objectpiend, Complement none, Indirect object none, Modifiers While I nvas waiting for Jon, another, old Verb is, Subject Michelle, Direct object none, Complement student, Indirect object none, Modifiers best, in the senior class Verb gave, Subject Mayor Dinkins, Direct object speech, Complement none, Indirect object none. Modifiers important, over the radio Verb gave, Subject Albert, Direct object present, Complement none, Indirect object Maria, Modifiers very, expensive Verb rose, Subject man, Direct object none, Complement none, Indirect object none. Modifiers old,pom his comfortable chair Verb are, Subject critics, Direct object none, Complement arrthors, lndirect object none, Modifiers Literary, often, frustrated Verb identified, Subject ornithologist, Direct object birds, Complement none, Indirect object none, Modifiers manv, rare. Verb has written, Subject Margaret Drabble, Direct object novels, Complement none, Indirect object none. Modifiers many, on modern English life. Verb gave, Subject Working, Direct object headaches, Complement none, Indirect object Gary. Modifiers hard, bad Verb e.~perience, Subject nations. Direct object difficulties, Complement none, Indirect object none, Modifiers Most. Third World, economic Verb are, Subject typewriters, Direct object none. Complement burden. Indirect object none, Modifiers Old, to their users Verb has been, Subject Life, Direct object none. Complement better; Indirect object none. Modifiers ner-er, for this generation Verb study, Subject I, Direct object none. Complement none, Indirect object none, Modifiers never, on time Verb are, Subject puppies. Direct object none, Complement cutest, Indirect object none, Modifiers brown, of the lot Verb was. Subject H. L. Mencken, Direct object none, Complement critic, lndirect object none, Modifiers irreverent Verb made, Subject Tracy. Direct object pottery, Complement none, Indirect object herself, friends. Modifiers good, her Verb receive, Subject Congressmen, Direct object letters, Complement none, lndirect object none, Modifiers many, every day Verb endanger, Subject Fires, Direct object lives. Complement none, Indirect object none. Modifiers of many city families Verb went, Subject We, Direct object none, Complement none, lndirect object none, Modifiers to the theater, as often as possible Verb are. Subject prices, Direct object none. Complement high. Indirect object none, Modifiers Food, everyn1here Verb bleeds, Subject he, Direct object none. Complement none, Indirect object none, Modifiers When Dick cuts himself, for a long time Verb fly, Subject airplanes, Direct object none, Complement none, Indirect object none, Modifiers Paper, rarely, for more thanfive minutes Verb is. Subject Fishing. Direct object none. Complement fun, Indirect object none. Modifiers once you have learned the fundamental skills Some of us liked the program that night, many people were enthusiastic about it Many women misinterpreted the remarks of the candidate, he tried to restate his position we considered the problem carefully Pooch lived a long and happy life, his time had come to die They had many happy experiences Cigarettes are known to be dangerous to health, many people continue to smoke them He agreed to join her in the new business, he had little capital to invest


[CHAP. 2

8. 9. 10.

their quality was poor His first remarks were greeted with derision, the audience later began to applaud Typewritten papers usually get higher marks than handwritten papers although they all passed Driver Education none before their children entered school even though her mother and father do that she was not a friend of ours, that he was where she taught reading improvement that she would do her best to meet the town's financial needs since they save the traveler little time and contribute heavily to air pollution none who yawned audibly from the time the movie began


1. across the winding river; 2. After her downfall, of her name; 3. pinned to the wall; 4. soon enough to return to earth; 5. in hope, of snaring something, for dinner; 6. to be; 7. none; 8. of tea, in late afternoon, to survive, until evening; 9. In the library; 10. to pick up our gear and retreat to the nearest town as quickly as possible

Chapter 2


1. Harpo Marx; comedian; 2. sky; parachutes; 3. Buffalo cuisine; chicken wings; 4. Bill; coat; 5. Charity; home; 6. football; statue; Marx; 7. avenue; restoration; 8. speech; hour; 9. chairmen; order; 10. puppy; spots; nose; 11. hotel; casino; 12. neighbor; car; 13. world; Mikhail Gorbachev; 14. Love; world; 15. pens; handwriting; 16. train; Chicago; time; show; 17. Mary; roses; 18. fluid; stain; 19. woman; bus; danger; 20. Lois; seat; 21. Mary; sweater; father; 22. Joe; tire; car; 23. hands; 24. Bridge;cup; tea; 25. Planning; time

Librarians (subject of verb), people (object of verbal), books (object of verbal) MacDonald (subject of verb), farm (direct object) zoo (object of preposition), Saturday (object of preposition), month (object of preposition) Violin (modifier), music (subject of verb), bottle (object of preposition). wine (object of preposition), candle (modifier), light (object of preposition) clothing (direct object) dog (subject of verb), front (object of preposition), car (object of preposition), chance (direct object) Mother (subject of verb), television (object of verbal) Carl (subject of verb), painter (object of verbal), illustrator (object of verbal) mountain (object of preposition), chairlift (object of preposition) Attending (subject of verb), church (object of verbal), Sundays (object of preposition), custom (predicate complement), family (object of preposition) wife (subject of verb), meals (object of verbal) Marrying (subject of verb), Avis (object of verbal), life (direct object) Harry (indirect object), ticket (direct object), baseball (modifier), game (object of preposition) Alfred (indirect object), sweater (direct object), father (object of preposition) family (object of preposition), laundry (modifier), day (subject of verb), event (predicate complement) Eyeglasses (subject of verb), sign (predicate complement), age (object of preposition), bifocals (subject of verb) Bentley (subject of verb), car (predicate complement), investment (direct object) wine (subject of verb), California (modifier), grapes (object of preposition) Term (modifier), papers (subject of verb), research (modifier), papers (direct object) advantages (object of verbal), color (modifier), television (object of preposition) Sculpture (subject of verb), hobby (predicate complement) advice (object of preposition), doctor (object of preposition), Fred (subject of verb), cigarettes (object of verbal), day (object of preposition)

14. Jones' 5. the ability to operate it. 33. car (common) Siberia (proper). whisky (direct object) couch (subject of verb). verb was. 39. 12. 1 1 . 10. quotas. singular. 23. 2. 34. the. 8. patronage (common) Harding (proper). skies. actuaries. 5. Year's. 36. 13. echoes. singular. (none required) Chapter 3 1 . verb sailed. Smith (proper). 3. bases. attorneys. 38. 2. room (direct object). 31. Joneses 22. 31 ANSWERS 23. 15. the cabdrivers warned me not to stay at the. restaurants (common). 49. subject Philosophy. 13. the. subject door. subject knowledge . 15. 9. the. (none required). 9. plural. synopses. a seaworthy sailboat. an. 26. buzzes. freshmen. verb boarded. 44. 14. 29. 5. the. 1. the. books (common) Roger Casement (proper). team's. foxes. subject trip verb remained. Ruskin's. 2. 24. 6. room (object of preposition) road (common). subject people verb decided. chassis. singular. neighbor's. 5. booths. the. plural Whether we go tomorrow or stay that we pool our remaining capital whatever came into his head first what happened to him yesterday Everything her children do what modem architecture represents that the book was on reserve When the picnic is held Whatever you do Whoever attends the meeting 4. 37. preferences. cook's. 25. Portugal (proper) students (common). symphonies. garden (object of preposition) Mary (subject of verb). author (common). school (common). loaves. matrices. 15. 32. men's. formulasor formulae. Jane (proper). subject Richard. Corky's. 28. 40. 18. 1 . crises. 6. libraries. an honor to receive the: 9. husband (common). Keats'. data. Nations'. cupfuls. exercises (common) Theaters (common). subject defendant verb closed. 9. tourists (common). patriot (common). singular. stories (common). analyses. 3. 11. normalcy (common). 8. 45. attorneysgeneral or attorney generals. Scotch (modifier). theses. Keats's. 50. word (common). parentheses. 46. 20. 1 . 7. week (common) people (common). levities 1 . axes. athletics. 13. Yankees'. genera. thousands (common). 42. absences. 4. 5. subject Eileen. 3. cost (common). 7. 24. loci. subject clock. 25. 19. lexicographers (common) Bernard Malamud (proper). 12 vocabularies. 12. 43. a. verb left. 17. Johnsons'. 8. Zucchini (subject of verb). baby sitters. 14. 6. 21. 47. 8. An. 2. laboratories.CHAP. 7. a. John's. 30. 4. potatoes. 35. (none required). tuition (common) Physics (common). plural. singular. singular. subject it verb found. 8. diagnoses. addenda. night (common). 4. 3. 6. Germany's. textbooks (common). Smiths. 4. valleys. privileges. students (common). verb earned. 5. chiefs. 10. plural. knives. spoonfuls. 27. subject books verb was. New York (proper). 48. 6. 10. 10. 7. secretaries. oil (common). wife's. 7. axes. quanta. 16. subject she verb rang. psychoses. verb gathered. 1 1 . England (proper). deer (common) Atlantic (proper). lives. 1 . and the. The. An. 41. 2. 6. 3. traitor (common) 4. chains (common). neuroses.

indicative. heis seen singular 1. subject they 1. 15. 5. 8. 14. pay. imperative. are is. 2. 6. were. 7. 2. Huve been sitting plural. wants. 3. 9.ANSWERS [CHAP.7 transitive. should. copulative. were performed.would. 7. is singular. 9. is no longer sharp enough to cut grass has not improved her attitudes are much superior to canned produce have not yet seen any proof of his supposed guilt has become big business all over the world Can . 9. active. Shall. is. leaves. u*ill he leaving singular. sick predicate adjective. is. childish predicate adjective. 5. 6. is singular. is 2.orrec. 2.. smiledintransitive. votes. inrporranr predicate adjective. 4. 5. Have been sirtit~g singular. 7. 1. 14. carves. be. 10. indicative. companions predicate noun. 7. find plural. nrun predicate noun 10. 5. struck transitive. 3. hrrs~. 9. indicative. 13. 6. has. 13. should. collect. 4. Do. blackerred transitive: 2. 7. are. has. 6. gu\'e transitive. are 1. physic. 8. 7. 11. subject yorc [understood]. 4. 3. verb will have. 9. insists. u3ascopulative.e. comfort. was. 4. go intransitive. 12. 11. 1 . 9. 4. 5. 5. 9. have. will.s. take. indicative. have. 4. is. expects. 5. 18. 5. 6. 2. 7. finds. gt-cn' copulative. were. arepermitted. 12. 4. 6. 14. 2. 8. has. 6. works. irrclic~citetltransitive. Would. available predicate adjective: 7. imperative 1. 9. were. 8. 5. will he going plural. go. lively predicate adjective. 7. 8. Would. 13. ran intransitive. 9. Come. 2. subjunctive. 8. 6. would. will. desire. 14. was. have. 9. inc.t predicate adjective. is. 15. was. are. 17. 2. passive. 10. 15. active 3. 5. 3. active. eager predicate adjective: 8. u~os 1. 10. should. I I. carry I. 4. feeds. 20. is. were. is. active. 4. 3. active. are predicate adjective. should. was. 2. should will. cooperate plural. hec~unrecopulative. passive. Will. 10.. 8. 9. amaze. subject you verb 1c~cn. lie. 7. 8. 9. 8. 10. be. 12. is. seemed copulative. rtncunny predicate adjective. agree. subjunctive. subjunctive. be. apologize I. 3. are. 5. 10. 2. would. does 1. is. transitive. are. are. 14. are. passive. are. 1. 10. 10. has. uVus copulative. 6. will. . will. are. imagine a world without war are an abomination appears to be the main interest of America's young steered his tractor right into the haypile and cursed his luck will one day reappear as a stylish fashion 1. acted copulative. makes. shall.err. 3. c. should. 2. cloes sorrtrd copulative. 12.hildretl. were. 15. passive. 3 8. 6. 4. imperative. 9. 7. indicative. verb Blrtter. 15. 12. act copulative. 4. hrtr-1. 16. goes. 8. will. verb More cwlled. 13. is. forbid. 3. 13. 3. 7. seemed copulative. 10. swim. 11. 3. subject truin verb p I u ~ ~ (subject c. 10. stand. 10. 8. 10. 3. 5.are. 6. be. appeared copulative. 11.iatr predicate noun. 6. have. 4. is. indicative. hurnedintransitive. can. active. indicative. copulative. indicative. will he having plural. are. urtracr transitive 1. 10.

active. was. led. 5. or The first thing to do is remove the wheel and then examine the brakes. noun. 5. prepositional phrase on schedule modifies to complete. present. 3. 3. and he finds no relief in sedatives. If you go to the dance. 8. future. first person plural. 10. 7. employees is subject of infinitive to complete. is. her modifies problems. passive. wrung. 8. correct He selected the material for the coat. active. have 1. turns. 12. 8. adverb. rang orrung. one is careful about every purchase. 5. completely modifies to ignore me to answer the phone in her absence Function of phrase: object of asked. have raised. active. 2. 6. the modifies phone. 15. present. 2. 5. but the men found the meetings dull. 4. The first thing you should do is remove the wheel and then examine the brakes. 6. 9. like. was. Nightmares disturb his sleep night after night. diving. you will find unescorted women welcome. 8. 10. 13. 8. lay. Functions of words: me is subject of infinitive to answer. future. dove ordived. will be. present perfect. 4. schedule is object of preposition on To identify priorities Function of phrase: modifies met. 3. absence is object of preposition in To achieve his ambition Function of phrase: subject of required. on introduces prepositional phrase. watched. 7. prepositional phrase in her absence modifies to answer. 6. 13. 6. 9. was. ambition object of infinitive to achieve . active 1. present. 10. third person plural. 11. 4. third person plural 1. have been eaten. Functions of words: his modifies ambition. learned. past. third person plural. 14. passive. past perfect. you are careful about every purchase. Some writers work only four hours a day. active. second person singular. lent. because they cannot do creative work for longer periods. became. adverb. 4. liked. 2. 8. future. present progressive. will continue 5. passive. 12. learned. gave. 2. 14. 7. shown. had escaped. 11. 1. active. 3. eaten. 5. since they always made mistakes when they first tried to learn a new skill. 3. problems is object of to ignore. 14. entails. shrank or shrunk. 5. first person plural. 6. 6. adverb. ran. are acted. present. 2. 12. They found that they could not sew the seams well. The women had insisted on admitting men to their group. had been delivered. is 1. 9. 11. passive. complement. Because he considered the design perfect. the judges ruled against him. 10. 15. 15. active. past perfect. hurts. active. 9. 7. future progressive. third person plural. 14. was. 2. 4. 7. 13. fall. 9. present perfect. inhale. first person singular. second person singular or plural. knew. passive. active. 2. 10. 5. is. present. use. her modifies absence. 3. 4. in introduces prepositional phrase. Functions of words: her is subject of infinitive to ignore. spoken got. 31 ANSWERS 133 1. phone is object of to answer. 4. noun. will be. will be. 1. or When you have little money to spend. had anived. comes. willdepartordeparts.CHAP. portrayed. 7. laid. 4. waited. Is. 10. passive. willhave. 15. calls. third person plural. 12. When one has little money to spend. 7. noun 1. job is object of to complete. the modifies job. noun. passive. 6. will leave. 8. 10. noun. Functions of words: the modifies employees. and the tailor was then told to begin work on it. is. will have left. 2. Functions of words: priorities is object of infinitive to identifL her to ignore her problems completely Function of phrase: object of told. 13. present perfect progressive. 9. noun. 3. 3. 9. 11. the employees to complete the job on schedule Function of phrase: object of ordered. had missed.

After I had helped the old man across the street. 9. To have walked around the park within a f period of ten minutes correct to u!ithout hesitation tell the entire story. object: enough function: subject of verb. The play having run for many weeks. Ha\>in. 4. modifiers: quickly to the bone adverbial phrase. 10. pronoun they. To prepare a fine dinner. 7. pronoun them. 10. to lose more than to have been fed. to demand firmly but respectfully To have within a period o ten minutes n'ulked around the park. 8 . realizing. modifiers: none. 9. 4 24. antecedent hull. 10. omitted. 6. Having left. pronoun he.hild. modifiers: interesting adjective. to play. correct. 3. Congratulating modifies N a \ ~ r a t i l o ~ ~ a 1. 7. toregain. Havingretired function: subject of verb. 4. pronoun . 9 . their dying bodies 6. 3. object: none function: object of verb. to integrate the neighborhood without delay 26. 3. 2. 2. 7. modifiers: none. 27. 6.rser\'e the independence.qrejitsed modifies William.reate poor morale. to have taken. 5. aregoing todobadly. Slrstaitred modifies 1. 6 . 1. antecedent Kate and Leonurd. A plane will hit people standing in the runway. modifiers: none. to be fed. or: both a bore and an unnoyance Chapter 4 1. to tell the entire story without hesitation to u~ithout delay integrate the neighborhood. but she found. antecedent brushes. 8. Found modifies money. 5 . and ruining the best. object: none For a company to sell that many automobiles. pronoun it. modifiers: his. arriving. 7. 10. both boring and annoying. 4. pronoun he. H a v i n g r e f u s e d . 1. to take an apartment. antecedent Heinrich Biill. correct. 5 . 2 . correct As 1 stumbled blindly in the fog. For the painting to achieve even modest acceptance. and leaving 31. and continue to be expensive. tell. 3. challenging. object: papers function: subject of verb. 5. 7. areleaving by January. correct. 6. to correct To more than one hour work overtime. 4. object: none function: complement of verb. 5. object: specimens function: subject of verb. object: none function: subject of verb. 1. 8. to forgive. 3 . to admit. was to find the child safe and sound tofirmly hut respectfully demand. 4. I. Finding. she is certain of a fine dinner. Rushing modifies Christopher. To work overtime more than one hour to not board the bus. not to board the bus was to safe and soundfind the child. and can c. I saw a man appear. pronoun he. Having been told. correct. a cook must use fresh ingredients. 9 . to hold. object: none function: object of preposition. 1. one must ring a bell. object: none function: object of verb. modifiers: rapidly adverb. andp. tedious adjectives. 30. all aspects of it must be considered carefully. 5. 3 . antecedent puinter. modifiers: good adjective. 9. to have studied to more than lose. modifiers: none. Swallon~ingmodifies he. Having assembled all the ingredients. 10. Lefl modifies she. 8. 2. correct. nor lending will lead. correct. 4. 8. to tell. H a v i n g heen told modifies he.ANSWERS [CHAP. 2 . correct. Before gaining admittance to his apartment. locked modifies c. a great many people must like the design. are willing to take jobs. Tired modifies attorney. the rest of the walk was uneventful. Havingoffered. object: none function: object of verb. modifiers: none. most people considered it a success. 2.

8. it. 22. her. antecedent teachers and students. pronoun they. himself. 7. himself. 3. 14. pronoun he. 2. they. 8. antecedent Sally. herself. 23. 24. each other's. antecedent Zebras. it. 8. no one or nobody. 11. 11. pronoun he. themselves. pronoun they. one another. pronoun she. one another's. 4. everyone or everybody. 1. 1. pronoun it. 24. 13. that. 2. 17. 25. 3. 15. that.itself. one another or each other. myself. heorshe. 8. antecedent money. Which. 10. 3. 18. that. antecedent advantages. h e o r s h e . 7. pronoun it. who. 4. them. herself. 16. mine. 15. antecedent veteran. 5. it. this. pronoun they. pronoun they. who. 5. them. itself. 7. pronoun she. it. pronoun her. 8. No one or Nobody. 25. she. 2. What. 6. these. they. 19. so. 8. antecedent who. 10. 18. 8. 11. herself. 3. that. 13. She. little or nothing. who. 14. 25. 23. 2. 9. 9. 16. antecedent Marjorie. 20. pronoun all. Everyone or Everybody. 6. pronoun she. 10. Whomeverorwhatever. antecedent Danny. pronoun it. they. 3. yourselves. 10. 15. 4. 7. one another 1. him it. pronoun it. 19. 12. 2. 24. 3. they. 3. antecedent Sally. itself 1. those. they. 16. pronoun they. antecedent John and Sally. it. she. this or that. 7. What. 11. 5. 8. 7. Who. 9. that. you. pronoun they. it. yourself. 21. antecedent game. they. 2. pronoun they. which. 17. them. they. antecedent bombs. 24. herself. that. antecedent Textbooks. hers. 9. 13. Whom. these. antecedent Son Francisco 1. no one or nobody. it. pronoun they. 3. 2. one another's. 5. ourselves. Anyone or Everyone or Anybody or Everybody. 7. them.he. pronoun she. antecedent lessons. pronoun he. little or nothing. pronoun he. pronoun them. 7. pronoun him. yourselves. 6. 19. 19. pronoun they. antecedent Ruth. 9. 15. 22. this or that or these or those. 2. which. 10. oneself. antecedent Jon. it. 21. They. little or nothing or everything or something. 18. 4.theirs. 22. 12. they.him. 21. 6. her. 5. Which. pronoun he. 5. antecedent proclamation. 10. everything or more or all. yourself. everybody or everyone. 13. themselves. themselves. 22. each other. they. 41 ANSWERS 135 he. 11. 4. 5. one another's or each other's. it. they. himself. anything. that. she. pronoun she. those. 20. ourselves. Cunningham. 16. yourself or yourselves. Whoever. yourself or yourselves. such. each other. 4. 15. 10. hers 1. 6. Who. 7. theirs. 7. they 12. 12. 8. antecedent words. their. himself. 23. 20. 13.$ 23. which.themselves. 6. 5. 12. pronoun he. yourself or yourselves I. they. they. 9. Those 4. someone or somebody. pronoun they. 9. 15. it. 20. her. 7. 12. They. 25. they. all or everything. those. oneself 6. They. first or last. 16. who. everyone. 17. whom. he. 3. antecedent tourists. him. herself. 9. pronoun then]. whomever. Which. 11. it. yourselves. who. which. 9. they. 9. 10. 14. antecedent Mr. 21. 22. 6. antecedent Anne and Alice. himself. 3. he. someone or somebody. What W h a t o r w h o m o r w h i c h . himself. pronoun it. he. 4.. 2. Many. one. 2. that. 7. 21. antecedent governor. 4. 14. 14. 10. anything. pronoun they. 3. them.CHAP. pronoun it. 12. 8. 4. 25. who. 18. 8. 6. 20. ourselves. No one or Nobody. 10. 6. 1. 14. pronoun he. Whoever. Who. 15. 6. 13. them. it. myself. others 1. no one or nobody. antecedent Mary. All or Many or Several. they. it. 24. whom. heorshe. 14. they. one another. antecedent Vermont. 6. he. 12. They. 10. 18. 2. What. 5. antecedent John. those. pronoun she. it. 9. antecedent dishes. whose. few. 4. which. 11. 10. nothing or little. which. whom 1. they. 17. she. 23. Much or Everything. anyone or anybody or everybody or everyone. 13. whose. antecedent citizens. antecedent tooth. it . everyone or everybody. such. 17. Whichever. itself. few. he. 8. pronoun she. 19. 5. 9. 5. Which.

8. himself or herself. 4. 3. his limiting. her 1. 5. 5. me. his limiting. 2. 1. her possessive. 9. freshtrout. business descriptive Careful descriptive. he plans to cook today. 8. Rarebooks. 10. with the least hope. 9. 4. 8. indefinite 1. 8. more 1. 1. mine. 8. your possessive. 4. 2. whom. 7. perfect descriptive 3. longest 7. him. 10. he or she 1. youngest. hers. only indefinite. sad 1. 14. 6. 8. them. it. 2. himself or herself. him. she felled with her hatchet. he or she. His possessive. goodenough. 6. 10. 15. between you and me. 4. he or she. . 8. 7. 18. 10. 5. 1. 6. 4. mineorours. 6. himself or herself. her. little. One. 6. us. mineorours. him 2. whose relative. mine or yours or his or hers. who. who. 3. early. them or you or us. 1. his possessive. indefinite. 18. me. 1. him. to Europe. he or she 1. 6. radiant. 10. 6. best. 20. 6. 2. himself. 2. 3. 19. 3. orange. 4. Whom. 10. them. me. 8. on his right thumb 1. he. 4. 8. who are skillful in interpreting scientific data. 15. them. experimental descriptive Caucasian proper. 5. 5. her or him or it. 4. 5. 7. for homeless children. they. they. 5. 9. 9. 7. 3. Who. 5. he or she. he or she. 3. herself. 9. Improper descriptive. longer. 5. itself. 7. 3. interrogative. 9. 3. 2. 5. only. 7. 4. she. her 1. 1. her-her. with substantial interests. 2. 1. 4. Chapter 5 1. 19. 7. my possessive. 4. 3. 8. 10. her 10. 1. better. them or you or us. it. 1. 2. Which interrogative. best. bad. ski 2. 4. 5 13. it. it. 6. 9. his possessive. me. 6. Hard. all limiting Poor descriptive. 2. 9. 16. 12. who. them. I. that had been missing for many years. possessive. that had managed to survive without care. 9. 13. them. 9. them. 10. with failing businesses. 5. me. 4. enough. ours him. 6. first numerical. through my window. I t o r T h i s o r T h a t . smaller. all indefinite. soexciting 5. 15. 12. possessive. all indefinite. his or hers or yours or theirs. 10. excellent. 8. mine. 6. 3. in my town. him or her. 9. 13. 10. Whose. 5. 7. who has found himself unable to find a job.136 ANSWERS [CHAP. ours. 2. it. 5. That demonstrative. 2. relative. 5. 6. 2. it. it. 16. 3. competent or less competent. that have been stored properly. Irish proper One limiting. 14. herself. 7. 5. 14. between houses. longer. 2. Oaken. 3. several limiting. him. 3. 10. herself. more suitable or less suitable. 9. broadest. me or you or us or him or her. 3. heror 17. (none). single. who find their immediate desires blocked. 7. 11. That demonstrative. numerical. his limiting. exciting. great. 4. 1 have treasured since childhood. about the economy. 7. which are indigenous to Africa. your possessive. of the Scotch whiskies. 8. h i s o r h e r s . better. ours. whom. himself or herself. 4. 11. it. Whom. theirs. 3. he. he or she. them. 7. 1 2. fine. who are habitually unemployed 8. her possessive. Each indefinite. 4. them. 17. Italianopera. ours. disconsolate.

14. 3. completely modifies honest. patiently modifies sat. 3. 10. have more food value as far as I am concerned. 1. which cost about half as much as a pound of meat. assertion. 9. 6. 6. Finally.there. 9. time.CHAP. 3. (nonrestrictive) . to feed them-owners. Sprinkled. Ideally modifies the doctor would hatze completed her examination. to wear-clothes. poor. 3. 3. adverb. quietly modifies weep. 8. adverb. swift. quietly modifies spoken. diligently modifies practice. Yesterday's Upon meeting old friends. belongs to my neighbor. which is the self-proclaimed world leader in maple syrup production (nonrestrictive) . never. adverb. sometimes. adverb. 61 ANSWERS he did in his English courses (restrictive) . to dance to-music. book. time. 6. Harassed. 13. I can enjoy a fine roast. 5. 10. 5. to suit the happy occasion-Food. awkwardly. Farmer. to miss Sunday services-permission.time. partially modifies closed. 10. guardedly. 1. 5. 5. adverb. Yes. proud. adjective. furniture 3. one naturally responds with pleasure. 12. adverb. 2.wealthy. manner. to meet every situation-joke. less. 2. 4. soon. 12.. place 2. adverb 1. adjective. unrewarding. 2. . too modifies carefully. 9. 9. young and old find noisy children a nuisance. to read-biography. 7. 13. 4. 8. never modifies can nvork. which is a relatively new phenomenon. 6. 7. The message the NAACP conveys is not to be ignored. quite modifies carefully. 15. 4. adjective. which I wanted to spend on food. finally modifies withdrew. 11. I knew I had lost my way. The pipe that I left behind was one of the best I ever owned. adverb. west. correct After having walked in circles for three hours. 8. Phonograph. almost. Since many people were studious scholars. 5. was supposed to keep me alive until payday. My last dollar. 2. usually modifies ineffective. Running as hard as possible. 4. manner. 8. adverb. ever. extremely modifies obvious. 4. I could not catch my breath. carefully. 3. 7. who have made many important cultural contributions to our country.time. finding. Subsequently modifies we discussed the hill with the manager. manner. to cover the story-reporter Chapter 6 1 . While sitting quietly before a wood fire. 10. carefully modifies works. 15.manner. (nonrestrictive) . (nonrestrictive) 10. learned 1. which was left on my doorstep. to acquit-vote. 5. 8. 3. Once it is cooked. 1. manner. 5. openly modifies rebuked. 1. manner. (nonrestrictive) that have been left unrefrigerated (restrictive) that have served their masters well (restrictive) that conveyed gratitude but little warmth (restrictive) I rely on most (restrictive) . 12. assertion. 1 1. 4. adverb. 14. correct correct A feeling of despair is no surprise in one stuck in traffic for hours. the library was heavily used. Two bottles of milk. sold. which were active in the period between the two world wars. Gasping. 7. 2. undoubtedly. 13. to use for this job-tool. 3. unread. 7. adverb. 9. 2. police. carefully modifies can work 1. victimized. Undeterred.time. quickly. 2. indigent. which has a distinctive texture and appearance. never modifies achieve. Swimming. 4. 11. 2. achieved 6. possibly. 4. adjective. 10.

hile books modifies eager.eryou look in New Jersey (place). 6. 1. 1 insist on going to the movies.cruse I had reached the uge ofeighteen (cause). I nus ecrti~l.r. 2 . modifies verb n. adjective. 1. 6. adjective. to bec. 2. 10. 6. 1. 3. that you go with me. modifies main clause crs I u.ated (time). to utilize his great speed modifies bats. 3. we can always hope that both parties will somehow see that their interests lie in mutual trust. 6. 9. \.rossinp the street (time). 10. 15. mosthotly.m (comparison). modifies main clause Si~rc. 9. adverb.ollege nluintuir~s ucudemic. 2. 9.q 1unc. adverb. modifies main clause Hud I paid adeqltute attention in (. too (keep) 1 . The patient shows no signs of recovering despite all the medical treatment he has been given. modifies main clause since it n u s tledic. adjective. 9. to cover a lot ($'territory modifies seems. continue to attempt to raise funds so that it can honor its debts.ed. therefore.A (time). quite (delete). before dinner. 5. Nmodifies love on 10. modifies main clause (1s I hat1 in n~yfirst te1.e q ~ t o r ~ t mnot present (cause). 10. to stock their shelves ~ i t usorthu. to repeal the abortion b u ) s modifies were introd~tc.ould not remain in the room (result).henpve~. Sundays. 4. In the cool evenings. 7. modifies infinitive to leave ifthc. however. adverb. adjective. modifies main clause While. to evict his tenant modifies tried. 5. 3. 2. modifies main clause ~. mostheavily most colorfully.Iined. more or less lovingly. 3. adverb. modifies main clause s Althorigh rlothir~gappeared to he w ~ r a ~ ~ g the car (concession).lass (condition). estrenrely (keep). I insist. 5. we will. 8. 7. adverb adverb. 5. modifies verb n. 7. 5. 6 4. 3.ANSWERS [CHAP. beyond the last house. modifies adjective good Hat1 I renlembered ~xhat instrrrctor told me (condition). questioned hini all night (condition). modifies verb do behai'e Bec.uu. modifies main clause with Wherc. The final date for submittal of proposals has not yet passed. adjective. adjective.\7e~~ tholt~lr c. thus. modifies main clause us $she had too much to tell me (manner).onle \iolent modifies tends. 5. 6. 8. 11. 10. modifies main clause c.nic (condition). quite (delete). on c. adverb. modifies main clause the cis thuir n~usters huve taught them (manner). h 10. much (keep).uries(comparison). there is nothing to do but hope that careful nursing and the processes of nature will see him through. too (keep). 13. 8.erv (delete). . Complete agreement between the two contestants is not likely. 4.ould sltbnrit the Befi)re yo14 gather 14pyour hooks (time). 1. fifty thousand dollars. adjective.ommittec. nevertheless. hungrily. 4. 4. modifies main clause n. 4. receive all properly executed offers until that date arrives. in the morning. 12.alked n1y 8. twenty pounds more than her sister that I c. more find a replaceme~lt I (time). The organization treasury is completely empty: it will. longer. 9. to tru~vel their ~ M . 5. [to] m o d anyone modifies didn't drtre. at the counter. 9. adverb.erI go in New York (place).here\. to tru\sel to China this summer modifies intend. 2. mornings. c. 7 . . modifies verb behaved than nlost of his his~ontempot. 6. more there n7usnothing 1ef1to do hut c~apitulate (cause). 14. modifies main clause us if she did not care at all about m j feelings (manner). 3 . moreover. 8. stur~durds its (condition). 7. tren~endousl~~ (delete). modifies main clause hec. 2. e.somewhat (delete). modifies main clause u is Altholcgh he tried every trick he knew (concession). 4. (. mostheavily. more vividly.t-tremely (delete). modifies main clause Ifno O I I ~shous upfor the pic. in the Flemish manner. modifies main clause Since thew are only four of ~ t (cause). modifies profound provided that she signed the register upon leaving (condition). more 1. ten minutes. to drink a gwat deal of nmater modifies are inc. 8.

off the stage. 7. her. 9. Inside his private mind. near the city center. them. (of) sciences. becauseof. to the theater. 4. of the nursing home 1. In spite of everything. for. adverb. I. about the city. 9. for hepatitis. adverb. Out of the pitch black night. in it. subordinating. 9. her. 10. 15. by the firehouse. Because of his lateness. 8. So subordinating. 1. (of) studies. past the guardrail. 6. 9. none. 7. 9. within reason. 8. on a little hill. or coordinating. by the doctor. that subordinating 8. for lunch. of completion. 6. us. by the old n80marrmodifies was ruw-arded(verb) in his coin collection modifies delight (noun) to the station modifies ulay (noun) by some people modifies is recognized (verb) with great caw modifies selected (verb) 4. adjective. For days. adverb. adjective. for charitable purposes 2. On two occasions. In the afternoons. 13. in time. 10. for. toward the pit. For all. 8. instead of you. 9. 3. for someone. 9. 7. because subordinating. adjective. adjective. (of) afternoon. or coordinating. whomever. 2. like that. adjective 1. adverb. in his misery. (in) dread. 8. 14. onto the lawn. 2. with the dentist: 7. . (in) months During the raid modifies u9erewounded (verb) in the bus station modifies lost (verb) by the retiewing stand modifies passed (verb) By the end modifies upaslefi (verb). into a major exercise. you. 5. 7. (of) friends. adverb. 8. 8. (to) stadium. 2. none. yet coordinating. and coordinating. 1. 7. despite my repeated warnings 1. but. Since her husband's death. so subordinating. of. 10. of my time. 5. 8. adverb. 6. 2. Of all the members. (for) which 1 have been waiting. none. after. for her eyes. Where\. for some diversion. of doing such mischief. Near the farm. him. 7. 5. Whom. adverb. but. (for) work. 2. and coordinating: 4. in the autumn. 10. with. from Little Rock.CHAP. (of) how cold spring can be. 15. in paying. of her own. 5. 10. 13. In the afternoons. Since subordinating. behind the wall. of lime. 4. on chores. at any cost. 14. none. adjective. that subordinating. 4. I I. (from) nursery. 71 ANSWERS Chapter 7 1. 3. for their delicious white and red wines. 4. 6. 6. 9. Across town. of threatening appearance. (of) recession. 11. Nor only . or coordinating. (by) Beethoven.. but coordinating. 6. during her lunch hour. 3. (of) arrival. to the sidewalk. (at) reunion. with her father. with good tobacco. 2. for the late flight. 6. 6. in tormenting other children. 3. adjective. with smoke. as subordinating.. in the house. adjective. of France. near the orchestra. 12. 1. in full leaf. on the upper floors. to the half light. 3. in the audience modifies @%as lefi (verb) to our school modifies close (adjective) for his courtesy modifies was renlarded (verb). adverb. 3. none. at the seashore. or coordinating. Either. 8. adjective. Until subordinating. of the perjormance modifies end (noun). (to) room. me. For 5.. 10. past the maitre d'hbtel. 4. 5. 6. 2 . on end. 5. her 1.them. 3. 10. 5. with color. adverb. 7. 10. 2. when subordinating. to the making. for. adjective. (for) Scotland. When subordinating.. adjective. 3 . 4. by typists. so that subordinating. her. 9. and coordinating. 7. (of) spring. 12. 4.

65 Clause. 117 nouns and phrases used as. 100-102 comparison. 105-106 noun used as. 67-69.Adjective: clauses. 108-111 Adverbial clauses. definition. 58 functions. 117 Intensive pronouns. possessive. definition. definition. 113-114 Adverbs. 42 Conjunction: definition. definition 59-60 Intensifiers. 125-126 Conjunctive adverbs. 107 infinitive as. definition. 40 Indirect object. 116 Consistency of verbs. 36 Limiting adjective. 69-70 dangling. 86-90 singular pronouns as. 99 Complement. 1 Compound predicate. or. 46-47 subject of verb. 32-33 Auxiliary verb: definition. 88 pronoun. 95-97 Linking verb. indefinite. 102 Adjective phrases. 30-31 Comparison of adjectives. 103-104 Adjective clauses. numerical. 61-62 tenses. 125-126 coordinating. 98 participle used as. 68-69 definition. nor. 89 joined by and. interrogative. 7 misplaced. 103 Adverb: conjunctive. 38 compound construction. 67-68 definition. 35 Conditions contrary to fact. 69-70 Dangling modifiers. 42 Imperative mood. definition. definition. 56-58 Copulative verbs. 117-118 as modifier. that and which. 32 Demonstrative adjectives. 14 Collective nouns. 81-82 Intransitive verb. 85-86 Independent clause. 111-112 Agreement: collective noun and verb. 76-77 Indefinite. 110-111 ending in -ly. 60-61 Infinitive phrase. 1 Gerund: definition. 80-81 Dependent clause. 58-59 split. (see demonstrative. 44-45 Antecedents: collective nouns as. 97 Idiomatic expressions. 104-105 Definite article: definition. 1-2. 96-97 Indefinite article: choosing correct form. definition. adjectives. definition. 33 Indefinite pronouns. 125-126 subordinating. definition. 14 Indicative mood. 37. 99-100 Adjective types. 102-103 position. 48 compound subject and verb. 108-109 functions. 96-97 Interrogative pronouns. 112-113 recognizing. definition. 14 Descriptive adjective. 67 compound construction. 37 Modifier: dangling. relative) Adjective used as noun. 95 infinitive used as. 83-84 Interrogative adjectives. 6 Infinitive: as adverb. 67-68 . 65 functions. 95-96 Direct object. 40-41 Impersonal pronouns. definition. 33 definition. 99 definition. 32 omission. comparison of. definition. 107 distinguished from adjective. 96-97 Demonstrative pronouns. 116 defined. 89-90 Article.

67-68 tenses. 19 modifier of a noun. 54-55 definition. 119-120 Prepositions. 25 Reciprocal pronouns. 29 predicate complement. reciprocal. 26 collective. 76-77 Phrase: definition. definition. 1-16 Shall and will. verb forms. 49-51 present for ideas true for all time. 112-113 Possessive adjectives. 20 object of preposition. 8 Nonrestrictive adjective clauses. 31-32 Noun types. 40-43 idiomatic expressions. 103-104 Past participle. 44-48 auxiliary. 101-102 Noun: adjective used as. 96-97 Preposition: definition. 67 dangling. 119-120. 102-103 adverb. 102 Transitive verb. 19 Noun clauses. definition. 18-20 indirect object of verb. definition. 84-85 Reflexive pronouns. 35 types. 57 definition.INDEX Mood: consistency. 96-97 Predicate adjectives. 19 object of verbal. impersonal. 42-43 Multiple-word modifier. 38 Parallel construction. 35 . personal. 25 definition. 38 Should and would. 42. 93 subjective case. 7 Split infinitive. 17 direct object of verb. 25 subject of verb. 53-54 That clauses. 124 definition. 42 that clauses. 92 object of verbal. 43. 91-92 possessive case. 67-68. 42 Subordinate clause. %-97 Relative pronouns. interrogative. 82-83 Relative adjective. 19 functions. 30-31 common. 1 Subjunctive mood: definition. 112-113 Numerical adjectives. 40-41 idiomatic expressions. 78-79 Restrictive adjective clauses. 104-105 defined. 101-102 Sentence. 123 Prepositional phrase: as modifier. intensive. 39 Simple predicate. 61-62 Subject. 55-56 Pronoun: agreement. 73 objective case. 93 definition. 36 Verb: agreement. 97 Predicate (verb): definition. 103 capitalization. 71-72 Participle: as modifier. 15 used as adverb. 35 Single-word modifier. 19 plural forms. elements of. 91 object of preposition. relative) Proper adjectives. 86-87 as appositive. reflexive. 55-56 selection. 57 definition. 63 misplaced. 123-124 object of. definition. 120-122 Present tense for ideas true for all time. 28 possessive forms. 25-26 Noun used as: adjective. 48-49 Personal pronouns. indefinite. common. 64 used as adjective. definition. 51-53 Past tense. 14 Tense: agreement. 90 Pronoun types (see demonstrative. 51-53 Person: consistency. 20 proper. definition. 95-96 Proper noun.

67 definition. 39 tenses. 51-53 person. 51-53 shall and will. 58 Voice: consistency.INDEX Verb (continued) copulative. 43. 48-49 predicate. 49-50 Verb. 38-39 Verb (continued) should and would. 71-72 past participle. transitive. 51-53 principal parts. 44-48 parallel construction. 36 Verbal: as modifier. 51-53 moods. 102 . 37 definition. 40-43 number. 34 infinitive. 35 present participle. 51-53 past tense. 43 Which clauses. 56 definition. 1.

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