58875262-Engleza-pentru-contabilitate | Bookkeeping | Business





Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naţionale a României Timişoara: ; 2009 Bibliogr. ISBN: 978-973-687-859-6

Facultatea de Ştiinţe Economice

Asist. Ozana STRĂUŢ Asist. Manuela STĂICUŢ

Note de curs pentru uzul studenţilor de la ÎFR



......................2................ READING & SPEAKING .................................9 2... BASIC VOCABULARY................... BASIC VOCABULARY...............2...1...........CONTUL.. READING & SPEAKING ...............4 UNIT 1 ..4 1............34 7.........................THE BALANCE SHEET .......................VENITURI.............25 5..... TESTE DE EVALUARE ....... DEBIT AND CREDIT ..23 UNIT 5 ...........2.....11 TEMA 3 .....................................1...............................................1.................................3........................... READING & SPEAKING ...................18 UNIT 4 ........................THE ACCOUNT.........................9 UNIT 2 ........4 1......................................................................................6 1.... TESTE DE EVALUARE .............................................35 1 ........ TESTE DE EVALUARE .......23 5...................3.....................................................................................................................3..10 2.18 4.....15 3..................28 6......................13 3......MAIN TYPES OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS ..................................................INCOME ................ DEBIT ŞI CREDIT...............................................3.................... TESTE DE EVALUARE .................ECUAŢIA FUNDAMENTALĂ A PATRIMONIULUI .......................33 7...............3...............................................................13 UNIT 3 ...18 4...............................7 TEMA 2 .WHAT IS ACCOUNTING AND HOW DOES IT WORK? ..........PRINCIPALELE TIPURI DE SOCIETĂŢI COMERCIALE .......BILANŢUL CONTABIL............. BASIC VOCABULARY........................................................................................................... READING & SPEAKING .................................................................1.........30 TEMA 7 .29 6.............1........CE ESTE CONTABILITATEA ŞI CUM FUNCŢIONEAZĂ?...............1.............20 4.....................20 TEMA 5 ........................ BASIC VOCABULARY...........2..................33 7..................2................ BASIC VOCABULARY............................23 5..3................................. READING & SPEAKING ............. READING & SPEAKING ...........................................CUPRINS TEMA 1 ........................THE BASIC ACCOUNTING EQUATION.......................................................................................... BASIC VOCABULARY.......... READING & SPEAKING .............................THE BASIC ACCOUNT BOOKS...............................9 2....33 UNIT 7 ..........13 3................................................................................................................................................................28 UNIT 6 .................. TESTE DE EVALUARE .............................3...........................16 TEMA 4 ........... TESTE DE EVALUARE .................... BASIC VOCABULARY...PRINCIPALELE REGISTRE CONTABILE.............. TESTE DE EVALUARE ....2.....28 6.2.........1...................26 TEMA 6 ....................................

.......48 10......................................................1...... TESTE DE EVALUARE .TEMA 8 ............................................................................................... READING & SPEAKING ..........43 9............................................... TESTE DE EVALUARE ............61 2 .............................................................................................................................................3........TAXELE .....................38 UNIT 8 .............CONTUL DE PROFIT ŞI PIERDERE......................................................50 10................................................. TESTE DE EVALUARE .............................................................................................54 BIBLIOGRAFIE ..........2...........TAXES ...................................................43 9......3...48 10.............. BASIC VOCABULARY............................................................2......................................... BASIC VOCABULARY................40 8..........38 8.......45 9............38 8.52 REVISION .........43 UNIT 9 .PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT................................................................ READING & SPEAKING .BUSINESS DOCUMENTS .. READING & SPEAKING ..............46 TEMA 10 .......................3..1..........2....................41 TEMA 9 . BASIC VOCABULARY....1........48 UNIT 10 ....................DOCUMENTELE ÎN AFACERI ............................................................................................................

3 . Mulţumim totodată Irinei Duran pentru consultanţă de specialitate.Aducem deosebite mulţumiri d-şoarei Ghiţiu Andreea Oana pentru realizarea ilustraţiilor.

well prepared and competent. there lived a wealthy old man. READING & SPEAKING A long. but then the war came and his grandfather lost everything.TEMA 1 . two acres of land.1. in a faraway village. These qualities. long time ago. Both of them were intelligent. But what he inherited from his father was of greater value than any material goods: it was his strong will. How could he possibly choose? He spent very much time giving this matter a lot of thought and finally he came up with a decision: he thought of a test for his two sons. His family’s background had always been farming. As he got old. At the end of your courses you will come to me and explain why you think that the field you have chosen will enable you to be the best manager for the business. as his great grandfather had been one of the richest and most respected farmers of the region. 1. But which one of them? He had prepared both his sons for a future business career. He always took them along to the factory and explained everything they needed to know about the way things were done. The old man hadn’t been wealthy all of his life.Introducerea şi însuşirea unor definiţii. three cows and a donkey. They had known more prosperous times before. his ambition and determination. în limba engleză. REZUMAT În cadrul acestui lecţii introductive sunt prezentate câteva definiţii de bază şi cei mai uzuali termeni de specialitate pentru însuşirea terminologiei contabile în limba engleză.Cunoştinţe generale. So that night over dinner. and he had sent them both abroad to a business school where they specialized in management. he told them: “This is my test for you: each of you will have to take a course in a field that you consider vital for running a business. as he had become the first owner of a milk factory in his village. So his father had to start from scratch and it was only by hard work that he managed to leave him as little as he did. . despre contabilitate. enabled him to achieve the former reputation of his great grandfather and even greater wealth. So the old man found himself in a very difficult position. along with good business skills. He started off with a little house. the old man decided to pass his business over to one of his two sons. termeni şi structuri lexicale specifice domeniului.CE ESTE CONTABILITATEA ŞI CUM FUNCŢIONEAZĂ? UNIT 1 .” 4 .WHAT IS ACCOUNTING AND HOW DOES IT WORK? ~ A Tough Decision ~ OBIECTIVE .

In fact I believe both fields are equally important. Who was the richest person in the old man’s background? What happened after the war? What did the old man inherit from his father? What business did the old man own? What was his dilemma? What test did he come up with? 5 .” And then he asked his younger son the same question. You will share this company and I’m sure that by working together you’ll be able to continue my work and achieve even greater success in the years to come!” ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. I can finally rest in peace. I’ve chosen a course in the field of business legislation because I think that for a good manager it is vital to know all the laws and regulations of the business environment. and future prospects. 3. 6. 4. purchases. 2. assets. “I’ve chosen a course in the field of accounting because accounting is the system a company uses to measure its financial performance by noting and classifying all the transactions (sales. It helps to evaluate a company’s past performance. liabilities).” “Do you think your choice was better than your brother’s?” “No. present condition.Time went by and the two sons finished their courses. 5. This was my final test for you and I’m proud to say you both did an excellent job.” And then a big smile showed up on the old man’s face: “Well my sons.” Then the old man asked his other son: “What do you think?” “I think my brother’s right. The old man asked his older son: “What course have you chosen and why?” “Well.

namely the recording phase. BASIC VOCABULARY Accounting vs. Financial accounting vs. but an accountant must always possess a good knowledge of bookkeeping. accounting = contabilitate bookkeeping = ţinerea registrelor contabile accountant = contabil chartered accountant (UK) = expert contabil certified public accountant (USA) = expert contabil financial performance = performanţă financiară transaction = tranzacţie to sell = a vinde sale = vânzare to purchase = a achiziţiona purchase = achiziţie assets = active liabilities = pasive wealth = avere wealthy = bogat prosperous = prosper prosperity = prosperitate rich = bogat to inherit = a moşteni inheritance = moştenire heir / heiress = moştenitor / moştenitoare business skills = abilităţi pentru afaceri owner = proprietar to own = a deţine factory / plant = fabrică career = carieră 6 . managerial accounting Financial accounting provides accounting information for external users in their various decisions. bookkeeping Bookkeeping is the process of recording accounting information for a company according to a standard set of steps. What did the old man finally decide? 1. Managerial accounting provides accounting information for internal users in their managerial decision-making. Therefore. bookkeeping is only a phase of the accounting process.7. And so a person who understands bookkeeping does not necessarily know accounting. What were the two choices of his sons? 8.2.

a. the old man decided that one of his two sons should inherit his business. f. TESTE DE EVALUARE 1. somebody who inherits something e. d. inheritance 6. what grows on our heads d. make an acquisition b.3. b. h. The old man’s family background had always been real estate. As he grew old. His first-born chose a course in the field of business legislation. e. someone who has the right of property over something g. bookkeeping 8. what somebody receives. heir 3. Complete the following table: Verb to finance to inherit Owner 4. area of study c. The old man decided that both his sons should inherit his business. usually after the death of a relative h. g. the process of recording information in account books 3. owner 4. career 2. Translate into Romanian: 1. 7 Adjective wealthy Prosperity Noun Finances . The old man decided to make a choice after testing their knowledge in the field of management. Say whether these statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the text. His youngest son thinks that accounting is more useful for running a business than business legislation. Match the following words with their explanations in the column on the right: 1. purchase a. profession f. 2. hair 7. field 5. The old man had become the first owner of a milk factory in his country. The two sons were equally well prepared to take over the business. He has just employed an accountant for our corporation. c.field = domeniu 1.

Find at least a synonym for: owner. reputation.2. I don’t know whether I could work in this field. răbdare şi perseverenţă. field. Profesia de contabil presupune exactitate. Care este momentul oportun pentru vânzarea pasivelor unei societăţi? 2. Practice Would you like to be an accountant? Motivate your answer. You should search for all those accounting terms in a business dictionary. 6. 5. Use your dictionaries. În această fabrică lucrează peste 500 de angajaţi. 5. inheritance and success. Make up sentences with the following words and phrases: land. 4. 3. 5. Vânzarea reprezintă principala prioritate a fiecărui producător. 7. 8. goods. Translate into English: 1. Could you please explain it to me? 3. It is obvious that they didn’t learn for their accounting exam since both of them received poor grades two days ago. 8 . I don’t know the difference between financial and managerial accounting. manager. Work in pairs. value. to start from scratch. 4. Avem nevoie de un expert contabil pentru soluţionarea acestei situaţii .

So what do you normally do at work?” “Well. But what I don’t know is what you actually do as an accountant. în care apar structuri şi noţiuni referitoare la registrele contabile. to audit accounts of organizations. talking to her mom: “Listen. at the dinner table. REZUMAT Această lecţie conţine un dialog legat de activitatea contabilă.utilizarea expresiilor specifice legate de întocmirea registrelor contabile. 2. So here she is now.” “Ok.PRINCIPALELE REGISTRE CONTABILE UNIT 2 .THE BASIC ACCOUNT BOOKS ~ An Accountant’s Job ~ OBIECTIVE Însuşirea vocabularului englezesc legat de : . to draw up cash flow forecasts.” “To be able to produce these financial statements.activitatea directă a unui contabil. mom. I rely on the recording of transactions in account books. Recording these transactions in account books is called bookkeeping and this is a branch of accounting.TEMA 2 . Tell me more. to calculate production costs and overheads. Tomorrow at school I have to talk about my parents’ jobs. . some of my attributions are to produce financial statements. I know that dad’s a doctor and he cures people and I also know that you are an accountant. One of her assignments for tomorrow is to talk about her parents’ professions.1. to prepare tax returns.” “What does it mean ‘to audit’ accounts?” “It means to verify their accuracy. READING & SPEAKING Lilly is in the seventh grade.” 9 .

daybooks or journals. But I have to tell you that nowadays most companies use computer-stored information instead of the classical ledger. called the credit side.” “Ok mom.” “And what is this ledger?” “It is the most complete account book. Do you understand. states delivery and shipment details. But how do you actually register a transaction?” “Well. showing all transactions of a company and their result. dear?” “Yes. 6. And the receipt is a confirmation of a payment made. And the basic rule is that the debit side and the credit side of an account should always be kept in balance. I think you’ve told me quite enough. It gives a description of the goods.” “The invoice is a document stating the amount due for some goods or services supplied.2. I do. 3.” “Well. 4. What is Lilly’s assignment for tomorrow? What are some of her mother’s attributions? What does it mean to audit accounts? Which are the books of prime entry? Which is the most exhaustive account book? What is each entry based on? What is an invoice? What is a receipt? 2.“And what kind of account books are there?” “First of all. each transaction is entered twice. It is a book that contains all the accounts of a company using double-entry bookkeeping. These can be cashbooks. 7. BASIC VOCABULARY The Basic Account Books books of prime entry = documente primare cash-book = registru de casă daybook = registru de gestiune 10 . 2. Later the transactions are posted to the ledger. alongside of unit price and total price. Thanks a lot. and the right side. mom!” ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. each entry is based on vouchers.” “What do you mean?” “Well. there are two sides for each account: the left side. according to the double-entry bookkeeping system.” “What are those?” “They are documents justifying a payment made and they can be invoices and receipts. 5. 8.” “Please explain.” “Ok. But please explain to me the concept of double-entry bookkeeping. terms of payment. there are books of prime entry in which transactions are recorded in the order in which they are made. called the debit side.

Match the following words with their explanations in the column on the right: 11 . g. a verifica audit = audit tax return = declaraţie de impozit production costs = costuri de producţie overheads = cheltuieli de regie. d. Say whether these statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the text: a. TESTE DE EVALUARE 1. The left side of an account is called the credit side and the right side of it is called the debit side. b. total.journal = jurnal ledger = cartea mare financial statements = documente financiare cash flow = flux de numerar to forecast = a previziona forecast = previziune to audit = a efectua un audit. h. Lilly’s mother is a doctor and her father is an accountant. dovada efectuării unei plăţi invoice = factură receipt = chitanţă amount = sumă. each transaction is entered twice.3. cheltuieli indirecte to record = a înregistra to record a transaction = a înregistra o operaţiune account book = registru contabil bookkeeping = ţinerea registrelor branch = ramură to post = a trece dintr-un registru contabil în cartea mare voucher = document justificativ. The ledger isn’t a book of prime entry. In books of prime entry transactions are recorded in chronological order. e. Nowadays very few companies use computer-stored information. c. transport terms of payment = termene de plată unit price = preţul pe unitate total price = preţul total 2. Lilly is in the eleventh grade. f. 2. cantitate. valoare to deliver = a livra delivery = livrare shipment = expediere. According to the double-entry bookkeeping system. Invoices and receipts are generally called vouchers.

Complete the following table: Verb to audit to deliver 4. 5. The term bookkeeping refers to registering information in account books. Toate operaţiunile sunt înregistrate în registrele contabile. and transaction. 2. 2. 4. 4. Work in pairs. predict g. the total amount due for all items h. bookkeeping 4. 3. 8. Translate into Romanian: 1. Bilanţul contabil se depune numai după ce a fost certificat de o firmă de audit. branch. I need to deliver these packages to this address. documents justifying a payment made d. financial. all the expenses made in order to manufacture something e. ledger 5. 5. production costs 3. but I can’t find it. total price 8. vouchers 6. recording transactions in account books 3. receipt a. Acesta este preţul total al mărfurilor care vor fi fi exportate. unit price 7. the price charged per item b. the account book that shows all the transactions of a company and their result c. 6. Costurile de expediere pentru acest bagaj sunt de 50 Ron. confirmation of a payment made f. Practice Write down several words related to the word “job”. There is quite a difference between invoice and receipt. This is the last day of delivery. Make up short sentences with them. You have to hurry up! 3. Find at least a synonym for: voucher. Am nevoie de toate detaliile legate de transportul acestor bunuri. Do you know where it is? 5. Noun production 12 . amount.1. Use your dictionaries. Translate into English: 1. 7. It would be best if they complied with the terms of payment. Write sentences with 5 words in the vocabulary section. I thought you already knew that. forecast 2.

So he goes to the owl.” 13 . 3.” “You’ve come to the right person. rabbit. He’s got the idea. “What brings you by on such a fine day. but he’s got no clue about the way to get things going.” “Have you got any money?” “Yes. the rabbit decides to start his own business. I’ve been thinking about opening a fitness center and I don’t know were to start and what to do.ECUAŢIA FUNDAMENTALĂ A PATRIMONIULUI UNIT 3 . împrumuturi) şi relaţia manager-firmă-bancă.TEMA 3 .relaţia manager-firmă-bancă.THE BASIC ACCOUNTING EQUATION ~ Forest Business ~ OBIECTIVE Cunoaşterea terminologiei specifice în limba engleză referitoare la: .000. . How much money do you think you need?” “I think I might need about € 100. REZUMAT Lecţia urmăreşte însuşirea vocabularului englezesc legat de înfiinţarea unei firme.000. rabbit?” “Well. READING & SPEAKING One day.1. but only € 40. the forest accountant and financial consultant. metodele de procurare a fondurilor necesare (economii.ecuaţia fundamentală a patrimoniului. he’s got some savings.

I’ll do all that. I’ll just go do some of the tings you told me and come back later for further explanations. and one more thing: you need to go to the lion. Your share of the business is called shareholder’s equity. And you should also see the fox.” “Oh. Current assets are those that can be easily converted into cash in one year’s time. while all that the company owes (the loan from the bear.” “Owl. I’m afraid I’ll have to rent it. Fixed assets include tangible assets used in the operating cycle of the business. we know that you’re not fully financing your business. good luck!” ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. marketable securities. Have you thought about hiring some personnel?” “Well. As for liabilities. What will he do about the headquarters? 5. such as buildings. like long-term borrowings. Now. He really doesn’t use it. such as accounts payable. Long-term liabilities are those that must be paid at some distant time.” “Ok. funds readily available deposited in current accounts. land etc. You know. the rent to the snake etc. for some legal advice about finding and registering your company name. But can you please explain to me how such a business works.000. Is it clear so far?” “Crystal clear. Do you have your own location?” “No. What are current assets? 14 . such as the company’s obligations to supply money. taxation payable etc. I thought of that old warehouse that the snake inherited from his late uncle.” “Well.) are considered the liabilities of the company. from an accountant’s point of view?” “Well. copyrights etc. as I said before. Who does he turn to for advice? 3.” “You do that. the forest mayor. I’ll talk to him about it. Current liabilities are those that must be paid within one year.“Well. like patents. Then you must think about the headquarters. you lost me. like liquid assets. that’s what the company owes to people / corporations outside the entity. accounts receivable etc. your resources are considered the assets of the company. How much money has the rabbit got and how will he get the remaining amount? 4. goods or services to other parties. the forest banker. Now. treasury bills. mortgages etc.” “Ok. certificates of deposit. and take care of the necessary papers and authorizations. not for the moment. the assets of a company are divided in two categories: current assets and fixed assets. I’ll try to do everything myself until I get things going. first you’ll have to go to the bear. Liabilities can also be divided in two broad categories: current liabilities and long-term liabilities. and make a loan for the other € 60. What is the rabbit’s idea? 2. the forest lawyer. We could also include here some intangible assets that cannot be easily turned into cash. let me see… First of all.

6. What are fixed assets? 7. What are current liabilities? 8. BASIC VOCABULARY The Basic Accounting Equation Ecuaţia fundamentală a patrimoniului ASSETS = OWNER’S EQUITY + LIABILITIES BUNURI ECONOMICE = CAPITALURI PROPRII + DATORII savings = economii to save money = a economisi bani financial consultant = consultant financiar to finance = a finanţa bank = bancă banker = bancher headquarters = sediul unei societăţi to rent = a închiria rent = chirie warehouse = deposit personnel / staff = personalul angajat mayor = primar town hall / city hall = primărie papers = acte / documente to authorize = a autoriza authorization = autorizaţie authorized = autorizat shareholder’s equity = capitaluri proprii assets = active current assets = active circulante fixed assets = active imobilizate liquid assets = lichidităţi tangible assets = active corporale intangible assets = active necorporale current account = cont curent to deposit money into an account = a depune bani într-un cont to withdraw money from an account = a retrage bani dintr-un cont to make a withdrawal = a face o retragere treasury bill = bon de tezaur securities = titluri de valoare certificate of deposit = certificate de depozit accounts receivable = contruri debitoare accounts payable = conturi creditoare patent = brevet copyright = drept de autor 15 .2. What are long-term liabilities? 3.

f. The rabbit doesn’t have any savings. everything a company owns d. accounts receivable 5. He’s only got 60. papers 7. money to be paid 16 . g. the forest mayor. funds readily available f.entity = entitate operating cycle = ciclul de exploatare to supply = a furniza supplier = furnizor liabilities = datorii / obligaţii către terţi current liabilities = datorii pe termen scurt long-term liabilities = datorii pe termen lung taxation payable = impozite de plătit long-term borrowings = împrumuturi pe termen lung mortgage = ipotecă to own = a deţine to owe = a datora 3. money expected to arrive g. d. assets 3. TESTE DE EVALUARE 1. Say whether these statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the text: a. Tangible assets are part of fixed assets. everything a company owes e. Authorizations can be obtained from the lion. e.3. take money from an account c. liabilities 4. Current liabilities must be paid in a year’s time. make a withdrawal 8. b. Fixed assets can be easily converted into cash. liquid assets 3. staff h. accounts payable 6. c. In accounting.000 euros.000 euros to start his fitness center. 2. personnel 2. documents b. the resources of a company are called assets. The rabbit needs 100. Complete the following table: Verb to save Noun rent authorization patent to supply to pay a. h. so he goes to the forest accountant and financial consultant (the owl) to lend him some money. Match the following words with their explanations in the column on the right: 1.

Make up sentences with at least 5 words in the vocabulary section. era ieri aici pe birou. Have they gone to the bank yet? 5. 17 . va trebui să găseşti o altă soluţie. Jane needs to seek the advice of a financial consultant in this matter. 5. Poţi să retragi o sumă considerabilă din contul tău. 4. Practice (II) Do you think it is safe to keep money in a bank? Motivate your answer. 3. L-ai luat tu? 2. trei case în afara oraşului şi două apartamente. Write a short dialogue in which you talk to the credit officer. 4. 7. Familia lor deţine 50 de ha de pământ. În curând va trebui să închiriem un alt spaţiu de depozitare.4. însă data viitoare când vei avea nevoie de bani. 8. We can’t afford to stay in this building. 2. Practice (I) You are at a bank in your town. În acest depozit este foarte multă marfă. 5. The rent for this apartment is too high for our family. Acum nu îl mai găsesc. Translate into English: 1. cel cu documente. Translate into Romanian: 1. Ask for a loan. Dosarul roşu. Her son told me he would like to become a successful banker when he grows up. I should be able to save some money this month. 6. 3. Tatăl meu mi-a spus să nu mai fac un alt împrumut la bancă deoarece am deja multe datorii.

employees. corporations.tipurile de societăţi comerciale. he kept dreaming about figures. Peter. profit.PRINCIPALELE TIPURI DE SOCIETĂŢI COMERCIALE UNIT 4 . Peter went home where. They played all the games that kids their age normally do. like all normal kids. income. marketing strategies. but unlike any ordinary kids. he hid one or two little pieces of wood 18 . He really loved to play with the little boys and girls in his street. and then he went outside to play with his friends. had a normal life: he went to school every day. he did his homework. His father was a carpenter and Peter helped him from time to time. REZUMAT Această lecţie cuprinde vocabularul folosit la prezentarea tipurilor de societăţi comerciale cu terminologia necesară. And so he thought: Why do I keep dreaming about figures? It must be because I’d like to have my own little business.MAIN TYPES OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS ~ A Little Entrepreneur ~ OBIECTIVE Însuşirea terminologiei englezeşti care face referire la: . He was too young to understand these things. What do I know about business? And then he thought about everything he had heard the grownups talk about when it came to business: loans from the bank. he had an extraordinary dream: he dreamed of having his own business.1. and which were only used as firewood. he dreamed… And strangely.evidenţierea asemănărilor şi deosebirilor dintre acestea. the children would go to the movies or the circus. 4.recunoaşterea abrevierilor în limba engleză a tipurilor de societăţi comerciale. But from time to time. Those were unhappy times for Peter because he came from a poor family and his parents could merely provide food and shelter and they could not afford to give him any money.TEMA 4 . So every time he went to help his father. But I’m just a kid. Peter was just an ordinary kid. he had an idea: he was going to make and sell toys. when they got bored of playing the same old games. . He really loved mathematics and everything about numbers. turnover… Nothing made sense. So whenever his friends went to the movies or the circus. sales. în limba engleză. . He thought of all the little pieces of wood that were left after a door or a window or a table was made. READING & SPEAKING Once upon a time there was a little boy named Peter. all by himself in his room. There must be some easier way for me to have my business… And then one day. stockholders.

Time went by and Peter made more and more beautiful and interesting toys. A month went by and the other kids were wondering what was going on with Peter because he didn’t go out to play anymore.Listen kids! Can you stop playing with my toys just one afternoon? I’d really like to go to the movies! ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. Why couldn’t Peter go to the movies or the circus with his friends? 3. Peter became a prosperous little businessman. What was his father’s job? 6. How long did it take him to produce his first series of wooden toys? 8. What were the things about business that he had heard grownups talk about? 4. And every night. he went back into the workshop and practiced. Now all he wanted was to do something he couldn’t do before: . and went outside. What was his idea? 5. So he took a big box. Where did he hide the little pieces of wood? 7. put them all inside. It was a magical moment: his friends were so surprised that they couldn’t breathe.behind an old bench in the workshop. But that was Peter’s secret: he spent every afternoon in his room drawing sketches for his toys and a few hours every night making them in his father’s workshop. But at the end of that month. What was Peter’s extraordinary dream? 2. His friends bought them and played with them and never got bored again. What was the only thing left for him to do once he had enough money? 19 . he finally had his first series of wooden toys. He gathered all his friends around the box and opened it. after his family went to sleep.

Inc. Say whether these statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the text: a. BASIC VOCABULARY Main types of business organizations SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP PARTNERSHIP CORPORATION corporation = corporaţie partnership = parteneriat sole proprietorship = societate cu asociat unic Common abbreviations used in English company names: plc = public limited company = S. 20 . TESTE DE EVALUARE 1. b.S. afaceri businessman = om de afaceri businesswoman = femeie de afaceri business people = oameni de afaceri business partner = partener de afaceri figures = cifre loan = împrumut shareholders / stockholders = acţionari shares = acţiuni employer = angajator employee = angajat marketing strategy = strategie de marketing to sell = a vinde sale = vânzare to purchase = a achiziţiona purchase = achiziţie profit = profit income = venit turnover = cifră de afaceri 4.A.3.L.R.A.2. Ltd = limited liability = S. Peter’s parents didn’t give him any money even if they were wealthy.) = incorporated = corporaţie constituită legal business = afacere. (U. Peter was always busy doing homework and he never went out to play.4.

The head of the company has appointed a new marketing chief. 5. profit 7. plc a. Noun purchase 21 . One day. person that hires people c. În momentul de faţă. În ultima perioadă în România veniturile au crescut. Their partnership seems to be quite productive up to the present. g. Translate into Romanian: 1. 6. business partner 2. 4. numbers e. f. 5. Cifra de afaceri a societăţii noastre s-a dublat în ultimii cinci ani. public limited company h. shareholders 4. Peter made toys every night. Peter came up with the idea to make and sell toys. 4. Match the following words with their explanations in the column on the right: 1. Acesta este partenerul nostru de afaceri din străinătate. 2. d. They have to come up with an innovative marketing strategy for this project. e. income 8. revenues minus expenses b. 2. This year figures show a 10% increase on last year. Translate into English: 1. Complete the following table: Verb to sell to employ 4. employee 6. people that hold shares in a company g. person being hired d. Peter had only one thing left to do: he wanted to go to the movies. figures 3. The kids soon got bored of playing with Peter’s toys. money resulted from a job.c. During a whole month. 3. este din ce în ce mai greu să obţii un împrumut de la bancă. employer 5. dar nu şi puterea de cumpărare. 5. 3. Peter hid the little pieces of wood behind a closet in his father’s workshop. business associate f. The shares have increased almost 15% in value. 2. a business etc. Peter’s dreams were always related to numbers. În cadrul firmei noastre există o strânsă legătură profesională între angajator şi angajaţi. 3. We really need to purchase new pieces of furniture for the office downtown. h.

6. Practice (II) Write a short dialogue in which you try to convince your colleague and friend that he/she is the right person to apply for the department head position in the company you work for. 8. Practice (I) What would be some of the skills needed in order to become a successful businessman? Write at least 5 lines. 7. 22 . Make up sentences with at least 5 words in the vocabulary section.

Introducerea.TEMA 5 . there was a faraway kingdom. carefully planning all activities and than taking all the right steps in order to achieve that goal. READING & SPEAKING Once upon a time. our king was indeed very kind to his subjects. Not long ago. he asked all department heads for details regarding their department’s activity: King: What do we have here? 23 . DEBIT AND CREDIT ~ The King’s Shoes Factory ~ OBIECTIVE .CONTUL. While visiting. the king had ordered the opening of a new shoes factory. According to the wise king and his advisors. REZUMAT Lecţia cuprinde o scurtă descriere a activităţii curente din cadrul unei fabrici. 5. însuşirea şi utilizarea termenilor englezeşti referitori la cont şi structura sa (debit şi credit). It was the kingdom of a very wise and kind king. even if shoes had always been the privilege of the court and the nobles. but during workdays everybody needed to be as efficient as possible. as he decided that no one in his kingdom should walk barefoot. Yes. DEBIT ŞI CREDIT UNIT 5 . precum şi a celor legaţi de diferitele departamente din cadrul unei fabrici. Three months had gone by since the opening and the king decided to pay them a visit to see how things were going. but only on one condition: no one was allowed to be lazy.THE ACCOUNT. They could all rest on Sundays and holidays. efficiency was the result of the process of setting a goal. prezentând succinct responsabilităţile aferente diferitelor departamente.1.

King: And how do you actually register something into an account? Chief accountant: You see. King: What can you tell me about your department’s activity? Marketing department head: Everything is going according to the plan. And you? Are you working efficiently? Chief accountant: Yes. King: I see. please. 4. What was the wise king’s mandatory requirement? What kind of factory was opened on the king’s orders? Why? What did they keep in the warehouse? How many workers did the factory have and how much did they produce daily? 5. I want all of you to do your job the best way you can. King: Now get out of my face! And where’s the marketing department head and the chief accountant? Marketing department head: I’m here. Thank you for giving me another opportunity to make things right. Your Majesty. King: You don’t have the know-how?!? Where’s the research department head? Research department head: I’m here. Your Majesty. 3. Your Majesty.Production department head: This is the warehouse where we keep the raw material for our shoes. We have registered everything in the appropriate accounts. This is where we make the endproducts. get back to work! All of you! ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. King: What am I hearing? Why haven’t you? Production department head: We don’t have the know-how. Here we are. King: You have one week to come up with a solution or your head is going to fall! I hope this is the last time I’m hearing about importing anything from our neighbors! We should export to them! Research department head: I understand. That’s an order! And now. Who did the king put in charge of finding a solution? 24 . King: That’s really good to hear. And where is it that you actually make them? Production department head: Follow me. there are basically two sides of an account: the debit side and the credit side. Your Majesty. 2. King: But why do I see only men’s shoes? On my way here I stopped by the store and there were also women’s shoes! Production department head: You see. Your Majesty. There are inputs and outputs… King: Say no more! I’m feeling a bit tired. Your Majesty. Our marketing strategy has proved to be successful and sales are beyond all expectations. I’ll be back in a week and I really want to find everything right. Why did the king only see men’s shoes? 6. We have 200 workers so far and we are currently producing 50 pairs a day. we are importing those from the neighboring kingdom because we haven’t been able to produce them so far. from raw material to the endproduct.

The left side of the account is called the debit side and the right one is called the credit side. What has the chief accountant registered in the appropriate accounts? 8. Debit and Credit Each account accumulates information about both increases and decreases from various business transactions.2.7. efficient = eficient efficiency = eficienţă goal = scop. BASIC VOCABULARY The Account. What are the two sides of an account? 5. scop target group = grup ţintă department = departament department head = şef de departament raw material = materie primă endproduct = produs finit worker = muncitor import = import to import = a importa imports = mărfuri de import. exporturi export license = licenţă de export exporter = exportator marketing strategy = strategie de marketing research = cercetare chief accountant = contabil şef account = cont debit = debit debit account = cont debitor 25 . ţel target = ţintă. importuri import duty = taxă de import import license = licenţă / autorizaţie de import importer = importator export = export to export = a exporta exports = marfă de export. The basic format of an account is called a ‘T-account’ because it looks like the letter T. The left (debit) and the right (credit) side of each account are used for recording the monetary information from transactions.

target g. In the marketing department things were going great. d. The king made his subjects work on Sundays and holidays. c. The raw material was kept in the factory’s warehouse. 2. what we use in order to manufacture a product h. g. A shoes factory was opened on the king’s orders because he didn’t want anyone in his kingdom to walk barefoot. f. authorization to sell products abroad b. end product 4.3. chief accountant 8. A number of fifty workers produced two hundred pairs of shoes a day. the final item that will be sold on the market d. The king wanted some details from the chief accountant about registering information into an account. Match the following words with their explanations in the column on the right: 1. authorization to buy products from abroad e. efficient a. raw material 3. h. goal 2. After two months the king went to visit the factory. export license 7. Say whether these statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the text: a. TESTE DE EVALUARE 1. import license 6. The factory exported women’s shoes to the neighboring kingdom. b. Complete the following table: Noun Adjective efficient exported to import Verb to produce 26 . head of the accounting department c. productive f.debit amount = sumă debitoare debit balance = sold debitor credit = credit credit account = cont creditor credit balance = sold creditor input = intrare output = ieşire input-output instruction = instrucţiune de intrare-ieşire input-output routine = rutină de intrare-ieşire input-output overlap = simultaneitate de intrare-ieşire 5. import duty 5. amount of money paid when someone buys products from abroad 3. e.

Este esenţial să ne îndeplinim scopurile pentru a avea o carieră de succes. 7. 2. Marfa de export se află în cel mai mare depozit al companiei. It is very important that you find the most efficient way to work this out. 3. Make up sentences with at least 5 words in the vocabulary section. 4. 3.Practice (I) You are offered the opportunity to take charge of the department in the place you work for two weeks.Practice (II) Describe a regular day at your job. 5. care este situat în afara oraşului. 8.4. Write at least 10 lines. Contabilul şef de la fabrica părinţilor mei şi-a luat o săptămână de concediu medical. Translate into English: 1. 27 . Translate into Romanian: 1. Would you accept/decline the proposal? Motivate your answer. This marketing strategy doesn’t seem to work very well at the moment. Tu eşti cel care s-a ocupat de noul proiect de cercetare? Ai făcut o treabă excelentă. It is an urgent matter. Firma noastră este unic importator al acestei mărci. How much money have you got in your bank account? 2. 5. I need to speak to your department head immediately. 4. 5. Those workers have to wear their uniforms during working hours. 6.

6. Bill: I understand. very competent and charismatic at the same time. why are you interested in making a loan? Bill: I own an advertising and PR agency that is going really well and that’s why I’d like to open a second one. Bill: I’m afraid I haven’t got any of them on me. Unfortunately. Loan officer: I see. Despite his young age. but I’ll call my accountant. while he was working on an important politician’s campaign.THE BALANCE SHEET ~ Expanding ~ OBIECTIVE . you must be aware that first of all we need to check your credit-worthiness. He’s had an advertising and PR agency for over a year now and since things seem to be working just fine.TEMA 6 . he finally arrived at the bank and now he’s talking to the loan officer: Loan officer: So tell me Mr. he is thinking about expanding.BILANŢUL CONTABIL UNIT 6 . Jack Crosby. there weren’t any open positions left at his agency. That’s when it hit him: it was about time to expand! So he decided to open a second agency and now he’s going to the bank hoping to get a credit. interest rate and everything else right now? 28 .Însuşirea cuvintelor şi expresiilor folosite la întocmirea bilanţului contabil în limba engleză. About two months ago. Loan officer: All right. What would you like me to do? Loan officer: You need to bring us a balance sheet and a trial balance for examination. So he decided to give this young man a chance and offer him a job. Well. he came across a very talented young man. Bill found Crosby extremely experienced. After a couple of hours in the crazy afternoon traffic. READING & SPEAKING Bill Grady is on his way to the bank.1. REZUMAT Această lecţie include cuvintele şi expresiile uzuale pe care le conţine un bilanţ contabil cu o structură specifică. Grady. Would you like me to explain the terms and conditions of the credit. sir. and charisma is one of the most important qualities required by this kind of work.

3.primele legate de capital 29 . sir.intangible assets . 8.liquid assets LIABILITIES ● owner’s equity . Have a nice day! Bill: Thank you! You too! ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. Loan officer: Very well. 7. 6. I’ll get in touch with my accountant and we’ll discuss everything when I come back. 5.debts / debits receivable . Where is Bill Grady going? What business does he own? What does he want to do? Who is Jack Crosby? Who does Bill talk to at the bank? What does the bank need to check? What does Bill need to bring back to the bank? Who will he contact to take care of the matter? 6.share capital .imobilizări corporale . I’ll be expecting you.shares/ stocks held in other companies ● current assets .stocuri .share premiums Bilanţul contabil ACTIV ● active imobilizate .imobilizări necorporale .stock . BASIC VOCABULARY The Balance Sheet ASSETS ● fixed assets . but that won’t be necessary for the time being.2.tangible assets .Bill: Thank you. 2.imobilizări financiare (acţiuni deţinute la alte societăţi) ● active circulante .mijloace circulante care generează creanţe . 4.capital social / capital în acţiuni .mijloace băneşti PASIV ● capitaluri proprii .

Bill Grady owns a PR and advertising agency.provizioane reglementate .datorii faţă de asociaţi / dividende advertising = publicitate PR = public relations = relaţii publice agency = agenţie to expand = a se extinde campaign = campanie open position = post liber credit = credit loan officer = ofiţer de credite credit-worthiness = solvabilitate balance sheet = bilanţ contabil trial balance = balanţă contabilă interest = dobândă interest rate = rata dobânzii 6.social liabilities (social security furnizori) .datorii pe termen scurt .rezerve din reevaluare .3.datorii fiscale (către bugetul .short-term credits .credite bancare pe termen scurt .datorii sociale (plata .datorii comerciale (către .provizioane pentru riscuri şi . c. Bill Grady met Jack Crosby at a cocktail. TESTE DE EVALUARE 1. 30 .reserve / surplus fund .datorii pe termen lung şi mediu .fond de rezervă .revaluation funds . Jack lacks charisma.result ● dues or liabilities .provisions for risk and cheltuieli expenditure .tax liabilities (to the state asigurărilor sociale) budget) .financial / long and mediumterm liabilities .credite bancare pe termen lung şi mediu .trade credit (to suppliers) .rezultatul activităţii (exerciţiului) .current / short-term liabilities .salaries (to employees) .dividends statului) . b.datorii salariale (către salariaţi) payments) .provisions according to rules and regulations . Say whether these statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the text: a..long and medium-term credits ● datorii sau obligaţii .

My husband works as a PR manager. Mr. I called at the bank yesterday in order to set up a meeting with the loan officer. liquid assets 4. Match the following words with their explanations in the column on the right: 1. share capital 3. Translate into English: 1. active imobilizate h. but there are no open positions in his agency. Are there any open positions in your department? 5. mijloace băneşti 31 . 5. 4. Mr. va trebui să apeleze la serviciile unei agenţii de publicitate. tangible assets 5. capital social g. Grady needs a financial consultant in order to obtain these documents.d. g. Complete the following table: Verb to advertise to discuss 4. Grady is on his way to the bank to try to obtain a credit. Este momentul oportun ca firma noastră să se extindă. f. fond de rezervă b. intangible assets 2. current liabilities 7. e. 2. imobilizări corporale f. reserve / surplus fund 6. I need to go to a travel agency today because I’m interested in their offers for a trip to Scotland. primele legate de capital d. Bilanţul contabil se depune la Administraţia Finanţelor Publice. Care este dobânda pentru un depozit la termen? 2. 4. imobilizări necorporale e. datorii pe termen scurt c. At the bank he doesn’t find a loan officer to talk to. fixed assets 3. Noun expansion explanation a. Translate into Romanian: 1. Pentru lansarea noului produs. 2. He would very much enjoy working in advertising. 5. as he is extremely talkative and versatile. h. I think this is the most suitable job for him. Bill Grady wants to hire Jack. The loan officer tells Mr. Familia lui Paul are deja trei credite la bancă. 3. 3. Grady to bring a balance sheet and a trial balance. share premiums 8.

8. politician. interest. to expand. Make up sentences with the following words and phrases: campaign. Work in pairs. Practice Do you think it is hard to work in PR? Motivate your answer. and chance. 7. charisma. work.6. Find at least a synonym for: competent. 32 . Use your dictionaries. necessary. quality.

. and yet he gets paid every month.alte surse de venit. I think I’d like to be like grandpa when I grow up.” “But can’t we have a pension if we don’t work? ‘Cause Paul’s mother also has a pension and she isn’t old and I don’t think she’s ever had a job?!” 33 . impozit.INCOME ~ “Money for nothing” ~ OBIECTIVE Introducerea terminologiei englezeşti în legătură cu: . takes me to the park or the playground from time to time. he stays home all day. 7. READING & SPEAKING Little Jane is in the living room.” “Your grandfather used to work too. “bothering” her father again. She is 13 and we all know that’s the age of endless questions… Now she is wondering about what she could do as a grown-up in terms of work and income. “Daddy.TEMA 7 .” “What do you mean?” “Well.VENITURI UNIT 7 . taxe. reads his newspaper. REZUMAT Lecţia are în vedere însuşirea vocabularului englezesc referitor la diferitele surse de venit. But when he got old he retired.1. And when people retire they receive a pension. you know.venit.

But I’m a lawyer and what I receive in exchange for my professional services is called a fee.” “We’ll see about that. I do. study hard and choose a profession. 6. mom’s friend? She also doesn’t work but she has a big house and a super car. 4.” “Do you receive one?” “No.” ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. People with disabilities also receive pensions. 7.” “Martha was just lucky. 5. 8.” “And Martha.” “How about uncle Tom? He doesn’t work but he’s got a lot of money!” “Well. He patented two of his inventions and now he lives on royalties. Nobody else can use your invention unless you allow them to and you get paid whenever your invention is used.” “You mean. BASIC VOCABULARY INCOME income = venit per capita income = venit pe cap de locuitor guaranteed minimum income = venitul minim garantat income adjusted for inflation = venit ajustat în funcţie de inflaţie income statement (USA) / profit and loss account (UK) = contul de profit şi pierdere income tax = impozit pe venit 34 . you know. Mommy does. Who does little Jane want to be like when she grows up? Why? What happens to people when they get old and don’t work anymore? Why does Paul’s mother receive a pension? How does Uncle Tom earn his money? How about Martha? What do people that have a job receive every month? How do we call the money paid to a lawyer for his services? What does little Jane wish for? 7.2. you receive a certificate from the authorities. he’s like a king or something? And what is that.” “But don’t you earn any money?” “Yes. just in case we don’t become as wealthy as Martha’s family. That’s what we call royalty. 3. She inherited a fortune. but a healthy person needs to work. Paul’s mother is ill and that’s why she can’t work. I don’t. She comes from a wealthy family. I hope you’ll get really rich so that one day I can inherit a fortune just like Martha. 2. But meanwhile you’ll need to do all of your homework. But a normal. ‘patented’?” “When you patent an invention. which acknowledges you as the author of that invention. healthy adult has to work for a salary.” “Well.” “What is a salary?” “It’s money people receive every month for the work they do.“Well honey. uncle Tom is an inventor.

TESTE DE EVALUARE 1. f. Lawyers and doctors receive a fee in exchange of their professional services. c. pe zi sau în funcţie de cantitatea de muncă depusă. Jane’s father tells her to go and do her homework for the following day. Say whether these statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the text: a. g. Match the following words with their explanations in the column on the right: 35 . medici etc. h. 2. Tim. pensionar pension = pensie to patent = a patenta / a breveta patent = brevet patentee = titularul brevetului royalty = drepturi de autor job = slujbă to earn / make money = a câştiga bani to pay = a plăti pay / payment = plată pay-day = ziua de salariu payroll = state de plată / salarii salary = salariu wages = plăţi efectuate săptămânal (câteodată zilnic) şi de obicei cash. People who retire and people with disabilities receive a pension. Little Jane would like her parents to make a fortune for her to inherit. Little Jane would like to be like her grandfather when she grows up because he has a good job. b. d. A salary is money a person receives for his/her work at the end of each month. is an inventor. 7. reprezintă venitul obţinut de avocaţi. e. Jane’s uncle.3. calculate pe oră.income tax allowance = deducere / reducere la impozitul pe venit re-payment of income tax = rambursarea impozitului pe venit to work = a munci work = muncă to retire = a se pensiona retirement = pensionare a retired person / pensioner = persoană aflată la pensie. Martha is the heiress of a wealthy family. se adresează de regulă muncitorilor fee = onorariu.

he looks absolutely exhausted. 4. job 3. pay-day 5. profession 3. 4. royalty and fee. pension a. Every day he gets up at 5 in the morning. 5.Translate into Romanian: 1. to give money for a product / service b. payday. Maria’s husband works 8 hours a day during weekdays and sometimes 4 hours during the weekends. income 2. Este evident că tu eşti următorul care va fi promovat în acest departament. patentee 8. I don’t think Jerry likes his job very much. 3. Nowadays it’s very hard to earn a lot of money. money a lawyer receives in exchange for his professional services h. Vom organiza o petrecere de pensionare pentru directorul nostru. How much did you get paid for your work? 5. to make money. to pay 6. an older person that doesn’t work anymore f. He worked 40 years in a big law firm in Bucharest. Her father retired when he turned 65. Make up sentences with the following words and phrases: income. a retired person 7.Translate into English: 1. 5. fee 4. monthly payment to people after ending their professional activity d. 3. the date of the month when people receive their salaries c. 6. 2. Noun patent 36 . when he comes home in the evening. 2. Bunicul meu primeşte o pensie în valoare de 900 de lei pe lună. Complete the following table: Verb to work to retire to pay 4.1. Majoritatea pensionarilor din ţara noastră consideră că ar trebui să primească mai mulţi bani. owner of a patent g. earned money e. Am obţinut o mărire de salariu de 50%.

professional. 8. Work in pairs. Find at least a synonym for: invention.7. 37 . Practice Talk about various professions (advantages – disadvantages) in the business field. fortune. Use your dictionaries. patent. job.

no matter what source it comes from: salary. here in the U. Seymour: Well. I am here to talk to you about taxes. REZUMAT Această lecţie îşi propune studierea vocabularului englezesc legat de diferitele tipuri de taxe şi impozite. Mr. impozit. For instance. I know that you are still young and you may not yet be acquainted with the taxation system. And then there are roads and public areas also built on money from the state budget. Robby: What are dividends? 38 .1. a teacher from a British school has brought a guest to her class to discuss taxes. Jones said. Seymour: The state budget is used by the government to provide citizens certain services. they will all tell you that they have to pay taxes. READING & SPEAKING This morning. contribuţie. Alice: But why should there be a state budget? Mr. Class: Good morning Mr. Paul Seymour. state schools and hospitals are working on money provided by the state budget.Fixarea înţelesului termenilor: taxă. Teacher: Good morning children! Class: Good morning teacher! Teacher: Today we have a special guest among us.Însuşirea terminologiei englezeşti referitoare la diferite tipuri de taxe şi impozite. but they actually benefit from that money. return on investments etc. This is Mr. but if you ask any of your parents about it. and he is here to tell us about taxes.TEMA 8 . And sometimes they even might consider taxes a burden. în limba engleză. dividends. . Sarah: But how does the state actually collect the money? Mr. Paul: So people pay taxes. You see. the purpose of a taxation system is to collect revenue for the state budget. Seymour: Good morning kids! As Mrs. Jim: Then why do they have to pay them? Mr. Alice: I see. each adult person has the obligation to prepare a personal tax return of his income. Jack’s father. that’s just the way things work and I’ll explain why. That’s how the system works.TAXELE UNIT 8 . Seymour: Exactly.K.TAXES ~ An Interesting Lesson ~ OBIECTIVE . Seymour! Mr. Seymour: Well. 8.

Seymour: Yes. Class: Thank you. Seymour: You see. countries where taxation is less severe. Seymour: They are submitted to the tax authorities and they establish the income tax to be paid. And if there are any questions left. Jack: So what happens to those returns? Mr. 4. 5. Why has the teacher brought a guest? Why do people pay taxes? What does each person have the obligation to prepare? What do companies pay? When do we pay the value added tax? 39 . such as property tycoons. So what about companies? Do they pay taxes? Mr. I’d be happy to come back another day. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. Seymour: Of course they do. Mr. there are. There are. Seymour: The value added tax is paid when you buy goods or services. called shareholders. the value added tax or the excise duty. So let’s thank Mr. Teacher: I’m sorry to interrupt this interesting discussion.K. Mr. for instance. called tax havens. but the class is almost over. 2. Here in the U. famous artists or sportsmen choose to settle there. if a company makes a profit. That’s why sometimes people with high incomes.Mr. Will: And what are those? Mr. We have. Seymour: It was my pleasure. 3. Robby: What if people don’t declare their income and just don’t pay taxes? Mr. Seymour: That is called tax evasion and is punished by the law. Seymour. however. while the excise duty is paid on the purchase of tobacco or alcohol. it has to pay the people who own shares in that company. Sally: My father owns a company. And dividends are what we call these payments to shareholders. Will: So that’s all? Are there any other kinds of taxes? Mr. Seymour for this valuable lesson. they pay what we call a corporation tax.

contribuţie to tax = a taxa. What happens when people don’t pay taxes? 8. What do we call the places where taxation is less severe? 8. BASIC VOCABULARY Taxes tax = impozit. When do we pay the excise duty? 7. a impozita taxation = impozitare taxable = impozabil income tax = impozit pe venit profits tax = impozit pe profit taxes and dues = impozite şi taxe tax in kind = impozit în natură tax on capital = impozit pe capital tax on turnover / turnover tax = impozit pe cifra de afaceri road tax = taxă de drumuri corporation tax (U.6.2.K) = impozit corporativ / pe corporaţii tax collector = perceptor tax exemption = scutire de impozite tax free / exempt = scutit de impozite / de taxe vamale tax haven = paradis fiscal tax liabilities = obligaţii fiscale tax payer = contribuabil tax year = an fiscal tax holiday = vacanţă fiscală tax avoidance = evitare a impozitelor (licită) tax evasion = evaziune fiscală personal tax return = declaraţie personală de impozit land tax = impozit funciar direct tax / taxation = impozit direct indirect tax / taxation = impozit indirect dividend = dividend dividend tax = impozit pe dividende capital gains tax = impozit pe veniturile realizate din capital inheritance tax = taxă pe moştenire value added tax (VAT) = taxa pe valoare adăugată excise duty = acciză customs duty = impozit vamal additional tax = impozit suplimentar social security tax = impozit de asigurări sociale back duty = impozit restant current taxation = impozitare curentă taxable base / tax base = bază de impozitare taxation brackets = grilă de impozitare tax rebate = rambursare a unei părţi a impozitului achitat 40 . taxă.

g. Shareholders receive dividends. an fiscal 41 . People who don’t report their income and don’t pay taxes can be accused of tax evasion. 2. Do I have any additional taxes to pay? 4. The value added tax is paid on the purchase of tobacco and alcohol. impozit în natură d. tax evasion 3. TESTE DE EVALUARE 1. There are certain special situations in which several people could be tax-free. The state budget collects money from taxes.8. tax in kind 4. people only talk about taxes and dues. tax liabilities 7. Her business associate had a very hectic day at the office. tax year 6. Paul Seymour came to talk to the children about taxes. Nowadays. income tax 2. tax collector 3. e. Complete the following table: Verb to tax to avoid to evade 4. f. Translate into Romanian: 1. h. c. He arrived there at 9 o’clock in the morning and he only got home by 8 o’clock in the evening. d. customs duty 8. obligaţii fiscale c. Noun collector evasion a. preceptor g.3. tax payer 5. evaziune fiscală e. contribuabil h. 3. impozit pe venit f. impozit vamal b. Mr. In Great Britain companies don’t pay any taxes. 2. Is he required reimbursing the inheritance tax? 5. b. Tax havens are places where taxation is very high. Mr. Say whether these statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the text: a. Match the following words with their explanations in the column on the right: 1. Seymour is not available to come back and continue the discussion.

5. 4. Toţi contribuabilii au obligaţia de a depune declaraţia personală de venit la Administraţia Finanţelor Publice. 2. Use your dictionaries. Find at least a synonym for: tax. 8. budget. Work in pairs. duty. TVA-ul de plătit se virează la buget până in data de 25 a lunii următoare. taxable. Accizele reprezintă un impozit indirect. social. 7. 6. 42 . Impozitul pe profit se plăteşte trimestrial. 5. Insulele Cayman sunt un paradis fiscal. Practice Why do you think taxes in our country are so high? Motivate your answer. 3. Make up sentences with at least 5 words in the vocabulary section. Translate into English: 1.

Însuşirea vocabularului referitor la contul de profit şi pierdere.” “Well.PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT ~ Investment matters ~ OBIECTIVE . Grey is an American billionaire. Now he is thinking about investing some of his money in European companies. They are part of the wellknown Inter Safe investment trust.1. Last year he came second in an important magazine’s ranking of the wealthiest people. Mr. READING & SPEAKING Mr. The best one I know is Inter Safe. So here he is now in Mr. . I’m not very familiar with the European market so I really don’t know what kind of investments would bring me the most significant financial return. REZUMAT Această lecţie urmăreşte familiarizarea cu vocabularul englezesc legat de contul de profit şi pierdere.” 43 . LeBlanc’s office: “Tell me. As he doesn’t really know how things work on the European market. what kind of companies would you like to invest capital in?” “Well. which has a very impressive investment portfolio.CONTUL DE PROFIT ŞI PIERDERE UNIT 9 . 9. Grey. that’s what I came to you about. He is a reputed magnate in the oil field with an estimated fortune of 11 billion dollars. could you recommend me a good one?” “Of course.TEMA 9 .” “In this case I advise you to go to an investment company.Cunoaşterea şi folosirea corectă a terminologiei specifice în limba engleză. he needs the advice of a European investment analyst.

Who is Mr. Joseph LeBlanc about this matter. See you on Tuesday!” * * * “So tell me. He recommended your investment company and he gave me your number.” ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. Mrs. Just tell her you’re calling from my part. 4. Mr. Have a nice day!” “You too. I talked to Mr. you are interested in the bottom line of the company’s profit and loss account because your decision to put money into the business depends on the expected return on your investment. 5. Let’s see… I’m free on Tuesday from 2 to 6 pm and I think I might also be able to find a couple of hours on Friday at noon.” “And what is this profit and loss account actually?” “It is one of the schedules to a balance sheet. Mrs. Schneider. Schneider. My name is Edward Gray. Schneider. which provides information on the performance of a company over a specified period of time. 6. Grey. Let’s make an appointment. Grey? How big is his fortune? What has he decided to do? Who does he turn to for advice? What is Mr. Grey call and why? 44 . Thank you. Mr. 3.” “Thank you. Mrs. I come from the United States and I’m willing to invest in Europe. 2. This is Mrs. what is the first thing I should be looking at before deciding to invest in a company?” “Well. Schneider’s card.” “Tuesday at 2 pm would be just fine. LeBlanc!” “You’re welcome!” * * * “Hello?” “Good afternoon. LeBlanc’s recommendation? Who does Mr. it shows you the profit or loss the company made. Do you think we could get together and come up with a good investment plan?” “Of course. Grey. Let me check my agenda first.“Do you have a telephone number of someone I could contact from Inter Safe?” “Yes. Feel free to call her anytime. Mr. And then by subtracting expenses from revenues. It basically summarizes the revenues and matches them against the expenses incurred in obtaining them. as a potential investor.

What does a profit and loss account provide? 8. If revenues equal expenses. the company is making zero profit. The profit or loss a company made is determined as follows: PROFIT = REVENUES .2. BASIC VOCABULARY The Profit and Loss Account Potential users of the information provided by the profit and loss account: .7.EXPENSES Therefore.POTENTIAL INVESTORS: They want to be as sure as possible that they will earn a good financial return as a result of their invested capital. to invest = a investi investor = investitor investment = investiţie to invest capital = a investi / a plasa capital invested capital = capital investit invested funds = fonduri investite investment analyst = analist în domeniul investiţiilor investment analysis = analiză a investiţiilor investment company = companie de investiţii investment trust = trust de investiţii investment fund = fond de investiţii investment income = venit din investiţii investment account = cont de investiţii investment portfolio = portofoliu de investiţii investment bank = bancă de investiţii profit and loss account = contul de profit şi pierderi schedules to a balance sheet = anexe la bilanţul contabil profit = profit loss = pierdere / pierderi to incur expenses = a suporta cheltuieli to incur losses = a suferi pierderi to make a profit = a obţine profit gross profit = profit brut net profit = profit net 45 . How can we calculate the profit or loss a company made? 9.BANKS: When they are required to lend funds to a company. the company is making a profit. . they need to know if that company is profitable.MANAGERS: If a company is making a loss. If expenses exceed revenues. they will have to make the appropriate decisions at once to rectify the situation. . the company is making a loss. if revenues exceed expenses.

profit earning capacity = rentabilitate profit maximization = maximizarea profitului profit sharing = repartiţia profitului profits tax = impozitul pe profit income tax = impozitul pe venit bottom line = rezultat final revenues = venituri expenses = cheltuieli return on an investment = câştig de pe urma unei investiţii 9.3. TESTE DE EVALUARE 1. Say whether these statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the text: a. Mr. Grey is an American millionaire. b. Mr. Grey is now thinking about investing in Japanese companies. c. Looking for advice, Mr. Grey goes to a financial analyst. d. Inter Safe is an investment company that is part of the Inter Safe investment trust. e. Mr. LeBlanc doesn’t have Mrs. Schneider’s card. f. Mr. Grey makes an appointment with Mrs. Schneider for 2 a.m. on Tuesday. g. A potential investor should look first of all at the profit and loss account of a company. h. The profit and loss account basically shows whether the company made a profit or a loss. 2. Match the following words with their explanations in the column on the right: 1. invested capital 2. profit and loss account 3. net profit 4. investment portfolio 5. income tax 6. profit 7. investment trust 8. expenses a. a schedule to a balance sheet b. a group of investment companies c. revenues minus expenses d. money spent by a company in performing its economic activity e. tax paid on a company’s revenues f. money placed in a business in order to make a profit g. what is left to the company after paying a profits tax on the gross profit h. list of previous successful investments


3. Complete the following table: Verb to invest to expect 4. Translate into Romanian: 1. We have to recheck our expenses. Something is not right here. 2. I think you have made an excellent investment. Great job! 3. That is an investment bank. She has nothing to do there. 4. Hurry up! You’re going to be late for your appointment with the investment analyst! 5. He is known to be the most eccentric billionaire in the world. 5. Translate into English: 1. Am uitat complet de întâlnirea pe care o aveam astăzi la ora şase cu D-nul Mihăiescu de la banca de investiţii! 2. Aceasta este o chestiune de afaceri care nu te interesează deloc. 3. Ai citit articolul din Business Magazine despre cel mai prosper om de afaceri din România? 4. Doamna Peterson nu este la birou momentan; tocmai a plecat la o conferinţă în Londra. 5. Nu ştiu cum aş putea să trec peste această criză financiară fără ajutorul tău. 6. Make up sentences with the following words and phrases: to invest, profit, loss, revenues, income tax. 7. Work in pairs. Use your dictionaries. Find at least a synonym for: capital, analysis, schedule, portfolio and magnate. 8. Practice If you were extremely wealthy, where would you invest you money? Motivate your answer. Noun advice decision


~ A Busy Day at the Office ~ OBIECTIVE - însuşirea vocabularului în limba engleză specific actelor necesare în tranzacţiile de afaceri; - cunoaşterea documentelor necesare în vederea încheierii acestora. REZUMAT Lecţia îşi propune o scurtă introducere în limbajul de bază referitor la necesarul de documente în afaceri. 10.1. READING & SPEAKING Mr. Blake is in his office. He’s had a very busy day so far and he is finally “enjoying” his cold coffee that he didn’t find the time to drink in the morning. He is slowly beginning to feel less tense, so he leans back in his comfortable chair, his feet on top of the desk, when… well, his boss comes in:

Boss: William, have you sent the goods ordered by IncoTrust? Mr. Blake: Yes I have, sir. Boss: And have you filled in the invoice? Mr. Blake: Yes, sir. And I’ve already sent it. Boss: How many items did they order? Mr. Blake: Well, let me check. One hundred, sir. Boss: And did you offer a discount? Mr. Blake: I offered a 10 per cent discount for quick payment. Boss: So have they paid yet? Mr. Blake: No, not yet, sir. Boss: Well, when did you send the invoice? Mr. Blake: Yesterday. Boss: And how are they paying? 48

I’m actually in a mess right now and I have to fix it ASAP. William? Don’t you know that the new price is € 13? Mr. sir. I just called to see how you were doing. Bye! Mr. Blake explained everything. So how could he possibly know what to do? And now his mobile is ringing… Mr. What’s wrong? Mr. Blake is once again taking his comfortable position and he attempts to take a little sip of that cold coffee. sir. discount included? Mr. Boss: What were you thinking. Blake: I’m sorry. dear! It’s me. William. And the money is expected to be transferred to our account later today. How many items did IncoTrust order and how much is the total amount on the invoice? 49 . William! You must be aware of my heart problems at least… Mr. What’s wrong? So Mr. Boss: And what is the total amount on the invoice. I’m afraid not. Blake: € 12. And Jill… well. Blake: Thanks honey.250. see you later. Blake: I’m afraid I had no idea. This is his first week actually. sir. What does his boss ask him? 3. Blake: € 1. Wife: Well. No more peace and quiet for Mr. Blake: Hello? Wife: Hi.Mr. Where is Mr. she started laughing: Jill: There’s no problem! The boss is just messing with you because you’re the new guy. The boss is gone now so Mr. Boss: Very well. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. Blake: By money order. Blake: What do you mean. Boss: You had no idea?! Don’t mess with my nerves. Blake is now thinking. What to do? What to do? Luckily. Blake: Honey. Is everything OK? Mr. Blake? What is he doing? 2. and good luck! Mr. And he’s thinking hard. So here’s the simple solution: you’ll just send them a debit note for the extra € 50. Boss: I’m going out now but I want this fixed by the end of the day. dear. Jill. one of his colleagues.5. but… the boss bursts back in: Boss: William! Don’t you think the total amount is a little low for one hundred items? Mr. sir? Boss: Well. comes in: Jill: You look like crap William. how much did you charge per item? Mr. Blake… How can he fix this whole mess? He is the company’s most recent employee. Blake: I can’t talk right now but I’ll tell you all about it when I get home. sir. Wife: Sorry to hear that.

often together with the price ● quantity required ● signature of the person ordering the goods INVOICE . How much did Mr.it contains: ● name of the company sending the order ● name of the company that will supply the goods ● number of purchase order ● date ● full description of the goods. Who calls him next? Why? 7.it is prepared by the company who wishes to buy certain goods and sent to the company that will supply them . Who saves the day? 8. What is the simple solution? 10.it shows: ● the balance from the previous month (if any) ● money amounts of invoices (including VAT) sent out during the month ● amounts of money received during the month. together with cash 50 .it is prepared by the company who supplies the goods . What are the boss’s orders? 6.4. Blake charge per item and how much should he have charged? 5. BASIC VOCABULARY Business Documents PURCHASE ORDER . including any cash discount allowed for quick payment STATEMENT OF ACCOUNT .2.it is prepared by the supplier at regular intervals (often monthly) and summarizes the transactions (in date order) that have taken place on the customer’s account since the last statement .it contains: ● name and address of the seller ● name and address of the buyer ● date ● number of invoice ● customer’s order number ● details of the goods supplied ● unit cost of the goods supplied ● total cost of the goods supplied ● amount of trade discount allowed (if any) ● carriage charges (if applicable) ● terms of payment.

echilibru 2.discount allowed to the customer ● the amount of credit notes. sold. extras de cont 2. or the goods were charged at a lower price than they should have been .it is sent to the customer.shows the amount of money to be credited to the customer’s account DEBIT NOTE (U. including VAT ● the balance owing at the end of the month CREDIT NOTE (U. rest de plată balance due = sold debitor balance in hand = sold creditor credit note = notă de credit debit note = notă de debitare to issue = a emite issued = emis 51 .issued by the supplier . (aici) fişă cont client balance = 1.it is a proof or confirmation of a payment made purchase order = comandă de bunuri / mărfuri invoice = factură unit cost = cost pe unitate total cost = cost total trade discount = rabat comercial cash discount = reducere oferită pentru plată rapidă / în numerar carriage charges = costuri de expediere payment = plată terms of payment = termene de plată statement of account = 1.it is used when a supplier discovers that a customer has been undercharged (either the supplier has invoiced fewer goods than were supplied.) .K.it is issued by the customer and taken to the bank. balanţă.K. showing the amount of money that will be debited to his account. added to the amount already owing for the goods) MONEY ORDER .) .it is the opposite of the credit note . which will transfer the stated amount to the supplier’s account RECEIPT .it is used when a customer returns goods to a supplier .

a document issued by the customer and taken to the bank. the cost of one item 6. unit cost 5. Say whether these statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the text: a. Blake’s break is interrupted by one of his colleagues. e. Jill offers Mr. Blake’s wife calls him and tells him to come home ASAP. Mr. confirmation of a payment made g. receipt 4. but he hasn’t filled in the invoice yet. purchase order 2. f. which will transfer the stated amount to the supplier’s account h. Mr. to undercharge 7. money left to be paid d. Blake offered a 10% discount for quick payment. IncoTrust ordered two hundred items. Blake charged € 13 per item instead of € 12.3. Complete the following table: Verb to order Noun offer 52 . Blake a simple solution: to send IncoTrust a debit note. 2. Mr. g. money order 3. Blake has already sent the goods ordered by IncoTrust. to charge a lower price c. b. terms of payment 8. balance due 3. Mr. a document prepared by a company who wants to buy certain goods and sent to the company that will supply them f. c. TESTE DE EVALUARE 1. d.to charge = a stabili / a cere un preţ to undercharge = a cere un preţ mai mic decât ar fi trebuit money order = ordin de plată bank transfer = virament bancar to transfer money to an account = a vira bani într-un cont receipt = chitanţă to fill in = a completa item = articol ASAP = as soon as possible = cât de curând posibil 10. details regarding payment conditions e. Mr. as soon as possible b.5. IncoTrust will pay by money order in a couple of days. Match the following words with their explanations in the column on the right: 1. h. ASAP a.

Make up sentences with the following words and phrases: office. You have to come at the office ASAP! The boss needs the report right away. 3. Use your dictionaries. goods. Practice (II) What line of business would you like to work in? Motivate your choice of answer. Plata facturilor pentru achiziţiile de bunuri se poate face prin ordin de plată sau cu numerar. 7. We must reorganize our things. 53 .m. I can find anything in here! Where is the statement of account? 5. to undercharge. Translate into English: 1. trade. Translate into Romanian: 1. All of the items are mentioned in the purchase order on the table. customers. Find at least a synonym for: discount. Practice (I) Would you like to have your own business? Motivate your answer. Go and look for yourself! 5. 5. Conturile contabile pot avea solduri debitoare sau solduri creditoare. Plata obligaţiilor bugetare se face în conturile destinate fiecărei obligaţii în parte. 6. Pentru depunerea unei sume de bani în caserie.to know to laugh 4. price. 4. 2. document. Work in pairs. Pentru prestarea unui serviciu este obligatoriu a se emite beneficiarului factură. 2. 8. 9. 4. The amount was transferred to that account yesterday at 10 p. desk. Do I really need to fill in an application? 3. se emite obligatoriu o chitanţă. payment.

election 8. element c. Antonym of wealth: a. flaw 6. business 5. delivery 54 . ability b. Factory means: a. demand b. supply c. statement c. plant b. offer 7. proprietor c. restriction c. Delivery means: a. prosperity 3. talent c. secretary b.REVISION Choose the right answer: 1. Synonym for branch: a. Which is not a synonym for skill: a. Synonym for owner: a. poverty c. division b. Which is not a synonym for transaction: a. operation 2. possessions b. Which is not a synonym for shipment: a. attorney 4. deal b.

Personnel means: a. Synonym for banker: a. center of operations 15. approval c. investor 13. workers c. approach 55 .b. Antonym of authorization: a. manager c. sponsor b. interdiction 16. employees b. tactic c. evasion c. funds c. show 9. head office b. Amount means: a. load c. payer 11. subsidiary c. employers 14. plan b. part c. Price means: a. cost b. Strategy means: a. sum 10. investments b. permission b. Which is not a synonym for headquarters: a. Savings means: a. error b. reserves 12.

Antonym of income: a. load 19. commerce 21. request c. section b. unit c. member of staff c. revenue c. target 23.17. credit b. study b. objective b. Business means: a. Antonym of efficient: a. trade b. purpose c. boss 18. worker b. deposit 24. Goal means: a. Synonym for research: a. Department means: a. gain 20. advance c. subdivision 56 . Which is not a synonym for loan: a. bankruptcy c. resourceful c. incompetent b. professional 22. Employee means: a. expenditure b.

promotion b. Synonym for product: a. profit b. Interest means: a. merchandise c. presentation b. post c. organization 31. Which is not a synonym for pension: a. remuneration 57 . occupation b. house b. contraction b. wage c. distribution 28. loss c. gain 27. consolidation c. Salary means: a. Synonym for campaign: a. circumstance c. pay b. retirement fund b. confiscation 29. Synonym for agency: a. bank c. allowance c. negotiation 26.25. progress 30. Position means: a. Antonym of expansion: a. tax 32.

interest 34. financial statement b. job 35. employment b. corporation 37. Synonym for budget: a.33. test 39. magnate b. Inheritance means: a. Tycoon means: a. seasonal 58 . business c. industrialist 38. heritage 40. income c. legacy b. birthright c. Work means: a. occupation c. duty b. business person c. employee 36. charge b. Pensioner means: a. Which is not a synonym for social: a. communal c. worker c. Synonym for fee: a. tag c. retired person b. public b. Synonym for tax: a.

Which is not a synonym for capital: a.41. disbursement 45. trade 48. expenditure c. collection b. thing 47. article b. draft b. Synonym for company: a. acquisition b. Portfolio means: a. price cut c. cost b. assortment 43. timetable c. assets b. Synonym for schedule: a. Synonym for expense: a. resources c. corporation c. Item means: a. Discount means: a. calendar 44. piece c. markdown 59 . agenda b. sale c. Synonym for purchase: a. reduction b. market 42. range c. goods 46.

cash b. 60 . bureau 50. headquarters b. place of work c. capital. Synonym for office: a. currency c.49. Money means: a.

. .. Cox. Marcheteau. Dicţionar englez-român. Berman . Dansby. romanenglez. Augusta. Stallman. 2007 6. Bucureşti.Success in Book-Keeping & Accounts. Caciuc.. Niculescu. 2004 5. Boston.. Ed. Robert L. Prentice-Hall Inc. C. Ed. Bucureşti. Teora. Ed. Timişoara. Costea.College Accounting. John D.. Burton S. New Jersey. Ed. 1990 7. Strupeck. 1990 3. *** Oxford business. David . James C. 1989 4. 1990 2. Hodder Murray.BIBLIOGRAFIE 1. Năstăsescu.Dicţionar economic englez-român. Loren A. Simona . Teorie şi practică.Business & Economics. Violeta . Bucureşti. Nikolai. Pws-Kent Publishing Company. BIC ALL. 2007 61 . Kalister. Leonora.. Bazley. D.Principles of Accounting.Contabilitate. M.

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