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lecture # 1 Zygmunt SADOWSKI Wroclaw University of Technology Chemical Engineering
04.12 Friday 07.12 Monday Lecture #1 Lab. Lecture # 2 Lab.
09. 12 Wednes.
10. 12 Thurday 11. 12 Friday
Lecture # 3
Lecture # 4 Lecture #5
15. 12 Tuesday 16.12 Wedns.
Lecture # 8 Lecture #10
Lecture #9 Exam
Subject of lecture
1. Introduction to biohydrometallurgy 2. Microorganisms involved in bioleaching 3. Physical chemistry of bacterial leaching 4. Mechanism of bacterial oxidation 5. Bioleaching kinetics 6. Copper ores bioleaching 7. BIOXTM process 8. Post mining restoration of environment (Acid mine drainage) 9. Biosorption 10. Desulferization of coal and oil
Z.Sadowski. 5. „Biogeochemia. D.Jonson (Eds.Donati.Rawlings (Ed.wybrane zagadnienia”.) „Biomining” Springer 2007. Walfgang Sand „Microbial Processing of Metal Sulfides”. Giovanni Rossi „Biohydrometallurgy” McGraw-Hill Book Comany GmbH.W.Wroc.)„Biomining Theory.Rawling.E. 3. 2. 4. 2006 . 2007. Wydawnictwo P. Edgardo R. Microbes and Industrial Processes” Springer 1997. 1990.Books 1. D. Springer.E. B.
Definition • Bioleaching is the biological conversion of an insoluble metal compound into a water soluble form. • For bioleaching Bacteria and Archaea are used. • Bioleaching involves chemical and biological reactions. .
Ancient history of hydro.and biohydrometallurgy Roman writer Glius Plinus Secundus 23-79 A.D. Hydrometallurgical extraction of copper from ore and the precipitation of copper from the solution by treatment with metallic iron is an ancient technology . describes haw copper minerals are obtained using a leaching process.
History of biohydrometallurgy .
• 1947 Thiobacillus ferrooxidns was identified and isolated from acid mine drainage. the scientist Galen described „in situ” leaching in old copper and lead mine at Cyprus.History of biohydrometallurgy • 166A. . • 1494-1555 Georgius Agricola described roasting pyrite (FeS2) to prepare for leaching and produce FeSO4. • 1965 Discovery of the first iron and sulfur oxidizing archaea Acidianus Brierlevi from thermal spring in Yellowstone. • 1572 Industrial heap leaching of copper sulfides in Rio Tinto (Spain). • 1879 Bioleaching of low-grade ore at Rio Tinto.D.
What is biohydrometallurgy ? The various branches of science from which the fundamentals of hydrometallurgy are derived The recovery of heavy metals from sulfidic ores employing microorganisms .
Area of application • Three main areas of application can be identified: Metal extraction from minerals and rocks Environmental protection Pre-treatment of minerals to make them amenable to further processing .
Biohydrometallurgy The main application of biohydrometallurgy is bioleaching .
to open up the structure of the sulfides minerals for other chemical better penetration. to convert insoluble metal sulfides ( or oxides in the case of uranium) to water soluble metal sulfates. . 2.The action of bacteria 1.
Bioleaching • The mobilization of metal cations from insoluble ores by biological oxidation and complexation process is referred to as bioleaching. • Metals for which bioleaching is employed: Copper (Cu) Cobalt (Co) Nickel (Ni) Zinc (Zn) Uranium (U) .
heap leaching). Low pressure (atmospheric) and temperature process. The use of naturally occurring components: microorganisms.Advantages to using bioleaching for the metal extraction 1. 2. and air. ore. 3. 4. water. Simple to operate and maintain (stirred tanks. Dust and SO2 free .
. – Appropriate recovery of metals from lowgrade ores and waste materials.Advantages of bioleaching • The advantages of bacterial leaching technology are agreeable with these requirements: – Moderate capital investment with low operating costs. – Basic equipment and simple operating procedures.
Advantages • Miroorganisms are responsible for production of ferric iron (Fe3+) and acid. • Bioleaching is environmental friendly than many physical metal extraction processes .
Disadvantage of biomining • The main disadvantage of bioleaching of sulfides is that the process is perceived to be slow relative to pyrometallurgical processes .
Pyro. is produced through bioprocessing .and hydrometallurgy Currently 25 % of all copper worldwide. worth more than $ 1 bilion annually.
Block diagram showing the factors affecting reactor bioleaching profitability .
Microorganisms-mineral interaction • Acidolysis – formation of organic and inorganic acids (protons). . • Redoxolysis – oxidation and reduction reactions. • Complexolysis – the extraction of complexing agents. Sulfuric acid is the main inorganic acid found in bioleaching environments.
Penicillum . • These organic acid are typically produced by certain type of fungi.Complexolysis and Acidolysis • Metals in certain non-sulfide minerals may be solubilized by a process of complexation with oxalic. citric or other organic acids. • Aspergillus niger.
and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans).Bacteria for biooxidation process • In the processes that operate from ambient temperature to about 40oC. the most important microorganisms are considered to be a consortium of Gram-negative bacteria. the sulfur-oxidizing (Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Acidithiobacillus caldus) the iron-oxidizing leptospirilli (Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum) . • These are the iron.
Bacteria for biooxidation process Bacteria Biooxidation reactions Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Leptospirillum ferroxidans Fe2+ Fe3+ S2.or S0 SO42S2.or S0 SO42Fe2+Fe3+ .
.Acidophilic metal sulfide oxidizing microorganisms • All acidophilic metal sulfide oxidizing microorganism oxidize Fe2+ and sulfur compound.
Biooxidtion of Fe2+ ions. Redox potential (Eh) • The potential Eh is the ratio of dissolved ferric to ferrous ions. • The best leaching was achieved between 600750 mV . Fe Eh 771 59 log Fe 3 2 • Eh is used as a bioleaching indicator.
like jarosite .65 – 0. NH4+ . • One consequence of the high solution potential is that ferric ion readily precipitates as a basic sulphate .70 V . 3Fe3+ + 2SO42.+6H2O + Me+MeFe3(SO4)2(OH)6 + 6H+ where Me = K+.Na+.Biooxidation process • The biooxidation conditions typically exhibit a relatively high redox potential around Eh=0.
Jarosite precipitation .
Experimental equipment for biooxidation .
Bioleaching • The recovery of heavy metals from sulfidic ores employing microorganisms is now an established branch of biotechnology. • Bioleaching is currently an economical alternative for treating specific sulfidic ores. • Microorganisms are able to regenerate of the oxidizing reagent which chemically reacts with metal sulfides. .
Heap and tank bioleaching Copper recovery Gold ores pretreatment There are two ways of applying bioleaching for metal recovery from sulfide ores. namely heap leaching and tank leaching .
• The suspension density is limited to above 20 %.Tank bioleaching process • In stirred tank processes highly aerated. as the pulp density is > 20% the microbial problems occur. • The stirred tank reactors operate at 400C and 500C. continous-flow reactors in series are used to treat the mineral suspension. .
• The largest is at Sansu in the Ashanti goldfields of Ghana. • The first bioleaching instalation has been built at Fairview mine. South Africa in 1986. Wester Africa. • Cobalt-containing pyrite is leached at Kasese. Uganda . Barberton.Application of tank bioleaching • Stirred tanks are used as a pretreatment process for gold containing arsenopyrite concentrates.
stirred-tank reactors compared to bioheaps are the capital and operating costs. • In situ bioleaching In situ bioleaching has been commercially us for extraction uranium and copper from depleted underground mines .Stirred tank versus bioheap • The principal disadvantages of aerated.
Bioheap leaching • The pregnant leach solution containing: 1.5-6 gL-1 soluble copper and up to 20 gL-1 is collected and sent to a recovery plant • The common methods for copper recovery: Precipitation with using iron (cementation) Electrowinning Solvent extraction followed by electrowinning .
Pirometallurgical methods • The arsenopyrite flotation concentrate contain gold is roasted at 7000C in the presence of oxygen or digested with acid under pressure in oxygen-enriched atmosphere (autoclaved). .
Environmental impact of the acid generation pH = 2.33 moles of sulfuric acid are produced per mole of pyrite .5 1.
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