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The Harvard system of referencing
Contents
1. Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plagiarism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Citation styles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collecting and organising references  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dates  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 3. Citations in the text  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference List/Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9

3.1 References – Books (including electronic books) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 References – other sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Journal articles (including electronic journals)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Newspapers (including electronic newspapers)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Images and diagrams  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conference proceedings  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Publications from a corporate body  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Market research reports  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . British Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theses and dissertations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exhibition catalogues  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 References – live performances  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Play  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 References – electronic or audiovisual  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Web pages, e­mails and CD­Roms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E­mails from a public domain  . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weblogs (blogs)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Twitter. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 12 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Online film  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Online images  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further information  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Social networking sites (Facebook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wikis  . . . . . Podcasts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . film or broadcast)  . . . . . . . . Classical works  . . . . . . . . . References – reference works . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dictionaries/Encyclopaedias  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . Lecture notes on Blackboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Media (video. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References – personal communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . Bebo etc)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

g.g. • numeric system (e.library. It is always advisable to check which system you are expected to use and to what extent it may vary from this guide.uk/Images/Howto/ HowtoAvoidPlagiarism. References are briefly cited within the text. MLA). Any other items read for background information but not referred to in the text should be given in full at the end of your work in a bibliography. only the presentation of that information differs.g. author. 3 . For more information on how to avoid plagiarism please see www. • Acknowledge the source of an argument or idea. • Show the scope and breadth of your research.pdf Citation styles Various citation styles exist. e. A reference is the detailed bibliographic description of the item from which you gained your information. as your lecturers may prefer a different style of referencing. this means the details of the items that you have used. Plagiarism Plagiarism is defined by De Montfort University Student Regulations as “The significant use by a student of other people’s work and the submission of it as though it were his or her own”. Most style guides fall into two commonly used systems: • author­date system (e.dmu.ac. and then given in full at the end of your work in a reference list. Failure to do so could result in a charge of plagiarism.The Harvard system of referencing This is a guide to the Harvard system but you should always check your course handbook and/or module outline for any further guidance. This guide is intended to provide you with advice on how to use the Harvard (author­date) system where you supply the author’s name and the date of publication of the document referred to within the text. 1. Introduction When writing a piece of work you should provide references to the sources used. In simple terms. References are used to: • Enable the reader to locate the sources you have used. Harvard). • Help support your arguments and provide your work with credibility. In order to find out more about the document a reader can simply look up the author’s name in the reference list. Vancouver. date of publication. title. They convey the same information. it is important that you are consistent in its application. Whichever system you use.

g. 1999c)… 4 . To link the information you use in your text to its source (book. In recent studies by Smith (1999a.Collecting and organising references It is often not easy (or possible) to retrieve sources after you have written your text.g. Citations in the text All ideas taken from another source regardless of whether directly quoted or paraphrased need to be referenced in the text of your assignment. e. 1992) that these figures are incorrect.pdf.ac. you would use the surname Jones and the date to cite in the text. If an author has published more documents in the same year.d. Alternatively.library. A note about dates If no date can be established you can use n. Bibliographic software.uk/Images/Selfstudy/Endnote.dmu.g.41). For further information and help using EndNote please refer to the guide at: www. distinguish between them by adding lower­case letters: e. such as EndNote. Procite or Reference Manager. For this reason it is best to keep a good record of everything that you use.) If the date can be established but only approximately you should use Webb (c. you could store your references on index cards. p. article. put the author’s name and the year of publication at the appropriate point in your text. Note: up to three author names can be given in your reference list/bibliography. will help you organise your references according to different citation systems and to add the citations to your text. So if the author’s name is James Robert Jones. put only the year in brackets: e. give both: e.d.g. If the author’s name does not naturally occur in your writing. 1999b. It is claimed that government in the information age will “work better and cost less” (Bellamy and Taylor 1998. etc. If there are more than two authors. cite only the first followed by ‘et al. 1991).2001) 2. e. Note: if you are giving a direct quotation then you need to include the page number. If the author’s name is part of the statement.’ (which means ‘and others’): e.g. …adoptive parents were coping better with the physical demands of parenthood and found family life more enjoyable (Levy et al.g.). There is some evidence (Jones. put the author’s surname and date in brackets. Webb (n. Jones (1992) has provided evidence that these figures are incorrect. If there are two authors.

New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. only use if there is no author or organisation. so long as you are consistent throughout your reference list. title) has been italicised. but if not available then use the organisation as the author.J. J. e. 10th ed. you can also emphasise the source by underlining or typing in bold. If Jones discusses the work of Smith you could use: Smith (2005) as cited by Jones (2008) or Smith’s 2005 study (cited in Jones 2008. Whenever possible. The date in brackets after the author. It does not usually matter which you use. Abdul­Rahman Al­Haddad would be AL­HADDAD. 5 . Biggs 2006. Smith 2008) argue… 3. 3. Place of publication: Publisher. you must acknowledge both sources in the text. (2007) Textiles. You may also be required by your tutor to include a bibliography which should list all items used within the text but also include any other sources you have read as part of your research.If you wish to cite a work described in another work When an author quotes or cites another author and you wish to cite the original author you should first try to trace the original item. p. Each reference should give the elements and punctuation as found below. Reference List/Bibliography Full references of sources used should be listed at the end of your work as a reference list. If the author is James Robert Jones this will become JONES. Information found in more than one source If you find information in more than one source.g. If there is no author. you may want to include all the references to strengthen your argument. Separate the references using a semi­colon (.156) shows that… Then cite Jones in full in your reference list. e. S. However.g.g.R. In these examples. This list of references is arranged alphabetically usually by author. elements of a bibliographical reference should be taken from the title page of the publication. Title of site. if this is not possible. KADOLPH. Citing web resources in the text use Author. the source (e. Edition – if not the 1st. placing them in order of publication date (earliest first). Authors should always be in capitals. Several writers (Jones 2004. References – Books Books AUTHOR(S) (Year) Title. organisation or title. e. use truncated web address (You should question if this resource is suitable for academic work). A. cite all sources in the same brackets.1.g. In which case. but only include the item you actually read in your reference list.).

Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. 6th ed. or pp. no. EDITOR(S) (ed. e. et al./eds.) The reorganised National Health Service. et al. Vol. Note: Electronic books should be cited exactly the same as print. ed(s). Edition. Newspaper title.g. DREXHAGE. British Journal of Criminology. In: LEVITT. e. Place of publication: Publisher. 6 . followed by ‘et al. (use p./Issue/Month). N. Guardian.) e. Books with one or more editor(s) – Include the abbreviation (ed. Pages. H.g. pp.) or (eds.g.D. skills and training. Day and Month (abbreviated). (1993) Electronic style: a guide to citing electronic information. following the rules above.’ (and others). 1. and MIETHE. Place of Publication: Publisher e. (2004) Still up in the air. pp. Title of journal. London: Meckler.) after their surname.g. KEARNEY. or pp. (eds. References – other sources Journal articles AUTHOR(S) (Year) Title of article. 42 (2). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. BROWN. pp. T. (eds. D. P. and RAMUSSEN.Books with two or three authors e. use p. Books with more than three authors – give the name of the first author. R.) – (Year) Title. e. Note: If you are referencing an electronic journal article. Edition. e.) (2001) Continental Aesthetics – Romanticism to Postmodernism: An Anthology. p. LEVITT. A. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. R. (2002) Legal representation and criminal processing in China. R. J.g. Newspaper articles AUTHOR(S) (Year) Article title. Book title. LU. Newspaper articles taken from the Internet or a database should be cited as print using the rules above.g.g. 135­155.2. Chapters in books AUTHOR(S) (Year) Title of chapter. Pages. use p. 27th Feb.B. 3. (1999) The reorganised National Health Service. 267­280. or pp. (January). use the standard referencing format. (2002) New foot and mouth outbreak suspected. and CRANE. 16­17. In: AUTHOR(S)/EDITOR(S). 6th ed. Carbon finance. (1999) Labour. (Part no. TUCKMAN. LI. X. Pages.

London: Thomson. Title. 798. in addition to the main entry. pp. Place and date of conference (unless included in title). use p. Place of publication: Publisher. IN: AUTHOR/EDITOR of book. in addition to the main entry. (1996). In: Proceedings of the 7th CIB Triennial Congress. e. If an official report has individual authors these should not be used. Management Theory and Practice. COMMITTEE ON THE FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE (1992) Report of the Committee on the Financial Aspects of Corporate Governance (Cadbury Report). H. DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT. the country becomes the author. London: Construction Research International. T. 6th ed.g. Government publications) NAME OF ISSUING BODY (Year) Title. In: COLE. Place of publication: Publisher. (2004). DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION (1980) 38th Report. e. 129­136. GREAT BRITAIN. or Diagram: MINTZBERG. Edinburgh. Papers in conference proceedings AUTHOR(S) (Year) Title. 1979­80 HC. (1427) The Temptation of Adam and Eve [Painting]. Pages. E. G. include a see reference in your reference list. Pages. (where relevant).g. Cadbury report — see — COMMITTEE ON THE FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE (1992). For reports known by the name of the chairman or person responsible for the inquiry. pp. London: Dorling Kindersley. Place of publication: Publisher. In: EDITOR(S) Title of conference proceedings. Please note that where the author is a government body. e. GIBSON. Title of the work [Material types]. 7 . Report no. use p. additional reference to the work should be made. Publications from a corporate body (e. London: Gee For reports known by their title rather than their author/s. include a see reference in your reference list. The Illustrated Book of Signs and Symbols.J. September 1977. MASOLINO. instead use the official body. e. (1977) The performance concept in building.A. (1979) The basic parts of organisations — Mintzberg’s model [Diagram]. 1st April 1979 to 31st March 1980.Image(s) or Diagram(s) within a book Where the image cited from a book is not the work of the author.g. London: HMSO.g. for example in a book or museum). or pp. (Year).g. 70­81. as follows: Image: ARTIST (Year). M. At or In: (where found. In: BRUCE­ MITFORD. or pp.

13th January 2004]. Company (optional). [Catalogue of an exhibition held at the Whitworth Art Gallery. e. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL SECURITY (1988) Report of the enquiry into child abuse in Cleveland. Place of publication: Publisher. [Location. J.g. (1983) William Harris as designer. MARSHALL. e. MSc.e. An Inspector Calls by J.B. (if relevant) e. [Location. e. London: Arts Council. Institution. Date seen]. MINTEL (2008) Coffee: Mintel marketing report. Company (optional). e. W. 3 May – 4 June 1983].g. or KEY NOTE (2007) Confectionery: Key Note market report. ASHTON. Play Title by Author (Year of performance) Directed by. [Royal Opera House.3. GREAT BRITAIN. 11th May]. Place of publication: Publisher. 8 . DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL SECURITY (1988). date if available. Date seen]. [Exhibition catalogue]. F. London: British Standards Institute. e. Always follow the guidelines in your student/programme handbook. The Cleveland Enquiry – see GREAT BRITAIN. Cambridge. University of London. Market research reports NAME OF ISSUING BODY (Year) Title.g. Unpublished thesis (PhD).g. HARRIS. References – Live Performance Dance COMPOSER or CHOREOGRAPHER (Year of premiere) Title. Priestley (2009) Directed by STEPHEN DALDRY.g.). Exhibition catalogues ARTIST (Year) Title of exhibition. London. British Standards NAME OF AUTHORISING ORGANISATION (Year of publication) Number and title of standard.g. (1948) Cinderella. PhD. Report no. Cm 413. Hampton: Key Note.g. London: HMSO. BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTE (2008) BS ISO 8178­2: Reciprocating internal combustion engines – Exhaust emission measurement.g. e. Theses and dissertations AUTHOR (Year) Title. January 2008. 3. 25th ed. London: Mintel International. [Arts Theatre. (2002) The Manuscript tradition of Brunetto Latini’s “Tresor”. Designation (Level. Edition (if available) Place of publication: Publisher.

com. (Year) Title of the posting (if applicable).g. e­mail. (Year) Title of article. e. [Facebook] 5th May. Available from: web address [Date accessed]. e.g. Title of the site. Available from: web address.g. TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION (2008) Behaviour detection officers lead to arrest in Orlando. Note: Dates are not always available for web pages. [Accessed date]. Weblog [Online] day/month of posting. Bebo etc) These are web pages so will be referenced as such.ac. Available from: web address.d. e. 9 .jiscmail. e. Available from: http://www.homehealth­uk.d. Weblog [Online] 2nd April. [Accessed 09/05/09]. WWW] Organisation responsible (optional). E­mail message from a public domain.4. UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD LIBRARY (2001) Citing electronic sources of information [WWW] University of Sheffield. [Online].gov/blog/.d.) Thyroid problems [WWW] Home Health UK.) where n. Wiki WIKI NAME. [Online]. F. e. Available from: http://www. S. HOME HEALTH UK (n. If you are referencing an electronic journal article. References – Electronic or audiovisual Web Pages.uk/lists/LIS­profession. Available from: http://www. [Date accessed].shef. Date Posted: day/month of posting. [Accessed date]. [Title of web site] Day/month of posted message. Available from: web address. e. AUTHOR(S) (Year) Title of page.g.html.ac. Guidelines can be found above.3. JONES.php/learning_outcomes.tsa. represents no date so that the reader knows you have omitted this element.g. discussion boards or conferences.com/medical/thyroidproblems. Social networking sites (Facebook. Weblogs (Blogs) AUTHOR. newspaper article or book.org/wiki/doku. Available from: http://www. BROWN. e. (2007) ‘How to promote online reading’ [Online] Library and information professionals discussion list: 12th May. Twitter. [Accessed 18/04/08].pdf [Accessed 23/02/07]. CD­ROM. use the standard referencing format for that item.facebook. Available from: www. Available from: http://infoteach. e­mails and CD­Roms Electronic references should contain the following elements: AUTHOR(S) (Year) Title of document [Type of resource.htm [Accessed 10/12/07]. INFOTEACH (2007) Learning_outcomes. [Accessed 03/04/08].g. AUTHOR (of message) (Year) ‘Subject of the message’ [Online] Electronic conference or bulletin board.g.g. Evolution of security. if this is the case use (n. (2009) Referencing Group. e. Available from: email address.uk/library/libdocs/hsl­dvc1.

Available from: web address. 29th July. 0945 hrs. 15th May. Individual contributors or interviewees should be cited as follows: e. Directed by NICHOLAS RAY. [Date accessed]. (2008) The mythical daily water requirement [podcast]. 1900 hrs.com/strangerfruit/polar­bear. LOSANGELESOPERA.g. podcast]. day of podcast (day. Title of film [type of resource]. BBC1. Scientific American.cfm? id=0BD1CF72­E411­2EE5­A4CDEE3447E81C93 [Accessed 03/04/08]. (2008) Interview. BBC RADIO 4.g. Online images ORIGINATOR (Year) Description or title of image [Online image].com/podcast/episode. Online Film SCREEN NAME. A television or radio broadcast should also include the date and time of broadcast and the episode number.g. e. USA: Warner Bros.g. BROWN.youtube. Available from: http://www. Tristan und Isolde podcast [online video]. (Year). 21st July. ORIGINATOR (e. e. where possible.g. G. Exact date and time of broadcast.g. In: Today Programme.g. SCIENCEBLOGS (2006) Polar Bear [Online image] Available from: http://scienceblogs. film. Podcasts BROADCASTER (if available).sciam. TV. or Book of the week (2008) The Atlantic Ocean. 1900 hrs. or Doctor Who (2008) Episode 8. Radio. Rebel without a cause (1983) Film. e. director). Available from: http://www. Organisation/publisher responsible (optional). ORIGINATOR (e. month) Available from: web address [date accessed]. Place of production: Production company. (year) Name of podcast [type of resource e.jpg [Accessed 15/06/09].com/watch?v=SgqqxAiISRw [Accessed 03/04/08].g. 0810 hrs. Dyslexic children (1999) TV. Title (Year) Type of media. 31st May. BBC RADIO 4. 2nd April. e. 10 . or broadcast) Title (Year) Type of media. channel).Media (video. (2008). e.g. Radio. K. HOPKIN. Silence in the library. Available from: web address [Date accessed]. CHANNEL 4.

In an email on 23rd July 2007 J. Edition. from module code (capitalised) title of module. or pp. Jones confirmed that… or In a lecture on 8th January 2008 V. [Accessed 29/07/08]. If there is no author then the title (e.g. Oxford English Dictionary) should be used both within the text and in the reference list. 3. Memory neurobiology. San Diego: Academic Press. Title. ‘Remain in me. e. When referencing a personal communication you should: • Ask permission of the person before quoting them • Provide the communicator’s initials and surname and the type of communication in the text • Provide the exact date of the communication e. (use p.6. (Year of presentation). 3. A. In: AUTHOR(S)/EDITOR(S) ed(s). References — Personal Communication A personal communication can be a letter.) e.g. Encyclopedia of the human brain. Oxford: Clarendon Press. V.g. (Year) Volume (if applicable). 2. an interview. telephone call or a lecture presentation. Place of publication: Publisher. Appropriate details should be included but no year should be included. Edition.g. Kimberlin Library on 6th November. and I will remain in you. Rolfe outlined… Lecture notes on Blackboard NAME.S. e. POULTON. pp. Lecture title. 783­796. The Oxford English Dictionary (1989) Vol.g. e. No branch can bear fruit by itself’ (John 15:4.g. (2002). In: RAMACHANDRAN. Brown stated that… or In a conversation on 25th March 2008 B. email. (2008). 11 . Vol.P. They should be included within the text but not generally in the reference list as the reference is not traceable. an informal conversation. References – Reference Works Dictionaries/Encyclopaedias If an encyclopaedia entry has a named author then the format for a chapter in a book should be used with the addition of the encyclopaedia volume number. Volume (if applicable). Pages. from BIOM2060 Professional Skills 2. New International Version). location and date of presentation. Title. memo. Available from: Blackboard. fax.5. Teaching organisation. Available from: Blackboard [Accessed date]. Place of publication: Publisher. KESNER. R. Referencing and citation – Harvard style.3. De Montfort University. AUTHOR(S) (Year) Title of chapter. Classical Works Principal classical works such as the Bible and Koran/Qur’an should only be included in the text and not in the reference list.

Publication No 23056. September 2009 (PC1989).uk/referencing. (2006) BU guide to citation in the Harvard style. it is always advisable to consult the person for whom you are writing. Library Services. Further Information If you need further help please contact your subject librarian or email justask@dmu.uk/Images/Selfstudy/Harvard. Bournemouth University. E. HOLLAND. A.pdf [Accessed 31/05/09]. Available from: http://www. Available from: http://www.pdf. This guide is also available on the library web site at: www.4.uk Available in large print and screen .library.uk. as to which style of referencing they want you to use. University of Birmingham. (2003) Online! A reference guide to using internet sources [WWW]. this leaflet is issued without prejudice to the right of the University authorities to make such modifications to the matter dealt with as the University authorities consider necessary without prior notice. Remember.shtml [Accessed 31/05/09]. M. [WWW].uwe. .library. UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST OF ENGLAND (2009) A guide to references [WWW].dmu.ac.ac. Available from: http://www. © De Montfort University. and KLEPPINGER. Alternatively further guidance on citation and referencing can be obtained from the following online sources.com/online/ index. HARNACK. Right of revision. University of the West of England.html [Accessed 31/05/09].ac. whether it is a tutor or an editor. St Martin’s.ac.htm [Accessed 31/05/09].ac.bham. Information Services.ac. UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM (2006) Referencing [WWW].dmu.pdf www.uk/ library/resources/general/info_study_skills/refs.bournemouth. Available from: http://www.i­cite.bedfordstmartins.uk/library/citing_references/docs/ Citing_Refs.

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