# Michael Lamb

1

Lesson Plan - Revision Introduction

• will investigate and understand how sound is transmitted and is used as a means of communication. Key concepts include a) frequency, waves, wavelength, vibration; b) the ability of different media (solids, liquids, and gases) to transmit sound; and c) uses and applications (voice, sonar, animal sounds, and musical instruments).
Cognitive Objectives Students will:

Lesson topic – Science: Sound Vibrations Length of Lesson: 40 -50 minutes VA Standards of Learning 5.2 The student

use the basic terminology of sound to describe what sound is, how it is formed, how it affects matter, and how it travels.

Materials/Technology and Advanced Preparation • Tuning forks • Wood blocks (or rubber mallots) • Container of water (bowls) • Craft Sticks • Rubber bands of varying sizes • Small, open boxes (Tissue Boxes brought by students at teachers request) Teaching and Learning Sequence Introduction/Anticipatory Set • • • Instruct the student to get into their pre-assigned groups Ask the students “What is a tuning fork?” “How does a tuning fork produce sounds?” Introduce vocabulary terms: Vibration, resonate, pitch, decibel, frequency Model the tuning fork by hitting one of the tines with a wooden block o o Ask the students what they hear Ask the students what they predict will happen when the teacher touches the edge of the bowl containing the water AND what visual evidence we will have that the tuning fork is vibrating.

• Distribute the craft sticks to each student and ask them to predict the sounds that will be created
when the object is placed on the edge of the desk and plucked by hand. (vary the distance of overhang)

• Discuss how a guitar works (pluck string and get a vibration, rate of vibration determines pitch.

Michael Lamb

2

Guitar has 6 strings of various thickness. Thinner strings vibrate more quickly producing higher pitched sounds. Increase tension on strings will also produce higher pitch. Tuning knobs adjust string tension. Increase tension = higher pitch, decrease tension = lower pitch. Lesson Development • Pass out the small boxes and an array of rubber bands to the groups. • Instruct the students to discuss (as a group) how to design a guitar. (note: each student will create their own instrument). • After the students construct their instruments, ask them to test their invention by playing the scales.

If the tone is off, have them adjust pitch by using a different thickness rubber band OR implementing a tuning key to change pitch.

After adjustments are made, students will present a brief performance of their instrument to the class (see rubric for criterion).

Closure

Ask the students what they have learned about pitch and vibration based on today’s activities. Ask students how they think this may apply to other instruments, such as drums, bells, or piano keys.

Homework (If applicable) NONE Assessment Formative • Listen and observe the students interacting during the group discussions and project • Listen for concept understanding during questioning and ask probing questions to expand upon first answers Summative • Grade the guitar project based on the attached rubric References Bass, J., Contant, T., Carin, A., Activities of Teaching Science as Inquiry. Pearson Education, Inc., 2009, PPs. A-59 -62 Appended Materials Content organizer Rubric

Michael Lamb

3

Student Name__________________________________ Date __________________________________

Rubric - Sound Vibration Activity
Criteria Appearance Exemplary (5 pts) Aesthetically attractive, shows effort and care of construction Very sturdy; looks like it will endure repeated use Completely safe; all potential safety issues addressed All 8 notes are in order from low to high pitch and all “in key” All notes produced can be heard easily throughout the classroom Proficient (4 pts) Looks presentable, shows some care in construction Somewhat sturdy; didn’t fall apart but looks as if it will soon Seems safe if instrument is used properly 8 different pitches are in order from low to high but not “in key” Most notes produced can be easily heard throughout the classroom Developing (2 pts) Sloppy, little effort and careless construction Not sturdy; falls apart before or during performance testing Obvious that bodily harm could occur to the player and/or bystanders of this instrument Instrument produces fewer than 8 pitches or scale not played in order Few, if any notes can be heard in the classroom

Sturdiness Safety

Playing Scale

Volume of Instrument

*The greatest sum total based on the 5 criterion is 25 points*

Appearance ______ Sturdiness Safety Volume Sum Total ______ ______ ______ ______

Playing scale ______