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A First Course in Essay Writing

A First Course in Essay Writing

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Sections

  • Exercise on Identifying Independent Clauses
  • Writing Concise Sentences
  • Exercise on Writing Concise Sentences
  • Exercises on Parallel Form
  • Tone: A Matter of Attitude
  • Exercises on Spelling
  • Exercise on Run-on Sentences
  • Consistency of Tense and Pronoun Reference
  • Exercise on Consistency in Tense and Pronouns
  • Avoiding Primer Language
  • Exercises on Avoiding Primer Language
  • Sentence-Combining Skills
  • Exercise on Combining Sentences
  • Coherence: Transitions Between Ideas
  • Paragraph Development & Topic Sentences
  • Essay Writing Tips
  • Parts of an Essay
  • Introductory Paragraphs
  • How to Write an Essay
  • The Five-Paragraph Essay
  • Smoking and quitting are matters of free will
  • What Happened to the News?
  • PART V: WRITING TOPICS

A First Course in

ESSAY WRITING

Compiled by

Hala Darwish & Mohammed Abdel Aatty
Revised by

M.M. Enani
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH FACULTY OF ARTS CAIRO UNIVERSITY

CONTENTS
Preface...........................................................................................................................i PART I: SENTENCE LEVEL Clauses: The Essential Building-Blocks ............................................................... ٤ Exercise on Identifying Independent Clauses .............................................. ١١ Writing Concise Sentences .................................................................................. ١٥ Exercise on Writing Concise Sentences ........................................................ ٢٨ Parallel Form........................................................................................................ ٣٠ Exercises on Parallel Form ............................................................................ ٣٣ Tone: A Matter of Attitude ................................................................................. ٣٧ Spelling.................................................................................................................. ٤١ Exercises on Spelling ...................................................................................... ٤٨ PART II: PARAGRAPH LEVEL Sentence Variety................................................................................................... ٥٧ Exercise on Run-on Sentences ....................................................................... ٦٦ Consistency of Tense and Pronoun Reference................................................... ٧١ Exercise on Consistency in Tense and Pronouns ......................................... ٧٣ Avoiding Primer Language ................................................................................. ٧٥ Exercises on Avoiding Primer Language...................................................... ٧٦ Sentence-Combining Skills.................................................................................. ٧٨ Exercise on Combining Sentences ................................................................. ٨٨ Coherence: Transitions Between Ideas .............................................................. ٩١ Paragraph Development & Topic Sentences ..................................................... ٩٧ PART III: ESSAY LEVEL Essay Writing Tips............................................................................................. ١٠٨ Parts of an Essay ................................................................................................ ١١١ Introductory Paragraphs .................................................................................. ١١١ How to Write an Essay ...................................................................................... ١٢١ Kinds of Essay .................................................................................................... ١٢٥ The Five-Paragraph Essay ................................................................................ ١٣٣

PART IV: SELECTED ESSAYS FOR PRACTICE The Computer as Writing Assistant................................................................. ١٤٥ Noise Pollution.................................................................................................... ١٤٨ Smoking and quitting are matters of free will................................................. ١٥٢ What Happened to the News?........................................................................... ١٥٥ PART V: WRITING TOPICS ...............................................................................١٦١

٢

as well as the evolution of Modern Standard Arabic which has been influenced in the twentieth century by modern European languages. How this course can help the student of translation should immediately be obvious. to start as early as this course in establishing correspondences and differences. but it is advisable. when the student has fully absorbed the technical aspects of English writing. It is intended primarily as a teach-yourself course. step-bystep method. but is never a .Preface This is a most valuable introduction to the art (and science) of writing: it takes the student from the rudimentary to the advanced stages of writing techniques through a precise. a habit of precise expression will encourage precise thinking: a student taught to avoid beating around the bush (to avoid circumlocution or periphrasis) will soon realize the advantages of ‘getting to the point’ whether the language is Arabic or English. I believe. It can. as precision in expression can only come from straight thinking. What is more important. is a person writing a text which aspires to be. The value of this will soon be apparent in practice: a student learning to write in English may discover that the malaise of muddled thinking in Arabic can be remedied by learning the methods of precise writing. It is in this sense that a book in essay-writing is also a book on straight thinking. which requires a great deal of attention to detail and to guidance on problematic points. be taught in class by the experienced teacher who should occasionally refer to the corresponding linguistic structures in Arabic. however. The teacher may postpone this to a later stage. A translator. as is commonly believed today.

recitatives. They will be thinking in Arabic. it is true. A typical student asked to write an essay on the soap operas shown on Egyptian television will first need to know the English words associated with subject. which is more important. choruses. An example should illustrate this point. Trying to write in English will always involve a certain amount of translation. initially. But most important of all. they will be trying to write a coherent essay in English that does not smack too much of their ‘Arabic’ thinking.fully. and that the specific ‘formal’ meaning of the term is a ‘play set to music’. and usually characterized by b . a readable text representing all the ideas in the SL text. may require additional criteria. duets. the student will first learn that opera here is the plural of ‘opus’ which means ‘work’. as they will often be looking for equivalents for some of the common words which they would like to use in their English essays (a lexical difficulty dealt with in the translation courses) and as they will be trying to find the correct corresponding expressions in English for the ones they use in Arabic. And this cannot be done without learning first to write. Certain literary texts. These he or she must gather from texts in English: the title itself must be fully understood. but these should not concern the learner: what should concern him or her now is how to produce. with arias. an exact reproduction of another text in a different language. The ultimate test of a successful translation will not be whether the produced text (in the target language––TL) is a facsimile of the original text (in the source language––SL) but whether it is comprehensible and idiomatic. trios etc. Most users of this book are expected to be native speakers of Arabic. sung to orchestral accompaniment. in part or in full. in a mixture of Egyptian Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) which is the modern variety of classical Arabic used in writing. If helped by the teacher or by the right dictionary.

will explain why we never watch any real complex characters. any shades of grey. Therefore the student will learn that a ‘soap opera’ is a colloquial expression referring to a radio or television serial drama of a melodramatic. In the process the student will acquire relevant vocabulary: he or she will learn that radio listeners and television viewers are people who listen to the radio and watch television. Such an initial exploration of the subject will teach the student more about soap operas than he or she can hope to learn if confined to his or her ‘Arabic’ ideas of such serial dramas. some of which may still be inchoate or even amorphous. sentimental nature. so called since many of the original sponsors were soap companies. scenery and choreography. In other words. The teacher may help the student at this stage by explaining that ‘mass culture’ requires such stereotypical handling of characters. to involve other concepts which should help the student to think with precision about his subject. and mostly in black and white. and ‘stereotyped’. is a drama (as a play or film or radio or television serial drama) concerned with exaggerated conflicts and emotions. that they c . ‘Exaggeration’ is such a new concept revealed by the exploration of the meaning of melodramatic. the student will acquire fresh knowledge of his or her subject in English even at the stage of preparing for thinking about it. A key word like ‘melodramatic’ will help the student approach the Egyptian television soap operas from the right angle: a melodrama. or indeed accept. rich characters on Egyptian television. that they seek entertainment rather than ‘high-brow’ culture. By looking up words in a dictionary the student will gain new expressions which precisely fit his or her ideas on the subject. ‘Types’ rather than full characters are introduced. he or she will learn. The concept will be found. therefore. stereotyped characters etc. any ‘round’.elaborate costuming. as an adjective. that the viewers cannot appreciate.

Such relevant vocabulary will play a twofold function: the student will have at his or her fingertips the essential concepts required for dealing with the subject in English and in Arabic. and. Approving or disapproving of the Egyptian television soap operas. however. Without first mastering the writing techniques at sentence level. the student will learn to acquire the habit of building up idiomatic structures whether writing or translating. and. the student will find that transformation is difficult. adverbial etc. the student will learn the various types of sentences and gain a most valuable consciousness of the way a writer expresses himself or herself. the student will try to achieve fluency in style by transforming paratactic into hypotactic structures. the student will learn how to begin sometimes with phrasal structures (a prepositional. In writing.welcome particularly sensational drama because of its function as an escapist form of art. the student will now be better equipped to deal with his subject: the writing exercise has proved to be an exercise in thinking and in translation at once. phrase) or with reduced clauses (as here) or to foreground his main subject in a main or principal clause. only one aspect of the writing/translation exercise. that escapist art is a means of relieving the boredom of treadmill occupations and monotonous ways of life. Mapping out ideas is. having started the previous d . if translating. If writing. and the acquisition of the relevant vocabulary only a contributing factor. Tentative or half-formed ideas in Arabic will now be developed not through a direct translation exercise but through an exercise in writing which turns out to be an exercise in thinking as well. and that historical soap operas are particularly successful with the masses because they present them with an escape route to images of the past that perpetually change in the hands of dramatists. By imitating the English structures. if not impossible. as Part I of this book will show.

should lose the qualities which now they have. begin to stand and to rest himself. we may now give an example of a run-on sentence where the ‘if’ clause is compounded with parallel clauses leading to a beautiful climax. noted for his good prose. the times and seasons of the year blend themselves by disordered and confused mixture. is a little ‘old’ in the sense that English at the time was still redolent of the Shakespearean extended sentence structures. the winds breathe out their last gasp.sentence with a reduced ‘if’ clause. though it were but for awhile. and the extended metaphor. it will be seen. as it were through a languishing faintness. and by irregular volubility turn themselves any way as it might happen. The writer is Thomas Hooker. if the moon should wander from her beaten way. the clouds yield no rain. whom these things now do all serve? from Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity e . and when English-born Hooker left for America in ١٦٣٣ he took with him the rhetorical style revived back in England nearly half a century later by John Milton. if those principal and mother elements of the world. if the prince of the lights of heaven which now as a giant doth run his unwearied course. the earth be defeated of heavenly influence. whereof all things in this lower world are made. if celestial spheres should forget their wonted motions. the observation of her own laws. should. a seventeenth-century American clergyman. if the frame of that heavenly arch erected over our heads should loosen and dissolve itself. Here is the run-on sentence: Now if nature should intermit her course and leave altogether. The style. the fruits of the earth pine away as children at the withered breasts of their mother no longer able to yield them relief––what would become of man himself.

an exercise in writing. and so produce a text reflecting the literary features of the original (SL) text by resorting to the same classical tricks of Arabic style as used by Enani in his rendering of Milton’s Paradise Lost and his Arabic Shakespearean versions. marking the division into six parts separated by semi-colons. and it is instructive to see how the study of this text. but the last part consists of six clauses ‘powered’ by the final if. will help the student to translate better and express himself or herself better. The student will count six ‘if’s in the run-on sentence.). which are weaker stops than the colon (:) or the full stop/period (. Now the translator may choose to keep the order of the conditional structure unchanged.The passage is cited on pages ٤٦-٤٧ at the beginning of Part II. thus ‫ﺃﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻭﻗﻔﺖ ﳎﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﻭﻛﻔﺖ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻟﱪﻫﺔ ﻳﺴﲑﺓ‬ ْ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺼﻴﺎﻉ ﻟﺴﻨﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ؛ ﻭﺇﱃ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺍﻟﱴ‬ ،‫ﻫﻰ ﺃﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ، ﻭﺍﻟﱴ ﺻﻴﻐﺖ ﻣﻨﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﰱ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ ﻓﻘﺪﺕ ﺻﻔﺎﻬﺗﺎ؛ ﻭﺇﱃ ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻓﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻕ ﺭﺅﻭﺳﻨﺎ ﻟﻮ ﺍﳓﻞ ﻭﺫﺍﺏ؛ ﻭﺇﱃ ﺃﻓﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻟﻮ ﻧﺴﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ؛ ﻭﺇﱃ ﻣﻠﻜﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱴ ﲡﺮﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﻕ ﰱ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻰ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻛﻼﻝ، ﻟﻮ ﺃﺻﺎﻬﺑﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻦ ﻭﺍﳋﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺒﺪﺃﺕ ﺗﻘﻒ ﻃﻠﺒﺎ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﺣﺔ؛ ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﻟﻮ ﺍﳓﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻬﻮﺩ، ﻭﺇﱃ ﺃﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﻓﺼﻮﳍﺎ ﻟﻮ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻄﺖ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﺰﺟﺖ ﰱ‬ f ‫ﺣﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﻓﺪﺍﺭﺕ ﻛﻴﻔﻤﺎ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺃﻯ ﳏﻮﺭ ﻭﺩﻭﻥ‬ .

‫ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻗﻠﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻄﺮ، ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻟﻮ ُﺮﻣﺖ ﺭﲪﺔ‬ ‫ﺣ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺿﻰ ﻭﺑﻼ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ؛ ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ ﻟﻮ ﻟﻔﻈﺖ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻧﻔﺎﺳﻬﺎ، ﻭﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﺬﺑﻠﺖ ﲦﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺣﺮﻡ ﻣﺬﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﱭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺮﻉ ﺃﻣﻪ ﺍﳉﺎﻑ، ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ، ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺳﺨﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻪ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ؟‬ "‫ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻧﻪ "ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺴﻰ‬ The addition of the initial Arabic question word ‫ ﺃﺭﺃﻳـﺖ‬seems to have solved the problem of the long conditional structure. Such an ability is the prerogative of the born writer alone. or the change of subject in the last sentence. such as the change of gender in the case of the sun. and every translator should first try to understand the structure before attempting to imitate it in writing. but it can be learnt. Perhaps a re arrangement will be called for. Consider the following horror of a sentence on the famous sprinter Carl Lewis: it occurs on page ٤٨ and should be worthy of a detailed analysis: g . for our purposes. is the ability to produce equal structures in both languages that read as idiomatic texts. especially that it can be read more as an exclamation than as a question. Perhaps the student will learn that it is better. generally. so as to make it easier for the reader to grasp the main argument— or even the very sense of the sentence. The other ‘tricks of the trade’ used in the translation should not concern us here. what is more interesting. to start with the main clause—the subject and the verb—before giving all these piles up clauses.

while all h . the long jump. partly because he was afraid of raising expectations even higher and he did not want to be distracted by interviews and adoring fans who would follow him into stores and restaurants demanding autographs and photo-opportunities. the renowned sprinter and track-and-field personality Carl Lewis. if not another world record––during this. even as a professional runner. who had known pressure from fans and media before but never. like a martial arts expert. he must learn why. It is not a run-on sentence. the most fitting conclusion to his brilliant career in track and field.٥ ١٠ ١٥ ٢٠ ٢٥ Knowing that millions of people around the world would be watching in person and on television and expecting great things from him––at least one more gold medal for America. The student should never be encouraged to write like this—but in order not to do so. his fourth and surely his last appearance in the World Olympics. and bringing home another Gold Medal for the United States. but mostly because he wanted to conserve his energies and concentrate. but too long to be dealt with as a single sentence. on the job at hand: winning his favourite competition. though indeed it is grammatically sound. eye-popping leap that they were capable of a few years ago when he set world records in the ١٠٠-meter dash and in the ٤٠٠-meter relay and won a silver medal in the long jump. The reason is easy to find: the principal clause occurs only on lines ١١-١٦. Georgia. this kind of pressure. made only a few appearances in races during the few months before the Summer Olympics in Atlanta. and realizing that his legs could no longer carry him down the runway with the same blazing speed and confidence in making a huge.

and it must‬‬ ‫ﱂ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻟﻮﻳﺲ، ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑ، ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺯﺓ ﰱ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ، ﺇﻻ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﰱ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺕ ﰱ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺳﺒﻘﺖ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺎﺩ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﰱ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺃﻃﻼﻧﻄﺎ ﺑﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﺟﻮﺭﺟﻴﺎ، ﺇﺫ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻼﻳﲔ ﰱ ﺷﱴ ﺃﳓﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺸﺎﻫﺪﻭﻧﻪ، ﺇﻣﺎ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ، ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻗﻌﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﳒﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺭﺍﺋﻌﺔ، ﺃﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﲟﻴﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺫﻫﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﳛﻘﻖ ﺭﻗﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺎ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍﹰ،‬ ‫ﹰ ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ )ﻭﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ( ﰱ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻤﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ، ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺳﺎﻗﻴﻪ ﱂ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻮﺩﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺗﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﻄﻼﻕ ﺑﻪ ﰱ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﺭﻗﺔ، ﻭﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺩﻓﻌﺘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﱴ‬ ‫ﺃﺫﻫﻠﺖ ﻋﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺣﻘﻖ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﰱ ﻣﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﺪﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ ٠٠٤ ﻣﺘﺮ، ﻭﻓﺎﺯ ﲟﻴﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻀﻴﺔ ﰱ ﻣﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ. ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﻣﺘﻨﻊ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻟﻮﻳﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻛﺜﲑﺍﹰ، ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﳌﻠﻘﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺠﻌﻴﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﺪﺍﺀ ﳏﺘﺮﻓﺎﹰ، ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻁ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﱃ، ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﺎﻋﻪ ﺧﻮﻓﻪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪i‬‬ .‫‪preceding clauses and phrases simply pave the way for it. and all‬‬ ‫‪the succeeding ones give reasons for the man’s actions. Can it be‬‬ ‫!‪arranged differently? It can.

good writers know how to arrange such information in such a way as j .‫ﺭﻓﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﻬﺗﻢ ﻟﻪ، ﻛﻤﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸﻐﻞ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺑﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻔﻴﺔ، ﻭﺑﺎﳌﻌﺠﺒـﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﳍﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻳﻄﺎﺭﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﰱ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﻧﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺎﻋﻢ ﻃﻠﺒﺎ ﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﻌﻪ ﻭﻓﺮﺻـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﻩ، ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻌﻴﻪ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺎﻗﺎﺗﻪ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ، ﻣﺜﻞ ﺧﱪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ، ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮﻩ‬ ،‫ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺯ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻳﻔﻀﻠﻬﺎ، ﻭﻫﻰ ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻳﺎﺭﻩ ﲟﻴﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺫﻫﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ، ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﺴﺐ ﺧﺘﺎﻡ ﳊﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﰱ ﻣﺒﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﺎﺭ‬ . Can this long sentence be regarded as a paragraph? Indeed it can. but. and by learning how to avoid those structural mistakes in writing. it must be regarded as a single paragraph. and one that every translator should learn but which every writer should shun! And it is here that writing techniques come to serve the translator: by learning how not to write. However. the translator learns how to produce a better. it can be divided into two small paragraphs. insofar as the writer concentrates on the theme of Lewis’s withdrawal from public notice. can play havoc with the structure. The interruption and resumption of syntax is an old trick indeed. and it should. you learn how to write. readable text. the sentence has been several times interrupted and resumed.‫ﻭﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ‬ Divided into smaller units. not to say in a sentence. Too much information in a paragraph. if the focus is slightly shifted from the fact that ‘he made few appearances’ to the reasons behind his attitude. In fact.

to make it appear equal to the space it is expressed in.)ﻓـﻦ ﺍﻟﺘـﺮﲨﺔ‬If you make your reader work too hard to get your meaning you may run the risk of losing him or her. in a principal clause. ‫ . ١٩٩٩ k . and the more efforts you make to establish your principal idea. M. and it is the lesson that should be taught also in writing. early enough in the text. the more confident you will be in getting your reader’s full attention. The writer of the above-quoted sentence is lazy. Abdel Aatty Cairo. This is a lesson we learn in translation. Enani & M. and the learner should never adduce the limited space allotted in a newspaper for a given article as a pretext for ‘cramming’ (cf.

object. subordination and a semicolon. define the grammatical terms: " Clause " and Phrase . . ١ . exemplify the three cases of noun clauses given. identify the difference between a " Clause " and phrase. adjective clauses and noun clauses. categorize independent clauses functionally into adverb clauses. . combine independent clauses using: coordination. . . exemplify both dependent and independent clauses. . identify relative clauses. define the terms " dependent " and" independent " clauses. object of a preposition or as predicate nominative. . combine independent clauses into larger units of thought. . recognize a noun clause as a subject.PART I: SENTENCE LEVEL Objectives: By the end of this part. exemplify each category of independent clauses. . . students should be able to: . . classify clauses into " restrictive " and " nonrestrictive ".

go through the list of redundant phrases provided on pages ١١ ١٣ to correct themselves. . go through the list entitled " phrases you can omit " so that they realize their negative effect on their writing (pages ١٦ . define a cliché and avoid using it in writing. become more conscious of the relation between the grammar items and / or concepts and the skill of writing. appreciate the value of learning the above generalizations. . realize the significance of the concept of " correctness " in the writing skill. provide answers to the ten-item multiple choice exercise on pages ٨-١٠ . . . know how clauses can be reduced to phrases. understand what " redundancy " in writing means.. . . identify elliptical clauses. use " intensifiers " only when necessary in writing. . . . avoid the use of expletive constructions. . ٢ . . . grasp the concept of " intensifiers " in expression. . appreciate the value / significance of reducing clauses and phrases in writing. know how phrases can be reduced to single words.٢١).

. distinguish between formal and informal writing. . . avoid using euphemism in writing. understand the five given rules intended for improving spelling on pages ٤٠ – ٤٣ ٣ . exemplify some correlative expressions followed by the same grammatical form. grasp the principle of parallel form in writing. define and exemplify an euphemism. appreciate the value of writing concise sentences. appreciate the value of defining the readers of our essays before writing.٢٥ . understand the concept of " tone " in writing. .. . establish a relation between " Mnemonics " and improving spelling. do the exercise on " writing concise sentences " on pages ٢٤ . . realize how "contractions " make language informal. list a set of correlative expressions. . . . . do the three exercises based on parallel form on pages ٢٩ . .٣٢ . . define " concision " in writing.

"She is older than her brother" (which could be its own sentence). Notice how an independent clause. such as "in the morning" or "running down the street" or "having grown used to this harassment. as separate sentences. This book categorizes clauses into independent and dependent clauses. This simply means that some clauses can stand by themselves. which is a group of related words that does not contain a subject-verb relationship. and some can't. The subordinate clause is created by a subordinating conjunction or dependent word.PART I: SENTENCE LEVEL Clauses: The Essential Building-Blocks DEFINITION A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a verb A clause can be usefully distinguished from a phrase. is turned into a dependent or subordinate clause when the same group of words begins with a dependent word: "Because she is older than her brother. she tells him what to do. Another term for dependent clause is subordinate clause: this means that the clause is subordinate to another element (the independent clause) and depends on that other element for its meaning." Words We Use to Talk about Clauses Learning the various terms used to define and classify clauses can be a vocabulary lesson in itself." ٤ .

who. Professor Villa.) A nonrestrictive clause is not essential to the meaning of the sentence.Clauses are also classified as restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses. the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb (remember that all clauses contain a subject-verb relationship) and refers to (relates to) something preceding the clause. whom. had to be removed. (In this sentence. the clause in bold is a restrictive [essential] clause [a noun clause––see below] and will not be set off by a comma.) Elliptical Clauses: see below. which. respectively. which had been bothering him for years. In a relative clause. it can be removed from the sentence without changing its basic meaning. Relative clauses can be either restrictive or nonrestrictive. whichever. whoever. who used to be a secretary for the President. and of which). ٥ . can type ١٣٢ words a minute. Nonrestrictive clauses are often set apart from the rest of the sentence by a comma or a pair of commas (if it's in the middle of a sentence). whomever. whose. (The words essential and nonessential are sometimes used and mean the same thing as restrictive and nonrestrictive. Arthur said that the tooth. Relative clauses are dependent clauses introduced by a Relative Pronoun (that. the underlined relative clause [modifying "tooth"] is nonrestrictive [nonessential––it can be removed from the sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence] and is set off by commas.

For instance. Needless to say. for example. except that when they do stand by themselves. we have two independent clauses––"Bob didn't mean to do it" and "he did it anyway"––connected by a comma and a coordinating conjunction ("but"). the sentence would be called a comma splice: two independent clauses have been incorrectly connected. Bob didn't mean to do it. In the following sentence. but. The ability to recognize a clause and to know when a clause is capable of acting as an independent unit is essential to correct writing. and using a semicolon. it is important to learn how to combine independent clauses into larger units of thought. Clauses thus connected are usually nicely balanced in length and import: ٦ . leading to what is called primer language (after the kind of prose that we find in first grade textbooks or "primers"). yet. they're normally referred to simply as sentences.). Furthermore. for. (See the section on Avoiding Primer Language for advice and exercises on combining sentences. subordination. nor. so. separated from other clauses. a long series of clauses of similar structure and length begins to feel monotonous. not clauses. or. if the word "but" is missing from the above sentence (about Bob). Clauses are combined in three different ways: coordination. with only a comma between them. Coordination involves joining independent clauses with one of the coordinating conjunctions: and.INDEPENDENT CLAUSES Independent Clauses could stand by themselves as discrete sentences. but he did it anyway.

• Ramonita never talked to her friends about joining the choir. • Yasmin is Ramonita's sister.. but she never talked to her friends about it. Yasmin told Ramonita to join the choir no matter what her friends said. Semicolons can connect two independent clauses with or without the help of a conjunctive adverb (transitional expression). • Although Ramonita often thought about joining the choir.. Joining these with the use of a relative clause: Yasmin. it is no longer an independent clause. When the clause begins with a subordinating word. many couples have asked her to sing at their wedding. she never talked to her friends about it. Semicolons should be used sparingly and only when the two independent clauses involved are closely related and nicely balanced in terms of length and import. ٧ . [who is] Ramonita's sister.• Ramonita thought about joining the church choir. because she was afraid they would make fun of her. • Ramonita has such a beautiful voice. There are other ways of combining ideas––by turning independent clauses into various kinds of modifying phrases.. Subordination involves turning one of the clauses into a subordinate element (one that cannot stand on its own) through the use of a Subordinating Conjunction (sometimes called a dependent word) or a Relative Pronoun. told Ramonita to join the choir. it is called a dependent or subordinate clause because it depends on something else (the independent clause) for its meaning.

• Ramonita's voice has a clear. furthermore. They must be combined with an independent clause so that they become part of a sentence that can stand by itself. angelic quality. dependent clauses are said to perform various functions within a sentence." or "The bridge that collapsed in the winter storm will cost millions to replace. Remember that a dependent clause always contains a subject and a verb. They act either in the capacity of some kind of noun or as some kind of modifier. she clearly enjoys using it. There are three basic kinds of dependent clauses." • Noun clauses can do anything that nouns can do. when. "When the movie is over. • Adverb clauses provide information about what is going on in the main (independent) clause: where. "What he knows [subject] is no concern of mine. who is an engineer. but it cannot stand by itself." or "John wanted to write a book because he had so much to say about the subject. Unlike independent clauses. which simply are what they are. or why. figured it out for me. categorized according to their function in the sentence. DEPENDENT CLAUSES Dependent Clauses cannot stand by themselves and make good sense. "My brother." • Adjective clauses work like multi-word adjectives. we'll go downtown." or "Do you know what he knows [object]?" or "What can you tell me about what he has done this year [object of the preposition "about"]?" ٨ .

Subject That you should feel this way about her came as a great surprise to us. In fact. Nominative ٤ ٥ Adjective Clause My brother. The dealership that sold more cars ended up actually losing money. Noun Clause as Her husband spent whatever she had saved over the years. which was founded ٩ . Object I don't know what I should do next. never liked math in high school. Whatever you want for dessert is fine with Noun Clause as me. The biggest disappointment of last season Noun Clause as was that the women's team didn't make it to Predicate the final four. Juan finally revealed what he had done with ٢ the money. The Federated Bank. who now teaches math in a small college. he wrote a book about what he had ٣ done over the years. Object of Preposition ١ The trouble was that they had never been there before. We are interested in what he does for a Noun Clause as living.What they did with the treasure remains a mystery.

While Josie sat inside watching television. COMBINATIONS OF CLAUSES Review the section on Sentence Variety for help in understanding the variety of sentence patterns. There is also a quiz at the end of that section that will test your ability to distinguish among the kinds of clauses that make up a sentence. and compound-complex sentences. These are defined by their essential ingredients. the clauses that make them up. Gladys shovelled the driveway. Pay special attention to the variety of sentence types: simple. compound. he doesn't see much of his kids.٦ Adverb Clause nearly two centuries ago. The team had fallen behind by ten points before they were able to figure out the opponent's defence. ELLIPTICAL CLAUSES Elliptical Clauses are grammatically incomplete in the sense that they are missing either the relative pronoun (dependent word) that normally introduces such a clause or something from the predicate in the second part of a comparison. complex. Since he started working nights. folded during the state's economic crisis. It is difficult to know if you're using different patterns unless you keep in mind the way that clauses are combined in larger sentence-units of thought. The missing parts of the elliptical clause can be guessed from the context and ١٠ .

Exercise on Identifying Independent Clauses Choose the correct answer. even in formal prose. • Though [they were] sometimes nervous on the court. This sentence has no independent clauses.most readers are not aware that anything is missing. The doctor told Charlie to lose weight and exercise vigorously for forty-five minutes a day. The doctor was worried that Charlie was putting on too much weight." ١١ . ٢. The independent clause is "The doctor was worried. elliptical clauses are regarded as both useful and correct. (The omitted words are noted in brackets below). her recruits proved to be hard workers. In fact. This sentence has two independent clauses. • Coach Espinoza knew [that] this team would be the best [that] she had coached in recent years. This sentence has one independent clause. efficient means of expression. because they are often elegant. The section in bold is an independent clause. • Sometimes the veterans knew the recruits could play better than they [could play]. ١.

This sentence has one independent clause. ٥. The section in bold is the independent clause. This sentence has two independent clauses. "he ended up actually gaining weight" is the only independent clause. sweet desserts. ٤. thinks Charlie may be a lost cause. The section in bold is an independent clause. ١٢ . "Charlie has decided to hire a personal trainer" is the independent clause. ٦. The part in bold is not an independent clause. Charlie has a hard time sticking to a diet. he really loves rich.This sentence has no independent clause. In fact. he ended up actually gaining weight. This sentence has no independent clauses. This sentence has two independent clauses. whose name is Adriana Bongiorno. This sentence has two independent clauses. His new personal trainer. ٣. Charlie has decided to hire a personal trainer because he is worried about his heart. the last time he tried to lose weight.

He is very good as long as Miss Bongiorno is around. This sentence has no independent clause. Charlie must learn that eating all those sweets may give him a temporary pleasure but that it's not good for his heart and that he would feel better about himself if he stopped eating all those rich and sweet foods that are not good for him. but he goes to the freezer for ice-cream when she leaves. That she can make him do the exercises but not stick to the diet. This sentence has three independent clauses. ١٠. This sentence has two independent clauses. ٧.The part in blue is an independent clause. The independent clause begins with the first "that. This sentence has one independent clause. The part in bold is the independent clause. This sentence has two independent clauses. This sentence has one independent clause. though. This sentence has two independent clauses. ٨. The independent clause has three words." This sentence has several independent clauses. ١٣ . Miss Bongiorno is starting to make a difference. and Charlie is starting to make some progress. ٩.

The clause following "though" is a dependent clause. ١٤ . This sentence has two independent clauses.

Redundancy ١٢ midnight ١٢ noon ٣ am in the morning The Lean Version midnight noon ٣ am absolutely spectacular/phenomenal spectacular/phenomenal a person who is honest an honest person a total of ١٤ birds ١٤ birds biography of her life circle around close proximity completely unanimous consensus of opinion cooperate together each and every enclosed herewith end result ١٥ biography circle proximity unanimous consensus cooperate each enclosed result . Beware of the following. Many uneducated citizens who have never attended school continue to vote for better schools. Redundant phrases are bad habits just waiting to take control of your writing.Writing Concise Sentences Pruning the Redundant Avoid saying the same thing twice.

exactly the same final completion frank and honest exchange the same completion frank exchange or honest exchange free gift gift he/she is a person who. I think/feel I think/feel personal opinion opinion puzzling in nature puzzling refer back refer repeat again repeat return again return revert back revert shorter/longer in length shorter/longer small/large in size small/large square/round/rectangular in shape square/round/rectangular summarize briefly summarize surrounded on all sides surrounded surrounding circumstances circumstances ١٦ ... he/she important/basic essentials essentials in spite of the fact that although in the field of economics/law in economics/law enforcement enforcement in the event that if job functions job or functions new innovations innovations one and the same the same particular interest interest period of four days four days personally.

Reducing Clauses to Phrases. shorter constructions. When we use an abbreviation or acronym in speech (and especially in formal writing).the future to come there is no doubt but that usual/habitual custom we are in receipt of the future no doubt custom we have received Abbreviated Redundancies A special breed of redundancy is proliferating in our modern world as we increasingly rely on abbreviations and acronyms in our increasingly technological world. "CPU unit" because CPU means Central Processing Unit. It sounds particularly senseless when we come up with a plural such as "CPU units"––Central Processing Unit units. Phrases to Single Words Be alert for clauses or phrases that can be pared to simpler. not to lose some ١٧ . The "which clause" can often be shortened to a simple adjective. it's important to know what its letters mean so we don't create a new redundancy. It is redundant to say "ATM machine" because ATM means Automated Teller Machine. "AIDS syndrome" because AIDS means Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome. however. It is redundant to say "HIV virus" because HIV means Human Immunodeficiency Virus. (Be careful.

too. which was founded in ١٨٧١.needed emphasis by over-pruning.. • Unencumbered by a sense of responsibility. ١٨ .. • He wouldn't recommend that a student copy from another student's paper. the word "which.") Phrases. • Citizens who knew what was going on voted him out of office." which is sometimes necessary [as it is in this sentence]. • Smith College. sometimes to a single word. • Founded in ١٨٧١. • Recommending that a student copy from another student's paper is not something he would recommend. • Knowledgeable citizens voted him out of office. Jasion left his wife with forty-nine kids and a can of beans. is the premier allwomen's college in the United States. can sometimes be trimmed.. • (Or "He would never tell a student to copy. Smith College is the premier all-women's college in the United States.

quite. • There are twenty-five students who have already expressed a desire to attend the program next summer. It is probably enough to say that the salary increase is inadequate. Avoid Expletive Constructions This sounds like something a politician has to learn to avoid. Does saying that it is severely inadequate introduce anything more than a tone of hysteria? These words shouldn't be banished from your vocabulary. severely when they are not necessary. extremely. no. very. It is they and their parents who stand to gain the most by the government grant. but they will be used to best effect when used sparingly. ١٩ . Intensifiers That Don't Intensify Avoid using words such as really. • (Or leave out the word altogether and let the act speak for itself): Jasion left his wife with forty-nine kids and a can of beans. Expletive constructions begin with there is/are or it is. but.• Jasion irresponsibly left his wife with forty-nine kids and a can of beans. an expletive construction is a common device that often robs a sentence of energy before it gets a chance to do its work.

As far as concerned I'm As far as I'm concerned. All things considered. there There is no need for further protection of woodlands. there are more woodlands in Africa now than there were in ١٨٩٨. Africa's woodlands are in better shape now than ever before.• Twenty-five students have already expressed a desire to attend the program next summer. As a matter of fact As a matter of fact. Phrases You Can Omit Be on the lookout for important sounding phrases that add nothing to the meaning of a sentence. As far as I'm concerned. there is no need for further protection of woodlands. There are more woodlands in Africa now than there were in ١٨٩٨. they put a reader to sleep. worse. Africa's woodlands are in better shape now than ever before. ٢٠ . as a matter of fact. Such phrases quickly put a reader on guard that the writer is trading in publicity. They and their parents stand to gain the most by the government grant. all things considered All things considered.

(or naturally) By virtue of the fact Our woodlands are coming back by virtue that of the fact that our economy has shifted its emphasis. ٢١ . Due to the fact that Because their habitats are being restored. forest creatures are also re-establishing their population bases. Major forest areas are coming back through natural processes. Due to the fact that Due to the fact that their habitats are being restored. Woodlands have grown in area because farmers have abandoned their fields. By means of Major forest areas are coming back by means of natural processes. Because of the fact Woodlands have grown in area because of that the fact that farmers have abandoned their fields. forest creatures are also reestablishing their population bases. Our woodlands are coming back by virtue of the fact that because our economy has shifted its emphasis.at the present time This is because there are fewer farmers at the present time. This is because there are fewer farmers now.

Many woodlands. pPeople's suspicions are based on a misunderstanding of the facts. This policy has a tendency tends to isolate some communities. For the purpose of Many woodlands. The fear that exists among many people that we are losing our woodlands is uncalled for. The era in which we must aggressively defend our woodlands has. passed. ٢٢ . have been purchased for the purpose of creating public parks. for all intents and purposes. For all intents and The era in which we must aggressively purposes defend our woodlands has. For the most part. people's suspicions are based on a misunderstanding of the facts. Have a tendency to This policy has a tendency to isolate some communities. in fact. in fact. have been purchased for the purpose of creating as public parks. For the most part For the most part.Exists The fear that exists among many people that we are losing our woodlands is uncalled for. passed. for all intents and purposes.

The policy has. In a very real sense. In my opinion. this This policy works to the detriment of those it is supposed to help. In a very real sense In a very real sense. In the case of In the case of this particular policy.In a manner speaking of The policy has. In the final analysis In the final analysis. Citizens of Upper Egypt became very upset about his policy. thisThis wasteful policy ought to be revoked. the The state would have been better off without such a policy. begun to civilize the more rural parts of our state. the state would have been better off without such a policy. this policy works to the detriment of those it is supposed to help. citizens of Upper Egypt became very upset. In the final analysis. begun to civilize the more rural parts of our state. ٢٣ . in a manner of speaking. in a manner of speaking. In my opinion In my opinion. this wasteful policy ought to be revoked.

Legislators are already in the process of reviewing the statutes. It seems that they They can't wait to get rid of this one. it seems that It seems that they can't wait to get rid of this one. The point I trying to make am The point I am trying to make is that sometimes public policy doesn't accomplish what it set out to achieve. They have cautiously monitored the activities of conservationists.In the event that In the event that enough people protest. it will probably be revoked. The point I am trying to make is that ٢٤ . Manner They have monitored the activities of conservationists in a cautious manner. In the process of Legislators are already in the process of reviewing the statutes. Something in the nature of like a repeal may soon take place. In the nature of Something in the nature of a repeal may soon take place. it will probably be revoked. If enough people protest.

sometimesSometimes public policy doesn't accomplish what it set out to achieve. type of Legislators need to be more careful of the type of policy they propose. Legislators need to be more careful of the type of policy they propose. what I mean to say What I mean to say is that well intentioned is lawmakers sometimes make fools of themselves. What I mean to say is that well Well intentioned lawmakers sometimes make fools of themselves.

Eliminating Clichés and Euphemisms A cliché is an expression that was probably, once upon a time, an original and brilliant way of saying something. Imagine being the first person to say something as clever as "She fell head over heels in love" or "She's cool as a cucumber." Sadly, though, such expressions eventually lose their luster and become too common and even annoying. Writers who indulge in tired language are not being respectful to their readers, and writers return the compliment by losing attention and going on to something else.

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Here is a list of trite expressions to look for in your writing and speaking. acid test at loose ends babe in the woods better late than never brought back to reality black as pitch blind as a bat bolt from the blue busy as a bee/beaver cat's meow cool as a cucumber cool, calm, and collected crack of dawn crushing blow cry over spilt milk dead as a doornail dog-eat-dog world don't count your chickens dyed in the wool easier said than done easy as pie feathered friends face the music flash in the pan Meaningful dialogue Moving experience Needle in a haystack Open-and-shut case Pain in the neck Point with pride pretty as a picture put it in a nutshell quick as a flash/wink rat race ripe old age ruled the roost sad but true sadder but wiser set the world on fire sick as a dog sigh of relief slow as molasses smart as a whip sneaking suspicion spread like wildfire straight as an arrow straw that broke the camel's back ٢٦

flat as a pancake gentle as a lamb go at it tooth and nail good time was had by all greased lightning happy as a lark head over heels heavy as lead horns of a dilemma hour of need keep a stiff upper lip ladder of success last but not least looking a gift horse in the mouth

strong as an ox take the bull by the horns thin as a rail through thick and thin tired but happy to coin a phrase to make a long story short trial and error tried and true under the weather white as a sheet wise as an owl work like a dog worth its weight in gold

A euphemism is a word or phrase that substitutes for language the speaker or writer feels is too blunt or somehow offensive. When people die, we say, instead, that they have "passed away" or "met their Maker" or "gone to sleep." And, at the silly extreme, a garbage collector is a sanitation engineer, a janitor is a custodial engineer. What the writer must guard against is the tendency of euphemisms not only to shield readers from harsh reality but also to confuse meaning and truth. The military is especially guilty of this: bombing raids become surgical air-strikes and armies become peace-keeping forces. Good writing tells the truth and tells it plain.

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My sister. ٦. in light of the fact that Congressman Fuenches was totally exhausted by his last campaign. ٤. It is to be hoped that we discover a means to create an absolutely proper and fitting tribute to Professor Espinoza. recommends the daily intake of megadoses of Vitamin C. Joe was an honest and hard working man.Exercise on Writing Concise Sentences Rewrite the following sentences to achieve a more concise statement. There is a desire on the part of many of us to maintain a spring recess for the purpose of getting away from the demands of our studies. ١. ٥. Basically. who is employed as a nutritionist at the University of Michigan. At what point in time will a downturn in the stock market have a really serious effect on the social life of people as a whole? ٢٨ .) ٧. What is your basic understanding of predestination? ٨. ٣. ٢. Basically. (Rewrite as one sentence. he never gave much consideration to sitting idly about. there was an expectation on the part of the voters that he would not reduplicate his effort to achieve office in government again. doing nothing constructive. At this point in time we can't ascertain the reason as to why the screen door was left open.

١٠. who was formerly the Governor of Arkansas. Bothered by allergies.٩. ١١. I would call your attention to the fact that our President. The nursery school teacher education training sessions involve active interfacing with pre-school children of the appropriate age as well as intensive peer interaction in the form of role playing ٢٩ . There are more than a million fans who desperately want the Hartford Whalers to stay in the city. some of the pre-school children had sinus troubles that caused them to miss several days in nursery school this spring. is basically a Southerner. a condition that made them sneeze. ١٢.

Unskilful writers often violate this principle.Parallel Form Basic Principle: Express coordinate ideas in similar form. employed. But apart from this. The principle of parallel construction requires that expressions of similar content and function should be outwardly similar. an article or a preposition applying to all the members of a series must either be used only before the first term or else be repeated before each term. The likeness of form enables the reader to recognize more readily the likeness of content and function. Faulty Parallelism Corrected Version Formerly. By this principle. It is true that in repeating a statement in order to emphasize it writers may have need to vary its form. while textbook method. science was taught Formerly. from a mistaken belief that they should constantly vary the form of their expressions. he seems unable or afraid to choose one form of expression and hold to it. The right-hand version shows that the writer has at least made his choice and abided by it. The left-hand version gives the impression that the writer is undecided or timid. ٣٠ . science was taught by the by the textbook method. writers should follow carefully the principle of parallel construction. now it is taught by now the laboratory method is the laboratory method.

Faulty Parallelism Corrected Version The French. summer. My objections are. A time not for words. first. either. and the Portuguese In spring. that the injustice of the measure. Many violations of this rule can be corrected by rearranging the sentence. but. the My objections are. second. in summer. the Italians. first. that it that it is unconstitutional. tedious. and the like) should be followed by the same grammatical construction. is unconstitutional. and. The French. or winter (In spring. the Italians. Faulty Parallelism Corrected Version It was both a long ceremony and The ceremony was both long and very tedious. but action A time not for words. ٣١ . the Spanish. and Portuguese Spanish. or incur his ill will. second. measure is unjust. but for action Either you must grant his request You must either grant his request or incur his ill will. or in winter In spring. or in winter) Correlative expressions (both. but also. not only. not. third. summer. first. or. second.

Faulty Parallelism Corrected Version My income is smaller than my My income is smaller than my wife.When making comparisons. the things you compare should be couched in parallel structures whenever that is possible and appropriate. ٣٢ . wife's.

conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.Exercises on Parallel Form First Exercise Abraham Lincoln's famous Gettysburg speech abounds with examples of parallel structures. ٣٣ . and she has an extremely pleasant personality. Now we are engaged in a great civil war. We are met on a great battle field of that war. as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. Examine the following part of the speech and match the parallel structures: Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation. ١٨٦٣ Second Exercise Select the sentence that illustrates the use of proper parallel construction. ١. testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. charm. • Donald Smith has wit. Delivered at Gettysburg on November ١٩. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field.

and friend. ٣. • Raoul's QPA is higher than Ralph. a caring mentor. • Coach Espinoza was a brilliant strategist. Tashonda learned to read poems critically and she appreciated good prose. and to learn about life. and a pleasing personality. offensive. • We found the film repulsive. and we thought it was embarrassing. • Coach Espinoza was a brilliant strategist. • Raoul's QPA is higher than Ralph's. charm. Donald Smith has wit. ٣٤ . • He wanted three things out of college: to learn a skill. to make good friends. a caring mentor. ٤. Tashonda learned to read poems critically and to appreciate good prose. ٥. to make good friends.• ٢. • In English class. and learning about life. • In English class. and a wise friend. ٦. • He wanted three things out of college: to learn a skill.

and conveniently arranged. • Mr. • There's nothing I like better than finding a good trout stream. Third Exercise Improve the following sentences with the use of proper parallel constructions. Nguyen kept his store clean. Espinoza's style was remarkable for its dexterity. neat. and she could play any position. grace. Nguyen kept his store clean. ٨. ٧. neat. • There's nothing I like better than finding a good trout stream. and to spend a couple of days fishing. • Professor Ali rewarded his students for their hard work on the final project and going beyond the call of duty. and embarrassing.• We found the film repulsive. • Professor Ali rewarded his students for working hard on the final project and going beyond the call of duty. offensive. setting up camp. setting up camp. ٣٥ . and spending a couple of days fishing. • Mr. ١. and he made it conveniently arranged. ٩.

The students prepared for their exams at home. first. and asked questions in their classrooms. that the other players must sign as well. We realize not only that these students have a language problem but also cultural differences. Carlos wasted his first year at college by not studying enough and spending too much time at parties. second. ٨. ٣. and Comanches. ٣٦ . they spent extra hours with their tutors. ٦. ٩.٢. ١٠. Either you will begin to study now or risk failing the exam. The college has space for a new computer lab but not a faculty lounge. ٧. the commissioner has to approve the terms. they did the necessary research in the library. ٤. ٥. We have no doubt about her care and interest in the proposal. Three of the great Indian nations in the Central Plains are the Cherokees. Her conditions for signing the contract are. the Choctaws. Raoul's motivation to succeed in this program seems to be greater than his sister.

assembling. as the case may be)!" Just as the pitch and volume of one's voice carry a difference in tone from street to school. conveys our attitude towards our audience and our subject matter. whether they're good or bad.Tone: A Matter of Attitude Your behaviour while attending school is different from your behaviour while hanging out in the back yard with friends. Are we being frivolous or serious. we have severely limited its appeal. casual or formal. and if we aim our essay at that one individual. a difference not just in the words we use but in what we call tone. indeed. In the first sentence of this paragraph. the phrasal verb "hanging out" is considerably more casual than others we might have chosen: gathering. in turn. This is a very limited audience. be our sole reader. In fact. The tone. the choice of words and the way we put our sentences together convey a sense of tone in our writing. not to "use that tone of voice with me. sweet or stuffy? The choice of a single word can change the tone of a paragraph. congregating. We also recall being told. Our instructor might. for example. somebody who will pack a pile of papers into a briefcase or backpack and take them home to read. We would be much better off if we could conceive of our essays ٣٧ . that person has to read those essays. Audience One difficulty in writing for a course is that it's hard to think of the reader of our essays as an audience. And part of that difference is the difference in language. Mister (or Missy. or at least we hope it is. even an entire essay. in fact. when we were very young.

reserved ornate. and using contractions in our text will convey an informal quality. if we can maintain this tone of slight formality without being stuffy. of a small-town or neighbourhood newspaper. elaborate Contractions One measure of the formality of our language is our use of contractions. offhanded "loose. without being too nonsensical or unconventional. of course. so we need to be on our best behaviour. We don't know exactly who is going to pick up this newspaper. informal light. humorous. we've hit it just right. reasonable controlled. energetic. our tone must aim toward being friendly and helpful without being overly casual (and never slangy). imaginative. experimental plainspoken. subjective casual. grave. These readers are interested in what we have to say––curious. they're. simple formal serious. they expect something that is fresh." disorderly nonsensical. impersonal impassioned reasoned. comic personal. say. decorous objective. honest.as being aimed towards a community of readers. The paragraph just before this one has five verb contractions: it's (twice). To ٣٨ . in fact––but they're easily distracted. and we've. the readership. We use contractions all the time in casual conversation. don't.

“Cold Comfort. but then we can also check for contractions. also.” And here is a paragraph from an article declaring that the cultural assumptions of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment are current ٣٩ . but they have neglected the implications.) Or instead of a cold. eliminate the contractions and write out the verbs: "if we can maintain this tone of slight formality without being stuffy. A pleasant informality may be void of elevated language. and it is a very useful exercise. such as an ear or prostate infection. Michael Castleman. First." It is a very easy matter to do a search for apostrophes in our text. Read the section on writing Concise Sentences and review the various means of pruning unnecessary words and clichés.elevate the style. we have hit it just right. or any other common bacterial disease. His doctor treats him with antibiotics. your brother dies. The infection enters his bloodstream––a condition known as septicemia––and a few days later. he has an infected cut that won't heal. Here is a paragraph from an article which calls upon us to stop using antibiotics haphazardly. (Septicemia is what killed Muppets creator Jim Henson a few years ago. but it is not an excuse for imprecision or unnecessary wordiness. and why? Media reports have likely made you aware of this problem. but the bacteria are resistant to all of them. Your brother catches a cold that turns into a sinus infection. Which parts of the paragraph would you consider as formal or informal. we can check for any possessives we may have formed incorrectly.

at the end of this century. or the lack of them. can you say how this paragraph differs from the paragraph above? Does this difference say something about the audiences of the two articles.” If we tried counting contractions for the entire articles from which these paragraphs are taken. Wilson. we would discover that there is only one contraction––a shouldn't––in Wilson's article and there are twenty contractions in Castleman's. “Back from Chaos. we would have little basis for the long-term valuation of forests. How do these contractions. The economics of sustainable yield is still a primitive art. Edward O. and the psychological benefits of natural ecosystems are almost wholly unexplored. even though Wilson's article is considerably longer. Even if adequate scientific knowledge were available. and those are based on an insufficient knowledge of ecology. affect your sense of the seriousness of the essays? ٤٠ . Few ethical guidelines have been established from which agreement might be reached. respectively? Do you prefer one style to another? Which one feels more like your style? Governments everywhere are at a loss regarding the best policy for regulating the dwindling forest reserves of the world. Although you have only four sentences to go on.

Extend the habit into your personal mission to improve spelling.Spelling Working on Your Spelling Improving your spelling skills is largely a matter of personal commitment: looking up a word you're not sure of. they're-their-there. think of the e in envelope. the list goes on and on. Some mnemonics seem more difficult to remember than the spelling they're supposed to serve. keeping the dictionary at hand. Be as inventive as you wish and have fun with the idea.) are little memory devices you can use to remember how to spell words. Homonyms and Plurals Homonyms are words that sound alike or nearly alike but have different meanings and different spellings: affect-effect. Some would remember the three e's in cemetery as three tombstones in a row. Using Mnemonics Mnemonics (Now there's a toughie to spell! It's pronounced as if that initial m isn't there. Does it help to think of the r in separate as separating two like letters? Coming up with mnemonics to help you remember things is a device you probably use in other studies all the time. Good geography students will remember that George Eliot's Old Grandfather Rode A Pig Home Yesterday. When you think of stationery. ٤١ . It will pay off in the long run. keeping a list of words you know you have trouble with.

It also helps to pronounce words correctly in the first place. American author Mark Twain ٤٢ . and the same "t" we hear in nation." If we try to change the noun accident into an adverb. however. Sounding It Out Writers who try to rely too completely on the sound of English words for hints on how to spell often have trouble with some of the peculiar sound-spell combinations in the language.Creating plurals in English is usually quite simple: just add s to the end of the word. continue to defy phonetic spellers (fonetik spelurz). It's hard to spell strictly unless we hear that "t" in the word. though. Sometimes. it isn't that easy and the rules can be a bit perplexing.).) The ability to sound things out correctly doesn't help us much with Wednesday. which is a really bad accident but is how many people say the word. when asked to spell "fish. instead. to change the adjective accidental into an adverb: accidentally. and the words February and library must retain their first "r. It makes perfect sense." And words like often and handsome. of course. we'll end up with accidently. (The same goes for incidentally and coincidentally. One apocryphal (apokrifil?) story tells about a girl who. in which the "t" and "d" sounds have disappeared (at least in the U. Try.S. A thorough acquaintance with prefixes and endings and roots (see elsewhere in this section) will help some. the same "o" we hear in women." wrote GHOT on the chalkboard. especially with the inexplicable American pronunciation which puts an "nz" sound before the "d. if it's the same "gh" we see in cough. and studying the way words are broken down into sound units will help also.

American Spelling canceled center check color criticize gray humor judgment labor British Spelling cancelled centre cheque colour criticise grey humour judgement labour ٤٣ . Standard American spelling. or any place where spelling habits conform to British preferences will be perplexed when the word colour comes back from an American instructor with a slash mark through the u. Canada. and it extends to other words as well. British Spellings Writers who grow up in England. has been sometimes different from British.was keenly interested in the simplification of English spelling and his little essay called "A Plan for the Simplification of English Spelling" is included here. When Daniel Webster started putting his dictionary together. the Barbados. he thought it would be a good idea to simplify some English spelling and that -our was one ending he thought Americans could do without. Instructors should also be equipped to account for them. A good dictionary should account for these differences. if not to allow for them. ever since then.

grief. forfeit. • achieve. thief. priest • ceiling. Rule #٢: “Dropping Final E” When adding an ending to a word that ends with a silent e. vein. believe. deceit. Still. freight. receive. friend. pierce. seize. and seizure. weight. the rule is relatively simple and worthwhile remembering. and weigh and there are many exceptions to the rule: either. leisure. hygiene. drop the final e if the ending begins with a vowel: • advancing ٤٤ . designed to help us remember how to spell words such as receive and chief. beige. sleigh. weird. conceive. grieve. neither. seems so promising in its simplicity at first. conceit But then things get complicated: it doesn't work with words pronounced "ay" as in neighbour. bier. perceive. receipt. feint. foreign. height. chief.license realize theater tire valor licence realise theatre tyre valour Rule #١: “I before E except after C” This rule. brief. patience. deceive. fiend.

• crying studying ٤٥ . the final e is kept in words such as mileage and words where the final e is preceded by a soft g or c: changeable. (The word management. for example. keep the final e: • advancement likeness (However. if the ending begins with a consonant. management.surprising However. drop the e when adding any ending: argument. manageable. argued. would be pronounced with a hard g sound. if the silent e is preceded by another vowel. courageous. truly. however. noticeable.) Rule #٣: “Dropping Final Y” When adding an ending to a word that ends with y. change the y to i when it is preceded by a consonant. • supply becomes supplies worry becomes worried merry becomes merrier This does not apply to the ending -ing.) Exceptions: to avoid confusion and mispronunciation. without that e after the g.

for instance. the last consonant is preceded by a vowel. opened. • flap contains only one syllable which means that it is always accented. • submit is accented on the last syllable and the final consonant is preceded by a vowel. submitted. Double the final consonant before adding an ending that begins with a vowel when the last syllable of the word is accented and that syllable ends in a single vowel followed by a single consonant. so we double it before adding. not the last syllable. First. • refer contains two syllables and the accent falls on the last syllable and a single vowel precedes the final consonant.Nor does it apply when the final y is preceded by a vowel. • open contains two syllables and the last syllable is preceded by a single vowel. an -ing or -ed: flapping. as in referring. Again. but the accent falls on the first syllable. we have to determine the number of syllables in the word. we double that consonant in many situations. for instance. so we will double the r before adding an ending. so we double the t before adding. an -ing or -ed: submitting. • obeyed saying Rule #٤: “Doubling Final Consonants” When adding an ending to a word that ends in a consonant. so we don't double the n before adding an ending: opening. ٤٦ . flapped.

dissatisfied. For some reason.. relenting. misinform ٤٧ . adding a prefix to a word does not change its spelling. but by two vowels. not a vowel. but the syllable ends in a consonant preceded not by a single vowel. then. so we do not double the t before adding an ending: relented.referral. despaired. The same would apply. Rule #٥: “Adding Prefixes” Generally. • unnecessary. so we do not double the final l as in dealer dealing. despairing. The same would apply to begin. beginning. • relent contains two syllables. disinterested. but the final consonant is preceded by another consonant. the word misspelling is one of the most often misspelled words in English. • deal looks like flap (above). to despair. as in beginner.

Exercises on Spelling Practice Exercise ١ ١. If ____________ patient enough. their they're there ٥. sitting setting ٤٨ . They have left ____________ home because of the storm . The computer has been ____________ there since yesterday . I don't care what you read on ____________ label! This is poisonous ! its it's ٢. your you're ٤. We're Were Where ٦. ____________ mine ! Its It's ٣. you might see a rainbow . ____________ bike is that ‫؟‬ Whose Who's ٧. ____________ going where no one has gone before .

The library has been incredibly ____________ today . cemetery ١١. ommited ٨. My brother ____________ in bed all day yesterday . maintnance ٧. quite quit quiet Practice Exercise ٢ Indicate if the word is spelled correctly or not.٨. heighth ١٠. accidently ٢. irresistable ١٢. arguing ٤٩ . ١. privilege ٦. paralel ٥. grammar ٩. laid lay lied ٩. foreign ٤. independance ٣. How did they manage to ____________ that game ‫؟‬ lose loose ١٠.

catagory ١٤.١٣. embarrass ١٥. enviroment ٥٠ .

. ٤٦). To combine independent clauses. . . concise sentences) is a major feature of good writing. They must be combined with independent clauses so that they become parts of sentences. Dependent clauses could function as nouns. complex and compound complex sentences (refer to the section on " Sentence variety " p. Independent clauses could stand by themselves as discrete sentences. . subordination and a semicolon. adjectives or adverbs.e. . Writing short and clear sentences (i. A clause could be independent or dependent.SUMMARY PART I: SENTENCE LEVEL Remember: . . Clauses are combined into larger sentence-units: Compound. Redundancy is the degree to which a written bit of discourse contains more information than is needed for it to be understood. we can use coordination. Dependent clauses cannot stand by themselves. ٥١ . Elliptical clauses are elegant efficient means of expression. . A clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb. Redundant phrases in writing are bad habits which should be avoid٠ed.

or... Language units which are similar in content and function should be expressed in similar form. etc... equal in importance or rank) . believe. Example: Shall we go home or go to movie? (The two ideas or clauses are coordinate. whereas eliminating contractions elevates the style and maintains a tone of formality.g. not only. grieve. Tone reflects the writers' attitude towards both .. but also. both. and.... convey the tone of a given piece of writing.. Using contractions makes a text informal. either.. audience and subject matter.e....) They should be followed by the same grammatical construction. (Two possibilities separated by ' or') . Example: Either say you're sorry or get out.... The choice of words and the way sentences are put together. therefore. grief. Spelling rules: " I before E except after C " This rule helps us remember the spelling of words like achieve. The tone of a piece of writing is its general quality or nature... ٥٢ . neither. . One measure of the formality of writing is the use of contractions. nor.. etc.. Correlative conjunctions are coordinating conjunctions used in pairs in a parallel construction (e. i. thief.

. " Dropping Final Y " When adding an ending to a word that ends with y. unnecessary. ٥٣ . dissatisfied etc. disinterested. keep the final e as in advancement ..submitted. But.).g. Doubling final consonants: Double the consonants which mark the ending of words.g.. Accordingly " supply becomes supplies. Adding prefixes to words does not change their spelling (e. .g. e. submit: submitting .. change the 'y' to i when it is preceded by a consonant. advancing). if the ending begins with a consonant. "Dropping Final E " Drop the Final 'e' if the ending of word begins with a vowel (e.

. identify the four types of sentences: Simple. students should be able to: . . .on sentence and a long one . appreciate the value of beginning a paragraph with a question which summarizes what preceded and prepares for what follows. .PART II: PARAGRAPH LEVEL SENTENCE VARIETY Objectives: By the end of this part. complex and compound complex. understand that a long sentence should develop its complexity after the verb. establish the relationship between repeated terms in a piece of writing and understanding its meaning. appreciate the significance of repeating some key words and phrases in writing. appreciate the value of changing the normal sentence word order. compound.define a cumulative sentence ٥٤ . . differentiate between a run . .

use appositives to combine ideas. . know how to compound sentence elements. .٥٨ .. understand the rationale behind the need to combine sentences in writing. do the exercise based on consistency in tense and pronouns. identify the features of " primer style ". appreciate the value of using a variety of sentences in achieving shifts in tone . know how to compound sentences. . grasp what the concept of consistency of tense involves in writing. . use participial phrases to connect ideas. define 'an appositive '. . know how to subordinate one clause to another. . . . ٥٥ . understand the concept of consistency of pronoun reference in writing.on sentences on pages ٥٥ . . . . do the exercise based on run . avoid using ' primer language' doing the exercises on pages ٦٤٦٥. define a "participial phrase " .

. .٨١ with the functions provided. . understand how repetition lends itself to coherence. provide reasons for describing this paragraph as " unified ". . recognise the given set of 'transitional tags ' . . identify the four mechanical considerations in providing "transition" between ideas. use absolute phrases to connect ideas. read critically the paragraph on page "٨٣". . identify the difference between the paragraph on page ٨٣ and its revised version on the next page. do the exercise based on ' Combining sentences ' on pages ٧٦ ٧٨ . define an 'absolute phrase ' . ٥٦ . . match the given set of transitional devices on pages ٨٠ . define a "topic sentence". appreciate the value of pronoun reference in a piece of writing. . . . understand the concept of paragraph development by using relevant details. appreciate the value of coherence in a piece of writing..

unsure of themselves. but if our prose is made up entirely of shorter structures.PART II: PARAGRAPH LEVEL Sentence Variety A Note on Sentence Variety Many writers. forgetting that it is often better to risk imperfection than boredom. It's easy to feel confident in writing shorter sentences. are leery of long sentences because they fear the run-on. What we need. then. the ٥٧ . though it were but for awhile. is practice in handling long sentences. Run-ons and Length Remember that a really long sentence and a run-on sentence are not the same thing. it would drive a reader crazy after a while. Note the following monster of a sentence from Thomas Hooker: Now if nature should intermit her course and leave altogether.

and it does seem rather ponderous at first. whereof all things in this lower world are made. as writer (avoiding such extremes). as reader. if celestial spheres should forget their wonted motions. the fruits of the earth pine away as children at the withered breasts of their mother no longer able to yield them relief––what would become of man himself. the times and seasons of the year blend themselves by disordered and confused mixture. the winds breathe out their last gasp. there's much to be learned by devising such monsters and then cutting them back to reasonable size. there's a well earned delight in finding yourself at the end of such a sentence. if the moon should wander from her beaten way. and by irregular volubility turn themselves any way as it might happen. ٥٨ . as it were through a languishing faintness. But if. if those principal and mother elements of the world. the clouds yield no rain. whom these things now do all serve? from Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity The modern reader might rebel at the complexity of those clauses piled one upon the other. should lose the qualities which now they have. your instructor would probably call you in for a conference. In fact. begin to stand and to rest himself. if you were to write such a sentence in academic prose. having successfully navigated its shoals. the earth be defeated of heavenly influence. should. And. if the frame of that heavenly arch erected over our heads should loosen and dissolve itself. you let yourself go a bit. if the prince of the lights of heaven which now as a giant doth run his unwearied course.observation of her own laws.

the renowned sprinter and track-and-field personality Carl Lewis. even as a professional runner. this kind of pressure. be careful to develop the complex structures in parallel form. if not another world record––during this. eyepopping leap that they were capable of a few years ago when he set world records in the ١٠٠-meter dash and in the ٤٠٠-meter relay and won a silver medal in the long jump. In the completer (predicate). his fourth and surely his last appearance in the World Olympics. though) that succeeds grammatically but fails stylistically because it gives way to too much work before the subject-verb connection is made: Knowing that millions of people around the world would be watching in person and on television and expecting great things from him––at least one more gold medal for America. not before it. and realizing that his legs could no longer carry him down the runway with the same blazing speed and confidence in making a huge. made only a few appearances in races during the few months before the Summer Olympics in Atlanta. who had known pressure from fans and media before but never.Here are some hints about using long sentences to your advantage. partly because he was afraid of raising expectations even higher and he did not want to be distracted by interviews and adoring ٥٩ . Here is a ٢٣٩-word sentence (not a run-on. Make the connection between subject and verb quick and then allow the sentence to do some extra work. Coordination Allow the complexity of a longer sentence to develop after the verb. Georgia. however.

When properly handled.fans who would follow him into stores and restaurants demanding autographs and photo-opportunities. from a speech by John F. the most fitting conclusion to his brilliant career in track and field. observe how the repeated. In the following sentence. the watchmakers of Japan. Repeated Terms One of the scariest techniques for handling long sentences is the repetition of a key term. alarming in that a tremendous industrial potential had been lost to their chief competitors. but mostly because he wanted to conserve his energies and concentrate. the long jump. Kennedy (dedicating the Robert Frost Library at Amherst College). been among the first to capitalize on technical innovations. on the job at hand: winning his favourite competition. Here’s an example: The Swiss watchmakers' failure to capitalize on the invention of the digital timepiece was both astonishing and alarming––astonishing in that the Swiss had. and bringing home another Gold Medal for the United States. since the beginnings of the industrial revolution in Europe. repetition of key words and phrases within a sentence and then within a paragraph not only holds things together but creates a rhythm that provides energy and drives the meaning home. like a martial arts expert. parallel phrases pile up the meaning in waves: ٦٠ .

Let them come to Berlin. Let them come to Berlin. Let them come to Berlin. Lass' sie nach Berlin kommen... Watch how President Kennedy drove him his point in the famous "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech: There are many people in the world who really don't understand. but to our self-comprehension. I look forward to a great future for America. And there are even a few who say that it is true that communism is an evil system. The same principle can apply in repeated whole sentences in a paragraph. Let them come to Berlin.. which will protect the beauty of our natural environment. not to our self-esteem. or say they don't. a future in which our country will match its military strength with our moral restraint. and which will build handsome and balanced cities for our future. ٦١ . not to our political beliefs but to our insight. what is the great issue between the free world and the Communist world. its wealth with our wisdom. There are some who say that communism is the wave of the future. which will preserve the great old American houses and squares and parks of our national past. its power with our purpose. But today this college and country honours a man whose contribution was not to our size but to our spirit. but it permits us to make economic progress. And there are some who say in Europe and elsewhere we can work with the Communists. our heroes have customarily run to men of large accomplishments.In America. I look forward to an America which will not be afraid of grace and beauty.

"Learning the principle of parallel structure can be the most important thing you learn in writing class. so). ♦ A command or directive provides direction and energy. if not to resist. or. for." ♦ Try beginning a sentence with a coordinating conjunction (and. exclamation. Well. Learn it now!" ♦ Try beginning an occasional sentence with something other than the normal subject-followed-by-verb order of things. "Having led his people in a successful resistance. ١٩٦٣ Additional Hints on Variety ♦ Try an occasional question. Many writers assert that if you begin a sentence with and or but you should have connected that sentence to the prior sentence. It's hard to ignore. that's what we're talking about––and prepares them for what comes next.Remarks in the Rudolph Wilde Platz West Berlin: June ٢٦. or command. Tone is very important here. perhaps ٦٢ . but. Readers react to being grabbed by the collar and told what to do. to erode their base of unified power. Begin with a modifying clause or participial phrase instead. yet. A question can be especially useful at the beginning of a paragraph where you want to summarize quickly what preceded and launch into what will now follow. Pontiac was astonished to discover how Indian tribal differences and individualism began. instantly. "And what were the results of this Proclamation of ١٧٦٣?" This reminds your readers––Ah. nor.

period. A sentence beginning with a conjunction will almost always call attention to itself.you should have. he still claims to be ٦٥. But not so often that it gets out of control. and then end with an independent clause. the politicians had only listened to what people had been writing in ٦٣ . sometimes piling them on. you will also find that sentences are classified as periodic or cumulative sentences. Complex (one independent clause and at least one dependent clause): Although he is now ٧٩ years old. but give it a try. instead of listening to the war-mongers of the military-industrial establishment. but we think he was really surprised. Simple (one independent clause): We drove from Cairo to Libya in one day. Compound (more than one independent clause): We were exhausted. ♦ In terms of style. Compound-complex (more than one independent clause and at least one dependent clause): After it was all over. If. ٣. Periodic sentences begin with modifying phrases and clauses. my dad claimed he knew we were planning something. depending on the number and type of clauses they contain: ١. and if that's what you want. ٢. but we arrived in time for my father's birthday party. ٤. do it. ♦ Try using a variety of basic sentence structures. We can categorize sentences into four main types.

See the sentences of President Kennedy above. there is nothing like a brief sentence to drive home a point after a lengthy.their letters and in the newspaper columns. if they had only listened to what was in their hearts. ♦ The most important thing you will derive from using a variety of sentence types is the shifts in tone that will result. the war would have ended long ago. keep in mind that too many sentences of any one kind– –especially too many simple sentences––will be tedious for your reader." Good academic prose is not poetry and it is not music. Try spicing up your prose by combining sentences into different structures. on the other hand. but there is surely no reason for it to remain on the dull plains of sameness. as we have seen. ♦ Again. if they had only listened to what the demonstrators had been shouting in the streets and on the campuses. Cumulative sentences. rambling sentence. ♦ Try using an occasional cleft sentence. it is not so much that one kind of sentence is to be preferred over another but that a good craftsperson uses the right tool for the right job and doesn't use the same tool all the time. "which is the art of arts. begin with the independent clause and then finish with a flurry of modifying constructions. but as you review your essay. The structure of a cleft sentence allows a writer to emphasize a part of a ٦٤ . Ezra Pound said that writing aspires to music. ♦ It does no good to be overly conscious of these sentence types in the first draft of your essay. Variety of sentence structure and type liberates your text from the monotone. On the other hand.

sentence in the same way that a speaker can emphasize part of a sentence using voice stress. We could say "Coach CALHOUN came up with the program of recruiting players from foreign countries." and by stressing the word "Calhoun" we let the listener know that we're distinguishing this coach from all others (in this particular context). To create the same kind of stress in writing, we can "cleave" (split) the sentence into two parts: • It was Coach Calhoun who came up with the program of recruiting players from foreign countries. Or we could stress the idea of the PROGRAM in this way: • It was the program of recruiting players from foreign countries that Coach Calhoun came up with. The cleft sentence usually uses it as the main subject with a to be verb; the real information in the sentence, oddly enough, follows in the predicate and then in a dependent clause beginning with a dependent word (usually who, which, or that). Another form of the cleft sentence can be created with what (instead of it). • What you did in your youth is your own business. The what form of the cleft sentence will frequently take the main verb (and business) of the sentence and put it into an initial noun clause: ٦٥

• A massive typhoon off the east coast delayed the invasion. • What delayed the invasion was a massive typhoon off the east coast. Cleft sentences are useful for putting stress in a sentence exactly where you want it, but they should be used sparingly, reserved for special occasions–– like birthdays and wedding anniversaries. Exercise on Run-on Sentences Each of the following is a run-on sentence. From the group of three sentences that follows, select the group of words that corrects the run-on. ١. Our solar system has nine major planets only one is known to have intelligent life. Our solar system has nine major planets, only one is known to have intelligent life. Our solar system has nine major planets only one, is known to have intelligent life. Our solar system has nine major planets; only one is known to have intelligent life. ٢. Most asteroids are small and far away therefore they are dim and hard to see. ٦٦

Most asteroids are small and far away, therefore they are dim and hard to see. Most asteroids are small and far away therefore, they are dim and hard to see. Most asteroids are small and far away; therefore, they are dim and hard to see. ٣. Look through Angelo's telescope you can see Saturn's rings. If you look through Angelo's telescope, you can see Saturn's rings. Look through Angelo's telescope, you can see Saturn's rings. You can see Saturn's rings, look through Angelo's telescope. ٤. Please check the position of that star cluster I can't find it. Please check the position of that star cluster; I can't find it. Please check the position of that star cluster, I can't find it. Please check the position, of that star cluster, I can't find it. ٥. Marie is never interested in stargazing during the winter however on warm summer nights she often goes to the college observatory.

٦٧

Watch the sky closely for several minutes you are likely to see an artificial satellite pass over. The Milky Way looks like a dim cloud stretching across the night sky it is actually a huge galaxy containing millions of stars. Although the Milky Way looks like a dim cloud stretching across the night sky. Marie is never interested in stargazing.Marie is never interested in stargazing during the winter. Watch the sky closely for several minutes. It is actually a huge galaxy containing millions of stars. The Milky Way looks like a dim cloud stretching across the night sky. on warm summer nights she often goes to the college observatory. it is actually a huge galaxy containing millions of stars. ٦. ٧. during the winter however. Marie is never interested in stargazing during the winter. on warm summer nights she often goes to the college observatory. However. ٦٨ . on warm summer nights she often goes to the college observatory. The cloud-like Milky Way stretching across the night sky is actually a huge galaxy containing millions of stars. however. you are likely to see an artificial satellite pass over.

Louisa pretended to be interested.Watch the sky closely for several minutes. Some club members were late for the meeting. for example Tanya and Scott came in at ٩:٣٠. Louisa pretended to be interested in her brother's hobby she secretly wished she had stayed at home. Tanya and Scott came in at ٩:٣٠. Louisa secretly wished she had stayed at home. ٦٩ . Tanya and Scott came in at ٩:٣٠. she secretly wished she had stayed at home. ٨. Pretending to be interested in her brother's hobby. Some club members were late for the meeting. Some club members were late for the meeting for example. You are likely to see an artificial satellite pass over. you are likely to see an artificial satellite pass over. Tanya and Scott came in at ٩:٣٠. in her brother's hobby. Louisa pretended to be interested in her brother's hobby. she secretly wished she had stayed at home. for example. Some club members were late for the meeting. If you watch the sky closely for several minutes. for example. ٩.

His salary is enormous. His salary is enormous.١٠. most fans think he's worth it. most fans think he's worth it. however. however most fans think he's worth it. His salary is enormous however most fans think he's worth it. ٧٠ . however. His salary is enormous.

it will not do. Confusion She intended to play for the team during the upcoming season. in the sentences below there is no reason to switch from the present tense. However. stay in the present tense. Repair Work In Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye. This is especially true when writing papers about literature: wherever possible.] Repair Work She intended to play for the team during the upcoming season. however. Confusion In Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye.Consistency of Tense and Pronoun Reference Tense Consistency Remember that if you're writing in the present tense. the narrator is one of the few truly successful characters in terms of moral development. [Shifting to the present tense this way would be common in casual speech. ٧١ . but then she blows out her knee. For instance. don't shift to the past tense (or vice versa) unless you have a good reason to do so. she is also seriously flawed in some ways. the narrator is one of the few truly successful characters in terms of moral development. she was also seriously flawed in some ways. in writing. but then she blew out her knee. However.

plural "we" (quite common when writing about literature) to the second-person. try to remain consistently within the same case. we find the narrator to be one of the few successful characters in terms of moral development. However. we soon realize. is seriously flawed. You don't have to be an expert in basketball to get caught up in the crowd's enthusiasm.Pronoun Reference Remember that if you're referring to you. singular "you." to second-person "you. "People. or we. Confusion People enjoy themselves immensely at UConn women's basketball games. instead:] People enjoy themselves immensely at Uconn women's basketball games. However. even the narrator. [We've shifted from the third-person. One doesn't have to be an ٧٢ ."] Repair Work [We could write. Confusion In Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye. we've gone from a third-person. is seriously flawed. [In these sentences. or one. you soon realize. plural reference. One You should observe this carefully whenever you write. we find the narrator to be one of the few successful characters in terms of moral development. or I."] Repair Work In Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye. even the narrator.

Spring begins early in Tennessee. and the redbud is soon in its glory . is going to feel overly formal. [However. __________ to think the college owes _______ a degree . him ٢. ____________ a similar malignant presence. you b) one starts. stuffy. It isn't necessary to be an expert in basketball to get caught up in the crowd's enthusiasm. First. too. a) begin b) began ٣. a) indicate b) indicated ٧٣ .expert in basketball to get caught up in the crowd's enthusiasm. The poetry of Robert Frost (١٨٧٤-١٩٦٣) often seems to suggest some kind of fate controls our lives. the "one. a) you start. then the dogwood trees _______ to bloom." after a while. When one has been going to college for as long as he has. The word you choose should fit the blank in the sentence. the forsythia bursts into blossom. His essays. one c) he starts. Exercise on Consistency in Tense and Pronouns Select one answer from the choices provided after each sentence.] Repair Work [Most writers would probably prefer this:] People enjoy themselves immensely at UConn women's basketball games. ١.

The climate of New Zealand can be a pleasure for you if _______ don't mind a little rain . Aunt Mina wrote to tell us of her recent trip to California. a) You b) We c) I ٥. We have never seen this kind of impatience in the media before. ________ think it has something to do with the weather . a) we b) he c) you ٦. She said it was a delightful journey on the plane.٤. a) is b) was ٧. a) his b) our c) their ٧٤ . Seeing her brother again _________ a real treat . many viewers felt they had lost a friend in ________ own family. When NYPD Blue went off the air in May.

• My sister works for the state. Too many of them in a small space. average sentences. however. Used within a mix of sentences cut to various lengths. Sentences weighed down with a preponderance of linking verbs can often be eliminated or embedded into larger. can remind readers of material they read in kindergarten or first grade: See Dick.Avoiding Primer Language Primer style is characterized by too many short sentences. however. There's nothing wrong with the sentence. It is important to note that there is nothing inherently wrong with short sentences. Variety and rhythm are the keys here: long sentences. could reveal an overabundance of short sentences and the need to combine some of those sentences into longer structures. See Jane run. ٧٥ . Another symptom of primer style is a proliferation of verbs that don't do anything. the two sentences: • My sister is an engineer. See? A quick review of your text. For example. Look at this one. short sentences. See Dick chase Jane. more complex and interesting structures." but nothing is really happening in that sentence. "I am a student. short sentences can be extremely effective as they are capable of focusing the reader's attention on a particular point. A large section of text in which there are only intransitive or linking verbs that express being but no action is just asking readers to turn off the dial of their attention and go read something else.

٤. Its protagonist is Randall Patrick McMurphy. Ramonita Espinoza used to coach at Notre Dame University. OR • My sister. He was ٢٢ at the time. She now works at UConn. He surprised all the veterans. works for the state. She is the new tennis coach. He pretends to be insane to escape a work farm. Tiger Woods is the name of a young American golfer. Pepin is a well known translator of medieval texts. an engineer.can be combined to read: • My sister works as an engineer for the state. ٢. He set a record in the ١٩٩٧ Master's Tournament. One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is a novel written by Ken Kesey. He shows other characters the truth of their situation. Exercises on Avoiding Primer Language Try to combine the following sentences into one effective sentence with only one independent clause.) ١. ٣. (Any exceptions to this requirement are noted as a hint. ٧٦ . Ronald E. He discovers he is now trapped in an asylum.

ER is my favourite television program. ٧.He has two honorary degrees from Fordham University. John F. He now teaches at the University of Virginia. Some students become nervous around computers. It has won numerous Emmy Awards. ٦. Kennedy was inaugurated into office in January of ١٩٦١. ٥. He was only forty-four years old at the time. ER is now in its third year. ٧٧ . HINT: Use a semicolon in this re-write. Weicker has long been known as a maverick among politicians. They regard learning how to use computers as a kind of game. He was leader of that state's American Party. ٨. They are nervous around anything high-tech. Other students seem to enjoy new challenges. Lowell Weicker was once Governor of Connecticut. He spent only ١٠٠٠ days in office. He recently published his fourth book on ancient medical practices. He was assassinated in November of ١٩٦٣.

This section will explore some of the techniques we ordinary writers use to combine sentences. and part of language's music lies within the rhythms of varied sentence length and structure. Compounding sentences A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses. Part of the writer's task is to employ whatever music is available to him or her in language. either one of which can stand by itself as its own sentence. thus keeping the text alive and the reader awake.Sentence-Combining Skills The need to combine sentences Sentences have to be combined to avoid the monotony that would surely result if all sentences were brief and of equal length. That means that there are at least two units of thought within the sentence. Even poets who write within the formal limits and sameness of an iambic pentameter beat will sometimes strike a chord against that beat and vary the structure of their clauses and sentence length. The clauses of a compound sentence are either separated by a semicolon (relatively rare) or connected by a ٧٨ .

but few people know of his contributions to natural science. more often than not. and he was a curious man by nature. The and is part of the immediate language arsenal of children and of dreams: one thing simply comes after another and the logical relationship between the ideas is not always evident or important. And the two most common coordinating conjunctions are and and but. verbs. Notice that the and does little more than link one idea to another. but it does more work in terms of establishing an interesting relationship between ideas.coordinating conjunction (which is. and so. preceded by a comma). objects or whole ٧٩ .) This is the simplest technique we have for combining ideas: • Jack Lewis is justly famous for his expedition into the territory of the Louisiana Purchase and beyond. the but also links. for. Compounding sentence elements Within a sentence. (The others are or. • Lewis had been well trained by scientists in Philadelphia prior to his expedition. yet. The word but (and the other coordinators) is at a slightly higher level of argument. ideas can be connected by compounding various sentence elements: subjects.

the objects can be combined. Objects: When the subject(s) is/are acting upon two or more things in parallel. President Jefferson and Meriwether Lewis convinced Congress to raise money for the expedition. • He also believed that that meant he could claim all that land for the United States . etc. • Working together. Notice that the objects must be parallel in construction: Jefferson believed that this was true and that was true. • President Jefferson believed that the headwaters of the Missouri reached all the way to the Canadian border. the conjunction is usually adequate and no comma is required. modifiers. Subjects: When two or more subjects are doing parallel things. they can often be combined as a compounded subject. If the objects are not ٨٠ .predicates. • President Jefferson believed that the headwaters of the Missouri might reach all the way to the Canadian border and that he could claim all that land for the United States. Notice that when two such elements of a sentence are compounded with a coordinating conjunction (as opposed to the two independent clauses of a compound sentence).

He learned how to categorize and draw animals accurately . ٨١ . Notice that there is no comma preceding the "and learned" connecting the compounded elements above.parallel (Jefferson was convinced of two things: that the Missouri reached all the way to the Canadian border and wanted to begin the expedition during his term in office. Lewis learned to chart the movement of the stars. Verbs and verbals: When the subject(s) is/are doing two things at once.) the sentence can go awry. • He studied the biological and natural sciences and learned how to categorize and draw animals accurately. ideas can sometimes be combined by compounding verbs and verb forms. • In Philadelphia. • • He studied the biological and natural sciences . analyze their movements with • He also learned to mathematical precision .

Lewis learned to chart the stars and analyze their movements with mathematical precision. Subordinating one clause to another The act of coordinating clauses simply links ideas. • They also used recruits from various military outposts . Notice that we do not need to repeat the preposition from to make the ideas successfully parallel in form. subordinating one clause to another establishes a more complex ٨٢ . • Lewis and Clark recruited some of their adventurers from river-town bars . • OR––In Philadelphia. Lewis learned to chart and analyze the movement of the stars with mathematical precision. (Notice in this second version that we don't have to repeat the "to" of the infinitive to maintain parallel form. • Lewis and Clark recruited their adventurers from river-town bars and various military outposts.) Modifiers: Whenever it is appropriate.• In Philadelphia. modifiers such as prepositional phrases can be compounded.

a passage to the Pacific. When we use subordination of clauses to combine ideas.relationship between ideas. • As the explorers approached the headwaters of the Missouri. they discovered. • William Clark was not officially granted the rank of captain prior to the expedition’s departure . showing that one idea depends on another in some way: a chronological development. • Although William Clark was not officially granted the rank of captain prior to the expedition's departure. that the Rocky Mountain range stood between them and their goal. the rules of punctuation are very important. They discovered. ٨٣ . • • The explorers approached the headwaters of the Missouri . a conditional relationship. • Captain Lewis more or less ignored this technicality and treated Clark as his equal in authority and rank. to their horror. etc. to their horror. a passage to the Pacific . that the Rocky Mountain range stood between them and their goal. a cause-andeffect relationship. Captain Lewis more or less ignored this technicality and treated Clark as his equal in authority and rank.

is essential to the meaning of the sentence (otherwise. however. a re-identification. Sacagawea. fifteen-year-old Indian woman"). accompanied the expedition as a translator. one of the wives of the French fur-trader Charbonneau. • A pregnant. An appositive is often. but not always. who was one of the Indian wives of Charbonneau. fifteen-year-old Indian woman.Using appositives to connect ideas The appositive is probably the most efficient technique we have for combining ideas. the sentence adequately identifies her as "a pregnant. You can think of an appositive as a modifying clause from which the clausal machinery (usually a relative pronoun and a linking verb) has been removed. ٨٤ . • Sacagawea. above. Notice that in the second sentence. An appositive or appositive phrase is a re-naming. accompanied the expedition as a translator. Charbonneau's name. a parenthetical element which requires a pair of commas to set it off from the rest of the sentence. and thus her name is set off by commas. of something earlier in the text. Sacagawea's name is a parenthetical element (structurally. who was a French fur-trader.

• Allowing his men to make important decisions in a democratic manner. In the sentence above. Using participial phrases to connect ideas A writer can integrate the idea of one sentence into a larger structure by turning that idea into a modifying phrase. Lewis fostered a spirit of togetherness and commitment among his fellow explorers.which fur-trader are we talking about?) and is not set off by a pair of commas. the men of the expedition put their faith in Lewis and ٨٥ . • They put their faith entirely in Lewis and Clark's leadership . Phrases like this are usually set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma. • Captain Lewis allowed his men to make important decisions in a democratic manner . • They never once rebelled against their authority . the participial phrase modifies the subject of the sentence. • The expeditionary force was completely out of touch with their families for over two years . Lewis. • This democratic attitude fostered a spirit of togetherness and commitment on the part of Lewis's fellow explorers. • Completely out of touch with their families for over two years.

Other modifiers might also be part of the phrase. and it is always treated as a parenthetical element. The absolute phrase might be confused with a participial phrase. In the first combined sentence below. for instance. however. The absolute phrase. Using absolute phrases to connect ideas Perhaps the most elegant––and most misunderstood––method of combining ideas is the absolute phrase. The absolute phrase thus ٨٦ .Clark's leadership and never once rebelled against their authority. telling us "under what conditions" or "in what way" or "how" he disappointed the world. The participial phrase does not contain the subjectparticiple relationship of the absolute phrase. it modifies the subject of the independent clause that follows. which is set off by a comma. which is often found at the beginning of sentence. This phrase. by a participle. more often than not. an introductory modifier. There is no true verb in an absolute phrase. the absolute phrase modifies the subject Lewis. and the difference between them is structurally slight but significant. but it also modifies the verb. is made up of a noun (the phrase's "subject") followed. on the other hand. is said to modify the entire clause that follows.

Lewis died a few years later on his way back to Washington. Lewis disappointed the entire world by inexplicably failing to publish his journals. • Lewis's fame and fortune was virtually guaranteed by his exploits . ٨٧ .modifies the entire subsequent clause and should not be confused with a dangling participle. • His men in the Corps of Discovery were dispersed . D. D. • Lewis died a few years later on his way back to Washington.C. which must modify the subject which immediately follows... • Lewis disappointed the entire world by inexplicably failing to publish his journals . • His long journey completed and his men in the Corps of Discovery dispersed.C. completely alone . completely alone. • His fame and fortune virtually guaranteed by his exploits. • Lewis's long journey was finally completed .

٤. Hartford is the capital of Connecticut. Their home offices are within miles of one another. Large empty factories were all that was left of Hartford's industrial past. Hartford was once known as an industrial centre.Exercise on Combining Sentences Combine each group of sentences into one effective sentence. and Cigna are in Hartford. though. typewriters. ٢. They also enjoyed Hartford's well educated workforce. cheap labour in the south lured manufacturing away from Hartford. It was the home of several manufacturers. Manufacturers once took advantage of Hartford's access to the Connecticut River. the Hartford. ١. Today. ٣. several insurance companies make Hartford their home. Aetna. ٨٨ . the Travellers. It is the second largest city in the state. ٥. and even cars. containing only one independent clause. They made firearms. bicycles. Eventually.

Mark Twain never really liked this newfangled gadget. Mark Twain's home has a large side porch.٦. In his youth. ١٠. The wealth is centred in the insurance industry. Windows and a balcony overlook the porch. few manufacturing jobs available. The telephone was first used commercially in nearby New Haven. It was in an area called Nook Farm. Mark Twain was one of the first three people in Hartford to own a telephone. He lived in Hartford for several years. ٧. Some of these factories have been torn down. Huckleberry Finn is a classic American novel. There was practically no one to talk to. Clemens. Twain piloted steamboats on the Mississippi. He was a neighbor of Harriet Beecher Stowe. ٩. Mark Twain's house was very elaborate and elegant. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin. Mark Twain is the author of Huckleberry Finn. Today. It was on Farmington Avenue. Mark Twain's real name was Samuel L. ١١. ٨٩ . Some of them have been converted to artists' studios. people say the windows and balcony remind them of a steamboat. ٨. There are. There is much wealth in Hartford today. however.

One of these inventions was the elaborate Paige typesetter. Mark Twain loved industrial inventions. He came back for the funeral of his friend. Unfortunately for Twain. The Linotype machine was much simpler and less expensive. died in the Hartford home. Mark Twain's beloved daughter. He lost a fortune investing in them. Susy.١٢. ٩٠ . He soon left the house and Hartford. He returned only once. this machine was developed at the same time as the Linotype. She died of spinal meningitis. Charles DudleyWarner. ١٣. Twain never felt the same about the house again.

You might be able to leap from one side of the stream to the other. expressed in the most beautiful sentences. ٩١ . using pronoun reference. they will surely turn to something else or turn on the television. it's a good idea to assume not only that your readers need all the information that you have and need to know exactly how you arrived at the point you're at. Unless readers can move easily from one thought to another. nor. will move no one unless those ideas are properly connected. believe that your readers need some stepping stones and be sure to place them in readily accessible spots. moreover. yet. You must never assume that your readers know what you know. Providing transitions between ideas is largely a matter of attitude.Coherence: Transitions Between Ideas The most convincing ideas in the world. but. repeating key words and phrases. but to assume also that they are not quite as quick as you are. USING TRANSITIONAL TAGS Transitional tags run the gamut from the most simple—the six little conjunctions: and. nevertheless. In fact. There are four basic mechanical considerations in providing transitions between ideas: using transitional expressions. and using parallel form. on the other hand. so—to more complex signals that ideas are somehow connected—the conjunctive adverbs and transitional expressions such as however. for. or.

at the same time. still. Isn't the conjunction at the beginning of the sentence a sign that the sentence should have been connected to the prior sentence? Well. in the same way. though. last. in the first place. but it can add a refreshing dash to a sentence. also. notwithstanding. indeed. however. first. Here is a chart of the transitional devices (called conjunctive adverbs or adverbial conjunctions) accompanied with a simplified definition of function (note that some devices appear with more than one definition): addition Comparison Concession Contrast Emphasis Example or Illustration again. even. for example. instead. indeed. naturally. even though. in contrast. it's distracting. in addition. similarly granted. too also. nevertheless. as an illustration. Over-used. and then. otherwise. sometimes. of course although. and that's just what you want. on the other hand. yet certainly. besides. the question whether one can begin a sentence with a small conjunction often arises. However. even so. for instance. on the contrary. second. further. in fact. still. in fact. But often the initial conjunction calls attention to the sentence in an effective way. in conclusion. for all that. likewise. next. despite that. but at the same time. moreover. regardless. furthermore. in ٩٢ . of course after all. and yet. equally important. and. finally. in spite of.The use of the little conjunctions—especially and and but— comes naturally for most writers.

They must appear. on the whole. ٩٣ . second. meanwhile. then you must wonder what. in short. presently. in summary. it is true. that is. next. also. in other words.Summary Time sequence other words. too. (For that same reason. namely. altogether. until now. where they belong. simultaneously. until. therefore. earlier. in addition. thus. still. so far. at length. specifically. since. before. of course. afterward. shortly. eventually. lately. nevertheless. last. as has been said. subsequently. is holding your ideas together. at that time. there is no point in trying to memorize this vast list. in the first place. moreover. consequently. when A word of caution: Do not interlard your text with transitional expressions merely because you know these devices connect ideas. soon. finally. as long as. in simpler terms. again. finally. to put it differently. naturally. furthermore. truly all in all. if you can read your entire essay and discover none of these transitional devices. in the past. at last. in conclusion. if anything. Practice by inserting a tentative however. thereafter. now.) Having said that. then. Re-read the essay later to see if these words provide the glue you needed at those points. that is. or they'll stick like a fishbone in your reader's stomach. further. in short. in particular. and then. besides. to illustrate. formerly. in brief. to summarize after a while.

what was said before (what this is) before going on to the because part of my reasoning.. because it has become part of the music of our language." without causing the reader to consider what "this" could mean. Thus. repetition lends itself to a sense of coherence (or at least to the illusion of coherence). In fact. Remember Lincoln's advice: You can fool some of the people all of the time. PRONOUN REFERENCE Pronouns quite naturally connect ideas because pronouns almost always refer the reader to something earlier in the text. the pronoun causes the reader to sum up. and all of the people some of the time.REPETITION OF KEY WORDS AND PHRASES The ability to connect ideas by means of repetition of key words and phrases sometimes meets a natural resistance based on the fear of being repetitive. quickly and subconsciously. Now we must learn that catching a word or phrase that's important to a reader's comprehension of a piece and replaying that word or phrase creates a musical motif in that reader's head. Remember to use this device to link paragraphs as well as sentences. I cannot say "This is true because. you can't forget Lincoln's advice. We've been trained to loathe redundancy. Unless it is overworked and obtrusive. that it must always be perfectly clear what a pronoun refers to. We should hardly need to add.. If my reader cannot ٩٤ . however. but you cannot fool all of the people all of the time.

and polio killed a child king. The process was remarkably effective. It starts with a topic sentence. and the sentences that follow are clearly related to the topic sentence. Sometimes apparent were the fatal afflictions of the dead people: a middleaged king died from a blow on the head. The skin. this paragraph is not a total failure. It is possible to diagnose the disease they suffered in life. arthritis.. and facial features of the mummies were evident. COHERENCE DEVICES IN ACTION Look at the following paragraph: The ancient Egyptians were masters of preserving dead people's bodies by making mummies of them. the deliberate repetition of larger structures of phrases. Also." PARALLELISM Music in prose is often the result of parallelism.. Mummies several thousand years old have been discovered nearly intact. applying natural preservatives inside and out. teeth. the ٩٥ .instantly know what this is. do not rely on unclear pronoun references to avoid responsibility: "They say that. then my sentence is ambiguous and misleading. Mummification consisted of removing the internal organs. Though weak. and then wrapping the body in layers of bandages. even clauses and whole sentences. fingernails and toenails. In the language of writing. hair. such as smallpox. and nutritional deficiencies. (See the section on Parallel Form).

٩٦ . and facial features are still evident. Notice how this writer uses a variety of coherence devices. The ancient Egyptians were masters of preserving dead people's bodies by making mummies of them. arthritis. making it difficult for the reader to follow the writer's train of thought.paragraph is unified (i. and nutritional deficiencies.e. mummification consisted of removing the internal organs. However. to achieve overall paragraph coherence.. hair. Even their fatal afflictions are still apparent: a middle-aged king died from a blow on the head. bold indicates transitional tag-words. The organization of the information and the links between sentences help readers move easily from one sentence to the next. The paragraph is now much more coherent. The sentences are disconnected from each other. and then wrapping the body in layers of bandages. And the process was remarkably effective. the paragraph is not coherent. Indeed. Below is the same paragraph revised for coherence. Their skin. Their diseases in life. a child king died from polio. and underlining indicates parallel structures. applying natural preservatives inside and out. mummies several thousand years old have been discovered nearly intact. Italics indicates pronouns and repeated/restated key words. teeth. fingernails and toenails. such as smallpox. are still diagnosable. it contains no irrelevant details). sometimes in combination. In short.

Digressions and deviations often come in the form of irrelevant details or shifts in focus. develops. which it then explains. My mother always worried about my falling out of the tree. Irrelevant Details When I was growing up. but the sentences Behind the yard was an alley and then more houses and My mother always ٩٧ . one of the places I enjoyed most was the cherry tree in the back yard. Every summer when the cherries began to ripen. or supports with evidence.Paragraph Development & Topic Sentences A typical expository paragraph starts with a controlling idea or claim. I used to spend hours high in the tree. Behind the yard was an alley and then more houses. but I never did. devouring the fruit whenever I wasn't there. but actually when the birds and I had finished. picking and eating the sweet. But I had some competition for the cherries— flocks of birds that enjoyed them as much as I did and would perch all over the tree. Paragraph sprawl occurs when digressions are introduced into an otherwise focused and unified discussion. sun-warmed cherries. there weren't many left. I used to wonder why the grown-ups never ate any of the cherries. No sentence is completely irrelevant to the general topic of this paragraph (the cherry tree).

but the specific focus of this paragraph shifts abruptly twice. no sentence in this paragraph (to the left) is completely irrelevant to the general topic (capital punishment). (٣) It is also true that it is more expensive to put a person on death row than in life imprisonment because of the costs of maximum security. shifts the focus from capital punishment as ٩٨ . murder rates are the same or almost the same as in states without capital punishment. (٥) Statistics show that every execution is of a man and that nine out of ten are black. (٦) So prejudice shows right through.worried about my falling out of the tree. Sentence ٣. Sentence ٢ provides evidence in support of the initial claim: Statistics show that in states with capital punishment. murder rates are the same or almost the same as in states without capital punishment. however. Once again. Shift in Focus (١) It is a fact that capital punishment is not a deterrent to crime. The paragraph starts out with a clear claim in sentence ١: It is a fact that capital punishment is not a deterrent to crime. (٢) Statistics show that in states with capital punishment. (٤) Unfortunately. but I never did do not develop the specific idea in the first sentence: enjoyment of the cherry tree. capital punishment has been used unjustly.

The focus has shifted from deterrence to expense to fairness. or rehabilitated and given a second chance in society. (٣) Many citizens argue that serious criminals should be executed. Sentences ٥ and ٦. (٥) Other citizens say that no one has the right to take a life and that capital punishment is not a deterrent to crime. however. (٤) They believe that killing criminals will set an example for others and also rid society of a cumbersome burden.a deterrent to crime to the cost of incarceration: It is also true that it is more expensive to put a person on death row than in life imprisonment because of the costs of maximum security. we are now a long way off from the original claim. imprisoned for life. this time to issues of justice: Unfortunately. capital punishment has been used unjustly. Statistics show that every execution is of a man and that nine out of ten are black and So prejudice shows right through. The following paragraph on the same topic is much more effectively focused and unified: (١)The punishment of criminals has always been a problem for society. follow from ٤ if one believes that executing men and blacks is in fact evidence of injustice and prejudice. Sentence ٤ once again shifts the focus. (٢) Citizens have had to decide whether offenders such as first-degree murderers should be killed in a gas chamber. that capital punishment does not deter crime. (٦) They believe that society as well as the criminal is responsible for the crimes and that killing ٩٩ . More importantly.

the body of a paragraph explains. imprisoned for life. Sentence ٦ states the reason for the opposing point of view: They believe that society as well as the criminal is responsible for the crimes and that killing the criminal does not solve the problems of either society or the criminal. A topic sentence is a sentence whose main idea or claim controls the rest of the paragraph. Sentence ٣ further develops the topic by stating one point of view: Many citizens argue that serious criminals should be executed.the criminal does not solve the problems of either society or the criminal. develops or supports with evidence the topic sentence's main idea ١٠٠ . Topic Sentences All three paragraphs start out well with a topic sentence. The reasons for this point of view are then provided in sentence ٤: They believe that killing criminals will set an example for others and also rid society of a cumbersome burden. Sentence ٢ specifies the exact nature of the problem by listing society's choices: Citizens have had to decide whether offenders such as first-degree murderers should be killed in a gas chamber. or rehabilitated and given a second chance in society. Sentence ٥ states an opposing point of view: Other citizens say that no one has the right to take a life and that capital punishment is not a deterrent to crime. Sentence ١ puts forth the main claim: The punishment of criminals has always been a problem for society.

writers who tend to sprawl). they help these writers stay focused and keep paragraphs manageable. Here's an example of how one professional writer does this: Soon after the spraying had ended there were unmistakable signs that all was not well. Topic sentences are particularly useful for writers who have difficulty developing focused. Topic sentences are also useful to readers because they guide them through sometimes complex arguments. Within two days dead and dying fish. Topic sentences are useful. in paragraphs that analyze and argue. but not necessarily. it may even come at the end of a paragraph. stems or gravel cemented together ١٠١ . It may come. narrate. were found along the banks of the stream. including many young salmon. and.or claim. Topic sentences are not the only way to organize a paragraph. for example. and not all paragraphs need a topic sentence. paragraphs that describe. after a transition sentence. living in loosely fitting protective cases of leaves. Many well-known. Brook trout also appeared among the dead fish. or detail the steps in an experiment do not usually need topic sentences. unified paragraphs (i. All the life of the stream was stilled. perhaps most importantly. Before the spraying there had been a rich assortment of the water life that forms the food of salmon and trout— caddis fly larvae. and along the roads and in the woods birds were dying. however. For example. The topic sentence is usually the first sentence of a paragraph.. experienced writers effectively use topic sentences to bridge between paragraphs.e. Topic sentences help these writers develop a main idea or claim for their paragraphs.

too. Silent Spring The first part of Carson's topic sentence––Soon after the spraying had ended––is a transitional clause that looks back to the previous topic: DDT spraying. and there was nothing for a young salmon to eat. This kind of bridging helps the reader follow Carson's argument. ١٠٢ . killed by DDT. Rachel Carson. stonefly nymphs clinging to rocks in the swirling currents. how Carson further helps the reader follow her argument by providing a more focused version of the topic sentence later in the paragraph––All the life of the stream was stilled. Notice. and the wormlike larvae of blackflies edging the stones under riffles or where the stream spills over steeply slanting rocks. But now the stream insects were dead. Topic sentences often begin with such transitional clauses referring to the previous paragraph. This sentence tells us exactly what Carson meant by all was not well. The second part of the topic sentence––there were unmistakable signs that all was not well––shapes and controls what follows.with saliva.

.e. . Primer language is characterized by too many short sentences and a proliferation of verbs. Repetition of key words and phrases in a long sentence and within a paragraph holds things together. remain consistent. average and short sentences) is a key feature of good writing.on sentence are not the same thing. Sentence variety in a piece of writing liberates it from monotony. . . within the same case. provides energy and makes the meaning clear. ١٠٣ . Variety in length of sentence (long. . Consistency of tense means sticking to one tense throughout a given piece of writing. Example: The climate of New Zealand can be a pleasure for you if you don't mind a little rain. .SUMMARY PART II: PARAGRAPH LEVEL Remember: . If you refer to " one". i. A long sentence and a run .

thus making a paragraph coherent. ١٠٤ . An efficient technique for combining is the use of appositives. repetition of key words and phrases. sentences have to be combined. . . therefore. . To avoid the monotony of having many short sentences. Paragraphs which describe.. verbs. . The use of transitional tags. Subordinating one clause to another is a technique for linking ideas (study the examples on p.Coherence refers to the relationships which link the meanings of the sentences in a piece of writing. narrate or provide a procedure do not usually need topic sentences. objects and predicates within a sentence can be compounded (study the given examples on pages ٦٨ . An absolute phrase modifies the whole clause that follows. The use of participial phrases to connect ideas is another efficient technique. . . It is the most elegant technique for combining ideas. ٧١). . . A paragraph. A topic sentence contains the main idea which controls the other sentences in a paragraph. The two most common coordinating conjunctions used in making compound sentences are " and" and " but". Subjects.٧٠). has coherence if it contains a number of sentences that develop a main idea. pronoun reference and the use of parallel form can provide transition between ideas .

define the body of an essay. . identify the main parts of an essay. define a "paragraph". recognise what a conclusion in an essay usually contains. . read critically " Things not to do in an introductory paragraph " on p. . identify the content of the body of an essay. identify the tasks an introductory paragraph should achieve.PART III : ESSAY LEVEL Objectives: By the end of this part. identify the approaches which can be used in organizing the body of essay. . ٩٤ . know what an introduction to an essay should contain. read critically the "Essay Writing Tips ". . specify the features of the body of an essay. . students should be able to: . . . ١٠٥ . .

. . . . list the patterns which professional writers usually use to capture readers' interests. identify the four stages of writing an essay. . define a " supporting paragraph ". identify the steps followed in the stage of editing an essay. .. .writing steps involves. ١٠٦ . realize how supporting paragraphs are significant in writing an essay. . list the six pre-writing steps in sequence. . . match the transition words with their functions.identify the five steps involved in the writing stage.specify the function of a summary paragraph. know what editing an essay means. . . . go through the list of transition words given.provide the features of a supporting paragraph. define what publishing an essay means.understand what each of the six pre. . describe the procedure for writing a summary paragraph. define a summary paragraph. .describe the procedure for writing a number of supporting paragraphs in an essay. .

١٢١. . . specify what each kind of essay aims at. read critically the part entitled " The Five . .١١٨. look / read critically how each of the three parts of each essay example (pp. describe how each kind of essay is organized.١١٨) is realized functionally .١٢٤ . . go through the examples illustrating the different kinds of essay on pages ١١١.١١١. . . ١٠٧ . read analytically the commentary on pages ١٢٣ .. appreciate how "organization" of an essay makes it unique.paragraph Essay ". match the model essay provided with the generalizations given on pages ١١٩ . identify the different kinds of essay.

In the introduction. the easier it will be to develop a strong argument. Using an outline can help organize your thoughts and guide in writing the essay. The thesis is introduced at the beginning and developed one step at a time. The stronger the thesis. (Hint: Many times. outline the main points to be made. it is easier to ١٠٨ . The facts must be organized into themes to support a central argument or thesis. Organizationally.PART III: ESSAY LEVEL Essay Writing Tips An essay does not merely list facts. Essays don't have surprise endings. They are not mysteries. and describe the conclusions to be drawn. the reader should know from the beginning what conclusions will be drawn. Introduction. The reader should be drawn into the essay by the introduction. the essay has three main parts: • Introduction • Body • Conclusion ١. state the thesis.

Try to explain why it happened and why it is significant. or otherwise. don't describe. but the approach must be clear.) • Analyze. Body. Don't just tell what happened. geographical. thematical. Avoid sexist language (such as generic "he" or "the history of man" when you mean humans or people. Use specific examples to support general statements. The bulk of an essay is in the body. • Use good grammar. Remember the definition of a paragraph as a unit of thought limited to one major idea. Every paragraph relates to and supports the thesis or central argument. • Support your point of view.write the introduction last. Vary vocabulary. The point is to use facts to develop an argument supporting a point of view. ١٠٩ . Essays don't have "correct" answers. Use active verbs rather than passive ones. In the body. Make sure of facts and that they support the argument. Keep in mind these guidelines: • Use paragraphs. Write in complete sentences.) ٢. Facts are important. but meaningless without interpretation. whether it is chronological. Use past tense instead of present tense when appropriate. The body may be organized in many ways. after you clearly know the arguments developed in the essay. present the facts and develop thoughts and arguments.

٣. Don't be afraid to disagree with an author's views. you may also interpret. Write as if you are teaching someone something that is new and interesting. In this way. Everyone has a perspective which can give a different slant to approaching the same material.it ends up where it started. In the conclusion. • Be creative. The conclusion may be as simple as a restatement of the introduction. ١١٠ . an essay is cyclical . assess and argue with the source material for the facts.• Think independently and originally. Make it interesting to read. or point to historical knowledge gaps. The conclusion emphasizes the thesis. The best essays usually come from giving individual opinions and interpretations. Conclusion. and briefly summarizes how it is proven in the body. Don't assume your reader knows everything about the topic.

a ‘widget’ is… ١١١ . In this paper I will.. Never suggest that you don't know what you're talking about or that you're not enough of an expert in this matter that your opinion would matter. • Use a dictionary or encycopedia definition. • Announce your intentions. I'm not sure about this. Get into the topic and let your reader perceive your purpose in the topic sentence of your beginning paragraph.Parts of an Essay Introductory Paragraphs Things NOT to do in an introductory paragraph • Apologize. The purpose of this essay is to.... but. Avoid phrases like the following: In my [humble] opinion. According to Oxford Dictionary.. Your reader will quickly turn to something else. Do not flatly announce what you are about to do in an essay.

historical review ٢. First. ٢.Although definitions are extremely useful and it might serve your purpose to devise your own definition(s) later in the essay. It is this task that this discussion addresses. The first task––securing the reader's interest––is more difficult. Students are told from the first time they receive instruction in English composition that their introductory paragraphs should accomplish two tasks: ١." Writing thesis statements can be learned rather quickly. the question then becomes: "What can a writer do that will secure the interest of a fair sized audience?" Professional writers who write for magazines and receive pay for their work use five basic patterns to grab a reader's interest: ١. With that out of the way. anecdotal ٣. They should get the reader's interest so that he or she will want to read more. They should let the reader know what the writing is going to be about. you want to avoid using this typical beginning to an essay. surprising statement ١١٢ . admit that it is impossible to say or do or write anything that will interest everybody. The second task can be accomplished by a carefully crafted "thesis statement.

١١٣ ." or "drugs and the younger generation. Telegrams of congratulations poured in from around the world. Board of Education of Topeka. Kansas. The victory brought pure elation and joy.٤. ١ Historical review: Some topics are better understood if a brief historical review of the topic is presented to lead into the discussion of the moment. April/May. just days after the Supreme Court's landmark ruling in Brown v. Such topics might include "a biographical sketch of a war hero. ١٩٩٤." "an upcoming execution of a convicted criminal. reporters and well-wishers crowded the halls. many more topics that could be introduced by reviewing the history of the topic before the writer gets down to the nitty-gritty of his paper. declarative What follows is an explanation of each of these patterns with examples from real magazine articles to illustrate the explanations. It was May ١٩٥٤." Obviously there are many. It is important that the historical review be brief so that it does not take over the paper. At NAACP headquarters in New York the mood was euphoric. famous person ٥. from "Integration Turns ٤٠" by Juan Williams in Modern Maturity.

Hours later. Cantlon emerged lugging a $٢٢ beam drill-for constructing post-and-beam barns—and a passion for auctions that has clung like a cocklebur on an old saddle blanket. He parked his car and wandered into the crowd. Begin a paper by relating a small story that leads into the topic of your paper. Mike Cantlon remembers coming across his first auction ten years ago while cruising the back roads of Wisconsin. this article discusses school segregation in the present time. "It's an addiction. GONE to the Auction!" by Laurie Goering in Chicago Tribune Magazine.] ٢ Anecdotal: An anecdote is a little story. ١٩٩٤. it is an introduction. If you do it right. [This is an anecdote. One caution: be sure that your story does not take over the paper." says Cantlon. Remember.[After reaching back forty years ago to bring up the landmark Supreme Court decision that started school desegregation. that is the lead to an article about ١١٤ . a financial planner and one of the growing number of auction fanatics for whom Saturdays will never be the same. July ٤. not a full blown story with characters and plot and setting. from "Going. Your story should be a small episode. a little story about one man and his first auction. your story will capture the reader's interest so that he or she will continue to read your paper. toward the auctioneer's singsong chant and wafting smell of barbecued sandwiches. Going. not the paper. Everyone loves to listen to stories.

and other facts about auctions and the people who go to them. Have a minute? Good. Professional writers have honed this technique to a fine edge. Sometimes it is joyful. ٤٢ more children are admitted to hospitals for treatment. Sometimes it is shocking. what to protect yourself from at auctions. In this article the author explains what auctions are. Sometimes the statement is surprising because it is disgusting. Sometimes it is surprising because of who said it. ١٩٩٣. but it is used. And for every fatality. how to spot bargains in auctions. Accidents kill nearly ٨٠٠٠ children under age ١٥ each year.auctions. from "٦٠ Seconds That Could Save Your Child" by Cathy Perlmutter with Maureen Sangiorgio in Prevention. September.] ٣ Surprising statement: A surprising statement is a favourite introductory technique of professional writers. There are many ways a statement can surprise a reader. Sometimes it is surprising because it includes profanity. ١١٥ . Because that may be all it takes to save the life of a child—your child. Yet such deaths and injuries can be avoided through these easy steps parents can take right now. It is not used as much as the first two patterns. You don't have a minute to lose.

] ٤ Famous person: People like to know what celebrities say and do. even shocking. the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service. You may just mention the famous person's name to get the reader's interest. The most widely read writer in America today is not Stephen King. a clever writer can convince the reader that it is relevant. The famous person may be a good person like the Pope. Of course. May ١. It may be something that person said or something he or she did that can be presented as an interest grabber. or he or she may be a bad person like John Wilkes Booth. Michael Chrichton or John Grisham. ٨٠٠٠ children die each year from accidents. The article then lists seven easy actions a person can take to help guard a child against accidents. Dropping the name of a famous person at the beginning of a paper usually gets the reader's attention.[This article begins with a surprising. The famous person may be dead or alive. ١٩٩٣. from "Dear Taxpayer" by Will Manley in Booklist. These range from turning down the water heater to ١٢٠ degrees Fahrenheit to putting firearms under lock and key. I doubt that Margaret wrote the entire ١٠٤٠ ١١٦ . Even though the statement or action may not be readily relevant. bringing up this person's name must be relevant to the topic. It's Margaret Milner Richardson. whose name appears on the "١٠٤٠ Forms and Instructions" booklet. statistic.

the writer simply states straight out what the topic of his paper is going to be about. [This is the first paragraph of an article about the lady named above. from "The Tuition Tap" by Tim Lindemuth in K-Stater. know his name whether they have read his books or not. and everyone. ١٩٩٤.] ٥ Declarative: This technique is quite commonly used. nearly one-third of the teaching faculty may retire by the year ٢٠٠٤. from teenagers to grandparents. Stephen King has been around for some time now. In the College of Education. to get the reader's interest. In this pattern.pamphlet. "A Note from the Commissioner. February. but it must be carefully used or the writer defeats his whole purpose of using one of these patterns. but good professional writers use it too." bears her signature. The largest turnover for a single department is projected to be in ١١٧ . but the annual introductory letter. The author used the names of three famous. It is the technique that most student writers use with only modest success most of the time. more than a third of the professors are ٥٥ years old and older. for example. In the College of Veterinary Medicine and Engineering. Notice that the first name on his list is a name that is probably more widely known than the other two. modern American writers to get a reader's interest.

no quotations from or about famous people. though. The graying of K-State's faculty is not unique. The biggest difficulty about this type of introduction is that it can get boring. Do not forget. no anecdotes.] These patterns can give a "lift" to your writing. says Ron Downey of K-State's Office of Institutional Research and Analysis. Use this pattern with caution. no surprising statements. that your introductory paragraph must also include a thesis statement to let your reader know what your topic is and what you are going to say about that topic. There are no historical reviews. Practice them. creating a shortage of senior faculty. A Regents' report shows approximately ٢٧ percent of the faculty at the six state universities will retire by the end of this decade. Try using two or three different patterns for your introductory paragraph and see which introductory paragraph is best. Supporting Paragraphs What are supporting paragraphs? ١١٨ . This is a discussion that leads to further discussion about the topic.geology. [This is a straight forward introduction that gets right down to the topic of the aging of the faculty of Kansas State University. It is not likely to get the interest of anyone except those who are already interested in this subject. it's often a delicate matter of tone and of knowing who your audience is. More than half of its faculty this year are in the age group that will retire at the millennium.

and examples. Use them at the beginning and end of your paragraphs. Transition words link your paragraphs together and make your essay easier to read. To connect your supporting paragraphs. ٣. Develop each supporting point with facts. How do I write them? ١. Place each supporting point in its own paragraph. details. What do they do? They develop the main idea of your essay. ٢. Examples of transition words that can help you to link your paragraphs together: For listing different points First Second Third For counter examples However Even though On the other hand Nevertheless To show cause and effect Therefore Thus ١١٩ For additional ideas Another In addition to . you should use special transition words.Supporting paragraphs make up the main body of your essay. List the points that develop the main idea of your essay.

and a summary sentence. The summary paragraph is often called a "conclusion. supporting sentences." What does it do? It summarizes or restates the main idea of the essay.Related to Furthermore Also As a result of Consequently Like all good paragraphs. How do I write one? ١. ٢. Conclude your essay by restating the main idea in different words. each supporting paragraph should have a topic sentence. ١٢٠ . Summary Paragraph What is a summary paragraph? The summary paragraph comes at the end of your essay after you have finished developing your ideas. ٣. You want to leave the reader with a sense that your essay is complete. Give your personal opinion or suggest a plan for action. Restate the strongest points of your essay that support your main idea.

How to Write an Essay Prewriting Essays What is the prewriting stage? The prewriting stage is when you prepare your ideas for your essay before you begin writing. especially when you are writing longer assignments. Ask yourself: What question am I going to answer in this paragraph or essay? How can I best answer this question? What is the most important part of my answer? How can I make an introductory sentence (or thesis statement) from the most important part of my answer? What facts or ideas can I use to support my introductory sentence? How can I make this paragraph or essay interesting? Do I need more facts on this topic? Where can I find more facts on this topic? ٢. ١٢١ . Look for and write down facts that will help you to answer your question. Write out your answers to the above questions. You do not need to spend a lot of time doing this. Collect facts related to your paragraph or essay topic. You will find it easier to write your essay if you build an outline first. Open your notebook. Timesaving hint: make sure the facts you are writing are related to the exact question you are going to answer in your paragraph or essay. Six Prewriting Steps: ١. just write enough to help you remember why and how you are going to write your paragraph or essay. Think carefully about what you are going to write. ٣.

Look at your own ideas on the topic. Find the main idea of your paragraph or essay.٤. Write down your own ideas. Organize your facts and ideas in a way that develops your main idea. Ask yourself: What else do I want to say about this topic? Why should people be interested in this topic? Why is this topic important? ٥. For the introduction. write the thesis statement and give some background information. Develop each supporting paragraph and make sure to follow the correct paragraph format. ٦. ٢. Decide which facts and ideas will best support the main idea of your essay. Five Writing Steps: ١. Once you have chosen the facts and ideas you plan to use. you must find the best way to tell your reader about it. ١٢٢ . ask yourself which order to put them in the essay. Choose the most important point you are going to present. Once you have chosen the most important point of your paragraph or essay. Writing Essays What is the writing stage? The writing stage is when you turn your ideas into sentences. just choose one point and stick to it throughout your paragraph or essay. Look at the facts you have written. Write down your own note set that you can use to guide yourself as you write your essay. If you cannot decide which point is the most important.

Check your spelling. ٥. ٦. Make sure each sentence has a subject. ٧. ١٢٣ . ٤. Check your grammar. Make sure that each sentence makes sense. Editing Essays What is the editing stage? The editing stage is when you check your essay for mistakes and correct them. Read your essay again. Write clear and simple sentences to express your meaning.٣. Make sure your subjects and verbs agree with each other. Focus on the main idea of your essay. ٢. ٤. Check the verb tenses of each sentence. ٣. Use a dictionary to help you find additional words to express your meaning. ٥. Editing Steps: Grammar and Spelling ١.

Style and Organization ١. or parents. and a summary paragraph. Check that all your paragraphs follow the proper paragraph format. Show your work to your teacher. ٣. Check that you have a thesis statement that identifies the main idea of the essay. Make sure your essay has an introduction. ٣. Publishing Essays What is the publishing stage? The publishing stage is when you produce a final copy of your essay to hand in. tutor. Publishing Steps: ١. ٤. Make a paper copy of your essay. supporting paragraphs. ٢. Ask them for hints on how to improve your writing. See if your essay is interesting. ٢. ١٢٤ .

Summary paragraph: Summarize energy resources. You need to give a careful definition of the key term before going on to discuss different types or examples. Definition Essay When you are writing a definition essay. you take a term or an idea and write about what it is. Supporting paragraphs: ١. Example question: Introduction: Write an essay defining energy resources and discuss the different types. Define another type of energy resources: non-renewable resources. Define the key term energy resources. ٢. definitions are combined with classification or other forms of organization in the essay. ٢. Define one type of energy resources: renewable resources. Classification Essay ١٢٥ . Often.Kinds of Essay ١.

describe secondary ٤. ٣. ٣. Give background information education in Egypt. Summary paragraph: Summarize education in Egypt. you write about what a person. You organize the essay by describing different parts or aspects of the main subject. Define and education. you separate things or ideas into specific categories and discuss each of them. Example question: Write an essay discussing the different stages of education in Egypt. describe about primary Introduction: Supporting paragraphs: ١. Define and describe preparatory education. ١٢٦ . Description Essay In a description essay. Define and describe higher education. or thing is like. place. Define and education. ٢. You organize the essay by defining each classification and by giving examples of each type.In a classification essay.

Example question: Write an essay describing the polar bear. Supporting paragraphs: ١. Summarize what a polar bear is. ٢. Describe the body of the polar bear. Describe what the polar eats. Introduction: Introduce what a polar bear is. Summary paragraph: ٣. ١٢٧ . Describe where the polar bear lives.

١٢٨ . Compare weather in spring and Supporting paragraphs: summer for both cities. You can organize the essay by writing about one subject first and then comparing it with the second subject. Summarize the similarities and Summary paragraph: differences. or things. ٢. You organize the essay by writing about each step of the process in the order it occurred. A more effective way is to organize the essay by comparing each subject by category. this order is based on time. Usually. Introduction: Introduce weather in the cities of Cairo and Aswan. places. you are writing to describe a series of events or a process in some sort of order. State how they are similar or different.٤. State how they are similar or different. Compare weather in autumn and winter for both cities. ١. you write about the similarities and differences between two or more people. Example: Example question: Write an essay outlining the stages of privatization in Egypt.Sequence Essay In a sequence essay. Write an essay comparing the weather in Cairo with the weather in Aswan. Compare and Contrast Essay In a compare and contrast essay. ٥.

Describe what the public sector was like in the past. Describe what the public sector is like now. Summary paragraph: Summarize the main stages of privatization in Egypt. Introduce the concept of friendship. ٢. Example question: Write an essay choosing between spending time with one or two close friends and spending time with a large number of friends. ٦. Describe the future of the public sector in Egypt.Introduction: Define what privatization is. Supporting paragraphs: ١. You organize the essay by describing each option and then giving your opinion. Introduction: ١٢٩ . ٣. or action that you prefer. Choice Essay In a choice essay. idea. you need to choose which object.

Describe the advantages or disadvantages of spending time with a large number of friends. Describe the advantages or disadvantages of spending time with a limited number of close friends. Summary paragraph: Summarize the ideal way of spending time. You should organize the essay by explaining each individual cause or effect. ٢. You need to explain different causes and effects. ٧. State which way of spending time you prefer and why.Supporting paragraphs: ١. Explain first reason: poor living conditions in big cities. Give background information on the newlybuilt cities. Example question: Introduction: Supporting paragraphs: Write an essay explaining why so many people prefer to live in the newly-built cities. ١. ٣. Explanation Essay In an explanation essay. you explain how or why something happens or has happened. ١٣٠ .

Explain first criteria: meeting place for government ٢.٢. and possible actions. You make your evaluation based on certain criteria that you develop. ١. Explain third criteria: make laws for Egypt Summary paragraph: Conclude with an overall judgment about the Parliament ١٣١ . Give your judgment on whether the Parliament is important. Summary paragraph: Explain second reason: better conditions in the newly-built cities. Organize the essay by discussing the criteria you used to make your judgment. Evaluation Essay In an evaluation essay. living Summarize main reasons. you make judgments about people. Explain second criteria: represent Egyptians ٣. Example question: Introduction: Supporting paragraphs: Write an essay evaluating the importance of the Parliament. ٨. ideas.

١٣٢ .

Body: Body—First paragraph: The first paragraph of the body should contain the strongest argument. but it is a useful model for you to keep in mind.The Five-Paragraph Essay A classic format for compositions is the five-paragraph essay. cleverest illustration. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the "reverse hook" which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the introductory paragraph. Writing Introductory Paragraphs for different ways of getting your reader involved in your essay. most significant example. The introductory paragraph should also include the thesis statement. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. of course. The last sentence of this paragraph must also contain a transitional "hook" which moves the reader to the first paragraph of the body of the paper. a kind of mini-outline for the paper: it tells the reader what the essay is about. ١٣٣ . The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. It is not the only format for writing an essay. or an obvious beginning point. first. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the second paragraph of the body. especially as you begin to develop your composition skills. Introduction: Introductory Paragraph See.

weakest example. second most significant example. second cleverest illustration. or an obvious follow up to the second paragraph in the body. Conclusion: Concluding paragraph: This paragraph should include the following: ١. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the third paragraph of the body. or an obvious follow up the first paragraph in the body. or concluding. an allusion to the pattern used in the introductory paragraph.Body—Second paragraph: The second paragraph of the body should contain the second strongest argument. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the second paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional concluding hook that signals the reader that this is the final major point being made in this paper. paragraph. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. Body—Third paragraph: The third paragraph of the body should contain the weakest argument. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the first paragraph of the body. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. weakest illustration. ١٣٤ . This hook also leads into the last.

" a careful reader can observe Poe's skilful manipulation of the senses.٢. (٢) Poe. however. the primary sense. then goes mad when he thinks he hears the old man's heart beating beneath the floor boards under his feet as he sits and discusses the old man's absence with the police. must not be a duplicate thesis statement. (٥) In "The Tell-Tale Heart. (٢) In "The Tell-Tale Heart. dismembers the corpse. is particularly susceptible to manipulation. ٤. creator of such stories as Carrie and Pet Sematary. using some of the original language or language that "echoes" the original language. (This final statement may be a "call to action" in an persuasive paper. (٣) His use of vivid. (٤) Poe's short story "The Tell-Tale Heart" is a story about a young man who kills an old man who cares for him.) ٣. and feel. stated that the Edgar Allan Poe stories he read as a child gave him the inspiration and instruction he needed to become the writer that he is. hear.) A Sample Essay (١) Stephen King. a final statement that gives the reader signals that the discussion has come to an end. a summary of the three main points from the body of the paper. concrete visual imagery to present both static and dynamic settings and to describe people is part of his technique." Poe ١٣٥ . (١) The sense of sight. a restatement of the thesis statement. (The restatement. as does Stephen King. fills the reader's imagination with the images that he wishes the reader to see.

uses the following image to describe a static scene: "His room was as black as pitch with the thick darkness. a single dim ray." "pitch. like the thread of the spider. stealthily—until." (٣) "Thick" is a word that is not usually associated with colour (darkness). at length." (٣) This "vulture eye" is evoked over and over again in the story until the reader becomes as obsessed with it as does the young ١٣٦ . waiting for just the right moment to reveal himself to the old man in order to frighten him. yet in using it." (٤) By using the metaphor of the thread of the spider (which we all know is a creepy creature) and the word "shot." Poe establishes the young man's obsession with that blind eye when he writes: "He had the eye of the vulture—a pale blue eye." Poe used the words "black. with a film over it.. shot from out the crevice and fell full upon the vulture eye. (٢) In the second paragraph of "The Tell-Tale Heart. (٣) Poe writes: "So I opened it [the lantern opening]—you cannot imagine how stealthily. (١) Further on in the story. (٢) The youth in the story has been standing in the open doorway of the old man's room for a long time.. but also to make the reader feel the darkness. Poe uses a couple of words that cross not only the sense of sight but also the sense of feeling to describe a dynamic scene." Poe almost makes the reader gasp." and "thick darkness" not only to show the reader the condition of the old man's room. as surely did the old man whose one blind eye the young man describes as "the vulture eye. Poe stimulates the reader's sense of feeling as well as his sense of sight." (١) The reader does not know much about what the old man in this story looks like except that he has one blind eye.

Commentary: The introductory paragraph includes a paraphrase of something said by a famous person in order to get the reader's attention.man. The thesis statement (sentence ٣) presents topic of the paper to the reader and provides a minioutline. (٤) His use of the vivid. (١) "Thick darkness. (٤) If Edgar Allan Poe was one of Stephen King's teachers. (٢) Poe wanted the reader to see and feel real life. and (٣) description of a person. then readers of King owe a debt of gratitude to that nineteenth-century creator of horror stories. concrete word "vulture" establishes a specific image in the mind of the reader that is inescapable. The last sentence of the paragraph uses the words "manipulation" and "senses" as transitional hooks. In the first sentence of the second paragraph (first paragraph of the body) the words "sense" and "manipulation" are used to hook into the end of the introductory paragraph. (٣) He used concrete imagery rather than vague abstract words to describe settings and people." and "vulture eye" are three images that Poe used in "The Tell-Tale Heart" to stimulate a reader's senses. The first part of the second sentence provides the topic for this ١٣٧ . The second sentence leads up to the thesis statement which is the third sentence. The topic is Poe's use of visual imagery." "thread of the spider. The minioutline tells the reader that this paper will present Poe's use of imagery in three places in his writing: (١) description of static setting. (٢) description of dynamic setting.

The first sentence also includes the topic for this paragraph—imagery in a dynamic scene. The last sentence returns to the Edgar Allan Poe-Stephen King relationship which began this paper. Note that in the second paragraph "feeling" came first.. The last sentence uses the word "image" which hooks into the last paragraph. This first sentence also lets the reader know that this paragraph will deal with descriptions of people: ". The last sentence of this paragraph uses the expressions "sense of feeling" and "sense of sight" as hooks for leading into the third paragraph. a quotation is taken from the story. This ١٣٨ . The first sentence of the third paragraph (second paragraph of the body) uses the words "sense of sight" and "sense of feeling" to hook back into the previous paragraph. not only of the content of the paper. This expression provides the transitional hook for the last paragraph in the body of the paper." Once again Poe is quoted and discussed... Again. The second and third sentences provide observations which can also be considered a summary.) The first sentence of the concluding paragraph uses the principal words from the quotations from each paragraph of the body of the paper. Then a quotation from "The Tell-Tale Heart" is presented and briefly discussed.. This summarizes those three paragraph. (It is less important that this paragraph has a hook since the last paragraph is going to include a summary of the body othe paper. The last sentence uses the words "one blind eye" which was in the quotation.paragraph—imagery in a static scene. what the old man looks like. In the first sentence of the fourth paragraph (third paragraph in the body).. and in this paragraph "sight" comes first. but also offers personal opinion which was logically drawn as the result of this study. "one blind eye" is used that hooks into the previous paragraph. and it is briefly discussed.

sentence also provides a "wrap-up" and gives the paper a sense of finality.

١٣٩

SUMMARY PART III: ESSAY LEVEL

Remember: . In terms of organization, an essay has three main parts:
- introduction - body - conclusion

. The introduction of an essay provides a statement of the thesis,
outlines the main points and describes the conclusions.

. The body of an essay presents the facts and develops the
thoughts and arguments. In writing the body, one has to use paragraphs, use good grammar, analyze rather than describe facts, develop an argument supporting a point of view, think independently and be creative.

. The conclusion of an essay is more or less a restatement of its
introduction.

. Professional writers use the following patterns to keep the
readers' interest: - historical review - anecdotal ١٤٠

- surprising statement - famous person - declarative

. Supporting paragraphs (i.e. the body) in an essay develop its
main idea. They should have topic sentences, supporting sentences, and a summary sentence,

. Transition words link the units (i.e paragraphs) of an essay and
makes it easier to read.

. Writing an essay goes through different stages:
- pre - writing - writing - editing - publishing

. kinds of essay can be classified as follows:
- definition essay - classification essay - description essay - compare and contrast essay. - sequence essay -choice essay - explanation essay ١٤١

١٤٢ .paragraph essay is a classic format for compositions. the five..evaluation essay .

PART IV: SELECTED ESSAYS FOR PRACTICE

Objectives:
By the end of this part, students should be able to:

. extract the main point in each paragraph of the essay entitled "
The Computer as writing assistant...... "

. provide the main topic of the essay. . show evidence whether the writer of the essay has provided all
details about using a computer, a word-processor, or otherwise.

. pick up some of the transitional to go used in the essay. . identify the functions of the tags. . choose one of the composition topics provided and write an
essay on it.

. analyse the model essay on pages ١٤٠-١٤٢ in terms of
organization.

. provide a statement about the topic of the essay entitled " Noise
Pollution ".

. provide a summary of the story at the beginning of the essay. . show whether the story given is relevant to the topic of the
essay or otherwise

. define "Noise Pollution" from the writer's perspective.
١٤٣

. show whether the facts / examples provided in the essay support
the main argument or otherwise.

. identify the conclusion reached at the end of the essay. . choose one of the composition topics provided and write an
essay on it.

. provide a statement about the main topic of the essay " smoking
and quitting are matters of free will ".

. identify the writer's attitude towards smoking. . provide some details from the essay which support the main
argument

. pick up some of the transitional tags used in the essay. . identify the conclusion reached at the end of the essay. . write an essay or one of the composition topics provided. . provide answers to the discussion items based on the essay
entitled "what happened to the News? ".

. write an essay on one of the composition topics provided.

١٤٤

PART IV: SELECTED ESSAYS FOR PRACTICE The Computer as Writing Assistant More Than a Fancy Typewriter

That computer sitting before you is more than a fancy typewriter. With modern word-processing programs and the ability of the computer to attend to more than one task at a time, the computer can become an invaluable assistant in the writing process. If you are still typing with two fingers, however, you must learn how to take advantage of all the computer has to offer. It might be a good idea to call a brief time-out in your academic courses and learn some keyboarding skills. Until voicerecognition software becomes a more affordable reality, the ability to use the keyboard with speed and efficiency is going to be one of the keys to academic success. You don't want to spend hours pecking away at the keyboard when a mini-course in keyboarding will give you the skills necessary to keyboard like a speed-demon. And paying someone else to keyboard your paper is not only expensive; it also means that you're not taking advantage of everything that this technology has to offer. If you don't have time during the regular semester, promise yourself that before another winter's intersession or summer session passes by, you will take a course in keyboarding. You will never regret it. There are also software packages that promise to turn you into an executive secretary in a week, and they can be effective. Having the discipline of a course and the encouragement of an instructor and classmates can be helpful, though. ١٤٥

" and someday you will be very glad that you got in the habit of saving things twice. When you're done with your work. has an automatic SAVE feature that saves your work every few minutes. Once you've learned the first basic step.doc. ١٤٦ . etc. it might be a good idea to begin to save subsequent drafts of your paper. Floppies "go bad. Carefully saving your documents on a floppy doesn't do much good if you leave it in the disc drive and the next person who uses the lab accidentally blows away your precious text or helps himself to a free floppy disc. Also. it's gone if we constantly over-ride a single saved document. in fact. learn to keep copies in a safe place. The reason for this is that we sometimes "blow away" something that is quite good and when we want to retrieve it. get in the habit of checking the disc drive before you leave the computer station. Label the draft files systematically and simply: ozone_١. it's easy to save your document as you go along. If your document is really important or private.One of the first things you'll learn in a keyboard class is how to SAVE the material you're typing. Your instructor is not interested in what is already an old excuse: "My floppy is corrupted. As you enter the Editing and Rewriting phases of writing your paper and you begin to move blocks of text around and delete material or insert new paragraphs here and there. away from nasty weather and electromagnetic fields (like some scissors or paperclips and those magnetic closers on cabinet doors). Carefully label your discs and keep your backup copy as fresh as your main floppy. carry floppy discs in a hard plastic case.doc. Some software. ozone_٢. Also." The only caution here is that you must be careful to work with the latest saved version. make sure that final copies of your documents are safely "put away" in two places––on a floppy disc and on the hard drive or on two separate floppies.

Write an essay explaining why you have decided to buy a personal computer. ٢. Discussion: ١. Composition: . Mention some of the transitional tags used by the writer in the essay.Write an essay choosing between buying a computer and buying a typewriter. . ١٤٧ . What is the main topic of this essay? ٣. Sum up the main points in each paragraph. .What possible disadvantages can computers have? Explain with reasons. Do you think that the writer has provided all the details about using the computer as a word-processor? ٤.Compare and contrast two modern inventions. .(A distinct disadvantage of digital writing!) A high-density floppy disc should be able to hold many versions of several text documents.

a report published in ١٩٩٥ by the European Environment Agency (E. The Lykouresis case is an extreme example of the lengths to which some people will go for a little peace and quiet. When ٤٠-year-old housewife Imberia Boziki answered the door. hobbled over to the neighbouring apartment and rang the bell. And it's sad testimony to the devastating effects of one of the world's most pervasive yet least publicized environmental problems: noise pollution.E.A.). Lykouresis now listens to the evening news in Greece's Ioannina maximum security prison. on the Greek island of Zakynthos. Although noise-data ١٤٨ . a level high enough to cause annoyance. took his hunting rifle from the shelf. about ٤٥٠ million people––٦٥٪ of the European population––are regularly exposed to noise intensities above ٥٥ dB. killing her instantly and wounding her ٢٤-year-old son. he fired three times at point-blank range. suddenly snapped. And the Greeks are not alone. aggressive behaviour and sleep disturbance. On May ٣١. who claims he had complained to his neighbour for months and only wanted to listen to the evening news in peace. he is serving two life sentences. Convicted of manslaughter in ١٩٩٦. According to Europe's Environment. Lykouresis.Noise Pollution Ever felt like murdering your neighbour for blasting music too loud? That's exactly what ٧٨-year-old retired farmer Lambrinos Lykouresis did two years ago in Lithakia. the presence of intrusive and unwanted sounds that can seriously affect physical and psychological health. ١٩٩٦ he got up from his armchair.

In Britain. more than a million people are subjected to excessive noise levels as a result of their proximity to Schiphol Airport. the Federal Environmental Agency estimates that ٧٠٪ of the country's inhabitants feel continuously disturbed by road traffic. the level at which hypertension can result.V.I. In Germany." says Gibson. And members of the silent majority who suffer from these acoustic intrusions are starting to speak out. individuals saddled with loud and uncontrollable neighbours can complain to the local council. noise pollution is a problem that resonates everywhere. not just in urban centres.M. In the Netherlands. "Most people move house rather than confront the source of the problem. And councils often lack the resources––and the will––to prosecute. trains and automobiles. But taking noisemakers to court can be a long and exhausting process. which can lead to high stress levels.).collection is limited and methods may vary. the E. Unfortunately. for example. those unable or unwilling to move away have little choice but to insulate themselves as best they can from the ١٤٩ . according to a report by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (R. In an increasingly overcrowded and congested Europe.E. "There's a lot of prejudice against people who complain. also concluded that some ١١٣ million Europeans are routinely subjected to more than ٦٥ dB. increased heart rates and potential hearing loss. the primary sources of noise pollution are also mainstays of modern life. Apart from people––who create a racket through stereos and televisions and at outdoor entertainment and sporting events––the usual culprits are planes. and ١٠ million endure noise above ٧٥ dB.A." Unfortunately.

Does the writer include facts/examples in his essay to support his argument? ٦. Why. ٢. but the effectiveness of sound barriers is limited. Discussion: ١. State the topic of this essay. And that may well be the best way to stop the sound of silence from becoming an endangered species. Sensible urban planning. the better it works. ٣. Double-glazing helps. the higher the barrier and the closer to the noise source. What conclusion does the writer reach at the end of his essay? ١٥٠ . innovative new technology and creative acoustic architecture––plus some old-fashioned good neighbourliness––can go a long way toward restoring peace and quiet. How is ‘noise pollution’ defined by the writer? ٥. Summarize the story with which the writer begins his essay. But with extremely wide highways barriers can't do much to block traffic noise coming from the farthest lanes. The noisy nature of modern life is unlikely to be muted any time soon. does the writer begin his essay with this story? Is it relevant to the essay topic? ٤. in your opinion. But that doesn't mean that noise pollution is destined to drive us all mad or deaf.noise. In general.

١٥١ . Imberia Boziki. Write an explanation essay on the sources of noise pollution in Egypt.Imagine that you are Lykouresis. writing to explain why and how you killed your neighbour. Write the essay in the descriptive style.Composition: .

When the government acts like a parent. Question: What do we attribute that behaviour to? Answer: Free will. And what of people who do not want to quit? Why explain their behaviour using terms such as weak will and physiological addiction? Those people simply choose to continue smoking. will they blame McDonald's or Burger King for hooking them on hamburgers and French fries? Why not? ١٥٢ . Most of us know people who smoked for years and then quit abruptly. they did. Their bodies had adapted to nicotine and since they chose to quit. And ironically. Many people continue to engage in certain behaviours against medical advice. How many people continue to eat a high-fat diet when their doctor recommends against it? If they develop cardiovascular disease. They aren't suffering from a weak will. There's nothing particularly unusual about non-compliance with medical advice or blaming others for one's own behaviour. even if a doctor or loved one has suggested they quit. it makes children out of adult citizens. attempting to protect people from themselves. they are often the ones who transform their iron will into an iron fist.Smoking and quitting are matters of free will The increasing attempt to hold tobacco companies responsible for the consequences of smoking behaviour poses a greater threat to liberty in a free society than nicotine ever could. demanding they be financially compensated for the consequences of their own behaviour. They have an iron will: They choose to continue smoking against medical advice.

like eating and dieting or exercising and being a couch potato.Compare and contrast two articles you have read on smoking. likening a behaviour to a disease seems especially cruel to people with real diseases. We cannot increase freedom by decreasing personal responsibility. Yes. Discussion: ١. Cancer is a disease. State the main topic of this essay. That's the road to serfdom. A person cannot choose to quit or moderate diabetes. habits may cause disease—but habits aren't disease in and of themselves.Smoking and quitting. Mention some of the supporting details used by the writer to support his argument. That's fiction. Liberty and responsibility are positively correlated. ٢. People who claim addiction causes people to smoke say the two are negatively correlated. What is the writer’s attitude towards smoking? ٣. ٥. ٤. What conclusion does the writer reach at the end of his essay? Composition: . Smoking is a habitual behaviour. The price of freedom in a free society is responsibility for the consequences of one's actions. That's a fact. Moreover. ١٥٣ . are matters of free will and personal choice. Give examples of transitional tags used in the essay.

١٥٤ ..Describe how you feel about being/not being a smoker.

In addition. back in the ١٩٥٠s. feminine hygiene products. and that's just for the early evening news show. and kept track of what seemed to be really news and what was––well. from ٥ to ٦ p.m. sometimes touting the virtues of the station's news team and weather forecasters. it wasn't regarded as appropriate to sponsor news about floods and fires and political disasters. it occupied less than a thirty-minute slot. Nowadays many television stations set apart ninety minutes for local news alone. colourful. utility companies. not news. during this one hour of news.. Among other things advertised. On March ١٧. ١٩٩٨. and sometimes funny. fast-food chains. Most of the ads were fast paced. Graphically. phone service. Perhaps the most annoying moments in the news hour are the little moments of conviviality and chit-chat between members of ١٥٥ . There were very few advertisements during the news. there were ads for cars. there were ten advertisements apparently produced by the television station itself that advertised programs and services of the station––sometimes featuring what was coming up later that evening. First of all. mutual funds. Ten or fifteen minutes would be granted to local stations for their news. They seemed to do a lot in their thirty seconds. Life must have been simpler then. and deodorants. there were ٣٥ advertisements. cheese. shampoos. we watched a local news show in Hartford for one hour.What Happened to the News? When television news started out. and then the networks would say all there was to say about national and world news in the remaining fifteen to twenty minutes. they were the most interesting part of the hour.

watching other ١٥٦ . the little asides of mutual congratulation and gratitude and commiseration (with the various victims in the day's news) that are supposed to make us see how wonderfully human the newscasters are. Discussion: • Does the writer convince you of anything? • Do you think the writer goes overboard with his illustrations? If so. We're willing to wager that over a onehour news show there is considerably less than fifteen minutes occupied with the news." the kind of thing that was put into that fifteen-minute segment during the early days of television news. We can't say that our lives were simpler back then.the news team. can you say what you would leave out? • The writer insists on a difference between "hard news" and the kind of thing he sees on the news program. Is it clear what the writer means by "hard news"? Would it be more fair if the writer provided us with a good definition of what "news" really is? • Should the writer do a more scientific or statistical survey of news programs––using a stopwatch. perhaps. get-itdone-and-get-out newscasters of the ٥٠s think of all this? Whatever happened to the news? What we need to do now is to take a stopwatch to the news hour and determine how much of the time is spent actually reporting "hard news. What must the fifteen-minute. but apparently we had less time to spend watching nonsense.

channels and sampling the news on several different evenings over a period of weeks or even months? • Which of the following statements would you consider as a the writer’s conclusion? .News programs are full of advertisements. Both newspapers and television news programs can be good sources of information about current events. Composition: Write an essay evaluating TV programs Write an essay comparing two TV channels. State which channel you would prefer to watch.News programs are getting longer and longer and offering less and less actual news. What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of each of these sources? - ١٥٧ . . Give specific reasons for your choice.

. hypertension. The Computer as writing assistant more than a fancy typewriter. A Course in keyboarding can provide you with the necessary skills. ٢. Planes. . Keyboard classes help you save the material. . At the level of ٦٥ dB. Noise pollution can seriously affect physical and psychological health. A high percentage of Europeans are exposed to noise intensities above ٥٥ dB. Noise Pollution. Software packages can make you an executive secretary in a week. trains end automobiles are primary sources of noise pollution ١٥٨ . . .old son for blasting music too loud.SUMMARY PART IV: SELECTED ESSAYS FOR PRACTICE Remember: ١. year . . increased heart rates and hearing loss can result. Lykouresis desperately killed his neighbour's wife and wounded her ٢٤. A Computer can be an invaluable assistant in the writing process. .

. Television news occupied less than ٣٠ minutes in the ١٩٥o's. . Smokers who quit after years of smoking have free will. In a free society. . ٤. . A local news show in Hartford in ١٩٩٨ continued for an hour .. What happened to the new? But nowadays many television stations devote ٩٠ minutes to local news alone. Smoking and quitting are matters of free will. Many people continue to eat a high fat diet against their doctors' advice. one is responsible for one's actions. We cannot increase freedom by decreasing personal responsibility. . shampoos. during which there were ٣٥ advertisements for cars. However.. ٣. fast food. Urban planning and new technology can help us restore peace and quiet. We need to determine how much of the time devoted to the news is spent actually reporting 'hard news'. People who choose to continue smoking against medical advice demand financial compensation for the results of their behaviour. ١٥٩ . . Smoking and quitting are matters of personal choice. they can never McDonald's for providing them with hamburgers and French fries. etc.. .

exchange their writings with their classmates. . go through the list of writing topics given. . ١٦٠ .PART V: WRITING TOPICS Objectives: By the end of this part. identify some transitional tags used in the writings. . . . read critically a number of the topics and provide an outline for each. students should be able to: . discuss how the writings are organized. . write some topic sentences stating the main points in some of the topics provided. write some essay on a number of the topics based on students' personal choice. . classify the topics according to the kinds of essay previously learnt.

and they do not change their usual habits. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing a game is fun only when you win. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. ١٦١ .PART V: WRITING TOPICS ♦ Some people enjoy change. Others choose to spend time with a large number of friends. Others like their lives to stay the same. ♦ Some people prefer to spend time with one or two close friends. Compare these two approaches to life. Which of these two ways of spending time do you prefer? Give reasons to support your answer. Compare the advantages of each choice. Which approach do you prefer? Explain why. and they look forward to new experiences.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Use specific details in your discussion. ♦ The government has announced that it plans to build a new university. Discuss these views. Which kind of friend do you prefer for yourself? Why? ♦ Neighbours are the people who live near us. Others believe that higher education should be available only to good students. Other people think that friends are the most important influence on young adults. ١٦٢ . Some people think that your community would be a good place to locate the university. Others choose friends who are similar to themselves.♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing games teaches us about life. Compare the advantages of having friends who are different from you with the advantages of having friends who are similar to you. ♦ Some people believe that a college or university education should be available to all students. In your opinion. what are the qualities of a good neighbour? Use specific details and examples in your answer. ♦ Some people think that the family is the most important influence on young adults. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a new university in your community. Which view do you agree with? Use examples to support your position. ♦ Some people choose friends who are different from themselves. Which view do you agree with? Explain why.

real people. Others like to be with friends most of the time. style. size. Which view do you agree with? Why? ♦ Some people prefer to spend most of their time alone. Use specific reasons and details to support your opinion. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Universities should give the same amount of money to their students’ sports activities as they give to their university libraries. and established facts. or other features? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. what do you consider most important: location. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. ♦ Some people think that children should begin their formal education at a very early age and should spend most of their time on school studies. Do you prefer to spend your time alone or with friends? Give reasons to support your answer.♦ Think of the most important class you have ever taken. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should read only those books that are about real events. Others believe that young children should spend most of their time playing. number of rooms. ♦ When choosing a place to live. Compare these two views. types of rooms. Why did you enjoy this class so much? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. ١٦٣ .

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. ♦ Because of developments in communication and transportation. ♦ If you had the time and money to invent something new. What have you learned about a country from watching its movies? Use specific examples and details to support your response. Choose one tradition or belief and explain why you think it should be continued and maintained. ♦ Some people say that physical exercise should be a required part of every school day. Why do you think people attend colleges? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. ♦ People attend colleges or universities for many different reasons (for example. ♦ Modern life is causing many traditions and beliefs to become less important. countries are becoming more and more alike. How is your country becoming more similar to other places in the world? Use specific examples and details to support your answer.♦ Films can tell us a lot about the country in which they were made. Other people believe that students should spend the whole school day on academic studies. new experiences. ♦ If you could change one important thing about your hometown. career preparation. ١٦٤ . increased knowledge). what would you change? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. what product would you develop? Use specific details to explain why this product is needed.

Other people believe that the best way of learning about life is through personal experience. Compare the advantages of these two different ways of learning about life. ♦ Your school has received a gift of money. Which do you think is preferable? Use specific examples to support your preference. ♦ You need to travel from your home to a place ٤٠ miles (٦٤ kilometres) away. In your opinion. What do you think is the best way for your school to spend this money? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. ♦ Some high schools require all students to wear school uniforms. Give specific reasons for your choice. what change would you make? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. ١٦٥ .Which opinion do you agree with? Give reasons to support your answer. Which of these two school policies do you think is better? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.” Compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from books. ♦ It has been said. ♦ If you could make one important change in a school that you attended. which source is more important? Why? ♦ Some people believe that the best way of learning about life is by listening to the advice of family and friends. Tell which method of travel you would choose. “Not everything that is learned is contained in books. Other high schools permit students to decide what to wear to school. Compare the different kinds of transportation you could use.

♦ Would you prefer to live in a traditional house or in a modern apartment building? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. ١٦٦ . or they may choose to live in apartments in the community. Would you prefer to be outside or would you prefer to be inside for your leisure activities? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. Which would you prefer? Give reasons for your preference. ♦ What do you consider to be the most important room in a house? Why is this room more important to you than any other room? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. They may choose to live in university dormitories. ♦ Some people believe that students should be given one long vacation each year.♦ Some people prefer to spend their free time outdoors. Others believe that students should have several short vacations throughout the year. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person’s childhood years (the time from birth to ١٢ years of age) are the most important years of a person’s life. Other people prefer to spend their leisure time indoors. ♦ Students at universities often have a choice of places to live. Compare the advantages of living in university housing with the advantages of living in an apartment in the community.

♦ Your community has enough money to hire one new employee. What academic area should be the main focus of this university? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents are the best teachers.Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. ♦ In the twentieth century. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. ♦ Your country is going to build a new national university. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? ١٦٧ . Has this change improved the way people live? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Which one of the following should your community hire? • • • • • • • • • a community health worker a counsellor an emergency medical technician a fire-fighter a judge a landscaper a police officer a recreation centre director a teacher Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. food has become easier to prepare.

♦ Some young children spend a great amount of their time practising sports. or an animal) can contribute to a child’s development. ١٦٨ . Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this. ♦ Read and think about the following statement: Only people who earn a lot of money are successful. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. ♦ A gift (such as a soccer ball. ♦ Some people pay money for the things they want or need. Other people trade products or goods for what they need.Children should be required to help with household tasks as soon as they are able to do so. a camera. Do you agree that different clothes influence the way people behave? Use specific examples to support your answer. ♦ Read and think about the following statement: People behave differently when they wear different clothes. Use specific reasons and examples in your answer. Do you agree or disagree with this definition of success? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Compare the advantages of these two ways of obtaining things. Which way do you prefer? Explain why. What gift would you give to help a child develop? Why? Use reasons and specific examples to support your choice.

Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Which do you prefer — items made by hand or items made by machine? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your choice. Which of these methods of learning is best for you? Use specific examples to support your choice. Which place would you prefer to live in? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Other people want a centre for research in agriculture ١٦٩ . Some people learn by doing things. ♦ Some items (such as clothes or furniture) can be made by hand or by machine. other people learn by reading about things.♦ What is the most important animal in your country? Why is this animal important? Use reasons and specific details to explain your answer. Other people do not judge a person’s character quickly because they believe first impressions are often wrong. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A zoo has no useful purpose. Compare these two attitudes. Which attitude do you agree with? Support your choice with specific examples. Others prefer to live in a big city. ♦ Some people prefer to live in a small town. ♦ Some people trust their first impressions about a person’s character because they believe these judgements are generally correct. others learn by listening to people talk about things. ♦ A university plans to develop a new research centre in your country. Some people want a centre for business research. ♦ People learn in different ways.

Which of these two kinds of research centres do you recommend for your country? Give reasons for your recommendation. ١٧٠ . ♦ Music tells us something about a culture. Do you support or oppose the factory? ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? There is nothing that young people can teach older people. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community. ♦ A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near your community. ♦ How do movies or television influence people’s behaviour? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your answer. What does the music of your country reveal about the culture of your country? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position.(farming). ♦ It has recently been announced that a new movie theatre may be built in your neighbourhood.

some of them decide to follow the customs of the new country. ♦ In some countries people are no longer allowed to smoke in many public places and office buildings. Do you think this is a good law or a bad law? Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. Do you agree or disagree with the statement? Use reasons and examples to support your opinion. ♦ When people move to another country. Others prefer to keep their own customs. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. How would you use this land? Use specific details to explain your answer. ♦ Decisions can be made quickly. or clean water. ١٧١ . ♦ Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources. or they can be made after careful thought. Choose one resource that is disappearing and explain why it needs to be saved. ♦ Imagine that you have received some land to use as you wish. such as forests. Which one do you prefer? Support your answer with specific details. Read and think about the following statement: The decisions that people make quickly are always wrong. animals.Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more important for students to study history and literature than it is for them to study science and mathematics. Compare these two choices.

♦ Some people think we should spend as much money as possible exploring outer space (for example. travelling to the moon and to other planets). ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is better to make the wrong decision than to make no decision at all. ♦ What is one of the most important decisions you have made? Why was this decision important? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Reading fiction (such as novels and short stories) is more enjoyable than watching movies. Other people disagree and think we should spend this money for our basic needs on Earth. Give specific reasons to support you opinion. Which of these two opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? All students should be required to study art and music in high school. ١٧٢ . Use specific reasons and examples to support your position.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to develop your essay. Other people disagree and think that this money should be spent on more basic needs. ١٧٣ . Discuss the causes of this phenomenon. ♦ We all work or will work in our jobs with many different kinds of people. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Sometimes it is better not to tell the truth. ♦ In general. ♦ Some people think that governments should spend as much money as possible on developing or buying computer technology. people are living longer now. luck has nothing to do with success. people are living longer now. it is because of hard work. Which one of these opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. In your opinion. Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. ♦ In general. How will this change affect society? Use specific details and examples to develop your essay. what are some important characteristics of a co-worker (someone you work closely with)? Use reasons and specific examples to explain why these characteristics are important. ♦ It is better for children to grow up in the countryside than in a big city.♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? When people succeed.

Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. ١٧٤ . Which would you prefer? Use reasons and specific details to explain your choice. teenagers have jobs while they are still students. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Private companies should spend more money to clean up pollution in the environment. ♦ When famous people such as actors. Which way do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. ♦ In the future. ♦ A person you know is planning to move to your town or city. Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. ♦ When people need to complain about a product or poor service. Do you think we should pay attention to these opinions? Give specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Do you think this is a good idea? Support your opinion by using specific reasons and details. What do you think this person would like and dislike about living in your town or city? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. some prefer to complain in writing and others prefer to complain in person. many people listen. athletes and rock stars give their opinions. ♦ In some countries. students may have the choice of studying at home by using technology such as computers or television or of studying at traditional schools.

How is your generation different from your parents’ generation? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. Which should your school choose to buy — computers or books? Use specific reasons and examples to support your recommendation. How can schools help these students with their problems? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. What reasons would you give? Support your answer with specific details. what would you choose to know about and why? Give reasons and details to support your choice. ١٧٥ . ♦ When students move to a new school. ♦ Some famous athletes and entertainers earn millions of dollars every year. ♦ You want to persuade someone to study your native language. they sometimes face problems. Do you think these people deserve such high salaries? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. ♦ Your school has enough money to purchase either computers for students or books for the library. ♦ If you could know something about the future.♦ People remember special gifts or presents that they have received. Why is music important to many people? Give specific reasons and examples to support your choice. ♦ Every generation of people is different in important ways. Why? Give specific reasons and examples to support your answer. ♦ People listen to music for different reasons and at different times.

♦ Many people have a close relationship with their pets. on television. cats. In your opinion. In your opinion. a regional park. ♦ There are many different kinds of advertising (on the radio. ١٧٦ . and on billboards). These people treat their birds. in newspapers. Describe the qualities of an effective advertisement. What improvements would you make? Why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your recommendations. or other animals as members of their family. in magazines. what would you choose? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. or a national park. This might be a city park. are such relationships good? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Use specific details and examples to support your answer. ♦ If you were asked to send one thing representing your country to an international exhibition. ♦ Advertising helps to sell products. which one of these kinds of advertising is the most effective? Why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.♦ You have been asked to suggest improvements to a park that you have visited.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. ♦ Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways. Others think that it is always better to have a teacher. or should governments spend more money on improving public transportation (buses. accountant aeroplane pilot architect dentist lawyer ١٧٧ actor computer programmer farmer tour guide .♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A sense of humour can sometimes be helpful in difficult situations. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons to develop your essay. trains. ♦ Choose one of the following careers and explain why it is important to society. subways)? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. ♦ What are some important qualities of a good supervisor (boss)? Use specific details and examples to explain why these qualities are important. ♦ Some people think that they can learn better by themselves than with a teacher.

Compare the benefits of planning free time activities with the benefits of not making plans. Others choose not to make any plans at all for their free time. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? High schools should allow students to study the courses that students want to study. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. ♦ It is generally agreed that society benefits from the work of its members. Which do you ١٧٨ . ♦ It has recently been announced that a shopping centre may be built in your neighbourhood. ♦ Some people prefer to plan activities for their free time very carefully.♦ Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is better to be a member of a group than to be the leader of a group. Compare the contributions of artists to society with the contributions of scientists. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Which type of contribution do you think is valued more by your society? Give specific reasons to support your answer.

Use specific reasons to support your answer. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. ♦ Some people say that advertising encourages us to buy things we really do not need. They always want something more or something different. ♦ Some students prefer to study alone. Others say that advertisements tell us about new products that may improve our lives. ♦ You have enough money to purchase either a house or a business. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Which would you choose to buy? Give specific reasons to explain your choice. Others prefer to study with a group of students.prefer—planning or not planning for your leisure time? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People are never satisfied with what they have. Do you support or oppose this ١٧٩ . ♦ It has recently been announced that a new high school may be built in your neighbourhood. Others prefer using machines. ♦ Some people like doing work by hand. ♦ It has recently been announced that a new restaurant may be built in your neighbourhood.

♦ Some people say that the best preparation for life is learning to work with others and be co-operative. discuss these two positions. or would you rather choose your own roommate? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. ♦ Supporters of technology say that it solves problems and makes life better. Choose another invention that you think is important. Which position do you support? Give specific reasons for your answer. Which view of technology do you support? Why? ♦ Some people believe that automobiles are useful and necessary. Discuss these positions. ١٨٠ . Others believe that automobiles cause problems that affect our health and well-being. Using one or two examples. Would you rather have the university assign a student to share a room with you. Tell which one you agree with and explain why. using concrete examples of both. ♦ You have been told that dormitory rooms at your university must be shared by two students. Others take the opposite view and say that learning to be competitive is the best preparation. Opponents argue that technology creates new problems that may threaten or damage the quality of life. ♦ Inventions such as eyeglasses and the sewing machine have had an important effect on our lives. Give specific reasons for your choice.plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers should make learning enjoyable and fun for their students. How have you incorporated what you have learned from this individual in your life? ♦ Describe a difficult decision you have faced. Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion. values. ♦ Describe someone you admire and explain why you admire this person. How did you resolve the internal conflicts and the situation? What did you learn from this? ♦ Briefly explain your objectives in pursuing a particular postgraduate program and your career aspirations. ♦ Imagine that you have been asked to form a five person team to tackle a business problem. ١٨١ . and attitudes of ideal team members. Describe the personal attributes.

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