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Hala Darwish & Mohammed Abdel Aatty
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH FACULTY OF ARTS CAIRO UNIVERSITY
Preface...........................................................................................................................i PART I: SENTENCE LEVEL Clauses: The Essential Building-Blocks ............................................................... ٤ Exercise on Identifying Independent Clauses .............................................. ١١ Writing Concise Sentences .................................................................................. ١٥ Exercise on Writing Concise Sentences ........................................................ ٢٨ Parallel Form........................................................................................................ ٣٠ Exercises on Parallel Form ............................................................................ ٣٣ Tone: A Matter of Attitude ................................................................................. ٣٧ Spelling.................................................................................................................. ٤١ Exercises on Spelling ...................................................................................... ٤٨ PART II: PARAGRAPH LEVEL Sentence Variety................................................................................................... ٥٧ Exercise on Run-on Sentences ....................................................................... ٦٦ Consistency of Tense and Pronoun Reference................................................... ٧١ Exercise on Consistency in Tense and Pronouns ......................................... ٧٣ Avoiding Primer Language ................................................................................. ٧٥ Exercises on Avoiding Primer Language...................................................... ٧٦ Sentence-Combining Skills.................................................................................. ٧٨ Exercise on Combining Sentences ................................................................. ٨٨ Coherence: Transitions Between Ideas .............................................................. ٩١ Paragraph Development & Topic Sentences ..................................................... ٩٧ PART III: ESSAY LEVEL Essay Writing Tips............................................................................................. ١٠٨ Parts of an Essay ................................................................................................ ١١١ Introductory Paragraphs .................................................................................. ١١١ How to Write an Essay ...................................................................................... ١٢١ Kinds of Essay .................................................................................................... ١٢٥ The Five-Paragraph Essay ................................................................................ ١٣٣
PART IV: SELECTED ESSAYS FOR PRACTICE The Computer as Writing Assistant................................................................. ١٤٥ Noise Pollution.................................................................................................... ١٤٨ Smoking and quitting are matters of free will................................................. ١٥٢ What Happened to the News?........................................................................... ١٥٥ PART V: WRITING TOPICS ...............................................................................١٦١
be taught in class by the experienced teacher who should occasionally refer to the corresponding linguistic structures in Arabic. as well as the evolution of Modern Standard Arabic which has been influenced in the twentieth century by modern European languages. The value of this will soon be apparent in practice: a student learning to write in English may discover that the malaise of muddled thinking in Arabic can be remedied by learning the methods of precise writing. step-bystep method. What is more important.Preface This is a most valuable introduction to the art (and science) of writing: it takes the student from the rudimentary to the advanced stages of writing techniques through a precise. but it is advisable. to start as early as this course in establishing correspondences and differences. is a person writing a text which aspires to be. however. I believe. a habit of precise expression will encourage precise thinking: a student taught to avoid beating around the bush (to avoid circumlocution or periphrasis) will soon realize the advantages of ‘getting to the point’ whether the language is Arabic or English. A translator. but is never a . which requires a great deal of attention to detail and to guidance on problematic points. It is intended primarily as a teach-yourself course. as is commonly believed today. The teacher may postpone this to a later stage. when the student has fully absorbed the technical aspects of English writing. How this course can help the student of translation should immediately be obvious. It is in this sense that a book in essay-writing is also a book on straight thinking. as precision in expression can only come from straight thinking. It can.
An example should illustrate this point. it is true. And this cannot be done without learning first to write. Trying to write in English will always involve a certain amount of translation. duets. A typical student asked to write an essay on the soap operas shown on Egyptian television will first need to know the English words associated with subject. But most important of all. they will be trying to write a coherent essay in English that does not smack too much of their ‘Arabic’ thinking. recitatives. and that the specific ‘formal’ meaning of the term is a ‘play set to music’. a readable text representing all the ideas in the SL text. Certain literary texts. sung to orchestral accompaniment. The ultimate test of a successful translation will not be whether the produced text (in the target language––TL) is a facsimile of the original text (in the source language––SL) but whether it is comprehensible and idiomatic. choruses. may require additional criteria. in part or in full. trios etc. If helped by the teacher or by the right dictionary. They will be thinking in Arabic. These he or she must gather from texts in English: the title itself must be fully understood. Most users of this book are expected to be native speakers of Arabic. an exact reproduction of another text in a different language. which is more important. but these should not concern the learner: what should concern him or her now is how to produce. with arias. and usually characterized by b . as they will often be looking for equivalents for some of the common words which they would like to use in their English essays (a lexical difficulty dealt with in the translation courses) and as they will be trying to find the correct corresponding expressions in English for the ones they use in Arabic. initially. in a mixture of Egyptian Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) which is the modern variety of classical Arabic used in writing.fully. the student will first learn that opera here is the plural of ‘opus’ which means ‘work’.
Therefore the student will learn that a ‘soap opera’ is a colloquial expression referring to a radio or television serial drama of a melodramatic. as an adjective. ‘Exaggeration’ is such a new concept revealed by the exploration of the meaning of melodramatic. or indeed accept. he or she will learn. In other words. so called since many of the original sponsors were soap companies. In the process the student will acquire relevant vocabulary: he or she will learn that radio listeners and television viewers are people who listen to the radio and watch television. is a drama (as a play or film or radio or television serial drama) concerned with exaggerated conflicts and emotions. rich characters on Egyptian television. any ‘round’. stereotyped characters etc. Such an initial exploration of the subject will teach the student more about soap operas than he or she can hope to learn if confined to his or her ‘Arabic’ ideas of such serial dramas. A key word like ‘melodramatic’ will help the student approach the Egyptian television soap operas from the right angle: a melodrama. the student will acquire fresh knowledge of his or her subject in English even at the stage of preparing for thinking about it. therefore. that the viewers cannot appreciate. that they c . any shades of grey. that they seek entertainment rather than ‘high-brow’ culture. will explain why we never watch any real complex characters. and mostly in black and white. and ‘stereotyped’. to involve other concepts which should help the student to think with precision about his subject. scenery and choreography.elaborate costuming. The concept will be found. sentimental nature. some of which may still be inchoate or even amorphous. The teacher may help the student at this stage by explaining that ‘mass culture’ requires such stereotypical handling of characters. By looking up words in a dictionary the student will gain new expressions which precisely fit his or her ideas on the subject. ‘Types’ rather than full characters are introduced.
if translating. the student will learn to acquire the habit of building up idiomatic structures whether writing or translating. If writing. and the acquisition of the relevant vocabulary only a contributing factor. and. as Part I of this book will show. adverbial etc. having started the previous d . phrase) or with reduced clauses (as here) or to foreground his main subject in a main or principal clause. and. In writing. Such relevant vocabulary will play a twofold function: the student will have at his or her fingertips the essential concepts required for dealing with the subject in English and in Arabic. By imitating the English structures. the student will find that transformation is difficult. if not impossible. only one aspect of the writing/translation exercise. the student will learn how to begin sometimes with phrasal structures (a prepositional. Mapping out ideas is. the student will try to achieve fluency in style by transforming paratactic into hypotactic structures. however. Without first mastering the writing techniques at sentence level.welcome particularly sensational drama because of its function as an escapist form of art. that escapist art is a means of relieving the boredom of treadmill occupations and monotonous ways of life. the student will now be better equipped to deal with his subject: the writing exercise has proved to be an exercise in thinking and in translation at once. Tentative or half-formed ideas in Arabic will now be developed not through a direct translation exercise but through an exercise in writing which turns out to be an exercise in thinking as well. the student will learn the various types of sentences and gain a most valuable consciousness of the way a writer expresses himself or herself. Approving or disapproving of the Egyptian television soap operas. and that historical soap operas are particularly successful with the masses because they present them with an escape route to images of the past that perpetually change in the hands of dramatists.
we may now give an example of a run-on sentence where the ‘if’ clause is compounded with parallel clauses leading to a beautiful climax. The style. The writer is Thomas Hooker. the earth be defeated of heavenly influence. and when English-born Hooker left for America in ١٦٣٣ he took with him the rhetorical style revived back in England nearly half a century later by John Milton. is a little ‘old’ in the sense that English at the time was still redolent of the Shakespearean extended sentence structures. and the extended metaphor. if celestial spheres should forget their wonted motions. if those principal and mother elements of the world. begin to stand and to rest himself. should.sentence with a reduced ‘if’ clause. though it were but for awhile. the winds breathe out their last gasp. Here is the run-on sentence: Now if nature should intermit her course and leave altogether. if the prince of the lights of heaven which now as a giant doth run his unwearied course. and by irregular volubility turn themselves any way as it might happen. a seventeenth-century American clergyman. noted for his good prose. the times and seasons of the year blend themselves by disordered and confused mixture. whom these things now do all serve? from Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity e . the observation of her own laws. the clouds yield no rain. if the frame of that heavenly arch erected over our heads should loosen and dissolve itself. the fruits of the earth pine away as children at the withered breasts of their mother no longer able to yield them relief––what would become of man himself. whereof all things in this lower world are made. if the moon should wander from her beaten way. should lose the qualities which now they have. as it were through a languishing faintness. it will be seen.
which are weaker stops than the colon (:) or the full stop/period (. an exercise in writing. will help the student to translate better and express himself or herself better. but the last part consists of six clauses ‘powered’ by the final if. and it is instructive to see how the study of this text. The student will count six ‘if’s in the run-on sentence. thus ﺃﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻭﻗﻔﺖ ﳎﺮﺍﻫﺎ ﻭﻛﻔﺖ ﻭﻟﻮ ﻟﱪﻫﺔ ﻳﺴﲑﺓ ْ ﱠ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻻﻧﺼﻴﺎﻉ ﻟﺴﻨﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ؛ ﻭﺇﱃ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺍﻟﱴ ،ﻫﻰ ﺃﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ، ﻭﺍﻟﱴ ﺻﻴﻐﺖ ﻣﻨﺎ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ ﰱ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻟﻮ ﻓﻘﺪﺕ ﺻﻔﺎﻬﺗﺎ؛ ﻭﺇﱃ ﻫﻴﻜﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﻓﻮﻋﺔ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺭﺅﻭﺳﻨﺎ ﻟﻮ ﺍﳓﻞ ﻭﺫﺍﺏ؛ ﻭﺇﱃ ﺃﻓﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻟﻮ ﻧﺴﻴﺖ ﱠ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ؛ ﻭﺇﱃ ﻣﻠﻜﺔ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﱴ ﲡﺮﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻼﻕ ﰱ ﻣﺴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻰ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻛﻼﻝ، ﻟﻮ ﺃﺻﺎﻬﺑﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻮﻫﻦ ﻭﺍﳋﻮﺭ ﻓﺒﺪﺃﺕ ﺗﻘﻒ ﻃﻠﺒﺎ ﻟﻠﺮﺍﺣﺔ؛ ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﻟﻮ ﺍﳓﺮﻑ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺭﻩ ﹰ ﺍﳌﻌﻬﻮﺩ، ﻭﺇﱃ ﺃﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﻓﺼﻮﳍﺎ ﻟﻮ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻄﺖ ﻭﺍﻣﺘﺰﺟﺖ ﰱ f ﺣﺮﻛﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺄﻟﻮﻓﺔ ﻓﺪﺍﺭﺕ ﻛﻴﻔﻤﺎ ﺍﺗﻔﻖ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺃﻯ ﳏﻮﺭ ﻭﺩﻭﻥ . marking the division into six parts separated by semi-colons. Now the translator may choose to keep the order of the conditional structure unchanged. and so produce a text reflecting the literary features of the original (SL) text by resorting to the same classical tricks of Arabic style as used by Enani in his rendering of Milton’s Paradise Lost and his Arabic Shakespearean versions.).The passage is cited on pages ٤٦-٤٧ at the beginning of Part II.
especially that it can be read more as an exclamation than as a question. or the change of subject in the last sentence. Such an ability is the prerogative of the born writer alone. generally. to start with the main clause—the subject and the verb—before giving all these piles up clauses. but it can be learnt. is the ability to produce equal structures in both languages that read as idiomatic texts. such as the change of gender in the case of the sun. Perhaps a re arrangement will be called for.ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺎﺏ ﻟﻮ ﺃﻗﻠﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻄﺮ، ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻟﻮ ُﺮﻣﺖ ﺭﲪﺔ ﺣ ﻓﻮﺿﻰ ﻭﺑﻼ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ؛ ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ ﻟﻮ ﻟﻔﻈﺖ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻧﻔﺎﺳﻬﺎ، ﻭﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﺬﺑﻠﺖ ﲦﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺿﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺣﺮﻡ ﻣﺬﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻠﱭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺮﻉ ﺃﻣﻪ ﺍﳉﺎﻑ، ﻓﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ، ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﺳﺨﺮ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻪ ﲨﻴﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﺷﻴﺎﺀ؟ "ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻧﻪ "ﻋﻦ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺴﻰ The addition of the initial Arabic question word ﺃﺭﺃﻳـﺖseems to have solved the problem of the long conditional structure. Consider the following horror of a sentence on the famous sprinter Carl Lewis: it occurs on page ٤٨ and should be worthy of a detailed analysis: g . what is more interesting. Perhaps the student will learn that it is better. and every translator should first try to understand the structure before attempting to imitate it in writing. The other ‘tricks of the trade’ used in the translation should not concern us here. so as to make it easier for the reader to grasp the main argument— or even the very sense of the sentence. for our purposes.
he must learn why. even as a professional runner. made only a few appearances in races during the few months before the Summer Olympics in Atlanta. the most fitting conclusion to his brilliant career in track and field. if not another world record––during this. partly because he was afraid of raising expectations even higher and he did not want to be distracted by interviews and adoring fans who would follow him into stores and restaurants demanding autographs and photo-opportunities. the renowned sprinter and track-and-field personality Carl Lewis. It is not a run-on sentence. his fourth and surely his last appearance in the World Olympics. the long jump. this kind of pressure. The student should never be encouraged to write like this—but in order not to do so. eye-popping leap that they were capable of a few years ago when he set world records in the ١٠٠-meter dash and in the ٤٠٠-meter relay and won a silver medal in the long jump. while all h . who had known pressure from fans and media before but never. but mostly because he wanted to conserve his energies and concentrate.٥ ١٠ ١٥ ٢٠ ٢٥ Knowing that millions of people around the world would be watching in person and on television and expecting great things from him––at least one more gold medal for America. and realizing that his legs could no longer carry him down the runway with the same blazing speed and confidence in making a huge. like a martial arts expert. Georgia. and bringing home another Gold Medal for the United States. The reason is easy to find: the principal clause occurs only on lines ١١-١٦. on the job at hand: winning his favourite competition. though indeed it is grammatically sound. but too long to be dealt with as a single sentence.
and all the succeeding ones give reasons for the man’s actions. Can it be !arranged differently? It can. and it must ﱂ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻟﻮﻳﺲ، ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﲑ، ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺯﺓ ﰱ ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ، ﺇﻻ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﰱ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺟﺮﺕ ﰱ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺳﺒﻘﺖ ﺍﻧﻌﻘﺎﺩ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﰱ ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺃﻃﻼﻧﻄﺎ ﺑﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﺟﻮﺭﺟﻴﺎ، ﺇﺫ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻼﻳﲔ ﰱ ﺷﱴ ﺃﳓﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺳﻮﻑ ﻳﺸﺎﻫﺪﻭﻧﻪ، ﺇﻣﺎ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﹰ ﺷﺎﺷﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮﻥ، ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻗﻌﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺇﳒﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺭﺍﺋﻌﺔ، ﺃﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻔﻮﺯ ﲟﻴﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺫﻫﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺇﻥ ﱂ ﳛﻘﻖ ﺭﻗﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻴﺎ ﻋﺎﳌﻴﺎ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺍﹰ، ﹰ ﹰ ﹰ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻛﻪ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻌﺔ )ﻭﺍﻷﺧﲑﺓ ﺑﻜﻞ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ( ﰱ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻤﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ، ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺳﺎﻗﻴﻪ ﱂ ﹰ ﺗﻌﻮﺩﺍ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺗﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﻄﻼﻕ ﺑﻪ ﰱ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﺎﺭ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﻗﺔ، ﻭﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺩﻓﻌﺘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﱴ ﺃﺫﻫﻠﺖ ﻋﻴﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﺬ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺣﻘﻖ ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ ﰱ ﻣﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻭ ﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻭﻣﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﺪﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ ﳌﺴﺎﻓﺔ ٠٠٤ ﻣﺘﺮ، ﻭﻓﺎﺯ ﲟﻴﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻀﻴﺔ ﰱ ﻣﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ. ﻟﻘﺪ ﺃﻣﺘﻨﻊ ﻛﺎﺭﻝ ﻟﻮﻳﺲ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﻛﺜﲑﺍﹰ، ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻟﻠﻀﻐﻮﻁ ﺍﳌﻠﻘﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺠﻌﻴﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﺪﺍﺀ ﳏﺘﺮﻓﺎﹰ، ﻭﺇﻥ ﱂ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻮﻁ ً ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﱃ، ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﺎﻋﻪ ﺧﻮﻓﻪ ﻣﻦ i .preceding clauses and phrases simply pave the way for it.
and by learning how to avoid those structural mistakes in writing. it must be regarded as a single paragraph.ﻭﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﻥ Divided into smaller units. if the focus is slightly shifted from the fact that ‘he made few appearances’ to the reasons behind his attitude. it can be divided into two small paragraphs. Too much information in a paragraph. the translator learns how to produce a better. but. you learn how to write. The interruption and resumption of syntax is an old trick indeed. not to say in a sentence. In fact. insofar as the writer concentrates on the theme of Lewis’s withdrawal from public notice.ﺭﻓﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺗﻮﻗﻌﺎﻬﺗﻢ ﻟﻪ، ﻛﻤﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻳﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺸﻐﻞ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﳌﻘﺎﺑﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻔﻴﺔ، ﻭﺑﺎﳌﻌﺠﺒـﲔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﳍﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻄﺎﺭﺩﻭﻧﻪ ﰱ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﻧﻴﺖ ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺎﻋﻢ ﻃﻠﺒﺎ ﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﻌﻪ ﻭﻓﺮﺻـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﻁ ﹰ ﺻﻮﺭﻩ، ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻌﻴﻪ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﺎﻗﺎﺗﻪ ،ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ، ﻣﺜﻞ ﺧﱪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ، ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﻨﺘﻈﺮﻩ ،ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺯ ﺑﺎﳌﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﱴ ﻳﻔﻀﻠﻬﺎ، ﻭﻫﻰ ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺐ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻮﺩﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻳﺎﺭﻩ ﲟﻴﺪﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺫﻫﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ، ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻧﺴﺐ ﺧﺘﺎﻡ ﳊﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺔ ﰱ ﻣﺒﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻀﻤﺎﺭ . good writers know how to arrange such information in such a way as j . and one that every translator should learn but which every writer should shun! And it is here that writing techniques come to serve the translator: by learning how not to write. can play havoc with the structure. readable text. However. Can this long sentence be regarded as a paragraph? Indeed it can. the sentence has been several times interrupted and resumed. and it should.
)ﻓـﻦ ﺍﻟﺘـﺮﲨﺔIf you make your reader work too hard to get your meaning you may run the risk of losing him or her. early enough in the text. and the learner should never adduce the limited space allotted in a newspaper for a given article as a pretext for ‘cramming’ (cf. ١٩٩٩ k . and the more efforts you make to establish your principal idea. The writer of the above-quoted sentence is lazy. Enani & M. M. in a principal clause. and it is the lesson that should be taught also in writing. Abdel Aatty Cairo. . This is a lesson we learn in translation.to make it appear equal to the space it is expressed in. the more confident you will be in getting your reader’s full attention.
identify the difference between a " Clause " and phrase. categorize independent clauses functionally into adverb clauses. . . object. define the terms " dependent " and" independent " clauses.PART I: SENTENCE LEVEL Objectives: By the end of this part. adjective clauses and noun clauses. . . exemplify the three cases of noun clauses given. exemplify each category of independent clauses. define the grammatical terms: " Clause " and Phrase . recognize a noun clause as a subject. . . object of a preposition or as predicate nominative. . classify clauses into " restrictive " and " nonrestrictive ". . identify relative clauses. combine independent clauses into larger units of thought. . . ١ . subordination and a semicolon. combine independent clauses using: coordination. exemplify both dependent and independent clauses. students should be able to: .
٢١). . . become more conscious of the relation between the grammar items and / or concepts and the skill of writing. . go through the list of redundant phrases provided on pages ١١ ١٣ to correct themselves.. provide answers to the ten-item multiple choice exercise on pages ٨-١٠ . grasp the concept of " intensifiers " in expression. go through the list entitled " phrases you can omit " so that they realize their negative effect on their writing (pages ١٦ . . . use " intensifiers " only when necessary in writing. avoid the use of expletive constructions. . . ٢ . . understand what " redundancy " in writing means. . know how clauses can be reduced to phrases. realize the significance of the concept of " correctness " in the writing skill. . define a cliché and avoid using it in writing. . . . identify elliptical clauses. appreciate the value / significance of reducing clauses and phrases in writing. know how phrases can be reduced to single words. appreciate the value of learning the above generalizations.
establish a relation between " Mnemonics " and improving spelling. define and exemplify an euphemism. list a set of correlative expressions. . grasp the principle of parallel form in writing. define " concision " in writing. .٣٢ . . .٢٥ . exemplify some correlative expressions followed by the same grammatical form. do the exercise on " writing concise sentences " on pages ٢٤ . realize how "contractions " make language informal. avoid using euphemism in writing. do the three exercises based on parallel form on pages ٢٩ . . understand the five given rules intended for improving spelling on pages ٤٠ – ٤٣ ٣ . .. . . . understand the concept of " tone " in writing. distinguish between formal and informal writing. appreciate the value of defining the readers of our essays before writing. . . . appreciate the value of writing concise sentences.
This book categorizes clauses into independent and dependent clauses. Notice how an independent clause. Another term for dependent clause is subordinate clause: this means that the clause is subordinate to another element (the independent clause) and depends on that other element for its meaning. as separate sentences." ٤ ." Words We Use to Talk about Clauses Learning the various terms used to define and classify clauses can be a vocabulary lesson in itself. The subordinate clause is created by a subordinating conjunction or dependent word. is turned into a dependent or subordinate clause when the same group of words begins with a dependent word: "Because she is older than her brother.PART I: SENTENCE LEVEL Clauses: The Essential Building-Blocks DEFINITION A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a verb A clause can be usefully distinguished from a phrase. and some can't. This simply means that some clauses can stand by themselves. "She is older than her brother" (which could be its own sentence). she tells him what to do. which is a group of related words that does not contain a subject-verb relationship. such as "in the morning" or "running down the street" or "having grown used to this harassment.
who. the clause in bold is a restrictive [essential] clause [a noun clause––see below] and will not be set off by a comma. Arthur said that the tooth. which had been bothering him for years. ٥ . whose. the underlined relative clause [modifying "tooth"] is nonrestrictive [nonessential––it can be removed from the sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence] and is set off by commas. and of which). (In this sentence. which. Nonrestrictive clauses are often set apart from the rest of the sentence by a comma or a pair of commas (if it's in the middle of a sentence). the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb (remember that all clauses contain a subject-verb relationship) and refers to (relates to) something preceding the clause.Clauses are also classified as restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses. Relative clauses are dependent clauses introduced by a Relative Pronoun (that. whoever. Relative clauses can be either restrictive or nonrestrictive. In a relative clause. whichever.) A nonrestrictive clause is not essential to the meaning of the sentence. can type ١٣٢ words a minute. had to be removed. (The words essential and nonessential are sometimes used and mean the same thing as restrictive and nonrestrictive. it can be removed from the sentence without changing its basic meaning. who used to be a secretary for the President. respectively. whom.) Elliptical Clauses: see below. whomever. Professor Villa.
the sentence would be called a comma splice: two independent clauses have been incorrectly connected. Bob didn't mean to do it. we have two independent clauses––"Bob didn't mean to do it" and "he did it anyway"––connected by a comma and a coordinating conjunction ("but"). Needless to say. if the word "but" is missing from the above sentence (about Bob). Furthermore. subordination. In the following sentence. and using a semicolon. (See the section on Avoiding Primer Language for advice and exercises on combining sentences. The ability to recognize a clause and to know when a clause is capable of acting as an independent unit is essential to correct writing.). or. leading to what is called primer language (after the kind of prose that we find in first grade textbooks or "primers"). it is important to learn how to combine independent clauses into larger units of thought. but he did it anyway. Coordination involves joining independent clauses with one of the coordinating conjunctions: and. for. but. for example. Clauses are combined in three different ways: coordination. a long series of clauses of similar structure and length begins to feel monotonous. For instance. Clauses thus connected are usually nicely balanced in length and import: ٦ . so.INDEPENDENT CLAUSES Independent Clauses could stand by themselves as discrete sentences. nor. with only a comma between them. separated from other clauses. yet. they're normally referred to simply as sentences. not clauses. except that when they do stand by themselves.
because she was afraid they would make fun of her. it is called a dependent or subordinate clause because it depends on something else (the independent clause) for its meaning. it is no longer an independent clause. [who is] Ramonita's sister.. When the clause begins with a subordinating word. • Although Ramonita often thought about joining the choir. told Ramonita to join the choir. • Yasmin is Ramonita's sister.• Ramonita thought about joining the church choir.. • Ramonita never talked to her friends about joining the choir. Yasmin told Ramonita to join the choir no matter what her friends said.. Semicolons should be used sparingly and only when the two independent clauses involved are closely related and nicely balanced in terms of length and import. but she never talked to her friends about it. she never talked to her friends about it. There are other ways of combining ideas––by turning independent clauses into various kinds of modifying phrases. • Ramonita has such a beautiful voice. many couples have asked her to sing at their wedding. Semicolons can connect two independent clauses with or without the help of a conjunctive adverb (transitional expression). Joining these with the use of a relative clause: Yasmin. ٧ . Subordination involves turning one of the clauses into a subordinate element (one that cannot stand on its own) through the use of a Subordinating Conjunction (sometimes called a dependent word) or a Relative Pronoun.
we'll go downtown. They must be combined with an independent clause so that they become part of a sentence that can stand by itself. DEPENDENT CLAUSES Dependent Clauses cannot stand by themselves and make good sense. Unlike independent clauses. dependent clauses are said to perform various functions within a sentence. when. • Adverb clauses provide information about what is going on in the main (independent) clause: where. "What he knows [subject] is no concern of mine. angelic quality. Remember that a dependent clause always contains a subject and a verb." or "Do you know what he knows [object]?" or "What can you tell me about what he has done this year [object of the preposition "about"]?" ٨ . figured it out for me. furthermore. "My brother. who is an engineer." or "John wanted to write a book because he had so much to say about the subject. There are three basic kinds of dependent clauses. They act either in the capacity of some kind of noun or as some kind of modifier. she clearly enjoys using it.• Ramonita's voice has a clear. or why. which simply are what they are." • Adjective clauses work like multi-word adjectives. "When the movie is over. categorized according to their function in the sentence." • Noun clauses can do anything that nouns can do." or "The bridge that collapsed in the winter storm will cost millions to replace. but it cannot stand by itself.
Nominative ٤ ٥ Adjective Clause My brother. The dealership that sold more cars ended up actually losing money. In fact. Subject That you should feel this way about her came as a great surprise to us. which was founded ٩ .What they did with the treasure remains a mystery. The Federated Bank. never liked math in high school. who now teaches math in a small college. The biggest disappointment of last season Noun Clause as was that the women's team didn't make it to Predicate the final four. We are interested in what he does for a Noun Clause as living. Noun Clause as Her husband spent whatever she had saved over the years. Whatever you want for dessert is fine with Noun Clause as me. Juan finally revealed what he had done with ٢ the money. Object of Preposition ١ The trouble was that they had never been there before. Object I don't know what I should do next. he wrote a book about what he had ٣ done over the years.
Pay special attention to the variety of sentence types: simple. and compound-complex sentences. ELLIPTICAL CLAUSES Elliptical Clauses are grammatically incomplete in the sense that they are missing either the relative pronoun (dependent word) that normally introduces such a clause or something from the predicate in the second part of a comparison. Since he started working nights. The team had fallen behind by ten points before they were able to figure out the opponent's defence. Gladys shovelled the driveway. he doesn't see much of his kids. While Josie sat inside watching television. These are defined by their essential ingredients. the clauses that make them up. The missing parts of the elliptical clause can be guessed from the context and ١٠ . folded during the state's economic crisis.٦ Adverb Clause nearly two centuries ago. There is also a quiz at the end of that section that will test your ability to distinguish among the kinds of clauses that make up a sentence. complex. compound. It is difficult to know if you're using different patterns unless you keep in mind the way that clauses are combined in larger sentence-units of thought. COMBINATIONS OF CLAUSES Review the section on Sentence Variety for help in understanding the variety of sentence patterns.
In fact.most readers are not aware that anything is missing. her recruits proved to be hard workers. • Sometimes the veterans knew the recruits could play better than they [could play]. even in formal prose. The doctor told Charlie to lose weight and exercise vigorously for forty-five minutes a day." ١١ . ١. (The omitted words are noted in brackets below). because they are often elegant. The section in bold is an independent clause. Exercise on Identifying Independent Clauses Choose the correct answer. efficient means of expression. elliptical clauses are regarded as both useful and correct. This sentence has two independent clauses. The doctor was worried that Charlie was putting on too much weight. This sentence has no independent clauses. The independent clause is "The doctor was worried. ٢. • Though [they were] sometimes nervous on the court. This sentence has one independent clause. • Coach Espinoza knew [that] this team would be the best [that] she had coached in recent years.
Charlie has a hard time sticking to a diet. he really loves rich. The section in bold is an independent clause. "he ended up actually gaining weight" is the only independent clause. thinks Charlie may be a lost cause. ٥. the last time he tried to lose weight. he ended up actually gaining weight. The section in bold is the independent clause. This sentence has two independent clauses. sweet desserts. ٤. This sentence has one independent clause. Charlie has decided to hire a personal trainer because he is worried about his heart. ٣. The part in bold is not an independent clause. His new personal trainer. This sentence has no independent clauses. ٦. In fact. ١٢ . whose name is Adriana Bongiorno. This sentence has two independent clauses.This sentence has no independent clause. "Charlie has decided to hire a personal trainer" is the independent clause. This sentence has two independent clauses.
though. This sentence has one independent clause. ١٣ . This sentence has no independent clause. The part in bold is the independent clause. ٩. This sentence has two independent clauses. ٧. ١٠.The part in blue is an independent clause. That she can make him do the exercises but not stick to the diet. Miss Bongiorno is starting to make a difference." This sentence has several independent clauses. ٨. The independent clause begins with the first "that. He is very good as long as Miss Bongiorno is around. This sentence has two independent clauses. but he goes to the freezer for ice-cream when she leaves. This sentence has three independent clauses. and Charlie is starting to make some progress. This sentence has two independent clauses. This sentence has one independent clause. Charlie must learn that eating all those sweets may give him a temporary pleasure but that it's not good for his heart and that he would feel better about himself if he stopped eating all those rich and sweet foods that are not good for him. The independent clause has three words.
The clause following "though" is a dependent clause. ١٤ . This sentence has two independent clauses.
Many uneducated citizens who have never attended school continue to vote for better schools.Writing Concise Sentences Pruning the Redundant Avoid saying the same thing twice. Redundancy ١٢ midnight ١٢ noon ٣ am in the morning The Lean Version midnight noon ٣ am absolutely spectacular/phenomenal spectacular/phenomenal a person who is honest an honest person a total of ١٤ birds ١٤ birds biography of her life circle around close proximity completely unanimous consensus of opinion cooperate together each and every enclosed herewith end result ١٥ biography circle proximity unanimous consensus cooperate each enclosed result . Beware of the following. Redundant phrases are bad habits just waiting to take control of your writing.
exactly the same final completion frank and honest exchange the same completion frank exchange or honest exchange free gift gift he/she is a person who.. I think/feel I think/feel personal opinion opinion puzzling in nature puzzling refer back refer repeat again repeat return again return revert back revert shorter/longer in length shorter/longer small/large in size small/large square/round/rectangular in shape square/round/rectangular summarize briefly summarize surrounded on all sides surrounded surrounding circumstances circumstances ١٦ . he/she important/basic essentials essentials in spite of the fact that although in the field of economics/law in economics/law enforcement enforcement in the event that if job functions job or functions new innovations innovations one and the same the same particular interest interest period of four days four days personally..
however. It is redundant to say "ATM machine" because ATM means Automated Teller Machine. Phrases to Single Words Be alert for clauses or phrases that can be pared to simpler. The "which clause" can often be shortened to a simple adjective. "CPU unit" because CPU means Central Processing Unit. (Be careful. It sounds particularly senseless when we come up with a plural such as "CPU units"––Central Processing Unit units. When we use an abbreviation or acronym in speech (and especially in formal writing). "AIDS syndrome" because AIDS means Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome. It is redundant to say "HIV virus" because HIV means Human Immunodeficiency Virus. not to lose some ١٧ . shorter constructions. Reducing Clauses to Phrases.the future to come there is no doubt but that usual/habitual custom we are in receipt of the future no doubt custom we have received Abbreviated Redundancies A special breed of redundancy is proliferating in our modern world as we increasingly rely on abbreviations and acronyms in our increasingly technological world. it's important to know what its letters mean so we don't create a new redundancy.
• Knowledgeable citizens voted him out of office. • Recommending that a student copy from another student's paper is not something he would recommend. is the premier allwomen's college in the United States. too. • Citizens who knew what was going on voted him out of office. Jasion left his wife with forty-nine kids and a can of beans." which is sometimes necessary [as it is in this sentence].. • He wouldn't recommend that a student copy from another student's paper. • Smith College. can sometimes be trimmed. • Founded in ١٨٧١..") Phrases. sometimes to a single word.. • Unencumbered by a sense of responsibility. • (Or "He would never tell a student to copy. Smith College is the premier all-women's college in the United States. which was founded in ١٨٧١. the word "which.needed emphasis by over-pruning. ١٨ .
• (Or leave out the word altogether and let the act speak for itself): Jasion left his wife with forty-nine kids and a can of beans. It is probably enough to say that the salary increase is inadequate. quite.• Jasion irresponsibly left his wife with forty-nine kids and a can of beans. but. very. extremely. • There are twenty-five students who have already expressed a desire to attend the program next summer. no. severely when they are not necessary. Expletive constructions begin with there is/are or it is. It is they and their parents who stand to gain the most by the government grant. Does saying that it is severely inadequate introduce anything more than a tone of hysteria? These words shouldn't be banished from your vocabulary. but they will be used to best effect when used sparingly. ١٩ . an expletive construction is a common device that often robs a sentence of energy before it gets a chance to do its work. Intensifiers That Don't Intensify Avoid using words such as really. Avoid Expletive Constructions This sounds like something a politician has to learn to avoid.
Africa's woodlands are in better shape now than ever before. All things considered. As far as concerned I'm As far as I'm concerned.• Twenty-five students have already expressed a desire to attend the program next summer. There are more woodlands in Africa now than there were in ١٨٩٨. As far as I'm concerned. they put a reader to sleep. They and their parents stand to gain the most by the government grant. as a matter of fact. Africa's woodlands are in better shape now than ever before. there is no need for further protection of woodlands. Such phrases quickly put a reader on guard that the writer is trading in publicity. all things considered All things considered. As a matter of fact As a matter of fact. Phrases You Can Omit Be on the lookout for important sounding phrases that add nothing to the meaning of a sentence. ٢٠ . there There is no need for further protection of woodlands. worse. there are more woodlands in Africa now than there were in ١٨٩٨.
(or naturally) By virtue of the fact Our woodlands are coming back by virtue that of the fact that our economy has shifted its emphasis.at the present time This is because there are fewer farmers at the present time. Major forest areas are coming back through natural processes. This is because there are fewer farmers now. Our woodlands are coming back by virtue of the fact that because our economy has shifted its emphasis. Due to the fact that Because their habitats are being restored. Because of the fact Woodlands have grown in area because of that the fact that farmers have abandoned their fields. Due to the fact that Due to the fact that their habitats are being restored. forest creatures are also reestablishing their population bases. ٢١ . By means of Major forest areas are coming back by means of natural processes. forest creatures are also re-establishing their population bases. Woodlands have grown in area because farmers have abandoned their fields.
passed. in fact. passed. For the most part For the most part. for all intents and purposes. For the most part. This policy has a tendency tends to isolate some communities. The era in which we must aggressively defend our woodlands has. pPeople's suspicions are based on a misunderstanding of the facts. Have a tendency to This policy has a tendency to isolate some communities. for all intents and purposes. have been purchased for the purpose of creating public parks.Exists The fear that exists among many people that we are losing our woodlands is uncalled for. in fact. Many woodlands. people's suspicions are based on a misunderstanding of the facts. For all intents and The era in which we must aggressively purposes defend our woodlands has. For the purpose of Many woodlands. ٢٢ . have been purchased for the purpose of creating as public parks. The fear that exists among many people that we are losing our woodlands is uncalled for.
in a manner of speaking. this policy works to the detriment of those it is supposed to help. begun to civilize the more rural parts of our state. In a very real sense. Citizens of Upper Egypt became very upset about his policy. thisThis wasteful policy ought to be revoked. In a very real sense In a very real sense. the The state would have been better off without such a policy. ٢٣ . In my opinion In my opinion. citizens of Upper Egypt became very upset. The policy has. the state would have been better off without such a policy. In the final analysis In the final analysis. in a manner of speaking. In the final analysis. this wasteful policy ought to be revoked. In my opinion. In the case of In the case of this particular policy. this This policy works to the detriment of those it is supposed to help.In a manner speaking of The policy has. begun to civilize the more rural parts of our state.
The point I am trying to make is that ٢٤ . it will probably be revoked. Legislators are already in the process of reviewing the statutes. Something in the nature of like a repeal may soon take place. In the nature of Something in the nature of a repeal may soon take place. In the process of Legislators are already in the process of reviewing the statutes.In the event that In the event that enough people protest. It seems that they They can't wait to get rid of this one. They have cautiously monitored the activities of conservationists. it will probably be revoked. Manner They have monitored the activities of conservationists in a cautious manner. it seems that It seems that they can't wait to get rid of this one. The point I trying to make am The point I am trying to make is that sometimes public policy doesn't accomplish what it set out to achieve. If enough people protest.
sometimesSometimes public policy doesn't accomplish what it set out to achieve. type of Legislators need to be more careful of the type of policy they propose. Legislators need to be more careful of the type of policy they propose. what I mean to say What I mean to say is that well intentioned is lawmakers sometimes make fools of themselves. What I mean to say is that well Well intentioned lawmakers sometimes make fools of themselves.
Eliminating Clichés and Euphemisms A cliché is an expression that was probably, once upon a time, an original and brilliant way of saying something. Imagine being the first person to say something as clever as "She fell head over heels in love" or "She's cool as a cucumber." Sadly, though, such expressions eventually lose their luster and become too common and even annoying. Writers who indulge in tired language are not being respectful to their readers, and writers return the compliment by losing attention and going on to something else.
Here is a list of trite expressions to look for in your writing and speaking. acid test at loose ends babe in the woods better late than never brought back to reality black as pitch blind as a bat bolt from the blue busy as a bee/beaver cat's meow cool as a cucumber cool, calm, and collected crack of dawn crushing blow cry over spilt milk dead as a doornail dog-eat-dog world don't count your chickens dyed in the wool easier said than done easy as pie feathered friends face the music flash in the pan Meaningful dialogue Moving experience Needle in a haystack Open-and-shut case Pain in the neck Point with pride pretty as a picture put it in a nutshell quick as a flash/wink rat race ripe old age ruled the roost sad but true sadder but wiser set the world on fire sick as a dog sigh of relief slow as molasses smart as a whip sneaking suspicion spread like wildfire straight as an arrow straw that broke the camel's back ٢٦
flat as a pancake gentle as a lamb go at it tooth and nail good time was had by all greased lightning happy as a lark head over heels heavy as lead horns of a dilemma hour of need keep a stiff upper lip ladder of success last but not least looking a gift horse in the mouth
strong as an ox take the bull by the horns thin as a rail through thick and thin tired but happy to coin a phrase to make a long story short trial and error tried and true under the weather white as a sheet wise as an owl work like a dog worth its weight in gold
A euphemism is a word or phrase that substitutes for language the speaker or writer feels is too blunt or somehow offensive. When people die, we say, instead, that they have "passed away" or "met their Maker" or "gone to sleep." And, at the silly extreme, a garbage collector is a sanitation engineer, a janitor is a custodial engineer. What the writer must guard against is the tendency of euphemisms not only to shield readers from harsh reality but also to confuse meaning and truth. The military is especially guilty of this: bombing raids become surgical air-strikes and armies become peace-keeping forces. Good writing tells the truth and tells it plain.
Exercise on Writing Concise Sentences Rewrite the following sentences to achieve a more concise statement. At this point in time we can't ascertain the reason as to why the screen door was left open. there was an expectation on the part of the voters that he would not reduplicate his effort to achieve office in government again.) ٧. recommends the daily intake of megadoses of Vitamin C. It is to be hoped that we discover a means to create an absolutely proper and fitting tribute to Professor Espinoza. who is employed as a nutritionist at the University of Michigan. he never gave much consideration to sitting idly about. ٤. doing nothing constructive. ٣. ٥. in light of the fact that Congressman Fuenches was totally exhausted by his last campaign. Joe was an honest and hard working man. Basically. My sister. ٢. Basically. ١. What is your basic understanding of predestination? ٨. ٦. (Rewrite as one sentence. There is a desire on the part of many of us to maintain a spring recess for the purpose of getting away from the demands of our studies. At what point in time will a downturn in the stock market have a really serious effect on the social life of people as a whole? ٢٨ .
I would call your attention to the fact that our President. a condition that made them sneeze. Bothered by allergies. There are more than a million fans who desperately want the Hartford Whalers to stay in the city. The nursery school teacher education training sessions involve active interfacing with pre-school children of the appropriate age as well as intensive peer interaction in the form of role playing ٢٩ . ١١. is basically a Southerner. who was formerly the Governor of Arkansas. ١٠.٩. ١٢. some of the pre-school children had sinus troubles that caused them to miss several days in nursery school this spring.
Unskilful writers often violate this principle. science was taught by the by the textbook method.Parallel Form Basic Principle: Express coordinate ideas in similar form. But apart from this. now it is taught by now the laboratory method is the laboratory method. he seems unable or afraid to choose one form of expression and hold to it. By this principle. The principle of parallel construction requires that expressions of similar content and function should be outwardly similar. an article or a preposition applying to all the members of a series must either be used only before the first term or else be repeated before each term. employed. The likeness of form enables the reader to recognize more readily the likeness of content and function. while textbook method. The right-hand version shows that the writer has at least made his choice and abided by it. ٣٠ . Faulty Parallelism Corrected Version Formerly. writers should follow carefully the principle of parallel construction. It is true that in repeating a statement in order to emphasize it writers may have need to vary its form. science was taught Formerly. The left-hand version gives the impression that the writer is undecided or timid. from a mistaken belief that they should constantly vary the form of their expressions.
summer. in summer. second. the Spanish. the Italians. second. but for action Either you must grant his request You must either grant his request or incur his ill will. or in winter) Correlative expressions (both. first. not. is unconstitutional. the Italians. the My objections are. that the injustice of the measure. tedious. or incur his ill will.Faulty Parallelism Corrected Version The French. first. A time not for words. and the like) should be followed by the same grammatical construction. either. first. and the Portuguese In spring. or winter (In spring. Faulty Parallelism Corrected Version It was both a long ceremony and The ceremony was both long and very tedious. that it that it is unconstitutional. but action A time not for words. and. My objections are. summer. measure is unjust. and Portuguese Spanish. second. third. or in winter In spring. but also. not only. Many violations of this rule can be corrected by rearranging the sentence. or. ٣١ . The French. but.
the things you compare should be couched in parallel structures whenever that is possible and appropriate.When making comparisons. Faulty Parallelism Corrected Version My income is smaller than my My income is smaller than my wife. ٣٢ . wife's.
It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. We are met on a great battle field of that war. and she has an extremely pleasant personality. Delivered at Gettysburg on November ١٩. charm.Exercises on Parallel Form First Exercise Abraham Lincoln's famous Gettysburg speech abounds with examples of parallel structures. conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. • Donald Smith has wit. testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. Now we are engaged in a great civil war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field. Examine the following part of the speech and match the parallel structures: Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation. ١. ٣٣ . ١٨٦٣ Second Exercise Select the sentence that illustrates the use of proper parallel construction.
• He wanted three things out of college: to learn a skill. • In English class. Donald Smith has wit. and a pleasing personality. to make good friends. • He wanted three things out of college: to learn a skill. • Coach Espinoza was a brilliant strategist. ٣٤ . ٦. and we thought it was embarrassing. ٥. ٤. a caring mentor. and friend. and a wise friend. and learning about life. • We found the film repulsive. a caring mentor. Tashonda learned to read poems critically and she appreciated good prose. Tashonda learned to read poems critically and to appreciate good prose. offensive. • Raoul's QPA is higher than Ralph. ٣. • Raoul's QPA is higher than Ralph's. • In English class. to make good friends.• ٢. charm. • Coach Espinoza was a brilliant strategist. and to learn about life.
and spending a couple of days fishing. • Professor Ali rewarded his students for their hard work on the final project and going beyond the call of duty. and conveniently arranged. • Professor Ali rewarded his students for working hard on the final project and going beyond the call of duty. • Mr. and he made it conveniently arranged. ٨. ٩. • There's nothing I like better than finding a good trout stream. neat.• We found the film repulsive. and embarrassing. Third Exercise Improve the following sentences with the use of proper parallel constructions. setting up camp. and she could play any position. grace. ٣٥ . offensive. Nguyen kept his store clean. Nguyen kept his store clean. • There's nothing I like better than finding a good trout stream. • Mr. setting up camp. ٧. ١. Espinoza's style was remarkable for its dexterity. and to spend a couple of days fishing. neat.
they spent extra hours with their tutors. Three of the great Indian nations in the Central Plains are the Cherokees. ٧. ٥. the Choctaws. ٣٦ . Her conditions for signing the contract are. ٩. they did the necessary research in the library. ١٠. We realize not only that these students have a language problem but also cultural differences. The college has space for a new computer lab but not a faculty lounge. Either you will begin to study now or risk failing the exam. ٦. first. The students prepared for their exams at home. Raoul's motivation to succeed in this program seems to be greater than his sister. Carlos wasted his first year at college by not studying enough and spending too much time at parties. ٣. and asked questions in their classrooms. ٤. second. and Comanches. the commissioner has to approve the terms. We have no doubt about her care and interest in the proposal. that the other players must sign as well.٢. ٨.
Audience One difficulty in writing for a course is that it's hard to think of the reader of our essays as an audience. that person has to read those essays. be our sole reader. Our instructor might. assembling. indeed. not to "use that tone of voice with me. And part of that difference is the difference in language. and if we aim our essay at that one individual. In fact. casual or formal. when we were very young. in turn. a difference not just in the words we use but in what we call tone. Mister (or Missy. as the case may be)!" Just as the pitch and volume of one's voice carry a difference in tone from street to school. Are we being frivolous or serious. congregating. We also recall being told. or at least we hope it is. This is a very limited audience. in fact. somebody who will pack a pile of papers into a briefcase or backpack and take them home to read. for example.Tone: A Matter of Attitude Your behaviour while attending school is different from your behaviour while hanging out in the back yard with friends. In the first sentence of this paragraph. we have severely limited its appeal. conveys our attitude towards our audience and our subject matter. the choice of words and the way we put our sentences together convey a sense of tone in our writing. The tone. even an entire essay. We would be much better off if we could conceive of our essays ٣٧ . sweet or stuffy? The choice of a single word can change the tone of a paragraph. whether they're good or bad. the phrasal verb "hanging out" is considerably more casual than others we might have chosen: gathering.
say. impersonal impassioned reasoned. and using contractions in our text will convey an informal quality. don't. they're. offhanded "loose. if we can maintain this tone of slight formality without being stuffy." disorderly nonsensical. in fact––but they're easily distracted. and we've.as being aimed towards a community of readers. they expect something that is fresh. decorous objective. subjective casual. We don't know exactly who is going to pick up this newspaper. our tone must aim toward being friendly and helpful without being overly casual (and never slangy). We use contractions all the time in casual conversation. energetic. The paragraph just before this one has five verb contractions: it's (twice). comic personal. so we need to be on our best behaviour. simple formal serious. To ٣٨ . grave. reasonable controlled. honest. informal light. humorous. elaborate Contractions One measure of the formality of our language is our use of contractions. reserved ornate. without being too nonsensical or unconventional. imaginative. These readers are interested in what we have to say––curious. of course. experimental plainspoken. of a small-town or neighbourhood newspaper. the readership. we've hit it just right.
“Cold Comfort. but it is not an excuse for imprecision or unnecessary wordiness. he has an infected cut that won't heal. but then we can also check for contractions. but the bacteria are resistant to all of them. The infection enters his bloodstream––a condition known as septicemia––and a few days later. eliminate the contractions and write out the verbs: "if we can maintain this tone of slight formality without being stuffy. but they have neglected the implications. A pleasant informality may be void of elevated language. (Septicemia is what killed Muppets creator Jim Henson a few years ago. also. and why? Media reports have likely made you aware of this problem. His doctor treats him with antibiotics. Read the section on writing Concise Sentences and review the various means of pruning unnecessary words and clichés. Michael Castleman.” And here is a paragraph from an article declaring that the cultural assumptions of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment are current ٣٩ .) Or instead of a cold. First. Here is a paragraph from an article which calls upon us to stop using antibiotics haphazardly. such as an ear or prostate infection. or any other common bacterial disease. we have hit it just right. and it is a very useful exercise." It is a very easy matter to do a search for apostrophes in our text. Your brother catches a cold that turns into a sinus infection. your brother dies.elevate the style. we can check for any possessives we may have formed incorrectly. Which parts of the paragraph would you consider as formal or informal.
can you say how this paragraph differs from the paragraph above? Does this difference say something about the audiences of the two articles. respectively? Do you prefer one style to another? Which one feels more like your style? Governments everywhere are at a loss regarding the best policy for regulating the dwindling forest reserves of the world. or the lack of them. even though Wilson's article is considerably longer. Wilson. and those are based on an insufficient knowledge of ecology. The economics of sustainable yield is still a primitive art. we would have little basis for the long-term valuation of forests. Although you have only four sentences to go on. and the psychological benefits of natural ecosystems are almost wholly unexplored.at the end of this century. we would discover that there is only one contraction––a shouldn't––in Wilson's article and there are twenty contractions in Castleman's. How do these contractions. Few ethical guidelines have been established from which agreement might be reached.” If we tried counting contractions for the entire articles from which these paragraphs are taken. affect your sense of the seriousness of the essays? ٤٠ . “Back from Chaos. Edward O. Even if adequate scientific knowledge were available.
Good geography students will remember that George Eliot's Old Grandfather Rode A Pig Home Yesterday. the list goes on and on. Using Mnemonics Mnemonics (Now there's a toughie to spell! It's pronounced as if that initial m isn't there. Homonyms and Plurals Homonyms are words that sound alike or nearly alike but have different meanings and different spellings: affect-effect. Some mnemonics seem more difficult to remember than the spelling they're supposed to serve. keeping a list of words you know you have trouble with. ٤١ . When you think of stationery. Some would remember the three e's in cemetery as three tombstones in a row. Does it help to think of the r in separate as separating two like letters? Coming up with mnemonics to help you remember things is a device you probably use in other studies all the time.) are little memory devices you can use to remember how to spell words. think of the e in envelope. Extend the habit into your personal mission to improve spelling. keeping the dictionary at hand.Spelling Working on Your Spelling Improving your spelling skills is largely a matter of personal commitment: looking up a word you're not sure of. they're-their-there. Be as inventive as you wish and have fun with the idea. It will pay off in the long run.
continue to defy phonetic spellers (fonetik spelurz). of course. It makes perfect sense.). especially with the inexplicable American pronunciation which puts an "nz" sound before the "d. (The same goes for incidentally and coincidentally. It also helps to pronounce words correctly in the first place. we'll end up with accidently. American author Mark Twain ٤٢ . the same "o" we hear in women. Try. which is a really bad accident but is how many people say the word. Sounding It Out Writers who try to rely too completely on the sound of English words for hints on how to spell often have trouble with some of the peculiar sound-spell combinations in the language. A thorough acquaintance with prefixes and endings and roots (see elsewhere in this section) will help some. It's hard to spell strictly unless we hear that "t" in the word. Sometimes. One apocryphal (apokrifil?) story tells about a girl who. instead. though. and the words February and library must retain their first "r. it isn't that easy and the rules can be a bit perplexing. and studying the way words are broken down into sound units will help also. to change the adjective accidental into an adverb: accidentally." If we try to change the noun accident into an adverb." wrote GHOT on the chalkboard. however.S. in which the "t" and "d" sounds have disappeared (at least in the U. and the same "t" we hear in nation. when asked to spell "fish.) The ability to sound things out correctly doesn't help us much with Wednesday." And words like often and handsome. if it's the same "gh" we see in cough.Creating plurals in English is usually quite simple: just add s to the end of the word.
has been sometimes different from British. ever since then. British Spellings Writers who grow up in England. and it extends to other words as well. he thought it would be a good idea to simplify some English spelling and that -our was one ending he thought Americans could do without. A good dictionary should account for these differences. the Barbados. When Daniel Webster started putting his dictionary together. Canada. if not to allow for them. or any place where spelling habits conform to British preferences will be perplexed when the word colour comes back from an American instructor with a slash mark through the u. Standard American spelling. Instructors should also be equipped to account for them.was keenly interested in the simplification of English spelling and his little essay called "A Plan for the Simplification of English Spelling" is included here. American Spelling canceled center check color criticize gray humor judgment labor British Spelling cancelled centre cheque colour criticise grey humour judgement labour ٤٣ .
feint. fiend. weird. bier. patience. weight. foreign. leisure. brief. Rule #٢: “Dropping Final E” When adding an ending to a word that ends with a silent e. priest • ceiling. neither. freight. receipt. height. and seizure. grieve. seize. beige. conceive.license realize theater tire valor licence realise theatre tyre valour Rule #١: “I before E except after C” This rule. • achieve. chief. seems so promising in its simplicity at first. hygiene. deceit. conceit But then things get complicated: it doesn't work with words pronounced "ay" as in neighbour. vein. grief. receive. and weigh and there are many exceptions to the rule: either. the rule is relatively simple and worthwhile remembering. friend. thief. drop the final e if the ending begins with a vowel: • advancing ٤٤ . forfeit. designed to help us remember how to spell words such as receive and chief. sleigh. Still. deceive. perceive. pierce. believe.
would be pronounced with a hard g sound. courageous.) Rule #٣: “Dropping Final Y” When adding an ending to a word that ends with y. (The word management. for example. without that e after the g. management. change the y to i when it is preceded by a consonant. manageable. if the ending begins with a consonant. truly. noticeable. • supply becomes supplies worry becomes worried merry becomes merrier This does not apply to the ending -ing. argued.) Exceptions: to avoid confusion and mispronunciation. the final e is kept in words such as mileage and words where the final e is preceded by a soft g or c: changeable. drop the e when adding any ending: argument. however. • crying studying ٤٥ .surprising However. keep the final e: • advancement likeness (However. if the silent e is preceded by another vowel.
• open contains two syllables and the last syllable is preceded by a single vowel. • submit is accented on the last syllable and the final consonant is preceded by a vowel. for instance. so we will double the r before adding an ending.Nor does it apply when the final y is preceded by a vowel. not the last syllable. • flap contains only one syllable which means that it is always accented. an -ing or -ed: flapping. as in referring. • refer contains two syllables and the accent falls on the last syllable and a single vowel precedes the final consonant. ٤٦ . Double the final consonant before adding an ending that begins with a vowel when the last syllable of the word is accented and that syllable ends in a single vowel followed by a single consonant. so we double it before adding. for instance. the last consonant is preceded by a vowel. First. • obeyed saying Rule #٤: “Doubling Final Consonants” When adding an ending to a word that ends in a consonant. flapped. an -ing or -ed: submitting. Again. so we don't double the n before adding an ending: opening. opened. we have to determine the number of syllables in the word. we double that consonant in many situations. submitted. so we double the t before adding. but the accent falls on the first syllable.
as in beginner. • deal looks like flap (above). so we do not double the t before adding an ending: relented. • relent contains two syllables. adding a prefix to a word does not change its spelling. The same would apply to begin.. not a vowel. but the syllable ends in a consonant preceded not by a single vowel. so we do not double the final l as in dealer dealing.referral. The same would apply. dissatisfied. misinform ٤٧ . relenting. despaired. then. disinterested. but by two vowels. despairing. beginning. but the final consonant is preceded by another consonant. the word misspelling is one of the most often misspelled words in English. Rule #٥: “Adding Prefixes” Generally. For some reason. • unnecessary. to despair.
They have left ____________ home because of the storm . ____________ going where no one has gone before . I don't care what you read on ____________ label! This is poisonous ! its it's ٢. your you're ٤. ____________ mine ! Its It's ٣. If ____________ patient enough. their they're there ٥. you might see a rainbow . ____________ bike is that ؟ Whose Who's ٧. We're Were Where ٦. The computer has been ____________ there since yesterday . sitting setting ٤٨ .Exercises on Spelling Practice Exercise ١ ١.
maintnance ٧. laid lay lied ٩. How did they manage to ____________ that game ؟ lose loose ١٠. cemetery ١١. quite quit quiet Practice Exercise ٢ Indicate if the word is spelled correctly or not. accidently ٢. ommited ٨. paralel ٥. arguing ٤٩ . ١. My brother ____________ in bed all day yesterday . privilege ٦. heighth ١٠.٨. grammar ٩. The library has been incredibly ____________ today . independance ٣. foreign ٤. irresistable ١٢.
embarrass ١٥. enviroment ٥٠ . catagory ١٤.١٣.
adjectives or adverbs. Independent clauses could stand by themselves as discrete sentences. Dependent clauses could function as nouns. . . They must be combined with independent clauses so that they become parts of sentences. complex and compound complex sentences (refer to the section on " Sentence variety " p. ٤٦). Writing short and clear sentences (i. concise sentences) is a major feature of good writing.e. subordination and a semicolon. A clause could be independent or dependent. A clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb. ٥١ . To combine independent clauses. Redundancy is the degree to which a written bit of discourse contains more information than is needed for it to be understood.SUMMARY PART I: SENTENCE LEVEL Remember: . Redundant phrases in writing are bad habits which should be avoid٠ed. . Dependent clauses cannot stand by themselves. . . Clauses are combined into larger sentence-units: Compound. we can use coordination. . . Elliptical clauses are elegant efficient means of expression.
Example: Either say you're sorry or get out. One measure of the formality of writing is the use of contractions.. grieve.. neither. whereas eliminating contractions elevates the style and maintains a tone of formality.... equal in importance or rank) ... thief.. nor. both. but also. therefore. convey the tone of a given piece of writing. The tone of a piece of writing is its general quality or nature. or.. The choice of words and the way sentences are put together. Correlative conjunctions are coordinating conjunctions used in pairs in a parallel construction (e. etc.e.g. Language units which are similar in content and function should be expressed in similar form... either. grief.. ٥٢ .. believe. and.. etc. audience and subject matter. not only. Tone reflects the writers' attitude towards both . Example: Shall we go home or go to movie? (The two ideas or clauses are coordinate. Spelling rules: " I before E except after C " This rule helps us remember the spelling of words like achieve... Using contractions makes a text informal. (Two possibilities separated by ' or') ... . i.) They should be followed by the same grammatical construction...
Accordingly " supply becomes supplies.. advancing). dissatisfied etc. Doubling final consonants: Double the consonants which mark the ending of words. ٥٣ . " Dropping Final Y " When adding an ending to a word that ends with y. submit: submitting .. But..g.submitted. "Dropping Final E " Drop the Final 'e' if the ending of word begins with a vowel (e. change the 'y' to i when it is preceded by a consonant.. e.). Adding prefixes to words does not change their spelling (e. if the ending begins with a consonant.g.g. unnecessary. . keep the final e as in advancement . disinterested.
. appreciate the value of changing the normal sentence word order. establish the relationship between repeated terms in a piece of writing and understanding its meaning. understand that a long sentence should develop its complexity after the verb. .PART II: PARAGRAPH LEVEL SENTENCE VARIETY Objectives: By the end of this part.on sentence and a long one . differentiate between a run . appreciate the significance of repeating some key words and phrases in writing. compound. identify the four types of sentences: Simple. students should be able to: . . . .define a cumulative sentence ٥٤ . appreciate the value of beginning a paragraph with a question which summarizes what preceded and prepares for what follows. . complex and compound complex.
do the exercise based on consistency in tense and pronouns. know how to subordinate one clause to another. define 'an appositive '. . . know how to compound sentence elements. avoid using ' primer language' doing the exercises on pages ٦٤٦٥. identify the features of " primer style ". . .on sentences on pages ٥٥ .٥٨ . use appositives to combine ideas. do the exercise based on run . . . appreciate the value of using a variety of sentences in achieving shifts in tone . ٥٥ . . use participial phrases to connect ideas.. . know how to compound sentences. grasp what the concept of consistency of tense involves in writing. understand the rationale behind the need to combine sentences in writing. . understand the concept of consistency of pronoun reference in writing. define a "participial phrase " . . .
recognise the given set of 'transitional tags ' .. . define a "topic sentence". use absolute phrases to connect ideas. . identify the four mechanical considerations in providing "transition" between ideas. . . . appreciate the value of coherence in a piece of writing.٨١ with the functions provided. identify the difference between the paragraph on page ٨٣ and its revised version on the next page. match the given set of transitional devices on pages ٨٠ . define an 'absolute phrase ' . ٥٦ . understand how repetition lends itself to coherence. . . provide reasons for describing this paragraph as " unified ". appreciate the value of pronoun reference in a piece of writing. . do the exercise based on ' Combining sentences ' on pages ٧٦ ٧٨ . . . read critically the paragraph on page "٨٣". understand the concept of paragraph development by using relevant details.
is practice in handling long sentences. the ٥٧ . then.PART II: PARAGRAPH LEVEL Sentence Variety A Note on Sentence Variety Many writers. though it were but for awhile. forgetting that it is often better to risk imperfection than boredom. but if our prose is made up entirely of shorter structures. What we need. Note the following monster of a sentence from Thomas Hooker: Now if nature should intermit her course and leave altogether. Run-ons and Length Remember that a really long sentence and a run-on sentence are not the same thing. it would drive a reader crazy after a while. are leery of long sentences because they fear the run-on. unsure of themselves. It's easy to feel confident in writing shorter sentences.
the clouds yield no rain. And. as writer (avoiding such extremes). But if. as it were through a languishing faintness. if the frame of that heavenly arch erected over our heads should loosen and dissolve itself. and it does seem rather ponderous at first.observation of her own laws. having successfully navigated its shoals. the fruits of the earth pine away as children at the withered breasts of their mother no longer able to yield them relief––what would become of man himself. your instructor would probably call you in for a conference. there's a well earned delight in finding yourself at the end of such a sentence. if those principal and mother elements of the world. the earth be defeated of heavenly influence. there's much to be learned by devising such monsters and then cutting them back to reasonable size. the winds breathe out their last gasp. the times and seasons of the year blend themselves by disordered and confused mixture. if the prince of the lights of heaven which now as a giant doth run his unwearied course. whom these things now do all serve? from Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity The modern reader might rebel at the complexity of those clauses piled one upon the other. and by irregular volubility turn themselves any way as it might happen. should lose the qualities which now they have. In fact. if celestial spheres should forget their wonted motions. if you were to write such a sentence in academic prose. begin to stand and to rest himself. if the moon should wander from her beaten way. you let yourself go a bit. should. as reader. whereof all things in this lower world are made. ٥٨ .
this kind of pressure. Coordination Allow the complexity of a longer sentence to develop after the verb. though) that succeeds grammatically but fails stylistically because it gives way to too much work before the subject-verb connection is made: Knowing that millions of people around the world would be watching in person and on television and expecting great things from him––at least one more gold medal for America. In the completer (predicate). however. who had known pressure from fans and media before but never. and realizing that his legs could no longer carry him down the runway with the same blazing speed and confidence in making a huge. made only a few appearances in races during the few months before the Summer Olympics in Atlanta. Here is a ٢٣٩-word sentence (not a run-on. not before it. even as a professional runner. if not another world record––during this. Make the connection between subject and verb quick and then allow the sentence to do some extra work.Here are some hints about using long sentences to your advantage. partly because he was afraid of raising expectations even higher and he did not want to be distracted by interviews and adoring ٥٩ . his fourth and surely his last appearance in the World Olympics. be careful to develop the complex structures in parallel form. Georgia. the renowned sprinter and track-and-field personality Carl Lewis. eyepopping leap that they were capable of a few years ago when he set world records in the ١٠٠-meter dash and in the ٤٠٠-meter relay and won a silver medal in the long jump.
In the following sentence. but mostly because he wanted to conserve his energies and concentrate. repetition of key words and phrases within a sentence and then within a paragraph not only holds things together but creates a rhythm that provides energy and drives the meaning home. from a speech by John F. the most fitting conclusion to his brilliant career in track and field. like a martial arts expert. been among the first to capitalize on technical innovations. the long jump. on the job at hand: winning his favourite competition. since the beginnings of the industrial revolution in Europe. Repeated Terms One of the scariest techniques for handling long sentences is the repetition of a key term. alarming in that a tremendous industrial potential had been lost to their chief competitors. Here’s an example: The Swiss watchmakers' failure to capitalize on the invention of the digital timepiece was both astonishing and alarming––astonishing in that the Swiss had. and bringing home another Gold Medal for the United States. observe how the repeated. When properly handled. parallel phrases pile up the meaning in waves: ٦٠ . Kennedy (dedicating the Robert Frost Library at Amherst College). the watchmakers of Japan.fans who would follow him into stores and restaurants demanding autographs and photo-opportunities.
its wealth with our wisdom. There are some who say that communism is the wave of the future. not to our self-esteem. I look forward to a great future for America. not to our political beliefs but to our insight. our heroes have customarily run to men of large accomplishments. but to our self-comprehension. or say they don't. And there are even a few who say that it is true that communism is an evil system. Let them come to Berlin. its power with our purpose. which will protect the beauty of our natural environment. The same principle can apply in repeated whole sentences in a paragraph. but it permits us to make economic progress.. what is the great issue between the free world and the Communist world. Watch how President Kennedy drove him his point in the famous "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech: There are many people in the world who really don't understand. But today this college and country honours a man whose contribution was not to our size but to our spirit. I look forward to an America which will not be afraid of grace and beauty. Let them come to Berlin... a future in which our country will match its military strength with our moral restraint. which will preserve the great old American houses and squares and parks of our national past. and which will build handsome and balanced cities for our future. Let them come to Berlin. Let them come to Berlin.In America. And there are some who say in Europe and elsewhere we can work with the Communists. ٦١ . Lass' sie nach Berlin kommen.
Learn it now!" ♦ Try beginning an occasional sentence with something other than the normal subject-followed-by-verb order of things. It's hard to ignore. "Learning the principle of parallel structure can be the most important thing you learn in writing class. or. "And what were the results of this Proclamation of ١٧٦٣?" This reminds your readers––Ah. exclamation. so). Pontiac was astonished to discover how Indian tribal differences and individualism began. Readers react to being grabbed by the collar and told what to do. that's what we're talking about––and prepares them for what comes next. Tone is very important here. ♦ A command or directive provides direction and energy. but. yet. nor. to erode their base of unified power. instantly.Remarks in the Rudolph Wilde Platz West Berlin: June ٢٦. Many writers assert that if you begin a sentence with and or but you should have connected that sentence to the prior sentence. or command. A question can be especially useful at the beginning of a paragraph where you want to summarize quickly what preceded and launch into what will now follow. ١٩٦٣ Additional Hints on Variety ♦ Try an occasional question. Begin with a modifying clause or participial phrase instead. "Having led his people in a successful resistance." ♦ Try beginning a sentence with a coordinating conjunction (and. for. if not to resist. Well. perhaps ٦٢ .
A sentence beginning with a conjunction will almost always call attention to itself. do it. ٢. Complex (one independent clause and at least one dependent clause): Although he is now ٧٩ years old. my dad claimed he knew we were planning something. ٣. sometimes piling them on. he still claims to be ٦٥. the politicians had only listened to what people had been writing in ٦٣ .you should have. Periodic sentences begin with modifying phrases and clauses. instead of listening to the war-mongers of the military-industrial establishment. But not so often that it gets out of control. and if that's what you want. but we think he was really surprised. but give it a try. ٤. ♦ Try using a variety of basic sentence structures. period. If. ♦ In terms of style. Compound (more than one independent clause): We were exhausted. and then end with an independent clause. depending on the number and type of clauses they contain: ١. Compound-complex (more than one independent clause and at least one dependent clause): After it was all over. We can categorize sentences into four main types. but we arrived in time for my father's birthday party. Simple (one independent clause): We drove from Cairo to Libya in one day. you will also find that sentences are classified as periodic or cumulative sentences.
♦ It does no good to be overly conscious of these sentence types in the first draft of your essay. as we have seen. there is nothing like a brief sentence to drive home a point after a lengthy. Try spicing up your prose by combining sentences into different structures. rambling sentence. the war would have ended long ago. See the sentences of President Kennedy above.their letters and in the newspaper columns. but as you review your essay. but there is surely no reason for it to remain on the dull plains of sameness. ♦ Again. it is not so much that one kind of sentence is to be preferred over another but that a good craftsperson uses the right tool for the right job and doesn't use the same tool all the time. The structure of a cleft sentence allows a writer to emphasize a part of a ٦٤ ." Good academic prose is not poetry and it is not music. if they had only listened to what was in their hearts. ♦ Try using an occasional cleft sentence. "which is the art of arts. ♦ The most important thing you will derive from using a variety of sentence types is the shifts in tone that will result. if they had only listened to what the demonstrators had been shouting in the streets and on the campuses. keep in mind that too many sentences of any one kind– –especially too many simple sentences––will be tedious for your reader. Cumulative sentences. On the other hand. on the other hand. Variety of sentence structure and type liberates your text from the monotone. begin with the independent clause and then finish with a flurry of modifying constructions. Ezra Pound said that writing aspires to music.
sentence in the same way that a speaker can emphasize part of a sentence using voice stress. We could say "Coach CALHOUN came up with the program of recruiting players from foreign countries." and by stressing the word "Calhoun" we let the listener know that we're distinguishing this coach from all others (in this particular context). To create the same kind of stress in writing, we can "cleave" (split) the sentence into two parts: • It was Coach Calhoun who came up with the program of recruiting players from foreign countries. Or we could stress the idea of the PROGRAM in this way: • It was the program of recruiting players from foreign countries that Coach Calhoun came up with. The cleft sentence usually uses it as the main subject with a to be verb; the real information in the sentence, oddly enough, follows in the predicate and then in a dependent clause beginning with a dependent word (usually who, which, or that). Another form of the cleft sentence can be created with what (instead of it). • What you did in your youth is your own business. The what form of the cleft sentence will frequently take the main verb (and business) of the sentence and put it into an initial noun clause: ٦٥
• A massive typhoon off the east coast delayed the invasion. • What delayed the invasion was a massive typhoon off the east coast. Cleft sentences are useful for putting stress in a sentence exactly where you want it, but they should be used sparingly, reserved for special occasions–– like birthdays and wedding anniversaries. Exercise on Run-on Sentences Each of the following is a run-on sentence. From the group of three sentences that follows, select the group of words that corrects the run-on. ١. Our solar system has nine major planets only one is known to have intelligent life. Our solar system has nine major planets, only one is known to have intelligent life. Our solar system has nine major planets only one, is known to have intelligent life. Our solar system has nine major planets; only one is known to have intelligent life. ٢. Most asteroids are small and far away therefore they are dim and hard to see. ٦٦
Most asteroids are small and far away, therefore they are dim and hard to see. Most asteroids are small and far away therefore, they are dim and hard to see. Most asteroids are small and far away; therefore, they are dim and hard to see. ٣. Look through Angelo's telescope you can see Saturn's rings. If you look through Angelo's telescope, you can see Saturn's rings. Look through Angelo's telescope, you can see Saturn's rings. You can see Saturn's rings, look through Angelo's telescope. ٤. Please check the position of that star cluster I can't find it. Please check the position of that star cluster; I can't find it. Please check the position of that star cluster, I can't find it. Please check the position, of that star cluster, I can't find it. ٥. Marie is never interested in stargazing during the winter however on warm summer nights she often goes to the college observatory.
The Milky Way looks like a dim cloud stretching across the night sky. during the winter however. it is actually a huge galaxy containing millions of stars. Although the Milky Way looks like a dim cloud stretching across the night sky. on warm summer nights she often goes to the college observatory.Marie is never interested in stargazing during the winter. However. ٦. however. It is actually a huge galaxy containing millions of stars. ٦٨ . Marie is never interested in stargazing during the winter. you are likely to see an artificial satellite pass over. The cloud-like Milky Way stretching across the night sky is actually a huge galaxy containing millions of stars. Marie is never interested in stargazing. ٧. The Milky Way looks like a dim cloud stretching across the night sky it is actually a huge galaxy containing millions of stars. Watch the sky closely for several minutes. Watch the sky closely for several minutes you are likely to see an artificial satellite pass over. on warm summer nights she often goes to the college observatory. on warm summer nights she often goes to the college observatory.
for example. ٨. Some club members were late for the meeting for example. You are likely to see an artificial satellite pass over. for example. Louisa pretended to be interested in her brother's hobby she secretly wished she had stayed at home. ٩. If you watch the sky closely for several minutes. Tanya and Scott came in at ٩:٣٠. Tanya and Scott came in at ٩:٣٠. for example Tanya and Scott came in at ٩:٣٠. Tanya and Scott came in at ٩:٣٠. Louisa secretly wished she had stayed at home. Some club members were late for the meeting. Pretending to be interested in her brother's hobby. ٦٩ . she secretly wished she had stayed at home. you are likely to see an artificial satellite pass over. Louisa pretended to be interested. Louisa pretended to be interested in her brother's hobby. Some club members were late for the meeting. in her brother's hobby. she secretly wished she had stayed at home.Watch the sky closely for several minutes. Some club members were late for the meeting.
His salary is enormous. most fans think he's worth it. most fans think he's worth it. however.١٠. His salary is enormous however most fans think he's worth it. however most fans think he's worth it. His salary is enormous. ٧٠ . however. His salary is enormous.
Confusion In Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye. the narrator is one of the few truly successful characters in terms of moral development. For instance.Consistency of Tense and Pronoun Reference Tense Consistency Remember that if you're writing in the present tense. stay in the present tense. in writing. it will not do.] Repair Work She intended to play for the team during the upcoming season. however. don't shift to the past tense (or vice versa) unless you have a good reason to do so. Repair Work In Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye. ٧١ . This is especially true when writing papers about literature: wherever possible. However. she is also seriously flawed in some ways. However. she was also seriously flawed in some ways. but then she blows out her knee. [Shifting to the present tense this way would be common in casual speech. in the sentences below there is no reason to switch from the present tense. Confusion She intended to play for the team during the upcoming season. but then she blew out her knee. the narrator is one of the few truly successful characters in terms of moral development.
even the narrator. However. [We've shifted from the third-person. we find the narrator to be one of the few successful characters in terms of moral development. singular "you. we soon realize. You don't have to be an expert in basketball to get caught up in the crowd's enthusiasm.Pronoun Reference Remember that if you're referring to you. try to remain consistently within the same case. or I. Confusion In Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye. One doesn't have to be an ٧٢ ."] Repair Work [We could write. or we."] Repair Work In Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye. One You should observe this carefully whenever you write. However. "People. even the narrator. plural reference." to second-person "you. is seriously flawed. plural "we" (quite common when writing about literature) to the second-person. you soon realize. instead:] People enjoy themselves immensely at Uconn women's basketball games. we find the narrator to be one of the few successful characters in terms of moral development. Confusion People enjoy themselves immensely at UConn women's basketball games. [In these sentences. we've gone from a third-person. or one. is seriously flawed.
then the dogwood trees _______ to bloom. him ٢. [However. First. too. a) you start. the "one. __________ to think the college owes _______ a degree .] Repair Work [Most writers would probably prefer this:] People enjoy themselves immensely at UConn women's basketball games. is going to feel overly formal." after a while. ____________ a similar malignant presence. When one has been going to college for as long as he has. It isn't necessary to be an expert in basketball to get caught up in the crowd's enthusiasm. The word you choose should fit the blank in the sentence. and the redbud is soon in its glory . a) indicate b) indicated ٧٣ . Exercise on Consistency in Tense and Pronouns Select one answer from the choices provided after each sentence. stuffy. His essays. one c) he starts.expert in basketball to get caught up in the crowd's enthusiasm. a) begin b) began ٣. ١. you b) one starts. Spring begins early in Tennessee. The poetry of Robert Frost (١٨٧٤-١٩٦٣) often seems to suggest some kind of fate controls our lives. the forsythia bursts into blossom.
She said it was a delightful journey on the plane. Seeing her brother again _________ a real treat . many viewers felt they had lost a friend in ________ own family. The climate of New Zealand can be a pleasure for you if _______ don't mind a little rain . a) his b) our c) their ٧٤ . a) is b) was ٧. We have never seen this kind of impatience in the media before. a) we b) he c) you ٦. ________ think it has something to do with the weather . When NYPD Blue went off the air in May.٤. a) You b) We c) I ٥. Aunt Mina wrote to tell us of her recent trip to California.
Too many of them in a small space. Variety and rhythm are the keys here: long sentences. could reveal an overabundance of short sentences and the need to combine some of those sentences into longer structures. more complex and interesting structures. however. however. the two sentences: • My sister is an engineer. "I am a student. average sentences. See Jane run." but nothing is really happening in that sentence. For example. Another symptom of primer style is a proliferation of verbs that don't do anything. A large section of text in which there are only intransitive or linking verbs that express being but no action is just asking readers to turn off the dial of their attention and go read something else. There's nothing wrong with the sentence. • My sister works for the state. short sentences. Sentences weighed down with a preponderance of linking verbs can often be eliminated or embedded into larger. Used within a mix of sentences cut to various lengths. ٧٥ . Look at this one.Avoiding Primer Language Primer style is characterized by too many short sentences. It is important to note that there is nothing inherently wrong with short sentences. short sentences can be extremely effective as they are capable of focusing the reader's attention on a particular point. See Dick chase Jane. See? A quick review of your text. can remind readers of material they read in kindergarten or first grade: See Dick.
٤. One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is a novel written by Ken Kesey. He was ٢٢ at the time. Exercises on Avoiding Primer Language Try to combine the following sentences into one effective sentence with only one independent clause. Tiger Woods is the name of a young American golfer. works for the state. He shows other characters the truth of their situation. Its protagonist is Randall Patrick McMurphy. She now works at UConn. (Any exceptions to this requirement are noted as a hint. Pepin is a well known translator of medieval texts. He set a record in the ١٩٩٧ Master's Tournament. ٧٦ . ٢.can be combined to read: • My sister works as an engineer for the state. He surprised all the veterans. He discovers he is now trapped in an asylum.) ١. She is the new tennis coach. Ronald E. ٣. Ramonita Espinoza used to coach at Notre Dame University. an engineer. OR • My sister. He pretends to be insane to escape a work farm.
He was assassinated in November of ١٩٦٣. ER is now in its third year. ٦. ٥. HINT: Use a semicolon in this re-write. They are nervous around anything high-tech. ٨. ٧٧ . He was leader of that state's American Party. Lowell Weicker was once Governor of Connecticut. He recently published his fourth book on ancient medical practices.He has two honorary degrees from Fordham University. He spent only ١٠٠٠ days in office. John F. Kennedy was inaugurated into office in January of ١٩٦١. Other students seem to enjoy new challenges. Weicker has long been known as a maverick among politicians. He was only forty-four years old at the time. Some students become nervous around computers. ٧. It has won numerous Emmy Awards. ER is my favourite television program. They regard learning how to use computers as a kind of game. He now teaches at the University of Virginia.
That means that there are at least two units of thought within the sentence. The clauses of a compound sentence are either separated by a semicolon (relatively rare) or connected by a ٧٨ . Even poets who write within the formal limits and sameness of an iambic pentameter beat will sometimes strike a chord against that beat and vary the structure of their clauses and sentence length. Compounding sentences A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses. thus keeping the text alive and the reader awake.Sentence-Combining Skills The need to combine sentences Sentences have to be combined to avoid the monotony that would surely result if all sentences were brief and of equal length. and part of language's music lies within the rhythms of varied sentence length and structure. either one of which can stand by itself as its own sentence. This section will explore some of the techniques we ordinary writers use to combine sentences. Part of the writer's task is to employ whatever music is available to him or her in language.
and he was a curious man by nature. yet. ideas can be connected by compounding various sentence elements: subjects. more often than not. And the two most common coordinating conjunctions are and and but. but it does more work in terms of establishing an interesting relationship between ideas. for. The and is part of the immediate language arsenal of children and of dreams: one thing simply comes after another and the logical relationship between the ideas is not always evident or important. and so. • Lewis had been well trained by scientists in Philadelphia prior to his expedition. verbs. Compounding sentence elements Within a sentence. but few people know of his contributions to natural science. (The others are or. Notice that the and does little more than link one idea to another.coordinating conjunction (which is. objects or whole ٧٩ .) This is the simplest technique we have for combining ideas: • Jack Lewis is justly famous for his expedition into the territory of the Louisiana Purchase and beyond. the but also links. The word but (and the other coordinators) is at a slightly higher level of argument. preceded by a comma).
the conjunction is usually adequate and no comma is required. Subjects: When two or more subjects are doing parallel things. • Working together. the objects can be combined.predicates. If the objects are not ٨٠ . Objects: When the subject(s) is/are acting upon two or more things in parallel. etc. President Jefferson and Meriwether Lewis convinced Congress to raise money for the expedition. they can often be combined as a compounded subject. • President Jefferson believed that the headwaters of the Missouri reached all the way to the Canadian border. modifiers. Notice that when two such elements of a sentence are compounded with a coordinating conjunction (as opposed to the two independent clauses of a compound sentence). • President Jefferson believed that the headwaters of the Missouri might reach all the way to the Canadian border and that he could claim all that land for the United States. • He also believed that that meant he could claim all that land for the United States . Notice that the objects must be parallel in construction: Jefferson believed that this was true and that was true.
Lewis learned to chart the movement of the stars. • In Philadelphia. He learned how to categorize and draw animals accurately . analyze their movements with • He also learned to mathematical precision .parallel (Jefferson was convinced of two things: that the Missouri reached all the way to the Canadian border and wanted to begin the expedition during his term in office. ideas can sometimes be combined by compounding verbs and verb forms. • • He studied the biological and natural sciences .) the sentence can go awry. Notice that there is no comma preceding the "and learned" connecting the compounded elements above. ٨١ . Verbs and verbals: When the subject(s) is/are doing two things at once. • He studied the biological and natural sciences and learned how to categorize and draw animals accurately.
Lewis learned to chart the stars and analyze their movements with mathematical precision. Notice that we do not need to repeat the preposition from to make the ideas successfully parallel in form. • Lewis and Clark recruited their adventurers from river-town bars and various military outposts. • OR––In Philadelphia. • Lewis and Clark recruited some of their adventurers from river-town bars . Lewis learned to chart and analyze the movement of the stars with mathematical precision. • They also used recruits from various military outposts . Subordinating one clause to another The act of coordinating clauses simply links ideas.• In Philadelphia. subordinating one clause to another establishes a more complex ٨٢ . (Notice in this second version that we don't have to repeat the "to" of the infinitive to maintain parallel form.) Modifiers: Whenever it is appropriate. modifiers such as prepositional phrases can be compounded.
a passage to the Pacific. a passage to the Pacific . When we use subordination of clauses to combine ideas. • As the explorers approached the headwaters of the Missouri. • Although William Clark was not officially granted the rank of captain prior to the expedition's departure. that the Rocky Mountain range stood between them and their goal. showing that one idea depends on another in some way: a chronological development. • • The explorers approached the headwaters of the Missouri . that the Rocky Mountain range stood between them and their goal. the rules of punctuation are very important. ٨٣ . they discovered. Captain Lewis more or less ignored this technicality and treated Clark as his equal in authority and rank. They discovered. to their horror. a conditional relationship. • William Clark was not officially granted the rank of captain prior to the expedition’s departure . etc. • Captain Lewis more or less ignored this technicality and treated Clark as his equal in authority and rank. a cause-andeffect relationship. to their horror.relationship between ideas.
• Sacagawea. An appositive or appositive phrase is a re-naming. of something earlier in the text. Sacagawea. You can think of an appositive as a modifying clause from which the clausal machinery (usually a relative pronoun and a linking verb) has been removed. a parenthetical element which requires a pair of commas to set it off from the rest of the sentence. accompanied the expedition as a translator. who was one of the Indian wives of Charbonneau. is essential to the meaning of the sentence (otherwise. fifteen-year-old Indian woman. the sentence adequately identifies her as "a pregnant. a re-identification. who was a French fur-trader. fifteen-year-old Indian woman"). above. Sacagawea's name is a parenthetical element (structurally.Using appositives to connect ideas The appositive is probably the most efficient technique we have for combining ideas. Notice that in the second sentence. however. • A pregnant. one of the wives of the French fur-trader Charbonneau. but not always. An appositive is often. Charbonneau's name. accompanied the expedition as a translator. and thus her name is set off by commas. ٨٤ .
• Completely out of touch with their families for over two years. • Captain Lewis allowed his men to make important decisions in a democratic manner .which fur-trader are we talking about?) and is not set off by a pair of commas. Lewis. • They put their faith entirely in Lewis and Clark's leadership . Lewis fostered a spirit of togetherness and commitment among his fellow explorers. Phrases like this are usually set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma. the men of the expedition put their faith in Lewis and ٨٥ . In the sentence above. the participial phrase modifies the subject of the sentence. • Allowing his men to make important decisions in a democratic manner. • The expeditionary force was completely out of touch with their families for over two years . Using participial phrases to connect ideas A writer can integrate the idea of one sentence into a larger structure by turning that idea into a modifying phrase. • This democratic attitude fostered a spirit of togetherness and commitment on the part of Lewis's fellow explorers. • They never once rebelled against their authority .
by a participle. There is no true verb in an absolute phrase. is made up of a noun (the phrase's "subject") followed. it modifies the subject of the independent clause that follows. is said to modify the entire clause that follows. Other modifiers might also be part of the phrase. which is set off by a comma. In the first combined sentence below. This phrase. telling us "under what conditions" or "in what way" or "how" he disappointed the world. The participial phrase does not contain the subjectparticiple relationship of the absolute phrase. more often than not. and the difference between them is structurally slight but significant.Clark's leadership and never once rebelled against their authority. The absolute phrase might be confused with a participial phrase. an introductory modifier. Using absolute phrases to connect ideas Perhaps the most elegant––and most misunderstood––method of combining ideas is the absolute phrase. however. The absolute phrase thus ٨٦ . on the other hand. The absolute phrase. which is often found at the beginning of sentence. but it also modifies the verb. and it is always treated as a parenthetical element. for instance. the absolute phrase modifies the subject Lewis.
• Lewis disappointed the entire world by inexplicably failing to publish his journals . completely alone . • His men in the Corps of Discovery were dispersed . • His fame and fortune virtually guaranteed by his exploits. completely alone. Lewis died a few years later on his way back to Washington. • Lewis's fame and fortune was virtually guaranteed by his exploits . D. which must modify the subject which immediately follows..C. • His long journey completed and his men in the Corps of Discovery dispersed. • Lewis died a few years later on his way back to Washington. • Lewis's long journey was finally completed . D. Lewis disappointed the entire world by inexplicably failing to publish his journals.C.modifies the entire subsequent clause and should not be confused with a dangling participle.. ٨٧ .
Today. Manufacturers once took advantage of Hartford's access to the Connecticut River. typewriters. Aetna. containing only one independent clause. ٢. ٥. ٤. Hartford is the capital of Connecticut. It was the home of several manufacturers. Eventually. ٣. the Travellers. It is the second largest city in the state. and even cars. cheap labour in the south lured manufacturing away from Hartford. ١. and Cigna are in Hartford. though. bicycles. Their home offices are within miles of one another. the Hartford. They made firearms. Hartford was once known as an industrial centre. several insurance companies make Hartford their home. ٨٨ . Large empty factories were all that was left of Hartford's industrial past. They also enjoyed Hartford's well educated workforce.Exercise on Combining Sentences Combine each group of sentences into one effective sentence.
however. There are. It was on Farmington Avenue. Mark Twain's home has a large side porch. ٨. Windows and a balcony overlook the porch. It was in an area called Nook Farm. Clemens. Mark Twain never really liked this newfangled gadget. Twain piloted steamboats on the Mississippi. ٩. Some of them have been converted to artists' studios.٦. Today. ٨٩ . Mark Twain's real name was Samuel L. He was a neighbor of Harriet Beecher Stowe. The telephone was first used commercially in nearby New Haven. Mark Twain's house was very elaborate and elegant. ١٠. people say the windows and balcony remind them of a steamboat. few manufacturing jobs available. He lived in Hartford for several years. There is much wealth in Hartford today. ٧. Huckleberry Finn is a classic American novel. In his youth. Some of these factories have been torn down. The wealth is centred in the insurance industry. ١١. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin. There was practically no one to talk to. Mark Twain is the author of Huckleberry Finn. Mark Twain was one of the first three people in Hartford to own a telephone.
She died of spinal meningitis. He soon left the house and Hartford. died in the Hartford home. Unfortunately for Twain. Charles DudleyWarner. this machine was developed at the same time as the Linotype. He returned only once. ١٣. Mark Twain loved industrial inventions. Twain never felt the same about the house again. Susy. He came back for the funeral of his friend. ٩٠ . He lost a fortune investing in them.١٢. The Linotype machine was much simpler and less expensive. One of these inventions was the elaborate Paige typesetter. Mark Twain's beloved daughter.
USING TRANSITIONAL TAGS Transitional tags run the gamut from the most simple—the six little conjunctions: and. You must never assume that your readers know what you know. moreover. and using parallel form. nor. for. it's a good idea to assume not only that your readers need all the information that you have and need to know exactly how you arrived at the point you're at. or. In fact. nevertheless. You might be able to leap from one side of the stream to the other. Unless readers can move easily from one thought to another. so—to more complex signals that ideas are somehow connected—the conjunctive adverbs and transitional expressions such as however. repeating key words and phrases. they will surely turn to something else or turn on the television. but. Providing transitions between ideas is largely a matter of attitude.Coherence: Transitions Between Ideas The most convincing ideas in the world. will move no one unless those ideas are properly connected. believe that your readers need some stepping stones and be sure to place them in readily accessible spots. There are four basic mechanical considerations in providing transitions between ideas: using transitional expressions. on the other hand. but to assume also that they are not quite as quick as you are. expressed in the most beautiful sentences. ٩١ . yet. using pronoun reference.
last. but it can add a refreshing dash to a sentence. for example. finally. moreover. the question whether one can begin a sentence with a small conjunction often arises. and yet. even. besides. of course although. next. for instance. for all that. and that's just what you want. still. sometimes. Over-used. otherwise. even though. indeed. and then. in fact. on the contrary. similarly granted. instead. still. also. on the other hand. it's distracting. as an illustration. However. too also. in addition. But often the initial conjunction calls attention to the sentence in an effective way. in the first place. and. likewise. naturally. equally important. further. nevertheless. in spite of. furthermore. in the same way. Here is a chart of the transitional devices (called conjunctive adverbs or adverbial conjunctions) accompanied with a simplified definition of function (note that some devices appear with more than one definition): addition Comparison Concession Contrast Emphasis Example or Illustration again. notwithstanding. regardless. in conclusion. yet certainly. of course after all. first. though. indeed. in fact. but at the same time. in ٩٢ . in contrast. at the same time. second. even so. Isn't the conjunction at the beginning of the sentence a sign that the sentence should have been connected to the prior sentence? Well. however. despite that.The use of the little conjunctions—especially and and but— comes naturally for most writers.
if anything. soon. until now. ٩٣ . therefore.) Having said that. in addition. too. in short. next. then you must wonder what. afterward. altogether. in simpler terms. that is. thereafter. still. furthermore. now. at last. to put it differently. that is. in conclusion. until. further. lately. is holding your ideas together. to illustrate. shortly. last. in summary. since. then. eventually. finally. nevertheless. They must appear. finally. as long as. second. also. namely. in other words. Re-read the essay later to see if these words provide the glue you needed at those points. formerly.Summary Time sequence other words. of course. where they belong. besides. moreover. simultaneously. in short. naturally. Practice by inserting a tentative however. truly all in all. thus. when A word of caution: Do not interlard your text with transitional expressions merely because you know these devices connect ideas. and then. subsequently. in the first place. consequently. there is no point in trying to memorize this vast list. in brief. in particular. to summarize after a while. again. or they'll stick like a fishbone in your reader's stomach. in the past. presently. it is true. specifically. so far. earlier. (For that same reason. before. as has been said. at length. if you can read your entire essay and discover none of these transitional devices. at that time. meanwhile. on the whole.
but you cannot fool all of the people all of the time. I cannot say "This is true because. however. because it has become part of the music of our language. that it must always be perfectly clear what a pronoun refers to. We should hardly need to add." without causing the reader to consider what "this" could mean. repetition lends itself to a sense of coherence (or at least to the illusion of coherence). Now we must learn that catching a word or phrase that's important to a reader's comprehension of a piece and replaying that word or phrase creates a musical motif in that reader's head.REPETITION OF KEY WORDS AND PHRASES The ability to connect ideas by means of repetition of key words and phrases sometimes meets a natural resistance based on the fear of being repetitive. quickly and subconsciously.. the pronoun causes the reader to sum up. and all of the people some of the time. PRONOUN REFERENCE Pronouns quite naturally connect ideas because pronouns almost always refer the reader to something earlier in the text.. Unless it is overworked and obtrusive. Thus. Remember Lincoln's advice: You can fool some of the people all of the time. We've been trained to loathe redundancy. Remember to use this device to link paragraphs as well as sentences. you can't forget Lincoln's advice. In fact. If my reader cannot ٩٤ . what was said before (what this is) before going on to the because part of my reasoning.
COHERENCE DEVICES IN ACTION Look at the following paragraph: The ancient Egyptians were masters of preserving dead people's bodies by making mummies of them. even clauses and whole sentences. Mummies several thousand years old have been discovered nearly intact. then my sentence is ambiguous and misleading. the deliberate repetition of larger structures of phrases. do not rely on unclear pronoun references to avoid responsibility: "They say that. and then wrapping the body in layers of bandages." PARALLELISM Music in prose is often the result of parallelism. and the sentences that follow are clearly related to the topic sentence. the ٩٥ . (See the section on Parallel Form).. such as smallpox. arthritis. and facial features of the mummies were evident.instantly know what this is. Mummification consisted of removing the internal organs. The skin. In the language of writing.. Sometimes apparent were the fatal afflictions of the dead people: a middleaged king died from a blow on the head. and nutritional deficiencies. fingernails and toenails. Though weak. It starts with a topic sentence. applying natural preservatives inside and out. this paragraph is not a total failure. and polio killed a child king. It is possible to diagnose the disease they suffered in life. hair. teeth. The process was remarkably effective. Also.
hair. applying natural preservatives inside and out. teeth. the paragraph is not coherent. Their diseases in life. In short. The ancient Egyptians were masters of preserving dead people's bodies by making mummies of them. ٩٦ . mummification consisted of removing the internal organs. and facial features are still evident. and underlining indicates parallel structures. making it difficult for the reader to follow the writer's train of thought. fingernails and toenails. However. to achieve overall paragraph coherence.paragraph is unified (i. The sentences are disconnected from each other. And the process was remarkably effective. bold indicates transitional tag-words. and then wrapping the body in layers of bandages. The paragraph is now much more coherent. Their skin. Indeed. Italics indicates pronouns and repeated/restated key words. a child king died from polio. sometimes in combination.. it contains no irrelevant details). and nutritional deficiencies. mummies several thousand years old have been discovered nearly intact. Below is the same paragraph revised for coherence. Even their fatal afflictions are still apparent: a middle-aged king died from a blow on the head.e. such as smallpox. The organization of the information and the links between sentences help readers move easily from one sentence to the next. arthritis. are still diagnosable. Notice how this writer uses a variety of coherence devices.
Paragraph sprawl occurs when digressions are introduced into an otherwise focused and unified discussion.Paragraph Development & Topic Sentences A typical expository paragraph starts with a controlling idea or claim. but I never did. one of the places I enjoyed most was the cherry tree in the back yard. I used to wonder why the grown-ups never ate any of the cherries. devouring the fruit whenever I wasn't there. My mother always worried about my falling out of the tree. which it then explains. picking and eating the sweet. sun-warmed cherries. develops. or supports with evidence. I used to spend hours high in the tree. Digressions and deviations often come in the form of irrelevant details or shifts in focus. Behind the yard was an alley and then more houses. Irrelevant Details When I was growing up. Every summer when the cherries began to ripen. But I had some competition for the cherries— flocks of birds that enjoyed them as much as I did and would perch all over the tree. but actually when the birds and I had finished. but the sentences Behind the yard was an alley and then more houses and My mother always ٩٧ . there weren't many left. No sentence is completely irrelevant to the general topic of this paragraph (the cherry tree).
murder rates are the same or almost the same as in states without capital punishment. but the specific focus of this paragraph shifts abruptly twice. The paragraph starts out with a clear claim in sentence ١: It is a fact that capital punishment is not a deterrent to crime. (٢) Statistics show that in states with capital punishment. (٦) So prejudice shows right through. Shift in Focus (١) It is a fact that capital punishment is not a deterrent to crime. Once again. however. shifts the focus from capital punishment as ٩٨ . but I never did do not develop the specific idea in the first sentence: enjoyment of the cherry tree. (٥) Statistics show that every execution is of a man and that nine out of ten are black. (٤) Unfortunately. capital punishment has been used unjustly. Sentence ٢ provides evidence in support of the initial claim: Statistics show that in states with capital punishment. (٣) It is also true that it is more expensive to put a person on death row than in life imprisonment because of the costs of maximum security. Sentence ٣. murder rates are the same or almost the same as in states without capital punishment. no sentence in this paragraph (to the left) is completely irrelevant to the general topic (capital punishment).worried about my falling out of the tree.
follow from ٤ if one believes that executing men and blacks is in fact evidence of injustice and prejudice. capital punishment has been used unjustly.a deterrent to crime to the cost of incarceration: It is also true that it is more expensive to put a person on death row than in life imprisonment because of the costs of maximum security. The following paragraph on the same topic is much more effectively focused and unified: (١)The punishment of criminals has always been a problem for society. Statistics show that every execution is of a man and that nine out of ten are black and So prejudice shows right through. (٦) They believe that society as well as the criminal is responsible for the crimes and that killing ٩٩ . (٣) Many citizens argue that serious criminals should be executed. More importantly. Sentences ٥ and ٦. or rehabilitated and given a second chance in society. (٥) Other citizens say that no one has the right to take a life and that capital punishment is not a deterrent to crime. (٤) They believe that killing criminals will set an example for others and also rid society of a cumbersome burden. however. The focus has shifted from deterrence to expense to fairness. Sentence ٤ once again shifts the focus. that capital punishment does not deter crime. we are now a long way off from the original claim. imprisoned for life. this time to issues of justice: Unfortunately. (٢) Citizens have had to decide whether offenders such as first-degree murderers should be killed in a gas chamber.
Sentence ٢ specifies the exact nature of the problem by listing society's choices: Citizens have had to decide whether offenders such as first-degree murderers should be killed in a gas chamber.the criminal does not solve the problems of either society or the criminal. Sentence ٣ further develops the topic by stating one point of view: Many citizens argue that serious criminals should be executed. Sentence ٥ states an opposing point of view: Other citizens say that no one has the right to take a life and that capital punishment is not a deterrent to crime. Topic Sentences All three paragraphs start out well with a topic sentence. or rehabilitated and given a second chance in society. Sentence ١ puts forth the main claim: The punishment of criminals has always been a problem for society. develops or supports with evidence the topic sentence's main idea ١٠٠ . The reasons for this point of view are then provided in sentence ٤: They believe that killing criminals will set an example for others and also rid society of a cumbersome burden. the body of a paragraph explains. Sentence ٦ states the reason for the opposing point of view: They believe that society as well as the criminal is responsible for the crimes and that killing the criminal does not solve the problems of either society or the criminal. imprisoned for life. A topic sentence is a sentence whose main idea or claim controls the rest of the paragraph.
Topic sentences help these writers develop a main idea or claim for their paragraphs. it may even come at the end of a paragraph. living in loosely fitting protective cases of leaves. Within two days dead and dying fish. Topic sentences are also useful to readers because they guide them through sometimes complex arguments. Here's an example of how one professional writer does this: Soon after the spraying had ended there were unmistakable signs that all was not well. narrate. All the life of the stream was stilled. experienced writers effectively use topic sentences to bridge between paragraphs. and not all paragraphs need a topic sentence. but not necessarily.e. however. in paragraphs that analyze and argue. for example.or claim. including many young salmon. they help these writers stay focused and keep paragraphs manageable. Before the spraying there had been a rich assortment of the water life that forms the food of salmon and trout— caddis fly larvae. after a transition sentence. unified paragraphs (i. and. Topic sentences are not the only way to organize a paragraph. were found along the banks of the stream. The topic sentence is usually the first sentence of a paragraph. Topic sentences are useful. paragraphs that describe. Brook trout also appeared among the dead fish. It may come. writers who tend to sprawl). stems or gravel cemented together ١٠١ . perhaps most importantly. and along the roads and in the woods birds were dying. For example. Many well-known. or detail the steps in an experiment do not usually need topic sentences. Topic sentences are particularly useful for writers who have difficulty developing focused..
too. killed by DDT.with saliva. Topic sentences often begin with such transitional clauses referring to the previous paragraph. The second part of the topic sentence––there were unmistakable signs that all was not well––shapes and controls what follows. Rachel Carson. Silent Spring The first part of Carson's topic sentence––Soon after the spraying had ended––is a transitional clause that looks back to the previous topic: DDT spraying. how Carson further helps the reader follow her argument by providing a more focused version of the topic sentence later in the paragraph––All the life of the stream was stilled. Notice. and there was nothing for a young salmon to eat. stonefly nymphs clinging to rocks in the swirling currents. But now the stream insects were dead. This sentence tells us exactly what Carson meant by all was not well. and the wormlike larvae of blackflies edging the stones under riffles or where the stream spills over steeply slanting rocks. This kind of bridging helps the reader follow Carson's argument. ١٠٢ .
. average and short sentences) is a key feature of good writing.SUMMARY PART II: PARAGRAPH LEVEL Remember: . A long sentence and a run .e. Primer language is characterized by too many short sentences and a proliferation of verbs. Example: The climate of New Zealand can be a pleasure for you if you don't mind a little rain. ١٠٣ . Consistency of tense means sticking to one tense throughout a given piece of writing. . Sentence variety in a piece of writing liberates it from monotony. If you refer to " one". provides energy and makes the meaning clear. . i. remain consistent.on sentence are not the same thing. . within the same case. Repetition of key words and phrases in a long sentence and within a paragraph holds things together. Variety in length of sentence (long. . .
. . therefore. An efficient technique for combining is the use of appositives. The two most common coordinating conjunctions used in making compound sentences are " and" and " but". . A topic sentence contains the main idea which controls the other sentences in a paragraph. The use of transitional tags. A paragraph. Subordinating one clause to another is a technique for linking ideas (study the examples on p. objects and predicates within a sentence can be compounded (study the given examples on pages ٦٨ .٧٠). . . Subjects. . It is the most elegant technique for combining ideas. pronoun reference and the use of parallel form can provide transition between ideas . An absolute phrase modifies the whole clause that follows. narrate or provide a procedure do not usually need topic sentences. The use of participial phrases to connect ideas is another efficient technique.Coherence refers to the relationships which link the meanings of the sentences in a piece of writing. To avoid the monotony of having many short sentences.thus making a paragraph coherent. verbs. repetition of key words and phrases. . has coherence if it contains a number of sentences that develop a main idea. sentences have to be combined.. ٧١). Paragraphs which describe. ١٠٤ . .
. . . . . read critically the "Essay Writing Tips ". . . define the body of an essay. identify the tasks an introductory paragraph should achieve. ١٠٥ . ٩٤ . recognise what a conclusion in an essay usually contains. . students should be able to: . identify the approaches which can be used in organizing the body of essay. identify the main parts of an essay. know what an introduction to an essay should contain. specify the features of the body of an essay. . define a "paragraph". identify the content of the body of an essay.PART III : ESSAY LEVEL Objectives: By the end of this part. read critically " Things not to do in an introductory paragraph " on p.
define a " supporting paragraph ". . . ١٠٦ . match the transition words with their functions.provide the features of a supporting paragraph. .. . know what editing an essay means. .specify the function of a summary paragraph. . identify the steps followed in the stage of editing an essay.writing steps involves. .understand what each of the six pre. identify the four stages of writing an essay.identify the five steps involved in the writing stage. list the six pre-writing steps in sequence. . .describe the procedure for writing a number of supporting paragraphs in an essay. . . . . realize how supporting paragraphs are significant in writing an essay. define what publishing an essay means. define a summary paragraph. . describe the procedure for writing a summary paragraph. go through the list of transition words given. . . list the patterns which professional writers usually use to capture readers' interests.
appreciate how "organization" of an essay makes it unique. .١١١. .١٢١. ١٠٧ .paragraph Essay ". . describe how each kind of essay is organized. look / read critically how each of the three parts of each essay example (pp.١٢٤ .١١٨. .١١٨) is realized functionally . . read analytically the commentary on pages ١٢٣ . go through the examples illustrating the different kinds of essay on pages ١١١. . specify what each kind of essay aims at. read critically the part entitled " The Five . match the model essay provided with the generalizations given on pages ١١٩ . identify the different kinds of essay..
the reader should know from the beginning what conclusions will be drawn. Using an outline can help organize your thoughts and guide in writing the essay. the easier it will be to develop a strong argument. Organizationally.PART III: ESSAY LEVEL Essay Writing Tips An essay does not merely list facts. Introduction. outline the main points to be made. The reader should be drawn into the essay by the introduction. The thesis is introduced at the beginning and developed one step at a time. it is easier to ١٠٨ . and describe the conclusions to be drawn. In the introduction. The stronger the thesis. the essay has three main parts: • Introduction • Body • Conclusion ١. The facts must be organized into themes to support a central argument or thesis. They are not mysteries. Essays don't have surprise endings. state the thesis. (Hint: Many times.
Body.write the introduction last. Essays don't have "correct" answers. Remember the definition of a paragraph as a unit of thought limited to one major idea. Make sure of facts and that they support the argument. ١٠٩ . don't describe. Use active verbs rather than passive ones. but meaningless without interpretation. thematical.) ٢. or otherwise. Write in complete sentences. In the body. Every paragraph relates to and supports the thesis or central argument. geographical. Try to explain why it happened and why it is significant. but the approach must be clear. Use past tense instead of present tense when appropriate. present the facts and develop thoughts and arguments. Keep in mind these guidelines: • Use paragraphs. Avoid sexist language (such as generic "he" or "the history of man" when you mean humans or people. • Support your point of view. Use specific examples to support general statements. • Use good grammar. whether it is chronological. The point is to use facts to develop an argument supporting a point of view. The body may be organized in many ways.) • Analyze. The bulk of an essay is in the body. after you clearly know the arguments developed in the essay. Vary vocabulary. Facts are important. Don't just tell what happened.
and briefly summarizes how it is proven in the body. Don't assume your reader knows everything about the topic. In the conclusion. you may also interpret.it ends up where it started. ٣. Write as if you are teaching someone something that is new and interesting. In this way. or point to historical knowledge gaps. The conclusion may be as simple as a restatement of the introduction. Conclusion. The conclusion emphasizes the thesis. an essay is cyclical . Make it interesting to read. assess and argue with the source material for the facts. Everyone has a perspective which can give a different slant to approaching the same material. ١١٠ . Don't be afraid to disagree with an author's views.• Think independently and originally. • Be creative. The best essays usually come from giving individual opinions and interpretations.
. Your reader will quickly turn to something else. In this paper I will.. The purpose of this essay is to. Never suggest that you don't know what you're talking about or that you're not enough of an expert in this matter that your opinion would matter. • Announce your intentions. According to Oxford Dictionary.. Do not flatly announce what you are about to do in an essay.. a ‘widget’ is… ١١١ . Get into the topic and let your reader perceive your purpose in the topic sentence of your beginning paragraph.Parts of an Essay Introductory Paragraphs Things NOT to do in an introductory paragraph • Apologize. • Use a dictionary or encycopedia definition. Avoid phrases like the following: In my [humble] opinion. but.. I'm not sure about this.
They should get the reader's interest so that he or she will want to read more. you want to avoid using this typical beginning to an essay. anecdotal ٣. Students are told from the first time they receive instruction in English composition that their introductory paragraphs should accomplish two tasks: ١. historical review ٢. surprising statement ١١٢ . The second task can be accomplished by a carefully crafted "thesis statement.Although definitions are extremely useful and it might serve your purpose to devise your own definition(s) later in the essay. the question then becomes: "What can a writer do that will secure the interest of a fair sized audience?" Professional writers who write for magazines and receive pay for their work use five basic patterns to grab a reader's interest: ١. admit that it is impossible to say or do or write anything that will interest everybody. It is this task that this discussion addresses. ٢. The first task––securing the reader's interest––is more difficult. They should let the reader know what the writing is going to be about. First." Writing thesis statements can be learned rather quickly. With that out of the way.
from "Integration Turns ٤٠" by Juan Williams in Modern Maturity. Board of Education of Topeka." Obviously there are many. just days after the Supreme Court's landmark ruling in Brown v. declarative What follows is an explanation of each of these patterns with examples from real magazine articles to illustrate the explanations. Such topics might include "a biographical sketch of a war hero. Telegrams of congratulations poured in from around the world. Kansas. At NAACP headquarters in New York the mood was euphoric." or "drugs and the younger generation. famous person ٥. ١٩٩٤. It was May ١٩٥٤. ١١٣ . April/May. reporters and well-wishers crowded the halls. many more topics that could be introduced by reviewing the history of the topic before the writer gets down to the nitty-gritty of his paper.٤. ١ Historical review: Some topics are better understood if a brief historical review of the topic is presented to lead into the discussion of the moment." "an upcoming execution of a convicted criminal. It is important that the historical review be brief so that it does not take over the paper. The victory brought pure elation and joy.
a financial planner and one of the growing number of auction fanatics for whom Saturdays will never be the same. Everyone loves to listen to stories. Remember. not the paper. Hours later. it is an introduction. toward the auctioneer's singsong chant and wafting smell of barbecued sandwiches.] ٢ Anecdotal: An anecdote is a little story. He parked his car and wandered into the crowd. "It's an addiction. July ٤. from "Going. not a full blown story with characters and plot and setting. If you do it right. ١٩٩٤. [This is an anecdote. GONE to the Auction!" by Laurie Goering in Chicago Tribune Magazine." says Cantlon. your story will capture the reader's interest so that he or she will continue to read your paper. that is the lead to an article about ١١٤ . this article discusses school segregation in the present time. Going. Begin a paper by relating a small story that leads into the topic of your paper. a little story about one man and his first auction. Cantlon emerged lugging a $٢٢ beam drill-for constructing post-and-beam barns—and a passion for auctions that has clung like a cocklebur on an old saddle blanket. Mike Cantlon remembers coming across his first auction ten years ago while cruising the back roads of Wisconsin.[After reaching back forty years ago to bring up the landmark Supreme Court decision that started school desegregation. One caution: be sure that your story does not take over the paper. Your story should be a small episode.
In this article the author explains what auctions are. Sometimes it is joyful. Professional writers have honed this technique to a fine edge.auctions. Sometimes the statement is surprising because it is disgusting. Accidents kill nearly ٨٠٠٠ children under age ١٥ each year. but it is used. and other facts about auctions and the people who go to them. ٤٢ more children are admitted to hospitals for treatment. Sometimes it is shocking.] ٣ Surprising statement: A surprising statement is a favourite introductory technique of professional writers. And for every fatality. from "٦٠ Seconds That Could Save Your Child" by Cathy Perlmutter with Maureen Sangiorgio in Prevention. You don't have a minute to lose. ١١٥ . ١٩٩٣. It is not used as much as the first two patterns. Yet such deaths and injuries can be avoided through these easy steps parents can take right now. September. Because that may be all it takes to save the life of a child—your child. Sometimes it is surprising because of who said it. Sometimes it is surprising because it includes profanity. what to protect yourself from at auctions. how to spot bargains in auctions. Have a minute? Good. There are many ways a statement can surprise a reader.
Dropping the name of a famous person at the beginning of a paper usually gets the reader's attention. or he or she may be a bad person like John Wilkes Booth.] ٤ Famous person: People like to know what celebrities say and do. ٨٠٠٠ children die each year from accidents. from "Dear Taxpayer" by Will Manley in Booklist. Of course. It may be something that person said or something he or she did that can be presented as an interest grabber. The article then lists seven easy actions a person can take to help guard a child against accidents. May ١. The famous person may be dead or alive. Michael Chrichton or John Grisham. bringing up this person's name must be relevant to the topic. the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service. Even though the statement or action may not be readily relevant. It's Margaret Milner Richardson. I doubt that Margaret wrote the entire ١٠٤٠ ١١٦ . whose name appears on the "١٠٤٠ Forms and Instructions" booklet. The most widely read writer in America today is not Stephen King. You may just mention the famous person's name to get the reader's interest. statistic. a clever writer can convince the reader that it is relevant. even shocking. The famous person may be a good person like the Pope.[This article begins with a surprising. These range from turning down the water heater to ١٢٠ degrees Fahrenheit to putting firearms under lock and key. ١٩٩٣.
but good professional writers use it too. but it must be carefully used or the writer defeats his whole purpose of using one of these patterns. In the College of Veterinary Medicine and Engineering. know his name whether they have read his books or not.] ٥ Declarative: This technique is quite commonly used." bears her signature. to get the reader's interest. ١٩٩٤. from "The Tuition Tap" by Tim Lindemuth in K-Stater. February. In this pattern. from teenagers to grandparents. the writer simply states straight out what the topic of his paper is going to be about. "A Note from the Commissioner. [This is the first paragraph of an article about the lady named above.pamphlet. more than a third of the professors are ٥٥ years old and older. nearly one-third of the teaching faculty may retire by the year ٢٠٠٤. for example. The largest turnover for a single department is projected to be in ١١٧ . In the College of Education. and everyone. Notice that the first name on his list is a name that is probably more widely known than the other two. modern American writers to get a reader's interest. The author used the names of three famous. It is the technique that most student writers use with only modest success most of the time. but the annual introductory letter. Stephen King has been around for some time now.
The biggest difficulty about this type of introduction is that it can get boring.geology. There are no historical reviews. This is a discussion that leads to further discussion about the topic. More than half of its faculty this year are in the age group that will retire at the millennium. [This is a straight forward introduction that gets right down to the topic of the aging of the faculty of Kansas State University. Do not forget. creating a shortage of senior faculty. A Regents' report shows approximately ٢٧ percent of the faculty at the six state universities will retire by the end of this decade. says Ron Downey of K-State's Office of Institutional Research and Analysis. Supporting Paragraphs What are supporting paragraphs? ١١٨ . It is not likely to get the interest of anyone except those who are already interested in this subject. Practice them. though.] These patterns can give a "lift" to your writing. no surprising statements. that your introductory paragraph must also include a thesis statement to let your reader know what your topic is and what you are going to say about that topic. no anecdotes. Use this pattern with caution. The graying of K-State's faculty is not unique. no quotations from or about famous people. Try using two or three different patterns for your introductory paragraph and see which introductory paragraph is best. it's often a delicate matter of tone and of knowing who your audience is.
What do they do? They develop the main idea of your essay. List the points that develop the main idea of your essay. details. How do I write them? ١. To connect your supporting paragraphs. Transition words link your paragraphs together and make your essay easier to read.Supporting paragraphs make up the main body of your essay. ٣. Develop each supporting point with facts. Place each supporting point in its own paragraph. ٢. and examples. Use them at the beginning and end of your paragraphs. Examples of transition words that can help you to link your paragraphs together: For listing different points First Second Third For counter examples However Even though On the other hand Nevertheless To show cause and effect Therefore Thus ١١٩ For additional ideas Another In addition to . you should use special transition words.
٢. ٣. supporting sentences. Restate the strongest points of your essay that support your main idea. each supporting paragraph should have a topic sentence. Give your personal opinion or suggest a plan for action." What does it do? It summarizes or restates the main idea of the essay. The summary paragraph is often called a "conclusion. and a summary sentence. How do I write one? ١. You want to leave the reader with a sense that your essay is complete. Conclude your essay by restating the main idea in different words. Summary Paragraph What is a summary paragraph? The summary paragraph comes at the end of your essay after you have finished developing your ideas. ١٢٠ .Related to Furthermore Also As a result of Consequently Like all good paragraphs.
You do not need to spend a lot of time doing this. Collect facts related to your paragraph or essay topic. Open your notebook. Timesaving hint: make sure the facts you are writing are related to the exact question you are going to answer in your paragraph or essay. Think carefully about what you are going to write. Write out your answers to the above questions. ١٢١ . You will find it easier to write your essay if you build an outline first.How to Write an Essay Prewriting Essays What is the prewriting stage? The prewriting stage is when you prepare your ideas for your essay before you begin writing. especially when you are writing longer assignments. Ask yourself: What question am I going to answer in this paragraph or essay? How can I best answer this question? What is the most important part of my answer? How can I make an introductory sentence (or thesis statement) from the most important part of my answer? What facts or ideas can I use to support my introductory sentence? How can I make this paragraph or essay interesting? Do I need more facts on this topic? Where can I find more facts on this topic? ٢. just write enough to help you remember why and how you are going to write your paragraph or essay. ٣. Six Prewriting Steps: ١. Look for and write down facts that will help you to answer your question.
Write down your own ideas. Organize your facts and ideas in a way that develops your main idea. Five Writing Steps: ١. Writing Essays What is the writing stage? The writing stage is when you turn your ideas into sentences. Decide which facts and ideas will best support the main idea of your essay. For the introduction. just choose one point and stick to it throughout your paragraph or essay. ٢. write the thesis statement and give some background information. Find the main idea of your paragraph or essay. Ask yourself: What else do I want to say about this topic? Why should people be interested in this topic? Why is this topic important? ٥. Look at your own ideas on the topic. Once you have chosen the most important point of your paragraph or essay. ١٢٢ . Develop each supporting paragraph and make sure to follow the correct paragraph format. you must find the best way to tell your reader about it. Once you have chosen the facts and ideas you plan to use.٤. Write down your own note set that you can use to guide yourself as you write your essay. Look at the facts you have written. Choose the most important point you are going to present. ask yourself which order to put them in the essay. ٦. If you cannot decide which point is the most important.
٥. Check your spelling. ٧. ٣. Make sure that each sentence makes sense. Read your essay again. ٥. ٢. ٦. Make sure each sentence has a subject. ٤. Check your grammar. Make sure your subjects and verbs agree with each other. Editing Steps: Grammar and Spelling ١. Check the verb tenses of each sentence. Editing Essays What is the editing stage? The editing stage is when you check your essay for mistakes and correct them. ٤.٣. Focus on the main idea of your essay. Write clear and simple sentences to express your meaning. ١٢٣ . Use a dictionary to help you find additional words to express your meaning.
Show your work to your teacher. ٤. Publishing Essays What is the publishing stage? The publishing stage is when you produce a final copy of your essay to hand in. ٢. Check that you have a thesis statement that identifies the main idea of the essay. supporting paragraphs. tutor. ٣. Ask them for hints on how to improve your writing. Make sure your essay has an introduction. Check that all your paragraphs follow the proper paragraph format. or parents. ١٢٤ . ٣. and a summary paragraph. See if your essay is interesting. Publishing Steps: ١. ٢. Make a paper copy of your essay.Style and Organization ١.
Define one type of energy resources: renewable resources. Define the key term energy resources. You need to give a careful definition of the key term before going on to discuss different types or examples. Summary paragraph: Summarize energy resources. Define another type of energy resources: non-renewable resources. Definition Essay When you are writing a definition essay. Example question: Introduction: Write an essay defining energy resources and discuss the different types. Classification Essay ١٢٥ . you take a term or an idea and write about what it is. ٢. definitions are combined with classification or other forms of organization in the essay. ٢.Kinds of Essay ١. Often. Supporting paragraphs: ١.
describe secondary ٤. ٣. You organize the essay by defining each classification and by giving examples of each type. Define and describe higher education. Define and education. Summary paragraph: Summarize education in Egypt.In a classification essay. you write about what a person. place. Define and education. ٢. ١٢٦ . ٣. describe about primary Introduction: Supporting paragraphs: ١. Give background information education in Egypt. or thing is like. Define and describe preparatory education. you separate things or ideas into specific categories and discuss each of them. Description Essay In a description essay. You organize the essay by describing different parts or aspects of the main subject. Example question: Write an essay discussing the different stages of education in Egypt.
Summary paragraph: ٣. Supporting paragraphs: ١. Describe where the polar bear lives. ١٢٧ . Summarize what a polar bear is. Describe what the polar eats. Introduction: Introduce what a polar bear is.Example question: Write an essay describing the polar bear. ٢. Describe the body of the polar bear.
Compare weather in autumn and winter for both cities. Usually. Example: Example question: Write an essay outlining the stages of privatization in Egypt. State how they are similar or different. you are writing to describe a series of events or a process in some sort of order.Sequence Essay In a sequence essay. you write about the similarities and differences between two or more people. Compare weather in spring and Supporting paragraphs: summer for both cities. this order is based on time. State how they are similar or different. places. A more effective way is to organize the essay by comparing each subject by category.٤. ١. ١٢٨ . or things. Compare and Contrast Essay In a compare and contrast essay. You can organize the essay by writing about one subject first and then comparing it with the second subject. Write an essay comparing the weather in Cairo with the weather in Aswan. ٢. You organize the essay by writing about each step of the process in the order it occurred. Introduction: Introduce weather in the cities of Cairo and Aswan. Summarize the similarities and Summary paragraph: differences. ٥.
Summary paragraph: Summarize the main stages of privatization in Egypt.Introduction: Define what privatization is. Supporting paragraphs: ١. Describe the future of the public sector in Egypt. Introduce the concept of friendship. or action that you prefer. ٦. Example question: Write an essay choosing between spending time with one or two close friends and spending time with a large number of friends. ٢. Describe what the public sector is like now. Describe what the public sector was like in the past. ٣. You organize the essay by describing each option and then giving your opinion. you need to choose which object. Choice Essay In a choice essay. idea. Introduction: ١٢٩ .
Give background information on the newlybuilt cities. you explain how or why something happens or has happened.Supporting paragraphs: ١. Describe the advantages or disadvantages of spending time with a large number of friends. Explain first reason: poor living conditions in big cities. Explanation Essay In an explanation essay. ٣. ٧. Example question: Introduction: Supporting paragraphs: Write an essay explaining why so many people prefer to live in the newly-built cities. You should organize the essay by explaining each individual cause or effect. State which way of spending time you prefer and why. Describe the advantages or disadvantages of spending time with a limited number of close friends. You need to explain different causes and effects. ٢. ١٣٠ . ١. Summary paragraph: Summarize the ideal way of spending time.
Give your judgment on whether the Parliament is important. you make judgments about people. living Summarize main reasons. Organize the essay by discussing the criteria you used to make your judgment. Evaluation Essay In an evaluation essay. Explain second criteria: represent Egyptians ٣. Summary paragraph: Explain second reason: better conditions in the newly-built cities. You make your evaluation based on certain criteria that you develop. Explain first criteria: meeting place for government ٢. Explain third criteria: make laws for Egypt Summary paragraph: Conclude with an overall judgment about the Parliament ١٣١ . ١. ٨. Example question: Introduction: Supporting paragraphs: Write an essay evaluating the importance of the Parliament.٢. and possible actions. ideas.
a kind of mini-outline for the paper: it tells the reader what the essay is about. It is not the only format for writing an essay. Introduction: Introductory Paragraph See. especially as you begin to develop your composition skills. of course. Body: Body—First paragraph: The first paragraph of the body should contain the strongest argument. ١٣٣ . The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. or an obvious beginning point. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the "reverse hook" which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the second paragraph of the body. first. most significant example. The introductory paragraph should also include the thesis statement.The Five-Paragraph Essay A classic format for compositions is the five-paragraph essay. Writing Introductory Paragraphs for different ways of getting your reader involved in your essay. The last sentence of this paragraph must also contain a transitional "hook" which moves the reader to the first paragraph of the body of the paper. cleverest illustration. but it is a useful model for you to keep in mind. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph.
The first sentence of this paragraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the second paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional concluding hook that signals the reader that this is the final major point being made in this paper. second most significant example. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the first paragraph of the body. This hook also leads into the last. an allusion to the pattern used in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the third paragraph of the body. or an obvious follow up to the second paragraph in the body.Body—Second paragraph: The second paragraph of the body should contain the second strongest argument. ١٣٤ . The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. second cleverest illustration. weakest illustration. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. or concluding. Conclusion: Concluding paragraph: This paragraph should include the following: ١. weakest example. Body—Third paragraph: The third paragraph of the body should contain the weakest argument. or an obvious follow up the first paragraph in the body. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. paragraph.
however. concrete visual imagery to present both static and dynamic settings and to describe people is part of his technique. (٢) Poe." Poe ١٣٥ . fills the reader's imagination with the images that he wishes the reader to see. using some of the original language or language that "echoes" the original language. as does Stephen King. is particularly susceptible to manipulation. a summary of the three main points from the body of the paper. (١) The sense of sight. (The restatement. and feel.) A Sample Essay (١) Stephen King. stated that the Edgar Allan Poe stories he read as a child gave him the inspiration and instruction he needed to become the writer that he is. ٤. then goes mad when he thinks he hears the old man's heart beating beneath the floor boards under his feet as he sits and discusses the old man's absence with the police." a careful reader can observe Poe's skilful manipulation of the senses. must not be a duplicate thesis statement. creator of such stories as Carrie and Pet Sematary. a restatement of the thesis statement. hear.٢. the primary sense. (This final statement may be a "call to action" in an persuasive paper.) ٣. (٤) Poe's short story "The Tell-Tale Heart" is a story about a young man who kills an old man who cares for him. dismembers the corpse. a final statement that gives the reader signals that the discussion has come to an end. (٣) His use of vivid. (٥) In "The Tell-Tale Heart. (٢) In "The Tell-Tale Heart.
. Poe uses a couple of words that cross not only the sense of sight but also the sense of feeling to describe a dynamic scene. (١) Further on in the story. (٢) In the second paragraph of "The Tell-Tale Heart. with a film over it." Poe used the words "black." (١) The reader does not know much about what the old man in this story looks like except that he has one blind eye. stealthily—until." Poe establishes the young man's obsession with that blind eye when he writes: "He had the eye of the vulture—a pale blue eye. waiting for just the right moment to reveal himself to the old man in order to frighten him. (٢) The youth in the story has been standing in the open doorway of the old man's room for a long time. but also to make the reader feel the darkness." (٣) "Thick" is a word that is not usually associated with colour (darkness). Poe stimulates the reader's sense of feeling as well as his sense of sight.uses the following image to describe a static scene: "His room was as black as pitch with the thick darkness. a single dim ray. like the thread of the spider." Poe almost makes the reader gasp." (٤) By using the metaphor of the thread of the spider (which we all know is a creepy creature) and the word "shot." "pitch." and "thick darkness" not only to show the reader the condition of the old man's room.. at length. shot from out the crevice and fell full upon the vulture eye. (٣) Poe writes: "So I opened it [the lantern opening]—you cannot imagine how stealthily. as surely did the old man whose one blind eye the young man describes as "the vulture eye. yet in using it." (٣) This "vulture eye" is evoked over and over again in the story until the reader becomes as obsessed with it as does the young ١٣٦ .
(٤) His use of the vivid. (٤) If Edgar Allan Poe was one of Stephen King's teachers. The last sentence of the paragraph uses the words "manipulation" and "senses" as transitional hooks." "thread of the spider. The minioutline tells the reader that this paper will present Poe's use of imagery in three places in his writing: (١) description of static setting. The second sentence leads up to the thesis statement which is the third sentence. Commentary: The introductory paragraph includes a paraphrase of something said by a famous person in order to get the reader's attention.man. The topic is Poe's use of visual imagery. then readers of King owe a debt of gratitude to that nineteenth-century creator of horror stories. concrete word "vulture" establishes a specific image in the mind of the reader that is inescapable. and (٣) description of a person. (٢) Poe wanted the reader to see and feel real life. (١) "Thick darkness." and "vulture eye" are three images that Poe used in "The Tell-Tale Heart" to stimulate a reader's senses. The thesis statement (sentence ٣) presents topic of the paper to the reader and provides a minioutline. (٣) He used concrete imagery rather than vague abstract words to describe settings and people. (٢) description of dynamic setting. The first part of the second sentence provides the topic for this ١٣٧ . In the first sentence of the second paragraph (first paragraph of the body) the words "sense" and "manipulation" are used to hook into the end of the introductory paragraph.
" Once again Poe is quoted and discussed. The last sentence returns to the Edgar Allan Poe-Stephen King relationship which began this paper.. Then a quotation from "The Tell-Tale Heart" is presented and briefly discussed. not only of the content of the paper. and it is briefly discussed. The first sentence of the third paragraph (second paragraph of the body) uses the words "sense of sight" and "sense of feeling" to hook back into the previous paragraph. but also offers personal opinion which was logically drawn as the result of this study. Again. This ١٣٨ . The second and third sentences provide observations which can also be considered a summary.. The last sentence of this paragraph uses the expressions "sense of feeling" and "sense of sight" as hooks for leading into the third paragraph. (It is less important that this paragraph has a hook since the last paragraph is going to include a summary of the body othe paper. In the first sentence of the fourth paragraph (third paragraph in the body). The first sentence also includes the topic for this paragraph—imagery in a dynamic scene. The last sentence uses the words "one blind eye" which was in the quotation. This first sentence also lets the reader know that this paragraph will deal with descriptions of people: ". and in this paragraph "sight" comes first. This expression provides the transitional hook for the last paragraph in the body of the paper. what the old man looks like.paragraph—imagery in a static scene. Note that in the second paragraph "feeling" came first. "one blind eye" is used that hooks into the previous paragraph. The last sentence uses the word "image" which hooks into the last paragraph.. This summarizes those three paragraph.. a quotation is taken from the story..) The first sentence of the concluding paragraph uses the principal words from the quotations from each paragraph of the body of the paper.
sentence also provides a "wrap-up" and gives the paper a sense of finality.
SUMMARY PART III: ESSAY LEVEL
Remember: . In terms of organization, an essay has three main parts:
- introduction - body - conclusion
. The introduction of an essay provides a statement of the thesis,
outlines the main points and describes the conclusions.
. The body of an essay presents the facts and develops the
thoughts and arguments. In writing the body, one has to use paragraphs, use good grammar, analyze rather than describe facts, develop an argument supporting a point of view, think independently and be creative.
. The conclusion of an essay is more or less a restatement of its
. Professional writers use the following patterns to keep the
readers' interest: - historical review - anecdotal ١٤٠
- surprising statement - famous person - declarative
. Supporting paragraphs (i.e. the body) in an essay develop its
main idea. They should have topic sentences, supporting sentences, and a summary sentence,
. Transition words link the units (i.e paragraphs) of an essay and
makes it easier to read.
. Writing an essay goes through different stages:
- pre - writing - writing - editing - publishing
. kinds of essay can be classified as follows:
- definition essay - classification essay - description essay - compare and contrast essay. - sequence essay -choice essay - explanation essay ١٤١
. ١٤٢ .paragraph essay is a classic format for compositions. the five.evaluation essay .
PART IV: SELECTED ESSAYS FOR PRACTICE
By the end of this part, students should be able to:
. extract the main point in each paragraph of the essay entitled "
The Computer as writing assistant...... "
. provide the main topic of the essay. . show evidence whether the writer of the essay has provided all
details about using a computer, a word-processor, or otherwise.
. pick up some of the transitional to go used in the essay. . identify the functions of the tags. . choose one of the composition topics provided and write an
essay on it.
. analyse the model essay on pages ١٤٠-١٤٢ in terms of
. provide a statement about the topic of the essay entitled " Noise
. provide a summary of the story at the beginning of the essay. . show whether the story given is relevant to the topic of the
essay or otherwise
. define "Noise Pollution" from the writer's perspective.
. show whether the facts / examples provided in the essay support
the main argument or otherwise.
. identify the conclusion reached at the end of the essay. . choose one of the composition topics provided and write an
essay on it.
. provide a statement about the main topic of the essay " smoking
and quitting are matters of free will ".
. identify the writer's attitude towards smoking. . provide some details from the essay which support the main
. pick up some of the transitional tags used in the essay. . identify the conclusion reached at the end of the essay. . write an essay or one of the composition topics provided. . provide answers to the discussion items based on the essay
entitled "what happened to the News? ".
. write an essay on one of the composition topics provided.
PART IV: SELECTED ESSAYS FOR PRACTICE The Computer as Writing Assistant More Than a Fancy Typewriter
That computer sitting before you is more than a fancy typewriter. With modern word-processing programs and the ability of the computer to attend to more than one task at a time, the computer can become an invaluable assistant in the writing process. If you are still typing with two fingers, however, you must learn how to take advantage of all the computer has to offer. It might be a good idea to call a brief time-out in your academic courses and learn some keyboarding skills. Until voicerecognition software becomes a more affordable reality, the ability to use the keyboard with speed and efficiency is going to be one of the keys to academic success. You don't want to spend hours pecking away at the keyboard when a mini-course in keyboarding will give you the skills necessary to keyboard like a speed-demon. And paying someone else to keyboard your paper is not only expensive; it also means that you're not taking advantage of everything that this technology has to offer. If you don't have time during the regular semester, promise yourself that before another winter's intersession or summer session passes by, you will take a course in keyboarding. You will never regret it. There are also software packages that promise to turn you into an executive secretary in a week, and they can be effective. Having the discipline of a course and the encouragement of an instructor and classmates can be helpful, though. ١٤٥
Once you've learned the first basic step. it might be a good idea to begin to save subsequent drafts of your paper. carry floppy discs in a hard plastic case. Also.doc. ozone_٢. Your instructor is not interested in what is already an old excuse: "My floppy is corrupted. Floppies "go bad. ١٤٦ . get in the habit of checking the disc drive before you leave the computer station. The reason for this is that we sometimes "blow away" something that is quite good and when we want to retrieve it. Label the draft files systematically and simply: ozone_١.doc. has an automatic SAVE feature that saves your work every few minutes. Carefully label your discs and keep your backup copy as fresh as your main floppy. learn to keep copies in a safe place. Carefully saving your documents on a floppy doesn't do much good if you leave it in the disc drive and the next person who uses the lab accidentally blows away your precious text or helps himself to a free floppy disc. etc. it's easy to save your document as you go along. Some software. When you're done with your work. away from nasty weather and electromagnetic fields (like some scissors or paperclips and those magnetic closers on cabinet doors). in fact. If your document is really important or private. Also." The only caution here is that you must be careful to work with the latest saved version." and someday you will be very glad that you got in the habit of saving things twice. it's gone if we constantly over-ride a single saved document. make sure that final copies of your documents are safely "put away" in two places––on a floppy disc and on the hard drive or on two separate floppies. As you enter the Editing and Rewriting phases of writing your paper and you begin to move blocks of text around and delete material or insert new paragraphs here and there.One of the first things you'll learn in a keyboard class is how to SAVE the material you're typing.
. .Compare and contrast two modern inventions. What is the main topic of this essay? ٣.What possible disadvantages can computers have? Explain with reasons. . Discussion: ١. Composition: . Mention some of the transitional tags used by the writer in the essay.Write an essay explaining why you have decided to buy a personal computer. Do you think that the writer has provided all the details about using the computer as a word-processor? ٤. ١٤٧ .Write an essay choosing between buying a computer and buying a typewriter. Sum up the main points in each paragraph. ٢.(A distinct disadvantage of digital writing!) A high-density floppy disc should be able to hold many versions of several text documents.
took his hunting rifle from the shelf. a report published in ١٩٩٥ by the European Environment Agency (E. ١٩٩٦ he got up from his armchair. about ٤٥٠ million people––٦٥٪ of the European population––are regularly exposed to noise intensities above ٥٥ dB. suddenly snapped. the presence of intrusive and unwanted sounds that can seriously affect physical and psychological health. Lykouresis.). Although noise-data ١٤٨ . a level high enough to cause annoyance. he is serving two life sentences. And the Greeks are not alone. Lykouresis now listens to the evening news in Greece's Ioannina maximum security prison. he fired three times at point-blank range.A. hobbled over to the neighbouring apartment and rang the bell. on the Greek island of Zakynthos. who claims he had complained to his neighbour for months and only wanted to listen to the evening news in peace. aggressive behaviour and sleep disturbance.E. The Lykouresis case is an extreme example of the lengths to which some people will go for a little peace and quiet. On May ٣١. Convicted of manslaughter in ١٩٩٦.Noise Pollution Ever felt like murdering your neighbour for blasting music too loud? That's exactly what ٧٨-year-old retired farmer Lambrinos Lykouresis did two years ago in Lithakia. killing her instantly and wounding her ٢٤-year-old son. According to Europe's Environment. And it's sad testimony to the devastating effects of one of the world's most pervasive yet least publicized environmental problems: noise pollution. When ٤٠-year-old housewife Imberia Boziki answered the door.
E. And members of the silent majority who suffer from these acoustic intrusions are starting to speak out. according to a report by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (R. individuals saddled with loud and uncontrollable neighbours can complain to the local council. In the Netherlands. And councils often lack the resources––and the will––to prosecute. those unable or unwilling to move away have little choice but to insulate themselves as best they can from the ١٤٩ . not just in urban centres. "Most people move house rather than confront the source of the problem. Apart from people––who create a racket through stereos and televisions and at outdoor entertainment and sporting events––the usual culprits are planes. noise pollution is a problem that resonates everywhere. more than a million people are subjected to excessive noise levels as a result of their proximity to Schiphol Airport. "There's a lot of prejudice against people who complain. increased heart rates and potential hearing loss.I. In an increasingly overcrowded and congested Europe.collection is limited and methods may vary. the Federal Environmental Agency estimates that ٧٠٪ of the country's inhabitants feel continuously disturbed by road traffic. trains and automobiles." Unfortunately. and ١٠ million endure noise above ٧٥ dB. the level at which hypertension can result.M. Unfortunately. the E." says Gibson. the primary sources of noise pollution are also mainstays of modern life. for example. In Germany.).V.A. which can lead to high stress levels. also concluded that some ١١٣ million Europeans are routinely subjected to more than ٦٥ dB. In Britain. But taking noisemakers to court can be a long and exhausting process.
But with extremely wide highways barriers can't do much to block traffic noise coming from the farthest lanes. Double-glazing helps. in your opinion. Why. Does the writer include facts/examples in his essay to support his argument? ٦.noise. State the topic of this essay. innovative new technology and creative acoustic architecture––plus some old-fashioned good neighbourliness––can go a long way toward restoring peace and quiet. And that may well be the best way to stop the sound of silence from becoming an endangered species. Discussion: ١. But that doesn't mean that noise pollution is destined to drive us all mad or deaf. What conclusion does the writer reach at the end of his essay? ١٥٠ . the better it works. The noisy nature of modern life is unlikely to be muted any time soon. Summarize the story with which the writer begins his essay. the higher the barrier and the closer to the noise source. Sensible urban planning. ٣. In general. but the effectiveness of sound barriers is limited. How is ‘noise pollution’ defined by the writer? ٥. ٢. does the writer begin his essay with this story? Is it relevant to the essay topic? ٤.
Write the essay in the descriptive style.Imagine that you are Lykouresis. Imberia Boziki. ١٥١ . Write an explanation essay on the sources of noise pollution in Egypt.Composition: . writing to explain why and how you killed your neighbour.
it makes children out of adult citizens. There's nothing particularly unusual about non-compliance with medical advice or blaming others for one's own behaviour. attempting to protect people from themselves. Question: What do we attribute that behaviour to? Answer: Free will. How many people continue to eat a high-fat diet when their doctor recommends against it? If they develop cardiovascular disease. they are often the ones who transform their iron will into an iron fist. Most of us know people who smoked for years and then quit abruptly. they did. They have an iron will: They choose to continue smoking against medical advice. even if a doctor or loved one has suggested they quit. will they blame McDonald's or Burger King for hooking them on hamburgers and French fries? Why not? ١٥٢ . When the government acts like a parent.Smoking and quitting are matters of free will The increasing attempt to hold tobacco companies responsible for the consequences of smoking behaviour poses a greater threat to liberty in a free society than nicotine ever could. And ironically. demanding they be financially compensated for the consequences of their own behaviour. And what of people who do not want to quit? Why explain their behaviour using terms such as weak will and physiological addiction? Those people simply choose to continue smoking. Many people continue to engage in certain behaviours against medical advice. Their bodies had adapted to nicotine and since they chose to quit. They aren't suffering from a weak will.
Discussion: ١. A person cannot choose to quit or moderate diabetes. ٥. What conclusion does the writer reach at the end of his essay? Composition: .Compare and contrast two articles you have read on smoking. State the main topic of this essay. Give examples of transitional tags used in the essay. like eating and dieting or exercising and being a couch potato. Yes. That's a fact. Moreover. likening a behaviour to a disease seems especially cruel to people with real diseases. ٤. habits may cause disease—but habits aren't disease in and of themselves. People who claim addiction causes people to smoke say the two are negatively correlated. We cannot increase freedom by decreasing personal responsibility. are matters of free will and personal choice. The price of freedom in a free society is responsibility for the consequences of one's actions. Mention some of the supporting details used by the writer to support his argument. Smoking is a habitual behaviour. ١٥٣ . ٢.Smoking and quitting. Liberty and responsibility are positively correlated. That's fiction. That's the road to serfdom. Cancer is a disease. What is the writer’s attitude towards smoking? ٣.
.Describe how you feel about being/not being a smoker. ١٥٤ .
mutual funds. fast-food chains. Perhaps the most annoying moments in the news hour are the little moments of conviviality and chit-chat between members of ١٥٥ . and then the networks would say all there was to say about national and world news in the remaining fifteen to twenty minutes.. it wasn't regarded as appropriate to sponsor news about floods and fires and political disasters. and that's just for the early evening news show. feminine hygiene products. phone service. On March ١٧. ١٩٩٨. Life must have been simpler then. sometimes touting the virtues of the station's news team and weather forecasters. and deodorants. it occupied less than a thirty-minute slot. and kept track of what seemed to be really news and what was––well. colourful.m. they were the most interesting part of the hour. during this one hour of news. Graphically. from ٥ to ٦ p. utility companies. there were ٣٥ advertisements. Nowadays many television stations set apart ninety minutes for local news alone.What Happened to the News? When television news started out. Among other things advertised. Ten or fifteen minutes would be granted to local stations for their news. They seemed to do a lot in their thirty seconds. In addition. shampoos. there were ads for cars. and sometimes funny. there were ten advertisements apparently produced by the television station itself that advertised programs and services of the station––sometimes featuring what was coming up later that evening. There were very few advertisements during the news. back in the ١٩٥٠s. we watched a local news show in Hartford for one hour. Most of the ads were fast paced. not news. First of all. cheese.
the little asides of mutual congratulation and gratitude and commiseration (with the various victims in the day's news) that are supposed to make us see how wonderfully human the newscasters are. What must the fifteen-minute. We're willing to wager that over a onehour news show there is considerably less than fifteen minutes occupied with the news. can you say what you would leave out? • The writer insists on a difference between "hard news" and the kind of thing he sees on the news program. perhaps." the kind of thing that was put into that fifteen-minute segment during the early days of television news. Discussion: • Does the writer convince you of anything? • Do you think the writer goes overboard with his illustrations? If so. Is it clear what the writer means by "hard news"? Would it be more fair if the writer provided us with a good definition of what "news" really is? • Should the writer do a more scientific or statistical survey of news programs––using a stopwatch. but apparently we had less time to spend watching nonsense. We can't say that our lives were simpler back then. get-itdone-and-get-out newscasters of the ٥٠s think of all this? Whatever happened to the news? What we need to do now is to take a stopwatch to the news hour and determine how much of the time is spent actually reporting "hard news. watching other ١٥٦ .the news team.
.channels and sampling the news on several different evenings over a period of weeks or even months? • Which of the following statements would you consider as a the writer’s conclusion? . Both newspapers and television news programs can be good sources of information about current events.News programs are getting longer and longer and offering less and less actual news. What do you think are the advantages and disadvantages of each of these sources? - ١٥٧ . Give specific reasons for your choice.News programs are full of advertisements. Composition: Write an essay evaluating TV programs Write an essay comparing two TV channels. State which channel you would prefer to watch.
At the level of ٦٥ dB. A Course in keyboarding can provide you with the necessary skills. . increased heart rates and hearing loss can result. . . Keyboard classes help you save the material. . hypertension. Noise Pollution. . ٢. .SUMMARY PART IV: SELECTED ESSAYS FOR PRACTICE Remember: ١.old son for blasting music too loud. A Computer can be an invaluable assistant in the writing process. Software packages can make you an executive secretary in a week. The Computer as writing assistant more than a fancy typewriter. . trains end automobiles are primary sources of noise pollution ١٥٨ . year . Noise pollution can seriously affect physical and psychological health. Lykouresis desperately killed his neighbour's wife and wounded her ٢٤. A high percentage of Europeans are exposed to noise intensities above ٥٥ dB. Planes.
We need to determine how much of the time devoted to the news is spent actually reporting 'hard news'. Smokers who quit after years of smoking have free will. We cannot increase freedom by decreasing personal responsibility. during which there were ٣٥ advertisements for cars. However. Smoking and quitting are matters of free will.. ٣. . What happened to the new? But nowadays many television stations devote ٩٠ minutes to local news alone. .. ١٥٩ . Television news occupied less than ٣٠ minutes in the ١٩٥o's. . one is responsible for one's actions. Urban planning and new technology can help us restore peace and quiet... shampoos. . A local news show in Hartford in ١٩٩٨ continued for an hour . fast food. ٤. etc. they can never McDonald's for providing them with hamburgers and French fries. Smoking and quitting are matters of personal choice. . People who choose to continue smoking against medical advice demand financial compensation for the results of their behaviour. Many people continue to eat a high fat diet against their doctors' advice. In a free society. .
. write some topic sentences stating the main points in some of the topics provided. . read critically a number of the topics and provide an outline for each. identify some transitional tags used in the writings. classify the topics according to the kinds of essay previously learnt. . write some essay on a number of the topics based on students' personal choice. exchange their writings with their classmates. discuss how the writings are organized. . . .PART V: WRITING TOPICS Objectives: By the end of this part. ١٦٠ . go through the list of writing topics given. students should be able to: . .
and they look forward to new experiences. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing a game is fun only when you win. Others choose to spend time with a large number of friends. Which approach do you prefer? Explain why. Compare the advantages of each choice.PART V: WRITING TOPICS ♦ Some people enjoy change. ١٦١ . Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. and they do not change their usual habits. ♦ Some people prefer to spend time with one or two close friends. Compare these two approaches to life. Which of these two ways of spending time do you prefer? Give reasons to support your answer. Others like their lives to stay the same.
Others believe that higher education should be available only to good students. Others choose friends who are similar to themselves. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. ♦ Some people believe that a college or university education should be available to all students. ♦ Some people think that the family is the most important influence on young adults. Discuss these views. Use specific details in your discussion. Which view do you agree with? Use examples to support your position. ♦ Some people choose friends who are different from themselves. ١٦٢ . what are the qualities of a good neighbour? Use specific details and examples in your answer. Which kind of friend do you prefer for yourself? Why? ♦ Neighbours are the people who live near us. Some people think that your community would be a good place to locate the university. ♦ The government has announced that it plans to build a new university.♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing games teaches us about life. Which view do you agree with? Explain why. Compare the advantages of having friends who are different from you with the advantages of having friends who are similar to you. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a new university in your community. In your opinion. Other people think that friends are the most important influence on young adults.
size. what do you consider most important: location. real people. Do you prefer to spend your time alone or with friends? Give reasons to support your answer. ١٦٣ . Compare these two views. Which view do you agree with? Why? ♦ Some people prefer to spend most of their time alone. types of rooms. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Universities should give the same amount of money to their students’ sports activities as they give to their university libraries. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should read only those books that are about real events. Why did you enjoy this class so much? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. ♦ Some people think that children should begin their formal education at a very early age and should spend most of their time on school studies. ♦ When choosing a place to live.♦ Think of the most important class you have ever taken. style. or other features? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. Use specific reasons and details to support your opinion. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Others like to be with friends most of the time. Others believe that young children should spend most of their time playing. and established facts. number of rooms.
new experiences. ♦ If you had the time and money to invent something new. ١٦٤ . ♦ Because of developments in communication and transportation. career preparation. countries are becoming more and more alike. Other people believe that students should spend the whole school day on academic studies.♦ Films can tell us a lot about the country in which they were made. ♦ If you could change one important thing about your hometown. increased knowledge). what product would you develop? Use specific details to explain why this product is needed. Why do you think people attend colleges? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. ♦ Some people say that physical exercise should be a required part of every school day. What have you learned about a country from watching its movies? Use specific examples and details to support your response. ♦ People attend colleges or universities for many different reasons (for example. what would you change? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. How is your country becoming more similar to other places in the world? Use specific examples and details to support your answer. ♦ Modern life is causing many traditions and beliefs to become less important. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Choose one tradition or belief and explain why you think it should be continued and maintained.
What do you think is the best way for your school to spend this money? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. which source is more important? Why? ♦ Some people believe that the best way of learning about life is by listening to the advice of family and friends. Give specific reasons for your choice. In your opinion. ♦ If you could make one important change in a school that you attended. Other high schools permit students to decide what to wear to school.Which opinion do you agree with? Give reasons to support your answer. ♦ Your school has received a gift of money. Other people believe that the best way of learning about life is through personal experience. Compare the advantages of these two different ways of learning about life. ♦ Some high schools require all students to wear school uniforms. Which do you think is preferable? Use specific examples to support your preference. Compare the different kinds of transportation you could use. “Not everything that is learned is contained in books. ♦ You need to travel from your home to a place ٤٠ miles (٦٤ kilometres) away. ♦ It has been said. Which of these two school policies do you think is better? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Tell which method of travel you would choose. ١٦٥ . what change would you make? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer.” Compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from books.
♦ Some people prefer to spend their free time outdoors. ♦ Students at universities often have a choice of places to live. They may choose to live in university dormitories. ١٦٦ . ♦ What do you consider to be the most important room in a house? Why is this room more important to you than any other room? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Would you prefer to be outside or would you prefer to be inside for your leisure activities? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. ♦ Would you prefer to live in a traditional house or in a modern apartment building? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. ♦ Some people believe that students should be given one long vacation each year. Compare the advantages of living in university housing with the advantages of living in an apartment in the community. or they may choose to live in apartments in the community. Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. Other people prefer to spend their leisure time indoors. Others believe that students should have several short vacations throughout the year. Which would you prefer? Give reasons for your preference. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person’s childhood years (the time from birth to ١٢ years of age) are the most important years of a person’s life.
Has this change improved the way people live? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? ١٦٧ . What academic area should be the main focus of this university? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. ♦ Your country is going to build a new national university. ♦ In the twentieth century. food has become easier to prepare. ♦ Your community has enough money to hire one new employee. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents are the best teachers.Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Which one of the following should your community hire? • • • • • • • • • a community health worker a counsellor an emergency medical technician a fire-fighter a judge a landscaper a police officer a recreation centre director a teacher Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.
Children should be required to help with household tasks as soon as they are able to do so. ♦ Read and think about the following statement: Only people who earn a lot of money are successful. What gift would you give to help a child develop? Why? Use reasons and specific examples to support your choice. ١٦٨ . or an animal) can contribute to a child’s development. Use specific reasons and examples in your answer. a camera. ♦ Some people pay money for the things they want or need. Do you agree or disagree with this definition of success? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Do you agree that different clothes influence the way people behave? Use specific examples to support your answer. ♦ Some young children spend a great amount of their time practising sports. ♦ Read and think about the following statement: People behave differently when they wear different clothes. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Other people trade products or goods for what they need. Which way do you prefer? Explain why. Compare the advantages of these two ways of obtaining things. ♦ A gift (such as a soccer ball. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this.
Other people want a centre for research in agriculture ١٦٩ . Some people want a centre for business research. ♦ People learn in different ways. Which place would you prefer to live in? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. ♦ Some people prefer to live in a small town. Which do you prefer — items made by hand or items made by machine? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your choice. other people learn by reading about things. Some people learn by doing things. others learn by listening to people talk about things. ♦ Some people trust their first impressions about a person’s character because they believe these judgements are generally correct. Which of these methods of learning is best for you? Use specific examples to support your choice. Which attitude do you agree with? Support your choice with specific examples. Others prefer to live in a big city. Compare these two attitudes. Other people do not judge a person’s character quickly because they believe first impressions are often wrong.♦ What is the most important animal in your country? Why is this animal important? Use reasons and specific details to explain your answer. ♦ Some items (such as clothes or furniture) can be made by hand or by machine. ♦ A university plans to develop a new research centre in your country. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A zoo has no useful purpose. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.
(farming). Which of these two kinds of research centres do you recommend for your country? Give reasons for your recommendation. ♦ Music tells us something about a culture. ♦ It has recently been announced that a new movie theatre may be built in your neighbourhood. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? There is nothing that young people can teach older people. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. ♦ How do movies or television influence people’s behaviour? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your answer. What does the music of your country reveal about the culture of your country? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. ♦ A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near your community. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community. ١٧٠ . Do you support or oppose the factory? ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family.
How would you use this land? Use specific details to explain your answer. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. or clean water.Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. animals. ♦ When people move to another country. or they can be made after careful thought. ♦ Imagine that you have received some land to use as you wish. Compare these two choices. ♦ In some countries people are no longer allowed to smoke in many public places and office buildings. Read and think about the following statement: The decisions that people make quickly are always wrong. ♦ Decisions can be made quickly. such as forests. Choose one resource that is disappearing and explain why it needs to be saved. Others prefer to keep their own customs. Which one do you prefer? Support your answer with specific details. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more important for students to study history and literature than it is for them to study science and mathematics. ♦ Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources. Do you agree or disagree with the statement? Use reasons and examples to support your opinion. some of them decide to follow the customs of the new country. Do you think this is a good law or a bad law? Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. ١٧١ .
Give specific reasons to support you opinion. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? All students should be required to study art and music in high school. ♦ What is one of the most important decisions you have made? Why was this decision important? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer.Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Reading fiction (such as novels and short stories) is more enjoyable than watching movies. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. ١٧٢ . Other people disagree and think we should spend this money for our basic needs on Earth. ♦ Some people think we should spend as much money as possible exploring outer space (for example. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is better to make the wrong decision than to make no decision at all. travelling to the moon and to other planets). Which of these two opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.
Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to develop your essay. Discuss the causes of this phenomenon. ١٧٣ . ♦ We all work or will work in our jobs with many different kinds of people. Which one of these opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. ♦ It is better for children to grow up in the countryside than in a big city. In your opinion. Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? When people succeed. ♦ In general. what are some important characteristics of a co-worker (someone you work closely with)? Use reasons and specific examples to explain why these characteristics are important. Other people disagree and think that this money should be spent on more basic needs. ♦ In general. people are living longer now. How will this change affect society? Use specific details and examples to develop your essay. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Sometimes it is better not to tell the truth. ♦ Some people think that governments should spend as much money as possible on developing or buying computer technology. people are living longer now. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. luck has nothing to do with success. it is because of hard work.
teenagers have jobs while they are still students. ♦ In the future. Do you think this is a good idea? Support your opinion by using specific reasons and details. Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. Which way do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. ♦ When people need to complain about a product or poor service. ♦ In some countries. athletes and rock stars give their opinions. What do you think this person would like and dislike about living in your town or city? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. students may have the choice of studying at home by using technology such as computers or television or of studying at traditional schools. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Private companies should spend more money to clean up pollution in the environment. Which would you prefer? Use reasons and specific details to explain your choice. Do you think we should pay attention to these opinions? Give specific reasons and examples to support your answer.Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. ♦ When famous people such as actors. many people listen. ♦ A person you know is planning to move to your town or city. ١٧٤ . some prefer to complain in writing and others prefer to complain in person.
♦ Some famous athletes and entertainers earn millions of dollars every year. ♦ Every generation of people is different in important ways. How can schools help these students with their problems? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. How is your generation different from your parents’ generation? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. ♦ People listen to music for different reasons and at different times. what would you choose to know about and why? Give reasons and details to support your choice. ♦ If you could know something about the future. Which should your school choose to buy — computers or books? Use specific reasons and examples to support your recommendation. Why is music important to many people? Give specific reasons and examples to support your choice. ♦ You want to persuade someone to study your native language. What reasons would you give? Support your answer with specific details. Do you think these people deserve such high salaries? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. ١٧٥ . Why? Give specific reasons and examples to support your answer.♦ People remember special gifts or presents that they have received. ♦ When students move to a new school. ♦ Your school has enough money to purchase either computers for students or books for the library. they sometimes face problems.
♦ There are many different kinds of advertising (on the radio. This might be a city park. or other animals as members of their family. ♦ Many people have a close relationship with their pets. what would you choose? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. What improvements would you make? Why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your recommendations. ١٧٦ . on television. and on billboards). a regional park. are such relationships good? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. In your opinion. cats.♦ You have been asked to suggest improvements to a park that you have visited. in magazines. ♦ If you were asked to send one thing representing your country to an international exhibition. These people treat their birds. or a national park. Describe the qualities of an effective advertisement. Use specific details and examples to support your answer. in newspapers. ♦ Advertising helps to sell products. In your opinion. which one of these kinds of advertising is the most effective? Why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
or should governments spend more money on improving public transportation (buses. subways)? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A sense of humour can sometimes be helpful in difficult situations. accountant aeroplane pilot architect dentist lawyer ١٧٧ actor computer programmer farmer tour guide . ♦ What are some important qualities of a good supervisor (boss)? Use specific details and examples to explain why these qualities are important. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. trains. Others think that it is always better to have a teacher. ♦ Some people think that they can learn better by themselves than with a teacher. ♦ Choose one of the following careers and explain why it is important to society. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons to develop your essay. ♦ Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways.
♦ Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. Compare the contributions of artists to society with the contributions of scientists. Others choose not to make any plans at all for their free time. ♦ Some people prefer to plan activities for their free time very carefully. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Which do you ١٧٨ . Compare the benefits of planning free time activities with the benefits of not making plans. ♦ It is generally agreed that society benefits from the work of its members. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? High schools should allow students to study the courses that students want to study. Which type of contribution do you think is valued more by your society? Give specific reasons to support your answer. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is better to be a member of a group than to be the leader of a group. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. ♦ It has recently been announced that a shopping centre may be built in your neighbourhood.
They always want something more or something different. Which would you choose to buy? Give specific reasons to explain your choice. Others say that advertisements tell us about new products that may improve our lives. Others prefer using machines. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Others prefer to study with a group of students. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Use specific reasons to support your answer.prefer—planning or not planning for your leisure time? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. ♦ It has recently been announced that a new restaurant may be built in your neighbourhood. ♦ Some students prefer to study alone. Do you support or oppose this ١٧٩ . ♦ You have enough money to purchase either a house or a business. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. ♦ Some people say that advertising encourages us to buy things we really do not need. ♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People are never satisfied with what they have. ♦ Some people like doing work by hand. ♦ It has recently been announced that a new high school may be built in your neighbourhood. Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
Others take the opposite view and say that learning to be competitive is the best preparation. ١٨٠ . Would you rather have the university assign a student to share a room with you. or would you rather choose your own roommate? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. ♦ Supporters of technology say that it solves problems and makes life better. Which position do you support? Give specific reasons for your answer. Which view of technology do you support? Why? ♦ Some people believe that automobiles are useful and necessary. using concrete examples of both. Opponents argue that technology creates new problems that may threaten or damage the quality of life. ♦ You have been told that dormitory rooms at your university must be shared by two students. Using one or two examples. Give specific reasons for your choice. ♦ Some people say that the best preparation for life is learning to work with others and be co-operative. Choose another invention that you think is important. ♦ Inventions such as eyeglasses and the sewing machine have had an important effect on our lives. Others believe that automobiles cause problems that affect our health and well-being. Discuss these positions. Tell which one you agree with and explain why. discuss these two positions.plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.
♦ Describe someone you admire and explain why you admire this person. values. How did you resolve the internal conflicts and the situation? What did you learn from this? ♦ Briefly explain your objectives in pursuing a particular postgraduate program and your career aspirations. Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion. ♦ Imagine that you have been asked to form a five person team to tackle a business problem.♦ Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers should make learning enjoyable and fun for their students. and attitudes of ideal team members. How have you incorporated what you have learned from this individual in your life? ♦ Describe a difficult decision you have faced. ١٨١ . Describe the personal attributes.
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