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1
V
GS
= V
DD
= 1.8 V
V
DS
> V
GS
−V
TH
(in order for M
1
to operate in saturation)
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
(1 kΩ)
= V
DD
−
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
(1 kΩ)
> V
GS
−V
TH
W
L
< 2.04
7.3
V
GS
= V
DD
−I
D
(100 Ω)
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
(1 kΩ + 100 Ω)
> V
GS
−V
TH
(in order for M
1
to operate in saturation)
V
DD
−I
D
(1 kΩ + 100 Ω) > V
DD
−I
D
(100 Ω) −V
TH
I
D
(1 kΩ + 100 Ω) < I
D
(100 Ω) +V
TH
I
D
(1 kΩ) < V
TH
I
D
< 400 µA
Since g
m
increases with I
D
, we should pick the maximum I
D
to determine the maximum transconduc
tance that M
1
can provide.
I
D,max
= 400 µA
g
m,max
=
2I
D,max
V
GS
−V
TH
=
2I
D,max
V
DD
−I
D,max
(100 Ω) −V
TH
= 0.588 mS
7.5
I
D1
= 0.5 mA
V
GS
= V
TH
+
2I
D1
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.612 V
V
GS
=
1
10
I
D1
R
2
R
2
= 12.243 kΩ
V
GS
= V
DD
−
1
10
I
D1
R
1
−
11
10
I
D1
R
S
R
1
= 21.557 kΩ
7.6
I
D
= 1 mA
g
m
=
2I
D
V
GS
−V
TH
=
1
100
V
GS
= 0.6 V
V
GS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
D
R
D
= 1.2 kΩ
7.8 First, let’s analyze the circuit excluding R
P
.
V
G
=
20 kΩ
10 kΩ + 20 kΩ
V
DD
= 1.2 V
V
GS
= V
G
−I
D
R
S
= V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
(1 kΩ + 200 Ω)
I
D
= 600 µA
V
GS
= 1.08 V
W
L
=
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
= 12.9758 ≈ 13
Now, let’s analyze the circuit with R
P
.
M
1
10 kΩ
V
DD
20 kΩ
1 kΩ I
D
+I
RP
R
P
I
RP
200 Ω R
S
V
G
= 1.2 V
I
D
+I
RP
=
V
DD
−V
DS
1 kΩ + 200 Ω
V
GS
= V
G
−(I
D
+I
RP
) R
S
= V
DS
+V
TH
V
G
−
V
DD
−V
DS
1 kΩ + 200 Ω
R
S
= V
DS
+V
TH
V
DS
= 0.6 V
V
GS
= 1 V
I
D
=
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
= 467 µA
I
D
+I
RP
= I
D
+
V
DS
R
P
=
V
DD
−V
DS
1 kΩ + 200 Ω
R
P
= 1.126 kΩ
7.9 First, let’s analyze the circuit excluding R
P
.
V
GS
= V
DD
= 1.8 V
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
(2 kΩ) = V
GS
−100 mV
V
DD
−
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
− V
TH
)
2
(2 kΩ) = V
GS
−100 mV
W
L
= 0.255
Now, let’s analyze the circuit with R
P
.
M
1
R
P
I
RP
2 kΩ 30 kΩ
V
DD
V
GS
= V
DD
−I
RP
(30 kΩ)
I
RP
=
V
GS
−V
DS
R
P
=
50 mV
R
P
V
GS
= V
DD
−(I
D
−I
RP
) (2 kΩ) + 50 mV
V
DD
− I
RP
(30 kΩ) = V
DD
−
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
−I
RP
(2 kΩ) + 50 mV
V
DD
− I
RP
(30 kΩ) = V
DD
−
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
DD
−I
RP
(30 kΩ) −V
TH
)
2
−I
RP
(2 kΩ) + 50 mV
I
RP
= 1.380 µA
R
P
=
50 mV
I
RP
= 36.222 kΩ
7.12 Since we’re not given V
DS
for the transistors, let’s assume λ = 0 for largesignal calculations. Let’s
also assume the transistors operate in saturation, since they’re being used as current sources.
I
X
=
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
1
L
1
(V
B1
−V
TH
)
2
= 0.5 mA
W
1
= 3.47 µm
I
Y
=
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
2
L
2
(V
B2
−V
TH
)
2
= 0.5 mA
W
2
= 1.95 µm
R
out1
= r
o1
=
1
λI
X
= 20 kΩ
R
out2
= r
o2
=
1
λI
Y
= 20 kΩ
Since I
X
= I
Y
and λ is the same for each current source, the output resistances of the current sources
are the same.
7.13 Looking into the source of M
1
we see a resistance of
1
gm
. Including λ in our analysis, we have
1
g
m
=
1
µ
p
C
ox
W
L
(V
X
−V
B1
− V
TH
) (1 +λV
X
)
= 372 Ω
7.17 (a) Assume M
1
is operating in saturation.
I
D
= 0.5 mA
V
GS
= V
TH
+
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.573 V
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= 0.8 volt > V
GS
−V
TH
, verifying that M
1
is in saturation
(b)
A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −
2I
D
V
GS
−V
TH
R
D
= −11.55
7.18 (a) Assume M
1
is operating in saturation.
I
D
= 0.25 mA
V
GS
= V
TH
+
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.55 V
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= 1.3 V > V
GS
−V
TH
, verifying that M
1
is in saturation
(b)
V
GS
= 0.55 V
V
DS
> V
GS
−V
TH
(to ensure M
1
remains in saturation)
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
> V
GS
−V
TH
V
DD
−
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
R
D
> V
GS
−V
TH
W
L
<
2 (V
DD
−V
GS
+V
TH
)
µ
n
C
ox
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
R
D
= 366.67
= 3.3
20
0.18
Thus, W/L can increase by a factor of 3.3 while M
1
remains in saturation.
A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
) R
D
A
v,max
= −µ
n
C
ox
W
L
max
(V
GS
−V
TH
) R
D
= −22
7.19
P = V
DD
I
D
< 1 mW
I
D
< 556 µA
A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
R
D
= −5
W
L
<
20
0.18
R
D
> 1.006 kΩ
7.20 (a)
I
D1
= I
D2
= 0.5 mA
A
v
= −g
m1
(r
o1
r
o2
)
= −
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
1
I
D1
1
λ
1
I
D1
1
λ
2
I
D2
= −10
W
L
1
= 7.8125
(b)
V
DD
−V
B
= V
TH
+
2 I
D2

µ
p
C
ox
W
L
2
V
B
= 1.1 V
7.22 (a) If I
D1
and I
D2
remain constant while W and L double, then g
m1
∝
(W/L)
1
I
D1
will not change
(since it depends only on the ratio W/L), r
o1
∝
1
ID1
will not change, and r
o2
∝
1
ID2
will not
change. Thus, A
v
= −g
m1
(r
o1
r
o2
) will not change .
(b) If I
D1
, I
D2
, W, and L double, then g
m1
∝
(W/L)
1
I
D1
will increase by a factor of
√
2, r
o1
∝
1
ID1
will halve, and r
o2
∝
1
ID2
will halve. This means that r
o1
r
o2
will halve as well, meaning
A
v
= −g
m1
(r
o1
r
o2
) will decrease by a factor of
√
2 .
7.26 (a)
I
D1
= I
D2
= 0.5 mA
V
GS1
= V
TH
+
¸
2I
D1
µ
n
C
ox
_
W
L
_
1
= 0.7 V
V
DS1
= V
GS1
−V
TH
(in order of M
1
to operate at the edge of saturation)
= V
DD
−V
GS2
V
GS2
= V
DD
−V
GS1
+V
TH
= V
TH
+
¸
2I
D2
µ
n
C
ox
_
W
L
_
2
_
W
L
_
2
= 4.13
(b)
A
v
= −
g
m1
g
m2
= −
_
2µ
n
C
ox
_
W
L
_
1
I
D1
_
2µ
n
C
ox
_
W
L
_
2
I
D2
= −
¸
¸
¸
_
_
W
L
_
1
_
W
L
_
2
= −3.667
(c) Since (W/L)
1
is ﬁxed, we must minimize (W/L)
2
in order to maximize the magnitude of the gain
(based on the expression derived in part (b)). If we pick the size of M
2
so that M
1
operates at the
edge of saturation, then if M
2
were to be any smaller, V
GS2
would have to be larger (given the
same I
D2
), driving M
1
into triode. Thus, (W/L)
2
is its smallest possible value (without driving
M
1
into saturation) when M
1
is at the edge of saturation, meaning the gain is largest in magnitude
with this choice of (W/L)
2
.
7.27 (a)
A
v
= −
g
m1
g
m2
= −
_
2µ
n
C
ox
_
W
L
_
1
I
D1
_
2µ
n
C
ox
_
W
L
_
2
I
D2
= −
¸
¸
¸
_
_
W
L
_
1
_
W
L
_
2
= −5
_
W
L
_
1
= 277.78
(b)
V
DS1
> V
GS1
−V
TH
(to ensure M
1
is in saturation)
V
DD
−V
GS2
> V
GS1
−V
TH
V
DD
−V
TH
−
¸
2I
D2
µ
n
C
ox
_
W
L
_
2
>
¸
2I
D1
µ
n
C
ox
_
W
L
_
1
I
D1
= I
D2
< 1.512 mA
7.28 For this problem, recall that looking into the drain of a transistor with a grounded gate and source
we see a resistance of r
o
, and looking into either terminal of a diodeconnected transistor we see a
resistance of
1
gm
r
o
.
(a)
A
v
= −g
m1
_
r
o1
1
g
m2
r
o2
_
(b)
A
v
= −g
m1
_
r
o1
r
o2
1
g
m3
r
o3
_
(c)
A
v
= −g
m1
_
r
o1
r
o2
1
g
m3
r
o3
_
(d)
A
v
= −g
m2
_
r
o2
r
o1
1
g
m3
r
o3
_
(e)
A
v
= −g
m2
_
r
o2
r
o1
1
g
m3
r
o3
_
(f) Let’s draw a smallsignal model to ﬁnd the equivalent resistance seen looking up from the output.
−
v
t
+
i
t
+
v
gs2
−
R
D
g
m2
v
gs2
r
o2
i
t
= g
m2
v
gs2
+
v
t
−i
t
R
D
r
o2
v
gs2
= v
t
i
t
= g
m2
v
t
+
v
t
−i
t
R
D
r
o2
i
t
_
1 +
R
D
r
o2
_
= v
t
_
g
m2
+
1
r
o2
_
v
t
i
t
=
1 +
RD
ro2
g
m2
+
1
ro2
=
r
o2
+ R
D
1 +g
m2
r
o2
A
v
= −g
m1
_
r
o1
r
o2
+R
D
1 +g
m2
r
o2
_
7.30 (a) Assume M
1
is operating in saturation.
I
D
= 1 mA
I
D
R
S
= 200 mV
R
S
= 200 Ω
A
v
= −
R
D
1
gm
+R
S
= −
R
D
1
√
2µnCox
W
L
ID
+R
S
= −4
W
L
= 1000
V
GS
= V
TH
+
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.5 V
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
D
−I
D
R
S
= 0.6 V > V
GS
−V
TH
, verifying that M
1
is in saturation
Yes , the transistor operates in saturation.
(b) Assume M
1
is operating in saturation.
W
L
=
50
0.18
R
S
= 200 Ω
A
v
= −
R
D
1
√
2µnCox
W
L
ID
+R
S
= −4
R
D
= 1.179 kΩ
V
GS
= V
TH
+
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.590 V
V
DS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
D
−I
D
R
S
= 0.421 V > V
GS
−V
TH
, verifying that M
1
is in saturation
Yes , the transistor operates in saturation.
7.42 (a)
R
out
= R
D
= 500 Ω
V
G
= V
DD
V
D
> V
G
−V
TH
(in order for M
1
to operate in saturation)
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
> V
DD
−V
TH
I
D
< 0.8 mA
(b)
I
D
= 0.8 mA
R
in
=
1
g
m
=
1
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 50 Ω
W
L
= 1250
(c)
A
v
= g
m
R
D
g
m
=
1
50
S
R
D
= 500 Ω
A
v
= 10
7.43 (a)
I
D
= I
1
= 1 mA
V
G
= V
DD
V
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
R
D
= 300 Ω
(b)
R
D
= 300 Ω
A
v
= g
m
R
D
=
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
R
D
= 5
W
L
= 694.4
7.44 For this problem, recall that looking into the drain of a transistor with a grounded gate and source
we see a resistance of r
o
, and looking into either terminal of a diodeconnected transistor we see a
resistance of
1
gm
r
o
.
(a) Referring to Eq. (7.109) with R
D
=
1
gm2
and g
m
= g
m1
, we have
A
v
=
1
gm2
1
gm1
+R
S
(b) Let’s draw a smallsignal model to ﬁnd the equivalent resistance seen looking up from the output.
−
v
t
+
i
t
+
v
gs2
−
R
D
g
m2
v
gs2
i
t
= g
m2
v
gs2
v
gs2
= v
t
i
t
= g
m2
v
t
v
t
i
t
=
1
g
m2
A
v
=
g
m1
g
m2
(c) Referring to Eq. (7.119) with R
D
=
1
gm2
, R
3
= R
1
, and g
m
= g
m1
, we have
A
v
=
R
1
1
gm1
R
S
+R
1
1
gm1
g
m1
g
m2
(d)
A
v
= g
m1
R
D
+
1
g
m2
r
o3
(e)
A
v
= g
m1
R
D
+
1
g
m2
7.45 (a)
v
X
v
in
= −g
m1
R
D1
1
g
m2
v
out
v
X
= g
m2
R
D2
v
out
v
in
=
v
X
v
in
v
out
v
X
= −g
m1
g
m2
R
D2
R
D1
1
g
m2
(b)
lim
RD1→∞
−g
m1
g
m2
R
D2
R
D1
1
g
m2
= −g
m1
R
D2
This makes sense because the commonsource stage acts as a transconductance ampliﬁer with
a transconductance of g
m1
. The commongate stage acts as a current buﬀer with a current
gain of 1. Thus, the current g
m1
v
in
ﬂows through R
D2
, meaning v
out
= −g
m1
v
in
R
D2
, so that
vout
vin
= −g
m1
R
D2
.
This type of ampliﬁer (with R
D1
= ∞) is known as a cascode and will be studied in detail in
Chapter 9.
7.40
I
D
= 0.5 mA
R
in
=
1
g
m
=
1
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 50 Ω
W
L
= 2000
V
D
> V
G
−V
TH
(in order for M
1
to operate in saturation)
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
> V
b
− V
TH
R
D
< 2.4 kΩ
Since A
v
 ∝ R
D
, we need to maximize R
D
in order to maximize the gain. Thus, we should pick
R
D
= 2.4 kΩ . This corresponds to a voltage gain of A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −48.
7.42 (a)
R
out
= R
D
= 500 Ω
V
G
= V
DD
V
D
> V
G
−V
TH
(in order for M
1
to operate in saturation)
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
> V
DD
−V
TH
I
D
< 0.8 mA
(b)
I
D
= 0.8 mA
R
in
=
1
g
m
=
1
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 50 Ω
W
L
= 1250
(c)
A
v
= g
m
R
D
g
m
=
1
50
S
R
D
= 500 Ω
A
v
= 10
7.43 (a)
I
D
= I
1
= 1 mA
V
G
= V
DD
V
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
R
D
= 300 Ω
(b)
R
D
= 300 Ω
A
v
= g
m
R
D
=
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
R
D
= 5
W
L
= 694.4
7.44 For this problem, recall that looking into the drain of a transistor with a grounded gate and source
we see a resistance of r
o
, and looking into either terminal of a diodeconnected transistor we see a
resistance of
1
gm
r
o
.
(a) Referring to Eq. (7.109) with R
D
=
1
gm2
and g
m
= g
m1
, we have
A
v
=
1
gm2
1
gm1
+R
S
(b) Let’s draw a smallsignal model to ﬁnd the equivalent resistance seen looking up from the output.
−
v
t
+
i
t
+
v
gs2
−
R
D
g
m2
v
gs2
i
t
= g
m2
v
gs2
v
gs2
= v
t
i
t
= g
m2
v
t
v
t
i
t
=
1
g
m2
A
v
=
g
m1
g
m2
(c) Referring to Eq. (7.119) with R
D
=
1
gm2
, R
3
= R
1
, and g
m
= g
m1
, we have
A
v
=
R
1
1
gm1
R
S
+R
1
1
gm1
g
m1
g
m2
(d)
A
v
= g
m1
R
D
+
1
g
m2
r
o3
(e)
A
v
= g
m1
R
D
+
1
g
m2
7.45 (a)
v
X
v
in
= −g
m1
R
D1
1
g
m2
v
out
v
X
= g
m2
R
D2
v
out
v
in
=
v
X
v
in
v
out
v
X
= −g
m1
g
m2
R
D2
R
D1
1
g
m2
(b)
lim
RD1→∞
−g
m1
g
m2
R
D2
R
D1
1
g
m2
= −g
m1
R
D2
This makes sense because the commonsource stage acts as a transconductance ampliﬁer with
a transconductance of g
m1
. The commongate stage acts as a current buﬀer with a current
gain of 1. Thus, the current g
m1
v
in
ﬂows through R
D2
, meaning v
out
= −g
m1
v
in
R
D2
, so that
vout
vin
= −g
m1
R
D2
.
This type of ampliﬁer (with R
D1
= ∞) is known as a cascode and will be studied in detail in
Chapter 9.
7.48 For smallsignal analysis, we can short the capacitors, producing the following equivalent circuit.
M
1
R
4
v
in
R
2
R
3
R
D
v
out
A
v
= g
m
(R
2
R
3
R
D
)
7.49
V
GS
= V
DS
V
GS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
S
= V
DD
−
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
(1 +λV
GS
) R
S
V
GS
= V
DS
= 0.7036 V
I
D
= 1.096 mA
A
v
=
r
o
R
S
1
gm
+r
o
R
S
g
m
=
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 6.981 mS
r
o
=
1
λI
D
= 9.121 kΩ
A
v
= 0.8628
7.50
A
v
=
R
S
1
gm
+R
S
=
R
S
1
µnCox
W
L
(VGS−VTH)
+R
S
= 0.8
V
GS
= 0.64 V
I
D
=
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
= 960 µA
V
G
= V
GS
+V
S
= V
GS
+I
D
R
S
= 1.12 V
7.55 For this problem, recall that looking into the drain of a transistor with a grounded gate and source
we see a resistance of r
o
, and looking into either terminal of a diodeconnected transistor we see a
resistance of
1
gm
r
o
.
(a)
A
v
=
r
o1
(R
S
+ r
o2
)
1
gm1
+ r
o1
(R
S
+ r
o2
)
(b) Looking down from the output we see an equivalent resistance of r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) R
S
by Eq.
(7.110).
A
v
=
r
o1
[r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) R
S
]
1
gm1
+ r
o1
[r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) R
S
]
(c)
A
v
=
r
o1
1
gm2
1
gm1
+ r
o1
1
gm2
(d) Let’s draw a smallsignal model to ﬁnd the equivalent resistance seen looking down from the
output.
R
2
+
v
gs2
−
R
1
g
m2
v
gs2
r
o2
−
v
t
+
i
t
i
t
=
v
t
R
1
+ R
2
+ g
m2
v
gs2
+
v
t
r
o2
v
gs2
=
R
2
R
1
+ R
2
v
t
i
t
=
v
t
R
1
+ R
2
+ g
m2
R
2
R
1
+ R
2
v
t
+
v
t
r
o2
i
t
= v
t
1
R
1
+ R
2
+
g
m2
R
2
R
1
+ R
2
+
1
r
o2
v
t
i
t
= (R
1
+ R
2
)
R
1
+ R
2
g
m2
R
2
r
o2
A
v
=
r
o1
(R
1
+ R
2
)
R1+R2
gm2R2
r
o2
1
gm1
+ r
o1
(R
1
+ R
2
)
R1+R2
gm2R2
r
o2
(e)
A
v
=
r
o2
r
o3
1
gm1
1
gm2
+ r
o2
r
o3
1
gm1
(f) Looking up from the output we see an equivalent resistance of r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) r
o3
by Eq.
(7.110).
A
v
=
r
o1
[r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) r
o3
]
1
gm1
+ r
o1
[r
o2
+ (1 + g
m2
r
o2
) r
o3
]
7.58
P = V
DD
I
D
= 2 mW
I
D
= 1.11 mA
R
D
I
D
= 1 V
R
D
= 900 Ω
A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
R
D
= −5
W
L
= 69.44
7.60 Let’s let R
1
and R
2
consume exactly 5 % of the power budget (which means the branch containing R
D
,
M
1
, and R
S
will consume 95 % of the power budget). Let’s also assume V
ov
= V
GS
−V
TH
= 300 mV
exactly.
I
D
V
DD
= 0.95(2 mW)
I
D
= 1.056 mA
I
D
R
S
= 200 mV
R
S
= 189.5 Ω
V
ov
= V
GS
−V
TH
= 300 mV
I
D
=
1
2
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
V
2
ov
W
L
= 117.3
A
v
= −
R
D
1
gm
+R
S
= −
R
D
1
√
2µnCox
W
L
ID
+R
S
= −4
R
D
= 1.326 kΩ
V
2
DD
R
1
+R
2
= 0.05(2 mW)
R
1
+R
2
=
V
2
DD
0.1 mW
V
G
= V
GS
+I
D
R
S
= V
ov
+V
TH
+I
D
R
S
= 0.9 V
V
G
=
R
2
R
1
+R
2
V
DD
=
R
2
V
2
DD
0.1 mW
= 0.9 V
R
2
= 29.16 kΩ
R
1
= 3.24 kΩ
7.61 Let’s let R
1
and R
2
consume exactly 5 % of the power budget (which means the branch containing
R
D
, M
1
, and R
S
will consume 95 % of the power budget).
R
D
= 200 Ω
I
D
V
DD
= 0.95(6 mW)
I
D
= 3.167 mA
I
D
R
S
= V
ov
= V
GS
−V
TH
R
S
=
V
ov
I
D
g
m
=
2I
D
V
ov
A
v
= −
R
D
1
gm
+R
S
= −
R
D
Vov
2ID
+
Vov
ID
= −5
V
ov
= 84.44 mV
R
S
= 26.67 Ω
W
L
=
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
V
2
ov
= 4441
V
2
DD
R
1
+R
2
= 0.05(6 mW)
R
1
+R
2
=
V
2
DD
0.3 mW
V
G
= V
GS
+I
D
R
S
= V
ov
+V
TH
+I
D
R
S
= 0.5689 V
V
G
=
R
2
R
1
+R
2
V
DD
=
R
2
V
2
DD
0.3 mW
= 0.5689 V
R
2
= 6.144 kΩ
R
1
= 4.656 kΩ
7.62
R
in
= R
1
= 20 kΩ
P = V
DD
I
D
= 2 mW
I
D
= 1.11 mA
V
DS
= V
GS
−V
TH
+ 200 mV
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= V
DD
−V
TH
+ 200 mV
R
D
= 180 Ω
A
v
= −g
m
R
D
= −
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
R
D
= −6
W
L
= 2500
V
GS
= V
TH
+
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
= 0.467 V
V
GS
= V
DD
−I
D
R
S
R
S
= 1.2 kΩ
1
2πfC
1
≪R
1
1
2πfC
1
=
1
10
R
1
f = 1 MHz
C
1
= 79.6 pF
1
2πfC
S
R
S
≪
1
g
m
1
2πfC
S
=
1
10
1
g
m
g
m
=
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 33.33 mS
C
S
= 52.9 nF
7.64 (a)
A
v
= −g
m1
(r
o1
R
G
r
o2
)
(b)
P = V
DD
I
D1
= 3 mW
I
D1
= I
D2
 = 1.67 mA
V
GS2
 = V
DS2
 = V
DS
=
V
DD
2
I
D2
 =
1
2
µ
p
C
ox
W
L
2
(V
GS2
 − V
TH
)
2
(1 +λ
p
V
DS2
)
W
L
2
= 113
A
v
= −g
m1
(r
o1
R
G
r
o2
)
R
G
= 10 (r
o1
r
o2
)
r
o1
=
1
λ
n
I
D1
= 6 kΩ
r
o2
=
1
λ
p
I
D2

= 3 kΩ
R
G
= 10 (r
o1
r
o2
) = 20 kΩ
A
v
= −
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
1
I
D1
(r
o1
R
G
r
o2
)
= −15
W
L
1
= 102.1
V
IN
= V
GS1
= V
TH
+
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
1
(1 +λ
n
V
DS1
)
= 0.787 V
7.66
P = V
DD
I
D1
= 1 mW
I
D1
= I
D2
 = 556 µA
V
ov1
= V
GS1
−V
TH
=
_
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
_
W
L
_
1
= 200 mV
_
W
L
_
1
= 138.9
A
v
= −
g
m1
g
m2
= −
_
2µ
n
C
ox
_
W
L
_
1
I
D1
_
2µ
n
C
ox
_
W
L
_
2
I
D2

= −
¸
¸
¸
_
_
W
L
_
1
_
W
L
_
2
= −4
_
W
L
_
2
= 8.68
V
IN
= V
GS1
= V
ov1
+V
TH
= 0.6 V
7.67
P = V
DD
I
D
= 3 mW
I
D
= I
1
= 1.67 mA
R
in
=
1
g
m
=
1
2µ
n
C
ox
W
L
I
D
= 50 Ω
W
L
= 600
A
v
= g
m
R
D
=
1
50 Ω
R
D
= 5
R
D
= 250 Ω
7.68
P = V
DD
I
D
= 2 mW
I
D
= 1.11 mA
V
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
V
DD
−I
D
R
D
= V
G
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
V
G
= V
DD
A
v
= g
m
R
D
=
2I
D
V
GS
−V
TH
R
D
= 4
R
D
= A
v
V
GS
−V
TH
2I
D
V
DD
−I
D
A
v
V
GS
−V
TH
2I
D
= V
DD
−V
TH
+ 100 mV
V
GS
= 0.55 V
R
D
= 270 Ω
V
S
= V
DD
−V
GS
= I
D
R
S
R
S
= 1.125 kΩ
W
L
=
2I
D
µ
n
C
ox
(V
GS
−V
TH
)
2
= 493.8
7.73
P = V
DD
I
D1
= 3 mW
I
D1
= I
D2
= 1.67 mA
A
v
=
r
o1
r
o2
1
gm1
+r
o1
r
o2
=
r
o1
r
o2
1
q
2µnCox(
W
L
)
1
ID1
+r
o1
r
o2
= 0.9
r
o1
= r
o2
=
1
λI
D1
= 6 kΩ
W
L
1
= 13.5
Let V
ov2
= V
GS2
− V
TH
= 0.3 V. Let’s assume that V
OUT
= V
DS2
= V
ov2
.
V
GS2
= V
b
= V
ov2
+V
TH
= 0.7 V
W
L
2
=
2I
D2
µ
n
C
ox
(V
GS2
−V
TH
)
2
(1 +λV
DS2
)
= 161
V
GS1
= V
TH
+
2I
D1
µ
n
C
ox
W
L
1
(1 +λV
DS1
)
V
DS1
= V
DD
−V
DS2
= 1.5 V
V
GS1
= 1.44 V
V
IN
= V
GS1
+V
DS2
= 1.74 V
7.3 VGS = VDD − ID (100 Ω) VDS = VDD − ID (1 kΩ + 100 Ω)
> VGS − VT H (in order for M1 to operate in saturation) VDD − ID (1 kΩ + 100 Ω) > VDD − ID (100 Ω) − VT H ID (1 kΩ + 100 Ω) < ID (100 Ω) + VT H ID (1 kΩ) < VT H ID < 400 µA Since gm increases with ID , we should pick the maximum ID to determine the maximum transconductance that M1 can provide. ID,max = 400 µA 2ID,max gm,max = VGS − VT H 2ID,max = VDD − ID,max (100 Ω) − VT H = 0.588 mS
.
5 mA VGS = VT H + 2ID1 µn Cox W L = 0.5 ID1 = 0.7.612 V 1 ID1 R2 VGS = 10 R2 = 12.243 kΩ 11 1 VGS = VDD − ID1 R1 − ID1 RS 10 10 R1 = 21.557 kΩ .
2 kΩ .6 V VGS = VDD − ID RD RD = 1.7.6 ID = 1 mA 2ID 1 gm = = VGS − VT H 100 VGS = 0.
.
126 kΩ .2 V VDD − VDS ID + IRP = 1 kΩ + 200 Ω VGS = VG − (ID + IRP ) RS = VDS + VT H VDD − VDS VG − RS = VDS + VT H 1 kΩ + 200 Ω VDS = 0.7.2 V 10 kΩ + 20 kΩ = VG − ID RS = VDS = VDD − ID (1 kΩ + 200 Ω) ID = 600 µA VGS = 1.6 V VGS = 1 V W 1 2 (VGS − VT H ) ID = µn Cox 2 L = 467 µA VDS VDD − VDS ID + IRP = ID + = RP 1 kΩ + 200 Ω RP = 1. VDD 10 kΩ ID + IRP 1 kΩ M1 IRP RP 20 kΩ RS 200 Ω VG = 1. let’s analyze the circuit with RP . VG = VGS 20 kΩ VDD = 1.8 First. let’s analyze the circuit excluding RP .9758 ≈ 13 L µn Cox (VGS − VT H )2 Now.08 V 2ID W = = 12.
255 L Now. VDD 30 kΩ RP IRP M1 2 kΩ VGS = VDD − IRP (30 kΩ) VGS − VDS 50 mV IRP = = RP RP VGS = VDD − (ID − IRP ) (2 kΩ) + 50 mV VDD − IRP (30 kΩ) = VDD − VDD − IRP (30 kΩ) = VDD − W 1 2 µn Cox (VGS − VT H ) − IRP (2 kΩ) + 50 mV 2 L 1 W µn Cox (VDD − IRP (30 kΩ) − VT H )2 − IRP (2 kΩ) + 50 mV 2 L IRP = 1. let’s analyze the circuit excluding RP .9 First. let’s analyze the circuit with RP .222 kΩ RP = IRP .380 µA 50 mV = 36. VGS = VDD = 1.7.8 V VDS = VDD − ID (2 kΩ) = VGS − 100 mV W 1 2 (VGS − VT H ) (2 kΩ) = VGS − 100 mV VDD − µn Cox 2 L W = 0.
.
.
5 mA µn Cox 2 L2 1 = 20 kΩ λIX 1 = 20 kΩ = λIY W1 = 3.95 µm Rout1 = ro1 = Rout2 = ro2 Since IX = IY and λ is the same for each current source. Let’s also assume the transistors operate in saturation. let’s assume λ = 0 for largesignal calculations. IX = 1 W1 2 (VB1 − VT H ) = 0.47 µm IY = W2 = 1. .7. the output resistances of the current sources are the same.12 Since we’re not given VDS for the transistors. since they’re being used as current sources.5 mA µn Cox 2 L1 W2 1 (VB2 − VT H )2 = 0.
7. Including λ in our analysis. we have 1 1 = gm µp Cox W (VX − VB1 − VT H ) (1 + λVX ) L = 372 Ω .13 Looking into the source of M1 we see a resistance of 1 gm .
.
.
.
5 mA VGS = VT H + = 0.8 volt > VGS − VT H .573 V VDS = VDD − ID RD = 0.55 2ID µn Cox W L .7.17 (a) Assume M1 is operating in saturation. verifying that M1 is in saturation (b) Av = −gm RD 2ID RD =− VGS − VT H = −11. ID = 0.
max W (VGS − VT H ) RD L W (VGS − VT H ) RD = −µn Cox L max = −22 .55 V VDS = VDD − ID RD = 1.55 V VDS > VGS − VT H (to ensure M1 remains in saturation) 2ID µn Cox W L W 1 2 (VGS − VT H ) RD > VGS − VT H VDD − µn Cox 2 L W 2 (VDD − VGS + VT H ) < L µn Cox (VGS − VT H )2 RD = 366. W/L can increase by a factor of 3.25 mA VGS = VT H + = 0.18 Thus.67 20 = 3.18 (a) Assume M1 is operating in saturation. Av = −gm RD VDD − ID RD > VGS − VT H = −µn Cox Av.3 V > VGS − VT H .3 0.3 while M1 remains in saturation.7. verifying that M1 is in saturation (b) VGS = 0. ID = 0.
19 P = VDD ID < 1 mW ID < 556 µA Av = −gm RD = − 2µn Cox = −5 W 20 < L 0.006 kΩ W ID RD L .18 RD > 1.7.
5 mA Av = −gm1 (ro1 ro2 ) =− W L 2µn Cox W L ID1 1 1 λ1 ID1 1 λ2 ID2 = −10 = 7.1 V 2 ID2  µp Cox W L 2 .7.8125 1 (b) VDD − VB = VT H + VB = 1.20 (a) ID1 = ID2 = 0.
.
ro1 ∝ ID1 1 will halve. . then gm1 ∝ (W/L)1 ID1 will not change 1 1 (since it depends only on the ratio W/L). ro1 ∝ ID1 will not change.7. W . Av = −gm1 (ro1 ro2 ) will not change . This means that ro1 ro2 will halve as well. and ro2 ∝ ID2 will halve. change. then gm1 ∝ (W/L)1 ID1 will increase by a factor of 2. and ro2 ∝ ID2 will not √ 1 (b) If ID1 . meaning √ Av = −gm1 (ro1 ro2 ) will decrease by a factor of 2 . Thus. and L double. ID2 .22 (a) If ID1 and ID2 remain constant while W and L double.
.
.
.
7 V VDS1 = VGS1 − VT H (in order of M1 to operate at the edge of saturation) = VDD − VGS2 VGS2 = VDD − VGS1 + VT H = VT H + W L (b) Av = − =− gm1 gm2 2µn Cox 2µn Cox W L 1 W L 2 W L 1 ID1 W L 2 ID2 2ID1 µn Cox W L 1 2ID2 µn Cox W L 2 = 4. then if M2 were to be any smaller.13 2 =− = −3. meaning the gain is largest in magnitude with this choice of (W/L)2 .667 (c) Since (W/L)1 is ﬁxed. . (W/L)2 is its smallest possible value (without driving M1 into saturation) when M1 is at the edge of saturation.26 (a) ID1 = ID2 = 0.5 mA VGS1 = VT H + = 0. we must minimize (W/L)2 in order to maximize the magnitude of the gain (based on the expression derived in part (b)). VGS2 would have to be larger (given the same ID2 ). If we pick the size of M2 so that M1 operates at the edge of saturation.7. driving M1 into triode. Thus.
7.27 (a) Av = − =− gm1 gm2 2µn Cox 2µn Cox W L 1 W L 2 W L 1 ID1 W L 2 ID2 =− = −5 W L (b) = 277.78 1 VDS1 > VGS1 − VT H (to ensure M1 is in saturation) VDD − VGS2 > VGS1 − VT H VDD − VT H − 2ID2 µn Cox W L > 2 2ID1 µn Cox W L 1 ID1 = ID2 < 1.512 mA .
recall that looking into the drain of a transistor with a grounded gate and source we see a resistance of ro . m (a) Av = −gm1 ro1 (b) Av = −gm1 ro1 (c) Av = −gm1 ro1 (d) Av = −gm2 ro2 (e) Av = −gm2 ro2 ro1 1 gm3 ro3 ro1 1 gm3 ro3 ro2 1 gm3 ro3 ro2 1 gm3 ro3 1 gm2 ro2 (f) Let’s draw a smallsignal model to ﬁnd the equivalent resistance seen looking up from the output.28 For this problem.7. RD + vt − it + vgs2 − gm2 vgs2 ro2 it = gm2 vgs2 + vgs2 = vt it = gm2 vt + it 1 + RD ro2 = vt vt − it RD ro2 vt − it RD ro2 1 gm2 + ro2 R D 1 + ro2 vt ro2 + RD = = it 1 + gm2 ro2 gm2 + r1 o2 Av = −gm1 ro1 ro2 + RD 1 + gm2 ro2 . and looking into either terminal of a diodeconnected transistor we see a resistance of g1 ro .
(b) Assume M1 is operating in saturation.179 kΩ VGS = VT H + 2ID µn Cox W L VDS = 0. 50 W = L 0.590 V = VDD − ID RD − ID RS = 0. the transistor operates in saturation. the transistor operates in saturation.5 V = VDD − ID RD − ID RS = −4 RD = 1.30 (a) Assume M1 is operating in saturation.6 V > VGS − VT H . . ID = 1 mA ID RS = 200 mV RS = 200 Ω RD Av = − 1 gm + RS =− √ RD 1 2µn Cox W ID L + RS = −4 W = 1000 L VGS = VT H + 2ID µn Cox W L VDS = 0. verifying that M1 is in saturation Yes .7. verifying that M1 is in saturation Yes .421 V > VGS − VT H .18 RS = 200 Ω Av = − √ RD 1 2µn Cox W ID L + RS = 0.
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8 mA 1 Rin = gm 1 = 2µn Cox W ID L = 50 Ω W = 1250 L (c) Av = gm RD 1 gm = S 50 RD = 500 Ω Av = 10 .8 mA (b) ID = 0.42 (a) Rout = RD = 500 Ω VG = VDD VD > VG − VT H (in order for M1 to operate in saturation) VDD − ID RD > VDD − VT H ID < 0.7.
4 L 2µn Cox W ID RD L .7.43 (a) ID = I1 = 1 mA VG = VDD VD = VG − VT H + 100 mV VDD − ID RD = VG − VT H + 100 mV RD = 300 Ω (b) RD = 300 Ω Av = gm RD = =5 W = 694.
recall that looking into the drain of a transistor with a grounded gate and source we see a resistance of ro .44 For this problem. m (a) Referring to Eq. (7. we have 1 gm2 1 gm1 Av = + RS (b) Let’s draw a smallsignal model to ﬁnd the equivalent resistance seen looking up from the output.7. we have R1 1 gm1 1 gm1 Av = RS + R1 gm1 gm2 (d) Av = gm1 RD + (e) Av = gm1 RD + 1 gm2 1 gm2 ro3 . and looking into either terminal of a diodeconnected transistor we see a resistance of g1 ro . R3 = R1 .109) with RD = 1 gm2 and gm = gm1 . and gm = gm1 . (7. RD + vt − it + vgs2 − gm2 vgs2 it = gm2 vgs2 vgs2 = vt it = gm2 vt 1 vt = it gm2 gm1 Av = gm2 (c) Referring to Eq.119) with RD = 1 gm2 .
7. This type of ampliﬁer (with RD1 = ∞) is known as a cascode and will be studied in detail in Chapter 9. The commongate stage acts as a current buﬀer with a current gain of 1. the current gm1 vin ﬂows through RD2 . Thus.45 (a) vX = −gm1 RD1 vin vout = gm2 RD2 vX vout vX vout = vin vin vX 1 gm2 = −gm1 gm2 RD2 RD1 (b) lim −gm1 gm2 RD2 RD1 1 gm2 1 gm2 RD1 →∞ = −gm1 RD2 This makes sense because the commonsource stage acts as a transconductance ampliﬁer with a transconductance of gm1 . . so that vout vin = −gm1 RD2 . meaning vout = −gm1 vin RD2 .
we should pick RD = 2.4 kΩ VDD Since Av  ∝ RD . we need to maximize RD in order to maximize the gain. .7.40 ID = 0.4 kΩ . This corresponds to a voltage gain of Av = −gm RD = −48. Thus.5 mA 1 Rin = gm 1 = 2µn Cox W ID L = 50 Ω W = 2000 L VD > VG − VT H (in order for M1 to operate in saturation) − ID RD > Vb − VT H RD < 2.
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8 mA 1 Rin = gm 1 = 2µn Cox W ID L = 50 Ω W = 1250 L (c) Av = gm RD 1 gm = S 50 RD = 500 Ω Av = 10 .8 mA (b) ID = 0.7.42 (a) Rout = RD = 500 Ω VG = VDD VD > VG − VT H (in order for M1 to operate in saturation) VDD − ID RD > VDD − VT H ID < 0.
7.4 L 2µn Cox W ID RD L .43 (a) ID = I1 = 1 mA VG = VDD VD = VG − VT H + 100 mV VDD − ID RD = VG − VT H + 100 mV RD = 300 Ω (b) RD = 300 Ω Av = gm RD = =5 W = 694.
and gm = gm1 . RD + vt − it + vgs2 − gm2 vgs2 it = gm2 vgs2 vgs2 = vt it = gm2 vt 1 vt = it gm2 gm1 Av = gm2 (c) Referring to Eq.44 For this problem. recall that looking into the drain of a transistor with a grounded gate and source we see a resistance of ro . R3 = R1 . we have 1 gm2 1 gm1 Av = + RS (b) Let’s draw a smallsignal model to ﬁnd the equivalent resistance seen looking up from the output. m (a) Referring to Eq. (7. (7. we have R1 1 gm1 1 gm1 Av = RS + R1 gm1 gm2 (d) Av = gm1 RD + (e) Av = gm1 RD + 1 gm2 1 gm2 ro3 . and looking into either terminal of a diodeconnected transistor we see a resistance of g1 ro .7.109) with RD = 1 gm2 and gm = gm1 .119) with RD = 1 gm2 .
45 (a) vX = −gm1 RD1 vin vout = gm2 RD2 vX vout vX vout = vin vin vX 1 gm2 = −gm1 gm2 RD2 RD1 (b) lim −gm1 gm2 RD2 RD1 1 gm2 1 gm2 RD1 →∞ = −gm1 RD2 This makes sense because the commonsource stage acts as a transconductance ampliﬁer with a transconductance of gm1 . so that vout vin = −gm1 RD2 . the current gm1 vin ﬂows through RD2 . This type of ampliﬁer (with RD1 = ∞) is known as a cascode and will be studied in detail in Chapter 9.7. meaning vout = −gm1 vin RD2 . . Thus. The commongate stage acts as a current buﬀer with a current gain of 1.
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we can short the capacitors.7. R2 R3 RD vout M1 vin R4 Av = gm (R2 R3 RD ) .48 For smallsignal analysis. producing the following equivalent circuit.
096 mA Av = gm = ro = 1 gm ro RS + ro RS W ID = 6.7036 V ID = 1.8628 .49 VGS = VDS 1 W 2 VGS = VDD − ID RS = VDD − µn Cox (VGS − VT H ) (1 + λVGS ) RS 2 L VGS = VDS = 0.121 kΩ λID Av = 0.7.981 mS L 2µn Cox 1 = 9.
64 V 1 W 2 ID = µn Cox (VGS − VT H ) 2 L = 960 µA VG = VGS + VS = VGS + ID RS = 1.50 Av = = µn Cox W L 1 gm RS + RS RS 1 (VGS −VT H ) + RS = 0.7.12 V .8 VGS = 0.
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(7. recall that looking into the drain of a transistor with a grounded gate and source we see a resistance of ro . m (a) Av = ro1 (RS + ro2 ) (RS + ro2 ) gm1 + ro1 1 (b) Looking down from the output we see an equivalent resistance of ro2 + (1 + gm2 ro2 ) RS by Eq. and looking into either terminal of a diodeconnected transistor we see a resistance of g1 ro .110).55 For this problem. R1 + R2 vgs2 − gm2 vgs2 ro2 it − + vt it = vgs2 it it vt it vt vt + gm2 vgs2 + R1 + R2 ro2 R2 = vt R1 + R2 R2 vt vt + gm2 vt + = R1 + R2 R1 + R2 ro2 1 gm2 R2 1 = vt + + R1 + R2 R1 + R2 ro2 R1 + R2 ro2 = (R1 + R2 ) gm2 R2 ro1 1 gm1 Av = (R1 + R2 ) (R1 + R2 ) R1 +R2 gm2 R2 R1 +R2 gm2 R2 ro2 ro2 + ro1 (e) Av = ro2 1 gm2 ro3 1 gm1 + ro2 ro3 1 gm1 . ro1 [ro2 + (1 + gm2 ro2 ) RS ] Av = 1 [ro2 + (1 + gm2 ro2 ) RS ] gm1 + ro1 (c) Av = ro1 1 gm1 1 gm2 1 gm2 + ro1 (d) Let’s draw a smallsignal model to ﬁnd the equivalent resistance seen looking down from the output.7.
110).(f) Looking up from the output we see an equivalent resistance of ro2 + (1 + gm2 ro2 ) ro3 by Eq. ro1 [ro2 + (1 + gm2 ro2 ) ro3 ] Av = 1 [ro2 + (1 + gm2 ro2 ) ro3 ] gm1 + ro1 . (7.
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58 P = VDD ID = 2 mW ID = 1.11 mA RD ID = 1 V RD = 900 Ω Av = −gm RD =− = −5 2µn Cox W ID RD L W = 69.44 L .7.
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9 V DD 0.16 kΩ R1 = 3. M1 . ID VDD = 0.056 mA ID RS = 200 mV RS = 189.24 kΩ .95(2 mW) ID = 1.5 Ω Vov = VGS − VT H = 300 mV W 2 1 ID = µn Cox Vov 2 L W = 117.1 mW R2 = 29.05(2 mW) R1 + R2 2 VDD R1 + R2 = 0.3 L RD Av = − 1 gm + RS =− RD 1 √ 2µn Cox W ID L + RS = −4 RD = 1.7. Let’s also assume Vov = VGS − VT H = 300 mV exactly.60 Let’s let R1 and R2 consume exactly 5 % of the power budget (which means the branch containing RD .9 V R2 VG = VDD R1 + R2 R2 = V2 = 0. and RS will consume 95 % of the power budget).326 kΩ 2 VDD = 0.1 mW VG = VGS + ID RS = Vov + VT H + ID RS = 0.
67 Ω 2ID W = 4441 = 2 L µn Cox Vov 2 VDD = 0.5689 V R2 VG = VDD R1 + R2 R2 = V2 = 0. M1 .44 mV RS = 26.95(6 mW) ID = 3.656 kΩ .144 kΩ R1 = 4.7. RD = 200 Ω ID VDD = 0.167 mA ID RS = Vov = VGS − VT H Vov RS = ID 2ID gm = Vov RD Av = − 1 gm + RS = − Vov = −5 RD Vov 2ID + ID Vov = 84. and RS will consume 95 % of the power budget).61 Let’s let R1 and R2 consume exactly 5 % of the power budget (which means the branch containing RD .3 mW VG = VGS + ID RS = Vov + VT H + ID RS = 0.5689 V DD 0.05(6 mW) R1 + R2 2 VDD R1 + R2 = 0.3 mW R2 = 6.
33 mS L CS = 52.2 kΩ ≪ R1 1 R1 10 = 1 MHz = 2ID µn Cox W L C1 = 79.6 pF 1 gm 1 1 1 = 2πf CS 10 gm RS ≪ gm = 2µn Cox W ID = 33.467 V VGS = VDD − ID RS RS 1 2πf C1 1 2πf C1 f 1 2πf CS = 1.9 nF .11 mA VDS = VGS − VT H + 200 mV VDD − ID RD = VDD − VT H + 200 mV RD = 180 Ω Av = −gm RD =− = −6 2µn Cox W ID RD L W = 2500 L VGS = VT H + = 0.62 Rin = R1 = 20 kΩ P = VDD ID = 2 mW ID = 1.7.
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64 (a) Av = −gm1 (ro1 RG ro2 ) (b) P = VDD ID1 = 3 mW ID1 = ID2  = 1.787 V µn Cox W L 1 2ID (1 + λn VDS1 ) .7.67 mA VGS2  = VDS2  = VDS = ID2  = W L 2 VDD 2 1 µp Cox 2 W L 2 (VGS2  − VT H )2 (1 + λp VDS2 ) = 113 Av = −gm1 (ro1 RG ro2 ) RG = 10 (ro1 ro2 ) 1 ro1 = = 6 kΩ λn ID1 1 = 3 kΩ ro2 = λp ID2  RG = 10 (ro1 ro2 ) = 20 kΩ W L ID1 (ro1 1 Av = − 2µn Cox W L = −15 = 102.1 1 RG ro2 ) VIN = VGS1 = VT H + = 0.
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66 P = VDD ID1 = 1 mW ID1 = ID2  = 556 µA Vov1 = VGS1 − VT H = W L = 138.9 1 2ID µn Cox W L = 200 mV 1 Av = − =− gm1 gm2 2µn Cox 2µn Cox W L 1 W L 2 W L 1 ID1 W L 2 ID2  =− = −4 = 8.6 V .68 2 W L VIN = VGS1 = Vov1 + VT H = 0.7.
67 mA 1 1 = Rin = gm 2µ C n = 50 Ω W ox L ID W = 600 L Av = gm RD = RD = 250 Ω 1 RD = 5 50 Ω .67 P = VDD ID = 3 mW ID = I1 = 1.7.
11 mA VD = VG − VT H + 100 mV VDD − ID RD = VG − VT H + 100 mV VG = VDD 2ID RD = 4 VGS − VT H VGS − VT H RD = Av 2ID VGS − VT H = VDD − VT H + 100 mV − ID Av 2ID VGS = 0.8 L µn Cox (VGS − VT H ) VDD .125 kΩ 2ID W = 2 = 493.7.55 V Av = gm RD = RD = 270 Ω VS = VDD − VGS = ID RS RS = 1.68 P = VDD ID = 2 mW ID = 1.
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3 V.9 ro1 = ro2 = W L = 13.5 1 1 = 6 kΩ λID1 Let Vov2 = VGS2 − VT H = 0.74 V .5 V VGS1 = 1.44 V VIN = VGS1 + VDS2 = 1.67 mA Av = = ro1 ro2 ro2 gm1 + ro1 1 ro1 ro2 1 q + ro1 2µn Cox ( W ) ID1 L 1 ro2 = 0.7. VGS2 = Vb = Vov2 + VT H = 0.73 P = VDD ID1 = 3 mW ID1 = ID2 = 1. Let’s assume that VOUT = VDS2 = Vov2 .7 V W L = 2 2ID2 µn Cox (VGS2 − VT H ) (1 + λVDS2 ) 2ID1 W L 1 (1 2 = 161 VGS1 = VT H + µn Cox + λVDS1 ) VDS1 = VDD − VDS2 = 1.
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