17476534-Battery | Battery (Electricity) | Electrolyte




vehicles. . Here we are studying led-acid battery and its charging. Due to this the battery is very important. electronic equipments.BATTERY With the help of battery we can store electrical energy. The battery is used in torch.. emergency lights etc.

BATTERY TERMINOLOGY Voltaic Cell The term voltaic cell is defined as a combination of materials used to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. . Battery A battery is a group of two or more connected voltaic cells. Electrode An electrode is a metallic compound. which has an abundance of electrons (negative electrode) or an abundance of positive charges (positive electrode). A voltaic or chemical cell consists of two electrodes made of different types of metals or metallic compounds placed in an electrolyte solution. or metal.

835 times as much as pure water per unit volume. Normally.835. . Pure sulfuric acid has a specific gravity of 1.BATTERY TERMINOLOGY Specific Gravity Specific gravity is defined as the ratio comparing the weight of any liquid to the weight of an equal volume of water.000 and 1. Since the electrolyte of a lead-acid battery consists of a mixture of water and sulfuric acid. the specific gravity of the electrolyte will fall between 1. since it weighs 1. Lead-acid batteries use an electrolyte which contains sulfuric acid.000. The specific gravity of pure water is 1.350.835. the electrolyte for a battery is mixed such that the specific gravity is less than 1.

. A simple hydrometer consists of a glass float inside a glass tube. The float is placed inside the glass tube. As the fluid is drawn into the tube.BATTERY TERMINOLOGY SPECIFIC GRAVITY CONTINUE… Specific gravity is measured with a Figure 1 Simple Hydrometer. The extent to which the hydrometer float protrudes above the level of the fluid depends on the specific gravity of the fluid. and the fluid to be tested is drawn into the tube. as shown in Figure 1. The reading on the float scale at the surface of the fluid is the specific gravity of the fluid. the hydrometer float will sink to a certain level in the fluid. A scale calibrated in specific gravity is positioned lengthwise along the body of the float. The hydrometer float is weighted at one end and sealed at both ends.

If you multiply the current in amperes by the time of flow in hours. Ampere-hours are normally used to indicate the amount of energy a storage battery can deliver. the result is the total number of ampere-hours. .BATTERY TERMINOLOGY Ampere-Hour An ampere-hour is defined as a current of one ampere flowing for one hour.

are positively charged and are attracted by the negatively charged ions of the electrolyte.BATTERY Battery contains zinc and copper electrodes. The atoms. the atoms repel the positively charged ions of the electrolyte toward the copper electrode (figure 2). and the copper electrode contains lots of positively charged atoms. The zinc electrode contains lots of negatively charged atoms. The zinc electrode will collects a much larger negative charge because it dissolves into the electrolyte. When these electrodes are immersed in electrolyte. chemical action begins. . which leave the zinc electrode.

2 Basic Chemical Production of Electrical Power .BATTERY Fig.

BATTERY This action cause electrons to be removed from the copper electrode leaving it with an excess of positive charge. electron flow through a battery . If a load is connected across the electrodes. the forces of attraction and repulsion will cause the free electrons in the negative zinc electrode to move through the connecting wire and load. and toward the positive copper electrode (figure 3). Figure 3.

DISCHARGING OF LED-ACID BATTERY In a lead-acid battery. the negative plate is sponge lead (Pb). and diluted (weak) sulfuric acid H2SO4 is used as electrolyte as shown figure 4. positive plate consists of lead peroxide (PbO2). CATHODE Pb ANODE PbO2 H2SO4 Fig. 4 Chemical Action During Discharging .

so produce water H2O and lead sulphate PbSo4 (it has a white color) and thereby reduces the amount of acid in the electrolyte. PbO2 + H2 + H2SO4  PbSO4 + 2H2O Pb will combines with SO4 on negative plate (cathode) as result becomes PbSO4. H2 ion goes to anode and SO4 ion goes to cathode. Pb + SO4  PbSO4 Discharging PbO2 + Pb + 2H2SO4  2PbSO4 + 2H2O .DISCHARGING OF LED-ACID BATTERY At the time of discharging. H2SO4 divides into H2 and SO4 ion. H2 and H2SO4 combines with PbO2 on Positive plate (anode).

5 Chemical Action During Charging .CHARGING OF LED-ACID BATTERY Fig.

The return of acid to the electrolyte will reduce the sulphate in the plates and increase the specific gravity. The lead sulphate (PbSO4) is driven out and back into the electrolyte (H2SO4). Due to the charging current H2SO4 divides into H2 and SO4 ion. the action described in the discharging is reversed. This will continue to happen until all of the acid is driven from the plates and back into the electrolyte. charging PbO2 + Pb + 2H2SO4  2PbSo4 + 2H2O .CHARGING OF LED-ACID BATTERY In the charging.

. and oxygen (O2) gas is produced at the positive plate. charging is in progress. The excess current ionizes the water (H2O) in the electrolyte. it is necessary to provide adequate ventilation to the battery whenever no smoking. electric sparks. This action occurs since the charging current is usually greater than the current necessary to reduce the remaining amount of lead sulfate on the plates.H2 GAS DUE TO CHARGING As a lead-acid battery charge nears completion. hydrogen (H2) gas is produced at the negative plate. Since hydrogen is highly explosive. or open flames are allowed near a charging battery. Also.

While charging a lead-acid battery. or proportional.CHANGE IN SPECIFIC GRAVITY DUE TO DISCHARGING AND CHARGING The decrease in specific gravity on discharge is proportional to the ampere-hours discharged. the rise in specific gravity is not uniform. to the amount of ampere-hours charged (Figure 6). .


To determine the state of charge. as read using a hydrometer. original value as it is charged. Since specific gravity of a lead-acid battery decreases proportionally during discharge. with the full charge value and the manufacturer’s published specific gravity drop.CHANGE IN SPECIFIC GRAVITY DUE TO DISCHARGING AND CHARGING The electrolyte in a lead-acid battery plays a direct role in the chemical reaction. . the value of specific gravity at any given time is an approximate indication of the battery’s state of charge. compare the specific gravity. The specific Figure 6 Voltage and Specific Gravity During Charge and Discharge gravity decreases as the battery discharges and increases to its normal. which is the decrease from full to nominal charge value.

.175 specific gravity.120) at an 8 hour discharge rate.260 and has a normal gravity drop of 120 points (or. How much battery discharged? Solution: Fully charged 1.CHANGE IN SPECIFIC GRAVITY DUE TO DISCHARGING AND CHARGING For example: A lead-acid battery reads 1. It is therefore about 85/120 X 100 = 71% discharged.260 Presently 1.175 The battery is 85 point below its fully charged state. Its average full charge specific gravity is 1.

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