Translated excerpt from report "Rape in the Global Village", Saetre and Grytdal, Oslo 2011.

Original report: "Voldtekt i den globale byen," found at https://www.politi.no/oslo/aktuelt/nyhetsarkiv/2011_05/Nyhet_9976.xml
Pages 51-56 […] What this difference in age profile for Norwegian and non-Norwegian perpetrators indicates is hard to say. Explanatory models can be developed linked to differences in life history (life history analysis) and to special age steps (cohort analysis), to diverse cultural backgrounds (subculture analysis) and to social status and the burdens affecting social groups regardless of cultural roots (strain theory). *48 There is a great probability that differences between perpetrators change in relation to greater or more equal inclination to report as between the victims of perpetrators of Norwegian or non-Norwegian backgrounds. It is further probable according to new research from Sweden, that the same explanation is valid for both groups, ie socio-economic factors in relation to parents and communities, but that this affects more man with foreign backgrounds. *49 A number of mechanisms may also be active at the same time. As the violation profile for those involved is relatively similar across ethnic backgrounds with the exception of this age profile, it appears that the violation procedure can both be blamed on factors that are common for men across ethnicity, and factors that are specific. In the analysis otherwise it can be seen that there is a difference linked to the fact that young non-Norwegian persons are most frequently reported for types of rape where those involved are not known to each other, such as assault and vulnerability rape, and to some extent party rape. This can provide a basis for various hypotheses about how the sex market functions differently for men with Norwegian or other ethnic backgrounds. Young foreign men, immigrant workers and others, can find it hard to establish steady pair relationships and/or acquaintance with potential partners in Oslo, and this can help to generate unsuccessful and degrading sexual relationships which are reported as rape. Circumstances like loneliness in the homo-social reality that some of these young men inhabit, rejection in the sexual market by Norwegian girls, lack of access to young women with the same culture and national background as themselves, arranged intimate relationships and promises of fidelity embedded in their own culture, can all be factors in this. At the same time part of the explanation may be that the inclination to report on the part of women is greater when unwanted or degrading events take place in connection with non-Norwegian persons than when Norwegian men are involved. It is easier to report "aliens" than people you know yourself or are networked to. On the other hand it may also be the case that women in pair relationships with foreign partners have a particularly low inclination to report relationship rape, and that the age-related pattern among non-Norwegian perpetrators and their low representation in the category of reported relationship rape can in this way primarily be attributed to a high proportion of unreported cases.

*48 See for example Hauge, R. (2001): Kriminalitetens årsaker, Universitetsforl aget, eller Larsen, G. (1997): Innvandrete folkeslag og kriminalitet, i Finstad & Høigård (red.): Kriminologi, Pax *49 Hällsten, M., Sarnecki, J. & Szulkin, R. (2011): Crime as a Price of Inequality? The Delinquency Gap

between Children of Immigrants and Children of Native Swedes, Universitetet I Stockholm, se http://webb.polopoly.it.su.se/content/1/c6/01/18/63/SULCISWP_2011_1.pdf

[52]

Citizenship and national background – perpetrator *50 The majority of registered perpetrators in cases of reported rape in Oslo in 2010 have Norwegian citizenship, as has been the case in every previous rape study. In 2010 this went for 61.2% of the perpetrators, which is relatively stable compared to the material from 2007 (60.3%). A relatively high proportion, 12.5%, of the registered perpetrators are from other parts of Europe, and taken together almost three quarters of the perpetrators in 2010 have European citizenship. For the rest, 10.5% are from Africa, 9.2% from the Middle East, 4.6% from Asia and 2% from America. *51 Even though a majority of the registered perpetrators have Norwegian citizenship, a high proportion of them are originally from other countries than Norway. In 2007 there was an unusually high proportion of perpetrators from the African continent, accounting for 30.5% of cases, so that the proportion with Norwegian backgrounds was unusually low (27.2%). This could be attributed to a reported group rape in which several persons of African background were involved. The picture in 2010 is more normalized, and in line with the trend from 2004. In 2010 the proportion of perpetrators with a Norwegian background is 34.9% and the proportion originating from the European continent outside Norway is 13.8%. Together almost half (48.7%) of the perpetrators had a European ethnic background. The proportion of perpetrators with a background in the continent of Africa had sunk to 19.7%, the Middle-East 15.1%, Asia 14.1%, and America 2%. *50 As described in the introduction, the definition of the Central Statistics Office (SSB) forms the basis for national background and the distinction Norwegian/non-Norwegian. *51 The Middle-East does not include Egypt, but does include Turkey and the states of the Arabian peninsular, together with Iraq and Iran.

Figure 8: Perpetrator's citizenship. Oslo police district 2010. Per cent. N=152 (cases). 2010 Norway 61,2%, America 2,0%, Asia 4,6%, Middle-East 9,2%, Africa 10,5%, Europe,12,5% [53] Figure 9: Perpetrator's (also repeatedly suspected/person seen) continent of origin. Oslo police district 2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010. Per cent. N=115, 110, 151 and 152 (cases). 2001

Norway 47%, Europe 7%, America 6%, Africa 10%, Asia 7%, Middle-East 23% 2004 Norway 36,4%, Europe 10,9%, America 2,7%, Africa 19,1%, Asia 10,0%, Middle-East 20,9% 2007 Norway 27,2%, Asia 15,2%, Africa 30,5%, Middle-East 15,9%, Europe 7,9%, America 3,3% 2010 Europe 13,8%, Middle-East 15,1%, Asia 14,5%, Africa 19,7, America 2,0%, Norway 34,9%,

[54] It was previously mentioned that the total number of cases with a reported perpetrator is 152, comprising 131 different persons. A number of persons are thus reported as perpetrators in connection with multiple rapes. In the following figure the continental background is shown only for unique perpetrators (each perpetrator is only counted once, irrespective of the number of reports in which this individual is suspected or was seen). The proportion of perpetrators (unique persons) of Norwegian national background is the group whose representation increases the most, comprising 38.2% of perpetrators. Together this brings the proportion of perpetrators with a European continental background to a total of 51.9%. The proportion with an Asian background falls to 11.5%, but otherwise the continental background profile is stable. Africa was 28.5%, while they made up 30.5% in the distribution of cases shown previously. This may be explained by the fact that a number of unique perpetrators of an African background were reported for more than one rape in the course of the year.

Figure 10: Perpetrator's (different, unique persons) country/continent of origin. Oslo police district 2010. Per cent. N=131 2010 Europe America Africa Asia Middle-East Norway 13,7% 2,3% 19,8% 11,5% 14,5% 38,2%

If you distribute unique perpetrators by nationality, the largest groups originate in Norway (50), Iraq (8), Pakistan (9), Lithuania (7), Morocco (6), Somalia, Afghanistan and Sweden (5), Turkey and Gambia (4). When you break down the rape reports by type of rape and identified suspect/person seen's country of origin, you come closer to a more nuanced picture of the relationship between rape and ethnicity. Crude generalizations that have given the impression that rapists are only foreigners – and primarily Muslims – are shown to be inadequate and erroneous. Below it can be seen that the largest group (11.8%) of perpetrators among all 152 known suspects/persons seen were Norwegian and reported for relationship rape. This may to a certain extent be attributed to the fact that perpetrators in relationship rapes are more often identified individuals than those who are reported in other types of rape. But the next largest groups also comprise persons with a Norwegian background; 10% were Norwegians reported for party-related violations, 9.2% were Norwegians reported for vulnerability rapes. Significant groups among known suspects/persons seen are also 7.9% of European origin and were reported for party-related rape. These are followed by 7.9% of Middle-Eastern origin reported for relationship rapes. [55] Table 29: Suspects/persons seen in rape reports in Oslo police district in 2010 distributed by type of rape and continent/country background. Per cent. Country background of perpetrator Africa America Asia Europe Middle-East Norway Total N= Party-related Relationship Vulnerability Assault Other Total N=

5,3 1,3 4,6 7,9 2,6 10,5 32,2 49

3,3 0,7 1,3 4,6 7,9 11,8 29,6 45

7,2 0,0 7,2 1,3 2,0 9,2 27,0 41

0,7 0,0 0,7 0,0 2,6 0,0 3,9 6

3,3 0,0 0,7 0,0 0,0 3,3 7,2 11

19,7 2,0 14,5 13,8 15,1 34,9 100 152

30 3 22 21 23 53 152

The ethnic profile varies within the different types of rape, but for all types except assault rape the largest group is composed of Norwegian perpetrators. Assault rape only comprises 6 cases, however, and the same perpetrator was responsible for two of these (there were 5 unique suspects/persons seen in 6 reports). In 4 of the six reports (3 unique men) the perpetrator was from the Middle-East, in one assault rape the man was from Africa, and in another, from Asia. Claims that all assault rapes are committed by foreigners are thus supported by these figures, although the basis for the claims is small and the selection is special. Two of the five different identified perpetrators responsible for the assault rapes were very young – less

than 18 – and two had serious psychiatric diagnoses. If you extend the material to cover the 16 assault rape cases in which the person is unidentified, but where a description has been provided by the victim, another picture emerges: 8 of the perpetrators were of African/dark-skinned appearance, 5 were western/fair-haired/Nordic and 4 looked Asian. It is not certain how many different people provided these descriptions of the perpetrators, as the perpetrators of assault rapes tend to commit several violations.

Table 30: Types of rape reported to Oslo police district in 2010 with an identified suspect/person seen, distributed by perpetrator's country of origin. Per cent.

Country background of perpetrator Africa America Asia Europe Middle-East Norway Total N=

Partyrelated 16,3 4,1 14,3 24,5 8,2 32,7 100 49

Relationship

Vulnerability

Assault

Other Total

N=

11,1 2,2 4,4 15,6 26,7 40,0 100 45

26,8 0,0 26,8 4,9 7,3 34,1 100 41

16,7 0,0 16,7 0,0 66,7 0,0 100 6

45,5 0,0 9,1 0,0 0,0 45,5 100 11

19,7 2,0 14,5 13,8 15,1 34,9 100 152

30 3 22 21 23 53 152

The ethnic profile for all types of rape except assault rape is dominated by persons of Norwegian origin, but is otherwise varied. If citizenship had been used as a background variable the proportion of Norwegians would have been even higher. For party-related rape, in addition to the Norwegian 32.7%, there is a large proportion with another European background (24.5%). Together with the Norwegians, Europeans make up more than half of the known perpetrators. Perpetrators from the Middle-East, who are over-represented among those reported for assault rape, are under-represented in this party-related type of rape.

[56]

For relationship rape, on the other hand, a relatively high proportion of known perpetrators are from the Middle-East (26.7%) besides the Norwegian group (40%), together with a significant group of persons

with another European background. Responsibility for the 41 vulnerability rape cases in our material lies with Norwegians (34.1%) and also persons with African and Asian backgrounds. It must be emphasized once more that the marked over-representation of individuals from a minority background in connection with several types of rape cannot be interpreted as a result of alien culture being a causal explanation for rape. The reports apply to only a few of the rapes that occur, and the inclination to report rape is different for perpetrators of Norwegian origin than it is for those of a different country of origin. Furthermore there is thorough quantitative research to confirm that statistical differences in criminal behavior between ethnic groups disappear when the figures are controlled for the socio-economic circumstances in which the individuals concerned have grown up in Norway.

[…]

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.