m o c. dl r o w o h s o.

w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 1 egaP

4g xk;gl 4g Cgu /ksjof Bksd e e®k;÷kv jk,v nkodrfk,H 4krd , s , X l ksg Cgu j['f kucf d nk;ufc 4g j['f kd jnfe e®k;÷kv jk,v hd jnfe g s q , a a , nk;ufc nkodrfk,H 4g <jp ;koufv kd nkoe®k;÷kv nkodrfk,H ]e cklgf jse q , Z X s `hxId ld Lt hdlm kr xku s s , \ s s s kpgi u hg ksd <jkd ye er dfk;D 4sxksdl ksg Cgu jki d dju lb er dr w q X s q cr ]e su[j jkehc7uhn ]e u[j chjx ]e u[j kxe[Hf gér g hjkoeét hd X X s X s a X q , s q X a q s q krl7/kl jkgér df xk>el u g; er dr ct jkv 4g Fkg kd krl7/kl jkgé s s q , , X a q s r elb 4g gj xkH eg kst g ek<jfi‘qn g; kdlm 4g kgkp kujd kL[ ksd nko q X T s s , , \ e®k;÷kv ji knuV hd nkodrfk,H jkv 4g hd knuV hd nkodrfk,H ueg df g; g , , s o ksr e kë"o jktg pkai ub g hd yH hLc7l7hLc jxv Bkd ueg e cklgf jse X , w \ s \ s s X s `Skt k;kxm ld uk;÷ eum ]g [H s , X T s w Isi 2XyG ld thc d ei eum ]g [H Isi 2ksg kni ld kr rhxl ksr ]g Cgu l s , s zs X T s w , s , s a , ki hg k<ho 2jH ld ksr jH g; kr ukLm hd ke®kv ]g Cgu ;kim kd suykHal s s , s s \ , hH ksd jhj' ksr hHv lki d 'n lb 4kxdl ksg hH hnkoe®k;÷kv g; ksr ]Sgfkp s s s kuksg hnkodrfkH sygi ksd 'n lb 4g krjd hjknokn F;ø hd e®k;÷kv 'n g; , s , s Z s 4g krkt , ksg hnkodrfk,H ed 'n kurm ]g hrksg rfUm drfkH hurtf df g g; ksr pl s , , , 4g hrksg knk;† Ldi hdum ]g Cgu Nd lki dutf `xskL , \ , q s s di kurdf 4ArokHo¬ 4g Bx ksg ed L\di hdum ]g rgc thp lki dutf jkv \ , T q X s , 4kvkxy s xkv kd e®k;÷kv lsS `sxksjd k;D kd e®k;÷kv slS 2kvg e®k;÷kv c[ ksr g; s s s q w 4g Cgu hjdku ]g Cgu jiîN ]g Cgu ksd suhi7uk[ lki jkgér dfk;D ]hnkoe®k;÷ , , , , s s q X kv er jkv 4hnkodrfkH Syflb 4g knk;† Xthp drfk,H lki dum df Syfhlb q , , T s Zilf 4xksy hnkodrfk,H kg rgd er kdum g Bx P\c rgc thp akgt e epæfi88 s s q s T q X X A upo d k'kv s s s 4g l ;üv Nd jkv l dr¬i hlb <j0m T s q , s q Nd l eutf ]g kr>el hxk;im kun akg; k;dfy> Nd hd I‘fnuoht hykouL q s X wa s s a q 1 s s\ kt ksd jkll o ke®keji ]ukKof o e®k;÷kv hd k'kv 4kolf d hy'uoht lb C a s s s , gu hH g i¥dof Bksd kjlwn uekl d ;‘que cv ]>el u >el ]ul u Xul eg , s s X X X q q rdV 4htkj hg u ]g hnkv eg u d u>el ]uul ]u[n kd ;®l Iduf urb df q T s s s q s s s s g hd Iduf o ;®l ]h/hl hurb ]I‘i¬ hurb rkc 4g kryjl hdlb I¥m Cgu , , s krgWn hd hy,'uoht lb <jkd kd BkuOfd df g g; kte 4g hrksg BkuOfd kd q , , s X kxsky rgc e su>el kd lk;ül7ou ;ütnr o I‘fnuoht hnkokrxel hd k'kv q X s a . 1 z s s [qekv
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 2 egaP

, s a g krn k;yfkx kd kX;jfkll jkv 4g krk[ go ]g rked o 4g krugi L\id Sn s a , , T s s , s f hg dum ]utksH k;nf hg kdum 4g jHuf hg jiM d kxksy djfklkl jkv 4g s , Z s X a , , krn k;yfkx ksd jkll 4g krxy ulp gér go 4g hrkt k[ krde®kutl hdlm s a a , s w X q , s 1 4g krkt ksg jk[r@#!ie 4jiM d tkel g krkt ksg >kc hlk;ül kjkgér jkv , s q s , s a q , 4g r/fcl llm xky urtf3kxSkt sn [ T a a s s s An ksd kxky lhpπi7ln ed7l7ed hlk;ül dS 2k;x xkH jk,v3g jknræjf jkv q X s s a T s , ]g hu®i ]IkN g pπc ]kPc g krif ]hPc g ke 2k;x n I‘d ksd kxky urdf e , ss T s w\ , w\ , a s X s s w yke7u hlk;ül dS7dS 4k;nf Cgu u jkv hldf kurm ]g k;nf I‘d ksd kxsky u a s , , X s rtf u k;lfk;ül rFfdkFr jkgér 4sxkvksg ukjg rgc er ksr Skt k[j cklgf s X a s q s , q q kdum jxv 4k[j Cgu hH u hldf cklgf kdum ]kd kpπc dum kvg k;D ]kd s X s q X k;u®fi hdum kvg k;D 2L\i suye urc d kjln ]kLi kukg jcte ji uxkae [ q s Z s X w \ s w s hH güm df ]bx kg aSk;æo k;u®fi 6uc jkp ]hxkae [hH u kXpπc `kvg k;D kd X s s a s s s q s kXpπc dum ]kvg k;D ksd k;u®fi hdum kr ]Sg hlk;ül xky kXLks\jd7kLks\jd ct s q X s q a s X df k[j Cgu cklgf u hldf go 4g Snf I‘d rgc ksd k;ufn u lk;ül Lks\xH s T q q s a s lm dfk;D 4g krk[lf uikLks\xH kt d lk;ül lm g Gky[f e 4krgkp Cgu ku X , s s a wa T Lkr F;ø l Cgd ksd hldf 4krgkp Cgu kukLN ksd hldf l thp hldf e dfk;D s\ Z s q\ s T X 4g Nd cl ]g k;u®fi ]g pπc ]g rjd hjdku ]g rjd ukdn ]g rgj e jkl , q T a T s T s , T s q T s X a s , s q s , q l lt jkgér 4lt er dhO 4g xky hg l,t er ; 4xkXg eyke sry[f yG 4kx T s s q s s w w s \ Li Bk[nf rlc ]kxLi Bk[nf nkÁkv ]hxLi Bk[nf krUli kg; géqr Syflb88 a s \ s \ z a X 884g kgj jd xk;i kOuv kdlb ]Skt kgj ld jgkc , s z w s , d jkll jk,v jdgj e jkll go 4krjd Cgu jkdub ksd jkll hH jGf ]g kr s a X a a , jd jkdho¬ ksd e®k;÷kv go 4krjd Cgu jkdub kd e®k;÷kv hH jGf jkv 4g k s , , rjd jkdho¬ ksd jkll go 4g jc[ hygi7hygi hd ;‘ue Su hlm hlk;ül kjse a , q a 4g , kgj yp lk;zi Syf d eüt d kr;‘ue hlm 4Sgfkp kuksg eüt kd kr;‘ue hlS s s q q s dS 4hxSkuc rl ]hxSkuc /cl phc d jrhH jk,v jgkc kt 4hxjd u kL[ / q s a a s s s \ ksjof kt e jrhH jk,v jgkc 4hH ksd jrhH jkv hxjd jkdhxv hH ksd jgkc kt s X , s a s 4hxkg hnkozxel kt ]hxksg hnkoe®kv u ]hxksg hnkogn ksr u kt 4hxkg hnkoxel s s s s s z s kt ]hxksg hnkoe®k;÷kv u hxksg hnkodrfkH u kt 4hxksg rDe l kywH kuksn kt ] , s q s X X s kd kr;‘ue hlS 4g kujd utl kd kr;‘que Bu dS eg df g hg; "k?nm kjse q s , 1 X , s . 4g e krxel huki dfk;D 4g k;x ks[ huki kdltf ]g gj GLr slt , X z X , T s \ , hyNe kuskn 4g sgj GLr kukn ]kup k/kv7k/kv u kuksn 4Gky[f d nkodrfk,H X T \ X s q s X s ]k;yf uqp e®k;÷kv u rjkH 4Gky[f d e®k;÷kv ]k;yf up nkodrfk,H u epæf s s q s i 4jduke rhjiof kd Xkuksn g kgj jd yH hH epæfi 4jduke rhjiof ksd kukn s , w X s g hd yH hL\c u rjkH 4rdl ksg Cgu rhjiof nkoe®k;÷kv jk,v nkodrfk,H kr , w s s s 2kr ks[n l jkx ]g xk;gl kurdf e jhj' jk,v ke®kv s s s , , s X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 3 egaP

4g kr[n ksd uiv gxt hd doq; lm go 4g krkt ksg <i{i kdlm 4g hrkt , s s , s z , ksg hL[ jd jHm go ]g k;kcn ksd kulko jHuoht ulm 4g krkt kv Idl ji \ , s , a X z s k<ki dlm lc ]Sg ryp ykL Fkg e Fkg ksd Lks\t dS g kry [n go jxv q s s X s , s s 4g <i{i dlm kt g hrxy uLi Bk[nf thp hlS slm k; T s z s s T s \ X s 4krLi Cgu Bk[nf Nd \ q jGf lm ]g krkt ksg k/v endS ]g krkt ksg k/v go 4g krLi rhjiof d kv s , a , a , \ s X k<jk/ hdlm 2k;pæir hld g; 2eJkv kld g; 2lk;ül kld g; Ag krxy sl Z , , a , , m 4g krkt dkTp go ksr ]ji®r ksd sukt e ;®u 6jrkv kd ucL e rhxal ]ue , X 1 q s s w X jnl ]ur jnl xksy 6krLi Bk[nf Cgu Sg Skej rHH ji jhj' Bksd Cgd jkv aq qa \ q w , 6rhxl 6hrLi Bk[nf Cgu hu/ Bksd Cgd jk,v ]g hgj tc hjlkac df g kr[sn j a \ w , q , dkv kag; go ct jk,v ]g kr[n rpku ksd kxksy jdkv kg; go ct jkv 4g k< , s s X a , , jk/ hd ke®kge hdlm hgo dfk;D 4lt yF¬Qe ][l7[W ]lk;î7[H ]Iiy rH X s , s w s s s w ss w H ]Skej hu/ ]phu d kLk> ]lknm sxkXg Oc xksy df g krkv jdy Sk{iv go w s s X \ s, , s a s 4g krkv jd , s a s y Sk{iv go dfk;D ]g hrksg hupc hLc lm ksr ]g krkv u kag; ct ue r¬xP X , , s \ s , z \ fW ]rxkjiji rFfdkFr kr Cgu 4k;kv e oHuv kg; kvg krjrm xo¬ kl7kLkF a s X q a q Z s\ X q gér df kg hyk';≈kHk,l er 4hLi Bk[nf rfk' kago gér jkv dl [n e Xk[kv s q \ a X q , s s X a hd kxky er df ]kg hyk';≈kHkl er 4g krksg eyke oHlv endS kuukpgi X s q s , q , w a s , lm ]g kgj I? kag; kt ku[n df g k;nf jH l kvk<jk/ hd F;ø hurb ksd u s s , s X Z e ;hrjkH u /"uf d k;nfl7k;nfl ]g k;x ksg k/v kurb ]g k;x kg <≈Q kur s s s X X , a , s b ue ;hrjkH dfk;D 2g kgj Li Bk[nf gér df kvg kNπv 2Sx kv kvqg kNπv X , \ X q q 4g krkt kel xo¬ Xe lkoæ7lkoæ hdlm ]g k , Z , rht l kr<ijfi kst 4g krkv jrm xo¬ Cg; jGf 4g Cgu xo¬ jk,v Cgd jGf 2 s Z w , Z , Z ksvtf l kr<ijfi yi dS7dS 2kvtf jd jH ht ]kvtf 4g kd ;/of jo¬ dyf s Z w s s , s k,e kje 4kF kd /"uf jo¬ dyfk,e kdlm 4hF h/ksjof7uoht k<jk/ hd lk;üal r s s FfdkFr hukjqi 2nkÁkv kd uoht ]g kgj k[lf Cgu nk"of kd uoht ksd kxky wa X s Te 4g utks;kv kd ukuxux ]ukx ]supku Fkl d ke®keji 4g k|of hd uxksH kd , s q q s s , s s ke®keji Syf je lk;ül 4g kyd eji hd xksH ]g Cgu xk;® Syf je lk;üal ss a , , ss 4g kxy sukv rlo jkv g kjkdi kd rlo ueg 4g hI? kg; rkc hl7hurb lc , a , , q s a s , a 4Cgu jn e sukv rlo 4k;kv rlc jkv 4g kujd rt√lof kd s X a a , , s jkdgv suiv 4g kujd <iel kuiv kjt\ 4g kujd ukoi¥dl ksd uiv kjt\ 4g a , Z , a s , kukyL7kukygf kd uiv kjt\\ 4g okHo¬ kjkgér <jxkt dfk;D 4Cgu rjWt hd q s s , q X ukt jkv Cgd ]g krdl kv <jxkt Cgo 4ksgj hg lo ]kg lt ]kg kgt 4lk;üal s , , s , s s , s a kje g ;;®i k;u 4g k<jk/ ou hd lk;ül je 4g Cgu e {i d lk;ül lm Te s , z , a s s wa X s a 4g d"k' , s 4g gér krlp 2g ke®k;≤i go jkv 4ksg hiki er ]kg hukKv er ]g krgd jkv , X q w , q , q s q , ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 4 egaP

4g eku kjr pkal ]ykikx r kpkl , s s w a 44ekyx dye gd ]ttfkv k;H hrsl ;"of q w s 44ekd k;krl rfv ]hgühd jkdi ukt hg; s q 44eku uokirrfi ][e d /kl k;ufql ct q s , !d r ®ka ks !#! 44ekj k;kv <j' hjsr cv s

884g hiNf eub k;efhd hlS ]n jd rjfrkai , X s X W kd uoht jkgér s; 6g Cgu upo _ke ; 4g jkxv Sg ryt ]g Cgu upo ; s s q T s T s a q s T s 4jdcL elm g kvg r¬e kt ]ksd 'u dlm g kukt jkv w X , q s s s , , ksd ckj' hdlm g kvif sultf ]g upo d r¬eyv dS 4g upo d "Qi7kKi , T s T s q z dS ]g Cgu upo d rLfi hldf ; 4g rdl yks[ jk} Su7Su jrhH jkgéqr up T s a s T s s o ; 4Cgu gjr hd ñFk|of ]kuy gjr hd ñFk;®l dS ]htks[ dS ksd kXupo ub s s 4Cgu jkdgv ]ksg ke®kv er 4IH hd ke®keji ke®kv ]g nktB a q X , huiv hjkgér jkdgv 4u jkdgv jkgér ]u kre¬fv hjkgér `g k;kiNf gér u q a s a s q s q , X q s ldf jkv 4rkv Cgu suekl hg er 6kg iNf hg eqr 4g hg kL[ Syf <kc7"u/88 , s q s s , \ q 884g kry[f ywG kd /fkel e ;®e h , X q 1 lm jkv 4g lk;ül hgo ]l kNπo¬ kvkt je df ]g Cgu e df ksdl jd oHuv , , a s s s wa T q df ]g Cgu e df ksdl ukt df ]wag Cgu e df ksdl gd df xksy kIt lgkl kur wa T T s q b er <{ ltf ]unf ltf dfk;D 4g Cgu hH y[ Bksd jGf kLc llb ]g y[ q X , s \ s , s kLc lcl 4g Cgu y[ kIkse7kIksN Bkd kukxy ji okn ksd jkdgv 4Sgfkp lgkl \ s , s s a a ]Sgfkp kre{ hd uksg hjkvt kd hlk;ül je df g krgd jrjuf Te Syflb88 s q s a ss wa a 882e xj lb ]e ekj lb kvkg ryfeéfl ]kvkv 2<_euf géqr X a X s s s a X kjse 4g lk;ül kje Syf d k;rDf;ø hg lS 4g <{y Nπv s; 4g ed ji eqr , a s s X s s T s , >ksc kd kjiji 2ksg rDe l PfW er 2ksg dl [n er df kg hyk';≈kH,kl eqr a q s \ q s s q s 4ksg rsn jd rifksjkv ji kjln Idjd7kLd kuiv er 4g kLi jrhH jk s X w w\ q , \ s gér kt ]ksg rdl [n hgo er 4g krsn iksF hgo hH ji jln go 4g ukpgi hd q s s s q , s w , lm hg hurm ]g k[sn hg l k<jk/ hd kulkoekd ]Cgu hg k[n gjr hldf jkv , s s , hHd ksd h_¬ sulm 4Cgu hg kLdi Fkg kd h_¬ l <jkd hldf jkv ulm `krL \ s , s di Fkg kd h_¬ lb kX;D ksr krkg gxt hd do; lb e jxv df g krpksl jkv \ s q T , ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 5 egaP

lkndye ji ]g kjH l kXjkr rkxext d krl 'kdkv kjkl ]g Sg rl rgc k w , s s s X a T q a q s r lS 2n yk? hjlef e <ki7ue7ur 2g kjk;î klS hg eku g; 2lkndye kckc s s s s X z , s w 44;kv gVkse kyef tgl hxkt ujkd d ei jsr s s s zs s 4;kel gfue e gVur ]j huxfkt ul dye gd X s s q q w T 44ukt gVu njn jk,v ]skg Bukt Bkl xky gft s , s 4ukc kd ei jke Qx ]hujgf e hjgv htQx zs T q T s q 44oht lkduf rjr kr ]ksg gyfef gVu k;xfkt kt wa q s , s s 44ohi oif kTjGf rIj ]hd ohi hlk;î kt Te s 44Bkt u ksÍj ucf k;xfkst ]kg k;xfkt okyef ukd s s , , 44g // >r ucf ]lkndye rgd , aq q w 4g /c rgf hgr ]krif hgr rke hgqr , q a q q q q 44dbkx ux ksjr ]jki oH k;x jfrm , q s s 4dbkv xt g; ]k;ki kgky g; utf , s 44k;bki ni eji ]eku ksjkgrf jfefql 4k;bky oy >r ]L\fksN krku kO> s q w 44krukv gVu ue ]tkj ksd dky uhr T s 4krukt kd>r kst ]rDH kjr kpkl s q s a 44g ekO kl ;ü/ ];ksg ujefql kogt , s a a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 6 egaP

di jkc hg dS j,kv 4sxy jkdi ksd ekj jkc hg dS e upogc `kn;kG k;D sl q X q X q s ugd jH hxntV 8ekj8 ]8ekj8 e upo dS 4krkK kd <jdk;ø g e A kgd u X wa T s Ic kr `kxjkdi ksd ekj cd ]jnfe kxSkt cd r df kgd u krif j[fkv 4g k ss s s q a w s , gj jd jki jRl Bksd cv hH kIc 4hd krif h;x ksg em hd ykl cçu ]sF xy s z s s s s w\ uksg Pc krif dlm 4k;x Cgu jnfe hHd 4kvg <jdk;o kLc rgc dS e ykxc s a q , \ q X a 3g kuql uTe , s 4k;x Cgu jnfe ]kxksg k; a x jk,v Cgd go g krkt kv lifko l jnfe kt 4Cgu hg k;x kckd go g krkv , s a s , Iky l kckd kt 2kld kuOm jGf ksr Sx d> ji jk} dlm 4Cgu ksOm jGf ksr , s s , q s s q kd> df klsS <Ziel 2ksg zxel df kt3<iel 4Sgfkp <iel dn√kg 4kx/l Cgu s Z Z s ke®keji l jcLkv djfkpik,v 4kxkg Cgu l Oki7kti ksr 4sLi kukuc kyk'q/e s a s s w \ ksd jnfe ksr kg hujd ukpgi l lkndwye 4g Cgu hukK ]g Cgu rLfi lkndye a s s T T a w 4g kRl hd a;o¬ 6g Cgu _¬k' n"u , , fim go jkv 2g n"ufim hg dS3g Cgu n"ufim Okv kl dS jkv 4g kd ;ür , , T , , , , s q p jkgér go 6g jrhH jkgér go 2g no hg dS 3g Cgu no jkp 4g rkt ukt , s q , s T s T s s no jdukt ksd ;o¬ `ukt no su hldf hHd jdukt no 4g ky@#!i ]g kj[c s a s s s , , , f l k<ki dum go ]g jkl kst kd kn"ufim jkv g tkj kt kd kno hH jGf u s X z s , X , , s X s dfy 4xkXg sukt n"ufim df krLi e >el Cgu 4xkXg Pi no df krLi e >el s s \ X s s\ s \ X Cgu 4g Cgu h_¬k'7e/32hd kukohn3g rkc hd ykoukxy okn g; 4hxkg husn , Z X , s s a s Lks\N rkc hd jknukdn 6hxkg hu>el rkc hd hjkvt ksr kg kuyp Fkl d dye q s q s s w 4g hrksg hjknukdqn ]k , rksg Cgu okn ksr Cgu 6g krksg r'rfi kl ksr kg ksr okan 4k;x ksg jgfkt uik;Bk a , z , s a d kjkgér e ukpc r'rfi dS jxe ]Bg u jgfkt k0J hjkgéqr e ukxy ji o q X s z q X s a kn r'rfi cuk;üuf 4h;x ksg jgfkt hukeBc hjkgér hg e ukpc r'rfi dS lm z s s q X s z dfXk;D ]dwp ksr k;kpc hH r'rfi dS jk,v k;kxy ji oakn r'rfi ck;üuf 4d s z z s s p ksr k;kpc jH hRj 4dp ksr k;kpc hH kjt\ 4g krLi kukxy ji okn Nqd cl w s w , \ a 4g knkl kxge 6g Cgu rkc hr¬l hr¬e hd dwye udfy 4Skt ksg ofd ]ksg kry , , a , s s Lkt dr kt hH Bksd 6g rkc hr¬l ksr hu[yf krofd 4ekd g Cgu kr¬l 4g k s\ q s , , , ukpgi ksd ekj jdje ji jk} d ekj 2je kt jkonekj 4g hrksg jdkIef ksd u s s s s q , s iv ]jd koax ksd uiv3ukpgi go g Cgu _ke ;pjfi ]Cgu l jn7jn 4g jkv h s , s w w , , Lc ukpgi go 4g krukt ksd ke' kukoji lt g kukt lS ukgüm ksd ke®keji \ , s , , s s s X jkv 2g ukoji ]g sukohn 4g h_¬k'e/ u ]g duf'kn u ]g ofd kr u lkndye , T s T T Z T Z T s w 4x s y uOm pku jrhH kr ksvkjgksn hg eku g; 4g ckj' Nd hg e eku lb 4k;x s s , q X ksg hpko;kZ;i kd hr¬e kd dye eku g; 4e hn[sc ]e hr¬e3g e uiLg¥v d w X q X , X \ s um kr;hr}fv hdum 4g Lktc lkndye 4hrdl kg Cgu l jkv hldf kuyr hd T s\ s w s s , q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 7 egaP

4g nukv kuiv Xe ui , a s v xk;® ct ]Cgu ytfe jk,v Bkd ]Cgu ;ørx jk,v Bksd 6g ;”y kuiv e ikv7 a s a , X suiv xk;® ct g hHr kpπl kr xk;® 4kOw> xk;® kdlm ]g k{kadkv hd uki kd , s , s s ltf 4krki ksg Cgu yjl ]krki kg Cgu tkZ;çuf go ]g krpV hd tk;ç ksdltf jk s , , v 2Sgfkp hg kuyef ksr rgfl tk;ç ed7l7ed ]g k;kxy kurtf 4g kgj yef s , , Cgu df g kgj yef knk;† jkv 4g kgj yef Cgu df g kgj yef lifko df g k , , , , , rgj kr[sn l kuksd d [kav kr ]jxv g hH krn hHky 4g krksg r¬e e usn hezsi s X s s , s s , X s 4kxSkv jrm e hrkN 'kdkv kji ]hxSkt Li hIkN hrkN 4Cgu kxSkel X w \ s hH naukv kurb 4g rgc nukv kurb 2g ed k;D hg kurb ]ksd rfgkv hje ]kd , q a , q s s IH hje u ke®keji k;df jkdho¬ 4g FkrÎ ]g ;®ÎrÎ jd kPp 6g hxkH;ü/ X s s , Z , \ , hg jdn ilf kr ei 4hrksg Cgu e ei k{kadkv hd uyef jxe 2g kryef kux s Z s zs X zs s , q ruv7ruv ]k;D hg kuxLks\jd 4rgc g kryef dfkaykg Cgu krxke ]<iel g k a a X q q , a Z , rukt ei 2g krku k;D l Hksy kd ei jkv 4hHky ]Cgu hei3g rksg dl®m e zs , s zs , s zs T s q X e/ d gjr lb hHksy cr jkv 4h;x kg rkc hd hjIky Nd ]kvg u e/ kr g; Z s , s q q Z s 4xksvki kuxLks\jd kago ]ksn kl,i s q dS kag; A g rgd o 4g rgfkji ]g rLfi ykoujd <"k' gér jkv `kxksg y T s s T s q T a s s s X q , G kurdf kdlb kr kxn ukn kurb e `kxsyef e xo¬ >e kr kxaWd ;≤i kurb s wa T X Z s q s q T s e `xksn kurdf er kr kxn kurb e 4g rjd knk,l eg hH Fkl dlm 4g ry q ss wa T T s s T s p l ckrdf 7cklgf hH Fkl d ke®keji eg 4,g huc hlkaG hjkeg hg hjk;'fskg s s hjkeg 4g hgj kcL hjkeg hg hjk;'fkg 4jk;'fksg g eg ]tkcykp g eg udfy , q s T T s 4g , krkt ksg /çyim ksd uoht eji go 2je kt jkonekj 4kd hjkvt g kr¬kj klS s s s q q , s 4Cgu kOm jGf 4k;x jxf Cgo jkv hn jkdqi ksd 8ekj8 l jkst jdksg L[ suekl d r√e jkc dS lc ksr , s s \ s w ulm 4klc yp ksr kIc kjkgér df kgd ukgüm ]F gj kv xksy hH l jnfe dr s s q s X s s s a cr `Bg k;D rkc df k;x jnfe kxkH ikc kr ]kxy uyP tjl ]hxy uksg jgi q a s s w s ksn 4kIky Cgu 4kxksg krIky ]kxkssg krIky ]kxksg krIk,y kIc df kgj kr[n gkj i , , , s s kc 4kF e;uf kd jHhxntV~ ~ ~kF krkt jnfe tksj hH ikc lt 4k;x jnfe kIc a s , a s 4g kry jkdi hg tkv A kgd ulm kr `kxjkdi cd j wa s q s s s q [fkv 2kxway jkdi jkc dS3g krgd rkc g; r hHr ]g krgd l>r hH ct 4g q , w wa s q j kxy re e krkc hd F;ø ub cv ]kvg kd ykl jRl hH r ]g k;x ksg kPc X X Z q w wa w\ T e A kgd u krif 4ksd ekj kxy jkdi djd zxkdS ]djd ItdS ksd kX[akv hjkl s wa q s s q jdkxy rDf' zxel jkc dS `g kn;kG k;D l ukyp jhr e js/v lS 4hpgi , s s X s a s s qa jki lm df hLkN jkc dS lc ksr kg hpπl oku 4hxSkt cL7cL ]ksvkyp jkc s\ s w w Lks\jd kr g hd txkd jxv oku `g hrdl pgi ld hH e jkc Lks\jd ksr g hO s , , qa s , X , > jxv jkdi jkv 4hxSkt pgi e jkc hg dS kr hxksg hpπl jkdi jkv 2kxaWk w q , qa X s q ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 8 egaP

`g ugj rjd Gk T s s l hg r¬kj df g kujd Nd jkv `g kun7kusy k;D >qr 4Cgu ekd kuiv g; df s , q , , s s k;k>el l gjr cl ]k;kde/ ]kIhi ]kjke 2g u/ k;D Cgu kri ksdlb 4kxkg h s , q s xH kd eüt syNif g; 4kF kNπv ksr krksg kni j? d hxH hldf kr g; 4Cgu h a , s a s g krIky ]g krkt kg rhr;ø jHunf ]ktH ksd ekd Iske7IkN 4Cgu kd ekd hld , , s s s s ss f 2l Qqxnl lb g uk'ji eg A kgd su lknjnl 4k;yf dkO jlf kr u lknjnqal s . T s qa X s s 4g kvg kni Qqxnl dS j? jkgér 2er kg hxkH;ü/ A kgd ksd , q , . s q q s lknjnl krif d lkndye ulm jdIky kd >kal 4kgj kr[n hy'uoht rH.nv qa s w s , s s , q g; hd pπc l7IskN lb jHunf 4k;yf kg sNhi dum Qxnl go ksr ]g gj uhc I s s s s s q . T s djd7kLd ]g gj uhc Ikad ji r¬kj o df kF k[n rjd güm g; u Qx.nl dS w\ T s s s s s s X s q 2e suyki <{y d ri 4k;df Gkl kjpd7kL X s w d kvg kjH e kue d kxky 2uhc Ikd l uoht d kxky 4uhc Ikad l ji kXr¬kj w\ q X X s X s s sa s s X s s s s sd kxksy3k;df hg; hH jHuoht 4Cgu hIkN udfy ]g rkc hl7hIkN g; kr slS X s s , s s s 4k;kIg ]kuhc lm ]kF Idjd7kLw\d ]sF I s s kad ji r¬kj ]k;x kv ekd hjWt knk;† hH l htçl ]Sx kv ekd hjWt hH jkv s s , A rgd so ksr `kgd Sx ]kagd gj er df [n gkj hdum kae jHunf 4Iky >kl s a s q s s X, a ]kvkv sy htçl l jktkc jdkt df aSkt stH l j? gcl hHd7hHd 4uhc Ikd s s s s q X Xa ]SkIg Idjd7kLd ]jd Gkl kr¬kj o sygi dfk;D ]rkt xy kXI? ksr krkt kt a w\ X s X s a H Syf d ekd 2g hed Bksd hd kXIkd 2g hed Bksd hd Idjd7kLd 2r¬kj d s s , a , w\ s s rjkH jk,v ~ ~ ~Skt yef kLi Cgd Idjd7kLd 2l cr F IkN 4rkIg ksd Ikad \ w\ s s ss s s lm ygi jdLkN ekd jktg ksr Skt yef kLi kIkad Bksd ji r¬kj 4hF güm rn s s\ \ s X kv hl7chtv dS hg l uipc df g go ]g rkK e /cl dum kuI? hygi kt s , , X a a s s 4sxy[ jk} d kX;¬gj Lc ]tkj Lc jWt ksr xksjd 'oi jrhH d kXdhri u X q s s \ s \ s s z s z m jxv udfy ]g hrehd rgc df CrLi h;k[nf Cgu ksr l jiM 4g hlt uy s T q \ s T , s s >el 4g de®kdhri o 4g rkK rkc hg7hLkF Nd e /cl d uoht d lkndye T z s T X s\ q X a a s s w 2ku kxy k;D ckrdf7cklgf 2k;D ku[n jdIky 2k;D kuOm kr jlf k;x d> ji jk s , s q } d ekj ~ ~ ~ 2je kt jkonekj A hd hlk;ül hn jd dhO k"kHjfi u lkndye s s s s q a s w 4g lk;ül <iel iWxel 4g lk;ül <Ziel , a Z z , a 4hxksg hujd hjk;r , hd ukt ks[ gér suekl d rfks;† eji lm 4g rfks;† eji ksr ke®keji jkv 2g s X q s , , , krukt kukoji3kte kd sukt ks[ ]kte kd uyx ]kte kd uIef 4g oHuv djf s s , q rkav go 6rdl [n Cgu hHd kd ;®l lm dZ'n ]yko u[n ]Sg L[ jn 4g kr s s s s s s q s \ w , ukt hg kukoji kt g tkj Nd e suje dfk;D 2g rkt hg rje ji kXvke' uko s , q X X T s s s ji ]C;x ksg k;nfl hurdf jkv 4g kd kXukoji kr¬kj g; 4kukv jdy hjk;r hd a , , s , uje ksr ji r¬kj lb kvksg rkv 2je kt jkonekj A g rgd lkndye Syflb s s s s s s s q T s w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 9 egaP

`kpc "' k;D jGf ]k;yf kxy jdDp kdikv 4k;x kg jdDp kd k;ufn hj s s q kl kje g; df kgd jk,v k;kxy jdDp dS kd hto'f ukgüm jkv Om o 4LkN s s X , s s X s\ ∂Gf ikv A kgd u ht's<x 4kxksg hg krkv go djd <eH kd oæof jkl ],g k; s s z s x kyp sukxy jdDp ;dr√kd 2ksyp ksr end jkp7kn Nd ]hH ksOm df kgd hH s s q n[ su hto'f 4Sx Cgu Cgd '<x 4g dpl hLc jkv g hjk;î kFd g; `jkd q s , w \ , , ¬ji g; kyef ld 4kyef ksd 's<x jkd¬ji udfy 2xSki rht kgd l ;dr√kd q s , q s s a a s s jkv 2sxXxkH kagd jdsy jhj' klS 4rdl Cgu xkH hH lo ht'<x 2kxkH df , s s s , s hul ulm j/b 2k;x ksg jdDpGj endS kr ;dr√kd 4kxyef ekub lm ]kxSk q s w s s s s t kv ygi skt ]skIk,y jdkxy jdDp kd k;ufn jk,v kvkt kuskn er df kgd e s q s X q X y[7y[ ukgüm jkv 4;dr√kd jkv 's<x3g gj y[ Fkl d kpπc uiv hto'f s s s X , s , T s s s X s 3g kFd hukji ~ ~ ~g kuql uTe , q , s 4g hrkt hy rht k;ufn hjkl hg sr , q rht ksdlm jkv3g rrht ksd ;®l eji uketkjof jrhH uiv ]rrht Cgu k;uf , T s s s q q , , n 0c jkv 4g krkt Fkg hyk[ ]g krje kvg kjkg jk,v g kryp urht k;ufqn , q , s jndlf 4kd 0c dS jkv g xP kd jndlf dS A g xP kn d urht kd k;ufqn a q , , a a T a s s s s 4g kry rht kd k;ufn go ]g kry rht kt , s s q , s s ksd ke®keji 2g hrkt hrht hg sLkF jd rht k;ufn 4g kuksg Ikel ñro∂p hg , s\ q , z o ]kxSkt kg Qqxnl g; df kgd sulm 2g hjk;î hLc go ]hgd rkc kt u Qx.nl s . , \ s s q `kxksg Ikze l ñro∂p ld g; 4g kIc ksd chjx >e ksr g; jxe ]F rdl ksg Ikel ñro∂ s , , s q s s z p kr 0c 4g Cgu ksr 0c Bksd g; `g gj jd Cgu ksr dkte df kNi u krif s q , q T s w s 2 ~ ~ ~lkndye udfy 4g w s , krdl ksg kLc kLks\F jk,v ;†kj ]F Ic d Ikel 4Skt ksg Ikel ñro∂p kF krd \ s ss s z a z l hH ksg ksr 0c 4hF oHlv ]sxkXg Ikel ñro∂p s; df hujd hH kui¥d ksr e q a z X /cl dub 4F Sg kni e jkojfi uhg7uhn <jk/kl dS kr lkndye 4F Ic d a a s s q , X s w s ss s ktkj dfk;D ]n;k' kXg ñro∂p df g krdl kv hH e >el ksr Xe /cl d 0c X , X a a s q 4hgd e /cl d lkndwye su Qqxnl lm rkc hg hlo dhO30c eji jGf k; j X a a s . , q , kv kxksg Ikel ñro∂p g; ksr k; df kF kgd u kX;"frfk;† e /cl d 0c slt z s s X a a s q , 4"Qqi0c rHnv dS k; jk,v kxksg Ikel ñro∂p kr g; 2g hrpg q q . z s T qa i dr kuI? 2g hcy hurdf aSgkc hdlb 2g gkcuktkv g;3kgd u Qxnl3ksg X q T a q , q q s q . r[n jkv 4sxkXg yeuf jk,v Nπo¬ <jkd dlb uoht d kxky rgc 4kxjd Gkl s s , Z s s X s q s kjpd7kLd kd jrhH g; hg hn¥t 4g kgj jd Gkl kjpd7kLd kd jgkc kr ]g w\ , w\ s , kpπc kIksN ]krdl jd Cgu jkv Nd hHv 2g hjrm rfk;† j? jkgér 4ksg gj g , q , s s q s d k;D er Cgu kri gér 4ksgd rkc hlsS re ]re df kgd u Qxnl lm udfy q X q s q . s 4g kgj jd lk;˙v kl ]g kujd wa s , s>e jH hxntV ekd hg; df krgd go jkv krlg lkndye kpπc kl7kIskN jxe q , a w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 01 egaP

ki dltf g /kl Bksd dfk;D 4rkv sn ksd kv/kl jdkjp thp hd j? hg uiv s , q X s X q q X s ]srksg Skl cl rkj ct ]djd hjksp hg l e j? kr n u kKkv ikc7ke 4srn dj s s s X s X a s s d hjksp 2ksg k;nf hg n;k' u hldf klo g k;nf u lkndye l xP ltf udfy s , , s w s a s ]g k;nf u kxky rgc kr ksd kv/kl 4rn n ksd kv/kl ]krksg hH kt e j? 4sr , s X s q s X q s s s X q s X kt xy e xl7/kl 4rIk,y u j? ]rkt rhc kunf 4rkt yH /c7/l hd j? lk X a q s s X s w q q ndye jGf ]rl Skt kv Bksd ]/kl Skt kv Bkd 4xl®l7/kl A hF go3sF Sx w a q s a q ksg uk'ji ikc7ke lltf ]hF hrI? tkj7tksj kt3e /cl d uipc kuI? hjlwn s a s s s X a a s 4g rodhri g; 4hHv g kgj n kupl hd jgkc yod ksr g; 4kxjd jn kj , z , s w s s w pd7kLd l uoht d krgc g; 6g hjrm rfks;† j? jkgér ]kvksg re rrfpV ]r w\ s s X q , s q s e ksvkLc? df kd krif dum kF kgd u Qxnl dS jkv 4F rn jd Gkl sl kr \ s s s q . , s s s X ¬kj kjpd7kLd o df g rkK e /cl d lkndwye kuI? hygi hd uipc kr g; w\ s , X a a s s 4k;yf ki cl jk,v k;yf ki ksd dyfke ukgüm 4ksjd u e k>elku er hruxf hd lkndye s X X X q w 4g srkt ksg 0lf jkn>el T >elku kg; 4g rksg 0lf >elku Lc 6rksg Cgu rcfkl jkn>el ]Sgfkp uksg a T s s \ s s rcfkl jkn>el kt kg; 2g rH.nv rgc r<fx kdlb ]g rHnv hLc k;ufn g; s a , q q , q . \ q 4bg 0lf >elku hLc g hrLi h;k[nf jk;'fkg hLc ]g ka;ufkj hjse q \ T \ s \ T s cuk;üuf kt ; 4g jk;'fkg r 4h;x kg hjr r;dfyke hjkl hje ksr k;yf ki s s , s w s s s s q >e jk,v Ak;yf ki s>e sur 4k;nf kjg ksd cl ur df kgd jkv k;yf kxy yx q w s w , s skd hukj hIksN jkv Cn sn IH ksr ksd k;ufkj cuk;üuf 4k;ky IH Syf dcl Ikel , XX X s XX s z 2y'dl skvkt kv q er ]lc `Sgfkp k;D jkv ]ksg gj kv lifko er ]dyfke je A kgd su hukj h q , s q ss IkN lcl udfsy 4Nd u hldf ]Nd u hldf jkv kukv ry k;Lf\kl df kgd u s s q s q s , s s a s hldf jk,v kukv rsy <"Hkv7<o¬ df kgd u hldf jkv kukv ry kjhg jugfkd s w Z s , s s w s ]kgd u hldf 4Mkv kry e go ksg Sgfkp kst ltf df htH jc[ ulm 4CF k; s a s T s s s a ufkj kl hdlm 4djd k_k;;tof hd k;ufn hjkl3j? uiv kF krIk,y Ikzel dS , s q s 4h;x ksg huiv r;dfyke hjkl hdlm kr ]k;yf s ki ksd dyfke `kgj k;D ksd suki lm 6k;yf ki cl ulm ]g kry ki ksd ke®ke s s , s ji kt ]g kry ki ksd ;o¬ kst udfsy 4g ji‘qn kulko 4hxkg u ]g Bg u hji hH s , s a , w s , q w d Lk,\n hd kulko 4g hrkt gj hj/v k'eg k_k; hd h{kdkoÂge `g h;ki kg h , w s a , s dldf 4u hH ksg hji n;k' 6g k_k; hcy hLc ksr kvkxy jdDp kd k;ufqn hjkl w , a \ s 4ji Zxke d 0c Sx '<x 4ji xke d jndlf k;x ;dr√kd s q s Z s a s 4hy Ldi gkj hd k0c ulb jxe 4kxjkg \ X q s s g; df kF d' kr s>e 4k;x rht '<x ]okan k;x jkg r `g krdl jd k;D Te s q s w wa ];dr√kd A kgd u o'f 4kF kdp Ic jkd¬ji dr cr k;kv dr ct ;dr√kd s s q a q s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 11 egaP

H rgfksji Lc7Lc ]rLfi Lc7Lc ksd kurm ]g k;kojd ekj7ekj uikv ksd kxky q s \ s \ a s \ s \ X , s X s urtf 4g krgj krjd ekj7ekj ]Oc e hLk\x jLlcéS hH kst df kgd u ykijk s , s, X s s s } kr `/cl k;D kd sukt Zxo¬ llm 2hLkx jLlcéS 2dkTp rgc hH jk'dfyxt s a a s \ s s s q s q 4l gto hdlm ]h;kuc hLkx jLlcéS uikv ksr g; 4krLi kukt s \ s s s \ dju ksdikv kr <jkd d kjnfe 4g gj jd Cgu 'oi kg; <jkd d kXjnfe ik s s X a T s s z a s a v 4g e rfkH ikv A kgd u ykijk} 2Skouc kst jnfe urb ue 2g hdp pgi T X az s a s s T , q qa /xql hje ygi je cyre ksr 4hg rpæfuf df kgd u kyLcf jk'dfyxt 4g sr a s s ss s \ s q T ukt hHl <jkd A kgd u ykijk} `kg rukt <jkd kdlb ]g kyef xo¬ >e d s s s , Z s q f kNi l ykijk} 4k;df 'soi l Ldv ArokHo¬ ksr 4xo¬ hH pgi jk,v 2Sgfkp w s z s \ Z s qa k;D jkv cv ]g Skouc jnfe urb dfk;D 4sxpgi xo¬ df kF kpkl ukXgüm Aro , T a s X X qa Z s s kHo¬ ksr ]je jk'dfyxt ct ~ ~ ~ 4g oHlv g; 4krdl kg Cgu l>e g; A s s q , a s s q kgd ue 2krke Mx jkv e/ ngV3jkpi kd kthp ksn 4Sgfkp kuksg jkpi kd e/ s T , Z w z X z Z w X ngV e jH k;ufn udfy ]Sgfkp u/ kurtf ]g jk;r kd un r'c ]kd usn N q s wa , s s s Z s s s d cl e 2g rkg k;D IiIv k'eg xky lt ikv df kF kgd nç' hg dS jkv q T T s s X s s s s , , kF k[n l hukjg rgc s>e 4g krdl jd Cgu jkpi kd e/ hldf e `kagd Ze s s , q q wa z Z T / kgo ]g BklB kgt ]g ukeyle kagt ]g ngV kgt 4ks[j lki uiv ikv u/ ku a , a , q , w a s iv A kgd ue 4g jk;r kd un e go ksg rjWt hd u/ urtf kr ]jd jkpi s T wa , s s s T s s X z kd e/ ngV ikv jxv df kF kgd hH l>e 4kF kgkp kukuc /cl d;fklok;ø Z w s q a a s X ukgüm hH l>e 4F rpfjfi je ~ ~ ~je kyLcf jk'dfyxt ct ]g kul kr uTe s q s ss s \ s q , q s s 4k ;df u kyLcf jk'dfyxt go ]kF k;df u u hldf kst dr tkv `F ul uer s \ s q s s s q s q 8jnfe kyLcf8 jxe ]F rksg jnfe70c ]F rksg jnfe7utf ]F rksg jnfe d ekj a \ s s a q s s a s s a s ]F rksg jnfe d <‘Î 28jnfe kyLcf8 2g jnfe urdf e 'n kg r[n eqr cv s s a s a \ T a s X s s s s 4ksg sr n koxy jF®i kuiv er hH ji jk} d jnfe dfk;D 6g krkt ksg iki ksr ksg sr s q s a X , kuc hH jnfe er 4g hrksg 0fc d;fklok;ø hH Nhi d ukn hjkgér dfk;D 6g a q , q s s q X , krkt ksg iki ksr kg rn hH ukn er 2g kgj ksg ;≤i k;D hH ksr ksjd u hH hjksp s s s q , q er jk,v 4krdl kt kgd Cgu iki kd hjksp hd lkndye `gd iki ld e kd q s w wa s , T s hjksp hd lkndwye udfy `kxgd ;≤i uk,d ksd hjksp cv 4ji ;kiHfv ]ji klî s s q z hHv hd jrhH g krjd jHuf Nd cl 4ryx kr xksjd klS jk,v dhO kr xksjd , Z q s s s s s klS df 4ryx g; jk,v dhO g; df krdl gd Cgu Bkd 4hd r<fx d uoht s s s g Cgu k[j h/hl 4g kl,t hygi r<fx kd uoht 4g rkt kg ;≤i hH iki hHd , s , s T s s q jk,v g rksg hg iki hH ;≤i hHd 4;kiHfv Sg iNf Nhi d k;®Î3;≤i jk,v ik T s q z q s s s X q i srksg Cgu ;®Î A g krgd ler Syfhlb 4g hrdl ksg ;≤i hH hjksp hHd7hHd wa s q , q 4rIkac hH djd hjksp ksr 4g hL[ ji jlf kZ"o jkv s s , \ , g Cgu krkN lki dltf g /kl Bksd jkv 4hxy sujrm ñnl jk,v g Cgu ycd l , s , q , , a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 21 egaP

4g rgc jkl e k;ufkgd hd gjr lb udfy , q X X s 4ksLkt re ksd e/ Fkl d ;®lv 4hxSkt cL hH oku hd e/ Fkl du s\ Z s w Z s b ]g ;®lv ksr rkc s; kr ]xksn Lkt rkc hd gjr lb er jxv Fkl d e/ 4 T X s s s\ X q s Z g krxy uksg ewyke ;®lv e/ <jkd d kXrkc hd gjr hlb 4g rkpgi ufkg o , s Z s T s qa s ]g Cgu rDH o udfy ]4g rDH eg df kXg rpkl o gkp 4g rjd yH jd;H T s s T s s s s T s w a rgc o g ruke ;ƒr dlfkgrfsS kdum kt jk,v 4g Cgu ;ƒr dlfkgrfS ; ]Cgu q s T s s s T s s 2jkd®ep kuiv ]kyd huiv hgj u nk; rDo rje n[ 4Sx je hH o `g akg s q s T d lkndye jGf 2k;yf jd kntV jkv kF k;x je ]kd ;‘'f hldf u lkndye w , s s w 2hyl sn uxy ]je re ]llht df hF hu w s n n tkokv ksd suiv ji hyl hg lo ]l cd yduf ]ljkty df kd ljkty hF s s w s , s z \ s \ hn tkokv lt 2k;yf kI,ky ksd ljkt\y `dl kIky u ksd n[ `k;D je ji hy s , s , q X s w l jGf ksr F rdl kIk,y lifko l ;®e kd ljkty llht jxv 4krdl Cgu kI s s s q 1 s \ k,y Bksd 6krIky Cgu lifko l ;®e Bkd 4g ukel Syf dcl e;uf kd uoht 4 , s q 1 s , s g Cgu nkoiv Bkd e uoht 4g rkt gj Cgu pl ; ]g rkt skg O> s; rkc ksr , s X T s s T s sw hygi 4g rkt kg d hLk,\d kn s; ksr skuke ;ƒr dlfkgrfS 4uke dhri ugx Xgüb T s s s s s X z eg jGf k; jkv ]kF k;df kntV hg e pl su llht kd ljkty df g ;ƒr dl , X s \ , fkgrfsS g; df g ruke BklB df klt ]uke ;ƒr dlfkgrfS güb eg ksr k; cv T s , X s X 4kF k;yf kyc lifko l k;ufn hd rk,e sukgüm kd ;‘'f dS uiv df g Xe q s q X s s , /cl d lkndye hukgd hg hl,o 2F dp ksg unf jkp je 4k;kv yduf jgkc a a s w s s q s s z l cd ljkt\y jkv 2l cd yduf ]ljkty A hn tkokv 4k;yf kyc lifko ]k;n , s z \ q f kxt l ne kd ljkty sukXgüm df g kFd e /acl d llht lt 4g drfsdkl s ∆q s \ , X a s s , T a s o 4ku>el rdl yod kdum 4g hrkt ksg rfkH kr k>el ;ƒr 4ku>el re ; s a s s , az s ƒr kdum 4g tkj Nhi d sukt dum 4g hrkt Lt Fkl d krl duv chjd7chj s , s s s T q\ s X a s d SkuI? hlo 4g hLt e /cl d lkndye kckc SkuI? hH hd kXjkd®ep Nd a , T q\ X a a s w a q 4g krksg r'c skr ukn `kagd ukn kgo ksg kagt r' `kF kgd ukn elm 4F gj , Z s a Z a X s s gkp kunhj[ >e o `kF ukn go 4hF r' hH elm jxe3Sgfkp u/ kurtf d s q s Z X f F gj n ukn >e o 4ksg iki hH ukn kd rDf;ø lt kyLcf jk'dfyxt jkv s s s s q s s , \ s q , ksg ;≤i hH hjksp hd rDf;ø l,t lkndye df g krdl ksg hH klS hHd7hHd kr q s w , s s 4g ;≤i ksr ]g ;÷kl ukn jxv 4k;x skg , q , iki ksr ]g u/kl ukn jxv `ksg gj kyG ukdn Bkd ]ksg gj kOcf r<fx kd u , s , q s s s ki Nd sNhi d un df k; g nukv gér e un `Syfldf kr kg rn hH ukn eqr q s s s , a X q X s s s s s s `kagd ;≤i kago k;x kv jkdgv kgt jk,v 4Sx kg dhri d jkdgv d q a a s z s a s kyLcf ksr jnfe o udfy 4e xo¬ kxyef 'soi l gto hd jnfe df kF kpkl \ a s s X Z s z s a s 2g krkt Ig l r¬kj endS djd ekj7ekj g , s s s o g kr[n kdlm kt ]g krjd ekj7ekj go ]g krOc kt 2jdLkN ukg Zilf g , s s s , , , s s\ Z , hrtc thp jg 2hLkx jLlcéS g h;kuc rHnv hH thp ~ ~ ~ 2dl kojd Cgu h \ s s , q . s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 31 egaP

4kxSkLGLG kLi7kLi ji uhet Cgo lc hH ksr hH kxSkLGLG [i n;k' 4 \ \ \ \ \ \ a Cgu kxLm hH hHd go kr ]kn uksg u rpfjfi l kXjrcd jk,v ks[j e j? uiv s \ s s s s w X s er ksd jrcd jxv ksr 4Sgfkp thc Bksd ksr hH Syf d rfe¬ 4Skv ld hH r q w s 1 s , fe¬ ksr g krdl ksg kL[ hH l ji kn Bksd df Cgu hg k[n kd hldf ct ulm 1 , \ s , s s s s 4l ji7Fkg kXjkp ]krxkH hH ct ud s , fy 4kF krksg kL[ xkH7xkH hH jGf 4kF krLi ku[j Syf d uLdi lm ksd k; s \ \ s s \ s X efnkv jkp7jkp k;D henkv dS 4Skt k[ lkae kpπd 4kdl u IN er kr n kH s w q s s p df F [hr lsS dlm rkn jk,v kXg k;jfN l,t F lS lki dlm u[ku 4kF jk q s s s s a a q s s s s s w [[ lki dlm jhj' 4dl jd u kyckde kdlm henkv Bkd ]hF tr hdlm y wa s s q s s kp 4l ji7Fkg kXjkp3kF kryp hH go hg lo F ryp lt SLf\H ksr kgj hg F s , s , s s s , s kl d k;LfH 4ulm Cgu hg k[n hHd kd ;‘ue hldf 4kF kryp l ji7Fkg kXj s X \s s s s q s , kp udfy 4kpπc kd ykl gjkc3kvg kLc e nkae hd k;LfH kt ]kF k;x k;ky s q \ X X \s s kpπc dS e 'ni jRm hg ygi "o kn7dS hHv 4g sry yki SLfH kd ;‘ue k X sz s Z s T s \s q pπc Bksd hHd7hHd 4g SkuI? ;®l ]Cgu k;ufkgd 6hxkXg hul k;ufkgd ; ueqr T a a q a s s 2hxSkv nk; sld , 4hd kX[i uiv hxSkv Cgu hH nk; kd jrcd lm 2Cgu hd pc df kryp Cgu a s s w s hg kri df e 'kdkv ruv g rkt ks[ lsS jkv g rkyG [i kt ]g r[j klhH X a T s s , T s , a s T s v hd ujd rkdkye l kXjkr nkap kt ]g rkt Lm Xe uxx yhu jn7jn kt slt s q s s T s \ w w s , ss je Tg Bksd hH jk,v df ]g lt je Bkd hH jk,v df yp u hg kri lm 4ks[j hg T s , ss s s s jn er ksd jrcd lm l k;ufn hd kjrcd lm 4kn uyef u l kXjrcd sjlwn h w q w s q X w s s s w Hd ksd jrcd lm jk,v ksy ykduf kd jrcd dS l Lav dS er e j? sjkgéqr w s w s s q X 4g krdl ksg klS jkv , s , 4ksg hgj u nk; hd k[i uiv ksd h{i hldf slt X a s , 4g h;x yH kr;≈k; huiv gér jxe ]kg ;≈ks; d uPp ji j['f eji d uo , w s X q s s s \ s ht er ]ksg Cgu L\xy er 4g hrdl uc ;®l e ;÷Ufkl d Qxnl hldf ]g kuo q s a q , X s q . , kHl g; hjkgér df d rkc lb g dhri ilf s; 4Skt Pp Lkgi Lxy ]xy uyk a q s T z Z a \ \ s \ a X s s c xx 4Skt Ig go ]kF knji kt 6Skt Id go ]kF kj/av kt 6Skt IN go ]kF s wa s s s a // kst dr cv rkFv aSkt y[ [kv nc 4aSkt y[ [kv nac hjkgér ksr ky qa . Z q s a a q X a q s jd oHuv er jxv 'i¬ kdlm 4Skt ks[ uikjgc kjkgér ksr ky ul eqr jxv q q Z q s q jkdi hdlm 4g krjkdi go 2kxkt 2kOm3l cd hjkgér g krjkdi gér Qx.nl q , q s s s z q , q X q q 4g C , gu hH Nd jkv rDjfrfv d cd hjkgér gn hjkgér 4ksg gj ht e kcd cl eqr q , s z q s q s X Xz 4ksg dp je hg sygi d eüt3ksg dqp je cl er 4ksg Lxy cl er 4ksg xx c s q s s q s \ a q s wa l er 4ksg jgc cl er 4ksg /v cl er 4g dhri s;3hn hxntV ksd kne ]Snf q s q s a q T z ë q ji ksd kL\xy ]hn ukct ksd kxwax ]Snf ukd ksd kXjgc ]Cn X[kv kd k/v u llht , X a X a s X a s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 41 egaP

~g kukNcf kd hrj/ ]g jnkp hd 'kdkv , , , ]k; uxkv k;nf kyG u htktef kjkokv X a , s ~g kukj u g kulg ]g kr¬j hg kr¬j jGf , s , a , ]g hFkl d jn Nd kukn h'[ df kg ex T s w q X s q s ~g kuk[ lb hH jGf ]g kjgi i ekx jg , s s , s ]g kje kt rDo ; g kjr kt rDo ; , s s s , s s s ~g kukxHf kd rN ldf ]g kupc l gkj ldf , s s , s ]ukt k;D g kukohn kr ynkc kd rkljc s , s 2g kukj kd jkdc kr kukj kd rDo jg , s s s s ]eykv Bkd kl7kgür ]elke Bkd kl7kNπv s , s ~g kukl kr Skt k[ ]g hÈef kr Skt yef , s s s , s ]g kuky[f kd pπc ]g rgd ltf k;ufqn , , s T s s

4rdl gd Cgu hxntV kd hxntV s s h>ym e kuky[f lb 4g h>ym e kuky[f kr hxntV g; 4Cgu kri kr hH Nd X X , , X X , s s q kd roæk' hHv kd hxntV lb 2g k;D hxntV hjkgér 4Sx jxf e hÈef unf d s , q X S jGf jkv 6Skt gc huki e hnu lt Sx jtqx ; ykl jRl 6h;x lkl ]h;kv , X s , wa a lkl Ak;yf jd ekd ]Syf yp ]Syf kl ]Syf Om ]k;yf hi ]k;yf k[ 4kg knt a s s V kd _keeku 4g k[k/ dS `g k;D hxntV hjkgér 2kg kntV dk[ k;D er jkv s , s , q s q , 4hxgj hdP l knji d ;®lv [kv hjkgér dfk;D ]xkdl X a s X s X a q X s s [n u kd ;®l er jkv 4g ke®keji eku kjln kdltf ]xkdl ki u kd nie s s q , , w s s s ji dlm er 2g hjkgér kt sxkdl Pp kd k;bkpM um hd Lkgi er u ]xkdl s q T q s s \ s X a \ q s s yk[ [kv u3sxkdl yk[ u [i uiv er ]syef u Fkl kd Qxnl gér dr c s a s s a s q q . X q t ]yef u xl®l kd k0c gér dr ct 4g rfF¬f hd ;‘ue ds;®i hg hlS jkv s a X q X q , q z s ,

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 51 egaP

hlo hF hlt rkc hH jGf ]k[n jd LCe [kv 4k;kv u klkjH ji k[kv huiv , , s \ X a s X a s lm ]k[n ulm kt 4k;x gj rdfp kr ]k;kv kd u'n d dye gk'nkc kd ek s s s s s Z s w u jhxeykv df 4g e uoht d lkndwye ilf rkc g; udfy 4g rkc hd ukyt , X s Z s T X s f kd kne hH e uoht d krl jkv7jkv 4k;kytf hH u llht kr kd kne 4g < s ë q X s X a , , s s s ë q , Z ioÂge hH jkv Syflb ]g e uoht d lkndwye ydv [y¥m klo 4g klt uy w , , X s s s s , , , s s s X y e yk;[ hH go ]g e uoht d lkndye [y¥m dS kd gjr hlb hH jkv , X s w s , 4g k;yfxm cl s; 4xkvkt dp Syf d kn T a a s s w s l l nkp kr Cgu ]kusy Ldi re kd hyxm 4g Cgu nkp hyxm 4g hrL\i hukOm s a s \ s a , a a , hyxm kr ]ld kvkrc kd nkp 4g rLi ukuc jk'b drfdkl ]g hrLi huup a s s , s s a T s \ s s s a T \ q a SkFd dhri eg Syfhlb 4hrki jd Cgu Idi kd k;®l ]g dliu k"kH hjkeg z X z s X , qa `ld kgd kd ;®l udfy 4g krkg ;¥e kd k;®l 4g rkg d hLkd skn kr ;ƒr s , s s s , s w X T s s s ,\ s 4g ;®l ]g Cgu ;ƒr ; 4hH ;¬gj Lc jkv g kiNf ;økd kLc eub 4g ;ƒr dr T T s s \ , , \ X T fsdkl s; ]g Cgu ;ƒr dlfkgrfsS ; jxe 4g krkxt kd kne Qxnl 4g kne ;‘'f a T s , s ë q q . T Z q 4g kry kd kvku wa s s X I? hd llht e Fv hlb 4 kxgkp kuy e kd kuI? hd lkndye e Fv hlb X Z wa s T s w X Z 4kg kntV er df ku>el re dr cr 6ky ukpg s q s i u kd rhrkykd er dr ct 6g Cgu q;®e Bkd hdltf ]kvkt kg u rpfjfi s q , 1 s s s l krroæk' lsS er dr ct 2j> rev kgt 2kg k"o 'u√gv hd nukv kgt 4 s s q s 1 a s Z a a Cgu kr>c jGf udfy ]g kr g kryt kt 2yr ucf hrkc ucf3yt k;hn kdlm q s , s , s s s kgt 6kg uketkjof jrhH ke®keji kgt 6kg oHuv kd roæk' kgt g go kr a s a s q a , s hxntV `g hrdl kg k;D jkv rke `hxkg k;D rke jGf kr g hxntV hg; jxv , s , , s , s , 2`xkgd hxntV er slb s s q 4g krkt kg hÈef hg rxy Fkg , s s 6g krLi eyke kukl ]kyef Cgu kt 4g krL\i eyke kukl go g kt jn 4g kuj , \ w s s , w s , s w , xf hH s>e df krkv Cgu yk;[ g; gér jxe kg r[n rjxf kd kjln 4unf d q X q s s s s s X w S kg rkt Ief ]unf dS kg rjxf rLkn7rLkn3rgj rLkn ]rgj rLkn er Sy s s s s s ,\ s ,\ s s ,\ s s ,\ q f dlm jkv ~ ~ ~g rLi eyke uokgl ykP d jn ~ ~ ~g kryef Cgu kt 4jn7 s , T s \ w s q s s w , s w jwn g hrdIH k{kdkv ]kg 4g k;x kg jkdc cl ]k;yf ki hH skt uer 4,g hrkt , a a , s s s q kg rke rkv7rkv hxntV e Fkg jkgér df kg kne urb er 2g krkt kg hÈe s , s s X s q s Z q s q , s f hH go df kxy kd sukl Fkg kjkgér 4g krkt kg hÈef hgo ]g krkt yef géqr s s q , s , X s kt 2g kukl kr Skt k[ ]g hÈef kr Skt yef3g e;uf rHnv kd k;ufqn lb , s s s , s , q . ~g kukl kr Skt k[ ]g hÈef kr Skt yef , s s s , s ]g kuky[f kd pπc ]g rgd ltf k;ufqn , , s T s s

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 61 egaP

s s ry Ldi lk;ül 6g rLkN jkll 4h;x kg rfv g; 6g ry Ldi lkoim kr g \ a T s s\ a s T s s \ s T s rLs\kN utkH 4h;x kg rfv g; 6g rsy Ldi xk;® kr g rLkN u/ 4g rkt yp s s T s \ s T s s\ T s s ji rfv 6g ry Ldi kd thp hjlwn skr g rLkN kd thp dS kt g xky Nd T s s \ s T s s\ s s T s q 4g krkg r , s De k'eg l k;rfv ]g krkg e ;÷e k'eg rl 4kd ;÷e3g dhri hH go 4e q s s X , s X s a , z X phc cyre kd j/v `k;D e j/v ]rl krkt kyp Cgu k;D hg e 'kdkv jGf X X a X X 4kd sukt kg e j/v g Fv hg; ]lc 4g Cgu hÈef e df k;yf ukt u s X , Z wa T s lm ]g Cgu gsn e df k;yf ukt sultf ]k;nf LkN ;é®knkr l gn huiv ultf wa T s\ s s s 4Cgu gke Bkd lm kd hÈef 4g Cgu <"dkv Bkd lm kd uhet cv 4k;x kg r s s s , Z s s s Dqe l <"dko®Qx rl dfk;D 4g rdl wN Cgu 4xSN Cgu ]rN Cgu kr ]xkukp s Z q a X T s s a q s w s s s gi kd krl jxv A g krgd e ler udfy 4sxaSN kd uhet ji kr lS ]duku s X a wa T s q s q s , s s s df jhcd df lkndwye df yp llht df Xyp 0c 4xSN kd uhet ji kr slS X q s a q s , s s 4gj [sn Cgu >e ]kg gj [n huki er 2k[n >e kjt\ 2k[n l jkx kjt\ 4g k s s q s s s q s s s q s s s , , gj N kd kji je huki u ]g gj N Cgu huki ji je `kgd A kgd u Bk>jV 2g w s X , s s T s w , s s a s T s w gj N huki ji d n[ dikv ]g rsy Syf ukt hjkeg 2tkjkge ]SdfQ df Sx , s q s T s kg L[ e hnu hg phc kr ;‘'f 4kvqN u huki jd IL ]Xe huki kjrm sl te k s s \ X s s s s r Bk>jV 2Cgu df rwN kd huki ji d Bk>jV df kxSkt yp kri kdDi tkv d s s , s f Sg '[ Lc ;‘'f 4hLi hnu e r¬kj l xk;l ]F rkt kd k_k; jkc dS jGf q q s \ \ X s s s a s s s 4Cgu kykoukg kji hH uk;÷ df g s s w , hn kxy r' hlS g; jkv g Cgu hykoukg hji kr rkc g; df Sx dF kr ;‘'f Z s , , s s w s s 4kvg uk;÷ df kxwa>el hHr 2u SN kd ji huki jxe ]jWt l huki kr yp j,i q q s , s s X ]ku[j nk; `kvg k;D A krNi Bk>jV kr rkt o hH ct udfy `xkpc er sl q w s s s s s s q d kr Cgu kxSN kd ji kr xkyduf l e hnu ct jkv 4hg kxSN kd ji kr g , s q s , s s s s X , q s , s , huki 2hn kxy r' k;D hH g; ]kgd sukgüm j[fkv 4kry N kd ji huki jGf Z X s w s , go ]ryp e hnu jGf 6rOm jGf ]rgj sOc kI? gjr hd 0c ]rOc phu d XkL s X s s , X a q s , s s \ k> ]rjd uk;÷ rgc 2kF krwN huki ]jd k;D ]k[n jdyp e hnu jgkc d okx s q X s X s a jdkt jkc rgc u k;‘'f 2SN u kd ji huki3gj nk; jxe jWt kr kuyp Xe q s X q s , s s huki Aku[j nk; rkc dS ]k[n df kF krgd kd Xk;‘'f uiv Bk>jV jhdG u> s s s s s 4g rN Cgu kd uhet ji d rl hldf jxe ]g rLi eyke Sg sr T s w s , s a T s \ w q w s N kd uhet kr ]hd Lep sxk[sn l k[akv lsS 4k;x kg rDe hH l <"dko®Qx s s \ s s X s s q s Z q sd uhet go ]k;x kg rDe l <"dkv d uhet skt `g rN kd uhet j,i d r s q s Z s T s w s s l ldf 4g e j/v rl hHl udfy 2jkd®ep k;x kg ]xgd kr eg hg rpæfuf a T X a s s s X s 2e j/v X 4srN Cgu ji dum 2g gj w , s T s kx rhx ]g gj pku ]g gj dIy e j/v lkndye df k[n k;D ulm 4hF hg T s T s X w s s

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 71 egaP

di s>e jkv jn hLkF 4stc I? uhr kr kLkN eyLi ue hg lt jkv 4g hg gj \ q , s s\ s a s s\ q a s T s , , T kc kr ]kF k;x dIy jdLdi eyLi kd hL? e Syflb ]kg u ckj[ nCu hjr s \ q X \ T s s X e ylv 4tc Cgu uhr ]jd re ∂Gf r A kgd su ky¥e 2Sx tc uhr ]tkokv s w q hd hL? kg rul df kNi u hu®i ]kF kgj jd 'oi e jr¬cf ky¥e ct 4hn t \ s s q w s s z X q kokv hd uhr su yk;Lf? 4F tc uhr 4kIky j? l jn rkj dS uhYQlu ky¥qe \ s s , s s 4k[sn e phc ]k[n e ;÷e A g dhri g; ]g gj kg r¬e ]g gj pku ]g gj jd ut X s X , z T s s T s T s H ]g gj kx rhx dIy e j/v lkndwye df k[n u jhxeykv kt g; Syflb T s s X s s s 4g <e∂rfv ;÷e 6g rDfe ;÷e jkv 4g jkll rfv 6g u/c Xe rfv , , q , , a , a 4g krkt kyp ji rfv hjln henkv l rfv dS udfy 4g k;kuc kd , w s s , s s s ukg kL[ hg yc d ji gér u ke®keji 4g krLi kukg kL[ jkudf d ykohn d \ s , X q s , \ s \ s s f ]g hrLi hun dI hd Sdfr df ]g hrLi hun dI hd Fkg kd ykoujd ulk" , \ s s , \ s s s s s Z h' 4g jgfkt Gkl l jlf ykx jkgér 4g kr[nf Cgu kd ke®keji knkjb kr kd , s s s q , s ulk"h' 4krkg k;nf u kr jlf ykx klsS 4kvkt kg L[ gjr hd Bkirf ]xCl Z s s s s s s \ uhr ed7l7ed 4rkg hg Snf kr xCl kr Cgu ji ed7l7ed 4rkg Snf ji e j s s s s s , s s s , X lf ulm kr ]kF ku[j sL[ hg yc d jlf gér kd ke®keji jxv `g rjWt B s s \ s X q s , s kd hd sukg L[ yc d jlf kr Cgu 4g Sx kg L[ Iym cv skt g hxkH ;3ku s s \ s s T s s \ s T s s kt kg uk/okl ]k[n L[ yc d jlf er kd utf7utf 4kxSkt kg hxk; yd Cg s s s s \ s q s s s u tkv go ]g kgj hxkH kt jkv 4kxy ro kd ;p‰c go ]g kgj hjkpHf;ø kt , s s , s z Z z , s 4Mki u yduf a kr gkp hH kuyduf dfkr ]k;yf j? l Gjr cl kd uiv 4xkH u IN e <{ s wa s s s s wa w X jkted hldf Cgd df Cy kugi jhtat hg n[ e kFkg uiv 4Skt kg u kjr[ s X q X X s s Bkd Cgd dfkr ]h;kxy Lxkc Gjr kjkp uiv3Xe e;l ]e e;uf ]e e;3e < s q\ X s a X X X _;uf k/kc kd uiv 6kikF l rDf' hd i¥dl 6kikF hr¬njct 3g krkg ZFv k a a s s s s a s , s d ro 4g krkt kg kO> hg <jkd d sukg ro ro go kr Li kuy ro kd ;p‰ z , s w s s z z s s \ s z Z c jkv 4g rsy ro kd ;p‰c hg hjkpHf;ø 2g rjWt k;D hd ro d ;p‰c z , T s z Z z , z s Z z kr Cgu 4g kgj hjkpHf;ø kusy >el ]sy ro kd ;p‰c hH kt 4kxy ro ;p‰ s , z Z z s s z Z z c ]kxxkH jdLkN kd k;_¬f yd Cgu tkv ]g kgj kukohn Nhi d k;_¬f kt go s s\ s X , s s X s 2xaSkt Syfldf upkdhyjm kr Cgu 4g ÈHutkH owirH d s a s T s Z w f ku>el yef hH kt ]er kvkt upkdhyjm 4kxSkt upkdhyjm yd Cgu tkv X s q s a a ÈHutkH 4ku[j yk;[ ]g krdl kg hlkoim hH hHd go ]g ÈHutkH henkv s , s , s kt 4ji rfv ]g krkt aSkn k; ]ji rfv ]g krkt Skc go kr k; A g e;uf kd s , , a s , ue 4kxSkt jgO ;el ]kxSkt dQ ;el ]hxSkt kg nac ykp hd hL? `kxkg k; s \ s D kr 6aSkn u Skt Skc u3kn dkj jd Ldi e phc er kd eyLi d hL? slt s a s s \ X q s q X s \ , 4g krpc l k;rfv go ]g kd phc kr kr¬kj kdlm 2; , s X , s kduf e>†fe3g kgd su 0c 4g krkg e ;÷e knl kr rl 4h;x kg rfv g; ]g , q , s X s a s T

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 81 egaP

4ktks[ kd lkndye er e Cgüm 4g / s s w q X T çyim nç' jk;î dum "' 4g rkK e /cl d lkndye SkuI? hl7hLkF ; ]lc s s s T X a a s w a s\ s 4kuy uke re ;ƒr kdlb 4krdl Cgu dIy s s e ;÷e Bkd 4g dhri g; 6ksd lkndye g k[n Sg dIy e ;÷e u jhxeykv X s , z w , s q s X s 4g hrkt dQ k_k; hd keüt ]g hrkt dQ hL? hd jrhH 4g , X , \ , hrgj hryp k_k; hd keüt ksr g hrgj hryp hL? hd jrhH 6g ryp eüt ji X , \ T s X keüt ]g kryp eüt kjln 4g kryp eüt dS jGf 4g jk/kv kd uoht rFfd , w , , kFr jkgér hg hL? hd jrhH jkv 4g hryp hL? hd jrhH gjr hlb jkv g kr s q \ , , \ , , gj kryksL hg lsS jk,v g krkt pgi dr I¥m jGf ksr g krkt cM llm ct j s , qa s , s Gf 4kxyef lj e I¥m n;k' ksr kyef Cgu lj elb g krpkl 4g kry up kd s X s X , s , s q s thp rhjiof dlm <{®r ksr g krcM l thp dS ct df g g; e;uf kd u s , s , e dfkX;D 4Sgfkp huk/okl hLc udfy 4sy >el kd krF;ø hd rfv kt g krdl \ s s Z s , ksg rDe hgo l hL? lm 4g kuksg rDe hH l hL? lm 4ydtfkyk;kc ]hL? do q s \ , q s \ s \ ft3g hL? dS jrhH 4g Mkypekd ksr go 6g e_fÎ ksr go 4g hL? dS jgkc , , \ , , , \ 2kIky Cgu tc gjkc df kvg kNπv 2kd , s q ke®keji skg ;ü/ ]kgd u ky¥e 4Sg Fkl dS pπc uhr jkv `Sg pπc kd hu® s q q s , q s s i hdikv ]g kri `dyfke ]kagd gj ikv df kgd u hukjdku jk,v Sktc Ia? d , s s , s s uhr u hL? j/b 4hyef hg ji jk} hukjdku ksr k;kv j? ~ ~ ~4g krOm go c s \ , , r ],g hrksg nc kyk'/e tc uhr 4g krOm hHr hrkg nc kyk'/e ct 4g krgj a q s , s a q , ket e kyk'/e jn knk;† 4stc uhr jGf hgo~ ~ ~rkj kIky j? uhYQlu ky¥qe X q s , 4g hgj yp ikpip kt ]g hL? dS jrhH jkgér 4g hrxy , q s , \ s q , ukv Bkgét ]g hrxy sudi> [kv hjkgér tc ln ksr ksg rksl rkj tc ln tk s T X a q s s s s j jxv er 4kvg rDo kd utksH cv df g krn n jc[ Ii tc gjkc dhO ksr q q , s s s s ]ksg srjd utksH tksj er tc gjkc jxv gér kr Syfhlb 4g kF¬o;ø gjr hd h q s X q s , L? dhO hH jrhH d jhj' df g gj ksg htkj ji rkc lb hH dufkKo kr hHv \ s T s , s 4g , hL? hH ue udfy 4g kgj gd Cgu kd udIy l eyLi d hL? ler e jxe \ s wa s s s q X s \ s q T 4g jk} kd krroæk' Cgo ]k;x ;el kgt , a jkv 4g krkt kg rîkel ;el jrhH dlm 4g krkt kg rhrkykd go 4g krkt , , s s , s , ksg rgfkjrf ;el l uoht dlm 4g krkt ksg kL[ e ;÷e d k;rfv hd uoht k s s s , \ X s X s t g hrI? ksd rDf;ø lm kuI? rHnv hg hlsS dhO 4hxSkt ksg nc hg ykp hd , q . a hL\? 4Cgu hg kxtc 4kxtc Cgu hH Nd ]kn u ]dS u ]xtc uhr u ]xtc ku s s q s s X s X , u ]xtc gjkc u 4hxSkt dQ hL? kr ksvkt dIy jd Ldi kd eyLi d hL\? s X \ s \ s q X s 4Sx tc uhr jxe ]Skpc ue ksr I s T s a , s ? ku kr 2k;x rhc ;el kd sutc I? cv df syp ld kri udfy ]kF kugj L sa s , s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 91 egaP

4 hgj kg LFhp hL\xi ]IG rt ]l kuket sxkXg u y/ Lid ]l kXuhge kLi Cgu y s s \ s s w s X s q s \ s \ sr e kXykc~ ~ ~ 2yD' g; ]Ry7Lid ; 4kxksg k;yf kjp kd hldf ur ]kgd ul X s s \ s q s w s m 4k;yf uhN go sulm ksr k;k[nf jdykduf _i7<_euf kuiv u cyfkx ktef a s Z 2xy kr¬kj 2cyfkx ktef jk,v r ]kjr kxksg ckj[ xkenf 4k;x >el go kgd ulm Z w s s 4g cyfkx ktef e df kgd u cyfkx kZtef skr 2l kg; xkH `g kgj kt jrhH wa Z T s s a , kagd df k;yf dksj jd Ldi Fkg u jknjgi ]sxy ujd 'oi jrhH hg lt 4kv \ s s s s z s , g hgo kF kuksg kst jkv 2ñte hjkgér ]kuke u 4ksuke hjkeg er hH jGf Akgd q , q s q u k_ef 4Sx hg lo 4kxMkt hg klo g klt ksr e ` ksd k_¬o je k; g kyef s X s , a , wa , T X ss , s >qe <_euf A kgd u cyfkx ktef 4sxn ykduf jdn kdD/ hg l jgkc jknhdk,p a s Z X s s ]xn ul? Cgu hg jrhH hlkjip `e jkcjn `xksvkt jd ugi Ry7Lid ; df s X s q X s s s \ s kgd u k_ef 4F Cgu dhO udfy Ry7Lid 4kxyef l dhO utksH ksr unf dS s X s s s s \ s s ksyp df Sg '[ ksr kyef <_euf hgk' 4F gj yp dkG ]kF Cgu Nd 2kvg u q q a s s s q q k;jfkc e j? hg tkv 2gd ksd suOc l ge ldf 2gd ksd uOc kdlm ksr ,g k; s X X , s qa X s , s kv dyfke df 2kd sukNcf g Cgu hH k;jfksc dS ] jk,v kr jkv 2kvg u k;jfskc s , s , q e j? hg tkv dfk;D ]g r[n Gjr hd j? uiv jtu dS jkv g r[n Gjr X X T s s s , T s s hdlm eg jtu dS ksr kjk;î hH k;kv unf ltf df e krofd dS huiv g hH X , kgd 4gj ykgIG knl 4gj ryp ende e kryknv ]k;jfgpd 4jH hxntV Ski s s s s s q X X X kdp u hg hjk/m 4henkv chjx cyfkx ktef 4kF klyt hgk' Bkd 4F r_feu q Z s s a f xksy hH jkv 4k;nf <_euf ji utkH dS u jGt gk'jnkgc ksd cyfkx ktef , a s s q Z 4g [y¥m klS e uoht d cyfkx ktef , s s X s Z 4kxksg ukjg kLkF hH henkv go kr 2g , s\ s T s l pfQl hLc hH Oc ikv df 6g hNπv hLc hH ñld hdikv df ~ ~ ~kgv df q \ s, , \ q ]d uskl hH uIc df ]g Iksd kjk;î kLc df3kvkv Ik,y djd rhprkc hg e /c s s , \ s s X a a s X l d k_¬o dlm jkv kvkt uyef l hldf er lt g klS g; 4g rkc <kx c s , s s s q s , , s T X , l ; 4|i kdum ]g gkoi rHnv kt e xi kdum ]krde®k;økd hd kXvkupj 0 s , z q . s X cnN hdum ]oO‘k,l7k"kH kdum ksr g rkt SkPi hH lknjhcd e Xk;yk|ofoæof a T s \ X 4g hrkt h;k[lf rkc hI¥m eg jxe T X X 4hxyef s Bg hrdy> e knç' nkl7/hl ub gér jWt ofN hd ke®keji 4xksvki jWt e q X X s s X q s q r ikN hd rhxl d ;nÔ 6kxLi h;kul gér jWt nku rgkuv 6xkul jWt rh a s s \ q X q s s q xl kd jrhH udfy 4kd ukOcf Sk_ke krksg Cgu cklgf güm 4hLdD/l g hrksg a s s a X \ q , k"kH hdum 4hrkg Cgu ∂Gf hdub kd kXr¬e lt lkndye 4kutks[ re Zdr ]ku s s s , w tks[ re <jdk;ø ]kutks[ re oO‘kl kd k"kH ]kutks[ re ;økd ]ku[j yk;[ ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 02 egaP

44ekj k;kv <j' hjsr cv s `g k;D hH klt su>el ]g k;D hH klt uk>el elb df xkspk , , , , s X s s l kLkF er skr ]k>el u 4g iNf eum _¬k' jkl kr ]k>el 4g upo nkl7/hl s\ q s T s X s s s T s s 44ekj k;kv <j' hjsr cv s 4Cgu hH hrksg gkoji Bkd hd cl lb ksd kxky l,t lkndye 4hd k"kH u ]hd <jdk;ø s X s s w u ]kujd ∂Gf hd k_ke u 4kujrm e lj kr kg; 2kyk'/e dS ]g gxt dS X s a q , hd suyef d kukohn ksr g; 4g Cgu ;yk|ofoæof Bksd g; 4ku[n re gjr lb s X , s 4Skt ukpgi l kLid dum cyfkx ktef gjr ltf ]e ;yk|ofoæof g rPi gj a s s X \ s Z X T s \ r lb xky ksd duku ]ksd nhjG ]ksd lknj ]ksd dye ]ksd jl ]ksd jhcd udfy s , w w s 4g <ioÂge kuI? 4hF , Z w hdp ksg jn rgc ksr cr udfsy 4hyp kri hukgd hji kd jGt gk'jnkgc cr q s q w s q 4g hI[ ilf ksr e `kvky[f ld kd hI[ 4hn ykL jnav d rt3g r[n ik wa wa Z T s s , s wa s s w T s s v3e hGjc dS 4k;nf ykL e lh[ d thed *)@Òy ]hykL e lh[ d Iksd hG T X s s X s s jc lt ]g rdl hH k[ kLkF Lid ed l ed 4hxkg hlg jkv ksr ksvky[f kd s , T s s\ s \ s s a , s hI[ cv df 4g kgj ky[f ksd kLid e Syflb 4kxksg kI¥m jk,v go 2g hrjd wa wa X \ T , utksH Cgd hI[ 4g Sx kv Lid s; jd xI ji ltf ]g hI[ ilf ksr e cv 4Cg wa T s \ a wa wa Z T u hg k;kv ksr e 4g Cgu e cv ]g Skv Lid ksr cv 6k;x k;nf ykduf jdsn T wa T T s \ sdD/ ksr kF k;kv ksr e 4g Gkl7h/hl rkc ]Cgu Nd tkj A kgd u cyfkx ktef T , q s Z `g k;D tkj kdlb kr g kgj jd g; ct hen , s , kv klt ikv 4kxkg tkj Bksd jWt `g xP kl7uk,d kdikv g; `g hy' hl7ukd , s , a , , , g; `g gj jd k;D g; ikv A kNi u jGt 4k;yf Cgu jk,d dS n[ 2krt y T s w s q w s df rkxy ksd rt 2k[ jd jH ynf ]Ikd y df rkyN kd Ikd 2hLxi y df s s w s s s q s s \ s srkxy ksd hL\xi ]hGjc rkOm 4F gj jd ekd chtv cyfkx ktef `g gj jd k s s s Z T s ;D ikv g; 4krkt kgj Cgu kucf sNi ]jd ke{ A kgd 4k;x kgj u kr hxy uP w X s s \ q c rgc rkc ct udfsy 4Cgu rpfm kuyksc df ]'ojkpkI‘'f ]Cgu yksc Nd ksr s q ygi 4Sg ukjg rgc jGt udfsy 4kd cyfkx k;kOcf lki uiv 4kd ofd3g ek s q , q s s , uim kdum 8jGt8 4F ofd Lc ]F j;k' sLc hH n[ ksr jGt gk'jnkgc Ikel s s \ s \ q q z 4Sx jd 'oi jnv jkv S s z a , kjd¬e ktef 4g cyfkx kZtef ikv g krksg eyke df kgd hg; jd d> 4kF k;y q Z T , w q f kLN ulm hg ygi ksr go ]ksr cv Cgu hH kF ~ ~ ~ `g kagd _i7<_aeuf df q\ s s , kNi Cgu hH g; sulm jkc lb 4k;df jkd¬eu jd d>7d> jknjgi hgo 4Iky w q q s s, lifko jdsy thed Ikd7Lid jk/m 4kn sn jk/m >e rt jkgér ]hLxi hjkgér s s \ s s q s w s q \ q ]thed7Iksd jkgér 4F rgd dhO er df kgd l k_ef 4Sx lifko cyfkx ktef s q s s q s X Z
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 12 egaP

2g krpf3g hgj yt xkv ]g h , , T xy XIiy ilf ]g Cgu ygetkj go ]g k;kv LkN Nhi ltf e df g kgd u 0c Z , wa s\ s s T , s q 4henkv kvg ukel d ukde ryt dS q s s ukex dcl Ief ]uki7ue7ur q s s z henkv kvg uk'uf kd Iksp hldf ek' jg q ukeof krLm kF e ukOm hd unf \ X henkv kvg ukdF i ukdF e jksi7jksi q s X ]ukdF e jk' jGf ]ukdF e jkH X s X s henkv kvg uk;c kd ukiÎ hrII dS q w uked l Fkg hjxf ]ukc Sx uNf s henkv kvg ukel d ukde ryt dS q s s ukex dcl Ief ]uki7ue7ur q s s z 4kryp Cgu hg kri Bksd kd henkv hylv 4g , k;x ks[ Cgd henkv hylv 6g lkHkv Ow> ]g aSkdpfhjexe 2Cgu ;®l ]g uil T s T 1 T s hg uil kgo 4k;yf ukpgi ]k;yf [n k[k/ kdlm g h;kuc k;ufn kt u henkv s a s s , q s s 82ekj sk;kv < j' hjr cv8 2g k;kv jk} jkgér cv Syflb 6kIk,y Fkg hyk[ l gxt cl jk s wa s q s , v ji kXtkojn7jk} udf7udf ]kd> kagd7kagd eyke7u 2gx <jp d udf7udf e q w s s w yke7u 2g k;x <j' hd udf7udf ewyke7u 4rgc k;x dF 82ekj k;kv <j' h wa q s jr cv8 82klkKtf‰c ksrkFv8 4nkc d oHuv A g Fv kd cv 48cv83Syflb s z s q , Z 6Ski jF®i7Ldd kago hF h[n dep hd kXjhg kgt 6CF u hH k;Lfk,d kago kF kp \ a s a a \ ksl u/ kgt 6h;ki IgkoLd hd ehu kgo kF lkHkv kd lkOef kagt 4kg; g nko a \ a a , ¬c cl 4nko¬ cl Syf [p ]uoht rgc k;yf [n A g cyre l cv `cyre k s q s , s ;D l cv 48cv8 4klkKtf hd ‰c cv ]8klkKtf‰c krkFv83g krkg W' _wl‰ s z z s , s q z s , , c lt g hg kl,o dhO g; 4kujd uk;÷ kl7kLkF er kd nç' 8cv8 lb ksr ygi s\ q s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 22 egaP

4g Ikel o 4g hu/ hylv o 4g krkg eyke knk;† l rjWt hH go T z s T s , s w s ]g kurtf 4g rîfr eji hH jGf jkv g Nd7ku lki dutf ]g gj ji uhet l , , 1 , , q s T s b xky hH lS jkv `kxksg uk,d jkv –jfn kl,t um 4hrksg Cgu rîkel hdum xk s s s , , a e hH jGf ]g rgc lki dutf g xky lS 4g gj ht xky e [k/ d u/ udfy , q s T s s s T s s X s s s s 4g , k[ks/ kd u/ ]g Cgu u/ go ]y uhN rke kt 4dl uhN u rk,e kt ]g hgo u/ , s , s s s , 4ky >el k"kHjfi hd u/ s 4g kjpd7kLd ]g hH kt ksr g hry uhN cl jd k , w\ , s , s v rk,e ct 4g Cgu hH Nd jk,v rDjfrfv d jpd7sLd e hxntV lb df kxksg , q s s w\ X k;x kv e >el hg hn¥t 4hxksg hgj ukpgi hd jpd7sLd ]kd kXr¬kj F rjd G X s w\ s s kl kjpd7kLd hg l uipc 4hxkXg hgj tr [kv 4u lkndye k;yf [n cl g; w\ s s X a s w s 2ksg gj Ikd e kuk,y[f kdum ]ukn[ hd kXjhg g hrdl yef Xe ;el s X X s X T ltf 2ksg gj Ikd kdlm ]g krdl yef ke®keji e ;el ltf 2ksg gj Ikd S s s , X s g Oc e kXe¥Gf jkv e ky[ d tjr' jk,v e kXRi d 'kr er lb 4krdl kv q s, X , X X s s a X s q s Cgu lifko hH <{ dS kr sxksjd ;kim [ky jGf 4Cgu kxsIky jGf ksr sl Fkg s , jkc dS k;x `g k;D jk,v ;¥egc kl,t ;el jk,v `g lki jkgér ;el kurb , w q , s q `xksIkd ;el er e 'kg `ksg gj ht e 'ksg er 4g hgj yp h'ksgc 2kagd 'skg s q X s s X q , s 4g Fkg hg kje go , s df kpkl ue ji 4~ ~ ~kyp Cgu k;D kri A kgd ]C;x d> phu [kv hd htcçP s s T X q s X a w `Cgu k;D ryksc ]kykc `kyp Cgu kri gér cr kykL Fkg e ct hjk X s s s X q X s gér su jrdcst ji df kgd jk,v k[n kd htcçP jd kLx [kv l jkt u hu®i q s s s w \ X a s s s hdum 2h;x Id ct hje ];kg ];kg A syksc jd ky¥pf l jkt 4pgi j? htcçP s s s s s qa w 4g Cgu 'kg hH kjt\ 4g gj kt yp sxkH Fkl d LhH ]g LhH 4g gj kt , s T s s s \ , \ T s syp xkH e h'kgc df g xky lc udfy 4g kujd jkd®k{kl7e®kv ]g kujd /k s X s s T s s , , s ce®kv ]g kujd ;pjfi7e®kv e ;el LkF hlb 4g k;D ;®l df g kuy ukpgi , X s s\ , , s X e ;el sLkF hlb jkv g ;el ksr kl7kLkF `ksIkd lm df lki jkgér g knk;† s\ , , s\ s s q , kurb k;D ;el jkv 4ksg gj je tksj er 4g hgj kt hrId tksj unx hjkgér , s q , Z q 4g hgj kt Ikd tksj gér jkoyr hd ;el `g ukdOf 'kg `ksg gj Ikd ;el , s X q T s s s er k; g kgj Ikd gér ;el 2kg yxki 4g gj Ikd ;el A g rgd kso kr 2Xrk q , X q s T s T s s e s; ]jkg s; ]rht s; ]ykp s; `ksg gj jd k;D df kNi lum jk,v3Lk?7hFkg d X X X s s w s s s\ s rkan7hFkg skr Sg e lki li kjt\ k;3Lk?7hFkg d hLdy ksr ]lki g Cgu Lk? q X s , s s\ s \ T s s\ 7hFkg hylv 4g rkyp jgkse d tjr' ]g ry[ 'kr 4g chtv Lc xky udfy T s s s a T s s T s \ s s 4jk,v rkc kr ksg kukox jH ;el 4g hFkF yd¥cf d s a , s q f k;ki3k;df oHuv ]kukpgi ]ktks[ ]kyksII l Gjr cl kd hxntV u lkndye q s s s w 2henkv kvg ukel d ukde ryt dS ~ ~ ~ q s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 32 egaP

2sl j/m ]l j/m 2krt A kgd u s w s a k;ef Lx≈> df F Sg Cgu hH iqp o hHv 2krt kvkxy ]j g uk,d A tjx sl j \ s q s w s s , s kst jd Ppf jkv 4k;x kv kl¬x kd ;kgl unauek;æ jnkgc;kj df kF kuul ku \ , q s q q rb 2l j/b ]l j/b A sxy uky¥pf jGf ckut kr Cxy uIc k;jfk,yxf hd uki s s s s s a a ct jGf 4hd Wq' ;kp l Cgo jkv Sx kv Gjr hlm ksr32l j/b ]l j/b3t s , s s kokv hd jkt ]hul tkokv hd k;ef Lx≈> su kXjdku 2l j/b ]l j/b A kgd sl s q a \ , s s jskt u k;ef L\x≈> kr C;kv k;yfk;î hd ;kp ct e lyt dS 4F jg'e rg s a s a X s s w q c Syf d hckotjtfkg kFr uij[le suiv k;ef Lx≈> 4g hd uket ukji rkc s s a \ , s s q 4y jksIc e yG cl 4 wa T w Skt yef s>e cl kNπv7kNπv 2Skt yef Nd cl 4gj hg kryef 2yef hH go q q s s ]yef hH g;3g uoht kd ekd dS 4kulko ]kuekd huk; ekd 4jkv ]jk,v ]jk s , , , v Ag Fv kd ekd 4uoht kd ekj jkv uoht kd ekd A g uoht d gjr hg kn , Z , T s s 4g k;kv ji jk} jkgér cr ]g k;kdi rgc u xkv hd wa s q , q s ekd jk,v g k;krl rgc u ekd 6g Cgu kL? kpπd ]g k;x kv Cgu hg slS jkv , q s wa \ wa s , 44ekd k;krl rfv ]hgühd jkdi ukt hg; X q `xksyef eqr kagd s `y tks[ géqr sld `Mki Xgér sld A g jkol u/ hg dS l cr ]lc3ktc kjkr wa X , a q , , q s db kvg kOm e Fkg dlm jkv ]suql j?? Sg /c e kji dlm jk,v k[sn nukv q X s , wa q s a X X , s a kvg krdy> e k[kv hd Qqxnl ct jkv kul eku kjkgér l Qxnl hldf ct q X X a . , q q s q . 44eku uokirrfi [e d /kl k;ufql ct q s , 4hH ji Hht hje hd rev h;x Li n s 1 \ wa c dS 4k;x xy nko¬ lc ]kul eku kjkgér l [e d /kl Sg pgi hldf ct q q s q s q q s qa 44eku uokirrfi [e d /kl k;ufql ct q s , 4g Cgu hc[ Nd hje elb 6g Cgu k , w q s X , ejfx ojkx Bksd hje Xelb `jk} jkgér k;kv ld~ ~ ~4okH gxuv kd rDH ]kr , s s q s , z q euof hd rDH ku>el~ ~ ~4g Cgu ojk,x kje Nd elb `lki jkgér k;kv sld z , s q X s q , 44eku uokirrfi [e d /kl k;ufql ct q s , 4kxt 'ksg s>e cv 6kvg /ksc >qe cv 6h;kv q q s >el s>e cv 4g k;x kv <j' hjr cv3e uoht ruv7ruv3jdkI[I[ tko q wa s X a a s jn7jk} rauv7ruv ]jdkI[I[ stkojn7jk} cl ]jd[n cl A g srgd lkndye a s T w 44ekj k;kv <j' hjsr cv s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 42 egaP

~henkv g kxy ugc gjr hd durf df ct , s s ]kyH ld kxs;kjdI l jk/ hd ;el g; s , s ~henkv g kxy ugd hgo ]g hrgd kt LhH , s , s \ ]Cgu krki jd ukpgi kso e Ikad kv yG X s , w ~henkv g kxy ugj Xe xj d kL\nhx , s a s X ]henkv g kxy ugl hHl d lg7lag e¥t , s s a q 4yef rDfe ksr jd rDqe wr s q s 4g k;kv rfxk<j' hjr cv 2ekj k;kv <j' hjr cv 4hd hekyx hLc 4wag k; wa s s s q \ kv jdksg kxe[Hf ]g k;x ksg –jfn rgc ]g k;x kg uhn rgc <jkd d kvkul a wa q wa s q s X ko ]<jkd d kxkH7;"of 4kvg ttfkv rgc 4g h;x ksg k'nn rgc df g srgd s X s q q , Zq q T 44ekyx dye gd ]ttfkv k;H hrsl ;"of q w s 4Cgu k{kadkv Bksd hH hd u[sn ]Cgu s knkjb Bksd cv kd suIky sNhi Gjr hd jkll 4g k;kv jddi 4ku>el re kp , a wa πd ]g k;kv djd oHquv cl g; ]g k;kv jd [n cl g; A g srgd lkndye wa s wa s T w 4g Sg sOc ji®r ksd uIkd unx hd jln7dS 4g Sg y T q , s Z s w T q s kL Fkg e ct hd jln7dS 4g jkol xksy ji yx d jln7dS 4g krxfk;rfi I X s s w T s s s w , s z X k?kyx ]g Z"?l rrl ]g kZ/i¬rfi e kulko dfkX;D `g hrkrl kX;D kurb kulko , a , z X , 44ekd k;krl rfv ]hgühd jkdi ukt hg; s q 4g k;x jH l kIkad rxt kjkl 4g rkt pc , s X . T s sa T w Ikd ]g rcte Ikd ]kag 4rdl pc Cgu yG kr hxksg hIi>kuhN hurb 4g ye sa s w s T ksd yG dfk;D ]Cgu rpc kr yG 4g ukgqygy Fkg dcl 4g rkt Hp Ikad ]g w X s s w T w s T s q s T s rkt ksg I‘u e hIi>kuhN ksr yG 4g hIi>kuhN cw[ Syflb 4Skt yef géqr c X w , a X l Ikad7Ikd ]aSkt yef güm yG7yG A g gj jd hg; hH jln jxe 4Skt yef s sa X w w T s s w a ksd kjln cl Ikd7Ikad ]Skt yef eg cl yG7yG 4g xP kd hxntV hjkeg g; X w sa s a X w w , a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 52 egaP

4g Cgu krd , ;æokv hd _i<kei hldf jkv 4g hu®i7rfi dDi ikv 2Sbkt jrhH jkv hckp z , T s , Stfhy ]k;x yef _i<kei ]cgkl df kgd jkv hn n hckp jd kjd¬e su jtu,e z , s q s 2kn ckot `ryp Cgu jdy k;D Fkl s s s X _i<kei ]g ryp l j? ct ikv 4kjd kyp jdy Fkl _i<kei df kgd Gn z T s s s s z s jktg df hykc jkv kd rfi suiv hjke hugI l l¬x df kF hg kul g; u hu®i s , s q s s s q q s 2yIkg hd hy¥nf hg rpæfuf hxkg hgj s s 4g hg hu®i7 T rfi ikv df Stfhn _i<kei kd rkc lb ikv ygi A kykc jtue 4kxke kjed z s s s , a Syf d sujgO ukgüm ji kgo 4Sx e yIkg dS Syf d ukue k;ÈfN hu®i7rfi s s X a X s s s a q 4g Cgu /cal j , a kv Bkd kr Cgu 4Skt kv 'kt kd uIiL7uIkL güm ct g cr hg rykc sl kpπ , s s s s s a X T s s X c ikc7ke 4kg rjWt hd li güm ct g cr hg srykc l ikc7ke pπc 4g ydæf a s s , X T s s a s , e hujd rkc df g kylkG kurb phc d k;Pfhi 4g "?l jkv gyd phc sd kp q , s X \ , Z a , X πc jkv ikc7ke 4g Z"?l jkv gyd kr ;el hdkc ]kg krkg kr kg krkg kd < , a , a , s s s s s s s {7kn7<{ hHd n;k' skr ei udfsy ]krku kd ei g kr rgd ]hu®i7rfi kgd s zs zs T s s s s kdutf 4g k;rf0i rF¬fo;ø hLkF hd uL\x> n;k' `g k;D hH ræjf rku jkeg T a s\ s T s s s 4ræjf jkv rku g nç' hg nç' lc 4O> ræjf cl s , s T s w s ]O> srku cl hdkc 4g Cgu kpπl hH Nd ;kolf jr jkv 4g jnfe Cgo ]g ZF s w , q s s , , a , hr Cgo3kg rjd nk; hjr jdyef ukohn jkp kgt ]kg kgj yp <je¬ kjr kgt X s s s a s s a 44g ekO kl ;ü/ ];kg ujefql kogt , s s a a 4g eku kjr pkl ]ykikx r kpkl , s a s w a 4g r kr g ;®l ]g ;®lv kg; cl3h;x kv >el rkc dS A g srgd lkndye , w s , , a T w 4g eku kjr pkl ]ykikx r kpkl , s a s w a 4hH kyt kr ]Li hH ykGG kr xy e Fkg hH jk s s X \ s s s X X s xav Li e [kj n;k' jkv 4hxsxy Fkg [kj hg [kj 4Cgu kykouxy Fkg akg; N s \ X , s d jkv rDjfrfv d Ikd 4g ZF;ø rkruf ]kg xy er Xe hik/kikv ltf df kxSk q , s s a , a s s q t kv Xe >el hH gér jkv3k[n kd Xkjkv ]k[n kd uiv ]k[n Gjr kjkp kjt\ X q , s s s , s s s s s s X ~henkv g kxy ugx kd gkc hd hldf jg , s s a ]jdLkr jkl /acl Syf d kdDlf np s\ s a s X a

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 62 egaP

4g eku kjr pkal ]ykikx r kpkl , s s w a 3hg; sxksgd hH er jkv ksdka> jrhH dub ] q , s g pkaP kst d jiM7jiM kjt\ 4k[n jdkOm ni kjt\ 4k[n l jk,x kjt\ kd hxntV T s s s s ∆ s s s s 4g srye T f _l jgx Lc >e llb 4ksjd u ∂Gf er A kgd ue `g k[j k;D Nhi kg; 2k w s s \ s q s q s T , s a s n ukt Oc sNhi >e df ksg rgd kst kg er ydv dS ]g hr[n jgkc hr¬c hjk s , s q s s q s s , s l `g ku[n k;D l Nhi gér~ ~ ~g; df rNi l>e o F jtu,e kst e okax jse , s X s s X q s w s q s s s X s 4Sgfkp ku[n Nhi d ni kr s s s ∆ s ksg ku[n kdlb 2dIku hylv g; 4kxn kuc huIp ]hd rdjg g; kjkcqn jxv s s wa ~ ~ ~4hxksg hOc e kd'n ]e kykou[n kago hu®i ~ ~ ~2Gjr hd hu®i hje kF k , X X Z X X s s s gj [n r jkv kF kuyksc jd[n Gjr hje yd >r ]nktekjg j kX;D df g k[ s w , s s s q s s , n srIkL ksd ht –pekj ksd <okj sue 2'd hj[fkv3g kgj kt kpj jo;o¬ ]jg s a a T , a kc g hgj kt endS lc 2g k[sn rkxy 'd d hLhc ksd htkrhl ue 4g rH.nv T , s s \ s T , q kLc y[ kd jrhH jxe 2ykl jg y[ hgo kd hgo ]hy [n kGn dS ]g k;D \ s s s , e jgkc 4g h[n hg l sNhi k'eg sue kr hF hrkg kyhyekj hH ct e okax jse X , s s s T s s X s 4g rtl kruHfv kgt ]Nhi d T s s a s s ni3ksjd k[n jdkt hH l sNhi kyhyekj hHd7hHd er 4g kyeke hg jkv Nd ∆ s s q , , q jrhH d ni ]g Cgu kpπl ]g kgj yp kst Gjr lb d ni cl g; 2g dIku s ∆ , , s ∆ , cl g; ]g O> cl g; 6Sx cM yd¥cf3g rgd lkndye3l //[jksx lb 4g , w q T s w s s a , k//[jskx chtv kLc jkll g; 4g rkt kg _' _ef ]g rkt ksg _ef _' kg; a \ a T s s q T s q a 4g krdl kt kgd k;D ]kxSkt ksg _ef cd _' ukd dfXk;D 4kvksg rd> , q , s s >f e ugd e /cl d kX_ef suiv er kst kugd re rkc o hH e /cal d kv X s X a a s q X s X a s X q _' suiv jk,v 4krdl kt kgd Cgu Nd ]kxSkt ksg _' cd _ef uk,d dfk;D 4 q q X ksg rgkp kukrc u ksd kv_' uiv er kst kukrc re rkc go hH kd kX_ef ui s X q s q s s v A g k[yf e ckrdf huiv ulm3kvg ;D<kp kd epæfi df kt3u hyok;D,e , X s q s s s `g k;D dG 4g krdl ksg _ef tkv go ]kF ueæn yd skt 4 , Z , q g krdl kg ueæn yd ]g _ef tkv kt 4g e Ifksd hg dS kukn ]ueæn jkv _ , s q T s Ta X X s q , ef jkgér df g gj gd Gkl llht 4l kX_ef suiv klt kjd ei hg klo l ku s q T s s , s zs , s X eæn suiv 4g Cgu dG lk[ Bksd e kueæn jk,v e kX_ef df g g; Fv kdlb ` q , Z X X q X , Z ksg r>el Fv kdlb A kgd llm sue 4kF kgj jd rkc e l hju'ef BklB dS s Z s T T s 4kd kX_ef uiv l,t ksjd ei lsS kd kv_' uiv A g upo 0lfi kd llht s s s zs s s X q s , z 4g _ef l utk;i lc T s s z hH _ef kg; `g _ef kagd hH _ef kg; ]g ueæn kr ueæn kg; 4g gj Lx> _ a T a T q s q a T s \ ef7_ef ]BkH7BkH ]ugc7BkH 4g gj Lx> pπc7ikc7ke 4g gj Lx> ka;u®fi7rfi T s \ s a T s \
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 72 egaP

en Bksd e krdr¬fkv hjkgér u 4ksg dr¬fkv jd[n ksd Lh\H er ]g dr¬fku j X q s q T d[n ksd LhH hH so3Cgu nH jH hRj ]Cgu nH hH kjt\ e kXdr¬fku d lW jkv s \ s s X s , dr¬fkv d rjkH jxe 4g dr¬fkv xksy hHl dfk;D ]g k/ofl e uksg dr¬fkv s T X , q X s Xe 'n lt rjkH 4g dr¬fku xky hHl dfk;D ]g k/ofl e uksg dr¬fku Xe lW s s , T s X , q X s 4hxgj k/ofl ksr ]kuke 6hxksg upL\v ksr kuke u ]g ruke cl 4 s q s s T s g krLi ewyke uklkv kuuke 4ksg rsy uke hH er3g ruke xsky hHl ]g hruke , \ s q T s , LhH ]g ruke ikc7ke 4g k// kr¬l kuuke 2g hrLi hukdp rehd 4g rkc jk \ T s a , a , \ q , , v hLc kuukt ksd ukoxH 4g Cgu kykouksg yg Nd l kykouuke d ukoxH slS \ , s q s X s s s 2g kiÎ hd ukoxH cl A kyksc _kN doikreuof , Z w z `g krxy uyp ld k[i hg rkcn po¬f ksvkrc A , s s , a s k;df uæi e k{hji su jlGski l _kN dS d xjV;ufhtb ydIDfyb ]g kuql uTe z X s z s s a ≠ s , s 4g hryp rkc hO> hLc ksr l uuke `kxksg k;D l uuke 4hxksg Cg T X w \ s s s s u l uuke yod rkc g; udfsy 4g kry ki ni eji ]g kry ki >r l _ke u s s s , s , s s q s s kt d> Gjr hjr ]l _ke sukOm [kv Gjr hjr ]l _ke <je¬ d eku jr go q s s a s s s ss 44k;bki ni eji ]eku ksjkgrf jfefql 3g krk , t jd <e∂rfv skt jduke kO> ksd krku sO> cl 6kt g krn Ls\kN rku O> cl w X w s , s s sw 4k;bky oy >r ]L\fksN krku kO> s q w 4Cgu kxSkH ksd ue dlm hH ksr n hH ;†kj kd dky uhr s s s Bkd slm k;yf ukt >r sultf j,kv 4g jkst ji oHuv kd k0c r¬el ]kd k;u s s q , q X q X fkK r¬el 4g jkst ji oHquv3g Cgu jkst ji kF¬kv ]g Cgu jkt ji lkoæof ] , , , s g Cgu jkst ji k0J 4g kruke kd>r kst df rgd Cgu lkndye ]ku[j yk;[ , , s q s w 4krukt kd>r kt ]rDH kjr kpkl s q s a 4g h;knrDfe hg oHuv yod3oHuv ]kuukt 4 , q q s q g Cgu /cl Nd l uuke jxe 4g ruke hHl3ut Bksd ]BklB Bkd ]ukeyle , a a q s s T s , s q Bkd ]g ngV Bkd 4Tg hHl ksr ruke 4krksg Cgu Nd l uuke 4g rkc hd uukt s , w s s q s s , s g; ]g Cgu rkc hd uuke ]ku[j uk;÷ 2g krukt ;®l >r kst rDH go g ;ü/ , s , s q , 44krukv gVu ue ]tkj ksd dky uhr T s 4krukt kd>r kst ]rDH kjr kpkl s q s a 44g ekO kl ;ü/ ];ksg ujefql kogt , s a a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 82 egaP

4Bkt u ksÍj ucf k;xfkst ]kg k;xfkt okyef ukd s s , , 4g rfka∂ yekv g; , w 6g <jrkaiW kd uoht g; 6ke®keji g Cgu kZpp drfk0l g; 4g krdl Om y , , a , , t hH k;hn k>c kjkgér jdkv lki dlm ksr3kg hxt rfk;† hd jrhH dltf ] q q s s s s s kg k;tf sultf ]ksg kukt sultf kxksg kuOc Fkl d Qxnl hldf 4kxkg Cgu slub , s q . s 4n ykL e hLik[ hjkgér ]g kØdb e hL\iks[ hdum kjpd7kLd 2Skt yef Bkd X X \s q , X w\ s 3g e 'kyr duf'kn jkgér ; ]hukK jkgér s; ]rLfi jkgér s; ]ofd jkgéqr ; T X Z s q s s q a s q s s 4hn kxy xkyN e Sd hH u ofd jl a X a q s s n jd gd g; 4kxMkul Skrofd jd jH ht 2kxSkt kagd jd pc ]g dhO jGf w a q a , 4g kgj jd 'kyr hje ]g e Sd hlb , s , X a q `g kagd ofd go , 4kF kLi nd e Sd e \ w X a q T ksr hg jd uql Skrofd hd ofd dS `g ofd hH ikv df k;krc Cgu Xk;D ygi a T s 4kgd u ofd3sxaSkt ksg <+m l jkdim ]Stfhy ul Skrofd hjse s s q a 2k;nf uoht k;u ]k;kpc l ucL s>e suikv 2aMkdp ld jkHkv kdikv s s w q q s , 4kykduf jgkc slm l I> 4kF kgj cL henkv ]k[sn jd dka> e Sd u ofd 22kvkpc 2ksvkpc s w X a q s s 4g srxy un 'nim T s s s jd Ldi kdlm so ]Bksd Skt jH yef 4g jkol hyt[ hd un 'nim güm 4g \ s , q s s s X T s rdl n rgc kr 'nim 4sxdl n u ksd ke®keji lb gér rgfksji7rLfi sjkgéqr s q s s X s X q q a 4g jkd/av ]g // cl kucf jsr , , qa s 44g // >r kucf ]lkndye rgd , qa q w 4g /c rgf hgr ]krif hgr rke hgqr , q a q q q q 2Sk v e kyk'Oki kjkcksn kX;D go ]k;x kg <hRm k{hji kt 2Ik,y k;D e yd¬ kjkc X s Z s s X X w ksn jGf go ]k;yf Pi Oki sultf 4hgj u rjWt hd ukv e xt kjkcskn lm jGf \ s X s 44dbkx ux ksjr ]jki oH k;x jfrm , q s s 4k;df xks;im kd xt hg sulm ]e xt lb k;yf ki >qr ultf X s s 4dbkv xt g; ]k;ki kgky g; utf , s 4Sgfkp kuPc xkv sl tk[ \ s s hg huiv 4Sgfkp hujd tks[ ksd rDf;ø 4g en Bksd e krdr¬fku hdum u ]g , X ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 92 egaP

d ei dlm jxv <kzi jkgér jkv k;x yef Qqxnl jxv géqr Syflb 4g krx s zs s s q , . X , y <kc kd ezsi g; kdltf g hryp kri hg kdlm ]g kLhi kst hd ei g; jkv s , s , \ zs , 44ukt gVu njn jk,v ]skg Bukt Bkl xky gft s , s 2<ki je kn nN ]<kc kd ei ji "u/ uiv ksvkPp z ss s s zs q s \ 84ukc kd ei jke Qx8 ~ ~ ~ zs T q 2hjkd'f ]hjgv g ikv ]g rfakH hd ujgf dS ksr e ]Qxnl g df g srgd s T wa T q . s T 8~ ~ ~ hujgf e hjgv htQx8 T s q 4kxgj jdki ksd Qqxnl jxe kxn kxy ji okn cl 2g jk; wa . wa a wa , r ksd un ks[ ksd uoht uiv e kr ]Qqxnl kyef Cgu jxv A g srgd lkndye s s s T s . T w 44oht lkduf rjr kr ]ksg gyfef gVu k;xfkt kt wa q s , s s 4kuIg re l jk} lm jGf 4g /xl ]g xem Bg hOm sl ; s , a q , a q nÔ ]g Cgu rkc Bg hyduf l hLik[ ilf go kg gj ul kst er df xy uxy , q s \s Z s s q q s s gér jkv xy uku>u> jkr d k<ho hd ;nÔ jkgér ]xy uN gér xajr hdl X q , X s s s q s s w X q tf ]sxy suksg oHuv gér jdOc lki dltf jkv 4g kgj gd go ]g kukt ue A q X q , s , wa , s T g krgd kt 4g kryksc l <kei uiv kt 4g rîkv upo dltf `g ukd Qx.nl , s , s z s s T s , , q 2Sgfkp Qqxnl 4xkscL gjr hjc ]rdl jrm . s w q s Cgu jki er jdPp e nç' oku 4g gj jd rkc hd oku o g gj jd rkc hg q \ X T s X s T s X hd kX_¬k' kt 2hF hrjd kvg e x;rl ksr go ]oku kagd cv df ]hF hrkg hl s q X q s S oku e uket ygi df ]g hrkg hlS oku df ]Sgfkp hukg hlo oku df ]Sgf s X s s , s s s , kp hukg hlS oku df g xy hg e kXrkc hd oku kt g rgc 4kugj >ym re sl s s T s X s T q s kXykoujd rkc hd oku 4Sgfkp oku ksr g kukt jki lm 4krpgi Cgu dr ke® s X , qa keji Bksd kucf sdlm 4g <jp Z;koufv e 'kyr hd ke®keji 'kyr hd Qx.nl , X q 4k'kyr Qxnl 4g Cgu knk; s q . T † l krksr so 2kugj uk/okl slum ]sxaSkt yef rgc ykouukt _¬k' 2ksg kukt k s X q s s s d ke®keji ultf3hgo `sLdi Fkg kje uk,d 6gkj Sk>l >e uk,d ]gkj Sk[nf s \ s q s q s q >e uk,d jxe 6skd k;if g hrjkdi ]kd jk;î g hrky¥pf ]hlk;î g hrjGf hrew? wa q s s wa wa 4ohi oif kTjGf rIj ]hd ohi hlk;î kt Te s 4Bkt u ksÍj ucf k;xfkst ]kg k;xfkt okyef ukd s s , , 4g k;x ksg dS l ke®keji kst ]kdp ye , s q f kst A g krkg Fv kd k;xfkt 4uyef A g krksg Fv kd xk; 2g k;x yef kt3 , s Z s , Z s , s hxk; eji Bksd ]Qx.nl Bkd ]k;xfkt Bkd `l ke®keji eji lm kxSkyef ukd s q s s s s ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 03 egaP

4kg; F hHv er ]kg; F hHv eqr a s q a s 2ukoxH 4hg kurb tkv 2je kt jkonekj32ksg rukt r' hd ukv <j' jkv s s s q s Z s , 2<j' hjkgéqr g wa k;x kv cv ]k;ki Nd Cgu ]rgc uoht k;yf [n df kdl gd hH eqr ct 2e q q s s kj k;kv <j' hjr cv 4kjrm e uk;÷ ]kcL e RfH ]kscL e ei hH er ct x s s s X s w X w X zs q s ksvki ukt hHr er ksd ;®l d knç' ub udfy 4g Sg rHofkv l oHquv d ; q s X s T q wZ s s ®l s; ]kuuke re hg nç' er ksd kupo ub 2g jk;î rfv upo ; d lkndye q X T s s s w 4skvkt ksg r'fkdi hH er ]hH rfks;† hd jrhH jkgér Om dHH z q s q s 4n kLdi Iiy kd Shn lm rfk;† hd Qx jk,v g k;hn jrhH jkgér lt 4L\m s \ s s q , s q s , s /xl l yG sl,t ]Skt uc ywG ]Skt y[ hyd lt 4g krxy uksg Idi ]g kiN a q s w q s , , s z , f hg jrhH jkgér kst go hg <jkd d ei dlm ksr Skt kg ei l Qxnl udfy s q s zs s s zs s q . s 44;kv gVkse kyef tgl ]hxkt ujkd d ei jsr s s s zs s 4g k;x uc , jkohn ]g k;x ksg nc ]g jk} n;k' 6g k;x ksg 0Qov kr¬kj ]g Sx Cgu sl ke , a , , T X üt ]Tg Sx Cgu l k;nfl 4g kgj Cgu kri kr¬kj Bksd eg kd ukt jrhH udfy s X , X s s ]g kri eg r¬kj cl d sukt jgkc 4g Sx yH hg xke kd ukt jrhH uiv eg T X s s T w Z s s 2Skt yef kykosun kri kdlm Bksd jxe 4g kvg k;kel e ur h s , q X lb ]e ue hlb3g Cgu jgkc Cgd ]g ke®keji kst go 84;kel gfue e gVur8 X , , X 2skul ]k;ufxfk; sS ]sk;lf;i sS ]k;efzsi sS ]k;xfk; S ]kul df g srgd lkndye q s s zs s s s s s q T w 4;kel gfue e gVur ]j huxfkt ul dye gd X s s q q w T 4kujd re rkc X hd rev llm ]kg kgj krhi jgt l knl kt 4g krdl >el kr xksjd rkc hd 1 s s s s , s s lkOef llm ]kd lkOef ksg k;yf nko¬ ultf 4ksg k;df oHuv ksd kLh\i hd e s s q i kl7kLkF kt ]g krdl >el hgo dfk;D 4kun gd rkc hd ;nÔ uiv sllm j zs s\ s , X s s Wt kr ]xy uyksL jd[n ksd nukv jkgér htks[ Bksd ]Skt xj Bkd l u/ hjk s s s s a s q a s s q gér ]kg 4hrksg Cgu yGl hHd ''fkd go 4hd uk>el kd kXjk,v kujd re hH q a s s s ''fksd er udfy `k;x ksg k;D gér ]F dkO7dhO 4'ksg kuiv k;kox uer A x q s X q s a s q s gd xky 4sxgd kukohn ]sxgd yxki gér xky 4sxksdl n u <kei ksd hldf er X s X X X q s s z q 6xksdl u krc kd hldf er 6sxkdl u k>el ksd hldf er skr ]Sx nNf sl <kc s s q s q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 13 egaP

]Cgu hg Cd> [kv ; 2dyfke jse q X a s s Cgj hg hdQ lkal ksr k[n géqr X s X 4kg; F hHv er ]kg; F hHv eqr a s q a s a kelkv7Cet s; Sdf k[n géqr s X 4g e kXvktGf Igkv hd kXend jk;î , X s 4g e kXvkog ub /x hd klkl hjkgéqr , X a X a 4kg; F hHv er ]kg; F hHv eqr a s q a s ]ukoxH A uæi kygi z `g kX;D e /ksjof urb d kXrLfi ikv 2ukoxH T X s s a `g hrn h;k[nf kX;D Bkjc hg Bkjc >e e jkll 2ukoxH , s q q s q X a 4kg; F hHv er ]kg; F hHv eqr a s q a s 2kagd ksg Sx iN er hg rkv 'skg q q s ]Cgu hg Cd> [kv ; 2dyfke jse q X a s s Cgj hg hdQ lkal ksr k[n géqr X s X 4kg; F hHv er ]kg; F hHv eqr a s q a s a kelkv7Cet s; Sdf k[n géqr s X 4g e kXvktGf Igkv hd kXend jk;î , X s 4g e kXvkog ub /x hd klkl hjkgéqr , X a X a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 23 egaP

s Z w d kNπe rhx jkv er sxksdl hH kx dfkX;D 4;¬gj kd k;¬gj 4jGf kxksg rIf? , q X oirHv jrhH jkgér jkv 4kuc exl er 4yef jrhH jkgér kukn 4/l 'ksg Fk Z w w s q , s a q X s q X s s g dS ]/l hr¬e Fkg dS 4ksg l e kxky l7Ls\kF Cgüm hlk;ül kje g krgkp Te s s X X s s s a s wa 4k/kl Fkl7Fkl ksd 'ksg jkv ksd hr¬e ukgütf g Sg xky l7LkF rqgc , s X T q s s s s\ 4g jgkc d ;ƒekl hdlm [i 6hrdl n Cgu [i gér h T s Z a s a X q r¬e hlsS 4Cgu rOm ]ksg rjxf er l hr¬e hlS 4krkg Cgu kni o®0c sl hr¬e s s q s s s , q hlS 4krrî{fof hd gjr dS hr¬e hdum 4eku kjln hg kd kNπe hr¬e hdum s w Z w 4Cgu ikN Bksd hd uoht eji udfy 6kago iW7xj kl7kLkF kd uoht ]kag 4hd s a s\ rDf;ø rNπfe l,t hlS hdum hr¬e 4hd hckj' hlt hlS hdum hr¬e 4Sg rkL Z w s s , s q s \[Ly ji dum udfy ]k;kv hH pku ]h;kv ksr hr¬e e uoht dum kr 4Sx y \ , s s X s s H kd 'ksg udfy ]hy /kl hr¬e ]hy /kl h'skgc ukgütf g xky jkv Nd jGf w s s s s X T s , q 4hd ol®m ]hd rhx ]hd ;®u32sO 1 m u /xl eltf k;D 'ksg go jkv 2y[f u yed eltf k;D yh> go j,kv 4x a q X , X X s X y[f Cgu yG ]sxeüt Cgu rhx e 'kg lm 4e 'ksg lm kxSkv Cgu ;®u 4kxskg w X X s X 1 Cgu kji hH ksr Skt hH /l 'kg 4g k;df u≈yl e u/kl d 'ksg _kedS ksd w s , a X s s uiv jd Lks\N kd xke d ei ]jd LkN ksd ei su kxsky rgc 4Cgu uikjH3hyk s s Z s zs s\ zs X q [7hyk[ ];ü'7;ü' ]rDjf7rDjf ]Cgu lke/e 6L>ri ]Cgu rlc 4Cgu xj kd u w w q \ a a oht ]Cgu xkj kd uoht3hF ikN hd I?je e IkUl jkv e rfk' lm udfy ] X s , X a s kF kIkUl dS ]hF rfk' dS 4y[f u yG d uoim ]kF skr yF¬Qe e 'ksg du a s w s X s b ksr 4F rpfo l h'kgc udfy 6k;yf /kl 'kg ukXgütf g Sg xky rgc 4kxgj s a s s s s s s T q s q s kdp7kdp Nd ]g kj/v Nd dr cr Skt u yef Xkukn ; dr ct jkv 4ksg x w w q , w q a s s , P kd 'ksg eltf ]Sgfkp h'kgc hlsS 4ksg xj kd h'kgc eltf ]Sgfkp 'kg klS a X s s a s s X s s 4exql ]tgl Syf d ei ji 4g ;éxv g; Syf d jkpof 4kxSki >el Cgu slb dr s zs , s Z 4Skt ksg hjwi k_k; hd yhe kXjktg jkv ksyp u jH pb df g krukt , a , ei 4ksvkt kg /çyim kd u'n hH jGf jkv ksjd nc [kv ld df g krukt e zs s s Z , a a s , , i 4ksgj syHl jrhH ld hH jGf jkv kvkxexL ld g krukt ei 4hd uy yk[ zs a s , , s s , , zs s s s ksd ykr sxy ji jk} dlm ,g htd hg ei 4g krukt ksd kyd lb hd lkHk/ksj s s qa zs , of ei 4g rfk;† hd 'ksg eltf 4g kgj yt k;hn kd uk;÷ dS jrhH eltf 4g zs , s X , X , <jxkt kt ]g Cgu kNπwe skt ]hr¬ene hlsS dS ]hr¬eyv hlS dS 4hH h'kgc s , Z s s s sl Gjr hjln j,kv g 'ksg go l Gjr dS df Syflb hlkHk/ksjof 4g krksg ku w , s , ykHl ksd 'kg hlkHk/ksjof rgc dS ksr ]ksg kuki ]ksg kuukt ksd ke®keji 2kjhe a s q 4kg; F hHv er ]kg; F hHv eqr a s q a s 2kagd ksg Sx iN er hg rkv 'skg q q s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 33 egaP

4k;kv jHm e uîo¬ ]e <jxkt kF k;yf kcn suer kst go 4xkH utksH d gjr X X q s s s cl uer e uîo¬ udfsy ]ksg k;df lkoim suer n;k' e <jxkt 4rkg Cgu hL s q X q X s s [ki er ed7l7ed e kXuîo¬ 4rdl jd Cgu hukeBc er ed7l7ed e kXuîo¬ a q s X s s q s X 4g dofkHko¬ ed7l7ed uîo¬ dfk;D 4kxsNi e /acl d kuîo¬ jkgér ]kag ]kxNwi T s X w X a s X s q s u hH Nd e /cl d <jxkt jkgér go kr ksvkt er jxv lki d dufkKoku q X a a s s q s q s , s e Syflb 4g krjd jkdho¬ cv ksd tks[ eji lb hd cji ukKofkue dufq/kv , w s 4g kjH l hL/k[k/ ksr 'kg kjkgér 4kr>l Cgu kr¬kj kd suyduf 4 , s \ s s q w s , lt ksg Bx lG e ykt uiv hg n[ hLde 4ksg rkt laG hg rpæfuf er udfy a X s q \ s q s ]kxlG u kxlG u ]kxlG kxlG Bkd jk,v df ksg ry kyG kurb ykt 4ksg srk s a s a s a s a s s s , t kv e [ks/ hH n[ jkv ksr jk,v df g krkt ksg kjgx kurb k[k/ 4ksg ry ki X s q , , s s s Nf hH l uiv ]Cgu hg l kjln jkv 4ksg er kst ksg ry kiNf go jk,v 4kg Cgu s s s X w , q s s s er lt ksg rgkp kuky[nf klsS l gjr cl er 4ksg rkg hL[ki ]ksg rksg tkc q s , s s q s s a s s s [k/ ]ksg rksg ukeBc er ksr e rzxkt dfk;D 4g kF¬ov hpM uîo¬ l rxkt r s s q X X , a s z FfdkFr jkgér 4xkdkTp LkF er 4uîo¬ g jiM llm 4g kF¬ov hphu lcl go s q s s s s\ q , s , s 4g rgd rxkt Ar<jk/kl eg kdltf dS 4e cji g htk[ SkF¬ov jkp ueg T s z s X w T s a s 4g hrgj hryp lkl udfy ]g rkt , a s T s dQ uîo¬ 4hrdQ Cgu lkal hH e rîfq"l dfk;D 4g hjgx knk;† hH l rîf"l Bkj X q X , s q q gx go 4kd usy lkl kxgj u hg yk;[ 4jkHoflj ]/≈eof;e¬of 2;nÔ kxSkt s a s s q gj l d/ 2;nÔ kxSkt ksg dkov df Syflb lkl hxSkt dQ 4hxSkt dQ Xlkl s s a a a a hdlm ]hxaSkt Om ji 'kdkv [kv hdltf jkv 4g jlov ilf ksr hdL[f 4g X a , , Z \ T jkgér jkr rauv dlm jk,v 'kdkv ruv 4e 'kdkv kdk> llm 4g jk} yod s q s s a X s a s , s s kr hdL[f 4kxSkt gj rpfo l 'kdkv go ]k;x >ym kt l I[k,p hdL[f 4ku \ a s s s \ xy ujd re kti hd I[k,p hd hdL[f 4kukt dQ re jd Ldi ksd [kj> 4hd s w \ \ s s L[f dS3g k[kj> ilf Cgu jkv Nd Qqxnl 4k;x yef k[ksj> Syf d ke®kej \ , s Z , q . s i lm ]kukpgi ]k[n sultf kd Qx.nl 4g krkt dQ hg ue 4Sgfkp hukt hg dQ s s s q , ~ ~ ~ Cgj hg hdQ lkal ksr k[n géqr X s X A g k[yf uwr , s 4hxSkt kv e > X el ky'fjk/kv dyfke hd lk;ül kr sxkdl >el ksd r<fx Ouv lb 2re ku , a s s sw xkH l uoht udfy ]jWt ksvkt jki d uoht er 4g krgkp kukuc krtof Xgé s s s q wa s r ]krgkp kukuc Cgu hnkou;kyi gér ]krgkp kukuc Cgu kLks\xH gér 4g krgd q X q X q wa ksd usy jd rkle®kv ksd jkll ]krgd Cgu ksd uLks\N jkll ler e Syflb s a s a s q T 4g hrksg Idi krzxel ]g hrksg Idi kr<wil Cgo ]g krkg uyef kd kuksn ub akg , z , z Z a , s X t 4gd7gd hd y;ksd jk,v jkdi hd ghii jk,v pku d jke jk,v rhx d kX;{fi wq wq q s s s s jk,v yG ry[f ]rhxl kd uoim 4Cgu kIkUl kd I?je jk,v jrhH jkgér kx w s a s q s kg hH 'ksg 4Cgu xaSkL[L\y jkgér ji udfsy er xkdl hH pku jkv 4xkg Cgu s \ s q , q s s , s X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 43 egaP

l jlov rge 4Skt ksg u rk,e Cgd df ]g rxy uy lkoæ hn¥t7hn¥t ]g srkt s T s s s T jL 4g rkv Iky jdkLc? ]Bx ksg nc lkoæ df g krxy klS endS ksr g srk T s , \ a , s T t e Bkjgx hd uk;÷ eg hH ct df 2g kgj ksg k;D df g rkv rhH;H rqgc ] X , T s T s g rkv _ef rgc lki je~ ~ ~kuksg u rhH;H kr Skt ksg nc lkoæ nf; Xe uk;÷ q ss s a 4hxgj hg hryp s lkoæ g; kr Cgu 4g hrksg nc lkoæ g; hHr ]g krxy ujd 'oi eer ke®kej s , a , s s z X q i ]g hrxy ugc eer kjk/uoht e”l dS hH jkv ]g krkt ksg <jrov kd l , s X q w , , koæ e{l dS jk,v jrhH jkgér ct g hrksg cr hg nc go3g hrkt kg nc kr w s q , a , s a s lkoæ hd jhj' lb dfk;D 4hxkg Cgu q;®e hjkgér llm 2re kukLc? 4h;x skg X s 1 q s \ nc lkoæ lt kxxy gér ct e uk;÷ sxaSkv <{ lS hHd7hHd 6xkvksg rdfp a s , s X q X s s s s eqr ]sxksjrm jgx e uk;÷ er lt7lt Syflb 4g hrkt jgO lkoæ e kF¬ov s X q s , s , , X ;hjr ]kag 4g jki d kXuhr go dfk;D 6k;nf Cgu <"'of lm 4hFk,p A g krkg ZF q , s X s s , s v kd ;hjr 4;hjr A g kgd lm 4k;nf Cgu eku Bksd lm 4g kgd kF¬ov hFk,p q q , s s , ilf ueg ksd kF¬ov hFk,p lm ~ ~ ~g hn ksd kurp hd ;‘ue knil hLc7sl7hLc Z s , s q a \ \ s ueg3sxgd o ]g r>el kdum kt udfsy ]g hrLi Bk[nf hIkN 4g IH hjkeg X s T s s s T \ s T X X thp hIkN Nd ; skr ]g IH Nd l Gjr hjkeg jxv ksd lkdof7;ürp d ;‘u s q s , X q s , s q e ]g ukn Nd kjkeg jxv ksd k;ufn lb ~ ~ ~4htks[ Cgu u 'n jln hldf d , q q s s s w s k;ufn kt 4g htk[ ueg yod skt3g htks[ kF¬ov dS ueg hH jiM d rîf"ql q s , s s s , s s q 4g hrksg nc e kF¬ov hFk,p ksr lkoæ , a X 4g hrgj hryp lkoæ 4hrkg Cgu n , s a c lkal hH jGf udfy 4hjkgér g hrkt ksg kF¬ov hjgx hurb 4kxyp Cgu kri s q , s X q gér ksr Skt kykL hH jke gér 4kxyp u hg kri gér ]Skt Ikd ji ]Skt Ikd X q s X q a s , a s Fkg ]Skt hIkd hÒg hjkgér jGf dfkr 4kvkt yp e rîf"l er df g krn ko a q s s X q q q , s n hd ujd 'kgc gér 4ekGkjkyD ]k;lfhF¬uv 4g krkt y e rîf"l ygi gér s s s X q Z s s , s X q s X q s , kr ]g krjd k;∂f;¥' ]g krjd u'jikv kjkgér dl®dfpf7;¥' ct Syflb 4 , s q kxyp u hH kri gér ksr sykL jke gér Bksd e rîfil~ ~ ~krksg Cgu kri hH kd s X q X q X qq lb Cgu k; ksg er ]krksg Cgu hH 'kg kuiv gér 4g hrkt gj k–uf ugx dS q s X q , yod cr g rkt ksg rîkel hH uîo¬ ct 4hd rîf"l g kF¬ov jiM hH sl uil s T s q q , s 4g go klt g krkt ksg Idi cl e u , , , z X s il 4g hrkt ksg jgfkt r;yflv e uil 4kryp Cgu 'o kdlm e uil udfy , X s X s s ]g tkc[k/ ;‘ue df ]g gj rukt ksd ;®l lb l ykl kXjktg h"hue d cjwi , s s q T s s s s 4g krjd k;“k;ø hd kXuîo¬ jkgér 4g krjd jkpof e kXuîo¬ jkgér 4g kruk , s q , X s q , e lkodc ksr ksd <jxkt jkgér 4krsn Cgu hg ;¥e ksr ksd <jxkt jkgér dufkK s q w s q , s okue Syflb 4g drks| I‘i¬ knk;† d rfF¬fr¬o hjkgér ed7l7ed 4g rksg e T s q q s T s w yke chjd knk;† d ke®kjrv hjkgér uîo¬ jkgér 4ksg rjd lkouf Xeum ksg rj s a q s q s s d refuf yge d ñ<o¬ er e uio¬ udfy ]kvkg hlk;ül eqr gkp e <jxkt Z s q X s s s a s X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 53 egaP

ksg nc lkoæ hjkgér hg rkg 'oi e ke®keji `g krpf k;D huiv cv ]Bx ke a q s s s z X , a l e jxkl nc 4g rîk;i go `kd suy lkoæ g Cgu hGkd ke®keji kg rpkl e X aw , Z s s , s s s q r k;D ksr ]kd usy lkoæ hF hGkd hg kae ct 4g hrkt ksg nc lkoæ jGf 6ksg gj s s , a s jd 'soi e ZHx d ke®keji er cr g hrkv kF¬ov hd uk;÷ ct hg slS 4g z X s q , s , krsy lkoæ nkc d Iuef uhr7ksn d suksg kni 4krsy Cgu lkoæ kpπc e Ii d ke s s , X s s a 4g ol®m7hg7ol , ®m dS uoht 4g kui¥d hd uoht eji go 4kje rlg ]kvg kni rlg _¬Fjt , s a q , s a q 4rgc hH ksr Skt je rlg jk,v kXg kni rksj ksr eg 4g rje hg rksj jkv g sr q a s a , s T s s , T ksg kni hg rksj ksr eg 4kvg kni kvg krlg df kgd Syf d ugd ksd rkc lb , s q , q a s s 4kvg kni hg krukt ksd ke®keji _¬Fjt df g dhri dS e /cl d _¬qFjt q , q , z X a a s yod g; 4krdl skg Cgu ;ƒr g; 4hxksg dlfkgrfS kuI? df Cgu kruke Te ud s s fy ~ ~ ~4g uoht kdlm ke®keji ]hF Cgu uoht kdlm ke 4kvg kni kvg kru s , a q , q kt ksd ke®keji go dfk;D ]kxksg kvg kn,i kvg krlg _¬Fjt 4rkc g <wioÂge X q q a q , Z jWt 2rDf;ø dS e lkgrfb d rfkt ;‘ue hjkl 4kvg kni kvg krlg _¬Fjt X s q q , q a q 4_¬Fjt3kF go jkv kvg kni kvg krlg henkv dS ilf df g hrgd SkFd q , q , q a Z T a 4g kLhi hd uoht jkeg 6g [An kd uoht jkl sj , \ s , q s keg ksr hg e ukg xyv 4g k<"ks? hg hd uksj kuksg xyv jkv 4g xyv e cv X s s , s , wa T df g kgj jd k<"ks? g; go jd ksj 4g xk;i kygi kd uy lkoæ d pπc kuksj , , s z s s s s 4g Cgu kntV kpπc df g h , , rkt ksg kni IgkLc? ksr ]n u ksj jrhH d Iuef7ksn kpπc jxv 4g hrkt kg hy , \ s s , s k[ kdyfu lkoæ 6g kryduf exyc e Wq'7W' l dku hd pπc jkvO‘ Skt y , X q s s , duf ksr ksg kjH e kdyfu hd lkoæ nfk;®b exyc Bksd dfkr ]dl®dfpf g krk X , dIy kI¥m ksr 4kg kjH exyc ]ksg /kjov Bksd e kdyfu hd lkoæ hdlm g kr s s X , dl kg ksr 6kF k;df Cgu hg ekd ulm 4hF nc hH go ]g kdyfu kst hd lkoæ s s a , sdlm jkv ]hF nc go ]g k;∂fi skt hd lkoæ hji hdlm e uhge ku ub ksr 4 , a , z w X s , hF u rjWt Bksd hd suy lkoæ l xyv lm 4kF kl¬gf kd kae kr hF hry lkoæ s s s s s hg kae ct jkv 4hF hry lkoæ ke 4hy Cgu lkoæ e Ii d ke uhge k,u dfk;D , s a X s s a s X 4g tkj Nhi d sukdIy I¥m lm 4g rn kdIy kI¥m jd Ldi ji ksd pπc d , s s s T s s \ , s l®dfpf 4n jd jcte Syf d usy lkoæ kd pπc lm gjr hldf df kd dl®d s w s s s s fpf g krksg ekd kygi lcl 4krkg Cgu kni kry lkoæ ksr l Hx d kae g krskg , s s , s s Z s , kni kpπc ct kr Syflb 4g hryef ;ko hykoun uoht kd pπc l lkoæ hlm , s , q s s s s s 4g hry lkoæ kae ]krsy Cgu lkoæ n[ ksr g krksg Xe Ii d kae ct kpπc kIkN , s q , s s s 4g k;x kg rDq;l l ke®keji , s a s 4g k;x Lq\t l rev 4g k;x Lq\t l uohtkge uoht 4ksd uoht hgj Cgu rjWt , s 1 , s hd ;kim IkN lb cv df g kurb hg Fv kdlm ksr g hrkg nc e uk;÷ ct ss , Z , s a X lkoæ dfk;D 4Cgu ;≈kHk,l Bksd kLc llb ]e uk;÷ Skt kg nc lkoæ 4Sx dp X \ s X s a w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 63 egaP

4g hrskg , kn,i llm ukdF 4hxSkt et y/ ]hxSkt [l [kav kr xksvkdi> u [kav jkv s w w s s , e e¥Gf xksgj sOc I? uhr 4hrkt Cgu [l ]g hrgj huc –kv ]g hrgj huc h X s , sa w , Z , yhx [kav l sudi> 4g hrkt Ni y/3g hrgj htkr [kv l udi> 4g kryef s , q w , a s s , ekjof e phc7phc ksd [kav l sudi> 4g kryef ekJof skd [kv l udi> dfk X s , a s s X ;D 4hxdF ksr di> u [kav jkv 4g kukdi> ksd [kav df ksg rkt hg yH er s s , , s w q 4Cgu hg hrdi> [kav df ksg rkt ksg u≈yl lsS er 4g hrdF [kav l gto hd s a s q , s lm ]g krkt kg nc kudi> kd [kv hjkgér cr ksg r[n e¥Gf er ct 4g j , s a a q s s q , k,v Nd <jkd kd udF udfsy `hxSkt dF ld jd[n kd kXjho¬r kr ]hrdF q s s , s s s Cgu [kav jd [n kd k;efnkv hylv ct 4g hrxy hg hurm rDf' ksr Xe u[sn s s X , s ]k[n ji ni Sg ryp ksd kvk;kN df k[n ji r¬kj ryp kd k;efnkv hylv s s ∆ q s X s s s s s X 4g klt dS kr ku[n ]k[n jkv Nd k; ]k[n e¥Gf dfk;D 4hrdF Cgu [kv , , s s s s , q s s X a <jkd d u[n e¥Gf ]g rgd dufkKo 4Cgu <jkd d e¥Gf `g hrkt k;D d s s s T s , s T X F [kav hjkgér nkc d u[n e¥Gf `k;df yk;[ uer 4er ksg rkt u[n e¥Gf X q s s s s q q s s s 4lt Sx k[ 6lt Sx Ief 6kp s , s s , c u Nd lt 6lt Sx Iqy `g krksg k;D Fv kd ugj xO 4Sx gj xO ]Bx skg q s , s , , Z s s s 0Qov ]Bx dQ h<ko `g krksg k;D Fv kd dkov 2Sx kg dkov er ksd <{ , Z s q dS jkv g k[n kvg kjH l kXjkr 'kdkv ]e <{ hldf hHd 4g kvg oHuv , , s q s X , q q klS ksd hHl jkv 4g hrkt kg tgl ]hrLi Cgu hujd 4g hrkt kg nc lkoæ N s , , s \ , s a s hi7Nhi d uk;÷ 4sxksvkt dIH Lc 4xkvkt Li e ydæfe hLc ksr Cgu 4kujd r s s s \ s s \ X q \ e ''fksd hd uyp Nhi d k;kN er jxe 4g hryp Nhi jkgéqr k;kN hjkgér k s s s q , s s q s r ksg ryp er 4kujd re ''fksd hd uyp I¥m ]ku[j uk;÷ knl ]ku[j uk;÷ s q s s 4kxkg Cgu Nd jkv jrhH xksGLr 4kxkg Cgu Nd s q , s \ s q jkv hxdQ hg lkoæ ilf l udksj lkoæ 4krkg Cgu uk;÷ Bkd l udksj lkoæ jx , s Z s s s s s s e ]g hrkt dQ lkoæ jWt l ukg uk;÷ 2g krPe Iiuf go A g rjd ''fksd h , s s s , w\ T s d udksj lkoæ hxk; ksr 4Skt kg uk;÷ ksr Skt dQ lkoæ jxv df xy upkl x s s s s s s sky Nd 4kd rfHquv lb ]kvg ek<jfi‘n rgc dS kdlb 4hxSkt dQ lkoæ ]kxk q w q q q s g uk;÷ hH ct 4hxSkt dQ lkoæ hH kr ]Skt ksg uk;÷ jkv Lm e 'kdkv h{i s , s \ X df ]Skt kg uk;÷ r[n rxm ksd tjl d gcl ]Skt ksg uk;÷ r[n7r[sn ksd s s s s w s q s s s yG d ckyqx dS 4Skt ksg l <jkd hH hldf uk;÷ 4e uk;÷ ]g hrdl dQ lkl w s s X , a ~ ~ ~ Cgj hg hdQ lkal ksr k[n géqr X s X 3g hrgd r 4g krdl kg klS ]kjhe ]Sy , w , s s a flb 4g krxy usy lkoæ jrhH jkgér Qqxnl 4g hrkt /c hncyxt dS `kxye , s s q . , a a q s f ykr7jl kagd jk,v kr yef u ykr7jl lki d Qxnl `kx/c uk;÷ kagd jkv q s s q s q . s a , s a kr s/c u uk;÷ lki d Qqxnl 4kxSkt /c uk;÷ dfk;D ]hxI? hHd7hHd kuI? s . a X s g; hH {el d Qqxnl 4g hrxy ugc jrhH jkgér lkoæ hdlm dfk;D ],g hrkt s . , s s q X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 73 egaP

er lifko jGf 4g dqtku Lc ]g uhge Lc 4sxSkt II <{®r ]xSkt II ]sF g q T s \ T s \ a w s a w s j yG xk/ d j[kv BkP kst go ]d ei sxk/ kst go ]rl kF kgj /c kst go 4 , s s s zs q s a kxSkt II /cl <{®r 4hH l ke®keji ]hH l nukv ]hH l ;®l ]hH l ;nkl w a a s s a s s Z T ]hH l Qx.nl 4kxSkt II /cl <{®r Syflb jkv 4g 'kg kd jkdgv g; 4g s q w a a , , s a , Cgu 'kg hylv g; 4kukv Ik,y jGf kjkgér 6hliko hjkgér A g Fv hg dS Sy s q q , Z f jkgér kd 'kg `Cgu kX;D Cdi> [kv g; `bg k;D nc lkal g; `kF k;x gj s q s X a q X a X kl7kjgO ]kl7kxO kld e g; `kF k;x kg k;D >e g; `kF k;x cL e rkc l , T s s q w X df e `kF k;x k[ kagd e ]jv df kgd jk,v kjk>d> ksd uiv uer rkFv k; T s T s s s s q . Z kv 'ksg 4Skv lifko eqr huk; k;kv 'skg 4g krksg Fv hg kurb kd 'ksg sjkgéqr , Z 4kIk,y lifko jkdgv rkFv k;kv 'kg 4hxSkt ks[ rkc g; hg rkv 'ksg udfy a . Z s s s 4kg; F hHv er ]kg; F hHv eqr a s q a s 2kagd ksg Sx iN er hg rkv 'skg q q s ]Cgu hg Cd> [kv ; 2dyfke jse q X a s s 4Skt uc jk/kv kd k<ki jkgér Qxnl kgt ]kg udL/ hd ;nÔ X z s q q . a s \ s jkgéqr Qx.nl akgt ]ksg [kav hjkgér Qqxnl kgt 4pc u kuksg xyv kdlm df S q q . a s kt kg uhy klS ;‘'f kgt 4Skt ksg jFf cl kagt df 2kjhe ]g hg; hg ZFv kd s s a a , xal®l 4kxSkt skg jFf cl ]kxSkt gj kxO cl ]hxd> u [kv ]hxd> u dyi X q X a X q X Cgu hg Cd> [kv ; 2dyfke jse q X a s s Cgj hg hdQ lkal ksr k[n géqr X s X 3g hrgd r 4kukt gj dQ ]kuykII kjt\ ksd s[ksj> ]kukt re xkH 6g chjd , w s s , k[kj> kusy >el ksr 4Skt dQ lkoæ hjkgér O,c7Oc lki dltf df g hH g; s q s s, s , hnk;ufc ukpgi dS e kXukpgi rgc kr `ukpgi ld kd Qxnl df kNwi sl>qe q X q s X s , s q . s eqr jxv 4kxksg kdlm ]kg hrI? kuI? hlS kdltf 4kd jkv hldf kxksg 4Cgu s s s , Qx kjkgér go kr I? u kuI? hlsS lki d Qqxnl 4Sx jd 'oi e dkyji hl q q s s s . s z X s df lt er 6Cgu hg gj lt er 4g krkt kg rk' ;klo;ø hH kd lkoæ 4g krk s , q s s , q , s a , t kg rk' ;klo;ø kjkl kd jrhH jkgér Syf d jn hLkF df g hryef Syflb s a s q s s s\ , dy> hd nukv 4g hryef dy> hd nukv gér hHr ]g krkt kg klS hHd hH a , a X q , s s ct jkv 4kxSkt ksg nc l suiv cl g; 2hxyp lkl 2hxdi> [kv jkv hxnt , a s s a X X a , w , ke hd "u/–b e 'kdkv ]kuhge kd uokl ]unf d kZ"o ]kukt jH l kxj kd q a X s s X a X kynkc ]kucL kd tjl ]k;÷l jnl dS `kxSkt dQ Cgu kudi> kd [kav hHd w w a qa r[n7r[n jkr d 'kdkv ksr 6g krkt dQ kudi> kd [kav r[n7sr[n e¥Gf s s s s s s , s s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 83 egaP

Bk>jV 4hLkN gn ukgüm 4Sg I‘ofi e <kZoufjfikge o rkj hd ke<√i hlb jkv s\ s s X q z X s w , 4kjrm 'kdi ]kjrm nkap hH e uoht dum rkj hd ke<√i hlb 4Sg kni 0c z X s w q , q ksd rkj hd kek≤fi hlb 4kF kvg /çyim ukK ksd 0c kd kek≤fi hd dk'o hl Z w q q s Z w , b ksd rkj hd ke<√i hlb dfk;D ]hF <jk/klv hH jkv 6hF <jk/klv ]hF u r w X , kj <jk/kl 4nkap kd ke<√i kF kr[sn 4kF kOc jd Ps\kv ycd Bk>jV jhdG u> w , a s 4g rgj hH hjkvt Bksd e okx df 6g hH j?ckj' Bkd e okax df T s q X a , s X kxyp u hH kri lm ]Skv hlk;ül Bksd e okx hlm jGf 4hxyef u hH Igkv s s a X a s ukdkukd jkv kxSkt jtqx l lki d xl®l 4kxyp Cgu hg kri kd xl®l ksd h X , s s a s a jkvt jxe ]kxkg kryp hH xl®l e okx hlm 4ksg krpC[ dcp Bkd lt 4hxS q s a X a qa s s , kt uc hr¬kn l kX;jfkvqt 4kxSkt pgi ji Òv d St ]Skv hjkvt dS 4kxksg s s qa s s q q uyef kdlm hg l kX;cfkj' 4Cgu hg krgj jkv Bksd e okx lt 4Bx ksg hr¬kn s , X a s , s ]Bx ksg ukpgi hdlm l kX;cfkj' jkl d okax df xksvki er hg jrhH d unf s s s s q s paki7ln 4kxsNi kri kd j?ckj' hg rkv 4Skv e okx hcutv hldf hckj' dS w s X a 4g eg l,t 6g eg kt ]g rki hgo e jklal T s T s T s X eg 4g tkokv hg huiv go ]g krLi Bkul kt e jkll 4g ufo÷rfi kr jklal , , \ q s X a , z s 4g kjgp hg kuiv go ]g krn Bk[nf kt e jkll 4g <in kr jkll ]nuk<‘Î , s , s s X a , Z s a a `g hrn Bk[nf kX;D Bkjc hg Bkjc s>e e jkll ]ukoxH A uæi kjlwn , s q q q X a z 4g jk} kd sukg <i kuksg ;ü' g; 4g hPhl hd , s Z w w , \ s uksg kuIef g; 4g k;∂fi hd ukt ki kukt ks[ g; jxe 4g krkt ks[ hukK hg , z s , s s , lS 4g krkt ks[ jk,v krki Cgu hH [yf 4[yf j{v ji huki Bskd lt df kgd s s , s q u 0c 4rfkaH hd kX„pf7xi d kX;{fi 4g krkt ks[ hukK hg lS 4ruc Cgu „p s , s s s f7xi d ksji dum jk,v g rLm e 'kdkv h{i lt g krkt k[ lS hukK ]g kg s , s T s \ X , , s s s , d u 0c 4sxyef u hH „pf7xi ]Sx k[ kagd ]ri√el ]rt√lof hg yd¥cf eqr s q X s q ct unf dS g hrkv hL? dS l,o7lo ]g hrPc hd oHuv krPkxi g; slt7sl , \ s s , , \ q \ z , t jkv 4g k;D jkd/v ]g k;D hu'kj 6g k;D ;®lv ]g k;D ;®l df kxxy uk , , , a , s , , s s s g Pkxi oHuv g; kr kxksg jkcjkc ct 4hxPc Bkjgx ksr kxksg jkcjkc ct 2kx \ z q s s\ jgO dr jn ksr kxksg jkcjkc ct jkv 4kxkg klS jkcjkc 2kjhe ]jh/7jh/ jxe s s , s s s s 4g kgj ksg cv k[ks/ kd ue ]kF ;®l hgo , s df g g; Bkpπl udfsy 2kF kvg Cgu ksr k[ks/ Bkd ksd ue Cgd 2hF Cgu ksr r , q s fkH Cgd df kxxy hH klS sNhi 4kxyp u hH kri ]Bx k[ kagd hH hyef dy> az s s s s ksd jH<{ kt kso 4kxSkt I? /cl Syflb /cl Syflb 4Bx kv h/kav jGf ] s q a a a a k;kv Om ukGr jGf ]hF h;x kg uk,e ]hF Bx ksg rk' ksd jH<{ hHv kt yh> w s a s 6l jGf Rpf k;x kg r;fkxjr ]Cxy uOm aSkuokH ]xy uxkH jkpof3k;x ksg s s a s s s Wq' gksikgM cl jGf 6ikrl hgo jGf ]krpV hgo jGf ]kLhi hgo jGf ][Aqn hgo a \ jGf 6hxsxy udi> [kav jGf 6hxsxy suyp lkoæ jGf 4Sx kv e jkdgv uiv s X a s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 93 egaP

Nd jk,v 4g kd Bk>jV ycd g; kgd sulm ]e ycd lm kF k[n ksd Bk>jV hH q , a X a s u II¬tfe3ksg k[sn e ycd ltf u kxky kXjktg ]u kxky ]ksg k[n ksd Bk>jV s ≠s X a s X s s X s s X e ycd ltf su kIkel `kF Cgu kri ksdldf ycd go 4F rkv e k<jp dlm a X z a s s X X s Ikel df kF 0lfi kurb ksr Bk>jV 4g ycd kd Bk>jV g; df kF kri ksd hH z z , a l ksr go 4kF jgfkt e ukikt ji ksr go 4kF jgfkt kr ycd go 4k;x kLdi X sw s a \ hH ycd go jkv 4e syeke d hjksp jkv hldf ]e ryknv k;x kLdi go jGf a , X s , X \ 2krd l kt Cgu kgd Nd ]jtqx jd k;D g; 2g chtv kLc henkv g; df Bx ksg sl q s , \ d/ hrkN hdlm skr ]jgO df hn tkokv lm u Bk>jV 4k;df nc ktkojn jk,v k s s a ;nf nko;ü/ l hn¥t ulm 4kusn jd jc[ ygi ]Skv ct kjkcn 2xy ji r¬kj s s s q s s uiv jdn nko;ü/ jkv n jd nc jGf ktkojn cv 6k;kv jrhH jdyks[ r ]kF s , s a w nc ktkojn kF k;kv ct 4n jd nac ktkojn jk,v 2[j nk; ksr rkc hg hurb a s ed7l7ed 4[hl kr jkpkI‘'f ]n sn skr nko;ü/ ed7l7ed ]jgO df hn tkokv s s s s u Bk>jV df kF kgj kt jgkc hg lt 2ycd jdy kxkH 4kF kyef kGn hygi s s , a s henkv g; 2kF kOuv henkv g; jxe ]kF k;x hH kLdi jkc rgc ]hF hd hj w \ q ksp e kj? krgc ]xky sulm F [n rgc 4k;kv Cgu hg e >el kr hdlm 4k;x X X X q s s s s q X s ksg Peof;ørdfdf Nd ksr jksp ]ksjH kag k;D j,kv ksjd Cgu k;D kd henkv slS w\ Z aa q s s 2jd re Cgu ]g lkv e k[kav hje ]g kgj n hg ycd dS T w a X X s wa s a ]_fkj nl ]l okx k;kv r jn urb 4rsy jd utk;kv Syf jr Nd 4kusn ykL Z s a w w s s s ss q hg LkdI¬ksi dS ygi unf jkp dS ksr ]Skv ct kjkcn 4ry jd ektrb Nd Z s q s s a q eg ksr krjd jc[ ygi unf jkp7kn ]jv `g jkpkI‘'f Bkd g; 2Cgu xP Bkd s s s , s a s g; ][j yk;[ l xkv jkv 2kt y ][n r 2xy ukv hH j/b jksp 4g Nd hH s s , s s w s s T q eg df g kgj xy tkv 4Cgu hH Nd ksr ycd ]g knk;† rgc go ]g k;nf kt , q a , q , s s q w >e sur 4k;nf n kte kd uksg Ikel jk,v ktkj >e tkv ur 2j? d XkIkel ] s s z s q s w s z kXvktkj g rkt jksp 4k;nf kuc rfiu/ >e ur 2j? d k;rfiu/ g rkt jksp 4k T s s q s w s X T s ;kv Cgu ji Lik> je jksp Bksd dr tkv3s>e k;nf ;≈kHkl kLc kurb `Bg r s \X ss q , \ q kc Bksd g; jkv 4kxksg [An kLc s>e 4kxuke Cgu df kgd u Bk>jV udfy ]hd , q \ q wa s s pu7ku sulm ]e rkj hLO kukt LkN kxu ksdlb jkv kuy y ycd kdlb sl jhd q X a s\ a , s s a G jk;î lb 2kd>>f hH jksp 4hH kd>>f jksp 4Cgu kF kr jkv Nd3jrhH d s s , q s ycd kF kxu Bk>jV 4ksd jksp k;nf n ycd 4Cgu g Nd lki je ksr jk,v 2kt k a a s a , q ss ry ycd g; 4kxgj h[An jHhxntV e ksr kxSkt Fkg hyk[ 2kt re lS ]dQ s a wa q T s s ]kgd u Bk>jV 4kxy uxkH d IN ksr go 4Sgfkp huxke lm ksr ke{ 4k;kLc? s s s w a s \ rgc ksr jksp 2jd ke{ ]BkH df kgd jk,v kLdi ksd jksp jdkt ]k[n ksd jksp q \ s u Bk>jV 4k;kv l? e LikX> dum jkp dS hHr 4g k;nf kynf nk; rgc7rgc s q X s \ s s , q q ksd 0c lt su nkp lb 4hxkXg hr[sn kd nkap dIdS [kv 6hxkXg hgj nc hdlm q s , a s X a a X a , lkl3g u≈e ]g jksHof7nukv ]ksd nkp g kr[n ]Pkv ycd ]rkj nl ]g kOc , a a , s s s\ a Z , ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 04 egaP

4k[n Bkjc7hg7Bkjc ]sk[n Bkjc hdum df g ;kim hg dS kd ujd kIkN s s q q s q , s s ksd kjln 4g hrxy uL\i eyke hLc jhdy huiv kr ]g krn jd hIkN jhdy h X w , s w \ s , s s X d kjln 4g krht ji kXjln jkdgv 4jw'ukn ]jhoukn klt kje kt g uk,d df 6k X w , w a , s s , e®k;≤i klt kje kt g uk,d jkv euof klt kje kst g ukd df 6_ofi e df ] q , s s , , z , s , , T ke®kge e df ]jnl e df ]O‘J e df g krksg ry¥fqGi kLc jd[n Bkjc e kXj T qa T s T , z \ s q X ln jkdgv dfk;D 4g r[n Bkjc e kjln xksy <jkd d jkdgv 4jkdgv ]g d w a X T s s q X X w s a a , w w \ s pyH hLc l cl 4hxksg dwpywH Nd kgo ]kykII e Okx huiv kjt\ ]kyksII jrh q a s s X a s H kjt\ `g hrn Bk[nf kX;D Bkjc hg Bkjc >e e jkll ]nuk<‘Î ]ksg rgd eqr , s q q s q X a a s 4kdl [ n ksd ke®keji e Bk>jV hH jksp jGf ksr ]k[n Cgu ukeBc ]k[n Cgu jksp e jk s X s s s X s p u Bk>jV 4k;x kv klksjH ji ke®keji ]k[n k;D gér 4hy [n kejfx hd r; s s X q s efnkv ]k[sn k;D gér 4kxMkt Cgu jk,v Cgd jdLks\N ksd k<jp jkgér cv 4g k X q a X s q wa gj kv un ksd suiv ]g kgj kv Cgu suy e cv df kgd u jkp lm 2Cgu hH N s s wa s T s s d lki je cv ]g knkjb k;D ]kgd u Bk>jV 4k;yf ksg Nhi d Bk>jV hH henkv q ss , s s s go ]kyduf jgkc Bk>jV 4k;nf LkN lm su II¬tfe ksr ]kgd klS ct u Bk>jV s\ s ≠s s s 4krdl Cgu hg ksg ksr jksp g; 4,g k<Qd hLc e ;nÔ dlb ]Bkv k;n hLc lb jd[n kxu ]jd[n kd chjx >e 4g u \ X s \ s s a s s q , t†l kLc henkv g; 4hF hd ''fksd hd suxkH sulb jktg 6kF krjd kue ]kF \ krjd jkdb ]kF krjd pu7ku g; ksr k;nf ycd lb ue 4ulb g hd Cgu hjksp a q a s s T s , g; 4g ukokF¬kv kLc g; 4k;df u pksdl kjt\ ulb 4k;nf nko;ü/ ulb kr ] , \ a s s s n nko;ü/ ]kgd ue ct j,kv 4g hjkdkKkv kLc g; 6k;df nc ktkojn ulb kr s s T , \ a s s ]jd nc ktkojn ]jgO ]kgd sue ct 4g hjkpkI‘'f kLc henkv g; ]jlwn 2k[sn a T , \ s s uikyksH kdlb ]k[n hxnkl hdlb 4k;kv Sdf jc[ kucf ]k;kv j? je 4g knk s s ss , l7k/hl kLc henkv g; ksr ygi 4g Cgu jkp henkv g; ]Cgu df kgd u Bk>jV \ s , s s 4k;x k;kyc Bk>jV q 4g hGkd hgkox hdlm 6sxn jd rDe hH l k;jfksp jkv3xn jd rDe >r eg k , X q s X , s X q s q s r ]hd Cgu ur hjksp df sn gd Bk>jV jxv ]kgd u Ikel 4hd Cgu ue hjksp j s w s z s T xe 4g henkv henkv g; jxe [sn rgc henkv 22g tkokv hdlm k;D 22,g he , s q , nkv k;D 2ktkojn jd nc kgd ulm jk,v 4g hrkt ygn hrkN hje kr g hrkt a s , s s , kv nk; hHv ]dQ df kgd sulm ct ]tkokv hrdLd go hdlm `gd k;D l i \ wa s kv cv jkv 4k;kv y ycd Syf d sukpc ukt huiv e 4Cgu hg uke go 4k;n , s a s T s f ycd s>e hr¬njct ulm ]Cgu hd sue hjksp g; ]kul ]dyfke df kgd rgc a q s T s q q su jksp 2kdl jd hjksp r hH hd Bk>jV 4Bx ksg ng g; 4krdl jd Cgu Gke Te w hjksp g; jxe ]n jd hH Gke e k;jfksp jk,v hjr 2kLkN Cgu hH ksd jhdG l wa T a s s\ m ur ksr 4kyp kri tkv ]k;x kagd ycd kdlm ]g e hIkxy ilf go sl unf s w a , X s a Z
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 14 egaP

ji er hd krhx kr 2kvkx rhx 4sxLi Bkul Cgu rhx kr ]xkn k;yfkx er 4g h q X s s X \ q s s s a q T rLi Bkul k;ufo÷rfi huiv 4g hrLi Bk[nf k;ofNrfi huiv ilf eg e jklal \ q a z T \ a z Z X X 82hrkv Cgu e' ]ksg rjd dk Z s te Fkl d kpπc hH e em lb ]ht kX;D8 ]kgd ulm e l¬x 4hn Bk[nf BkNji s X X z s X s q hd kNe7hPkn lm ]kdk> elm jdpgi lki d sL? u ky¥e 84g krkv e ]kdQ8 X w \ s a X qa s \ s q wa T s 4k;yf kLN kjrl kje ]g kOc kiNf q\ a s , , e L? kt u jdksN lm df kgd u wytG 4kNi u uhYQlu 8`Ic ]ksg rksj k;D8 X s \ s s s s w s ss s X 4hn Bk[nf BkNji hg huiv lm e huki 4kxy uksj go 4k;x jx s X s f e L? jdylGf kjrl l Fkg dlm df kF kgj dka> e sL? unf dS yt@#! X s \ a s s X \ w i kIc kd uhYQlu ky¥e 4kF k;x jH huki e L? [j e uxkv ]unf d rkljc s q X s \ s X a s 4hx ksg hgj Li Bk[nf Gjr kXjkp gér k;kN hd hlm 4ks'kyr kLkF ksd jkdgv uiv \ X q s\ a s 4hrkt gj Cgu hueæn hH l kIkad q s X ]Bg k;D hr¬kn l kyG 4hrgj Cgu hueæn hH l kXIakd hdum jGf 4e yG kst g q s s X w q s X w , hrgc e Ikad ksr jk/uoht hgo dfk;D 4g rkt ksg d{j d kyG ]g rkt ksg jk X s X T s s X w T s njgi d kyG ]rkt gj Cgu Ikad Ikd Syf dum kr ]g rkt Li Bk[nf yG kd s s X w s s sa s s T s \ w s um 4g ruxf yG kt xky o jk,v 6kxkg eH sxgd o ksr Li hH Bk[nf 6rLi Bk T s w s s s s z X s X \ s \ [nf Cgu yG jGf skdum ]xky yko suuxf Ikad 4g xksy d gjr hg kn e k;ufqn w s s s T s s X 4Cgu ;®l ]g kr , dl ksg hg eH yG kago ]g Ikad surb kagt df kxksg g; dr kdlm ]uxf Ikad u z w T s Z s s s ltf jkv `g krdl Li Bk[nf yG skdldf ksr ]sxkg jH l kLhi jkv xkXg ukgy , , \ w X s s \ , s q gy Fkg ct jGf 4xskvkt ksg ukgqygy 4xHp Ikad kr xksjd hruxf hd kXIkd 4x w s w s X q s s s a s a Skt hH Hp Ikad e kFkg dlm ArokHo¬ ]g ruxf hg Ikd xky kt udfy 4Sy q s X X s T s sa s s s f sd un jd F;ø kd kXIkad jkl g hGkd kuksg kd yG dS 4g rkt kg F;ø Ikd s s Z s s , w T s s Z sa jkl ksr Skt Li Bk[nf hH yG dS jkv 4sxXuxf yG jkv xjd u hg ∂Gf hd s \ w , w , s X kXIkad kt ]g xksy jkv 4xXuxf Ikad kr aSkt lki d hLk> hd ckyx kt ]g xky s T , s s s s \ q s T s `kxksg d q l®m Syf d knil ldf go g kyef ltf rhxl ]jv 2oHlv `kxjd hjksp go s a , s a s a s ]g jkd/fv klsS ]g 'o klS kdltf ji rhxl ]g krktc hjlkac hjk;î hurb kt , , s a , q s udfy ]g dp7yH Cgd e [kv hje df ]g hr[n ryx [kav hje kx>el kr s , w w X a s , s s wa s wa s s a y [n l [kv huiv 4krdl Cgu hg uke e g; 4oHlv `g krdl ksg sld jk T a , , s p go ]g krktc hjlkac hjk;î hurb kt 4g hul hjlkc hdlm ue dfk;D ]krdl , q s , q q a s T X s kg Cgu ]kxgd go ksr ]g jkp henkv go df ksgd jxv l henkv hldf slt B s , s s , k>jV udfy 4g krukt rfkHhyH lm e ]jv `kxSktc hjlkc dk[\ k;D go `kx s wa a s T s q a Sktc hjlkac k;D go ]kjIy ]ukeBc ]jksp `kxSktc hjlkc dk[\ go k;D3kxgd q sq s q a s ujk,G go ]g krktc hjlkac jnl rgc henkv kayG df skgd l henkv hjkdagv , q qa q s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 24 egaP

hn jd ng g; ksr suer jxe g rgj xksy jkox jkv Piuv hg e okax df kF k q T s a , \ X rpksl kr e `skg gj kt Sg k;D kuhli7kuhli urb ]k;bkH A yksc jdky¥pf kr s T s q X s s s s ]k;x kgj u lum jGf jxe ]gj r[n L[ yenkXH ksr dr jn hLks\F 4hF hgj k s s s s s \ w s s g krxfk;rfi pC[7hl¬j kago 4Gjr lm /kv Gjr lb /kv 4g gj pC[ jdkxy s z s s T s rdkr hji jdLdi ksd hl¬j hIkse dS henkv ksn jkv g L[ Skxy LhH xky w \ , T s \ \ s Nd gxt dS df k[n sukgüm kr ]Skv ue? jg' ct yenkXH hJ jkox d okx q s X s s w w a s a 2ksjd rΑjfi 2ksjk[uf kd ktMuoht huiv 2ksjk[uf ksd kRe0fc huiv 4kdl s Z q s ky ji jr¬ sphu l suiv jd pC[ lm er dfkr 4g hrLi hutks[ k;bkjc e s s q T \ a q X henkv yH gér jGf kr 2oHlv `g krdl ksg jiM Bksd hH l >e `g jrO‘J s X q s a , s q , s Bksd hH l >e `g kLc Bksd hH l >e `g kyH Bksd hH l >e df g hrxy s q , \ s q , s q , Iksp ksd jkdgv jkgér kr kxsyef henkv kyH Bksd gér hH ct 4g <jkd jkdg a s q s X q , a v hgo Nhi hH dlm 4krdl Cgu yef kyH dfk;D 4Cgu kryef jGf ksr kyH j s s X , kv `kyH uk,d `jc ;®Î urdf dlm `kjc uk,d 4g rgj rjd hg; eg udfy sq s s q T s s s 2g ;el ;¥eqgc , w kurdf jkv `kxSkoax uoht `kxjd F;ø ;el `kxuxf lH7;kx hd kjlwn 4hx , s Z s X T X X gj hrkt ]hxgj hrkv lH7;kx hH cr kxksg hH Cgu r ]Cgj hrkt ]Cgj hrkv Xl X X T w H7;kx hH cr kF Cgu r 2g k;D kun7kuy s>r ]CIky hurdf jkv bx hurdf d T w , s s q , , f `kxyef k;D s>r jduxf lH7;kx hd kjln ]kgd u 0c ksr 4Cgu hH dS kr s q X T X w s q s lki je ]kgd ulm `g lH7;kx hurdf lki jr ]BH df kNi l henkv lm ss s T s T ss w s s q u 0c `CF Bx gcl hurtf Cgu df g hgj Ik,y lifko hg hurm df 4krjd hr q T uxf jd Oc jgkc d j? hH cr Crkv ksd >kal ct jkv 4Crkt ujp lk? jki , s , s sd hnu jgkc d okax df kst kruxf kd klH7;kx hd jH okx gcl tksj jd Oc s s X T a q , suekl d j? uiv kst kF henkv dS kl,t ]g yxki lS xky Nd g kgd u 0c s s T s s s q , s q 2g k;D kusn , 7kuy gér `kjc ukd ]kNπv ukd ]ksjd krpf er df hF rkc Bksd hH ksr ]krskg s X q q , , a q kikl u hldf jiM jkgér o®;fkn Bkd klsS ]krksg kukuc kNπv ksd kxksy ]krskg T s s q s X kuync ksd Xkxky jGf 4hxgj hryp k;ufn hH cr xkvksg Cgu er yd ]hF hr s s q s s q yp k;ufn hH cr F Cgu er yd 4hxgj hryp ]g hgj hryp kr k;ufqn ]xksgj q s q s , s s Cgu yd ]ksg er tkv 2g k;D hH kun7kuy l kxky `ksg uk,d er `ksg k;D e q , s s s X s q q r `ksg kagd er df ksjd hg hurb ∂Gf ]sNπv k; g jc xksy df ksjd ∂Gf re q T sq 4g krkldm ksd Bkjc Bg Bkl jrhH d kxky kst g krkxt ksd Bkjc jr , q q s s X s , q hH d kxky kst g _l Bksd jrhH jkgér Cgd jWt kr ]g hrLi Bk[nf Bkjqc hg s X s , q s q s , \ Bkjc e kxky gér 4kjc ksr kjc jkv ]kNπv kr kNπv 4g krkv Ik,y jdkg kux q X X s X q q q , s , s q jktg 4g krkv Ik,y lifko ji er hgo ]ksg rjd kst eqr 4g _l dyfk,e kd rk , q s , w a 0lf d ed ksr hg; 4ksg rsn lb er kt ]djd kux jktg ]lifko g krn kIky s Z s s q s s q , s , hgo jkll g; 4sxSkv Ik,y ji er hg jF®i ]xksdG jF®i er 4hxSkt ksg kZ"o a a q s X q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 34 egaP

g kr[n e krzxel hjr >r e 6g r hH ;‘ofH kjr ]g Cgu r ksr hg rhrv kj wa s X s s q T , w s , w s , e 4g rkc hd jcv7jn 4sxkXg 0c hHl yd Cgu tkv dfXk;D 4kxksg 0qc r yd s s q w Cgu tkv 4hH ;‘ofH kjr e ]g kr[n rhrv kuiv yod r A kF kgd l>e u s T , s s w s q s 0c jdihn kr 2aSN <jp je ikv ]ukoxH g ikv ]/çyim ksd kRoxH g ikv q a s w ss T T ]rzxkt g ikv ]0ci g ikv 2aSN <jp je ikv 6hnkei e ]rNπke e ]Pw\e Te T q z T w ss z T w T ]hukKv e 6hgl ksr g; ]MN <jp dikv e `g rjd k;D g; ikv ]kgd lum T a w s T T s s s T q ue 4SN <jp je ukgüm ]d> jdihn ]Bx ksg rkc ]Wd Nd df ygi dlb ]k ss s X s q a a q s s ;ki u hg >el ]k;x dkTp e df kF k;ki Cgu hH Om d N <jp ]kd> e k<j T s w q X X p dum e 4kF eku kdum 0c jdihn 4kF k;x ksd u'n d "Qi0c dS e owi s T q a Z s q q T Z X keüt rgc7rgc ;el dS df 4g hgd kFd hd eüt rhrv uiv u 0c erkx q q , s s q , 4g ryfeéfl hH ;‘ofH kji kdlm e , w X ;‘ue ji ]Cgu hg rhrv jkv g ryfeéfl rhrv kji kdlm e ;‘ue ji 4Xe / q sw , , w X q sw a a s cl d ;‘ue ji ksg ry sy ;<uf er jkv 4g <ioÂge go ]g krjd dfk;D ]g q sw s s Z q , , Z w , X , Cgu <ioÂge kurm go ]g krjd kt go 4g ;kiHfv kr rkc hylv jkv 6g Z w , s , z s , , krLi Bk[nf ;®Î ilf krLi Cgu Bk[nf gér ;kiHfv kdlm k;D ]hj/v hH jh \ Z \ X q z X w dy3Cgu knk;† hH l jhdy dS ;®Î kl7kIksN dS~ ~ ~ksg r[n er ;®Î kl7kI s s s q ksN dS kdlm 4g Nhi k_k; hcy hd keüt7keüt 4g kuI? hLc rgc rDf;ø dS , s a ssa X , \ q 4e /cl d k;rDf;ø g gj j X a a s X T s d eg hg; udfy `sxkdl y ;<uf Bksd e /cl d lk;üim ji er ji jk/kv s s s Z X a a s sw q sd Ui IG lm ]kjhdy hIG7hII h/kv um k;D 4Cgu kri Nd gér kdltf ]g s s X w w q X q , Nd rgc Nhi7xkv jkv 4g hg kUi hH ksr kXg hH hji jhdy ]ksg hH kji kUi q q s s , , w X w jk,v3g kji kUi u ]g hji jhdy u `sxksPi dk[ k;D 6ksPi kdlm er jkv Skt , w T w X \ \ s q , yef gér kvg krLm e kog ]Cgu hji hH jhdy ]k//7k/kv ]kUi kvg kIG d X q q \ X w X w q S kd lk;üim hldf l,t g hd kurpV hH hLks\F hd rkc lb uer hHd 2e /c s , s q X a a s l d henkv ji k;yf y ;Z<uf jk,v k[n ;®Î kl7kIkN dS kd henkv hldf 4g sw s s s T s rsy sy ;Z<uf l hn¥t eg ksr 6g lk;˙v kd keüt7kXeüt 6g Cgu hg hjkgéqr ]nu s , X , a k<‘Î ]g hdcl ~ ~ ~g hd keüt7keüt ]hxksg hukji ]jkc7jkc hxSkv3Skv rnkv , , X X q g; hH ct jkv 4Skt rhc u ;el hg lsS Cgd 2kLks\N kd rnkv lb ]nuk<‘Î , s s s a 2ksjk[uf ksd suiv ]g ;el kLkF ]g unf LkF , s\ T s s\ 2ksjkol huiv `g hLi gér k;D 4g gj [sn k;bkjc e jln7dS 4g xy e uI a , \ X q T s a q X s w T s X s kd hRi hd jln7dS 4g Sg Li sNhi d jln7dS yenkXH 4g kgj Lx> sl yewn s w T q s \ s s w w , \ kXH d jln yenkH kjkgér dfk;D 4g krgj kpe o–im kurb e jkll <jkd d s s w wX q X , X a s yenkXH Cgüb 4g Oc siNf yenkXH jrhH dcl jk,v 4g hrdl kt jn hurtf hx w T s, w s , w Skt dr jn hg hurm ksr 0fc hdum 2u sx[n hg l xP d yenkXH ksr yewnkH w q X s s a s w X 4g Cgu kykouII gjr lb kl¬j , s w g; 6ksn Ikd l dkp lb df g Cgu >el hH hurb gér ]kjkox [yf7Pi ]sjv 2 s w s , X q s a s s\
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 44 egaP

2k[sn ksr kdefH7uoht hji hd rDf;ø hldf er 4g rkt ync Fv Fkl s w w q T s Z d efHO‘i 4g rkt ync Fv Fkl d xli 4g krkt ync Fv kd rkc 4g hrk s w 1 T s Z s a z , Z , t ync rkc ksr xkpksl jd [n e Fkl kji kd kji ;kiHfv g; 4Skv sn skdum s s s X w w z a ]g rjWt kdutf knk;† l eg 4g rjWt kdutf Skv n skdum df ]Skv Ikac k , s s , s a s a s d krl7/kl df F rjd hjkp lkndwye kckc 4rkc g jgkc d xli g; jxe 4C X a q s s s , s a z gu dhO rkc ksr F rjd hjksp jxv ]BkH ]sxksgd er `rl d gjr ldf ; ]kc s s q a s s kc d gjr ldf s; ]F rjd hjksp lkndye kckc ]gd ler go 4g kjc xksgd A s s s w s s q , q s rokHo¬ er `kNπv k; g kjc kujd hjksp df gd ler Bksd 4kLdi hjksp ilf q , q s s q s \ Z 6kn Lks\N cklgf hdkc 4Cgu ksr ;®Î kNπv Bksd kujd hjksp cv 4F rkv Ikac kd s s s s kXrl7/kl d jd hjksp l j? lkndwye kckc df A kF kgj gd ler e hg yd a q s s s q T 4g krdl yef kjc ekd Bksd e uoht d henkv Nπv7sl7Nπv , q X s s s 2Lks\puf ]krkg Cgu ;<uf l yG dS7dS 4g rkg ;<uf llm ]_b ]Lks\puf kd s Z s w T s s Z s X k;®Î ]krksg Cgu ;<uf l cklgf d ;®Î dS7dS 4g j/v ;®Î hHl e hxntV Z s s T sw X 22kn uy kr hH yksc kd henkv kji kjt\ 2ksjgO kjt\ s s s s s w 82Snf yp jd kdp SiQ u q hr ikv hg ygi dlb ]rki gd li lkpi o 6g rdIv kLkF e uyksc cgkl B s s s s , s T s s\ X s kH Lc je e ylv8 ]kyksc henkv go 8]ka;ef Lc ]g lkoæof kji ji ikv >qe8 s \ ss X s \ , w s 84ksr kg u lkoæof ji >e nf; ]ky Ni lum ]F sO s q s w s s c ji ukdn unf lm BkH Lc dikv 2Sx Pc ekn urb hg e unf jkp ]sF ekn , q s \ s \ s X SiQ uhr unf lm ]kF k;x y Lq\x e hg ygi tksj jkp7uhr ]jv 6BkH ]g js/ s T s s , v A kgd su uhYQlu 4h;krc rehd li lkpi SiQ uhr ulm ]kF kago BkH kIk a s , s s N kd jknukdn jkc lb 4k;yf Lq\x kydf dS 4k;kv uy Lx jGf nkc kunf Nd q s s s q\ X q 4k;nf yp jk,v Skdqp li u ky¥e 84Si~ ~ ~ Q u~ ~ ~ hr~ ~ ~hr ~ ~rr ~ ~ r~ ~ ~r ~ ~ s , s q . ~ r ~ ~ ~ r ~ ~ ~r8A kyksc jknukdqn ji uNi ekn 4k;yf Lx ksydf dS 4k;x u . s w q\ s nhj[ Lq\x kag; dlm uhYQlu 4kF krkydg knk;† rgc jknukdn kd ukjdf dS s q q s 2g kuI? hL\c ]g , , kuI? yIft henkv ]tjh/ kLkF ]ksjgO kjt\ 2ksg ry y ;<uf er hn¥t hurd s\ s s s Z q f ]kyH henkv g; ]kjc henkv g; `k;D hn¥t hurb hd ujd ;<uf hn¥t jGf q s Z 4krLi Cgu Bk[nf yG hH e yG kd kX/av jkv 4g \ w X w s , , krkt Li Bk[nf yG hH e thc ksr kg hjgx [kv 4g Li iNf e thc hHv kt \ w X s a T s \ s X s ]jn hH hyd 4uc Cgu hH hyd hHv kt ]jn ksr kuy[f 4Cgu hH y[f hHv kt w s s w s s g ry [n ksd kyG um ykou[sn 4rki [n Cgu kdum kXg yG kt uekl ksr eqr T s s s X w s s s s s w s s 2g kgj N <jp wa w jr jd d> jd [n ksd kuI? hlm e 4kxksg /çyim kd /fkelkge r ]kxy[ ss q s T s w s f yed yn_¬gl kjr ]kxy[f yed kjr nkc d keüt urb7urb g krukt e 4 s s s s X s s wa T
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 54 egaP

4g krkg jkd'f kd rfF¬fjfi kr rDf;ø rNπfe udfy 6g , s s Z w s , krdl kg Re l Rf;ø rfF¬fjfi kyko'kg 4kg rNπfe hH er ]g rNπfe hH go s q s s s Z w q , Z w dfk;D 4rki jd Cgu UHf llb hH er n;k' kr 4g k;df ulm kt krkg k;d X s s q s , s s s f hg; hH uer n;k' kr ]krkg kyef jkojfi hFkl7hxl hg lo ]krkg kyef okx s q s s a s , s a hg kl,o ]rkg syef dik;÷v hg lo ]krkg kyef yd¬ hg klo ]rskg yef ikc7ke s s s , s w , s s a hg lo hH gér n;k' ]hrkg hyef hH gér hxntV hg hlo n;k' 4g Cgu kri h s , X q s X q , , xntV hji gér hdlm ]g k;df ekd kjc Nd su henkv ltf 4kg ry Lkr jgkc w X q , q q s s s s\ sd xli 4g rkt kg jkv Nd Fv kr ]ky ct e efHO‘i hji hdlm kd hxntV a z T s s , q Z s s X w 1 w s 4g dkujr[ kr henkv g; kr ]Skt kg hjkp e sukt[ yd jxv `hxkg rykg k , s s s s X s ;D hje yd Cgu tkv kr ]g jkp jkdgkl jxv df ]k;kLc? Ikel dfk;D 4hn s s , s w \ z X jd hÈN su Ikel 4g krdl jd hg ;k;ü kr e dfk;D 4n n hÈN >e jGf df k q z wa s T X X s q s q gd u l®kvky kr 4hxSkt kg ydæfe hLc kr ]Sg jxv ;<uf d gjr lb df s w s s s q \ s q Z s k;kyc skd l®kvky su Ikel 4kul kukd u k[n k[kv u 2k;x k[n hHd u ]k;x q w s z q X s X a s kul hHd u ;Z<uf kd gjr lb 4kvg ukjg rgc Ikel 4Bx lki d Ikzel rkc q q , q z s 4hxsyef hji7hji ktl Syflb ]g kukn jkoeétf~ ~ ~g w w T X s s , kgj jd hH s>e jcte r dfkykg ]kvg Cgu jcte e ]g krgj e okx hlb hH q w w a q w T wa X a e dfkykg~ ~ ~kvg jcte g; jkv k;df jcte Syf d hjkp kd kxky ur 4skg T a q w , w s s s X s s w jkoeétf kukn er ]hxyef kd kukn er ktl 4g k;nf jd jwcte kd ukg jkp s X s q s s X s q , s s s s kd henkv jg e okx ur 4g hy uhN kejfx hd oakx jkl ur 4kgj Cgu ;kim s X a s w , s s w Bkd d hjkp ;kolf ]Cgu hg kpc Nd lki d hldf e okx cv df g k;yf jd s s s q s X a , kØdb u/ kurb ur 4dS jcu g jkojld r ]kd kn jcu g jkojld henkv s w a , w w s a , w g; `kxkg k;D kr hxkg Cgu hjkp ]g k;yf jd kØdb u/ kurb ur df kgd u s s s s , s w s w s l®kvky 2>e hH ktl jkv kg j? je hjkp `g e 'kg ikv df kgd kr u jkd s q , s s s s T X s s s gkl 4kd jkdgkl ktl hd uhge AN jkv ktl >qr hd uhge AN 6dhO jGf ]kgd w s w s , s s s u wl®kvky 4g krjd jkdho¬ h/kjiv kd suiv e 4g hd hjkp ue ]g ñFkike{ s wa s T , s s T wa z e df kgd jd kd> jlf u jkp 2jd jkdub ld jkp kr kul g; ct u jkp T q s s s s , s s q s s 4g kNπv kr , s skykc Cgu e phc er ]ukeBc Lc lcl d okx lb kg er jkv 4krdl k[ Cgu s X q s s \ s s a s q , s klkjH ji henkv Syf d krkc hIke7hIkN e 4g klkjH ji henkv >e 2kgj i s s X s s T , s s q s p er ]kgd u l®kvky `g rkg ;Z<uf Cgd lsS `g kgj kg k;D g; ]kgd ulm q q s w s T s s s , s s ]hF Bg hjkp hdltf ]jkdgkl 4kxway uke e kl kxgd kt r 2n gd kr kg hd q s w T s s s w s s s Cgu ]n gd kr kg hd hjkp ur ]BkH df kgd hg kurb llm u l®kvky `sjd s s s s s w s s w s kjdub ld uekl d henkv l,t l®kvky dfk;D3k;yf jd hH jkdho¬ u jkp s , s s s w s X s s ]kF k;x k;yf Ldi hH u/ ]kF k;x kLdi jkp dS 4Bx kg LcLx rkc Cgo \ \ s s \ \ ]k;kv kende kt unf hg ygi 4kF k;x kg 'h/k;k;ü Syf d kunf Nd wl®kvky q s s s s X q s

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 64 egaP

df ksd hldf kg rul hHd er 4k;x kg ;ñxo¬ ]g rgd kdlm g krkt je hH s s q q s T s s , kst 'ojkpkI‘'f hH eg jkv 4sxaSkt Zxo¬ ksr sxje df g rpkl hg; hHl o g k , X T s s s T s t e hy¥nf3xaSkt xo¬ df F ksr rpkl 4je krsutkj d hy¥nf dS ]g kuql uTe X s Z s s s s s , s 4g hd nktB ukgüm hd usn T X s X s I‘d dS7l7dS jkv 2kvg kLk,\di Bkd kvg u henkv 4xkvkt Skjp jkv xkvkt s , q s q s s q , s s Skyt e kXgkLd jkv 4g Sg Pp hH hHv gkLd d dju ]g hed hd ysr hurb X \ , T q s\ s \ s , X e k;ufqn 4g rgj Pp hg k'eg3g Sg Pp gkLd jk,v Iiy hd xkv df u<o T s s\ s T q s\ s \ X Z uhxj klsS ]g rsn jd u<o klsS kd dju go 2ksLhd d dju g df g srk>el h a T s Z \ s s T g; gér go jkv ksg rN <jp dum jkv ksg rjd jkd®l kdum er jk,v 4,g k; X q , s w s , s q ufn jknte hLc g; 4g rk>el gér hg; rgfkji ]rLfi ]ke®kge jkgér 4ksg L q s \ T s X q s q a s q s \ hd ;hdjku er lt g kr[n lS gér go jk,v lki d ke®kge rFfdkFr ]lki q s , , s s s X q s d /kl hldf kvkt 4hgj k;∂fi hd kXde√k/ rFfdkFr dr hHv g; 4kdl ksg s q s z s ewyke Lc dfkr 4ksdl jd kIkN kdum dfkr Bkjc e kjln ksg rgkp ku[n eqr s \ s s q X X w s s 4ky [n lm ]kxksg Fko¬ r¬; s s s Z ü Nd e rnkv hjkgér `g Ldi s>r ukd ksr ]g Ldi Cgu >e kc[ df g krd q X q , s \ q , , s \ s q a , l krc >e df g yDv hurb >r jxv 2xy ji r¬kj 4g kLdi ksd krnkv uwr s q , s q s , \ X s ]g Ldi Cgu s>r rnkv `g k;kv uNi k;D l>e r jGf 4g jk;'fksg r ksr j T s \ q X , s w s q w , w Gf ]kgd u nhjG 4g Ldi Cgu gér kc[ ]ksg Ldi er kc[ ]g Cgu hg rjWt s , s \ X q a s \ q a , Bksd hd sukLN ]kgd su henkv lm 2kvkLN s>e ygi 2ksvkpc >e ygi ]hxkXg N q\ s q\ q s s q s s hi rkc ; ]kgd u nhjG 4g rksg ewyke rî{fof ksr ikv ]g hukK ikv df kF kr X s s T s T pksl kr e df kgd ulm 4g k;yf Ldi ksd c[ uekl d [kv uekl 2g krksg s T s , \ s a s s a s , ewyke yxki Bskd g; jk,v kF k;kv suNi uæi de®fk;÷kv ]lkKtf kjkpc 4k;x w z q s ksg ukjg endS kr henkv go 2kvkLq\N ]kvkLq\N ]ksvkpc ]kvkpc df kxy uky¥p , s s s s s f l jkt7jkst jdLdi ksd c[ ]kF kc[ dS hg e lki ]kvg kL[ jdOm ]k;nf s s \ s a a X q \ Cgu jRm ksr kdlm ]hul rkc hdlm su nhjG 4g k;yf Ldt yd¥cf >e ukgü s q , \ q s q s X m `LskN ksd krnkv hjc huiv ld e df kgd su hldf l nhjG jhdG hGl dS aw X q s , T s w 2hxLdi jdk[ gér k;D rnkv 4g k;yf Ldi u rnkv ]LkN ld ]g rgd e s \ X q , \ s X s\ s , T s g ]g xky chtv eg jxe 4hrLdi Cgu eg rnkv Bksd 4g hrkt IN kr g srL T s \ X , w s T ks\N hg eg ]g hrkt Ldi ksr g rLdi hg eg `Skt IN u kt g rnkv ukd hl , \ T s \ w s , , S 4hxSkt IwN rpæfuf ksr k[j 'ksg jxv jxe ]hxIN hg rIN7rIN ]g hukji s sw s w s w , q rnkv 2rnkv g; ksLkN `ksg gj jd rhr;ø e krpf hd kjln k;D er ksd kX<{ s\ s X a X w X q ;¥egc ub 4e ke®keji dl xy xkyN dfkr 4g kukuc efHjk/kv ksd gsn 4g k w q X s a , w , ujd rjfrkaiW e rDfH kd ei 4g hujd rfx e uk;÷ jkv g kuksg rDe l jkp X s zs , X , , q s of 2ksvkxy ji lm kZtM hjkl 4g kukuc kjhg jk,v g kujk[uf ksd jF®i uiv Xe , , s ;el LkF lb 2g kLkF ;el 2nuk<‘Î ]kLi re e kurpV hd F;ø lb Syflb s s\ , s\ a s \ X Z
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 74 egaP

sd hncckj' ke®kge cl kg; jk,v g hnc ji ckj' kg; ]g 8u'cfgfki8 akg; 2ku a a , a a , z hi Lg¥d7Lg¥d k;D lsS 4g rgc eæp d ckj' kago 4e xo¬ ]g k[j jd ekt \ q \ q s T s s s X Z , rb hH Syf uiv ukgüm jkv `hxksg k;D kF¬ov hjkgér df kd ukrc gér go a s s X , q s s X q 4u kXvke®kge rFfdkFr jkgér o `g hd nktB uldf o 4e dju g nktB hLc s s q s T X s s X T X \ 4Sx ksg L[ jd /kl ek;k<ki jkv k;yf jd ulk"h' ksr s \ z , Z ]Skt kv rc,ku hlS Cgd jxv df 4g rjd lk;˙v kd ulk"h' <xkru Syflb s T s Z s 4g hg dju ksr dju , 4Skt ksg L[ yc d jlf uiv c a s \ s s l cv ]e®[ ;el kd uhi ;kp ]e®[ ;el df kgd u ukr' jk,v l jkt htc s s , s s hI? hHr ]kykdkdksd ]kgd jk,v kvg kL[ e cnc ]k;x jnav hg lt udfy 4C a s q \ X w s , s gu hH kF kl¬gf kd dju kFk,p Bksd jGf 4g kry up hg; kgd ulm 2kryef C wa s q s gu hH e hy¥nf kr kyksdkdkd 4g kryef go Sgfkp kst kg; ed7l7ed jGf jk X s s , a s , v 2hgl jkv end dS `kujL k;D hH l ye kr jL Cgu l _eo¬ ct jkv 4g , s s s s w , , hg dS cl ]kvg k;kji df kvg kuiv ]jv 2kxyp ]kgd ulm ksr 4kF kgj kr q q s s s hi _eo¬3kF hlk;˙v kd thp dS jk,v kF kru kLc hH kru jxe ]hF rgc / w s \ s q xn ]hF rgc lkc dfkaykg 4g gj kt Snf kdum ]g gj xke o kt7kst jk,v kIG q q T s s T s a s s X jk,v hGkd jk,v kyksdkdksd kdum jkv 4g gj kv xksy jkv 4g kgj hi kyksdkd s , T s , , ksd Bksd jkv g kgj hi hGkd Bksd jkv g kgj hi ;kp Bkd jkv ]_e7ye dr , , , , s , w s X w yx ]e _e7ye F Sg L[ xksy jkv kF kvg kjH _we7ye df F s; rkykg kago s q s \ , q s 4hF hNπv l kn udfsy ]hF ckj[ hH kago ksr rykg 4k;x k;kt y gxt hjlhr s s s 4kxSkt kgl Cgu l>e g; ]g krkodLNf Iy@#!if ]g krksl jd kxy hukn s q wa \ wa jNπe ]g hnkv kd sugj e hy¥nf e `Lkde7Lhd 4Cgu7Cgu df kgd u kru 4kF wa X T s s\ s \ s s kykL jd nsN7nN yd¥cf ksd k;efnkv ]gj yduf l j/m ]gj yduf l j/b s q X s s s s djd nN ]F gj e? e k;efnkv Lks\dke7Lhd Lc kgo 4k;x k;kt y gxt hjlwn s s s s w X X s s s \ s \ a s 4Cgu hH Sk[ hHd ue 4g Cgu nli sLk,\di >e hg lo ]Cgu kg; ]Cgu7Cg s T T a s q s , a u df kgd su krsu 4F gj kt yr gjr hd kXLk,\di henkv jkv ]gkLd ukji hgo s s s , s \ s q s q s\ F Sg Pp3kF kgj yp ;®Î jd;H kLc ksr akgo ]k;x y e l¬gf ygi 4g kr a \ s X s s wa n kojd <eH gér e kuhr e 4ksg kugj gér e l¬gf ltf 4ky up er ]g l¬g s z X q X X T X q X s s q q T s f uhr e dju df Syf jkgér g krdl jd kurb 4kxWd k;n hLks\F ji er Sy X s q wa a q flb ]ksg rkyp k[jp ]ksg rugi hnk[ ]ksg krsu hnkoh/akx er df kgd u ukr' s s q s , 3kxy ujd nek'[ rgc ]kxy ukL\xfL\xf rgc kru3ksd kru k;yf pC[ jrhH s q q s q s s jd dI> endS jkv kyks[ ktkojn u ukr' ct jkv 2Bx Oc hrkN ]dju hr , s , , , “r hxy ji tkojn ]k[n 4dju k;x jxe 4kF kru kLc3g Cgu kru kIkse7kIkN s s s \ wa s s Bksd e j@#!if jkv 4hH e ]g rksg ;ñxo¬ hHl lt df kF hH kru ksr krpkl T , T T s s , s s `g Pe Bksd joæB ksr `,g k; , w\ kuc Syfldf dju jGf ksr 4g krkt ksg ;ñxo¬ hgo ]je kt `k;x ksg ;hdjku , s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 84 egaP

ksd uksg rfiI‘kj Lkjd Okl 2'n kd Lks\jd Okl ]kxdl kg dS Bksd ksr rfiI‘ s ≠ s\ s s s ≠ kj 4g krxfk;rfi Ik?kyx ]g Z"?l kL\c 4Cgu uklkv kurb kuki ni e k;ufn d , s z X , a X q fk;D 4Mk[nf l xk;® ed7l7ed ksr ksg u hH Nd jxe ]Mk[nf l ni ksr ksg X a s s q a s ni ]Mk[nf l ukK ksr ksg ukK ]Mk[nf l u/ kr ksg u/ 4O‘J Mk[nf ksd uiv a s a s s s a s df ksg rgj xy e ''fksd lb er rDo ji 4ksvkt yp e xo¬ jkv ksn ykL Xe s s X q sw s X Z , dju ksd jln df g kry kte elb jkdgv jxv 4g kui¥d hd kXde√k/v ; ] s w , s X a , s Zdu jk,v Zxo¬ g Cgu kui¥d hd kXde√k/ ; 4Cgu kun7kuy Bksd kd e/ sllb 4g , s s s Z , y[ hg kd kulko cl g; 4g jkr¬of hg kd Hksy cl g; 4g knkl cl g; 4g s , , , T s q rkIt reégf hd suLkN hg Syf d suki kuqx jktg Xe ylv 4g ry jd utk;kv s\ s T s s s kd uki kux jktg kago ksr g rLkN kl7kjt\ kg; 4g rHnv jkdgv kd henkv s q T s s\ a , q . a 4g k[j jd ektrb Syf , a s uiv u kXvke®kge g; 4Skt ksg hjwi <{®r ]ksjd k{kadkv kt ]kOc phu dutf s s s , s s df ]{oi¥d jkv 4g rxy rkjgkot7jhg ]rxy Cgu yG e kX{o 2uj> d ckj' 1 , T s s s w X 1 s s ; ]gn7<o¬ ; ]aSkjlîv hd ykl gykl s; 4g hdQ Cgo l k;nfl 4ksd kvkjlîv s Xs Z s s T s X X k;nf dksj Cgo kr 4g hrkt h>el ykl hd Z;nkTl erfiv ykl gyksl e rjkH s , z X 4g hdQ ksl g hdQ ji gyksl aSkjlîv jxe 4g hrpC[ ]g hrdl pC[ dr jn u T T T T s s rtf 4g hrgj hrn k[ks/ dr unf rgc 4g hrgj hrn [k/ k;_¬f kag; ~ ~ ~ 4hg T s q T s s s a hd lhRN kr hF ~ ~ ~ `kyp kri ld kd dp ]ekj ;kg df kgd u kygfe l s s , s s s m 4kdQ jdkv ji lhRN jk,v ke? dkp 4Skxy SiQ lkpi ji jcu lBr ulm w a s s ksr ykl lBr ulm ksr ]dhO ]kgd su hjln ksr 4g k;nf Cgu k[ks/ hHd >e u s s w , s q s lb jkv 4g hruqp jcu kd em huiv k'eg kr e kr ]uke hje jxv ]kgd u , wa a z s s T s s s kygfe lm kr `Skt kuqp kl7uk,d jcu df g g; IgkLc? hje ]g Cgu kvt Ig s a , \ s , q kLc? hje ]Cgu ]kgd ulm `g hrkLc? k;D hurb 2Sx kr Sx ]ux ln ksr Sk \ s s , \ s s q v `k;D jkv SiQ pki7ln xaSkt ]jv `hurb g hgj ksg yksLkokaL kX;D ]kgd u , a s s , s hygi 4hF hgj kg yksLkokaL kjt\ hjln udfy ]ksd ukxy okn hF jrkv hLc ksr k s w s s a q \ ygfe hygi 4yef gér li uqx ln llm ]g Skxy urtf li uer ksr Skt dQ X X q s , s s T s s , s q ji jcau jkgér jxv 6kn ke? kdlm k; dkp yksx dS jk,v ky up hH Bksd j s q s q s s q cu kago 4kF hH kÒv kd Sqt dS kago 4CF Bx u[n kd hu'ni dS Skygfe kn a s s s Z z a s 4g Bx jgO ji ykl gykl cl 2k;D hH Skjlîv jkv 4krydu T s a , f Cgu l gn hdum kuhli ]g gn hdum hd <o¬ 2g Bkuc k;D hH Skjlîv jkv s s , s Z T a , 2kugj uk/okl 4g ktkojn dS hH l e xo¬ df kvg Gkl cyre kdlb ]g j , s X Z q , k} kd dju hH e xo¬ e j[fkv 2aSkjlîv ; `g "Qi k;D Skjlîv 4g h[j ku X Z X s T q a T c Skjlîv ukgüb e xo¬ jk,v g jk} kd dju h_¬ df g rgd kag; ke®kge hg; a s X X Z , T s 4kvkgu 4ksjke hd s cL 2ksjr ]k;D hg kvhi 2ksvhi jd yks[ ynf 2suj>3g [j kgc eæp d ckj' q , X s T s s s ]g ewyke e rægfc su kXvke®kge Cgüb jk,v re hg kuhi ksr ckj' df ]g e {i , X T X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 94 egaP

4xkg Cgu htkj kd usn ek s X s s d hH kd ukcn ji >e ; ]g rkcn ji je kt kr ]n LkN niufe tkv Te jxv s , s q s T s , s s s s wa s\ q ]Cgu g Nd hje kr;≈k; ]g hrjd kol SkdofkJ ]g rjd kol dokJ 4g k/o , q s s T s a T s s , fl hd gjr cl jkv 4dl jd u hH e jkc kn henkv <jk/kl df kurtf g kr q , s X s wa jd kurb jxe ]g kKkv hd sujd utkH hg jkc dS ]g krjd utkH jkc dS 4 , s wa s , g Cgu upLv Bkd Syflb ]g k;x kg lk;˙v kd ykl lhykp kje cv hH slS \ s , s s s jkv krLi Cgu kujd knk;† Nd s>e Syf d ni ufe lb~ ~ ~n LkN ni ufqe Te , \ q q s q wa s\ dfk;D ]krdl Cgu LkN e e ylv 4Cgu ykol kd uyef ]kgd ukgüm `kg > X s\ T X s s X s s ym k;D jGf kr g kyef Cgu hH Nd jxv l ukg ufe lb jkv 4Bg Cgu Bkjc X s , q s s s q , q Nd kr Skt kv 'kg jxv hH hHv jxe ]Bx kg em hd ykl jRl ]g hxy u q s s s z , s kg >kl hdikv df kuke 4krkgd Cgu kywH kr Skt kv j? hH >kl kyH kd gc s a s a w q l `g Bx kg jn k;D hHv ]kgd ue 4g Bx kg jn rgc cv jxe ]g krgkp ku , s s s T , s s q wa krcf uoht kd uk;÷ ]yjl ]k/hl hH e ]kd ukg ufe jdDp g; g krgkp kusn T s s q wa LkN e jkv ]g hrkv kr e >el >e rkc hd ikv df gd l>e ufe ut dS s\ T , T s X s q X s s q q , 4sxkjd kol hd ke®kge 4sxkckn ji ]xkvN ji dlm er kr s s s , s s q , s q s 3hxkg hÈiLiq> Bkd ]Cgu Nd hH ji eku d jk}7j?3n LkN jk}7j? jxv hH s \ s q s s s\ go ]sxkn u hH hjdku hd uye urc er kd henkv ltf df g g; kte kLc j s , s Z q s , \ ,kv 4g ;kim exl dS hg kd k;®ge®kv g; ]kyp df kpkl 4Sx skg hlk;üal ]Sk , q s s i kIt Cgu reégf hurm jGf ]hpkl hd k;®ge®kv ygi ]k;x yduf kykonf kd q s s hldf `sxjd k;D cv df k[n sukgüm 4Sx kg hlk;ül go ]Bx je hu®i hd hl X s X s a df 4g LkxH 4kg lkHkv kd rfF¬fim Bkd hd ke®keji df 4hd dkyji g /xql T s s\ s s s , a Bkd e uoht dltf yef henkv /kdS Bkd hg n;k' 4g jk/ Bkd e k<ki d s X s s s , s X X z s ltf syef henkv /kdS hg n;k' 4g kHrfi ]g dep e [kv hdltf yef /kd , z , X a s S hg n;k' gér e [ky lkpi ub 4g rket hd kv/kl [ky lkpi e 'sn lb X q X , X q X 4g krjH knk;† hH jkv 4g krjH hg , , , kurm kd jkdgv hH xk;® udfsy 4k;yf up kd xk;® ulm ]g rket hLc hd k s a q s s , \ X Pw\e kt e 'n lb Syflb 4exl l cl g kr[nf xk;® `F rkjgkot7jhg urdf s X s q s , s s s `F Lk?7hFkg urdf `kxk;® ni kl7ukd df `kurdf ukK df krNi Cgu hH g s s s\ s , w ; Bkd `Cgu df kg lki dIfe ]BkH df krNi Cgu hH g; Bkd3g Cgu rjWt s s ≠ , w s , hH hd kr;≈k; Bkd 4g Cgu hH krxfk;rfi Bkd ]g Cgu hH "?l Bkd ]g Cgu s s , s z s , Z a s , hH k/i¬ Bkd e xk;® jkv 4kg rdl kg hxk;® hH kr kg hH u Nd 4kg rdl Z s X , s s s s s q s s kg hxk;® er hH kr ]lki jkgér kg hH u Nd df g g; kte kLc dS e xk;® s q s s q s q , \ X 4g uklkv xk;® udfy 4x , s s kvki kr;≈k; hd uhI¬bkv Ic¥v Cgd cr kjd eJ k;nfl 2Cgu uklkv Nd kuj s s a Z s X q d rhgzxl hH ukK jkv 4xdl kg hg xky l7LkF Nd hH kIkI7kyL\cf 4g dql®m a , s X s s s s s\ q T

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 05 egaP

cklgf ufe7u,t 4g krgj klkoim hg Syf d suki ukeél 4xn ukeél o skr ]ksjd q , s s X s lkoim er df hd kxky g k{iv dfk;D g krgj klkoim Syflb henkv Bkd q X s , s X , s 4kxksg UHf7 UHf Fv kd kxk;® d kukn udfsy g rLi Bk[nf hxk;® kukn 4g krn LkN `[j Z X s X s T s \ X s , s s\ s X q e hØe Xk;D ksd jpd7Ld udfsy ]g Cgu krxkH 4g kjpd7kLd cl 4Cgu k;ki s s w\ , , w\ Nd ]k[ji ]kukt ]kukpgi ]k[n l dhO ksd uoht df g krdl jd xk;® Syfl q s s , b henkv Bksd jkv 4g k;x kLc? l Z"?l d uoht 4g dksijL ]g kLks\xH df g , , \ s a s , , , krdl jd xk;® Syflb henkv Bksd 4kxdl ukt Cgu hH Bksd rDjfrfv sjkgéqr s ksr g; ]Hksy df jrhH g ei udfy 4k;x ksg ;≤i ukn kr 4g krdl jd ukn , zs s q s , <jkd d ei rDf;ø Bksd jk,v 4k;x kg iki ukn ksr 4g krdl jd ukn <jkd d s zs s , s Hksy henkv Bkd 4g rksg djfrkv ;kiHfv jkv rkc g hrksg ;r l k;kiHfv s T s a z , X T s X z ]krkg Cgu ;r Nd l k;®Î kg; 4g Z<i;¬gj knk;† ]g rkc h>ym knk;† ]g y s q s X a , w , , Ift knk;† hxntV ]g Cgu uklkv hurb rkc 4g ;≤i ;®Î ds;®i kdum jkv 4g , , q z , , iki ;®Î d;®i kjkgér 4g rjd knuV e thp jg hjkgér o 4g srjd kZpp hg s z q T s X q s T hd k;bkjc hjkgér so 4sxSkt xo¬ o ]sxksvkt dju er ]kg d hLk,\d kn er 4g X q q a Z s q s s s q T . ukge o ]g L[ sxu ]pku ykc 6Fkl7Fkl g kgj kv kte jk,v dS kdum udfy s T s \ a s s , s s 4Sx kg u≈yl e kol hdum er jGf ]ukXgüm Cn jd hji Sk{ s a X s q s w a s iv hjkgér `kxSkt kv chjd knk;† ke®keji `hxksg 0fo Nd e ;nkl d rxt q 1 q X Z T s . s llb Syf pku ykc su k;efnkv urdf `g krksg <inukv knk;† `g krksg jr; X X s , Z w a , ®l `g krkg jnl rxt Bksd lub `g rkc de®kutl rgc k;D rkc s; jxe ` , s qa . s T X 1 q X ksg gj jd ukeél k;D e upksu ykc kdum 4rjd Cgu ukeél Bksd er kdlm j s X s s q xe 4g rpksu ykc uiv kt nc e kuk[yxki g xksy rî{fof Bd 4g hrxy upC T s s s a X X T , s [ ykc hg suiv ~ ~ ~g kgj kv ;el ]hxpC[ hH jkgér hg hn¥t ]g Cgu jn 4g , s s q , s , hrpC[ hg uiv ]Cgu jkgér ~ ~ ~g hrxy supC[ ykc ksr g hrkt ksg rî{fof k s s q , , jt\ ct hH hu®i hjkgér hHd7hHd jkv 4ekd kd uLk\[m ykc g rjd yxki B q , s T s d `g Z;kd .ukge kl7uk,d e suLk\[m ykc cv 2g kgj ksg Z;kd ukge df 4g srk , X , T s g Ødb u[n xky kXjktg kr ]jd py7'd ]sy Lk\[m ykc uiv ufe7ut jcxnf s s s s s s qa s s q , a `rtwi Cgu k;D er kdum ]g rgj xau e yxat kt hlkonfkv jGf kr 2g <x s X q s T s s X s s , q Bkd lt e ikv7suiv kru≈u 2rîk;i ]lc ]Skt ksg kL[ u≈u go ]g krksg ufqe s s , X Z \ , 7ut jcaxnf 4g gj jd kji kdum ]g e;uf Sg uke kst jkgér s; `g krLi Bk , T s w s T q s s q , \ [nf gér k;D ]/axl Bksd hd rfka' e k<ki u ]tr Bksd kd doof e kX[kv u ] X q q X X z s s X a kHkv Bksd hd uk;÷ ksr u ji jgp d k;rDf;ø ub 4g krkt Syf d rxko¬ okx s s s X , s a kjkl 4g hrksg k_k;kHk' 4ksg rykduf hdyki er hHv `hHv jk,v 4e IH xkd , s s q X X s s l n u hH kLid dS güm er 4sxkvkjd u hH utksH kd Gn dS güm er ksr s \ X q s s X q ]Skt yef gér jd LkN 'so7ufe kdum o jxv 4hd k;ufe l rgc jkgér g h a X q s\ q s X q s q s q , [n ue rykg hg; dfk;D 4g htkj e l rkc 2g hd r<fx df kgd ue ksr rkc s s T X wa T s , s T
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 15 egaP

4g Syf d LNc sdl , s s \ m /n go 4ksg gj hi /n kd L\Nc dlm er udfy 4g krke k,x df ]g kn;kG w s w s s q s , , kLc gér Syflb ]hrdl Cgu ykc ]Cgu hryksc Nd krkekx dfk;D ]ksg rkt yp \ X q s q , X s s gd er udfsy 4g Cgu Syf d LNc go ]g /n kt Syf d Ic je df 4hxsn j s q , s s \ , w s s ss ss d BkIif hd LNc kLL jd kOm go `Cgu df g hruke kIc kuiv kd LNc lm s \ a , s s s \ ]g hrgd k;D h_¬ go df 2kd r;yflv kxSkt yp kri gér cr ]kn uhi kd , X q s s s s \ LNc /n kdlm ]ksd kae hd pπc hldf kjt\ `kun7kuy k;D lub ksd krkekx ] w s s s s , g kgj je k[H kLNc 2g gj hi tkjkge ; go ]kF Syf d LNc kst /n dfk;D , w \ T s s s s \ w X 4g ueæn d Ic dlm s; ]hrdl uke Cgu kIc ksdub krkek,x `Cgu df g hru T q s ss s s T ke kIc ksdub df kNi ksr l krkekx udfsy ]krkekx g rgd s; 4g /n hg Syf s s w s , , T s , w d kLNc df g g; ksr pl jkv 4g rhi hH L\Nc d ;kx kr /n ]kgd sue ksr 4 s X \ , , T s s s s w T , g Cgu hc[ Bksd hdub ksr jk,v ]kgd sukgüm `g hc[ k;D hdub jkv `g <jkd w X , w , , k;D kd ukeél elb jxe 2tke hdum g; ]xkXg rhi ]kgd ue ksr 4g rhi hg X , s s s T T s /n ilf ; df kgd ukgüb ]Cgu `g rkc k;D hd ugd elb ]xkXg ]kgd ue 4g w Z s s X , s X s s T T hjkgk/≈qn ; df k;x kgd e kl'i 4k;x k;ky ksd ke®kge dS kGn dS lki jse s X a z s 4ry Cgu s s Nd d /n ;kolf 4g hjkgk/≈n 4g gj ht jdhi hg /n o ]g ke®kge wngV Nd q s w T q T s w s T q 2xkvkt s s pgi xo¬ llb df ksg gj pksl jkv 2ksg gj kuc ;®Î de√k/ Bksd ksdlb jkv qa Z s s , s , 4ksg gj k[ hg ksd uiv 40' g; g jkgklkae 4dk[ k;D xkspkl ]Sx kpi Cgéqr ] s s q , s s kgd ue 4Cgu hg kpksl hHd sue ]k;x kagd lke LkTi ksn ]kgd ukgüm 4ksd kxky s T T a s X X s ub g Cgu hg /cl ksr l nfk;®b supkl 4kF Cgu hg kpkl g; hHd ukgüm 4xy , a a s s s s X s s ukyt[ jlf kuiv go 2g krNi ler e ]k;x kgd lkae LkTi ksn kjkgér ksr g k q wa w s q T a q , rksg ed uto LkTi ksn df kNi lum ue 4LkTi dS jGf ]LkTi PL jh/7jh/ jGf w s s T s\ s s ]LkTi kn e Wq'7Wq' ]kgd ukgüm `g krksg ed uto kurdf tksj ksr kg rjd l s X s X , s s koim er ct df kNi lum sue 4F gj jd rkc hd lkoim l>e ufe ut dS q w s T s s s q q , `g kgj kt kagd uto 4g krkt , , krksg ed kdlm uto ]g krkt krLdlf jh/7jh/ 4g krxy ukyx ka;Òfg huiv , q\ s s , s s T s kr ]g rkt pi hH q;ku¬ ct 4g krxy ukpi ksd kv;ku¬ uiv ksr g krkt pi , s X q s , lkae ct 4g krkt kpi skd lkae hg uiv 4g krjd <{H kd lkae hg uiv henk , s , s v e lkoim df ]g Cgu kri Nd kd k;∂fi hd lkoim güb ]g gj n ;¥e kur X , q z X T s s w b ksd lkoim xky hjkgkdk' ; jkv 4Cgu hH Nd jkv 4g <{H7lkae hg kd n[ s s , q , , q `k;D g lkoim jkv , , 4g rufkeél knk;† go ] Sdf knk;† uldf 4Sdf , s lkoim urb u ukyG ]Sdf lkoim urb sukXgüm df g hrkg jc[ eltf ]g kri s s s s , s X , N jLyd kdum ykl jg 4e jH hxntV Sdf lkoim urdf ukXgüm df g r[j X , X s s T s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 25 egaP

4jd rD;øHfv ksd X rfwHuv huiv ]aSkjgkn u nç' lkc d kjln df g krgkp 4uc _¬k' ]aSkjgkn u q s s s X w wa X s _¬k' df g krgkp 4Xuc u rkr 4aStf u ji ukK jk/m xky g krgkp 4jxf u wa s s s wa X X s e &^!x xksy df g krgkp 4g Cgu e /ksjof d rLfi Te 4rLfi g rhjiof dhO wa wa X s a a , s q l 0c 4ukK kd ;o¬ Ag krksg kd o®0c 4ukK jk/m A g krksg Fv kd ;®Lfkai a , q , Z 4g ;®Lfkai k&^!x kjgx lcl jkv g o®0c j['f kpM lcl Xe rxt lb , s , , q a s . 4g krkt gj rpfao l uuc 0c go ]kjxf kt e &^!x lm dfk , s s q s X s X ;D 4g kd ;®Lfkai k&^!x kLc lcl e rxt lb jkv `g Cgu ksr iki Bksd e u , \ s X . , , X s kpc l &^!x kd /v 4kg gj kt jxf er jkv g kgj Li Cgu Bk[nf gér ]g k s s s s a s s s q , , \ X q , &^!x g; df g kgj Li Bk[nf >e df 4'ok<Qd df hg; `xksgd k;D er ksr , \ s q s q `g k;D e /ksjof surb d ujxf e &^!x d kxksy ikv df Ni ler henkv go T X X s s X s s X s w s q s s kr ]xksvkt jxf e &^!x ksr Cgu ]kdQ BkH df ksgd eqr jkv ksg kgj jxf e & X s s , X s ^!x henkv Bkd sl,t 4g krdl ksg Cgu <jkd Bksd ksr jkv 2'ok<Qd ]'kuofv s , , `g k;D e /ksjof surb d kXrLfi ikv ]ukoxH A uæi hj[fkv T X X s a z 4g kdum ke®keji 4g kdu , , m ;†kj kjkl kdlm 4g hdum jGf knil hjkl hd ke®keji dfk;D 4g krkt je , a X , jkdgv kdutf ]o g hxkH;ü/ jkv 4kxSkt je jkdgv hg rkt d k{kdkv l a s T , a s s a b 4hx[j /kac e [An gér hg k{kdkv g; 2nauk<‘Î ]kvkg rDe l k{kadkv lb s s X q X q a s s q s 4lc ]n jd 0lf X O‘sJ l kjln ksd uiv eg ukgc hH hldf df k'eg g hrkg kNπb g; hd ue sj s X w s s s , s keg 2xaSkt dju ; ]hiki ; ]g gj kyp ekd l htçl ]ykn ]hIksj <jk/kl ]jk s s s T s s s pc g gj jd Cgu rkc ; kst jkv 2ke®kge A xksy ykoujd ksd kXrkc ub udfy s T s X s , s s s 4g krksg ed u[ kd ke ]g krhi /n kd kae kpπc 4 , w a , w g kl¬gf kd jhj' /n lo ]kl¬gf kd jhj' u[ lt 4g kl¬gf kd jhj' dfXk;D , w s , w s , , 4g jkgklkae /wn `k;D g /n jkv 2hjkgk/≈qn 4ky jd hruxf hH hd kXvke®kge Xe , , w , s X kLkal ub 4Lakl jkv LkaH ]Lkaj A g rkg xksy d gjr hg uhr Xe h'kd ]g srgd , T s s s T 4g C , gu rkc hd hukjg Nd ksr ]g rkt kg Lkal jxv ke®kge jkgér kr 4kuksg re u , q T s s s q s kjg jGf ksr ]n kuc Lkl gér g; 4Syf d Lkl g kuc /n g; df 2ks[j yk;[ , s a X q s a , w jGf ksr ]kd lH ]kd ;kx er sxkvhi /n g; jGf jkv `g rjWt k;D lm hd T q s w , , s /n 6Skpi utksH go nkc d ykl jkp ]ykl uhr 4g Cgu rjWt Bksd hd /wn w s , s lm cv ]k;x kg ;≈k; d ukpi utksH kpπc hH Bksd hg lt 4g dkujr[ nkc s s s s s , , sdlm ]g Cgu hjWt nkc dlm ]g hjWt /n hg Syf d uipc dfkX;D 4krhi Cg , s , w s u /n nkc d uipc h{i7q'i Bksd jd LkN kd ;‘ue 4g dkujr[ /n go jkv w s s\ s q , w ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 35 egaP

8`g Cgu uOfd Nd Syf je 2kNi7kNi8 A kgd u ky¥qe , q ss s w s w s 82g Cgu uOfd kLc ykol 6g krNi ykol dS , \ wa w s likv Syflb ]aSkt u cM Cgd ikv dr cr ]kxxy kI? k/kv chjd e upgi s a X s aq dr yIksg ksdikv8 A kyksc jobkL hlDI [n kvg krksg jkc kd uhYQlu 4hF y ≠ , s q s s he ln xHxy hjwn hd yIksg l Òv Bkog uny 4k;x ue? Ly≈b uhYQlu ky¥qe s s a s w T a 4kvkt s gj 0c dfkr 4g krgkp kuIkd go ]g hxy k_ke hd 8M8 Lc e w0c skt go d q wa , s \ X q f g Gky[f Syflb d ;®Lfkai e jkv 20c Cgo ks[n akgt 4g w0c hg 0c skr h wa s T , w q s T q w q Hv 4rksg 0c7hg70c 4rLi Bk[nf u 0c urb jGf 2krkg k;nf jH kd hHd sl s q q s \ w q s s X q s k0c ueg ksd k;ufqn lb kr 2hrksg uklkv hurb rkc ]'kd 2krksg kr¬l kurb s ]'kd `sxkvkt kg <‘Î l ukt kg F¬Od krhx k; `xkvkt ksg I¬bk∂ er k;D s s s s s a s s q s l suksg eyke ycfbkc udfy `k;D g ;®Lfkai 4g eyke ycfbkc ]ksg rdl kjg w s , , w s ksn ukjd ]g h[j ji kOksv krhx ]g nk; n"ufim ]g F¬Od no `k;D g ;®Lfkai q , X , , a s , 4g ry Ikp k T s s djlf kd jln7dS g hrksg rjWt hH ct klsS 4g rn kyt[ Ohi hd jlwn7dS s w , T s s q s xky ksr g hrLi rjWt lt `2ydæfe hH g kukpgi Hht huiv ksr dr jlf u s , \ s , q , qa s iv cv 4g gj Ikp kdjlf kd jln7dS xky 4Cgu hH g jkv Nd e jlf jxe T s s w s , , q X `ksg gj kX;D Ikp er ksr g kjH jckx jxv ]kgd u uhYQlu `k s q , s s ;D g kjH jckx e jlf jkgér ]kgd ulm jk,v k;x kv kl¬x ksd jlGv j[fkv , s X s q s q 4k;x hH kg _ro¬ s a df ewyke Cgu hg; s>e 4Cgu ewyke >e ]kgd ulm ]kvg cd _ro¬ rjkH df q s q s q a ]Xrkc hIkN7hIkN 4Cgu eyke >e 4Cgu eyke >e 4Cgu eyke >e df kgd ul s s w s q w s q w s q s m ]kNi hH kt u jlGv sykouy w;øjIb 4kF k;x un w;øjIb dS uhYQlu ky¥qe w s s s s a s s a 4jckx huk; jckx ] s s krksg Cgu _ofi jckx Bksd 2ksg u k;D hg kd krkek,x gkp jGf3g jckx cl 4g s X s , s , kjpd cl go ]kg jH er hH kst dr cr ]hrkg Cgu u'kj rfk;† hd uoht jk s s q s s s s gér dr ct e hLiks[ hjkgér 4er kg rjH k;D jkv d jpd ;kolf Xe hLik[ q X \ q q s s , s s \s hjkgér 4jk/m cl `kd jlf jkv 4rgkp kuy Cgu jk/m er hH kd ji udfy q , s s q , s 4 k;kv y kd ji kr Cgu kyef kdjlf ]kgd ulm 2kdjlf kF kgd ueg ]k;ky k; s , s s s D r g; ]kgd u ky¥e 4k;kv jgkc jd y krt jdk,u j[fkv `krky Cgu Xk;D w s q s w kdjlf ]g kgj jd k;D ]BH df kgd jdky¥pf u ky¥e ]kxy urhc jH kIa? Bk , s q s s d 4kv y kdjlf l jrhH jk,v kt kjt\ df kgd l jdku uiv u uhYQlu ky¥qe s s s , s s 4g krkt Pp ji jlf kr ukK jkv 2g ;¥e k;D kd rt ]g rgj ji , \ s , , w s w T s ji ksr rwt jkv 2ksg rsy Pkv l te urdf ukK kd kjln er udfy ]kg rkp , s , s s\ s s s X w q s s s qdl e uugi L\id Sg ugi d kjln er ]rugi Cgu rt Sg ugi d kjln eqr X s s q s s X w q s s w q s s X w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 45 egaP

4Xe rgf jkgér kr g kgj s q s , jd hH Lk\G7jhp 4g kgj jd kI‘p hd ukojd rDqe l Lks\G jkgér gér yod kj , s s s s s q X q s kpc go dfk;D 2kuxy ujd u hræderæd 4kukt ksg re htkj kd uLx>7uLy s X s q q s s \ s \ l jIDkL Cgd er kr 4hxksg kLh\i kr ]ykduf jgkc ksd nkoe ]Lks\G ksd Lks\G sj s q s s s s s kgér jIDkL l,t g hg klS go udfsy 4g hd /ksjof df hxkg hrxy ksd krgc Xr q s , s T X X q kc hje if|; 2g Cgu hH l hldf kje /ksjof3g Cgu /ksjof Bksd kje l kXrLfai s , s s , s s 4g krkt gj jdksg rLfi kt ]g hukK kO> g , a s , w o 4g kry ki kd uk;÷ kt ]g hukK kpπl hgo 4g krksg /çyim ksd o®0c go ] , s s s , , q hy krpV hd uk;÷ sultf jkv 4g krkt ksg rLfi go ]hd ∂Gf ultf hd ukK 4k , , a s s y krpV hd uk;÷ ]kLks\N ∂Gf hd ukK 4kugj Li re e nç' jk/m d kjln eqr s s \ X s X w 4g hrdl kv jkgc hH jrhH jkgér e kX<{ rHnv d rlo ub ]g k;kv ralo , s q X q . s a , 4uc yG 4uc {1o thc kvg kLi jrhH jkgér g krgkp e 4ksg r s w s q \ s q wa T If? rfka∂ e uoht jkgér g krgkp e jkv 4g hrdl kg Cgu rIf? rfka∂ Bksd X s q wa T , , s e uoht jkgér l ukjgkn udfy ]ksg rdl kjgkn er 4Cgu /ksc kjkgér go 4Cg X s q s s s s s s q q u kKi hjkgér go 4Cgu kHrfi hjkgér go 4g krdl ksg hg klS lc ukK jk/m z q z q , s 82jobkL hlDI kd uny hgo ]jv8 A kykc uhYQlu jdkyG hrkN sl ox ≠ , a s s q Z 8`jGf g krdl ksg ukd go j[fkv ksr ]g ugc u ]g BkH kjkgéqr , , , , u rdV ]g ukrl hg hd ikc7ke jkgér kst df ]hrjd Cgu ekd yDv ksr hjke q , a a s q g ]ksn ckot Cgér ]ky¥e A kgd jdkg rtfkji ucl 4hF u hg k'kv Bksd jGf q q s s s s kr l yenkXH 4ji nkXr edjH7hjkH huiv hjkp‰kç FkukdIe jkv xy ujG Fk w z , s s s g ji nkap huiv ykynap ]hy kcn hyqxv yr krkn u htcçP jdul kd uæi lb w a s X a s w q s z 8`g uk,d go kvkrc kr ]g hrxy ugc u jkv g krxy BkH kje e ræjf u k , s s , , , s X s s t ]g nkykv dS hd ikc7kae je 4g krNi uæi dS ]kjk;8 A kyksc 4kF hg e ' , , s s wa w z s X kyr hd dk,e kr go 4kNi ykol hgo l kr¬ksn su ky¥e hg ryef kdke 4hn ñIk s s w s X q s , i dS e h'[ hd uIk,y liko u k_ef dlm ksr k;kv liko rjkH uhYQlu ct X q s s X s 8 4g ugc hd n[ u ]g BkH kd n[ e u jxe ]_kedS ]g ukrl hd ikc7kae ui wa q wa q T wa a s v n[ e ]g rkc hl7h/hl ]jv8 ]k;krc u jobkL 4hy uke jkg u ky¥e jkpc q T , s s ≠ s q s s 82kr>l Cgu ckot ksd kNπv7Nπv 6g uOfd kL w X s , c ykol ]u kF kgd hg ygi ue 2ht ;'kge ]Sgfd8 A kNi l ;≈a;ø u jobkL \ s s T w s s ≠ 4k;x kv yIkg ]k;x rhc ;el rpkl7rpkl Arrv s s s s s a 4hxksg ugc k; kxksg BkH kr k; ukrl hd ikc7ke 2g krdl ld hg skg klS df s a a , s , s Skv u hg >el udfy ]kjke jlf rgc sulm 4k;x lG e u>ym hLc uhYQlu s q a X \ 8`g uk,d go Sbkrc 6g ugc h , , je u jk,v BkH kje u kt ]g ukrl hg dS hd ikc7kae je8A kyksc jobkL hlDI s s s , a ss ≠ ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 55 egaP

4kg ];ksd k[n u r;tf ksr e ]k;[fn xt ydl koqe s s T s 44ktkouf uk,d kd uikv ut dye gd s s w T 4ktkj?j lS ]h;ekuQd /cuhn q s s q a 44kjk;ü [kj gVu rikv Hi dyi dS T X q z 4kjk;î gVekj kl ]g rDH k;[fn7[Aqnji s , q 44jke erkv kt ]g ;¥r Bkld Ifkd T s T q s 4jkdi eku ruf ]rfe rgc ti rjwe T q q T w 44Cgku /kl gt ]g Lk\tm jxu bsr7bsr w a T 4Cgkt gVu uil ]ut/kl j? d Idkl T q s 44klkv ue ti ]Sbki [l Sdf ljn , w q 4klkn d jfg gt ]lc gcl jgl Bkl s a s q s 4hg kurb tkv 4g krgkp kukuc jk wa nh>kl hH gér elm ]g kukt kt ue jd xkt 4g krgkp kukut hH gér go ]g X q X , s s T wa X q , kukt kt sue jd xkt 2kxwauke Cgu e Skxt kucf gér dfk;D 4kxMkygf gér s T T X q X a X q hH jGf udfy 4g krjd jkdho¬ e kd hxtkjku hjkgér 4g dofkHko¬ hH kukt s wa T s q , ksg tkjku kjkgér 4waxy ukxt jkv xy ukygf gér jk,v aMkt kv e jkv ]ksg gj q s , wa s X q T , s [sn j/e kuil er g krdl ksg jkv g gj [n uil o e nCu huiv udfy 4 q q , , T s s s s X s g Skl e kNπe ldf 4g Li e &^!x ldf ]g k;D k'n hdum df Cgu hg kri k T s X Z w T s \ X s , s d kxksy dfk;D 4g dofkHko¬ g; 4hxgj hrLi knl ]g hLi k;yfkx knl ksd k0c X X , X \ T \ a X q 4Syf d nukv jkgér 4Syf d <k s a s q s ;¥d jkgér 4g e rgf jkgér go ]g kgj jd kl®dfpf7;¥' kt e df g Cgu y s q , X s q wa s T , k;[ g; ksd kxky df Syfhlb go ]hxLi jkv g hgj Li k;yfkx hurb kt >qe X s X \ , T \ a s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 65 egaP

j[ksi e phu T s kuksI krjd ji cl urp7Lt ]ufe7ju7jql s \ q krkjgy uxkav7j? ]hyx7okx ]hLLxi a a jki7jkv d kuet Bklyv hyq/ ek' s q krkdu[ ksd kvkog krp[V jiM jo¬ X jgikn hryP ct er srktc hjlakc s q q ji Qr end jiM 44kg ]lkndye rgd ]k;bki Hi jev jtv s w q z 4lknm kTjGf gr7gt Te ]dufkt rfx g; hdub a a s 44ksg ]bksg kuje u jfgc kdko ]je kst jkoqnekj q s s 4bksd ukt jfe kt ]j g rfkaH kuje uje , s s , s 44kg ]eku kpkal u oy gkd ]r gn hO> hlS s s s X s w s 4ekp gt yfx yfx ]j xk,je unf dS rv s, s s a 44kg ]bkrNfi ue knje ]je L\fy njqe snjqe s q s s 4bkt y jkst koe ]kd uLy l Se koqe , q s \ s q 44ksg ]by Bk/c koe dS ]g rkt rkjc Sqe s a q T s 44bn jfd gk;ç koe ]j krgk;ç ksd Be koqe s q s q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 75 egaP

y;k? hg l uiv CrkjdI sl uiv s s s lc jgy Bg hdF Nd yod kr Xe>qe X q q s s y;ki y[/v ]ypkav kdl[f ]rfx rgfkeél q s hxksg hrkv p[V kst k/kj Bksd hxskg , g huk'uf hrxj hd kikl7yt snx X X a a T s s s \ , g Ri7yx7Ll ]g Bkd ]g Lphd , \ g huki kvg k/c l k'eg ksr kg; , q a s s a s a l h'o kjk/ hd kuet hxksg hr/c q a 2ksg k;ki hH Nd ue kst ksy kj/ eld q s T ]ji ksg k;kx nkt hH kt uer ji h'o w s s q a kukd7kuksd ky,G yt kye krkt gj s , krkt ks[ ryP unf kst k;kl jxH<{ s q a jkH kd k;kNyt hjkgér ilf kyef kd>qe q Z s `krki Ldi ksd jo¬ h'o kyH k;D Te \ a jH k;yr hpπd dS yr d Qr end , s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 85 egaP

kuksI krjd ji cl urp7Lt ]ufe7ju7jql s \ q krkjgy uxkav7j? ]hyx7okx ]hLLxi a a jki7jkv d kuet Bklyv hyq/ ek' s q krkdu[ ksd kvkog krp[V jiM jo¬ X jgikn hryP ct er srktc hjlakc s q q ji Qr end jiM ]kuksg u ]kuksg yr d end s s kuksg kje kgj dFjuf yd¥cf s Z q hgj rxlv kyhy g; hjkl rgf jse a s Cgu k[yf kt u jwl s s Cgu k[nf kt kd lk;ø s s jH Lphd kX;®7kd7kX;† kgj \ j[ksi e phu T s kuksI ji urp7Lt ]ufe7ju7jl kgj krjd s \ q q jo¬ h'o kgj krtc a ji Ir je jiM ss
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 95 egaP

kc hdlm xky 4g kd I?je kr¬kj k;kn 4kukt re Skn jdyH 4ksvkt yp Skc s , a a w s a Akrgd `g kagd kr¬kj kd hr¬c AkrNi llm Bksd ~ ~ ~ jgkc d [¥c huk/tkj , w s s kF k[j kuc kLik> sulm ~ ~ ~ krNi Bkd llm 4kvg jhdG hGl kLc ehgkzcb \s w s s q w \ 4g Cgu jxu skr hdkc 4g I?je cl ksr hdkc 4g rjd l T T T s kouf lkn d jfg kgt ]g u≈enukv jxu hgo df kuukt lc Ag srgd lkndye s a , a T w 4klkn d jfg gt ]lc lcl jgl Bkl s a s q s 4g Li ji k;…'7<je huiv T s \ , xky `g krLi dG k;D llb ]ykl hl¬v df e uje xy ykl jRl 4gj hg sr s , \ Z s X s s s je ]gj hg rje nkc d eüt 4je jkv je tkj lc ]Cgu hg Stf 4jckjc d uh s s s s , s s s s t u ]Stf kr Cgu 4g kukt je Cgu jdgj hg e Lphd kn uI? kd <iel kn s , X \ s s s Z s uxt ksd i¥dal ksjkpof 4g kuuc yed k; g kugj hg Lphd ]kpksl 4Cgu hd jk s , , \ s , v hldf ]g gj jd rkc hg hjkgér lkndye `kne k; ksg kntV er ]kspkl kLkF T s q w Z q q s s\ 4kyef u kntV B ksd >e rDjfrfv d kne ]kykL ukN rxt kjkl 4[n ne7hg7ne ue df g srgd s q s ë q . s s ∆q ∆q s T T 4kg ];ksd k[n u r;tf ksr e ]k;[fn xt ydl koqe s s T s 3lkndye g rgd dhO w T s 2ksg re er kF;üv ]ksg rofht er df kuukt hHr3g rkt y[ tkojn 1 q q T s q s 7jk} cl ]g rkt II unkNπkv cl ]g hrkt ksg rokuv hji7hd7hji kurp hjkg T s w , 1 w w s éqr ct 2yed ynÛgl 4kd ukt y[ d ;ür,p3sl k;nfl g dhri kjkeg yed s q s X , z 4ksd y;ki hd k/kj <{®r y ukpgi yed jk,v kd hjlkac <{®r y ukpgi yed jkv hdl s s q s , m Om /axl ]l kXjkr7nkap sxy ujd rkc ]l j[ksi jki Skt kg ]l Lphd jki S s q s s s s s \ kt ksg ]yed Skv Om hHv 4yed Skv xm hHv 4thc Li IG hHv ksr 4Sgfkp s \ w klîhHv ]k{kadkv hd sutks[ kd ;®l Lks\F Sgfkp ku/kl hLks\F 4Sgfkp krxtl s s hLks\F 4Sgfkp eJ kLks\F 4g hjkeg ;ƒekl 4g jrhH jkeg kre{ hd uy[f yed , Z , s s 4g kry[f yed hg e j[ksi yx7Ll 4g krd , X s s \ , l y[f yed hH e j[ksi yx7Ll 4g krdl y[f 4kry[f yed Cgu Xe uoht X s s \ , jkeg 4kryx jkv krLl3j[ksi kd Lphd lt g hg lS lc~ ~ ~ `eg udfy 4 s , \ \ s , T s s s g klo kd klo cl 6knk;† u krksg ed Nd u 4g ke<√i hg ke<√i kago 4,g hun , , , q , w w akp hg hunkap kago 4Cgu hg ukpgi hdlm l jkd/v 4Cgu hg hrksg e dsky dlm s a X s rkj 4Cgu hg krcL hHd kdlm tjl 4g hg kyduf kdlm tjl 4g L[ Sdf w w , w T s \ nc [kav eg j,kv ke®keji g hg uekl 4Cgu Z;ƒekl hd uul hjkeg 4g kgj hg a , s s q , Om rhx kd <‘Î 4g jgc eg 4g hgj hg tc hjlakc 4g rîk;ø l nkt dS oæof T s , q , s w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 06 egaP

]jhokge Bksd ]0c Bksd3kg; g Stf xksy l7LkF ilf 4g yF¬Qe df kuukt kr q a T s s s\ Z , s y[f u yed ynÛgl 4g yF¬Qe ]g kukjho go ]ksg rgd jkll er kdltf s , , s a q s 84kukjho hgo jgkc ]hnkckv hgo jnv8 4hnkckv ksr jrhH d cd jrhH d I?j a s z s e 8~ ~ ~ ]hnkckv hgo jnav8 4kago g Cgu hH ypyg hurm 4krync Cgu hH Io , jd Bksd jGf ]Xe cd kGn dS Sx Isy ]e cd kGn dS Sx lc 84hync hHd z X z u Iojd u jtfkue d Xkcd8 4krync Cgu hH Iojd ]g krkt kl e cd kst go s s z , s X z 44kukjho hgo jgkc ]hnkckv hgo jnv a 4hync hHd u Iojd ujtfkue d kcd s s Xz 4g I?je hg I?je cl ksr hdkc ]g hrlc hgo ku>el3k , , X g rlc xksy sykosugx ksd kX<jp d ke®keji ]xky ykouy [ji ksd ke®keji ]x s s s s s s ksy ykoujd ei ksd ke®keji kgt 28klkn d jfg gt ]lc lcl jgl bkl83lc s s zs a s a s q s q l3kuukt klsS ]g klc l dhO 6kuukt kvg klc jg' hgo~ ~ ~8lcl jgl bkl8 , s q q s 4Cgu ksr gyd ]g kr , s uk,e ]g ksr kIkUl ]g ksr rfk' ed7l7ed e I?je `g k;D jk,v d yktt ]d , , a s X , s a s X kI>a> ]d o–im Skolf e kX;r¬fc hjkeg 4g jrgc I?je ksr l kX;r¬fc hjkeg s X T s s 4Cgu s \ rLtm hHd Sg lc kagt ]hgo `hr¬c 4k;nf tH hr¬c gér uTe ksr ]F rgkp ku q s s X q s s s kt hr¬c er udfy 4ksg rgd hr¬c er kdltf krn tH gxt lm gér e kr ] q s s q s s s X q T s krksg kNi I?je jxv uer 4Cgu k;kdIH gér jdukt 4h;x ksg yH hd k"kH 4 w s q X q w g xyv k"kH hjkgér hje BkH ]kujd ke{ ksr 2ksg srgd hr¬c kdlm ]ksd uje , q s s s g L[ xksy 0cRfi kgt 2ksg rgd hr¬c kdlm 4g gj je xky tksj kago ]g gj T s \ a a s s T s s T s Ltm xky tksj kago ]ksg rgd hr¬c ksdltf er jkv 4Cgu krLtm hHd jGf ]k \ s s q , \ ;x lc ksl jkc dS k;x lc kst kago df g krgd hr¬c e kdlm ]kg rgd I?j wa T s s s e er kdltf 4lc ksl lc kagt Sgfkp kugd lm ksr hr¬c `kdl gj klc cd q s s s s Bksd kago dfk;D ]g Cgu hr¬c go ]ksg rgd hr¬c eqr kdltf 4g kyksc Cgu O> X , s s wa w sler 4xyv k"kH huir7huiv3ksjd ke{ ]krgd tksj3ksjd ke{ Akgd u ehgkzcb q q s 4g I?je kago k;krc okx uer kagt jkv g okax kago k;krc , a s q , , I?je suer Gjr ltf 4g Gjr hjln ksr okax df kyp kri ksr k;kxy kri sl q , w lm g krpc k;Lfdy kst ji I?je ]k;kxy kri l kjln ueg jkv 4k;nf tH , s a \ s X w s , s I?je uer `ksg yxki k; ksg e 'ksg er df rgd l ehgkcb 4rIky kd uLx> s q X q s s z s , s s \ 7uL\y ]rIky e l¬qx Lc ]rIk,y tkjku Lc ]nkc I?7kn7I? rIky xksy udfy s s , X s s \ s s \ sa s sa s , s 4krkrc Cgu kr¬kj ryx ksd hldf hH jhxgkj <jk/kl 2kxgd k;D Bksd O> rkc s X w hlS jkv kxksg krgd hg dhO go df ]hgkox rfF¬fim hdlm ]rfks;† e kX[kv s , X a hdlm ]kr[nf hH yc e krkc hdlm ]krxy hH klt uuke ]jhdG 4rsy uke r X X , s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 16 egaP

4g , krkt kg hÈef kr kvN hH kukl eqr kr hHv 4g hrkt kg kukl hÈef kr kLt s s s q s s , s s s s q\ s l ke®keji 4g jkgér jkr7nkp jkl s; ]g kjkgér 'kdkv kjkl g; kr kd> ue T s q s a s , q s s q s kl d ke®keji 4g kgj krI? g; 4I? jkd®ep g; kr skLdi <jp d ke®keji s , s s \ s 'kdkge /e kjwi q kvg nc e hØqe q a X /axl Xk;† l kyG ]jk;î kgc sl k<kzi q s X w X nN uxe l7h[ki ]Sx jr Xe ;y /e a s a , q 'kdi kry> k[ai z s ukgjlf d urp s s y/ h;x kg unp ]<jp Sx kg und w s a s qa yG eæfj7<o¬ Fx ]e hjcd hd hutj w Z s qa X lkjkge /e <{ jg q lkyg7urp <d jg q s lk;î h;x kg roæk' s iW kvg joæuofv q 4g rgj rLkn Nhi d Cgüb ne ]lc 6jkdgv ]oj T s s ,\ s s ∆ q a , kx ]u/ ]kO‘rfi ]ni3g k;ufn huiv ]g k"kH huiv hd kne 4g rki >el hg z , q , ë q T s hd kne7∆ne 4r[yf lkgrfb kd kntV ]krkg k[yf lkgrfb u k0c 4x[yf lkgr ë q q s X s s X q s X fb hg kd kne ]g r[yf lkgrfb hg ne Ag hrkv e >el hH rkc 2Cgu [y¥m ë q T s ∆ q , X s e lkgrfb kd kntV ]g rkt [yf lkgrfb d kne ]g rkc hd hukjg hLc jxe X X T s s s ë q , , \ 4g kne cl kr hdkc 4eku dum g rdl kt uxf ji k;yfxm 4kg; g Stf T Z q s s T s s X a a T xky l7LkF ]lc 4duku Bkd ]dye Bkd ]jhcd Bkd ]llht Bkd ]<‘Î Bkd s s s s\ s w s s s s

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 26 egaP

y/ h;x kg unp ]<jp Sx kg und w s a s qa ~~~kyd go ]sxy Fkg u;klj go géqr ksr kLt l Hzi X ss q\ s q y/ h;x kg unp ]<jp Sx kg und w s a s qa yG eæfj7<o¬ Fx ]e hjcd hd hutj w Z s aq X lkjkge /e <{7jg q lkyg7urp <d7jg q s 4g krkt pj lkj 4g krkt kg ;e;®u <d7<d 4 , , s 1 g krLi ewyke kvg krpku .rxt kjkl 4lkyg7urp <d jg 2g krksg kn,i lkyg , \ q q s , q ~ ~ ~lkyg7urp <d jg q s lk;î h;x ksg roæk' iW kvg joæuofv q 4hrdl Cgu uhN ksd ;nkl d Z T s lm hH q;®e 4g krkt ksg jki d 'kuof Z;nkl kdlm ]sl Hi kt k;x Lq\t udfy 1 , s T q z s s ~ ~ ~ iW kvg joæuofv q 2;nkl kagd ]iW kgd 4kago ,g Cg Z T a u hH Nd rDjfrfv d jti7F¬fv ksr ]kg lt kdl [n kd uiv hH er 2'kd q s a s s , s s s s q 2ksgd k;D jkv , 4e ukv h;x ksg jn ksdikv kjt\ udfy 2;'kge ] X s s s Sbkv Akgd sulm 2Skt jL Bkd lS ]jIDkL hH jIDkL udfy 4g kdp je ksr g a s s s s , q ; 4kF k[n Cgu hHd thje klsS ]thje ulm F [n rgc 4h;x dQ lkl hH hd s s s s s q a lm jd [n ksd jti7F¬fv 4kyks[ jk} ulm kl ]Sgfkp kukg ji®r I? lhck,p k s a s s s sa s r ksd jIDkL udfsy3rDo kd rkj h/kv ]hn dr¬n ~ ~ ~ 4g gj pgi hg jtai7F T s aq ¬fv ]kuksg u ukjg ~ ~ ~ 4k;x pgi j? d jIDkL dS jti7F¬fv dS ]kuql uTe , aq s a s 4ksg _ke jti7F¬fv 2g k;D jrhH df ksd uiv ksdl [n er ]'kd 2kt†e7 a , s s q lkae7hÒg `jrhH jk,v jnl jiM7jiM ]g ;nkl Bksd hH g; 2g Cgu kjgx knk;† qa , Z T , hH l kLep kt ]g ;nkl Bksd hH g; 2Cgu yd jk,v g tkv kt ]g ;nkTl Bkd s X \ s , Z T , s , Z s hH g; 4g k;D Z;nkTl df kukt hg sulm ]k;x Lt llm kt 2iW kvg joæuofv , q\ s s q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 36 egaP

m hg dS ]g gj jd ;kim xksy jkl ]ksg hg rjd ksr ;kim 4xksvki hg [An ]; T s s s s q kim ksjd [ky er dr cr 4kxsyef Cgu [l dr cr ~ ~ ~Sbki [l Sdf ljn q q q 4g krn jd rjfrkaiW gér ksr 'i¬ kdlm jkv 4 , s X q Z , Z'i¬ jGf ]ku[n sygi 4g krksg hH lji j@#!if ksr g krkg ljn jk,v 4g krkt s , , s , Ief Syf d knl kj/v df Skt Li Bk[nf jH dy> dS ]Skt Li jH Bk[nf s s a \ \ 2hGkd ljn ]jn rkc ksr hd lji 4g hrkt ksg k[jc hd [l l _ke u'n dlm w , q s Z s ~ ~ ~;bki [l Sdf ljn s q 4Skt Li Fkg e Fkg d <‘Î Cgo ]kxy uyksL jdksg r¬e ]jdkg uxe \ X s s s s a kgt 4Iohlc Cgo ]Ir7kue; Cgo ]kOm pku kgt 4h'kd Cgo ] kvkt ksg u≈e Xe a q s a s ktwi hdlm kgt 4kckd Cgo ]ksvkt dq> kagt 4g Sg j? gér hgo ]kg kagt eqr a T q ss X q s 4g Cgu jn jnfe kd ke®keji ]sxkXg jn stjxf d k;bklB ]hxkXg jn nt¬fe hd , w a w s X w X X kukeylqe ]sxkXg jn jnfe d kvngV 4g Cgu jn jnfe kdlm ]g Cgu jn go jkv w a s X q , w a , w , 44klkv ue ti ]Sbki [l Sdf ljn , w q 4g k[ks/ cl "' 4g q;®e kr cl "' 2g uo , s , 1 s s , ht hHr g uoht roæk' ct 2g uoht hHr g uohtkge ct 4g uoht cr 4g , , , , , krkt kv Xe hØe hjkgér 'kdkv kjkl df aSkt kv e Fkg k;D <jp d ke®keji q q X s 'kdkge /e kjwi q kvg nc e hØqe q a X /axl Xk;† l kyG ]jk;î kgc sl kX<kzi q s X w naN uxe l7h[kai ]Sx jr e ;y/e s , X q 4g krdl kg kni ukjd , s , q 6g hrdl ksg kni krhxnoxH hH jrhH jkgér 4e 'kdkv Lm ]SkLGLG ji nN , , . s q X X \ a \ \ a hH jrhH jkgér ]ksg eüt kd knaN hH jrhH jkgér ];økd Om hH jrhH sjkgéqr s q X s q s naN uxe l h[kai ]Sx jr e ;y/e s , X q 'kdi kry> k[ai z s ukgjlf d urp s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 46 egaP

2kxsukt k;D ;‘ue ]rdl ukt Cgu q s hH kron skr ;≈kH kd qrt uhlkv hiW^(!krsu jk,v _jfp kd ñld hJql AkdhI s a q 44e;‘ue krd rfkukt u ko,n . q s q s 4e;≈kH ;¬kru e_jfp ñld . s . q 4ksg rdl kPc oÂge kd ñld jdkxy hJl ksr ]kgkp er ]kag 4g rD; s \ q q s q , q im hg hJ Arv ]g ;if l iW ukel ksd k0o ykckv ]k"Qi ]h_¬ ñld A<jkouf , z s X 1 X q q 4jd I‘i¬ ;®pfk,v kd sukxy 8hJ8 hH jGf ]g xyVh_¬ nç' ñld Akd' X , q a 4g krjd wa '<xhJ kd _l7ñld e cv 4g krjd jkd¬eu ksdikv e ]krke ñld g AkdhI s w q T wa T q s 44e_l ñld hJ Fv 4Aeu ;k;ñld hJ .ekv . w q q s 328_ w q , l7ñld8 Ag k;x xy Fkg l kagd Cgu kri _¬k' uhpki dS ksd rpfjfi dS jse s z s 4g hrkg W' upLv jGf ]Skt y , s q \ ef 6kxWd kl,o ]kxWd klsS kr kxSkt yef df ksg rdl [n uil ]kg rdl p a a s s s s s s ksl dr cr ]kyef Cgu u/ dr ct 4g hrxy Fkg k'kjuf hg ryef ni 6ksg sr , s dl [j k'kv dr cr ]kyef Cgu ni ]ksg jn dr ct 4kg rdl lg e kvk'kv w s s a X X 4hxSkt uNf Igkjd¬e cl hjkgér 6sxy uhN Ik[e cl jkgéqr FkF; d uoht a X q q q X s, q s Z s `Bx kycf kagd hlg go 4Cgu kri N a d kd kyG ]Sx L> Ri cl hg e ykl uhr7 kn `C[n jho¬r h;u hdum cv q X w \ s X s s X 2hF hrLi h;k[nf hlhRc hdum kr F uc ILhli Su7Su ct jIkd hetf ]k[sn \ s s s X zs Z 4g , hrkt ksg Idi r;yflv jrhH d IokiNf cl udfy 4g rkiNf e kXIgkjd¬qe ]g z s s T s X q T rkiNf e kXIk[e ]g rkiNf e kX_¬o ]g rkiNf ksd uiv xky Syfhlb 2Idjd7 s X , q T s X T s s s kLd k; 2krrDjf7hg7krrDjf 2[kj7hg7[kj `g k;kv lke/e ]g k;kv rlo jrh w\ , q , a H df g krxy klsS gér Cgd jxe ]g rLi h;k[nf gér xky urb e jklal lb , X q T s \ X q s s X `kagd g [l 4hgj hrOm hg /xn kago 4gj srLl hg Ri , q q s \ s kago 4hgj hruc hg Lphd kago ]hgj hg k;,yr hF k;yr jxe ]gj rksg rnfkÁ \ , s s kv ufe7ju7jl ]hgj hrkv k/kj ]ji Ir d k;yr kgj krpj lkj kd <‘Î 4ku q q s , kt Nd u ]kul Nd u u k;yr ]hgj hrtc hjlkac jiM dltf ]k;yr hnx hgo q q q s , q s , a 4xksvki [kj7hg7[kj3d k;o¬f'; ]d kyko ni ]d k;uf/ kdak> e k<ki jrhH s s X s X s X s X X z 4Cgu [l ]g r√hd ]g '; ]g eku 4Cgu [ql ]g n q , , , , i 4Cgu [l ]g u/ `h[l Bksd g kr[nf jxe `yef [l ld3g u≈yl e ;ki q , q , s q s , T a X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 56 egaP

`g krdl yp Cgu ekd Ski kucf ksd ñld k;D Akd' , q a 4g rjd rîkzi kd ñld "Qi heJjfi jkv hgkl®m AkdhI T s s q q , 4ñld Arîki Ak"Qi rogkl®m q z q a 4[An ksr kLN u ][An kr kLs\N 4dLy Nhi d kX;jfkod lt ]g L q s s\ q s s s \ s s qa s , T s i hg slS sNhi d Xk;l√d krsu 4rP\i Cgu jkc[v ydtkv er g krxy A<jkouf \ s s q s q , `g krdl jd ld k{j hd ñld kru Akd' , s , q s a 4g krjd krsu k{j hd ñld jkv g hrjd ñld k{j hd hHl AkdhI , q , , q 44kru kd{j ñld 4ñld Akd{jol s q q ∆ 4g uk/of kd , ujd jki ksd jxkloH hH jd Ldi Ni k; XxkI hd ñld e rfF¬f hlS A<jkouf s \ wa a q X s `g krksg k;D kr ]ksg hykokF®g kucf ñld jxv Akd' , s X q a 4g gj jrm jki hg jd T s Ldi ksd =kF®g- k'yd7pd dikv cr ]g rxy ucL e –el d ekd hiW oku \ X X q s T s s w X q s q a s p ;o¬ o ct rüji ]Tg rn kjd jki jxkloH kr ksd kjln kru 2ñld g AkdhI q s s s X w s q s 44rQd eucyok'yd pd or –el okup rft†e s q . a q sq q 4if()@kdjkroH k;ü/ ifjkru k;ü/ d/feo® ∆ld s s s q 4g kgj jd ;kd oHl hHl j,kv g kgj k;?f?f ]g kgj je7Ly go rg , Z a , , \ q s ñld lb jkv ]g hgj n h;k[nf ñlqd yod gjr hd qutv ksd kru jg A<jkouf q , , s s Z s `g gj jd T s k;D ji kago ubkru7kru 4g k[yf e Xk_¬k' klsS ],g hy¥nf _{ kd ñld AkdhI s s , X s q 44rod edf ubkru7kru s Z q . s s 4Aol®;; kroel _{ hy¥nf7_{ ñld q q s s s s s q 4sxkg hxkH d I‘d o ]xjd Cgu jkdho¬ kd ; X s s s X s ®l lb kst 4g hgl Nd cl nH7Ln7ekn7ekl Syf d uki lb Arv ]g Cgu kjse , q s a s s s , hH Nd jk,v kokyv dlb e jkll lb ]g krif jk,v krke hje hg ñld AkdhI q s X a , s q 4oeo® krif p krke oeo® s s 4kxSkt kel e 0fc X q hjkgér cl ]ktH <;kjku jk,v ksjd rkiI‘fn ji rfhutkj A|l ]dykc A<jkouf q s 1 4Sbkrc Fv kd dksyæ Px lb ]tkjkge Akd' Z w\ a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 66 egaP

`g d;æokv ñld k;D Akd' , q a 4sxjd rîki l huklkv skd ñld o ]sxjd <;kjki kd _l lb kst AkdhI X z s q s X w 44ñld Arîki r Akouke srtH k; q z , a s 4g ryfeéfl Xe Okiñld7ou g; cv ]kvg k;D ksr A<jkouf , q q 4g kd Okikxn ksr dksyæ g; Akd' , Z q a 4g jkd¬eu jkcjkc lb jkv g rîk;ø gxt hHl hon hiW7ñld AkdhI , s , , s q 44Aeu Akseu ,;¬r¬eu ],;¬r¬eu ];¬r¬eu , 4krF¬fl <iWkt†y "rHol ñlqd k; a s q s w Z 4g hrxy hlteb ct A<jkoufrfzi , ë `g hrksg jF¬f cd ñld hLxy Akd'rfzi , q \ a a 4,g hrkt xy uyp jd kLxy gjr hd jkdjl rjkH s \ a hHd7hHd ]akg 4hrkg Cgu hPc hHd ñld ][e ]g hrksg kuok,;jpf ñld A<jkouf s w\ q Z w , q `g krksg kld uok,; kd ñld Akd' , , q a 2g jkd¬eu , s >qr ]ñld Uil sl kXjkd/fv kFr uok,; pπm jk,v ni Lc ]ulkv pM g AkdhI q a s \ s a s 4rqr¬keu ld ]rD;l jkd/fkpπm s s ∆ q s q a ]ro√x uok;pπm ]nipπm ]ulkpπm s , s s 4Sx hg uc e or¬ko ksr Nd jkv 4kF kr>el Cgu ed l jIIDLf kd X q , s s s ikv uiv kj,[7wF®u7kjx7kjS jg kago 2dykc ]k[n lkgrfb kd hlteb A<jkouf s , s s s ë 4Stfhn <jgknm Bksd Akd' a 4,g krkt uc jIIDLf dyfke kd ñld AkdhI s q 4roH jIIDLf dyfke ekuñld s s . q 4hF hgj kg hg Syf sd ñld BkL\y ksr hH ;el lm ]l®o ]kvg k;D ksr A<jkouf s q q 4g kgd Xe krhx su <‘Î ksr dksyæ g; udfy Akd' , s a 4hxksg rîfki hd yG hiW7ñld ksr hHd ]ksvkt Sdf ed AkdhI z q Z 4Aupknd "yG ñld ]r¬jkd/fko;≤ed q s q s s Z 4ksP\i lk; üim kd yojkv tkt jk,v kvkt 4g krki yp Cgu Z;kd kdum Arv ]g rgkp ñl s Z s , T s qd hHl e Lkc d kXjoukt udfy ]g krdl yp ksr ekd kd ut;ükekl A<jkouf X s \ s s ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 76 egaP

44Cgku /kl gt ]g Lk\tm jxu bsr7bsr w a T 4hrLi Cgu k;kN hd kr/kl hH e uîo¬ dlm ]jwn kr \ q X s s kukv e ;®l 4krkv Cgu hH e suil dlm ]g /kl kpπl kt ]ut/kl ]g kgj X X s , q s , jd kti hd rDf' hH kt ]ksg hd jkd®ep ]ksg e”l gkp ]kg yF¬ ]ksg <jk/kl w s w s s w rDf' go gkp ]Skt yef rDf' Nd s>e df Syflb g kgj jd kti hH hd ke s q q , w ®keji go jxv ]g dti kd rDf' hH kt3ksg hd xk;® ]kg hd ukK ]ksg hd ni , w s s ]ksg hd u/ rDf' jGf3g dti kd rDf' kt 4ksg rkt kg <jdim dS yod k , w s s s s s r eqr 4g hd ke®keji kt ]rDf' ]Cgu hjkgér kst rDf' 4g krksg okZHofkv kd , s q , rDf' Zoiv dS jk,v g hryef hg hryef ksr rfk' 4g krI? rHnv ]kti ksd r w , a , q . w fka' sultf jkv 4kxSki Cgu hH rDf' ]Cgu hg kxSki ksr rfka' ]hd kti ultf , w s hd rDf' 4Cgu kd Rf' ]kti ksd rfak' 4,g ;≈kZHn kLc l L\c kd ;‘ue kti hd s s w q \ s s q w rDf' 4Idkl ~ ~ ~g u≈yl e kti hd kO‘rfi ]hd ni ]hd rDf' gjr lb kt T a X w z s 4Cgkt gfu uil ]ut/kl7j? d Idkl a T q s 4g rgj rLy hH T s s \ jGf ]g rkt je df g kgd kr ukgüm 4g hgd rkc rHnv rgc kr u lkndye T s , s s X , q . q s s w 4g rgj rLy hH dr en rje7rje 2g kukt Cgu hHd sl .r T s s \ s s , xt lb güm lt e Lk,\n g rgj sxy gjr lb hH jGf jkv rOm ñFv tksj g sr X s , X T s , s T [n ]e cd rjxf tksj ksd kjlwn g r[n 2sNhi d jklv ]Nhi d F;ø3g rkt s X z s X T s s s s s Z T s yp xkH xky urb ld AkxdkTp kLkF go ]k;df jkpof hH jkc dS ultf `g k s s s s s , s s\ s , ;D Rfi‘uf ]g k;D yGrfi ]g k;D ek<jfi nkc sd eJ hg ji d uoht lb `g , z , sw s , krxy k;D Fkg 4kO‘rfi ]ni ]u/3g gj Lk,\n gjr hd rî{fof ]xky g gj Lkn z T s s T s ,\ 4g krjd uikel kd _wl ñld e cv AkdhI wa q T 4e_l ñld hJ rfb . w q 4hxjd uknzi hon ñld rg jklHfv k;ufefkxgl hlt h X s q q s a , e”y kFr kHjrfj slm ]sxjd jd Om Arki <;kjki kd _l lb rDf;ø kst AkdhI a X z w 44huefkxgl r¬he”y ]hlkn noH kHjrfj q .s a 4s; rüftH Arki rüfou≤ki eyGql z q z . 4k>el a;o¬ ]g F;ø kd' g; A<jkoufrfzi s , Z a `rkv Cgu e luke kru k;D Akd'rfzi s X s a 4up ]luke ]kru ]jcM u Sx ñld Ag kgd u ehgj ]kag A<jkouf w s s q , s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 86 egaP

4ji eku d e/ hg; udfy s Z s 4rLm e kog Cgu hH sxkspt Nd 4Cgu hH Nd jkv ]xlg xksy 6xkLi s \ X a q q , s X a s s \ eyke 0c ilf kr xkLm e kog 2g gj Lm e kog h{i jkv ]g hgj yp e hu w w q Z s s s \ X T s \ X , T X ki k;yfNe `kxksg k;D ksr Syf hH Lm e kog `g utk;i k;D ksr Syf hH yp a \ X , s z ji huki `kxkg k;D llb ksr hH sxkyp ji huki j[fkv 4kgd dhO u <‘Îekj s s s s 2ksjd pkdl Nd ]kvk[ ej' Nd ]jv 2ksg s a q s q s Skv l Ldv hurb jkv 2ksg Skv >e uk[nf er ksd thp hd ukv gN7jkp kl s \ , s q s q s s 4g k;x jki lm jkc pki7ln e l ydæfe e ykl gjkOv 4jkc ksn ]jkc /kdS wa a T s q X X Z e "o hHd ]krLi Cgu hH kukt >e jki lm tksj lS j,kv 2k;ked e ykl g \ s q s s X jkOv suer ksd thp hd li kn 2g hrn jd jki >e oku ksr e li ksn ]g kukt q s , s , s s q X s , , jki lm hH ct kr >e ]jv 2Skox ykl gjkOv ]h;x skg ng Akgd u <‘Îekj s s q s a s 4hd ku/kl ykl gjkOv Akgd ulm s `e u[hl kuyp ji huki gér xy ykl urdf 2`k[hl C X s X q s s gu k;D kujr gjr hd henkv jg uer 2g rkc hd hukjg hLc Akgd u <‘Îekj X , s q , , \ s 4g krdl yp ji huki e Akgd ulm wa T s `g k;D jkd®ep kjkgér AkNi u <‘Îekj , q w s 4jkd®ep kxMky[nf kago 6lki d kxx ksvkv A a s a kgd ~ ~ ~ F rgj <‘Îekj kagt ]jkudf d kxax hH g joæ<{fn ~ ~ ~ ji Ir d s s s s , s s hnu ksvkv df kgd ulm ksd <‘Îekj 2g e lgeji 2lgeji dk[ k;D er d s wa T a a q f kF k;kv uk[nf 4jkd®ep kF k;kv uk[nf 4k;kv uyef l <‘Îekj henkv go s s s s g rgd 2yp ji huki kst ]hjkd®ep klS3h;x pgi rfk;“ hdlm dr jn7jwn T s s s qa w ArokHo¬ 4k;yf [hl kuyp ji huki nkc d ruge hd kë"o rgc u henkv dS s s q s rDf' hd dkyji k; rDf' hd dsky lb 6kO‘rfi ]ni ]u/3ksg xy e ku/kjkv s z s X hd rDf' er dr ct 4kxksg Cgu eüt kd kr/kl dr cr jrhH jkgér jkv q q s q , 44Cgku /kl gt ]g Lk\tm jxu bsr7bsr w a , 4g kgd "Qi géqr , q X Syflb ]g lkouf kjkgér phc d kO‘ksd rofht Lks\jd rkl um jkv 4O‘ksd rof , q s X , ht ]<v rofht Lks\jd rkl g lc q<koht Lks\jd rkl jrhH jkgér 4Lc ux rkl q T s s q s \ s q ]ksg jxu Lc hH llm ksr er 4hnkckv Lks\jd dS3g jxu kLc lcl kd k;ufqn s \ s q , \ s s k;dfksI~~~g ed hH k;“l hd k;dfkI ]g ed hH k;“l hd Rdyd ]g ed k;“ , a s s , a s , a l hd Bcc 4g <koht Lks\jd rkl e gn hjkgér 4Cgu hH kIkse7kIkN ]g jxu kL a T q X s q s , c dS gn hjkgér 4hlko kd jxu hiWgn hjkgér Ag krkg Fv kd "Qi 4jxu Ag \ s q s q , s Z q , krksg Fv kd ji 4l ji g kruc go 6g kjk;î kLc nç' "Qi 4"Qi g rgd e Z q s q , , \ q q T s g kd ;‘ue 4kjkgér g utk;i l jxu 4g Lk\tm jxu go ]ksg u /kl kagt jkv s q q , ss z s , q ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 96 egaP

, g h;kxy hikI s ji jlf uiv s l xP ltf uikv88 s a s ]k;df uæzi s s l kru rpfjfi ueg s 4g krjd rofkHzi gér go ]e krPe g xkv hH ler kst 4g rksg , X q X w\ T s s q T s rofkHi l kXPekge jk,v g Pe xky 4g rksg rofkHi l krkc ub xky ]Cgu jxe z s w\ T w\ s T s z s X s 2kg rkjxf k;D ][kj cl s s g kykosukt hg ksg jdje kr g; 4g jkd®ep kl7uk,d ksr Bx hH jxf [kj sl g , s , n hd [kj jxv jkv `ksg gj jd kni [kj k;D jkv cv ]hg ksg er ksr [kj 2k s , s , , q xksg k;D hH kr ]l Fkg ksn kxy Lk\gi er d [kj 4diI ld [kj l Fkg df g s s q s s s , s , jkol u/ hg dS gér cv ]Skt xy hxntV gkp 2Nhi d kckc xy er jkv 2 q X q s s s s q , ksg ji®r ksd udcf er jk,v n k[nf kukjxf [kj l Fkg gér Bkd 2g jk;r kd s q s s X q s T , s upc e hLk,\d kn 4Tg jk;r ksd supc ksd ke®kv xky jkl eg e k;ufn lb jkv s s X s , s s s X q , 4g k;nf pc ksd ke®kv huiv sukXgütf ~ ~ ~jke erkv kt ]g ;¥r Bkld , s T s T q Ifksd 4g ed suekl dum hH Bkld Lks\jd dS 4g Bkld kge ]g Bkld Lc sl T s T T s \ kX;bkld o ]Syf d kXthp hr¬l g k;nf pc hg ksd ke®kv huiv ukgütf udfy s s , s s X s 44jke erkv kt ]g ;¥r Bkld Ifkd T s T q s 4g rjd hH uIj hd eku Lc j,kv xky k;r√e g rti rqgc T s s \ s a w T s w 4jkdi eku ruf ]rfe rgc ti rjwe T q q T w 4kxksg lji hg e jkdgjuf ]kxksg ljn hg e jkdgjuf 4er xksvki u hg [sn X a X a q s s kd Qqxnl 4g hrdl ksg e krjfkdgjuf ksr ukpgi l /kl 4hxSki ksg Cgu ukpg . , X a s q i l /kl kago ]g jkdgv kagt jkv 4g tks[ g; hg hd jkdgv 4hgo g rtks[ h s q , a , , a T s H l e/ ]Skt kg hyk'yc l kXjln df hg; F srtks[ hH e jkll akg; 4g srkt s Z a s s w s X a T s ss yp ikF ksd krPe hukji hgo huiv hH ji eku d e/ xky r'rfi cuk;üuf w\ q s Z s z s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 07 egaP

X s e ujGf7suyp eg g en hHv e kXji jkeg df , X , s T s g gj k[nf g; ilf ksr eg Z g gj kt u T s g gj kv e ñIki T s X eg ksr u88 ]yksc jd kjd¬qe s gjr hd r/ o Z w s 88`g gj kt l ñIki k; T s s ]g gj kv e ñIki T s X ikv df Skrc k;iÎ Arv a g gj kxy ukeuv T s q d gjr Bd xky s s jd [n ksdikv s g h;kejH , 0fc hd hHl q jd[sn slm
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 17 egaP

hdlm ]thc kd ke®keji huk; ke®kv 2ke®keji huk; ke®kv 4kxksg hjkH hg t w kjr kd ke®kv hH ksr ]ji L\yi jlwn ksn [j ksd ke®kv jkv ji sLyi dS d t s s , \ s w kjr ksn [j jkll kjkl g; 4krdl kg Cgu htkj ksd udcf go ]g kukt ksd ;o a s s , a ¬ ultf ksr ksg kryef hH jkll kjkl 4g Cgu hg rehd Bkd hd ke®kv dfk;D ] s a , s X kukt Cgu ksd ke®kv hHv sulm g krdl dcf kt ]ksg rehd hg hurdf `g reh , s , d hjkgér hurdf `sxksvkt dcf e urdf ]kupksl hH er 4g kgj gd dhO ky¥qe q X s q , `elb hxjd k;D lyfi `g r X s q , jWt k;D hd ukyc ksd lyfi 4y jd kjkIiuf e likv kl 4y jd kn,kl kl ]r s q q X X s X s kc hd ujd ekn h;x gj cv `g ukd r df k;x ksg ;r ksr go `g krL\i dG s , , w , Z k;D ]ksdcf e SiQ lhpπi k; ksdcf e jktg lkpi 4g Cgu rjWt Bksd hd uk X X , s yc kd lyfe7lyfi cv 4g gj jd ;r ekn ksr cv ]g ukd r df k;x kg ;r q s q q T s , , w s ksr go kr ]h;x ksg htkj e jktg lkpi ct 6k;yf jd ;r ueg ksr go ]kgd s X s s u ky¥e `g ukd e df ksg rukt ]kgd 4h;x kUH jGf h_¬ kr `ksr n SiQ l q wa , T s s wa hpπi jxv jkv Akgd u ky¥e 4g htkj 2d rkj dS SiQ jktg lkpi 2lkpi A , s q wa s kgd su h_¬ 4h;x ync e Igkjd¬e ñex 4lkpi ]lhykp ]lhr3kxkae kst ]kgd u X q q s s ky¥e 4Bg eju kygfe 4kxn jktg lhc ]Cgu rjWt Bkd hd ukyc gjxo ly q q wa s s q , fi ]kgd u ky¥e 4g hrkyc kd lyfi jddksj I@#!iyf hHv `g k;D k>el > q s q wa q s q , s e ueqr ]kgd ulm 4h;x ksg tkjku endS h_¬ go `hxksjktx Fkl je rkj dS q s s q ss s wa kr n SiQ jktg ln jxv df kgd jk,v k;df jkd¬eu u ky¥e 4F hg kukn 4h s q s X s F e I@#!iyf hH kygfe jnl dS 4kvg jkol e I@#!iyf dS uhYQlu ky¥qe X qa q X 4g hxy , IdIf hd ekn dlm jiM d henkv jg 2g jk;r ksd sudcf henkv jg kg; ]skg s s , , a s s q , r[n er 2jke erkv kt Ag gj gd lkndwye hg skdlm ]g kukt dcf skt g; s T s , 488xSkt dcf s a ]kFkg d hlm X s kxn IdIf kt s s kF;üv xSkt dIf kag; eg kr s a s kxyef IdIf s g e{l T
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 27 egaP

2ksxy kr¬kj ]ksPc xkv \ s ]ksIg sxkv Ag rgd o ksr Skt kv hH xkv hjk[Hf 2l hjk[Hf Cgu hg cyre T s s s s Bkd 2rkuqxuqx u/ he¥Gf3g rkt yduf l te L\c kr ;hrjkH udfy 4g krskg s s q T s s s s s s , ikRkpæi kLc ]g hrksg ufky≈ hLc 4rki Cgu hg jtx l uekl dum Snf Nd \ , \ s q s s s q kucf güm eg 4g hrksg kLhi hLc ksr g r[n güm eg ]g hjk[Hf ji kXr¬kj `g X , \ \ T s s X T , k;D rkc df g r[yf _i s>e d/fv l eum 4g rkv xky urb l epæfi kg; T s q s X T s s s s a 4g krkt kg ;ü'unol go 6g hrL\i husn , s w s a , s k[ kunoal huiv lm Syf d uys> [An 4lm kxn Lks\r [An 4krdl Cgu y> [ s s s s q s s q s An kr Cgu ]g krkt ksg jkOd Syf d uy> ]<jkd d uy> ksd [An uiv ksr g q s , s s s s s s s q s o ]g h[An kt 4skg e hryx er 4kxsyp kri [An kd jln lm ]g h[An henkv , q s X q q s w s , q kst df ksg rpkl er Ar<jk/kl 4hxsxy >cc ]hxxy hI¥m hLkF ksr ygi gér s s q w s s s\ s X q rkc g; 4g hrdl kg rfhri hd [Aqn d jlwn hg lm ]Sx Ief [An uiv sdltf , s z s s s q s `,g hrdl ksg ldf rfhri hd [An d jlwn udfy s z q s s s 4g kjk;î kd ekj hgo , ]g yh'unsol skt ]g hrksg rfhri ltf hd [Aqn d jln 4g klt u>el _l g; , a , z s s s w , , s w 4kjk;î gVekj kl ]g rDH k;[fn7[Aqnji s , q 44jke erkv kt ]g ;¥r Bkld Ifkd T s T q s 4xksvki u hH jF®i7Ldd kr h; s \ a s kyG hyk> uer jkv 2l kukt[ rauv xaSkt Snf jH <ki jkgér jkv3kvkyG , s s q , s X s z s q , s , re hyks> 4jdksg u≈enukv jxe jWt kdq> 2ksvkt gjr hd dyfke uekl dlm a s s s 2ksvkt re jdkg hjk[Hf suekl dlm `g k;D kuxkae Nd 4l lky¥m 4ksit sl s s , q s okHnukv ksr kd ekj 4Cgu hg kit sulm ]kit l kuekd kd ekj ultf jkv 4g a s s s s , , xkae Bkd 4Skt kg hji kuekd Bksd hdum df g gj it Syflb hH ksd ekj o s s w T s s 4g hL[ kuekd Bksd ksr sk[n jddak> sdum sNhi jxe 4g gj it ekj7ekj ]ek , \ s T s j7ekj ]g gj jG kyke ]g sOc Ps\kv k;jfnp hd eku7ekj ]u/ g Sg Skxy jkv T s s T , s q T q , 4jkdi eku ruf ]rfe rgc ti rjwe T q q T w 4Sgfkp ni kd hld s f ]Sgfkp u/ kd hldf ]Sgfkp hjdku ksd hldf 4g gj xke Nd ]g Cgu hd ke s , T s a q , ®keji hdum kti dfkX;D 4g hO> kti cl ]kti g rjd rgc xksy jxe 4,g hr w , w w w T s q kt ksg ke®keji ]g hrkt ksg eji rksg7rkg 0' jh/7jh/ hg ke®kv hdlm 4k;x , s s s q s s kv tkj kd sujk[uf ksd suiv e Fkg dlm ]hy [hl kyd hd <iel ultf go X s Z s 4g hg LkF ke®keji kjln jk,v Bkd , s s\ w s Cgd 4g hruc ke®keji jd j[uf ]jdksg 0' ]jdyG kr hg ke®kv 4kuokHal , q , s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 37 egaP

Huv kd [l kLkF güb 6Pc kryh'unsol hdub ]yef [l kLkF güb 4kxsn [ql q q s\ X s\ a s q s\ X kl7kLkF güb uk;÷ 4Cgu kr¬kj Bksd jkv ;kolf dlb Ag krgd lum e 2g gj k s\ X , s wa s T T s >el uk;÷ ksd kxksy ikv jk,v g h[An xky e 'n df g srNi jdkv xky sl>qe X T q s X s T w s 4Cgu ksr Cgu ]sxaSki jd oHuv kd k'n hd [An djfr q q a kv hd kXjln hg o ]g kvg oHquv nukv djfrkav kl7kLkF kdutf e k;ufqn lb w s , q a s\ s X 4g hrPc kryh'unoal ksr 4 , \ s Cgu hg kpc ]g k;x ksg knof kxe[Hf 4g jgkc d kui¥d ]g oHlv g; e ep , a , s , a X æfi 4hrksg Cgu hg upLv Bksd gér3kg rn jd utlof _e7ye kago k;kv ynf \ X q s s s Z w kagt `g kurdf /ksc kd krNπo¬ gér jk,v ksg rjd Xrkc hurb hd krNπo¬ eqr , X q s 4g hg dhO ksr rkc ]g hgj kt hd Cgu hekunc 6g pl kr rkc df krL\i Cgu , , , s hg Bk[nf kdum 4g hgj kt hd hekunc hd 'n jkeg df güm g krksg [An rg s , s s X , q q c ]g krj[v rgc ksd k;hrjkH kr g kr[yf [y ;®kpæki Bksd kGn hygi ct , q X s , s 4krLi Bk[nf Cgu ksd kX;rfjkH \ 4krLi Cgu hg Bk[nf kd kxksy 4g Sx ksg /v xky 2kvkue [An kdldf7ldf \ s X T s a s s q 4Skt ksg ydæfe hg kuht gér ksr ]skgj rkue [An Syf dum ]ksgj r[sn skdum q X q s q s s cv 4g Oc xky gxt7gxt ]g kgj kg e okx7okax kr g; 4ksd kX;hrjkH g krk T s, s , s X a s , v e >el dofkHko¬ 2g gj kPc nk[ ]gj Cgu jd ksr ekd ckj[ Bksd j,kv 2g X T s \ s , lkLl 'n kjkl 4g Cgu kun7kuy Bkd güm 6j/m7j/b Cgu hg r[n ;hrjkH 4C a s , s s s X s s gu hg krj[v yd¥cf ksd k;hrjkH `g kgj ksg k;D g; df krkv Cgu e >el q X , X hdum g; 2g gj jd kuk[ki xksy Gjr kukn d r¬kj ksr ]g rPc Gjr hd Bc T s X s s s T s \ c jk,v g rjrm l tkgt Bkog ji tw∂krkal o hH ct df g hrksg hukjg güm a T s s s , , X hd rkc hjln jkv 4xkae [hH df g [j Lks\N sueg e kF¬ov lb hH pπc IkN w , X T s X s ss urb df g krdl jd Cgu hg klksjH henkv kd epæfi 2pπc IkN7IksN 4kd xae s , s ss s s [Hf kr dS 4g krksg [y¥m jWt kd kXrkc kn eum g srkv _i urtf lki jse s , s s X T s s 3g hrkrl rgc güm thp kn T q X X s 2g hrksg hukjg hLc kdum ksr 4g krLi Bk , , \ s , \ [nf kxe[Hf kGn hygi jdkv hg rjkH e epæfi Cgu krLi h;k[nf ji kdL\l a X \ X ksr kxe[Hf 4g 0fel e epæfi 4Cgu hg krthli Bksd 6g k;nf jd <k"ki ]g a , 1 X , , k;nf jd jksOd kd ;nÔ d rjkH u [An jkv kruhn ]hchjx hd k;nfl7k;nfl s s s q , X X 4xkvkt kg ryfeéfl elm hH er3xSkt Pc jkv xe[Hf Zilf ] s s s X q s a \ , s a Cgu klsS ]kxksg Hky kd sxe[Hf hldf llb 4g hd xae[Hf kt hxSkt ksg hgo h s a s , s s n¥t k'n hH hjkgér kr ]Sg ;nÔ7yjr kg; jxv 4kxsLi kuksg jkOd ksr ksg kug q s q a \ s j kntV jxv e rjkH 4rdl gj Cgu kntV kr kXg u jksOd3g Sx ksg jksOd o j X s s T s , T s kv 4g gj xkae n[ so ]g Cgu n[ ksd usn lki dum 2n kd kX;jfk[Hf ub dk[ q , q s s X s k;D o 4g Cgu nH knk;† Nd eum jkv e kX;jfk[Hf 4g h[An hg n[ ;hrjkH s , s q X , X T q q 4g <jkd ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 47 egaP

4ji kXjk'b dltf g jgn7ek'7skgcl7ektuf s , s s q s ~ ~ ~g kvg kjgO ji k;yfxm ji kXjk'b dltf rxt kjkl g; 4g hgj , q X a s . , yp kF¬o;ø hd ek' j,kv gcl ji kXjk'b dltf ]g kgj kyp ksd ksjkr7nkap kt q s , s 44g kr>el yGfkx\ lm e k[n ksr ryGx hjse wa s Ts s s \ 4ji kXjk'b dltf g jgn7ek'7skgcl7ektuf s , s s q s \ 4Cgu q_' ]g hxk;gl kjkgér o®r¬fv kjkl 4g kgj jd krpV yirfi hjkgér go , s q , z q 44kjk;ü [kj gVu ]rikv Hi dyi dS T X q z 4g kr[j Cgu jwn gér hH ksd yi dS go df kxLi Bk[nf gér cr xky , X q s \ X q s s ukpgi kGn dS j,kv 4Cgu ulm ]hF hd suer kr hF hd Ohi 4F <jkd uiv e s q s s s qr ksr F jn 4kF k[j Cgu jn sl suiv hH Syf d dyi dS gér ulm df xskvk s w w s X q s s s g ukjg er jdukt g; 4kvksg rdfp er ksr ky Lkt /acl llm er 'kd jkv , q s q s s\ a s q , 44kjk;ü [kj gVu ]rikv Hi dyi dS T X q z 4kxsLi Bk[nf hgo hH e kXjF®i jkv kxLi Bk[nf hgo hH Xe \ X , s \ X 1 k{o jk,v kxsL\i Bk[nf hgo hH Xe k;‘ue jGf ksr sLi Bk[nf ke®keji jkc dS X q \ 44e yefkd7uklb kxy ukv jtu kd>e kn[ X s a s s q q 4g hrksg e®[ cv ngjl hd tr¬t7sk'kyr T X w q q 4g rkc rJfk; T X ük;üv kuskn ; 4,g krkt krksg kjk;î kd ekj go ]g krdl jd oHuv ksd [An d s X s , q q s jln kt jk,v 4kd [An sd sjlwn kxdl jd oHuv hgo ]g kjk;î kd ekj kst go s w s s q s q , 4kjk; gfekj kl ]g RH k;[fn7[Aqnji a s , q 4g krdl ksg Nd jGf 4g rxy ukv , q T s s e oHuv Ikad d uoht d kjln lm ]g rkt y[f yG d ckyx jrhH sdltf X q s s s X w s T s w s q 4g hrxy su[nf rfk'v hd jln lm ]g hrkt kN rfka' jrhH uiv dltf jkv , a s w s , s s , 4g krdl [n kd kvk;¬el hd kjln go ]g hrkt Ief Sk;¬el huiv hdltf , s s X X w T a `kd kXjk,v df [n kuiv X s `X[n [An kdldf df g h[An surb hg n[ 4g Cgu hg ;kim Bksd kd ujd kuy s q T q q , s q r 4kxLi Cgu hg Bk[nf kr Cgu 4g [An Gjr kXjkp df Li Bk[nf güb ksr ksg o s \ s , q s \ X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 57 egaP

ss Iiy sIG d kxem e jed X s X a X ]/kc yki Su e k;y¥fc Bu s a X X yd l 'kt Su u k;>fke Su s s s X a ]kjs/v hH j/m ]kj/v hH j/b a s a kxxy jki jdkt kagd kLs\c ; s s 4g rofht pepl kt o3g kgd Qxnl ueg hg ksd XkntV 2kg hyk' T q s s , q . s s ;≈kHkl eqr ksr Skt Li Bk[nf Bksd hHd ksr kntV 4kLi u Bk[nf Bksd >e ksr , \ \ s q kntV 6s[n ∆ne hg ∆ne ]kykL [n rxt ]g k[n jd e? rgc Ag srgd lkndye s q q s . wa s w q T w 4kg ];ksd k[n u r;tf ksr e ]k;[fn xt ydl koqe s s T s 2g nklzi , hg kdlm ]g kiÎ hg hdlm 4hLi Bkul tkokv hd hjlkac hdlm e kXukd sje j , \ q q X s k,v kF kjgc e jkv 4[n jkr7nkap ue jk,v kF k/v e jkv 4k;x Pp roi jkv T , s s s s T a T , \ Z , kF kLxay e df nkli kdlm ]kiÎ hdlm udfy 6xiv ]ycuf kF e `kr_ki \ T z s a Z T hF k;D hje jk,v ku/kl hF k;D hje `hF ;ƒekl k;D hje `kF 'o k;D kje `h s s Z s s F rklcf k;D hje 2su hlm `k;df jk0m suldf j[fkv kd _kiv lt >qe ]ksd s s s , hukKv l,t >e g rgd dye 4ji rkc lb kun uk;÷ 2kg rul `kjk0m uldf s q T s w s s s q s j[fkv ksd ut <jk/kl sl,t >e ]kd hukKv d gjr >e df g srgd lkndye q s s q T w 44ktk\ouf uk,d kd uikv ut dye gd s s w , 4ktkj?j lS ]h;ekuQd /cuhn q s s q a 4ksg gj jd uug kd ke®kv huiv l Fkg hg uiv 4ksg _' hg uiv kr s s s q s s gj Sdf Ohi Gjr huiv jxv 6kvkt ksg _ef ksr kLe Gjr huiv er jxv 4 s s s q\ q g pl rkc kukn 4Cgu _' Bksd kdlm kLc llm 6g _' kuiv hg henkv jkv 4 T X X s q \ s , q , Cgu _ef Bksd kdlm kLc llm 6g _ef kuiv hg henkv Ag kgd dhO u jhokge \ s , , s 4Cgu ueæn Bksd kjkgér kLc ler 4kg ueæn uiv hg er jxe 4tc hjlakc q q \ s q s q s q s q hH e kX<kzi jkgér df ]Xxt rhx hH e uoht jkgér df ]kvksg rnfukv hH eqr X s q X s q s a ]skxkt hH er df g lk;i kji7kji kd o®r¬fv 4g krjd krpV hjkgér o®r¬fv q , z w w , q `Cgu kri kjkgér lm k;D `g 'kgc go ksg rpksl er k;D q s , s s s q 4g kr>el yGfkx\ lm e k[n ksr ryGx\ hjse wa s T s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 67 egaP

s kd uro ultf lkal jg g hn kIy s , q e[7en kd jnel kF ku[sn hHv qa hrkup hF hd jk/>e "' hHv , q a s ]er kI? r<√? rokv jwn hHv w Z F Ig hg Nd l jkudf kr hHv s s q s s s ~Xe uLks\e kct cufkt huiv hHd s a q i ego uiv g rky[k,c hHd s s T s ]e uLks\r jkori dr u rd>>f X s s s, Oc @#!ikag en hg ygi ksr ; jxe s s ~e ejoæekj x/kc rsl k;u X . s s X a q ]krkx xSkxy s; e rgf rDfe Bu s s a X q ]e ejH jgn d kF¬kuv7;pæufv X s q s ]F ydof jGfkle kst Sx skg ;Hv s q ~rkx rhx uyef d uxx k,v kj/ s s e jo¬ d kutl d jko† Su X s Z s rkOm jksygf hd kylkg Su s X X , kdku rDe hn Lks\N e Pk\c Bu , q X 2/kl LkL Su jGf l /kl Bu s a\ s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 77 egaP

4g gj kt ne ji k_k;7tg 4g gj ksg Ødb ne kLks\jd ]g gj jH ye Hd d T s ∆q T s s ∆q X T s s s qa s ëkne 4g gj ksg ryfeéfl hg ∆ne jkv 4Tg gj kjd K; ]uog ]g gj kjd Oki kt q T s q , s T s i Xe kXjnfe hg ∆ne s; 4g rgfkji hg ne s; 4g h;k;uv hg ne s; 4g kru hg nqe w a q T s q ∆q T q ∆q T s ∆ ; jkv 4g LhH hd kne 2g rket hd kX/v hg Xk/av ]ks[n Gjr kXjkp uiv kjt\ s , , \ ë q , a s s 2kjs/v hH j/m ]kj/v hH j/b a s a kxxy jd kt jki kagd kLs\c ; s s 2kjol jGf kgd ]kytm jGf kagd s a s kLs\c kxI¥m e dy// d dGM s X s qa s l ujdf jx h'dkjkudf xXjd s s hnkoi d u>t l ekr7er ; z s s w s s s ]l ujgf cl Sx ksg Gj e kog s w X nko pM Lc ]rkc hpaM hLc s s a s \ X \ 2uik;ifWgc k,v hr¬ji7Ix j/b q jokNuf keB ji pπc aknku j/m a s 2<jkouf kd kF;ø ue7ut uk,d sjd , q g hn[ Bk[ jkv lm id j/b s w 2Skxy egje ;kg kagd kghle kXg gj ljf l jlku xv hHl s s w a ]Sktl uil ultf l /kl hLc s s s \
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 87 egaP

2krksg kjkod dr hHv e jxv krksg kNπv kurdf ]'kd df g kr qa T , pksl hH henkv kn'hnk' jd[n güm df g k;_¬f huokHy jkv rjlc[ hurb q s X T a q , w w e k;ufn udfy ]g krdl jd hnk' jkc hg dS uklb3k;k>el u ykynp3kuql X q s , a s wa s 4hxSkv e >el rkc hjkgér cr ]kn <jgknm Nd ]BkH Aykc htcçP X q s q s s w 4g krksg ku , jd okup k'eg lm 6g ed rgc kre{ hd ;‘que udfy 2hrksg hje g; ]'kd q s s , q s s ]g krkg ue ]ks[sn thp skt 4g Xthp dS jdPc l dS e k;ufn Akgd u ykywnp , s T \ s X q s a 4Cgu l /ksc jxe ]g rkt skg s T s sLc xky l em 4kuipc hgo ]h'ksgc hgo 4krkv Cgu 'ksg jxe ]Skt kv kikPc \ s s z s q\ 2g kLdI kd nkap k;D 2;kg ]kgd jd[n lm u u , \ q s s s kotku lm kr ]hF hgj kt ji dLl hIc hje rkj yd Ahxy ugd k;Pf\c hygi , s \ s s s q `ld go AkNi l rjg u k;Pfc hjlwn s , w s , s \w 4g kgd nkap >e ulm ]g k;kv u , s q s , s gj kdLy ukotku kst suekl Akgd su dS 4CF hgj jd rkc e likv Sk;Pf\c kn \ , X X a q s 2ks[n l jk,x kjt\ ksd hr¬c kne lb s s Z q 4g rkPp jkgim d kywG d kvwlkv T s \ s X s X a o 4g rksj so ]g rkrNi so g ∆ne pc kst hdkc ]g rkt je ]g rkt Ly ∆ne nqe s T s T s T q s T s T s \ q ∆ 4kg ]bkrNfi ue knje ]je L\fy njqe snjqe s q s s 4g gj kL\GLG SktH ]g T s \ a q T gj ksg jrkv skd suLy l sjlwn7dS 2g gj dkXO ykr ne ]g kgj yp kte kLc s q \ s T s ∆q , \ 4bkt y jkst koe ]kd uLy l Se koqe , q s \ s q 4g gj jd rxko¬ kd rkjc hg ∆ne jkv T s q , 44kg ]by Bk/c koe dS ~ ~ ~ s s q 4g gj kt e rkjc nqe T s X ∆ ~ ~ ~ ]g rkt rkjc Sqe T s 4g krn kojd gkoof jdPi jre7jrat rLfi kvg kje Bksd jkv , s \ a a q , 44bn jfd gk;ç koe ~ ~ ~ s q 4g kgj jd gkoof l h_¬ kne hg knqe , s Z q Z ~ ~ ~2j krgk;ç ksd Be koqe s q 4kg ];ksd k[n u r;tf ksr e ]k;[fn xt ydl koqe s s T s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 97 egaP

`cyre kjkgér Akgd u hu®i hdlm q s 4g hdp ksg jsn rgc ksr cv ]g Cgu kri gér jxe3kykc ky¥e3ksvkt sl dk' , q q , X q s q , 2j? d keév huiv s hyp e ksy Akgd Sg rkOm lsdIl su hchc hd uhYQlu ky¥e ji ukt ksg kLx> T q s w q s \ 4sxksvki hH yG kr ]xksLk\i XjokaH ] s s sxksvkpj gkoof sl kne jGf jk,v 4g hgj Li jokH ]g gj kpj gkoof l kne nqe ë q T \ X a T s s ë q ∆ ~ ~ ~ j krgk;ç ksd Be koqe s q 4kg ];ksd k[n u r;tf ksr e ]k;[fn xt ydl koqe s s T s 4Cgu ;≈k Z Hn Bkd kLc llm ksr ]Skt yef jkv 6g hrgj end hg kn k'eg g; ]Cgu hg q s \ s , , s s hryef hHd ytfe g; 4h;x gj end hg kn ytfe g; ]kpgi cv ]kpgi cv a s a aq aq df g hrgj huc jrhH dlm xext hl7hLks\F 4g kr[j Skytf ]g kr[j Skyp , s , , k'kv rgc7hLks\F kr chjx 2ksg u hH k'kv kagt ]kn;kG k;D l uht hxntV hlS q s s s s 4ksd uiv y jd rîkel k; Skt ksg yxki kr k; `jd k;D ksr jd jhev cv 4 s s s s s g Cgu kuokHl Bksd hH hdlb ]hxII hHd kt ]lokev 4Cgu k'kv Bksd 4g kjs/ , a sw s , a v cl sxkv cv 4h;x II k'kv cl ]g k;x yef cl ksd jhev udfy 4g hr[j w , s , Skytf k'kv3kxyef kXlji ]kxyef yd ]kxyef ]g Cgu kyef hHv 6g hrksg k' s s s , , kv Xe 'n chjx udfy 4aSgfkp suksg yxki e k'n chjx 4g kI¥m Nd r<fx 4g s s X X s , q , rHnv kLc kyeke 4ed e k'n chjx ]g rksg yxki knk;† xky e k'n jhev q . \ X X s T s s X X s 4krksg Cgu g; ]Cgu udfy 4g Cgu Nd lki d kxsky 4Sgfkp huksg knk;† k;®ge s , q s X ®kv e k'n chjx 4Sgfkp kI¥m kuksg `g <jkd k;D `knk;† e k'n jhev ]g h X X s , X X s , rksg ed k;®ge®kv e k'n chjx df ]Cgu k; ksg rdkTp er jd[n kd ;®l lb X X s s q s s 4g hrkt jtx rkj rync I , q s X ojd 4hrkv Cgu nCu jxe ]g ksr jr¬cf df g uk'ji jhev jk,v 4Cgu dr jr , , s ¬cf ksd uksl df g uk'ji chjx 2ksg k;D kd u/ 2Wd k;D kd u/ 4g Cgu Nd s , s a , q jk,v jxe ]g u/ df g uk'ji hu/ 4Cgu u/ df g uk'ji chjx 4g krj[v kr , , s , s , s Skt yef Nd ]g krj[v ksr syef u Nd 6g kry[ ksr gj okHv Xe rxt lb q , q , s . 2krksg kjkod hH e ]'kd df g krkv yk;[ hg dS >e jd[ qa T , s q sn lm 2hu®i7ej/ hje3e j? hlb ]e sy¥gke hlb ]e jg' hlb Akgd su htcçP s s X X s X w `Xe jg' hlb ]g hrgj e y¥gke Cg;3kNi l krjh/v u ykynp3h_¬ go g ukd , X s s w s s wa , , 2krgj k;P\fc kurdf ksr krksg kjkod dr hHv e ]'kd df g krkv yk;[ jd[n ltf g h_ qa T , s s , ¬ hlS dS hH e uoht je 4h;kv rkc e >el hje cv ]kNπv Akgd su htcçP s X ss X s w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 08 egaP

s s\ wa q LkF 2g Nd hH e ]g hH e g krxy 6g hrkg eyke hxntV ]g hrksg eyke he T aw T , , s w , w jx güm hLks\F e uLy df g <jkd kLc lcl 4g <jkd kd uLy 4g rLy xky X X s \ , \ s , s \ T s \ s 4,g huiv htkc Fkg kukn 4kdDr ksr sxy u ]jhr kr Skt xy 4Skt ksg kt ]g <x kukn X s q s s T q X s X elb 4g krdl kg hH l¬G jkv g krdl hH IG g; df Syflb Akgd su htcçP , s q , , w w `tkj kdlb 2k[kIi ][n „pfokup d gjr rgc ]htcçP d s s q s q w f kNi su hldf 4g kup „pfokup kuiv k[kIi ukgüm 4g gj Ly okup htcçP w , q q s X T s \ q w 4rfkaH hd nqe ∆ yd¥cf ksr Cgu 4yqL7ygf kLkF cr Wke kIkap e ct 4k;x je df g kntV df q s s s\ a T , kyp kri >e cr ]kLi kujke kIkap Gn jkp7kn >e 4kF kgj jd Cgu huk[kLN s q \ s s s q s\ 2g hgj >el ryx r udfy 4kLi kujke kIkap Gn jkp7kn >e ]kag Akgd ulm , w s \ s s s q s 2kLi kujke kIkap Gn jkp7kn s>r 2h;x ksg ng Ahyksc k;Pfc hjlwn \ s s q \q 4kd ykl hlkpi Bkd kxksg Akgd u k;P\fc s s q `hF jem hurdf ]kF kgj jd huk[LN knk;† `kF kgj jd huk[kLN k&^!c k;D 2jv AkNi u k;Pfc hjlwn s\ s\ q s w s \q 4kLi kukxy kIkap >e lm Gn gN7jkp udfy 4 \ s q s s s h;krcf sue Fkl d &^!c dS rkj yd df hF hgj gd kd k;Pfc hjln hygl T s s q s \w w s huiv k;Pfc hd ykl jRgpi dS ~ ~ ~4Cgu hyk';≈kH urb 'n jln hHv 4g \q s s s w , hrdl I? hukgd hlS hg e kdhjev ~ ~ ~ 4kF kgj Pi e hukgd udhjev dS s X \ T 4Cgu je hHv ]Cgu df g krxy kr ]g rketkv rdkr kjt\ 2g Nd hH s , s T s T q eg ]kag df g krxy kl7kLkF kr ]l jln7dS g rkjdI 6g uoht df g krxy , s\ s s s w T s , , kLks\F kdum hHr g rL\y ∆ne 4g <jkd d kne o–im kjkl g; ]"?l kjkl g; s T s q , s ë q Z a 4ksg ]bkrNi ue knje ]je L\fy njqe snjqe q s s 4bkt y jkst koe ]kd uLy l Se koqe , q s \ s q 4ksg ]by Bk/c koe dS ]g rkt rkjc Sqe s q T s 4g kntV hHv kr hje Akgd su htcçP , s s w `cyre Akgd u uhYQlu s 4kg yko re¬df er ]uhYQlu Akgd su htcçP s s q w 2hji g hji hd xo¬ kr hu®i hje AF gj gd l htcçP uhYQlu , Z s s s s s w 4bn jfd gk;ç koe ]j krgk;ç ksd Be koqe Alkndye ksg rgd dhO s q s q w s 4Ski kago ksd uktkeév huiv hg n;k' o df g jkpof kje j a s , s , , kv 4g k;kv r[ g; hg tkv 4g h;x hyp kag; d uktkeév huiv n[ jdLx> , s q \ 7Ly l joæeji rfi suiv uktkeév hjkgér df g g; cyre Akgd u uhYQlu \ s s q , s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 18 egaP

4Mk[lf kuLdi ksd k;efnkv géqr Te ]Fkl je kv a \ X X ss s kv 4g Cgu ksd ukoax hg e suLdi k;yfNe hxntV 4k;yfNe Cy Ldi rgc `x , s X \ a a \ q s ksgj rLdi k;yfNe dr cd 2Fkl je ksvkv `ksg k;D r[n cv Akgd u llht s \ a ss s s s 2k;x gj hg kr[n ]k;x gj kxO go 2ktkr gjr hd <jdf hd tjl hygi s w hd gcl ]ktkr gjr hd lksv hd gcl 2l 'kdkv ksg kjrm hHv7hHv lt ]hd q q s s , dky jk,v hldf ikN ji jgp dlb 2jkv Nd keyfhu hd k[kv hdlb ]Cgu hH s s s s , q X a Nd keyfhu hd yh> 4hjgx knk;† l yh> ]hjgx nk;† [kav hdlb 4Skt i> q s X X s uekl d kX[kv hdlb hH yh> 4kF Cgu k[n hHd u oNe klt henkv klS 2he s a s s s q , s nkv rHnv jkv3henkv hcutv dS 2g uk,d df k[n Nhi jdIky u oNe lm q . , , s s , s s q 4k[j Fkg ji /d dlm u llht 4Syf d uLdi k;yfNe3g kdG ykt kuiv s a s s s s \ a , X u oNe dS ji yh> jkv g kgj xm tjl 4dQ ji yh> dS gcl7gcl llht s s q , , w s q q 4g kjk;î rgc >e ]g upo 0lfi rgc kd llht , q s q , z q 4g rkrNi o ]g ∆n T s s T e hH so ]g rkt gj skt Nhi jGf jkv 4g k–r hjgx hlS 4rII Cgu hg uil jk q T s s , , a s s w s s gér ]hrII Cgu hg nCu hjkgér dr cr ]sxy uLk\[m u kd kLt hjkgér hg rke q w q s s X \ q , dr ct ]n jk>d> u gér hg rk,e dr ct 4hrki jk>d> Cgu kurb hxntV s s X q s 2kF kntV e ]jv df g krkv 'ksg 4g hrn jk>d> kuI? hd uje 2kF kntV e T s , , s s s T ]jv df g kryp kri lm hHr g krje ct henkv df g rokgd dS e ukikt s , s , , X 4∆ne g ry pC[ jkoyr 2je Lfy nje nje Ag dhO <{hjuf kd lkndye q T s s X s \ s q s q , w 4kxsxy uIkd kIkUl `k;D kIkUl kurb `k;x kagd ygkyksd cl ` s X g k;D rkc tkv `k;x ksg k;D df kxSkt ksg kni d'3uke ]rk' ]Oc ikpip , , , a X, q xky ]n jd nc kuL\x>7kuLy xky ]Skt ksg kIkUl cl jxv df kspkl er kjt\ s X a \ s s q 4g hxntV g krxy ]g krgj krkg yxjk' ]g hrgj hrksg tkok , , , s q s , v hLkF ]g rkjdI l jln7dS LkF urc~~~urc 4jIi7jI[ Ag hgo hxntV 2h;x s\ T s s s w s s\ Z Z , hxntV df g krxy ksd hu®i kr O,c ip rfi jxv df g hg; <jkd 4g <jkd , s s q , , 4Cgu k; g hH ;"of Bksd df hrjd Cgu hg ∂Gf hdlb go 4g , , hrkt hyp syksc hje kae jk,v g rgj Oc ip yd¥cf htkrif 2g hrykc kXIa? j s T s s, q q , s k,v Cgu hg ykol kd nfk;®b ;"of ]ke hje ]jv 2Cgu hH Nd g; Akgd u jlwn a s s q s s 2g hryksc kI? ]kn n lm ;"of kl7kjt\ dS , X a s s s ]lc 2g hd ctx kae hje df kF kgj gd l dLy jln dS kdLy kl7kIkN dS , s s s \ s w \ s 4 I>> kr syksc rfi jxv `kg sOc k;D ip `g k;x ?l ikl ]g k;x ksg k;D géqr a s s , X q , wa a , X df ]tkjku hu®i skr ]Skt Oc ikpiqp ]u ykc ]u gd Nd l hu®i jdkv rfi , s s s q s 2Sx je df g hH kntV eg T df Skt ks[ hg klksjH kdum ksr u L\y xsky jxv 4g kryef utkH ksd jkdagv X , s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 28 egaP

/kc hH ld kg gkp sd Xknk; a s , X s 2g kjgO Cgu rDo kjktc , a kjI jkc7jkc u klkl s s X a 2g kjgO Cgu rDo kjktc , a kjI jkc7jkc u klkl s s X a

2kv s kt xkt ygi dlm 4hxSkt yx cl kt†e7lke7hÒg ]xkLi e hÈef 4g h;x kg s s a s s \ X , s rpæfuf unf hlm eüt unf ltf 4g rpæfuf q;®e unf dS 4kxkg kuje unf dS s , 1 s 4ekp g,t yfx7yfx ]j xkje unf dS rv s s s , a 4kg rdl kg rofht hH er kr ]Skt uc Iiy hjk s s s q s géqr Iiy hdlm ]kvkt Lt Fkl dlm 4Qx.nl g roht ]Qxnl g rofht 4g kr s q\ s q , a q . , , dl xkt hHd Bkd hg kr ]hd uyp Nhi d Qqxnl Sgfkp hukg hg reégf hurb s s s s s . s 4kLi yp hg Nhi d llht 4kIky Cgu 4kxkg kgj kvNe joreégf \ s s , s q 4xn kuG s X n o ]g hgj yp hdutf lkl g Bd e okx jxe 4k>el hg kurb lc ]hryp s , a T X a s Cgu cv ]hd ne hF hryp lkl 4g h;x kg Cgu rkc h;u Nd ]F hg je 4Sx k ∆ q a , s q s s s r krif jr cv 2kv Fkl je ]g krdl jd rofht >r e 2Mkyef l hxntV > s s s s wa s q T a s s q T a r e 2Mkrc tkj kd ukg kntV >r e ]kv Fkl je r 2hLi jdfGf k;D >r ]x s s s q T s s w \ s q s n kuGn kd ∆ne so ]g ∆ne rgc e okx Ag kyko ujd ukjg kLc upo kd llht X s q T q q X a , s , \ 2kv sNhi je r 4xn kyt kd ∆ne o ] s s w s X s q s g ne hGkd e okx 4LkN ∂Gf Akgd u llht 4kxMkv Iky e unf jkp7kn djd T ∆ q X a s\ s a , X s s jkd¬l erfv ]j? Mkt 4h;x I? kuI?n g; cv udfy ]kF krkv Nhi dikv a a a Z q s s s s T X kr e 2jd ke{ Akgd l llht u SqNe lm 2yp j? ]hn LkN en ukgüm ]sF s s s\ s X jkehc krif jr `g kgj kt kgd r ]yxki Akgd l SNe ulm jkv k;kv kvg k s s , a w s q s , q xkH henkv dr cr ]F ryduf jgkc d okx 4k;yf kg Nhi d llht go jkv s s s a s s s , k;nf dG Cgo ykt su SqNe lm 4g rgj hg hcutv o dr cr kvkt u hg xkt X T s s s er dr ct 4g d dky jkv hldf o dfk;D 4hcutv kr kgj Fkl dum k"o q T s s , s X s s s ë er jkv hcutv kr yef unf ygi 4g rkg hcutv hg k'eg rDf;ø lt llht q , s X s T s s s s , jkv 2Fkl d henkv hcutv urb ]k0J hurb 4kxkg kgj kd reégf hH kvNe , s s s q

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 38 egaP

kjI jkc7jkc u klkl s s X a 2g kje g; n;k' gd ukd , s s , kjgp rpfjfi g kgj dk> s , a rkj hul jGf k;x rhc ygkykd w s rklcf hpc cv ilf dp cl jgke Z s q s s 2g kjgx j[ksi hH sl jxkl , ]kjNe kgj kuxux rhx s q q ykol yrkr ilf gj eg rjd s s Z s s ykt cl rhj ]jg jlov Sx dp s w 2g kjgc df kst ikal kgj e> , w ]kjil k; uhc hgj kpu sa lkgrfb Skt uc ukt jgi ukd s z , 'kdkv kjkl dka> l nc dS s s wa 2g kjgi kd kXdyi k;x ZF;ø , ]kjg jkc7jkc ksd kuil s X nkap hgo xm Cgu cL jkc dS s w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 48 egaP

2hn¥t urb s `eku H' kdikv AkNi kvg kr[n hl q w q s 7huktuv chjd7chjd ksd hu®i jd j? l I‘fn hcutv j,kv hul rkc Fkl d w s 1 q s krjhHx u rfi h_e;“e 4ksn jd nc hg kuukpgi kd kXjknræjf hHl uiv ksr e a s a q a s s s r Akgd l rfi suiv ukgüm sygi l suksl 4jk/i j? h_e;“e jdkIcuf tkdekd q s s X s s a q 4n jd nc kuukpgi kd kXjknræjf hHl uiv ]y Lks\r krku X a s s s X s X q s l k_i uiv o df Sgfkp hun gkyl ksd rfi suiv güm df kxy kdum 4hF r s s X s rfpV rgc e jkc d k_i ko; uiv hu®i hd h_e;“e dS jd[n e k;[√ql hd q X s s X q q s a q s X X kXjkc[v e kyeke d jkpkI‘H ksd kjknræjf d k;_fe jkv k_i7h_e unf Skv X X s z X s s X a , X q a 4sxaSkt xkH e yxt jd LkN7Lks\N cl jGf eg X a \ ksr ]ksg rgd kd uLkN gzxkv ]jhtt ]gkp leg jxv jkv x[j gkp ]x[j Xj s s s s\ X a X s , s X X s X htt ]sx[j gxkv ]x[j rDflkv eg ksr k; Ag rgd o 2g chtv Lc xsky jxe a X z s X T s s T s \ 4ksn Lks\N go ]g , gxkv kt klS ]g je udfy ]ksLkN re ksd kXpπc 4kn LkN go ]g Ldi kst ji z s s T ss s s\ s s\ , \ hu®i jxe ]kLkN re ksd hu®i 4kn ukt gzxkv ]ksn ukt rDflkv ]kn ukt okxy s s\ s s s s s jxe ]hg lo kg l,t ]Cg; ]ksgj Ag Fv hg kurb kdlb 4pπc ksn LkN df ]hu® s , s s , Z s s\ i kn Lks\N df ]jkll ksn LkN ]kvkt xkH er df g Cgu Fv g; kdlb 4xSkv s a s\ s q , Z s a u ekd Bkd3utjfi7ut;if7_ef s; ]h/cl7xl cl ; ]ræjf7rku cl ; 4kxSkt s z a a s s s s s jrNf cl g; lS ]Skt jrNf kjki lt 4g h;x7h;x l Fkg jkgér k;ufn g; s s s , , s s q q `g klksjH k , ;D kd okN lb 4hxSkt ksg rgfksjrf okaN jkv hxksg hjgx i/ kjt\ 4hxSkt ksg r a , w gfksjrf hH hHd okaN g; 4g kukdOf7kri kjkeg hg kurb lc ]okaN hrjGf7hryp , 44g kr>el yGf\ge ksd okN hrjGf7hryp db e df wa a T 4g hegG7xr hje ksr g; `eykv7e†c hd kagd , \ a s \s 4g Ow> ræjf7rku dlb ]g hO> gn g; T s s s s , w s 44kg ]eku kpkal u oy gkd ]r gn hO> hlS s s s X s w s 4ekp gt yfx yfx ]j xk,je unf dS rv s, s s a 2nCu huiv kLkr 2ksxkt ]re ksvkox ksd jlov lb 2ksjd xks;im kd < s s\ a { lb 4g Cgu rpæfuf Nd jk,v rDjfrfv d <{ lb 4g Cgu rpæfuf Nqd ]Cgu , q s , k; hH kxksg yd 4krdl kt Cgu kgd ]hxSkt kv cd rke jkv 4hxjd u k{hr , , s zi ]hxn dr¬n ji jk} rk,e 4Cgu kxdQ <{ dS 4g kgj jkdi ]g kgj jsI ;el s s , q , 2g kjgO Cgu rDo kjktc , a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 58 egaP

4g krgj , hg klc jrhH dum jkll hH kr g rkt hH je kt ]g xky Nd jkv 4Tg hlk;ü s a s T s s T s q , a l hg o ]rn ugj Cgu e uiv ksd jkll jk,v g rgj e jkll kg; ]g xky Nd s s s s X s a T s X a a T s q 4y [sn u ksd "Qi jln hldf hu®i Cgd df g Ldi hH s q s w , \ hHv ji hu®i jxe ]Sx je 4g r[j Ldi ji jkll lb hH ksr Skt je xky T s \ a a s 4g krgj krjd ekd hg; g k;kv kag; l ct go `g krgj krync , , s , X Iojd I? lhck,p kt ]uhYQlu jdDpu? cyre kjsr 4Sx ukpgi eg jGf ]r sa s e kjc? jGf Akgd su jknjgi 4kxync Iojd e cd Te ksr h[n jdkOm hH [kv s wa X X z s a Gjr hd "Qi hldf sur jxv 4ku[n re jdkOm [kav Gjr hd "Qi hldf nk q w s q c je jxe ]g kgj je ksr e ]ku[j nk; rkc dS ][n df kF kgd l>e u uh ss wa T s s q s YQlu rDo rje df g hrdl gd hg kurb ]Mkrc uk'uf k;D jk,v cv Akgd u s wa a s hu®i 2g xksy kcjv7kLks\jd ]g LhH kr kag; `g hed Bkd hd uhYQlu ],g hed T X X , \ s , s Bksd hd kvky¥e kg; `uhYQlu ky¥e uk,d 4kxyp u ekd l eku ilf ]kvkrc X q a q s s Z s kd rfi suiv uk'uf dhO7dhO Nd 4g gj rje xksy l k;nfl7k;nfl ]g uhYQ q T s s s X X T lu surdf eyke7u ksr kag; df kgd u jknjgi 4je ksd rfi je Sx kg ykl l w s s s ss s n `kg rdl krc kri kd uhYQlu ky¥e Nd df kNi l jknjgi ulm ji jk} s s q q w s s s d Zxo¬ ]hje hu®i 6kF kdp je sygi rgc kr uhYQlu 4hje hu®i hd uhYQlu s q q s 4g rj T s e s>ym7>ym hg e jkll hH ksr aSkt je ]g rgj hg >ym e jkll skr e hxn s X a T s s X a X tV df g lS ksr xksy jxe 4g kyd dS ]g tkj dS ]g kdhyl dS hH kd uhi T s s , , , s 44ksg u jr hH uekn ]gj hH njV e kXnjV X X 4h'de7stknv go ]ksdynf7c†t\ g krkv , \ a s \ , 4gj yk;[ hg kurb lc ]ksg u jr uekn kjkgér 6Cgu tg Nd ksr kOc hH Xe s q Z q s , kXLdD;if ]Cgu Ztg Nqd ksr kOc hH Xe knjf ]Cgu tg Nd ksr kOc hH e uk[,e \ s , X a Z q s , X s 44ksg u jr hH uekn ]gj hH njV e kXnjV X X 4h'de7tknv g; ]ksdynf7c†t\ g krkv , s \ a s \ , 4gj 'ksg kurb lc ]kukt kurb ]g okN7okN 2g krLks\N7krLdi B s s , a a , \ ksd ksd okN 4Cgu jkl Nd ksr kLkN ]Cgu jkl Nd ksr kLdi ]g hg okN 2g k[ a q s s\ q s \ , a , j k;D e suLdi7uLkN 4ksg u yxki hlk;ül kje df g krgkp Te 4g rn Lks\N gj X \ s s\ a s wa T s s r hd yxki hxk; ]g rLdi gjr hd yxki hxksH 4yxki hxk; jkgér ]yxki hxk s T s \ s s q s H jkgér 2xLkN u uiyxki jxe ]gjr hd yxki kr xXLkN ]xLkN u hH uiyx s q s X s\ s s s\ s X s\ ki 2gjr hd yxki kr sxLdi ksr k; 2Bk[ k; kvd kr k; 6g hg lS xsky jxe s X \ a q s T s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 68 egaP

4kOhe g uje kje ]kje hxkst sg k,je , , , Ag kgd , u [jksx 4upo kd Fku[jkx kxksg nk; gér klt e Xknç' jk;î lo dhO3,g k; s s X q , X s s , df Idi e Xknç' jk;î Lc u lkndye kd ;®e lb hd ue ]kd ukt d ue lb z X s s \ s w s q 1 s s s 4g krkt kyp , ikv7uiv jkll df k;x ue 4Cgu kjkdIN l jkll 6g lk;ül kjkdIN l ue s a q s a , a q s 4g thc jkl e ue 4kxSkt ksg re√uf hgo kd hgo jkll j@#!if kr g hgo ue T s X a s , `k;x skg dG kr k;x ksg eJkv eku kd ukde ilf 2rgj rkouc hg ukde ]kF tg k; Z s Z s s Z D e ugj Cgo kr `kLi k;D dG jxe 4ksg rkouc eJkv kg; ]F rkouc ukde X s s \ Z s a s s kago 4ksg hg er kr er jxe ]Skv xkH jdLkN l jkll er Akgd ue 2hxgj q s q s\ s a q s T s thp dS 4g hn ykP elb kyd hdcl um ]Skuc ukde kt jH7hxntV 2hH k[ , X s s n kjt\ 2g kgj kouc eJkv Akgd ukgüm `ksg gj jd k;D g; ]lukeyH df kN s wa s X s q s w s i lum ue 4F gj kouc ukde e hjgiksn hjH Skxy krkN o ]lc 4g k;D ry s T s s X s ,a X kg df way ksr [n kjt\ kgd ue kr ]kF krjtx l lki d eJkv dum e nkc y s s T s q s s s T kl ln Bksd 4Sx kg hlk;ül LkxH ]Cgu hlk;ül je ~ ~ ~4Sx kg hlk;ül o jGf s a s s\ a ss s a s 4rgj L[ akgo rkj7unf o hH ksr s s \ s srksg ruc ukde d k_ef ]Cgu hg klsS 4rkuc kjln jdpc kdlm df krkt uc s s X s w s s dS 4Skuc ukde Bd ]Cgu dS ukgüb ~ ~ ~4Sgfkp kukuc ukde jnl dS e s X qa X jkll ygi d suje ed7l7ed kd henkv jg df kF k[j [yf upo kd kIyî j a s s s s s s i ykohn huiv u ut†l lb 4kF lj kLc e kXukde jnl hH ksd kIyî 4Sgfkp k s \ X qa s s ukuc ji hoƒi ukde jnl dS ed7l7ed ksd henkv jg df g kgd u kIyî ]sF 1 qa s , s s s rjd lkoæof e uFd lb d kIyî so 2jnl rgc ]jnl hg k;kuc ukgüm ukde s X s s s aq q qa s X kuiv kr n[ ]dk' klS 4dk,' kd ukuc ukde güm ]g krukt ksd _ef dS Te s q , s s X wa 4kxsy kuc jkll kago ue hgo ]kF k;kuc a jkll akg; u ue hlm `kxync ld ue udfsy ]xkvkt xkH l jkll dfk;D 4k a s s s , s s s a X xLi hg kukuc 4sxy kuc jGf hg jkll hH kago jkv 4g rgj rkOcf ckrdf7ckl s \ X a , T s s gf kd Cg; ]g srgj sxy e ∂Gf hd Cg; ]g rjd krpV hg hd jkll hH jdOc T X T s a , X e kXvkGx huiv o 4Cgu hlk;üal ]g LkxH ilf ]l jkll g rkt xkH kst o `I q s T s s\ Z s a T s s X w s s N l,d llm ]g hlc jrhH dum k;ufn jxe 6g rkt IN l k;ufn ]g rkt je , s q T s w s q T s 44g e eg k;ufn dS udfy Xe k;ufn Cgu eg , X q s q 4g e ex d gjr kX[ky ynf hH d suje nkc , X s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 78 egaP

7jF®i 2kvkuc re jnfe ~ ~ ~4g krsy kuc lkokv kd ke®keji kd ;nÔ uiv s a , s s s kt 2kvg knof Te ]kyp e ]kxgj Cgu e ]jrhH je cv kgj er Ag krgd kt 2 q T wa T ss s q , s ksd ke®keji g krn jd ri√el ksd jkdgv kt 2g krkt je ji jk} d ekj kt , s a s , s s 44ksg ]bksg kuje u jfgc kdko ]je kst jkoqnekj q s s 4bksd ukt jfe kt ]j g rfkaH kuje uje , s s , s 4g kuje kd 'ksg , dS jk,v Tg Sg sje jk,v Tg 'skgc xky df g kuje kd k;ufn ksr dS 4g uje d q s s , q T s s gjr kn 4g dG Xe suje uje kr ]ksg krkv kuje ]kg hrkv kyd hd uje jxv s , Z s s s s 4bksd ukt jfe kt ]j g rfkaH kuje uje , s s , s 4g kd hukK skt ]g kd hlk;üal kt g kuje jk,v dS jkv , , s , , 4g kuje dS hH g; ]g kne kst ,g k;ufn hjkl kr dS 2j ]g dG e uje uje , , Z q q s s , Z X s s ~ ~ ~ ]j g rfkaH kuje uje s , s 3kd lkndye upo hg klo dhO w , 4lji kd ke®keji ]ljn kd ke®keji ;®e h q 1 d ue 4g uZ'n Cgo df kje kagt ue jk,v 2kje jdjke kd ue ]kje [jskx slt , s , 44kOhn [jksx je huje ltf ~ ~ ~2ksg <je kd xaP lm ~ ~ ~ k,je huje lrf 4kuje klo ]g xP hH kd uje , , a s ~ ~ ~ k,je huje lrf 4kOhe g uje kje ]kje hxkst sg k,je , , , 4hd o®jev ]hd o®o'f ]hd Z;nkl ]hd ;®l3g hrkv jrm /axl dS 6g hrkt ljc lkOef ro T , q , æk' 6g hrsn Lkt l uohtkge kst hd q;®e lm 4g hgj ksg rkc hd q;®e hg jkv , s\ s 1 , 1 , hldf g; 4,g hgj ksg Cgu rkc hd q;®e lb ]g gj e? ne kgt ]g k;ufqn hjkl 1 T s w ∆q a , g; ksr dS `e <je ldf udfsy 4e <je g lkOef rgc 4kOhe g uje k,je X X , q , ]kje hxkst g k,je 4g kyd hL\c sl hLc ]g kyd hd uje ~ ~ ~2kje hxkst sg k,je , s , \ , s , 44kOhn [jksx je huje ltf k,je huje lrf
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 88 egaP

4g Cgu q;®e Bkd hdltf g krkt yef uoht , 1 s , kge sl suje dS lm dfk;D 6g krkt ksg yg ekd l uje dS udfy 4hd ;®1e X , s s s q jkv eüt 4g ky[J ruv 4kxLi kuje ji jk}7jk} dr cr ]xksje u ji jk} , , 1a a s \ s d ekj dr ct 4kxsLi kuje jkc rgc jk,v g kLi kuje jkc rgc ksr ksder s \ q , \ q q 4ksd uje kjkcn Nd Cgu hg krpc jGf 4krksg Cgu kuje kjkcn jGf kdlm ]k; s q q q x je ji stkojn d ekj kst jkv 4kyd hd uje ji tkojn d ekj g g; jkv s , s s s , , 4ksg ]bksg kuje u jfgc kdko ]je kst jkoqnekj q s s 2gjr hd h{kl sxkvkt ksg rofht er skr ]l Gjr d ue ksvkt je ]l Gjr d jhj' ksvkt je s q s s s s 4bksd ukt jfe kt ]j g rfkaH kuje uje , s s , s 4g gj gd ;®e kd hlm 6k;x jkdgv ]kIN /cl l ue jk,v jhj' hg T s q 1 s a w a a s s , lt3k;x jkdgv lc 4g ke®keji kjkgér hg; 4g ;®l kjkgér hg; 4g iWo¬ a , q , q , kjkgér hg; 4ky Lkt <iWzxel ksd suiv er Fkl d kI‘n lb 2ksg kI‘n er ]skg q s s\ s q s 1 1 q yko su[n er 4Cgu Hksy er ]Cgu {kse er ]Cgu /ks∂ er df h;x ksg ;r r s s q q q q kc dS hg rpæfuf kr 4ksg rdl [n er ]k;kv Hky ]k;kv gkse ]k;kv /ks∂ 4akg s s s q s o kjk/ g hgj yp rrl 6hOm hjln ]hOm kulko dS 6k;x kjln ]k;kv jkpof , w w g; Aksg rdl [sn er ]g hrgj hryp kjk/ hd kXjkpof 4skg rdl [n er ksd u s q , s s q e ~ ~ ~ 4krdl kg Cgu e go ]g krdl [sn e hH kst dfk;D 4g Cgu hH ue Te s T wa T X wa jkv 4Sg knof yd ]dQ tkv 4kyk'e/ ];kjl 6lkokv h;kF¬v dS3j? kje g , q s Z s s wa n 4g kgj jd lkouf jrhH d gn 4g e gn e df ksgd hg kurb 4g gn e df s s wa X s T wa s T ksgd re 4l gn ky Lks\r ;é®knkr jkv ksd gn huiv ks[n 4kvkxt kd h{kl lm s s s , s s s s 4er ksg jki dcl ub jk,v UHf lcl u q s s b 4er ksg h{kl dcl ub 4kulko er u ]jkpof er u ]skg ue er u ]ksg jhj q s q q q ' er u 4kg Cgu er g; 4g e ue ]g e jhj' 4g e hg; ksg rpksl ]kukdOf7k q s q wa T wa T wa T s ri ]ek/7eku3g e g; df g k[j >el hg ksd O> uer ksr hHv udfy 4kn u aw T , w s q s s s kt jrhH kd ;®l ]ksn LkN jgkc ksd Ow> 4g ke®kv hjkgér hgo 6g ;®l kjkgéqr s s\ , q , s kt ksg er dS jk,v 4g jkdgv kjkgér hgo 6g O> kst kg er dS 4ksg kn eqr q , a q , w s q s ` kxSkt uk,d jrhH jGf skr 2n Lks\N jgkc ksd uiv Axksgd er dfkX;D 6Skv u Xe wa s s q >el l endS ]g hlkacIym kjt\ 4g >cc kjt\ r' 4ksg rdl kt jrhH er s , , w s Z s q skr ksn Lks\N jgkc ksd uiv Ag r' hg dS l k'eg ji jk} lm 4g r' hg dS s , Z s s , Z 4kuje ji jk} d ekj 2je kt jkonekj 4g k_k;7Fhr hgo 6kjd k_k; hd ;nÔ s s s s q , Z s 2kvkuc jnfe d ;nÔ 4rdl kg Cgu lkokv kd ke®keji jnfe Sg uc sl kIb s a s s s a q s X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 98 egaP

`Cgu Xk;D kr[hl Nqd sl XkywH huiv ;‘que df awg hrgkp kuukt Te ]awg hrjd jkc7jkc XywH hgo7hgo ]awg hrjd XywH rqgc Xe uoht Te ]sk'skv sjk;î

`hxskg cd jskH ]sk'skv sjk;î

2qHzi ]Xjd ke{ skd Xk;r¥fx hjse Apæuqi ]Xe uoht rqHnv ]_wlv ,g skt ]u/ac go ]Xe u/ac P\1n k/akc suwr skd dsky_f ji j[kv BkP yosd ]lc ,g Xeeqr if|; jxkl sd cfN 2ugskeof uoqH sg 2eszi 2eszi 3,g hrkv nk; rDfai dS hd hljkv 4awg rhg1xquv rqgc7rqgc Te Syf sdlb ],g kykL xaj suikv s>qe ]qHzi sl xaP scwtv ltf j,kv 2Xjd Gke s>qe 4awg Xe eJkv Auqi Te tkv 4awxake hGke Te Syf sdlb ],g kyskc Ow> sl sk'skv suTe df hF hrIskpd o,nl s>qe rkc dS udfsy 4Cgu kri s>qe ]k;x skg uZrojfi sl,d cl g; 4,g k;x ej hH uk;÷ ref;uf j,kv awg krugi kyke ]_¬o djf,x s l suhge uhr Te cv 4k;x kv uZrojfi Xe>qe dukpv nkc sd Xkunf Nqd 4k;x kyp liko jd uZ'n sl Iduf Te 4awg krjd uk;÷ ;∂fl ]akg df kF kyskc hg Ow> Te skr ]skg srjd uk;÷ df kNwi hH suikv df dr akg; 4k;df suTe hgo j,kv 4hF hrdl skg rîkzi krIduf hHr 4,g kusy lk;üal s>qe df awyskc Ow> Te df kF ;kim hg dS lc Syf sdlb 4Bqg rzxkt k{akdkv yczi hd sujd uZ'n sl dhntu jnav sjse nkc sd uZ'n Xe upozi ;elArkzi 4kF k;kv eJkv Te Z"o rx qrsg uZ'n jdsy k"kyHfv hd ˜k"o ]sk'skv sjk;î

4hg kurb tkv 2je kst jkonekj 2ksy ki ksd r s s q oæk' dfkr ]ksje hH er 4k;x je ji jk} d ekj e df ]l htd hl7hIkN dS q s T s qa s ]sl rkc hl7hIkN dS3k;yf ki Hi jev7jtv ue ]kul df g krgd lkndye s q z s T s q , w 44kg ]lkndye rgd ]k;bki Hi jev jtv s w q z 4lknm kTjGf gr7gt Te ]dufkt rfx g; hdub a a s 4g kLhi hd kvQxnl cl hg; ~ ~ ~ ` , \ X q . aMxkt güb l,d ]Wd k;D 4g hrkv k;n ji ub 4g krksg lknm ue jd[n kdub X s a , , s s 2h'skgc hgo ]kNπe hgo 6g hjkt o–im hgo ]jdDp hgo 2g xy e hlm hH j s Z w , T s X Gf ]je urdf ]eüt urdf df g kr[n e rfx g; hd Xkxksy df g rgd dye s s s s wa s T T s w 4lknm kTjGf gr7gt Te ]dufkt rfx g; hdub a a s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 09 egaP

4hxSkt skg kosl hL\skF `kxskg k;D Hq' j,kv sllb ]Skt kv ekd d hldf 6,g kyko sukt skr jhj' g; j,kv 4,g lki sjse jhj' dS ],g rjWt hg hd dS slm 2hxSkt skg hjwi hg k{akdkv s hd henkv lb ]skyp 6kxsjxf hg slsS skr jhj' 4Sgfkp hg kukt skr s>qe ]kxSkt u akgo Bskd 4,g kri skr cv ]kF krdl kt hH sl sr¬kj sjlwn Te n;k' skr krskg u kri jxv s>qe ]kgd su 0qc `,g rjWt k;D hd sukt akgo ]ukoxH df hd kuZFkzi skdum hH su Xkvq{Hf sd 0qc `kuykL Xk;D Xe sjr[ skd uoht dgku 4,g ;≈sk; suuqp udfsy ],g kcay kjt ],g kr¬kj kjlwn 4,g Cgu klskjH Nqd kd I‘qn lm 4sl sr¬kj lm aSkt re ikv ]kgd su Xkxsky d oakx 4sjtqx sl sr¬kj lm 0qc s 4kF kgj kygf skd ;†kj sjwi kysdv 4kF kriakd jFjF jdki jc[ hd hxnwt,ke hdlm ]sl _ke kui¥d hdlm jd[sn slm hH Ikzel 4k;nf jd nac kujtqx su Xkxsky ]Sx skg nac sr¬kj l akgo ]kF krgj go Xe yxat ltf 4kF krdl jd hjwi hH sl ake ],g hpc hed hg hd dS j,kv henkv kjk;®g klsS go s dfXk;D 4hF hxy sujL sl sukt lki sdlm hH ake hdlm 4hF hed hd dS ]sjke xsky scuk;üuf ,kl ,ku ]Tg srgd 4sjke xsky s urdf ewyke u sulm 4k;x L\i eku kdlm ykeyfqxav Syflb 4kxawugi jdkuc kyke hd Xk;yfqxav hdum jdIkd uZnx hd Xkxsky jktg dS df hF h[j k[ eld sulm 4kjk;®g kL\c sl sL\c ]kjk;®g kL\c 4kF kjk;®g ykeyfqxav X 4,g hrkt I? sl huklkv spskluv 4Cgu hrI? hHd skr sl supskl 4hI? kuI? eji j,kv kF u hH kpskl 4,g kvqg skd Xkrqgc Xe Xk;nfl7Xk;nfl ]Cgu klsS ]skg kvqg hg Xgéqr klsS 4hrdl kt hd Cgu h<ko;‘ofH hH Bskd ]sxskxy sukv Iduf sdlm eqr sukgc ldf cd ]kxSkv kokyqc sl sr¬kj uktuv ldf cd 4Tg Cgu slsS ]aSkv Xe >el sl Zdr ]XL\i Bk[nf sl Xk[akv 4Tg Cgu ywF¬ Zxke sd qHzi 4syp u hH kri Xgéqr 4Ski skg u hH jc[ Xgéqr n;k' ]sxskvkt laG Xe ykt sdlm eqr sl,d cd ]kxsdXG ykt ji eqr sl,d cd 4;æ1nv ]jpskxv 4Tg e”wl sr¬kj sd qHzi 2hrjkH jda'hj,kx

2qHzi ]Xjd ke{ skd Xk;r¥fx hjse Apæuqi ]Xe uoht rqHnv ]_wlv ,g skt ]u/ac go ]Xe u/ac P\1n k/akc suwr skd dsky_f ji j[kv BkP yosd ]lc ,g Xeeqr if|; jxkl sd cfN 2ugskeof uoqH sg 2eszi 2eszi 3,g hrkv nk; rDfai dS hd hljkv 4awg rhg1xquv rqgc7rqgc Te Syf sdlb ],g kykL xaj suikv s>qe ]qHzi sl xaP scwtv ltf j,kv 2Xjd Gke s>qe 4awg Xe eJkv Auqi Te tkv 4awxake hGke Te Syf sdlb ],g kyskc Ow> sl sk'skv suTe df hF hrIskpd o,nl s>qe rkc dS udfsy 4Cgu kri s>qe ]k;x skg uZrojfi sl,d cl g; 4,g k;x ej hH uk;÷ ref;uf j,kv awg krugi kyke ]_¬o djf,x s l suhge uhr Te cv 4k;x kv uZrojfi Xe>qe dukpv nkc sd Xkunf Nqd 4k;x kyp liko jd uZ'n sl Iduf Te 4awg krjd uk;÷ ;∂fl ]akg df kF kyskc hg Ow> Te skr ]skg srjd uk;÷ df kNwi hH suikv df dr akg; 4k;df suTe hgo j,kv 4hF hrdl skg rîkzi krIduf hHr 4,g kusy lk;üal s>qe df awyskc Ow> Te df kF ;kim hg dS lc Syf sdlb 4Bqg rzxkt k{akdkv yczi hd sujd uZ'n sl dhntu jnav sjse nkc sd uZ'n Xe upozi ;elArkzi 4kF k;kv eJkv Te Z"o rx qrsg uZ'n jdsy k"kyHfv hd ˜k"o ]sk'skv sjk;î

`,g krky pC[ lki sdikv jkc7jkc s>qe skt ,g k;D rhx g; 4sl rhx sdikv awg rgfske Te ]sk'skv sjk;î

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 19 egaP

4k;yf ukt skd ‰zc suwr 2kv Fkl sjse 2Om ]<‰kzc sg ]q{Hf sg 4k;x skg hH <‰kzc ],g q{Hf yosd u wr cv ]ykeyfqxav 5kgd su 0qc 4Cgu q;®1e Bskd hdlm ],g k[sn skt jrhH suiv suTe jddq> Xe Xk<jp sdikv cv jGf j,kv 4srdl Cgu kytf sltf Tg sgj jke slm 4srdl Cgu L\skt sltf Tg sgj L\skr slm ]sjv 2Tg sgj jd k;D Cgu kri hH Nqd skd Xkjkpsc df ],g hrOm k<Qd 4Cgu hH Nqd ]kgd sulm `,g krskg k;D Xe ue sjsr rfzi df Xkxsky ub ]ykeyfqxav 5kNwi sl ykeyfqxav j,kv sdq> lki sdlm 0qc 4k;x skg ukgqywgy ]kL\i jxf jdk[ XIskp hd XkjF®i ykeyfqxav 4sxy sudXG jF®i ji henkv s F®guf lm s; ]sF srjL sl sukt ji sr¬kj skt ]xsky jqnkgc s; 4jdP\p ji Xkukde suiv sjke jF®i su Xkxsky `,g krjd klskjH Bskd kd henkv slsS 2sn Ikd uZnx hd hldf ]ji hldf sL\i Ii> 2Xrnkv hukjqi udfsy ],g k;x skg q{Hf go df hH jd ukt 4Syf jd nac stkojn jk} su Xkxsky df k;x skg rîk;ø ;H klsS skr ]Fkl sd 0qc k;kv Xe jg' ct 4hI? kuI? rqHnv hg unf sjlwn j,kv 4kvqg r{fhn ykeyfqxav slsS 4awg krsn Te j,kv ,g _ki wr ]sxake u k; sxake wr 5kgd su 0qc 2Cgu hxake suTe `kd susn k{hn s>qe ,g xaP k;D g; j,kv 4Bskd Cgu hiki knk;† sl>qe 4awg kjk;®g Te ]kgd su ykeyfqxav 4,g krkv Xe >el hd Xkxsky ed rqgc hn¥t kurb 2,g rDf;ø kjk;î wr ]ykeyfqxav 2sNhi sjse yp 4k;x skg hlk;üal kjse wr 4hn sn k{hn skr suTe ]kgd su 0qc 4kF ykeyfqxav q{Hf cr kOm ]kF ykeyfqxav kjk;®g cr kF kdq> ]hF u hxake k{hn su ykeyfqxav 4awg Xe 'kyr hd Xkxsky joreégf hg slsS Te 4hn sn k{hn suTe ]kgd su 0qc `Tg srgd Xk;D q{Hf ikv ]kgd sulm 2skOm ]ykeyfqxav q{Hf 5kgd j,kv k[j Fkg ji jlf dlm su 0qc ]k;x dq> Xe Xk<jp sd 0qc ]k;x jxf sl Fkg kljG 4kxkt sl k–uf hd Xk;nfl7Xk;nfl ykeyfqxav sl,t s `,g k;D dg Xeg kd sujke slm ]Xkg srdl sn u uoht eg sltf j,kv `,g krdl kytf hH skd hICp dS ]sjke xsky surb suwr 4,g kyd hg kyd hd suL\skt ]kF krdl jd hH kpπc Bskd skr kuL\skr 4Sgfkp hujd Cgu hH rZjqt hd suL\skr skr ]krdl Cgu L\skt jxv ]kgd su 0qc `,g hrdl kt hL\skt sl,d cv k[k' hIwI 2skg yxki rpæfuf eqr ]kyskc ykeyfqxav 2sn L\skt liko slb cv 4sn jd hjwi j,kv h/kv ]Bx skg hjwi k{akdkv h/kv ]lc ]kgd su 0qc 4hn Ikd k[k' hjwi dS j,kv kljG kuiv k;kOm sulm `Xk;D sRi ]kgd sulm 4sn L\skr sRi Nqd ]Tg sL\[ eg sphu sdltf ]sd {1o lb ]kgd su 0qc `k;D ]kNwi sulm 4sn jd hjwi go ],g klkKtf hjse hl hIskN dS ]sjke s>qe wr df sygi sdlb jxe ]Cgu hg krkv kF;üv ]awg Cgu sl Xe Xkyko suxkH Nqd Te ],g Bqg hg hId skr uZnx g; ]kusy jke cr sgkp ct wr skr s>qe 6Cgu hn¥t Nqd ][sn df kgd su 0qc 4kljG k;kOm ]kOm ]sjke yc ]jkd¬al sukjqi ]rnkv hukjqi hH jGf udfsy 4,g ;≈kH,kl skr ]Skt yef kukt je Xe Xk<jp sd henkv lb 2Cgu skr kl,t sujke henkv g; 4sF sgj ki Cgu kOm ]skd sljG sF srgkp kukOm Fkg sdlm 4Sx skg sL\[ jdkv suekl yqdycf 0qc 4hF hd sri rkc 4kL\i kupskl skd ykeyfqxav 4awg kvqg kjgO Te j,kv ,g kgj yp wr df awg krgd Syflb 4,g kgj yp jklal kjkl skr g kgj yp ue j,kv 4,g hjgO jWt gsn 4,g kgj yp hHv ue kjsr 4k;x dQ Te unf lm ]kdQ ue kjse unf ltf dfXk;D , 6akg df kgd su 0qc 4awg kgj yp Te df skg srgd skd Sqg sdQ s>qe j,kv 2skg Sx dQ eqr skg srgd j,kv Gjr hjse sgj kv s yp skr nq[ 4k;x yef <kezi yqdycf skr sl hjlwn cv ]skg rî{fof eqr df k;x yp kri s>qe hg sl rkc hygi hjkgéqr 4skg srskg ewyke rî{fof eqr df kgd su ykeyfqxav 2dQ wr 4k;x dQ Te cr ]Sx skg ˜k"o skr s>qe ]ykeyfqxav ]kgd su 0qc 4,g kjr[ df sP\c sxkv j,kv end dS ]skvkt jgO Cgo skg akgt ]skvkt I,ky skg kNπv df kgd sulm hH jGf 2syskc sl yc lb skt kF k[sn Cgu sulm skr henkv klsS ]kdOOf <{ dS ]kd>>f ykeyfqxav 4,g u,kd wr df ,g Cgu kri hH g; s>qr ]awg u,kd Te df ,g kri s>qe df awg krgd sl>qr Te j,kv 4awg u,kd Te df ,g Cgu kri hH s>qr n;k' df kgd uXkgüm j,kv slag 0qc 2awg u,kd Te df ,g Cgu kri s>qr n;k' 2kt dQ ]q{Hf sg df k;ky¥pf hg sl jwn ykeyfqxav 4;‘'f s s dum sF Sx IwN sNhi Xkyhe 4sF sysdv skr spaqgi lki sd ykeyfqxav ct 0qc 4Sx gj sNhi hH so ]Tg Iduf surb sd 0qc eg df skd Xkxsky sF srky[nf ]Xe suyp Fkl7Fkl sF srjd oHquv oj,kx ]sF sryp Fkl7Fkl sd 0qc knl q{Hf skt

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 29 egaP

`kxsjd 'sozi Xeeqr sl jk} ldf ]cd ke®keji srukt eqr Cgu `hxSkt skg rfak∂ Xe uoht slsS df hHd su k;¥ko kxskg kpskl 4kF eszi dS ]hF krdn√kg dS ]hF kryjl dS ]hF k0J dS ]kF okH dS Xe ikt 4k;x skg /çyim skd ekj hH jdit kje7kje udfsy 4kgj krit kje7kje skr ]k;x skg sxkv 9e8 ]k;x skg sNhi 9kj8 ]Bx skg dwp7ywH ]kF henkv k[yf7kP\isc ekj ]ekj ]ekj ]ekj 5skit sl htsr ]skit jkc7jkc ]skit sl jskt ekj7ekj~~~2hH srit kje7kje udfsy 4kF kgj it kje7kje ]kF k;x ywH skr ekj7ekj go 4sdTkp rqgc skr Skv lki 4kxy suskg oHquv skd njku rhxal kdlm ]/axql hdlm sl hjwn hd Xktx XkL\d,l 4kF Sqg sjs? slm yLae7kHkv 4sllm hF hgj j[cf rfsk;† 4kF k;x skg dfhe¥ko ]kF Cgu k;¥ko ]kF k;x skg /çyim skd ukK k;¥ko skr njku ct sI,ky 2it ekj7ekj jGf wr skr ]kgd su njku 4Xn krc skr skg ;kim Nqd hH skd henkv <hekzx ]skd henkv snkl7s/hl ]yjl >qe ]krdl Cgu P\i _¬k' ]awg k[yf7kP\isc 4Xn k;∂fzi hd <jrakiW7uoht Nqd s>qe ]Xn /fof Nqd s>qe ]Xn _ae Nqd s>qe 4kxsdl skg Cgu iki j,kv cv skr 4Tg Cgu jknhxkH Xe iki sjse hH Bskd so 4kF Xe ywH Te ]Xn jd ke{ s>qe ]kgd sl njku skr kI,ky 4kxkt j,kv kdTkp k;¥ko 4X>el ikv 4iki skdldf ]Xgd ;≤qi skdldf Cgu hH kri Nqd Xeg Sqg Cgu hH sL\c hHv skr eg 2k;nf eüt sueqr `kri k;D Xeg ]kgd su XkIsc 2sk>el eqr cklgf kd ;≤qi7iki 4,g rqgc kurb `skg srgkp k;D j,kv3hrjd kosl hd krif sjkgéqr ]hryki spπc sjkgéqr ]hrkuc utskH kjkgéqr ]hrykgél j? kjkgéqr Te 4skjd ykH[sn hjse ]skjd krpV hjse df ,g ;øZrd kjkgéqr sl cr ]sF Sky jd gkoof s>qe 6kri k;D s>qe ]kgd su hu®i 2pskl wr g; ],g krked sl,d wr ]kxawNwi hHd u ]Cgu hH kNwi sl>qr hHd suTe `hjkns>kl hl,d Xelb 2ukt wr ;≤qi7iki ],g ;øZrd kjsr kujd kosl hd ikc sP\wc 4,g krky kl,i sl,d wr df cyre k;D s>qe df kgd su krif ]kNwi sl krif 2j? suNwi ]skd njku k;¥ko k;x jd/akc 4sl {1o dS skn /akc s>qe ]kgd su njku 4skvkt xkH j/m eqr ]aMkt suNwi Te j/b `skg srsn k[sk / s>qe ]kgd sulm 4klag go ]yhH k;¥ko kF eku kdlm cr 4klag dfhe¥ko 2Xe iki sxXkg jknh>kl `Xe iki sxXkg jknhxkH so3sIsc sjsr ]krif sjsr ]hu®i3,g kgj Iwy wr Syf sdutf ]xsky sd j? ],g krxy iki skt sl suIwy df kv Nwi rkc dS jdkt j? sygi sdlb sIwy s>qe ]kgd su njku udfsy 4dfhe¥ko kF krgkp kuIwy skd njku 4sl njku kF k;x skg kuyef dukpv 4kF kpskl Cgu `kF kpskl su dfhe¥ko 4kxskg k[sn u hH kuil hHd ]hxskg hd u hH kui¥d hHd ]kxskg u hH kpskl Nqd 4kvqg /çyim skd o®0qc ykeyfqxav slsS 4k;x IwN kuhli skd jklcfcV udfsy 4,g k;yf ukt hH skd ‰zc sulg 4,g k;x skg hH <‰kzc g; ],g q{Hf yosd u g; 4sxXljc hg "h'kv ]hxsOm Cgu kuoZkHqn Bskd sl Xk<kzi sdlb ]sl ue sdlb hH skr ]skykL Ikd hH sL\dqI7sL\dqI s lb eqr 6Cgu rjWt hH Bskd hd sujL sllb cv 6skd jkoyr sk[j Xe uk;é ]kgd su 0qc 4hy ykduf jgkc jkoyr huiv sl hn¥t sulm df k;x kL\c? kurb skr Ikzel 4,g ykeyfqxav g; ],g q{Hf kvqg kO,c Xe yxc sjse skt g; ]kgd u 0qc 4Skt skg hjwi tkv go ]hd su[sn slm ,g kNπb hd jHuoht 4awg krgkp ku[sn slm Te `akgd ,g ykeyfqxav go s ag krgkp kuukt Te ]kgd sulm 4hF u krdql®m Xe Xkrkc ub slm 4kF k;kv Cgu ;el hHv udfsy sl,t kd jklcfcV w 4hxSkt skg Idzi rfsk;† roæk' ]kjkxav krden3kxSkv yduf kjkxav j,kv skL\k> [kj kjt ]skvkldm kjt 4,g uketkjof o®0qc jrhH sd rDf;ø ds;®zi kF;üv

,g kr_kiv hd kr;üke 4,g _kiv ]skd suiv ,g suke _kiv skt 4,g Cgu hH Bskd _kiv ]kgd su 0qc `,g u,kd _kiv jGf skr 2_ki j,kv ykeyfqxav ]kgd su jklcfcV 4kF _ki ]iWnklzi 6Bx hn k{hn ]Cgu kvqg r{fhn ]Cgu ]kgd su 0qc 2kvqg r{fhn ykeyfqxav ,g kuql suTe ]kgd j,kv sdq> Xe Xk<jp sd 0qc 4kF kd uZ'n sd 0qc skr kukgc udfsy ]kF ueæqn kd jH7uoht ]skd ykeyfqxav Skv skr su[sn ]Skv skd uZ'n sd 0qc so skr hyef jc[ skd jklcfcV Ikzel >akl

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 39 egaP

Xe hxntV hjkgéqr nkc sd sukt sy lk;üal jkc dS udfsy 4,g kgj ki jd Cgu kjwi7kjwi ]jdskg zxkdS ]sl <kzi7ur hH skr ,g kyp sujd hH kyH tkv ],g kgj hg krjd go skr kjqc df ,g g; Rfi‘uf hd k;∂fzi hjkl lb 4,g kgj sy Ow> hH skr ,g kgj sy hH lk;üal go df ,g g; ek<jfi kd k;∂fzi hcay hd Ow> hjkl lb `Skt sl,d hH skg uexkv Xelm kd ;®l dukpv tkv ]Tg sjH sl Ow> eut7eut ],g hjH sl Ow> hdlm jHhxntV ]sjd k;D hH go ],g kgj sy kOw> tkv skt df ag krukt Te ]kd ;‘que ,g ukeél eji Xe ue sjse ],g Xe ;‘que kF¬kv hjse hH jGf udfsy 6Tg sgj sy kOw> so df ,g krskg w Gkl I‘i¬ s>qe rDo srsn lk;üal skdutf3skg Cgu sysdv eqr3awg krukt Te skd Xkrqgc 4Cgu jwn rqgc kpTki skr ]Bx kv Xe L\di hyxam 6rqgc hg kurb hHv skyp 6hgl hg kOw> skyp 4sxXy >yql7Iiuf jGf 4skn hH susy ]awg krgd Te 4,g kgj s y kpπl u,kd ],g kgj sy kOw> lk;üal u,kd df krjd Cgu hg ∂Gf Te skr Syfhlb 4kF k;yf hg kOw> lk;üal sueqr 4k;kv xem k;u Nqd j,kv k;x Ief Nqd jrhH sjse ]lc 2kxskg ukeél kurdf skd q/kl spπl skr ],g ukeél kurb hH skd q/kl sOw> df kL\i Bk[nf s>qe ct j,kv 4k;x gc hH jskp ]Xe hnu Sx Cgu hg _¬o 4Bx skg k{hn hjse j,kv SqN j,i suXkgüm 4hn sn k{hn s>qe suXkgüm 6SqN j,i ]sF Skv sNhi xsky skt udfsy ]kF k;yf Isiy skd hlm ]ji Ik? hF hL\i [kj ]xaL\/7xau ]kF k;x O,c jdkuc 'so kd q/kl jd[sn u ;kim Bskd 4kxaMkt skg q/kl df rDo srdXG sL\id kF u hH kpskl hHd ]sF sdXG hg sL\id ]jskp skr kF 4,g krskg kujd Idzi hg ;®l akgt Bx kv gxt lm krq/kl 4,g krkt skg ydæfqe kukiqN akgt Bx kv gxt lm krq/kl cv 4Cgu kxaMkiqN cv 4jskp hgo Te awg df hgd hukgd huiv sulm 4k;x k[ k[sk/ ]kF kyp susn k[sk/ 4skNwi re ]kgd sulm ]kxy sulag go 4,g hgj y,G dr jwn7jwn r√hd hdikv ]rfak' hdikv ];¬ue,kl sdikv 4,g huql rfk;“ hL\c hd kHrfzi hdikv `Tg u,kd `Skv sl akgd ikv ]kNwi su Ikzel 4k;kv suwN <jp sdlm unf dS hH Ikzel 4k;x ej Cgo skr jGf 4k;nf L\skN hg kr¬kj kd jklal <jk/kl ]kL\skN Cgu hg kr¬kj kd hjskp sulm jGf 2hxskg hgj k{akdkv Bqg Bskl hd Xkeüt udf ewyke u ]hxt k{akdkv dS 2krskg q/kl kpπl Te ]'kd ]Tg sgj dq> Xe Xk<jp sjse ]awg q/kl kd s[sk/ ZGlf skr Te df kpskl sulm j,kv tkjkge q/kl kugd kdum 2Bx skg rfak∂ dS jrhH sd jskp lm 4kxskg k[sn jWt suikv ],g k;kv akg; hHv7hHv jskp dS ]tkjkge q/kl df kgd j,kv k;df jkd¬eu jddq> slm sucl um ]spaqgi xsky dr ct 4k;x O,c ji sjkudf jdskg kxau ]Xe hnu Snf dXG skr sL\id ]k>wl Cgu j,kv Nqd 4hd sunwd hL\i u reégf ]P\kc skr k;kv sjkudf sd hnu ]unf sd Zk"o 4k;x L\i Xe IgkL\c? hL\c skr henkv go 4k;yf skg sNhi hH kyko lyfqi sl sr¬kj 4sxkH xsky sd j? sNhi sdlm 4kxkH henkv ]k;x pe yqxjsk' ]Sx xkt xsky sd j? 4hd hjskp su henkv dS ],g kuql suTe 4Tg dkujr[ s[sk/ sd gjr lb 4,g krkt k[ k[sk/ j,kv ,g krkt henkv susn k[sk/ df ,g krkt skg klsS jkc Bd udfsy 2sxXy s y lk;üal hg kOw> 2sxXn sn hg k[sk/ ]skyp df kpskl sueqr 4hxskg hukdqp rehd Xgéqr Syf sd sukv lki sjse sl,o7sl,o ]hxsP\c rfF¬fim hd Xk;lfk;üal lki sjse sl,t7sl,t Syflb 4Sgfkp kuIef Nqd ]Sgfkp kudq> Nqd Xgéqr Syf sd sukv lki 4Sgfkp kuskg kxage kukv lki 4sxskvkt I,ky thc sd thc eqr skr Cgu 4Skt gj u kr¬l kukv lki 4,g k;nf dskj kukv lki skd Xkj,kv skr Syfhlb 4awy lk;üal df sdlb ;kolf ]kF Cgu ;kim Bskd j,kv kd sukv lki ]skg srgd eqr 4lki sdjl eqr hg gjr hd thc ]sF Skv eqr gjr hd thc 4,g krskg kiNf cl skr Xe thc `,g krdl gd u,kd `kxsjd Xrkc sl Xkjkr7nakp df kxSqN skd Xkynkc ]kxsOm kpaM kurdf {1o ]sxXxy ywG sl,d ]sxXyduf sRi sl,d df krskg Cgu skr hH kri skr ,g krskc Bskd skd thc ct 4;el lm sdl u ukpgi eqr 4,g huktuv klîhHv hd sukv lki ]k{akdkv hd lji7ljn 94Bqg rzxkt k{akdkv yczi hd sujd uZ'n l dhntu jnav sjse nkc sd uZ'n Xe upozi Arkzi8 df skg srgd eqr 4kxskg rjfqdav ]kxsIwI thc skr ]skg P\kxzi k"kyHfv s 4,g thc skr hH k"kyHfv go 94kF k;kv qrsg sd uZ'n jdsy k"kyHfv hd ˜k"o Te8 df ]jda'hj,kx ]skg srgd dhO eqr

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 49 egaP

slsS Skv hjkgéqr nk; Skv ct7ct hjkgéqr nk; Skt y[f7y[f Xe uep ywG 4aMkt Ig sl phc sdlm j,kv sjkgéqr j,kv awn kL\di Xe Fkg sdlm Fkg kjkgéqr df ]aMkt Ig sl phc sdlm j,kv s jkgéqr j,kv awn kynf Xgéqr nk; hdlm df hg; ],g Cgu ZFv Bskd j,kv kd rfF¬fim hjse 4nk; hdlm `k;D ,g lk;üal Skv ct7ct hjkgéqr nk; Skt y[f7y[f Xe uep ywG 4,g krkv Om rhxal hHd jGf ],g krkt O,c tkl hHd jGf ]Tg srkt yef jkr hHd jGf 4,g krkt kyp krskg rhg1xal jrhH sjkeg go 6Cgu krsk[ hHd go ]Tg srjd hH skt eg akg; df ,g e;uf dS kd hxntV 4skg k;df uk;÷ hH j,kv hHd Xe Xkeüt7Xkeüt n;k' 4skg k;nf L\skN sl phc ]skg Sqg hlk;üal hHd hH j,kv sygi n;k' 4skg sNhi ku/kl hd Xkeüt7Xkeüt n;k' udfsy ]sl jiM sjkgéqr de¬fdkv skr kvqg 4kgj krjd <Zkeuf skd hrF¬fjfi dS jrhH sjkgéqr cl go ]kxskg kdak> Xe Xk[akv hdum nkc sd uk;÷ ]kxskg k[sn srjd uk;÷ skd Xk;lfk;üal sueqr akg; 4hxskg hgj hrj,r gjr hd /axql hxhH7hxhH seh/7seh/ Xe ue sjkgéqr nk; hdcl um ]r¬e ]srskg rnfaukv ]srkx ]srpku sxXkg s[sn hlk;üal ueqr akg; 2lk;üal kpπl df kxskg k;kv yk;[ 4hxskg hyef dy> dS hd rfak' Xgéqr hH jdsy lk;üal kOw> dfXk;D s 4k;nf kcqL hH Xe uk;÷ ref;uf Xgéqr su hlm 6hn kugi kyke Xgéqr su hlm 4kF kykosuskg g; 4kykL xaj Xe Xk_¬o djf,x géqr sjh/7sjh/ jdskg rwHhu? su kL\hi hlm 4hxskg hOm kL\hi dS jrhH sjkgéqr sllb 4k;df jkdho¬ hH jRm kOw> kjkgéqr X 4k;df jkdhxav hH lk;üal kOw> kjkgéqr suTe 4k;df klskjH ji Ow> sjkgéqr suTe j,kv 2Sx yskc Ow> sllm ]Cgu kusn7kusy Nqd ]Cgu <jkd Bskd kd suyskc Ow> Fkl sdltf ]sl henkv sl,t >qe dfXk;D 4sxskvskg SkrNi sNhi udfsy

4,g krsn koyqc Ow> 4,g krjd k{jql huiv Gjr jg jkdagv udfsy `kF krdl jd k;D 2hH skr srskg hH hL\kojke 4Cgu krL\skpuf Nqd sleqr skr ]awg krjd Cgu uk;÷ df srsn hH gd jxv eqr 4awg Cgu skr jlhGkv lD,I edub Bskd Te 2,g k[j k;D Xelb ],g wcCu skr g; skr ]awg krsy L\skpuf sl Xk;L\fkojke sjv 4awg jlhGkv lD,I edub Te 6cyre k;D s>qe sl sL\k[e7sL\k[v ]kgd sulm `g krjd tk;jf Xe sL\k[v ldf , df sn krc skr kurb ]BkH ]kgd su ukoygi 4Syf [j Xe slh[ su henkv lm SiQ jktg 4Bx jrm hH go ]hF hi hH ckj' 6k;x dTkp hH ukoygi 4Cgu dS ]Cn L\skpuf Xnawc uhr sl Xe wcCu lm jdOm sulm j,kv kOm henkv kyri7kycqn dS~~~4hF ydæfqe huyduf nawc dS sl Xelm df wcCu kF kL\skpuf sl js k t lb sulm j,kv ]xaP kdlm ]aSktqH

hdlm dfXk;D 6hd Cgu reégf jd[sn skr su Xkxsky j,kv~~~4kOm henkv kl kyri7kycqn dS 4Snf dIi ji ycsI SiQ jktg jdykduf sl slh[ 2SiQ jktg s; skr ]sn ykduf lj sl Xelb j,kv nawc dS jxv ]Zneakot Xe suk[ckj' Bskd ,g df hn tkokv sulm jGf 4Bx L\qpuf sl wcCu lm nawc dS7dS 2k;nf L\skpuf skdlm ]kF ukoygi~~~k;kOm cCu w k/kv kvqg k[j ji ycsI ]hi ckj' sulm jdIL 4k;kv ukoygi dS Xe j?ckj' dS ,g kuql suTe

4k;x koyqc Ow> hH akg; jkdagv udfsy 6kF u Ztg Nqd hH skr 6hF Cgu upL\v Bskd hH skr ]awg krjd Cgu df krskg kgd sl>qe jxv sueqr 2awg krjd uk;÷ df kyskc Ow> 4krkcqL u Xe Ow> skr skd lk;üal 4krsn L\skN skr skd lk;üal ed sl ed `k;yf kOw> hH lk;üal `k;df k;D suTe g; ]kxskg kxy suxy jdgj jkc7jkc jGf 4kxskg kxy suIkd hgo jGf ]kxskg kxy suIskpd hgo jGf ]Ow> sF Sx yskc ]susy lk;üal Ow> sF Skv ,g hd ZHnal rkc hjkl 4,g krkt skg k∏x hH ;®l Xe ZHnal ryx ],g krkt uc hP\hl hH Ow> Xe ZHnal dhO 4Tg srkt skg Ow> hH pl ji sr¬kj ryx ]Tg srkt skg pl hH Ow> ji sr¬kj sNπv udfsy 4awg krjd uk;÷ df kF k;nf yskc Ow> sl>qe sueqr 4kI? Xe uoht sjkgéqr hg slsS 4sxskvkt paqgi dr tjwl eqr jGf jdsy kjkgl kd <jdf hlm 4,g hGkd hH skr Xe rkj hjs/av hjkgéqr Bkv jrm hH <jdf dS sL\qt sl>qe dfXk;D 4,g rpæfufql kuskg Nqd u Nqd

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 59 egaP

Xe Xk_ki sd suskl k;D skr skg Xe lki r1ev jxv 5awg krgd slum Te 4Tg srkt sykP ikv ]sr[sn _kiv u ]sr[sn _ki ikv u3Tg srgd so skr ]hHd hlk;üal sd cP sukjqi lki sjse Tg srkv 4krNwi Cgu _kiv ]krNwi Cgu _ki Te skr Syfhlb 4k;nf kjd /çyim jnfae kd ;®l Syf sjkgéqr su k;ƒef df ]k;kv sy dr pl Xgéqr Ow> df skg hxkH;ü/ eqr 2huxake k;D hGke 2srjd sl,d uk;÷ kpπl eqr jGf skr ]awg krjd uk;÷ Te df krskg kgd u kOw> sl>qe jxv sueqr 2krI? sl,d kpπl g; jGf ]hF rkc hd suxake hGke skr krskg k;yf u lk;üal kOw> sueqr jxv 2skxake re hGke 2kvqg Hq' 2jda'hj,kx 4,g kusn iW lskO skd jkdqi lk;üal 4,g jkdqi uk;÷ 4,g krkv kyp kxkH go j,kv skvkOm hg jkdqi ZGlf ]skvkOm u hH end dS eqr 5awg krgd sleqr skr Te j,kv 4,g krkOm Gjr hjkgéqr end jktg go ]skvkOm Gjr hdlm end dS eqr 5Tg srgd jhdG hGwl 4,g kyduf Gjr hjkgéqr hH go ]ji k_k; hdlm skg sL\i yp Cgu hg sysdv eqr 4,g kgj tsk[ Xgéqr hH ke®keji df ,g krskg 0lf sllb ]skg sgj tsk[ Cgu skd ke®keji hg eqr 4skykgél skd k0J sllb 6sky kF¬kv sllb 6sky klskjH sllb 4k;kv uk;÷ sl,t ]k;kv lk;üal sl,t ,g hrkv de¬fdkv hg hlsS j,kv 6unf dS hH hL\? go ,g hrkt kv 4Skt skg dofkHko¬ uk;÷ akgt gxt hlsS ,g kupaqgi 4jki lm ,g kupaqgi ],g qrsl skr uk;÷ 4,g end kygi skr lk;üal 4dr ni eji ,g kupaqgi 4Tg Xytfae j,kv hH sxkv sd akelkv 4Tg Xytfae hH j,kv hHv 2kukt sP\c cv 2re kujL cv 4,g krjd 'sozi jrhH sjkgéqr ke®keji end dS7dS sjh/7sjh/ 4hxy sukv nk; sjh/7sjh/ 4Skv ct7ct hjkgéqr nk; Skyt ihn r' Xe uxakv hyh'u hL\c hjkgéqr nk; Skdgc ue ]Skdgy ur hyhxaj hL\c ]hygiW hL\c hyhlj hL\c hjkgéqr nk; Skv ct7ct hjkgéqr nk; Skxt jk;î Xe ue sjse kjkgéqr jklal k;kjnfe kjkgéqr Z;nTkl krhpue kjkgéqr jktaqx k;kH ue 2ucq/e sd Xk<kzi sjse eqr Skv ct7ct hjkgéqr nk; Skjgy jgy7jgy jxkl syskL ue7ur Xe hr¬e lb hujxwnkt hjkgéqr dge sysk? r1ev hjkgéqr dqgqd 2oH,o drüflko sjse skv Skv ct7ct hjkgéqr nk; Skv j?f7j?f aSkI? uxx hytm ak;/fql Skxt j,kv kghii7<kzi syskc mif7mif hytcf sdep Xe uokl Xk;†

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 69 egaP

skr akgo 4krxM u j,kv kryP tjwl skr u jrhH 4,g krxM j,kv ,g kryP tjwl jgkc ]akg 4Cgu hg hrskg akg; skr rkj 4kd o®r¬fv ,g okHo¬ skr gcql 4,g Bx skg hd cd skr gcql ]skysk[ [akv 4,g hg jskH 4,g Bqg hd cd skr jskH ]ZFhrekj `hxskg cd jskH ]sk'skv sjk;î

4,g ydæfqe kugd ]kd ke®keji kxsyq[ jk} sl akgd 4,g Z<wi;¬gj 4,g kOwuv rqgc uoht 4Bx skg Qqx hjse k;æso go 4hn kL\qN su k;æso lm rnkv hukjqi go 4sd _kiv7_ki Snf L\skN sujd nsH suTe sl unf lm 4Bx yq[ [akv hjse unf lm df ,g kgd su naukdsoof 4_kiv kgsky u,kd ]_ki kgsky u,kd df k;df jkpof g; Syfhlb ]awg Cgu ljki hHv hg Te 4hryx hjse 4Bx skg ywH sl>qe ]kgd j,kv hxake ke{ sl k;æso j,kv Xe gskjkel Sx paqgi j,kv sOm 4utH kd krgse hlju g; kuql suXkgüm ct hxy Iskp rqgc skd naukdsoof 4kxskg dZFkl hH ;®1u kjse tkv df ]kF k>el ;ü/ skd uoht 6hF Bky utH sd krgse hlju ]hF Bky utH sd kjhe skr ]Tg sukx rhx ]kujd ;®1u suekl sd hlk;üal ]naukdsoof df su k;æso kpskl 4hF Bkv jd sktal utH Xe pl k;æso3hF Bkv jd sktal utH surdf skr Te ]hF Bkv jdsy okH surdf skr Te 2,g hrL\i Bk[nf k;æso hHv Xgéqr `skg ljki sl,d eqr df hxy sugd Xe rhx suiv k;æso go skr 4,g krsn kuc kuskl jdwN skd Xkgsky Xkuskn skr jF®i ljki 4,g kgsky go ],g hrkt hd k;®g hd Xkjoukt sl sgsky ltf j? sd Bkld k; ,g kgsky kyko sukt k[j Xe g1xktwi go ],g kgj wN go kgsky skt df hrskg Cgu krpV hd rkc lb skd jF®i ljki df ,g k;x kgd g; Xe utH sd krgse hlju 2utH kd krgse hlju j,kv wlakv srdiI sd k;æso lm 4utH kd krgse hlju kxy suL\i Bkuql skd ]naukdsoof ]kuk;efk' kF hg lki 4k;kx utH dS kd krgse hlju sulm 4k;kx rhx rqHnv kL\c su k;æso lm udfsy 4kvqg Wq' klyt 4kxsyp kucf sdum skr 6krdl skg Cgu nac skr klyt cv ]Bx kv hH ckj' ]Sx kv hH ukegse ]Bx kv hH k;æso cv 4hg kxsyp skr ol®m ]aSkv u skr srkv Cgu cv kgd su ktkj ]ktkj skr ktkj udfsy 4kF kyko suskg ol®m akgt ]sF sjgO naukdsoof akgt kF kuk;efk' hg lki 2aw[sn ;®1u kd k;æso ]awg hlk;üal Te 4kxaMkt Cgu Te df 5k;nf jd jkdub sl sukt su naukdsoof skr3hxspku suekl sd naukdsoof go ]Xe gskjkel ,g Bkv hH k;æso dS df kxy kri skdum cr ]Bx skg hL\[ hL\kx jdkv ji jk} Syf sd sukt sy skd naukdsoof j,kv hd ol®m Bx kv >akl 6Xe j[fkv7j[fkv kxy kri3kxy kri skd naukdsoof ct 4Sgfkp hg huskg skr k;æso 4sd Xk;hn kucf Bqg hykohn skr go `k;D hg gskjkel skr Cgu 4kF jgkc sd >el hdlm skr g; ]skg sd k;æso kucf j,kv gskjkel dfXk;D 4hy koyqc hH k;æso 0lfzi dS sl h'kd sulm 2ktkj skr ktkj 4hlk;üal ,g krkt kdhjev 5k;df gskjkel dS Xe rxko¬ sdum su ktkj 4sF ukegse Xe jkojfi7tkj dS Xe ukF¬tkj skr ]sF sgj kt kdhjev naukdsoof 4,g kjse ekd jGf ]skvkv lki sjse eqr jkc dS 4Skv eqr `,g krL\i ZdG k;D sllb ]Skv jdskg jkol ji pl df ]Skv jdskg jkol ji Ow> 4Skv eqr `,g krL\i ZdG k;D ]Skv sl tkgt Bkog df Skv sl hL\kxy,c ]Skv sl,d 4Skv eqr 4,g Cgu hg rkc Bskd hd ke{ 6kxaWd u Te ke{ 4Tg Fkl sjkgéqr nZkoh'kv sjse 4,g kvqg rki_wl kd rfak∂ Xe uoht sjkgéqr sl hlm 4hd rkc hd uk;÷ sukgc sd sukv lki sjse 6k;yf sy lk;üal sukgc sd sukv lki sjse ]sukgc lb df 2skg hxkH;ü/ eqr 4,g Cgu rjWt hH Bskd hd suxake ke{ 2skxake re 4Bqg rfak∂ ]kvqg <jrakiW df 6slaG eqr Xe slskjH hlb j,kv 2,g kurb ji eqr klskjH kdlm3,g krsy jd klskjH hH ji Ow> sjkgéqr go 4,g krsy uqp Xgéqr pl go hH skr ]sky uqp slm hH Ow> eqr 2,g kr'oji hl u,kd Syf s dlm 2,g kehl k;D Syf sd ke®keji j,kv 4,g ke®keji go ]awg kgj sn Te skt 6,g r1ev go ]slm awg kgj sn Te skt awg krukt Te dfXk;D 4awg ji®r skd susn lk;üal Te hH skd _kiv sl _kiv Syflb 4,g krjkg sl r1ev jgt 2,g krjkg hg sL\skF sl jgt r1ev 4,g kgj kjH sl jgt skt sn jH sl r1ev hH skd _ki lm ct ,g hHr r1ev r1ev j,kv 4,g jckjc cl ]skg _ki kd hÈef df skg _ki kd suskl Syf sd suhi ]sjv 4,g r1ev r1ev hH skr sxskykP Xe _ki sd hÈef `kxskg r1ev cr sxskykP hg

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 79 egaP

2ZFhrekj ]eqr skg Cgu hH s/av j,kv 4Sgfkp [akv jxe 4sxaSkt skg uhy eg Xeltf j,kv Tg suc eg slltf ]Tg Sqg kn,i eg Xeltf ]Tg sgj ht eg Xeltf ,g jxkl kd 'kdzi ],g 'kdzi hg 'kdzi Gjr cl ],g jk/kv hg hu'skj ],g re√uf sl rq|of o®r¬fv kjkl df sxy sugd hH dufkK,o skr cv ],g kuc sl hu'skj o®r¬fv df sgd knl skr ral 4,g kuc hg sl hu'skj o®r¬fv kjkl g; 4,g hu'skj hg hu'skj 4Cgu hg ,g Nqd kF;üv sl jskH 4,g jskH hg jskH 2hxskg cd jskH ]ZFhrekj skNwi re 4kd [akv hd jrhH3awg |,o hH Te 5awg krgd sleqr Te hg; 4kd [akv hd jrhH3awg |,o Te df ,g kgd hH su duku 4kd [akv hd jrhH3awg |,o hH Te 5jkc7jkc Tg srgd 0qc 4k;nf tsH lki sd |,o s>qe ]Snf u <kezi s>qe skt k;df kyH suikv 4sF ZFelv Xe sukIqt so ]kF krxake <kezi slum skt Te df hF rkc hd jgkc sd 'o sdum df awg krukt Te cv 4rkc hF jgkc sd 'o sdum j,kv awg k/av Te df kF krskg Cgu htkj skd suuke jkdagv kjse ]kF k/av Te 2krjd k;D hH Te j,kv 2srjd k;D hH so jxe 2sF srgd hg dhO xsky sd oakx sjse sjkpsc j,kv 4krki u ukt hHd skd 'kdzi Te j,kv ]hrkt rhc srjd7srjd nkoof hg aw; hxntV hjse skr srkv u Xe oakx sjse ikv jxv 4hF ywH hL\c hjse ]skn jd Gke s>qe df hxake hGke j,kv kjxf ji Xk<jp sdum 4kpaqgi oakx sjlwn go 4hxskg hy jd suXkgüm k_k; hGkd Xe suhge gN 4sF sdqp kt oakx sjlwn 0qc dr cr ]gbx yq[ X[akv hdlm ct 4Bx Id go ]hF hykt ji [akv hd henkv lm Xe suhge gN 4k;x skg tkyb j,kv 4kxSkt skg jWt skr ,g krdl skg tkyb hH Nqd kd [akv jxv ],g |,o erO‘sJ go ]skvkt s y lki sd doht eqr~~~kF krjd kl®dfpf hdum doht skr srkt skg jkehc ct hHd 0qc~~~]doht ,g |,o kjse 2skvkt s y lki sd |,o hldf slb ]sjv 2,g krkt k;k>el Cgd skd s/av 6skg srk>el slb eqr df ,g Xelb hryx hjkgéqr 4skg ryx eqr 4,g krgd dhO k/av ]kgd su 0qc 4Xn k>el ikv ]kgd sl 0qc su Xkxsky um ]Tg Sky lki sdikv slb eg 4sxskdl kuc u w0qc s>qe eqr 2skg Syf P\x kui¥djfi hd 'kdzi Syf sd sujd 0lf k/av s>qe cl eqr df ,g krgd k/av g; ]srki jd Cgu 0lf skd 'kdzi eg dfawp j,kv 4,g [akv go ],g krjd 'sozi sl Zxke hg dS jrhH sjkgéqr skr 'kdzi 4krdl kt Cgu k[p ]krdl kt Cgu kvqN 'kdzi 4g krdl kt k[sn yosd skr 'kdzi j,kv 4krOm Cgu hg ykol kd su[sn Syflb ]Cgu Tg lki sdlb X[akv j,kv 4Tg , rdl kynf nko¬ slb u ]Tg srdl kynf /ax slb u ]Tg srdl kjd Z'i¬ slb eg u jxe 4aWd Z'i¬ skr kdlm ,g o®r¬fv s `udfsy ,g akgd 4awy [sn skr Bskd ,g iW 4awy uql skr Bskd ,g ufo÷ 4awy [p skr Bskd ,g nko¬ 4awy ?awl skr Bskd Xelm ,g /ax `'kdzi ,g akgd 2,g kr[sn jdktc skr ,g krkt sunhj[ hLag hd sl,i skn henkv ]sjv df ,g krgd k/av g; 4aw[sn jdktc slm Te ]skvky 4aw[sn jd[p slm Te ]skvky 4aw[sn jdwN slm Te skvky 5,g krgd g; 4sd 'kdzi ,g krgkp <kezi g; 4Sx dF eg 4srki jd Cgu 0lf eg j,kv Gjr dS k/av g; ]Gjr dS oakx kjwi 4,g kgj jd 0lf ryx skd Xkyko[akv eg 4Cgu hg krskg 'kdzi 5,g krgd g; 4,g h[j jd en Xe dku hd jH oakx sulb 4,g dd√kr kL\c ]kF dhO hH skr krskg hg k/av ],g k/av g; ]kgd suXkgüm 4Sky lki sd 0qc skd s/av dS xsky sd oakx lm 4sF sjgO Xe oakx dS 0qc 4,g krdl sn Xyhyn jktg k/av j,kv 4,g krskg 'kdzi df suke sl,d k/av 4sxXkg srgd Ow> xsky `,g krdl skg sl,d skr krL\i Cgu Bkuql s>qe ct 4,g krskg rhxal df Cgu hg kruke Te 2rhxal 5,g krgd kjgc 4Tg srskg chtv sL\c sdum uæzi udfsy 4Sgfkp ukd skd sjgc ]Sgfkp [akv skd s/av `syef sl,d [akv >qe df krNwi Cgu g; k/av `Xyef sl,d ukd s>qe df krNwi Cgu g; kjgc `rhxal kl,d 5,g krNwi henkv kjgc `,g s akgd 'kdzi 5,g krNwi henkv k/av 4Tg srxy uæzi ryx Xeeg ]Tg ryx eg 4Tg srNwi uæzi ryx jlDv eg udfsy 4skxkt ]skysk[ [akv 4,g hg Bqg skr jskH 2hxskg cd jskH df skg sgj Nwi k;D eqr 4,g lkjkge ],g lkj roæk' skr akgo 4ysr ucf hrkc ucf3sr>qc Cgu hHd skt Tg syt Shn akgo 4,g hgj gc hr¬e ]Tg sgj kt Skuqxuqx rhx ],g hgj kt Bkx xkG skr akgo 4,g hyskg knl ],g hykohn knl skr akgo 4,g Z;erfsk;† cl knl skr akgo 4,g xext cl knl

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 89 egaP

4,g krxy kjqc skr Skxt Bskd Xgéqr hH Xe nCu <jk/kl `Skv sl,d skr hH Skv nCu skr ]Tg srjd ekjkv jH unf j,kv Tg Sx skg 01o 4hrkv Cgu nCu skdum nq[~~~srsn suskl Cgu skd Xkjlwn eqr j,kv `Cgu df sxaSskl hH syko jkc[v j[fkv `Cgu df sxaSskl hH syko/wn j[fkv 2kyko/wn kd akgd 2jkc[v kd akgd rkj stc skn 4Cgu hg cyre Bskd kdltf Tg srNwi ykol klsS j,kv 4Tg srkt skg jtfkg jdkv rDosc7rDo 4Tg srgj Sdf uk'sji skdeg dfXk;D ]skvkt sy kuwi skdub df~~~hF hxy sugj akg; krhl~~~sF sL\i sNhi sd krhl xsky sd Bcac skr ]sF srgj Bcac 4Tg srgj Sdf ukj,g skd s y¥gske sjkl so 2Tg srdl dQ sl hldf so 2Tg syko sudQ Bskd so jxe `Cgu Xk;D hrdskj skd rfi suiv df xsky Tg srk[ ukt hd krhl jxe ]Tg hdD> Tg sr>el xsky dfXk;D krgd Cgu Nqd Bskd skr slum~~~2k;kv Cgu jkc[v dr hHv df 6Cgu df k;kv kyko/wn df skNwi jdkxt skd hldf rkj stc skn `Cgu df k;kv kyko /wn df Tg srNwi so `Tg sgj gd k;D ikv rkj stc skn df kxsNwi 4sxXn kxt jdkt skd syko yxc ]sxaSkv Om rkj stc skn 4Tg srgj srjd ukj,g skd Xkxsky sd lskL\i7lki so 4hdD> Tg sr>el xsky 4so Tg henkv sd t,ke huiv kjt ]Tg rfi sdlm 4hulfk;üal hjkeg ,g krhl~~~ 4kjse jwld 5,g krukt 4Gky[f sd Xkyko sukyif jgt suiv kyskc Cgu hH nç' dS udfsy ]k;x je jdhi jgt rkjdql 4Tg sgj jd k;D s; df ,g Cgu hg kri Xgüb 6,g Cgu jwld Bskd kdub Xelb ]Tg sgj jd skt s; ]kusn jd ke{ skdub 2qHzi sg df kgd rDo srje su llht skr Syflb 2Tg srdl k;D hg jd j,kv w0qc 4,g Cgu kd Xkvw0qc 4,g kd Xk0qc jwld 4Cn ak;yfkx knl suXkgüm skd Xk0qc 4sxXjd k;D skr sxXkg u tkjku ]Sx paqgi sukxt skdum eqr j,kv sF srgkp kugj skl j,kv jdsy Iojd dS hHv so 6sxskn jd rjflw/yw/ skdum ]sxskn jd rwHhe¬H skdum ]suXkgüm Tg s[j sktal sl cd7cd3sxskvkIef suil sdum ]sxskvkxt skd Xk;skl 4Cgu kjkgéqr ]kd llht jwld 4su llht kxskg k;df tkjku 2hn sn hywl sL\skF hg slsS skd llht sueqr 4Tg srskg tkjku ji lm ]Skxt skt j,kv 6Tg srjL sl suxkt skr Tg sr[sn suil xsky sygi 2Tg Sqg ;®l Cgd suil 2Tg Sqg jkdkl Cgd suil 4lc ],g krL\i hg Bk[nf kvqg krskg jkdkl 4krskg Cgu jkdkl hHd kuil Bskd dfakykg3,g krL\i Bk[nf chjd sd suskg jkdkl kuil df ,g k;kv kd,ke skr cv 4skn susy skl j,kv skr ykl jkp7skn hHv 2kd sukxt ,g rDo Bskd g; 4hg sxXkg skr tkjku so skr ]sjd ''fskd hd sukxt skd ekj uohtxt ckc Bskd sl,t cv 4kxaMkt skg rfi≠I‘kj cv df ]kxaMkt skg h_aeuk/zi df ]Tg sgj kv chjd okuqp cv df ,g k[j kuc w kuil dS sulm ],g kuskg rfi≠I‘kj skd hldf sl,t cv 4Tg srIwI suil so skr skxkt 4;eq/e ]jdrfhzi ]jq/e ]e<√o¬ 2Tg Syf sktal suil sl rqgc Xe nCu huiv su rDf;ø ds;®zi dfXk;D `Xk;D 4kukxt skd Sqg Sskl ,g ydæfqe hL\c udfsy Skxt u,kd skd Sqg Sskl Skv jed kr wlsx sd rkj 2skxkt ],g skr gcql ]lc ]eqr skg Sqg Sskl 4k_Zk;rav ]ueZxrav kd ZktM ]Cgu ZFv j,kv Nqd kd uk;÷ 4,g iW hg kd uk;÷ ueZxrav kd ZktM 4sjd <e∂al jrhH ZktM hg; j,kv skjd nac skd Xk[akv ub kjt cv `k;D k;ki ]k[sn rqgc sueqr sl Xk[akv Xkuskn s; 4,g hGkd [akv dS skr ],g dS ],g r,}v jrhH dfXk;D ],g hGkd [akv dS Syf sd su[sn skd jrhH 4,g Bqn ],g r,} ],g }a} jgkc dfXk;D ]Tg X[akv skn Syf sd su[sn skd jgkc 4,g krkt yq[ _su kjlhr3,g _ke dhrzi ]Cgu ,g _su kjlhr Bskd3_su kjlhr skr sxy suI,ky jrhH ZktM hg; ],g hgj kt jgkc s l Xk[akv skt ZktM hg; df ,g kujd hg kurb 4lc ]rkc ,g Bx jrm sl rf1e¬ hjkgéqr g; ]jrhH ,g hrdl hH I,ky g; 4,g hrdl I,ky hH jrhH kre{ hd su[sn g; df skg srkt hg ywH eqr j,kv ,g hrkt skg 0ckv hg jgkc kre{ hd su[sn ]skg sr[sn jgkc hg jgkc eqr 4lc ]xsky Tg s[j nac [akv ZGlf skr jrhH 4,g krskg kn,i k/av Bskd sl jrhH df ,g k;kv Cgu Xe su[sn sd 0qc hldf dr cv j,kv k;kv Cgu Xe su[sn sjse skr dr cv 4Cgu hg krskg kn,i k/av Bskd sl I‘f1n hd jrhH

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 99 egaP

~~~sl,t ,g jwn ygfkl kd 'skg 4Tg srgj Sskl eg hH jd ykI skd Xk;/fakv cl j,kv XkukGwr cl hH jGf jxe 2Tg srOm ukGwr surdf j,kv ak;/fakv hurdf Xe nCu j,kv hurdf ,g t\s[eqrkyr nCu hurdf ,g tsr hYu hd lakl 2Cgu hHv jxe ]akgo sxXy sy Iojd j[fkv ]h'kd sxaSkt syp df 6kd ke®keji rDo srje sxXy jd <je¬ df 6Xe sikP\qc lk;üal sxXy sy 5Tg srgd xsky 2Xe nkc sxXy xkt ]Bx s; ]Bx s; hxntV 2skn susy jd hjwi ]Tg aSklîhHv ]Tg aSk{akdkv hjse hHv Nqd 2skjd ckj[ nCu hjse re ]skjgO 5,g krgd go skr ]skvkxt ]skjsk>d> jddskj skd hldf akg; 6sl htsr ,g hgj kt hxkH hxntV akg; ~~~hurdf ,g t\sr hYu hd lakl Skxt u,kd skd Sqg Sskl SkOm u,kd jxkx hd nCu knwcQ7S7ekt hr¬e hd cko“ knwl7S7rgduf ak'hji7S7G¥qt knwux7S7gke Cehl7S7jd,i euc' hd nCu Iojd hd ywG eykv kd t\ku7S7cko“ sd u¬qg Skxt u,kd skd Sqg Sskl Skrl u,kd Xe udF hlsS sl,t ,g jwp hukot sd dF sl,t ,g jwcte akg; r¬ht sl,t ,g jwn ygfkl kd 'skg hurdf ,g t\s[eqrkyr nCu hurdf ,g tsr hYu hd lakl Skxt u,kd skd Sqg Sskl Skv jed kr wlsx sd rkj 4Tg srL\i ewyke srIwI uîo¬ ],g krL\i ewyke krIwI ekJof 4,g hrskg ewyke hxtkjku hH skr ]kusn kxt df skg kgd hg sueqr ,g krdl skg ]kxSkxt Bskd hH Xe nCu <jk/kl 4hd ckj[ nCu hdikv ]<jkdv ]rDosc ]k;kxt jkc skn skdikv skr <jkd sd suywH hlm 4k;x ywH Te jGf 2Cgu sOm ikv ]k;kxt skdikv jkc skn7skn 6aWd k;D hH Te ]Sjfd Gke df syskc so skr k[sn jdkt skdum suTe skr kOm stc rkl Te ct 2Sx hg ywH so stc paki j,kv 4aMkt ywH jGf Cgu ]aMkv kIiuf hHv df kpskl suTe ]sd dO,c7Lan awg krjd ekjkv kL\skF Te Xe phc df kgd suXkgüm~~~df kgd suTe 4k;kxt s>qe jGf stc jkp 4awn kxt skdikv sygi sdlm aMkxy dO,c7Lan sygi df kgd suTe ]Xe sukxy dO,c7Lan aMkt u ywH Cgd Te df kgd suXkgüm 2,g huL\di hL\kx hd stc gN s>qe ],g jsn rqgc hHv `,g rDo Bskd g; ]BkH ]kgd suTe 4k;kOm stc uhr sygi s>qe jdkv suXkgüm 4kusn kOm stc paki ]BkH df kgd slum skr hF huL\di us≠I stc gN kGn dS s>qe 4xsky srsn gd sl ukoygi skr ]skg kukt Cgd gcql ]hn¥t skg huL\di us≠I hH skd hldf 4sF srjd Wq' kukxy dO,c7Lan jdOm sl rkj stc hg uhr so 4sF srgj ukoygi dS Xe lskL\i sjse skr kF krgj Xe jqiyct Te

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 001 egaP

krkty j,kv krkyOb k;kv u,kd g; ]k;kv u,kd hjkt kl wgy Xe XkOXkg hjkH sIskii sd Xk[akv hjk/ hd s'u Xe Xklakl hjkr rgkye si sjgsp 4scwL Xe nCu ]Sskl3Tg rkt jtqx sl lki sd Xk0qc 4Tg r¬e Xe suiv7suiv ]Tg Ssk[ Xe suiv7suiv xsky `,g kr[sn u,kd `,g hL\i skdldf s 2sL\id sd xaP ldf ]tkojf kl u,kd 2sL\id sd suket ldf 2hrskg hy jd skr hjr¬b hL\skF ji XkL\id ed sl ed df kL\i Bk[nf g; hH Xgüm 2syef slsS skr syef hH syko susn uk;÷ 2hrskg hy jd skr hjr¬b ed sl ed j,kv 2Tg Sqg sugi sd suket ldf hH sL\id jxe ]Xkg hH Bskd ]kgd su sjlwn `Tg aSkygfe u,kd s; ]BkH sjv df kgd kurb jH suum ]sF sgj hi ;kp sO,c ji ycsI dS skt su XkP\wc skn ZGlf 4k[sn Cgu su hldf jxe 2xsky sxX[sn skr cv df Clq? Xe yIskg jnav jdskg u≈u Xkuskn ]Snf dXG sL\id suXkgüm 4,g krdl skg g; Xe kdhjev jxe 4Xkuskn Tg k;P\fqc hd ykl hl¬v 4kxskg hg kujd r"√dkv uk;÷ kd Xkxsky 4kxsL\i kuk[nf sdjd Nqd ]k;kv kl¬qx kurb skdum 4,g hL\i rljqG skdldf 4Tg r¬e Xe s'u suiv7suiv xsky 2Cgu hg kr[sn Bskd `skg hl,d Sgfd ]jkd¬eu df krgd Cgu hH g; Bskd 4krgd Cgu hH 9skyg8 Bskd 2Cgu hg kr[sn Bskd ]Tg srjtqx ]Tg srkt ]Tg srkv Xe yIskg 4Cgu hg Tg eg sl,t Tg sgj jd jkgo;ø gjr lb xsky df k;kv kl¬qx kurb skdum unf dS j[fkv 4Xn uk;÷ xsky ],g krjd k{akdkv hd uk;÷ k'seg jkdagv dfXk;D 4Tg h[qn hL\c sllb aSkygfe hP\wc so 4Tg srskg sdIv ji hukot uk;÷ sd Xkxsky `k;D hH sn uk;÷ Bskd 4krsn Cgu uk;÷ Bskd ji um 4Tg Bqg hjgO Fkl dS aSkygfe hP\wc skn Xe yIskg dS hdhjev ]kuql suTe 2,g krL\i skdldf Bk[nf Nqd df skg Xe nCu hlsS eqr 4kxskg kL\i Cgu hg Bk[nf Xgéqr jxe ]sxskvskg Sx jtqx sl chjd sd Xk"Qqi0qc eqr jkc hurdf7hurdf ewyke u Xe k_k; rauv7rauv3skg kvqg u kuyef sl nhjG hldf ]sl wnkn hldf ]sl dwye hldf ]sl jhcd hldf hHd kjkgéqr df krdl skg Cgu klsS Xe k_k; rauv7rauv ]skjd lkoæof3skg Syf yef hH sl Xk0qc eqr Xe h'skgsc hlb j,kv 4,g Bx skg rnkv hjkgéqr hd sujd rxfF¬ 4,g kykI Xk;nfl sueqr slsS 4sxskykI tskj7tskj eqr 4skg srkt syp sykI ji yd er 4hrL\i Cgu Bk[nf gcql Syflb 4sxX[sn yd jGf ]sky skl skr tkv 4Cgu kyko sukv lki suiv tkv hHv g; 4,g q jwn rqgc kjkudf g; 4awg krdl skg akgd Te ]aSk{akdko®ge hjse ]aSkulko hjse ]aSk{akdkv hjse ]aSkrZFelv hjse ]aSkehl hjse ]henkv <jk/kl Te udfsy ]jkrov sd ke®keji <‘Î sxXkg Sx skg j,kv ]utf jhokge ukeZ/o sxXkg Sx skg j,kv 0qc ZFk0lf er,kx sxXkg Sx skg 2oHalv skr g; ]awg krdl skg Te udfsy ]kxskg k;x skg Bskd ]akg df ,g krkv klskjH hg; skr ]k;df hH klskjH sdjd reégf rqgc hHd jxv k; 2,g krdl skg Bskd Xe pl 0qc df ,g krkv hg sL\skF klskjH ji ]skg s ruql Xrkc hd Xk0qc eqr 4,g kiNf Xe /aq/ ]krL\i Cgu hH Bk[nf ],g jwn rqgc kd 'skg ygfkl jxe3Tg ukGwr ]Tg ak;/fakv df kuke3skg Sqg sjH sl Xkuil ]sl ukdF skg jwp ]skg Sqg sdF eqr df ,g g; ykol 4,g Cgu kd gcql ykol Skxt u,kd skd Sqg Sskl Skrl u,kd Xe udF hlsS sl,t ,g jwp hukot sd dF 4skd sugj hcwL Xe nCu ,g jwcte sl,t hxntV j,kv sl,t ,g jwcte akg; r¬ht 4kd 'skg kjkudf ,g jwn rqgc

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 101 egaP

4,g ZkNπwe dS ],g h'skgsc dS 4hrskg ek' gcql hg slsS 4hrskg eker zem hg slsS j,kv 4hxskvkrNi jGf yd j,kv hxskjd /sk∂ eqr jGf yd j,kv 4,g krskg rDQuqi hH kokrNi ],g krskg rDQuqi hH /sk∂ 4,g kukjqi hH kokrNi ],g kukjqi hH /sk∂ 4,g kvqg kokrNi jGf 4,g k;df /sk∂ tkv jGf 2k;x skg rqgc ]Cgu cv ]Cgu cv df k;yf hH ;Z<uf jdkrNi jkc jg j,kv hH SkrNi sdjd /sk∂ jkc jg j,kv kF k;df /sk∂ hH Xklji ]kF k;df /sk∂ hH yd 4Tg hrjgskn XywH hgo7hgo Syflb 4skg Xe 'skg eqr df ,g rfakzH ZGlf Xgéqr 4,g hrskg rDfQuqi Syflb ]rfakH hd _a; ,g krht ;‘que 4,g hrskg rDfQuqi Syflb ]Xe h'skgsc ,g krht ;‘que 2rfsk;†

`Cgu Xk;D kr[hl Nqd sl XkywH huiv ;‘que df awg hrgkp kuukt Te 4awg hrjd jkc7jkc XywH hgo7hgo 4awg hrjd XywH rqgc Xe uoht Te ]sk'skv sjk;î

4,g kgd .ejnaql .eo'f .e;®l ],g kgd nauknpπfl ],g kgd ke®keji sueg hg slm 4naukv kxsyef Xgéqr Cgo ]rfak' hxsyef Xgéqr Cgo "skral kxsyef Xgéqr Cgo j,kv 4skyp Gjr hd L\t cv ]skyp Gjr hd ywe cv ]jgkc7jgkc sdqp gc rqgc 2skn sugc Gjr hd h_skxax skd kxax 2sktsk[ skd rskÛ suiv 2skvkv jrhH `sxskgj scwL hg Xe Xkvk{akdkv hd jgkc j,kv dr cd `k;D k;ki ]Syf yp rqgc jgkc 4skyp jrhH 2ZFhrekj 4,g nwt,ke jrhH sjkgéqr knl go j,kv 4,g jskH hg kuukt skdlm j,kv 4,g kuxkt hg kuxkt Xelm 4,g klsS Nqd ]Skv u Xe Xknç' ;hupZoufv `,g k;D akgo jGf 4,g wr u ,g Te u akgo 6,g ñnl u ],g ñex u akgo 6,g rkj u ,g unf u 6,g >akl u ],g gcql u akgo 4hg dS skr akgo 4,g kF¬ov }g}uf skr jrhH jxe 4,g hrskg gcql ],g hrskg >akl Syflb 4,g }a} kd thp jg skr jgkc 6kd sikP\qc ]kd hukot 6kd kriWqd ]kd Z;nTkl 6kd ñex ]kd ñnl 6kd q;®1e ]kd uoht 6kd 'kdzi ]kd sjs/av 6,g }a} kd thp jg 4,g }a} jgkc dfXk;D ],g hrskg rkj hHd ],g krskg unf hHd skr jgkc ]awn kjgskn jGf 4,g hg knl j,kv 4,g skr jskH 4,g skr gcql 4hrL\i Cgu Bk[nf gcql Syflb 4ro_a; ]Tg sgj kt syp lc Xe Xkvkui¥d hd ;‘ofH k; scwL Xe Xk;rf1e¬ hd rhrv huiv eg ]uhy Xe Xkjkpof suiv eg ]Ssk[ Xe Xkuil suiv eg ]Sdf nac X[akv huiv eg ]'skgsc eg jxe 6,g krkt jH 'kdkv sl Xkjkr7nakp 6,g krxM tjwl 6Tg srkx rhx h{i ]Tg srkt jxf ]Tg srkt kygéqd ]Tg sry[f ywG 6,g krkt skg ralo L\>ri ],g krkt skg L\>ri ralo 4krL\i Cgu Bk[nf Nqd Xeg k;kv u,kd g; ]k;kv u,kd aMkuql js' sd cyfkx aMkNcf Z'G kd Xkdyi aMktl xkjpf sd XkywG aMkouc yge sd Xkjkr k;kv u,kd g; ]k;kv u,kd kruql Igkv hd thp jg kruqp kjkud kd hjkl kruqc Xckduf si Xklakl kruq/ jl krL\m ypakv k;kv u,kd g; ]k;kv u,kd krkL\m xaj kd XkywG krkuc ywG skd Xk;yfd krkej' j,kv krkjrb

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 201 egaP

4,g Cgu ywH Nqd Xe Xkrkc hl rqgc 4,g hg; Bkpl 4awg kruke XywH Te Syflb ]Tg srgd xsky ZGlf Tg Cgu XywH XywH hl rqgc df k; `Tg srgd xsky kurtf ,g kjH sl XkywH hurb X e pl go ]awg kgj ht uoht Te skt df skjd ;Z<uf kdlb skr sygi `Cgu k; hH ,g ywH go ]Tg srgd sjlwn sltf ywH df kujd g; jkpof skr kygi skr 4skg ywH go df ,g Cgu hjWt ]Tg srgd ywH sltf sjlwn ]rkc skr hygi `ywH 2rfsk;† 4,g hrkt hyp hrskg u?l rnkv hg; j,kv 2,g rnkv hd sujd hg /sk∂ Xgéqr skr tkv j,kv 4,g krkv tkv ],g krkv hH ct 4,g oHalv yd Cgu hg krkv `Cgu k;kv hHd yd `cd hg kxSkv yd jxe 4sxXjd u yd udfsy ]dhO skr /sk∂ k;x kv tkv cv 2sky jktqx ],g dhO ],g skt cv df skg srgd eqr skr tkv j,kv 4tkv cr krkv ct 4Cgu krkv hHd yd j,kv 4tkv sxskvht j,kv yd sxskjd dhO udfsy 4sxXy jd dhO cl df skg srjd kui¥d hd yd j,kv Xe h'skgsc skg srht eqr skr tkv 4Tg sgj ht Xe Xkvkui¥d xsky 4Tg sgj L\i Bk[nf jxay Bskd u ],g kgj L\i Bk[nf ukGwr7h/akv Bskd Xeg u 4Tg sgj jd kui¥d hH eg ]skg sgj jd kui¥d hH eqr 4Tg sgj ky hH eg sl Cgo ]Tg sgj ky ikv sl akgt `Tg sgj ky s l akgd ikv ukGwr j,kv h/akv hurb ]kgd su uhYQlu skr `skg sgj sl akgd ky eqr jxay surb df kNwi su hjkd/fv 4sxXn ykL jxay kF,kp df kgd sulm skr 4kcwL cr kcwL cv tkgt 4Tg Xe sjr[ <kzi 4,g jda;H 4sueqr Cgu h[sn hHd hl,t ,g hlsS h/akv df kgd su hjkd/fv 4sxXn ykL hH jxay kjlhr ]kgd sulm skr 2,g Cgu h/akv <jk/kl Bskd h/akv df kgd s u hjkd/fv 2jxay kjlwn ]kgd sulm `sxskjd k;D jGf ],g jda;H rqgc h/akv df kNwi su hjkd/fv 4sxXn ykL Xe huki jxay kd tkgt df kgd sulm `sxskjd k;D ]Bx kv h/akv df kNwi su hjkd/fv 4kujkrm jxay kd tkgt kF ekd kdlm 4kvqg w;øjIab sygi sd hjd,ku 4hd hjd,ku ji tkgt dS su uhYQlu ky¥qe3kuI? hg hlsS dhO3,g kuql suTe 4Skt skg k[skp xaj ]hjdIGf u hxy hn¥g 4kxSkt skg hH utajskue r©qe 2sy hg [sn ]hxskg Cgu hH h[sn Xe uoht suwr kuIZ?qn hlsS ]hjk;î sy [sn df kxawgd sl hu®i huiv jGf 4kuyduf re suew? lki sd Xk;jfIi hd ysj gcql7gcql hHd hH jdywH skr sL\i hg kujd skd hldf nf; j,kv 4kujd re hjd,ku hd soysj hHd xsky eqr ]skpπc sjk;î sjse ]kgd su ykywnap ]awg kL\i Xe rchlqe j,kv I>a> hl,d Te ]sk[sn df kxaMk>el Xgüm Te jdkyqc skd Xkpπc ]ht `sxskjd k;D jdkyqc skd hu®i j,kv Xkpπc ]kNwi sl Z;pækv su hjkd/fv soysj ]k>el Cgu cyre kjkgéqr Te 4kxaMky kyqc skd Xkpπc j,kv hu®i huiv j,kv kxaMkt j? jdL\,kn Te cr `sxskjd k;D cr ],g kd xaj nsGl hH ykeW ],g Cgu hH kL\id yky Bskd lki sjkgéqr sky uke 4kxaMkygf gjr hd hLa> jdykduf _¬o hH Bskd k; ykeW k; ZI' sl,t kL\id yky Bskd Te ]ht `sxskjd k;D ]skyskc 6,g Xe sjr[ ukt hd Xk;_fk; Xkjktg `sxskjd k;D cr ],g Cgu hLa> yky rDo lm lki sjkgéqr sky uke 4k;nf ckot su ykywnap ]kxaMk[nf hLa> yky Te ]ht `sxskjd k;D eqr Xe rfF¬f slsS ],g hgj kv sl suekl us≠I dS kFr Tg hL\i hL\[m ak;jfIi df skg sr[sn eqr j,kv skg sgj ew? lki sd ubky soysj eqr gcql7gcql sky uke 5kNwi Sqg srsy w;øjIab kd ykywnap jkonheém Skv Syf sd hjd,ku su hjkd/fv so¥sj 4hxXkg skr XywH skr Cgu 4rf1xkt 5,g ;≤qi hg dS j,kv ZkNπwe 5,g iki hg dS Xe I‘f1n hd Xkyko suukt 4Crpc Cgu XywH skr skg <jxkt7e®kv hg slsS ]krgj Cgu kjs/av skr skg 'kdzi sl,t 4,g Cgu ;kim kd suskg kn,i Bskd kd XkywH Xe 'skg lm 4krOm Cgu hg ykol skr kd sukjgskn ]Cgu hg hxXkg XywH Xe uoht sjkgéqr jGf3sl a;o¬ ]Cgu sl j,kv hldf ]Cgu sl>qe ]Cgu sl ycfbkc ]Cgu sl ukjqd ]Cgu sl krhx3Skt yef Xgéqr jRm kdlb ]awg u,kd Te 4,g <jxkt dofr¬ko jkd®k{kl7e®kv 4Tg srgd <jxkt dofr¬ko so skd kF¬ov hF,kp 9;hjqr8 ],g kgd hF,kp ZGlf skd hF,kp j,kv rîfq"ql skd kF¬ov hjlhr 4,g kgd uîo¬ suXkgüm skd kF¬ov hjlwn 4rzxkt rFfdkFr 5Tg srgd so slm ]Tg srgd rzxkt eg skdltf 4Tg hgd ak;rfF¬f jkp hd kursp su Xk0qc 4,g Cgu kpπl <jxkt g; 4Tg Sqg sxkt eg df Tg Xe rfakzH lb eg

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 301 egaP

g krjd Xe jkc paki kurtf hdhjev skr ]sxskjd utskH jkc skn eqr ct 4sL\i u kØdb >skc knk;† ji Isi dfkr 4sky jkc , Bd ]sky utskH kL\skF7kL\skF df ,g hg; rpfm df Tg srgd dufkK,o Nqd dfXk;D 4k;ki jd Cgu ;r Nqd ukKof hHv 4,g dhO yqdycf xaP kdldf krukt Cgu Bskd j,kv 4Tg xaP suiv7suiv 4,g hxskH krgd Cgu Bskd 4,g Iiay krgd Cgu Bskd 4Tg srjd utskH jkc paki xsky Xe kdhjev 2,g krgj kxy Xe suhi hg suk[ ]lc 4skjd t,ke ]skvhi ]skvk[ 4,g Iiay 6,g hxskH knk;† kL\skF 5sxXgd eg jWt skr sjd utskH jkc uhr Bskd jxv akg; sjkeg udfsy 4Tg srjd utskH hHl jkc skn 4kruke Cgu hryx Bskd skd utskH jkc skn akg; sjkeg 4,g kgj jd ekd hryx henkv go df Tg sr>el skdlb ]sjd utskH jkc skn Bskd jxv 4Tg srjd utskH jkc hg dS skt Tg syhcd Nqd Xe kdhÌv 4,g kgj kt k>el ywH skd Xkrkc udf df ]rfsk;† kujd ;Z<uf g; skr sygi 4Xkg XywH so ]Tg srgd XywH skdltf df ,g Cgu hjWt skr 4sxXgj Sky¥> jHunf skr ]sxXOm stc uhr ukot jxv 4kgj u/ac go 4kL\i kuskl hr¬Znct dfXk;D 4sxXgj Sky¥> jHunf skr sxaSskl dr stc gN sP\wc jxv 4srdl Om stc uhr ukot u ]srdl skl dr stc gN sP\wc u 4hxsyp kri BkuOfd skdum cr `Xuke eg skr ]skn ky[nf sdjd g; jxv jdskg sP\wc 4skvky[nf jdskl cr stc gN skr hH eqr df skgd skr g; slum kjt 4Tg srkv Om stc uhr so hg <jkd sd suskg sP\wc 4,g dufkK,ov 4,g ryx yqdycf rkc hdum jxe 2skvk[ skr Ze' ]jdskg ukot eqr j,kv Tg srkv Om stc uhr jdskg sP\wc eg df ],g hrxy dhO hL\c sl jiM yhyn hdum 4,g kuql srgd skd Xkxsky suTe klsS 2skg sgj Om stc gN jdskg ukot eqr ]Tg srOm stc uhr j,kv Tg srskl sIa? uhr jdskg sP\wc eg ]sjv `,g rjWt k;D hd suskl sIa? Okv Xgéqr skr Tg srskl kIa? uhr eg ct df ]Tg srgd sl oHquv suiv sjkpsc sP\wc j,kv 4,g krkt k>el jkn>el skd Cgüm 4Tg sO,c Sket ktçd Xe Xkj? hg sP\wc 4su XkP\wc Tg s[yf _¬k' `,g k;D kjr[ udfsy 4,g k;∂fzi hd <Zkeuf nCu 4hgj Cgu rjWt hd nCu cv Syflb 4kruc Cgu sl jGf ]k;x IwI skl k;x IwI skt skr cv 4k;x skg nac <Zkeuf cl 4jrhH sjkgéqr hrjd Cgu <Zkeuf ZktM7uoht cv skr ,g hgj kv chjd r,ke j,kv 4,g hrxy suskg ed nCu hIskN ]cv ,g hgj kv chjd nCu hL\c 4,g hrxy suskg ed nCu ],g hrxy sukv chjd r,ke sl,t7sl,t 4,g hrkt gj sIa? skn ]sIa? uhr nCu ct ,g hrkv zem dS 4,g hrkt gj sIa? paki ]sIa? jkp nCu ct ,g hrkv zem dS jGf 4Sgfkp hg kuskl 4kxSskl ArokHo¬ sIa? rkl ]sIa? Okv rDf;ø ukot 4,g hrkt dQ ji sIa? Okv nCu ct ,g hrkv kF¬ov dS sxkv jGf 4,g hrxy suskg ed nCu hdlm sl,o7sl,o g krxy suskg kL\c sl,t7sl,t 4sIa? gjkOv jGf ]sIa? lhc jGf ]sIa? lBkc jGf 6,g krskl sIa? lBsr skr ,g krskg kn,i , ct kpπc jGf 4,g hrxy ZktM hjkl hg Xe lkdof ]Tg hrgj hjgO aSk;∂f hjkl j,kv 4,g krskg ekjof Xe nCu dfXk;D 4,g krskg rlfdof hg Xe nCu 4kxsdl skg kL\c go hg skr 4Sgfkp hg kuskl 4,g krL\i kuskl hg sIa? lhc,kp skd spπc Xe Isi sd ake~~~4skjd kxkt ed sl ed skr Xe Zrwgqe‰zc 2sIa? lhc,kp 2wpπc df srgd sd jsk>d> skr srskg srdl jd jxv 'sozi Xe Hx <xke®kge 4Cgu srk>el skdum <xke®kge df kvqg kNπv skr go~~~4,g krskl sIa? lhc,kp Xe Isi sd ake kpπc Z 4,g hrkt skg ed nCu hdum ]Tg srkt skg 01o xsky hg sl,t df ,g hrskg k;D BkuOfd cv 4,g Cgu rjWt Bskd Xgéqr 4sxXkg ewyke syko sukdF ekd cl ]kxsxy u ue Xe ekd hldf ]sxsky ak;bkgét jkc7jkc 4sL\[m7sL\[m Nqd ]kIwN7kIwN Nqd ]kdwp7kdwp Nqd df sxskvki hg klsS jHunf 4hxskg ewyke hrkv7hrkv nCu ]hxXgj hdhG X[akv ]sxskxy sdF7sdF ]sxskgj lknm jHunf 4sxskxskH ek<jfi‘qn kdlm skr ]Sskv Om hr¬njct jxv stc paki j,kv 4skOm stc paki df ,g Cgu rjWt Bskd 4,g Zrwgqe‰zc hgo skr ],g hrIwI stc gN ArokHo¬ hjkgéqr nCu jxv 4skg sgj jd ywH hg Xe suuke klsS ],g ywH df g; rkc skr hygi 4,g Cgu hg ywH Nqd Xelb ]kgd sllm suTe `skg kjkdIqN sl ywH lb sl,d `aWd k;D Te skr 4Tg srOm stc uhr nq[ so 4skdl Om u stc jkp jxv hg skOm skr stc paki Xe rykg jg ]Tg srgd so j,kv 4krki Om Cgu sygi sd stc gN gcql skr Te 4krkt kOm Cgu Xe Zrwgqe‰zc df ],g hrskg sl>qe ywH g; j,kv 4skOm Xe Zrwgqe‰zc df Tg srgd htkrif sjse `aWd k;D Te df kgd jdkv sl>qe su doq; dS

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 401 egaP

4srhi Cgu hH huki rkj 4Cgu utskH _fkj jxe 4Cgu jNπe dS ]Cgu h[De dS Xelm 4kF La'hLad jvS j? kjwi 4skvkjgO re Xe j? skdum df sl Gjr hd Xk;ufqe7u,t ,g Bkv jc[ s>qe dfakykg 4kxaMkxy hH g; ]Skxy oakn sd gjr cl j,kv 4,g k/a/ kjse kÈl 4awg k;jfskIl Te df ,g krukt ukr¬qngV kjkl 4awg hjkvqt Te ]Tg srukt ikv df kgd suXkgüm 4sxXL\i Xe I>a> ikv udfsy ]Tg skr srkjgO s>qe ikv df hH kgd ji ZIskijvS slum suTe 4Cgu ∂Gf Bskd ]kgd suXkgüm hH Xe /skjof sd Xku,t sjkl 4,g Cgu hyk[ sl sjr[ kujd <_aeuf Xe j? suiv s>qe dfXk;D 2sdl kuc ukegse kuiv s>qe hHr 4sF hH henkv joreégf sL\c 4sF dS sl Xe Xku,t hu/ sL\c sl sL\c rO‘frfzi sd rjkH ]sL\c dS 4L\xwn ykyugskl3kF ukegse j? sd _ef dS Xe sRdyd Te~~~ ~~~g; kF kgd ct su jhokge j,kv 2kxSkt kyp Zdu df ,g kgj jd Cgu ikikge klsS Bskd skr ],g kgj jd utskH _fkj Bskd jxv skr 4,g hrjd utskH _fkj k;ufqn hjkl 4sxaSkv u Xe oakx lm hH so 2<je¬ kd ukoxH joæsutf jdO,c kujd cr `kxskg hysr u,kd j,kv kxskg ñtn u,kd j,kv kxskg jkep u,kd j,kv kxskg hxaH akgo u,kd jGf dfXk;D 4kxSkt kv nk; /wn kd hON 4kxSkt yp kri skdeqr cr 2skn k[nf jdklc hd Xku,t ZGlf hr¬c dS 2,g rfάal dk[ k;D skr Cgu 4,g rfάal Bskd hjkgéqr df kxawy uke Te skr3hd Xku,t ZGlf3skn k[nf jdklc hr¬c dS df skgd skd Xku,t kjt 4hxSkt skg hL\[ ydæfqe hL\c Xe Zxo¬ skr sxXkg srkt Zxo¬ sysdv hg u,t jxv 4,g BklB go ]kxsjd kl®dfpf skt 4,g ukeylqe go ]kxShl sL\id skt 4,g wngV go kxsjd Gkl kuk[ki skt 4,g u,t go ]kxsugi 4,g kgkyqt ukeylqe go ]kxsuqc kL\id 4,g jkep wngV go ]kxShl krwt 4skg ZFel Xe sujd ekd cl skt 5,g krskg ZFv kd rfάal dfXk;D 4krgd Cgu rfάal ]awg krgd skr Ze/ Te skd tkel7u,t Syflb `u,kd kxsnhj[ `skdldf sxskpsc `dk[ ]k;D sxskpsc jxe 2hxXkg hg Xukdqn Xe Zxo¬ skl 4Tg srdl kyp ukdqn jdO,c ji ukdqn yosd 6ekd kd BP\c u ]ekd kd jkg,ky u 6srdl uqc kL\id u ]srdl kxy hjkgqc u ]srdl hl srwt u 4srukt Cgu skr hH Nqd hu,t dfXk;D 2Xe Zxo¬ sxXL\i Xe ydæfqe hL\c cr hu,t j,kv 4krdl Cgu kt Zxo¬ Bskd j,kv jdL\skN skd Xk;uf,t ;kolf skr ]Tg srkt Zdu xsky sl sujd utskH _fkj jxv 4,g hrjd utskH _fkj k;ufqn hjkl 4srjd Cgu utskH _fkj u,t sl,t 4Tg XywH df Cn kL\di Xgéqr su Xkjlwn udfsy 4Cgu hg Tg XywH skt hxXkg hlsS skr Xthp r'rfzi scçu chjd7chjd s l Xe ,kl df ,g g; >el hjse skr ]sy nq[ ;Z<uf kuiv rDf;ø jxv 4,g kusy nq[ ;Z<uf kd uoht suiv Xgéqr `,g utsk;zi k;D sleqr skd k;ufqn 4,g k;yf Cgu kdsO kjkgéqr Nqd su k;ufqn 4skL\skN ∂Gf hdlb ],g hrgd k;D k;ufqn 4,g dhO hgo ]s[j Xe ;¬ue,kl knk;† ]rak' knk;† ]F¬o¬ knk;† skt Xgéqr 4sk[sn Gjr huiv eqr 4Tg nsH hH Xe Xkxsky 4hgl rkc hjlwn Syf sd Xkxsky Nqd ]hgl rkc hygi Syf sd Xkxsky Nqd 4Tg hrdl skg hgl Xrkc Xkuskn df ,g g; I‘f1n huiv hjse 4Tg Ski jd Cgu ;Z<uf so Nqd ji lb hHv 4sL\i u jskt knk;† ji k;∂fzi hd upki j,kv Skt pi kjwi utskH kygi dfkr ]Sgfkp kuskg kylkG kd sIa? Okv sl gN ed sl ed phc sd utskH skn df ,g kugd kd XkdufkK,o sjlwn Nqd udfsy 4Tg srgd dufkK,o Nqd klsS3,g hxsk;im knk;† skr ]Skt k;df jdIakc Xe Xkl¬gf sL\skF7sL\skF ]Skt k;df utskH kL\skF7kL\skF jxv 4Nqd ,g Cgu hryx hd sujd utskH jkc paki 4kxsy jd utskH knk;† 4,g krgkp kusy jH XrjWt hjwi huiv hg Xe surm jhj' skr sxskjd utskH jkc hg dS ct dfXk;D 4sxskvki sL\c eqr Isi sdum udfsy 4Sgfkp Cgu hg suskg Isi skr sdum ]Tg srjd utskH jkc hg dS ufqe u,t jcaxnf 4Sgfkp suskg Cgu sL\c ]Sgfkp suskg F¬o¬ hg yqdycf skr Isi sdum 4Tg sL\c Isi sdcl um ],g rkc hd hukj,g hL\c ],g krjd utskH jkc dS Xe kdhÌv kyhcd skt 4,g Cgu Z;pækv Nqd skr ]Skt skg kxaPsc jhj' j,kv Skt skg kL\c Isi kjkgéqr jxv Syflb 2hxsL\i hujd hjwi skr rjWt hd jhj' j[fkv 4sxskjd Xe jkc skn eqr kurm

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 501 egaP

;kp udfsy 2Xe jdDp Bskd Skt laG kGn dS 4tk;ç 0f1o∂p 6tk;ç 4sd suhi uw[ Tg xaP 4skr uw[ skg srkt hi sukN hg kucf 4srhi Cgu hH jdukN 4srjd Cgu ∂Gf Xelm 4sky lwp eqr slsS ]Skt kv sdlm Xe ykt ]skd h[De sy lwp hL\de s l,t skr ]Xe stai sjkgéqr Bskd Skt laG jxv 4srjd Cgu jdfGf rDo srhi uw[~~~skg sgj hi Cgu uw[ kd hldf ]skg sgj jd Cgu k;®g hd hldf ]skg sgj jd Cgu iki Nqd `Xk;D hg huL\skN 2hrIwN Cgu ;kp ]Xjd k;D df Tg srkt kv lki sjse 2Syf sd Xkrkc hIskN7hIskN ]Tg xsky uk'sji surb 2kvqg 9ytuoht8 Xe jsn hL\skF ]hi ;kp sueqr 4k;x j/m ]k;hi j/b 2,g krjd hg sL\skF hØdb Xthp dr ykl lhc Bskd jhj' j,kv 2Bqg rkc Bskd hH g; 4,g hrdl skg r,ke skr ]skvkt hi kØdb skdlm j,kv Skt k;yf jd kØdb jxv uIfskduf kdcl ub ];kp id gjkc dr ykl lhc cv~~~dr ykl lhc ]skvhi tskj ;kp id gjkc eqr jxv df ,g ed kurb jxe ],g uIfskduf Xelm df kuke 4thp "∆knuf hl,t ;kp cv 4awg kgj jd ywH ,g krpskl skr krhi ;kp Bskd 2skg srskg uk'sji surdf ]skg srskg rL\fkrzi surdf eqr jd>el ywH skd Xkrkc –q{ um 2,g ydæfqe kukxy cklgf kdutf df Tg Bqg BkL\di Xgéqr Xrkc –q{ slsS `,g ywH hylv hl u,kd df ,g krskg ydæfqe kukxy hg kri skdum ]ydæfqe kuk>yql skdum Xe L\hH hd r'rfzi scçu 4,g krdl kt k;k>yql skdum j,kv hxXpc XywH r'rfzi ln 4hxaSkt Id XywH r'rfzi scçu 4ekd kxSkt skg uklkv j,kv hxXpc XywH hl hL\skF rqgc cr 4hxjkcdS skn Ikd skr skd Xkvkr;üke um 4Tg aSkr;üke ZGlf skr Bd sl Xeum 4skg sgj jd Cgu eqr XywH hurm ]skg sgj jd XywH eqr hurtf 4rnkv hukjqi go ]rnkv go `sxskvkyqH sl,d skdlm 2hchc hg gN hdum skr Tg 4skg u I>a> huwukd Bskd Xe nkc dfkr `aMkt j? sd hchc hl u,kd Te df Stfhn krc j,kv rkc dS jdkiÎ cv 4sr;t ose;®l df k;nf jd 0lf su Xkxsky ikv 4Tg ri√el Xe kosl hd ;®l hHl ryknv j,kv lyfqi ]uk/ofal ]uwukd sjkeg df kvqg rnfaukv jdukt Te j,kv 4,g hrskg ;tof knl hd ;®l ]kyskc ky¥qe 4hxskg hgj jd jktrab kjkgéqr sl hckrsc hchc hjkgéqr ]skg srdl kt j? h'q[7h'q[ eqr cv ]uhYQlu skvkt ]kgd jdskg Ulzi su yhdo sd {i 4,g hrjd hjc rt†bkc skd ejftqe ryknv <jkd sd suyef u rwcl rîZk;i udfsy ]kF k;x k;kxy iskjkv kd Xk;nfk' gN ji ejftqe3hd k<"sk? jddIi Fkg sl jskt ji ycsI su 'h/k;k;ü uk}of 2skg Bx skg u hg rnkv go Cgd 4kujd jkpo√uqi hH ji lm ],g ryx df skg kgd hH skd rkc ltf hH su Xk;nfl ]ku[j yk;[ 4Tg hrjd kNhi kjkeg 4Tg hr[j sL\di Xeg Xrnkv hukjqi `skg sgj y> Syfldf k[ai ]Xe j? lb Tg Cgu hH Nqd ]h[De u ]jNπe u df ,g rkc Gkl7h/hl hurb skr g; `k;kynf Cgu Xk;D nk; s>qe su hldf jxe 2Bx skg ng 2Cgu kyko suy> k[ai Te cv 2ufqe7u,t aSkv cv 4,g dhO rkc g; df kgd 4k;nf dXG k[ai rDo hlm 2rnkv hukF¬tkj hukjqi `awg kgj jd k;D Te g; df kpskl hHd suTe u 2Cgu hg kgd g; sl>qe su hldf ]awg kry> Te k[ai skdum skr Tg srkv ufqe7u,t 2Bkynf nk; cw[ hH suikv ]kgd suXkgüm `skg sgj y> Syfldf k[ai g; ]jNπe u ]h[De u akg; ],g ukde La'hLad jvS ]kgd slum suTe 4sry> k[ai skr srO,c sukjd utskH 4Tg hrIwN sl ydæfqe hL\c Xrnkv 4L\xwn ykyugskl udfsy 4,g hgj kt Bqg Cgu ywH Bskd Xe sujd utskH _fkj skr skg Xe j? hytcf 2skjd u ∂Gf eqr ]kxawy Iiuf skr Xe {ske kxskg kuyef slum kjse hHd j,kv 4skg srdl jd utskH jckjc 5awg krgd sleqr sl Gjr hdum Te 4,g Cgu upL\v Bskd ]skg srdl jd utskH jckjc ],g Xe j? hytcf ct df sxXgd jWt skr ]aSkv cv jhokge jxv df awg krgd sleqr Te 4skjd re utskH _fkj ]kF kgd su jhokge skr 4ufkg hH Xgéqr 4Bx ukt hd sL\skde7sL\hd lm dfXk;D ],g hH de®klgV j,kv 4g krdl skg hH rDk"of utskH 4,g kjqc hH Syf sd ;ƒ¬ko¬ go 2Skt jxf hH Nqd ]jqxC> ]jNπe ]h[De ]sxskjd utskH , Xe sjs/av 4Tg srjd utskH hg Xe sjs/av ]xsky Tg srjd Xe Xkoakx Bd hH hHv sl,t ]sF srjd utskH Xe sjs/av xsky j,kv skr j,kv 6kF Cgu hH ysr kd hÈef 6sF Cgu Shn Xe Xkj? 4hF Cgu hytcf skr ]skjd re utskH _fkj df kF kgd ct su jhokge

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 601 egaP

]jkc dS k;yf jd /sk∂ dZowi'skg3hxskvkt skg rdfp eqr j,kv skjd dZowi'skg sjwi ]CykL L\skr Xthp suTe Xe /sk∂ s; ]awg kgj gd Xrkc hd gjr lb7lb Xe /sk∂ Te g; ],g kgj Om akvq/ kd /sk∂ g; ]/sk∂ kgj g ; ]awg kgj jd /sk∂ Te df jdskg xtl ]jdxkt sjwi jrhH udfsy ]skjd /sk∂ skr 6k;x kv /sk∂ sl,t 4skjd dZowi'skg 4hxsyduf hHd jGf skr kvqg uen j,kv 4kxSkt skg uen Xe sujd re dfXk;D 4skjd re df krgd Cgu hH g; Te 4skjd skd ywH lm dZowiuk;÷ hHr ]skg hgj skg ywH ct 4kusy re ;Z<uf klsS ]sxXjd Cgu yd 4kujd re kokrNi Syf sd ywH ds;®zi sl Xeum ]Xpc XywH hl hL\skF skt jGf 4Tg XywH df Tg Bk>el Xgéqr su XkP\we skt kuykL Ikd skd XkywH um skr sygi ]Xkg hrskg sleqr hH skt ]rfsk;† ]XywH 4,g hrjd kn,i k0J k0J ],g krjd kn,i gsnal gsnal 4oHalv 2sxXjd k0J ji eqr so df skg srpskl eqr slum ],g d' Xgéqr ji utf j,kv 4,g gsnal ],g d' ji sjlwn Xelb 4rkc skr hygi ],g Cgu klskjH ji s jlwn Xelb 4,g Cgu I‘f1n hd Qqxnl Bskd I‘f1n g; jxe 4de¬fdkv 2lyfqi u ,g hrjd 9Lsj8 hHd7hHd 2s; Tg xaP hg s d lyfqi 4,g dhO hH g; ]kgd suTe skr 4Tg srkt kv hH sl iW de¬fdkv hHd7hHd so df kgd suXkgüm ]Cgu 4hxaSkt kv jgkc Xthp hylv df Sx htkcskuof j,kv 6hxaSkt hn kcn Xe krhx skr hxXkg aSkd_fi he¥Gf 6kxSkt k;nf [j jdkiNf sphu sd jr¬cf skr kxskg ukekl kd gj,xo ;kp j,kv hxSkt skg BkGl hd sjed cr sxXkg srkv ct kcskuof skr 2,g k;kv /skc Cgd slsS j,kv 2kxawew? jdsy hL\dy Bskd sNhi sjkgéqr Te udfsy 4awg krsn /skc Te 4,g kujd slm go ],g kgj xy dhO skt skdltf 4,g ku[j cklgf kuiv ],g ku[sn Gjr huiv skd rDf;ø ds;®zi 4,g Cgu rjWt Bskd df kgd suTe `Cgu df Tg sr[sn ikv ]jdkt Tg sr[sn tskj eJkv kjwi htkcskuof df sF sgj gd jdkv sl>qe rDH dS sd kcskuof 2,g hrkt hd kla'zi hdlb udfsy 4Sqg ycsI¬akd Lsg Bskd ]Sqg u kcskuof s; 4Skt h[j jtu sIa? lhc,kp Xeltf 4kvqg kuk[yst kvqg u eJkv kd kcskuof so 4Tg Skv Xe 'kyr hd kr_aro¬ ]Tg Skv sujd <jrakiW skd uoht suiv so 4,g o®;fknjRm Nd kdum ]Tg Skv skt xsky j,kv 4,g Cgu ji Xkxsky klskjH kurb `k;D utsk;zi 4awg k;x Cgu jkc dS Xe lGfŒkv q d eJkv 4awg k;x Cgu jkc dS hH Xe Xkukde sd eJkv lb 4oHalv 4kxaMki Cgu P\awP Te skr skd hldf ]sL\i kuyduf s suP\awP s>qe jxv 4Cgu kri s>qe hH kdlb ],g krgj Xe sjed ldf u,kd 4awg krkt kv jdOm akg; jGf >akl ]awg krkt kv jdOm akg; gcql ]lc 2Cgu hg k[sn skd eJkv lb Te dfXk;D 6hxskg hukj,g rqgc skdum skr sxaSkt kv akg; jxv xsky sd gjr lb ArokHo¬ 2jdkt7kt Tg sr[sn tskj j,kv Tg srkxy jdDp tskj kcskuof j,kv 2,g Cgu ther hd sujd Gkl lkLal j,kv 9jnfae k|of ukK‰zc8 5,g eku~~~,g Cgu ther hH hurb skd Xk;lfkoeJkv sjkgéqr jxv ],g Cgu klskjH hH kurb kd Xk;lfkoeJkv suiv jxv Xgéqr `su Xkxsky Cgu df hd BkGl df Tg sr[sn jddak> hH Xe lkLal jg ]Cgu klsS `Cgu df Bqg BkGl df su[sn tskj Xe sjed jg hd sukt ,g rjWt Bskd slsS 4Tg srkt Xe sjed dS jg jdOm tskj sokH kcskuof 4htknay[n Xe thp jg 4ArokHo¬ 4hxSkt skg knk;† hd lwlkt j,kv ed hd ke®kge jtu hdum skr ]sd eJkv sF Qqx h/akx ke®kge sl,t3,g Qqx skt kjkgéqr skr hxXkg Xrkc hlsS cr jGf j,kv 4sl,t k;yf sy kdsO udfsy 2,g kgj skg Cgu k;D7k;D Xe k;ufqn lb 2skn L\skN hg yk;[ sk>el jGf kd suskg 0q' sd ke®kv skr cr ],g hgj skg 0q'v ke®kv hjkgéqr sl suhi ;kp sd j,kv hldf jxv 2sxXjd huiv so 0fq'e®kv ]hi sulm ;kp 2Syf sd 0fq'e®kv 4sxXjd lkoim kd unf uhr so skr ]hi ;kp su hldf df ,g krkt yp kri ct skd h/akx ke®kge j,kv 4sxXjd jk;,r ;kp sdjd nac ktkojn ]sdjd nac kjed 6sxaSif jdiNf ]sxaSif skr ;kp xsky cv 4hxSkt P\c kuokHal hd Xkthp –q{ akgo ]sxskvkuc e;uf –q{ sd gjr lb akgt 4sF srhi ;kp hH sl hjskp xsky 4hF hrskg hH hjskp jGf 2k;yf jd ctx Nqd df sF sryp jdL\dv ]sF sr>el so ]hi Cgu ;kp suutf j,kv 2kxSkt skg ekd skr skvhi Cgu ;kp ]lc 2cv Xe k;ufqn spc Cgu skd sujd ekd sL\c Bskd j,kv sl,t 4kF rt√o kuhi ;kp Xe eJkv sd h/akx ke®kge 4skdum ,g Cgu krpV Bskd j,kv Tg srhi ;kp Xe k;ufqn hjkl q{Hf 0,kc udfsy 4,g kgj skg Cgu skr iki Nqd Cgd 4,g hgj skg Cgu skr ywH Cgd df skg srjd jkpof Xe suhi

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 701 egaP

Bskd slb 4kxstawx ji hoƒ1i hjkl rhx g; 4,g hrdl kt hd h<ko;‘ofH hdlb 4,g rpæfufql g; 4,g skd suskg I‘ofkel Xe uoht sd hlk;üal ds;®zi sjse ol®m g; 4kxspku skd ;®1u lb 4kxSkx yd Cgu tkv skd rhx lb hlk;üal ds;®zi kjse 4kxskg Idzi hH sleqr rhx g; sjh/7sjh/ skr sgj srkv sp[V 4skg srkv sp[V Syflb 4,g hgj L\i Bk[nf Xgéqr hjqlakc 4,g ;æ1nv dnko go 4Tg srskg sd dnko7hjqlakc skr rhx ]srskg Cgu sd hjqlakc rhx 4hjxXki hd lakc lc skr s[j u ji OXkv Bskd j,kv ]Skt skg hjqlakc skr sy [j ji OXkv Bskd ]hjxXki hd lakc hyski ]awg hjqlakc Te ],g kgj kv ekd s dlm Oad kjse 4,g rhx kd ke®keji g; 4,g krhxnoxH hg; skr skgd Xe Xknç' sjlwn slb 4,g kgj tc ji k<ho hd ;üw' g; 4,g kxkt sl ;üw' sjse g; 4,g kjHm sl r,ke hjse g; 4,g keüt rhx g; cr ]Cgu kgj skr Te 4,g kvqg kn,i rhx g; cr ]Ief k;x skr Te 4,g Cgu kjse g; hg rpæfuf 4,g Cgu kokn Bskd kjse ji rhx lb 4,g kd XkL\kgi ],g kd Xk{1o ],g kd Xk;{fi kurtf ,g kjse hg kurm 4,g kjkgéqr kurtf ,g kjse hg kurm 4,g kd ke®keji rhx g; 4,g Cgu kjse rhx g; ]nauk;®l `,g krky pC[ lki sdikv jkc7jkc s>qe skt ,g k;D rhx g; 4sl rhx sdikv awg rgfske Te ]sk'skv sjk;î

4,g d;Zk<uf hg 'skg 4,g Cgu ywH df ku>el skr ]sgj hjkt hH nkc sd 'skg jxv j,kv 4hF ywH df ku>el skr ]Skt skg nac <jkd sd 'skg ekd go j,kv skjd skd ekd hldf dZowi'skg eqr jxv ]sgj Xe <je¬ _wl dS 4skjd <{hjuf sl dhO sygi 4,g iki g; ],g ywH g; df kusy re ;Z<uf

l hn¥t 4sxskdl u xkt skr sxskjd knuV eqr ct dfXk;D 4kujd u knuV j,kv 4skjd sl r;dfyke huiv skr ,g hujd s hH ywH 4skuc nq[ dyfke suiv cv ]sd Xk_¬k' ]sd Xkj,kv ekyqx sdqp gj unf rqgc 4sky Xe Fkg suiv r;dfyke huiv 4,g ZFv hg; kd lk;üal 4skuc dyfke suiv 4Sgfkp hukIqt kre{ hd susy ;Z<uf suiv skd rDf;ø ds;®zi Syflb 4,g dofkHko¬ yqdycf g; 4kxskg knk;† utskH kd jwnte ]kxskg ed utskH kd syko sujd uik;÷v 4,g ÈH7utskH skr sjd utskH kurm jxv hH go ],g krjd uik;÷v Xe hIl√oufq; henkv skt j,kv 4Cgu ÈH7utskH go 4kxsjd utskH knk;† go ],g kgj jd rugse Xe rs[ sIa? Okv henkv skt cv 4Tg UHf aSkrd;æokv hd rDf;ø ds;®zi 4krdl jd Cgu ;r kjlwn Bskd krd;æokv hjkgéqr 4skg srdl jd ;r Cgéqr krd;æokv

hjkgéqr j,kv 4,g d;æokv kurtf 4lkoim u ]jkgkv rfv u 4Xe

;÷e dhO sd Xkuskn 4hxk;® u ]hxskH u 5,g ZFv

kd e;al 4Cgu xk;® ZFv kd e;al 4uyqral 5,g ZFv kjse kd e;al 4ku[j uyqral gxt cl Xe uoht df awg krgd s leqr 4kusn utskH kurm Syf sd jhj' ,g hjWt kurtf 4kujd utskH knk;† skr u 4jkgkv d;él 5awg krgd sleqr Te 4kujd re ywH hd uen 4kxSkt kel Xe xj7xj hjkgéqr go ]sxskvkcn hH skt 4hxSkrl kulkoekd rkj7unf skr ]sxsky kcn skd kulkoekd 4,g hgj kv nk; hd utskH g; <jkd sd lkoim ]skg Cgu ÈH7utskH eqr 2ÈH7utskH kl,d Te 2awg kgj pskl hd utskH df –q{ kl,d hH Te df hxskg ufky≈ Xe Rpf jGf 4hxSkv nk; hd utskH jHunf skr k;df lkoim ]hxskg Cgu rîfkzi Bskd hd gj,xo ke®kv 2hxskg rîfkzi hd ke®kv hL\c sllb df Xe k'kv lb k;yf jd lkoim skr sygi udfsy 4,g Cgu ;¥we de®fk;÷kv Bskd kdlb 4Syf sd ;ƒ¬ko¬ go 4ji gkyl hd dl®dfpf jxe 4,g krkv Xe >el ]skn L\skN unf skn ]skn L\skN unf dS utskH jxv ji gkyl hd dl®dfpf 4,g dhO skr ]skjd re utskH unf dS df sgd dl®dfpf hHd7hHd ]akg~~~,g kujd lkoim skr ywH dS cv 4k;yf jd lkoim df sl,t 4Tg srjd kn,i sl Fkg suiv xsky XywH Nqd 4Tg srkt skg knof sjh/7sjh/ cl ]gske ]Hsky ]/sk∂ df ,g k;efhd hlsS ],g kyd rqHnv hurb ],g rkc hL\c hurb 'skg dfXk;D 4kxskg Cgu /sk∂ kjkcskn jGf

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 801 egaP

3 g hrkv nk; rDfi dS hd hrjkv 4g rhg1xuv rgc7rgc e Syf dlb ]g kykL , a wa q q q T s , xj suikv >e ]Hi l xP cwtv ltf jkv 2jd Gke >e 4g e eJkv Aui e a s q q z s a s , X s q wa X q T tkv 4wxkae hGke e Syf dlb ]g kykc Ow> l ukoxH ue df hF hrIkspd o,nl T s , s s s T s q >e rkc dS udfy 4Cgu kri >e ]k;x kg urojfi ld cl g; 4g k;x ej s s q s Z s , , hH uk;÷ ref;uf jkv g krugi kyke ]_¬o djfx l uhge uhr e cv 4k;x kv , wa , s s T urojfi e>e dukpv nkc d kunf Nd 4k;x kyp liko jd u'n l Iduf Te Z X q s X q Z s 4g krjd uk;÷ ;∂fl ]kag df kF kyksc hg O> e kr ]ksg rjd uk;÷ df wa w T s s kNi hH uikv df dr kg; 4k;df sue hgo jkv 4hF hrdl ksg rîki krIduf hH w s a T , z r 4g kusy lk;ül s>e df wayksc Ow> e df kF ;kim hg dS lc Syf dlb 4Bg , a q T s q rxkt k{kadkv yci hd ujd uZ'n l dhntu jnav je nkc d u'n e upoi z z s s ss s Z X z ;elArki 4kF k;kv eJkv e "o rx rg uZ'n jdy k"kyHfv hd kë"o ]ukoxH z T Z q s s
sje skt sjkoqnekj

sk'skv

49Cgu Nqd Xe>qe kjse8 4,g kdlm cl 4awg kukgc ]awg Refuf ZGlf skr Te 4,g kdlm dcaqp ]Cgu <jkd sjse 4skg srkv syp sp[V eqr slltf 4,g kgj kyqc Xgéqr skt ]kxsxy suL\i Bk[nf hgo 4,g kgj kx skt kxsxy suL\i Bk[nf hgo ]kxawLi Cgu Bk[nf Te sjh/7sjh/ skr ]sgj srkv ]sgj srkv ]sgj srkv lki sjse 4,g kgj kx Bskd ,g u>ak> krtc sko rhx g; jkda> hd Xkvknv r¬enc jkr©j hd hukot hrkyOb jkt\ket\et\ db akguf Xeltf skg ,g u>ak> krtc sko rhx g;

,g uekn Cxaj sko rhx g; ywG sd ukG\jb yqx sd dkjnb ywG sd ukejv jgqx sd Xkdæv ywG sd ukeW sjH Xkg Xeltf ,g uekn Cxaj sko rhx g;

,g uokl 'dynf sko rhx g; jkgqG hd Xkyskc Clg sl dqtku jkdgp hd j;kr sd yB[\r jkgc hd ynf rjkcb slltf skg ,g uokl 'dynf sko rhx g; 4Tg s/av skt sxkHv Tg rqgc j,kv 4Tg sjgc skt sxkHv Tg rqgc dfXk;D 4,g k;x L\i Bkuql Xgéqr df skg hyk';≈kH,kl eqr j,kv 4hxaSkt uc ak;rf,kuqp /skjov cl 4kxsdl Cgu dskj /skjov

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 901 egaP

j[kv BkP yod ]lc g eeqr if|; s , X jxkl d cfN 2ugskeof uoH g 2ei 2ezsi s q s zs 3 g hrkv nk; rDfi dS hd hrjkv 4g rhg1xuv rgc7rgc e Syf dlb ]g kykL , a wa q q q T s , xj uikv s>e ]Hi ]l xP cwtv ltf jkv 2jd Gke >e 4g e eJkv Aui e a s q q z s a s , X s q wa X q T tkv 4waxkae hGke e Syf dlb ]g kykc Ow> l ukoxH ue df hF hrIkspd o,nl T s , s s s T s q >e rkc dS udfy 4Cgu kri >e ]k;x kg urojfi ld cl g; 4g k;x ej s s q s Z s , , hH uk;÷ ref;uf jkv g krugi kyke ]_¬o djfx l uhge uhr e cv 4k;x kv , wa , s s T urojfi e>e dukpv nkc d kunf Nd 4k;x kyp liko jd u'n l Iduf Te Z X q s X q Z s 4g k wa rjd uk;÷ ;∂fl ]kag df kF kyksc hg O> e kr ]ksg rjd uk;÷ df kNi hH uik w T s s w s v df dr kg; 4k;df ue hgo jkv 4hF hrdl ksg rîki krIduf hHr 4g kuy l a s T , z , s k;ül s>e df waykc Ow> e df kF ;kim hg dS lc Syf dlb 4Bg rxkt k{kadk a q s T s q z v yci hd ujd u'n l dhntu jnv je nkc d u'n e upoi ;el Arki 4k z s Z s a ss s Z X z z F k;kv eJkv e "o rx rg u'n jdy k"kyHfv hd kë"o ]ukoxH Auæi kygi T Z q s Z s z `g krky pC[ , lki dikv jkc7jkc >e kst g k;D rhx g; 4l rhx dikv g rgfkse e ]ukoxH s s q , s s wa T `Cgu k;D kr[hl Nd l kywH huiv ;‘ue df g hrgkp ku X q s X q wa ukt e ]g hrjd jkc7jkc yH hgo7hgo ]g hrjd yH rgc e uoht e ]ukoxH T wa X w wa X w q X T `hxksg cd jksH ]ukoxH 2Hi ]jd ke{ kd Xk;r¥fx hje Apæuqi q z X s s ]e uoht rHnv ]_lv g kt ]u/c go X q . w , s a ]e u/c Pn k/kac ur ksd dksy_f ji X a 1\ s w j[kv BkP yod ]lc g eeqr if|; s , X jxkl d cfN 2ugskeof uoH g 2ei 2ezsi s q s zs
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 011 egaP

k[n Cgu ulm kr henkv klsS ]kdOOf <{ dS ]kd>>f ykeyfxv 4g uk,d r s s s q a , w df g Cgu kri hH g; s>r ]g uk,d e df g kri >e df g krgd l>qr e jkv , q wa T , s q wa s T , 4g uk,d e df g Cgu kri hH >r n;k' df kgd ukgüm jkv lg 0c 2g ukd wa T , s q s X , s a q wa , e df g Cgu kri >r n;k' 2kt dQ ]{Hf g df k;ky¥pf hg l jn ykeyfx T , s q q s s w q a v 4;‘'f dum F Sx IN sNhi kyhe 4F ydv ksr pgi lki d ykeyfxv ct s s w X s s s s aqa s q a 0c 4Sx gj Nhi hH o ]g Iduf urb d 0c eg df ksd kxsky F rky[nf ]e q s s T s s q X s s X s uyp Fkl7Fkl F rjd oHuv ojkx ]F ryp Fkl7Fkl d 0c knl d{Hf kt s s q , s s s q q s 4hxS kt ksg kol hLkF `kxksg k;D H' jkv llb ]Skt kv ekd d hldf 6g kykoukt s s\ q , s s , s ksr jhj' g; jkv 4g lki je jhj' dS ]g rjWt hg hd dS lm 2hxSkt ksg , , ss , s hji hg k{kadkv hd henkv lb ]ksyp 6kxjxf hg lS ksr jhj' 4Sgfkp hg kukt k w s s s s r >e ]kxSkt u kago Bksd 4g kri kr cv ]kF krdl kt hH l r¬kj jln e n s q , s s s s w T ;k' ksr krksg u kri jxv >e ]kgd u 0c `g rjWt k;D hd ukt kago ]ukox s q s q , s H df hd kuFki ksdum hH u kv{Hf d 0c `kuykL k;D e jr[ ksd uoht d Z z s X q s q X X s gku 4g ;≈k; uup udfsy ]g kcy kjt\ ]g kr¬kj kjln 4g Cgu klksjH Nd kd I , s s q , a , w , q ‘n lm 4l r¬kj lm aSkt re ikv ]kgd su kxksy d okax 4jtx l r¬kj lm 0c q s s X s s q s s q 4kF kgj kygf ksd ;†kj ji kydv 4kF krikad jFjF jdki jc[ hd hxntke sw s w , hdlm ]l _ke7kui¥d hdlm jd[sn lm hH Ikel 4k;nf jd nc kujtx u kxk s s z a q s X s y ]Sx kg nc r¬kj l kago ]kF krgj go e yxt ltf 4kF krdl jd hji hH s a s s X a w l ke ]g hpc hed hg hd dS jkv henkv kjk;®g klS go dfk;D 4hF hxy uj s a , , s X s L l ukt lki dlm hH ke hdlm 4hF hed hd dS ]jke xky cuk;üuf k,l ku s s s a s s s , ]g srgd 4jke xksy urdf eyke7u sulm 4k;x Li eku kdlm ykehyxv Syfl T s s w \ q a b 4kxwaugi jdkuc kyke hd k;yfxv hdum jdIkd unx hd kxksy jktg dS df X q a X Z X hF h[j k[ eld ulm 4kjk;®g kLc7l7Lc ]kjk;®g kLc 4kF kjk;®g ykeyfxv s \ s s \ \ q a 4g hrkt I? l huklkv pskluv 4Cgu hrI? hHd kr l upkl 4hI? kuI? eji , s s s s s s jk,v kF u hH kpksl 4g kvg ksd krgc e k;nfl7k;nfl ]Cgu klS ]ksg kvg hg , q X q X X X s q X q s gér klS 4hrdl kt hd Cgu h<ko;‘ofH hH Bkd ]xkxy ukv Iduf dlm er s s s s s q ukgc ldf cd ]kxSkv kokyc l r¬kj uktuv ldf cd 4g Cgu lS ]Skv e > s q s s T s s a X el sl dr ]Li h;k[nf l k[kv 4g Cgu yF¬ xke d Hi 4yp u hH kri géqr Z X \ s X a T w Z s q z s X 4Ski ksg u hH jc[ gér n;k' ]sxkvkt lG e ykt dlm er ld cd ]kxdG X q s a X s q s , s X ykt ji er sld cd 4;ænv ]jpkxv 4g e”l r¬kj d Hi 2hrjkH jd'hjkx q , 1 s T w s s q z a , 2Hi ]jd ke{ kd Xk;r¥fx hje Apæuqi q z X s s ]e uoht rHnv ]_lv g kt ]u/c go X q . w , s a ]e u/c Pn k/kac ur ksd dksy_f ji X a 1\ s w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 111 egaP

4hI? kuI? rHnv hg unf jln jkv q . s w , 4kvg r{ q fhn ykeyfxv lsS 4g krn e jk,v g _ki r ]xkae u k; xke r Akgd u 0qc 2Cg q a s wa s T , w s s a w s u hxke ue `kd sun k{hn >e g xP k;D jkv 4Bksd Cgu hiki knk;† l>e 4g a s T s s q , a , s q wa kjk;®g e ]kgd u ykeyfxv 4g krkv e >el hd kxky ed rgc hn¥t kurb T s q a , X X s q 2g rDf;ø kjk;î r ]ykeyfqxv 2Nhi je yp 4k;x kg hlk;ül kje r 4hn sn k{h , w a s ss s a s w n kr sue ]kgd u 0c 4kF ykeyfqxv {Hf cr kOm ]kF ykeyfxav kjk;®g cr s T s q a q q kF kd> ]hF u hxkae k{hn u ykeyfqxv 4g e 'kyr hd kxksy joreégf hg slS q s a wa X X s T e 4hn n k{hn ue ]kgd u 0c `g rgd k;D >e {Hf ikv ]kgd ulm 2kOm s s T s q T s X s q q s s ]ykeyfqxv {Hf Akgd jk,v k[j Fkg ji jlf dlm u 0c ]k;x d> e kX<jp a q s s q q X d 0c ]k;x jxf l Fkg kljG 4kxkt l k–uf hd k;nfl7k;nfl ykeyfxv slt s q s s X X q a , `g k;D dg eg kd uj , X s ke lm ]kXg rdl n u uoht eg ltf jkv `g krdl kytf hH ksd hICp dS ]sj s s s s , , ke xksy surb sur 4g kyd hg kyd hd suLks\t ]kF krdl jd hH kpπc Bksd ksr k w , uLks\r 4Sgfkp hujd Cgu hH rjt hd uLks\r kr ]krdl Cgu Lkt jxv ]kgd u Zq s s s\ s 0c `g hrdl kt hLkt ld cv k[k' hII 2ksg yxki rpæfuf er ]kykc ykey q , s\ s , w q s fxv 2n Lkt liko lb cv 4n jd hji jkv h/kv ]h;x kg hji k{kadkv h/kv ] q a s s\ s s w , s w lc ]kgd u 0c 4hn Ikd k[k' hji dS jk,v kljG kuiv k;kOm ulm `k;D R s q w s X s i ]kgd ulm 4n Lks\r Ri Nd ]g L[ eg phu dltf ]d {o lb ]kgd u 0c s s s q T s \ s s s 1 s q `k;D ]kNi sulm 4n jd hji go ]g klkKtf hje hl7hIkN dS ]jke >qe r d w s w , s s s s w f ygi dlb jxe ]Cgu hg krkv kF;üv ]g Cgu l e kykouxkH Nd e ]g Bg s s wa s X X s q T , q hg hId kr uZnx g; ]kuy jke cr gkp ct r kr >e 6Cgu hn¥t Nd ][n d s s s w s s q q s f kgd u 0c 4kljG k;kOm ]kOm ]jke yc ]jkd¬l ukji ]rnkv hukji hH jG s q s a s q q f udfy 4g ;≈kHkl ksr ]Skt yef kukt je e ks<jp d henkv lb 2Cgu ksr kl s , , X s t ujke henkv g; 4F gj ki Cgu kOm ]ksd ljG F rgkp kukOm Fkg dlm 4S , s s s s s s s x ksg L[ jdkv uekl yd¥cf 0c 4hF hd ri rkc 4kLi kupksl kd ykeyfxv s \ s q q s \ s q a 4g kvg kjgO e jkv g kgj yp r df wa q T , , w g krgd Syflb 4g kgj yp jkll kjkl kr g kgj yp ue jkv 4g hjgO jWt wa , a s , , , gn 4g kgj yp hHv ue kjr 4k;x dQ e unf lm ]kdQ ue kje unf ltf df s , s T s X k;D 6kag df kgd u 0c 4g kgj yp e df kg rgd ksd Sg dQ >e jkv 2ksg S s q wa T s s q s q , x dQ er ksg rgd jk,v Gjr hje gj kv syp ksr n[ 4k;x yef <kei yd¥cf q s s s q z q ksr sl hjln cv ]ksg rî{fof er df k;x yp kri >e hg l rkc hygi hjkgéqr w q s q s 4kg rksg ey s s w ke rî{fof er df kgd u ykeyfqxv 2dQ r 4k;x dQ e cr ]Sx ksg kë"o ksr q s a w T s q >e ]ykeyfqxv ]kgd su 0c 4g kjr[ df Pc xkv jkv end dS ]ksvkt jgO a q , s\ s , Cgo ksg kgt ]kvkt Iky ksg kNπv df kgd sulm hH jGf 2ykc l yc lb kt kF a s , s s s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 211 egaP

s s q k/ >e ]kgd ulm 4klg go ]yhH k;¥ko kF eku kdlm cr 4klg dfhe¥ko 2e s a a X iki sxkg jknh>kl `e iki sxkg jknhxkH o3Ic jr ]krif jr ]hu®i3g kgj Iy X X X s ss ss ss , w r Syf dutf ]xky d j? ]g krxy iki kt l uIy df kv Ni rkc dS jd w s s s , s s s w w kt j? ygi dlb Iy s>e ]kgd u njku udfy 4dfhe¥ko kF krgkp kuIy ksd s s sw q s s w njku 4l njku kF k;x ksg kuyef dukpv 4kF kpkl Cgu `kF kpkl u dfhe¥ko s s s s 4kxksg k[n u hH kuil hHd ]hxksg hd u s hH kui¥d hHd ]kxksg u hH kpskl Nd 4kvg /çyim ksd o®0c ykeyfxv slS q q q q a s 4k;x IN kuhli ksd jklcfcV udfy 4 w s g k;yf ukt hH kd ‰c ulm 4k;x kg hH <‰kzc g; ]g {Hf yod u g; 4xXl , s z s s , q s s jc hg "h'kv ]hxOm Cgu kuokHn Bskd l k<ki dlb ]l ue dlb hH ksr ]skykL s Z q s X z s s s Ikd hH LdI7LdI dlb er 6Cgu rjWt hH Bksd hd ujL llb cv 6ksd jko s \ q s \ q s q s s yr ks[j e uk;é ]kgd u 0c 4hy ykduf jgkc jkoyr huiv l hn¥t ulm d X s q s s f k;x kLc? kurb ksr Ikel 4g ykeyfqxv g; ]g {Hf kvg kOc e yxc je k \ z , a , q q , X ss s t g; ]kgd su 0c 4Skt ksg hji tkv go ]hd u[n lm g kNπb hd jHuoht 4 q w s s s , g krgkp ku[n lm e `kagd g ykeyfqxv go g krgkp kuukt e ]kgd ulm 4h wa s s T , a wa T s F u krdl®m e kXrkc ub lm 4kF k;kv Cgu ;el hHv udfy lt kd jklcfcV q X s s s , 4hxSkt kg Idi rfks;† roæk' ]kjkxav krden3kxS s z kv yduf kjkxv jkv ksLk\> [kj kjt\ ]kvkldm kjt\ 4g uketkjof o®0c jrhH a , s , q d rDf;ø d;®i kF;üv g kr_kiv hd kr;üke 4g _kiv ]ksd uiv g uke _ki s s z , , s , s v kt 4g Cgu hH Bksd _kiv ]kgd su 0c `g uk,d _kiv jGf ksr 2_ki jkv yk s , q , , eyfxv ]kgd u jklcfcV 4kF _ki ]iW7nkli 6Bx hn k{hn ]Cgu kvg r{fhn ]Cg q a s z q u ]kgd u 0c 2kvg r{fhn ykeyfqxv g kul sue ]kgd jk,v d> e kX<jp d s q q a , q T s q X s 0c 4kF kd uZ'n d 0c ksr kukgc udfy ]kF ueæn kd jHuoht ]skd ykeyfx q s q s q q a v Skv ksr u[n Skv kd u'n d 0c o ksr hyef jc[ kd jklcfcV Ikel >kl s s s Z s q s s z a 4k;yf ukt ksd ‰zc ur 2kv Fkl jse 2Om s w s ]<‰kc g ]{Hf g 4k;x ksg hH <‰kc ]g {Hf yod u wr cv ]ykeyfxv Akgd z s q s z , q s q a u 0c 4Cgu ;®e Bkd hdlm ]g k[n kst jrhH uiv uTe jdd> e kX<jp di s q q 1 s , s s s q X s kv cv jGf jkv 4rdl Cgu kytf ltf g gj jke lm 4rdl Cgu Lks\t sltf g , s s T s s s T gj Lkr lm ]jv 2g gj jd k;D Cgu kri hH Nd kd kXjkpc df ]g hrOm k< s s\ s s T s q s s , Qd 4Cgu hH Nd ]kgd ulm `g krkg k;D e ue jr rfi d kxky ub ]ykeyf q s , s X ss z s X s qxv AkNi l ykeyfqxv jkv d> lki dlm 0c 4k;x kg ukgygy ]kLi jxf jd a w s a , s q s q s q w \ k[ XIksp hd kjF®i ykeyfqxv 4xy udG jF®i ji henkv F®guf lm ; ]sF rj X a s s X s s s L l sukt ji r¬kj kt ]xksy jnkgc ; 4jdPp ji kXukde uiv jke jF®i u kx s s s q s \ s s s X s , ky 2g krjd klksjH Bksd kd henkv lsS 2n Ikd unx hd hldf ]ji hldf Li s s Z s \ Ii> 2rnkv hukji udfy ]g k;x ksg {Hf go df hH jd ukt 4Syf jd nc t X q s , q a s kojn7jk} u kxky df k;x ksg rîk;ø ;H klsS kr ]Fkl d 0c k;kv e jg' ct s X s s s q X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 311 egaP

b 4y lk;ül df dlb ;kolf ]kF Cgu ;kim jk,v Bksd kd ukv lki ]ksg rgd wa a s s s er 4lki djl er hg gjr hd thc ]F Skv er gjr hd thc 4g krksg kiNf q s q s q , cl ksr e thc `g krdl gd uk,d `kxjd rkc l kXjkr7nkap df kxSN ksd kyn X , s X s q X kc ]kxOm kpM kurdf {1o ]xXxy yG ld ]sxyduf Ri ld df krksg Cgu skr h s a s w s , X s s , H kri ksr g krkc Bksd ksd thc ct 4;el lm dl u ukpgi eqr 4g huktuv , s s , klîhHv hd sukv lki ]k{kadkv hd lji7ljn 84Bg rxkt k{kadkv yci hd ujd q z z s u'n l dhntu jnv je nkc d u'n e upoi Arki8 df ksg rgd er 4kxskg Z s a ss s Z X z z s q rjfdv ]kxII thc kr ]ksg Pkxi k"kyHfv 4g thc ksr hH k"kyHfv go 84kF q a sw s \ z , k;kv rg d uZ'n jdy k"kyHfv hd kë"o e8 df ]jd'hjkx ]ksg rgd dhO eqr q s s s T a , s `kxjd 'soi eer l jk} ldf ]cd ke®keji rukt s z X q s s eqr Cgu `hxSkt ksg rfka∂ e uoht lS df hHd u k;¥ko kxksg kpkl 4kF ei X s s s s zs dS ]hF krdn√kg dS ]hF kryjl dS ]hF k0J dS ]kF okH dS e ikt 4k;x X s kg /çyim ksd ekj hH jdit kje7kje udfy 4kgj krit kje7kje ksr ]k;x skg s xkv 8e8 ]k;x ksg Nhi 8kj8 ]h;x kg dp7yH ]kF henkv k[yf7kPic ]ekj ]e s s s w w \s kj ]ekj ]ekj Akit l htr ]ksit jkc7jkc ]kit l jkt ekj7ekj ~ ~ ~2hH rit s s s s s s s kje7kje udfsy 4kF kgj it kje7kje ]kF k;x yH ksr ekj7ekj go 4dkTp rg w s q c ksr Skv lki 4kxy suksg oHuv ksd njku rhxl kdlm ]/xl hdlm l hjwn hd q a a q s X ktx kXLdl 4kF Sg j? lm yLe7kHkv 4llm hF hgj j[cf rfks;† 4kF k;x k \ , q ss s a s s g dfhe¥ko ]kF Cgu k;¥ko ]kF k;x kg /çyim ksd ukK k;¥ko ksr njku ct Iky s s, 2it ekj7ekj jGf r ksr ]kgd u njku w s 4n krc ksr kg ;kim Nd hH ksd henkv <hekzx ]kd henkv nkl7/hl ]yjl >qe X s q s s s ]krdl Cgu Pi _¬k' ]g k[yf7kPic 4n k;∂fi hd <jrkaiW7uoht Nd >e ]Xn \ wa \s X z q s q /fof Nd s>e ]n _e Nd >e 4kxdl ksg Cgu iki jkv cv ksr 4g Cgu jknhx q q X a q s q s , T kH e iki je hH Bksd o 4kF e yH e ]n jd ke{ >e ]kgd l njku ksr kIky X ss s X w T X s q s , 4kxkt jk,v kdkTp ;¥ko 4>el X ikv 4iki ksdldf ]gd ;≤i kdldf Cgu hH kri Nd eg 4Sg Cgu hH Lc hHv X q s q X q s \ ksr eg 2k;nf eüt uer `kri k;D eg ]kgd u kIc 2k>el er cklgf kd ;≤qi s q X s X s s q 7iki 4g rgc kurb `ksg rgkp k;D jkv3hrjd kol hd krif jkgér ]hryki pπ , q s , s s q s c jkgér ]hrkuc utksH kjkgér ]hrykHl j? kjkgér e 4ksjd ykH[n hje ]ksjd s q q a q T s s krpV hje df g ;ørd kjkgér l cr ]F Sky jd gkoof >e 6kri k;D >qe ] s , Z q s s s q s kgd su hu®i 2pkl r g; ]g krked ld r ]kxNi hHd u ]Cgu hH kNi sl>r s w , s , w wa w w q hHd sue `hjkns>kl hld elb 2ukt r ;≤i7iki ]g ;ørd kjr kujd kol hd T , X w q , Z s s ikc Pc 4g krky kli ld r df cyre k;D >e df kgd u krif ]kNi l krif s w\ , , s , w s q s w s 2j? uNi ]ksd njku k;¥ko k;x jd/kc 4l {o dS k s w a s 1 s n /kac s>e ]kgd u njku 2ksvkt xkH j/m er ]Mkt uNi e j/b `kg rn kd q s q a s w T s s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 411 egaP

kF¬kv hje hH jGf udfsy 6g gj sy kO> o df g krksg Gkl I‘i¬ >e rDo rsn s T s w s , s q s lk;ül ksdutf3kg Cgu sydv er3g krukt e ksd kXrgc 4Cgu jn rgc kpgi k a s s q wa T q w q qa s r ]h;x kv e Ldi hyxm 6rgc hg kurb hHv ksyp 6hgl hg kO> kyp 4xy > X \ a q w s s X yl Iiuf jGf 4kn hH suy ]g krgd e 4g kgj y kpπl ukd ]g kgj y kO> l q s s wa T , s , , s w k;ül uk,d df krjd Cgu hg ∂Gf e kr Syfhlb 4kF k;yf hg kO> lk;üal ueqr a T s w s 4k;kv xem k;u Nd jk,v k;x Ief Nd jrhH je ]lc 2kxksg ukeél kurdf k q q ss s d /kl spπl ksr ]g ukeél kurb hH kd /kl O> df kLi h;k[nf >e ct jkv q , s q sw \ s q , 4k;x gc hH jksp ]e hnu Sx Cgu hg _¬o 4h;x ksg k{hn hje jkv SN j,i ukgü X s , q s X m hn n k{hn s>e ukgüm 6SN ji ]F Skv Nhi xksy kt udfy ]kF k;yf Iiy k s q s X q , s s s s s s d hlm ]ji Ik? hF hLi [kj ]xL/7xau ]kF k;x Oc jdkuc 'o kd /kl jd[ \ a \ , s q s n u ;kim jk,v Bkd 4kxMkt ksg /kl df rDo rdG Lid kF u hH kpksl hHd s a q s X s \ ]F dG hg Lid ]jkp ksr kF 4g krksg kujd Idi hg ;®l kgt h;x kv gxt l s s X s \ ss , z a m kr/kl 4g krkt ksg ydæfe kukiN kgt h;x kv gxt lm kr/kl cv 4Cgu k q , q q a q xMkiN cv 4jksp hgo e g df hgd hukgd huiv ulm 4k;x k[ k[ks/ ]kF kyp a q T wa s s s s s w un k[k/ 4kNi re ]kgd sulm ]kxy sulg go 4g hgj y,G dr jn7jn r√hd h a , w w dikv ]rfka' hdikv ];¬uekl dikv 4g hul rfk;“ hLc hd kHrfi hdikv `g , s , q \ z T uk,d `Skv l kgd ikv ]kNi su Ikel 4k;kv uN <jp dlm unf dS hH Ikel s a w z s w s z 4k;x ej Cgo ksr jGf 4k;nf LkN hg kr¬kj kd jkll <jk/kl ]kLks\N Cgu hg kr¬kj kd hjkp ulm s\ a s s jGf 2hxksg Cgj k{kadkv Bg Bksl hd keüt udf eyke7u ]hxt k{kadkv dS 2krk q X w s g /kl kpπl e ]'kd ]g gj d> e kX<jp je ]g /kl kd [k/ ilf ksr e df q T T s q X s s wa q s s Z T kpkl ulm jkv tkjkge /kl kugd kdum 2h;x ksg rfka∂ dS jrhH d jkp lm s s , q s s 4kxksg k [n jWt uikv ]g k;kv kg; hHv7hHv jksp dS ]tkjkge /kl df kgd jkv k; s s , a q , df jkd¬eu jdd> lm ucl um ]spgi xky dr ct 4k;x Oc ji jkudf jdskg q s s qa s , s kxu ]e hnu Snf dG kr sLid ]k>l Cgu jk,v Nd 4hd und hLi u reégf ]P a X X s \ w q s w \ k\c ksr k;kv jkudf d hnu ]unf d kZ"o 4k;x Li e IgkLc? hLc ksr henkv go s s s \ X \ \ 4k;yf ksg sNhi hH kyko lyfi l r¬kj 4xkH xky d j? Nhi dlm 4kxkH hen q s s s s s s s kv ]k;x pe yqxjk' ]Sx xkt xksy d j? 4hd hjksp u henkv dS ]g kuql uTe s s s , s 4g dkujr[ [ T s s s k/ d gjr lb 4g krkt k[ k[ks/ jkv g krkt henkv un k[ks/ df g krkt skg , , , s s , klS jkc Bd udfy 2sxy sy lk;ül hg kO> 2sxn n hg k[k/ ]ksyp df kpkl u s s X a w X s s s s er 4hxksg hukdqp rehd gér Syf d ukv lki je lo7lo ]hxPc rfF¬fim hd q X q s s ss s , s , s\ X k;lfk;ül lki je lt7l,t Syflb 4Sgfkp kuIef Nd ]Sgfkp kud> Nd géqr a ss s , s q q q X Syf d sukv lki 4Sgfkp kuksg kxge kukv lki 4xkvkt Iky thc d thc er s a s s , s q ksr Cgu 4Skt gj u kr¬l kukv lki 4g k;nf dksj kukv lki kd kXj,kv kr Syfhl , s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 511 egaP

i O> jkgér ue jkv 2Sx ykc O> llm ]hgu kun7kuy Nd ]Cgu <jkd Bksd w s q s T , s w s sa s s q kd uykc Ow> Fkl dltf ]l henkv lt >e dfk;D 4xkvkg SkrNi Nhi udfy s s s s s , q ssa s s s s s 4g krn koyc O> 4g krjd k{jl huiv Gjr jg jkdgv udfy ` , s q w , q a s kF krdl jd k;D 2hH ksr rksg hH hLk\ojke 4Cgu krLkpuf Nd ler kr ]g kr s s\ q s q s wa jd Cgu uk;÷ df rn hH gd jxv er 4g Cgu ksr jlhGkv lDI edub Bksd Te s s q wa , 2g k[j k;D , X elb ]g cCu kr g; kr ]g kry Lks\puf l k;Lf\kojke ]jv 4g jlhGkv lDI e , w s s wa s s X s wa , dub e 6cyre k;D s>e l Lk\[e7Lk[v ]kgd ulm `g krjd tk;jf e sLk[v T q s s s \ s , X \ ldf df n krc ksr kurb ]BkH je ]kgd su ukoygi 4Syf [j e lh[ u hen s ss X s s kv lm SiQ jktg 4h;x jrm hH go ]hF hi hH ckj' 6k;x dkTp hH ukoygi 4 Cgu dS ]Cn Lks\puf nc uhr l e cCu lm jdOm ulm jkv kOm henkv kyri7 X wa s X w s , kycn dS ~ ~ ~4hF ydæfe huyduf nc dS l elm df cCu kF kLk\spuf sl jkt q q wa s X w s lb ulm jkv ]xP kdlm ]aSktH hdlm dfkX;D Adf Cgu reégf jd[n ksr u s , a q s s X kxksy jk,v ~ ~ ~4kOm henkv kl7kyri7kycn dS 4Snf dIi ji ycI SiQ jktg q s jdykduf l lh[ 2SiQ jktg s; ksr ]n ykduf lj l elm jkv nc dS jxv s s s s X , wa ]Znekot e suk[ckj' Bksd g df hn tkokv ulm jGf 4Bx Lpuf l cCu lm a X , s q\ s w nc dS7dS 2k;nf Lks\puf kdlm ]kF ukoygi ~ ~ ~ k;kOm cCu k/kv kvg k[j wa s w q ji ycI ]hi ckj' sulm jdIL 4k;kv ukoygi dS e j?ckj' dS g kuql uTe s X , s 4k;x koyc O> hH kg; jkdgv udfy 6kF q w a a s u tg Nd hH ksr 6hF Cgu upLv Bksd hH ksr ]g krjd Cgu df krksg kgd sl> Z q \ wa q e jxv uer 2g krjd uk;÷ df kyksc O> 4krkcL u e O> kr kd lk;ül 4krsn s q wa w q X w s s a LkN ksr kd lk;ül ed7l7ed `k;yf kOw> hH lk;ül `k;df k;D ue g; ]kxk s\ s a s a s T s g kxy uxy jdgj jkcjkc jGf 4kxkg kxy uIkd hgo jGf ]kxksg kxy uIkspd s s s s hgo jGf ]Ow> F Sx ykc ]suy lk;ül O> F Skv 4g hd Hnl rkc hjkl 4g kr s s s a w s , Z a , kt ksg k&^!x hH ;®l e Hnl ryx ]g krkt uc hPhl hH O> e ZHnl dhO 4g X Z a , \ w X a T rkt kg O> hH pl ji r¬kj ryx ]g rkt ksg pl hH O> ji r¬kj Nπv udf s s w s T s w s s sy 4g krjd uk;÷ df kF k;nf ykc O> l>e uer 4kI? e uoht jkgér hg slS wa s w s q s q X s q s 4sxkvkt pgi dr tjl er jGf jdy kjkgl kd <jdf hlm 4g hGkd s qa w q s , hH ksr e rkj hj/v hjkgér h;kv jrm hH <jdf dS 4Lt l>e dfk;D 4g r X s a q s q\ s q X , pæfufl kuksg Nd7u7Nd e hxntV hjkgér nkc d ukt y lk;ül jkc dS udfy q q q X q s s s a s 4g kgj ki jd Cgu kji7kji ]jdksg zxkdS ]l <ki7ur hH kr g kyp ujd hH , w w s z s , s kyH tkv ]g kgj hg krjd go ksr kjc df g g; Rfi‘uf hd k;∂fi hjkl lb , q , z 4g kgj y Ow> hH kr g kgj y hH lk;ül go df g g; ek<jfi kd k;∂fzi hcy , s s , s a , a hd O> hjkl lb `Skt ld hH kg uexkv elm kd ;®l dukpv tkv ]g jH w s , s X T s s w l O> eut7eut ]g hjH l O> hdlm jHhxntV ]jd k;D hH go ]g kgj y , s w s , s kO> tkv kst df g krukt e ]kd ;‘ue g ukeél eji e ue je ]g e ;‘ue w wa T q , X ss , X q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 611 egaP

hytm k;/fl Skxt jkv a q , kghii7<ki yksc mif7mif z s hytcf dep e uokl k;† s X X s s lS Skv hjkgér nk; q Skv ct7ct hjkgér nk; q Skt y[f7y[f e uep yG X w 4Mkt Ig l phc dlm jk,v jkgér jkv n kLdi e Fkg sdl a s s s q , wa \ X m Fkg kjkgér df ]Mkt Ig l phc sdlm jk,v jkgér jkv n kynf gér nk; hd q a s s q , wa X q lm df hg; ]g Cgu ZFv Bksd jk,v kd rfF¬fim hje 4nk; hdlm `k;D g lk;üal , s , Skv ct7ct hjkgér nk; q Skt y[f7y[f e uep yG X w 4g krkv Om rhxl hHd jGf ]g krkt Oc t , a , , kl hHd jGf ]g rkt yef jkr hHd jGf 4g krkt kyp krksg rhgxl jrhH jke T s , 1 a s g go 6Cgu krk[ hHd go ]g rjd hH kst eg kag; df g e;uf dS kd hxntV s T s , 4skg k;df uk;÷ hH jk,v hHd e keüt7keüt n;k' 4ksg k;nf LkN l phc ]kg Sg hl X X X s\ s s q k;ül hHd hH jkv sygi n;k' 4kg sNhi ku/kl hd keüt7keüt n;k' udfy ]sl a , s X X s jiM jkgér de¬fdkv ksr kvg 4 kgj krjd <Zkeuf ksd rfF¬fjfi dS jrhH jkg s q q s ér cl go ]kxksg kdka> e k[kv hdum nkc d uk;÷ ]kxksg k[n rjd uk;÷ ksd k q X X a s s s X ;lfk;ül uer kg; 4hxksg hgj hrjr gjr hd /axl hxhH7hxhH eh/7eh/ e ue a s q a , q s s X jkgér nk; hdcl um ]r¬e ]rksg rnfaukv ]rkx ]rpku xkg [n hlk;ül uer k s q s s s s X s s a s q a g; 2lk;ül kpπl df kxksg k;kv yk;[ 4hxksg hyef dy> dS hd rfka' Xgér hH a q jdy lk;ül kO> dfkX;D 4k;nf kcL hH e uk;÷ ref;uf gér u hlm 6hn kugi s a w q X X q s kyke gér su hlm 4kF kykouksg g; 4kykL xj e Xk_¬o djfx gér jh/7jh/ jd X q s a X , X q s s s w kg rHhu? u kLhi hlm 4hxksg hOm kLhi dS jrhH jkgér llb 4k;df jkdho¬ s \ \ s q s hH jRm kO> kjkgér 4k;df jkdhxv hH lk;ül kO> kjkgér ue 4k;df klksjH j w q a a w q s T
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 711 egaP

hyhlj hLc hjkgér nk; \ q Skv ct7ct hjkgér nk; q Skxt jk;î e ue jse X s kjkgér jkll k;kjnfe q a kjkgér Z;nkl krhpue q T kjkgér jktx k;kH ue q qa 2uc/e d k<ki je eqr q s X z ss Skv ct7ct hjkgér nk; q Skjgy jgy7jgy jxkl s s ykL ue7ur e hr¬e lb X hujxnkt hjkgér dge w q s s 1 yk? rev hjkgér dgd q qq 2oHo drflko je kv , a ss s Skv ct7ct hjkgér nk; q Skv j?f7j?f SkI? uxx a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 811 egaP

hl7ukd Syf dlm 2g kehl k;D Syf d ke®keji jkv 4g ke®keji go ]g kgj , s , s , , wa s T s n e kt 6g rev go ]lm g kgj n e kt g krukt e dfk;D 4g ji®r kd usn , 1 s wa s T s wa T X wa s s lk;ül e hH kd _kiv l _kiv Syflb 4g krjkg l rev jgt 2g krjkg hg a T s s , s 1 , s s\ s LkF l jgt rev 4g kgj kjH l jgt kt n jH l rev hH kd _ki lm ct 1 , s s s s 1 s g hHr rev rev jkv 4g jckjc cl ]kg _ki kd hÈef df kg _ki kd ukl S , 1 1 , , s s s s yf d uhi ]jv 4g rev rev hH kr sxkykP hH e _ki d hÈef `kxkg r1ev c s s s , 1 1 s s X s s r xkykP hg e k_ki d sukl k;D kr kg e lki r1ev jxv Ag krgd lum e 4g s s X X s s s s X wa s T T rkt ykP ikv ]r[n _kiv u ]r[n _ki ikv u3g srgd o kr ]hHd hlk;üal s s s s s s T s s d cP sukji lki je g rkv 4krNi Cgu _kiv ]krNi Cgu _ki e kr Syfhlb s q s s T s w w T s 4k;nf kjd /çyim jnfe kd ; a ®l Syf jkgér u k;ƒef df ]k;kv y dr pl géqr O> df kg hxkH;ü/ er 2hu s q s s X w s q xke k;D hGke 2rjd ld uk;÷ kpπl er jGf kr ]g krjd uk;÷ e df krkg k a s s , q s wa T s gd u kO> l>e jxv uer 2krI? ld kpπl g; jGf ]hF rkc hd uxke hGke w s q s q s , s a kr krkg k;yf u lk;ül kOw> uer jxv 2kxke re hGke 2kvg H' 2jd'hjkx s s a s q s a q q a , 4g kun iW lkO kd jkdqi , s s s lk;ül 4g jkdi uk;÷ 4g krkv kyp kxkH go jkv kvkOm hg jkdi ilf ]kvkO a , q , , s q Z s m u hH end dS er Ag krgd ler kr e jkv 4g krkOm Gjr hjkgér end q wa s q s T , , q jktg go ]kvkOm Gjr hdlm end dS er Ag rgd jhdG hGl 4g kyduf G s q T s w , jr hjkgér hH go ]ji k_k; hdlm kg Li yp Cgu hg ydv er 4g kgj tk[ q s s \ s s q , s Xgér hH ke®keji df g krkg 0lf llb ]kg gj tk[ Cgu kd ke®keji hg ydv q , s s s s s s s s er 4kykHl kd k0J llb 6ky kF¬kv llb 6ky klkjH llb 4k;kv uk;÷ slt q s a s s s s s s s , ]k;kv lk;üal l,t g hrkv de¬fdkv hg hlS jkv 6unf dS hH hL? go ,g hrkt s , s , \ kv 4Skt kg dofkHko¬ uk;÷ kgt gxt hlsS g kupgi 4jki lm g kupgi ]g s a , qa , qa , q rsl kr uk;÷ 4g end kygi skr lk;üal 4dr ni eji g kupgi 4g ytfe jkv s , , aq T X a , hH xkv d kelkv 4g Xytfe hH jkv hHv 2kukt sPc cv 2re kujL cv 4g kr s s a T a , \ , jd 'soi jrhH jkgér ke®keji end dS7dS jsh/7jh/ 4hxy ukv nk; sjh/7jh/ z s q s s s s Skv ct7ct hjkgér nk; q Skyt ihn r' e uxkv X a

hyh'u hLc hjkgér nk; \ q Skdgc ue ]Skdgy ur hyhxj hLc ]hygiQ hLc a \ \

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 911 egaP

4kxksg dFkl hH ;®u kje tk Z 1 s v df ]kF k>el ;ü/ ksd uoht 6hF Bky utH d krge hlju ]hF h;ky utH s s sd kajhe ksr ]g sukx rhx ]kujd ;®u suekl d hlk;ül ]nukdoof df u k;æo kp T 1 s a a s s s s kl 4hF h;kv jdktl utH e pl k;æo3hF Bkv jdktl utH urdf ksr Te ]h s a X s s a s F Bkv jdy okH urdf ksr e 2g hrLi h;k[nf k;æo hHv gér `ksg ljki sld s s T , \ s X q , er df hxy ugd e rhx uiv k;æso go ksr 4g krn kuc kuksl jdN ksd Xkgky q s X s , s w s X s kukn ksr jF®i ljki 4g kgksy go ]g hrkt hd k;®g hd kXjoukt l gksy ltf j , , s s ? d Bkld k; g kgksy kykoukt k[j e g1xkti go ]g kgj N go kgsky kst df s , s X w , w hrksg Cgu krpV hd rkc lb ksd jF®i ljki df g k;x kgd g; e utH d kr , X s ge hlju 2utH kd krge hlju jkv lkv rdiI d k;æo lm utH d krge s s , w a s s s s s hlju kxy suLi h;kul ksd nukdoof ]kuk;efk' kF hg lki 4k;kx utH dS kd \ q a s krge hlju ulm 4k;kx rhx rHnv kLc u k;æo lm udfy 4kvg W' klyt s s q . \ s s s q q 4kxyp kucf dum s s ksr 6krdl kg Cgu nc kr klyt cv ]h;x kv hH ckj' ]Sx kv hH ukege ]h; s a s s x kv hH k;æo cv 4hg kxyp ksr ol®m ]aSkv u ksr rkv Cgu cv kgd u ktkj s s s s ]ktkj ksr ktkj udfy 4kF kykosuksg ol®m kagt ]F jgO nukdoof akgt kF kuk; s s s a s efk' hg lki 2[n ;®u kd k;æso ]g hlk;ül e 4kxMkt Cgu e df Ak;nf jd j wa s 1 wa a T a T kdub l sukt u naukdoof kr3hxpku uekl d nukdoof go ]e gksjkel g Bkv s s s s s s s a s X , hH k;æo dS df kxy kri kdum cr ]h;x ksg hL[ hLkx jdkv ji jk} Syf s s \ \ sd ukt sy ksd nukdoof jk,v hd ol®m h;x kv >kl 6e j[fkv7j[fkv kxy kr s a s a X i3kxy kri ksd nukdoof ct 4Sgfkp hg huksg kr k;æo 4d k;hn kucf Bg hyko a s s s s X q hn ksr go `k;D hg gksjkel kr Cgu 4kF jgkc d >el hdlm ksr g; ]ksg sd k; s s æo kucf jkv gksjkel dfk;D 4hy koyc hH k;æo 0lfi dS l h'kd ulm 2kt s , X q s z s s kj ksr ktkj 4hlk;ül g krkt kdhjev Ak;df gksjkel dS e rxko¬ dum u kt a , X s s kj 4F ukege e jkojfi7tkj dS e ukF¬tkj kr ]F gj kt kdhjev nukdoof s s X X s s s a s 4g kje ekd jGf ]kvkv lki je er jkc , s s ss q dS `Skv er g krLi dG k;D llb ]Skv jdksg jkol ji pl df ]Skv jd q , \ Z s ksg jkol ji O> 4Skv er `g krLi dG k;D ]Skv l tkgt Bkog df Skv sl w q , \ Z s hLkxyc ]Skv ld 4Skv er 4g Cgu hg rkc Bksd hd ke{ 6kxWd u e ke{ 4g \ , s , q , a T T Fkl jkgér nkoh'kv je 4g kvg rki_l kd rfka∂ e uoht jkgér l hlm 4hd s q Z ss , q w X s q s rkc hd uk;÷ sukgc d ukv lki je 6k;yf y lk;ül ukgc d ukv lki sje ]u s s ss s a s s s s s kgc lb df 2ksg hxkH;ü/ er 4g Cgu rjWt hH Bksd hd uxkae ke{ 2kxkae re q , s s 4Bg rfk∂ ]kvg <jrkaiW df 6lG er e q a q s a q X slksjH hlb jkv 2g kurb ji er klksjH kdlm3,g kry jd klksjH hH ji O> sj , , q s w kgér go 4g krsy uqp gér pl go hH ksr ]sky uqp lm hH O> er 2g kr'oji q , X q s w q ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 021 egaP

Om Cgu hg ykol kd u[n Syflb ]Cgu g lki dlb [kv jkv 4g rdl kynf s s T s X a , T s nko¬ lb u ]g rdl kynf /x lb u ]g rdl kjd 'i¬ lb eg u jxe 4Wd s T s a s T s Z s a 'i¬ ksr kdlm g o®r¬fv `udfy g akgd way [n ksr Bksd g iW 4y ul ksr Bkd Z , s , s , wa q s g ufo÷ 4y [p ksr Bksd g nko¬ 4y ?l kr Bksd elm g /x `'kdi g kagd , wa , wa wa s X , a z , 2g kr[n jdktc ksr g krkt unhj[ hLg hd li kn henkv ]jv df g krgd k , s , s a s , s s , /v g; 4[n jdktc lm e ]kvky 4[n jd[p lm e ]kvky 4[n jdN slm Te a wa s s T s wa s s T s aw s w s kvky Ag krgd g; 4d 'kdi g krgkp <kei g; 4Sx dF eg 4rki jd Cgu , s z , z s 0lf eg jk,v Gjr dS k/v g; ]Gjr dS okax kji 4g kgj jd 0lf ryx k a w , s d kXyko[kav eg 4Cgu hg krksg 'kdi Ag krgd g; 4g h[j jd en e dku hd z , , X jH okx ulb 4g dd√kr kLc ]kF dhO hH ksr krksg hg k/av ]g k/v g; ]kgd a s , \ , a ukgüm 4Sky lki d 0c kd /v dS xky d okx lm 4F jgO e okax dS 0c s X s q s s a s s a s s X q 4g krdl n yhyn jktg k/v jkv 4g krksg , s X a , , 'kdi df uke ld k/v 4sxkg rgd O> xksy `g krdl kg ld ksr krLi Cgu B z s s , a X s w , s s , \ kul >e ct 4g krkg rhxl df Cgu hg kruke e 2rhxl Ag krgd kjgc 4g srk q s q , s a T a , T s g chtv Lc dum uæi udfy 4Sgfkp ukd ksd jgc ]Sgfkp [kv ksd /v `yef s \ s z s s a s a s s , a ld [kv s>e df krNi Cgu g; k/v `yef ld ukd >e df krNi Cgu g; k q w a X s , s q w jgc `rhxl kld Ag krNi henkv kjgc `g kagd 'kdi Ag krNi henkv k/v 4 a , , w , z , w a g rxy uæi ryx eeg ]g ryx eg 4g rNwi uæi ryx jl@#!dv eg udfy T s z X T T s z s 4kxkt ]kyk s s ss [ [kv 4g Bg kr jkH 2hxksg cd jkH df kg gj Ni k;D er 4g lkjkge ]g l a , q s s s s s w q , , kj roæk' ksr kgo 4yr ucf hrkc ucf7r>c Cgu hHd kt g yt Shn kago 4g h a s s q s T s , gj gc hr¬e ]g gj kt Skuqx uqx rhx ]g hgj kt h;kx xk@#!i ksr kago 4g hyk T s , , s g knl ]g hykohn knl ksr kago 4g ;erfks;† cl knl ksr kgo 4g xext cl knl , , Z a , s kr kago 4krxm u jk,v kryP tjwl kr u jrhH 4g krxm jk,v g kryP tjwl j s , , gkc ]kg 4Cgu hg hrksg akg; ksr rkj 4kd o®r¬fv g okHo¬ kr gcl 4g h;x ksg a , s q , hd cd ksr gcql ]kyks[ [kav 4g hg jskH 4g Bg hg Bg hd cd ksr jkH ]Fhrekj s , , q q s Z `hxksg cd jkH ]ukoxH Auæi kjlwn s z 4g y , dæfe kugd ]kd ke®keji kxy[ jk} l kagd 4g <i;¬gj 4g kOuv rgc uoht q s q s , Z w , w q 4h;x kg Qx hje k;æo go 4 s q s s hn kLN su k;æo lm rnkv hukji go 4d _kiv7_ki Snf Lks\N ujd nH uTe sl q\ s q s s s s unf lm 4h;x y[ [kav hje unf lm df g kgd u nukdoof 4_kiv kgsky ukd q s , s a s , ]_ki kgky ukd df k;df jkpof g; Syfhlb ]g Cgu ljki hHv hg e 4hryx s , wa T hje 4h;x kg yH l>e ]kgd jkv hxke ke{ l k;æo jkv e gksjkel Sx pgi s s w s q , a s s , X qa jk,v sOm 4utH kd krge hlju g; kul sukgüm ct hxy Ikp rgc ksd nukdoof s q ssa s q a s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 121 egaP

fe¬ hjkgér g; ]jrhH g hrdl hH Iky g; 4g hrdl Iky hH jrhH kre{ hd 1 q , , , , s s u[n g; df ksg rkt hg yH er jkv g hrkt ksg 0ckv hg jgkc kre{ hd u s w q , , s [n ]ksg r[n jgkc hg jgkc er 4lc ]xky g [j nc [kv ilf jrhH 4g krskg s s s q s T s a a Z , kni k/v Bksd l jrhH df g k;kv Cgu e su[n d 0c hldf dr cv jkv k; , a s , X s s q , kv Cgu e su[n je ksr dr cv 4Cgu hg krksg kni k/v Bkd l I‘fn hd jrhH X s ss , a s s 1 2Fhrekj ]er ksg Cgu hH s/v jkv Z q a , 4Sgfkp [kav jxe 4xSkt ksg uhy eg Xe s a ltf jk,v g uc eg lltf ]g Sg kni eg eltf ]g gj ht eg eltf g jxkl T s s T q , X T s X , kd 'kdi ]g 'kdi hg 'kdi Gjr cl ]g jk/kv hg hu'ksj ]g re√uf l r| z , z z , , s q of o®r¬fv kjkl df sxy ugd hH dufkKo kr cv ]g kuc l hu'ksj o®r¬fv d s , s , s f gd knl ksr rl 4g kuc hg l hu'kj o®r¬fv kjkl g; 4g hu'kj hg hu'ksj 4 s a , s s , s Cgu hg g Nd kF;üv l jksH 4g jkH hg jkH 2hxksg cd jksH ]Fhrekj kNi re , q s , s s Z s w 4kd [ kav hd jrhH3g |o hH e Ag krgd ler e hg; 4kd [kv hd jrhH3g |o Te wa , T wa s q T a wa , df g kgd hH u duku 4kd [kv hd jrhH3g |o hH e jkcjkc g rgd 0c , s a wa , T T s q 4k;nf tH lki d |o >e ]Snf u <kei >e kst k;df kyH s s , s q z s q s uikv 4F Felv e ukIqt o ]kF krxkae <kei lum kt e df hF rkc hd jg s Z X s s z s s T kc d 'o dum df g krukt e cv 4rkc hF jgkc d 'o dum jkv g k/v Te s s wa T s s , wa a df kF krkg Cgu htkj ksd uuke jkdgv kje ]kF k/v e 2krjd k;D hH e jk s s a s a T T , v 2rjd k;D hH o jxe 2F rgd hg dhO xky d okax je jkpc jk,v 4krki u s s s s s s ss s s ukt hHd ksd 'kdi e jkv ]hrkt rhc rjd7rjd nkoof hg wa; hxntV hje kr z T , s s s s rkv u e okax je ikv jxv 4hF ywH hLc hje ]ksn jd Gke >e df hxkae hGk s X ss \ s s q e jk,v kjxf ji k<jp dum 4kpgi okax jln go 4hxkg hy jd ukgüm k_k; hG X s qa s w s s X kd e suhge AN 4F dp kt okx jln 0c dr cr ]C;x y[ [kv hdlm ct 4 X s s q a s w q q X a h;x Id go ]hF hykt ji [kv hd henkv lm e uhge AN 4k;x ksg tkyb jkv a X s , 4kxSkt ksg jWt kr g krdl ksg t s , kyb hH Nd kd [kav jxv ]g |o erO‘J go ]kvkt y lki d doht er~ ~ ~ q , , s s s s q kF krjd kl®dfpf hdum doht ksr rkt ksg jkehc ct hHd 0c~ ~ ~doht ,g | s q o kje 2ksvkt y lki d |o hldf lb ]jv 2g krkt k;k>el Cgd ksd /v 6skg , s s s , s s , s a s rk>el lb er df g elb hryx hjkgér 4ksg ryx er 4g krgd dhO k/v ] s q , X q q , a kgd u 0qc 4n k>el ikv ]kgd l 0c u kxky um ]g Sky lki dikv slb eg s X s q s X s T s 4xkdl ku s s c u 0c s>e er 2ksg Syf Px kui¥djfi hd 'kdi Syf d ujd 0lf k/v > q q q \ z s s a s e cl er df g krjd k/v g; ]rki jd Cgu 0lf ksd 'kdi eg dfp jkv 4 q q , a s z wa , g [kav go ]g krgd 'oi l xke hg dS jrhH jkgér kr 'kdi 4krdl kt Cg , , s z s Z s q s z u k[p ]krdl kt Cgu kvqN 'kdi 4g krdl kt k[n yod kr 'kdi jk,v 4kr z , s s s z
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 221 egaP

s w kNi jdkxt ksd hldf rkj tc kn `Cgu df k;kv kyko/n df g rNi o `g g s s w T s w s T s j gd k;D ikv rkj tc ksn df kxNi 4sxn kxt jdkt ksd ykoyxc ]xaSkv Om s s w X s s rkj tc kn 4g rgj rjd ukjg ksd kxksy d lkLi7lki o 4hdD> g r>el xky s s T s s , X s s \ s T s s 4o g henkv d tk,e huiv kjt\ ]g rfi dlm 4hulfk;ül hjkeg g krhl ~ ~ ~ s T s T s a , 4kje jld Ag krukt 4Gky[f d ky s w , s X ko ukyif jgt suiv kykc Cgu hH nç' dS udfy ]k;x je jdhi jgt rkjdql s s s 4g gj jd k;D s; df g Cgu hg kri g T s , X üb 6g Cgu jld Bksd kdub elb ]g gj jd kt s; ]kun jd ke{ kdub 2Hi g , w X T s s s s q z s df kgd rDo rje u llht kr Syflb 2g rdl k;D hg jd jk,v w0c 4g Cgu s s s T s q , kd kv0c 4g kd k0c jld 4Cn k;yfkx knl ukgüm ksd k0c 4xjd k;D ksr xk X w q , X q w a s X X q s X s X g u tkjku ]Sx pgi sukxt kdum er jkv F rgkp kugj kl jk,v jdy Iojd qa s q , s s s s dS hHv o 6sxkn jd rjfl/y/ kdum ]xksn jd rHhe¬H kdum ]ukgüm g [ s s w w s s w s s X T s j ktl l cd7cd3sxksvkIef uil dum ]xksvkxt kd k;kl 4Cgu kjkgér ]kd l s a s s s s s X s q lht jld 4u llht kxksg k;df tkjku 2hn sn hyl LkF hg lS kd llht ueqr w s w s s\ s s s s 4g rksg tkjku ji lm ]Skxt kt jk,v 6g rjL T s s T s s s l uxkt kr g r[n uil xky ygi 2g Sg ;®l Cgd uil 2g Sg jkdkl Cgd s T s s s s s T q s T q s uil 4lc ]g krLi hg h;k[nf kvg krksg jkdkl 4krksg Cgu jkdkl hHd kuil , \ q Bksd dfkaykg3g krLi h;k[nf chjd d suksg jkdkl kuil df g k;kv kdke ksr , \ s , , cv 4kn suy ksl jkv ksr ykl jkp7kn hHv 2kd ukxt g rDo Bksd g; 4hg xkXg s s , s s , s ksr tkjku o kr ]jd ''fkd hd sukxt ksd ekj uohtxt ckc Bksd lt cv 4kx s s s s w s , a Mkt ksg rfiI‘kj cv df ]kxMkt ksg h_aeuk/i df ]g gj kv chjd okup cv ≠ a z T s q df g k[j kuc kuil dS sulm ]g kukg rfiI‘kj ksd hldf lt cv 4g srII ui , , s ≠ s , T w s l o kr kxkt 4;e/e ]jdrfhi ]j/e ]e<√o¬ 2g Syf sktl uil l7rgc e nC s s s q z q T a s s q X u huiv su rDf;ø ds;®i dfk;D `k;D 4kukxt skd Sg Skl g ydæfe hL\c udfy z X X q s , q s Skxt uk,d ksd Sg Skl q s Skv jed kr lx d rkj w s s 2ksxkt ]g ksr gcl ]lc ]er ksg Sg Sskl 4k_k;rv ]uex , q q q Z a Z rv kd ktM ]Cgu Fv jkv Nd kd uk;÷ 4g iW hg kd uk;÷ uexrv kd ktM a Z Z , q , Z a Z 4jd <e∂l jrhH ktM hg; jkv ksjd nc ksd Xk[kav ub kjt\ cv `k;D k;ki s a Z , a ]k[n rgc uer l kssa[kv kukn s; 4g hGkd [kav dS kr ]g dS ]g r}v jrhH s q s q s a X s , s , , , dfk;D ]g hGkd [kav dS Syf d su[n ksd jrhH 4g h} ]g r} ]g }} jgkc X , s s , , , , a dfk;D ]g [kv kn Syf d u[n ksd jgkc 4g krkt y[ _u kjlhr3g _ke dhr X T X a s s s s , q s , i ]Cgu g _u kjlhr Bksd3_u kjlhr kr sxy suIk,y jrhH ktM hg; ]g hgj kt z , s s s Z , jgkc l k[kav kt kZtM hg; df g kujd hg kurb 4lc ]rkc g h;x jrm sl r s X s , ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 321 egaP

hurdf g t[erkyr nCu , s\ \ q hurdf g tr hYu hd lkl , s a Skxt uk,d ksd Sg Skl q s Skv jed kr lx d rkj w s s 4g sr T Li eyke rII uîo¬ ]g krLi eyke krII ekJof 4g hrkg eyke hxtkjku hH \ w s w , \ w w , s w s kr ]kun kxt df g kgd hg uer g krdl ksg ]kxSkxt Bkd hH Xe nCu <jk/kl s , s q , s 4hd ckj[ nCu hdikv ]<jkdv Roc ]k;kxt jkc kn ksdikv ksr <jkd d s s s s w uyH hlm 4k;x yH e jGf 2Cgu sOm ikv ]k;kxt ksdikv jkc kn7ksn Wd k;D h w T s H e Stfhd @#!ike yksc so ksr ]k[n jdkt kdum ue skr kOm tc rkl e ct T s s s s T s T 2Sx h g yH o tc pkai jkv 4Mkt yH jGf Cgu ]Mkv kIiuf hHv df kpkl uTe ]d w s s , a w a s s s dOc7Ln g krjd ekjkv kLkF e e phc df kgd ukXgüm ~ ~ ~ df kgd uTe 4k;k , a aw s\ T X s s xt >e jGf stc jkp 4n kxt ksdikv ygi dlm Mkxy dOc7Ln ygi df kgd s q wa s s a , a s s T X ue ]e sukxy dOc7Ln Mkt u ywH Cgd e df kgd ukgüm 2g huLdi hLkx h , a a T s X , \ \ d tc AN >e ]g jn rgc hHv `g rDo Bksd g; ]BkH ]kgd ue 4k;kOm tc s s q , s q , s T s uhr ygi s>e jdkv ukgüm 4kun kOm tc pkai ]BkH df kgd lum ue kr hF h s q s X s s s s T s uLdi uI stc AN kGn dS s>e 4xky rn gd l ukoygi kr ]ksg kukt Cgd gc \ ≠s q s s s s s q l ]hn¥t kg huLdi uI hH ksd hldf 4F rjd W' kukxy dOc7Ln jdOm sl r s \ ≠s s s q , a kj tc hg uhr so 4F rgj ukoygi dS e lkLi je ksr kF krgj e jiyct Te s s s X s \ ss X q 4g krxy kjc kr Skxt Bksd gér hH Xe nCu <jk/kl , q s X q `Skv ld ksr hH Skv nCu kr ]g rjd ekjkv jH unf jk,v g Sx ksg s , s T s T 0o 4hrkv Cgu nCu kdum n[ ~ ~ ~rn sukl Cgu ksd kjln er jk,v `Cgu df x 1 s q s s s X w q s a s Skl hH yko jkc[v j[fkv `Cgu df sxSksl hH yko/n j[fkv 2kyko/n kd akg s a s w w d 2jkc[v kd kgd rkj stc kn 4Cgu hg cyre Bksd kdltf g rNi ykol kl a s T s w sS jk,v 4g rkt kg jtfkg jdkv rDoc7rDo 4g rgj Sdf uk'ji ksdeg dfXk;D T s s s T s s ]kvkt y kui kdub df ~ ~ ~hF hxy sugj kag; krhl ~ ~ ~F sLi Nhi d krhl x s s w s s \ s s ksy d Bcc kr ]F rgj Bcc 4g rgj Sdf ukjg ksd y¥gke jkl o 2g srdl d s a s s s a T s , s s s s T Q l hldf so 2g yko sudQ Bksd o jxe `Cgu k;D hrdksj ksd rfi uiv df x s T s s X s sky g rk[ ukt hd krhl jxe ]g hdD> g r>el xksy dfk;D krgd Cgu Nd T s , T s X q Bksd kr lum ~ ~ ~2k;kv Cgu jkc[v dr hHv df 6Cgu df k;kv kyko/n df s s w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 421 egaP

hurdf g t[erkyr nCu , s\ \ q hurdf g tr hYu hd lkl , s a 2Cgu hHv jxe ]kago sxy y Iojd hj[fkv ]h'kd xS X s s a kt yp df 6kd ke®keji rDo srje sxy jd <je¬ df 6Xe ikPc lk;ül xy y A s X s q\ a s X s g rgd xky 2e nkc sxy xkt ]h;x ; ]h;x ; hxntV 2kn uy jd hji ]g Sklî T s s X X s s s s s w T a hHv ]g Sk{kdkv hjse hHv Nd 2ksjd ckj[ nCu hje re ]ksjgO Ag krgd go T a a q s , ksr ]kvkxt ]kjk>d> jddksj kd hldf kg; 6sl htr g hgj kt hxkH hxntV kg; s s s s a s , a ~ ~ ~ hurdf g tr hYu hd lkl , s\ a Skxt uk,d ksd Sg Skl q s SkOm uk,d jxkx hd nCu knwcQ7S7ekt hr¬e hd cko“ knl7S7rgduf ka'hji7S7G¥t w \q knux7S7gke Cehl7S7jd,i w \ euc' hd nCu Iojd hd yG w eykv kd tk\u7S7cko“ d u¬g s q Skxt uk,d ksd Sg Skl q s Skrl ukd e udF hlS , X s lt g jp hukot d dF s , , w s s , , w lt g jcte kg; r¬ht\ a s , , w lt g jn ygfkl kd 'skg
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 521 egaP

]g rjtqx ]g rkt ]g rkv e yIkg 4Cgu hg g eg lt g gj jd jkgo;ø gj T s T s T s X s T s , T s r lb xksy df k;kv kl¬x kurb kdum unf dS j[fkv 4n uk;÷ xky ]g krjd q s X s , k{kadkv hd uk;÷ k'eg jkdgv dfk;D 4g h[Aqn hLc llb Skygfe hPc o 4g s a X T \ s a w\ s T s s rksg dIv ji hukot uk;÷ d kxky `k;D hH n uk;÷ Bkd 4krn Cgu uk;÷ Bkd s X s s s s s ji um 4g Bg hjgO Fkl dS aSkygfe hPc ksn Xe yIksg dS hdhjev ]kuql uTe T q w s 2g krLi ksdldf h;k[nf Nd kg e nCu hlS er 4kxksg kL\i , \ q s X s q Cgu hg h;k[nf gér jxe ]sxkvksg Sx jtx l chjd d k"Qi0c er jkc hur X q s q s s X q q q df7hurdf ewyke u e k_k; rauv7ruv3kg kvg u kuyef l nhjG hldf ]l wn X a s q s s kn hldf ]l dwye hldf ]l jhcd hldf hHd kjkgér df krdl kg Cgu klS e s s q s s X k_k; ruv7ruv ]ksjd lkoæof3kg Syf yef hH l kX0c er e h'kgc hlb jkv a a s s q q X s s , 4g h;x ksg rnkv hjkgér hd ujd rxf , q s F¬ 4g kykI k;nfl uer lsS 4sxkykI tksj7tksj er 4ksg rkt ykI ji yd er 4h , X s q s s q s s q rLi Cgu h;k[nf gcl Syflb 4x[sn yd jGf ]ky kl ksr tkv 4Cgu kykoukv \ q s X s s s lki suiv tkv hHv g; 4g jn rgc kjkudf g; 4g krdl kg kagd e ]Sk{kadko , w q wa s T a Âge hje ]Skulko hje ]Sk{kadkv hje ]aSkrFelv hje ]Skehl hje ]henkv < s a s a s Z s a s jk/kl e udfy ]jkrov d ke®keji <‘Î sxkXg Sx ksg jkv ]utf jhokge ukeZ/ T s s , o xkXg Sx ksg jkv 0c Fk0lf erkx xkg Sx ksg 2oHlv kr g; ]g krdl ksg s , q Z , s X a s wa T e udfy ]kxksg k;x kg Bksd ]kag df g krkv klksjH hg; kr ]k;df hH klksjH d s s , s s jd reégf rqgc hHd jxv k; 2g krdl ksg Bksd e pl 0c df g krkv hg sLk , X q , s\ F klksjH ji ]kg rul rkc hd kX0c er 4g kiNf e // ]krLi Cgu hH h;k[nf s s q X q q , X qa \ ]g jn rgc kd 'ksg ygfkl jxe3g ukGr ]Tg k;/fkav df kuke3kg Sg jH sl , w q T w a s q s X kuil ]l ukdF kg jp ]kg Sg dF er df g g; ykol 4g Cgu kd gcl ykol s s w s q s q , , q Skxt uk,d ksd Sg Skl q s Skrl ukd e udF hlS , X s lt g jp hukot d dF s , , w s 4ksd ugj hcL e nCu g jcte lt hxntV jkv s w X , w s , , s , , w lt g jcte kg; r¬ht a 4kd 'kg kjkudf g jn rqgc s , w ~ ~ ~lt g jn ygfkl kd 'skg s , , w 4g rgj Skl eg hH jdykI kd k;/fkav cl jkv uk T s s s X , @#!ir cl hH jGf jxe 2g rOm ukGr urdf jk,v k;/fkv hurdf e nCu jkv w T s w s a a X ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 621 egaP

k;kv uk,d g; ]k;kv ukd , krkLm xj kd kyG \ a X w krkuc yG ksd Xk;yfd w krkej' jk,v krkjrb krkty jk,v krkyOb k;kv uk,d g; ]k;kv ukd , hjkt kl gy e kOskg w X X hjkH Iksii d Xk[kv s s a hjk/ hd 'u e klkl s X X a hjkr rgkye i jgp s s s 4cL e nCu ]Skl3g srkt jtx lki d kX0c 4 s w X s T q s q g r¬e e uiv7suiv ]g Sks[ e uiv7suiv xky `g kr[n u,kd `g hLi kdldf T X s T X s s , s , \ s 2Lid d xP l s \ s a df ]tkojf kl7ukd 2Lid d uket ldf 2hrksg hy jd kr hjr¬b hLks\F ji kXL\i , s \ s s s d ed7l7ed df kLi h;k[nf g; hH güm 2yef lS kr yef hH yko usn uk;÷ s \ X s s s s s s s 2hrksg hy jd ksr hjr ¬b ed l ed jkv 2g Sg sugi d uket ldf hH sLid jxe ]kXg hH Bksd ]kgd s , T q s s \ s s w T u jln `g aSkygfe uk,d ; ]BkH jv df kgd kurb jH uum ]F gj hi ;kp s s s s s sOc ji ycI dS kt u kPc kn ilf 4k[n Cgu u hldf jxe 2xky xX[n ksr c , s s s X w\ s Z s s s s s v df Cl? e yIkg jnv jdkg u≈u kuksn ]Snf dXG Lid ukgüm 4g krdl ksg g q X s a s X s \ s X , ; e kdhjev jxe 4kuksn g k;Pf\c hd ykl hl¬v 4kxksg hg kujd r"√dkv uk;÷ X X T q kd kxksy 4kxLi kuk[nf djd Nd ]k;kv kl¬x kurb kdum 4g hLi rljG kd X s \ s q q s , \ q s ldf 4g r¬e e 'u uiv7uiv xky 22Cgu hg kr[n Bksd `skg hld Sgfd ]jkd T X s s s s s , ¬eu df krgd Cgu hH g; Bksd 4krgd Cgu hH 8ksyg8 Bkd 2Cgu hg kr[n Bkd s s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 721 egaP

4g ntk,e jrhH , w jkgér knl go jkv 4g jksH hg kuukt kdlm jk,v 4g kuxkt hg kuxkt Xelm s q , , s , 4g klsS Nd ]Skv u e knç' ;hupZoufv `g k;D kago jGf 4g r u g e u kago , q X X , , w , T 6g ñnl u ]g ñex u kago 6g rkj u g unf u 6g >kl u ]g gcl u kago 4hg , , , , , a , q dS ksr kago 4g kF¬ov }}uf ksr jrhH jxe 4g hrksg gcl ]g hrkg >kl Syflb , , q , s a 4g }} kd thp jg ksr jgkc 6kd ikPc ]kd hukot 6kd kriWd ]kd ;nkTl 6kd , a s q\ q Z ñex ]kd ñnl 6kd q;®e ]kd uoht 6kd 'kdi ]kd j/av 6g }} kd thp jg 4 1 z ss , a g }} jgkc dfXk;D ]g hrksg rkj hHd ]g krksg unf hHd kr jgkc ]n kjgksn jGf , a , , s wa 4g hg knl jk,v 4g ksr jksH 4g kr gcl 4hrLi Cg , , , s q \ u h;k[nf gcl Syflb 4ro_a; ]g gj kt yp lc e kvkui¥d hd ;‘ofH k; c q . T s s X X s w X X 1 L e k;rfe¬ hd rhrv uiv eg ]uhy e kXjkpof uiv eg ]Sks[ e kuil uiv s X s X X s eg ]Sdf nc [kav huiv eg ]'kgc eg jxe 6g krkt jH 'kdkv l kXjkr7nk a X s s , s a p 6g krxm tjl 6g rkx rhx h{i 6g rkt jxf ]g srkt kygéd ]g ry[f yG , w T s T s T q T s w 6g krkt ksg rlo L>ri ]g krkt kg L\>ri rlo 4krLi Cgu h;k[nf Nd Xeg , a \ , s a \ q k;kv uk,d g; ]k;kv ukd , aMkul j' d cyfkx\ q s s MkNcf 'G\ kd kdyi a Z X a Mktl xk\jpf d kyG s X w Mkouc yge d kXjkr a s k;kv uk,d g; ]k;kv ukd , krul Igkv hd thp jg q krup kjkud kd hjkl q kruc ckduf i klkl q X s X a kru/ jl krLm ypkv q \ a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 821 egaP

v jk,v kxMkt j? jd Lk,\n e cr `sxksjd k;D cr ]g kd xj nsGl hH ykeW ] a T , a g Cgu hH kLid yky Bksd lki jkgér ky uke 4kxMkygf gjr hd hL> jdykd , \ s q s a a uf _¬o hH Bksd k; ykeW k; I' l,t kLid yky Bksd e ]ht `xksjd k;D ]ky Z s \ T s s ksc 6g e jr[ ukt hd k;_fk; kXjktg `sxksjd k;D cr ]g Cgu hL> yky rDo , X s X , a lm lki jkgér ky uke 4k;nf ckot u ykynap ]kxMk[nf hL> yky Te ]ht `x s q s s w a a s ksjd k;D er e rfF¬f hlS ]g hgj kv suekl uI dS kFr g hLi hL[m ka;jfIi q X s , ≠s T \ \ df ksg r[sn er jkv ksg gj e? lki d ubky oyj er gcl7gcl ksy uke A s q , s w s s s q q q kNi Sg rsy ;øjIb kd ykywnp jkonheém Skv Syf d hjdk,u u hjkd/fv oysj w q s w a a s s s 4hxXkg ksr yH ksr Cgu 4rf1xkt Ag ;≤i hg dS jkv kNπwe Ag iki hg dS Xe I‘fn hd k X w , q , Z , 1 X ykouukt 4Crpc Cgu yH kr ksg <jxkt7e®kv hg lS ]krgj Cgu kj/v ksr ksg s X w s s s s a 'kdi l,t 4g Cgu ;kim kd uksg kni Bksd kd kyH l 'kg lm 4krOm Cgu hg z s , s , X w s s ykol ksr kd sukjgkn ]Cgu hg hxkXg yH e uoht jkgér jGf3l ;o¬ ]Cgu sl j s X w X s q s a ,kv hldf Cgu l>e ]Cgu l ycfbkc ]Cgu l ukjd ]Cgu l krhx3Skt yef géqr s q s s q s X jRm kdlb ]g uk,d e 4g <jxkt dofr¬ko jkd®k{kl7e®kv 4g rgd <jxkt wa T , T s dofr¬ko o kd kF¬ov hFkp 48;hjr8 ]g kgd hFk,p ilf kd hFk,p jk,v rîf"ql s s , q , Z s q ksd kF¬ov hjlhr 4g kgd uîo¬ sukgüm ksd kF¬ov hjln 4rxkt rFfdkFr Ag , X w z T srgd so lm ]g rgd rzxkt eg kdltf 4g hgd ka;rfF¬f jkp hd kurp u k0c s T s s T s s X q 4g Cgu kpπl <jxkt g; 4g Sg xkt eg df g e rfkH lb eg , T q s T X az 4g kNπe dS ]g h'ksgc dS 4hrksg ek'7gcl hg lS 4hrksg eker em , Z w , s q s s z hg lsS jkv 4hxksvkrNi jGf yd jkv hxksjd /ks∂ er jGf yd jk,v 4g krskg s , , q , rDQui hH kokrNi ]g krkg rDQui hH /ks∂ 4g kukji hH kokrNi ]g kukjqi h q , s q , q , H /ks∂ 4g kvg kokrNi jGf 4g k;df /ks∂ tkv jGf 2k;x ksg rgc ]Cgu cv ] , q , q Cgu cv df k;yf hH ;Z<uf jdkrNi jkc jg jk,v hH SkrNi djd /ks∂ jkc j s g jkv kF k;df /ks∂ hH kXlji ]kF k;df /ks∂ hH yd 4g hrjgkn yH hgo7hgo ,a T s X w Syflb 4ksg e 'ksg er df g rfkH ilf gér 4g hrksg rDfQui Syflb ]rfkaH h X q , az Z X q , q d _; g krht ;‘que 4g hrksg rDfQuqi Syflb ]e h'ksgc g krht ;‘ue 2rfk;† a , , X s , q s `Cgu k;D kr[hl Nd l XkyH huiv ;‘ue df g hrgkp kuukt e 4g h X q s w q wa T wa rjd jkcjkc XyH hgo7hgo 4g hrjd XyH rgc e uoht e ]ukoxH Auæi kjlhr w wa w q X T z 4g kgd , .ejnl eo'f e;®l ]g kgd nauknpπfl ]g kgd ke®keji ueg hg lm 4nukv k qa . . , , s s a xyef gér Cgo ]rfk' hxsyef gér Cgo ]"krl kxyef gér Cgo jk,v 4ksyp Gjr s X q a X q s a s X q hd Lt cv ]kyp Gjr hd ye cv ]jgkc7jgkc dp gc rgc 2ksn ugc Gjr \ s w s q q s hd h_kxax ksd kxax 2ktks[ kd rksÛ uiv 2ksvkv jrhH `xskgj scL hg kXvk{kdkv s s s s s w a hd jgkc jkv dr cd `k;D k;ki ]Syf yp rgc jgkc 4ksyp jrhH 2Fhrekj , q Z
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 921 egaP

cl ksr e 4krkt kOm Cgu e rge‰c df ]g hrskg l>e yH g; jk,v 4skOm e q T X Z wq z , s q w X Zrge‰c df g rgd htkrif je `Wd k;D e df kgd jdkv l>e u do; dS wq z T s ss a T s q s q 4g , Cgu yH Nd e krkc hl7rgc 4g hg; Bkpl 4g kruke yH e Syflb ]g srgd w q X X q , wa X w T T xky ilf g Cgu XyH ywH hl7rgc df k; `g rgd xky kurtf g kjH l yH s Z T w X q T s s , s w hurb e pl go ]g kgj ht uoht e kst df ksjd ;<uf kdlb ksr ygi `Cgu X wa T Z s k; hH g yH go ]g rgd jln ltf yH df kujd g; jkpof ksr kygi ksr 4skg , w T s s w s w yH go df g Cgu hjWt ]g rgd yH ltf jln ]rkc kr hygi `yH 2rfk;† w , T s w s s w s w s 4,g hrkt hyp hrkg u?l rnkv hg; jkv 2g rnkv hd ujd hg /sk∂ gér ksr tkv jkv s , , s X q , 4g krkv tkv ]g krkv hH ct 4g oHlv yd 4Cgu hg krkv `Cgu k;kv hHd , , , a yd `cd hg kxSkv yd jxe 4xjd u yd udfy ]dhO ksr /ks∂ k;x kv tk s X s v cv 2ky jktx ]g dhO ]g kst cv df ksg rgd er ksr tkv jk,v 4tkv cr k s q , , s q rkv ct 4Cgu krkv hHd yd jkv 4tkv sxkvtf jk,v yd xksjd dhO udfy 4x , s s s s Xy jd dhO cl df ksg rjd kui¥d hd yd jkv e h'ksgc kg rht er skr tkv s , X s s s q 4g gj ht e kXvkui¥d xky T s X s 4g gj L T s i h;k[nf jxy Bkd u ]g kgj Li h;k[nf ukGr7h/kav Bkd eg u 4g gj jd \ a s , \ w s X T s kui¥d hH eg ]ksg gj jd kui¥d hH er 4g gj ky hH eg l Cgo ]g gj ky s q T s s T s ikv l kgt `g gj ky l kagd ikv ukGr jkv h/kv hurb ]kgd u uhYQlu kr s a T s s w , a s s `ksg gj l kagd ky er jxy urb df kNi u hjkd/fv 4xn ykL hH jxy kFk s s q a s w s s X a , p df kgd sulm kr 4kcL cr kcL cv tkgt 4g e jr[ <ki 4g jda;H 4ueqr s w w T X s z , s Cgu h[n hHd hl,t g hlsS h/kav df kgd u hjkd/fv 4xn ykL hH jxy kjlh s , s s X a r ]kgd ulm kr 2g Cgu h/kav <jk/kl Bkd h/kav df kgd u hjkd/fv 2jxy k s s , s s a jln ]kgd ulm `sxksjd k;D jGf ]g jd;H rgc h/kav df kNi u hjkd/fv 4x w s , a q w s s n ykL e huki jxy kd tkgt df kgd sulm `xksjd k;D ]h;x kv h/kav df kN X X a s w s i u hjkd/fv 4kujkrm jxy kd tkgt kF ekd kdlm 4kvg ;øjIb ygi d hj a q w a s s dku 4hd hjdk,u ji tkgt dS u uhYQlu ky¥e3kuI? hg hlS dhO3g kuql uTe , s q s , s 4Skt ksg k[ksp xj ]hjdIGf u a hxy hn¥g 4kxSkt kg hH utjkue r@#!ie 2y hg [n ]hxksg Cgu hH h[n e s as q s s s X uoht sur kuI?n hlsS ]hjk;î y [n df kxgd l hu®i huiv jGf 4kuyduf re w Z q s s wa s s w ue? lki d k;jfIi hd yj gcl7gcl hHd hH jdyH kr Li kujd kd hld s X s q q w s s \ s f nf; jkv 4kujd re hjdk,u hd soyj hHd xky er ]kspπc jk;î je ]kgd u , s s q s ss s ykynap ]g kLi e rchle jkv I>a> hld e ]ks[n df kxMk>el güm e jdky w wa \ X q , , T s a X T c ksd kpπc ]ht `xksjd k;D jdkyc ksd hu®i jk,v kpπc ]kNi l ;pækv u hjk q X s q X w s Z s d/fv soyj ]k>el Cgu cyre kjkgér e 4kxMky kyc kd kXpπc jkv hu®i hui s q T a q s ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 031 egaP

4ksvky[nf jdkl dr tc gN ksr hH er df ksgd ksr g; lum kjt\ 4g rkv O s s q s T s m tc uhr o hg <jkd d ukg Pc 4g dufkKov 4g ryx yd¥cf rkc hdum j s s s s s s w\ , , , q xe 2ksvk[ kr e' ]jdksg ukot er jkv g rkv Om tc uhr jdksg Pc eg df s Z q , T s s s w\ ]g hrxy dhO hLc l jiM yhyn hdum 4g kul rgd kd kxky ue klS 2ksg , \ s , q s s X s s T s gj Om stc gN jdksg ukot er ]g rOm tc uhr jk,v g rskl I? uhr jdksg s q T s s T s sa Pc eg ]jv `g rjWt k;D hd sukl I? Okv gér kr g rksl kI? uhr eg ct s w\ s , s sa X q s T s a df ]g rgd l oHuv uiv jkpcf Pc jkv 4g krkt k>el jkn>el kd Cgüm T s s q s s s w\ , , s 4g Oc Sket ktçd e kXj? hg Pc 4u kPc g [yf _¬k' `g k;D kjr[ udfy T s, X s w\ s X w\ T s , s 4g k;∂fi hd , z <keuf nCu 4hgj Cgu rjWt hd nCu cv Syflb 4kruc Cgu l jGf ]k;x II Z s w s kl k;x II kst kr cv 4k;x ksg nc <kZeuf cl 4jrhH jkgér hrjd Cgu <keu w s a s q Z f ktM7uoht cv ksr g hgj kv chjd rk,e jkv 4g hrxy uksg ed nCu hIkN ]c Z , , , s s v g hgj kv chjd nCu hLc 4g hrxy suksg ed nCu ]g hrxy ukv chjd rk,e , \ , , s s , s , , lt7lt 4g hrkt gj I? kn ]I? uhr nCu ct g hrkv em dS 4g hrkt gj I sa s sa , z , s a ? pkai ]I? jkp nCu ct g hrkv em dS jGf 4Sgfkp hg kuskl 4kxSksl ArokH sa , z o¬ I? rkl ]I? Okv rDf;ø ukot 4g hrkt dQ ji I? Okv nCu ct g hrkv k sa sa , sa , F¬ov dS sxkv jGf 4g hrxy suksg ed nCu hdlm lo7lo g krxy uksg kLc sl , s , s , , s \ ,t7l,t 4I? gjkOv jGf ]I? lhc jGf ]I? lBkc jGf 6g krkl I? lBr ksr g s sa sa sa , s sa s , krkg kni ct kpπc jGf 4g hrxy ktM hjkl hg e lkdof ]g hrgj hjgO Sk; s , , Z X T a ∂f hjkl jkv 4g krksg ekjof e nCu dfk;D 4g krksg rlfdof hg e nCu 4kxsdl , , X X , X ksg kLc go hg kr 4Sgfkp hg kukl 4g krLi kuksl hg I? lhck,p ksd pπc e I \ s s , \ sa s X i sd kae ~ ~ ~4ksjd kxkt ed7l7ed kr e rge‰zc 2I? lhckp 2pπc df srgd s s s X Z wq sa , w d jk>d> ksr rksg rdl jd jxv 'soi e Hx <xke®kge 4Cgu rk>el kdu s s s s z X Z s s m <xke®kge df kvg kNπv ksr go ~ ~ ~4g krkl I? lhck,p e Ii d kae kpπc q , s sa X s s 4,g hr kt ksg ed nCu hdum ]g rkt ksg 01o xky hg lt df g hrksg k;D BkuOfd cv T s s s , , 4g Cgu rjWt , Bksd gér 4sxkXg ewyke sykoukdF ekd cl ]kxsxy u ue e ekd hldf ]xky k; X q s X s s a bkgét jkcjkc 4L[m7L[m Nd ]kIN7kIN Nd ]kdp7kdp Nd df xksvki hg kl s \ s \ q w w q w w q s s S jHunf 4hxksg ewyke hrkv7hrkv nCu ]hxgj hdhG [akv ]xkxy dF7dF ]xksgj X X s s s s s lknm jHunf 4sxkxksH ek<jfi‘n kdlm kr ]Skv Om hr¬njct jxv tc pkai j s q s s , kv 4ksOm tc pkai df g Cgu rjWt Bksd 4g rge‰c hgo kr ]g hrII tc gN s , , Z wq z s , w s ArokHo¬ hjkgér nCu jxv 4ksg gj jd yH hg e uuke klS ]g yH df g; r q s w X s s , w kc ksr hygi 4g Cgu hg yH Nd elb ]kgd llm uTe `kg kjkdIN l yH lb , w q X s s s q s w s , a ld `Wd k;D e ksr 4g rOm tc uhr n[ o 4kdl Om u tc jkp jxv hg k T T s s q s s s s Om kr tc pkai e rykg jg ]g rgd o jk,v 4krki Om Cgu ygi d tc gN g s s X T s s s s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 131 egaP

z s i cçu chjd7chjd l e k,l df g g; >el hje ksr ]y n[ ;<uf kuiv rDf;ø s X , s s q Z jxv 4g kusy n[ ;Z<uf kd uoht suiv gér `g utk;i k;D ler ksd k;ufqn , q X q , s z s q 4g k;yf Cgu kdO kjkgér Nd su k;ufn 4ksLks\N ∂Gf hdlb ]g hrgd k;D k;ufqn , s q q q , 4g dhO hgo ][j e ;¬uek,l knk;† ]rka' knk;† ]F¬o¬ knk;† kst gér 4k[n G , s X X q s s jr huiv er 4g nH hH e kxky 4hgl rkc hjln Syf d kxky Nd ]hgl rkc q T s X X ss w s X s q hygi Syf d kxky Nd 4g hrdl kg hgl rkc kuksn df g g; I‘fn huiv hjse s X ss q T s X X , 1 4g Ski jd Cgu ;Z<uf so Nd ji lb hHv 4Li u jkst knk;† ji k;∂fi hd up T q s \ z ki jk,v Skt pi kji utksH kygi dfkr ]Sgfkp kuksg kylkG kd sI? Okv sl gN w a ed7l7ed phc d utksH ksn df g kugd kd kdufkKo jln Nd udfy 4g srg s s , X , s w q s T d dufkK,o Nd klsS3g hxk;im knk;† ksr ]Skt k;df jdIkc e kXl¬gf Ls\kF7LkF q , s a X s s s\ ]Skt k;df utkH kLkF7kLkF jxv 4Nd g Cgu hryx hd ujd utksH jkc pkai s s\ s\ q , s 4kxsy jd utksH knk;† 4g krgkp kuy jH XrjWt hji huiv hg e , s w X s urm jhj' kr xksjd utksH jkc hg dS ct dfk;D 4xksvki L\c er Ii dum u s s X s s q s s dfy 4Sgfkp Cgu hg sukg Ii dum ]g rjd utksH jkc hg dS ufe ut jcxnf s s s s T s q , a 4Sgfkp suksg Cgu Lc ]Sgfkp uksg F¬o¬ hg yd¥cf ksr Ii dum 4g Lc Ii s \ s q s s T s \ s sdcl um ]g rkc hd hukjg hLc ]g krjd utksH jkc dS e kdhÌv kyhcd kt , , \ , X s 4g Cgu Z;pækv Nd ksr ]Skt ksg kxPc jhj' jk,v Skt ksg kLc Ii kjkgér j , q as \ s q xv Syflb 2hxsLi hujd hji ksr rjWt hd jhj' j[fkv 4xksjd e jkc kn eqr \ w s X s kurm g krjd e jkc pkai kurtf hdhjev kr ]xksjd utksH jkc ksn eqr ct 4 , X s s s \ Li u kØdb >kc knk;† ji Ii dfkr 4ksy jkc Bd ]ky utksH kLkF7kLks\F df g s s s s\ , hg; rpfm df g rgd dufkK,o Nd dfk;D 4k;ki jd Cgu ;r Nd ukKof hHv T s q X q 4g dhO yd¥cf xP kdldf krukt Cgu Bksd jkv 4g xP uiv7uiv , q a , T a s s 4g hxksH krgd Cgu Bksd 4g Iiy krgd Cgu Bksd 4g rjd utksH jkc pkai xky T T a T s s X e kdhjev 2g krgj kxy e uhi hg suk[ ]lc 4ksjd tke ]kvif ]ksvk[ 4g Ii , X s , s , y 6g hxksH knk;† kLks\F Agd eg jWt ksr jd utksH jkc uhr Bksd jxv kag; sj a , X s keg udfy 4g rjd utksH hHl jkc ksn 4kruke Cgu ekd ryx Bksd kd utksH s T s s jkc ksn kg; jkeg 4g kgj jd ekd ryx henkv go df g r>el kdlb ]jd u a s , T s s s tksH jkc ksn Bkd jxv 4g rjd utkH jkc hg dS kt g yhcd Nd e kdhÌv s T s s s T s q X 4g kgj kt k>el yH ksd kXrkc udf df ]rfk;† , w s kujd ;<uf g; ksr ygi 4kXg XyH so ]g rgd yH kdltf df g Cgu hjWt kr Z s w T s X w s , s 4sxgj Sky¥> jHunf kr ]xOm tc uhr ukot jx X s s X s v 4kgj u/c go 4kLi kukl hr¬njct dfk;D 4sxgj Sky¥> jHunf ksr xSkl d a \ s X X s a s r tc gN Pc jxv 4rdl Om tc uhr ukot u ]rdl kl dr tc gN Pc u s s w\ s s s s s s w\ 4hx yp kri BkuOfd ksdum cr `uke eg kr ]ksn ky[nf djd g; jxv jdksg sPc s X s s w\
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 231 egaP

;ƒ¬ko¬ go 2Skt jxf hH Nd ]jqxC> ]jNπe ]h[De ]xkjd utkH Xe j/v 4g sr q s s s s s a T jd utkH hg e j/v ]xky g rjd e kokx Bd hH hHv lt ]F rjd utkH s X s s a s T s X X a s , s s s e j/v xky jkv kr jkv 6kF Cgu hH yr kd hÈef 6F Cgu hH Shn e kj? 4hF X s s a s , s , s s X X Cgu hytcf kr ]kjd re utkH _fkj df kF kgd ct u jhokge 4rhi Cgu hH s s s s s huki rkj 4Cgu utkH _fkj jxe 4Cgu jNπe dS ]Cgu h[De dS Xelm 4kF L' s a hLd jvS j? kji 4kvkjgO re e j? kdum df l Gjr hd k;ufe7ut g Bkv a w s X s s X q , , jc[ >e dfkykg 4kxMkxy hH g; ]Skxy okn d gjr cl jkv 4g k// kje s q a a a s , , a s kÈl 4g k;jfkIl e df g krukt ukr¬ngV kjkl 4g hjkvt Te ]g rukt ikv df wa s T , q wa q T s kgd ukgüm 4sxLi e I>> ikv udfy ]g kr rkjgO >e ikv df hH kgd ji Ik s X X \ X a s T s s s q Z s ijvS lum ue 4Cgu ∂Gf Bkd ]kgd ukgüm hH e /kjof d kut jkl 4g Cgu h s s T s s X X s s X , s , yk[ l jr[ kujd <_euf e j? uiv >e dfk;D 2dl kuc ukege kuiv >qe s s a X s s q X s s s hHr 4F hH henkv joreégf Lc 4F dS l e Xkut hu/ Lc7l7Lc rO‘frfi d s s \ s s X , s \ s s \ z s rjkH ]Lc dS 4L\xn ykyugkl3kF ukege j? d _ef dS e Rdyd e ~ ~ ~ s \ w s s s X s T O‘g; k F kgd ct u jhokge j,kv 2kxSkt kyp dju df g kgj jd Cgu ikikge klS s , s Bkd kr ]g kgj jd utkH _fkj Bkd jxv kr 4g hrjd utkH _fkj k;ufqn hjkl s s , s s s , s 4xS s a kv u e okx lm hH o 2<je¬ kd ukoxH joæutf jdO,c kujd cr `kxkg hy X a s s s sr ukd jkv kxkg ñtn ukd jkv kxkg jkep ukd jkv kxkg hxH kgo ukd jGf , , s , , s , , s a a , dfk;D 4kxSkt kv nk; /n kd hON 4kxSkt yp kri kder cr 2kn k[nf jdk X w s q s lc hd kut ilf hr¬c dS 2g rfάl dk[\ k;D kr Cgu 4g rfάl Bkd hjkgéqr X , Z , a s , a s df kxway uke e kr3hd kut ilf3kn k[nf jdklc hr¬c dS df kgd skd kut T s X , Z s s X , kjt\ 4hxSkt kg hL[ ydæfe hLc e Zxo¬ kr xkg rkt xo¬ ydv hg ut jxv s \ q \ X s s X s Z s s , 4g BklB go ]kxjd kl®dfpf kt 4g ukeyle go ]kxShl Lid kt 4g ngV go , s s , q s \ s , w ]kxjd Gkl kuk[ki kt 4g ut go ]kxugi 4g kgkyt ukeyle go ]kxuc kL\i s s , , s , q q s q d 4g jkep ngV go ]kxShl krt 4kg Fel e ujd ekd cl kt Ag krkg ZFv , w w s Z X s s , s kd rfάl dfk;D 4krgd Cgu rfάl ]g krgd kr e/ e kd tkel7ut Syflb a X a wa s Z T s , `u , kd kxnhj[ `kdldf sxkpc `dk[\ ]k;D xkpc jxe 2hxkg ukdn hg ukdn e x s s s s s s s X X q X q X Z o¬ kl 4g rdl kyp ukdqn jdOc ji ukdn yod 6ekd kd BPc u ]ekd kd s T s , q s \ jkgky u 6rdl uc kLid u ]rdl kxy hjkgc u ]rdl hl rt u 4rukt Cgu s s q \ s q s s w s s kr hH Nd hut dfk;D 2e xo¬ sxLi e ydæfe hLc cr hut jkv 4krdl Cgu q , X X Z X \ X q \ , , kt xo¬ Bkd jkv jdLkN kd k;uft ;kolf kr ]g rkt dju xky l ujd ut Z s , s\ s X , s T s s s s kH h_kj jxv 4g hrjd utkH _fkj k;ufn hjkl 4rjd Cgu utkH _fkj ut slt s , s q s s , , 4g yH T X w df Cn kLdi gér u kjln udfsy 4Cgu hg g yH kt hxkg hlS kr thp r'rf \ X q s X w T X w s X s s X

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 331 egaP

X krkc –{ um 2g ydæfe kukxy cklgf kdutf df g Bg h;kLdi gér rkc –{ q , q T q \ X q X q hlS `g yH hylv hl7uk,d df g krkg ydæfe kukxy hg kri skdum ]ydæfe k s , w , s q q uk>yl ksdum e Lh\H hd r'rfi cçu 4g krdl kt k;k>yl kdum jkv hxpc q X z s , q s , X X w yH r'rfi ln 4hxSkt gd yH r'rfi cçu 4ekd kxSkt ksg uklkv jkv hxp z a X w z s , X c yH hl7hLkF rgc cr 4hxjkcdS kn Ikd kr ksd kvkr;üke um 4g Skr;üke X w s\ q s s X T a ilf ksr Bd l eum 4ksg gj jd Cgu er yH hurm ]ksg gj jd yH er hurtf Z s X s q X w s X w q 4rnkv hukji go ]rnkv go `xkvkyH ld kdlm q s s q s , s 2hchc hg gN hdum ksr g T 4skg u I>a> huukd Bksd e nkc dfkr `Mkt j? d hchc hl7uk,d e df Stfhn kr w X a s T c jk,v rkc dS jdkiÎ cv 4r;t oe;®l k;nf jd 0lf u kxksy ikv 4g ri s s s X T √el e kol hd ;®l hHl ryknv jkv lyfi ]uk/ofl ]uukd jkeg df kvg r X s , q a w s q nfukv jdukt e jkv 4g hrksg ;tof knl hd ;®l ]kyksc ky¥e 4hxksg hgj jd a T , , q jktrb kjkgér l hckrc hchc hjkgér ]ksg rdl kt j? h'[7h'[ er cv ]uhY a q s s q s q q q Qlu kvkt ]kgd jdksg Uli u yhdo d {i 4g hrjd hjc rt†bkc ksd ejftqe s z s s , ryknv <jkd d uyef u rcl rîk;i udfy ]kF k;x k;kxy iksjkv kd Xk;nf s s w Z z s k' gN ji ejfte3hd k<"ks? jddIi Fkg l jkst ji ycI u 'h/k;k;ü uk}of q s s s 2kg h;x ksg u hg rnkv go Cgd 4kujd jkpo√ s ui hH ji lm ],g ryx df ksg kgd hH ksd rkc ltf hH u k;nfl ]ku[j yk;[ q s ssa 4g hrjd kNhi kjkeg 4g hr[j sLdi eg rnkv hukji `kg gj y> Syfldf k[ T T \ X X q s s i ]e j? lb g Cgu hH Nd ]h[De u ]jNπe u df g rkc Gkl7h/hl hurb kr a X , q , s g; `k;kynf Cgu k;D nk; s>e su hldf jxe 2h;x ksg ng 2Cgu kykouy> k[ai X q s Te cv 2ufe7ut Skv cv 4g dhO rkc g; df kgd 4k;nf dG k[i rDo hlm q , , X a 2rnkv hukF¬tkj hukjqi `g kgj jd k;D e g; df kpkl wa T s hHd ue u 2Cgu hg kgd g; l>e su hldf ]g kry> e k[i kdum kr g srkv s T s q wa T a s s T ufqe7ut 2Bkynf nk; c[ hH uikv ]kgd sukgüm `ksg gj y> Syfldf k[i g , w s X s a ; ]jNπe u ]h[De u kg; ]g ukde L'hLd jvS ]kgd lum ue 4sry> k[i k a , a a s s T a s r rOc sukjd utksH >e 4g hrIN l ydæfe hLc rnkv 4Lxn ykyugkl udfy s , s q T w s q \ X \ w s s 4g hgj kt Bg Cgu yH , q w Bksd e ujd utksH _fkj ksr ksg e j? hytcf 2ksjd u ∂Gf er ]kxy Iiuf kr X s X q wa s e {ke kxksg kuyef lum kje hHd jkv 4ksg rdl jd utksH jckjc Ag krgd X s s s , s wa s q s ler l Gjr hdum e 4g Cgu upLv Bkd ]ksg rdl jd utksH jckjc ]g Xe T , \ s s , j? hytcf ct df sxgd jWt kr ]Skv cv jhokge jxv df g krgd sleqr Te X s a wa 4ksjd re ut ksH _fkj ]kF kgd u jhokge ksr 4ufkg hH gér 4h;x ukt hd Lks\de7Lhd lm d s X q s s \ fk;D ]g hH de®klgV jkv 4g krdl ksg hH rDk"of utkH 4g kjc hH Syf d X , , , s , q s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 431 egaP

g k[n kd eJkv lb e dfk;D 6hxksg hukjg rgc skdum kr xSkt kv akg; jxv s s T X , q s s a xksy d gjr lb ArokHo¬ 2jdkt7kt g r[n tksj jk,v g srkxy jdDp tksj k s T s s T cksuof jkv 2g Cgu ther hd sujd Gkl lkLl jk,v 8jnfe k|of ukK‰c8 Ag ek , , a a z , u ~ ~ ~g Cgu ther hH hurb kd k;lfkoeJkv jkgér jxv ]g Cgu klksjH hH k , s X s q , urb kd k;lfkoeJkv uiv jxv gér `u kxksy Cgu df hd BkGl df g r[sn X s X q s X T s jd dka> hH e lkLl jg ]Cgu klsS `Cgu df Bg BkGl df u[n tksj e jed X a q s s X s jg hd sukt g rjWt Bkd lsS 4g rkt e jed dS jg jdOm tksj okH kckuof , s s T s X s s s 4htkny[n e thp jg 4ArokHo¬ 4hxSkt ksg a X knk;† hd llkt jk,v ed hd ke®kge jtu hdum kr ]d eJkv F Qx h/kax ke w s s s q ®kge l,t3g Qqx kst kjkgér kr hxkXg rkc hlS cr jGf jkv 4lt k;yf y kdsO s , q s X s , s , s udfy 2g kgj kg Cgu k;D7k;D e k;ufn lb 2kn Lks\N hg yk;[ ks>el jGf kd s , s X q s s uksg 0q' d ke®kv kr cr ]g hgj kg 0'v ke®kv hjkgér l uhi ;kp d jkv s s , s q q s s s , hldf jxv 2sxjd huiv o 0f'e®kv ]hi ulm ;kp 2Syf d 0f'e®kv 4xXjd X s q s s q s lkoim kd unf uhr o ksr ]hi ;kp u hldf df g krkt yp kri ct kd h/kx s s , s a ke®kge jkv 4xjd jk;r ;kp djd nc ktkojn ]djd nc kjed 6xSif jdi , s X , s a s a s a Nf ]sxSif kr ;kp xky cv 4hxSkt Pc kuokHl hd kthp –{ kago ]xkvkuc e a s s \ a X q s s ;uf –{ d gjr lb kagt 4F rhi ;kp hH l hjksp xky 4hF hrksg hH hjksp jGf q s s s s s 2k;yf jd ctx Nd df F ryp jdLdv ]F r>el o ]hi Cgu q s s \ s s s ;kp sultf jkv 2kxSkt ksg ekd ksr kvif Cgu ;kp ]lc 2cv e k;ufn pc Cgu , s X q s s s kd ujd ekd Lc Bksd jkv lt 4kF rt√o kuhi ;kp e eJkv d h/kax ke®kg s \ , s , X s e 4kdum g Cgu krpV Bksd jkv g rhi ;kp e k;ufn hjkl {Hf 0k,c udfy 4 s , , T s X q q s g kgj kg Cgu ksr iki Nd Cgd 4g hgj ksg Cgu kr yH Cgd df ksg rjd jkpof , s q , s w s e uhi ;kp udfy 2e jdDp Bksd Skt lG kGn dS 4tk;ç 0fo∂p 6tk;ç 4d X s s X a 1 s s uhi u[ g xP kr u[ ksg rkt hi ukN hg kucf 4rhi Cgu hH d ukN rjd Cg w T a s w s s s s s u ∂@#!if elm 4ky lp er lsS ]Skt kv dlm e ykt ]ksd h[De y lp hL X s w q s s X s w \de lt ksr ]e tai jkgér Bksd Skt lG jxv 4rjd Cgu jdfGf rDo srhi u[ s , X s s q a s w ~ ~ ~ksg gj hi Cgu u[ kd hldf ]kg gj jd Cgu k;®g hd hldf ]ksg gj jd s w s s s Cgu iki Nd `k;D hg huLkN 2hrIN Cgu ;kp ]jd k;D df g rkt kv lki jse q X s\ w X T s s 2Syf d kXrkc hIkN7hIkN ]g xky uk'ji urb s s s T s s s 2kvg 8ytuoht8 e jn hLs\kF ]hi ;kp uer 4k;x j/m q X s s q ]kvif j/b 2g krjd hg Lks\F hØdb thp dr ykl lhc Bksd jhj' jkv 2Bg r , s X , q kc Bksd hH g; 4g hrdl ksg rk,e kr ]ksvkt hi kØdb kdlm jk,v Skt k;yf jd , s s kØdb jxv uIfksduf kdcl ub ];kp id gjkc dr ykl lhc cv ~ ~ ~ dr y kl lhc ]ksvif tksj ;kp id gjkc er jxv df g ed kurb jxe ]g uIfkduf q , , s X elm df kuke 4thp "knuf hlt ;kp cv 4g kgj jd yH g krpksl ksr krhi ∆ , wa w , ;kp Bksd 2ksg rkg uk'ji surdf ]ksg rksg rLf\kri urdf er jd>el yH ksd s s s s z s q w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 531 egaP

re utksH unf dS df gd dl®dfpf hHd7hHd ]kag ~ ~ ~g kujd lkoim ksr s , yH dS cv 4k;yf jd lkoim df l,t 4g rjd kni l Fkg uiv xky yH Nd w s T s , s s s X w q 4g rkt kg kncf jh/7jh/ cl ]Hky ]/ks∂ df ,g k; T s s s s s efhd hlsS ]g kyd rHnv hurb ]g rkc hLc hurb 'ksg dfk;D 4kxkg Cgu /ks∂ , q . , \ X s kjkcksn jGf ]jkc dS k;yf jd /ks∂ dowi'kg3hxksvkt kg rdfp er jkv ksjd Z s s q , doi'ksg ji ]CykL Lks\r Xthp sue e /k∂ s; ]g kgj gd rkc hd gjr lb7lb Z w sw T X s wa X e /ks∂ e g; ]g kgj Om kv/ kd /ks∂ g; ]/ks∂ kgj g; ]g kgj jd /ks∂ Te X T , a q wa df jdkg xtl ]jdxkt ji jrhH udfsy ]ksjd /ks∂ ksr 6k;x kv /k∂ slt 4ksj s sw s , d dZoi'kg 4hxsyduf hHd jGf ksr kvg uen jkv 4kxSkt ksg uen Xe ujd re w s q , s dfk;D 4ksjd re df krgd Cgu hH g; e 4ksjd kd yH lm doiuk;÷ hHr ]k X T s w Z w ss g hgj kg yH ct 4kuy re ;<uf klS ]sxjd Cgu yd 4kujd re kokrNi Sy s w s Z s X f sd yH d;®i l eum ]pc yH hl7hLkF kst jGf 4g yH df g h;k>el gér w s z s X X X w s\ T X w T X q s w\ u kXPe kst kuykL Ikd kd kyH um kr ygi ]kXg hrkg l>r hH kst ]rfk;† ]yH s X w s s s s q s X w 4g hrjd kni k0 , , J k0J ]g krjd kni gnl gnl 4oHlv 2sxjd k0J ji er o df kg rpkl , , sa sa a X q s s s s er lum ]g d' gér ji utf jkv 4g gnl ]g d' ji jln elb 4rkc kr hy q s , X q , , sa , s w X s gi ]g Cgu klksjH ji jlwn elb 4g Cgu I‘fn hd Qxnl Bksd I‘fn g; jxe 4d , s X , 1 q . 1 e¬fdkv 2lyfi u g hrjd 8Lj8 hHd7hHd 2s; g xP hg d lyfi 4g dhO hH q , s T a s q , g; ]kgd sue ksr 4g rkt kv hH l iW de¬fdkv hHd7hHd o df kgd ukgüm ] T T s s s s X Cgu 4hxSkt kv jgkc thp hylv df Sx ht kcksuof jk,v 6hxSkt hn kcn e krh a X a X x kr hxkXg aSkd_fi he¥Gf 6kxSkt k;nf [j jdkiNf phu d jr¬cf kr kxksg uk s s s s ekl kd gj,xo ;kp jkv hxSkt ksg BkGl hd jed cr xkg rkv ct kcksuof kr , s s X s s 2g k;kv /kc Cgd slS jk , s s , v 2kxe? jdy hLdy Bkd Nhi jkgér e udfy 4g krn /ksc Te 4g kujd lm aw w s \ s s s q T s wa s , s go ]g kgj xy dhO kt ksdltf 4g ku[j cklgf kuiv ]g ku[n Gjr huiv kd , s , , s s rDf;ø ds;®i 4g Cgu rjWt Bksd df kgd ue `Cgu df g r[n ikv ]jdkt g z , s T T s s T s s r[n tksj eJkv kji htkcksuof df F gj gd jdkv l>e rDH dS d kckuof w s s s q s s 2g hrkt hd kl'i hdlb udfy , a z s 4Sg ycI¬kad Lg 4Bk q s s s d ]Sg u kckuof ; 4Skt h[j jtu I? lhck,p eltf 4kvg kuk[yt kvg u e q s s sa X q s q Jkv kd kcksuof g; 4g Skv e 'kyr hd kr_ro¬ ]g Skv ujd <jrkiW ksd u T X a T s a oht uiv so 4g o®;fknjRm Nd kdum ]g Skv skt xksy jkv 4g Cgu ji kxky s , q T , , X s klksjH kurb `k;D utk;i 4g k;x Cgu jkc dS e lGfkv d eJkv 4g k;x Cg s z wa X s wa u jkc dS hH e kXukde d eJkv lb 4oHlv 4kxMki Cgu PP e kr ksd hldf X s a a wa\ T s ]Li kuyduf uPP >e jxv 4Cgu kri s>e hH kdlb ]g krgj e jed ldf u s \ s wa\ s q q , X s k,d 4g krkt kv jdOm kag; jGf >kl ]g krkt kv jdOm kg; gcl ]lc 2Cgu h wa a wa a q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 631 egaP

s l rke hje g; 4g keüt rhx g; cr ]Cgu kgj kr e 4g kvg kni rhx g; c , s , s T , q , r ]Ief k;x kr e 4g Cgu kje g; hg rpæfuf 4g Cgu kokn Bkd kje ji rhx s T , s , s s lb 4g kd kLkgi ]g kd k{1o ]g kd k;{fi kurtf g kje hg kurm 4g kjkgér , X \ , X , X , s , q kurtf g kje hg kurm 4g kd ke®keji rhx g; 4g Cgu kje rhx g; ]nuk;®l , s , , s a `g krky pC[ lki dikv jk , s c7jkc s>e kt g k;D rhx g; 4l rhx dikv g rgfke e ]ukoxH Auæi hj[fkv q s , s s wa s T z 4g d;k<uf hg 'skg , Z 4hF Cgu ywH df ku>el skr ]gj s hjkt hH nkc d 'kg jxv jkv 4hF yH df ku>el kr ]Skt kg nc <jkd d s s , w s s a s 'kg ekd go jkv kjd kd ekd hldf dowi'kg er jxv ]gj e <je¬ _l dS s , s s Z s q s X w 4kjd <{hjuf l dhO sygi 4g iki g; ]g yH g; df kuy re ; s s , , w s Z <uf l hn¥t 4sxkdl u xkt kr xkjd knuV er ct dfXk;D 4kujd u knuV jkv s s s s s q , 4kjd l r;dfyke huiv kr g hujd hH yH 4skuc n[ dyfke uiv cv ]d s s s , w q s s X k_¬k' ]d kjkv ekyx dp gj unf rgc 4ky e Fkg uiv r;dfyke huiv 4g s X , q s q q s X s , Z Fv hg; kd lk;ül 4kuc dyfke suiv 4Sgfkp hukIt kre{ hd uy ;<uf uiv a s q s s Z s kd rDf;ø d;®zi Syflb 4g dofkHko¬ yd¥cf g; 4kxkg knk;† utkH kd jwnt s s , q s s e ]kxkg ed utkH kd syko ujd uik;÷v 4g ÈH7utkH kr jd utkH kurm j s s s , s s s s xv hH go ]g krjd uik;÷v e hIl√ouf; henkv kt jkv 4Cgu ÈH utkH go , X q s , s 4kxjd utkH knk;† go ]g kgj jd ruge e r[ I? Okv henkv kt cv 4g U s s , s X s s a s T Hf Skrd;æokv hd rDf;ø ds;®i 4krdl jd Cgu ;r kjln Bkd krd;æokv hj a z w s kgér 4kg rdl jd ;r Cgér krd;æokv hjkgér jkv 4g d;æokv kurtf 4lko q s s q q , , im u ]jkgkv rfv u 4e ;÷e dhO d kukn 4hxk;® u ]hxkH u Ag Fv kd e;al X s X s s , Z 4Cgu xk;® Fv kd e;l 4uyrl Ag Fv kje kd e;l 4ku[j uyrl gxt c Z a q a , Z s a q a l e uoht df g krgd ler 4kun utkH kurm Syf d jhj' g hjWt kurtf X wa s q s s s , 4kujd utkH ed u 4kujd utkH knk;† kr u 4jkgkv d;él Ag krgd sleqr Te s s s . wa 4kujd re yH hd uen w 4kxSkt kel e xj7xj hjkgér go ]xkvkcn hH kt 4hxSkrl kulkoekd rkj7unf kr ]xky kc X q s s s s s s n kd kulkoekd 4g hgj kv nk; hd utkH g; <jkd d lkoim ]kg Cgu ÈH7u s , s s s tkH er 2ÈH7utkH kld e 2g kgj pkl hd utkH hg utkH df –{ kld hH s q s , T wa s s s q , Te df hxkg ufky≈ e Rpf jGf 4hxSkv nk; hd utkH jH7unf kr k;df lkoim s X s s ]hxkg Cgu rîfki Bkd hd gjxo ke®kv 2hxkg rîfki hd ke®kv hLc llb df e s z s , s z \ s X k'kv lb k;yf jd lkoim kr ygi udfsy 4g Cgu ;¥e de®fk;÷kv Bkd kdlb s s , w s 4Syf d ;ƒ¬ko¬ go 4ji gkyl hd dl®dfpf jxe 4g krkv e >el ]kn LkN s , X s s\ unf kn ]kn LkN unf dS utkH jxv ji gkyl hd dl®dfpf 4g dhO skr ]kjd s s s\ s , s

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 731 egaP

, g u>ka> krtc ko rhx g; s g uekn Cxj ko rhx g; , a s ywG d ukGjb yx d dkjnb s \ q s yG d ukejv jgx d kdæv w s q s X yG d ukeW jH kg eltf w s s X X g uekn Cxj ko rhx g; , a s , g uokl 'dynf ko rhx g; s jkgG hd kykc Clg sl dtku q X s q jkdgp hd j;kr d yB[\r s jkgc hd ynf rjkcb lltf skg s , g uokl 'dynf ko rhx g; s 4g /v kt T s a s xkHv g rgc j,kv 4g jgc kst sxkHv g rgc dfk;D 4g k;x Li h;kul gér s T q T s T q X , \ q X q df kg hyk';≈kHk,l er jkv 4hxaSkt uc k;rfkup /ksjov cl 4kxdl Cgu dksj s q , a , q s /ksjov Bksd lb 4kxtx ji hoƒi hjkl rhx g; 4g hrdl kt hd h<ko;‘ofH hd s s wa 1 , lb 4g rpæfufl g; 4g kd uksg I‘ofkel e uoht d hlk;ül ds;®i je ol®m , q , s s X s a z ss g; 4kxpku ksd ;®u lb 4kxSkx yd Cgu tkv kd rhx lb hlk;ül d;®i kjse s 1 s a s z 4kxksg Idi hH ler rhx g; jh/7jh/ ksr gj rkv p[V z s q s s s s s 4ksg rkv p[V Syflb 4g hgj s s , Li h;k[nf gér hjlkac 4g ;ænv dnko go 4g srkg d dnko7hjlkac kr rhx ]sr \ X q q , 1 T s s q s ksg Cgu d hjlkc rhx 4hjxkXi hd lkc lc ksr [j u ji Okv Bksd jk,v ]Skt skg s q a a s X hjlkac kr y [j ji Okv Bkd ]hjxkXi hd lkc hyki ]g hjlkac e ]g kgj kv e q s s X s a s wa q T , kd dlm Od kje 4g rhx kd ke®keji g; 4g krhxnoxH hg; ksr ksgd e knç' s a s , , . X X jln lb 4g kgj tc ji k<ho hd ;ü' g; 4g kxkt l ;ü' je g; 4g kjHm s w s , w , s w ss ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 831 egaP

4jkc d dihn ucf ]utkH er ksjd ;kg k>al s s q s q s 44ksoky u "ksn kd unf ]kNi uft icf lncf ryp s w z s 4ksokox ejH urb r ue a s X 44Sjfr jxklk,H djefl jfg dye gd s q w 4Sjfd u gk–ji ]g lnim kLc hg; s , s \ 44Bkj?j >hj ]d /kl ;kt ksgx ujp q T s 4BkH Sgfj y ]kruhn kv k;n dS s , 44hrkN rjksr hdkr ]g ukeHfv ;tf dkt , s 4hrkgksl gVku ue d Fku?j hn[ ujt s q q 44hjkH [Aqn k;ki ]k;x uokj r gVox s Z 4hjkgiox jfg ]jokc thd u ox zZ s s Z 4hg kurb tkv 48Cgu Nd e>e kje8 4g kdlm cl 4g kukgc ]g Refuf ilf ksr Te q X q s , wa wa Z 4g kdlm dcp ]Cgu <jkd je 4ksg rkv yp p[V er lltf 4g kgj kyqc Xgé , qa ss s s s q s , q s r kt ]kxsxy suLi h;k[nf hgo 4g kgj kx kt kxsxy uLi h;k[nf hgo ]kxLi Cg \ , s s \ wa u h;k[nf e jh/7jh/ ksr ]gj srkv ]gj rkv ]gj rkv lki je 4g kgj kx Bkd T s s s s s s s ss , s , g u>ka> krtc ko rhx g; s jkd> hd kvknv r¬enc a X jkr@#!ij hd hukot hrkyOb jktketet\ db kaguf eltf skg \ \ X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 931 egaP

4g hrkt dy> rfk;†7xi e Fi7kjkr , s X ]g hrki dP ur kjkl Cgu keyfhu , ]ksg rjd klc /x jd uc e kyG s a X X w ]ksg rjd klg tksj e u? uc hytcf s a X 4Sksj rgc ukx ; q s ]jdkv Xeub Cgu slc eqr 44kukonf dye rgd ]g jL k;D cv gfkr Sx ujl w , s 4kukdl [fn ksdkr ]jxklk,H kLc jkll g; s \ a 44k/v ju ukt k;D ]k;kLv /fkac e ykt7k;ke a , a X 4knG kd rxt hg; ]g ejH jkpv ejd k;jfdf a . , 44thd u Hksy kd ;tf ]kuke gVu tjg Li Idal , s s \ 4thy re kd jl ]dekj dS lksjH ksgj , sw s s 4,okv u k;n njgf ]ti uk"i jfke erkv , T w T 4okyp uk,d hdub ]gfjk,v kLi kd nc dky , T s s 44Sgfj sxkH kXlkr ]Bkjc lc Nd ue dkt q , q s 4Sgfd gkd u kjc ]g kyH gfcl skr yH ikv w q , s s 44jke d Bn Pe ]k;jfc hd ujlv Tgd ukt s s w\ s q ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 041 egaP

]kxy ji lhl xkv hjkgér tksj ldf wa q `sxkvkt yduf [j ji ;nÔ srpC[ s s ]sxksvkv <kc ryfo†i Syf tksj ldf z `ksd>e jd jki tksj ldf Fj kxyduf q s `ksd>e jd jkc rfk;† hxljc dr cd q s s 4Sksj rgc ukx ; q s jdki ksder Cgu Cgd ]ji q 4rjGf rjg gér e uksd7ukd s s s X q X s s s ]rjGf rjI kFo jo¬ e yk;/fv s s s 1 X s a 4l j/b Cgu jtx kr tksj hldf eqr s s q s ]l ji BkpM huiv kgj [sn Te s a 4g krkt yt dihn ji lm ]g srgd , T ]g krkt yduf hHd Fj l ji Fi ltf , s 4Sksj rgc ukx ; q s ]jdky e ue Iel kdub X s s ]kjkl kt rxt kxext krOm gj7gj s . ]kjkgér iW kt g; krdep Gjr jg q s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 141 egaP

s rgj 4ksg de√k/ er df g hrgj huc rfkaH géqr lub 4g d [k/ uæi ; 2Cgu q , z X s T s s s z s k; hrpc ke®kv nkc d uje ksg rNi ]Cgu rykII ]Cgu r'kyr ksr cr ]g h s s s w s s s , lc eer ke®kv hHv 6rjd Cgu tks[ hd ke®kv jkv ksg rofht hHv `Cgu k; X q s , hrpc ke®kv nkc d q;®e 2g /cl Bkd kdum l uLxcf7uuc d I‘fl slt 2g s 1 , a a s s s \ s s 1 , , kLi kun7kusy Nd güm l,t `k;kuc uldf ksd I‘fl A g srNi xksy jdkv sl>qe \ s q X s s 1 T w 4hjH l hukeBc k s s s r ksg rjd er hH klkKtf 4hHv uæi dFkl Cgu hg kNi ueqr 4g e df kxyp s q z Z w s wa T s kri hg jdukt g uk,d e 4g e df gd ld go ]g uk,d e df Cgu kri hH g wa T wa T s s , wa T ; ltf 4ksg gj k[ k[ks/ hg n[ er lS ]krkt hH yp kr rn ksd jk,v `ksg gj s s q q s s s s s s n k[ks/ kdldf er 2kokn klsS ukt kucf 4g e df ksg rkt Sdf kokn er hH s s q s wa T s q jGf 4kg uk,d er df Cgu kri gér 4jkdgv A g uk/o;ø kLc lcl jk,v kygi s q X q a , \ s 4ksg sr jkol ]ksg rktl jkv güm ksr er 4g k[j kuc _ef ksd kuk/o;ø skr uer 4Cgu a s , X q , X s q hg kgkp uer udfsy 4sxSkt jxf unf lm ]sxgkp unf ltf eg Syflb 4,g k;x s q a X jd re√uf Cgu ksd kroi um jk,v Bksd 4g uk/o;ø Sg Sdf L[ hg jkeg jkv X Z T q s \ s , 4g uk/o;ø ]g /ksjov e phc 6rki [n Cgu kd hek;rv lm hH ksr g hH srk , , X s s s Z a T t jrhH eg 4g hrkt gj rpfao llm [kav hjkeg hH ksr3g hH kryduf3hH y T s X , s duf nkap 4ji eg g j?f ynkc Nd 4g Sk/kc Nd Xe uyduf d nkap 4Cgu hH T s q T a q s s kxyduf lsS nkap 2Cgu kryduf hHd kago kr nkap ]g lokev hg lokev ]g s s s , , jkd/v hg jkd/v 2dk> ld ksr dk> eg ji 4kdka> jrhH A g kukt ukgütf c a a X a s , X a s , s X l o g rgd ]dye rgd ]duku rgd ]jhcd rgd 4jrhH ksdka> A 0c g srgd s T s w s s s q T 4krxy Cgu Fkg jkv Nd d krrDjf ;kolf kr jrhH g rdka> hH , q s s T s ct dfk;D 4Li kudka> u jrhH Cgd df ksd uiv rgc g r[j r¬;ø ]ksd uiv X s \ s q T s s rgc Tg rk>ym ]ksd uiv rgc g rkejH 6g rdIH jgkc7jgkc 4g rjL r[sn q s s q T s T s T s s jrhH eg kr Syfhlb 4g sFkF ]g hyk[ ;nÔ jkeg s; jkv `ksg k;D jkv ksr k s T s T s , , X g u hjH sl kvlkv X[kav hjkeg jGf `jd k;D jkv ksr u Sksj rhx jkeg jGf 4 X q a X , a s Cgu kvtf slm ueg j,kv 4Cgu kukt lm sueg jk,v 4g eku kjln hg kd uoht k s s , w e®keji 4g ;®e cl "s' 4g uoht hg ke®keji 4Cgu hH Nd jk,v uoht rDjfr , q 1 , q fv d q;®e kucf dlm 4g nk"of cl kucf dlm 4g uhgFv cl kucf sdlm 4g s 1 s , s , Z ksjkel kd uoht ]rhxl kd uoht ]Hjkl kd uoht ]/xql hd uoht g ke®keji a , a , 4Sksj rgc ukx ; q s jd kydv e gjof pkl g; q X s `kxn j/ yks[ <ki xkv d Xk<kc wa z s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 241 egaP

]kxy ji lhl xkv hjkgér tksj ldf wa q `sxkvkt yduf [j ji ;nÔ srpC[ s s ]sxksvkv <kc ryfo†i Syf tksj ldf z `ksd>e jd jki tksj ldf Fj kxyduf q s `ksd>e jd jkc rfk;† hxljc dr cd q s s 2g krgkst Ikc l cd 2g htkj l cd 4g htkj < , s , s , {®r ]hHv ksd sujrm jrhH jkgér ke®keji ksr ksIef er 4hxjrm <jdf Xe uo s q q s ht jkgér jGf 4kxksg <jrov e uoht jkgér jGf 4pc u d;kx df ksg klS r s q X s q s s hx jkv ]Skt Ief kykoupku df ksg klS pku udfy 2kdl kx er ]'kd 2kdl , s s s s q s pku er ]'kd 4g kr¬kj kd suksg rîk;ø hH jkgér elb 4g ke®keji hg; ]g r q , s q X , , îk;ø skt dr k;lkge Ikjof jdy l kX;Rfi hd lk? ]g kgj yp ;®u7Ikjof kt ë w s s , 1 s g; 4g hg eku kd ol®ksge lb ]g Cgu rDf;ø Bksd ke®keji 2g kgj yp Gjr , , , kXjkp kst hd ol®ksge lb ksjd kti ]hd kXjkr7nkap ksjd kti ]hd kyG ksjd ktwi w w X w 4kg rjd kti hd s s w um er 4g hrkt Oc Okx7Oakl hjkgér l knje Syflb ]g Cgu uoht uoht hH q , , a q s X q , kjkgér ]kg ;ü'7ol®m hH er 4g krkt uc rl kjkgér l hlknm ]kg lknm h q s w q , q s q s s H eqr 4g hrkv e >el k"kH hd nk"of ]ksg jH l nk"of hH eqr 4ksg Ikad hH , X s s s er3g krOc yeykr kjkgér l kIkad 4g <jkd 4suer g k;df <je¬of ksd kyG q , , s q s X , q , X w 6gj rjd kti hd kIkad er 4ksg Sdf kti er hdum ]knk;†7l7knk;† ksgd hjg s s w X q w q s L[ ]ydæfe kugd gütf ;‘que ]<h'7<ht ]lknm 6xky l je7je 6xky sl srksj a q X Z Z s s s s s `dr cv g kgd hlk;ül ksdldf uer udfy , a s q s 2kg hlk;ül kr ]e errv jkgér kg kZ"o hd r1ev ]l kOksv jkgér Xj s a s X Z a s q s s X s q > rhx ]ol®m ksg e k<ki ]j?? /c e kXji 2kg hlk;ül kr ]kuc dye ]kuc ;ü X X z aw X a X , s a s s w s rp ]ksuc kjhe ]ksuc k/kj 2kst kOm pku ]jI hd hjlkac hdlm hy ul ultf g , a s q q s , go kr hlk;ül 6k;x jH l rhxl dlm kst g go kr hlk;ül 4kg ry uke hlk; s a s a s , s a s s s ül kd kuhlknm ]kd kxky lknm 4ksg rxy ugd ke®kge kd kXrjl herke 4ksg sr a s X s X s s s s w y kuc e/ hH kd erke hlb df ksg tkcykp surb er jGf jk,v 4g erke yo s Z s q , d kago ]kF krdl ksg ol®m kgt 4g ok? Zilf kago ]F rdl ksg ywG kagt 4jrhH s a T s s jkgér g ok? hg ok? 4nk"of hgo jrhH 4L[ki hgo cl ]hL/k[ks/ hgo cl3h s q T a \ go cl g kryp jrhH jkv ksg rgj Pks\v k;jfnp hd eku7ekj jk,v de√k/v skg , , s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 341 egaP

kjkl kt rxt kxext krOm gj7gj s kjkgér iW kt g; krdep Gjr jg q s 4g hrkt dy> rfk;†7xi e Fi7kjkr , s X ]g hrki dP ur kjkl Cgu keyfhu , a ]ksg rjd klc /x jd uc e kyG s a X X w ]ksg rjd klg tksj e u? uc hytcf s a X Sksj rgc ukx ; q s jdkv Xeub Cgu slc eqr 4kxSki lc u eer ke®keji3xgj X q s X hg rksj jkgér rhx ; 4kxSki yduf u jdksg l k<ki jkgér Fj g; 4kxSki jd s s q s s X z s q u jki gér <kc g; 4sxkvkt gj jksd d jksd kr ]xksPi kd kXupo ub rfkaH hd X q s s s s s s \ s krs;÷v dS er jxv 4g nH kLc e kuksn jkv 4rfkaH hd htks[ d ;®l dS ] q , s \ X X , s Cgu rfkaH hd kr;÷v dS ]Cgu rfkaH hd ñFk|of dS 4ku[n l I‘fn hd d/kl s s s 1 er ksd kXupo ub 4g k;Pfhl hd uyp y Gjr hd kr;ü' lm upo d dye ; q T a \ s s w s w s 4kvkt kg ;ü' er df g hujd hji r' hg dS hd uki ksd <i 4g krkt jd s s w q , w Z s Z w , 'oi <{®r <wi Xe ;ü' eji lm 4g ;ü' eji 4g kIkUl kago 4g SkuokH hd s z Z w , w , T a ;nÔ u ]g jkpof sd ue u ]g gsn u kago 4ksg er jki d kuhr ub 4;nÔ ]u T , q s X e ]gn Ag Fv kd jkdgv 4iW7xaj ]kukdOf7kri ]ek/ ]eku A g Fv kd jkdagv s , Z a , Z 4Cgu jkdgv ]ksg ke®kv er 4IH hd ke®keji ke®kv ]g nktB a q X , \ huiv hjkgér jkdgv 4u jkdgv jkgér ]su kre¬fv hjkgér `g k;kiNf géqr ul q a s a s q q , X s df jk,v 4rkv Cgu suekl hg er 6ksg iNf hg eqr 4g hg kL[ Syf <kc7"u/ go s q s , \ q Sksj rgc ukx ; q s jd kydv e gjof pkl g; q X s `kxn j/ yks[ <ki xkv d Xk<kc wa z s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 441 egaP

4g xkG hg xkG jGf d , f ]g rkt j[cf xaj hg xj df Skt Li ji er nwac dS hd hjkdpif hdlm 4g T s a \ q , hrkt ksg hyokihn 4Tg rkt yt Shn hg Shn kr ]Skt yduf l jrhH jkgér F s s s s q j kdlm ]Skt yduf hH <jdf dS hd ke®keji 4g rgd hg dhO 4g rgd pl T s T s 4g krkt yt dihn ji lm ]g srgd , T ]g krkt yduf hHd Fj l ji Fi ltf , s 4kxgj Fkg hg unQ kF;üv g krkv e >el Nd ksr k>el Xgüb s , X q s hg jdjH l klîhHv lb 4n yks[ jk} kd ke®keji ; ]n kLt l roæk' géqr ; s X s X q\ s X s ]n sn eüt7ou ]n kuc k;u gér s; 4g hiNf eub k;efhd hlS ]n jd rjfrkai X X X q , X s X W kd uoht jkgér s; 6g Cgu upo _ke ; 4g jkxv Sg ryt ]g Cgu upo ; s s q T s T s a q s T s 4g krkt dp Syflb ]hrksg Cgu hd usy uoht l kupo ub krdl®m hdlm , w s s X q 4g krkt hg yH go3`sxkXg kni cd jrhH jkgér nN ; 4g krkt hg yH go3` , w , s q a s , w xkvkyc ksd Ffrfv cd er `e Ffrf ldf `sxkvksg kni cd er 2g utk;i sl s s q q X s , q , s z lb k;D 4g hrkt xy rDf' hjkl hdlm elb `"o ldf `e Ffrf ldf `Sg k , X Z X q ni cd lkndwye 4g krgj k>ym e krkc hd F;ø ub ]e utk;kv d knç' ]e , , X X Z X s s X X X knç' ]e nN ]e kvk_ke go 4hrwN Cgu lm hH nc hd o®rl jkv3g krkv Iky X a X X s wa a , , , liko jdy )Iyf )hL ])hL )pS^(!hi ñFk|of nkc d ruge hd "o jkp7uh s . s s Z r 4g kryp ;kd/ks' ji Xkrl e ;yk|ofoæof jg 4g rkssg ;kd/ks' Lc ji kral , Z a X T s Z s \ X 4kukt xy ujd Ødb re dyNf 4kugx jkl 4kukt >ym re hg Xelm 4g <k,x go j s s s , i ]g cl go 6;økd kuPP re ]aSk_ke kuPP re ]nN eub kuPP re 4g rhx S , wa\ wa\ a X wa\ T x Skx Xe hr¬e s; 4jdcL elm g kvg r¬e kt ]ksd 'u dlm g kukt jk,v kd w X , s s s , s ckj' hdlm g kvif sultf ]g upo d r¬eyv dS 4g upo d "Qi7kKi dS , T s T s q z ]g Cgu upo d rLfi hldf ; 4g rdl kt yks[ jk} Su7Su jrhH jkgéqr up T s a s T s s s o ; 4Cgu gjr hd ñFk|of ]kuy gjr hd ñFk;®l dS ]htks[ dS ksd kXupo ub s s 4g dju kjkgér hgo dfk;D ]g oHlv ku[j , q X , a Ldi ksd jkdgv kr h;x kv >el 4g krsn Lks\N <{®r kr g hrkv >el 4g kr \ a s , s , , ki Ls\kN Cgu sjh/7jh/ Bkd ksd jkdgv 4hHv3kn Lks\N slb kr ksgkp Cgér 4,g k;y s s a s s q f jd re√uf hg uer <jkd kd suksj jkgér jk,v 4ksg gj ksj jH er 4g kgj lg s q s q s q , a <d7<d ]g hgj lg hyd7hyd 4g kgj lg o®r¬fv kjkl dfct 4xksgj hg srksj , s a , a s 4Sksj rgc ukx ; q s jdky e ue Iel kdub X s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 541 egaP

4g kjkgér dyfke , q kd kXdyfke 4g kjkgér j['f kd kj['f 4g jkgér j['f jkl jk,v kd> 4xksgj , q X T s q s s q s rpfo l kXj['f ]ksg ji j['f dr ct er jk,v3ji j['f d xk;® g k;x Oc a s q s , , Bksd ]ji j['f d ukK g kOc Bksd ]ji j['f d ni g kOc Bksd ]ji j['f s , , s , , d u/ g kOc Bksd 4ksd k;bkpM hjkgér kn sun kIef lm 6kd Le? jkgéqr ]ksd s , , X a q s s s s a s ox sjkgér ]ksd jkdgv sjkgér kn un Lkr lm 6ksvkt d> er 4g hg ji jkdagv Z q a q s s s s\ s q q , s q jkgér jkgi kygi kdlm 4hjgiZox jfg 4g Zr' hygi hd ke®keji go 4kvkIe z z , s f ksd jkdgv 4ksjd u jkdgv 2ksyxki sS 4ksjd u jkdgv A kd dye upo kygi a a a w 4hjkgiox jfg ]jokc thd u ox zZ s s Z 4kyd hd suIef Ag kr¬kj kd uki xkjl sdlm 4kxyef u hH xkjl kdlm , s q s q Nqd Cgd ]sxaSkt dF Oad ]sxaSkt dF Okv ]hxSkt dF ak;yfxav ]ksgj rit 4g X a q s T gj it ekj7ekj jkv e sjk;/fv suiv7uiv Syf Skyke g O,c xky 4ksjGf rjI s , X a s a T s s s s 4Sksj rgc ukx ; q s jdki ksder Cgu Cgd ]ji q 4rjGf rjg gér e uksd7ukd s s s X q X s s s ]rjGf rjI kFo jo¬ e yk;/fv s s s 1 X s a 4kujtqx kdlm jk,v kud> kjkgér 4g wygi ksn sd dDlf hg dS kuksn o 4g ku q q T s X s , jtx kdlm hg Xe ud> jkgér 4Cgu kxjtx go dr cr u xkd> dr ct eqr q s q s q s q s s q 4l j/b Cgu jtx kr tksj hldf eqr s s q s ]l ji BkpM huiv kgj [sn Te s a 2g k/kc hg kuksg ji BkpM kjkgér go , a q 4l j/b Cgu jtx kr tksj hldf eqr s s q s ]l ji BkpM huiv kgj [sn Te s a 4g krkt yt dihn ji lm ]g srgd , T ]g krkt yduf hHd Fj l ji Fi ltf , s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 641 egaP

Cgu hH uer ]k;ki Cgu [ql u hldf lub hHd 2l jkt er ksg sLdi ld jxe s q s s s s q \ s , ]g hg k;/fk;ø ]g hg xksj j,kv 4sxkg uLkN xksj s; 4kxksg kuksg F¬o¬ 4xksdl d T a T X s s\ s IG u lki dlm er jdsy ka;jfkehc hlsS 4xksdl pgi u lki dlm er jdy s q s qa s q s jkcv kd kOw> lsS 4rkgksl Cgu hH kjt\ ksd ke®keji jkdgv ]hn[ ]k;‘B ]uyt a X s s a q Z 4hrkgksl gVku ue d Fku?j hn[ ujt s q q 4g kdlm cl 86Cgu Nd e>e kje8 4g Nd cl hg ke®keji ]Cgu Nd eg d , q X q s , q q f g r>el kt ]hdum dS jk,v 4g Nd eg df sxgj jdk[nf jkv ]g Nd eg T s s T q X , T q g r>el kt ]hdum dS 4hd jkdgvuf dS jk,v hd jkdgv dS 4hd <okj dS T s s aZ a ]hd ekj dS ]g Skjk/ ksn hd lkgrfb 4g ;ü' ksr ekj 4g j? gxt rgc ]g T a T w T ss q T hjkH <okj ]g jckjc d u ksr ekj 4g krkv xM jGf df ksIkd jlf dS ]jkdg T s , a v ksIkd dS jkv 4g jlf ln ]g jkdgv ln 4kdlm kryp Cgu ekd l jlf d , T T a s S 4kdlm kryp Cgu ekd l jkdgv dS 4rgc huk; <okj 4g nH ksr hgo jkv s a q , s , 4g <okj kr e hylv 4jckjc ]Cgu k; g lt ksr ekj 4g rksg ey , s X T s , T s w ke dxflkiv sl,t ksr ekj 4g kdlm y[ kjkl 4g hd <okj kFd hjkl 4Sgfkp C a z , s , gu kugd ]ksd kFd hd ekj <;kekj kr ksg rgd er 4g krLi kujd [y¥m hH s s q , \ s kd ekj e hjcte hHd7hHd <jkd d <okj ksr go 4g hg kd <okj ksr lkgrf X w s , b ]g rkt kv e kX;<fiîIf7nki Cgd7Cgd df k>el hg lS ksr ekj 4kd ekj r' T s X s s s rfi dS ]kd <okj r'rfzi cuk;üuf 4g knk;† hg kd <okj jk,v 4kd <okj k; z s , kd ekj ksr k;3g lkgrfb kd kxksy d gjr hg ksn kd rfkt ;‘ue lkgrfb kjkl , X s q 44hjkH [An k;ki ]k;x uokj r gVox q X Z 4hjkgiox jfg ]jokc thd u ox zZ s s Z 2g ugkeél kld ewyke7u 2g k'ker chtv 2g h'ksgc ch , s , , , s tv 4g r[n rkg rjfl/7y/ tksj ]g r[n rII tksj eg kdltf ]g rgj u≈y T s s s s w w T s s s w s T s a X w l e kti hd jkdgv ]r√hd ]'; ]eku hlm eg hH jGf 4g r[n rcL tksj e a T s s s w g kdutf ]g rkt Skjr ksd koku Cgüm hH jGf eg df g Z;pækv 4Cgu jld Bk s T s , X , w s d kd kXoku ]g hd txkd hg oku 4hH hd jhev 6hH hd chjx 6hH hd kLc ]hH T X X \ hd kIksN 6hH hd kjndlf 4g hcL oku hjkeg hg lS 4g Sx jxf yge cl 4g sr X X a T w X s s T T kt jxf yge cl jkeg hg lS jkv 4yge xSkt jxf jkv kdkX> kd kog kl7kj s s s , s a , t\ kxSkv `kxdl ksg lkouf k;D Xe kyge Sx Skuc l kXRi d 'kr jkv 2g hrk s X s s , T i jrf jxkl Cgd oku hd txkd 4krki Cgu Lt ]kLks\t hg kurdf kd O> 4g kr X q\ s s w , gj kIG7kII ]g krgj L[7La[ ]g krgj hg r{fof ;‘ue dr cr g jkdgv dr w w , a , q , a ct 4g Sg Skuc rî{fof gér hg jkdgv g; 4Cgu jkdgv A g r' hygi g; , q X q a a , Z 4hjkgiox jfg ]jokc thd u ox zZ s s Z
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 741 egaP

2h"kyHfv e kd ukt cL tkv e yLae7/of T s w X q 2g ksjd uhy ksd>e e tuf s q X 2g ksjd uhe kd yyfl7kHof s 2h'kuofv g kxkt s s 2h'kdi7'kdi7/≈u¬f ]kxkt ]ofd Odrev d onf z z s a 1 s 2d j? d ykdkge d;kx s s 2d jcv7jtv i¥f'f kxkt s a s 2h'kuofv g kxkt s s 2hlk;ül d uo/e ]d dksy7xkjof dlfj kxkt a s q s s ]kxkt hjkgof7Ffho7uo7Lm s q ]kxkt ]hjkp7Fi7rL\ft7u®j s 2h'kuofv g kxkt s s 2hlko d yLe/of 2ulkned 2"Qi<jdf kxkt s a q q q q s 2h'kuofv g kxkt s s ` kxSkv 'ksg gér cd `xksxkt cd 4g kgj ksg rhr;ø e kvkniof hd F;ø ]e ku X q s , X X Z X X >ym hd F;ø ;el ;¥egc kd uoht jkv g kj? l kXvkrpV ]g k;kcL e gyd Z w q , , s s , s q X ]g k;kLy `g hn gér IH hl7uk,d jk,v d ikrl ]kLhi ;kolf u jkdgv `k;n , \ T X q XX s a \ s a f k;D jkv d [An Skolf u jkdgv 4Nd g oHquv kd uoht hH jkgér3k;ki , s q s a q , s q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 841 egaP

2hlko d yLe/of 2ulkned 2"Qi<jdf kxkt s a q q q q s ~ ~ ~ksLs\kr nCu kjt\ 2h'kuofv g kxkt s s 2ksyp jrhH s uiv ygi 4g F;ø cl ]'kyd k; h'kd k; kckd ]kvkt nt¬fe ]ksvkt jnfe s , Z , s \ a 2g kukt kckd dk[ k; , D cv 4k;x Cgu kckd jkc hFkp nht;kc jGf 4dyfke kd kXdyfke ]g e hylv , \ , X kst kLi h;k[nf go cr jk,v3Cy jd nc [kv ulm e IgkLc? jddkTp 4kdkTp \ a X a s X \ rgc nht;kc ArokHo¬ 4kLi h;k[nf dyfke kd jF®i u kLi h;k[nf jF®i u q \ \ \ jkc hjlhr 6kF kLi h;k[nf dyfke kd jF®i ]kF kLi Cgu h;k[nf jF®i kGn \ \ hjln 6kF kLi h;k[nf jF®i kGn hygi 4kdkTp kLc e cr 4kLi Bk[nf dyfke w \ \ T \ u kLi Bk[nf jF®i u ksr ]k;x jkc hjlhr ct jk,v 4kLi h;k[nf dyfke kd \ \ jF®i >e kr ]k;x kckd jkc hjln ct 4Cgu hH Nd jkv kLi Bk[nf jF®i kd s q s w q , \ kckd >e kr k;x kckd kGn hygi e ct ]g kgd u nht\;kc jhdG ukeylqe s q s T , s 4g jnfae dlm gxt c T s l jGf 4g krksg ku[n lm e jnfe d jrhH hg uiv ygi lcl 2hgj ki ksg Cg , s s X a s s s s u ukpgi hdlm kago ]g hgj yt rfk;† hd ;ürp kgt ]g hgj gc kyyfl hd , s , a , uoht kagt ]jrhH uiv gér `kxdl Li h;k[nf ke®keji e r√e hd jF®i géqr s X q s \ X w X 4g xP kn T a s sd ugd ksd rkc hg dS ]g hpko;k;i ke®keji jk,v o®r¬fv df g rpfm kug s T Z , d hg; ]g rîk;ø llm o®r¬fv df Cgu dhO hH kugd g; n;k' 4g rîk;ø sl hl , s , m o®r¬fv kjkl 4g hg ke®keji 4g huc Cgu k;r√e kt hH eum3g hH e kjF® , T a w s X , X X i cl ]g hH e jF®i ke®keji dfk;D 4g Cgu kago ke®keji df g krgd Cgu Te , X X , wa `e r√e hd jF®i er sxksdl [n 2kg rktl ykF kd hrjkv uekl d r√e hd X w q s s s s s w jF®i er ksg rkt jkv `e kXjF®i 6e kX;{fi ]e kv'i ]e kxksy 6e kXjkr ]e q s , X X X X q X X X X nkap ]Xe tjl lm xkukpgi sld `e kX{1o lm xksukpgi ld `jgkc lm xkdl w s s s , X s s s , s s s [n ld er ksr ]hgj ksg Cgu rfhri hd dr lm ]g erIduf kst jrhH uiv Xgé s s , q z , s r 4g Cgu 0ckv e jk}Qqx ]stjxf ]nt¬fe ]jnfe Bksd e/ 4g Cgu e/ ykt kd q , X s a Z , Z kX;jfkti7rLfai 2sxkIk,y Fkg hyk[ ]xskvkt Fkg hyk[ ]kjk}Qx ksvkt ]ktjxf kv q s s q s kt ]nt¬fe kvkt ]jnfae kvkt 2kxukpgi dk[ k;D jgkc go ]krdl ukpgi Cg s s s u hH jrhH kst dfk;D 4hxdl ksg ukpgi sllm jgkc cr ]hxksg hujd ukpgi y X s s gi llm jrhH 4g ntk,e jgkc kurtf hg kurm ,g ntk,e jrhH jkgér ke®keji s , w w s q 2h'kuofv g kxkt s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 941 egaP

g srkt ksg L[ ji F®g d ñld ]g rkt Pp ji ñld hd ikc uiv pπc IkN T s \ s s q T s \ q s s ss 4g krksg ry¥fGi kLc ksr g krki kLc ksd uiv l hldf j,kv `kLc lldf e A , q z \ , \ s s \ s T g krgj krpkl hg; knl jkdgv 4g kjgO <ki kdlm e hlb ]g kruH ]g kry , s a , z X , q , t ksr jkdgv 4k;‘B g utksH kd jkdgv 4kxgj hg kjH l k;‘B ksr jkdgv jkv a Z , a s s Z a , 4hrkgksl gVku ue d Fku?j hn[ ujt s q q 4g , ;¥od ]g {kse ]g <kZouf ]g /fkel ]g oHquk‰c hg ;DS go 4g r}v hg e , , , , , z s , , X ;DS lm 4g ;®l hg e ;DS lm 4g naukv hg e ;DS lm jk,v 4g ke®keji hg s , X s , X s , eku kd ;DsS lm 4g Cgu xyF7xyv hH Nd kg; 4g dS o®r¬fv kjkl 4g dS , q a , T 4g Lq\t l o®r¬fv eg 4g Cgu xyv e df hxLi h;k[nf rkc hygi kr xkxkt T s s wa T s \ s s s 4kvkt xt n;k' df g k'kv l duH hlm s , s 4g klksjH ji duH hlm 4g hrLi e ukd duH Nd 4g hrkt kv jkdi jxe ] , , \ X q , q hgl hg e nCu ]g krLi Bkul Nd7Nd 4kF F;ø kuykc 4Cgu kryksc e ]Cgu sr X , \ q q q Z s T yksc dwye ksr ]krksg krLi u Bkul yd¥cf jxv 4g krLi h;kul Nd7Nd 4g \ q q , \ q q q , nCu hjkgér hlS 4kg rgj ksl ksd <{ ksn jk,v jdPkv ycd ]jdy Iojd er j q s s s s\ a s q Gf j,kv g hrLi duH hLks\F hd ktkokv hrkv l dk,p ksr g hrkuc ;kp hu®i ] , \ X s s , krL\i hH h;kul Nd7Nd ksr g krn dr¬n ji jk} kyko/n ct 4g nCu hd kyc q q q , s w , s rkHi 4g hII7hII nCu udfsy ]g Skl hH eg 4g Bksl e nCu hjgx kjt\ jgy z , w w T s , X ]g 'ksg kjt\ eg df ,g nH hg kurb ]lc 4hd jxkl d ;ürp dlm g jgy hH , X s s , s T X eg hg lsS ]xyv l kjgy hjln ]xyv l jxkl ]g e df hx>el hH go ksr Xe s s X w s wa T s jxkl Skt kv 'ksg ksd jgy hldf l,t 4l o®r¬fv g xyv eg A g Fv kd Te s s T , Z 4g rf , kaH 8e8 g; 4ksg Cgu er df sxkdl ukt rpæfuf er jkv kyksII kjt\ 4g Cgu Te z T q s q , s wa df ksjd oHuv ]re hg ksukt 4wag Cgu e df kukt ]re hg ksgd 4g uk;÷ hg; q T s , ]g kuFki hg; 4g Cgu e df ksgd jdjH <ki ]ksgd 4ksLkN jkdgv A g end ky , Z z wa T z s\ a , gi kd <jxkt Syflb ]kNπe g jkdgv dfXk;D ]g end kygi kd <jxkt jkv Z w , a , , 2h'kuofv g kxkt s s 2hlk;ül d uo/e ]d dksy7xkjof dlfj kxkt a s q s s ]kxkt hjkgof7Ffho7uo7Lm s q ]kxkt ]hjkp7Fi7rL\ft7u®j s 2h'kuofv g kxkt s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 051 egaP

4g krdl ksg uke0fc knk;† B , q ksd 4kxsu/ jlf jkdgv `sxksjd k;D jGf3g krdl kg jnl knk;† ler kxe[H q a , s qa s q a f kvg kryp gkj 4hxSkt Ldi k;‘B l jdku ]hxLdi k;‘B kr 4g krdl kg F q \ Z s , s \ Z s , s ¬o¬ knk;† ler hH jdk,u kjkgér `g krksg k;D llb udfy 4ksg u/ knk;† slcl s q q , s s lki jkgér g krdl kg 4g ek;kv7gc e hxntV lb `kvkt ksg sLc er e thp s q , s T q X s \ q X jg df ektrb er sxksjd ld j,kv 4ksr Xy [n kd Lc l uiv ]g hrxy Iksp h a q s , s s s \ s s , H kdum ]g kt hH Lc l L\c 4g hrxy Iksp hLc 4g hrxy Iksp jd;H3g hrx s T s s \ s s , \ , a , y Iksp kr ]g krksg I‘d ksr ]g hrksg kLh\i kr ]ksy [n ksd sLc l uiv eqr jxv s , , s s \ s s 4hxgj djd F;ø ksd uoht g s s Z jr hldf7u7hldf kt 4hxksg rîkel ji hy¥nf kt ]k_k; hd krPe h;x ksg W' j s s w\ q xe 4l xP rkyrr 4l xP suiv 4g gj jd W' ku[yf jkdgv hHv pπc IkN s a s q s a T s q a s ss 2 hjks[krkx g rgd kdlb 4Cgu hg syduf kl g kjke krksx kt ]Sx ksg ykl rkl s T s s s , s tkv 4kl,t htkrif je ksr ksg jks[krkx 2Cgu hH Nd g; ]kykc kjln 4kryp Cg ss s q s w u hg kri 4g rkt yp jrhH d huki Iuef rkl7rkl ]pkai7pkai 4klt htkrif sj T s s s , e Bkd ksr ]ksg jks[krkx ]ksg dkjr df kF kgj gd dS 4F gj jd rkc pπc kn s s s , s s X s s 2er ksg rul rkc hd kpπc IkN 4jkdgv kIkN7kIkN ]pπc IkN7IkN q s q X X ss a s s s ss ss 4Bx kv hn¥t rgc r hHv 4k;kv rDo kd ukv lki je cv df ku>el q w s ss cr 4kukv Iky cr ]sxy sukv e BkPi s>r j{v ct 2n uyG ksd Ii kjt\ 4g , X \ q s s w s , hroHx df ku>el cr ]Xxy ukv e BkPi >r r[r¬n s; ct ]re kLc? df Z s X \ s q \ kgd u jIDkL lm `kn;kG k;D l sujd r[r¬n ji Ii jse ]kgd u kygfe lm s s s s s 4g kgj jd r[r¬n e df kgd ulm `g gj jd k;D ikv g; ]kNi u kygfe wa T s T s w s lm 4dl Li u hH h;k[nf ]k[n u l uhcn[ er dr ct df dhjkc urb 4Sn s \ s s s Zq q s f jd r[r¬n e kXj{v dhjkc yd¥cf jdkOm eyd phu d Hfku dhO ji Ii X q s s s sdlm jkv 2Isy df kgd llm sulm 4k>l dkte hH ksd jIDkL 4g Cgu ksr hro , s w wa Z T Hx e Cgd ]Stfhy jd pkt hje kjt\ df kgd l jIDkL ulm 2g rpksl hd j a s s s T s w \ n hLc xksy Nd 4hykou[j >l hd jwn hLc hxksg jxe 4g Bkue rkjxkgql ulm q s w \ , s hg rkj yd 4Bg hnk' hdlm hg yd hHv 4h;x kg; d jIDkL dS kygfe dS q a s 4g rgj sxy e kI‘p hlm hH jln 4g k;‘B hLc ksr 4g krxfk;rfi hLc 4g T s X s s w , Z \ , s z \ , kuLi h;k[nf kLc eg l kXjkcçqx jln dfXk;D ]g rkt yp hg jH kog e sjkcçx \ \ X s s w T s s s X q eg jkv 4n jH kog Bksd e jkcçqx lt 4g krkt ksg kiîd ]g krkt yG jkdgv , s X s s , , q , w a ksr k;ki kLc kd uiv l hldf jxv 4krksg kL\c Bksd l ukt Oc ji k;Yfx hd \ s s s s s , X hy¥nf u jk,v rkg Lc pπc IkN u l uPp ji kXF®g d Xk;lfd 4g Sx Pp ji s s s \ s ss s s \ s Z q T \ XkF®g d ñld kt g spπc IkN ; 4Cgu hH Bksd kLc l>qe 4kLc e df g srxy u s q s T ss s \ s \ T T s gd o cr jkv Sx Oc ji ñld hldf hd hy¥nf 4g Cgu UHf rgc l kXpπc hH s , , q T q s o ]gd syko em eg ksdutf udfsy 4kLc ler Te ]htkrif ]ks[n A g rgd jkv s X z \ s q s T s ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 151 egaP

ksg tkjku Ikel jkv g kgj dkag rokge jkv 4rxy ulg xksy jkv hrkt xy z , , , s s a , Lh\H jkv 2g Oc ji /x lt g Oc u ji hFkg 4ji hFkg kOc gjr hd 0c yd , T s, s s , T s, , w q q ¥cf kxksg krxy Ikel cv 4dl Pc u sxkv hFkg 2rfx ky pksl hd Ikel er z s \ s z q cv 4krkt ksg kL[ jdLdi Ni hd hFkg dlm go ]kryduf Ikel hH ct kF \ \ wa s z rcte kurb go 4krpV Bksd u ]∂Gf Bkd u 4kuy jd rîki kd hlm ]Skt kPp w s s z s a \ xky nklzi kst kd hto'f jkv kukxy dOc7Ln A kF kurb ekd yd kdlm 4kF s s , , a q krgj kLi r¬e uekl d jnfe d hto'f henkv dS 4l henkv dS kF krjL \ s s a s s 4kF krjL udfsy hHd kF krLi kuyduf 4kF krjL Xe uyduf Ikel e oakx dS \ s z X 4g I‘i gn hd hldf ]g kjkx xj kd h , q s , s a ldf ]g jnl [kv hd hldf ]g jnl dku hd hldf 4xSkt yef xksy jrgc le , qa a , qa s a s s r e syeke hldf7u7hldf jxe ]ksg cl ]ksg kO‘rfi ]ksg ni ]kg u/ `xksjd k;D q X z s s 4k;df Cgu ke{ hHd lm ulm ]Syf [n jddka> ji d s s s , s lm hHd hH u henkv ltf 4e kog rgj dIy ji dlm dfkX;D 4krkt ksg tkjk s X s s , s u go ksr kry [n ji jddka> sphu d ycfI Bksd jxv 4F rN Cgu uhet ji s s , s s s s w , sdlm ]hF ydæfe hLc udfsy 4Li h;k[nf kpM go <jkd dltf CF h[j kouc q \ s \ a s hlS k;lfd 4kF krOc hg jd[j ycfI suekl 4hLc CF h[j kouc k;lfqd ulm s a Z q , s \ a Z s 2euof kld 2klsS ksr kg krsu 2gkgv ]rgd xky 4krkt Nhi slcl z , s s s s jk,v krpgi sygi lcl 4e kvkHl kF krkt pgi hg ygi go 4kLc jhj' jkv qa s X X qa s \ , IkN ji dlm3F rLi h;k[nf ksd kxky ksr pgi e nkc go df kF g; <jkd ss , s s s \ X s s qa X hylv 4kF hg jk,v <jkd 4g euof kurdf ]F rpkl xky 4kF krkt pgi ygi , z s s s s qa s s l krut e kvkHl go 4Cgu cklgf kdltf df kF krgj rLf\hi kurb go sllb X X jkv 4F IksN ji jk,v kF kLc ksr L/ kd jiM kdlm df hF g; upLv go j , s s , \ \ \ , kv 4hF upLv dS lm udfsy 4k;x kg gk'kukr _kedS kdlb uufy 4g Sg sj \ s s s , q s ? ksd kXih}kge kn 4g kyG dr uksd jln d k;'fS jdy l uksd dS d ikj;3 s , , s s w s s s s s s w Cgu 'n Bksd kLc llb 4g lki d lW uhet gN kIc dS hd k;ufn 4g 'sn kL s \ s , s q , \ s s \ c l Lc kd hoƒi lW 4hF upLv dS kdlm 4kF k;x ksg jIIDLf kd lW uufy 1 \ s s s 2k;x wN ok? 4hxkae ke{ <{®r u hgkilf `xkvkt ksg ld er paM s s s s , q s 4Cgu kpM ]g kcy df ksgd 2g kry kLhi hld jkdgv ksg r[n 4Cgu kpM ]g a wa a , s \ , a s s a wa kcy likv e df ksgd 4kxn koId ukct kF;üv ]ksy liko nç' ]kgd u u;yfksi a s T wa s u 4g krn Sdf dhO e ]g kpM likv e ]dQ ikv ]kgd u d{jjhj' dlm ]d s wa s T wa a s T X s s r hL? hd ykohn kF kgj ki pgi Cgu Fkg kdlm ]kF kgj jd dhO u;yfksiu \ qa s s kd hL? hxy ji ykohn unf dS 4kF kpM IhG gN Pkl Bksd ]kF kpM IhG gN \ a s\ a Bksd d{jjhj' dlm 4F pM llm skt F xsky lS e k;gfkilf dlm dfk;D 4 s s s a s s s s X X s X hgj hrIkd knl 4hF hrIkd lm upLv g; jxe 4Ikel kLc 4kF lki dlm Nd s \ z \ s q cl 4hgj kLhi hdlb lm jHhxntV 4hF pb pkai IhG pkai BkpM hd u;yfkiu \ s a a s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 251 egaP

rkc hd Fkg uiv 4g krkt uc kr g kruc hHd jkv ]kruc Cgu kr g kruc C s , s , , s , gu rhx jkv hrkt jtx ykl hHd 6rkt rhc kXuhge hHd `/acl k;D kd u[yf , q s a s rhx l kXunf ]kgd u cyfkx `g r[yf rhx dS e unf urdf ikv ]kZtef df s s T s X s kgd l cyfkx unf dS ulm 4sulm [yf rhx rgc 4kF kr[yf rhx hg tksj go s s s q 4g /≈nfl g; ]g dlm e pl o udfsy 4g hH rhx Nπv dlm Nd jk,v 4kF , a T s X s T s s q dk,' kd u[yf krofd lm 4kvg Ikel yxe hj[fkv kd rjkH jGt gk'jnkgc s s q z q \ q 4g krdl n kLhi ksd Ikel dS henkv chjx <jk/kl dS udfy , s \ z s 4k;x ksg r¬;ø7r¬v cl e jH uhge 4k;x xy u? 4h;x k[ hd ;el ksn ∂Gf X s q go 4kvkxy dOc7Ln jGf ]kuk>c k;hn tc gN dhO jdkt 4kry [n hL? jd s , a q s s s \ dQ7dQ e phc rkxy7rkxy dOc7Ln 4g kuk>c gcl tc gN dhO jk,v 4g ku X s s , a , q q s , kyt k;hn tc gN dhO ksr 4kxsyef k;iQ hg kr 4hxyp u hjn hH hd jHIuef s s s s 4tc gN dhO ]kF kgd u Ikel dfk;D `Cgu df ktc gN kd j?kI? hHv `kv s s z X a g ;el kurdf df kF krNi l hldf jg ]kF kr[n e hL? hd hldf jg `Cgu q w s s X \ df tc gN df jHunf hF hrgj hxy jdGf >r 4hn kLdi >r krpV dS 4g k s s q \ s q , nkl7k/hl kyeke df kgd u jhdG 2kF kte7hg7kte ksr jkc lb jk,v hykL hH s j'd ksr jkc lb jk,v k;if hH /n `k;D kvg df kNi hH u henkv lm `k;D s w q w s kvg df kNi u Ikel l jhdG 4k;x Ilf? ]Ni hLdi jdkv u henkv go 'o q w s z s wa \ s rnkv hukji 4Ikel k;x 4ksyduf cv df kgd u jhdG ksd Ikel nkc uhge dS q z s z s 2gcql xXn k s >c ]ksd ek' k;hn sxn kyt ]kago g rgj hg Li eg ]g s; 4Cgu lk[ Nd ekd q X T s s \ , q jk,v 6dhO ]kgd sulm 4hF rkc hLc rgc ksr kunf um krkt yef kd ujd p[ \ q X s s Z tksj hH ksd klbj ksr k;iQ dS 2kxSif /n jk,v skr yef jk,v k;iQ dS udfy X w s s ]kF kgj hg yp kd suhi7uk[ lm ksr lsS 4kNπv g; ]kpkl ulm 4kxyef tksj g s s s s s s X ér k;iQ dS jkv 4g ekd kjkgér kurb 4jd k;nf k>c k;hn tc gN gcql tksj q , , q s q s jk,v jd k;nf kyt k;hn tc gN kd ek' tksj ji lm ]g jnfe kd htjd' d s s s , a a f kurb `ekd kl7ukd ]kgd sulm 4g ekd kl7kIksN dS ~ ~ ~krk[ kuk[ unf lh , , r henkv e SiQ dS 4hF rkc hLc rgc kunf um k;iQ dS ~ ~ ~xn tksj k;iQ X \ q X s X dS gér eg `xksvtf ji [hH dr cd lsS ]kul kgd jkv k;koyc yge slm X q s s s q , q 4g krn Sdf dhO e ]Skoy wa s T a c yge tkv lm 4jd u ∂Gf ikv ]kgd u jhdG 4n uyp ]BkH df g srLi u q s X s s s T \ s Lks\t ji7Fkg 2g krkt ksg kL[ jdLdi Ni hd hFkg lc ]e jktkc phc3ntke , , \ \ wa X w , a sa kgo I? lhck,p go 4kago g krgj hg kLi df g go jkv 4Skt u yef Cgd he , \ , , nkv go df g krkg ;H >e ksr 4<jkd d ekd g krLi kuyduf hHd 4g krjL , s s q s , \ wa e uyduf e l gto hdlb 2Wd u k;D ]Wd k;D df kNi l jhdG dS ulm X s T s a a w s s 4kxLi hg kujd Nd7u7Nd ]kF jgkc d r s \ q q s ækZnc g; ]k;x kgj u l Ikel j[fkv 4g kL[ Ldi Ni henkv go jk,v g kgj s z , \ s \ wa ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 351 egaP

Cgu k[n dr hHv ke®keji ue 4k;yf ukt u lkndye jk,v Cgu kukt dr hH s s T s w v ke®keji ksr sue df ]hxy suLi Ikp hLc ksd jkdgv jkgér dfk;D 4h;x ksg T \ s \ a s q X Z w <iI‘d gér hxnwtk,e hdub 4Ski jd Cgu ke{ hH kd hldf er3kd jhcd k; X q s q ]kd dye k; ]kd 0c k; ]kd rkjdl k; ;ykegf kd llht ]Lk\gi kd llht 4 w q q kF dhO cl e ukr¬xfj 4F IM er 4Sx kv IM lki d Lk\gi 6Ski jd Cgu ke X s s a q a s { kd llht er kr Syflb 4g I‘d Cgo ]kyef Lk\gi kgt jkv 4kxSkt hg yef s q s , a , Lk\gi kd henkv ksr hHd u hHd udfy 4kxsyp kri kd r;lfg huiv skdum l s s , ki d kLk\gi 4g Lk\gi hg so e kukr¬xfj 4Cgu hH rkt Gjr hd kLk\gi ]e kukr s X T X X s s X X X ¬xfj hH rgj IM 4g hrxy hg dhO rkc 4krkt Cgu lki d kLk\gi IM g srgd s s a , s X a T 4xkLi e upLv er hHd7u7hHd Syflb 4g hLc k;ufn g; 4xSkt ye s s \ X \ q , \ q s a f xky Sg yG knk;† hH ler k'eg ]lb ky kyG hg kurdf er jGf jkv 4g s q s w s q s s s q q , , krkyt e rykg jg g; 4e jkdgv jkgér g dju 4g Cgu jk,v Cgd dju 4e X X a s q , , X u≈fv ]g kryt jk,v 4g krksg rHf{ jkv g kr[n kLc ksd jln jkdgv jGf k; , , q , , s \ s w a `hd Cgu jkd¬eu u henkv lb k;D `g kyeke k;D ]kxgj krpkl hg s X , s s ; I? lhck,p go 4h;x xy Iksp kdlm ]ji dLl kujd u jkd¬eu tkv ]ksg sr sa s \ jd jkd¬eu tksj er ksd henkv hjkdgv ltf 4g hrxy uxy Iksp l rkc hl7 q a , s s kjt7kjt\ 4g krkt kg yh'unol hg rgc jkdgv kvg kyG j,kv3kxSkyG gér \ , s s a q a q w q X q ksr k; jkdgv Syflb 4rdl ksg Cgu spM er e kX;rfF¬f cl `xksjd k;D jxe a s a q X s 4g hrkt BN hlS k;bkpM hHd7hHd T q s a a 4kxksg Bksd xkv u ]kF Bkd Nhi u 4e s s s X ;®gfkl d nm Cgu kxkg kni rDf;ø klt cyfkx hHd jGf n;k' 4g jFf 4g kjk s wZ s , , , , ro/ ksr cyfkx ]g jkr IksN7IkN cl jkv 4g Lktc cyfkx ji ]g Snf ofdkge zq T s s ss , , s\ s T rgc su wZnm kr lsS 4hF jk,v hg rkc hd cyfkx 4kF krdl Cgu hH gd Nd sl q s s q cyfkx udfsy 4lm hgj jH7hxntV kLhi go e ue 4jGf kdl jd u ke{ hHd s \ X 2hd suk[ki g hrkv cnc e krhx dikv df n gd cyfkx jkv g ofdk , w X X s s , wa ge e kF krpkl ksr e 4g h;x pgi Iksp rgc ksd jkdgv je 4k;x ksg ukeiv T s T , aq q a ss rgc kje 4g h[An rgc e tkv df kgd l kX_ef uiv 4k;x k[ Iksp gjr hj q s wa q q T s s qc ]k;x k[ Iksp jxe 4krdl u hH gd Nd l cyfkx ktef udfy 2Ikel 4hxy q s Z s z Iksp rgc ksd jGt gk'jnkgc 4g hrkv cnc hd uk[ki e krhx dikv Syfhl q \ q , w s X X s b ]jd ke{ ]kgd u cyfkx Zktef 2g krsy kuc rhx Oc7Oc e uk[ki e ]sjv 2k X s wa s, s, X s T Nπv e kr ler 4ksg ofdkge er kF kr>el kr e df kgd u jGt gk'jnkgc T s s q q s T s \ q 4krkH Cgu ksd k<ki hg je 4krkv lkj Cgu hg >e jxe ]g rhx g; df X z ss s q , wa s n n k[ks/ yH kd kjkv 4Cgu hruc thp ]eyd gj krl?f [ky e kr ]t,ke h s s X , wa T s dlm hxksg Cgu 4kxy y[f ]yG kxsy[f ]lke/e kxSkv ]hxksg tke hdlm ct s w q , ]g kr[n gkj 4hn Lks\N hujd hg ''fkd ue Syflb 4hruc Cgu rkc hH ksr Xjd wa s s s T ''fksd [ky kr eg 4g krkt tc kr jo¬ g krn di ct 4g un hdlm 4Cgu s , s , s wa , s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 451 egaP

4u hje u hdikv 4kg hje kg hdikv 4g dol kdikv kr e 4rkj ]gd s a s a wa s s T X rkj kd unf ikv ]unf ]gd unf kd unf ikv 4Cgu kd hLHV ]g jdku kdikv s X s wa , e ]dyfke ]kgd u uhYQlu `kvg k;D cl go 4g k;x kgd Ikel kd k;tçfl T s q , z X kd k;LfHV eum ]g Sx k[ kt _¬k' sukji jkv 6g rev hLHV F rgd kr e s X X T s s q , , 1 s s s q r ]uhYQlu df kgd su ckou 2d Cgd jk;®g 4kxjke hH kdeg ]Cgu hg kd cko s s s s s u r df kgd l ñpokc jkv hn dG l jkt jkv huiv hykF u uhYQlu 2,g hr w s , X s s , s kg kehl dS ~ ~ ~hLHV ]hLHV ]hLHV `g kusy ukt hje k;D ]I‘n df k;kyc kd s , s q q s ñpokc 4hn dG hykF u Ikel unf Xorkl 4kxy sukuc hLHV tkj go 4kul u ñp X s z s q s okc 4Cgu hg je ]Sk[ hLHV rDf;ø jHuoht jxv 4sk>el rev ji hoƒi 4Xe k; s 1 1 X tçfl hLHV lsS ]e k;‘ue ikv lt 4Ikel g Ikel skr g; 4g kgd ktkj kd k; s X X q s , z , z , X tçfl kr kd hLHV ]g dqp k[ kt ]e k_¬k' uhpki ]jv 2rHnv rgc thp hH s s T s s s X X z s q . q g hLHV df kgd u uhYQlu ky¥e 4e g '[ 4kgd kd ñpokc uiv3g huc jnaql , s q T wa q s s T hLc df kgd su ckou ]g k;LfHV h;u7h;u ]Oc kukn unf dS rDo rjd utkH \ T a s , X s s s 2 y'qd kl,t uhYQlu jkv 4n jd iy unp kLkF ]n jd yrh' kLkF ]n kxy u[ , s s a s\ s s\ s De kLkF kr Skt kg uyt knk;† 4n jke ii jGf 4n Lkt jpDi ]n jd hÈi7e s\ s s s a s s\ a s g¥e l hn¥t kt Sgfkp Bkd 4g rkt kg jpDi gxt jg e jkdgv dfk;D 4Sg s s s T s s a X a X fkp I? lhckp kd hjkdgv 4krkyl e jed hg Fkl ]lm ckou krkOcf ujd u s a , s a q X s s s tkH hg Fkl 4krgj krkyG kd jkcçqx d jkdgv dlm go rDo jg dfk;D 4kF s q s s s a s X kr[j Fkl knl df ji lm kF Uli kurb ckou jkv 4kF hGkd hg kurm 4kF z , krjd nek'[ ilf kF krjd k;D kr hjdku kr 4henkv jk;'fkg klt uhYQlu q Z s , s s , ky¥e jkv hjdku hd ckou cv 4k;df hjdku j? d ckou dS uhYQlu ky¥qe q , , , s 2ugd k;D ]ikv ]g s ko df gd kt 4xky sykoujd rfr¬ hjkgér 4hnek'[ kg rjd nli eqr Syflb X s s s q q q s s a 4g Lkgi e df g krxy lm kgo dfk; wa \ T , s a X D Lt Fkl d kxky IkN l suiv ]g krgkp k'eg jkdgv 4kx[j jn l XkvQx.n s q\ s X s s s s , s a s w s q l ]kx[j jn l krl 4kx[j jn l ke®keji e rfF¬f cl gér jkdgv 4g krjd s w s X a s w s X X q a , hg; jkdgv jxe 4uhc jkxv uer kgo ]hF huy jH hyk> hd kyG l kgt 4 a s a s q a s s X w s a s , Iky jdsy jkxv d xkv er l lki dum ]hrn jd rk' Syf d knl kd k"r s a s q s s s a s s 1 hjkgér nwc dS hd uoht dutf 4Iky jdkg lk; jkv er l lki dum ]hF hr q s s s s s , q s s dl >c Syf d knl lk;î hjkgér lutf 2er kg rqHnv 4k;if jgt jrhH uiv q s q s q s . s s q uer jd[n kdum 4k;yf u rev suer lum ]F rdl y rev er l krl u s s 1 q s s s s 1 q s X a tf 4g hrykL kuH7kyt rgc kd jkdgv jkgér hxntke hdum df g g; r<fx , q q s a s q w , , 4g r<fx sNhi d sukrl lb 4g k;krl e k;nfl7k;nfl kd kral ueqr , s , X X X s X s Syflb 4sxky kync er `kvkt kg htkj ld er `kuke ld er 2k;yf [sn k s q s s s , q s s , q e®keji sulb ]henkv kd hLkd kn g; 2kgkyqt g; 2k;yf [n u lknjhcd jkv ,\ s s s ,

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 551 egaP

4Sjfd u gk–ji ]g 'nim kLc hg; s , s \ 4g htkj kd ud> kt `kxLdi , s s q s s \ uk,d <jp dlm jk,v 4ksd ke®keji sxkdl k>jf er hg ksr 4<jp dlm ky Ldi s s q s s \ 44Bkj?j >hj ]d /kl ;kt ksgx ujp q T s 4jkgo;ø kdlm g krkt kg <irfhzi 4g krkt y?if 4g krkt kg ;nl hjkdagv , s Z w , , s Z uf 4g krLi kukt ksg <k"ki lm e sujd 0lf ksd jkdgv uiv 4g krksg jksOd , \ s X a s , hjkdgv 4krksg Cgu ukok;n hjkdagv 4k;n A g hrksg Ui‘uf ikv7uiv thp hjlwn a , s s l hlm jk,v 4kruhn 6g Cgu Nd Te A ksr dS 4ky [hl thp ksn 4g rgd dye wa q s X T s w 4BkH Sgfj y ]kruhn jkv k;n dS s , 4g kn[ kl ]Skt hn[ 4Cgu , q s q kn[ jGf ]g hn[ 4g ukeHfv jrhH dltf ]kxn Lks\r hrkN hdlm ksr ke®keji q , q , s s 44hrkN rjksr dfkr ]g ukeHfv ;tf dkt , s 4hrkgksl gVku ue d Fku?j hn[ ujt s q q 4g hrkt ksg kni rfkH kr Syf jkg , , az s s ér ed7l7ed kr3g krgkp kuuke jkdgv jkv 3xksuke er jxv hdum ]g sr q s s , a , s q T gd yG xksy kt ksd kIkad udfsy 4rkt ksg Cgu Ikad ywG l ugd kIkad ksd kyG w s X s s s s X w 4ksr gd kIkad kd kyG g Cgu ktg Nd elm n gd kIkd kd kyG jkgér yH s s X w , Z q X s a s X w s q s 4kxgd Cgu yG ksd kIkad jkgér go 4hd r;yflv hjkgér kxgj krkynf nk; s w X s q q s X q gér go dfXk;D 4ku[j hg lki kdlm 4kujd k"Jl7kol hdlm 4kun koN hId s w q s s q uxkv 4ksd dnuV kuy klc hg lki d j? uiv 4;koN hId uxkav S[fkj sj;uf a s s s q dnuV Ag kgd su jhcd Syflb 4Skyrc rfF¬f hjkgér gér kt g go ksr r¬kn 4 , q X q s , s g ueæn ]g Cgu r¬ksn o 2kugj uk/okl lum 4g rjd nek'[ hjkgér kt ksg sr T q T s s T s q q s ksg Uli Lc er l kxksy um ]ku[j jtu Gjr huiv hH er ~ ~ ~rDf;ø d;®zi z s \ q s X q s 2ji ñld Oc kt ]g ruke kd ñld o 4g rjd kol hd q s, s T s s q s T s s ñld hdkc 6g hrkt ksg ukgc lb kol hH hdlm ]Oc hH Bksd ji ñld 4g rjd q , s s s, q T s kol hd ñld kr o `cyre k;D güm ]ksg glf<jp eku kd hLHV df ksg Bklsn s q s s X a htjkjkse eku kd hLHV `kuy k;D l k;LfHV güm 2g hg Lks\F jdku d hLHV Bk s s X X T s , s s d o ]jv 4g rkt ksg sNhi d krsutkj jln o ]hgo d hgo pep ]g krkt ync s s T s s s w s s s , krsutkj3pep hg o jkv 4sxSkt yef rksg Ødb pep ]lyikp lki d Xkvkru s s , a s s s w s s tkj gér Syflb 4kx[j kØdb ksd kxky d gjr lb lkilkv uiv knl hjkdagv X q s X s s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 651 egaP

rlfdof kOm ksg e jl7ek;ø X s 4k;kv nkol kd 'sn a ss jr ]xkt ]hlkoi sj z 4k;kv nku rpfjfiql e uo kd ;ko hd ;nm jGf X q krkxt <r7<r kd oæof 1 1 s l hIr hd hpki jwn z 4hyksL rDfi hd kXinki a Xe rf<i d>7d> sl ezsi z q q 6hyks[ pp u kx[ q a s X rdfyi ul 'nl ;enH q q sa s k;kv nkol kd 'sn a ss jr ]xkt ]hlkoi sj z 4g ke®keji kago ]g uoht kagt jk,v 4g uoht kago ]g , , , , okgc kagt jkv 4Skv okgc ]kxy sugc er ]n ky?if krzeuof 4g Sg Skuc L , s q s , q \ X q t gér hg jkdgv dfk;D 4sxy suksg ryfknkv kjkgér ;nÔ 4g Snf jH jF®i Xe a X s a q T kXukd jkgér hg su jkdgv dfk;D 4jkgér y[ ukd 4g kykL knji hg u jkdagv s q a X s q X q , s dfkX;D 4hjkgéqr Xy[ [kv 4sxy suLi Bkul gér 'nl kd ke®keji ]kuc euof q a \ q X q sa s z eqr hg l,t 4g krkt y[ llb jk} kd kjnfe 4g hrn yk[ ksd ykr Lc7sl7Lc s , q s X a , s s s s \ s \ g; dfXk;D ]ku>el re hIksN jxe ],g htd hIksN g; 4g hrn yks[ ksd ykr sLc qa , s s \ s \ qa l sLc htd dS 4h;x kv rkc cl e rkc dS 4g 'nim eji g; ]g rgd go X , s T s 44Sjfr jxklk,H djefl jfg dye gd s q w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 751 egaP

ss jr ]xkt ]hlkoi sj z `k;kv nk; k;D >e kl X s q yefw/ 'n kyH dS s w `k;D ji dlm ]<Qv sl s s k[j7trf{f ltf kgj xm s 6e ;nm re¬fof [e7rîhn X q kd kHof exnm krtk[ . s X e ;nÔ je xt tkv ss dokH ;kv kd Ir7/lV q Z q 4k;kv nkol kd 'sn a ss jr ]xkt ]hlkoi sj z 4k;kv nkoh'kv7gu¬ Z s kd krif Xe yftv7eæfj a ]kd Hi uknjo kPp ji q z \ jlf l eksj rfi jdep s z w 4yÏof7nukv hgj skg a X e kHof h<j/ h[An7jpf q 6ynr'7dkykv <Qv s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 851 egaP

4g Oc gxt7gxt kd uIy gér dkykp T s , s s w X q ]tkcykp Syflb ]kg Pe er jxe 84cl O> rjge uxy8 `kg gj Ni k;D sl s w\ q w w s s w Xk;"frfk;† eqr udfy 4g dhO kr unf 4g dlm cl kr unf 2kg rNi hd unf 2 s s T s T s s s s w s w kNi ]Cgu k; g dhO ynf ]sjv `Cgu k; g dhO unf df l <‰kc kg rNi kr ] , , s z s s w s kg srkt 'nji 4g h;x hjke 0fc hjkgér 4kg gj jd jkgo;ø er rfkH hd k[we s s , q q s s q a ë 44jke d Bn Pe ]k;jfc hd ujlv Tgd ukt s s w\ s q , 4jkc d dihn ucf ]utkH er kjd ;kg k>al s s q s q s s 44koky u "kn kd unf ]kNi uft icf lncf ryp s s s w z s 4dr keüt7Xkeüt kg rdl gj rkox er hH jGf dfk;D 4g X s s s a q X , h;x kg Cgu jn hH hHv 2,g ;el hH cv 2kxkt hH cv 2kg gj rkox kurdf s s s s s s a 4kokox ejH urb r ue s a s X 4g krdl kg u ]g kvg hHd u 4g Cgu "krl Bkd e ed llm 4kg rdl kg h , s , q , s a s X s ss s s g l oHuke®kv 6kg rdl kg hg l <kouf ]kg rdl kg hg l ke®keji yod rî s q s s s s Z s s s s s 1r kr er 4g Cgu hykosukg rîfr hH kr ]kF kxke uer kt Skt hH yef ];ørx s q , s 1 s a s q s a kd gkp huiv kvkt hH ki 4g Cgu hykoukg rîr xke Bkd hjkgér ]gkp Bkd h s , s s 1 a s q s jkgér 2kg rgkp k;D jkv er 2kg rxke k;D jkv er ]g ntke jrhH sjkgér k q s s , q s s a , q , w , q e®keji 2gj ruhc jF®i uhxj ji Ir sd –el eg jkv jrhH F xy jP d kj s s a q , s s s s X w s ugfkd 2gj rjkIc hLkd7hLkd eg jkv kF kuiv ;†kekl kjkl 2gj uc xe[Hf s s s ,\ ,\ , z s s s a eg j,kv hF huiv knil hurdf 2k;koax kurdf keüt7keüt ]jv df kxyp kri a X X s s X q gér cr sxk[sn jkv sxkxkt ct kr g; 2kg gj koax er kurdf df ]Skt gj sl s , s s s s q d/ hrkN hjkgér kr kg kri Xgér ]'kd `g kri ]kg gj kox er kurdf jkv q s s q , s s a q , 4kokox ejH urb r ue s a s X 4g htkj kd u , s s jd ke®keji "s' ]kjd kurb er 4g krkt kyp krkg rIf? ikv7uiv cl "' s q , s s s jGf 4kukt kg u 6kun Nki ]kun kIef kd uiv A g end kygi e k_k; hd e/ s s X s s s , X Z 4g cn suj> d rev phu d ukÈp hd jkdgv g; 4g kOc Skcn kdcl jkdg T s s 1 s s a , , s a v g; 2Sknil skg Oc SkiNf cl eqr 4Skuqxux ukjd 4IwG krhx 4Om n"ufim a a s , q q s s 4xt no jrhH jkgér 4L\i h;kul 'nal kd 'n hylv suiv gér kr Ig jkdagv s s s q s q s s X q s s 4k;kv nkol kd 'sn a

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 951 egaP

x 4g hrksg LcL\x jHunf ksg rgd er jGf 4Cgu jxe 2Skt yef kyko[kv dS \ , \ s q a Cgd jxv kg hxkH;ü/ kl 4kxSkt jH l 'kdi dkyrav kjkl kjkgér unf lm s s s z ∆ q ]hxSkt uc [kv dS [kv ksn hjkgér unf ltf A g upo 0lfi kd llht 2k; a a X a q , z D kugd jGf ]Skt ksg hg [kav dS 4g I>> ksr hd k[kv kn 2r}v 4Sgfkp ku , a X a s , s q X q kg '[ gér jd [n ]jd yef ksd ut†l yko[kv dS lo cv 2Sx yef ut† s s a s , l yko[kav dS Bksd ji r¬kj df ]Bx Ikd hy¥cf kr¬kj ]k[j Cgu jgkc d jr s s s ¬cf j,i dhO ]yduf Cgu l j? e hL? dhO ]ji ;elv ]ji ;≈kH 4g krgkp ku s s X \ , s n iksF ji jkv hldf o®;fkn kd thp jg go 4g hjk;'fkg dS e henkv udfy , , s X s 4g hgj I? aSkuI?n 4g gj I? ;≈kZHn <jkd dltf 4g kNe hd jrhH Cgd T Z q T s q s , Z w ku>el kr I? ;≈kHn hg ;≈kHn e uoht jxv jk,v 4kn re "kn ksd kunf 4kN s X Z q Z q X s s X s i l 0c hldf skr ksg hg kuNi jxv 4k;x ksg /çyim ksd kKi kt g go icf 4C w s q w z s , z gu go ]kvg kni kt e j? d <‰kc 4kukt sultf ksd ‰c A g Fv kd <‰kc q , s X s z z , Z z 4Cgu <‰kzc hH ZFv kd <‰kc dfk;D 4Cgu <‰kc A g Fv kd icf 40c A g ZF z X z , Z z q , v kd icf 4kNi ksd icf hldf ksr kg hg kuNi jxv j,kv 2ksg rn "kn ksd unf z s w z s w s s s 44ksoky u "ksn kd unf ]kNi uft icf lncf ryp s w z s 4kykoujd <" s s k' Bksd Sgfkp hg Sgfkp gér 4kxjd jkv Bksd kr xjd u o jxv 4g rjd o X q s , s s X s T s s ]<"k' ksg rkojd er 4g jkoeétf sykoujd <"k' urtf hg urm ksg jkoseét s s q T s s s s s f er `g k;D <jkd kdlm ]ji eku d e/ g kryp <"k' kurb e k;ufqn lb q , s Z , s X 4dkykp7jrp ; j q s , kv ksg Pe er 4kg l¬gf d hLks\t dS hg n[ er df g g; pl jkv 4hLkt ksg w\ q s s s q q , , s\ gj koyef er lub 2sxSkyef dk[\ k;D g; 4kg rkoyef l h"rfk;† k; ksg srky s q s a s s s s ef hLkt huiv hg n[ ksr er 4Cgu hg rkoyef hLkt er l ekj dfXk;D 4g kr s\ q q s s\ q s , ksg klsS l ydæfe hLc 48hLks\t Bkyef ekj8 A g rgd kdlb 4Cgu Li h;k[nf N s q \ T s s s \ qd lm ]h/v g hu®i jkv Cgu Li h;kul Nd lm ]kjgc rfi 4gj hrdc kl g s a , , s \ q q s s s , kudc kt ksd hu®i jkv 4Sktc ]ksg huktc hjlkac kagt7kgt 4Skpj ]ksg kukpj s , q a lkj kt7kt 4e jH sy¥ge gj krjd kl o–im ksg kujd kt ksd rfi kl 4ksg kjg s s X q s s s s c rfi jk,v kg h/v hu®i eltf g hgo jkojfi h[l lcl e k;ufn df g srgd s a X , q s X q T 4g rgc hH tkcykp ]g rgc [je 4hLkt h;kyef ekj 4g kte c[ hH Xe k; T q T q w s\ , w ufn 4g gj yk[ ;≈kH kjkgér jd kOm7kOm ka;Øfpf o ]e kLtiV g [j /kc h{ q T s s q s X X \ T s a i u kX;"frfk;† `ksg gj koNi er l k;"frfks;† ub 2krn [n Fkg kdlm go ] s s s q q s X s s krn [n Fkg kdlm go 2hrkt yef hH kdlm hUop ]hrkt yef hH kdlm hUo s s s s p 2Cgu Nd hH ktg 4rjd IH ukv jkp7jkp ksd jln7dS e rge H' jkv ` q Z s X s s w X Z wq q , kxyp kld k// tkv ]BH df rk[nf Fkg kuiv ksd jln7dS 4rkxy ukdqn hui s , a s s w s v jdkt e jktkc df ygi llb3F ryef gcl tksj ji r¬kj dS h"rfsk;† kn X s s s s q s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 061 egaP

ct jd [n ksd jln er 4g hukgd hjkeg g; 4g kuI? hd uoht jkeg g; 4g s s w q , , s , Z w <ioÂge ]g hjk;î kuI? g; 4ksd kuI? lb F rkjgksn jkc rgc kdlb Fhrekj , s s q s Z 4F Sx je Xe Xk<Zin s hH Rd cl hdkc hg Fkl dlm 4k;x k;ki kvg kje gcl jk,v3kgj krjke jl s q s q q f ]kgj krkjdI l <in ]kgj krkjdI l kXykohn ]kgj krLy ]kgj krdkTH jH rk s Z s \ j 4hyef 'ky hdlm gcl 4k;x kyxi `Ii> ji ldf7ldf 4kIi> jGf 4dkTH R q s s s qd jkl ksr kdkTH kRd dS ct jk,v 4kxy hH udkTH jGf jkv 4g ykohn kagd ]g s q s , , , ktojn kagd df k;nf ks[ hg 'kg ulm df k;x kLc? kurb go ksr g j? Rd s s \ T ss s q s urb udfy ]kF krdl ksg hH kukt jgkc ]k;kv jrhH lltf kF eyke ktkoj s s w n 4k;x j?f endS 4Rd j/m [n j/tf 4Gjr kXjkp Rd hg Rd 2Rd kX[ky s q s s s q s q s q 4k;x kL\c? rgc ksr kRd 4kF yge k;x k;kuc hg l k<in go 4F xy <Zin hg q q s X Z s s <in ji Xkykohn e yge lm 4g kul ue ]k;x l? e ygetkj dS kRd dS Z X , q s T q X q 4ksg rjL s jd [sn7[sn ksd ccVrfi hg uiv er 4ksg rsy [n e kjln k;kN hg huiv eqr z s q s s X X w 4g kLi Xeer kt ]ksg r[n e kjln hgo er 4g rkc rqHnv dS hd rxt lb , \ q s s s X X w q , . . 4Sgfd gkd u kjc ]g kyH gfcl skr yH ikv w q , s s 2kvkt ksg dWxkt s eqr ]ksvkt ksg jnaql er 4g jnl yi rfi jk,v g H' yi rfi 4g kd ke®keji q , qa z , q z , ;el kjkl g; 4g Pe go 4g h;x hjke 0fc hdlm ]Cgu dhO rge g; df ]g , w\ , q Z wq , <{ kd uqx'iv df ]hd jlv kyc g; df ]ckj[ ;el g; df g krgd hH kt q s , s 44jke d Bn Pe ]k;jfc hd ujlv Tgd ukt s s w\ s q , 4hH e <jxkt ]hH e nCu 4g X X , krgj kryt I? lhck,p kst kvkyt dihn klsS 4g kuyt kd Shn hgo ]kLks\r kN sa s , s Z e 4e kNe huk; e j/v 4g rgj sxy e ekd hg e j/v `jH unf jkv 4g sr w X Z w X ss a T s X X ss a , T y jd utksH jdkyt k;hn xksy Bd kr rkj ]kag 4ekd ksjd re Xe j/v7j/v 4 s s ss a ss a s yt k;hn e ;®Î ds;®zi jkgér 4gj kyt k;hn ]skOc ji ukdn 6ksjd ekd 6skyskc X s q s , q 6kyp ]kOc ]kOm gkp jkv ]ksjd utksH gkp 4kvkyt k;hn e uoht A g ykol s s , s s , s s X , g; ]g Cgu kd ujd utksH hg e rkj ykol g; 4k[hl kr rkc hIkN7hIkN ; 4k , s X s s X s s s s g rjd utksH j,kv rkyt Cgu hH k;hn jk,v ]g hrkt Li rkj ]g hrkt kg >kl s s , \ , s a 4jkc d dihn ucf ]utkH er ksjd ;kg k>al s s q s q s 4g kry kpc ksd uiv gjr , s s lb 4ji kjln g krn ykI cl 4krgkp kuy Cgu "ksn jkdgv 4g k/ofl ksd jkd X w , s s a , q gv e un jgkc "ksn udfsy 4l jrhH jkgér g hrksg LcLx ]er ksg rjd L\cL a X s s s s q , \ \ q s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 161 egaP

syef jxv 2hdkl lly[ ]e g ksr ,e \ s w q , , eg jko“k\nkc g rgd xky X T s s jxe g gj hi ksd kdæv uiv T s X s eg jkc dS kF k[sn ueqr X s hyH Cgu jtu go dr tkv w \ 4g krkt kg ; , s eke®keji 4g krkt jH l hlm rxt kjkl Syf dum ]ksd ke®keji g kukt uXkg , s . s , s ütf Syflb 4g krkt kg 0c rxt kjkl Syf d k0c Syflb 4g rgj rjd <i , s q . s X q T s s {i kuiv eg 4g hrksg eyke hlt ke<√i hH lokev ksr ]ksg RpfUli eqr jx s z , w , w z v j,kv 4kxLi eyke lknm rkj lm e 'kdkv hH nkap ksr ksg lknm er jxv 4 s \ w X q g jrhH jkgér kt g krkt Li Bk[nf hgo gér e kjln 4ku[n l jk,x kjt\ eqr , s q s , \ X q X X w s s 2g kgj kiNf S , a ws X IkG 2e j? g kgj ky aSIksG 4Mk[p kte ksdlb ksr j? Iky tkv 2e ikPq\c 2g , w a s, X s , kLi Nhi d hgeyd lb cv kr ]kNπv ]kgd 6k[n 4<in ulm k;yf tk[ ]hP \ s s qa s s Z s s p jiM hu®i ]k;x jktkc ujd ekd uhYQlu hg lt 2g kgj kiNf Nd ]kNπv \ s s , , q l [kv hd suksd u hu®i kxksg k;yf [n 4krkv Cgu ekd Nd jxe ]xn krc gj s a s s q s X r lb ]xn gd gjr lb ]g kusn ckot g; ]g kun ckot g; df ksvkv djd hj s X , , s s k;r [ky er 4hdl[f uhet hd phu d ji jkgér lc df hxNi ykol klS < , q s s , s q s w s {®r ]kvkt j? 2g hrgj hr[n hu®i ]ksg kr[n Cgu k; kg kr[n ke®keji 4g s , s s s s , kr[n ke®keji ]kg er hH Cgd ]ksjd er hH Nd df g rgd xky 4g hrgj hg s s q q q T s s T hr[n ksd rfi ]kXg hgj jd ekd hH Nd ka;u®fi 4k;yf [n u hu®i 4ji ytfae s q s s hjln ]k;x jiM jd kiNf kr n jd ckj[ ]n Lks\G7Lks\r Bkd ksr Cgu ]yp Cg w s s s s s u kri ksd hldf ]kd hu®i ]ksd kIc df kF krgkp kukiNf go 6srdl Cgu ksr ki s X s Nf er Nd l k;u®fi df g rfF¬f hd kX;rfi hHl kt3k;kv j? 4n [j jd y q q s X , s wa kHl 4Bx yef kvg kNπv ]ksyp ji 4kF dk,' kd ukojrm IksG ksd k;ef Lc df a q s w a s \ Cgu kpkl hHd 2h;x ksg Yg ]kgd ulm 4k;x kg ;el hH je ksr ksd htkrif 4 s s s s g rksg eyke lt htkrif yd¥cf df kgd 4kvg ukjg kLc ]k[n jd kOm 4kF C T s w s , q q , \ s gu k[n hHd ulm <in 4jkudf d r¬kj k;x yef <in dS kd uhYQlu ky¥qe s s Z s s s Z s `k;x Li \ h;k[nf Cgu ccVrfi kr e <in hg kuiv gér Cgd 2kuy pksl kjt\ ]ksg rdkTH z s X Z X q s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 261 egaP

48lgeji8 A k;nf nç' hH ueg 4g krkt hg kgd 8 a s , r¬e8 kdum ksr e k;Gfl 4Li ewyke r¬ene ksd kxky hukK jl@#!dv Syflb s X X w s \ X s 4g Cgu e 'kg g; 4g Sg Sif ckj' g , X s , q ; 4g LdD;if df sxgd lm xky ]hxkg kuFkzi e kvlkav dltf jkv xkg Sg sr , \ X s s s Z X X q s , s X q pku hH lkv dltf jkv hxksg Igkjd¬e e kvlkav dltf jkv kxxy uLi Bk[ w a s , q q X X q s , s s \ nf ke®keji Gjr cl ksdltf dfk;D 4k;x ksg hckj' g; df xgd xksy dfakykg X s X eg jko“k\nkc g rgd xky X T s s 4g hxt hH k{kdkv hd ucL cv ]hy , a s w ef k;D dy> df Tg lkav hH d gjof l Gjr dS jkv 4hyef dy> hd ke®ke w s s , ji df l I‘fn dS Tg lkav hH d h'q[ lakv dlm dfkykg3g krhi lkav go kr s 1 w s w s a , w s jxe g gj hi ksd kdæv uiv T s X s 4pc u okH Bksd 4spc u nH Bksd 4pc u /ksjov Bksd s s s 4Skt ksg uhy kji e>e ke®keji dfkr ]Skt ksg uhy kji krgkp rDH 4Sgfkp h w X q w ukt Ief hH hjwn g; 4g hrIkd hjn hd r jkv e 4hjn jH pb ]hjn hl hurb , w w , T w a w 4g hrIkd hlS hjwn `hxIef cd hjn ]g krLi Bk[nf ke®keji df `g k;D kLhi , s s w , \ , \ hd rDH 4kryef Cgu ni ]kryef Cgu u/ Ag kLh\i hd hjkll 4g hg; kLhi hd , a , \ rDH `g k;D kLh\i hd rDH 4l kI‘n hd ;æn 4l yko uLi Bk[nf hjn hd yk , s 1 1 s s s \ w s ou[n 4g h;x gj hjwn hLkF hH hHv udfsy ]g krLi Bk[nf gxt cl 2Skt skg s s , s\ , \ a dS Fkl dlm ld ]aSkt cL elm sld df ]g hrkt gj kLh\i hg dS cr jkv s s , w X , , , 4jxe g gj hi ksd kdæv uiv T s X s 4kxLi Bk[nf hgo xks[n kgt 4kxSk s \ s s a t yef hgo gxt jg jGf ]sky [n slm er ]y [sn gér ke®keji jkc dS ]lc s q s X q 4eg jkc dS kF k[sn ueqr X s hyH Cgu jtu go dr tkv w \ 4g jtu hgo e jtu jg kr g jtu go , X s , e jtu hjkgéqr 4g jtu hgo e jtu jg jGf 4Cgu hrdl yH ]Cgu hryH jGf X , X w w ]Skv jrm jrhH jkgér hd ke®keji jtu dS 48hyH Cgu jtu go dr tkv8 s q w \ 4g rkj dhjkr g; e®[\ i eg 28nk'8 S , , s g hH jcxi dju dr“cAjhr eg T a , s w s g rk;gckv hH jgt\ ksd k'de eg , s X ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 361 egaP

ksd yev7c7uknckkv ksn krc s s \ ~ ~ ~l kXde√k/ rFfdkFr ]sl kX;jfkti ]l Xk;Lf[ki ksn gd s q s a s l henkv dlm g rjGu sltf s , \ kxdl jd rcçge k;D sl kn[ s q q s l hxnc g kdp krdm kn[ a , q q s kdyev7c7uknckkv ksn krc s s \ 4k;x ksg 0qc o®r¬fv kjkl Syf je ]kvg 0c e unf ltf ]g kgd u 0c ss q q T , s w 4Bx y[ [kv hdcl g krxy lm kr Bx y[ [akv hdlm 4g hrkg hupc hLc q a , s s q , s , s \ s lm 4krkv Cgu e >el lm `g gj kt yp e kX&^!x k;D xky ]g h/hl jk,v g X s T s s X X s , , Gkl gkj `g gj jxf xky k;D `g gj kjdI k;D xky 4g 'kdi hg 'kdi `g T s s X T s X s , z z T gj kt Stf e j/v hH cv ;D xky df g hrksg hg; upL\v hdlm 4Bx ksg e s X ss a wa s , ®[ Syf sd k;ufn hjkl g krxy lm ]Bx ksg e®[ Syf dlm rkj hj/av kst go q , s s s g rkj dhjkr g; e®[\ i eg 28nk'8 S , , s g hH jcxi dju dr“cAjhr eg T aa , s w s 4g krkt ksg dgko'nl kd 'kdi dlm go 4g kr , sa z s , kt ksg hH jcaxi go ]slm g krxy hH uIkac go ]k;yf [n lm ultf jGf jkv , , s s s s , g hH jcxi dju dr“c Ajhr eg T a , s w s 4g rev hg rev 4k;x Ief jgt Syf sdlm ] , 1 1 k;yf [n lm ultf 4g rev hH ksr n kyif hH jgt ksd kLdD;if eg jGf kr s s s , 1 s X \ s g rk;gckv hH jgt\ ksd k'de eg , s X , ~ ~ ~Skyif ke®keji l ei jxv ~ ~ ~ s zs s yef jxv 2hdkl lly[ e g ksr ,e s w q , , 4g ckj' hgo ]g krkljc Xe , , er jk/ hd nukv kst go ]g krkyif kst go jkv 4g rgd hdkl ksd ke®keji h q a , , T s Gl O‘Skt yef kykosukyif hylv jxv ]Skyif sl xP kyko ukyif jxv udfy w a s s s yef jxv 2hdkl slly[ w q ~ ~ ~ ]g ckj' ksr ckj' , ~ ~ ~ e g ksr ,e , ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 461 egaP

4g c u ]g xj u kl7yG df kuke , w , a w udfy Cgu c7kxj kl7yG s w s a w 4g hrkt kg yG hH lk? slm ]g krxy suLi Bk[nf kdltf ]yG ksr yG , s w , \ s w w , g ruht\ hdkrlfyx hH lk? a q jd u yke;ki lrjGu kdlb s \ s g ruhr eu dPc l7yG , Z s \ s w udfy Cgu c7kxj kl7yG s w s a w 4g rhx kdlm ]g ;®u kdlm o®r¬fv k , , 1 jkl g; `g r<fx kl7uk,d g; `g xP kl7ukd g; 2kl'i hd dru jk,v knuV , , a , a z Z hd ;®u `g dr kl7uk,d g; 2ukx<x kd Krhxl jkv knuV hd rhxl 2g rkc 1 , Z q a , a , hl,d g; 2g rjd ukx<x kd ke®keji jkv 4g rjd ke®kge jkgér dl kg knu T s q , T s s q s s V hurtf ksr hd henkv ]g gj krc hiki jk,v jkxgux o kr kd henkv ]g Sdf T s q s s s T ektrb kd utsH dju ksr kd henkv 4g rjd rjGu henkv xky jkl g; jkv a s s T s s s , s l henkv dlm g rjGu sltf s , \ kxdl jd rcçge k;D sl kn[ s q q s l hxnc g kdp krdm kn[ a , q q ksd yev7c7ukncfkv ksn krc s s \ 4kx s \ Li Bk[nf kvg kOc jkdgv ji dku hdlm `ksg r[n Ldv hdlm ]kxy uPi q , a s s \ s \ _e kd h_;kx tksj df ]Bx ksg F¬Od krhx df ]hy Pi tkeu hLks\F df ]Syf [ a a \ j ro e <"wZ;i df ]Syf jd lkoim Nd df ]k;nf n ukn kLkF ultf 4g e k z X q s s\ s wa T e®k;≤qi ]ksg hiki cl er df g krgd go ]g kr[n jd Ldv jk,v go 4k;ky L q , , s \ ks\t jhg ksn jkv ]g hrkt xy jk/ j,kv ji jkdagv dlm ]g krIky l jnfae g k s , , s , , s , rIk,y l nt¬fe henkv kt 4g krkt kg rcte hH jkv ksr jkdgv kjkgéqr `ksg s s , s w , a kagd rdq> er 4g Cgu hxnc hxnc hjkgér 4g kdp krdm rgc l hxnc hjkgéqr s q , a a q , q q s a s l hxnc g kdp krdm kn[ a , q q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 561 egaP

4okyp ukd hdubO‘ , , ]g xyv Fi kdub , <%%@≥ O‘gfjk,v kLi kd nc dky T s s 4hxSkt hyp hrkv Nhi lc ]g hgj kv Nhi dlm a s T s s hH kt 4hxaSkt jxf XLH hjkl ksr ]e Sd Bx jxf LH dS 4g Sg Ldi ksd k/ s s\ X a q s\ T q s \ X a v s/av jxe ]g gj jxf e aSd cl 48rLi id kukn k;yfO e/v k/av8 4g gj k T s X q a \ w X s s a T s t yp /v Sg Ldi ksd jlwn7dS ksr kago 4g ykp7LH ]g kr¬kj kd LH ksr kr¬ s s a q s \ s , s\ , s\ kj kd Lk\H7L\hH 4kugj uk/okl kjt\ sllm ]g hg jk,v kr¬kj kd Lk\H7LhH udfy , \ s 4okyp uk,d hdub gfjk,v kLi kd nc dky s T s s 4ksg ryp jd y Fkl uiv kog huiv er dfk;D 4g krkt uc j?kv s s s q X , t kr ksvkt hH e jnfe er ksr hHv 4kxSkt ksg jnfe hH j?ckj' l hxntk,e q s X a q a s w hjkgér 4kxSkt kg jnfe hH j?kvt l sukt jkgér 4Cgu ktg Nd hH kr ]e kXj q s a q s s q Z q s X ?kvt ]e kj?ckj' kOc jGf 4,g Cgu rjWt hd upc l hldf jGf ]Skt xt u q X X s , s s nf ltf 4Skt xt u ke®keji kd jrhH jkgér df dr ct 4kpc llm ]g gke s q s s , s ]g Hky ]g /ks∂ ]g k;‘B ]g jkdagv ]g k<? ]g knuV e ue dltf kpc sllm , s , , Z , , 1 , X s s 44Sgfj sxkH kXlkr ]Bkjc lc Nd ue dkt q , q s 4Sgfd gkd u kjc ]g kyH gfcl skr yH ikv w q , s s 4g k;x yt k;hn kd jrhH dltf ]lm g Cgu nsH e unf , s s , X jk,v rkj 4ksd ykosu[n3g Cgu dG e ke®k;≤i jk,v hiki 4ksd ykou[n3g Cgu s s , Z X q s s s , dG e lk? j,kv ckyx 4g ckyx kHk' hurtf ]g kHks' hg hurm lk? hd phxc Z X q , q s , s , g ruht\ hd krlfyx hH lk? a q 4ksn jd re I‘u djd k<1? slb s jd u yke;ki lrjGu kdlb s s 4g jdPc hH l kyG go ]g u , \ s X w , ihye[e kst go ]g ñeu kst go ]g pksy kst go Xe kX;Rfi hd lk? udfy ]/x , , s a ql hxkg u ]xj kxkg u 4g kryeksd knk;† ]jdPc sl yG df g rkc dS udfy s a s , \ w , s g ruhr eu dPc sl yG , Z s \ w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 661 egaP

yked7ygv7tkl g hrjd ts\r s s s\ , , g hrkv lkj dhGkr7c¬g \ ,\ s h/kav hd rk;g7rklnkg s 4,g hrkup Idl 4g krksg eüt kd ke®kv hg e Idal d , q a , X fkX;D 4kujd re Hsky ksr Li kukox hH uoht 4kuuke re tg ksr Skt kv Idal s \ Z 44thd u Hksy kd ;tf ]kuke gVu tjg Li Idal , s s \ 2kul hjse er 2hgl k/v e ]kyp ]g r s q q a T s , nkv hd suul hg hd k/v jxv 4g lj hg l k/v jxv 4ky y re kd s/v >qe q X a , s X a s s a 4,thy re kd jl ]d ekj dS lksjH ksgj sw s s 4ksn LkN lksjH cl jkv 4ksgj lksjH d s\ s , s s ekj Ag hg dS gkyl hje skr ]g k/v hH e ]skul hje jxv ]g rgd dye kr , s wa a T q s T s w s <%%@≥ O‘ ]dekj dS lksjH ksgj s s 4ky kd k/av lS ksr ksg kuy kd Xk/v h s X s s s a g re jxv 4g /v e Fv dS hH s; 4g hg ke®keji ]g Cgu k;ufn `ksd duku T s a X Z , , q ]dye ]jhcd jkv 4g hg k;ufn ]Cgu hg g ke®keji Syf d kxksy d k;ufn 4 w , , q , s X s q krLi Bk[nf Cgu ke®keji ],g hrLi Bk[nf k;ufn kdum ]g /v xksy d k;ufqn \ \ q s T s a s 4g r[n ke®keji s; ]r[n Cgu k;ufqn ; 4Xe Fv dS g /v hH s; 4ksy re kd T s s s s s Z T s a X a s , k/v ]lt lknjhcd ]sl,t lkndye df ]g krdl ksg hH Fv kjln dS kdlb 4 w , Z w hd kX/v 4g h/v LkH7Lh\H g; 4ky re gkyl sl k/v df Fv dS 4g rdl ksg a , a \ s X a Z T s Z Fv ksn d upo lb ksr 4Xe Fv dS ]g h/v Lh\H g; 4ky y klksjH hg kd ekj s Z , a s s O‘ ]dekj dS lksjH ksgj s s 2ksy [hl re sl k/v X a 4,thy re kd jl ]dekj dS lksjH ksgj sw s s 4kry[f Cgu yG kd k;n Fkl d jkdagv dfk;D ]hrkv Cgu k;n ;nÔ sdub w s X 44okv u k;n ,njgf , 2g rti ksd jF®i j,kv g rykL jke ksd ke®kv 2ksgd k;D kr hdub T s w T s s 44,okv u k;n njgf ]ti uk"i jfke erkv , , w T
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 761 egaP

4g kvg klG rxt kjkl e hlb , q a . X 4knG kd rxt hg; ]g ejH jkpv ejd k;jfdf a . , `ksg rgkp kujd yg l kXLkd s s a 7k;∂f er aSkuI? hylv hd hxntV kr 4lsS hr>c lk;î hd lk;î u 6lS krjH q s s q s s s Ii kd [H u `kxSkt ksg F¬o¬ 4gj krit kon ]kon ]kon jdOc henkv jkeh s s w s , c df 4hxkg hu'kj dk[ 4gj krit hu'kj ]hu'kj ]hu'ksj jd Oc Bksd e rkj s s s s s , X hj/v lt g hg lsS g; 2ekd k;x ksg kpkl uer ]lc jkv3k;yf Pi htit d s a s , , s s s q , \ q f ]k;yf it eku df 6hy jG kyke hl7hLks\F df 6Sx kg htkg jk,v Skv jd k_ s s k; hd tg df 6k;yf jd kye kd Hd df 6kxax Skv ksg hHd df 6k;x ksg Ze/ \ s qa df kpksl jkv kFd hd <;kjku;®l hy kojd hHd df 4ksg Li e Lkad7k;∂f eqr , s \ X 4knG kd rxt hg; ]g ejH jkpv ejd k;jfdf a . , 2kLks\N ksd ejH sO> ]kLks\N kd O> 4g hyk'rDf' ;®l s w s s w , 4g jkted O> 4g kgj ht e O> go 4g kgj ht e rfkH go dfkX;D ]hjkdgv , s w , X w , X az a g jkted slcl e k;ufn lb jkv 4Tg rkt >c Shn dum lc ]g jkted kst o , s X q , s q s T s s g hrk>qc Snf d kldfku , s X \ yked7ygv7tkl g hrjd ts\r s s s\ , 2ksuc xkv hd yxt 4g hrn kPc a , s \ ksd xkv hd yxat ]g hrn k>c ksd k;hn IksN kog hgo 4g srkt >qc Shn IkN7I , s q X s T ss s s kN udfsy 4g krOm kg xkv yxt kji 4Tg hrkt yG e yxt jkl Iiy kr ]Skt , s a w , X a s X s yp h/kav jkv kg hxy xkv e yxat ]suer k[n 4g hrn n rfx jk,v kdlm kr , s X q s , s s s s ]g Iiy jrhH jkgér 4g hrn jd tr jk,v kdlm ]g yc hH Nd jrhH dutf , s q , s s s , q s yked7ygv7tkl g hrjd ts\r s s s\ , 4g rkt kv lkj hH ukGr jkluv d kr_ki T s w q s , g hrkv lkj dhGkr7c¬g \ ,\ s h/kav hd rk;g7rklnkg s 4g rkt ksg ryfo†i jk,v k T s z s r o ]g yc Xeutf 4g rkt >c jkted yod slum 4hd uoht g hrOm k;/fkv s , T s q s s T a a g hrk>qc Snf d kldfku , s X \
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 861 egaP

]g snNf sIkad7hg7Ikad ]kg upc hg upc `Cgu rdkTp er hH jGf 4Cgu up kd T s s , s , s s q , s <{ dS ]Cgu up hHd ]Cgu ekjkv hHd ]ks[n kr l jkx kjt\ kd hxntV lb , s s s , s hdkl g ekjkv cv u ]hdkl kF ekjkv ct u \ , \ , g hrksj ksd ynf hukot ]kF krkj e ntf\ uidLy s X \ hdkl g eku Cjh' dS kd kvlkv ; jxe \ , X q a s wa g y;kd\ kdlb hH e ]g rykn hLc db eql¬cr T , , \ hdkl g ekvub ; kdltf ]hdlm hxksg k;D kt\l \ , \ s , g rjnd7ekvub hxntV\ l >e g krkt kgd q s \ s q , 4g ;≈kH kjkgér hg kuc , q w s w L 4xkscL hH ji jkudf ksr spgi u <j' hdlm jk,v 4g hrkt uc kjkudf hH jk s qa , />e kr ksvkt pgi <j' hdlm 4k;x yef kjkudf kjln hg rkt <j' hdlm a s qa w s 4Bx yef oku hg srkt <j' hdlm dfk;D 4g Cgu jL Bkd cv 4k;x ksg knof ; X , s H kjkl ]k;x k;D <j' hdlm df ler g krgd kukohn dye A g rgd udfy s q , w T s s 44kukonf dye rgd ]g jL k;D cv gfkr Sx ujl w , s 4kukdl [fn ksdkr ]jxklk,H kLc jkll g; s \ a 4Tg k;/fkav jkv g ukGr 4,g jxkloH kLc ]g oku hd txkd 2kxksg jki sld a , T w \ T X , 2jxkloH kLc kurb df k;x kdidl hg jd [n g; ksr e ]g srgd lkndye \ s T T w 4kukdl [fsn ksdkr ]jxklk,H kLc jkll g; \ a <%%@≥ 44k/v ju ukt k;DO‘ a , ]e yktk;ke g k;x dIv X , ~ ~ ~ k;kLv /fkac e ykt7k;ke a X 2hd rkc hd /v d gjr kn ]ksg r[sn s a s s s 4g /v xksy jkv T s a , 44k/v ju ukt k;D ]k;kLv /fkc e ykt k;ke a , a a X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 961 egaP

4euc' Xe [kav hrdep ]hrkse e rhx srdyP X 4erke hunkp slt a , lki d krpf kg hrkue s s 4g rkt cL ]ryduf T s w s X e joksjl ]kuke ]yed s 4g rkyefy>f7rdi> T s s jkr e rhx sjkgéqr s X 4Bksd kgj sk/ l kvqlkv s X a huiv [kv hckyx a q 4Bksd kgj ksj iNf e ukr hd hjlkac hjkgéqr X q 4euc' Xe [kav hrdep ]hrkse e rhx srdyP X 4g krOm rhx ]g krOm rhxl kd uoht l rîfkel hlm , , a s jkv 4ksd suiv g krn jd rîkel rDH kvg krpku ji 'kdi d Hi 4g k;puo , , s q z s q z , Z ht hH hd rDH hgo `Sg rkt je jiM d ke' Sg rpku3`g k[n ksd ukoji q s s q s , s s 4kukoji huk; kukohn 4kryp Cgu ekd kucf Sg ukohn 4g ukohn skr lkndye q s T s w `ry Cgu kj s s kgl kd Fkg dlm ]rn Cgu jkdi kd oku hdlm ]rjd Cgu <je¬ er hH jG s s s q s s q f `Cgu rdkTp er hH jGf ]cL cr ]cL cv ]g <hdkdId7hg7<hdkdId kr¬kj s q s w s w , Z a Z a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 071 egaP

4kg ry[f yG e jefrf X s w X ]kuke ]hrIG hl7<jdf s w ]kg rygf <ki slt X s z , df lS kuno hrdld s s s 2ukohn kuc 2ukoji kuc s s s s 4euc' Xe [kav hrdep ]hrkse e rhx srdyP X 4exjl hd rfk;† ksg hgj s tc kX;† e rkj hjs/v X a 4kg ry[f yG e jefrf X s w X ]kuke ]hrIG hl7<jdf s w ]kg rygf <ki slt X s z , df lS kuno hrdld s s s 4h;kN e dky d k"m X s s hd ex\ hldf k; hlknm ]h;kv kuno sl Cgd s Xe kxj rkl jd kgu X a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 171 egaP

4g k;x kv e hjxu hd kXræjfG df g krxy klS 4g hgj kv jtu rfk' r wa X , s , a qHnv hg rgc e kX[kv jksv kXjkp ]g kr[n kgt 4g k;kv jkc hg hygi ]ukoxH . q X a wa s a wa `krdl yp Cgu uoht kucf dub k;D `g utk;i k;D kd k<? jkv k;‘B ]jkdgv e uoht d s , s z 1 , Z a X s ;‘ue ksr g klsS nf; 4g Cgu utk;i‘uf hH Nd e o®r¬fv df g rgd ]ukoxH q , , s z q X T s 4hg kurb tkv 4g {kse eku kd uxkt jkgér ]g jkll eku kd uksl jkgér 4g _fkj hg Xe ukl , s s q , a s s q , s s s q , jkgér ]g kjsol hg e uxkt jkgér 4g hg rkj ]ksg Skl dr ct er 4g kjol X s s q , s q , s hHr kxkt er jxe ]g Bkv hd cd ksr kyc 4Bx kv kyc hd uxkt 2kxkt cv s q , s s s s 48ksokoax ejH urb r ue8 2kg gj kox uoht Xe e s X s s a z ss ss s , H IkN7IkN ld jxe 4ksg dyfke er d knil hLc hurb 4g krn jd ryfknkv q s a \ , s s a s l dksykv jkv l nukv ksd dksy jkl ]kd uoH_f kt exjl 3kxOm exjl hH , s a s s q s s Xe <ki jkgér jk,v 4yed d kX0c3sxkXg ji kXyed hH <jp jkgér jkv 4rfk; z s q s q s q , s † hd k0c3hxjH l rfk;† hH [kv hjkgér 4g kry[f ywG kd /fkel e ;®e h X q s s s a q , X q 1 lm jkv 4g hlk;ül hgo ]l kNπo¬ kvkt je df ]g Cgu e df ksdl jd oHuv , , a s s s wa T q df ]g Cgu e df ksdl ukt df ]g Cgu e df ksdl gd df xksy kIt lgkl ku wa T wa T s q rb er <{ ltf ]unf ltf dfXk;D 4g Cgu hH y[ Bksd jGf kLc llb ]g y[ q , s \ s , s kLc slcl 4g Cgu y[ kIkse7kIksN Bkd kukxy ji okan kd jkdgv 4Sgfkp lg \ , s s s a kl ]Sgfkp kre{ hd uksg hjkvt ksd hlk;ül je df g krgd jrjuf Te Syflb s q a ss wa a 4g ekd kd k;jfkvt g; 4rdl kxy Cgu ok , X q s a n kLc kurb so 4Cgu ekd g; kd kXjknukdn `kX;D 4Sgfkp hxukohn jxe 2kLt \ q s q\ sl ke®keji 4hxSkt uc rhxl lkoæ7lkoæ hjkgér 4kxSkt kg rhx e jl7jql jkg a q s X q s ér 4ksjd hjk;r hd uki ksd dg lb 4ksg jkoeétf eqr ksr ksvkox 4g dg g; kj q , s s a , kgéqr l eüt 4ksg hjkd/fv er 4hd k0qc g hrdl ksg dep hH e k[kav hjkgéqr s q X , X X 4euc' Xe [kav hrdep ]hrkse e rhx srdyP X exjl hd rfk;† ksg hgj s tc kX;† e rkj hjs/v X a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 271 egaP

>el ]8Ae/ kseji klgVv8 rgd <‰kc 4krLi Bk[nf Cgu yeykr Nd 28Ae/ Z s z \ s q Z kseji klgVv8 jkv jdFhr ;_f{ lhck,p 4g klgVv hg jk/kv kjkl ksr kd kut , , X , 4k;nf 'nl kd k;n ]kd k<Qd ]kd ei u sa zs s cl ub jkv 4g Nd cl hg 0q; kgt 4g krLem jxkl kd /ks∂ kgt 4,g uoht , , q a , \ a jkoyr kgt ]g Skv l k;ufn hd k;_f{ "Qi0c ]jdFhr ]jkrov jkl d ' a T s q ssa q q s s n lb 4g ;_f{ <‘Î jk,v ekj ]g ;_f{ 0c 4F ;_f{ jdFhr lhck,p d kut s T T q s s X , `ksg r[n er g; 4hrdl ksg Cgu k<Qd kucf d /ks∂ 4g hru s s q s , c k<Qd ZktM hgo ksr dl kt hd rDe l uk;÷ jxv ktM hiNf Xe /ks∂ udfy s q s Z s ]g u/c ]g h;kn[n ksr e ikv7uiv /ks∂ 4hrdl kt hd Cgu hg kui¥d hd u , a , q X s oht ksr ]kg u q;®e nf; jkv 4g oHlv ukpgi hdlm l kyG ]Hp Cgu Ikd sl s 1 , , a s X w s q sa tf jkv 4kxdl ukt Cgu hH [l go ]kukt Cgu [An ultf 4krdl Cgu hg ksg , s q q s oHuv kd 'kdi kr ksg u oHuv kd jkd/v 4krdl kt Cgu k;nf k/hl7k/hl q z s q a 'kdi df kxSkt kv e >el hg hn¥t kr sxk[n l [kv hjgx kd uæi lb ud z X s s s s a s z fy ]g dofkHko¬ uæi go `k;nf n u kX;D hg 'kdi kr ]hF hukojd 'kyr hg h s , z s z s d 'kdi nf; `jkd/v kurb k;nf Xk;D `jl®e ]/sk∂ ]Zk;‘B ]ekd k;nf k;D ]gk z a X s e k;nf k;D ]Hky k;nf k;D 4hrksg u hg /fk;ø 4krOm u hg ykol kd /f"kv ` X s X , hd xksj hg ygi Lt hn Ikd u ;D `k;df kni ksd henkv Fkl d jkdgv df h s \ wa , s a d ke®keji g k<Qd hld g; kr ]ksd henkv g krkdIH hg jkdgv nf; jkv ` , , s , a , kxkg utk;i k;D kd jkdgv 4e ujd jkdho¬ rkc Nd g hrksg BkuOfd rpæfuf s s z a X s X q , 4g utk;zi , s kdcl lm ]g Nd kt e uoht udfy 4g Cgu utk;i Bkd ksr kd uoht Syfl , q s X s , s z s b 4kd ke®keji hpko;k;i g uoht jkv 4Cgu u/kl kd jkv hldf uoht 4,g ; Z , , , ÷kl ;o¬ uoht 4g Cgu jkv Nd jki d uoht dfk;D 4g utk;i‘uf uoht 4jd a , , q s X , s z LkN ksd uoht ilf ]g Cgu utk;i‘uf hH Nd hg rpæfuf e uoht 2;_,e nukv s\ Z , s z q X s a `krdl yp Cgu uoht kucf sdub k;D `g utk;i k;D kd k<? jkv k;‘B ]jkdgv e uoht d ;‘ue ksr g k , s z 1 , Z a X s q , lS nf; 4g Cgu utk;i‘uf hH Nd e o®r¬fv df g rgd ]ukoxH A uæi kygi s , s z q X T s z 4jd kiduv hd uk>el eg `g ;kim X a q s X , _kedS hg o®0c Syf d ujcm l uoht rore lb k;D `g <jkd ukKv jk q s s s 1 , , v jkdgv k; `g <jkd kdlb u'n kd /"uf uoht k;D `g <jkd k;D kdlb a , Z s , ]g re uohtdky 4je Lfy nje nje A g rgd dye jkv 4okx d unje B ] , 1 s s \ s q s q T s w , a s q ks/kl A kgd u jhcd 4sxn kuGn ksd nje nje d okax A kgd u I¬bk∂ ]ukoxH s X s q s q s s `g ñte k;D xkv cv 4Snf [j , s jd LdI7LdI d ukK je uikv ji ]kF kr>el hukK kLc kd uiv e ]ukoxH s \ q s \ q s ss s \ s s T
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 371 egaP

ksd Cgd kdutf skr ]dl k>el u Bkd jxv jxe 4g hrksg cPc hLks\F hH k;/fo s s T s a f hd suk>el hdlm 6g htuf dlm r¬kj dlm 4re kudkTp Syflb 6g Ouv jW T s s s T sw t xP dlm 4dl jd Nd hgo n;k' ]g rukt eg ksd jhdG hGl dS df kgd a s s q ,a s w u hldf jGf 4kIk,y Fkg hyk[ ]k;x Fkg hyk[ 4SkI[I[ jk} d cl ]rgfksjqi s s ]rLfi ]ke®kge 4kn _l kd nukv Nd >e df ]lki d kvke®kge rFfdkFr g a s w a q s q s X o k;x 4k;x rhc e sujksIc u/ uoht j,kv 4kF u Nhi Bkd ]CF k;Ifc u ]sF I X s s a s s s c u 4hF hxy ukv chjd rk,e 4kF kgj skg Cgu xk;im hH kdlm ]kF kurtf 4k s s F Cgu jkl Nd l uki u/ jk,v cv df kurb 4kF u/ rgc lki d henkv dS q s s q s 4hxSkt ksg r¬e 4hxkg rnfukv 4hxksg r s a nfkÁkv g; cv 4ksn dIi e yt liko ksd hyNe lb cv ]kag 4Syf d /kc g X s s , d;æokv kylkG 4kxLi u Bk[nf hH Nd gér kr Sx ksg L[ jd kxy dku sl s \ q X q s s \ <in endS 4ksg rksg sL[ jn LkF ksr ]g hu[n jho¬r huiv gér e <in jxv Z s \ w s s\ , s X q X Z 4Sgfkp kylkG kLks\F 4Sgfkp ;”ijfi kLks\F 4Sgfkp hjn kjt\ 4kF u ;kim kd u zs w s [n ksd jxkl df kF chjd kurb jxkl jxe ]hF hgj hg e jxkl ]hF Bg hLc s X q \ hg e jxkl ]hF Bg kni hg e jxkl lS 4g krksg ;pjfi l jxkl l iW urpl X q , X s s , s s s ]l iW I‘pl kGn hygi 4hd jxkl g hrkv nk; kGn hygi lm hg e uGLr s s , s X \ lb 4hriLr hyNe ]Ir g rîRm ]hrljc g xkv ]hu? g i/ ]ji Ir g krsn y \ , , , w , kL ]jd/kac e ykt kd hyNe g krsy pC[ kvqNe 4hrkg Cgu ukpgi hd jxkl X s , s s lm dr cr ]Skt k;nf ykL u ji hrj rîRm hd Ir jd ykduf l jxkl ksd s s hyNe dr ct df kxSkv e >el gér cr 4hxOm Cgu u>ym hl7rgc jGf 4k X X q X X q s y >el l dhO kd rk0lf d lkdof de®k}} lb 4ky >el l dhO ksd }a} lb s s a s a s s `g k;D kd uxk;® l , s s ki sdlm 2dk[\ k;D kxsxk;® go ]Cgu hg kxksH ultf 4kxkH uXkgütf kxk;® hg u s s s s Xkgüm 4AkFhtH urD;® ur 4g rdl xk;® hg o ]g kxksH ukgütf 4g krOm okH k qa s s T s s , s X , d gxjfiv ksr 6krF;ø hdlm g kryp kri hg jd [n kd Nd cl 4g krdl k z Z , s s q , s g kni /ksc g; kd Cgüm ]g Nd cl lki dutf ]g gxjfi lki dutf 4kuksg u , s , q s , z s dyfke d r¬o hldf ]kujd u gxjfi kd r¬o hH hldf3gxjfiv Fkl7Fkl d s q z q z s klgVv eum ]g oÂr pkai kt e ky'fjk/kv hd kut jkv 4Cgu hg hrksg thp Bk X T s X X , , s d hlt hjk[Hf ut 4g ydæfe kutk[ hjk[Hf ut 4g u/ d/fkZol lki d kut , , , q s , , s X , `kg ld gcl ksr Bkv s s , q e oHuv Cgu hg rkj `ksg ukpgi ld l rev ksr Bg Cgu ukpgi hg l jgt X q s , s 1 q s `kd rev d klgVv yp kri ld lm ]BkOm jkoyr u ]k[n 0q; u u <‰kc 1 s s s , s s s z 4g krdl Om "k?nm g; hg l%%@b k<ki d k;_f{ 4Ae/ kseji klgVv Syflb , s . s X z s X Z 4g kukpgi dju kd klgV hg su k;_f{ 4g kgl 'n kd klgV hg u k;_f{ 4g , X , a s X , h[n krl®Hho hd klgV hg u kX;_f{ dfk;D 4g rdl gd hg ;_f{ 4g Cgu Bg s s X T s , q h>ym rkc kr sxks[n jgx 4u k;_f{ kgd 4kgd Cgu u k<‰kzc udfy 4krkv Xe s s s s X s X s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 471 egaP

]Hi g df hF hd jWt r;kd'f jkc rgc e ykl hl¬v n;k' 2k;nf Cgu nko; q z s q X ü/ e ykl hl¬v 4n n jkv I? lhck,p 4n usy ht jkv hL?7kn7hL? ]lc ]Hi g X s s , sa s s , \ s \ q z s A sxksgd er cr ]hxn dr¬n ji jk} jkgér rk,e ct dfkykg 4k;nf Cgu nko;ü q s s q a / ksd ke®keji suer jkv g hyef gér hxntV 4g kry[ okHv kdlm ]k;x ks[ q , , X q , s kt 4ksg rksj er Syf dlm ]k;x ks[ kt 4g Cgu rehd hLkd kn gér hdlm ]g s q s s , ,\ s X q , kyef gér kt 4kryp Cgu kri ;¥e dr cr Cgu rkox dr ct 4g kryp kri X q s w s a , ;¥e kdlm ]g rkox ltf eg 4g klS o®r¬fv kjkl ]Cgu hg xky 4g lS xky w T s a s , s s T s s s 4k;nf krc ue Xgér kr s T q ¬kj 2ksxy ji r¬kj 4kxy uhN jGf hyks> e ksr Cgu ]kvkt xkH jk,v ji Ls\k? kO s wa T s s s , c 4hyef dy> hLkF hd nukv kGn hygi tkv ]g rnfkÁkv e tkv df kjr n s\ a wa T s ko;ü/ ]Hi g df3`hrkv Cgu e'3kg gj gd er cv ]F Sx ksg rpfo er sl q z s Z s s q s a q hyks> ksd jn hLkF ]hF u e Fkg jkgér hyk> ksd jn hLkF ]k;x ksg kylkG e s s\ X s q s s s\ X phc udfy ]g e Fkg jkgér lifko hyk> hg; 4kF Cgu kri Bksd kd [l jkv s , X s q s q , ]F gj jGf er Syf kd hlb ]hF lki jkgér hyk> hg; 4g tkj hg; `kyef [ s s q s s q s , q q l Nd A kgd ]kyksc jk,v l Gjr lm d {o kdka> jhdG 2Cgu hH Bksd e k;u s s 1 X fn lb Uli kl,t >e tkv 2nko;ü/ kjr 2g ∂' kjsr 2ke®keji g 2jkxnfjoji q z q s , q s g df kgd jkv k;yf kxy l hrkN jd kOm kyk> ulm 6kF kL[ kLks\? ]kF kL s , s s s \ \ i kyks> 6kIky henkv go 4k;x ksg kL[ jd iNf Nhi d Lk\> hn dIi Cgo hy,F , \ s s ulm jdky 4kF kL[ kLks\? kdlm kgt 4k;kv Ik,y lki d Lk\> uiv lifko kv s \ a s s g krjd FiFy l uhli ]kvg krkLkn ]kvg krkxH lm jhdG ]knkae7kdF ]kur q s s q ,\ q s b e hxntV kF Cgu hH kxkH hHd ]kuhli7kuhli go 4kF Cgu kri Nd skr ksd h X q enkv lm udfsy 4g krksg tkj Nd jrhH ]sLi eyke >cc kurdf gkp go ]sjd , q \ w w s s hH kst go df kF k;x ksg r¬oækv jh/7jh/ 4kF rpfjfi l kxP dlm ]kF rpf s s s X a s jfi l jhdG ksr okax 2/fof Bksd hxkg jWt df 2hF hrukt ksd jhd@#!i kr Lh s s s \ H3hy ksg Nhi hH LhH 4Skt yduf l j/m ]yduf l j/b ]hF ukpgi sl pd7 s \ s s s s wa hyx ]kF kuke7kukt ksr okax kd jhdG 4k;koxy jdDp u jhdG lm e okx jwi s X a s 2g kgj kt kxkH ]g ukeBc ]g jksp 2ksvkpc ]k;x Iy df k;ky¥pf ]kxkH 4Sx , , s , q ksg h[An jkv ]F Skv e 'kyr hd [l eg 4kxkH y Bked hd jH hxntV hjkl q , s X q s ]Sx jke ]k;yf Iwy kr su henkv lb df k;kv 'ksg lm jGf 2dkov ]kgj kdO s s s Of ksr <{ dS 2rjd Cgu klS <xke®kge 4g kgj ksg k;D g; df k;ki Cgu hg s s , >el <{ dS kr henkv go 2kxkH jkv hyks> BkOm ]okr u k[n okv u jhdG s , s s `Mksg h[l ld e 4Cgu lki je hH <d kd [l jxe ]g lki je rkjgk a q s , T ss q T ss ot7jhg urb df kgd jkv suekl dlm hyk> ulm hn dIi 4phu d Lk\> dS k s s , s s s s s F kOc jhdG 4lki d jhdG k;x jkv l kXrkjgkot7jhg hjH hyk> hLc dS u h , s , ss s s \ s u/ lm 4g ;kim kag; rpæfufl Syf dum ]Cgu tkyb Bkd Cgd kdutf 4klt , q s s , ss je jhdG kxksg kgj 4g rn tH kago eg ksd kxky d gjr lm ]g Cgu tkyb B T s s s X s s ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 571 egaP

4ksd hldf hxLi u huuhN hyk> jGf 4kxksg nko;ü/ s \ s kd jxkl hg e jxkl ]Cgu rjWt hd uyduf jgkc l jxkl ksd hyNe jGf 4S X s s gfkp kKi hd /fkel Syf d >el hurm 4Sgfkp o®0c Syf d >el hurm jx z s q s e 4g krdl kv e >el hHv ksr ksg jkn>el er ]'kd 4kxSkv e >el ;¥e , X q X w kd uoht gér cr ]hxksg hL[ ji jk} jkgér rk,e ct 4k>el }} g; kd uoht X q \ s q s a 4kF u hH hHd go e ykl jRl '[ klsS 2Ski kX[ky jk,v hpc ukt ]Skv ksd j? 0c X q w q jd Iky 2pc df ]g ukx e ;nÔ 4g uqxux ji kOksg 4g rfx hLc e kji sdl , s , X , q X , \ X X , m ]g Uli kLc cv udfy 4kLi yp jGf jd[j ji jlf jØx 4ksjd ke{ Syf , z \ s \ d yH lb 4kxWkdi u hHd cv jkv 4g Cgu rjWt Bkd hd ukv jGf kjkcqn s w a q , , s s jk,v 4hg kurb lc ]ksn ko[j ji jlf je jØx kje jdkOm 4Cgu krLi Bk[nf k ss s \ ykoukOm Bksd kg; jk,v k;x jxf jØx kje df g g; rkc ylv 2nko;ü/ rgc7 s a s , q rgc ]nko;ü/ df kgd sulm 4hy ykduf chdjr l hn¥t ]oHuv kd ykl jRl q s q ]henkv jk;'fkg 4hxSkt ksg hL[ suekl rk,e df kF u kpkl 4kdkTp endS kPc s \ s w\ 2 kF hg Lks\F kd sujd Nd ]hF rkc hd rkc ]jv 2kF kgd hg LkF kd suy ;<uf s q s s s\ s s Z s z l kr?h' hurb 2hF rkc k;D hd uuke kjc kurb 2F gj gd hg ; ksr eg ]sj s q s s wa v `k;D hul hje df ksvk[ ukt hd ke®keji er jGf 4kvkt Li e ydæfe kr X q s q s \ X q s hjkgér sy ul dfk;D 4Cgu hg krul ke®keji 4Crkg Cgu hji xkae ksr go 4Skt q q X q s w X a Li e ydæfe ksr Skt ksg hji Xxkae cl hdum 2g hg LkF e 'kg xky 2sOc x \ X q a w T s s\ X s s , kae k;D eg g; df ]k;kv 'ksg ksd Pc cv `ksg rgkp k;D kyksc ]kron kd ;®1e s w\ s s s q g e ]ksg rjkdi er >e ]kgj e ]kgd sulm ]Bx ksg hL[ uekl rk,e 4phu d wa T s q q s q T \ s s s {o kF kvg kOc lknm yd¥cf jd dIi ji uhet ksd jØx df rfi d uoht 1 q , q z s kF e /ks∂ surb go 4Bx ksg hL[ uekl rke 4k;yf ul ulm ]hF hgj jtx sl X \ s , q s q chjd rk,e ]rkc hd xk;l `sxkvkrl kurdf `g jk,v jn hurdf `xkvkOm cd s a s , s s s 2kron d rk,e g df hOm rkc hgo jGf e r¬kj 4kdl Ikd u hLdy jk,v kgj s s s X s \ krjxf huki unf ksn dfkX;D 4kF hH k[H kd unf kn ]kF hjkH >kc hH unf lm w s s 2g k;x dF rgc ]g k;x wa q wa dF 2ky kOm hH >e ]g jld k;D kje j[fkv ]dp kt xksy Skv Nhi sje sr[ s s q , w s s q s s s s s ss n7r[n je ]ksg ry kOm ksd kXpπc ]kg rsy kOm ksd kukot er 2kron d ;®e s s s s X q s s q 1 g 2rke g jd kOm Fkg Gjr hd 'kdkv g kdp gd jkc Bd 4g hrki yef hIk s , s , q , s j ut dS hHr 4g hrLi hupc ]g hrLi huIkd hLdy hH cv ]g chjx ]k;x k w , \ s , \ \ , s g kd ykl jRl ]k;x ksg kPc 4Syf >ksc kd k;Lf\dy g kgj Ik,y kjkgLdy dS w\ X , \ 4y jd k;®ge®kv k wa xksg kpkssl jkc duv n;k' e ykl hl¬v `k;nf Syfldf `k;nf uoht k;D g; s X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 671 egaP

ksvkt kg ;ü' df ]kvkt yt ji df ]kg rki yt ji ksr u 4rfkaH hd krpf d s w s sw s s sw S er ksg gj yt jd /7/ ]g u≈fv ryfo†i ]g xkv jkdgv 4jgkc kd uksl k q s w w , z , a s s uy ykduf kr ]Skt yt kjpd7kLd ]Skt j[uf kukl ct 4kxksg jkl k;D hH j s s w\ s d j[uf ksr Cgu 4kun ugj Li re hg e xkv ksd ukl ]akg 4 jd yduf l jkd s s s \ X s s s gv g rj[uf eg hg lsS 4jdjtx l xkv g krj[uf <o¬ lt 4g jk[uf hg j a T s s q s , Z s , , djtx llm 4kxkg kujtqx l dju ji ]sxkXg L[ o–im cl ]kxSkv L[ki ]hxSk q s s s sw s \ a v hukeBc ]hxSkv hdkykp ]hxSkv htkcykp ]kxSkv Iid ]hxSkt kr"knuf ud s ∆ fy 4g rksg "knuf hHl pπc 4jd ks[ jkc dS3g krLi kuki l jGf ksd uipc s T s ∆ s , \ s 4g krkt uc hg ;†kj kd Hi Syf dum o®r¬fv g; 4S , q z s x hg ki 4sxSkt ki 'oi e ;†kj d Hi o 4g Sx ksg "knuf lo jGf e hL\? hr a s z X s q z s T ∆ s , X je cv ]"knuf lt F Sg kni ct 4g k;x ksg kji yro jd Ik,y jGf 4g Sx k ∆ s , s q , , w qZ T s g Aui rfkaH hd kXpπc IkN udfsy ]g Pc ]g Bx ksg rgc kr em ]Lc ksr g ]kt q ss T s w\ , q s z s \ T s g Cgu spπc IkN 4g kiNf ;¬gj kjkl e rfkaH lb 4rfkaH hd kpπc IkN ]llht T ss , X X ss g gj gd Cgu pπc IksN 4ku[j yk;[ kd upo 2g rfkH hd kXpπc IkN kst o T s s s T a ss s T g ;ü/ Ag rgd llht jkv 4g rgkp kuksg Lc l kr?h' 4g rgkp kuksg Lc h T s , T s s \ s z T s s \ n¥t7hn¥t ksr spπc IksN 4krkg Cgu ewyke kvg kyef ;†kj kd Hi Bksd ksr ksd k s s q q z X pπc IkN 4g rkg kni rfkaH hd kXpπc IkN ksr hHl `pπc IksN udfy 4g kd Cg ss T s s , ss s s s , üm ;†kj kd Hi dfk;D ]g rfkaH hd kpπc IksN kt o g ;ü/ A g kgd u llht q z X T X s s s T , s 4g T Cgu h/ksjof Arr¬o jxe hxLi eyke h/ksjof rkc ; 4g hjWt kukt dIH sl j? q X \ w X s , s uiv sygi d ukv j? uiv 4g hjWt kuII sygi dlm 4g hjWt huy> kLhi h s s s , w s , s \ d jkdgv ygi dlm jxe 4g rLi IG uj> d rev ]g hrkt ksg kZ"o hd nuk a s s T s \ w s s 1 , a v ksr ]g hrksg rfhri hdlb ct ]g kyG hgo hH e kXjkv ]g kyG hgo hH e > , z , , X , , , X e 6g jkr¬of hg kdlm ]g hgo 6g kryp kri hg kdlb lc ]g hg ke®keji ]kr q , , , , yp Cgu hg kri kdlb ]ksg er df g krksg kjgx kurb yeykr ct 6krksg Cgu q , s }} ]krksg Cgu Z"?l ]krkg Cgu /ksjof jH pb Bksd e o®r¬fv jk,v Xe er ct 6 a a s a X q ksg rpku ]lkjkge ]ksg rksg e lkj Fkl d o®r¬fv eqr ct 6Cgu rhjiof ]Cgu s s X s UHf ]ksg rksg xjr dS ]ksg rkg ;y dS hH er e jxklkge d o®r¬fv ct 6k s a s s q X s s g ruc jo¬ dS ]ksg rksg hLd dS hH er ct e rhxlkge d o®r¬fv 4g e u s s \ q X a s , X s skg 0cnN ]g e sukg 0c;y Fkl d o®r¬fv nukv kjkl jkv 4ksg rkt II sl o a , X s s a , s w ®r¬fv er dfk;D 4g krn kLh\i jkdgv 4g krkt ksg nc kuLi Bk[nf ke®keji q X , s a , a \ df Li er e rfkH lb ]g e 4Cgu hH Nd jk,v 4kylkG l ke®keji g jkdagv s \ q X az wa T q s , `g utk;i k;D kd k<? jkv kZ;‘B ]jkdgv e uoht d ;‘u , s z 1 , a X s q e ksr g klsS nf; 4g rgd ]Cgu utk;i‘uf hH Nd e o®r¬fv df skg rNi eqr , T s s z q X s w 4g krkv Xe >e , l ydæfekc ]g rLi un dD/ ]g rLi sun jk>d> ksr ksg u >el hurb udfy q T s \ s s s T s \ s ss s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 771 egaP

`sxkvkt yp dju Cgd elb ]k;yf hi lj kd jxv kjt\ k s s X w a s r ]gj kt Cgu dju yko uhi _eo¬ ct 4sxksvkt yp Cgu dju Nd ksr phc d s s s w s q s kX_ef jkp hy hi jH I? jkHd7hHd jkv 4g Cgu iki Nd klS e ckj' ],g Cg wa , , q s X u kjc rgc Nd klsS e ckj' 4g hIc hd jwxv `g k[j k;D e ckj' 4ksg gj k q q q X , s a , X s ox ;el er g; ]hrdl kg Cgu yGl ''fksd g; 4g h/ksjof kd ''fksd lb Te a q s wa ]g Cgu h/ksjof kd ckj' e 4hrdl ksg Cgu yGl ''fkd g; 4g kgj jd '' wa T s , fksd hd ukyO> kd ;el ]g kgj jd ''fksd hd sujxf Nhi henkv jd hi ckj' s q s , s 4hxSkt jrm rkssg7rkg gcl ]g hO> hr¬e jxe ]ksL\i s s s q , w eyke hH r¬e er gkp e su[n l jiM ]ksg Li jd hi ckj' er 4g hgj yG w q s X s s s \ q , , krpV hg lsS 4g kgj yG ]g kgj Pc jld hH cr kg Skl ct rkj er udfy s , , , \ T s s q s 4Cgu /f"kv ]Cgu ;kim ]Cgu tkyb Bksd kdlm dr hHv , df g krkt Lks\r klS 4g krkt Lks\r 6g krkt jd <htkjt\ hH ksd gn ]okur rf , s , , Z s v ]kru≈}fm rfv ]ikrl rfv ]krpV rfv 4g rki_l kdlm hg e ue n;k' 4g a , w X , krkg eyke knk;† hjkehc dlfuke ]g krksg eyke ed hjkehc djfhjk' jld s w , w T 4g krPc jld l,o7lo e tkel g hrPc SkrpV lt7lt dfk;D 4g kyko hg uk , \ T s s , X T \ a s , s , X , s s g uIk?nm kdlb yd Cgu tkv 4g eku kd krpV djfhjk' n;k' jld j,kv g . , T , eku kd jld dlfuke n;k' SkrpV 4g hH jkst kLc kd jld j,kv kXvkrpV jkv T a , \ T , 4jrhH g hrgj hryG T , SkrpV hg lo ]ksg hH u kri gér ]jrhH g krgj kryG jld lt 4CF hgj y a s , X q , , T s , G ]CF hgj ksg hLc ]CF hgj Pc jrhH dlm cr kF kLi 'kgc jd hi ckj' g , \ \ s \ s s o ct aSkrpV dfkX;D 4kxSkt jrm e kërx hd jkd/v hH jk,v 4kxSki kjgx e X a X PPx d [An hH jkv ksd suiv jkv 4hxSkt II kNwe ]hxksg gcl 6g hn n kNe k s. s q , , w Z q , s Z w s d jn hl7hLkF u ckj' l jiM 4g jkcv kd [An jkl jrhH ]g krxy lc 4g s s\ s s , a q s , , rnfaukv lt g krxy klsS 4g krksg eyke kyk,e7r¬e hckj' `k;df yk;[ ueqr s , , , w s 4Skt ksg klt 'i dhO go dfkr ]Skt , q cL hH go g /ksc kl7kurm jd hi ckj' 4n kyH hH kd /ksc lm jd hi ckj w , s q s ' ]g kvg kni jrhH dlm /ksc kl7kLkF kst go df g kgj jd hg; go `g kg , q , s s\ , , j jd k;D kykouhi ckj' 4xky g rjd ''fkd dFv ]xky g rjd ''fksd df s s T s s s T s a kykg 4Cgu hg ;kim kd suIk,y Nhi e jk/ hd ;el 4rdl Iky Cgu Nhi ]ksg sr s X s , s dl kt jki dlm ]kag 4krdl kt Cgu kNkXi lm ]k;x kv Xe oHuv kst 4krdl s s q kt k;df Cgu kuktuv lm ]k;x k;yf ukt kt 4rdl Cgu k[ er lm ]k;x k; s s s s q s yf ki kst A g e;ufkge dS kd uoht dfk;D 4g jxH<{ ;kim go dfkaykg 4g , X , q a T rjd ;kim go xky rgc 4xksvkt kg drfÎki ksr ]kvkt ksg 'i jdjxf kr k; s s q s s z s q s 4g kLh\i hgo ]g upLv hgo ]kg Sx ksg d'_f ]ksg dIv Xe phc , , \ s q a s 4ksg rksg kv/7kv/ lc ]r>c ji u ]ryt ji u 4ksg rkv// 4ksvkt ksg drf s a q a q s q sw s sw s q qa Îki ed7l7ed kr kvkt >c ji df ]ksg rki >c ji u ]Skt yef ke®keji kr z s s s q sw s q sw s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 871 egaP

4g utk;i hg; kd jkdagv , s z 4xkIky s s , Gjr hd rksÛ ye 4ksg Skv er lltf Iduf dlm3Iduf d ke®keji xksyp w q s s s s er cr jkv 4hxII hjkgér nCu ]xkxkt er hg l kLhi hjkl lb ]l kxksj urd q , sw q s s q s \ s X s f eyke7u gér kxjH ]ksd k<ki jkgér kxnN ]I‘d kxn jkdgv ksr g; 4,g k;x w X q s X z s q ss s a dp ke®keji df yp u kri gér jxv ksg u hg kni klîhHv hd uk;÷ 4kxksg o w s X q , kZHofkv kd kti ]hxxt kuFki ]hxksg Wq' 'kyr ]hxSkv nk; 6kxksg gjof ]kxksg w s Z z ikrl hg e okdIH lm 4hd sukt dIH l ke®keji ]hd ukt dINf l ke®keji a X s s s ]hd uksg jn l ke®keji ]g k;∂fi Z;koufv jkdgv 4kxksg hg kujtx l jkdagv s w s , z a q s 4g kukt jki d xkv jkv g kujtx l xkv 4g , s , , q s , kuPc sxkv ksr ;kim 4ksg rkoax ;el kurm ]ksg rjd ;kim d ujxf Nhi er \ s s s s s q jn hurtf udfy 4g sykoukt kg yGlv ;kim cl 4g Cgu ;kim kd ujxf Nhi s s T s s , s s 4 g rsn kyG ksd jkdgv s; 4g rky kNe ; 4g stks[ nç' dhO ]g kgd ukgütf 2k T s q a T s Z w s T , s X jnfe ]ne 6ksdub g kgd ne7ni ]ne7u/ ueg kr Syflb3g k;hi k'u kd ni , s s , ]g k;hi k'u kd u/ sultf 4u hg ksg n;k' gcl hdlm 4u hg Skv e 'kg n;k , q X s ' go ]g hi rfhutkj ultf ]kxSkt kv e 'ksg gcl ksr go ]g hi ckj' ultf , s X q , s 4g , hykougj knl kr rfZxn hjr jxe 4kxwaxy uyp jdyHl dhO gcl jxe ]g kgj s s q s s a q wa kL[L\y e hHv 2[n e uBkv kr yd' huiv r jxe ]g kgj Li Cgu Bk[nf \ T s X s s w , \ Gkl7Gkl Nd s>e ]g hgj kg hy//7hy// [kav hje if|; 2[n e uBkv kr y q q T s aq qa X s s X s s d' huiv r jkv 4Cgu kykoujrm l huklkv kurb g; 4Cgu kykoujrm g; ]g w , s s s , kPp ji >r kt g; 4g e rykg jrnc l >e r 4hxgj hlS hd hlS hH gcql \ q s , X s q w s s s wr jxe ]kxSkt jrm gcl ksr k'u kje ]hon df kgd u hckj' lm 2xkvkrN q s s s s s i ]xkvkj `ksg k;D rlg jd[n ]kgd ulm 4kxy ulg ]k[n l jkx ulm 4k;x s s s s a s s s a s s , s kv 'ksg ksd <{ dS hH ksd hckj' df3hH rjlnc hF rjkv hIke 2nyc hdl w , s a q m hxksg hgj tkokv3hyksc jd ky¥pf hurb go `g kgj jd I‘u uoht kuiv j , d hi7hi ckj' k;D ]Pe jv df kgd jd [n Gjr hd hckj' lm l k<1? u ky X w\ s s s s gfe hIke rgc ]yD'nc dS jk,v 4krkL[L\y 4l j?ckj' g kyduf hckj' dS s q \ s , 4g hrdl gj hPp jHhxntV g; jxe ]hxSkt jrm gcl ksr , \ q ckj' dfk;D 4g ckj' dkujr[ knk;† g; jkv 4g ckj' hH g; 4Skv u nk; h X , , , uiv df g krkt Li e kXjdDp lsS 4g krkt Li e kpi7okn d rfhutkj 4g kr , \ X s , \ X X X a s , gkp kusy k>ym ksd uiv klS ]huiv gj u nk; 4g krjd ''fksd hd ukyH kd s s s , s q s s uiv e Lkn hd ni ]e Lk,\n hd u/ 4g krtks[ henkv ;kim hH jk,v gjr hlb X ,\ X , 4hrdl ksg Cgu hji go 4g ryx w , k{kadkv go 4g krjd /ksjof jWt kdlm e ]g k{kadkv kt Nhi d ckj' udfy wa T , s s s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 971 egaP

4kxy uksg eyke jdkp7jd,ku <jkd d s w s kXLid hg uiv jk,v 4Lid hg suiv 4uekl d _ef hg uiv 4kxy uksg eyke \ s s \ s s s s w jdkp7jdku uekl dlm go 4rkc hxy uy[ lm 4Snf kougi lm tkv jkv 2 , s s s s s , Cgu hg ugi dr cv ue ]kgj kOc hg [j e ]rt jknuk' lS ]hLxi jnqal hur s s T , s T s w s s \ b ]Lid jnl urb df 4hxy k;‘B ksd uhYQlu kr kvg jk;r jd ugi _ef ct s \ aq s Z s q , ]ugi rt ]kugi kekt;ki jknhLw\p ]kugi Iksd ]hugi hLxi jknuk' hdlm u _ s s w \ s ef ]Snf ksr n 4L\i ewyke ;≈k; sun Lid hgo 4F Cgu hHd ugi 4kxugi ji sdk s s s s s \ s s s , e hldf ]F [j jd ykHl ulm o 4jkc dS F Sdf IH Lid u Ikel kd uhY s s a s s s X s \ s z s Qlu 4kn n Lid jln s>e er ]g Sx jH l yw/ Xe k_k; ]g nx Lid jse ud s s s \ s w q q T s T sa s \ s fsy 4g kryp Fkl hH e ]krgkp Cgu kuLkN ksd jH<{ gér e ]g kyef nkc u wa T s\ X q T wa nf urb ]kgd u _ef 4xkXg r[n gkj hje o ]hn jd hH jc[ kdum ]g k;yf j s s s s s s s s , d ;pæuf hg sygi kd ukt gxt uhr7kn ue 4g krkv e dr cr ]kjd utksH s s s T wa T s ]kvk/7kvkgu ]ksjd ekJof ]ksdQ er df kgd su uhYQlu 2g k;kv uyef nkc y s s s q wa s kl lhc e `ksg gj kt jgkc Cgd er k;D ]kgd u _ef lm 4kyduf jgkc uhY T s q s Qlu df kF kgj hg jrm l Lk? 4k;kv uyef llm _ef dS kd uhYQlu ky¥qe s s s\ s s 4hOm kLh\i jrhH jkgér 4Bg kni uHp jrhH jk s q q , q s gér lc ]k;nf jd xk;® knk;† l er Bksd ]g ukK knk;† l er lki d hldf ] q s q , s q s k;yf kuc ukde kLc ler u hldf 4g u/ knk;† l er lki d hldf 4g uHp \ s q s , s q s , q `g k;D k;‘B , Z 4g dFkl uHp hdlm 4hxHqp gjr hd Ikd ]hxdI[ ]hxykl hed hg , Z q s sa s s o 6hxSkt gj hed Nd 6g ektrb kurm 4hxSki ksg u tk[ hd ke®keji jGf k q , a s s r ]IN u hed Bkd ]n jH kji gér jkdgv kjkgér jxv dfk;D 4hxSkt gj he sw s s w X q a q X d Nd7u7Nd 6kxksg Cgu ;ƒ¬ko¬ ]hxkg kRe0fc 6hxksg Cgu kRe0fc ]kxkg ;nkl q q s q q s Z T 6kxkg Cgu Z;nkl ]kxksg ni 6kxkg Cgu ni ksr ]kxkg u/ 4xksvkt gj uhn eqr Xe s T s s s kXek;kv rgc jkv3kxksg hek;kv7dS go ksr kxn hH jkdgv gér 4g k[j ekt q , s a X q , rb kdlm u o®r¬fv 4hxSkt gj hed Bksd Cgd7u7Cgd 4hxSkt gj Iks[ Bksd C a s gd7u7Cgd 4kvkt ksg Lc l hHl e krkc hHl er df g oHlv g; jkv 4g kr s s \ s X X q , a , , Li eyke kLc gér kjln Bksd jkv 4g Cgu hH Bksd kLc l >e df g hg; k{k \ w \ X q w , , \ s q , a dkv hd jkdgv 4Cgu hH Bksd kLc l >e 4e kLc lcl df ksg rgkp er jkv a \ s q T \ s s q , g kgj kg eyke kLc gér kjlwn Bksd ]g kgj n I‘d gér jkdgv kd jln hldf , s w \ X q , s X q a s w `g k;D k;‘B , Z 4g Sk;kN hd jkdgv s; 4g utsk;i hH kdub ]k<? ]k;‘B3g l¬gf hg T a a , z 1 Z T s d jkdgv o jGf 4g Cgu utk;i‘uf hH Nd e uoht ];_e nukv ]hg ;pæuf s a s , s z q X s , a 4g , utk;i kd jkdgv g; 4Skt kv nk; hd j? suiv ksd ywH7dIH 4Skt kv nk; s z a s s hd jxkl kd hyNe 4hd ke®keji Skt kv nk; gér dfkr g utk;i kd jkdagv s X q , s z
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 081 egaP

l d uipc ]g jk; k;Ifkxay ]jv 6yket g _ef kje ]Cgu hH Nd nfk;®b Ikze s , s s , s q l ]kgd su uhYQlu `g Ikel d 'n ldf ]g uk,d ikv ]uhYQlu df l uhYQl T z s s T s u kNi hg kurb lc 4kgd Cgu hH kd suOc kdlm ]Cgu hg rkc Bkd hdlm ]g w s , s s , kL[ uhYQlu ]yks[ rwt dlm l kFkg uiv ]k;kOcf kd _ef 4Cgu hg k[sn ul \ s s s s X s s s m ksr kd uhYQlu 4ji _ef bx gj hdIf endS jtu hdlm 4h_¬ jnl hL\c 4hF s X qa udfyke ]Cgu kF ksr dyfke kd j? 4Bx ksg ydæfe jkv ksr pgi gxt hjlhr q , s qa 2kxgj xtl ]kx[j yk;[ yd¥cf gxt hjlhr jxe 4 wa wa q Bx Lxcf rkc hH rjk/l7rjk/l 4Cgu krIky ksr Skt yduf l Fkg jhr jxe \ s q s q , s ]hd ''fksd hd sujk/l sue dfkykg 4Bx Om hH jGf jkv >e hF Cgu hg hukOm q T a , s q rkc 4kF krkg Cgu hHd kr klS `k;x ksg k;D ksd ukct hje `g kgj ksg k;D s s s s , g; 4dl pc e l yH g; dfkr kn Syflb jkv kdk,e dS jkv 4g kukt jkv wa T s w s , , , , gxt hjlhr ]kn jk,v kdk,e dS ]kgd u uhYQlu 4Fkl jkgér kxaMkt u e cv s s s q T ]kgd u _ef jdkv jgkc 4Bx Om rkc hd Lid jGf 4h;x ksg ksr rkc jGf jx s s \ e `g je df g krgd uk,d 4g d Cgüb Lid ]kgd ulm kl ]g hgj kt Bg yH T ss , T s s \ s s , q w hgo jGf df k;kv yk;[ lm cr ]Lid gj df upo k/kv l ge k;x yduf s s \ s s qa 4g d Cgüb Lid kl ]Lid g T s s \ s s \ s j 4g Skv suyef nkc ykl lhc 4g eku kdub yket ]g _ef je ]Cgu jkedtk T , T ss q j Bksd ]kgd ]jv 2g rksg eyke jkedtkj Bksd df kgd ulm ct Bx xy xkv s T s w q s 4g rksg eyke jkedtkj Bksd `Skv l kagd `g uk,d ikv ]kNi 4lm hxy Iksp T s w q s T w s jGf 4Syf d _ef k;nf uk;÷ endS u kxky ]kvg hgo hH kago 4pgi j? jlwn s s X s q s qa s 4rkc hF hgj yp hgo ksr jrhH 2hy jd krPe g; l Fkg uiv 4g kgj w\ s s wa ksg eyke jdkp7jdku yd¥cf uekl dlb e jkv 2g h[j ji jlf hNjrf k;D h w , q s s T , , H hLxi 2g gj kg jje7jjp rwt 2g kgj yp l uk' k;D 2g kgj ky[nf Ldv \ T s s s , s , \ r@#!ie knktekjg g; jk,v Lid je df ]hd k;‘B ]g hgj yp kjkZ/rv jrhH q s \ ss Z , a ]yH Bx ksg Cgu hg lS 4Bx ksg ]Bx kg yH kst cv ]kgd u uhYQlu `h;kOm w s s s w s kX;D hg rkc hd Lid `Lid df ykc k;D g; er 4rckc d kLid kF Cgu kN s \ s \ s s X q s X \ w q X i Nd sukgüm jkv 4Syf Cgu sy ue Bksd 4g ksl g jkgér Lid ]jv `hF rkc , s T T T s q s \ s k;D hd ugd g; uekl d kxksy jkp 4sxksvkojd rghtG hje er df kF kpkl s s s X s q s Cgu hHd ue g; ]uhYQlu ]kgd su _ef 4kF Sg Skd> [kav ]kyduf jgkc ]kF s T q q X knek' 4k;x ksg kl k;x skg kst cv jxe 4hF rkc hd ugd Bksd g; 4Bg ufky≈ s s q hH kd uhYQlu ksr jd gd 4hF rkc hd sugd Bksd df kxy kenl rgc ksr kd s q s _ef 4g je Lid kl ]Lid gj 4g _ef sukji sLc 4yket _ef je g g; ]kgd T ss s \ s s \ s T q \ ss T s u uhYQlu 4k;x kykOcf ksd _ef l gksjkel7rxko¬ sLc 2g uk,d ikv ]hgu Nkr s \ T aa 7Ni Bkd ksr hdlm ]uhYQlu g k;kv 4hF dofkHko¬ huxy Ikp 4hxy Iksp ksd w s , s uhYQlu `g ukd ikv A u kxky d jkojfi kNi 4g r[n xky ksd kLid ]g kr T , s X s s w T s s ss X \ , [n uk,d ksd k;efnkv e k;ufn 4CLi ji _ef jtu hd cl ]pgi gxt hg hygi s X X q \ X s qa
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 181 egaP

kjt7kjt\ hdltf 4ksg rdl n jke hykx lm eqr 4jkgo;ø kdlm Skt ksg rhji \ s s s s of d jkdgv jkgér jxv 4ksg rdl kyif jgt kdlm ]ksg rjd ei er kdltf s a s q s s s zs q s 2e®[ rkc ]g krn jd ed >ksc kjr e ]n jd wa s s T s ed >ksc kje r 4g k;kyif jgt >r ue `g hgj je k;D r df g hrukt wr s w , s q s T , X w , 2jd ke{ >e hH r 2jd re hg ∂Gf yd¥cf ]kgd u uhYQlu 4hgj hrn k[ s q w q s s s X q T , k/ gér e jkv kF ei kje l _ef jkgér df g g; upLv ]kgd u hu®i hdl zs s s s q , \ s m `g upLv k;D ]ykc r 4k;df ke{ ]kxn jd ke{ ]yd¥cf ]kgd u uhYQlu , \ s w wa q s `sxkn jd ke{ >e 4kn uy jd kd¥g lb tkv s s q s s s s ]g hgj ksP ji hrkN huiv l ykl g–i tkv lb ]g k;kP hGkd ue lb ]wag hr wa s a s , s s T s gkp kukt sy Cgu ji hrkN huiv >kc g; Syflb `ukt ukd ]e ykdruv hH s s , X a xSkv chjd d jln7dS hHd r¬kj jkeg jGf 4krdl kt Cgu kgd Nd ]kxksg s a s s w s s q Cgu ]kxksg kuyef jGf dfk;D ]y xkae hH ke{ l er jkv n gd l er rkc d X wa s q , wa s q S ]Mkt sy Fkl kX;D kd Ow> ;el rkt cv ]uhYQlu df kgd l uhYQlu jkv a s s s , hyks[ [kv sulm e <{ erfv 4hF hLi ji k;…'<je hu®i hd uhYQlu ky¥qe a X a \ , 4ksg rdl jke er hg kdlm3kF ei ku s q s zs rb3F rdl je Syf dltf ]F rht Syf dltf 4hrxy Cgu jn ]g krkt uc s s s s s s s , k<? <{ hH hldf ei kjkgér Syflb 4ei dr cr ]g krn kjkgl dr ct ]g 1 zs q zs , s , krn kjkgl kst7kt ksd jkdgv jkgér yod ksr go ]ksg rgd ei ltf er udfy s s a s q s s zs s q s 4g ke®keji ei A g kgd , zs , s u llht Syflb 4g Cgu nH jH hRj e ke®keji jkv ei hylv 4g iW u?l , s X , zs , kd ei ke®keji k; 4g k;kN hd ke®keji ei 4g eku hg d jln7dS ke®kej zs , zs T s s w i jkv ei 4g rkg kni Fkl dS ke®keji jkv ei 4g krkg kni hg ji ukt Ie , zs T s s , , zs , s , s f d jkdgv ksr ezsi hylv 4g u≈yl e kti hd jkdgv go dfk;D ]g kO> ei s a , a X w a X , w zs go 4ksg rkyrt ezsi er llm ]n kPc ksd jkdgv jkgér kt 4ksg rkyrt ei e s q s s \ a s q s s zs q s r llm ]Skt kg u/kla elm kt ]n kynf kt ;tof hd jkdgv ilf go ]lc ` s X s s s a Z g k;D hH ei kjkgér 4l er g ei kLc kje ]xksgd er lum ]xSkoynf ;to , zs q s q , zs \ s s q s s a f gér kst jkv 6xkvksg '[ er ksr kgo ]hxyef ;tof ksd jkdgv jkgér kgt ] X q , s s q q a s a s q a kxSkt rht jkdgv kjkgér kagt 4kxdHH jkdgv kurm xkykL k;‘B hurtf 4g a q s a s s Z , u/b k;‘B 4g k;‘B lsS ]dHH jkv xkv ]XOm jkv Iiy kr ]h? ykL j,kv aMk>c a Z , Z s s , , X s s q df gkp ]Skt krykL h? Bksd e xkv lt 4g u/b k;‘B ksr g u≈fv jxv jkd s X s , , Z , gv df k>el klsS 2g hrkyt kurdf k;‘B 4g hrkt hyp k;‘B <{ hlm ]g kr a s , Z , Z , kt kyp jkdgv unf ltf jkv 4g Iksp hxy ksd jkdgv k;‘B 4g dofkHko¬ g; a , , a Z , `kg Li Nhi d s s \ s s X \ X kLid k;D `cyre k;D gér ]kXg d hldf 4kxWd Cgu yH cv ]g hdp kg yH X q s a w , q s w kGn ksn rkc kt 2kuLN re hg rkc go 4g hujd Cgu hg rkc 4g hujd Cgu y s s\ , , d¥cf ]g hujd Cgu rkc hd Lid skl ]Lid gj 6g k;kv nkc ykl lhc ]g hFk q , s \ s \ s , T
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 281 egaP

cl Bx yH 4Cgu hg k[n hHd gér lt 4kxukpgi Cgu yd¥cf gér go ]kF k w s X q s , s q X q vg kL[ jdLkt Fkg uekl jkgér kt go 4Cgu hH kxukpgi gér jGf 4g krkt q \ s\ s s q s s X q , ksg dlk' kd krut hg rpgi ji ni jkv 4endS g krkt ksg dol kd krut s qa , , s 4g htkj ksd ujd hH go ksr ksgd ksd uN hH ji jkgér ]g kL[ Lkt Fkg 4cv , s s w , s q , \ s s\ g hg rykg hdlm g; ]g kgj n k[k/ kd Cgér df ku>el re g; er ksr ]g , , s s s q q , krksg kL[ jdLs\kt Fkg krutkj uekl jkgér ct e okup 4g rkt ks[ xP cl \ s s s q X q T s a ]g hrkt ks[ Ldv cl ]g rjrm l ni hg lt 4g rksg dS xP dum ]Ldv h , \ T s s s , T s a s \ dum dr cr ]g rksg ji ni dr ct krutkj df xkvksg ukjg er jdukt g; T s s s s , q 4g <ki kd jkdgv ni 4g <ki kd jkdgv u/ , z a , z a `kagd ñex ]kxnd cst hyk[ ]IdksG 4g hrgj ñex e jhj' ksr kXg Xe ct SiQ ]jv ]kgd sw , X s s u ky¥e 4Cgu k>el Nd e ]kgd su Ic 4Skdu[ SiQ d hnkap jk,v k;kygf sl s q q T ss s jkst klC[ kuiv sulm 4g tkj kdlb ]kgd su ky¥qe 2k;x jxf e phc e hH jG , X T f ]Bkxy xkyN l rdkr hji sue ]g ukot e jk,v ]Sx jd jki kyku ]Sx kxy a s w T wa T xkayN jkv g Pc ikv 4Sbk>el tkj kdlb ]htkrif df kgd 2kvg ukjg kLc , T s w\ q , \ 2kjxf e syku phc 4h;kxy xkyN jk,v hd reégf hH ulm ksr 2jdskg X a s ukot 4krLi eyke Cgu kNπv ]Wd jki u ksd yku e kr k;x kxy xkayN ikc \ w a s T s kPc df k[n su Ic ct 4k;x pgi jki lm jkv k;x kxy xkyN endS ksr ky w\ s ss qa , a ¥e 4Sdf jki jd kxy xkyN ksd syku dS kuksn ]kIc kdlm jkv uhYQlu ky¥qe q a X s , 4ksjd kLc > \ s qe 4s>e ksjH df g kurb cyre kd Hky 4g krkt y e Hksy hg jkdgv 4k;x q , s , s X a jkdgv df k;x ni 4kxksg jkdgv kurm ksr kxksg ni kLc 4kxksg jkdgv kurm ] a a \ a kxSkt ksg ed u/ kurtf 4hxksg Ldv hurm 4kxksg jkdgv rgc ksr kxksg u/ r \ a q q s gc 4lb ksjH ]g hyk[ jkdgv `g krksg Fv k;D kd Hky 4g k;ifWgc jkdagv , a , Z s , q 4g ka;ofNrfi xyv7xyv hg hd jkdgv cl ; ]jl®e ]gke ]Hsky ]k<1? ]k;‘B T z a s s Z 4g kHkv hg hd k , e®keji kst kd ei lm ]g <wikuFki kst kd ezsi lm ]g ;ønf kst kd ei lm 4g zs , Z Z z , zs , krksg rki_l kd ei uhou yd¥cf dS ]Su dS cr jkv 4xSkt ksg uhyof ku w zs q , s a X s kn 4kxpc ezsi rFfdkFr kjkgér u ]hxpc k<? hjkgér ksr u hg rkt d jkdagv s q s 1 q s s 4ei gér lum ]g kryef x zs X q s , s k;gl e jkdgv jkgér lutf ]k<? gér lum ]g hrLi k/kc e jkdgv sjkgéqr X a s q s 1 X q s , \ X a kjk} dutf 4g iW kvg krjd ulkZ"h' hg kd ei jkgér `g k;D k<? hjkgéqr s , q zs s q , 1 2g krdl uc ld k<? jkv ei 4g Cgu ei go ]g krdl uc k<1? , s , 1 , zs , zs , ei kst 4g Cgu ezsi ei kjkgér ksr 4kg rdl n ydP l Lk\gi er kdlm ]ksg sr zs , zs q s s s s s q s s y ∂Gf hdlb ]Skt kv u pske e ji dlm df ]ksg rjd krpV er hd Xkrkc hl X , s s q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 381 egaP

]Sgfkp '; ]Sgfkp eku ]Sgfkp kO‘rfi ]Sgfkp ni ]Sgfkp u/ 4g hrLi rjWt z , \ hd k;[fklc Syf d uykHl ksd kr;üke jkv 4g kr;üke ilf 4g Cgu o®r¬fv X , s s a , , Z , Bksd dofr¬ko kdlm 4g kO> ]g kFkF dfk;D 4g hyk[ yd¥cf ]g hyk[ jkdagv , w , s X , q , 4g hrkt kv hy¥nf j[fk , v ryp7ryp 7ryp7ryp jh/7jh/ 4g krn koyp eJko/of Bkd 4g krkouc s s s s s s , s s , ykri¬v Bksd 4g krkoy[ ;ykFkuv Bksd 4g krjd W' l kol hd utjfg Bkd , q , q s s s 4g rjd W T s q s ' l k{j7Mx 4o sxpgi hy¥nf l yki7kjtif jxe 8hy¥nf8 kagd jkv 8yksi7kjt s X qa s s a , iV8 kgd 2hy¥nf kagd jk,v kol7Mx kgd 2g rjd W' l jn hL\c 4g rjd W' a s a T s q s w T s q s s l kol7Mx o ]g jk;'fksg rgc kst kr Cgu l kol hd henkv jxv jkv 4g sr s T q s s s , T jd kol ygi 2jh/7jh/ 4g rjd krutkj jkgér hgo 2kr¬gfkv7kr¬gfkv 4kxSkt s s s s T s s s q Oc jd dkTp hH go ksr Cgu 4kuy Ldi re unx endS jd kcn ji sd hldf , s \ Z , 4k;x krkssg rtfk;kel hH ukoygi kurm7kurm 4 s hgj hrksg rkc eh/7eh/3y e? jkv y kOm lm ukoygi jxe ]k;x ksg klH kj s s s w , s s T i7kd7kji koLi ct k;x kv hH unf go 4k;x kre? jdy tksj lm hH ukoygi w w \ w s s jk,v k;x krksg kLc koLi 4kre? kI? 4kgj hg kre? jdy lm tksj ukoygi j \ \ w X a w s s ,kv 4kxy uksg kLc koLi ]kxy suksg kLc kpπc kd lH tksj 4k;df W' kue? jd s \ \ \ T q w kOm hg l unf sygi ksd pπc d lH dS sultf ]g krukt ksd ukoygi dS Te s s s T wa 4kvg ejx kr¬gfkv7kr¬gfkv urb 4k;x kyp krksg htkj l ñex hurm dPe d q s s s f kvg ejx eh/ urb 4kvg ejx eh/7eh/ dfk;D 4Bkxy Cgu xkyN ]k;x je q s s q s s X a jkv k;x ycm dPe jk,v k;ky dr uycm jh/7jh/ ]I? lhck,p 2kr¬gfkv7kr¬ , s s s s sa gfkv rgc ]k;df W' kujd ejx jh/7jh/ kdlm jkv 4huki kd ukeikr d jhj q q s s s , s ' hg d dPe 4k[j e huki <jk/kl kd dPe hlm ulm jGf 2hxksg Bkxy Cgu s s X s s s hH hHd e hxntV hl,t su dPe Bkxy xkyN hlS `kxgj elm k;D dPe ]huk X s a s s X X s i kvg krycm 4kxSkt hg yduf 2endS 4k;x yduf jgkc jd kxy xkyN dP q a e 4kykL e huki Sg rycm ksd dPe dS sulm 4kF kgj jd xk;i dufkKo dS s X q s s s z , 4kxSkt Oc jd d , kTp hH go kr Cgu ]ji unx kun kxy re xkyN l ji l endS 4kun jd re s Z s a s , s s l endS 6kujd jh/7jh/ jxe 4kxsyp Cgu kri kdlm kr er xksn kcn hH u s s s s s q s Znx hdlm jGf ]kuy Ikd hH ct hdlm er jGf ]kxSkt krPc ji er hH lko s s q \ q æof kdlm ]xksP\c jh/7jh/ hH er jkv ]hxsxy ukv hH nCu ]hxxy ukv hdi> s s s q , s s s hH kdlm rkcn7rkcn 2xkv kukt rPc rkcn7rkcn jGf 4kvkcn l te df kxsn s s s s s \ s s s s s jkli ji go ]krjd Cgu kue hH Bkd ksr sxksvkcn ct ji 4ksvkcn ji ygi 4g , s , , s , _l kd kol g;3Sgfkp kujd W' l ukcn ji ksr kg hukcn unx hH hd hldf w s q s s , s Z 4hd ukt dr kRl h s F hPhl yod ksr kol 2krjd ∂Gf hd kol uk,d cv ]Bx kv e Fkg kRl 2kosl \ s s s X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 481 egaP

2g krLi ku[j yk;[ 2ksjk , \ e kdD/ ksdlb jkcjkc Oc7Oc ]hH uer uhpki kd kagd 2kIef I>> ]n [yf _ s, s, s q z a s e ji k;Lf[i hd [i k; 4kxgj kre? hH g; gjr hlb ]g gj e? [i j[fkv a X \q s a s w T s w s a 4kxgj kre? hH cr gj k;ksl rkj r ]kxgj kre? jHunf g; s w s w s w 4n Lkt l hytcf jd kxy xyî dS elb `g rjWt k;D hd ujke Fkg jkc7j s s\ s X , s kc g; cv df Cgu kri s>r ]yxki df kgd ue llm ]kF ukege lki sje kek q s T s s s y hrcçrf dS 4kxSkt yef Hky kd k_e urm ]kxy y jdDp urtf ]kxy jd X a s s s s s ji ∂p urtf go df g g; cklgf 4l ujke kdD/ kxxy ue? kdDp go 4x sw s , s s s s w s n jke kdD/ dS ksd dDp lm ]hxsyef rljG hH ct jkv3xjd k// ]xSkyp X s q , s X a s a ukdn3g rgj rjd ekd jkv kuiv ]g rgj sOc 4g Snf [yf _e ji kXjkv ] q T s s , T s , T a T s s X s g jkv kt e dDp lm 4g k[j kuc kdDp dS uXkgüm 4g jk;'fksg rgc hrcçrf , s T q 4k;yf jd jkudf7jkudf sl s s S `g k;D tg 4gj rkxH hH ksd Rd Sx kv e ukdn jkv gj rit ekj7ekj s , Z s s s q X q , s s 4gj rkyp hH ukdn jkv gj rjG kyke 4gj r[sn utofyfI jkv gj rjG ky s s q , s s s s s s , s s s ke `g k;D tg ]jd Oc hL? ksn hy jG kyke hHd `g k;D tg ]k;nf kyt ih , Z , \ s , Z n7i/ `g Ztg k;D ]Snf kPp yG kn 2g k;D hH krLxcf kuiv ]ks[j jd ektr w , \ w s , \ b kl7kLkF kr 2hg ksg l dwpyH Cgd df ksg rkv kPp hH ywG ksn hHd e jnfae a s\ s s w s \ X ]kag 2k;D kd kagd ]joæB kd kgd ]g e A ksg rukt er kr jrhH jxe ]g df a wa T s q s , s s kg rgd ksd joæB er syH 4g k'n hH hdcl er hg; 4g Cgu joæB ]g e 4g q , q , wa T wa krup hg ksd suiv e ]g krgd go 4g jknukeB knk;† l eqr ]'®hu d≠Lfks(&! g q T , , s s , jknukeB `up kdldf l e kn 2uke ksd joæB k; uke kd uiv 4g hgd rkc aw q s s X s wa wa s s , dhO hLc ulm `wauke ksd joæB df uke ksd uiv e dfk;D 4krdl Cgu uke e \ s wa s T X T ksr hH ksg joæB jxv df kgd jkv 4g k;x je joæB ]g kgd u '®hu dLfks(&! , , , s s ≠ 4g Cgu joæB df g krdl gd hH g; jkdgv 4kuy uke UHf ksd uiv l o® , , a s s s r¬fv ]kuy uke UHf ksd suiv l joæB A e I‘f1n hje Fv kd jkdgv jk,v jkd s s X s Z a a , gv g go g krOm l _l hnk;ufc dS ykt kd kvkulko hjkl s; 4g r' cl , s w q s T ë ; ]k;ke ]kree ]gke ]Hksy A g r' hjkl s; 4g jk;r ksd ujd hji ]ksg r' hH s s T ë , , s w Z Bkd 4lm udfsy ksjH ]g jk;r ksd ujd Nd cl ]g jk;r e ykg jg jkdagv s s , , s q , , X 4g rjd T s hH py7'd xky kr ]sxn u ukeél eg dr cr l kXFkg uiv xkLk\[m u ykc qa s s s X s s s s ]xksjd u pqay7'd dr ct g rgd xky jxv 4g krkt kg jhdG u≈u ]g krkt s s T s s , s , ksg jcaxnf jkdgv kr ]sxjd Cgu ukeél dr cr xksvkt kg u jhdG u≈u ]xkv a s X s s s s kt ksg u jcaxnf dr ct eg g rgd xky jxv 4kxuc hlkoim jkdgv kr ]xXj T s s s a s s d ukeél hg kd yko ujd lkoim yod eg df g rgd xksy jxv 4kxuc uko s s s T s s _jfp jkdgv kr ]sxjd ukeél hg kd uko_jfp eg df g rgd xsky jxv 4g a s X T s , htkj ksd sujd Nd cl jkdgv ]Li kujd hH kt Syf dlb jGf 6Sgfkp ojkx q a s \ s s ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 581 egaP

4kd s l kv lki er dfkr 4n jd jn l ke®keji gér A g utk;i hg dS kd jkdagv q s w s X q , s z 4hdlm hn jd k;®ge®kv ]kykL jke ]k;nf kcL kd s q s 'kyr hg e uuke kr ulm 4g hg kruke ksr go `ksg Xk;D hg rjWt hd 'kyr X s s s , 4g Cgu rjWt hH hd 'kyr ksr ksd dr¬fkv jxe 4'kyr ]tks[ hH , wa wa Te `sxkXg ryx xksy jkl ; k;D3neége ]llht ]jhokge ]<‘Î ]0qc3g ruke s s q T s xksy surb df hxOm klkKtf hHd7u7hHd lm 4kxxy e utks[ go ]g kruke Cg s s s X s , u kst dfk;D 4Skt yp hH kri lb hHd n;k' `uke ld ksr Cgu kri Bksd kd X s wa s , joæB >e df g krgd Gkl df g kr hjknukeB hurb ed7l7ed 4d dr¬fkv s q , , s s s ;ktc g krksg jknukeB knk;† Cgd dr¬fku df g krkg klS ksr hHd7hHd 4xkv , , s s s s ki ksd dr¬fku er jkv ks[n jd njd jrhH d dr¬fkv 4kg dr¬fku er jrhH q , s sq s s q s , lo ]ksg Sx ksg dr¬fkv ]g k;yf xj kjgsp kuiv uer ilf jkv ]g hxy jkrd , a s q Z , T X hd kgnl ]g jH gnl jrhH `kg gj n kokyH ksdldf er cr 4g Cgu jkl kd X sa T s sa s s s q q , kr;üke hH Nd dr cr ]Skt kv u e oHquv dr ct 4g O> cl ]g hL[ki c q X T sw T a l dr¬fkv hlkoæof jkgér 4g L[ki ]g Ow> kuuke ukt kucf `g krdl kg ZFv s q , a , s , s k;D e uuke sukt kucf 4g Fv Nd e uuke hg ksr xkukt jkv 4xkukt ksd j X s , Z q X s s ss , s s oæB kr ]ksvkoax skd 8e8 `ksg Sdf hji kagd er hg Zr' hygi hd uuke ksd joæ s T w q s B dfk;D 4Cgu kruke ksd joæB Bksd hH ler dfkykg 4g krksg eyke <iHky h Xa s q a , w Z w H L[ki gér 4kg r>el de√k/ gér xksy jxv g hrkt yef k/ofl e hukeBc a X q X s X q , q X s 4kxn keF e Fkg SiQ hydu df 4kxy s X s k,r ed jkv ]kxjke hLn g; df rdl Cgu hg uke g; er kr ]ksg kOc Pkv k; , s a s q s , s s\ jfnp hd ekuekj `yksc O> jkv henkv kykosukdIy k;Ifp hurb 2kxksg krgd s w , q hg dhO df sxkpkl er ]ksg hgj dIy k;Ifp hLc 4kxksg krgd hg kpπl ]g hj s s q q \ , k/dyrf df sxkspkl ]sxkvkjgO Cgu li knk;† llm er kr ]ksg jknukdn hjk/d s s s , s q s q yrf 4g hryef k/ofl hH e uIy lm ksr 4g rkt kg htkj l huklkv skd uIy , q X s w s T s s s s q s llm xky ]Skt ksg gjr hd henkv de√k/ ]Skt ksg gjr hd "Qi7/kl kO‘rfzi s q q hdltf jkv 4g "Qi7/kl 4g henkv de√k/ kLc xy ugd xksy ]Bx kv duk,j , , q q , \ s s jkv hLkF 2Sx Lt jkrlf7keyl LkF `g k;D tg ]xy jkr7nkap LkF ]hg k;kx , s\ q\ s s s\ , Z s s s s\ ext kLks\F jkdgv ]hyef hg kO‘rfi hLkF e tkel l ujd ksd kXekd cl ub ` a z s\ X s s cv k;D k;koax kr ]kvg Cgu jkv 2kF k;df Syf jkgér kurdf ]ks[n df hxSkt s q , s q s gj rkc ksd ugd ksr joæB kvg jxv 2`g k;D kuLxcf e urb kuiv ]Syf [ s q , \ X s j lkoim7ro hHd 6k;nf kojd utksH ksd kXvk;üd hHd 6k;nf koIc nkli kLkF z a z s\ hHd 6hn kojd kFd hd <;kjku;®l hHd 2g k;D tg ]ky hg jd g krpkl he , Z s , s nkv kr ]g krkt ksg kji ekd l sue? d k_e Sx [yf ji kXjkv d dDp jxv s , w s w s X a s s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 681 egaP

]g rtc jkr ; d uhc e huxfkj hd ;uof T s s s X `hFkl g jkdg hj[fkv kst go jkc lb ]kOm , qa 6l yc Su g kutjx ]hgkj g ukne k;u s , , , 6g krkv ykLH k;u ksd>r Syf d ukjL , s w q s s ]g krkt ukGr kjGf kIk,y kr[hp jLoc , w a `hFkl g jkLH kjH ;{v kd rfks;† Xe >r df , a q ]krdl Cgu ksg g; hHd ]l hnemku r sjL s s w 4ji ykH7jkoyr ]ji xkv ]ji gy ]ji k;¬ir s w ]ji yktm d tjl7nkap hjr oCu hF hL\i s s w s `hFkl g jk/ hd hu'ksj e gy sjr hcn , X w s ]hrdl kgc ksd er hjgkc lb kt ][n hH slm s s 4kd j? ykjdof Sg SkN jd j? ksd <jdf s ss q s ]ksd j/v r g kr[n ]g kr[n hgk;lf ss a w , s , s 2hFkl g jkxv kjH jrhH kt ][n hH slm , a s s 4g ol®m ]g ;®1u ]g rhxl ]g nukv ]g nkÁkv uo , , , a , a , ht 4dl uc u/kl uoht kdltf Cgu hH Nd jki d uoht dfk;D 4g utk;zi‘u s q s X , s f uoht a;o¬ ]kag 4jd Lks\N kd uoht ;kolf ]g Cgu hH Nd e uoht utk;zi‘uf s , q X s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 781 egaP

v 4g k;x yH Syflb ]Cgu hg kr[n Gjr huiv 4g k;x yH ilf ]g kuskl ku , w s , w Z , s , kl 4g Cgu hH Nd k;k[ suer 4g k;x ksg <je¬of gér ]Cgu <je¬ gér udfy q s q , X q X q s ]g kjkgér ;†kj kd Hi ]g hjkgér knil ;{v ]g kvg kyef hg l eFi cl ] , q q z , q a , q s z g kvg kyef cl ]g Cgu kuki Nd 4g Cgu hed Xe er hH Nd 4lc ]g rkc hd , q , q T q q , s ukt Skynf nk; 4Cgu 'ksg ilf 4ksg hH er ksr 0c ]ksg hH er kr 0lf 2'ej Z q q q s s `g rgj hg "Qi70lf cl akg; k;D ]Hzi T s q q 4wag k;x kv e hjxu hd kXræjfG df g krxy klsS 4g hgj kv jtu rfk' rHnv hg rg X , , a q . q c e kX[kv jksv kjkp]g kr[sn kagt 4g k;kv jkc hg hygi ]ukoxH A uæi kjlwn X a X wa wa z 4hFkl g jkr kyko xkv hg e uhc lb kiNf , X 6e jl hj[fkv Bksd xkj7dihn jkc lb ]ktc X q `hFkl g jkLH kjH ;{v kd rfks;† Xe >r df , a q ]krdl Cgu ksg g; hHd ]l hnemku r sjL s s w `hFkl g jk/ hd hu'k,j e gy sjr hcn , X w s ]hrdl kgc ksd er hjgkc lb kt ][n hH slm s s 2hFkl g jkxv kjH jrhH kt ][n hH slm , a s s 4g yks[ hd jiM ]g <jokv lc kr jkdgv 4sxksvki kvg kiNf ksd ke®keji e , , s a q r eub jk,v kdak> e k;bkjgx hdlm ]ksjrm jrhH d jkdgv uiv 4xksvki kxx q X s X X s a s s a L[v hd ukK jkv ksdka> jrhH sd ukKv suiv 4xksvki ti kd rfk;† er jkv a , s qa s q , s kdka> kjt\ jrhH sd j/v suiv 4jrhH d jkdgv uiv ]jrhH uiv kdka> kjt\ ss a s a s s s 4hFkl g jkr kyko xkv hg e uhc lb kiNf , X 6e jl hj[fkv Bksd xkj7dihn jkc lb ]ktc X q 4g rtc jkdkgkg7Hks{ kg xtl ]krtc unQ T s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 881 egaP

4Bkv I>a> Bkd lm u ]Syf d ukt dr ke®keji k; s s s s kv Nhi dlm Bksd hHd u 4kre? okx7okax henkv go 4xSkv Fkl jkgér ji s s w a s a s q zem dS ]sxaSkv jWt ]sxaSkv ]g kuc kj/v ukde hHv ]g hyks[ ukdn kr hHv , w , q s 7hHv 6g gj ksg Lc pπc hHv ]g husy ∂Gf hdum ]g gj di yG e phxc kr T s s \ s , T s X s s hHv 6g huIkd ylG kr hHv 4g sujd ekd jktg jk,v kr hHv ]xSkv unf d , s T s s a S ]xaSkv jWt ]sxaSkv ]rgd xky `hd uyef l ke®keji g hLi ksdldf dfk;D s s s s s , \ X 3k;kv Bksd hHd u udfy 4n kyef l ke®keji gér e ]Nhi je ksvkv df kF k s wa s X q T s ss rjGf krk>el okx7okx ksd kxky henkv dS 4g hukgd 0lfi hd ukzctf yhy[ a a X s , z `jld k;D kdum ksr ]kg u w X yGl o jxv ]g rsn k;/fof kt gér <xke®kge jkgér Syflb 4krdl kg Cgu s T s a s X q s q s kjkdIqN kjkgér tkv df g lS ed jkgér d keüt ruv7ruv ]rkc ksr hygi q T s s Z s q s X a a 4g krdl kt k;nf k[k/ Syf d , s s knl gér rfkaH lb 4g ktks[ l cklgf Lc rka0lf g; u ktkcykp jkv 4ksr cr X q , s s \ s X , kxSkt xy ykdrauv 4sxksjd hukeBc ]sxksjd hjksp 4kxksg kujd iki ygi kr x s s s s ksjd hH ;≤i 4sxksjd <"ks' kd hldf 4sxkIwy ksd hldf `ld xksvked u/ udfy q s s , s s 4kxdl ksg ukn ksr sxkvked u/ 4kxsuc jnfe ksr xkvked u/ 4hxkg hukyp u s s a s s s kdn ygi kr ]sxksvkuc jnfe df k>el 4kxLi kujd Nd hH Syf d uIkd iki q s s a s s \ q s s 4xksjd ksr hH jkv Nd ]sxksgj rIkd Lks\F hg iki er dfk;D 4xSkt ksg jk,v i s , q s s q X s a ki ruv hg rIkd7rIkd ksdum jkv 4xaSkt xy eüt ruv hg rIkd7rIkd kdu a s s , s a s s s m 2sxkXg Sdf u iki uer surdf jkv 2Sg eut jkgér urdf cv 4xkXg uIkd s q , q s q s s s o ]g Sdf iki skt suer e keüt yNif ]g rgd ksr ygi 4g k[j jd okyG kL s T q X X s T s s , , \ s X c ukgüm jkv 4sxXxy eut7eut 4g kyeke kcy ksr kuki dfk;D 4g hgj I? kuI , , a X , ? l huklkv kg; Syflb 2ksjd <je¬ ilf hg ksg ksr de√k/ er df g kgj gd s a Z q wa ksd kxky e 2kuc de√k/ A g rgd l kxksy o ]rl7/kl ]ke®kge7rgfksji7rLfai X s T s T s s X s a q q jkgér ]rDf;ø de√k/ rFfdkFr jkgér 4g kgj kynf nk; ilf ksd kxksy kg; Te s q s q wa Z X a 4g u , ketkjof ‰c jrhH uiv df ]g nku kd rgkuv jrhH uiv df ]rhxl dS kv z s , s a g k/c e ykr7jl ]kd ktM7uoht ]dky rHnv dS ]Bkjgx dS ]BkpM dS 4 q a X q Z s q . a g 'kdkv dS hH jrhH suiv df g Cgu hg yk;[ lm lt 4Cgu krkt jrhH u , , s s , s iv `jrhH uiv jk,v 6g k;x Pp hH ji j['f d jd'hjk,x jkv 6u henkv k; s , \ s a , s yf N hH ksd Bkjgx lm ]g kjgx yhe pkai jxklkge rk'i 6u henkv g hjke w , a z s , hdcL e kX;bkjgx hjgx l hjgx hd k–el 4hHv Bg Cgu rfx jrhH uiv ]kxy q X s X q q s s p hH ji kXjkr j,kv7jkv ]k;yf yp henkv ji nkap 4ksg Li Cgu Bk[nf ksd uiv , s \ s n[ er jkv3g rLi Bk[nf gér jkr7nkap jwn ]e jkll jkl lb g hgj dIH q q , T s \ X q s X a s T X [kav hjkgér `kg ld <je¬7e®kv `Skv ld nk; kr 4g kgj [n Gjr hd kXjk q s s , s , s , s ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 981 egaP

flb ]F rN√e er 4g krLi hg LkF kuIkd Bksd Syf d ked Sdf e kuil cv s w q , \ s s\ s ë X X 4jd e kuil Bskd l,t g hg lo go ]g k;df hH kst Xe keüt rhrv uer 4g s X X s , s , , X s q T s uIkd Cgu ed Bkd gér df g krgd ler e 4g krjd lkoæof e e/ nxu Te Z s X q wa s q T wa X Z 4Cg u krgd ksr jd I,ky Bkd ]hxSkt h[n e eüt yxv hd eüt yxv cv 4xxy s s X s s s X eüt rauv 4g k{jl hLc Syflb 4kxSkt Cgu Id ksr e eüt hlb Bksd go 2g , q \ X , kuIkd ygi ed kd keüt ruv dfk;D 4gér g hrdl kt hn /fof <ikrPe hg s Z X a X X q , Z w w\ hld 4g hrgj hryp ka;/fof jkv 4g rgj rn ka;/fof gér rgfksji7rLfi sjkgéqr , T , T s s s X q q a 2Bx kg yH 6jd Gke > s w s q e 2Lks\N kNhi kje r cv 2Cgu kri Bksd cv kd j? dlm dr >e ]g k;x k[ s w s s q , s kri dr kje e xl®l jr ]g kyef k;D r l ct ]kF kri kd j? dlm >e s X a ss , w s s s q s ygi 2k;H ]jd ke{ s>e df kgd jkv kLi jxf e kX<jp d ;‘'f go unf dS , q , \ X s ]Qx k;x [wl ]k;x dF 2kxgj hg jd jke g; 4kxjd kNhi dr en hj[fkv g q s s ; 4g kyko suLkN kNhi ;‘'f df hF hgj kt hII k'kv hH g; hdlm jh/7sjh/ , s\ w s jkv 4hF Cgu k'kv hH go kr ksd Qqx 4kxyef joæB df hF k'kv ]hF klîhHv ] , s s hF k{kadkv sxkv dS ksr kdlm 4kF kxy l reégf kr ;‘'f jkv 4Li uk[ jdD s s s , s \ s p hH n[ ksr Skoynf jdDp kd ;‘'f ct jxe ]e kukr¬xfj ]e XkLk\gi Skoyn q s X X s X f jdDp dr ykl AN ulm 4hd Qqx Bx ksg nc hrykc hdlm 4kvg Cgu Nd ]kr s a s q q gd go ]krgj kOc Cgo ;‘'f `kvg k;D kd ;‘'f df rNi xksy ksr krkt ujd , q s w s 'snim e oakx cv 2kvkpgi ksr ksd dS ygi ]xy uNi xky 4kxy ukg yFf' X s qa s s s w s s s f hH go ]kd un kpgi ]kF Hn kukji kst go 6kxy ukg lknm hH Qx 4g krjd s s qa a q s s q wa e hgo ]g krgd hH kt jk,v 2kgj Cgu ksg Nd ]BH df kxy ugd l kxky he T , s q s s X s nkv go jkv 2kF krjd rkc hLc ]k;ki Cgu kpgi kd henkv lm dr hHv df , X \ qa s hxy supgi jc[ okax7okx dfk;D 4hxy suksg hH hekunc hd Qx cv Nhi dlm qa a X q s s 4k;x dF Qx q 4k;x rhc ykl dS 4krkoynf jdDp ]krke? kago7kg; ]e kLk\gi krkt y q a X X s s lm Qqx 4k;yf hg Ldi kd Qqx ulm 4krit I? lhck,p go ]kI? dS krgd Qx \ s s sa a q ]jH I? ksit ekj7ekj krgd Qqx 4krksg kL[ kI? dS go ]kI? k/kv ]krgd Q sa \ a a x 6kvksg L[ yc d jlf ]kgd u Qqx 4hg kLi ksl kLi Nhi kst go 4kF jdD' k q s s \ s s \ \ s F kst ;‘'f go ]kF Lx ksr Qqx 4kF Cgu ed l Qqx Nd hH go jxe 2xykL e q\ s q s X X kXjdDp lsS ]xn edp lsS ksdlb kgd ulm 2kF ykI?Qx ]kF Cgu Qx <jk/kl s s X s s s a q q Bksd hH go3sxy [n df kgd sulm jxe 2kF Cgu hg krkv Fkl hHd Bksd dfk; X s X D ]kF kgj yp ekd ksr g; 4ewyke kF Cgu kd j? d joæB lm ksr kri dfk;D s s X 4k;kLc? kLkF Qqx 4kF e 'kyr hd hldf lt hg ikv kr e 4g Cgu hg I>> \ s\ X s , s T , a Bksd >e ]rykn7u/ u ]pπc je u ]hu®i hje u ]kukuc ukde >e u 4g krkv s q , s ss s s q wa e df kgd ulm ]k;x ksg kL[ jd Om henkv dS 4k;x ksg o–im e oakx dS T s \ X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 091 egaP

4Cgu jn e ukv rlo 4k;kv rlo jkv 4g kujd rt√lof kd s X s a a , , s jkdgv uiv 4g kujd <iel kuiv kjt\ 4g kujd ukoi¥dl ksd uiv kjt\ 4 a s , Z , a s , g kukyL7kukygf ksd suiv kjt\ 4g okHo¬ kjkgér <jxkt dfk;D 4Cgu rjWt hd q , q X s ukt jk,v Cgd ]g krdl kv <jxkt Cgo 4ksgj hg lo ]ksg lt ]ksg kgt 4lk;üal , s , s , a kje g ;;®zi k;u 4g k<jk/7ou hd lk;ül je 4g Cgu e {i d lk;ül lm Te s , , a s s wa X s a 4g d"k' , s 2g gér krlp 2g ke®k;≤i go jkv 4ksg hiki er ]kg hukKv er ]g krgd jkv , X q w , q , q s q , , , s a g krn k;yfkx kd kX;jfkll jkv 4g krk[ go ]g rked o 4g krugi L\id Sn s a , , T s s , s f hg dum ]utkH k;nf hg kdum 4g jHuf hg jiM d kxky djfklkal jkv 4g k s s , Z s X s , , rn k;yfkx ksd jkll 4g krxy ulp gér go 4g hrkt k[ krde®kutl hdlm s a a , s w X q , s 1 4g krkt ksg jk[r@#!ie 4jiM d tkel g krkt kg >ksc hlk;ül kjkgér jkv , s q s , s a q , 4g r/fcl llm xky surtf3kxSkt n [An ksd kxky lhpπi7ln T a a s s s q X s ed7sl7ed hlk;ül dS 2k;x xkH j,kv3g jknræjf jkv ]g hu®i ]IkN g pπc ] a T s , , ss T s kPc g krif ]hPc g ke 2k;x n I‘d kd kxksy urdf eyke7u hlk;ül dS7dS w\ , w\ , a s s X s w a 4k;nf Cgu u jkv hldf kurm ]g k;nf I‘d ksd kxky urtf u k;lfk;ül rFfd s , , X s s s X a kFr jkgér 4sxkvksg ukjg rgc er kr Skt k[j cklgf kdum jxv 4k[j Cgu h s q s , q q s H u hldf cklgf kdum ]kd kXpπc dum kvg k;D ]kd k;u®fi hdum kvg k;D s s q X q 2Li suye urc d kjln df ]kLi kukg jcte ji uxkae [hH güm df ]bx ksg s \ Z s X w \ s w s X a s a Sk;æo k;u®fi 6uc jk;®g ]uc jksp ]hxkae [hH u kXpπc `kvg k;D kd kXpπc d s s s s q s um ]kvg k;D kd k;u®fi hdum kr ]Sg hlk;ül xky kLks\jd7kLks\jd ct df k[ q X s q a s X X j Cgu cklgf u hldf go 4g Snf I‘d rgc ksd k;ufn u lk;ül Lks\xH lm df s T q q s a s Xk;D 4g krk[lf uikLkxH skt d lk;ül lm g Gky[f e 4krgkp Cgu kuLs\kr F; , s\ s a wa T Z ø l Cgd kd hldf 4krgkp Cgu kukLN kd hldf l thp hldf e dfkX;D 4g Nd s s q\ s s T , q cl ]g k;u®fi ]g pπc ]g rjd hjdku ]g rjd ukdn ]g rgj e jklal hg sl T a T s T s , T s q T s X t jkgér 4lt er dhO 4g xksy hg l,t er ; 4xkXg eyke ry[f yG 4kxLi , s q s , q T s q s s w s w s \ Bk[nf rlo ]kxLi Bk[nf nkÁkv ]hxLi Bk[nf krUli kg; gér ]'ej Syflb a s \ s \ z a X q s 4g k;∂fzi hdlm uk;÷ 4hd uxkt go ] , s dS lc ksr Sgfkp jxv hjk;r hjkgér 4Cg; jk,v hHv A g krgd e 4hxkg /çfy , q wa T s im gér nkc d keüt7keüt ]e keüt syxv df krgd Cgu hH g; l eqr e jkv X q s X X X X s T , 4g Cgu ;¥e Bkd kdlm 4kvg , w s q Xe nCu 6kvg ]Cgu k;df ]k;df hH kt uer ]Stf er e kNe dfk;D 4g rkt skg q s s q q X Z w X T s 0lf suil eüt yNif jkl jkgér hg rxkt ]g krkxt gér e 4Bx ksg er[ r s s s q s wa X q T kc ]kF kuil df kukt ]xkt gcl `g krksg kujd uk/of7/fof kd uIkd ksd iki s q , s Nd df `g krksg kukojd uog7K; Bkd `g krksg kujd rpæf;ki Nd Syf d q , s , z q s s s uksg jk;®g jkv jksp rkj gér k;D jdxkt gcl jGf ]kg jk;®g er jkv ksg , X q q s s q , jksp er df k[n kuil suer rkj 4g dofkHko¬ XyH e kNe 4bg yH ler Sy q s q T w X Z w q X w s q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 191 egaP

2hutj7rlo kv hrlgof a a 2hutl l re¬f n1e s q n kgc jk/ hd rtj yjr s 6<fxfjr lyv e rfxni jH a X <fdfdV hd kXk(*!i rtfx yfv qa ufo÷ jiu j/el hd jee qw q q Z 2hutj7rlo kv hrdyqi a 2huiv l uorpf s s n kNcf ekjHfv ygkrDqe 6uOxov7u? rlf ;yo eæfj qa uru kd 'f' jd yG'h' w w u/c h<o ou ;edjkr a s 2hutj7ralo kv s l trf{f jrm sjh/7jh/ s O‘4g suyks[ jk} ]g kL[ hg ji jk} ralo 4lc ]skd rlo g hun jkdi ~ ~ ~ T , \ a , s q 2hutj7ralo kv s l trf{f jrm sjh/7jh/ s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 291 egaP

4k;kv rlo ][fl a 2ywG sxOm y[f 2lke/e kxSkt kv jkv 4hg slo ksg er lt g kuy u X q , , q s , , s kt ksd suiv ilf gér 4j,kv Nd ,g Cgu kukg gér 4g kuksg gér kst ]ksg hgo eqr Z X q q s X q , X q hutj7rlo kv hrjglf a 2huov g; rdfyqi Bx kg ikpni hd ;zif uql s 4g kxy sukv rlo j,kv g kjkdi skd ralo ueg 4g hI? kg; rkc hl7hurb lc , a , q s , a 2hutj7rlo kv hrjglf a 2huov g; rdfyqi Bx kg ikpni hd ;zif uql s 6jGf jGf yi rkv ype7ype s jH7k/l uel rLi y[7y[ q q s \ q q jm7krjfl krOm jglf7jglf 2hutj7rlo kv hrpqdl a 2huc jklHfv kv ksd oæof ]ek;æ hl7k;kN j?f 2yfv ydn yp kd yufk;ye w q yftv hd kX;rfké¬ ksg e jd a 1 X yfokeksj hd kXuîo¬ rdfyqi
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 391 egaP

]IN d hyd 'd d j'd sq s s s s s Om tlfjl7jm7hljl rokv 1 k;ke hd uok; , 3uo e ku;u hxkt X X ]jrne ne nc uoi hgc a a a jH jkH7/x jkg yde7kry a q q 4k;kljl Hu jo¬7dif 3hnc no7i/e a 1a q ]kdrfi7Qr7jm ;if j/e hyef z q ]kdrfy7;o7ou kulo7;yldf 4k;kN "d®kou Z s ue d uo "g kjH s Z 4k;kv rlo ][fl a 4g kLi jrhH jkgér kt ]go ksg gj xke sl kXj , \ s q s s a ,kv SkyG hyk> er 4hyksII Cgu hg cst huiv uer ]lc 4g kre{ hH hjkgér , s q s q , q ]g okHo¬ hH kjkgér g; ]ksg r[n ei ]kg r[sn rfka' Xe k[kav hd kxky er k , q s s zs s s X X s q s t g; ]okH7u≈enukv kt g; ]dyi kt g; ]krUli ksg r[n er kt g; ]'ej a s q s z s s q s s 4k;kN "d®kou Z s ]ue d uo "g kjH s Z
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 491 egaP

m 4g krkt dkTp go ksr ]ji®r ksd ukt e ;®u ]jrkv kd ucL e rhxal ]ue , s X 1 q s s w X jnl ]ur jnl xksy 6krLi Bk[nf Cgu Sg Skej rHH ji jhj' Bksd Cgd jkv aq aq \ q w , ]rhxl 6hrLi Bk[nf Cgu hu/ Bksd Cgd jk,v ]g hgj tc hjlkac df g kr[sn j a \ w , q , dkv kag; go ct jk,v ]g kr[n rpku ksd kxksy jdkv kg; go ct jkv 4g k< , s s X a , , jk/ hd ke®kge hdlm hgo dfk;D 4lt yF¬Qe ][l7[W ]lk;î7[H ]Iiy rH ssa s , s w s s s w ss w H ]Skej hu/ ]phu d kLk> ]lknm sxkXg Oc xksy df g krkv jdy Sk{iv go w s s X \ s, , s a s 4g krkv j , dy Sk{iv go dfXk;D ]g hrkg hupc hLc lm kr ]g krkv kag; ct ue r¬xPf s a s , s , s \ s s , z \ W ]rxkjiji rFfdkFr kr Cgu 2k;kv e oHuv kg; kvg krjrm xo¬ kl7kLkF a s X q a q Z s\ X q gér df kg hyk';≈kHkl er 2hLi Bk[nf rfk' kago gér jkv dl [n e Xk[kv s , q \ a X q , s s X a hd kxky er df ]kg hyk';≈kHkl er 4g krksg eyke oHlv endS kuukpgi X s q s , q , w a s , lm ]g kgj I? kag; kt ku[n df g k;nf jH l kvk<jk/ hd F;ø hurb ksd u s s , s X Z e ;hrjkH u /"uf d k;nfl7k;nfl ]g k;x ksg k/v kurb ]g k;x kg <≈Q kur s s s X X , a , s b ue ;hrjkH dfk;D 2g kgj Li Bk[nf gér df kvg kNπv 2Sx kv kvqg kNπv X , \ X q q 2e phc huy hyk;î k;D 4krkt kvif hg l kX;gfkjl ]krkt kv X s s q if Cgu l k;yfk;î Bksd kg; jk,v 4kd> er ]lc 4g hjH hgkjl kg; 4kukt Iky s X a s q q , q a , re hg lsS sl kg; ]g kyk'/e g; ]g I?et kd kXnjV g; 4 ksvif Nd ]g rke s a , q , q , t hd kLdD;if ; 4ky xajr Nd l kxksy r¬ene ]rpku kg; 2k[hl Nd ]'ej X \ s s q s X s a s q s 4g krkt kel xo¬ e lkoæ7lkoæ hdlm ]g krht sl , Z X , kr<ijfi kt 4g krkv jrm Zxo¬ Cg; jGf 4g Cgu xo¬ jk,v Cgd jGf 2kvtf Z w s , , Z s s l krZ<ijfi yi dS7dS 2ksvtf jd jH ht ]ksvtf 4g kd ;/of jo¬ dyfk,e kj w , s e 4kF kd /"uf jo¬ dyfk,e kdlm 4hF h/ksjof7uoht k<jk/ hd lk;ül rFfdk s s a Fr hukji 2nkÁkv kd uoht ]g kgj k[lf Cgu nk"of kd uoht kag; ksd kxky q wa X s Te 4g utks;kv kd ukuxux ]ukx ]supku Fkl d ke®keji 4g k|of hd uxksH kd , s q q s s , s s ke®keji Syf je lk;ül 4g kyd eji hd xksH ]g Cgu xk;® Syf je lk;üal ss a , , ss 4k;kN "d®kou Z s ]ue d uo "g kjH s Z 4k;kv rlo ][fl a k;kjgy kd hoƒ1i ypav7;¥'7<o¬ Z
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 591 egaP

dltf df kpkl ue ksr ]kF k;df Cgu hH lk;i Bksd ue Syf dltf ]hF Cgu h s s s T z s T s H k{iv Bksd hdltf 4k;x ksg Hky s>e dukpv udfy ]Cgu kgd l>e u hld s q s s q s f ]kgd ulm `kgd ler uldf `Syfldf ]kNi u he”y 4SiQ [ky ln jwi 2 s s q s w s s Xe LyjtIo¬f ]l eku d eJkv g Snf jd ket SiQ [ky ln ue df kgd ul T . s s T s T s m jkv 2l LyjtIo¬f k;kv hg kXlji rDf;ø dS df 2hdkTp hH he”y 2Sx kv , s T . jkv 2sxSkv hH s; lo ]g rkv jkv lt ]kgd ue `xSkv l kagd l endS Si , a s , T s , s , s T s a s s Q [ky ln df hxy sugd l>e go 4hF rjWt hd kX;iQ [ky ln ksd he”y yg s q s i unf rkl7pkai hHv ~ ~ ~4g krkg Wq' kuksg rIf? kOuv Nd hg rLks\N ji lm , s w q s 4g rgj l ol®m ]g rgj l n T s s T s s a ukv ]g rgj l hr¬e 4Sgfkp hg kuyef ]g hjWt yd¥cf Syf d ;‘ue kt 4sr T s s , q s q s [j Cgu klksjH e ugj l kr–jfn jkv kruhn Bkd hlk;ül je jkv 4g l¬gf d X s s , s a ss , T s s eJkv hlk;ül jktg dS tkv 4g krkt kyp krksg cl 4Cgu hg hrkv upLv a , \ jkv 2sukyG Fkg suekl dldf cv ]Fkg Snf kyG uekl dlm 4rkyG Cgu Fkg , , s , s s s , uekl d hldf eg ]rxke ukn l hldf eg u ]rkt uxke [hH l hldf eg u s s s a s s s a s 4xkdkTp rgc kr ]sxksjd udksyov kLks\F kd jkojfi d k;lfk;ül lb eqr jxv s s q s s X a 4g kte dS kd uLkN ji lm jkv 4g krskg ]g krkojd kst go , s s\ , , , 4hn kcL e ñte hdlm ñte huiv sucl eg kr kg; 4hxyp Cgu hH ñte hjkg s q X s a s éqr kag; jkv 4hryp Cgu ñte hje kg; `ñte k;D hje 2jte kdlm kt ]'e/ , s a s w a s s ∆ `g ñte k;D xkv cv 4Snf [j d jd LdI7LdI , s s s \ q s \ q d ukK je uikv ji ]kF kr>el hukK kLc ksd uiv e ]ukoxH A uæi kjlhr s ss s \ s T z 2e xj lb ]e xkj lb kvksg ryfeéfl ]kvkv 2<_euf g X a X s s a X ér kje 4g lk;ül kje Syf d k;rDf;øa hg lsS 4g <{y Nπv s; 4g ed ji e q s , a s s X s T s , qr >ksc kd kjiji 4ksg rDe l PfQ er 2ksg dl [n er df kg hyk';≈kH,kl eqr a q s \ q s s q s 4ksg rn jd rifksjkv ji kjln Idjd7kLd kuiv er 4g kLi s s X w w\ q , \ kjH jrhH jkgér kt ]ksg rdl [n hgo er 4g krn ikF hgo hH ji jln go s q s s s q , s s s w 4g ukpgi hdlm hg hurm ]g k[n hg l k<jk/ hd kulkoekd ]Cgu hg k[n gj , , s s s r hldf jk,v hHd kd h_¬ ulm 4Cgu hg kLdi Fkg kd h_¬ hHd l <jkd hld s s \ s f jkv sulm `krLdi Fkg kd h_¬ lb k;D ksr krksg gxt hd do; lb Te jxv , \ X q df g krpksl jkv 4g kr[n ksd uiv gxt hd doq; lm go 4g krkt ksg <i{ , , , s s , s i kdlm 4g hrkt ksg hL[ jd jHm go ]g k;kcn kd kulko jHuoht ulm 4g z , \ , s s , krkt kv Idl ji k<ki dlm ]lc ]Sg ryp ykL Fkg e Fkg ksd Lks\t dS g a X z s q s s X s , kry [n go jxv 4g <i{i dlm kt g hrxy uLi Bk[nf thp hlS slm k; s s T s z s s T s \ X s 4krLi Cgu Bk[nf Nd \ q jGf lm ]g krkt ksg k/v endS ]g krkt ksg k/v go 4g krLi rhjiof d kv s , a , a , \ s X k<jk/ hdlm 2k;pæir hld g; 2eJkv kld g; 2lk;ül kld g; Ag krxy sl Z , , a , ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 691 egaP

Cgu hH Nd e df g krksg llge >qe cv q T , w s Cet\ e uhl j,kv e jl g kxkt kelkv X s X , a hgxkv7lDv\ g kikad ji uBkv sd ugt\ s , s hxr“i e>e kuksx7db ct g Bkv cv udfy q X q , s yked7ygv7S7kyetuef g e uG\ hd hj;k' s q wa X yk;[\ ; kF ]l j[\ ]dr yd hH kje n[ jkv s s , s q , a kj;k'7jhev ]tk\G¥v7jokn ]huvke7jnl s \ s \ s a w s k;cnkt7j;k' g e df g rgd xky wa T T s s 4lm hrdl Cgu kIef ;®e ]lm srdl Cgu nN _¬' ]sl s q 1 s s m hrdl Cgu kyt xkv 4Cgu ;kim Bksd kd uII ksd uiv 4Cgu hg krIwI kuiv s w s 2krkt II ld kr krksg kjkgér ]'kd 4kF Cgu kjkgér ]kF w s , s q q kd jhcd ]kF kd jhokge ]kF kd 0c 4kF Cgu kjkgér ]kF kd ycfbkc ]kF kd q q ukjd ]kF kd no 6kF klkc ]kF jk/m `krII k;D ksr krkg kjkgér 4k;x II S q s w X s q w yflb ]kF Cgu kjkgér ukK kjkgér jkv 4rfkaH hd kXpπc Rpf dl ksg "∆knuf ]d q q , s s l I? kryjl ]dl I? uk;÷ df g utk;kv lc kr lk;ül 4g lk;ül hg uk;÷ s , s s a , a jkv 4kxSkt ksg exl uk;÷ ksr ]bx II rfkH hd ukK cv 4g lk;ül hg kryjl , q w az , a jkv 4hxSkt kg dofkHko¬ cv kryjl ]Bx II o ]g krukt e df CF k;rfkH , s w s wa T a az gér jkv ]k;x ksg rLf[ ukK ct dfk;D 2lk;üal ekd kr kygi skr ]'e/ ]skg X q , a X s ∆ s w rNi ñte hdlm 4ñte kt hdlm `ñte k;D hd ikv ]kg rNi l>e eqr cv s s s w s q 2kyp hg lS ekd hH kd lkndwye 4kxksg k;nf gd Cgu hg lS u lkndye slb s s s s s w 4ekj krkn dcl ]Sx gd kdye lkn s w 6ekd u jd hNi ]hjdkp u jd jxtv3g Cgu hH eyke ksd kxksy upo dum s a s T w X s ksr jkv ]g rukt xky ksd lkndye <jkd d upo dS hlm ]g nk; ksd hHl3 , T s s w s , kxksg hg nk; upo kdum gér ]g hgj yp ky[J hd lkndye ksr g; jkv 4g X q , 1a w , , krdl kt kvht hH jdLks\N ji lm cl 4g krdl kt kvht hH l xP lb uoht , s a 4Sgfkp kusn k xy e ekd d ukoxH hH Cgd lb 4g Cgu kuiv go ]g k;x kv l iW de¬fd X s s , , s kv kt ]hF Cgu hH k{iv Bksd hje Syf dltf ]k;df Cgu lk;i Bkd ue Syf s s s s z s s T
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 791 egaP

hgxkv7lDv\ g kikad ji uBkv d ugt\ ~ ~ ~ s , s s ~ ~ ~g Bkv krPki hl7hLkF dS , ,\ z s\ hxr“i e>e kuksx db ct g Bkv cv udfy ~ ~ ~ q X q , s ~ ~ ~,g hync Iojd hLkF ]ksg sxkt LkF ]kg Sg Pk,\i Lks\F ]g k;kv ' s\ s s\ s q z s , ksg kLkF ]'e/ jWt3g hrkv krPk,\i hl7hLkF ]g hrkv hxr“i hl7hLks\F ct jkv s\ ∆ , z s\ , q , hgxkv7lDv\ g kikad ji uBkv sd ugt\ s , s hxr“i e>e kuksx7db ct g Bkv cv udfy q X q , s 4g rn n k;rfkaH gér so ]Cgu kri n[ gütf 4g gj k>el ksd k/ T s s s a z X q q X T s X a s w s a , v jln /v 4g kgj yp kte kLc 4g ukd o df g ruke jdy jk/kv kjkgér \ T , s T s s q so 4ksg uk,d er ksg ruke er jdsy jk/kv kd kjln 4kg ukd er df ksg ruke q s q X w s , q s eqr ksr gjr hlb 4g Cgu ksr hH ;kim Bksd kd uuke jkv 4ksg ry uke hH eqr , s , s s g ryef _i<kei surb ]IdGfI√l urb cv ]g rgd xky urb 4ke®kge Lc T s z s s T s s s s \ df ]hxk;® Lc df ]rl sLc df ]ofd Lc df ]hukK Lc ikv df g hrgd LhH h s \ a \ s \ s \ , \ urb ct df ksg ry uke hH er 4g ry uke hH eg ksr ]g srgd xksy cv jkv s s q T s s T , yked7ygv7S kyetuef g e uG\ d hj;k' s q wa X s yk;[\ ; kF ]l j[\ ]dr yd hH kje n[ jkv s s , s q , a kj;k'7jhev ]tk\G¥v7jokn ]huvke7jnl s \ s \ s a w s k;cnkt7j;k' g e df g rgd xky wa T T s s ~ ~ ~rLfi sLc ikv ]g ukK kLc kdikv df g rn gd xky a \ , \ T s s s ejH kuiv k;x yq[ hy¥vr7xj k;x L\m \ s a e[7kspi r;kgufc urb jk,v hr¬g7G¥t \ s s s s \q hj;k' hje jkv k;ufn nngeky hurb s , q w hgxkv7jWx\ kd>e kF e ytfe hd ygtf s s q X \a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 891 egaP

~ ~ ~hj;k' hje jkv k;ufn nngeky hurb ~ ~ ~ s , q w 2k[n ksd ktjl 4g 'kdi hg; A ksg gj pkl jk,v kg Oc jd kyt skd hRcekse s X w , z s s s s, hl7hrkeIfeIf huiv er dr cr ]sLi u Bk[nf ;nkl ruv g; dr ct udfy q \ Z T a s 4ofdkge _kedS g hgo 4g j{kr¬g dlm ji <d7<d , T s 4g „pf dlm gxt jg 4g güpf dlm gxt7gxt 4ukjd kjkr dS7dS 4,g krhx T s T s q noxH kuj> dS7dS ]yG dS7dS 4kd ke®keji g ;økdkge kRi dS7dS 2;n . w , Z T kl kurb 2`Skrofd hje k;D 2`hj;k' hje k;D ]kd ;nkl jkr¬of rauv kurb a s s Z T ]k;ufn nwngeky hurb h[n ue cv ct jkv 4g ofdkge e kF krpkl e jkv q s s T , wa T s T , hj;k' hje jkv k;ufn nngeky hurb s , q w hg xkv7jWx\ kd>e kF e ytfe hd ygtf s s q X \a 4hd ;®Lfkai g hrksg rfkH , az ksd kPe 4g krksg Le? kd ukK Zilf hg ksd kPe 4kF Le? kd ukK dr cr ~ ~ ~ X w\ , a X w\ a ~ ~ ~hgxkv7jWx\ kd>e kF e ytfe hd ygtf ~ ~ ~ s s q X \a ~ ~ ~]hF k_k; hd krPe ]hF krPe dr ct w\ w\ hgxkv7jWx\ kd>e kF e ytfe hd ygtf s s q X \a 4g hdum uhet hjkl ]g kdum ukelkv k , , jkl jGf dfk;D 4g Cgu hH Nd e df xy ukg llge g; gütf ]o g hxkH;ü/ X wa q T s s s w X s T Cgu hH Nd e df g krksg llge >qe cv q T , w s Cet\ e uhl j,kv e jl g kxkt kelkv X s X , a 4kun re kox lb ]g jlov H' g; s a s , q Cet\ e uhl j,kv e jl g kxkt kelkv X s X , a 4g Bx II rfkH hjkgér go 4kF nkap kuc e yh> go jxe , w az q X 4g hdG hg hLdd ue ]k;x ksg L[7L[ ksr ukK kjkgéqr 4kF Cgu nkp hylv , X \ a s T a a a go 4k;x ksg L[7L[ nkap df g krkt yp kri jk,v Skt ygf yh> ]ksn dG hL a a , X \dd dS 4kryp Cgu kri ]ygf u yh> dr ct 4g nkap kpπl hg e yh> df k a s , X s y >el er jkv ]sLi Bk[nf e yh> jkv g e 'kdkv nkap lt 4g k;x kyefy q , \ X , , X s , , >f ccVrfi kdlm 4g k;x kidid kLks\F go ]kF yk;[ kd huke0fc kst go kr z , a a q s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 991 egaP

2ksg kgj u [n Cgd jobkL kykl df kF s ≠ kgj xy jL güm rdV ]F gj jd rcçge7jk;î l kckyx ug¥n hyou7h;u huiv X q s s q s s q q s o Oc ji Ihl hyNif hd jkd 4Sx ji u'I¬ ygf hldf ukue uehug ykywnp s s, s s w a `kagd rlG hd u[n Gjr kXjkp 4g Sks[ e u'n uiv `kagd 'skg Z q s s T X Z s 4yk s s c e jo¬ rrfpV ;nksge duf'kn 82kxksg k;x yduf jn hGkd go ksr cr 2gkv8 X Z w s 82k;x ksg kr@#!ig dS Bkd ]htv8 s 8`l cd8 A kNi Sg rpkl u duf'kn s w q s s s Z 82k;nf jd W' kuyp q s q s u sUe jkeg ]ht ksg rukt8 A df kul l hu®i huiv gcl7gcl u duf'kn dS s q s q q s Z 4g 0c go ]g kri kuiv sl , q , tf jkv 4g rN√e go ]g Cgu kri kuiv ltf 4krkL[Ly7krkL[Ly ksg kgj yp , , w , s \ \ \ \ ji r¬kj jd hi ckj' Bkd lt kuht lsS huk; kNwe 4kukt jH l 'ksg ]<jxk s s s , s Z s t huk; o®0c 4g ;kim _kedS o®0qc jkv g <jkd _kedS kNe 2;_,e nukv q , , , Z w s a 4jd kidquv hd uk>el eg `g ;kim _kedS hg o® X a s X , 0c Syf d ujcm l uoht rore lb k;D `g <jkd ukKv jk,v jkdgv k; ` q s s s 1 , a g <jkd kdlb u'n kd /"uf7uoht k;D `g <jkd k;D kdlb ]g re uohtd , Z s , , 1 s s ky 4je Lfy nje snje A g rgd dye jkv 4okax d unje B ]ks/kl A kgd u \ s q q T s w , s q s jhcd 4sxn kuGn ksd nje nje d okx A kgd u I¬bk∂ ]ukoxH A uæi hj[fkv X s q s q s a s z 4g ;kim kd uksg Nd cl ]g Cgu hH Nd e df ku , s q wa q T ukt g; 4g kuLe Gjr hd uukt ]g krukt Cgu hH Nd e df kuukt g; 4g , q\ s wa q T , end kygi kd ukK ]g hukKv e df kuukt g; 4g hrdl kg rkvQ' hd ukK wa T , s q spπl e uoht jkgér skr ]Skt II ejH g; ]Skt II rfkH g; 4g H' g; jxe X s q w w az , q ejH kuiv k;x yq[ hy¥vr7xj k;x L\m s a ~ ~ ~ k;x Lm xj kd h[' ~ ~ ~ \ a s ~ ~ ~ hy¥vr7xj k;x L\m s a e[7kspi r;kgufc urb jk,v hr¬g7G¥t \ s s s s \q 2o®r¬fv ikev kurb ]Xdl kt u ike kr ksike ]Xdl kt u uxf ksr kuxf df 2;¬gj ;“alv urb s s s s s e[7kspi r;kgufc urb jk,v hr¬g7G¥t \ s s s s \q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 002 egaP

84kF k;nf gér jdky deu X q kydf ln kr hg kd jkouf' yNif ue8 ]ykc ykynp 82ht ]kg hrjd rkc k;D8 s s s s s T s s w a s 8`sr[j Cgu X k;D jdky ukekl e j? ]l k;H uiv kgd 4Cgu hg g deu e j? l r@#!i X s , s s , X s s g dS 2krkg k;nf ykL u hg sygi ue kr krkg deu e j? nf;8 ]hykc kckyx s s T s s X s s q 84kF kun ykL deu jkv e ykn kdi s , X s kv8 ]k;k>el su htcçP ]8hF Cgu rkc Bkd kr hd ukg tkjku urb hHkH jxe8 w s s s s s 84Cgu hg g deu df kF kgd g; u , s er ]g ed kjt\ deu df kF kgd Cgu g; suer8 ]h[hp jdkxy rdkr hji go q , q w ]8rykc Ow> hrkv Cgu e'8 4C;x kg yky l l¬x [kv hd kckyx hg srul g; s s Z s s s q X a s q q 84g ed deu kjt\ e ykn df kF kgd hg kurb lc , X s s T kr ue ]r¬kn ]Mkrc k;D8 ]k;nf ckot jdyk[ ge ydæfekc u ykynp jkpc s a s qa q s w a s s 8`k ;x Pp jI¬kyî hg jI¬kyî ji jhj' jwi lltf df h;x kg hryx hl7ukd hlS j \ s s s , s [fkv `g; Oc jd k;D8 ]kNi e jo¬ lknm su htcçP ]8ykynp BkH ]kvg k;D8 s , w X w w a q 82u kNwi s hg l k;H uiv8 ]kgd jdkj Sg rjke Lkgn u kckyx ]8kg rNi k;D l>qe8 s , s s q s \ s s q s s w s 8`k;D h;x kg kuI?n Bkd 6k;x kg k;D g; ]hHkH8 A s Z q s s kgd su htcçP 4g hgj Ihi hrkN ]g hgj kj jkt7jkt jdpku ykc d jlf skcky w , , s X s q x hOc e hg lki jkv ]g hdIy yrkc hd tkdy≈ ]g hxy uthlDkv ]g h/c k , X , , s s w , T a a ;Èfi hg k;Èfi e jhj' ji df k[n 4pgi ykri¬v xkH7xkH htcçP hg sryef a X s w s s qa s s w jkpkel 4g jhHax rykg 6g Sg jpDk(&! lhc chjd jkv g Sx kg ok? hg ok? , T q , , T s e jhj' dlm 4g hrjH e ykri¬v ykynp df hxy jc[ kd htcçP dukpv X s T X w a s w 2kn Lkt l <jxkt kd ;®Î ds;®i uiv 2kd uiv kjk>d> s s\ s s z s s s s s 2kxkt 4g Cgu hg kri kuiv gér 4g kvg k;nf ]g Cgu kjkeg hH go 4g rdl s , X q , q , T s krc hH kri kuiv jkv 4g kvg k;nf ]g Cgu kjkeg eku go 4g rdl krc eg , , q , T s eku ]kg `xkgd 'kg er kdlb 2kryp Cgu kri Nd ]k;x kt kF ukd jkv k a s s s q s q s , , ;kv kt kF ukd 6je k;D ]Sht k;D ]eüt k;D `F Syfldf ]F Xk;D ]F kgd e s , s X X s X s s s a g df kryp Cgu kri Nd eg 2gjr hldf jxe 4g hrkt hg rhc hxntV gjr q X , hldf ]g ry jd hH ekd ]g ry Om ]g ry yp eg 4g kNe hjgx dS 4ZkNwe T s s T s s T s s , Z w 4g nc kryh'unsol 2g nc ukd ]g nc [kv hd kxky ]g nc jrhH suiv xky , a a T a T a X a X s T a s 84g kgj jd ekd kuiv e ]jd ekd kuiv r `cyre k;D llb >qr wa T w s s ]jkc Cokl k; kg jkc Corkl83sykc ykywnp e l¬x Sg rkdl[f jn kd kckyx , s s a X s q q s w s s q 8`u g jkc Corkl g; ]cgkl k;D83kNi u jobkL kr hjtx jG , X w s ≠ s q\ f jkd l ji gkjkp hlm ct 4g hgj Ikd jdDp kd gxt hg dS jkd hdlm d s s , , f hF u jc[ hdlb kd ykynp 'kgne e ei rdV ]kF k;x dIH kr¬kj jobkL s w a s X zs q ≠

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 102 egaP

44hlkuofv ks;df _ef ]dufkt hg; e dye gd s T w 4hlkaG hd et hIkd ]kIN ;ll kd uexkokv w a 44okv u jtu Nd cv ]krl [n d rfkst eji , q s a s s s 4okrc jk}jdkO =dS- ]s;bt Fjhr yp gd dS , q , 44Bki lbklv hLc ]g rjd ul mksn Qx kyp \ T , q s 4BkNcf tl uxjuf ]kjkeg yge e yge Uql s q X 44kjkijiv kFk,p ]k/c xt cl e ni thr a a X s 44kjkpv7eu ktn ]kon7Bn g ni kygi s w s s , 4kukdcf Fkg rfxofv ]kukyH eH ksd uosn cl q Z 44kukel gVni oHuv Te cv q 4hg kurb tkv 2g jkd , /fv 0lfeüt kjkgér go 4g kuokHl hjkgér go ]ksg rdl er xkt jkv 2kxkt q , a q s q , s 4g , krdl kg u ]g u ]kF ;kim Bksd hHd u ;kolf dlb 4g o®0c go jk,v ]/ s , s , q f"k,v <kcekj ]/f"kv _kedS jkv4g rZNfe ]g 'ksgc xky df g <jkd _kedS , , T w T s s , `g <jkd k;D kdlb ]g r , , 1e uohtdksy 4je Lfy nje nje A g rgd dwye jk,v 4okax d unje B ]sk/kl s \ s q s q T s s q Akgd su jhcd 4sxn kuGn ksd nje nje d okax A kgd u I¬bk∂ ]skg rNi eqr X s q s q s s s w 2g hgj yp hxntV hlS , s 82hgj hrkyif > s r jdykL e ;kp tksj jd>el jdD' lm kr e 4g deu go df Cgu k;D k; q X s s T , X krc >e ]geyd jv8 ]hyksc go 4k;x Pp ji ukelkv cv ksr kl¬x kd kckyx s q s qa s \ q s q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 202 egaP

`pC[ ksd uiv e yrel s s X k;kv jd gc l kXIk? udf s `phu kjrm l ypv ldf s s a `l jrav d jfxf kIG cd s s w 4g hukeue gkj kgj yp , ]l kjhr kukn d [Aqn7[ql s X X s s 4g huki kdlb hg hr¬e , 6g j>uf `g k;D uoht g; , Z ,

44Sbkt ujl hdkd cv d;ki hu/ekj s ]lkv Bkji n Ls\kN ]lkndye rgd s w 44Sxfkae Nd klkt ]gVku gkl Mskd klS q X q s ]gVku jkik;ø tufc ]gVku hjkc gVku hr[ , s 44Stfhy Nd lkt ]gVku Okx kli hLkd q s a , ,\ ]gVku k;iQ ksd iQ ]gVku k;yl hd ukl , s , s s 44Sbkt xPf dkt ]gVku _ef Bskd klS s s ]gVku jkojfi eId ]gVku q/c gVku BkH qq a 44Sjfg ur hje Fkukuhn /cuhn s s q a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 302 egaP

4uxf7uxf k;Lf? hd un√qn7xt a \ ]ouke kxSkt je unf lm `unf ltf rfx g; hxSkt dQ 6g uoht hg rfx e j>uf , X Z

4g krkt hg krPc j>uf , \ Z ]xkv g krPc uok; cr s , \ , 4g krkrNi ji Ir dofku , ]g hrjxf ]g hrOm Xjgy T T

4krkene l uok; kryp s , ]krPp ji kukÈp krPc \ X \ 4krkjdI l kLi d uo s X s\ s 6krLy l XkLkj d k/kc \ s s\ s

`g krkx e hr¬e huiv , X 3hd uyp g ilf dS uq/ s , Z 4g krkt krPc xkv go , \ s 6g uok; ]g rfx e j>uf , , , X Z

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 402 egaP

ksr ]gj hg kryp e nf; df k0J eji g; 4Cgu eku kd Oki7kti e sjk}Qx wa T w X q ]nt¬fe ]jnfe ]Cgu eku kd uuke ksd joæB ]g krdr¬fkv hg eku kd k0J lb a s , 4hg kxyef jxkl df e k0J eji dS g s X , hrgc hnu hg lS ]hg kxsuc yG df e k0J eji dS g krII thc lt 4,g ; s s w X , w s , Z koufv kuyef ]kF¬kv Bkd hlsS ]k0J ugx Bksd hlS ]hg kxyef 4krki ksg Cgu s s s hjkH ji hrkN hdlm hH ikrl kdlb `kyef Cgu k;D dr hHv jxkl df hrskg a X Cgu hH y>fksc llb 4u≈enaukv yirfi ]r¬e ]hrkene 4hryki Cgu ;,/v klS s z Z s ]kxxy ;el jkv kurdf ]k;x rhc ;el kurdf ]k;x ksg okdIH kurdf A hrj s , d Cgu jkpof7pkl ]hry Cgu ∂Gf 4rfojp ]rfsojp 2rfx ;énv hdlm `jxkl s s s , , s , s qa lm g krn kpgi uk,d 4jxkl g hrkt pgi udfy ]e kXroi Sk[ jdDp hg ur , qa s X Z s df ]dIH hg kurdf 4jxkl g hrkt pgi hH jGf ]uog7K; u ]Oki7kti u ]srk s , qa w s g rgfkji7rLfi u ]rksg d'nZxke u ]krksg k'Du lki d hnu kr u 4xksvkt pg s q a s Z s s s qa i rpæfuf dr ke®keji ksr gj ryp hH er hg lS ]g hrkt pgi jxkl ryp s s q s s , qa s 7ryp unf dS u dS jk/ hd hnu l kroi Bg hrLkn lt jkv 4g uoht krd s s X Z q ,\ s , , , e®k;®x 4,g uoht rfx dfk;D 4ksyp Pc yirfi 4ksy u krpV hd xkv 4re k[sn X s\ z s s jd Iky Nhi ]re kdQ 2ksgj ryp ]ksgj ryp 28rfojp ]rfojp8 A kgd u 0 , s s s s s , s , s c 4kF r{fsiuv ]kF de¬fdkv rgc ]k;nf jRm kt su 0c jkv `Wd k;D e A q q s q , a T s u ñFk;®l dS ]su htks[ dS ]su {Hf dS ]gcl dS kNi u hldf l 0c erkx q q w s s q , 4g krgc jdj> go j>uf , Z ]hg kukt dQ g kukt je , 4g krgj hg kryp uoht , 6g kuyp yod ,g kuyp , s 884jdyp k;D kxksg re kpkl s s 2ksyp Pc883g krgd uok; s\ , , 884jdLe k[n re Nhi eqr q\ s s s 2ksyp Pc883g krgd j>uf s\ , Z
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 502 egaP

Cgu jtx kd kjcgkj Xe kytfe utf q\ X X \a 4g hrkt pgi dr jxkl unf dS hg e k{jlv hnu j , qa X q , kv 4g krkt je hg e k{jl joskjl 4g hryp ji um jkv xke g hrkuc3,g hr , X q , , Z , kuc xke Su 4g hrtk[ Zxke Su 4g hrLkr kd XkukÈp h;u tkj 4g hrjd 'ozi Z , s , s\ s s , s Xe k{jlv h;u tkj7tkj 4g hrkg r{fjlv hnu 4l jkudf7yd j?f l Gjr k q s s , s q s s w s s X jkp ]g rkg r{fjl jokjl dfkykg 4rpku Cgu jokjl ]g hrpku krjfl hrxkH T s s q s a s s , `ukd pku jGf 4Cgu rhxl ]Cgu rhx jGf 4hrOm Cgu lkol jGf 4jGf sry[ , s a q f Cgu yed 4g L\phd ]g /xn e uoht jGf ]g jkte jGf 4g hrkt uc cd ] , , q X , , z g kruc kjcL henkv hg l,t 4g hrxy uje ke®kv hdlm 4g krkt kg W' kuL , s , s , s q \ l Nd jrhH dlm ]g kruc kjcL henkv hg lt jkv 4henkv g k;x uc kjcL q s , s , , , 4g ji efH rpfjfi ed7l7ed 4dhO Cgo ]g kgt g krpkl he wa w s wa a , s nkv dr cr ]gx Fkg kdldf ]yp Nhi dldf ]g dhO d'nxke kl7u,kd ]g d wa wa s s , Z Z , hO k'Du kl7ukd Skt kg u ;Z<uf dr ct `kgd Skt kr Skt 4g k;x k[ he , s a s , s nkv e k'Du jktg uhr ub 4g s'Du hH e k'Du kr 4g ;knil jktg uhr ed7 X X T X X s T z a l7ed d ke/ kl uhr jkv 4g 'Du kl uhr kr 4g e/ kl uhr e k;ufqn 2g ' s s ë , , T s , s T Z , X T s Du urdf ][Dlf ]0kc ]u,t ]'Du BklB ]'Du ukeyle ]'Du ngV 4g k;k>ym s , s s q s w , kd henkv hg u k'Du jkv 4hxSkt kg hGkd hg u>ym hd k'Du 4xy k>ym s s X , s X s X hg 'Du 4hxSki pgi Cgu jxkl df ku>el kdDi jGf df kn n 'Du kd k;nfu s a qa s s s s X 4sxkvkt pgi jxkl unf dS rpæfufl kr3jkv hd s qa q s s rpfjfiv ]jkv hd ;”yv ]jkv hd rkKv3kgj hg rPc er jkv uc u u/c g s s s s \ q , s a ke Bkd ]uc u jhtt thp Bkd ]uc u okxy ]uc u rDflkv Cgd 4kukt Pc x s s s a s s s \ s kv jdn nko;ü/ udfsy ]kd elke jnl ]kd rhx d k;{fi 6kd k{o jnl sdl s s , qa s s X s X 1 aq m ]kd Ir kun nko;ü/ 2kusy >el re ytfe kd okLi hldf ]kukt re dQ ]k s s a s \ ukt re jgO 4kukt jtqx rkuxuqx rhx ]Ir kg jnl hg kurdf 4uc u rDflkv s q s aq s kjkudf7yd Bkd ]Ir Bkd 2re kudIv ]hg kurdf kudIH ]hg urdf kdIH 4 w s s s s Cgd re kudIv ]gj uk;÷ jH kurb 2kgj e rfx 2kyp rgc2kyp rPc ;”yv s s X s s s s \ 4xkdIH kr ]g kuki go ]g s s s , , kuki g; ]xkjd rjfk/uf ;”y e ukKv lb uiv er 6g Cgu kri Nd Xgér ` s s Z X s q , q q hF k;D rjWt hd ;”y kr ]rkg rukt jxv er jkv 4kxSk[ ye l er ]kxS s s s s q , s s q k[ Cgu ye l o®r¬fv ;”y kjkgér 4sxkvkg rcfcVrfi Cgér e ;”y jkgéqr 4kx s s q s s z q X s kg jkr¬of hg kd uîo¬ jkgér `kxkg k;D ;”y 4xkvkuc e uîo¬ ]xskvkuc e rî s s q s s s X s X f"l ]sxkvkuc e kNe ]xkvkuc e ukKv suiv 4xkvkuc er `kxSkuc ukd ;”y q q s X Z w s s X s s q , 4g rkt dIH llb ]g ryp jdku T s s T s c ;”y xky 4g Z;koufv ;ørx kr g rfx 4kxSkt hg kv ;ørx unf dS u dS s , a s , a

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 602 egaP

4kd ei g oHuv kjkeg kr hg; zs , q s 4kxLi kukt IwN jGf ]kxksg jxaH<{ ]kxksg d<f{ kuk s \ q el ksr Sx hH kel jkv `sxksdl kel ld elm er kr g rDf;ø ke®keji jxv , s , X q s , jkv 4g Cgu rDf;ø Bksd ke®keji jkv 4g rkt ksg kni r jk,v Te 4g hruc hjwn , , , T s , w , ]g krksg kL[ r} ]g krksg kL[ }a} kr ksjd xks;im kd nç' ke®keji dfk;D 4 , \ , , \ s X g k;x kel e oHuv df kgd 4g k;x kel e ke®keji e df kgd Cgu g; 4k; wa X q wa X T df Cgu xsk;im kd nç' ke®keji 4g k;x kel e oHuv e cv ]g rgd dye wa X q T T s w 44kukel gVni oHuv Te cv q 3kujd ''fksd hd u>el skd k_l ub 4g jk;î Lc _wl ; s X w T s s \ s 4g 'kyr hd ke®keji hg 'kyr hd jxkl jkv krxel , , z 4g hg jxkl <‘Î 4Cgu jxkl ji ]rgc g _ofi 4kxx g ekj T q T a T 4kukt ksg j xkl 6kjkudf Bkd u ]yd Bksd u A g eku kjln kd knk;ev 4rDfe g eku kjl s w , w Z q , n kd knk;ev 4<jkd d knk;ev ]g kgd jkrok<i ]g k;nf ukeél d/fkZol kd w Z s Z , Z w , s <‘Î ultf ]ji hoƒi lb g e,kd hydv eg 4<jkd d knk;e hdum g k;nf u s 1 T s s Z , keél kd hHl udfy ]ksd k"Qinl uiv g k;nf ukeél rgc u k;ufn 4hdl jd s s X q. s , q s q Cgu rfkt Bksd ji hoƒi 6g k;df ekd rHnv jd gd jkrok<i ueg kd <‘Î 1 , q . Z w s s 4g kgj kt kpj lkj jk,v g hgj tc hjlkac yirfi jkv 4g hjlkac ]g ;®u 4kj , , q z , , q , 1 k/ rDe 4g e;uf7rfhj Bksd u ]g <jpkv kvg k/c Bksd u ]g k'Du Bksd u 4g q , , q a , T nk;ev 6Cgu knk;e Bksd ]Cgu u/c Bksd kd <‘Î 4hgkjex 4g kgd jkrov < Z Z a q , Z i ueg kd <‘Î 4g Sx gj hg d'fkv 2g Sx ksg refhl o hg <jkd d knk;e w s s T a T s s Z rfv ]<jkd d knkZ;e df 4kxksg kpkl u lsS n;k' uer 4g hed hgo 4g eRk s s s s q , T s "Qi7knk;e o 4knk;e `dl gd u jkrok<i eg ksdum df e ekj g hed hl7u q Z s Z s Z w X , k,d 4kgd Cgu jkroZk<i hH jGf udfy kgd jkrov ksd ekj ueg ]er ksg r[sn w s s q s 4rki pgi Cgu kago o ]g srkt s qa s T ksg 0ckv e knk;e7e;uf7rfhu ]g ry /kac e kXvk<jk/ –{ hd _jfp ]g ry X Z T s s X q T s s /kac e kXvkrgfal7<jpkv kd uiv kt jkv 4g rkt pgi o ]Cgu r/kc ksd uiv X s s s , T s qa s s a s X e kXvkrgfl7<jpkv kt 4hd kXrk0lf ]hd kX_¬k' sry Cgu hg ∂Gf kt ]g rkt a s a s s T s pgi so kago 4g hrn kpgi rnkv hd sukt syp hg rdIH ]rnkv hd udIH kago qa , s aq s s 4s>e hgjex hje hH kago g h;kv y q q s , s Cgu jtx kd kjcgkj Xe kytfe utf q\ X X \a 4Cgu ekd kd kdZ'nxke kgt ]g ytfe hH hlS Nd X Z a T X a s q 4s>e hgjex hje hH kago g h;kv y q q s , s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 702 egaP

4rHquv u jk,v krDkHuv ksr u 6g krkt gj _ke oH w s q , q uv 4g hrkt gj lkOef hd phc d Xkuksn ]lc 4krpc Cgu hH go ]g kgj ksg o , s , Huv kdldf 4krpc Cgu hH go ]g kgj jd oHuv uk,d 4krpc Cgu hH Nd j q , q q k,v 4g krpc _ke oHuv yod ]g hrpc _ke kurp yod kago dfk;D ]g kgd , q s , s s X , ;¥o,d slm u hldf 4g krksg oHquv kd ehlv ]g hrkt jxf Skehl cl 4g krkt s , T a , gj ;ürp /cuf 4g rkt jxf u/c cl 6d okH ]d jkpof ]d ;nÔ ]sd ue ] , X T s a s s s d jhj' 6d r ]sd e 6g rkt jxf u/ac cl kago dfk;D 4g kgd {ke lm u hl s s w T T s X , s s s df jkv 4g kgd <kZouf lm su hldf Syflb 4g krkt >c jkdgv lS ]g krkt , , s , q a s s , >c k;hn ]g krkt skg <kZouf kd Shn l,t 4g krkt Ief yd¥cf jkdgv kago d q , s , q a fk;D ]g kgd <kZouf u kxky Nd ltf jk,v 4g iW eji kd ke®kv go dfk;D 4 X , s X s q s , X g kgd ke®keji su kxky Nd kdltf ]g k;x kg uhy e oHuv eji lm Te cv , X s q s wa s X q 44kukel gVni oHuv Te cv q A Tg rgd 4kgd ni ksd oHuv 4g oHuv hg klS 4hxSkv Cg s q , q s u jdIky 4hxSkt yx e jxkl hg hn¥t ]hxSki y k;D kr gkF 4hxxy uj[cf , X s s s s ]hxxy ucL 4hxsxy uy?if df Bx e jxkl hg lt hyri hd deu 2kv y gkF s s w s X s , q s hd jxkl ]kt df n jkrm e jxkl Bksd kd hyri hd deu lt rgd <‘Îekj s X s q s , s 4cL kl cL 4Cgu kuokHl ]Cgu ;kim hH ksr ksgkp3Cgu ;kim Bksd kd u s w s s w a s IN llm jGf llb ]g oHuv hg kuiv dfp 4kd krxel huiv ]kd krtuf hu w s s , q wa z iv ]kd o®r¬fv ]g oHuv dS ]lc 4dwye g rgd oHuv kdlm `g k;D kago , q T s q s , ]g 8r8 kgt u ]g 8e8 kgt u `g krdl kt k;ki ld 8r8 Syflb ]krkt k;ki , w a , T a , s , w Cgu 8e8 dfp jk,v 4krkt k;ki Cgu 8e8 Bksd ]g krkt ksg rHhi‘ko ]g krkt skg T wa T , w , rgfksjrf 8e8 Zilf ]g krkt Ief 8e8 Zilf ]Cgu 8e7r8 4g krkt Ief 8e8 kagt T , T T w , T ]g eku kd oHuv eji lm ke®keji 4g Cgu rDf;ø ke®keji 4rpc hH llm ] , q , s s rxkH eg hH llm 4hrksg kni IgkIiIN hH elm ksr krkg rDf;ø Bksd ke®keji s s , X s 4g hrxt k{kdkv hd sukt ksg ;o¬ jGf ]hd ukt ksg rDe , a a s q jGf ]hd ukt kg jn jGf ]hd suxkH yduf jGf ]IgkIiIN hd ukt cL ]IgkIi s s w s w IN hd uki ygi 4g hrkt ksg Wq' IkgIiIN 4rki gj Cgu e jln7dS hei ksr s s , s X s w zs hH jn hurm `sxkgj e huki jn hurdf 4sxksvkv yduf jgkc d huki hH ksr skg s s X s s kp hH u er 4kxSkt kv Idl ji k<ki ]hxXxy uI? lkl hg hn¥t ]hxksg IgkI q a X z s q X a iIN hg hn¥t udfsy ]kIk,y u df ksgkp er [ky ]kvkxy hdcL e huki er slt s q s q X q , 4g krLi kuIky jxe ]Cgu Ik,y jGf ]Skt hg cwL g krgkp df 4g kLh\i hd , \ , s , , hei ksr hg; 6ksg rkt dINf7dINf 6kg rkt dINf jGf ]kg rkt kg uhy ]ksg sr zs s s s s s s kt cL e jln7dS ]ksg rksg Iduf ]kg rkv lki ksd jH<{ 4g hrkt ksg hjn kn w X s w s s s , w k;† hH l ygi n;k' 4g hrkt ksg hjn rgc ]hjn jGf 2e kX<{ Cgüdf7Cgüdf ]l s s , w q w X c 4kg rkt kg uhy e jln7dS er e kX<{ Cgüdf 7Cgüdf ]g ei kjkgéqr slutf s s s X s w q X , zs
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 802 egaP

uki o®Z<i hyp e hd krrDjf kehl ?ky s w T a g hruke e3hgo k<‘r e xkj jkgér g wa T 1 X s q , ksd uyef7jxkl yp jfl k;† y lk;î hd kr<wi s X s Z 4g hrukpgi ksd xkv hrOm Fkl sd kXjo¬ Te wa g hrukt krydof hd Xk;Lfd3u e >el ZFv wa \ T wa 4hrkx Fkl jkgéqr Te s hrkxext e hl7_{u ugi y;ki d rfk;† T s s ]hrkx Fkl jkgéqr Te s hrkx Fkl e ji ]u g hr>el kd kXrhx okH T wa 44kukel gfni oHuv Te cv a q `g krdl kg k;D nç' kjk;î jkv l oHuv Syf dlb , s , s q s 4g kry jd uhy Xe , s s uiv ksd kukn ]hH kd hl;i ]hH ksd hei ]g krsy kcL kdcl kt 4g krksg oHu X s s zs zs , q s s , q v rHnv dS kd ei lc ]hrksg Cgu hl;i ]krksg Cgu hei kagt g ei klS dS q . zs zs zs , zs s 4g hrkt skg , jxkl krjfl kr gj u jkudf ct 4g hrkt ksg jxkl kr hgo 4g hrkt ksg rDqe s s s , s , s l kXjkudf krjfl ]rkt gj Cgu jkudf kgt 40'3g krkt gj u'n _ke ]krskg s s a q , Z Cgu ;æn ]krksg Cgu kI‘– kagt 4g hrkg kZ"o ]g hrkt gj kjk/ rrl hd ukK Zi 1 , s , lf ]krksg Cgu ;K ]krksg Cgu krkK kgt ]hd oHquv eji g hL? hlS dS udfy s a , \ s s 4g kvg k/c e hIqi , q a X _f lb uoht kjkl ksr kjkeg 4uZ'n jkv ;æn ]kI‘– 4g rkg uhr ksr g krkg u' , 1 T s s , s Z n 4ei jkv hl;i ]hei 4g rksg uhr ksr g krkg ei 4;sK jkv ukK ]hukK 4g sr zs , zs zs T s , s zs , T s kg uhr kago ksr ]g krksg ukK hH ct 4g hrskg hIi_f k'eg ksr e uoht jkeg , , q s X s 4ku>el kLkF slb s\
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 902 egaP

hrkjFjF kg rufo÷ hlt7hrjkv ypp7rfk;† s , a s 4hrkx Fkl jkgéqr Te s hrkv ep Hu e gksjkv3e gksjov yFf'f skg w X X ]g Sdf rj ksd k<dd je jkH;y kd rhx , X a ss hrjd e¬H aSk/}f hd ue hd nukv g; rfk;† a s 4g Sif jxklkge kd /e ldf Od kje tkv , q a s , g Syf jee kd rDfe ldf kd <ki ypp ;ko Z q z a q e hyr7jr¬i kron k;† kd r√e kg kOm xt X z s X w s s l,t rv kd lj u3kr;eür rDjf g; hd <kzi a e hydkd hjkgér e hl7jgy hrkt hyq? g X q T wa e hyx hd uoht Fkl jkgér hrjGf hrLkn X s q ,\ hrkgu e hl7hjlc hIelf phc kOksg /≈qe T a X 4hrkx Fkl jkgéqr Te s hrkt Fkl g hl7gkN huhH7jk;î hyhtl Te wa a s ukyef jo¬ e hOm Igkydv jkv I?wa? LkN T q , s\ kxkt gkn kd hdif hH e ue y¥G sje jkv X q s , sukyc Bkv s>e ;y hd uoi3hF rpfjfiv Te q q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 012 egaP

hF krtfj kt jfl7e‘hx rofkyî <ijfi Bx skg a s z Z w ri√el kt e rfxv hd kO‘uf 0Qov hLi hF s X \ hF krpfl kst l eüt jduc jkxnm hyp Iy a s . q hF krpfo kt hOm y[f ]kt hF de go hLi y[ a s s w \ q hjkgér hrki kiNf kst je lki cd d/fv kF q ss hjkgér SkKov ksd jH7hL? unf krkt yH q a \ w hrkH tky hd k<x d uikx <ki hrkt yH X q s s z w hrkt ew> uc hLd yeksd hd rhx jkgéqr Te \ s 4hrkx Fkl jkgéqr Te s hrkt jkgyfc hxi7[l hl7hx[ rjfi7dyi Te q w q hji rf<i rnfkuuf cv rfÎho¬ nç'Auf kgo hF w z a q q <v7<v zx;ø kF kag; rjf[e3kgo kF uti uke q a w , hjn Íl hF Cgu kOd®m Reüm hLc hF w a \ hj/v kti hgj ]Bkv yduf e jnfae LkN w w T s\ kjkl rkx g; 'oof kF r_fel7rfx l k<jzsi a s hrdl u dQ hH <{ dS e >e ji kF kgj xy T s q kjkgér gzxkv dufr l>qe Syf d ukx u kF q s s s kjkgér jo¬ kuhgo≈fko e hgj hrul dr jsn q T q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 112 egaP

4hrkx Fkl jkgéqr Te s hrkxext e hl7_{u ugi y;ki d rfk;† T s s ]hrkx Fkl jkgéqr Te s hrkx Fkl e ji ]u g hr>el kd kXrhx okH T wa 4hrkx Fkl jkgéqr Te s hrke7xkj e hyp uyef hl7ccVrfi sl ccV T s z hrkel e kXLhe /≈e hd hlb hrkt hFx Te X \ q qa kd hytv hd uoi rfi [e hg; krn xj qrdV a z q s a dr cv u g h>el Fv e kd rhx hekuv ub wa Z T kd hyd ur ?y uel kruc l rkijfi sd /x q q s sz a kd hyokdyi <jpl kd rfÎi g kry /akc q a s z , s krjg ikr7Fi g; xkj kd kXdjkr hralo g , hrkg rknov k'uf njk' l ukr lm jdxhH s s krjH r√i e ku? d jcv rhxl hg; g w X X s a a , kryiof n<ki ou I‘fl3l>e eæfj hrki iW q z 1 s q hrkleld hl7kry hrOm l q;ko hralo Te s 4hrkx Fkl jkgéqr Te s hrkc ihn ydk;ø7gu¬ k;† u;u ryfhe Sx y[ q s X q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 212 egaP

yif jgt hg su k;ufkuw; ksdlm ]rkjdl ]ky[f yed jnl lcl kt e Xk;ufku; X q qaa s s X w jkv 4hn n hyl hg u k;nfg; kdlm ]llht ]ky[f yG erO‘J kt e k;nfg; , s w s X w s w s s X X w 4g oHquv kd jH k;ufn g; ]Cgu klS ]k , q s ;df hg su kvngV Bksd g; jk,v 4dl jd u rækZnc ngV kd yG erjnl l cl X q s w s w qa s hg uiv 4kdG Lk[m u kvngV l kg; ksd 0c hg <jkd d k;“k;ø hd gjr lb s X \ s X q s a q s 4g <irki{i k;“k;ø ngV g; 4g ryx k;“k;ø ngV g; udfy 4g rkt gj ip , Z w w , w s T s q 0c udfsy 4g krgd kr klsS ]g Cgu 4jrgc dkZokp ed l ed ksr llb 4g C q , s , s s s , gu ksgd ksr g Cgu ]g ksgd ksr g `rn Cgu kX;D ckot Gkl ksr ]g joæB g krN , , , s s , , i Bksd hH ct Syflb 4g dr¬fku 0c df g rkt ruke hg; dr cv wngV 4g w T q T s s T dr¬fku ]g rykI rkc Syflb ]Cgu kri güm n;k' df k>el u Nd 4gj srykI T s X s q s rkc jHhxntV 4rkt ykI rkc so ]Cgu k; g joæB kNi u hldf hH ct sl 0c s , w s q 4g srk T t gj ;“k;øv hukK jkv g rjd k;“k;ø hukKv kg; 4g hygi >cc Syflb 4Cg , T s a , s w s u krkel e knç' jGf oHuv 4kLc rgc oHuv ]g rkt Li IkN rgc nç' Sy X X q \ q q T s \ ss q f sdum ]g kukt sukgütf 4g uklkv kujd k;“k;ø Syflb ]Cgu kukt 4Cgu kukt , X , s X ukgütf ]g y'd Lc rLfi so e ujd k;“k;ø hd ke®keji 2g rkc rqHnv hLc T q s \ a X s , . \ 4Cgu kukt ukXgütf g rjd o k"kHjfi jkv k;“k;ø 4hrksg Cgu k"kH s T s s , jfi ]hrksg Cgu k;“k;ø udfy ]g rsy ksg ksr r¬e ]g ry kuxux kr u/ 4krkv s T s T s s q q s q Cgu e Ldi Fv jxe g sry kx skr rhx 2lm eg g rki ukt kagd hH jd ukt X \ Z T s s T s 7ukt 4,g hH ;Kv ]g Cgu hg rkKv ke®keji 4hH Nd kugd g oHlv ]kxksg r s , q , a v kd k_k; lb kgd ]jxkl g; kxSkt y kagd 6hrdl ksg Cgu h<ko7;‘ofH Bkd a a s s e /cl sdltf 6Cgu kri Nd kd rfx hdltf g k;x dcf Fkg dlm cv jkv X a a q wa s , 4kukdcf Fkg rfxofv ~ ~ ~]kron7hon cl Sx yH s s w ~ ~ ~ ]kukyH eH ksd uosn cl q Z 44kukel gVni oHuv Te cv q 4oHuv A g eku kd dye q , w 4g Snf eku jk;î7sjk;î u T s s eg hg kd /xl hd L[v lm 4g hd L[v ]g hd xel kt ]hjkgér u ]hje u s a q a , a , z s q s s kt /axl dS 4g kd o®r¬fv kt rhx dS 4g krOm rhx dS df ksgd hg kurb q , s , lc `gd ld hH kdlm jkv 2rhx kdlm ]Cgu rhx kjkgér 4g krOm jWt r X s , , q , hx dS 4rpc Cgu er ct ]kd kr/≈eofokH ]kd kr;eür ]kd kruhy¥r g <{ s q q , uoki klsS dS 6hd ukt ksg rgfkel ]hd uk/kel ]hd /fkel g hL? hlS dS s , \ s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 312 egaP

4g rhrknç' yd¥cf kt ]g , q s , oHuv eji dS hgo 4k;nf Cgu jRm e /cl d ke®keji ilf ]Snf jRm cl q X a a s Z jkv u 0c 4g krdl kt kgd hg e uk,e yod lm ]g krkt k;ki e uke sltf , s q , X s s , X , 4xksvki lm hg Xe uk,e s s jk,v 4k'kyr e uk,e 4ksn re jRm hH er ]g kgj n Cgu jRm e lt ]g srgd s X q wa s T s , T 0c 4ksvkt ksg ip hH er lsS kvg ip e l,t 2kvkt ksg ip 2ksgj ip 4g jR q q q s q q T s s q q , m hg hiîp e /cl d ke®keji 4g uæirfv g; 4kNi re ykol g; ]kNi re q X a a s , z s w s w df Tg gj gd 0c df g dhri kd rkc lb ilf jHuoht kukt gj ip kd 0c s q , z Z q q 4g rgc gke l jkd/av kjkeg 4g sry jd n , q s s T s c [kav eg kr Skv hu'ksj df g Ldi l jkst kurb ksd jkd/v uiv7uiv eg a s T s \ s a s s 2sxukpgi k;D hH ksd 0c ]g ukpgi Cgu hH ksd kn" X X q T s X ufim 4dl ukpgi u ksd 0c hH so ]hF knil rHnv hlt kXn"ufim lki dutf s q a q . , s 4g krukt go dfk;D ]llm ku[ , X s hl ]kuOm ]kuOc lki dlm ]krukt Cgu gd kst jkv 4krukt Cgu kuy ukt ]g , s s , s wa krukt e gd kt A g rgd n"ufim 4g knil hlt kXn"ufim lki dltf jkv 4 T s s T s , a , s , g rfkt hukji lcl ji hoƒi lb kt 2dl >el u hH ngV df ;≈kHn kld jkv , q s 1 s s w Z q , , 4g krdl kt kgd hg e uk,e yod kr lm , X s s s 4g nç' kIkN kag 4g krn kuc kehl kg dfk;D ]gd ld kag jkv 4g joæB dfk;D , s , s a X wa s , , , X ]krdl kt Cgu hg kgd ksr Cgu df kukt u 0c dfk;D ]ykc Cgu 0c 4g hiîp s q X s s q , q hd dr¬fkv eji 4g hiîp hd dr¬fkv hiîp hd 0c 4>el u eg ksd uke d , q q q s , s 0c 4Bx k[ k;“k;ø hjkeg `k;df re¬of gjr lb kX;D kd 0c ueg `kvg k;D q 1 s q s q 4g cklgf hgo ]hxksg hd Hky rkc hl7uk,d e piokan drfhutkj 4Cgu k , X X un7kuy Nd kdub 4rkt kg ukeyle ; ksr rkg ukeyle jdLcv jxv 4rkt s s q s s s q s s s q s a s ksg BklB xky jkl d jkl ; ksr rksg BklB jdLcv jxv 4g 0kc O> yd¥cf s s s s s s s a T , sw q 0k,c7ou 4g 0k,c O> rkaruf yd¥cf o 4g Cgu utsk;i Bkd l 0c kdum ]g S T sw q s , z s s q s T g kni koyeku kt cv jk,v 4kgj Cgu koyeku kd 0c e rjkH dr ykl kXjktg q , s s s q X 4hF htkcykp drfhutkj g; `kun7kusy k;D l 0c `kun7kusy k;D l o®0c udfy ]F <‰kckge lS ]Xdl k s s q s s q s s z s s jg ksd k<‰kc 6F rLfi ]F dd√kr ]F nofuukd `kri kd /fkel k;D ]kri kd X z s a s s w uk;÷ k;D ksd jdLcv jIDkL jxe 4aSkt kg 0k,c df k;df ;r ukXgüm e j[fk s a s s X v jGf 4g kugj Cgu ngV df hF hdDi rkc dS3Skt kg ukeyle rpksl hHd , w a s q s ]Skt ksg BklB rpkl hHd ]gj rjd jkpof kGn Bd jH hxntV jdLcv jIDkL a s s s s s a 4g k;tfkc T a ykp drfhutkj cl o `g 0k,c dk[\ Bksd k;D o ]g 0kc Su kst cv jkv 4k; s T s T , , x gj u koyeku Bskd e ukr¬ngV 4kdG Lk\[m hg kdlm ]0c erk,x ]kF kd ku s X q X s q rp hd kvngV jda'hjkx kst ]kvqN j['f kpM l pM kt u kvngV jk,v 4k;nf k s X q , a s s a s s X q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 412 egaP

ktrb l hg sygi 2hxSkt ksg hed hd ykIi hHd u hHd df kxksg kgj kri kd a s s≠ s Di ]kF knkjb kd ct\x k;D 2hjkol hd gp jk,v *)@Òy d jphrke e Fkg g; sw s w s X ]nXkr ; ]hd hFkg Ll g; 4g krkt kg Uli endS Rpf kdlm 4jd[sn skdum s wa , s z g krxy uky[fy[f endS kpπc 4g rkt gj nk; ht'<x yd¥cf ksd pπc 2 , s T s s q s kxksg k;D jk,v dhri kNπv knk;† l ht'<x Syf d uk>el ksd x cv 4kd ht z s s s s '<x 8x8 A kF krksg e kXckrdf hd yd¬ ksr kF kvg Cgu nktkv rjkH ct slt s X w q , 4g hxk;im Syf d kXpπc jkv ]g suk,y[f d kssapπc s; 4kg gj jd kti hg hd T s s , T s s s w um ]g k;yfxm Lkjd lhrr s; 4g hgj yp kti hd k;yfxm 4g gj kcp ak;yfx T a s\ T , w X a T s m df g xksy jkv 2ksvkcp re ksd k;yfxm ]ks[n kd nkap er 4g hOm k;yfxam a T , X a s s q T a Gjr ltf g hg dS kr nkap udfy hxkg xyv k;yfxm hdcl ]xkg xyv ;øk , s s X a a s X d sdcl ]sxkg xyv dhri dcl jkv 2dofkHko¬ 6e huhp kr kxykc l®ksvky jk X z s , X s s s w , v e dejv ksr sxXykc llht jkv ]e hcjv kr xyskc neége jkv ]e rÎki kr X , s s , X s s X q , X z s s X xyksc jhokge ]sxXyksc e hyki kr sxyksc 0c 4ArokHo¬ 4g hrdl kg xyv k;r X s X q T s a Df;øHfv ]g hrdl kg xyv aSkuta;øHfv ]g rdl kg xyv e;÷ke d ugd ]g T s T s s s s T hrdl kg xyv Sk"kH ]kag `0kc ld ]ut l,d ]ukeyle ld ]ngV l,d 4g k s a , s , , s q s , w s , rdl ksg hg dS hH e/ ksr ]g dS ;®l jxv 4g krdl kg hg dS hH e/ ksr Z , , s Z ]g dS ukKof jxv 2ji hoƒi Sgfkp e/ urb 4g okyG kd krrî{fof hjkeg o , 1 Z s , , kyG kd kvkron7hon kjkl ; 4Sx kg uhyof kron7hon hHl ]Sx kg uhyof cl , X s s s s s s s Syf dlm ]k;yf jd oHuv ksd eji lm sultf `Xe lk>7Lx> lb `e r;kp s q s a s \ X i lb kxLi ukd 4g krosn7hosn Lks\jd lhrr kr e rjkH j,kv 2'ge7<‘of7k‰c a s \ , T T s X s q z kx[j nk; ukd 2kd ht's<x kx[j nk; uk,d e hr¬e lb ]e kF¬ov eji lb s , s s X X 4aSkt ksg yG l 'i¬ d Fkg dum jkxav 4Skt w s Z s s s a y[f yG hg ywG 4Skt ksg rlo kr Xn wN hH ksd u≈fv hd dju o jxv 4g _of w a s s T i hgo sydv ]g tkcdki sydv hgo df Sg LdD;if hH lS ]g Sg njV hH slS s T s q \ s s T q s eg aSkuc kar¬yfx hH ksdxkv hd [tkn q \ s\ eg jxv y N ]g tk\cdk\i7snjV kso X s w T 4g rkt ksg re√uf r¬kj hg l udIH dlm 4g T s s s s s T s ruc xke hg e sukxexL dlm 4ji hoƒi lb g er_ofi hgo ]g k;yf hi ksd c Z X s 1 , , kj' hdlm sultf ]g k;yf hi kd s'u dlm sultf jkv 4Cgu krjrm jGf 4kPp , s s , \ ksl kPp k'u kd ke®keji ]g krkt jrm ]g krPp kr k'u kd ckj' 2r¬ene \ , , \ s klsS ]g k;x kg uhy¥r klsS ]g kcL klsS 4dl jd Idi nç' Bkd u ]g kehl B wa s wa w s z s , ksd u 4g jkNjkv u ]g jkijkv u 2k;x jd 'oi e k;ufqn ldf ]g rgd dye , s s , s z X T s w 4kukdcf Fkg rfxofv
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 512 egaP

4xkXg rgd hg dhO ksr g rgd ikv cv ]g dhO kr g srgd ikv cv 4Bx gj s s T s , s T rnkv jxe Sx syp ksr htkrif 4Sx kLdi htkrif ]g Bx ksg rnkv l uipc u \ , s dfy ]g Cgu kNπv hH kd>e ksr krxy ]kgd uXkgüm 2jHunf g; jxe ]Syf d s , s q s > jkc hurm ]kg kujd jkc hurtf ]kg kujd gér kst jkv Sx yp e jnfe /k q s s X q , s X a dS 2g h[j kuc rnkv uer k;D g; jkv `F L[ k;D er df ]Nhi kxaMksg jk , s q , s s \ X q s nhxkH kd iki hH e Fkl jkgér ]kgd ue 4Li kuksg kL[ Fkl dum hH >e kr T s q s T s \ \ s s q s 2k;D7k;D eyke7u ]kron ]hosn ]ht'<x ]htjd' g O,c phu hg d L\k> ksr w s s a T s s s jnfe u 4jnfe jGf df yduf j? jkp7kn ]jnfe jGf df yduf j? uhr7kn 2g a a s s a s s , hed Nd e 'sn lb hd kXjnfe jkv 2kukdq> jlf jkc7jkc g; ]g krkt dF hH q X a , wa T e Fkl jkgér ]BH df kgd kdum unf dS sue 4Skd> jlf l hn¥t ]sLi Bk[ s q s T a q s \ nf jnfe hH Bkd df hF rnkv kdum 4kF krkt ue? Fkl d _ef dS uiv Te a s s s w s s 4g hrsy Ldi hH gér Xthp ]rLdi Cgu hg ksd kthp eqr T \ X q s \ X 4g krkt ksg ydæfe kuLkN , q s\ ]g uklkv ksr kuLdi 4g krkt ksg ydæfe ku>yl jGf g uklkv kr ku>ym d , \ , q q , s fk;D 4ku>ym l krkc hIke7hIksN k;D 4elm ksg lgkl hg kurb g krgkp kd hl X s X s X wa s k;ül uiv e 4Sgfkp lgkl Syf dlm 4jd k{hri hd gcl o ]Cgu hH Skyt a s T s X z q s a s X kd k;hn n;k' o ]g hyko hg uksg gcl df g kji klksjH kdutf jkv 4g dhO s , s q , w , T Syf d rkj ]; g Shn 6g krn k>c kron7hon cl go ]g kry jd oHuv ksd s s T , s q s s , s q ke®keji kt hg lS 4ksg rn k>c hg rksg gcl 2u ksg rn k>c k;hn er ksd unf s s s s s q s q s s q q 2jGf Skyt ksd Shn jGf ] s y [n ksd tjl kt jxe 4'v kd 'kdi hlm hH go ]g kryt kt e ky hl7hI s s w s a z , s X , ksN hd Shn jkv 4<jdf hg hd tjl kr g hH <jdf hd Shn dfk;D ]dhO hH < , w s , X jdf hd Shn kr <jdf hd tjl ksg u jkv ]hgl hg <jdf kr yef tjl Cgu ]h s w , s s w gl kjk'b kIkse7kIkN Bksd ]ksyp kr ]ksg u kroDijfi hjkgér hHv hurm ]ksg u s s q krPki hjkgér hHv hurm ]ksvki kIt u lgkl kurm ]ksvki kOm u hH [kv hpaM ,\ z q q a hurm ]ksvki >el u hHv er n;k' ksd eji lm 4g ukgc 4g dhri lc kro q T s T z sn7hon Lkjd lhrr ; ]Sgfkp dhri kgo 4g pπc cl eg Xe rxt d e/ hg sl s s\ T s z a T s . s Z S 4Sgfkp dhri Bksd Syf d suk>el ksd 8x8 udfy 2kvkuc kd /x df kvkuc s z s s s s s kd ht'<x 6kxLi hg kukuc ksr ksd hldf u hldf 8x8 kr ksg kuk>el ksd pπc s s \ s s 4g {ijuf7e/ kr uk/ofl ;hrjkH jkv 4g hrkv cnc hd , s Z s a , , w e/ kjt\ e ht's<x 4g 8jy;Dl8 k/x dfkX;D 4kd s/x 8x8 ]krksg Cgu kd ht' Z X , w s s <x 8x8 cv nkc d hnktkv 2hgj u rkc hH go udfy 4g krkt ksg Uli kpπc s s , z 2hxksg Bx hg ksg ksr rDfe hd gp 2kxksg kdp je kd hHd k; ]kxksg kgj kd jcj ksr k; hH kgp q sw q w jk,v 6ji gp g Oc l ct sxkXg yp u pb dS ]dl u yp gkp 4k;yf jd e sw T s, s s a X s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 612 egaP

k;ki Nd cl k[n ksd>r ]kyef u Nd ji h[sn k;ufqn q s q q jnl Cgd ukd¬e hjsr qa q jnl Cgd uk/jfi kuh> ]kd kt†y ji ofN7[e sl [qe qa q jnl Cgd ukd¬e hjr ]l kXrkj hjk;/fv kl7kl qa q s s a , , 4hd ke®keji kxjd k{hri ksr go 4Sky s z t Cgu hH k;hn n;k' e j/v d rkj ksr go kr `y jd kuiv Cgu kX;D hg j X ss a s s X xkl kjwi 2nc7nc k;D 4Sgfkp kuksg hGkd dS 4hg ksd dS jGf ksr xLdi cv g wa wa s X \ , krgd ksr go 4Cgu hg krLdi ksr go ]g joreégf kt Syflb 2g Sg Ldi kd \ , s T q s \ s X kvkron7hon urdf eg jkv 4g ydæfe rgc jGf kuLkN ]g uklkv kr kuLdi s s s , , q q s\ , s \ 4h;kv k;n >qe jd [n hupsc hdum s s , 2sxkXg jkoeétf hg ikv jGf kr ]Skt kg Nd l Nd 4 s s s q s q Xn uy jd jkd¬eu jd kt s>e 2Bx Ikd kr¬kj hH hy¥cf gcl tkv jkv 2g kg s s q q , , j xy hH jL kLc jkv 2g hgj kg hu,pc hLc ]jd Gke ]ykc l>e jGf 4Sx y \ , , s s \ X s s s q duf sxkv d jnfe end g–i7ln 4syp Fkl je jdksg uk/okl yd¥cf o 2g kg s a a ss q s , j kv jnfe 2uk/okl A kgd ue ]kLi jnfe hg kygi ]yduf Fkl jse unf jlwn a s T \ a s s s 4 g dhO ]hy jd kti gcl Gn dS ]g rgd dhO ikv 4g Cgu rjWt Bksd hd u , w q s T s , s d> uekl d jnfe jg klS l yd df ]kxWd ''fksd cv Te ]g rgd dhO ksr q s s a s s a T s g rgd ikv cv ji 4kxSkt ksg tkjku hgo SkIg kdltf `SkIg kdldf `sld T s a s a s , X IkaN df kgd sulm 2rn Cgu kX;D IkN Nd l eub ]kgd lum uTe kr 2rdl j s s a q s X s s s s d Cgu hH tkjku ksd hldf cv ]g Xydæfe e hxntV kr hg lo kr 2O‘Nd sl N T q X s s , s q d ]aSkt ksg tkjku ]aSkt IN Bksd /kdS df g krgj jL hH g; jGf j,kv 2skvk q w , Pp kr yG ]kdLNf ksr huki ed l ed ji cl 4g krkt xy gcl kI? dS hH \ s w s \ s , q a jGf jxe ]ksjd hurdf hH hn¥t3rktc7rktc k;If? hH elb Ag rgd go kr s s a a X T s s 4Bx ksg Wq' kti ujk,G ]Snf [j yG kn ]k;nf kPp unae7unp 4Sx kg htjd' w w s \ a s a hgo 4Sky kOm skd hlm ]kyef jF®i yksx hH Bkd 2g rdDnf Bksd hd k;r√e k s , X w a g; jkv 2C;x yef k;r√e hH kt ]yef hH kst 2kron7hon urdf eyke7u elm , a w s s s s s w X ]g k[j kuc jnfe kl7kIksN dS ksr k[n j? kdum ]Sx y hH j? uiv >e o , a s s s s q s 4kujd kti hd cl ]ksg kron7hon hH Bksd df g Sx kjL klS htkr w s s T s if jkv 2jHunf g hrksg upLv hLc hH s>e df g hrxy hH >e ksr rkc jkv , , \ \ q , s q ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 712 egaP

jnl Cgd uk;÷ kd jnl hlm klc e kX[kv kst ji qa qa X a jnl rfÎi ]?e g jnl ]hyrrf ]xgcf ]yG g jnqal qa z s T qa w T jnl Cgd ukd¬e hjsr qa q jnl Cgd ukjg h<jfg ]l huki rgc Xe kXrsj qa , s s , g hOwuv lk;î hd lk;î ]g krytae e yt yrh' s , q X jnl Cgd ukd¬e hjsr qa q jnl Cgd ukoxH kd ue ]l ktjxf7nt¬fe7jnfe ub qa s a s yksc j/e on kd ue ji ]uk,e kron kd ;ykosn q s s jnl Cgd ukd¬e hjsr aq q jnl Cgd uk;yt ypp l kjgy hpM hd jxkl qa a s X a s uc uk;yt ?y7?y ouke jxklkge jkiv jklal q q jnl Cgd ukd¬e hjsr qa q jnl Cgd ukx kd ycyc ]e hLk\> hd kIkad udfy qa q q X X s e kjktyx XykL7yksc ]dif kghii ]?e tjx ct X X q s X s X jnl Cgd ukd¬e hjsr qa q jnl Cgd ukpgfi hd ;if ]l kegfe hd ukK7jklal qa z s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 812 egaP

`kg rsy >el ;®l kd kXrk0lf Sg Px d henkv er 2ksg ry >el ;®l kd s s s a q s\ s q s s s X w k;r√e hd jF®i er 4ksg ry >el ;®l hH ksd dIku er 4g gj kt SN <j q s s q T s w p ]g gj kt SkPp yG ]g hgj kt hjkrm hrjkv ksr ]g hgj yduf rkjkc ]g s/ T s \ w , , , kac nfk;®b Ide ]g sugi 'o kd ekj hHv jxe ]g eyke rfkaHhyH ]g uk,d g q q , s , w , ; df güm g ewyke 4g gj kPp ywG Cgo ]g gj Li ji hg dlm 2g k;x uc e X , T s \ T s \ , s , kj kxGy Bksd kd okax 4Tg rsy >el ;®l hH ksd kdIku hukKv jkv 4g dIku a s X , , jkll kjkl g rgd hukK 4g s>ym xky hg e dIku kr g hgj ksg kyhyekj Cgd a T s T s X s , 4Cgu cklgf kdltf g Sx >ym urb hg Xe kuk,y[f 2g >ym xky T s X T s s hGkd Xe kuk,y[f j,kv `ksg s>ym e kuk,y[f IkN7IksN udf er cr ]g krdl y X X X ss s q , ef gér cl dfct 4g htkj ksd suksg kjkgér Ikjof dfct ku/c l IkN7IskN k;D X q , q a s ss s X jnl Cgd ukd¬e hjsr qa q jnl Cgd uk;÷ kd jnl hlm klc e kX[kv kst ji qa qa X a jnl rfÎi ]?e g jnl ]hyrrf ]xgof ]yG g jnaql qa z s T qa w T jnl Cgd ukd¬e hjsr qa q jnl Cgd ukoxH kd ue ]l ktjxf7nt¬fe7jnfe ub qa s a s yksc j/e on kd ue ji ]uk,e kron kd ;ykosn q s s jnl Cgd ukd¬e hjsr qa q jnl Cgd ukpgfi hd ;if ]l kegfe hd ukK7jklal qa z s k;ki Nd cl k[n ksd>r ]kyef u Nd ji h[sn k;ufqn q s q q 4g kuy ki cl kuy ki ksd dS lm lc 4ksy klc kd dS lm , s s s jnl Cgd ukd¬e hjsr qa q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 912 egaP

ju Bksd Cgd u 4g Cgu o®r¬fv Bksd kdum 4g Syf d kXpπc o 6g xo¬ jk,v d , T s s T Z ju Syflb 4g rn ;H k; ]g rn jkd¬ji eg ksd pπc 4kxksg Hky k; ]kxksg ;H T s s T s s q s s 4krdl ksg Cgu kr /ksc Bksd e kr;üke hdlm hH kr kxy hH uke jxv kpπc s X s s 4k;x yef hH <kei {;®i ksr cv 4kx z z wa w lp Cgu hHd cv ]Ldi ukd ksr ue 2klp jkv ]klp kOxv df kgd ulm 4ku s \ s T s w , s w w a s dksj ksdlm g ydæfe kLc ]rkc cv udfsy 4hjL hLks\F ke hdlm 4g hd LcLx k , q \ a , \ \ ;D uer df g kri kdDi s>e df kgd jkv kxy ulg jd ky[fy[f endS kp s q , q , s a πc go 4g kLc rgc kdlm Ii ]g kyko uksg kpπc kdlm ]Bkv kygfe dS hd , \ q s , s s s q y¥ge unf jln jGf 4Skt ksg u kLc rgc Ii Cgd df k;kLc? go kr 2kxSkt s w \ q s \ s ksg kLc rgc endS kjr Ii kr kxlp kOxv `g eyke hxkg hld rykg hjr \ q s s s s w w a , w s , s s kr kxlp kOwxv knk;† jxv ][n df kgd Syf d ukojL kdlm3Cgu hg uql go s w a s s s s s jxe ]kjke ]k;kde/ Gn rgc3kgd Syf d ukjL u ke hdlm 4g pπc o ]g s q s s s a T s s T s ruke kst ksd jL 4g ruke ksd jL pπc 4g hg spπc kuy >el ]g kL[ ji jL T s s T s , \ hH e/ kd kxky utf jkv 4g ruke hg ksd jL ilf pπc ]kgd Syf d ukojL Z X s , T s Z s s s ksdlm3[n df kgd su ke hdlm 4kF krlp kOwxv kuiv jkcjkc kpπc kIkN dS s a w a s 4g rjd klo o k T s , s s r kujd klsS df g rn gd eg ksd kpπc IkN lt kxgj hg klo g; 4krdl skg T s s X ss s , s , Cgu l jrhH jkgér okZHofkv kdlb dfkX;D 4hjiM kxgj g; jxe 4kun utk;al s s q s s s ]kF¬o;ø dS skd uoht kLks\F 6kuyp jd/kac ksd uoht kLkF 6e;l ]knk;e e u s\ a Z X oht hLkF 6ro7e;uf uoht kLks\F df ]g Z<ioÂge l ygi kLks\F df g Oki ktwn s\ z , w s s , 4g dhO gjr hd Oki sygi ]g srgd lkndye 4dhO Oki kygi jxe 2g uik/v , T w , a kld 2kti ksdub ]suky[f Sg Skuc l Fkg hg uiv 4kvkd> jlf ]kvkPp yG j , s w , q s s s q s \ w i jF®i 2ksjd kti hdub ]g Oc htjda' 2g sOc ht's<x ]kti g; df g; kygi w T s, T , s w ~ ~ ~ ]kon7Bn g ni kygi s s , 2k;x kv kuhge kd uktej df ]Sx kv <";i df ]Bx kv \ wZ h'nkdS ]ksjd lkoim ]ks[j ro ]k/kl <jpkv ]kyki e;uf df g ni kjln jGf z s s , w 44kjkpv7eu ktn ]kon7Bn g ni kygi s w s s , ~ ~ ~ kron j,kv hon surdf eyke7u 4kon7Bn ]Oki kygi g; s s w s s ~ ~ ~ ]kon7Bn g ni kygi s s , 4kukdcf Fkg rfxofv ]kukyH e/ ksd uosn cl q Z 3hxksg hujd reégf ksr g kuki lm jxv 4sxksgj rpfo l ke®keji kr ]Sx ksg , s a s s htkj er hn¥t urb jxv `ksg ry >el ;®l kd kX_¬k' Sg pj d henkv eqr q s s s s q s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 022 egaP

Cgu rpfm eh∂¬bkv hurb ]kxSkt ksg ckj[ hH Ii kdlb ]xSkt Ll ]xSkt s s a \ s a ksg ckj[ rkan dlb df g k;nf gd kd krif dlm hH u kjIDkL 2eh∂¬bkv rkj s , s s s X 7unf 4g rgc eh∂¬bkv ]lc ]Sgfkp jkv Nd u ]Sgfkp hIksj lm u jGf kr S , q , q s s kt yef eh∂¬bkv 4g kukohn kd eh∂¬bkv 4g kgj k[ eh∂¬bkv kpπc kIkN dS , , s `g krksg rjfrkaiW Arr¬o uoht Bksd Cgd , q l jL udfsy `g Syf d ukjL ksd kpπc 4ksjd kui¥d hlo ksgkp hlt er 4g s , s s X , , q , kui¥d hH xo¬ kjkgér 4ksjd kui¥d ]ksgkp hl,t er 4g kui¥d hH dju kjkgéqr Z q q , 2ykduf sLid huM r ]kxyp C \ w s gu ekd l hnk[ 4g kgj kt kjOOf l LaO e ksr 4k;nf jd u'hLdj;S ksd dju s wa q s T a jdyef ucl um ]g Sx pgi kago <xkrsu cl ]k;D kvg ]kgd ulm `k;D kv s T qa q s g ]kgd su hu®i 2ykduf Lid huM je ]ykduf ]kgd u rfi 4rH kd rfi ]g q s \ ss s w , kL[ rH df k[sn `k;kv rkj hurb ukd3kyks[ ktkojn ulm jd kLcLg sLc ] \ w , s \ \ \ k;kI[I[ ktkojn su hldf df hF h;kl hu®i rkj tksj jlhr 4Sx je kr htkru s s s s 2kF ke®kg e kld 2henkv hxk;® k;D ]k[n df 2kZ;pæir7xk;® df g ry ykduf k;D7k;D , s s T s s 2g rHnv hH xky 4k;pæir7xk;® 2g ctx kLc df kgd u kxky dfkaykg 4ksd T q . s Z , \ s X s htkru k;nf kPp hg kxu jk,v hn jd reégf hH ulm `kuke kX;D okHi kurb u s \ a s z s X . kvQqxnl kd xl®l kr Cgu 4g hg krLi ksr jlv kd xl®l jk,v Fkl kd jHhx a s , \ a ntV jkv hu®i hg hd ltd j[fkv hH go kr hF udfy ]kxy rgc ksr pkdal , w a s s q s ksd hu®i 2kujd re hg ∂Gf r 4g Sg Oc ugi Lid d hnk[ df dLO kagd akg w T q s, s s \ s a o 4g kuyt e kIiy hd xkv kago kl 2g rpæfuf dju ksr k;x kv hy¥nf ct 4 , X X s , g krukt e ]g k;df sue kt jHhxntV dfk;D 4g kgj kt kagd e df g kri kd aw T , T s X wa T , Di s>e 4Skt hH yp kr ksg yeye ]kxksg ydæfqe hg kuugi kdlb ]hxLi yd q s s \ æfe rgc kago kr g; ]hnk[ ]g Sx kLdi kt h/kx ; ed l ed jkv 2Cgu hyk q q s T \ s a s s , o uLi rjWt kgo hd kLid df hxkg ñex hurb akgo ]g kukt kagd >e df g s \ a X \ s , s q , hg kri kdDi ksr s>e cv l hu®i huiv kgd ulm jGf jkv 2henkv g kgj je q s s , , 2kujd kZp[ kd jkdc 4k s ukyt re dgku Lid je df k;x ko[yf e r;hlo go 2∂Gf k;D cv ]g kgj s \ ss X wa je cv ]hd Cgu ∂Gf sue ]gj rgd k;D7k;D xsky jHhxntV 2kun7kuy k;D > T s s s s s qe ]xgd xky k;D cv ksr k;x hg je e ct df kgd ukgüm ]jv 2xgd k;D xk s X s T s X s s X s y df kgd u hu®i 2kun kPp hg xL/xau kr s>e kr 4g r;hlo hje g; `ujd s s \ a \ s q s , s s ckj[ k;D Lid ksr g gj hg yt ct ]jv 4kukyt re Fkl je kd kXLid jse X s \ T s s ss s \ s dgku ]ks[n df kykc l hu®i huiv 4kF ltdkge ]kF ltd 4kje krsutkj dS s s s w a w a 2xskvkt Skrl lsS7lS e dju df kdum ksvkojL c[ 4g rd s s s s X s w T s l uke hg l dju so ]ksjd k;D Syf d kXpπc udfy 4g xo¬ Bksd Cgd u ]g d s s s , Z ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 122 egaP

~ ~ ~ ]k/c xt cl e ni thr a X s 2henkv hg htxkd jkv kt , i hg htxkd jkv dDlf htxkd `jd k;D 6g ry [j k;Òfx hd kIku xsky ksr w , s X T s s a X s ryef Cgu hH dDlf ksr cv jkv 2hd kXdDlf 2hd k;iQ3g hgj kt hjkrm hrjk s s , X , v 2g hgj yp kti hH hd u/ df g xksy yxki ld udfy 4g Cgu ;÷kl ]g u , w T s , s , , /kl ]g <jdim u/ 2ksg gj jd kti 6ksjd xks;im kd u/ 2g hrdl ksg rkc B , s w , ksd jk,v rg√x knk;† l kti hd u/ 2g 'n kd kxksy de√k/ g; jkv3g rjd k s w , s X , T s ti ji hykohn jd [j ksd kdDlf nxu xky kg; 4hrksg Cgu kti hd u/ e 'sn w X s a w X hldf d k;ufn 2'n de√k/ ksd 'n lb kg rgd er j,kv 2g k{kadkv hd u/ s q s s s s q , 4kxSkt kg dhO cl jGf ]g rîkZ;i s , lc ]ksn jd kol hd hu®i 4jd sy ukO‘ef7koe ]yG ]yG ]g rkt pgi lki d s s w T s qa s X k;u®fi hdum ]rpgi Cgu lki d k<xkrsu xky Syflb 4g hGkd kurm ]ky ku s qa s X s , s e ksd hu®i ksr g kukue ksd rfi jxv 2kLi sNhi d hthe”y ksr ]g kukue ksd h , s \ s , t<‘of jxv df hxkg h;x kv e >el hg e ;el ukji rgc kdum rkc dS j q s X X s q q s xe `g utk;i l e/ Bksd kdum 4g rjd hH SjfkIl 4g rjd hH hjkvt 2g , s z s Z s T s s T s q , kun7kuy l Ze/ Bksd ksdum 4ji hykohn ]xky g rjd kti hd hthe”y slt cv s s s s T s w , 4g rdl kg jkv Lc utk;i hj T s s , s \ s z rhH dum 4ku>el re kdDi g; ]g gj jd kti hd kron7hon hH cr g gj s T s w s s T s jd kti hH hd kron7hosn o ct 4j,kv Nd g ]g jkv Nd rk[nf 4jkv Nd g w s s q T T , q s , q T ]g Nd rjd xky 4g kvg k/ac xt kjkl eltf ]L[ki `g k;D ni kthr jkv T q s s , q X a , , ~ ~ ~ ]k/c ct cl e ni thr a X s 4ktn ]g jkpkv ]g e; w T T uf kt ; 4g rgd ni kjln kdlm Syflb 4g Cgu Syf d k;rDf;ø Pki ; ]g s s T s w s T s X ,\ z s , hukdpc k"kH hd jkd¬ji jk,v Ln 4kn jkd¬ji jk,v kn Ln kdum ]g rkc hd u q a s q s a s T X s k>el ksd kXpπc ; 4kxyef [l kl,o ]kxyef [l klS A g Snf uHkyi d xo¬ s s q s q s T s z s Z s q , uer jkv 4hxaSkt hy hg ykduf chdjr ksr l e ;H 4xy ykduf chdjr xky X s X s X X s 2kxSkt k [n xkv kd sxkv jGf 2n hg uk[ ksr dr ukxy keæp ed l ed df 4kxykdu s s X s s s s f chdjr g; kpπc df kF Cgu hg kpkl ukgüm g; 4g Sg Skxy keæp go df k s s X T q ;kv yk;[ ksd htkrif cr 4kxsxy keæp rgc l rgc 2n uk[ kr hurm ed sl q s q X s s ed ]kL\i kukxy keæp ksdikv e urtf df Xn uk[ kr hurm ed7l7ed ]kxaM X s s s s k[ Cgu knk;† kr kNπv df kgd jkv k[n Gjr hd htkrif l jkx u dLy lm s , s s , s s \ 4kxSkt kg k/v ksr kxSk[ eh∂¬bkv knk;† jxv ][ s a n df kgd u krif Syf d ukojL ksr `k;D kujd cv df g uk'ji hH krif 4g s s s s , s ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 222 egaP

s kr k;x e sphxc d ugkl e ct gcl 4kvg ukjg kLc go ]kF jknjgi kg; d X s s T q q , \ s a s ugkl kst go 2Cgj hrdG ji dLl jd kt djd7jd ck'i e hykF ]jHrkj k; s X \ s s X df k;D su k;o÷fkl ut ksr 4g rhjiof d _¬k' `jd utlof _eye ld Xelm X , , s X Z w s , cv 4g kvg kjH huki elm 4k>el kvd kl7kIkN ksr go ]g Iy;kI kst kjkgéqr , q X s a q s , s go 4g ydæfe hLc hd ho÷kl u,t jk,v hd ufe ut cv udfy kujd re xk; , q \ q , s ® _e7ye e rfF¬f hH hldf e yt df kgd u jhokge kr 4kF e;uf k/hl kd w X X s s krNπo¬ g; 4hxyG hxnx kr ]xksjd xk;®7_eye e hlm ]g kujd uku¬ e hl s , a s s w X , X m ]g kuhi ksd hlm ]kd okax ckykr ksr hgo ]kd okax kj[ksi ksr hgo ]g kuhi k , , s d yt ltf dfk;D 4g e;uf dhO 4kujd Cgu utlof7ye e nfk;®b yt hH hH X , Z X d df k;nf e;uf hg dhO kr u jhokge 2xXuc hHd Iy;kI d gjr lb df kF s s s s s Cgu hg kri ksd jhokge dfk;D ]Cgu e;uf e _¬k' 4hrdl jd Cgu xks;im kd X X Iy;kI duf/kv ho÷kl u,t jkv 4hxLi hujd ck'i jGf jHrkj kr ]rdl Cgu s q , s \ s s s hi huki ksr rkj dfk;D ]huki kxksg k;hi jdIL sukgüm 4CF Bx kg ukege kago X X s s Syf d uyef l>e jdkv hH k;o÷fkl u,t Nd jkv kF ukegse j? d ugkl Te s s s q a q , s s 4g krLi kuOm jkc Bd e rkj df g rkt hi kurb 4g rkt hi jdIL ]huki g , \ X T s T s T srgj rhi endS ryP7ryP tjl ksr 4rhi Cgu huki rkj e unf d <";i ut s s s w s X s wZ , `ksg g s j n k[ks/ k;D `ksg gj sn k[ks/ kdldf `g k;D utk;i 2utksH rkj jk,v lkoi s X s s , s z m jHunf 4Skt kg ektrb Syf d jHunf df 2g ry jd jdyks[ ynf jGf jk s a s T s s , v 4g rjd utkH e rkj 6e suhge d uktej rjd Cgu utksH e unf ukeylqe T s s X X s \ s X 2k;tfkcykp jxe 4kF dx√l,u ed l ed go 4cv ksg gj ykL er kt a s s q s kF 0' llb go ]kF kZtg k;D e huki ukji kr 4xkvkuc htçl jGf jd dLN q s X s q s s s \ f huki jGf ]xkvkLm huki ygi ]ksg gj jd o–im k;D dgku `k;D g kgj ksg s s \ s s X , jkv Nd ]g kgj Lm hg huki `ksg rjd k;D ksr kg rk[l er ct 4hy kuc htç , q , \ s s s q q l jGf jd dLNf huki ji um jGf jkv 4ut g ry [j jd k[l k;tçfl ygi \ , , T s s q a s d <"wZ;i 4chdjr hy ykduf ]g rkc hd xj lc 4g hjg o `g upLv k;D Xe s , a T s , \ htçl hjln jkv 4g jg o `g upLv k;D e kXyG jln jk,v 4e oi d <";i w , T s s , \ X s w X Z s wZ g rsy kuc htçl hd syd ]g ry ksd syd jckjc ut 4g kryp jckjc kyd kr T s s T s s s , , s s 6xj kjg cyre kd htçl hjg sukgüm `k;tfkcykp hd henkv er ksg r[sn cv a X a q s 4g kyhi kr , s g; ]g hgkue hd htçl hjg 4Cgu hg g kjg g; ]xy ugd o `kg gj jd k;D , , s s s s s er g; ]kgd ue ]F gj k[ kyd o `g ld xky jk;'fkg ]ksg r[n jxe 4g q s T s s s s T s , s s s s , hgkue hd htçl hjg ksr ]g rkg unf d <";i 4kvg ukege e j? ut dS Te T s s s wZ q s X , 4g ry jd ;kim hH l elm ]g r[j hH ro T s s s X T s z 2kupc ld g ry ykduf cklgf hH l elb 4g ry ykduf chdjr hH sl el s , T s s s X T s s X X m ]g r[j hH <jpkv ]g r[j hH e;uf xksy 4g kvg k/c xt kjkl Xe L[ki T s T s , q a a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 322 egaP

s \ u hdkl k;nf yksr >e Xe ukl s q s s su hdkl k;nf yksj kd k;rfkse yd \ s X 4g krkt ksg rokuv Syf dlm o®r¬fv kjkl , 1 s 4g krsn yks[ jk} ke®keji a;o¬ 4g kry jd uhy e uiv lm ke®keji ;o¬ 4g , , s X s s a , krkNcf tl Syf dlm <Zqxuf ;o¬ kgt 4g krkt ksg I‘ofi e yge d ;ü' go s s a a , z X s w 4BkNcf tl uxuf ]kjkeg yge e yge Uql s qZ X 4d jnfe hylv d ke®keji g rkt y[ jk} Syf dlm ]kxSht e Fk,p lb kt s a s T s q s X s s 4g krksg "knuf jkgo;ø kjkgér 4hrk , ∆ q t gj Cgu rjWt Bkd hdub ];®Lfkai ]hjk;'fkg ]kry'd ]htkcykp jGf 4rjd s s q s Cgu jkgo;ø jd kxy7kxy cklgf ]jd pksl7pkl er jGf 4g krkt ksg jkr¬of s q , kd ke®keji hlm 4g krkt ksg jkr¬of kd jk;î hlm o®r¬fv kjkl g; jkv 4g , s , , _¬k' kjkgér hgo ]g krdy> kst e <in lm 4g hrkt ksg <in dS kurp hjkg q , X Z , Z s éqr 4ksg rht ydquv dhlm ]krksg rlfdof kt l ;ürp jkgér 4Cgu rikF thp s w s s s , s q s s Bksd jiM uiv hr¬nct er ]g jkr7nkap ]g Lkgi7hnu ]g {o ]g h{i7'i slt s Z q T s T \ T 1 T q , ksg rkt kg tgl hg lsS er cr 4g krht ke®keji jrhH jkgér cr 4Skt ksg s s s q , s q kukel e ni d oHuv ct ]g hrksg oHl hHr krtgl g; udfy 4kd krtgl X s q , a s g ni kFk,p 6kd jkijiv g ni kFk,p jk,v 4L[ki ]g k/ac xt kjkl e ni sjlhr , a , a , X 4xkLdi l Fkg jlwn ]xskL s s \ s s s s\ s kN l Fkg dS 4gj rpc ld df xkykduf kr¬kj Bksd l jrhH kr ]er xkikF X s s , s s s s q s s s s l jiM <jpkv jk,v e;uf dfk;D 4g <jpkv jkv e;uf ksr u 48kjkpv7eu8 X T , s kago u 4g hrdl kg hg L[ki kti hd <k"ki 4g L[ki kti hd kron7hosn dfk; , s a w , a w s X D3kago g krosn7hon ksr u 4rhjiof l L[ki 4krtgl 6rkc hylv g hFk,p jkv T s s a , , 44kjkijiv kFk,p ]k/c xt cl e ni thr a a X s 4ksg henkv jln eqr sl t s w s kojn d sNhi jkv er ksg henkv dS ji stkojn d uekl 4xXLi utks[ ;kim Bk s , q s s s \ s s d d supc lum jGf kr ]g Cgu yduv jkgér kt ]xksy ikF e;uf d hr¬Znct s s s T w q s q s s s s ]xkvtf u l xP tgl kd uoht 2L[ki dfk;D 4xkXg kni o–im d gjr lb ; s s s a s a X s , s s `g k;x k;D ksg ksd kX;bkc ub k , s r 2hd ck'i ]g hgj kv cnc df kyp kri >e cr k[n jdkt lki e ct jG s , w s q s T f `g k;D rkc hH pkl e ksr ]g hgj kv hyp Syf jdjH hykF cr k[n ct j , wa s T T s s Hrkj ]kgd ulm `kvg k;D ]kgd ue 2g hjgO k;bkc hd ctx df kgd ulm s q s T T a s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 422 egaP

4kr k;yf [hl jxv Oki kFkp ]g kyk'Oki dS s , , .rxt dfXk;D 4e rxt lifko kxksg Cgu kukv cv ~ ~ ~ ]kIN ;ll kd uexkokv X . w a 4Bx ksg rîk el q;®e 4Syf sdlm g Cgu q;®e cv ]k;yf [sn ksd rfk;† eji lm ultf jkv 1 , 1 s s , 4hlkaG hd et hIkd ]kIN ;ll kd uexkokv w a 4g hrLi Bk[nf Gjr cl rfk;† hg , \ s o ksr cv ],g k;x ksg uZ'n kd rfk;†7eji ]g kukt kagd ]g kukv kagd cv `kr s , , hx k;D jk,v ukjqd k;D cv `h'kd k;D jk,v kckd k;D cv `kjk}jdkO k;D cv q 44okv u jtu Nd cv ]krl [n d rfksteji , q s a s s s A g rgd lkndye udfsy ]h'kd g krgd Bksd ]kckd g krgd T s w , , Bksd ]ksyp jnfe ksyp df g rgd Bkd ]kyp Fjhr g rgd Bksd ]g rgd xky a T s s s T s T s s 44okv u jtu Nd cv ]krl [n d rfksteji , q s a s s s 4okrc jk}jdkO =dS- ]Sbt Fjhr yp gd dS , q , 4kljc naukv kLc 4kyef up kLc \ , \ 44Bki lbklv hLc ~ ~ ~ \ 4g gj T s s y nko¬ hg kukn `gd k;D kr gd 4jd[n Gjr hd jln7dS g rkjd¬qe kukn X s X s X s s w T s X s ~ ~ ~ ]g rjd ul mksn Qx kyp T , q s 4g hrkt ksg rkc e kXjk'b d kX[kv ]g hrkt ksg rkc e k , X s a , X X [akv7kX[kv 4krLi kuky Cgu e phc kd ukct cv 4g hrkt ksg rkc hd [kav kr a \ X s , s cv 4g rksg jk'b ]g hrkg ul ksr cv 2ksg gj [n df g krjd kjk'b kd Qx T s s , s , s s , s q ;‘'f 2[n df ksd ;‘'f g krjd kjk'b Qx 4Cgu krpc Nd ksd ugd ksr jGf s , q q s 44Bki lbklv hLc ]g rjd ul mksn Qx kyp \ T , q s 4g krxy uksg okHofkv kd rev 4g hrxy ugc Skjk/ 'u , s Z 1 T s a √gv hd naukv 4g hrkt ljc hr¬e 4,g krn yks[ ke®keji a;o¬ jk} kd kyk'/e , s q s \ u hdkl k;nf yks[ jn kd uk[,\e s rk;g7nlde Cgu kry[ df sduql ; sw \ q s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 522 egaP

6ky jkdi >e er df kgj kL[ Syfhlb s q s q q \ ]k;tf jdLkN nhem s\ kst df g ;‘ue kagd , q ]kryksII ynf7xkenf \ kdp jGf u kgd7kagd q a ]k;x kuxf hcutv u a kgt Cgd gxt Cgu ]kryk[ ukct\ Cgu s s q >e jd[sn ukgt krykc ukelkv u s ]hrykc u g uhet\ s , 2ky jkdi >e er df kgj kL[ Syfhlb s q s q q \ 4 k;ki cl sulm ]k;kuc _ef lm sultf jk,v 4k;kuc _ef kuiv ksd h'kuofv dS s hlm ksr sue 4bkuc Cgu aSkr_ef hjkl s; ue 2Fjhr ]_r7_e ]hjkti7rLfai ]n T s T a a q t¬fe ]jnfe ks/kc k;D 4C/kac Cgu aSkr_ef hjln jk,v jGf ue df g rgd dye a a w s T T s w 44hlkuofv ks;df _ef ]dufkt hg; e dye gd s T w 4krIky Cgu e k{d hlm lifko ksr g krkt ksg <hRm ct ñFk|of , X , Z 2Bx ksg e®[ rkc kr ]kxksg kukv Cgu jd Ik,y jG s f ksr k;yf jd oHuv kd ;hupZoufv lm ]k;yf jd oHuv ksd rxofv ]kd ; q s q s “k;øv lm ]k;yf jd oHuv kd ehlv ]k;yf jd oHuv ksd jkijiv lm jxv q s q a 44kjkijiv kFk,p ~ ~ ~ a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 622 egaP

hd jk;c d ralo s

hd nhem l ?knuf s

]hd jkgc e nhem T

kdp kxy sl Lktm q \

2ky jkdi >e er df kgj kL[ Syfhlb s q s q q \

s ky jkyn >e er df kgj kL[ Syfhlb q s q q \

]hd jk;î u hy[ hed

s ltf g ;‘ue kgd , q a

]hjokHof hj?f7gjof

hdl I? u ]hdl Id u

hyef hd jkH jkd u s s

]kyef kd efH yd u w w

]hjH l nk; nk"of s

]hny l uîo¬ I‘uof s

]hjr hd _u jki u s

hdl jd –el jefrf q

2ky jkdi >e er df kgj kL[ Syfhlb s q s q q \

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 722 egaP

2ky jkdi >e er df Syfhlb kgj kL[ s q s q q \ 4kxWd k{hri e ]kxgj kL[ e udfy ]g a z T wa \ T s , ksd su[sn gér Nd rgc j,kv jkll g jkr¬of kLc df kuke 4k[n Gjr hH hjse X q q q a , \ s s 44Sjfg ur hje Fkukuhn /cuhn s s q a 4kugj hg srn dr¬n ji jk} dlm ]kugj hg rj s s s kdi `sxkvkOm u jtu Gjr hje dr cd 4Gjr hje ks[n df kukt yp hg gd q s s s s s s 44Sjfg ur hje Fkukuhn /cuhn s s q a 4g , hrksg hji jdkv kuFki ji hxLf kl hg lsS ]g krkt ksg rHhi‘ko jdkv huki j w Z z z , s , w i hxLf kl lt 2kugj hg rjkdi ]kugj IL ]kugj L[ jkv 4hd jkdi hdlm l z , s , s q s s \ , q c ksg hujd k{hri 4lm lc ksr ksg kujkdqi 4l dS lm lc kr ksg hukuc kr_ef z s s s 2ksy jk/l jdjkyn ]ky jkyn jdjkdqi q q s q 2ky jkdi >e er df kgj kL[ Syfhlb s q s q q \ 2ksy jk/l er yH df q q w kgj kL[ Syfhlb \ `hLx hl7y' yH u \ w w s , q ltf g ;‘ue kagd 6hd jk"r e nhem q T kdp kxy sl jkxv q a ]hxy >e h;ek/ql s q kdpfhje hyF¬Qe
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 822 egaP

2sry "' kree xke s s a er kst ]uknjo >e sF q s q <{ ;erfkJ a <d ;erfkH a 2kykH <kzi g; l q;®e l cd jkik;ø kgj jd s s 1 s ]kykr jk;î l k;rfkse ji kyr7eyhu hd u;u s s X q 2ry [n [qe <Qd g; s s s 2ry [n [e ytl kjse s s s q 2rn 'n kd yt7yko† s s s ]er kt ]Ni kry ukd q s w s , 3[Aqn kjH[ql [l ;e[Aqn q 6ygkyg kIkac k;yfk;î jdkuc dyi hd yG a X w ]yt kd 'hjko7gjof k/kac kuc kd kywl rsl X q 2ry [n [qe <Qd g; s s s 2ry [n [e ytl kjse s s s q 2kugj IL 2kugj sLv s \ 2ksy jk/l jd jkyn ]ksy jkyn jd jkdqi q q q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 922 egaP

2ry [n [e ytl kjse s s s q 2ry [j hd kvlkv uxf s s s X q a ]kOm uOxov xjql qa a er u?l uc er g /kl q , 6kyke _{u hre? hi7hi oæof g kre> w , w ]kykg uk,d sukt ]on e kvlkv ub Bx yq? s X X q a s s s ry [n [qe <Qd g; 2ry [n [e ytl kjse s s s q 2rn duv tkv jkg lg s s s a Cgér kt ];t hruke q s rLf\tof <kzi rlfyv xv a 2yef/ jn hH trf{f kje kgj kt kryp qrdV w w s ]yp hgj uni¬ ]Cyp dyi ]kyp uoht ]yp ni a X s 2ry [n [qe <Qd g; s s s 2ry [n [e ytl kjse s s s q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 032 egaP

~ ~ ~ ]gVku k;yl hd ukl , s s 4g rkc hd T X X knç' lc ræjf7rku cl 4g k[ks/ cl 4g Cgu kukg Nd kuksg s; jxe ]kF Cgu s s , , s q jkojfi df Cgu ]F Cgu /c df Cgu ]sF Cgu BkH df Cgu 4g Cgu hH Bksd kjse s q a , 44Sbkt xPf dkt ]gVku _ef Bskd klS s s ]gVku jkojfi eId ]gVku q/c gVku BkH qq a 44Sjfg ur hje Fkukuhn /cuhn s s q a 4g krkt k;yf ki cl ji suy ki d dS lm 4g rîkZ;i hg , s s , dS 2kxn jH hg dS lc 2ksjkdi hg Syf d dS lm 2ksn krxkdS ksd jkdi lb s q s z q 2kn krohr ]kn kjo® ksd jkdi lb 2kjd u?l ksd jkdi lb 4ksjGf re rIakc ] s z s q s q s Skv n kd ht'ge hl7hLkF ]Skv n kd hto'f hl7hLkF ]Skv n kd ht'<x hl s s s s\ s s s\ s s s 7hLks\F df ]ksjGf re rIkac lsS ksd jkdi lb jkv 4g srkt kg u≈yl <ki sji sj s s q , T s a z w kgér ct 4Cgu hj/v7hj/v 4g hrkt kg zxel jkdi hjkgér ct hHr g krkv u q w w , s q q , dfy 4Ffrfv g krkv rpæfuf ]g krkv 2ksgj rkuc kuZFki ksd lk;î 2ksgj rjkdqi s , , s z s 2ry [n [qe <Qd g; s s s 2ry [n [e ytl kjse s s s q 2rn 'nl kd <kouf s s sa Z ks[ ]Rfe srn jko q s 2jm ypv kv j/ ni yip 6ul xHl rki hHd kt ]hrgd lkgrfb kd gjof q q s s uq>uQ <Qd hd kjiu ub rdfF d k<jp yFf'f X qw s X 2ry [n [qe <Qd g; s s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 132 egaP

44Sxfkae Nd klkt ]gVku gkl Mskd klS q X q s ]gVku jkik;ø tufc ]gVku hjkc gVku hr[ , s 4g jkdi ]g kuFki ]g ei lc 4ksvkv df g krjkdi hH jGf , q , Z z , zs wa q ]gVku k;iQ ksd iQ ]gVku k;yl hd ukl , s , s s 2Mky l kagd ]g Cgu hH ulk a s , v ;≈k; jkgér ]g Cgu ukF¬ hH Syf d sukOcf e j? gér 6y[f ksr ksjrm er s s q , s X X q X q skr yG ]Cgu hg kry[f jrhH je ksr yG ]g lki je Ikd hg Ikad ]g yH hg w ss w T sX sa s T X w XywH ]g y¥i je iki hg iki ]g <xn hg <qZxn ]<x k;D je ]g krgd kt 4kxd T s ss T qZ q q q ss , s s l ki Cgu ksd ke®keji hHd go ]g hu/ kd k<x lS7lS e g krgd rDf;ø kt wa X q s s s s T , s 4kuy >el l dhO ksd nH lb s s s 4g klksjH kd ke{ hjkgér ilf g Cgu klksjH Bksd kd k<x uiv 4Cgu kd , q Z , X q s kX;®Î uiv ]g klksjH kd k<Qd hjkgér 2ksljc jk,v kvkv 6g krky,G hyks> Zilf s , q s wa 4Cgu ;kim Bksd kdlb ]wadl sn Nd Xgéqr 4Cgu ;ƒekl Bkd hjse skd uy Syflb q Z s s s 44Stfhy Nd lkt ]gVku Okx kli hLkd q s a , ,\ ]gVku k;,iQ ksd iW ]gVku k;yl hd ukl s , s s 3hjgx rfv ]hjgx ji e knç' nkl7/hl ]rkc hnkl7h/hl ]lkndye rgd dhO X X s s w s 4rdl Cgu nhj[ lm ]ksvkt dcf ksr Fkg s s sdlm ksvkt dcf er ]kag 4krdl kt Cgu knhj[ ke®keji 2gér kxy nhj[ ]g q X q wa , k;iQ kd siW ]g k;yl hd uksl lki je df g kgj gd g; go 4g krksg jkdagv , , , s ss , , ]g hrksg Ldv 6g krjd Oki kd eku_¬gl <‘of jkc hurb ]g krPi tkeu jk , \ wa q wa \ c hurb ]g krjd kti jkc hurb ]hd k_k;7Fhr hurb ]Sdf ;≤i urb ]Sdf l wa w Z q s koim surb ]Sdf ro urb sue ]g krgd go 4g krksg jkdgv e henkv de√k/ z s T , , a X 4g <iel hg kreuof g; 4Cgu hH Nd , Z z q lki je ksd susn jk,v ksvkt kel j,kv kvkv ji er df g ;ü' kje ;nÔ kji ] ss s sw q , w s w lki je g ;ü' kd suy 4g Cgu hH Nqd lki je ksd un ]g kL[ ji jk} sjkgéqr ss , w s s , ss s s wa \ 44Stfhy Nd lkt ]gVku Okx kli hLkd q s a , ,\ 4g Cgu hH Nd lki jse , q s ~ ~ ~ ]gfku k;iQ ksd iW a , s ~ ~ ~ ]Cgu lki je klkai kd ukl ss s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 232 egaP

O‘!)@ ]ksg kre{ hd u[sn s jxv jkv 4g r,ke hH hxntf ]g >kl hH gcl 4g kj/av hH 'kdi kr ksg u hg , , a , a q , s z s kre{ hd su[sn jxv krkt gj Cgu jgt hH jgt jkv 4g krxy uksg u'n kd , , s Z rev hH l Xe ;®e j,kv ]g hrxy suI@#!i <jdf hd rfk;† hH l e js/v kr 1 s q 1 T w X s s X s a s , s w s g hrn ju7@#!id hxjhr ,\ ksg rjhlc jxv eynf7kugt\ X s O‘ ]ksg kre{ hd u[n jxv jkv 4g rke hH hxnatf ]g >kal hH gcl 4g kj/v hH 'kdi kr s s , , , , q , s a z s ksg u hg kre{ hd u[n jxv jkv 4g krkt ksg 'kdi hH kjk;/fv j@#!if kr s s , , z a s , s w s g hrn ju7@#!id hxjhr ,\ ksg rjhlc jxv eynf7kugt\ X s ~ ~ ~ ]skdl kuc <in kd [akv jxv ]ksdl jk[uf ksd I‘f Z 1 n ]ksdl Ikd snji d [kav er jxv ]ksg kr_ki hd u'n ]kg I‘fn ]ksg kre{ hd s q Z s 1 s s u[n Xe ;nÔ jkv e d‘r¬fe jkgér jxv ~ ~ ~ ]ksg rjhlc jxv eynf7kugt\ , X s q X s g hrn jM' kd hxntV , s \ jdkO db7jg egkj hdr¬ht\ s X g hrn ju7sGd hxjhr , s w ,\ ksg rjhlc jxv eynf7kugt\ X s 2gx <jp hg d dS lm 2kt <j' hg hdl s m `g kgj kt <j' hd kXjkdwgkl sIkse7IksN kagd kr ksg kukt hg <j' jxv ]sjv , s s 44Sbkt ujl hdkd cv d;ki hu/ekj s ~ ~ ~ ]lkv Bkji n LkN ]lknd s s\ ye rgd 4g krdl kpgi kago e/ Bskd u ]g krdl kpgi kago ukn Bksd u ]g w , qa Z , qa , krdl kpgi kago rgfksji Bkd u ]g krdl kpgi kago rLfi Bksd u 4kxn Cgu qa q s , aq a s xsk;gl Bkd ]Sk'kv hd Skji ksn LkN ]Sk'kv hjkl kn LkN A g srgd lkndye s a s\ a s s\ T w ~ ~ ~ ]lkv Bkji n Ls\kN ]lkndye rgd s w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 332 egaP

utkH df kgd u hu®i 4rkt Oc e hykF hdlm ]rkt kv lki dlm ;el d s s s , X s s s utkH dlm tkj o dfk;D 4rLi Bk[nf Cgu Ic df kNi jkc7jkc u jhdG 4k; s s s s X s \ s s w s kjd utkH kd jhdG ]k;kxy utkH ]ky> k[i hg lo3hF hrkjd utkH tkj sl s s s a s , s s ,t 4Sx je spπc df Cgu hg k;krc3k;kojd utkH lm u hu®i 4kIky j? jhdG s s s , 4Sx ypd Xelm q pπc kukn jkv Skv ji r¬kj Sg rL\y Lkl kn jkv rfkH hd tkj kF k;x nt¬ s X s , s q s a s , a s fe jhdG 4l kIc um lm kF ei rgc 4Ic koLq\t ]F Ic kn d jhdG hGl dS s X s s zs q s s a s s s s s w 4g kdlm 4hd ykikx efH cl 4Nd Cgu kuiv ]g rukev k>el 4kn , s w , q , s s LkN ;é®knkr ilf g krgd e ]kn LkN u/ df krgd Cgu e 4kn LkN ;é®knkr s\ Z wa T s s\ T s s\ kuiv l um7um ]g kL[ jkgl d kthp utf7utf jkdgv Syflb 4hxdl kg ZF s , \ s s X a s s el e su[n [kv hg kr kxkg hg kukIg kd jkdgv 4g upLv hygi kr jkdagv X s a s s s a , \ s 4g kd jkdagv jkg , s ér kdc jkv 4kg Oc Pkv kdqc Cgér ]kg Oc ykL ckdu Cgér 4g hjkgér kni j q Z q , s s , s s\ Z q s s , s q , q Z i [kv ]g Idi ]g u≈u kr ke®keji 4g kni ji [kv hjkgér dr cr g k>el a , z , s , Z a q , Nd kd suiv uer dr ct 4g <kx rkc g; ]g k>el Nd kd uiv <jkd l q s s q , , , q s s df uer ]g ke®kge Bkd ]g hxk;® Bkd ]g hukK Bkd ]g hu/ Bkd ]g rfiI‘kj s q , s , s , s , s , ≠ Bkd ]g h_euk/i Bkd 4g <kx g; ]g k>el <jkd ldf kd uiv Nd uer j s , a z s , , , s s q s q Gf 4wag Nd e df g k[j >el kd suiv suer df ]jkdgv kjkgér g k/kc hygi q T , s q a q , `g Sdf ZFelv l su[n Xgér kt g aSk/kc hl7ukd `Skv sld T s s q s T , , kyd hd u[n g; 4Sgfkp hukv kyd hd su[n ilf A g dS rkc hylv Syflb s s s Z , , g hrn jM' kdhxntV s \ jdkO db7jg egkj hdr¬ht\ s X g hrn ju7sGd hxjhr , s w ,\ kg rjhlc jxv eynf7kugt\ s X s 4g rxy T s Hn jkv unfl hH un√n 4g rkg eyke _ef jGf q , q q T s s w jg 4g hrkt uc hPhl ukÈp hLi e gkj jg 4g , \ \ X , hrk[lf hy,' hd uht kd hxntV d¥fc Crkt gj s s s s ukg u'n d ;≈kHkl hH e ;≈k Z s , X Z hH _' 4g krkt uc yG kIkd q , w a hrkt skg ;≈kHkl jdkO jg 4g , s T Cgu jdkO jdkO hd hxntV kr X s X s s , g hrn jM' kdhxntV s \ jdkO db7jg egkj hdr¬ht\ s X

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 432 egaP

H cl o ]g gj it kyke e 'd"f+ jk,v g Oc jkudf d h_kxx jk,v Tg sOc j s T s X s T s, s s s a , d y lk;ül e ;ykegf xksy kst df g hdDi rkc dS ksr Skt kg hlk;üal xky s a X , a s s hHl jxv 4kxsyef Cgu Bksd hH kyko sun utksH kd hlk;ül df kxSkt Li uk/o s s a \ ;ø kurb 4kxSkt Li uk/o;ø e uoht 4hxSkt kg hL[ ydæfe kr ]uke lm xk \ X s \ q s X s s y jkl jxv dfk;D 4g Cgu drfu go 4g drfuv go ]g lk;ül kst kd xP ukj s X , , , , , a a s q i Syflb 4ksg u kni uk/o;ø Bksd e uoht kr uke hH xsky jkl jxv kdltf , X s X s s ]g drfu e;uf hgo 4g htkj l rkc lb hdlm e 4ksg u kni uk/o;ø hH kr u , , wa s T , s X ke xksy jkl jxv kdltf ]g drf,u e;uf hgo df kgd ulm 4g hgd rkc <io s s , s , Z w Âge dS e k"kHjfi hd rfhu u Ikd yvueb ]djkpof Lc rgc dS d huet X s a q s s \ q s Z 4hxSkt kg rDQui jGf hr¬c hg; 4hxSkt lc hr¬c Cgo xkvkt kgt s q s s a `kgd sxksxkH 4Sx xkH jkv Sx ksg hlk;ül xksy jkl df ksjd kui¥d kjt\ eqr a , a s 2kxSkt ksg jckx hg hn¥t Lx 4kxSkt ksg o–im cl `k s q\ xpc k;D jk,v jGf ksr k;x kv hg Lq\x ct jkv 2kxSkv cl jGf jk,v ~ ~ ~hxSk s , a v ka;[Dfe ksr kxSkv Lx jk,v 4kxLi hg Sgfkp ksr Lx kr xgj xksy urb j[fk q\ s \ q\ s s X s v ]Li huyks[ ukdn hd Lx ksd 8ckc d<fke8 ]Li huyks[ ukdn ksr ]Sx pgi s \ q q\ w X \ X q qa kago xksy hHl j[fkv 28Lksj ~ht ~eS8 kxLi kuklc jd kt Cgo `xksjd k;D kr s \ s s ]Sx syp ;ykegf cl `k;D kxksg ksr ]Sx jxv jdxkH dfk;D 4g Cgu e {i X wa X d uxkH e Syflb 4xkspgi d xkH er kgt xSkt pgi kgo xky cl hg; `akg s s T s qa s q a s a qa a s d hH sxksxkH ksr sxksvkt xkH jdLkN cl dfXk;D 4g kgj gd Cgu ksd uxkH jd s\ wa s LkN ]ksg hH Nd ]kg kO‘rfi ]ksg ni ]ksg u/ df g krgd hg kurb l er hH Te s\ q s z wa s q `kF k;D kjkeg 4hy y lifko ulm ]hF rukev h s s dlm ]r g hrgd ksr hg pl 4h[n rkc hd xkv l>e ur 6Bx xkv l>e r u w , s s s q s w s s q w dfy ]g h<gf1x <jk/kl r kF krpkl kr e df kgd u jhdG 4kxy ulg jhdG s , w s s T s s a `jd Oc k;D xSksj eg kr 4kxSkt y l , s a s s ifko rkjgkot7jhg ksr kxSkv go 4g kykoukv go df g h;kv jc[ >e hHv ] s , s , s q g k;x [j lki jkeg rkjgkot7jhg uiv jk,v kF k;x ksd k_k;Fhr _ef kdikv , s s s Z sygi unf Nd g eyke ksdikv `g gj kg uk'ji Syfldf ikv ]k;yf y lifk q , w T s s s s o ulm kF k;nf ultf ]SdfQ df kgd su hu®i `k;D g; ]kgd ulm ]xy udy s s s s s > lkav kr l k[kv hdlm `k;D g; ]kgd ulm ]k;x gj kxO endS ksr jhdG w s s X a s 4hn Lk?m jnkp ]ksd kX'ky hd kuk \ X s n hF hn kPks\v jnkp sulm 4g hrn kyef ]g nwtk,e e jed jln ]Skv ikv ]kgd wa s T X s s w s u hu®i `g Sx uy[ Cgd 4krLi Cgu Bkul hH yxjks' kdum e j? ]rLi Cg T s s \ q q X s \ u Bk[nf `Ic kuksn sje g kagd ]kykc cv ]kNi u rfi kr kdp jd utksH ct ss X s T s s w s s q 4kxSki jd u utksH rfi jGf dfkX;D Cgu kgd Nqd sulm jkv 4g Bx kg kuI?qn Nd df hyef jc[ Bkd l jgp dlm u ]kdi , , s Z q s s s s s I lkv l [kv hd hu®i ksr u jxe 4Mkrc Nd e /cl d kIc e jGf ]y jd wa s a a q X a a s X s T X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 532 egaP

\ [ rchle ksr Xy uke xky jxv kdltf g krkt ksg drfuv e;uf klS df g r q s s , , s wa egl l Ikad e 4e {i lm g Cgu e ksr 4g Cgu rv Bkd kd krPe hd henkv s T X wa T , a s w\ 22Li kukuc u knk;† utksH dfkr ~ ~ ~2g kruc utksH gxt s \ , gjkc7ln Syf d henkv dS 4g ry utksH kLks\F7kLkF l gxt dS7dS j,kv g s T s s s\ s T s rkv ufeut jGf 2g rur cr ]g rxy dk,p gjkc7ln jkudf d dLl 4g rku q , T s w a T s s s s \ T s c utksH gxt gjkc7ln ]xky yko dk,p gjkc7ln s; kr ]g Cgu ut jxv e o s s s s , , X a kx kago jkv g krjgO jcxnf ufeut jcxnf kgt 4g kryp nG7nn kjkl g; ]j , , a q , a a , a a dkp7jdk,u ]rfi dum ]k;_¬f gjkc7ln cyre 4g ryp dk,p gjkc7ln Fkl d s a T s s s ufeut jcaxnf cv `g krksg ek<jfi k;D jk,v g ruc Syfldf e;uf `g kld q , , T s , , ksg r[n henkv jxe 4rkc hxSkt Ic ji Xkxksy AN7jkp 4kuy xkae kLks\F7kLkF s s a s s\ ksr 4kxSkt Li >kc kr Cgu ]kuxkae re hg l j? dS df e;uf kF dhO g; kr \ s s s s 2`spc kagd okx kIkse7kIksN ]Skt je hg Xe Iip hdum 2k>el hg a s s rîfkel yd¥cf ksr hd okax Ike7IkN 4Xyp Fkl dum ufeut jktg ln dfk;D q ss ss s q , X 4k;x Li ykdv \ s k>el ]aSkt jgO jhokge e okx ltf 4hlk;ül kXjktg Fkl dub jGf 2jhokge X a a s jkv 0c3o–im g; l jiM jkv Nd hHd ]Nd hHd ]g Pk\c hHd ]g ykdv , q s , q q , , ykl jg ]g chjx ]g kgj je k[H jkgcf hg lo 4kxaWd Cgu e go ]hd yH kt , , w s , T w s u jhokge70c 2kdp ksg rgc ]kgd sue ]Skt kv hg jkgcf ikv df kgd rgc s q q q T a q s u kX_ef d jkgcf 2Cgu A kgd sue ]kF i¥dof hH uekl jse 2up k;D ksdlb hH s T s s s q X jhokge jkv 0c Cgu kri jk,v 2jkgcf chjx l knl3chjx hH lo ]kdkyb kl , q s s , 7kIksN jkgcf ]hxksg Bx kg hL[ ydæfe ]F ufeut kXjktg e ;el d jhokge 4 s \ q s q , X s g hrkv e >el rkc 4Li u >ksc ji dS df Syflb kF kuc e;uf ]ku[sn cv , X s \ 4krdl yp Cgu kdk,p dS kr s 4g krsy utksH l j? jkp7ksn go ksr 2ak;jfk;'fksg k;D7k;D 4Li u >ksc ji dS , s s \ dfk;D 4krsy Cgu utksH l j? dS ufeu,t dfk;D 4g <jkd hH Nhi dlm kr X s q X T s s s `k;D dk,p ]Cgu kX;D kdkp ]xksgd eqr X s , s 4g ryp dk,p Fkl dum kr `sn T s s s s uk,d utksH kdum ksr 4g Cgu hut kgt g okx kXjktg `g k;“l Bksd k;“al hd s T , a T a , a [ky lhr e 'n d Lks\jd Okl 4[ky lhr Bksd 2g hurdf hg k;“l hd k;uft X s s , a X , 4Cgu krkg hut e okax Bd dfk;D ]g hrksg hL[ ydæfe hLc ]g krjd k_k; g s , X X , \ q \ , o ct kr 4Cgu l hldf jkv 4g krdl sy utksH hg l kut ilf ufeut jcxnf s s , , s X , Z q , a 4g krLi kujd ektrb kLc Syf d uykHl ]Syf d uf , \ a \ s s a s qeut dS7dS 4hxksg ydæfe hLc jGf 2Sx kg ufeut jkl ]kpksl kLkF er kjt\ , q \ s q , s s s\ q 4kxSkt gj u hH kyko ukyif7uky[f kdum `xXyks[ sukdn 4e hr¬c xSkt kv jd xk s s s s q X s a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 632 egaP

4g hryp O> hdlm cr 4g krsn ykL O> Cogjk;≈ Cgd cr ]g , w , w , krjd rkc pl pki7ln 4g kryksc pl ygi hH go ]ksg kuykc O> ksdltf go X a , s s w 2Bx ksg jn rgc cv 2k;H ]kF kukt dkTp s q , hg rDo d eüt ksr kF kudkp 2hxskg hH rk,e kr kxksg eüt ct ]jv `rdl C s T s s s gu kX;D je ksr ]g rdl ksg pπc d kurc ct ]kgd u henkv lm kr `g rje T s s s X Z s s T s Cgd urc ]Bx ksg ng df kgd su Ol 4Sx je cl o ]jd k;D ]kgd ulm 4kt Z s s X s sH henkv u Ol ksr k;kv Cgu hH unf jlhr 4Cgu hg k;kv henkv go unf jlwn s s s s `k;D hg kugd jGf kr xSkt s s a ksg pπc d cl cv df kgd ulm 4Snf n hH o kr xkae d hnkp7ukl 4F Sgfkp s s s s s s s s a s s s urc surtf Snf n u Ol 4k;x sy urc l7rgc l j? d Ol go unf dS jGf Z s s s Z s q s s s 2g rHnv henkv hH g; , q . ]kgd u Ol 4k;kv y k;gfkLd ksn jGf 4k;x y jd xke hgkLd unf dS henkv s s s a \ s a \ go jGf 4hjkId Cy [j 4kvg kNπv kLc df kgd u Ol `jd kue uk,d ksr Xkg s q \ s s s hrkv kn jxe 2g rkg kni pπc d hjksId Cgd df ksr kpkl u Ol 4k;x ksg kn s T s s , s s s s s i kpπc kdlm rkj ]Wd k;D e df kgd sulm 4F Sx y hg dS df kNi u Osl , s a T s s w s 2k;kv jdsy hjkId ksn jkv k;kv gcl unf jln henkv go s , q s w 4hjksId hn n ]g krgj hg e lkLi ]g Cgu kjc Nd henkv g; jkv ]g thp hl7hIskN hj s , X s \ , q q , , ksId jxe ]Cgu df kun hjksId df kpksl kLkF u Ol 4g k;kv ukege e j? ]S s s\ s s , s X gfkp hjksId dS kjt\ df k;x y jd xkae unf dS l j? d Ol dS henkv dS s s s s 4g , kryksc O> cr ]g kryksc pl e kyeke pki7ln 4g krykc pl e kXyeke jkv w , X X a , s X , hH kykosuykc Ow> 4g pl df g krjd kokn hH go 4g O> df y Ldi Bksd d s , , , w s \ f krykc Cgu lsS hH go 4Skt k>el pl df g kryksc l xP hlb hH kykouyk s s , s a s s c O> e ylv 4g krkt yp hH Ow> kd k;“l hl7hIksN ji jk/kv dum ]g ry w X , a s T s ksc pl xky hdkc go 4g ryksc pl xksy hdkc dfk;D ]g kryp kr g rykc O s T s X , s T s s w s s s s > xky l7Lks\F kr go 4kxSkt pe o–im kLc ksr kg gj ykc O> xky hHl ct \ X s s w s 4krdl kt Cgu hg kykc ksr g; ]g gj kt hnu ]g gj kt u'I¬ ]k s T s T s s gd ulm 4g kgj kt hnu ]kgd uer `ksg gj kt kagd ]kNi u hldf 4rdl Cgu s wa s q s w s s hg tc ksr pkai 4sxkXg tc AN df ]sxkXg stc jkp df k;x >el ujk,G go 4g t s T s c pkai ]ksg rykc er `g stc urdf ]kNi u hldf ler 4xyksc O> df k;yf s s q T s w s s q s X w jd ;r su cl 4kxsykc O> 'n kji df y jd hg ;r eg kGn dS df ky >el s w s w X s 4Skt ksg yd æfe hLc kr yksc O> xky jkl jxv dfk;D 4g drfuv O> Syflb 4Skt ksg hL q \ s X w s s X , , w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 732 egaP

4g de√k/v hgo ]k;df kokn kd r;dfyke hH ultf rDjfrfv dlm 4Cgu , s s dyfke hH Bksd rDjfrfv dlm 4g hgo dyfke 2ksuc re dyfke ]lc 22ksjd x s , s k;im jd jH ht jk,v kjd xks;im kdlm Skv e Fkg kt jkv ]kvht 4skuc re s X s , s dyfke d thp hH hldf A g Fv dyfk,e kd lk;ül ]lc 4kvkuc re ;é®knkr s , Z a s 4kn ugj ji kX{1o ksd XkyG 4xSkt gj jkgér u ]xSkt gj s s w s a s q s a sdlm u o 4sxskykL hg jke ]xksykL hg kIef er jd Lks\r skd kyG dlm 4re skL s s q X w s ks\r ksd kyG dlm 4y /x hd kyG dlm eg df k;df r_feuf eg e phxc u X w s X a X w s a X X s s iv sulm 4y lj kd o®r¬fv dlm eg jn hLks\F df ]k;nf jd IH eg o®r¬fv X s s X X kuiv df g kiduv ji eg hdlm 4g kdlm cl ]Cgu hH Nd kje 4kugd re , a q , q s 4Sx ksg o–im jk,v38ckrdf hje8 8]e/ kjse s Z 8 kagd 4k;x ksg o–im hgo ]g 8kje8 kgd l ukK 48e8 k;kv kago ]8kje8 k;kv k , s s T s a gt 4k;x ksg o–im ]lc ]g kje df kgd 4k;x uc jkdgv u/ kr Sx Lt l u , s a s q\ s / 4g krLi kZni l ;é®knkr 4kn Lks\r <jkd o ]ksg kgj Li kZni g; hH <jkd l , \ s s s \ tf jGf 4g kd jkdgv kZni kLc lcl ji I‘f1n jk,v 4Sgfkp I‘fn hd su[sn ]lc , a \ s 1 g hrn ju7sGd hxjhr , s w ,\ ksg rjhlc jxv eynf7kugt\ X s , s g hrn jM' kdhxntV \ jdksO db7jg e gkj hd r¬ht\ X 3ksr hd su[n ksg [kv 4hxkg ñte Bksd hdlm hH e u s a s X s y jWt kr k;yf sy ]k;yf jd xk;im skr k;yf y 2nko;ü/ ksr kF k;nf 4kuIhi s s s s re hrkN ]re kuky¥pf ]re kuksj unf lm ]y uhN unf ltf 4re ku/c ]ksjd s a xk;im ]kvht ]kxksH ]g k;nf sulm 4kujd re ruk;[ e rukev 4ku>el ru s s s , X kev udfsy ]ksgj Cgo ksg kgt er ]g krgd ksr e 4krgd Cgu kd uxkH géqr Te a q wa T s s X 4kF Cgu /kc Bksd kd k;lfk;ül LkxH ksdlm dfk;D ] s X a s s\ X k;df Cgu [y¥m Bksd e /cl dlm u Ikad dfkykg 4g drfuv hH lk;üal kLkx s X a a s s a , , s\ H ksr ]g drfuv hjksp jk,v hukeBc jkv O> Syfhlb jkv g pl rkc g; jxv T , s , w , , 4ikv7uiv kd O> Skt ksg rk?e®kv 4Skt ksg nc O> ]yk s w a w X s c O> xky hHl 4Skt kg nc hukeBc ]Skt ksg ukeBsc xky hHl A g krgd Ikd w s s a s a s , a 4g hgj yp hukeBc Syflb ]g , s T Cgu ukeBsc hH cv xky d/fv 4g hgj yp hjkp Syflb ]g Cgu jksp hH cv s , s T xky d/fv 4g hgj yp O> Syflb ]g pπl hH cv xky d/fv e k;ufqn lb s , w T s s X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 832 egaP

` g xke k;D Syf je 4g jkd/v hg jkd/v jksv kXjkp je 4g hukKv e ]ukoxH , Z ss , a a s s wa T `g F;ø Lkad7k;∂f de√k/ hHl hg pl k;D ]ukoxH T Z `Wd k a ;D e 4hH h_¬ jnl ]g krgkp kuki hH ni kLc ]g krgkp kuksg hu/ e ]ukoxH T qa wa \ wa T 4y jd X dS jd Iel e suiv e eüt hlb jdkIef >e jk,v jd kiduv ji >e ]Hzi s X X s q X a q q q 4krn Cgu uIef ]krn Cgu ud> e k<jp dikv >e jkdgv hg; 4g k/kc hLc s s s s q X X s s q a , \ phc je jk,v dikv n;k' hgo ]g jkdgv kd keüt7keüt kje kt g; 2ukoxH ss s , a X X s s 4hg kurb tkv 4Hjk,l kjkl ]kejfx hjkl ]knil hjkl hd o®r¬fv 6o®r¬fv kj a kl 4g kjkgér Nd cl jGf kr 4kxksg kuykL jke ksd jkdgv ygi ji jk} dlm , q q s a s s 2je kst jkoqnekj s s 3ku[j nk; Zr' ygi dlm udfy ]kxuc o s s s s l®m ]kxuc gksjkel uoht kjkgér unf lm 4kxjd rfwHuv jkc hygi hd nukv s q s q a uoht kjkgér <{ lm 4k;kv jrm <kZouf 4k;kv jrm {kse ]k;kv jrm xo¬ q Z kuukt unf lm ]xy uLi Bk[nf ;ee®keji o®r¬fv kjkl gér unf ltf 4hgo h s s \ X q H Xe kXjkr7nkap 4g hgo hH e jF®i 4g hgo ][n eltf 4g ntk,e jgkc ksr yk[ , X , wa s X , w wa s [kv ],g ntk,e jrhH kr Wd nc [kv 4g nwtk,e hgo ]g akgt ksr cv `kckd d a w s a a a , wa f h'kd Mkt `u/kjkv Wd kdldf ]kti Wd hdldf cv ]Bx xy hdcL elm a a w a q X s kr cv ]h;x kg h_e sl hu/ eji cv ]Fkg d ke®keji dS k;x dcf kr cv s , s s 4kukdcf Fkg rfxofv ]kukyH eH ksd uosn cl q Z 44kukel gVni oHuv Te cv q A g rgd so Syflb `kukt <j' hdldf jd T s ki kdlm cv 4g dyfke kd kXdyfke 4g dyfke kd u/ jkl hgo 4g hu/ hgo s , , s , 44Sbkt ujl hdkd cv d;ki hu/ekj s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 932 egaP

v 0' ksr ke®kv 2g hrksg hg Lks\F hjkgér j,kv hje ke®kv jkv 4g ke®kv df x q , s q s , , s ksvki df hyt hu'ksj jkv ]g Cgu df xksvki kr xky kyt hu'ksj ksd jkdgv 4 , , s s s s a ke®kv u ]jkdgv u3rdl Cgu hH Nd ksr kIef 4g o®r¬fv roæk' go dfXk;D a s q , ]rdl kIef Cgu ksd ke®kv jkv Cgu g go dfk;D ]srdl kIef Cgu ksd jkdgv s , , X a 4sxksdl kIef u lm ksr ksgkp hH kukIef er jkv 4g hg L s q , , s ks\F kukIef lm jk,v 4Cgu jkdgv ]ke®kv g go ]xkvki ltf er hg ryt k;hn s a , s s s q s kd uk;÷ 4Cgu kyef ji ukyt k;nf kd uk;÷ hH kd hldf ksr dr cv 4kukv s s y lki je ksr jkdgv Skt yef jxv 6ktks[ jGf 4kvkyt k;hn kd uk;÷ A g k s ss a s s wa rgd kr e 4krgd Cgu ler e 4ksjke jkdgv ]ksIkd jkdgv ]ksLks\N jkdgv A g s T s q T a a a T rgd ler rl7/kl jln 4g k;x k;ki Cgu hHd jkdgv e rfk;† lm 4hxyt s s q a q s w , a X s s rfk;† l uk;÷ 2kvkxt kd uk;÷ 4kvkt yH hg rkc hd ukIef jkdgv Syflb s s s s s w s a 2ks[n l jk,x jd xkt 4g Cgu jkdagv s s , 4kF krdl kg ;kim Bksd kd ukIef jWt ksr krksg jkdgv 4MkIef ksd jkdagv s s a a jkgér hH e df ksg rgd hH l>e er ]rl ]ksg gj Ly n[ er yod u jkv s q T s s q q a s \ q q s , 4re kLy l jkdagv s \ s 4jd Ly7Ly sl k;kN \ \ hg huiv sxkvkt II ksr ]gj jxv jduke ksd r<fx lb j,kv 4g ukoyc k;kN s w s , kxxy kurm sxkvksg <h{ surtf er 4sxkvksg <h{ er urm hxkg ;;ø Rf' hu s s q s q s s rtf j,kv 4hxksg ;;ø rDf' e uL\y udfy `sxkrht ld 4Syflb ]Cgu hg g k;k X s s s s , , N ]Cgu Syflb ]g hyk'yc k;kN 4jkcjkc xkvksg rtfkji 4xksvkt ksg rLf[ ]x , s s s a s s kvkt II l hg uiv ksr sxkLy l k;kN df Syflb d¥fc g hrdl kjg gér k;k w s s s \ s , X q N df Cgu Syflb 4g rpæfuf kujkg 4Cgu hg krdl kr rht ]kxLy kt sl k;kN , s s \ s 4kuy >el l dhO upLv g; s s \ 4xkjkg gjr hjc ]xksII ]xksdl u kr rht 4x s s q s w s s s s \ X kLi e ydæfe rgc kr Sx xy uL\y l k;kN huiv er jxv jk,v `o®r¬fv B q q s s s q ksd kdlm g `g udfy ]jkgér hryp ksr sNhi 4k;kN hjkgér lt g lS jkdagv , , s s q q s , , s s 4g Bx ksg rfkaH e j/v 4g k;yf uke uer 4g jkdgv hg klS , z X ss a , s q , a s 4g Bx ksg rfkaH e j/v 4g hl¬j 4Cgu hg g ikl ]ks[n sl jkx , z X ss a , , a s , ]kvkt sy k;hn A sxksgd er llm `jkoyr df ]jt[ lm xkn `xksgd k;D eqr s q s a s s s s llm `Wke ld ksd ikl df jGf krNi l kxksy jkv ]ksg kL[ xkH ]Skt ksg r s a s , a s w s X , \ hH;H jGf 4e j/v y [n ksd ikal Bkd e hl¬j lt 4g lkHkv _ke 4g rfkH X ss a s s s X s , , , az yod ksr jkdgv 4kF krdl kt hH k;kIef lm kr ]krksg Nd nf; jkdgv 2ral s a s s q a 4y jd dS jd Iel Xe ui X s s v Xe eüt hlb jd kIef >e jk,v jd kidquv ji >e ]Hi 4krn Cgu suIef ]kr s q X a q q z s sn Cgu ud> e k<jp dikv s>e jkdgv hg; 4g k/kc hLc lcl phc sje jkv s q X X s q a , \ s s , sdikv n;k' hgo ]g jkdgv kd keüt7keüt kje kt g; 2ukoxH A uæi kygi , a X X s s z
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 042 egaP

`e aW> yd k; hg tkv k;D >qe T s 6e g jkll kd uîo¬ yhxaj T wa a s X e <d7lkv ji hL[i hd hyd s \ a `e g jki k;D kdl ki kd exv T wa ]udfy jkc kl kdp je jd eut s , q 4e g jklHfv kgj jd kd hlm T wa ]jd kyt jkr hrtks[ 'fuf sltf s 4Te g jkxkv kd rfk;† ],g kuql wa s ]e er rfk;† g krtks[ ]krdIH X s wa 4g jkd> hd ;ü' go ydof wa a w ]e jm7uhc kst hrgkp kukel X 4e g jkr¬of kd ek;ø kr Cgu T wa s s ]g e Ro ?y ]g uîo¬ ]g k/c wa X 1 q , wa a 4e g jk/kv ;o¬ ]k;kN ;o¬ T wa a a `Te g jkokjki df g <d7yyfl wa wa 4bx ksg hdlm hH o 4g hdp jrm Xe jx s T q kl ygi kt3Cy ki sulm hH k;nfu hjkl ]k;x jrm e jxkl kt 4dlm cl dy s s a X s s w e ]jhcd ]duku ]dlm I¬bk∂ ]dlm <‘Î ]dlm jhokge ]dlm 0c ]k;x ksg s s s s q I‘ofi e ke®kv kst Syflb 4hgo kdcl ]hgo hH kjkgér ]hgo hH kje3g o®r¬f z X q s ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 142 egaP

dl kt l 'ksg sje jxv rfakH hjkgér 4hxSkt l 'ksg jkgér rfkaH hjkgér 2oH s s z q s s q z q alv g; ]n kIef ksd jkdgv sjkgér df ksgkp er ]rl udfy 4g krdl sn rxfb wa a q q a s wa a ]g krdl n kjk'b kd Zxke gér e 4g krdl n _l d ukpgi gér e 4Cgu ku wa s X q T wa s w s X q T kpgi ]kg _i7rev df g kul 4Cgu kukt ]g ;erfks;† e df g kul hHv ueqr s q 1 , q wa Z T , q ss 4Te g jkxkv kd rfk;† ],g kuql wa s ]e er rfk;† g krtks[ ]krdIH X s wa 4e g jkd> hd ;ü' go ydof T wa a w ]e jm7uhc kst hrgkp kukel X 4g kehlv ke®kv ]g kehl jkdg , , a v 4jGf Cgu kehl Bksd hjkgéqr 2ksg 'kdkv kjkl ]ksg jkr¬of kd ek;ø ksr kvkt s s xkt 4sxksgj jH sl jkdgv skr ksg sNkv ]kg Nksv skr ksg IkN ]ksg IkN ksr kg Skl s a s s s ss ss s s 4e g jkr¬of kd ek;ø kr Cgu T wa s s ]g e Ro ?y ]g uîo¬ ]g k/c wa X 1 q , wa a 2q;®e Bskd u ]eüt Bksd u kdltf3ksg ywG d {o d rev lm eqr 1 s 1 s 1 4e g jkedl uel kd Qr7jev T wa q q q ]l uifof7unu ji efH g kjxf s a w wa 4kg _i d rev eqr s q s 1 4e g jkedl uel kd Qr7jev T wa q q q ]l uifof7unu ji efH g kjxf s a w wa 4e g jk;î k;ks[ ];kg kd hldf T wa ]g dld hd ynf ]g nn ]wag uyt wa wa Z 4e g jkgim ?y dS ]g ueql T wa q wa
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 242 egaP

4jh/7jh/ 2dofku jse s s s jdn kokyH >e yp y s q s q s 4Sgfkp k0J jkv 2Sgfkp lgkl ; , énv 2Sgfkp lgklAn 2kg krukt u ]kg krukt hH n[ ]g kgj kt y kt ]ukt u q s s q , s s s , kd 2kvkt cL Cgd 6kvki [hl u ]kujr ]kvki [hl ]ukt ukd 4hg g kr kjr[ s w s , s s , , s 2g kjr[ e ukt Xe hnu , X s 4xkdl [hl kujr hHr xkvkt Xe hnu ct 6kxSkv Cgu s s , s s ekd kujr g; ]kvkLGLr ji7Fkg er jd kNcf k;dfr7kYx hg kurdf jkv 2 , s \ \ , q , g krkt k[hl kujr hg LkF jd kNcf Sdfr7Yx Bkd `xk[hl kgd kujr udfy , , s s\ s s s s a , s 2kxMkv hg jd [hl kuj,r kr cv 4hrkg h;kox a s s a ukt tkv kr krkg k;x jxf e huki jkv kjt\ jxv 2Cgu k[n ]k;x ylGf ji s s X , s , hHv 4kxMkv lki d hnu cr kxy [hl kujr ct 4xyef jGf A kgd su uhYQl a s wa , s X u 2kn k[lf kujr df F rk[ ukt hje kr l unf urdf `ku[hl Cgu kujr ` s , s s s s s s , kg gj kt xkH kgd ]uhYQlu jv df kgd jdky¥pf uXkgüm ]kujr F ykouk[lf s s s a s s , s s s s lm kt ]kF k;x Fkl d nkr¬m utf 4kxkH Gjr hd j? endS jkv kOm 4hF s s ,, het Bkd d hnu ji hPhl ]k;x ylGf ji 4kF k;x u[hl kujr uhYQlu ky¥qe s \ , s , 4kxyp e jGf ]kn wa T s kIef jL kje kd ikl ygi 4g ikl kgo ]kvkt re hg y >e kr kgo A g krg s a s , a a s s s q s a , d go 4l dhO sky [n ]Fkl je kvkv ]kgj k;hn g; df kgd llm 4g krkg r s s s s s s s , s hH;H go 4g krxkH go 4krgkp Cgu kukt go jkv3lki d hl¬j kxLi kukt y , , s s \ s s lm ]kg k>el ikl kd hl¬j ultf cv 4g krgkp kuLkr Cgu df g Cgu ZFv g s a s s wa s\ , ; kdlb ]g krdl Lkr Cgu 4krn hg Lkr ]Cgu hg krNi l er ]krkg krdl L wa s\ s s\ w s q s kr e 4n Lkr e ]kg [j k'kv er kr 4kg rgkp kupc l eJ lm er udfy s\ T wa s\ T s s q s s s s q s 4g hrn Lkr kd kukÈp kr gj hr , s s\ s X s s diI rrl hH nc7nc jxv 4Sgfkp ;®rkl 4g hrkt Ni e ;¬ykv lc ]g hrkv wa wa , wa X , Iok[yf hl7sLkF Nd 4jkd d jkd jGf ]Cgo d Cgo jGf 4g krkt Ief Xe un s\ q s s s s s s , f kn go ]g rkuc kt e unf dS kr 4g krkt kg ekJof unf kn jGf ]k;df un s T s s X s , s s f dS 4g Cgu e eg ;®rkl kurm ]g hrkg hujd ku/kl rrl Syf d uk;÷ ]g , X , s s , krkg kujd eJ kt Syf d uk;÷ df g k;¬el hLc ]k;¬el hLc g Cgu jkdagv s s s , \ \ , 4g BkuOfd hgo jkv 4hxkg , , s hu'kyr hg huiv gér kr [kv udfy ]g krdl n kri kd |o ]g krdl jd X q s a s , s , , kpp hd /f"kv kyko[kv 4kuy ki kd ;®l e rxt kF exl kLc kr cr ]krd Z , a s s X . q \ s l k[nf hu'kj kd /v kyko[kv jxv 2hrkt kg uklkv hLc rkc kr ]hrkg hr s s s a a ss \ s s

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 342 egaP

2j hu? rfk;† ksg hrkj[cf s s s l u;u k"m <jxkt jev 6l kye rjd ut1l kgt s s s a ]l kyo7trf{f ekJof7eJ s s 2j huc ;®l hyko [ql7[Aqn s ]Bk[nf Li hl7Hof krHof s \ q q 3e k;ke yp Ii7_pf oæof X ]e k;kN j/e jhHx ltf X q a 2j hu? rkai hd kXvkjkr s ksg hrkdyP l u;u7yhu q s ]k;kd yekd huiv yhP s s k;kN uoht hl7>kl kgt a a 2j huov hd ygkyksd tr s ]kg hrgd kFd7ei yNæuf s zs 3hjgx e kXukd d jcv X s a hjgy jxkl e utuf ltf X Z
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 442 egaP

a Mkt jGf kagd jki lm `k;kv Bksd kF dr cv k;D Xe kyc L\ghc lb s `k;ky [ l kXjgy udf s s ji Ir ul lb 2dofku s w 4g Cgu hykouksg hu'ksj ]ks[j k'kv hg , s hurdf er l kjho¬r ub 4hxsyt u rfks;†7uoht dr cr ]xksgj rjd kti hd q s X s s w kXjho¬r hd rfk;†7uoht ]xksgj ruke ksd krk0lf d rfk;†7uoht er dr ct s s s X a s s q 4krdl kg Cgu ksr ]Skt xt rfk;†7uoht df ksgkp jkv ksgj hH Ldi er kd s s , s \ q s lb 4kd uLkN cl kxksg hg kuy ksr kjr[ udfy 4g krdl yt k;hn 4Xe uyt s s\ s s , s sd Shn hxsxy Cgu jn ksr 4kvkt ksg ;üw' ]ksvkt ksg hyk[ 4lkoæof ]Skr;üke c s s a l kn LkN ]Fi cl kn Lks\N ]ukK cl kn LkN 2ksvkt ksg jkHuf ]kvkt ksg >kcuf s s\ a s s s\ Z s ∆ 2>ksc jGf ]g krkg kuhli u[ ]BkP\p ksr dS 4g krxy uksg eyke hjkH >skc , s w , s w hH kl7kLks\F dfk;D 4g krksg kujd ed ksd >kc lo7lo g krkt ji BkpM rDf X , s s , s , , a ;ø slt7l,t ksr ji j['f rZoi `ksg syp uPp j['f roi er jdy ksd kXjF®i , s s \ Z q s ub `ksg yp ujr jxkl er jdy kd kjF®i ub 4xn ukt u xkv gér ; 4g j s s , q s s X s X s s X q s T F®i Sg /c ji hrkN ; kr sxkyH u cl ; dfk;D 2[Dlf df ]0k,c df ]ut d q s a s s s w s X , f ]BklB df ]ukeyle df ]ksg ngV df kvkt yH 4kyp Syf u jkH kurb 4ksjd q w s w s kd¥g jlf ]xksvki Pp u ji kXj['f7roi jdy >ksc kurb 4g k[j jd kØdb s \ Z s , jk/m ueqr kt ]ukK Idd7kLd kjkgér ksn dG A g krgd tkj7tksj kr Syfhlb s s Z w\ q X wa s s 4g hjWt kuy jd ed hH >kc Syflb 4xskvk , s s s t hH Gkg Syflb 4g eZxqn Syflb 4g okPp ]ksg exl df g Cgu jkrm 4hg g a , , \ q , T ksr jr[ d ujxf 4g kuOm Gjr hd j['f d roi 4,g exn ]g gWn kr¬kj 4hH s s s , s Z Z q , q jr[ ]hH k;rfkup ]hH k;bkuOfd 4kxSkt k;nf jd Gkl cl hg ygi Xgér kr s a , q a s q s a kg; 4Cgu klS kr¬kj g; 2yp y jd n kokyH jkv 4syp y Bksd g rgkp eg s s s s q , s T s 4jh/7jh/ 2dofku jse s s s jdn kokyqH >e yp y s s q s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 542 egaP

u hjH Gjr hd jk/>e xL dS 4jrm Cgu e huki pb dS 2Oc7Oc jkudf hl s X a s, s, s b cl 4g hy ul gkoGv hH hdum ]g rOm ukGr ld Xe jk/>e 4g hy [sn Xj T q X T s w s , T ho¬r hH hdum ]g hrkg hld oku 4g Syf P\i _¬k' 2g rdl krc l jki hlb T s , X T T s s s , o ]g k;D jki lm 4k;yf Cgu hH kjt\ nko¬ kd uk;÷ udfy 4g srukt xksy c[ s T w e /cl d k;/fof hd uk;÷ 4g rykduf yk[ hd ykc hLc e /cl d uk;÷ X a a s X T s \ X a a s 4g rjd upoof kLc ji uk;÷ ]rjd Cgu uk;÷ jxe 4Skt yef /f"kv ]Skt I T s s \ s , d /fk;ø cl 4Skt ksg yg cl ksr Xy jd uk;÷ jn hurm ]g rPi _¬k' jsn hur s T s \ tf ]g rjd rkc jn hurtf 4rjd Cgu uk;÷ ]g rPi _¬k' e /cl d uk;÷ 4sr T s X s s T s \ X a a s jd Cgu uk;÷ ]g rjd rkc hd uk;÷ xky kr Syfhlb 4uk;÷ g krxy klt ;®1e T s X s s , , q 2Mkt jxf u e yrv e Cgd 2Mkt jxf u e j/v e Cgd df g hrskg a X T a X T , IgkLc? rgc cr ]l phu d kXji hxSkt Ig efH hukji kr ygi 4g ry ;el \ q s s s , w q s s T s s jk/kv Su jkv xaSkt IN jk/kv cl ukji 2Cgu kri Bkd dr jn7jn kd jku , s w s q s w w s df Su jkv kxSkt IN kjkudf kukji 4hxpgi oku e jk/>e ct hxksg IgkLc? , w q s qa X \ kjkudf7yd Nd hH skg w q k;D e kxWrf ZFkniv T a ]kjkgl jk,v u rDf' g , g ky,G ;ü' 'kdov , w 4g kgj Lem nu wlkv , \ a yF¬Qe7;nÔ g kcL , w ]g kgj "' u „pf7ni , s e Fi d urok;®zi X s Z 4e yN ;e7k(*!N kuno X s go ]Cgu Hksy kd uoht `e ypv uhye d er X a s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 642 egaP

sdp llm ]lc 4g rkt dwp lm ]hd ukero g k[j hl7dhjkc kt Xe ;÷e d k w s T s s Z , s s s X uksn jkv 4e ;‘ofH k; g rIky e rhrv 4g gj jd ket ;≤i kLks\F hH e srk[ , X T s , X T s q X sd xo¬ 2g gj jd ektrb kdlb ]kg lXyc7dc kl7kLkF e xo¬ 4g gj jd ∂ Z T s a s , T s\ X Z T s Gf hd dksyji 2g gj jd ektrb kd dr keüt yxv ]Cgu hg e eüt lb xky T s a X s X s 2k;kv jrm xo¬ ]g krxy ksr <{ dS 2kx Z , ksg Cgu naukv kld kr ]kxy[f yG kd o®0c ct ]hxyG /fkel ct ]kxxy u , s s w q s s k;÷ ct 4sxjd klS yd ]kxksg klS yd df ksg rkt ks[ e ;‘ofH er ksr k; kr X s s s X q s 2g ry kxy cklgf kd dr k;Ffkg l k;IfCp7sICp 2g rpksl hd jn hLc xky T s s X s X T s w \ s 82 kxSkt uc kr¬kj ekv jdksg u Ii Ii kje 4kxSkt ksg ydæfe rgc kudksj ksd s s s q q hldf cr83yksc e l¬x ht hjkp‰c38xXxy uyduf hH hFkg df kxSkv hH klS s X s q z s s s unf dS jkv 4hxXyduf lH7;kx ]xXyduf Lk?7/x jkv henkv jh/7jh/ ]k;ef , s T s s s\ s , s s a jv 4Cgu hxdQ ksr rkc hg ji kRd jGf 4sxyduf Rd klji ]hxyduf k;y¥fc s s X q X s q X X a f yd kr ]h;x hrPc xkv rkc gjr hlb nf; 4k;x yduf kgp g; tkv ]CF hr s \ s w yduf hg nfkv k;IfCp l ji nkXr hje dr hHv83kgd Sg srOm l ji xyi u a s s q s a s iv u hjkp‰c FkukdIe38ewyke Cgu e;uf kd kr0cky[J hd kvkuI? géqr8 s z 1a X X 82ksg gj ksg tkjku e ytGf 4kyduf Cgu ksr hFkg Bksd ]g kyduf hg kgp d s X w , w S l ji Ii jkv 4Bg Cgu hg rkc Bkd ksr hd uksg rtfRm lS83kyksc sl ;e¬ s s , q s s s s s of uhYQlu ky¥e38`ht hjkp‰c BkH ]kg gj ksg k;D uk'ji jk,v r/fks∂ urb8 q z s s X s s 4;‘ofH u ]rhrv u3kuksg e ukero ,g uk;÷ X Z 4krki uc Cgu uk;÷ <jkd d ugj >ym e kuksn ub s s s X X jk,v 4kg rkt djl e ;‘ofH k; ksg rkt djl e rhrv kr k; ksr ]kd udjl s s X s X s s X q gér Skt yef jH kdke l rkc hIkN7hIskN 4Skui¥d hd F;ø ]Skutk; hd ZF;ø , s s a Z a s 4g h[j kuc Skutk; hd ;‘ofH jGf k; ]ksg rgj Sks[ e Cgüm ]ksg Oc /kc k; T a s s X s, s a a rfe¬ er hd Nhi ksr k; 2kF ;†kj7ekj ]F e≈q;7<o¬ ]F xq;rl o ]Sx rhc un 1 q s s Z s s f kst 2kF kjk;î kurdf go ]k;x rhc uipc kt 2kF jnl kurdf go ]k;x rhc s qa yd kst 2gkgv3F gj gd er cr ]F Li Bk[nf u Uli er jkv F er hH s s q s s \ z q , s q yd jkv 2k;x rhc kst kF jnl kurdf yd 2gkgv3g rgj r[n Nhi jd Iky , qa T s s s s , 7Iky ]g rgj rnjd e hlm ]g k[j kxy jkcv dS kd k;rfe¬ kr k; 2g sOc , T s s sq X , a X 1 s T , Skuc Skui¥d k;D7k;D xksy jkv 4ykt d kui¥d g kuLkN ]kui¥d g kuLs\kN 4 a , s , s\ , kujkpof7kupkl g kuLkN 4ksgj Oc iqp ]ksg u kX;D <{ hg Nd gkp 4kxksg kujd s , s\ s, q s re√uf ksd ;®rkl dS df g hurb Zilf BkuOfd ]g Cgu jkv Nd BkuOfd ]ral , , , q 4hrkg Cgu s sl kpp hu'ksj ]dr keüt7keüt ksgj rjd ]kZpp ksjd 2g Oc e j/v jkv3kZpp Z X X s T s, X ss a , hd hu'ksj 4g hgj yp kZpp hgo jkv 2Sdf nc cl tkojn7jk} ]hdL[f3g sOc , , a s \ T , e k{jl huiv7huiv 4k;yf ykse kjr[ hHd u ]B[ oku u ]C;kOm LkL u 4Cg X q s X a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 742 egaP

]k[n ksd hrkN hd uo/e s s q k;x [l ksr k;x [wl go w ]er jokNuf ;®uf ji lm sF q eld dS kF go Xe uoht q q 4Bx rkc ksl Bx rhc kt s ]g krkue dks' jcv cd , a ji kXjkr II kyksc ji sw s ]yef kagd jGf Sx IN kt s w s ]IN jk;î dlb urdf sw s s s ]II jkr dlb urdf sw s s s ]k[n kd uukv d jcv s s s s a k;x cL ksr k;x cL go w w ]kF kjk;î ngc go kuke s ]kF kjkrlf dS Xe uoht 4Bx rkc ksl Bx rhc kt s 4kdp ksg [kj kd cd ]g [kj rhrv q , 4Cgu kxxy Nd jkgér Fkg j,kv 4kxksg re√uf jkdgv df dp llm 4dp l uk;÷ df s q s q a s w s s w s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 842 egaP

Sg uc g d hÈef7n1e q s T s q

4Bx rkc kl Bx rhc kt s s g krkrNi ;ykjnfe cd , ji kyk;î II kykc ji X s w s s g rOm cd g rjxf kt T s T s s g rkt yef e hÈef jxf T s X g rkt ygf yk;î urdf T s s s s s k[n uxkv kd ;ykjnfe a k;x II kr k;x II go w s w kF kykL n ue7ur ueqr s s kF kyk;î kd /e Xe uoht q

4Bx rkc kl Bx rhc kt s s g krkpe jk' uo/e cd , s q ji kRi [l kykc ji X s w s s ]Cy[f kgd jGf bk>e kt a Z q s a k;jfy¥o hurdf bZk>qe a k;yfd hurdf hdlb C[wl

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 942 egaP

uiv kd o®r¬fv 4g Cgu jcte kd uuke gér o®r¬fv 4kryp Cgu jkluv d , w s s X q q s X kuil jkgér o®r¬fv dfk;D 4xaSkt yef e hÈef cl3kjd re√uf kd kuil hg s q X s X s s X s urdf ]kjH jkxJ e kuil hg urdf ]kvktl Skui¥d hg hurdf ]hd ;‘ofH kv s 1a X X s s a s kuc Skutk; er hg hurdf jkv 4Idjd7kLd g krkt yt cl e u≈fv u?l h a s q , w\ , X d o®r¬fv 4jGf hruc Cgu k;kN hd jkdgv hg e 'kdi u?l d o®r¬fv 4skvh a X z s t e o®r¬fv 6kvht e okH 4g krkg re√uf jkdgv l okHv hlm 4kg rht eqr X s X , s a s s s e okHv jkv 4g okHv kd kukn 4Cgu k;kv hHv ;‘ofH jkv kdp kt rhrv X , , X s , q 4e ;‘ofH k; hxkg hgj yp ucL/m e rhrv kr k;3x X s q s\ X s s kg gj jd dS l e ekd kn lc `skg gj jd k;D df kNi lum kr kg sOc xky X s s X s s s w s s X , s 4sxkgj j?f l Cgüm 4sxkgj rykL <ki Aui7ui eum ]xkgj rkxt s s s s s z q q X s s s 4hxgj hrxkt so ]xkgj rkxt 4kgj rkxt re kd k;rfe¬ 4knjd re kd k;r X s s s s s s X 1 s s q s X fe¬ jGf 4k[n re Iky7Iky jGf 4Bx rkc kl Bx rhc kt A kd uk;÷ _wl kygi 1 s s , , s s 4Bx rkc kl ]Bx rhc kt s s g krky¥pf ]g krkj cd , , s kvg kyt l /e pπl kt q s q s s ji kyk;î7I? kree hdltf X , g kyko uhi kpπd go s g rjd hg kIy /e o T s w q s g jke d krdnke kt T s s s T s g yk;î /e g I? d /e q T s q jnv d ;ykjnfe hH jGf a s T s g rjd hg kIwI yk;î s g Skv jd y uoht q?y T s g rjd hg kII I?7/e T s w q

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 052 egaP

jGf `er ksg kgd jGf `g jkdgv kagd jGf ]Skt gj u xjr hd jkpof Bkd q a , a a s jrhH jkgér jxv <{ lb 4Cg; jkv hHv g ;®l 4O> cl hH xkv ]O> cl s q , , w s w hH Nhi 4g Nd cl <{ kd ukero huk; uk;÷ 4g uk;÷ hg e phc d kuskn ub s , q Z , X s X 4kxSkt /l l krexl uk;÷ kr ]skvkt kg rDe ]rl ]l ;‘ofH jkv rhrv slS s q s s q a s , s 2rhg1xuv e ]hjkHkv e 2jktx∂' e ]g kiÎ hLc df ksdl sn q T T q q T , \ nko;ü/ ksd o®r¬fv er ]ksg klt df g kr¬kj kd ukg h[l jk,v 4Sgfkp kuksg k q , , s s q lS df ksjd xke l o®r¬fv er A g kr¬kj kd uksg h[An 4ksvkt kg htkj sllm s a s q , s q s er ]g krgkp kt o®r¬fv 4kxjd Cgu kji klo lm o®r¬fv ]ksg rgkp k;D eqr q , s s w , s s 82y¥if jkv k;Rfd ]Rd y;jfe ln k,l pkai hg o83k;krc Sg srkj su htcçP s , a q s q s q s w 8`h; x [yf k;D Syf jkgér e r;hlo go skr ]kNπv83kNi l krdl®m u uhYQlu s q X w s q s 4k;krc kd uhYQ s lu ky¥e r¬kn uiv u htcçP384h;x je yd hlk,e hje 4k;kxy l yx jdkOm q s s s w s s s ksd kXy¥if jknhyt[ ]kjG Fkg ji kNi hd k;Rfd yxki ]k;krt jk;î c[ kd q s X w X q w s X q kRd jkncnc dkiku dum 4hd ''fkd l gjr jg hd u[j '[ güm e Hky w s s s s q X X s sd uki u/ jHhxntV ue 4F Rd ln k,l pkai e j? dum 4kF dk,' kd uyki s s T s s q X s s sRd güm 4kF c[ u/ lki dum jxe 4F Cgu pπc d hlke ko/of jhev hjse8 q X w s s s s , 4sxSkv j?f ynkc d Idl ji k<ki kr hxII Sk{iv a s a X z s Xw a s ct yd Cgu tkv kr ]g aSk{iv 4aSk{iv ]g <jkd erd/fv kdlm ]g krLi s T s s , , \ Bk[nf [An kst kurb ]g krLi Bk[nf e k;ufn nk"of kt kurb ]ks[j uk;÷ jkv q , \ X q s , 4bx jx f k;[fklc df e ukero Skv er 4g hrjd kL[ ksd jkdgv kst g ka;[fklc kn a , X Z q T \ a T , s ; 4g krksg kL[ jkdgv jkgl d kuskn Cgüm ]lc 4;‘ofH kgj u ]rhrv kgj u s , \ a s s X 2jkdgv kagd jGf 4kukg I‘rjfi elm ]g kt 4g lk;ül kukg uhyoy Xelm 4g a s q X , s , a s , lk;ül kukg uhy¥r elm 6g H' ]g jnl ]g klt ]g kt 4g lk;ül kuksg htkj a s X , q , qa , , , s , a s llm ]g kt 4Cgu k{iv Bksd ]Cgu xkae Bksd A g Fv hg; Syf je kd lk;üal , s s , Z ss 4Sgfkp huksg Cgu xke Bksd jGf hjkgér 4Skt ksg uk;÷ kr a q s ksdl gc Fkl d o®r¬fv er ]'kd 4e hr¬ene huiv ]e rfx huiv3g krkt s q X X , kyp ikpip o®r¬fv `sul u hdldf ]ul hdldf o®r¬fv 4g r' hdcl ]g x q q s q T ë T s ky rauv7ruv `kg ydv er 4ksg rkt Skxy r' er ~ ~ ~ksg klo hHv ]ksg kl a s s s q s ë q , sS hHv ]jxf u e jxkl hHv df ]g kujd ekJof hHv df ]jgO hHv df ]sLe s X , s q\ Skn df ]Le aSkc kjk/ hd uoht g; ksg rgkp er 4ksg rgkp kujd rifksjkv j a s q\ s q s i o®r¬fv er ]g aSkutk; huiv hjkgér `ld ksgc Fkl er udfy 4Skt xy u q T s q s , q s k;÷ ksr ksy gc Fkl dlm jxv er 4g krkt kgc l okH F¬Ir o®r¬fv Syflb s q , s `ul hdldf7ldf 4kxSkt Li e ydæfqe s q \ X rgc kr kxsul hd dS7dS 4g rfx huiv hd o®r¬fv 4g hy' huiv ]g xP k q s q , , , , a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 152 egaP

hjkgér skt ]ksd gcl lm 6g kiNf e j/v jkgér kt ksd tjl lm g kr[n e q q , X ss a s q s w wa s T dfk;D 4g kr[n kuokHl e dfk;D 4rl A g k;nf eku ue gér 2ksjd eJ ]ral X wa s a T X a , s T X q 4krsn Ikac o®0c ksd k;ufn hjkl ]kF rîZk;i 0c dS ksr q q q Cgu 4Crksg Cgu rjfrkar¬g Xthp ; 4g krksg kuki ksd {kse 4g krksg kuki kd ;®l s , , s 4Cgu jkv Bksd e k;ufn lb tkc[ks/ kLc sl , X q s \ lm ]g krgd klsS kt 4kxIy gér ]g krgd klsS skt 2hukeBc Bksd ]g k[ks/ Bk , s sw X q , s , s d ]kugj uk/okl er kr ]kxn gér e df gd jxv Bksd jk,v 4krdl n Cgu Xgé q s wa X q T s s q r Bksd lm 4kxkg kuki hg gér lm 4g k;df hg rpfm g; 4g k;df H' g; 4g s s X q s , , q , k[j Lks\N ksd j['f eji lm jxe ]g hn sn rDf' hji hd upgi dr lm ]g k , w s qa , ;nf n ;ƒekl kd uki lm ]g hn n k/ofl hjkl hd utks[ lm ]gér g k;nf sn s Z s s , s q s s X q , cl 4g k[j dksj go ]g uoht eji kt ]g thp ;¥egc hj[fkv kst u ke®keji , , s , w q s 4 k;df uer eJ kurdf df g g; go jkv g Lnike hg dS ];kim hg dS lki s q , , , a jkgér kd sudkv rehd 4hrkt gj Cgu rehd hdum e ue jkgér <{®r ksr Sk s q a X s q a t yef r@#!ie jxv jk,v 4yef l eJ jxv ]ksg rjd ;¥e er hH kd kthp q X s s w q X hd hLk,\d ksn 4kg rjd ;¥e hg kdlm ]kg rki ltf l eJ uiv er 4rjd Cgu s s w s s s s s q s ;¥e er kdlm ]Skt k;nf hH kt gér df k;yf [n jdn cl gér u ke®keji w q s X q s s X q s 4ksdl jd ;¥e kdlm ]ksdl jd rehd hdlm er dfkr 4g w q , kutks[ Xgér go 4g k[j kpc ksd {ke ]g k;nf cl u ke®keji~ ~ ~ r@#!ie S q , s , s q kt yef jxv hH {kse gér 4kF kujd go tkv df ]kF kujd g; tkv df ]sF X q s q s \ uk[l Lid tkv df ]Bx ksg kZ"o tkv df ]g knk;† i/ tkv df xksjd Xr;kd' , w s f hH e {kse er ksr ]Skt yef hH {kse jxv gér hg lS 4hxt k0J u ]kxt X q X q s s gxuv u ]sxkXg Sdf Idi gnl ]hxkXg hd r;kd'f ]Cgu `k;nf nko;ü/ Syf d z q z sa X s ;ürp uiv uer ]g k;nf ;ürp gér ulm 4kOm Cgu gxuv Bksd jrhH jkgér , s s q , , X q s z q s q ]Cgu `g krdl kg uko;¥e k;D jkv l uoht `k;nf uoht >e ur dfk;D ]g , s w , s s q s w X wa rhgxquv e kjr ]Hi g df k;nf nko;ü/ ksd ke®keji hHd uer ]g kyef e I 1 T s q z s s q , X X X q H gér uoht `hd rehd Bksd suer ]g hyef e IH gér thp hurdf 4krukt C q T X X X q X gu hg kujd rehd Bksd hd IH dfk;D 4rDfe hrdl kt hn Cgu hH e IH géqr X X q X X X 2hr¬nct jkv rDfe 4hxksg Cgu rDfe go ]Skv hr¬nct kst dfXk;D 4g Z , q q Z , krdl kt k;kt y hr¬nct jd Ldi Fkg gér kr u 4xkvkt pgi gxt kayG k s Z \ X q s s s qa s r ksyp jkv yhe surb ]ksyp jkv kurb df g kuc jhr ji utf ]g jF®i d y , , , T s he ksr 0c 4g rdl n jk'b ]g rdl n xke yod 0c A g kgd u 0c 4krd q T s s s T s s Z s q , s q l yp Cgu Syf jkgér e 4kxksg gér kuyp ]g krdl n gkj 4kxdl jd Cgu Te s q T X q wa s wa 4g rlo kIkUl hgo 4g ry[f e IkUl hlm yG d , a T s X s w s . qa . ejnl ]eo'f ]e;®l 4g uexkv kd nuknpπfl e IkUl hlm 4g /fkel ]g { . , a X s , , kse ]g <kZouf ]g oHuv7e®kv e IkUl hlm 2g kIkUl oiv dS ]g kIkUl dS , , q X s , Z w ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 252 egaP

jd[j ji ji uiv ksd rkN jdkOm 4g k[yf eku kdlm ksr k[n ji srkN 4S , s s , s gfkp kuksg ukoygi hgo df k;x >el hg jd [n xP kcy kLc kd rt 4g jr s a a \ s w T s m rt ]kd hldf g k[j jgkc krkN df k[sn ]kpgi j? uhYQlu jGf unf jlwn s w , qa s 2g k;D rykg df k;x >el hH ukoygi kr x , s s ksgd gjr lb er cv l ukoygi jkv 4g rksg hg LkF ykouuke lS Bksd jxe q s , T s s s\ s s s s 2ulm hy ykduf chdjr ]k[sn s 2BkH ]ksjd ekd Nd ]kvkt j? uiv 4kxksg k; q s s x jL jd[n ksd Cgér jWt 2g rH e j? ]htkrif df g krgd l>e tkj yt s q , w X , s q s w G df gd e kr hHr 2hrkv Cgu e' ]ksg rjd ''fksd hd ukjL ksd kpπc je wa T s Z s s X ss jdksg sL[ jd uc rH e unf kg; ]nkr¬m df kykc 4ukoygi kd okax kF go 4 \ w X a s k;x ksg rk' kl¬qx endS kdlm l hg ryks[ hjkeyv lc ]hysk[ hjkeyv ulm a s s s ]kF kgj hg ksg kyccxkv e l¬qx kr uhYQlu 4k;x ksg kL[ jd iNf e hjkey w X s s \ X v l endS jd Om hH henkv go 4kF kvg kIy ji xyi Fkl d hu®i henkv s q s a s go 4k;x l? jnv jd kxy xkyN l e hdL[f ]kpgi j? kvg kxkH uhYQlu q a a s X \ qa q 2g krk[lf rghlu lm jdkt wa s hHv 4kF hH >e kr d' 2kxn [j jd L/m hLep 2kdlm g krjd dhO hHv s q s wa s\ \ s wa df kgd su uhYQlu 4g hgj jd ei e j? l henkv dS hu®i hjkgér `ksg gj , zs X s q s jd k;D e yIkg Oc kg; er ]uhYQlu df hn jc[ u hldf kd uhYQlu ky¥qe X s s, a q s s 4g kry ykduf kr¬kj , s kd upc l thp jg 4g hrksg k;jfk;'fkg hLc 4g rksg dr Lc e ue d henkv s s T a s \ T s Z s \ X s 4kvkuc re <jokv kd ukiNf ;¬ykv ksd k0J s s 4ksjd eJ g; jGf ksr ]g Cgu hji k0J jxv jk,v kn LkN cl ksr g hji k0J , w s s\ , w jxv 2ksg gj Lks\N ji kX<jp je er go ]g ktg k;D ksr r@#!ie ksg kryef s ss q , Z q hg lsS jk,v g Cgu kuki gér kt 4gj Lks\N Cgu ji kX<jp je go ]ksg gj LkN C s , X q s s ss s s\ gu ji hldf er go ]n[ ksg gj Lkn er ksr go3u/3g kuki gér kst ]Sgfkp q q s ,\ q , X q géqr kst 4g Cgu kujd gér go3kxyef l uN <jp je ke®keji udfy 4krksg X , X q s s s w ss s Cgu ekd l uwN <jp je ]sxksjd er hjknukdn `kg gj n ksdldf k[k/ er j s s ss q q s s s s q Gf ksr A kgd ue kr 4hxksg hg hujd kr hjknukdn `kxksg ld g; A kgd ukgüm s T s s q s , s X 2kujd k;D hH hjknukdn cv ]k;y q f N <jp je ~ ~ ~ 4g hjkik;ø sLc ~ ~ ~ 2ksjd nc hH hjknukdn kr ]g pl g; w ss T \ a q s , jxv df kgd lum ue 2g kujd k;D jk,v cv ]Syf N <jp dikv ]lc df s s T , w s g rgd jkv ]~g rkt N <jp jdkv 4g rkv l kë"o ]g rkv lki je _ef dS T s , T s w T s s T s ss 4d ukiNf kd kthp huiv g sry ykduf dr Lc eg s s s X T s Z s \ 4kxkg xP dS kd ukiNf hg ksd ;¬ykv jkgér g; kF;üv ]kxsdl sn s a s s q géqr jk,v Bksd df klksjH go kLks\N jkv 2;¬ykv kLkN ]kyp kjt\ ]ksOm kjt\ 4g X s , s s\ s , hrdl ksg Idi hH hHd kt ]g jksH dS e Hx d lokev 4g hiNf e lokev z s , X Z s , X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 352 egaP

2yhe kn hg; ]yhe ksn hg; A g krgd e ]ksg yhe lhykp s wa T df ksg yhe jkp gkp 4g krLi kujd I? lhck,p >e ekd hgo ]k;df ekd kt s , \ sa s q s s u k;Pfc df klg Syflb A kgd su 0c `k;D lg ikv ]kxy uNi nukv e r¬kj \q a q X s a s w a X s 4lg 0c udfy 4e nukv h;kv reégf hLkF s a q s X a s\ 4g Sx k;Ofl ]Cgu 'kg Nd kdub T s q s ]kul re rkc hd MPc g; 4g yhe ksn df g hrgd e df kgd u k;P\fc jkv s q X q\ , wa T s q , 2kxksg rgc yhe kn ]jv ]g h_k; nkae7dF surdf Cgu r[n ]ksjd rkc l 'ksg k q s s T s s s s X s jt\ kgd l Pc uiv jk,v k;nf dksj kukyp k[jp kuiv u k;Pfc 4uir hd jH s s w\ s s \q unf lk;î ][H 2F Sx dF urb ]jxf cr jxf cv df hF hgj ksg rykg hjxf7h s s w s s s s jxf ]hF u reégf hd uyp end jkp 4k;x jrm jk,v kjgp ksr kd nukv hg sr s s a ul yhe jkp 4yhe jkp Bksd hg; kxkg ]kgd su Pc lm `g jn hurdf okax df q s s w\ , w kNi3g hgj rkd k[jp Nd Cgo hOc hH k;Pfc hdlm 3kNi l ukldf Pc sOc w , q , \q w s s w\ , jgkc d Lik> u nukv 4g dQ lki d LikX> suc e r[ dS ji r¬kj hLk\gi s s \X s a T s s s \ X s s 4g Sx dF hH 0qc 4g k;x dF rgc ]g k;x dF nukv 4hxy uksg >kl udfy T , q , a s a s ]dr jgikn sxSkt pgi okax df hF k'kv 4F gj jtx l r¬kj hLk\gi dS 0c s a qa s s q s s q 4g hrkt ksg hji k_k; hd yhe , w kXjktg ryp7ryp end dS7dS ]ryp7ryp ]jh/7jh/ 4ksyp jk,v kLkF ]kyp s s s s s s s\ s jkv kLkF ]ksg Syf yp kurb df g kgj jd r¬oækv gér 4g kgj n ulkoækv , s\ wa X q wa s gér ]g kgj n yc gér df ku>el hg kurb ksr g '[ l lkdof jkgér e df X q wa s X q wa q s s q T g krgd e ct 4g hLi k_k; rgc hHv ]udfsy 4g '[ l lkdof jkgéqr e jkv wa T , \ q wa q s s T , 4g Cgu jn cv ]k;x kv rlo df hn , w a sn jc[ su yG ygi 4xkXg hg rkv hH yG jkv cv 2lt ky[f yG kygi kd w s s s w , s , w rlo 4g <{y H' hH g; ]Skt jkdgv df Bg kni k{kdkv g; eer `Pc sl a , q a q , a X q s\ ,d ]jH ld jkd/v df g ksr aSk{kadkv hd kxky 2g ed k;D hH g; ]Skt jkd s s , a T X s , gv g; df Bg kni hH k{kadkv ]kyp 4g kuksg jk,v hHv Nd rgc udfy 4g k a q , s , q q s , ync Nd rgc e uoht jkgér 4g kvg Nd rgc e kë"o rkl7pkai ub j/b 4skg q q X s q , q q q X gj ksg rlfdof er l xP ltf g '[ e jkv 4kxI? 4g kuI? kr o®ral ]ral s q s a wa q T , s , s 4k[n kd k;tfkcykp hd ue uiv jdksg dWxkt rqgc s s s X s 4g kry > , s el jkpknl ksd sujd u'ni uekl d kjlwn ]ksd ok[nf go 4g krxy suuke rf Z z s s X s , hu ksd jcLkv FkF go 4g kry kuc e/ ksd L[ki go 4g kry kuc krdr¬fkv a s s , s Z a , s skd hukeBc go 4hrkv Cgu upLv Bskd e uket ri hd nç' ji knç' lm 4g k s \ X s ë X s , rdl gd k0J kd ;¬ykv go 4g y'd7dr rgc ue kjkgér ]l ue uiv kug s , q Z q q s s j uk/okl 2ksg kupc l thp ltf ]g krsy tks[ cklgf urdf eyke7u henkv s , s w 2kte kdlb ksn k[p 2kZ"o Skt ksg cv ~ ~ ~ 2ksjd s k;D ~ ~ ~ 2n jd kZ"o cv ]Hi g df kgd jk,v 4Snf jd LdI ksn 4kykL Lkr s q z s s \ q s\
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 452 egaP

S 4g hxy ukv dy> hd r;efnkv ]g k;x ksg knof uihckti l jgp d rl 4 , s , a s s s s a g k;x ync cl cv 4hg hckti jGf ]F ryksc Cgu hngV jGf ksr rkt kv e uk , a s s s X ;÷ go ct jkv 2hg hckti ksr g ksr jd hH uk;÷ hckti 4kXg gj jd k;®g hd h , a , s a s ldf ]kXg gj jke kd hldf lt 2rn k;yfkx 4rkyp l? kr 2g hckti `F rjd s s s , s s a s s wa s T a s s k;D go g ewyke e uk;÷ kr F rjd uk;÷ jkv Skv kg; e W'7W' ct ral , X s s s , a X q q 2g k;x ync cl 2ral , ]kjd nk; yD' huiv hd ygi ykl rkl7pkai jd Ik,y kjt\ 4g gj Li e k'nf s s T s \ X dhO end jkgér 4g e k'nf dhO ]g H' go ]g k;df klt dr cv uer jkv s q , X , q , , s q , 4kxn xks;gl o®r¬fv 4g hg kujd eJ ksr gér 4kun Ls\kN re h s , X q s g ji o®r¬fv jxe 4g hxk;gl o®r¬fv kjkl e k_k; hd uk;÷ 4g k_k; hd yd , s X , s s v k_k; hd jkdgv 4ksg rkt gj ydv er ksr ksg kuyp rhjiof d o®r¬fv ]akg a s s s q s 4g krkt kg hxk;gl Syf sdlm , s s o®r¬fv kjkl g; 4g hrsn <ki lm efH 4g rn huki lm ynkc ]g krn ñex slm , z s w T s s s , s tjl ]g krn k;kN lm 'kdkv 4g kgj ksg rofy¥i ]g kgj ksg rjfdv ]g kgj w , s s , , q a , IG thc Bksd 4g kgj Ik,y lifko k;x yduf jn Bkd 4g kgj kv j? kdIH7ky w , w s , H Bksd dfk;D ]g krsn xk;gl lm kg u≈enaukv o®r¬fv kjkl ]g krjrm e k' w X , s s s , X nf hd uk;÷ rDf;ø Bksd hH ct 4g Fkl jkgér o®r¬fv kjkl 4g kL[ Fkl jkgé , s q , \ s r hH ke®keji jkv 2g hg kL[ Fkl kr e 4kn kxy e uk;÷ eJ kji kuiv eqr q , wa \ s T s X w 4Cgu ygi dlm ]g hrkg W' huyef s s , s q Xgér kZtM hd ukoxH <{ hlm ]ksg rn jd u≈yl e eJ kji kd kji ksd kNπb q s s a X w w huiv ct er 4kxksg kusn jd u≈yl e eJ ksd kNπb hji huiv gér ygi jxe q a X w X q s ]g krdl ksg cl rpæfuf l kNπb hd ukoxH 4kxSkt ksg cl kr hxksg kNπb hd , s s ukoxH df k;yf uke ]cl k;nf LkN sulb 4g ;≈kHn kd 'n ji lb kr hg; s\ , Z q s sw s 4xkv s s kt Oc lc er df ji >e kLkN 4g kjr[ e uLks\N ji >e 2kLks\N re ji >qe , q q s\ , X s q s 4sxaSkt ryef dhO r¬kj hH xkv d s s s f g hr/c k'kv llm ]ksg Skv yp kurtf ]ksg Skv yp klt er jGf 2Cgu ; , a s , q ÷klv ]g eZxn ]g gWn 4g ;÷kl ]hxkg hujd kr ku/kl 4Cgu oHlv jxe ]g k , q , q , s s a , s r uOfd ytfe 4dl ksg u kji df Cgu kcy hH kurb udfy 4g kcy ksr kr¬kj a s w a s , a 2rgc yhe kn ]jv `hrkv Cgu q s s Z s e' rkrc yhe jkp kdub ]xky snkae7dF urdf Cgu r[n kjt\ A kgd ulm ]h s s s s s s s d k<Qd u k;Pfc udfy 4kF kgj gd hg kpπl kPc ]kF k;x Cgu k;Ofl kPc 2 s \q s w\ w\ k>el e k"kH hd k;Pfc lm `>el cv A kgd u 0c 4k;kv Cgu okax hH jd T \q s s q yp yhe ksn jkv 2k;kv cv lc ]yhe ksn Bksd kxkg hg; ]kgd ulm 4Sx hH y , s s duf ksr yhe kn ]kF kul yhe kn ]g jn hurdf okax ]BH df u nukv kNi sl s q s , w s a w jhxgkj hldf jGf ksr k;kv Cgu okx nkc d uyp yhe kn ct 4kvg hg; jkv a s s s q ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 552 egaP

eg df A _l kygi 4F Skrc s>e _l kn sukgüm 4g krkrc >r e go ]kF k;kr s w s q w s X wa s q T c >e su htkrif je ]l,t 4y [hl rkc Nd ]Oc ji ukdn df ygi dlb jkv s q ss s s X q s, q s s , 4jd W' kuOc ji ukdn r cv ]Ic df kF kgj k>el kd Isc uiv hng; dS q , q w ss s s s w 4ksg Cgu jknukeB Bksd hH er ]Sgfkp q kun sudIf Cgu s>e hH kd er df krgd lum e `g rn udIf k;D kag; ikv s q s q s T T s s s X s kdlm ]g ukeBc go df rgd so ]rjd r;kd'f jdkv7kv l>e xky kst jkv , s s s s q s , 4kxIwy gér Bkd u Bksd 6kxSkrl gér Bksd u Bksd 4g kF¬ov dkujr[ Hsky 4 s X q s X q , g krxt Hksy jrhH jkgér jGf kr ]n k[nf jdkuc hOxv kn l hOxv dS k; , s q s s w a s s w a n k[nf jdkuc Iksu kd SiQ ksn Iku kd SiQ dS henkv Bksd ct jxe 4y[ k s s s d Fkg cl ]y[ kO> cl go 4kF krsn k[nf jd kuc Iku ksn go ksd Iku /kdS s w s s ]CF hrkv aSkyd hd Fkg hl7hLkF Nd lm jk,v ~ ~ ~ F gj kouc ak;Ofxv kn s\ q s s s w a s s kd hOwxv huiv jxv er 4g kyef Ln dhO kder 4k;df Cgu kjc Nd kr k;x a q , a s q q q s n k[ks/ jxv kder ]F gj kouc SiQ kl ksn d SiQ kl er 2ksg dDi hH eqr s s q s s , s , q s ksr ukeBc j[fkv 4Cgu klsS ]ksg jknukeB Nd er jxe 4g jgfkt ]g tkcykp s q q , , ksr go `sxksn "ksn hH ksd suiv k; sxksn "kn ksd hlm er df krgd lum e kr s q s T s 4g; g kyko hg suksg 4g k;x ksg njknu jdsy k,l go 4kxn kuc kl ksn d k,l df , , s , s kpkl ueg ksr Snf kuc kn d dS ulm ct 2Snf kuc kn dlm ]k;yf Iksu kd s s s s s s s SiQ dS 4k;k[nf djd jkd®ep sygi eg ulm df kgd ulm `kxy ld y B s X s s s s , s ksd Iku kd SiQ kl ler `kxsy ld sy hOxv ler `kxy ld y hL? sler Bk s , s q s , w a s q s s , s \ q s d df krNi lum e 4hy sy hL? hjkeg ulm ]krgd Bksd 4hy y hOxv sleg u w s T \ s s w a s lm 3krgd go ]jdkv krgd Bkd 4Syf y SiQ kl leg ulm df xy ujd r s s , s s s s ;kd'f l>e jd kv7kv xksy jkv 4y lkaG go ksd hldf u hldf l Xeub ]g sr s q , s s T kt7rkv xky urb lki je dfk;D kF Syflb hg k;kv kr go udfy 4kxdl d s s s ss X s s s If Cgu jsn knk;† lki je ksr Cgu ]n Lks\N htkcykp cl g; r df hH kgd kd ss s w s lm sue 4kF tkcykp 4kgj lki je unf Nd 4k;kv lki je doq; ukeyle dS T ss q ss q 2g k{kadkv ryx hLc ]kuyp jd yHl kjt\ 2kxSkt hH go ]g , \ a , ji er kurtf 4kxIy jkv kxn thckr gér Bksd jWt ksr ]skg rgkp kuksg hu/ q sw , s X q s jxv er 4d ktkcykp g ruc jkd'f hg xksy sykokXvk{kdkv hd gjr lb dfk; q s X T s a X D 4ku[j yk;[ g; ]rkc kr hygi ]xkLi e Fkg d tkc[k/ jWt er <‘Îjfg s s s \ X s s s q `Wd k;D e 4hH h_ a T ¬ jnl ]g krgkp kuki hH ni kLc ]g krgkp kuksg hu/ e ]ukoxH A uæi kjlwn aq wa \ wa T z 22kyp syp 2kyp yp 2kxSkt ksg hg k/kv "' ksr k;x ksg k/kv ct s s s s jk,v 4k;x ksg kjwi ksr ekd k/kv 4g Bx ksg rka' cl go ]hF hrxt e uk;÷ Rf , X o hd Ihi7jke skt go ]F rOm e uk;÷ l? kst o 4k;x kyp uirOy go 4,g h; 1 s s X s wa s , kv kr;ék,l dS e o®rDf;ø 4g h;kv rfka' dS hH e k[kv 4g h;kv kryjl d X , X X a ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 652 egaP

d cl ]h_¬ jnl ]ni ]u/ df Sgfkp kuy Ni lltf g rDf;ø g; ]ksyp A kxskg , qa s w s , kpskl uer ksr ]g krjd jkdho¬ e krzxel hdlm kd uoht e df jduql Xe / s q wa X s T acl sd I‘fnuoht hjse sxskvksg Skv kg; er 2<‘Îjfg ]kvkt ksg uk/okl sl hHv a 1 a q s 4g hrxy hlkaG Nhi jxe ]ksd jn hLkF Skt ksg kyH ut , s s s\ as jkue 4g ex i¬pynf cl3Tg "Qi jnl ]g ak;_¬f jnqal ]g kO‘rfi ]g ni ]g u/ T q qa T , z , , T s g nhj[ ex\ i¬pynf sld , ~ ~ ~ e k{kadkv hd ukg h[ql X s s ~ ~ ~ ueg Xe rk'uf7Stjkv s w 6g nhj[\ ejH d hr¬kn T s s s ]g hnhj[\ du[ hd kjxkl , X 2[An hg [An jxe ]kyH i¬pynf q q T s g nhj[ ex\ i¬pynf sld , s ueg Xe rk'uf7Stjkv w T s g nhj[\ ejH d hr¬kn s s g hnhj[\ du[ hd kjxkl , X `g kyef k;D güm ]k;yf ki ukgütf `k;D sxkvki 4xksLi e [ks/ er 84g kr , X s X s s \ X s q wa gkp kuki ni kLc ]g krgkp kuki h_¬ jnl ]g krgkp kuskg hu/8 A ksg rgd eqr \ wa qa wa s `Mkrc Cgu df aMk a rc ksd juIki uiv 2g kukrc kdlm df krOm Cgu hg ykol ksr kdlm 2g kgj Z s , s , jrm hg k;Pfhl henkv go 2krdrf,u d;fklok;ø 2hjknukeB g; `ksg r[n g; a \ s s `Mkrc u df Mkrc ksd juIki uiv e df3ykol kd krd a a Z s T rfu d;fklok;ø3g krOm g; ykol cv 4g Iksu kn ksr k[n ue hHr ]kF kgj j , , T s s s T rm k;Pf\hl ct go 4g dS k>el ulm kr 4F Sg dipf e likv o3k;x sn Ik a , s s s q s X s s u d SiQ kl kn s>e gxt hd Iksu d SiQ kl l yH henkv dS 4g ykol hg s , s q s , s w , kd yd ][n df kyksc l Ic uiv ikc ksr 4g krkg kuht uoht drfu ji ukdqn s s ss s , s , 4hjlkac q hxstc u ]lkac kxgj u 4kun re upo ksd hldf hH jdyH df kF k;krc _wl > s s w s qe sukXgüm kjln jkv 4ksg kO‘rfi hd ukdqn dfkr ]kujd uyki kd upo uiv k' w , z s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 752 egaP

4Sht gk'g' Bkd lt lS kvtf go jHykl dfk;D 4Sx yp Sg rL\m e 'k a s s , s s X s q s X dkv hg lsS kr ]Sg rLm l 'kdkv lS Skv SiQ [ky ln ct 4ku[j yk;[ s s q s \ s s s hH g; ]g hrkt hg lo g hrkv l,t thp 4Sx ksg kog SiQ [ky ln e jHykl T s , T s X X 2g k;D hg kujd cv df 2 , hn dG e aSd hckp jk,v kjke kykr e ukdn ulm 2kujd k;D cv kr Skt ye X X q X q s s a f SiQ [ky ln ~ ~ ~ okr u k[n okv hH su htjn 4er kg Sx rht e hjIky s q s X 4SiQ [ky ln ksder Sx yef ; 2cl g; ksdkaG7skdG ~ ~ ~ 4rDo kd ek' ]kF q s X kgj dkaI uIc huiv go ~ ~ ~ 2kuksjif7kuhl kLkN7ksLkN cv ]ksg gj jd O,c k; s s \ s\ s s D cv ]htjn BkH df kgd ukgüm jkv jrm xky Sg jH l kIku yF Lc7L\c Xe s X , s s q s s X s s , s \ s lm ]Bg hL[ jkd l;kjl¥kj dS jdkv ji jk} 2kI? kukguv ykl olhc jxe q \ s X 4kF u hH krLxcf Nd e SiQ dS 4kF kry nhj[ hd SiQ d \ q X s S e suhge dS ksr hF Bx ksg rnkv hukjqi jxe ]hxyef hHd df kF k[j hjkt X s hg kupksl cv ulm u ]hyef hjIky ksdlm hHd u 4kF krjd l ykl lhc go s s klS 4kF krnhj[ IdfIf hd hjIky k;iQ dS suhge jg ]htjn dS ]henkv dS s A g hukgd 0lfi hd ;kI¬ykI , z `j dki ksd kX[ky k;D sxksjd jxe 2 ~ ~ ~ ]lc ksr Sx yef kGn dS ]xSkt yef k s a X [ky jk,v 4ji okn g kukxy ksr k;iQ hg dS df g krxy ksd hHky 4g krkt l a , , s , G hHky udfsy 4g k[ks/ ksd kxky ilf 4g kvqt hjIky 2g hrykduf ka;jfIky hH a s , X s Z , T o ]g hrjd kokn kd uksg hnkoh/kx kst ]hH jkdjl 4g hgj ky[f St hH jkd s T s a X T q X jl ]g dhO ksr kg rIkd yku xksy jkv ]dhO ksr kXg srky[f St xksy jkv 4g , X s , q , , kgj yp kdIe 4g gj kt Sky[f Sqt gér 4g kgj kt k;nf k[ks/ gjr hlb géqr T s X q , X Sx ksg lki dlm SiQ [ky ksn kr go kr ]SiQ ksn7kn Snf tH u [ky dS s s s s s s 82k;x ksg rfi[y rkjkr X kj kr e 4Stfhn jd W' hH ikv ekd hgo ]g kgj jd Te ekd kst83kyef cko s T q wa t ]F tH SiQ ksn jdksg rofkHi l uikKof sukgütf ]lki d k;rDf;ø hHl um s s s z s X s X nkc gkrîl dS 4stH SiQ su k;rDf;ø [ky dS xHxy 2gkp kuuc u rfi[y s X s uk,d e SiQ kn cv 84Stfhd eyke kyekG kd uuc rfi[y rkjkXrkj jkv St X s w wZ s , fH SiQ ksn83kxkg k;nf hg Syf d kxky l,t jkgér3k;nf uikKof u rDf;ø dS s s s X s s s q s 4Sx kv gxt ryx eqr 4g hrkt IN Ldi , w \ s X kr ]e >el h;x kv krF;ø jkv 4g hrxy uLi Bk[nf krF;ø hd kthp slm ]k Z , T s \ Z X ;x kv uk;÷ kdltf 4g krkt kv ikv7uiv kr xk;® kdlm ]k;x kv uk;÷ kdl s , s s s s tf jxe 4g hrkg hd uk;÷ rkc kg; 4g pl g; ]hrkg Cgu rkc hd xk;® kg; , s a , s a 4g krksg rIf? xk;® l kre”l hL\c udfy ]hrksg Cgu rkc hd xk;® akg; 4kg Sx , s w s s kv kag; er e rfkH hlb n;k' 4krjd Cgu rkc hd xk;® rDf;ø g; `yef sl q X az X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 852 egaP

ef hupc ]kyef ikrl ]hyef krpV ]kyef k;D ksr u/ kdum 4g krukt ksd k;r , s a s wa X fiu/ e 4g hykouksg hg k;ufkg hdum lum ksr Cgu ]kg u thp rgc lki d k T T s a s X X q s X xksy df g hg; jrgc 4g hrkt ksg ufkg l thp jg 4kg srukt xks;im kd thp , s , s X hH hldf kt ]g xksy jkn>el ed rgc e k;ufn lb kg; 4kg rukt xks;im kd s T q X q a X s u/ kt g xky jkn>el ed rgc e k;ufn lb `kxksg k;D jkv d hnkcjc ;k s T s q X q , s olf ksr Skt xy u/ Fkg d krPe `g kuksg nkcjc `jdki u/ rgc k;D xksjd s w\ , q s 2k;x hg je g o ykl lm dfk;D ]h;kv Cgu rcku hd ujrm e huki LO kjkcn lm jGf jxe X , s X s a q s 2hn dG hckp jkv X , `xksvkojrm e huki LO jGf k;D 2`k;D ]Hi g df kgd jGf cr ]kxy udG s X s a X q z s s X hckp ct e aSd jk,v k;nf jke hH kykr jkv 2g kgj jd k;D e g; ]kvky[nf X q , wa T s re g; `ksg gj kojd k;D g; ]Hi g df e ynf uiv g kgj kt krgd jkv s q z s X s , , 4kjke kykr ulm jGf jk,v ]SiQ jGf ]Cjrm k;yfF jGf ]k;x kv jgkc d jk} s a , s jd yduf jGf jxe ]g kulG Cgu df g krukt 2lG jGf cv 2Sx jke A kg , a , s a s d ulm ]hy Ihi hrkN sulm 4hdQ jdkv jkd hgo jdkv jGf nkc jHykl jkv s , 4krkt krnhj[ hH IdfIf jxe 2g rîkZ;i go ]dju k;nf k[nf kt ]g rgc kGn , s , q dS 2kun koynf re cv ]Cgu df l ukoxH tksj krgd j/b 4xksvki ue hg k s s s lS hH jrhH jkgér kr sxksjd jk,x kjt\ er ]g ue kvg kjH l }} rqHnv klS s s q s q , q s a . s kd henkv ~ ~ ~ krjd hH kuFki tkj j/b 2Cgu cv 2hy [n hH hnkcjc jkv Z z s s , ]kF ku[n kst k;yf [n 2k;x ksg rgc cv 2hjIky kukoynf re cv 4Cgu cv s s q df kF krjd kuFkzi tksj l ukoxH dfkykg 4hy nhj[ jGf ulm IdfIf hd S Z s a s iQ dS ][hjkr dS ]k;kv kuhge kyxv go jGf 4Crkt Cgu rnkv hukji jxe X q 4k;x k s g jksted kurb ]d em Sx ksg ed ykl lhc l,t 2kg Sx jtx ykl lhc slt s z s X q , kxy klsS e jHykl udfy 4hd W' ukdn gcl l unf jln jGf jdyks[ kykr X s q q q s s w 4kykduf jgkc u kxksy jd pC[7pC[ 4k;ki tks[ hckp s X ydæfekc ]hjke hdcL elm ]g kgj ksg Gjc yd¥cf huki ]elk,e kd lW ]unf q q X , q d LO 4kjrm e aSd kl 2hn dG e aSd ksr hckp df k;kv nk; cr kvg kL[ s a X q s X X q q \ ji tkojn jdkv nkc jHykl 4kvg hH ek<jfi‘n kdlm kr bk[ l endS ]CF s q q s s u hH h;k[ hHd thp ; e hxntV ]kF henkv knkl k/hl 2utksH kd kyIksg jk X s X X , v ]kuxkt kd rkj jkv aSk;æo jkv ckj' 4yd¥cf k;x II 4Cgu krLi ksr kr¬l , s , q w \ Nd xksH dfk;D 4krki yp jd dI7dI ksr kryp jdy kLL hH e uyp ]k;x q X s s s a X s Pp keæp ]bx kg hy// hH [kv 4k;x jGf huki hH ji ;ƒ¬ko¬ e jHykl ]x \ s qa X a X yv ksr go ]k;x jGf huki ji SiQ [ky ln nkc jHykl 4kvg go ]kF kukg sl q s xksH kst jkv 4k;yf xkH ];≈k; uxkH kF kst3k;kv jke jdDp kd k;ufqn hjkl , s s s s ]kgj e kyIksg Lc7Lc ]k;_¬f jnl l jnl ]ukde Lc ]k;Lfkx hLc7hL\c hnhj[ X X s \ s \ a qa s qa s \ a \ \
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 952 egaP

8`Wd k;D e Sbkrc hg ikv 4g ydæfe hH kulq? j a T s , q rhH d j? kr cv jkv 4kyks[ Cgu ktkojn ulm rdV ]Cn tkokv rgc ue 4g s s , s q X q s T , Bx xy xkv e j? hHv7hHv j,kv 4g hgj kl e nCu hjgx djd nc ktkojn X , s X s a s l jnv e jed uiv jrhH d j? go 4g e jr[ ukt hd kU/ hu®ie/ hje a X s s s , X s s Z s ]Sufl8 Asyksc sl jI¬keI¬ksi rGkag7rGkag jk,v 4spgi lGfkvI¬ksi xkH7xkH htcçP q s s qa s s w 2k>el ]kxkt Nd ]<‘Î7jfg s s q 4hxSkt kg hL[ rchle hHr lc ]jd k s \ q Ocf e sykL sxkvkv sy e j? lm er ct 4kxSkt ksg rîkel Z;nkl lo7lo hxSk X s s X s q T s , s , v lki lt7l,t 4hF jnl ksr hF jwn kr go 4g krkt ksg rk' cl nkc unf kn ` s , s qa s , a s s xksjd k;D jGf ]k;yf ukt ]k;yf ukpgi kdlm ct 2g hrgj jnl hg sLkF knk; s , qa s\ † l unf kn hH h_¬ erjnl jkv 4g rkt Ll ]g rkt je 4g rht hg e ;'l7 s s qa , T s s \ T s s T s X a ;'l ]g rht hg e d'7d' xky 4g krksg kni d' jGf ]g krkg kni gnl jGf a T s X s , , , s , sa 4hxkXg ka;_¬f hyko ugkp lm hg hurm s s s , qa kr ]g jnl "Qi ct 4xkXg dgkp dlm hg urm ]g jnl hurtf ]g jnl h_¬ c q s s s , qa , qa t 2yef Cgér ]kyef u jkv Bksd df 2g jnl dk[\ k;D kr dlm ksg dgkp yd s q , , qa s s s s v Cgér jxv jkv 4sxkXg dgkp hH jkv `xkvksg dgkp dlm hg er ydv Bkd q , , s s s q s s s ksr g jnl hurb h_¬ ct 4g r<fx Nhi dlm ]g dofkHko¬ krpV 4g rkv y , qa , s s , T s s krpV "Qi jnl 4g krkv y krpV u/ 4g hrkv y SkrpV ksd kxky k;_¬f jnqal q qa , s T s a X s a 2g hd S , yfldf hnk' l >r j[fkv 22dl kojL ksd kurtf kojL 4kxMkv hg e j/v d s q s X a X ss a s rkj ]g Cgu kyko ukv j? jHunf e hH lS jk,v 4kOm kg kukOm uekl dlt wa s T s s s s s f jdLkN >e A kgd su uhYQlu `g hrdl kOm kdjc uekl d ldf7ldf `g s\ s q wa q s s wa hrdl kOm I?? uekl d ldf7ldf df g hrNi jkluv d tkojf ]uhYQlu df wa s s wa w q s kNi u hu®i ksr k;ky j? ksd hu®i jd gkoof ct ]g tkojf e kukeyle klt w s , X X q , 2dl kv hH lki dlb kt Cgu g Bksd kr e okx lb `Fkl dldf s s s , s X a s hxn k[k/ 4hrdl n Cgu k[ks/ hHd g; ]hxgj jknkGo knl g; df ]g Hky kL s s s s \ , c dS g; 4krdl ksg Cgu kni d' hHd ji hjknkGo hdlb kr dS 4hxksg Cgu \ , \ s krpV kr hxgj e j? g; 4g tkj elb ]BkH A kgd ulm 2kXg L[ xkH ksr y [ s s X , X s s \ X sn hH rhyirH ltf `kuqp ksd h_¬ lb ur jkv ]yef >r rk;ü urdf ]k;k>el w s s w , s s q s , s s q >r su kXvkrif surdf ]Skv <_euf jiM jr d kxky urdf e okx ]hF hrdl a ss s X s s X a yef h_¬ hNπv7l7hNπv >r ]uhYQlu df sxy suNi xky d jHokx 2henkv jk s s q w s s a ;'fksg 4hd hnk' l rjkv yD'nc l cl hd okx ksr hd hnk' u uhYQlu ky¥qe s , s a s 4g hrLdi krp , \ V ksr g hrkg h_¬ jnl ct dfk;D 4Cgu hH Nd d ikrl7krpV ;kolf jkv ]hd , s qa X q s a , hnk' l k;_¬f erjnl ukgütf ]g krukt kd kxksy um e 4hyef krrî{fof ]hy s X aq s X wa s X T
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 062 egaP

hjkgér 2e Ldv huiv ksg L[ Uli knl er df g kr[n jxe ]xkvksg rkt q X \ s \ z q wa s s s s s kg lknm ]sxkvksg rkt dF ]dl kv kg; yIksg u ]ksdl kt yIkg u ]cyD l;ky s s s a s a u ]cyD hjIksj u ]hFkl7xl Nd u ]~ho ~hI u ]k;Lfj u ]e¥Gf u ]utjkue a q s s as Bkd u I? lhck,p `xkvkg rkt dF e ñnl ]e i/ ]e kZ"o ]L[7L[ e r[ akg s sa s s s s X X w X s \ s \ X s ; ]sdtcf BkH g df kNi l dtcf dS ue df ]dS g hukgd hd ukzctf yhy[ w s w s s w s T , 4g rkt hH jL h{i7'i T s q `gcl7gcl g syduf ksd jl k;D htkru tkv df g krxy yd¥cf ksr k[n sl j q q T , s , q s s w T s a n 4g rpt k;D 4rt hou[y jkv k;nf kugi kekt;ki jknhLp ksr kykor[ kv s w , w\ s g uhdk,' hg rgc jxv jk,v 4hn kugi udpv jk,v k;nf kugi kZrd kd hnk[ jk q q q , v k;x ksg Fkg go k;nf /kac kLk\v kLL dS jkv k;nf kxy kLL e hLg ]hn [j a , a X a hikI h/kax ji lm ]hn hxy hLg3henkv kOw>3u g srn jd kL[ kdtcf e r[ s a T s \ w X s kst go 4Cgu hH Nd jrhH ]g hjH lG7lk? jrhH jk,v g ek/ ]g eku ]g kO‘ q , w , , , rfi ]g ni `xkvki xksy er Sg rgj e kF¬ov iWd knk;† lub jk,v g pπc z , s s q q s X q s , s g rfi g hu®i jnl sxksvki er xky u/uf knk;† lub jxe ]g hH u/ 2sk[n sl , , qa q s Z s , s jkx ksdub kjt\ 2hrkg hykohn e uoht dub ]kryt k;hn e k<ki dub ]hryt , s X s X X z s rfks;† e kX[kv hdub ]hrksg dep ji jgp dub ksr krkg kgj yef Nd kdub X a s s s s q s jxv df ]krkv Cgu 'ksg gér hH jd[n cL ksd Xkxky urb 4g cL xky jkl X q s s w s s T s w s s ksr e hlb 4g hg jkll kjkl ksr cl g; 4g kgj hg yp kr cl g; 4kNi hd < X , a , s s w Z kouf 2ksg rNi hd ni 2kg rNi hd hu®i 4kNi hd ke®keji 2ksg rNi hd u/ 4 s w s s w s w s w s w kNi hd uk;÷ ]ksg ~Skv lki je kg; `ksg gj jd 'kyr hd [An kX;D ]<‘Î jfg ss a s q 4g kykougj [An e k;ufqn , s q X Syflb 2ld ksg g; 2g ydæfe kLc 4hrksg rgfkoof h_¬ jg jk,v krksg kjkod " s , , q \ qa Qi jg jxv ]krkg nukv kLc ]hrksg rfk' hLc e k;ufn df e hcjv g rokgd q s a \ a \ X q X , 2g jk,v hg , kte kd dkyr 2g jk,v hg rkc dkyr df kyp kri cr k;yf y kte kd gkoo , s f cv 82kg kuksg hH kt kZp[ Skt ksg `skg gj jd kuyr k;D 2dkyr kagd jkv s s s q , gkoof kagd ]jv8 ]kgd su uhYQlu 8]g jk,v hg kte kd dkyr8 82Skt ksg8 A kg s , d su uhYQlu 2kxSkt ksg kZp[ knk;† kux jkp l gkoof ]kxLi kxge dkyr ]u q s s \ a hYQlu8 Akgd u yhdo 4kyksc l yhdo uiv ]kF k;x uy dkyr uhYQlu ky¥qe s s s s s 4g uOfd , rgc dkyr ]g uklkv ksr gkoof jkv 4sxksgkp kuksg rDqe er jGf yd Cgu tkv q , , q 84kF k;yf kpc kd hu®i hje hg pep s s q l u kXyko Lxcf j;kG sykl jkv hF hd hryx hg; ue jkc hyNif83kgd e jo s zs , s T X ¬ ykoun ksj xHxy su htcçP38kxMkt Cgu Brd ]kxMkt Cgu kago e ]Cgu7Cgu8 s s s w a a T 82Sgfkp kukt lki d kXyko Lxcf j;kG ksr ksdikv ]jv ` s zs s g krdl jd k;D kyH e 2g Skv k;D lki je ikv ]htcçP8 A kyksc jI¬keI¬ksi wa T T X ss w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 162 egaP

c k; tkjkge htNπy Bkd ~ ~ ~hxkg hg Cgj 4hxkg Cgj hH dp7yH elb sl I‘f w s X X X w w X n hd kyd hd ;®1u gkp kr ]kF kxem l jrhH ]hd jiM hF Cgu uok[lf Bkd 1 s s s s s kr ;®u g; 2hF hr¬e kr g; ]hF tke kr g; 4Cgu g kr klS ]hF hy k{hn7 1 s , s , s s k{'f Bkd u kjhe 4kvkg rxjki e ;®1u er ]kg hy k{hn ]kg hy k{'f hd ;®u s s a s s a X q s s 1 uer g krdl kg dfk;D 6kdl pku kNπv hH l kjhe er g krdl kg hH g; s q , s X s s q , s jkv ~ ~ ~ kupku hg kl,o yd¥cf kjkgér jkv g Cgu Lkd7k;∂f kupku kd kjhe , q q , , a a 4hgj gc Cgu krjfl hd k<ki Nhi dltf ]kne ]g X z s s Z q , ;®Î dS 4kxkg Cgu kgo kr ;nÔ kjkgér dfk;D 4kxkg Lkd7k;∂f go jxe ]kg s a s q X s a s rdl pku hg l,o yd¥cf jkv ~ ~ ~ 2kg rdl kg kjhe he¥Gf hH er ]u Tg hr s s q , s s s a q kg Skjhe he¥Gf j[fkv ~ ~ ~4ky e Fkg kjkrdb hg klo ]k/kc W?? hg slo d s a a \ s X , s a qa , hO 4kg rdl pku hg lo hH er ]hpku kjhe 4g kd ;nÔ ykol ]g Cgu kd ; s s s , q a , , ®Î ykol Syflb 4kxSkt hg kg kr Ow> kgo g Cgu ;nÔ kgt jkv 4 g Cgu ; s s a , a , , nÔ kjkgéqr eltf ]g krkg Fv kd Lkd7k;∂f 4k>el Fv kd Lkd7k;∂f 2jh/ql X , s Z a s Z a `g F;ø Lkd7k;∂f de√k/ hHl hg pl k;D ]ukoxH A uæi kjlhr T Z a z 4g ;nkl hylv hgo 4g ni hylv hgo 4g u/ hylv hgo 4ktk[ kd roæk , Z T , , s s s ' ]kjd 'kyr hd rev ]kg Skv lki je 4n kLt l rev gér kt ]jkv Nd s 1 s s s s q\ s 1 X q s , q 4sdl u Nki ;®e kdltf ]jkv Nd 4dl yef u e hÈef kt Nd3kjd jkv Nd X q 1 s , q s X s q s , q 2k;x yef e hÈef c X l `k;D kvg cl jkv ]F Fj dum <o¬ ]F yge dum d ukl ]Sx xky urd q , s s Z s s s s s s s f jkv Skv xky urdf `kukdOf ]kri ]eku Nd kdum ]Sx xky urdf jkv Sk , s s q s s , v xsky urdf 4kIef hHv ]kpC[ hHv 4g klt kjhdy Bx hpC[ ji huki '; Xe s , , X k;ufn lb `sxky ki k;D ]ky ki '; ]ky ki u/ ]kvkt kg ji ni Lc hH eqr q s s s s s s \ `jrhH k;D g kr g rkt Oc hH ji n , s T s , i Lc `jrhH dum k;D g 4y jG ge hH /x ]jwn kr lH7;kx 4jd jkdub sl s \ s , X s qa s s X T X ujp hH lTH7;kx df hyx7hLl hlsS jkv 2lG7lk? endS3xkvkt kg ukjg sLc s X \ , w s s s , \ er jkv kjhp hrkN hd kru hg lsS ]Li Bk[nf htekj elm jkv hjhp hrkN q , s s s s \ X , u ht ukequg l,t 6xkvkg ukjg Lc kr sxk[sn jrhH jd jkrm gjxo udpv hd s s s s s , s \ s s , ub 4g hjH lG7lk? e cl ub 4g dtcf cl ; 2kte kd ukoygd jtg7ht sl , w X T s w s s w q X w kjln df 2kte kd sukdq> kd kjln df g hg; kte `g k;D kte kdum ]g u s X w , , , / rgc lki dutf 2kte kd ukcn skd Xkjlwn 2kte kd ukjL kd kjln `g k;D q s s s s X w , kte kdum g kt ji ni Lc ]g k;D kte hH kd kvkru 4g jdrfhi hukgd g; T s s \ , X s , z 2g klsS kte kd ukjL kd kjln jxe ]kxy gl cl , s s X w wa ]ñnl Skv ]i/ Skv ]k"o Skv df ]g klS kte kd ukjL kd kjln 2g k[j Xe w Z , s s s X w , utjkue jkgér dk[\ k;D go ]g krkv kte kt >e e ukjL kd k;{fi7'i df a s s q , s s q X s s X q g g; tkj kd krUli hje ]ul Akgd su dtcf lm g k;D tkj kd krUli lb , z s q s w , z

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 262 egaP

yk;[ 4g kgj [n Cgu df g kgj [n Bksd df g Cgu hg yk;[ 4g krkt gc 4 , s , s , , g krkt y?if ]g krkt ksg huki7huki 4g krdq> hg e pl ]g krd> Bksd udfy , , , X , q s 4krd> u go kF kNπv llb 4g Lkad7k;∂f g; 4g Cgu ke®kv elb 4kvg e q s , , X q k;k;ø djfhjk' g; 4k;x F;ø kudq> jxe ]kdq> go dfkykg 4kvg u kud> g; Z a q q 2k ryjl ]kr/kl g rgd kdlb 2kreuof g rgd lb ]k;yf [n df g kr[sn ksd q T s s z T s s s , X kxksy Gjr kXjkp go 2krde√k/ g rgd lb ks[n df 6jkpkI‘'f g rgd lb ]k[ T s s s T s s s s n df g kgj kPc ksd jkdgv jkv g; ]g kgj d> go n;k' 4g kgj Cgu hg d , \ a , , q , q > jkdgv 4g kL[ kvg kLdv jkdgv kdlm 4g Cgu ye Nd elm kd lrv a , \ q \ a , s q X a sdlm g kr[n e jkv ]g krkt d> e kX<jp jdkv Bksd 4g rkv xksy lki jse wa s T , , q X T s s 4g krksg wxky e /cl d Lkad7k;∂f hHl ;®l hg; jkv , X a a s , 4k;x kg ol®m ]k;x ksg okHksgv kd ezsi s jGf 4kgj Cgu Lkad7k;∂f df ku>el kr `pc hg ;®u ]pc u dru df Sx c s s 1 s Z w s L lsS `ksg Sx cL e upku er `g kgj Oc ye kd lrv jkgér `kxpakt ukd w X s q , , s a s q s , jkv xksdl pkt Cgér 4l,t hg kajhe kpku er 4g Cgu Lkd7k;∂f ;®u kd kjhe , s a q s s q , a 1 a 2kt je jkv y hi r df jgt , s w kxksg ktH e hjcte u jkojfi `g kNπv g;3SkLm dkte7hlg ][n jd ksg L s X w s , a \ a X s s [ jhxgkj ][sn jd kxy LhH xe[Hf ]pku ji kXr¬kj hukjtkj df xkXg rgd j \ X \ s a s s s dkv xksy ]kF krxy kdD/ ksd kO‘rfi ]kF krkssg I‘d ksd jkojfi kr 4g hg u≈u z s , cl ksr suekl dlm 4g hg Idi pl kr uekl dlm ]g kukiNf k;D llm 4g s , z s s s , s , kri kd ke®keji ilf kr kdlm ]Cgu hg kri kd kxky lm 4g hgj pku jdyH Z s s X s s , w ue7ur kuiv kr go 2;®u kd kjhe jGf jk,v3g ;®u kr ;®u `ykHl ksd y¥ s 1 a , 1 s 1 s a s i df [j yk;[ kd ni df [j yk;[ kd I?? Bksd e ;®u cv 2Skt jxf ky s ∆ s wa X 1 ¥i ]Skt djl I?? kago 4CF hyks[ Cgu I?? l k;nfl k;_¬f hd kgt ]ukF¬tk wa wa s X a a j hH go jkv 2spku ji kXr¬kj ]kygfe hd j? hgk' 4g hrkg hekunc dfk;D 4kt , , s X je r df jrgc llb df ]ukgüm kF ktH jgt 4kF e /ksjof jkojfi kd kjhe w s s s X s X a ` ksg gj jd Syflb ]l ujd rdl dQ Cgu df k; `ksg gj jd Syflb ]Sgfkp s s s s s kujd `ksg gj kHuf ;ørd dS yod k; g xem hd k<ki jkgér `ksg gj jd k s Z s , a X z s q s ok[nf Zilf er k; `g Arr¬o go ]kg gj jd kst er `kxukt uk,d jkv ]jh/ql q , q s s q s , s kd lrv jkgér 4ksd jrhH jkgér kg rdl ukt Cgér jkv 4l jrhH hxkg ;r a s q s q s s q , s s ]Cgu k; g F;ø Lkad7k;∂f df rkc hxkg Cgu ;r l jiM ]ku[j uk;÷ Syflb , Z s s 4kxSkt ksg Lkad7k;∂f ]ksjd kd ;®u hlb er 4 s 1 q g Cgu Lkad7k;∂f ;®u g; 4ji jk} d jnfe g h;kv kajhe jdy hg kd ;nÔ 4g , 1 s a , s s , k;∂fi hd sukPp kd ;nÔ ei g; 4g ktwi ]g kuFki ]g kupv ]g nkÁkv ]g z \ s zs , , Z z , Z , , ei e ;®u lb udfsy ]g XyH ;7s; elb df rki ujk,G kr r[n tkjkge htNπ zs X 1 T w s X s s s s w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 362 egaP

4kn uyx kd ukyx ;ü' kd jtfv slb s s s s w 6kydv I‘b e jnfae cv s X ky[ kF jefrf ]yim slgof s a kyse kd kOd7yd kF ct X a 6jH l ;y r'7r' kd kyo hrjkv Sx s s s ]jo¬ k<ho ]h'o <o¬ ]yk;Lf\?7[' rtj a Z a 4kn suyt ojhu lb ihn kd jnfe g; s s a 4g Cgu F;ø kr ]g "eüm kd ;nÔ jxv 4g ZF;ø kr , Z s , s , s g Lkad7k;∂f 8`g F;ø Lkad7k;∂f de√k/ hHl hg pl k;D8 ]jh/l skg rNi eqr , T Z q s w 4l ;nÔ g krkg ; s , s r dG kjkl 4g dG e kupv7kupv 4g dG e kti7kti 4g dG e ud>7ud> Z , Z X Z Z , Z X w w , Z X s q s q 4hF Gkl7h/hl rkc dfkykg 4je a ss Sx ksg hg ueæqn 4Li Cgu Bk[nf >e jGf ]l unf lm jGf Sg njknu skt ksr o s \ s q s q s `ry jd Cgu k; s s X D hg xk;i ikv ]kgd ue 2kdq> u suekl d hldf jdywH hHd jH hxntV ikv s z s T s s jGf df rDo rd> Mk[p kte klS kdikv jkv ksd> ikv ]kgd lum ue ]akg s q a s s , q s s T 4hrksg krjw∂ ]hrksg krI‘n kudksj 4kF oHalv q kudksj 4kF okH de®fkv kdlm go `dksj ksdldf ]dksj ukd 4kF Cgu Lkad7k;∂ s s , f ksr kvN u 8ugksl8 ]kxksg Lkad7k;∂f kr sxkvN ikv ]kgd ue 2Li u Bk[nf > q s s s q s T s \ s e jGf ]Sg tkjku so l>e kt l unf lm 4xaSkt ksg _ofiv o dfk;D 2xLi u q q s q s s s s X s X \ s ks/ ji uiv >e ]kxn Cgu hg dksj 4kxn dksj e ]ji kvN ikv A kgd lum uTe , s s q wa wa T , s q s s 4Sgfkp kun Cgu xk;gl ksd Lkad7k;∂f d gjr lb ksdi s s s kv 6Sgfkp kudksj ksdikv df ]sykc l>e lknH"+ e nkc 4Cgu hg k[n kr ul s s q X s s s m udfsy ]hd ''fksd hd udkj lm u kdkj lknH"+ 4Syf N <jp je jd d s s s s a w ss q s > l hn¥t sulm ]Bx kv 8ugksl8 l j/m 4F yduf ue? gcl7gcl Fkl je k s s s s w q q ss dkaj lknH"+ ]d[sy jk,v djkpof hnkoh/kax dS 4e jof'f dS ]kF ukjsFke Te X 4~ ~ ~ d> kukn 4g Bx kN hr¬e dS 4g k;yf Ldi u s q X s , , \ s okHnaukv dS 2g Cgu hg yk;[ 4g kgj jd ;®Î "'of Bkd e df g Cgu hg , wa s s T ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 462 egaP

yirfi kxxkt g; dr cr z s ]ypyg hd unf Ik,y dr ct s ]hjgi ?y g; kd rfk;† ]uc hjktqi tkv z q s s ]hjgx kNπe hd rkj rkH≈nf g k>> Z w az , a 2ksn suyP l jGf iW7<ki e kyko† lb s z X 2uni¬ kd <d7<d j[qe7kdQ a 6uc k;x Fi kd jxkl7lfe a uoht kd /fkel hd klkl X a 6k;x ksl phc d kXjr¬i lkgrfb kl ufo÷rfzi s z ]k;x ksl oæof hjkti jG due d ue q s s s 2ksn uyi e ky hlb kFd rp√v hdcl s X , 6rg√rav xkXg cl e er s X refjfiv |ou ;÷v7iw/ s , Z rlf r{v j[cf ueql sj> s 6hygn hd unp Syf dav ksd kXj'f r<zi a ]hygul efH hd nyVv r„fpf sl kX<jp q w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 562 egaP

kac ji XkOkv ]k/c Ide7jkse ]ktl jkxJ lki d <‘Î udfy 4Cgu hH Nd ]lko s a q q 1a s s q q l7/axl u ]i/ u ]tl ykF d kti u ]yk;Lf?7I? u ]htc Cgu hjlkac lki d q w s s w \ sa q s 0c 4hxksg Cgu hH tkokv3;ü' ]uke ]gj kryt k;hn kd jrhH df g rîkZ;i q w , s , ksr Syf d huk;÷ 4rDH jkv huk;÷ hg l,o ]q;®e jkv eüt lt 6'kdi jk,v kjs/ s , s 1 , s , z av lt 6r|of u/ ]rq|of <+ lt 6"Qi7h_¬ lt3g kvg kIc e ksn o®r¬fv ; s , q s , q s , , q X s 4huk;÷ g dS RH g dS3g xky d gjr ksn ]ji hoƒi lb Sg xky d gjr kn , , T s s 1 q s s s 4skn uIG rhx jGf kr ]L s w s X i IG l kOkv jkgér rhx ]XL\Nf jo¬ d k<ho ]Om pku rG¬7tgl ikv7uiv Xe \ w s X s s q s s Z w s hu'ksj hd Shn lm k; 2k;x ksg cl 4gj kryt k;hn kd jrhH jkgér go ]lc s s q 4kukg kdlm g rîkZ;i dfk;D 4kxyp ]L\Nf jo¬ d k<ho u ]yk;Lf? u ][ s , X s s s \ ' tc u ]ksg ojhu go jGf 4yt k;hn kd jrhH jkgér df g I‘b rkc hg dS a X s s q , 4kn suyt ojhu lb ihn kd jnfe g; s s a 4kn uyx kd ukyx ;ü' kd jtfv slb s s s s w 6kydv I‘b e jnfae cv s X ky[ kF jefrf ]yim slgof s a kyse kd kOd7yd kF ct X a 6jH l ;y r'7r' kd kyo hrjkv Sx s s s ]jo¬ k<ho ]h'o <o¬ ]yk;Lf\?7[' rtj a Z a 2g kti rîk;i ]gj kryt ihn kd k<ki jkgér ikpip ]ojhu jGf , w Z s X z s q q 2kn suyt ojhu lb ihn kd jnfe g; s s a 4krLi Cgu nH \ s Nd 6k;x kpj u ]k;x kpj ykF kd ktwi 6htl u ]htl hrjkv 6kvg u ]kvg L q q q kad k;∂f jGf kr ]Skt ksg okZHofkv kd uke ]rk' ];ü' jxv jrhH jkgér jkv s , a w s q , 2kn suyt ojhu lb ihn kd jnfe g; s s a 2ksn uyp dr hrkHi lb kd >kl rwn s z s a 6yt kHkv jH Xe kXvk[sj
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 662 egaP

]jdunf Cgu e uxx lb X ]jdjG ge k;† xky g sryskc s qa X s T ]jdj? hd Lt jkohn g hL[ s \ , \ 4kjkeg uOy g kvg qa , q s X qa l kuOxov d ZFko¬ s 6kjkd /av g; g ugx , 4g hrksg chjd hg hurm jksH ]g krksg ku? jkd/v kurtf jkv 2gc , , a , q l hxksg hrkv dfk;D ]u≈e7naukv3rrfpV u ]rhH;H u ]kvkt u kLc? l jkd/ X s \ s a v 4kd hu'ksj g Hx ksr jkd/v 4hxLi eyke hiNf hu'ksj hH e jkd/v gér , Z a s \ w X a X q jGf kr 4ks[n l I‘fn hd dr¬fkv 4k[n re l I‘fn hd dr¬fku 4ks[n re sl I‘ s s s 1 s s s 1 s fn de®kjkdu kd jkd/v Syflb 4g oHl dksykv df g rcl kd thp dS yo 1 s a , a , w d jkd/v 4g krdl ksg dksykv df g <kei kd rkc dS yod jkd/v 2rhxal s a , , z s a `g xke k;D Sy , Z f je 4g jkd/v hg jkd/v jksv kXjkp je 4g hukKv e ]ukoxH A uæi hj[fkv ss , a a s s wa T z 4g hIkld Cgo ]kugj rld Cgo , , s 4ksg rdl ukt Cgér kd ;nÔ jkgér `kxn uk,d jk,v rDjfrfv jkgér [ji hdl s q s s q s s q b jkv 4ji ;nÔ jkgér g krjd jZHuf Nd cl 4g hrkt uc kti hH k;∂fv k , s q , q , w s r kg ;nÔ Nhi d k;∂fv 4Cgu Lkad7k;∂f kr kg ;nÔ Nhi d k;∂f 4krkt ksg s s s s s s s Cgu Lkad Bksd l _ke k;∂f 4g Cgu Lkad7k;∂f g; hH ksr3gj pku hei sdum F s , s zs kl ]gj pku ;ürp ]g hgj tc xne ]g ulk0lf Bksd u g ulkv Bksd u ]rfkH s , , a1 , , a hd ;ürp kspku er jkv 4Cgu uoht ]Cgu <ki hH jrhH dlb dfk;D 4g Lkd , q , z s X , a 7k;∂f hH g; ]e ulk0lf ksg sOc jd [j Fkg ji Fkg er kt g; 4g Lkd7k; X , q s , a ∂f hH g; ksr ]gj ryp jkpof jktg7jktg jrhH udfy ]Cgu Lkad7k;∂f Bksd s s s ]ksjd u hH Nd jk,v kvkt Oc gjr hd 0c jd [j e hFyki Fkg yd¥cf eqr q s , q X q 4g jrhH ;<uf ]k , Z d jrhH ku[j yk;[ lc 4g jnl kukn 4kxksg e kXjo¬ rD;øHfv jk,v kxkg uk; T qa X s X s ÷ jrhH dltf ]dS jk,v 6kxkg e ;ü' rD;øHfv jk,v kxkg uk;÷ jrhH dltf ] s s X w s s dS A g rDf;ø d gjr ksn ; 4k;x kpj lkj ]hpku k/kj ]htc hjlkc ]h;kv hjql T s s q a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 762 egaP

ji rkj hjs/v g a , 4g kgj n jkdi géqr wa s q X jrajuf e kr Syf d sukyt k;hn hlm `g kgj dksj uk,d l ukyt k;hn `k;hn T s s , s s s rkyt Cgu k;D 4kxSkt kg Wq' kuIwI kj/av <{ hlm ]hxSkt kv e >el rkc X s s X g; unf ltf 4g <jkd jkeg kj/v jxe 4g kgj Iy Xeg kj/v 4g Iy e js/ , s s a , w s a T sq X s v gjr hjc eg 2g jkd/v jksv kXjkp ]g jkd/v ugx 6g kj/av ]ksg rgd pl a q , a , a , s s 4kjkeg uOy g kvg qa , q s X qa l kuOxov d ZFko¬ s 6kjkd /av g; g ugx , 4kjkg ;nÔ kjse ]kvg krki u krjGf krtk[ q s ]hd gx rpfo gj lltf nk; s a s s ]hd gn kn kurp g; >e ;if s s s s q z 4kjkudf yek;æ g kagd , ]e >el krkv Cgu Nd X q ]g; –Q ]ur jdj? g krtjx q s , ]g; –el jkiv hg kd kui¥d q 4kjkr Cgu ]j/'' Cgu
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 862 egaP

eyhu yhu7Hu k;x k;k/ l Jv d kynkc s s q s X `g kue cd kukyt kohn , ji rkj hjs/v g a , `g kue cd kukuc k;Ifd , q hd rfk' huiv dS a 6ksd kLdd jF®i Ib X \ a jdkIt ksr go k;x gP q ]kF kul kt l klj ]sl s s X X a z q s Z kxj ;îki‘n d xo¬ 6kjkol l pfQ sltf kF a s s l kXjd uiv u uîo¬ s s kF kur ksd kXukrof X eltf u Fkg d kuokH s s 6kF kuc jnfe kt ;hu a s 7ed l Fkg d kui¥d s s `g kue cd kukyt kohn ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 962 egaP

]hrdiI hr¬e l rkc s ]hrdi> hr¬e sl [kv a ]BkN u hF ji dyi hH ]k;kN ]jn ksr keyfkd w ]Bkv lki hF Cgu krpV hH dS hF hL? k;D \ `g kue cd kukyt kohn , ji rkj hjs/v g a , `g kue cd kuk>c k<‘1r , q s s l rkÛ yZeuf dS ]hyFg kuksn hd Fkg s X jdkyef kII jxv go w el kypp e ku? ou a X X hrkepep e hlm hF X kjnfe yky hl7keyfky hd <jdf hd k"m eFzi ejkue dgkseue _ki s 7/e k/x kF k;kuc kd q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 072 egaP

s kr k;x ksg kdum rv a kx7kx rhx d krRe s ksd ufov jcv k;nf jH a jrjuf kt e jlwn a s X s X kg rufo÷ l jrv dS s a ]kxkae uknjo kd ukx X [kav jG sl kXoHo s , ]kxkt xkj eutf df X dk> d nkeüm o ];kg s X s s `g kue cd kukyt kohn , ji rkj hjs/v g a , `g kue cd kukjdlqe , hd ;el ji krjFfv ji ]kuke jk/kv d lky¥m s Bx y ksr Bx go s Bk[ e' u kynkc Z s X ul ltf hlS hlg hF q s s a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 172 egaP

ji rkj hjs/v g a , `g kue cd kukxy ky , , Bksd rhe kd ue tk[ s ]o ]Cgu yko uIky s s s , g; jdpkl ksr Sx o s s ]Skx rhx kd hxntV ]kjk;î jkv kOhe dS , jdkyef d <hc jkr s Bksd df lS Id unf s s s Skel k;ksx hg phc d ;nÔ ]Skv k;D lki s ]Skv lki kt sl7gky s , dcp df hFkl o ];kg qa s `g kue cd kukyt kohn , ji rkj hjs/v g a , `g kue cd kukuxux , q q Bksd rDfi hj/v y a w s hg Syf d uygc ue s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 272 egaP

4;kx jGf kagr7kgr ]jGf kNπc kgt7kgt , a , a a 44jhic jGfkd skl ]hgukt u jhi7ji kt s s 4jhi7ji ukt skt ]g jhi bkl kdye , , s w 4hg kurb tkv `g hd ekd ldf ksr ksg hu'ksj hH jgkc dlm , s ]g kj/v jrhH dltf jkv 4g hu'kj hH jgkc dlm ]g hu'ksj jrhH dltf , s a s , , s s , s `∂Gf k;D ]gj ksr gj kj/v jgkc dlm ]g hu'ksj jrhH dltf jkv 4Skt ksg s s s a s , s , hu'ksj jrhH jkv ]g hg kyt k;hn df kn Lxj kjt\ dedp hd Rpf jkgér lc , , s \ s q 82Cgu xky dedp rpf8 4g krkt y , , t k;hn ]g hrkt ksg kni xkv ]g rn Lxj ksd kXjF®i kn ]u k[n jF®i dedp , , T s s \ s s 2g hgj xy Cgu dedp , hd Rpf jkgér lc 8`Cgu xky dedp rpf8 4g ji®r yd¥cf ksd uyt jrhH s q , , q s s s w X kr kNi e pl k;hn g; 4krxy Cgu hH yr ]hrxy Cgu hH hrkc elb 2yr u s X s cf hrkc ucf 2ksg rdl kyt hH ksr kvksg hLk\ojke ]Cgu hH krxy yr Xelb ]g s s s , klS k;hn g; jkv `kd ukyt k;hn kd jrhH g hgj dksj gér kr<iÎ hl7ukd s , s s , X q , 2aSkt l?f je jk,v rt `g k;D kr>el >e r ss s w , s q w ]g ikc kjr 2g k;kv jdkcn e yxc rt `g k;D k>el >e ur A kgd u ikc wa s wa X s w , s q s w s 2xXkg Sx l s ?f rt ]Skv jd yp yhe rkl ]hrkv Cgu e' gér jxe 2ksvkt kr g hg kukt s w Z X q s , ct ]jv 2g kgj yt dgku yr ]Mk>c k;hn e cd ]dl[f s; cd df kF kgj s , s a q T X pkl hg; e ksr F gj kxy jn kt e ukt er df g g; ksr pl 4k;k>c k;hn s T s s s s X s q , q s T ue j/m df Sx er j/b 4g hLk\ojke hH e `g k>el w0c uer k;D ]Bx ksg q wa T , q s q ng ]kgd u Ic `Cgu df k;nf k>c k;hn df kNi l Ic ]hn dr¬n ji jk} jd s ss q w s ss kv j? 4k;kv Iky sl yhe rkl 4k;kv Ik,y go kl 4xxy unf uhr7ksn hHv e , s s X X suIky ksr >e jkv ]Skt yt yr kurdf ewyke7u ]Sk>c u ]Sk>c kIc kje go , s q , s q q s s Cgu kri ]g k;kv LkN kvg kryt kr k;hn e df h;kv nk; lm cr kxksg kpg wa s\ q s T s qa i yhe rkl Bksd 4ltdkge ]kF hLk\ojke3k;x ji k_k; henkv dS ]g kuql uTe w a , s `kr<iÎ hurb k;D ]hlwtad hurb ksg rjd Xk;D `rkyt Cgu k;D k;hn eqr X s s X dfk;D ]g <jkd jkgér j,kv 4g jrhH hH kj/v dfXk;D kvkyt k;hn kd jrhH ssa , s q , s a s 4g uk;÷ hg eku kd Shn lm 2kvkyt k;hn ji ]g hjs/av rpæfuf ]g hjs/v rkj , s , , a `g kue cd kukyt kohn ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 372 egaP

44ohi kje eyfkt ]kxjd k;D ukt ku s , wa 4oht ,ikad jFjF ]hLnCu okv u rkj \ s 44uu gfr ksji jkN ]k;“y ku utf "Qqi [yv , s s 4ue Cgku krht ]k;df ku utf eu ezsi , s s s 44jk;jfc gkac gx ]>e k;ke g rjskc s s q , 4jki ytoH thd ]Stfhn hjte7rDfH , w 44gn hjte7rDfH ]kTjd kol xl ural qs w s a 4gy jfd uikv gVkse ]ujl ujlv ;kjekj qs 44gkoji kgd gfkr ]l7ekj hnkse dkt s s 4gkv jke re r ]n ujd krpV gVjkv s w s , 44jkodf yks[ kOc ]y Ikg hd ekuekj , s 4jkgk;ç xt k;kn ]kyH knk,l kd gfe/ s Z 44dj ksd –b uxf ]gj krke yev eku a a , , 4dlAuf jGf knl ]e uhid Rl hOkx a , X q a 44Iksi hd ejH jfkL ]jfH nCu[l g rokl q T s 4Iksv hd jfg hgühy r gVct eg dye gd X w 44;kt k;,ej kagr ]utrl gt dye gd a a w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 472 egaP

448gn Nd8 kgd gVct ]Sx Cgcr ksjkp g; s q 4gu ksd uikykc ]rl o®ge uke jnkv s 44xkd rk[ roht ksr ]hd ekp hrksg u hP\e s 4xkjuv g rtim ]d[fn hgsn jnqal q , s s 44uko† k;D kPw\c k;D ]kx;k[ kjjn ykd s 4ukex jd bksd re ]d;ki hgsn jnqal q , s 44gncf ydl jke utf ]g jkcrb k;D kdkr s s , 4g[ kjkL jfd ur ]koe ue ukt re Tr s q , 44jkojr II gt ]k;H k;D jke ugki ,w a s 4jkpcf ksgj e ue ];/fksc kd ksd [jwe X s 44;kyc je dcdc ]r uktuv uke jkg , X q 4;kgc gn /ks∂ ]s;tfhd u nko dye qs , w 44[Dl ,thn uxky ]ksd dye ikl jYyfn q s w T 4[Dn kdurf ksok[ ]e jkll k;[fqn t q s X a s 44ukt otf kl7kuiv ]gd k; kdye lkn , X w 4ukc kjN xky ]SLf\ksr ku jfkL hjg w ,

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 572 egaP

]Bg "o jg uru q Z w ]g hrjH kjHee jo¬ jee T Z Z ]g hrjd jo¬ jg7jg eg udfy T s `g hyksc hHd hH nç' dS , X e k;ufn uk/i7ufo÷ q z , g hyksL ]hd> ]he> go kuke q w `yked g k;D e ykL , X `ykL ]kF kgd hH u kX;Rfi unf dS s 4bkygd ykL kr l hlb s s ]bkjgy ]Cuc yksn Syf d kog jg s bkv phu s ]COm jiM bx e k'nf7k'nf X ]CIG l ur eg udfy w s s s 6g kykp k;kygl ]g k;kIke ]g k;k[ , s , s , ]g kyksL Cgu jH yrf e hrxt yh'rfxzi , X 6kuc g ji Cgo kF k;x k;nf ykOcf kgt , a `kur g ji rkc ldf , `kur ]kF kgd hH u kXykL unf dS s 4g kur kr l hlb wa s s ]g kuc rcte wa w ]g kPc wa \ ]kyduf jgkc ]kOm jiM l uhet e udfy s T s 6g hgj hLi SkLx ge e uhet df , \ \ qa X lkgrfb kjkl kdlm g hg; jkv , , ]g hgj hjL knl l uoht , s 6g hg Lt kr Lt , \ s \ `Lt \ ]kF kgd hH u ur unf dS s s 44;ksg hlkn krHi kr ]je ksd Hi Bksd kt q z s T q z s 4;ksd u je kd Hi ]je cl ksd hgkrHzi , s q z T q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 672 egaP

i ksr Bk[nf ed7l7ed 4g hrkt kg hNjrf `k[n jdykL e huki ksd hLdy h/ \ s , s s X \ hl 4hxSkt kg hNjrf7hNjb jd kt jrhH jkgér hH rkc yjl7h/hl ksr ]kg jH a s s q X s s l k/ofn ]ksg r¬zx}} ]kg >ym ]ksg yIft er jxv 4g yjl7/hl kt g Syf s q a s s q T s s T s d Cgüm yjl h/hl udfy 4g Cgu yIft hH kjt\ 4Cgu uOfd hH kjt\ 4hd dye s T w g Xrkc hnkl7h/hl `g kd hLk,\d ksn kr ksg k;ki hH Nd ]Ski kucf ltf jk,v 6g T , s q s , krkt k;yf ki cl jdki ltf df lm y tks[ df e k'nf ldf yp `Cgu eyk s s X X X w e kukdOf7kri kdltf elm Skt kg uhy eg ld `Cgu kryef jksN7jkv kdlt X a s s , s f Xelm Skt cL eg ld `aSkt ksg dS Fkl d ;ænv eg ld 4_l d lkndye a w s , s 1 s , w s w 4g kukt kd ;®l d uoht , s s hg ulm ]ktks[ ksd L\t sultf 4kdcl rksÛ kd uoht g hgo 4kd yG ]kd Ri s , s ]kd yG3kdcl <ki g hgo udfsy 4e jkd/v d hoƒi 6e Hx d hoƒi3g hrgj w z , X a s 1 X Z s 1 T hLi hcn `L\t jk,v 4Igkgpgp hd k;{fi ]rhx d kjeH ]/x hrLm e kXvkog \ X X s X z a \ X ]xj d kXRi7kyG ]Sk[k' Bg hyG e 'kdkv ]oHo kd {o3g krLi Bk[nf cl a s X w a q , X , 1 , \ 4g T rkt ksg rpfao llm eg hg sllb 4g jkdkjuf ke®keji ]g jkdkv cl jkv 4g i s s , , , , Wv ke®keji ilf ]g iW kd cl jkv 4g ;ænv ke®keji ilf ]g ;æn cl jkv Z , , , 1 Z , 1 , 4g ;ænv Lt 4hd Lt ]h , 1 \ \ d kXyG u ]hd kyG u ]hd kXRi u ]hd kXykL u ]hd kur u 4g rkc hd Lt e/ X w X , \ Z 2g Bkjdlqe Lt , \ ]g Bki ul hd cl , q 4g Skjk,c ji eg T ]g Skx ux jkeg jdkv u kXjeH T q s s z ]g hyG jn7jn7jn /x7'; hjkeg , , w w w a 3Syf xkji ]Syf lj ]Syf xj a 3g yG ]y[f ]y[ l uiv eg udfy T s w s s q s s s 6g hgj ype hg ji yc d kXvkog T s ]g hgj yip7yp hg ji yc d kykL T s X ]k;yf ikN ksd kykL lc ji yc d k;“al X s `k;df k;D u kX;Rfi s `ka;Rfi ]kF kgd hH u XkyG unf dS s w 4g hrjg ikr7ik' T kd hFi rpf7rdfFof a ]g hrjgN jGf IG7jkgc T w j> e j>ri X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 772 egaP

6h<ko hd k‰c krofd 8kv8 z , ]g k‰c ofd , z 4g rkc ilf go rkc , Z ]rkc hd hldf Cgu go ]krxy klS kr s s s s s q , l Fk,p kul jkv 6hrxy hdcl go kr s s q s l [e jlhr kuql s 6g hd krksJ go , , g krxy ji uul l jlwn s q s s 6rkc hd k‰c go z ]g krxy kr , s s l dS kuql s `g rkK ;i®kr kd ugd hg dS rkc l [e kXjkp , Z s s q 4g rgd k‰c T s z s q l [e kXjkp ]rdV q ]rkc hg dS ]jkp [e d k‰c q s z 4g uukjrp 4k‰c g [erp `g h[n k;r√e hd k‰c T q z T qZ q T s a w z 4xk>el hg kr xk>el sl ;ü' s s s s s w 4Sgfkp kuxem ;ü' 4Sgfkp kukv kIkUl jrhH w ygi d su>el skd krl 4g uk;÷ eku kd uku¬ d jrhH 4g krgd uk;÷ e hg k s s X a , s wa T s dlm 4Sgfkp kukg uku¬ jrhH c[ sygi d u>el ksd krl ]ksg hGkd hg lo skg s w s s X a s , s l,t er e u;;÷v d gjr jk,v 4g Cgu u;;÷v kd gjr jkv ku>el ksd kral q X s , , X 4krdl kt k>el Cgu ksd krl kucf Sdf kjFl Gkl kd uiv Syflb X a q s s 4h xSkt kg rDq;/xn rpgi7rpgi jrhH jkgér ]uoi ;ye ]Skog htkr hd gcql a s q s qa s qa s q a 4hxSkt kg hnax Skog rpgi7rpgi jrhH dlm kr ]g kjH l jpd7Ld jxv a s a s qa s qa s s , s s s w\ ]kxul skt jxe 4g kjFl7Gkl rgc ksr go ]g k;x kgd kt 4xkul eqr sld A s q , q q , s s s q , g krjd jHuf cl 4g upo d suul l uk;÷ ]g upo d uul l uev upo ; , Z T s q s T s s q s s ]g Cgu upo d suul l ue upo s; 4g jH rksirkv eub kt ]xksvkt dp ZF T s q s T s z s X s s w v o er jkv 4g Cgu eub skt ]sxky ykduf Fv lS eub er 4xSkt ksg Njrf s q , T X s Z s s X q s a s cl ksr Li ji ue jkgér jxv upo d dwye ; 4g ue yIft kjkgér hg klS s \ s q s s , q s 4kF krksg lkHkv 4hF hrlkH hNjrf udfy ]hF h/hl hH jrhH d s s yt 4g h/hl hd h/hl ]jgkc d yt kspC[ 4g h;x kg hNjrf df g hrxy uL , s , s , s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 872 egaP

hjlkac jxe ]kF kgkp kukuqxux hH sueg 4e knç' lm Sx jH ]kF krkt dIN q q X X s f7dINf ]IwN7IwN jk,v F rn nç' eg ltf 4lm dye Sx /kac ]kF Cgu kr/c s s s s s w a jkv F r/kac eg ltf ]F u nç' lki jkeg Syf dltf ]F rki gd u eg kt , s s s s s s s s s ]F rgkp kugd eg kst Sx gd hgo dye lt 4g hOm jrhH hg uiv 4g hd s s w s , , s , yr¬rv hg uiv 4g hd ;nÔ hg suiv ]g huiv A g krxy klS ]g hd dye ] a s , , , s , w g hd duku ]g hd jhcd ]g hd jhokge ]g hd 0c h<ko g; df krxy Cgu kl , , , , q s , S 4g krksg oHuv ;e;¬gj rHnv dS kr l dhO >el eg jxv jGf k; jkv q q . s s X , 4g hukji k;nfl7k;nfl htkcykp g; 2kupc l htkcykp lb , q X X s 4g rn jd jn eg jd gd jkrov ]jd gd jdFhr 4g sry jd n T s s w T s c jk} l xP rάll ];ékl Lc 4g ry jd nc jk} l xP jdrfhi Lc eg `Xn a s a a q , s \ T s s a s a z s \ uki 'soi gér eg ld hHv `sxkdl ki 'oi e uoht jkeg er ld hHv 4g s z X q s , s s z X s q s , , huked kO‘rfi7ni ]g kuLks\t u/ 6g kuht uoht eg hHv 2g ujd ekd hjWt z , , X T s hH jk,v eg ]ksjd hH ke{ eg df g kugd s; g; 4g rkc hd hdkykp rgc g; X X , , q 4kuy >el hdkykp s 2xkH;ü/ ksr y hH ul ksr eg X q `x>el ld eg ]h<ko hd k‰c g; ]Cjrm l ke®keji a;o¬ ]Skp+ hd kno s X s , z s a X s ; 4Cgu upo d k"Qqi ; 2g ;s"Qk,iv 6upo d kykouLm e 'kdkv s; ]rIl?f s s X s T s X s \ X s ]rdjl ji uhet ]ut<jk/kl eg ]hd kjcaxi ]hd kjdFhr ]h<ko hd kXjkrov s X , X g; 4g Bk[ ;¿yv hLc phc dlb7jkeg 2g ji jkeg s; d >el ]l okHkgv y , a \ s s T s s s s s X kuxux ksd krhx df ]y kd> jlf kd n"ufim df ]n kPp yG ksn df ]y jd q q X q s X \ w X kti eg df hGkd kurb lc 2kagd yeykr elb kjkeg ]h<ko hd xo¬ g; akg w s X Z d ]hlko d hoƒ1i eg kagd 6g ;ñxo¬ ]g ddfk,yjki 6g upo d k;"f+ ]d Xkvk s T T T s X s I‘– kr ; ]upo d n"ufim g; A g rgd eg 4g xP jnl kLc kd uykI jkeg s s s T s , a qa \ s s 4g rykI eg kr 4u hg k>el df g kNπv 4Cgu hjk;r hd uyn T s s s , , s c 4xksync kr sxk>el `g kpc l ujd uk,d jd >el 4kxksg hg kujd kr xk> s s s , s s s s s el 4kxksg hH kujd Nd kr sxk>el 4knk,l krdl kg kxge ksr sk>el dfk;D 4k> q s s s a X s el df Cgu rgkp `kagd kr_ki hjkeg A kg rxy ugd ]kg rgkp ku>el Cgu s s s s s s s q , kt er 4g hd hdkykp hLc rkc g; 4g Bx hgd l kreuof rkc g; df kupkl \ , s z s re klsS `kagd Z;ƒekl hjkeg 2g h<ko;ønf kr g; `xdl >el ld eg upo , s s X s , d neége ]upo d I¬bk∂ ]upo d <‘Î ]upo d jhokge ]upo d 0c df k s q s s s s q d henkv g xP kd u>el ksr dS 4g krdl kt k>el l gjr jkp ksd kral d , a s , s X ¥fc ]g [e jkp df Cgu 4g [e jkp d krl hHl ]g Cgu [e jkp hg d k‰c T q T q s X a T q s z 4hukji dhy q ]kr kdl >el s s ]hH tkv Bu
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 972 egaP

4tkx njfko u? ]uxx ek;æ s ]kek;æ kue; ]uo ]td ek;æ q qa 4tkjof ek;æ ]S[fn j/tf s s 4g jk'b T s d dye Gjr hd ruv hlm 4g rDfe hg e ruv jkv 4kyef ruv ]kyef ehl s w a , q X a , a v ]kyef 'kdkv kuukt hg unf lm ]kxSkt gj ;®l yod ;®l ]hxSkt IN N s a w s hi Skehl hjkl ; ]0kc ]BklB ]ngV ]ut unf ltf 4ksg e kjhtt ]kg ut 4ksg a s , w , X X a s , s \ X Li e g1xkjkd ]kg BklB 4sxksgj Ldt ]kg ukeyle 4xksgj /c ]ksg ngV dr ct s s \ s q s s a w 4g krjd rDe hg ;® , q l klsS 4h;kv chjd rDfe hg unf lm kuukt ]s[nf ;®l klS unf ltf jkv 4g q s , , ;ü'7<"'of 4g ;hupoufv ];“k;øv 4kd 0k,c u ]kd ut u ]kd BklB u ]kd w s , Z , ukeyle u ]kd ngV u 4g ;®l lc kr ;®l 4hxSkt ksg W' huLi Bk[nf rkc q w , s q \ hFk,p cr 4g hrkt ksg hd jxkl k;nfu ]krksg Cgu kd Xk;nfu jxkl 4krksg Cgu T a kjkeg ;®l ]g rksg eg d ;®l 4krkg Cgu kd hldf ;®l `kdldf 4g ;®l lc T s s s , ksr g; ]krdl kt k/kc Cgu u/c Bkd kd r jkv e ji lb ]g hjr g; u ]g a a s w , T , s , hje g; u A kxsxy jGf cr 4Cgu jn hH hFk,p kr ]hxxy rkc hjlhr ct jkv s w s s , 4g ukjd ufo÷ jg cr 4g krhxnoxHnehJ cr Nd cl 4g k;rDf;øHfv UHfo , q , . . q T a f hg hd ke®keji ]k;yftcf hrdLd df ]ynkc rtjx e 'kdkv df ]kXg h{i sr a \ s X kx gcl df 6g jkdi hd kno ufo÷ hdum ]je7je ]j>7j> ]g rjrm uj> sl q , q X s T s s XkLk\gi jk,v 6g hgj ksg kni aSkp+ hd kXn"ufim ]g hrjtx kt d jd ul7ul Sk T , T q s s a og hH e kX{o jk,v 6g gj kx hg; hH h{i df kxxy klS cr 4g hrkt Li Bku X 1 T s s s , \ l tkokv hd lrv d rxt kdlm hLi Bkul tkokv hd lrv uiv kdltf 4g q a s . s \ q a s s , hdcl ]Cgu hg hje g; A kxsxy cr df hxSkt kv e >el hH rkc hjlhr kr s X s 4g Bg rÎa> ]g htc e iW d Qxnl hg h_r7 , q , X s q . a ;nÔ hje df 6g hy ul ji k<ho lm ]hF hiNf kt e k<ki ]jkd> hg huiv u s , q s X X z a s e jkv g k<ho ksr Qx.nl df ]g k;yf [n e <in lm kd jgp dofr¬ko hg u T , , q , s X Z s s s s iv ue jk,v g <in yod Qqxnl df ]g; g jkdi hd k<ki hg je df kxxy c s T , Z s . , q X z ss s t jkv 4g Hjkzi kd xl®l kr ]jkxnm kd lrv hg uiv A kxy klS gér ct , , a a s . a s s X q 4kvg Cgu W' xl®l hHv ku>el dr cr ]8pkom ukoxH8 A kgd uer dr c q q a s q t 4kvg Wq' xl®l df kuukt hHr ]kyksc <ki hg kjkgér df xy klS ct jkv q a z q s s , 4kykc <ki hg kjkgér A kxsxy gér cr 4g kiduv hdum 4Sx jd ]kd s z q X q , a q l ksg u leg kt 4Sx kx dwye 4F Sx gj d jd r7r 4hF hrkv u huktc Xeg s s s s w w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 082 egaP

kd ykouyp s s ]g krkt ksg kL[ , \ ;≈kH kd Sg sL[ q \ ]g hrjd kOc Om , , re¬dk\ hd Oc Om s, ]g hrgj hrkl , s re¬dk\ hd yko ukl8 s s s 2kujd u le kr 2kujd u ;¬ykv 2g kuyp hg srPc 4g kudQ Cgu ygi dlm 4g ;”y kFk,p , \ , s s , 4kdlm kvg <kZouf q 4kIef Xe xal®l 6kvg ;ü' ]kpgi kt ji Fk,p 4kcL e xl®l ]k;x kst ji sjlhr q w qa s s w X a 4kvg Wq' xal®l ]k;x kst ji sjln 4Tg dIv ji ygi xky d/fv Xe k;ufqn 4ku q w s s s kt dIv re ji ygi 4g Syf jkgér [e kXjkp d k‰c ; 2ksyp end dS7dS s T s q q s z s 4tkol ek;æ cfN ]yufv ek;æ s a ]jokjl ek;æ ]ljekr ek;æ s 6tkouf ek;æ ji k['fihn s ]S[fn ek;æ j{v sd rfJ s q 4tkv d ytkd u;u ek;æ s a s ]unf;÷e ek;æ ofj ]ekd ek;æ 6tke n1e ek;æ ;®u ]utd s q 1 w ]kek;æ kydfksd ]j;e ek;æ w 4tkc Hu tkc7;tof ek;æ s s ]g ek;æ yfk' ]kdkyc ek;æ , 6tkl yn7ypv7Hfjql ek;æ s a ]g ek;æ e¥x7<r ]kj/ ek;æ T q 1
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 182 egaP

qd Syf d uync ksd kLhi u ]Bk[nf kLhi hxLi u 4hxLi u Bk[nf kLh\i kr ]x s s \ \ s \ s \ s s skgj >ym ]sxksgj xy dfk;D 4Cgd u Cgd ksg rgj xy ]ksg rgj >ym dr rkj s s X s s s s jdy l gcl ]kg rgj xkt dr ct ]ksg r[j r¬;ø knl kd uiv 6ksg rkt xy s s q s s s s s s s Xe ujd i'ix l k_ef 6ksg rkt yH jd Oc e gxkeulf 6ksg ry kiNf jd hi s s X s w , X 1 s s s ckj' 4ksg ry dkP 4ksg ry kiNf hn¥t lm er ksr ]Skt Li hH Bk[nf l dp s s a s s s q \ s w 7yH hHd 4hrLi Bk[nf Cgu hH kLhi huiv hHv gér 4xksjd ;kim Bksd Syf w \ \ X q s sd uk>qc ksd xkv ]sxksjd Nd kr ]g kj?f l kXIiy j? df Skt Li Bk[nf gér s q s , s \ X q ]'kd 2hrkg hxy xkv e j?32rgj rkyp Lks\?7hFkg d tjr' 2rgj SkNcf L s X s s s s a s i,kp 2rgj rys[ 'kr ]rgj sOc er jkv ksg hxy xkv e j? 2u srjd Nd 2skg \ s s s , q , X q eqr lt rgj uc hg lS er ksr ]krkg kri ]'kd `g kri kd kLhi huiv géqr s , s s s s q s , \ X 4g , kgj yp Cgu kri kd kLh\i hg huiv df g rN√e urb ]jn rgc ksr kLhi hd kXj T w s w q \ ln 4g Cgu /ksc hH kd kLhi huiv gütf Tg xky lS ksr kg; 4hukt hH kLhi hd w , \ X s s s a \ jlwn ]hukt Cgu kLhi hg huiv sultf ]g krgd rl kdhlm e A g rgd dye s \ wa a s T T s w 4jhi7ji ukt skt ]g jhi bkl kdye , , s w 3ku>el skd k_wl X 4hrksg Cgu q;®e Bksd jGf df e 1 ütui klS jkv 4g eüZtui hg e ;®e hlo 4,g rkvQ' hd rev hg e uIef sl Z q s , , q X q 1 , q 1 X s o dfkX;D 2ji jk} d ekj ksvkt Ief 2ji jk} d ekj skvkt je A g rgd dye , s s T s w 2je kt jkon ekj s s s q 4g r1e , v jdki lm 4g naukv ]g rDfe jdki lm 4g jkr¬of kjkl g; kdltf ]xksvki s , , q s , s tks[ skd L\t lm er Cgo ]ksd <Zqxuf ]ksd jkdkjuf er Cgo 4g ke®keji Cgo 6g q q , , ;ørax Cgo ]g rkt Ief kukn hFi jkv Fi kagt jkv 4g krkt Ief hH hFi ]kr T s X s a , , , a kt Ief Cgu hg Fi 4g krkt Ief hH ñxke ]krkt Ief Cgu hg xke 4ksg srkt Ie a , Z f er ct g hrkv hL? hlS jkv 4Bkv ytfe df ku>el kr ]pc u "' hg xk q , \ s , a s s s Z e Bksd sxkv ct 4kugj hg ryp ]Zxke gj krLi Bk[nf Nd xkv dr ct 4re s s \ q s kudQ 4ksgj ryp 84rfojp~ ~ ~rfsojp8 A g upo erfav d 0c kr 2Bx kv hL\? s s , , T s q s hj[fkv ]sxy ukg knof ksr ikv `jd k;D eg A u kv{Hf dum g kNi sl 0c s s X s X q s , w q 4Skt gj u "' s ukF¬ Bksd jkv Syf d uyp df dr ct dr cr gj kryp 4Skt kv u okLi , s s s \ erfv df dr ct dr cr gj kryp ]gj kryp 4gj kryp kst g hgo hlk;üal a s s s , 84rfojp ~ ~ ~ rfojp s , s , 4g krLi yp , \
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 282 egaP

u ]Sgfkp ku[n kt 4g rul Nd kd Nd kr kXg ukd 2g r[n kago7kg; ]g sr[ s s T s q q q s T s s a T s n kagd xksy df g rgd Syflb `ky [n kr kXg [kav ]ky ul kr kXg ukd A g T s s s s s q s T rgd jkcjkc k;D udfsy 4F ukd lt jkgér jkv ]CF [kv hlt hjkgér hH lki s X s s , s q , X a , q sdum 4kF kgd l kxky lt hg jkgér 4g rgd leqr `llht g rgd slldf 2 s X s s , s q T s s T s ksy ul kr kXg ukd jkv ksy [sn ksr kg [kav A g kgd jkcjkc u llht 4ksg srkt q s , X X , s ksg /v 4ksg rkt kg jgc hH kr Skt ksg hH kuyef l rDf;ø lt dye 4ksg sr s a s s s s s s , w ul Cgu kr rgkp ku>el Cgu 4rgkp ku>el Cgu udfy 4g dju hHv uoht q s s s s , kjkgér 4k>el ksd [An ugx uiv 4k>el ksd kLhi huiv df g rjWt ksr hygi q s q s s \ , 2`ksg gj Ikd ;el er hH jGf ]g krje Bk s q , s d tkj ]g krjxf Bksd tksj 4g dp kt Ikd xky kXLks\jd7kLks\jd 2g kdp Ikd kd s , T s q s s X , q s X kurdf ;el 2kyks[ [kav kjt\ `ksg gj n k[ks/ ldf 4g rjd ;kim k;D7k;D s s s s T s eyke7u Syf d suIkd ;el ]Sgfkp utjkue Syf d uIkd ;el ]krId Cgu I w s as s s s kd ;el kd kxky df ]g ng hd krPe jkv 2g kgj kyx 4g kgj k[ géqr ;el X s , w\ , , , X 4kgd ykd hH ksd ;®e ]kgd ykd hH skd ;el Syflb q 1 4g k;ufo÷xi hd q;®e ]Cgu Nd jkv ;el 4kun eku hg dS ksd kukn g dhO T a 1 q , s X s , Syflb 4g ;el hgo ]g kgj ky chjd ksd q;®e hjkgér kt 4g kgj ky chjd kd , , 1 q s , s q 1 ;®e hjkgér ;el 4g q;®e ;el dfk;D 4g krdFkl Nhi dlm 4g Cgu <jkdv q , 1 X , Z s s , eku hg dS kd kukn 4g kgd ykd hH kd q;®e jkv 4ykd A g kgd ueg ksd X s , s 1 , , s ;el 4g kOuv kt Syf d ;el g nç' klS dS lki jkeg dfk;D 4g Cgu lki , w s s , s s X , d k"kH hldf hd k;ufn nç' klo ]g nç' dyfke kt Syf d ;el lki jkeg s q , , , s s s 2ksg gj Ikd kd ;el er df ksg gj pkl er jk,v 6g kgj Ikd gér ;el ]ksyxki 4 s s q s s q , X q g kgj Ikd ;el jkv g kLi e kXlkodc hd F;ø Bksd 6g kgj Ikd ;el jd y , , , \ X Z , [ 'kr Bksd 6g kgj Ikd ;el jd hi kdDg Bksd 4g gj Ikd ;el A g rgd s , q T s T s xky `ksg gj jd k;D ]BH df skNi jxv l kxky ]g gj Cgu hg kox ;el xky s s w s X s T s a s 2ksd ;el g T gj koax ld eg 2g gj jd k;D eg jkv g hxy xkv e j? df k[n ukgütf s s , T s , , X s s X 4Om xkt kt 4g krgd kd kLkxt ]hlk;ül krgd Cgu ksd kXLkxH 4g Cgu k"kHj s s wa s X s\ a s\ , fi Bksd jk,v hje hd r¬;ül jkv F¬gx 4g krgd r¬;ül kd um ]g rkt xy Xe s a , 1 wa a s T s s ukIef ksd kXok? kst jkv 4g krgd F¬gx e kd Cgüm ]g xy e ukyH ksd kok? , wa 1 T s T s X s q X s kt 4Cgu e ukIef 4g xy e sukyH kd kXok? uiv xky erd/fv e k;ufqn lb X s T s X q s s s X 4Skt Li u Bk[nf ok? d jrhH Cgd df g jL a \ s , kago ]kvg ekJof kagt dfk;D 4Cgu ekJof hH rkj ]ksd uiv ksg r[j Sk>ym q X s s e ekd er e unf 4g nktB hjkgér hH uil 4g htkcykp hjkgér hH go 4ksg sr X q X T q s , q gj s>ym e uil ]Cgu up hH rkj3ksg rkt jxf rkj nake7dF 4kxLi kujd N X s , s s s s \
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 382 egaP

X s kxky ksg gj gd er ksr l ykl jktg pkai df g krgd lum Te `ksjd kosl j s q s wa s d kt df rgd Cgu kX;D g; ksd kxky ikv 2e [An urb xksy jkv 2chjx kurb s X s X q s , 'n jkv 2g rk[lf uk;÷ ksd kxky ikv A g rgd o ]g rkt kv xksy lki jse s , T s X s T s s T s s 2ksjd kol hd Xkjln ]ksjd ukn ]ksjd s w k;n ji kXjlwn df g rk>el eg kdum hrLi Bk[nf Cgu kLh\i huiv skdutf ]g T s s \ , kte kLc jkv `kxdl [sn ld kL\hi hd jln go ]g kgj [n Cgu kLhi hg hu \ , s s , s w , s \ iv kst jkv 2dju eg ksvk[nf re 4kn Lks\N ji ykg jkeg eg df ksg rgd eqr , X s s X s 4g kr>el e Ghydr hjkgéqr wa T 4kg rkxy hyl lm er 4ksg rkyif jgt lm er 4ksg srdG s s w s q s s q X jF®i ji lm er 4kg rn k;yfkx lm er 4ksg rkt kg ueæn dlm er ksr ]sn q s s s a s q s s q s q jd Idi kd r;yflv hjkgér gjr hd <in kt ]g krkt yef rDf;ø klS rk' z s q Z s , s oxk;l hHd jkv 4kg rkt kpc [kv er ksr ]g krkt ksg kuyef g; l iW de s a , s s a q , s ¬fdkv jxv hHd7hHd jkv 2Skt ksg u kuyef l dpyH jkv dQ Cgd df 4skg , s w w , s rgj hg rxkH 2Skt ksg u kuyef l uiv Cgd 2kg xkH l uiv ]ksg xkH Syf s s s s s s s s s lb 4sxksvki nkoe hg nkoe ]sxksvki ok? hg ok? ]xksvki jkxv hg jkxv 4kxSkt s a a ksg IksG¬of kdlm ]g jkcv kd kL\hi kst kd keüt7keüt l jrhH jkgér 4g ky , a X X s s q , kouksg uOfd ksr rk?kv kygi kd ;®l dfk;D 4g <jkd kd upc l k;®l jkv s X , s s X , 4g gj pc l k;®l eg 4g ryx hH kuul kjkeg ]g ryx hH ku[n kjkeg 4g T s s X , q , s T rgkp ku[n eg kt ]g r[n hgo jkv 4g rgkp kuul eg kt ]g rul hgo eg s s s T s s , T s q s T s q 22g kgj , Li Cgu Bkul >e 2n n hg r ksr g kgj L\i Bkul >r8 A kgd u uhYQlu kr \ q s q s s w , q s q s s 82krLi Cgu Bkul ]krL\i \ q Cgu Bkul df kg gj kt yp gd hg; ikv jkv ]g kgj Li Bkul Gkl cl ]k; q s s s s , , \ q a ef sLc8 ]df kgd ulm 2kvg ukjg kLc go 4kF kgj ul rkc hd kukn jIjikv \ s q , \ q X X s s 84krLi Cgu Bkul ]BkH8 A kgd u uhYQlu ky¥qe \ q s 84g rjWt hd SiQ jktg pkai8 ]kyksc jdky¥pf ykywnp , a 84kykc l jkt Nd 6krLi Cgu Bkul Nd8 A kgd u uhYQlu s s s s q \ q q s 84g rjWt endS hd SiQ jktg pkai 4g hgj Li Bkuql G , , \ kl7Gkl yd¥cf rkc hjkgér ksr >e `k;D kgj Li Cgu Bkul8 ]kgd u ykywnp q q s q \ q s a 8`kgd k;D8 A kgd u uhYQlu s 84ksjd ektrb <{®r ]g rjWt a , hd k;iQ jktg pkai 4g k;x Li e ydæfe rgc ]uhYQlu8 df kgd u ykywnp X wa \ X q q s a jkv 4ksg kgj ykc Bksd l jed d yxc kl,t Gkl klS yd¥cf uksG ]Cgu hH , s s s s s q ynkc ]Cgu hH kZ"o 4k;df uksG l Bcc u ykynp _ef dlm kd uhYQlu ky¥qe s a s wa s s 2g krxy jL ]udfsy `g k;D ]g kgd e df >el rfF¬fjfi huiv , wa wa T wa e df g g; ksr rkc hd su[n hLc lcl 4rul Cgu ]Sgfkp kuul kt ]r[sn Cg T , s \ s s q q s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 482 egaP

2d o–im je ksg <jkd Cgér df 2Skxy uNky s ss q a g; ji er go jk,v skn [kav kd hldf er df kvg u hg klksjH kr kd llht q s q q s s 2ksn kxy u I>> jkv Bksd jGf df g kgj xkH kr Syfhlb 4hn kxy I>> dS jkv uer 4 a , wa s a , s q kF jrgc hg k/v 2kgd Cgér `Wd k;D jk,v kd kX[kv ub ksr 6MkiNf k;D slik s a s q a a a v cv df kgd su do; lm ksr 2ksg gj jd e uxkH Nhi d k;æo xks;im kd I q s X s s s s ‘fn ]kd kX[akv jnl ub ksr bx yef gér [kav ct A kgd u llht skr 2hxgj n 1 qa X q X s s k; eüt7eüt 2hxgj nk; jH em 2Cgu rkc g; hlS ]Skt yH 2g nk; rfkH7hy s z s w , a H ]kag df kgd l /ks∂ Lc u do; lm `CF hd dhO l jkd®ep [kav hjkgér h s s \ s q s X q g ue jkv F /v er ]g nk; df kgd su llht 4g kgj xkH Syfhlb jk,v 6g k s T , s s a q , wa wa ;x ukpgi ksdikv hH e df kgd jkv k[n l /ks∂ Gjr hd llht u do; lm T , s s s q 4k;x ukpgi gér ksr e ]Sx yH s>e er k;D ]_ef je A kgd jk,v kLdi slm X q T w q q ss \ ]Lkn 4Sx ukpgi <{®r ksd do; so 4kLi Bk[nf kvg krxkH Nhi d k;æo d s ,\ q \ q s s s S doq; dS güm hg ji jk} d okx 4Sdf 'soi e okx dS llht df g hukgd X s a z X a , 4hF hrdl yef Cgu tbki ycku ksd kljI jne kr hrkt hLks\N u hukgd g; jxv dfk;D 4kxksg kLkN z s ss s X s\ jd ukt kd hukgd lb u kX;bklB jkv 4g hn LkN u k;bklB kt g Syf kpc s s , T s\ s X s T ksd k;ufkgd um jhdG hGl 4g kr[j Skpc lm Bksd7u7Bksd ]g krksg kni Xe .r X w , s , , xt lb uko;¥e hH kt ]udfsy 4g Cgu [y¥m kd k;ufkgd ;¥egc hl7rgc e w s , s X w q q X X za kFx BklB 4g Cgu [sy¥m kdlm e kFx BklB 4g hukgd dS e uoht sd llht , X X za , X 4hxgj hgo7hd7hgo rkc hH jdksg F¬o¬ l ykri¬v jkv h s s , H jd [yf7Pi l yd¬ ]g dhO ]sxkyks[ ykri¬v ]xskyks[ yd¬ `k;D xksjd eqr \ s w , s s w s kF;üv 4Skt ksg jki d kLhi huiv go df sxkdl n xk;gl hH ksd jlwn er h s \ s s s s q g kr ]dl jd <e∂rfv jxv ksd kLhi huiv ]dl Om jiM l jhi huiv jxv s s \ s s er jkv 2hxLi Cgu hH hugd s>e3g hyko sukt ksg ikv7uiv rkc hjlwn kr ]h q , s \ q , s s y ukt jhi huiv jxv suer ]kg 4g krdl gd hd jhi hg hjkgér ler ksr yg q a wa q s q s i e 4hxSkt ksg rkc hd sxkv ksr go ]gd ld ksr hd jhi hd jln gér Te ]Cgu T wa s , s w X q 4g krr¬;ø dS hH go ]g gj k>ym ksd uiv hH e kosl xky , T s s X s 2ksd uiv ks[j Sk>ym udfy 2Cgu hH g rjWt ksr hd s s , yDv Bksd e surkd kZ[p cv 4hxSkt hyp hH go ksr lki hxksg jk,v rqgc7hLk X s\ F ]xksrkd kZ[p 2hrPc yDv Nd ksr ry[ hH tjr' 2g hrksg Skehl Bksd hH s \ q s s a T a hd ui0c 4g krrkd hg kZ[p go ksr kr>l Cgu Nd ksd hldf ]g kr[j Sk>y w q , w q , m ksd uiv jdhi ckj' Bksd 4g rgj >ym 4g rgj yH 4g Sg Sk>ym ksd ui s T s s T s s w T q s v e [An d jln so Syf d upc l [An uiv 4g krukt ksd kdol l7rgc Te X q s s w s s s q s wa X s s q 4kd upc l [Aqn uiv g hrkt uc ;kim dS hH kosl ud s s s , fy `kIef [An kdum n[ ]g gj jd kol kt jk,v `kIef [An ksjd kol df sl s q q T s s s q s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 582 egaP

`rl g uk,d `jhi g ukd 4sukt ksd kLhi hd jln kst ]go ral a , , , \ s w j,kv sukt ksd kLhi hd ;o¬ kst ]go d/kl3g krgd ral kd hlm e ]g rgd o \ a wa s T T s s ~ ~ ~ ]g jhi bkl kdye , s w 3dye g rgd dhO w T s 4kxksg Hq' ]kxksg kt l uoht jkgér jGf 4eku kd oHquv dlb s s s q s ]g ke®keji jrhH A g <jxkt 4kd suksg rDe l ui/v u ]kd uksg rDe l hj , , q s s a s q s kehc u ]g eku kd ;ƒ¬ko¬ u 4g Cgu eku kd kXvk/ofl <jk/kl hd uoht go , , q 4g rkc jk,v hLc <jxkt jkv 2kdl kxt hH ksd kjk,v er jxv l okHkgv jkg , \ , s X q s s s éqr ]l nukv jkgér ]l <jxkt jkgér jkv 4kxksg kuxkt gér 4kxksg Cgu l kosl s a s q s s q , X q s `k; D kxjd go 6Skt kv jgt e Fkg d pπc df 6Skt kv jkoyr e Fkg d pπc s X s s X s s s , lt 2u sxjd ksr hgo ]g kt o `sxjd k;D o ]kn n k{'f er ksd kxsky `xXjd X T s s X s s s q X s k;D o ]kn n ;ƒ¬ko¬ er ksd Xkxky `xjd k;D o ksr kn n uoht er ksd kxky s s s q s s X s s s q X s 4kn ujd ekJof s>e `g kujd k;D jkv cv ]rgc hxntV hy [sn s s q , , q `Cgu k; sxksLkN kNhi kje er 2Sx kv jGf ikv ]k;kv uje jGf e cv 2Cn s\ s q s T kxy Nhi I>> jktg ]ukde ]hu®i ]pπc7ykc ]htkj7hIksj cv 4kykL e rchlqe s X a s s X jk,v k;df kntV >e u Cgér ]kF kdp je ksr e 2kudIG re lki ]kugj jwn s q s q q T ]kgd u henkv lm~ ~ ~kF k;df kntV l kne lb u llht jk,v kF kdp je he s s Z q s s q nkv g;~ ~ ~kF kdp je e 2Sx kv jGf er 2kn ugj ]lcA kgd u henkv lm q T q s s s jkv `ksg gj kxy knG kd hlkaG k;D 6g ;¥egc hxntV 2ksdQ ]je BkH df kd , s a X , w q ss ksj 4kF kgj kxy knG kd hlkaG go df k[n ksd henkv dS jgkc d okx ukgüm a s s a s X 4Skv yduf jgkc l okx lknm so `g ek<jfi g; kd k;®Î je k;D 4kxy kenl rgc kd llht s a , X ss q s 2g kgj gd uoht kd rfk'7[l ksdlb ]g kgj , a q , dc k;yfkx ]g kLi e hyku ~ ~ ~2kn suy ht l rfka'7[l unf jkp kr cv 2ksj a , \ X s s s q s d u kNhi kje kr cv 4hn ;ƒekl hd ujd ryx jkv k;df F¬o¬ >e suer df s s Z s , s q q kjkgér g nko;ü/ 4hF u hH ;ƒekl hd ujd ryx 2kLi hg kugj do®fkl ji q , Z s \ jr¬cf 4kF u hg ;kim Bksd 2kLi hg kugj de√k/ ji jr¬cf 4kdp gj de√k/ \ q unf rgc ]ji jr¬cf kgj kLi unf rgc 2ksjd tk,e ]kvhi ]ksvk[ ]g hxntV hd q \ q s , unf jkp `Wd k;D jkv ]ksvkrc Cgér `Wd k;D jk,v A kgd ulm 6k;yf dkXO j a , q a s lf u henkv lm `ksg L\i e hyku jd hi ckj' `xk;im g; kd uoht `ksg gj s s X s s jd k;D er g; 4kF k;kpc l q;®e gér hg sue 6kF k;nf uoht gér hg uTe ] q s 1 X q T X q s sF Li ji k;'7;®e ]F jkehc er `kg rukpgi >e ]BkH je df kgd jkv slm s \ , q 1 s q s s s q ss , k;kygf 4Sx ukpgi ]k[n l jkx u llht 4kF kgj dc k;yfkx Shi ckj' ]kv s s , s a g kLi e hyku jkudf d dLl kt kyef henkv dS güm ]Sg I‘ofi e jxu o q \ X s s \ s X q z X s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 682 egaP

4g T srksg akgt rl ]g krkv kyp krtks[ skd krl ke®keji n[ ]krLi kukt Cgu ;yk a , X a q \ egf sutks[ ke®keji kd kXrl 4,g kre? ke®keji Nhi d krl lS ]g hrew? ;kx s a w s s X a s s , hdlm sNhi d sL\Nc lt df n krc Xgér rkc hd tkj dS A g rgd dye jkv s s , wa q T s w , 44;kt k;,ej kagr ]utrl gt dye gd a a w 4;kx jGf kagr7kgr ]jGf kNπc kgt7kgt , a , a a 2lsS ]lc ]g krkt Ief kj/av ksr g kryt k;hn jkv ]g s , s , , , hrkt kg hu'ksj ksr g kryduf tjl jkv ]g hrkt kv /xl kr g ry[f yG s , w , , a q s T s w s , , lt 4g hrkt kv ikv7uiv 6g rf<jfi ;koufv hd ku/kl kol 4Bk[lf ku/kl s , Z s ]Bk[lf Cgu kol u 'sn lb 4k;k[lf xl®l ]Bk[lf Cgu kol u 'n lb Syflb s s a s s s 4g oHlv g; `kxdl ksg <jxkt kd kXjlwn df kg rpkl er lub ]g gj kL\cL , a s s s s q s T s c e nCu hg n[ hHv kst ] g gj kl hg n[ hHv kt 4g krdl kxt hgo ]k;x \ X q T s s q s , xkt kt 4kg hy kIef kLhi huiv sygi ultf g krdl kIef hgo kLhi hd jlwn s s \ s , \ s 4hxSkt yef krr¬;ø dS gér 4kxsyt Cgu k;hn hH e hxntV hjkgér 4hxSkt skg Fjkdv hxntV hjkg X q X q éqr 4sxksgj s>ym er ]kag 6rIef Cgu hH hPkd llb ]ksg rdl jd kol hd k;Pfk q s s\ s s s X \s d er ]krIef Cgu uikxe[Hf llb ]kg rdl jd kol hd kxe[Hf er 4kxye q a s s s s X a q s f rgc hH ukeél Xgér jk,v 4er ksg rdl ksg hju'ef BklB kF;üv 4g krdl k q q q s , s g hxk;gl Xe sukIef kLh\i hd jlwn hgo jkv 4g krdl ukt kLh\i hd jlwn hgo ] s s , , s ksg hy kIef kLhi hd a;o¬ ultf ]Cgu hg /ksc jkv 4ksg /kc kd kLh\i hd ;o¬ sl \ s , s a tf g krdl ukt hgo kLh\i hd jlwn ]ku[j uk;÷ Aui7Aui ]ku[j uk;÷ jxe 4g , s q q , Cgu /ksc Bksd kd kLhi hd jln ltf ]g krgd dr¬fku skdhlm e A g rgd o \ s w s wa T T s s 44jhic jGfkd kl ]hukt u jhi7ji kt s s s 2kLh\i hjkl hxSkt Ief 2e –qel dlm nc huiv kn u X s wa s s kt skg uhy 2elm hdcqL ksvkt jke 4kgj ksg ri√el ji ke®keji rfkaH cl df ] X s s X ukgüm Bk[lf rkc hg dS 84ekj krkn dcl ]Sx gd kdye lkn 6ekd u jd h s w , Ni ]hjdkp u ,jd jxtv832Sx gd k;D lkndwye ksg hg rukt kr er 4rdl a s s q s Cgu hg jd o–im d gjr lb kr lkndwye ]kg hH yks[ u hldf jk,v ~ ~ ~yk[ s s X s s s s yd¬ u jkv ]syks[ Cgu ykri¬v Bkd u lkndye `cyre kd uukt kLhi ud w , s s w s \ fsy 4ukt kLhi hd jln kt ]g go rl 4hd k;“k;ø hjk;î 4ukgüm hd k;“k;ø g; s \ s w s , a s X 4jhi7ji ukt skt ]g jhi bkl kdye , , s w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 782 egaP

s Iv u nf; jdjrf ksdrkj jefrf ]kdP k;x gj –p a 3Id u nf; ynkc d Hu jse s s s 4ksgj er lki q yod nf; ]hJ ][l kd oæof >qe s q s s kg u ]kvg u Nd q q 4kvg krdgn gjr hd jkxv jrhH q s a sd Qxnl ]akv/7kv/ ]k>qc7k>c jrhH jkgér 4g ryfo††i ]g ;erfk;† ]g rxkt q . q a q q s q , z , Z s , z lki sd Qqx.nl jxe ]g gxt hHl ksr ekj 4hg kxksg ekj kgo ]g Qxnl kagt df , a , q . X k;D 4kuke Fhr lm 4kuke gxt hd rfF¬fim hd ukoxH kd Qxnl ueg Syflb Z s s q . s 4g rkg ral kgt7kagt ]g krkt kyp kago7kago ekj go T s s a , 44;kt k;,ej kagr ]utrl gt dye gd a a w 82jhcd jhcd rgd ]rjGf Nhi xky jfg8 82 s s jhcd jhcd rgd8~ ~ ~g kre? Nhi je go l unf lm ]hn Lks\N kNπb g; unf , w s ss s ltf 4hn LkN hH kNπb g; ]CF hn LkN aSkNπb hjkl jkv lt 4hn Lks\N hH tk[ s\ s\ , s , s g; ue jGf 4g k{kadkoÂge hH g; 4g klîhHv ]k{kadkv hd ue hH g; 4g kN s T , , , πb hH g; 4g kulko dS hH kutks[ g; 4g hgj ksg yH hg e utks[ je df k;k , , w X s ss v Xe >el s>e jGf 4k;ki Cgu lm cr ]kjGf krtks[ e ygi df g rgd jhcd q s T s T s 4g eku , kjln hg kd o®r¬fv 6g eku kjln hg kd suksg joæB ksr kNi pl 4g gxt cl w , w s w , s , , w s kr g 4g ;ü' llm hH 'kdkv kr ]g Cgu ji hoƒi jxv 4kxkg Cgu e dksyji s , 1 s X ksr ]g Cgu e dky lb jxv 4kxksg Cgu nkc d ;®1e ksr ]g Cgu hHv jk,v tkv , X s s q , jxv 4sxksdl ki u er lm3e ;‘ofH k; e rhrv3e ;el jkv hldf ksr jGf C q s X X X , gu ]g hHv ksr g 4g Cgu hH Cgd jGf kr Cgu ]g kag; kr g `xkvkt sutks[ sl , , , s , s , s s m er kst joæB g jk,v Cgd k;D `kgd sxtks[ jkv `ld xtk[ Syflb 4Cgu q , a X , s , s X s k;ks[ ueg hHd ksd joæB 4g ryx df kt 4g k;nf ks[ df g; ksr dS 4Cy uke s , s , rkc Bd suer e tks[ 4g yH hg e tks[ 4Cgu kyef >qe joæB ]kjGf krtk[ X q X , w X s s ksd joæB dr ct jk,v ]kF krjGf krtks[ ksd joæB e ygi A g kgd u jhcd T s , s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 882 egaP

4g rn jktqx hxntV Skl7Skl eg eutf 4g SkF¬o;ø dnke T s s s s X T a ]g 'u 4g ;kim d u[j sykL e sokyH ksd suiv 4g Xchdjr hd u[j Sk>ym T s T s s X q T s 4g rkc hd rkc ]lc 4Tg Ow> ulkoækv cl d kg; ]eld cl hd kg; ]sn;ko c , s s a X a l d kg; 4g okyH cl kg; 4g hFkl Bkd u ]g hxl Bkd u kg; `Fkl kxn u s a T s q a , s , a s a s k,d ]hxSkt /ac ñFv ]hxSkt Lm lkoæ yd `Fkl kxSkt ukd `ksd uiysdv u \ , s s iv ksg r[n 4ksg sydv er hH jGf ],g jkojfi ]g ut;if 4ksg ydv hH e LhH s s s q T z s s X \ 3ksg ydv er hH kr ksg Fkl rxt kjkl ksr Cgu jkv 4g Fkl cl kr ]y kg F s s q s . , , s s s kl ke®keji dS ]y gx Fkg ke®keji dS `;≈k; uki g k;D e rxt lb jkv s s s , X . , 4kgx nf; Fkg s er ]ji Fi ]rlg j/v xgj q s a s X 4ksgj er lki q yod nf; ]hJ ][l kd oæof >qe s q s s kg u ]kvg u Nd q q 4ksgd nf; kFd er ]hji e>e g >el ]gj q w X q , s ]kgj kd kgt ]ukK a 3kPc u nf; ukeuk;økd kjse \ q ]kgd u kcl nae s X 3kPi u yiof ;®gfkl lj qgc \ q 4kgx nf; Fkg s er ]ji Fi ]rlg j/v xgj q s a s X ]kd lkH7uxx 'y s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 982 egaP

3l cr j,kv 4hy Ldi gkc hdlm ksr sueg 4Syf ksg Nhi d jfg ksr eg 4Syf k s \ a s s s g Fkl d jfg skr eg 4hy sy Ikv hd jfg ]Cgu hFkl Bkd ]Cgu hxl Bksd ]g u s s s a , ikydv hg uikydv cl kr kag; df jd [n g; ksr ueg df g srgd lkndye s s s s s T w 44Iksi hd ejH jfkL ]jfH nCu[l g rokl q T s 4Iksv hd jfg hgühy r gVct eg dye gd s w 4ksg u e Fkg Fkg kd ke®keji dr ct xksgj sydv dr cr jkv ]kg ydv 2ksukpg X s s , s s s i ]k>el ]k[n hg; ]ksxkH Cgd krgd Cgu e Syflb 4g gj Hp ykH l Gjr s s s T T s q s s kXjkp Syf d su[j Skxt gér kg; udfy ]kvkt yH er n;k' e uiydv 4kr s X q a s s w q X s s dl ksg Cgu jkv Cgd ]g krdl ksg oHquv kd uiydv l jkt urtf e jktkc , , s s s s s X 4kF k;n f [yf ksdldf e ;≈kH hH u krk/of df kpkl Cgu ultf g Cgu hu®i ukd 22k X s s s , , s g kjkdIqN ld 2Skt ksg kjkdIN cd df jkc Bd kxksg kpskl Cgu ultf kxksg r s , q s fi ukd `2ks[n jd dka> hg jrhH uiv kjt\ er `g gj k;D hg pksl hu®i7rfi , s s q T s 8`hxMkt kg hjc e k;D ~ ~ ~`nkc dlm8 ]kNi u h_¬ a s T s w s 84hxSkt ksg k;®g hd rfi jkg s ér hg ?h' 4kvkt ksg jk;r Syf d suksg ko/of83k;krc u h"rfk;† ksd h_¬ dS q z s , s s s 4hrdl ksg Cgu jxjkd nt¬fe Bksd ]jnfae Bksd ksr ]kdl kynf u nk; gér rfi kjkgér jxv 4hxdl ksg Cgu yGl kGx B X q q s q ksd hd ;ykegf kr ]hdl kynf Cgu <je¬ kd uiydv jkgér hu®i hjkgéqr jxv s s s s q 84g krksg [An kLc güm ]g krkv jlov kd uyef li j , q \ X , s s , kp ksd h_¬ kgt 4g ykg hg; gxt cl kd k"Qi ]kag ht8 ]Cyksc jdLxcf hthosn a , X q \ 84gj Cgu onrfi dikv df ]ht hon kvg [An hg kLc j s s s s q q \ dul g; eg8 ]kyksc jk,v kgd kd uOc ji ñld lm 'ojkpkI‘'f u jtue kr q X s s , q s s s , s ]hxkae edj hd ehc d rfi l jtue jdkt e huiéd kehc u ko/of Bu dS s s s s , X s `g kydv df kxukt akg , s s d jk,v go ]g kydv df kdl ukt u kst lki d hu®i `kg ydv df xkukt e wa s s s s s s s r cr Li kukt jd LkN hu®i 4g Cgu kpπl /ksc kd uiydv kjkgéqr ksr ]Li k q s \ s\ , s s s \ uOc e kGqx hldf ji Lk\gi gér Syf d uukt uikydv 4ksg ydv e jktkc p , X X q s s s s s X hc ]e jktkc OO ]e j? OO 4ksg ydv Cgo ksg kagt 4hg kg er ydv `g kagd X s X s s s s q s s , rjWt hd ukg ydv jd xkH e yxat 4g kydv e df 4g lk;ül eku kd u s s s s X wa s T , a s ukpgi dlb 4skukpgi ksd uisydv lb 4ksg sydv er dr cr ]Cgu e Fkg jkg s s s q X s ér dr ct Fkg kdlm ]Cgu Fkl jkgér dr ct ke®keji 4kg ydv er udfy q s q s s s q s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 092 egaP

4e g jkgim ?y dS ]g ueql T wa q wa 4e aW> yd k; hg tkv k;D >qe T s 4e g jkll kd uîo¬ yhxaj T wa a s ]e <d7lkv ji hL[i hd hyd X s \ a 4e g jki k;D kdl ki kd exv T wa udfy jkc kl kdp je jd eut s , q 4e g jklHfv kgj jd kd hlm T wa jdkyt jkr hrtks[ 'fuf sltf s `2Te g jkxkv kd rfks;† ,g kuql wa ]e ur rfsk;† g krtks[ krdIH X wa 4e g jkd> hd ;ü' lm ydof T wa a w 6e jm uhc kst hrgkp kukel X 4e g jkr¬of kd ek;ø kr Cgu T wa s s ]g kuc kIkN ]g uîo¬ ]g k/c wa s wa wa a 6e g jk/kv ;o¬ ]k;kN ;o¬ T wa a a e g jkokjki df g <d7yyfl T wa wa 4g hrkt I? rfka∂ e uoht jkgér jkv 4Iksv hd j , X s q , fg A ;¬gj kl7kIkN dS 4,g Cgu o–im e uoht jkeg Bkd cv 4g e ekJof e s X s s T X g cv 4g uhy e nCu hd nukv kge eg ksr cv 4g Sx jxf jkeg eH sjkl cv T X a T s z 44Iksi hd ejH jfkL ]jfH nCu[l g rokl q T s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 192 egaP

44jkodf yks[ kOc ]y Ikg hd ekuekj , s 4g knk,l kd Ze/ go ]g ;≈k; ujd knk,l hg dS kr kXg uki rkjgkot7jhg jxv , , s s s s s ~ ~ ~ ]kyH knk,l kd gfe/ Z ~ ~ ~2ryef Cgu lS rkjgkot7jhg 4g kd Xk;Lfk,d 4g s s s s , \ , kFkF jkgo;ø kd rxt cl `k;D k;ki ]Syf [n djd nkl cl jk,v A g srgd s . s s s, T 44jkodf yks[ kOc ]y Ikg hd ekuekj , s 4jkgk;ø xt k;kn ]kyH knk,l kd gfe/ s Z 4g hjk[Hf hH –ab Syf sdlm ]k;x yef ke®keji ksdltf ~ , ~ ~ 4kxsLi ewyke hjk[Hf >qe ksr ksg kL[ suekl je hH –b jxv ]g rgd dye \ s \ ss a T s w 44dj ksd –b uxf ~ ~ ~ a a , ~ ~ ~ ]ksgj r¬eyv ]ksgj r¬e jGf ]ksgj srkene jGf ~ ~ ~gj krke yev eku ~ ~ ~Skt kv e Ldi hjkgér eku kd Hi jkc dS , X \ q q z ~ ~ ~ ]gj krke yev eku , 4dlAuf jGf knl ]e uhid Rl hOkx a , X q a 4hrdl uhN Cgu slm q;®1e 4krdl kt Cgu k;kjqp ;®l dfkX;D3krdl Iy Bksd jGf gér u 2ksjG w X q f jd ksg da'Auf jGf j,kv ksy /kac e uhiksd suiv kd ;®l lb A g rgd dye X s T s w 4dlAuf jGf knl ]e uhid Rl hOkx a , X q a 4g kIkN le , s s r 'kdkv kjkl ksr k/c l ke®keji 4ksg sIksN skr ]ksg /c l ue ]ksg /c sl jhj' q s a s s a s s a e g jkr¬of kd ek;ø kr Cgu T wa s s ]g kuc kIkN ]g uîo¬ ]g k/c wa s wa wa a 6e g jk/kv ;o¬ ]k;kN ;o¬ T wa a a e g jkokjki df g <d7yyfl T wa wa
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 292 egaP

3g upo krkxext , knk;† hH l kXjhg 4kuy [j jd /akc Okx `ksg rul upo kjk;î g; `kg ruql s s a s q s s 2gj hrP\c rDfH lc ]e hjnte Cgu krgkp Nd jkv s X w q , ~ ~ ~84gn hjte7rDfH ~ ~ ~ qs w ~ ~ ~ ]aSkt yef <jp d kral ]Skt yef xl kd kral s X a X ~ ~ ~ ]kTjd kol xl ural s a 3ksn jd k;n hg hurb ][sn kagd kr [n gér ]MN ld ksr MN ksr g wa s wa s X q a q s , a q X ér ];æ1nv ksg kr er 4Skt uc Lkt kje Fkl d krl df ksn jd hg kurb ]lc q s q s\ s s X a 44gn hjte7rDfH ]kTjd kol xl ural qs w s a 2ksy kuc kuiv s>e 2ksy jd kuiv >e 2gy jfd uikv gVkse ]ljki lS S q s q qs s s kt ksg kuskl ksr skn wN ksd gksy g ]sykousy jd ke®k;≤i kd hiki g ]yko uy ku s s s q s s s s s c _ki ksd _kiv g ]sykosun <j' kd <j'v g ]Hi g df ksjd kuFki hg hurb s s s s q z s Z z 4gy jfd uikv gVkse ]ujl ujlv ;kjekj qs 2sre? Cgu sNhi d k;nfske Ikse7sIksN eg cv `jd gkoji hdldf eg cv w s X s X 44gkoji kgd gfkr ]l7ekj hnkse dkt s s ~ ~ ~ ]g ekj ksr jkdgkl kjkeg , w ~ ~ ~ ]l ekj hnkse dkt s s 2Cgu hg hrksg krpV ]Cgu hg hryduf l eg gkv kr cv s s ~ ~ ~4gkv jke re r ]n ujd krpV gVjkv s w s , ~ ~ ~]krpV ksd kjk,v kn ujd df k;yf >el g; ueg X s s s s l cr ]hxy Fkg sjkeg htd g; ]kukt tkj g; ueg l ct df g rgd dye qa s s T s w 44gkoji kgd gfkr ]l7ekj hnkse dkt s s 4gkv jke re r ]n ujd krpf gVjkv s w s a , 2kvkyG hyk> s , s kjt\ er 2Fkg jkgér g htkj ksd sudcf ke®keji 2ksvkv df g kOc Sktl ukdqn q s q , , , ]yks[ ktkojn ke®keji ]ksg gj dIH ji kXukdn udf ]ksg gj kt yp kagd jkv s s q s s ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 392 egaP

/kikv hLc ]g gj Lkn 4g Cgu kri kdDi Nd hH kdlb ]xjd k;D jd pgi ` \ T s ,\ , q s X qa g gj kt Syfldf g kri kdDi Cgu `g gj kt kagd g kri kdDi Cgu ]g ukd T s , T s , T , g kri kdDi Cgu 2g gj kt yp 'kgc ]rN√e Ahxyef hd Lks\puf rkc dS kr , T s s s s w s s s s s , k[n l jkx jxv ksd uoht d kxky `g gj ht xky ld `g gj gd xsky k;D s X s T s s s , T s `g kdldf 'ksg jxe , s 22k;x kyp hjksp j;hojLv kdub jkv 2Sgfkp ksd uykduf a , s henkv jkp ksr ksykduf ]Sgfkp ksd ukugi henkv skn ksr kugi 2dl u yduf ] s s s pC[ hg kurdf Bksd df g Syfhlb hg rugi <xkru kektki jknhLp 22kyp Cg s T s s w\ u hH kri jkv Skt kyp hjksp j;hojLv l elm 2kektki jknhLp ksr dS cv , a s X w\ 22k;yf kjp u hldf jWt 2jv df kgd u uhYQlu q s s s 8`k ;x kagd j;hojLv uhYQlu8 ]kNi sulm kr 22njknu j;hojLav 6Bg ukjg hLc a w s q , \ hu®i ksr kykduf kektki jknhLp kuiv ulm ct 4kIk,y rkj dS uhYQlu ky¥qe w\ s `kdldf 'ksg kg; s a 84ky s ugi skr IiyG jdkt jnv ]kvkt `g h[j ugi k;D hg j;hojLav yosd ueqr X q a s , X s `k;D g; jxe 4Sgfkp kuyp eg jGf kr ]g dhO8 ]kykc ;¬nl kygi ji lb X s , s 4g kygfe _jfpπl jkv Ghj' hg rgc ksr , , q go 4g jk/kjuf yd¥cf iksjkv jkl Sx Skxy ji kdifk;÷v df k;krc kd ;¬nl T q s s ygi ukgüm jkv Skv jgkc ut†l go nkc d I? dS 4y jd NkrNi jdkt s s X , s sa s w jnv hg n[ go df kgd ulm l ;¬nl jln jkv k;x ksg kL[ Syf d udl i a q s s s w , \ s s X / hg e uky jgkc ;¬nl dS Syflb ]hF d/fv ñnl 4pgi j? d kdifk;÷v l w X s qa s m ;¬nl kukn s; 4kikTl ekd kd ykrLi7pkt ksd k;¬nl kn u hIed xtVue hd X s \ a X s s s s , yd¬ kr hxy suksg rgc e yd¬ ct kZpp hd hxjkokv hd kdifk;÷v jnl dS w s q X w qa 2kv s kxt >e ]g kgj kt kcL e kNe e~ ~ ~4kNe Ag Fv kd k;ke ~ ~ ~g hxy e ' s q wa w X Z w T Z w , Z , X 'fksd hd sukcL hr¬nct s>e k;ke kF;üv 4g hrdl kt y jki d jxkloH lb q Z q , s s s q >e hg oku hd rDfH dfk;D ]dwye ]Tg srgd ]g krxke Syflb hjte hd rDfH X wa a w 44jk;jfc gkac gx ]>e k;ke g rjskc s s q , 4jki ytoH thd ]Stfhn hjte7rDfH , w 2gj hrkg ugx kuFki hje ]gj hrPc rDfH hj s s Z z s s \ e df hg kurb ]g sgj xake Cgu Nd jkv hH e hjnte ]Cgu krxkae knk;† jkv s T q , X w , 44gn hjte7RfH ]kTjd kol xl ural ws w s a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 492 egaP

44uu gfr ksji jkN ]k;“y ku utf "Qqi [yv , s s 4ue Cgku krht ]k;df ku utf eu ezsi , s s s 2'ksg ]rfxkt Ag krksg Fv kd rDfH 1 , Z `g gj jd k;D ]g gj jd k;D d T s X T s f g ldf uk;÷ `g ldf 'ksg jxe ]g gj kt Sdf ek/7ekd d gjr jktg ]g , s , s T s s T gj kt sykc ]g gj kt yp ]g gj kt gd ]g gj kt Sht xky `g ksdldf 'skg s s T s s T s s T s s , 82g rgc hg; ]Cgu , q Iif ikv ksr go 4Sx yp rPi hH k;ifkd uckd Fkl7Fkl d rfi ye ikv j s s s \ a Z s z w k,v 4Cn n ksdikv ka;ifkd kXjkp hd <"kH ue df h;x kg l>e jWt hryx hur s s T s s q b ]kag 4kF Cgu kcy go ksr <"kH ]htkrsu8 ]kgd Sg rjd kupk;ke{ u hjI∂sl a q s s s 84ksg u e®[ go ksr gkp kujd hH e®[ e df <"kH kcy kurb jk,v `k[yf a wa T a <"kH kd gjr ldf suer g; 6syksc e hyksc hd hy¥cf Bkd ]yksc e hyksc hd q X s s X Rqd Bksd ]bkxy Xtkokv ]sl?f rwt ]dG Lv Ll ]dG dyNf d yd u kxky 4B s s s X s a s \ s X s s s s s X s g xIVg rqgc ksr jkc Bd e <"kH `k;nf jd[yf k;D <"kH kcy kurb >e u q w X X a s q s er 2Øi d wy¥m8 ]syksc 4Li ljc ji hjIs∂l suiv htkru unf dS nkc d kHl q s s s \ s s s 2Skt gj u hL\x hg e hoƒi ]Om Gjr hd 'kdkv [kv hjse 2ksn okH 2ksn rDfH a X 1 X X a 2>e kn 'kg 2s>e kvkxt 4,g hrsy SkcqL s>e kNe jd Ldi gkac hje hr¬Znct s q s s q s q Z w \ s 44jk;jfc gkac gx ]>e k;ke g rjskc s s q , 4g <jp kygi Gjr hd ukK rfÎho , s ¬ hd ukKv uiv 4Sgfkp kukv kujd jkdho¬ ksd kX;ƒr kd htks[ d ;®l udfy s s s s 4Cgu eyke s>e df g BkuOfd hd ujd jkdho¬ g; w q , s 4ksg gj ykI @#!ilf ]g Cgu kri gér df kF Gkl >e hHr ]kxyp kri cr xk s Z , X q s q s s s vkt ksg Lc kF kgd ct uer `k;nf gd Cgu kX;D hg ygi g; uer ]kgd ue s \ s q s s q s T 4kgd sukgüm jGf ]g Cgu kri eg 4g rkt hg yH cl Xe hLdk,pke/ hd uoht X , X T s w \ 2k;D kd kgd ]Fv kd kagd df g rkt >el s; dr cr dfk;D 4rNi Cgu rkc a Z T s X s w g; o jGf g rkt ksg Lc xky l jkrekv 2ksg d ng hH er ]rgd o kr `g s T s s \ s s , s q s s s , k;D Fv kd uoht ]k;x ksg hH kLc e cv df krNi jGf lum e ]k;x ksg kLc Z \ T w s T \ e ct ]kF kgd l>e u utf7utf kr 4kxSkt kv e >el cl ]xksvkt kg Lc T s q s s X s s s \ ]rgd o kr `g k;D Fv kd uoht df kF krNi l hldf jg e ksr kF kIkN Te s s s , Z w s T s 2ksjd rkc hd ekd 2ksjd u rkc hd jkdc 2g Cgu X X s , ;el Ag krgd go kr ]g k;D Fv kd uoht df kNi jddksj ksd hldf 4g hik , s , Z s w ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 592 egaP

4g srikad jF7jF <ki <{ lm 6krxy Cgu Fkg ke®keji jk,v g krkt IN jkl T z , w al 6g kd gjof ykjrv go ]g ykjrv dS phc d rl jkv hjkll ]g rgd hd , a , a s a , a T s gjof kdltf ]hd ykd;÷e g hrrhc hL? dS ]ksg /çyim ksd ke®keji rDf;ø s , \ Bksd df ygi dlb ~ ~ ~`g kykosukg k;D `g kykoujd k;D Cgu kri ke®keji s s , s , s 44ohi kje eyfkt ]kxjd k;D ukt ku s , wa 4kxiakd k;ht jFjF e gjof hLc ]e kryqdk;ø hLc ]e krjrkv hLc jk,v ~ ~ ~ s X \ X \ X q \ 4oht ikad jFjF ]hLnCu okv u rkj , \ , ~ ~ ~hxSkt k[ nCu hd s rkj skr ]hxkg W' hugc jk/ hl7hLkF hd ei Gjr hd Hi ct Ag rgd dye s q s\ zs q z T s w 44ohi kje eyfkt ]kxjd k;D ukt ku s , wa 4oht ,ikad jFjF ]hLnCu okv u rkj \ , 4re Sg rskg uoht 4kjgc Sg rksg ukd ]k/av Sg rksg [kav 4go g k/v 1 q s q s q s X , a 4g Cgu krLi Bk[nf slm Nd 4ksg k;nf ykL e kX[kv hdlm uhldf deu slt , \ q X a s , 4Xe k[kv hdlm g kLi jkN 6g hIG [kv hdlm 6g Cgu [kav e k[kv hdlm X a , \ T w X a T X X X a 44uu gfr ksji jkN ~ ~ ~ , s ~ ~ ~e k[kv hdlm kusy >el ]kukt Cgu ke®keji ultf jkv 4C X X s , gu hd ue ]g rkc hd ;nÔ rfhi 4g krkt k[n l rfhi 4krkt k[n Cgu ke®ke , z , s s z s ji l ue 4Cgu hg k[n ksr ksd ke®keji ulm ]kukt u lj kd rDfH hHd ult s s s s f ]hukt u rfk;† ]hukt u dyi hd ei hHd ultf ]hgj kNe hg kNe ]gj jkp s q zs s Z w Z w s of hg jkpof ]kgj ue hg ue e Xk[kv hdltf su henkv lm ]g srgd lkndye X a T w 44uu gfr ksji jkN ]k;“y ku utf "Qqi [yv , s s 4ue Cgku krht ]k;df ku utf eu ezsi , s s s 4Skv hy'u , oht hd ei ]Skv e;uf kd ei ksr kLks\N ksd ue 4g krjd 'oi e ei hgo ]g zs zs s , s z X zs , krOm jiM kt l ue 4kjd 'oi e ei jkv ksOm jiM l ue 4g ygi kn d s s s s z X zs , s T w s s s dDlf hg dS ]g l¬gf kn d ;kim hg dS 4g ;kim hg kn d u[n ksd ke®keji T s s s T s s s s 4k[n Cgu ksd ke®keji uXkg s s üm 4k[n Cgu kd "Qi [yv sukgüm ]h[hl u kyd hd uOm jiM d ue uXkgüt s s q X s s s f jkv kukt u e;uf kd ei ukXgütf df g gj gd 4g gj gd rkc hd ;¥we hLc , zs s T s Ta s \
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 692 egaP

4ksy krl >qe ]kv s s kt n s>e ksr ]kg hLi hg rnkv hd sun [An 4kun [l ksd kXjln udfy 4kvkt sn s q s \ s q s q w s s s>qe ksr ]kd hldf [Aqn ]rgc ksg hL\i hg hd usn gér jxv Ag rgd lkn dye s q s X q T s w 44[Dl ,thn uxky ]ksd dye ikl jYyfn q s w T 4[Dn kdurf ksok[ ]e jkll k;[fqn t q s X a s 4g Cgu hH Bkd jk,v rDjfrfv dlm 4hgo Arrav kr g dfk;D 4kvg rDo srk , s s s , X q yif huki ksd /x lm oHquv Z<ioÂge l cl ksd FkudS jkv 4Sx ksg "QqikKi s w s , z ;erfk;† dS FkudS udfy 6ukgüm jdkt yt kxksg k;nf kPp e ejoæsekj `S Z s s s X \ X . x kagd so ]F h_k;Fhr kst hdkc df g Cgu nk; hH eku kr kd jkv hldf tkv s Z , s , 4Skv Iky l Cgo FkudS jk,v 4g n , s , w tk,e kag; jdksg k/x go 6g kLi kg; go dfk;D ]Cgu kxyef kago ]g dyfke kt , \ a X s , s kd ejoæekj gér ]g krn gd ler e jkv 4ejoæekj kvkt er 4g krkt lif . s X q wa s s s q T , . s s q wa ko j? l Cg; e cv 4k;x ksg kji ekd kje 4k;x kv Cg; go ]kF k;ky yt Te s T w s Syf dltf ]Cgu rjWt hd ukt ejoæekj cv 6ksg /v er df kgd su FkudS s s . s s a q `ksg gj kyif ksd /x kd lm ]g kuPp e jnfe d o'f kt `ksg s s s , \ X a s s gj kPp ksd /x go ]Syf d sukPp e ejoæekj ksg Sky kt ]jv `ksg dr¬fku ` s \ s s \ X . s s s ksg rjd k;D g; ]kgd u kxky 4k;nf kyif kd /x ytkxx kuiv u FkudS ud s s X s s s a s fy3g kun7kuy Nd l /x ksdldf3Sx yduf jd pc ksr cl jk,v 4g kgj je s , s s q s s , ]g kgj GLr k/x dS 4F gj kt yp Syf ytkxx kuiv7kuiv cl ]F Fkl h_ , \ s s s a s k;Fhr hH jkv ]kLi yF¬Qe e r¬kj jkv 4aSkPp Xe ejoæekj jdy ytkxx kd Z , \ X s , \ . s s a h'kd df hF k"kyHfv hd kunf Lc 4jdsy ytkxx l h'kd F rIky Fku dS X s \ a s s s , 4hxgj hg hO> ]g hO> 4hxksg Cgu hji hHd ku s w , w w Z z Fki ksr ]kvkt syp Sdf kuZFki e jnfe kago jk,v kvkt yp Snf kLhi Gjr lb s z X a s s \ dfk;D 4ksn u kLhi ]ksn u [An kd hldf 4g rîk;ø uoht hg dS 6g lko hg kd X \ q s , , ke®keji hH kgo dfk;D 4l {o ksLkr re hH ykL hjg 4[An ksd hldf kn re a X s 1 s\ q s 44ukt otf kl7kuiv ]gd k; kdye lkn , X w 4ukc kjN xky ]SLf\ksr ku jfkL hjg w , 4g hgj kv chjd , hurm gcl ]g hgj ksg hj/v hurtf rkj ]g Cgu jn gcl ]kvkLc? re ]kyp q , s a , w q s \ s ryp ]kyp ryp 6rfsojp ]rfojp8 ]gj krgd df 4gj krn klksjH df 4gj y s s s , s , s s s s s kHl ksd Fkg df g hrksg rjWt hd Qqxnl hg e Xk;Lf? um 4Cgu hyef uhet B a , . X \ u hHv jk,v Bx hH uhet go ]dr yd F et ji kagt dfk;D 4Cgu kr>l Nd s s , X w q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 792 egaP

2kg rgd Ow> ]g rgd xksy kt 2kg u klsS ]ksg klS ukt uk,d 4kxgj hg kryp X s T s s s s s s gcql7d' ksr jrhH 4kxgj hg kuc gnl ksr jrhH udfy ]ky uke ksd {ke ]ky s sa s s s s uke ksd ke®keji l uHkyi d xo¬ k; l ;H d dju er df g krdl ksg hH s s z s Z s s q , g; jkv 4hxgj hrycm xkv ksr jrhH 2kxksg Cgu rjfrkaiW ksr ;nÔ kjkgér sl , s q un jd nc hryksc jxe 4n jd nc hryksc hjkgér n;k' ksr ksg hnkoof7nko kn s s a s a q k;† jxv Bksd df g krdl ksg g; ]kg `kxksg k;D l nkoof7nko 4Sgfkp /f"kv , a s , hd gjr dS gér 4ksg jkehc l iW de®fk;÷kv 4ksg jkehc er 4g kd jkpim X q s q , uæi g; dfk;D 4Cgu 'nim ]g krjd jkpim 6Cgu 'nim ]g krn /f"k,v 6Cgu z X s wa s wa s djkpof ]g |o df g kgd hH su duku 4Cgu djkpof ]g |o e Ag kgd u 0c wa , , wa , T , s q 4g ;kim Bksd hg kr , s yef /f"k,v ]kg tkyb kd [kv ]ksg dhO [kav hH hd /v 4xksdl jd u 0lf s s a s a s jxe ]g kvg kj?f l 'kdi hH k/v df ksg rukt hH g; er 4g 'kdi df skg , q s z a s q , z gj [n er 4g 'kdi df ksg rukt er dfkaykg jkv 4xkvki jd u 0lf er s s q , z s q , s s q jkv 6g Cgu 'kdi g krdl gd ksr kg hYtf jxv k/v jkv 4hxSkv Cgu rfk;† , , z , s a , s X e hrkc hd Shn ]rkjgkn7rkjgkn kvkt je ]ksgj rkjgkn 'kdi7'kdi jkv ksgj s s s s s s s z z , sOc jd [j k;hn 4kxyt Cgu k;hn ]kxgj kj/v ]hd 'kdi ksjd kZpp hg hurd , s s s a z f 4kxksg Cgu oHuv kd 'kdi Nd l nkoof jxe ]gj krjd kurm gkp kurtf q z q s s s ]e /acl d 'kdi gj krjd nkoof henkv k/v 4kxksg l uk;÷ ]kxksg Cgu sl d X a s z s a s Z r hH oHquv jkv 4g hd oHquv ]g hd suukt ]g Cgu hd nkoof7nko hg rkc g , , , , ; `g kdl jd 0lfv ksd ke®keji sl nkoof uk,d jkv `g k;df 0lf l nkoo , , , s f ksd ke®keji uldf 4Cgu krksg 0lf Nd l nkoof7nko dfkX;D ~ ~ ~4g upo S s q s T x Snf kd k;‘'f suiv s; ~ ~ ~4ksLi u e nkoof7nko d F;ø jk,v Ag rgd dye s X \ X s Z T s w 4;kgc gn /ks∂ ]Stfhd u nko dye qs , w 4[An kun re ksd kjln udfy ]kvkt dG ji >e ksr q s X w s s X q kXg sudG hg Ikad ]kvkt n s>e ksr ksg hun hg hykx 6ksg u hg kruke ue Snf ku X s s s q s cf ]ksg Bx Li rnkv rgc hg hd un jxv ][An kvkt n >e df g rgd dye \ q s s q s s s q T s w 4sLi ugl j \ s F®i ]CLi hugl k;yfkx ykl lhyk;c ksd 0qc udfy 4hF rkc hd jH hL\? ]Bx \ a s Iiuf 4g yjl e I‘fn hje hyl hd llht 4Cgl k;yfkx hd kxky ykl lhyk; , X 1 s w a X s c dfXk;D 4gj Pp ji hyl ykl lhyk;c 0c ]Bx Iiuf Xe jH hL? kr hywl hd s s\ w q \ s llht 4g uOfd knk;† l hyl hd llht hyl hd 0c udfy ]Pp Cgu ji hy , s w w q s s\ w q l 0c 4Cgu hjWt Nd klsS ]Pp ji hyl hHl 4l kxP uiv7uiv ]e kiW xy q X\ w s X a s s X X v7xyv ukgüm ]g kukt ksd ke®keji hH sukgütf e rxt lb 4hy y> n[ slt s X , X X . s q , hyl hd k;ufn hjkl ]kuPp ji hyl 4g dhri g; 4hy y jiM uiv kLh\i hd j w q \ w , z s s kll jkl ukgüm df kd sukt gd d rkc lb e /cl d llht g jk/kv kr hg; a s s X s s X a a s , s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 892 egaP

hg; 2gko7gko Akgd su <‘Îekj jkv ]g Cgu dju ]g Cgu xo¬ Au –po'd hd , , , Z s a s ''fksd hd suLN rkc jGf `kujd k;D xkv cv 4hgj u hg 'bktx hd nkoof c s\ s qa v 2dhO yd¥cf Ayksc <‘Îekj jkv3g Sdf kni h_¬k'dr d gjr lb hg LkF q s , T , Z s s s\ u ykxc ]F hukK Lc ]F rLfi Lc ]F Sky Fkl kF®t kd kX;efnkv lkpi ]uj s a s s \ s a s \ s s d nkoof F Skv so 2kld henkv g; 4dkTp rgc –po'd 4dhO yd¥cf Akgd u s , s q a s q s <‘Î7ekj 4g Cgu joæB Akgd u –po'd 4Sx sujd nkoof l <‘Îekj –po'd , s a s s a s `g k;D rkc Akxjd jkpof ]kxpkl r , s s s kj go 4k;df Cgu ekd yduv d k{iv hdlm suer dfk;D 4xksn ykL e hupc w q s s q X s X , s hLc hH kd hukKv er kr ksy uke jkg ikpip d nkoof hldf kucf eqr jxv \ s q s q s 4kxksg oHquv rHnv kLc hHd7hHd jkv 2ksvkt hg jkg er `g kagd hH hrye q . \ , q , f krUli ksd jkpc 6kn usy ksg Uli kd hukKv ]Uli kn uy ksg ]g rgd dye z s s s s z s z s s s T s w 4g krsy ksg Uli jd Oc ji hrkN hdlm kpπc j,kv 4g krkt Iy jGf j,kv g , z , , s , krkyp ji7Fkg LkF ]g kgj uke ukel >r ]g kgj n ukeél jckjc ksd jsr ][ , s s\ wa s q wa s s n ]Cgu df Syf d sun rfkH g; ksd pπc kr3Skt ksg d' hH ksd pπc kr Skt s s s az s s s s Iy endS dfk;D ]krkt Iy Cgu hH endS3jd Lx>7Ly kLkF hg hn¥t 4g s X s \ \ s\ , y[ go ksr g krL\y hræd Fkl d pπc IksN 4g Pe go kr jd ikc Bksd klS s , q s s s , w\ s s s jxv `sxkOc hg Lks\F ji hrkN hdlm djd rpf Bksd lm ksr xkLy hræd sl p s , s s s s s \ q s πc7IksN cv 4e ys[7y[ 4g krLy hræd ikc Fkl d pπc IksN hHd7hHd klt s X s , \ q s s s , 2rpf uk[ kXjkp e ]kg gj jd ruge dgku er 6krn ujd Cgu hg rugse Te s T s s s q s s gér 2rpf uk[ kjkp e sygi sdlm ]kvkjg er dfk;D 4krdl Cgu kjg Bksd > X q s X T s q X s e Ag kgd su wl®skvky 4u l®ksvky g hgd rkc rqHnv hLc 4g kgd hg; hH u wl q , s w , . \ , s ®ksvky 4kukt hg jkg 4kuy uke hg jkg endS ]g krjd nkoof kd F;ø hukKv s , Z uktuv Bksd df ks[n 4kuy uke jkg ]g rgd ksd k;‘'f uiv ]jrgc kr sllb s s T s X s s s 44;kyc je dcdc ]r uktuv uke jkg , X q 4g Cgu /cl Bksd kdlb l /k' hd ;®l 4g nkoof kd jkdgv nkoof kj , a a s s , a kl 4g rDq;l jkdgv 4Sgfkp hukg ;®l ksr g hje jxe ]kg hH Bksd rkc ],g Cg , a a s , s s u kun7kusy Nd sl rkc 2`g hrdl kg ;®lv jk,v rkc hje ]rkc hje df g g s q , s s s T s j gd g; so ]g ;®l rkc hje df o rgd Cgu g; e hylv cr g rjd nkoo , s s s X T s f xsky 4g ;®l e 4Sgfkp hukg ;®l rkc hje df g krpV knk;† hdlb ]g k;D wa T s s , , ;®l df g krpV Lks\F hdlb ksd kxky 4kxsP\c kL\x> ]kxPc /k∂ F;ø l nko jkv , s X s s\ s Z s , 4;kgc gn /ks∂ ]Stfhd u nko dye qs , w Adye g rgd dhO Syflb w T s 4hxgj hrgc kjk/rav dS hd gnl jrhH s Z sa jkgér 2kXg Sx Li e rfkH hldf ]kg Sx k[ k[ks/ hg n[ ]Xkg rgd u O> k; s q \ X az X q s w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 992 egaP

44gncf ydl jke utf ]g jkcrb k;D kdkr s s , 4g[ kjkL jfd ur ]koe ue ukt re Tr s q , 4[jekge ksr ksgd e k"kH h/hl jkv rL w X , fikge ksr ksgd Xe k"kH I‘'f 4g krkg Fv hg dS Syf je kd [jekge jkv r a , s Z ss w , Lfikge 4kF rLfikge ]kF Cgu rLfi kIkse7kIkN Bksd rLfi 4kF [jekge ]kF Cg a a a s a w u [je kIkse7kIkN Bksd [je 4kLks\G u jlf F;ø Fkl d [je ]k;df dhO u <‘ w s w Z s w s Îekj 4kLks\G u jlf F;ø Fkl d [je Syflb `g krjke jkoyr ji jF®i Bkd s Z s w , s 44jkojr II gt ]k;H k;D jke ugki ,w a s 4jkpof ksgj e ue ]S/fksc kd ksd [jwe X 44;kyc je dcdc ]r uktuv uke jkg , X q 4g jki d , s këdr kt g hH jkv Nd df k;x ksg klksjH jd [n gér `kxPksv df kxaMhi ] s , , q s X q wa kxMk[ `kxWd k;D kd kdr 4sxjd k;D dr 4g nukv ksr <kei jk,v 4k[n e k a a ë X Z , a z s X X [kav hdikv sue yd kt k;nf Cgu nukv go >e u këdr je dfk;D 4g d hLkd T s a s q s ss X T s ,\ s Z s ss kn dr jkl je df Bx ksg hdDi rkc dS 4k;nf kjg >qe u ikv 6Sk>el Nd s s a q s q >e ikv df kgd jkv pgi jGf gcl unf jln 4dl u ksl rkj lm –po'd , s qa q s w s a s 2jdkp jkgér s q ksr eg ]ksg dyfke er ]ksg gj gd 2dhO yd¥cf ]g rgd eg 6Sx iNf Ag krg q s q T s , d jk,v g kL[ uekl d [akv 2hgl hg; kyp ]g krgkp kuy[ hiNf7kdy go j , \ s s s , s q xv 2Sky[f y[ kst go 4g htkj llm ksr eg 4g htkj e y[ jg ksr eg 4hgl s T s T X s hg; kr g krgkp kuy[ y[ hg; go jxv cv 2aWd ld hH jkdb e kdlm s , s s s , a T s cv ]l jrhH jkgér g kgj yksc hgo jkv 4g kryef <kei kdlm >e jd[sn g s s q , , , z s q X éqr 2tH henkv kd ctx 2ktH c[ df g krsn nko;ü/ ksd lm jdkxy yx 2g s s w wa s wa krkxy syx gér Syflb `kxyef u <kei kdlm >e jd[n gér ksr 2kg yG r X q s z s q s X q s w q . s Hnv urb er jkv 4g kryef <kei >e kdlm ksr g kr[n hH ksd yG ksr Te q , , z s q wa s w `F rdl ksg ld er ]–po'd ]kucf d joæB 4g joæB df g <kei Syf jse s s s , q a s s , , z s ]kr<oidr hjkgér ]kry'd hjkgér ]kre{ hd nkoof hjkgér Akgd u <‘Îekj zZ q q q q s `ld ksg nkoof ksr 4g rn jH kag e hlm ]g krgd kst e ikv s , T s s X wa T jkv g k;kv ujd nkoof e `g k;D kyeke g; ]kgd u –po'd 6Sx kg lknm , wa s T , s a s s yd¥cf ksr –apo'd jkv 4hxy suksg Hirg hH go ]hF h;kv LhH kst 2rkc hd q s , z \ kX[ky k;D 2rkc hd ri k;D 22hgd rkc k;D Agd 2Skxy yx jd Om7Om ]Cgu s X a s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 003 egaP

k;nf kxy ukdOf e ykl uhr ]hjkd/fv d uk[yxki lb g ;ü/ jxe ]hF >e s X s s T s q hjkehc hg; 4sxaSkt kg dhO hH ikv ]jd u yd¥cf krpV ]jd u krpV Akgd ul s X q X s m ]k;kjd¬e yxki go 4h_euk/i kd 'n lb ]Wgu ykyjgkot rLfi e df kg q a z s s a T d u ykyjgkot ArokHo¬ `ukd g ikv ]k;x ywH kuNi e rkc dS udfy df s , T w T s kNi u henkv lm ryp7ryp 4kvkt j? er cv ]k;x kg dhO cl ]Sx kg F¬ w s s s s q s s o¬ er df g rnfukv ]g Uli kLc e df kgd jkv ]Bkugi kyke kd yxki lm q wa a wa z \ T , s u htrLfi 4sxaSkojd rDe gér l Fkg d Cgüm ]g rkv htrLfi df kF k[j d s a q X q s s T s a s s kj lm u kxky d uk[yxki kr 4kF k;x kg dhO henkv dS e uk[yxki lm k s X s s s s s X s s r 4Sx Wgu ykyjgkot rLfi u[n kd uk[yxki dS df kvg klS kr Gn dS s a s s s s q s s s 4F nac Wgu ykyjgkot hl¬v ed s s 7l7ed e kuk[yxki d ukr¬ngV kr ]F kntV Wgu ykyjgkot rLfi ct jkv s X X s q s s s a , 4F nc yp√p uI¬oV Okv e kuk[yxki d Ly≈b kr kF kntV yp√p uI¬oV ct s a X X s T a s 22g Bkln htjkjke /kdS Bkd kgo 2g gj ykc l uk[yxki T s s s a T s s s s 82g gj ykc l kgd ikv df g T s s s a , kri jWt g; udfy ]g gj ykc ukd ikv df Cgu kri kr g;8 ]kykc jIjikv s T s s , s s s 84g kgj ykc Bkln htjkjke h_euk/i kd 'n lb e `g kgj ykc ukd wa s s s a z s T wa s , T e Cgu rukt `g kgj Cgu k;D xy ukG g;8 ]kgd Sg rIkL kd jIjikv ukgü s , X s q s a s s s X m kr ]kxy u ukG hH ji ujd ukG jkcjkc ct udfy 4k;df ukG j? uiv sl s s s s s s s ;ykl®dfpf sukgüm kr 4kLi kujd ukG j? uiv 'oZ;kd hldf güm dukpv d X s \ s s X f F gj hg jd <{hjuf kd ;ykl®dfpf so 4F h_euk/i o ct g hd kunf um s s s a z s , X rkc 4pgi Syf sd <{hjuf d ;ykl®dfpf dlfuke dS Bkln htjkjke jkc dS s qa s s s 4g rî{fof kr T s cl hdkc ]Tg Cgu rî{fof ; ]dl kt uxf ji k;yfxm ]xky uxfub l7LkF slS s X s X a s s s s s s\ s lc ]nhjG Bkd ]lknj Bkd ]dye Bkd ]jhcd ]duku Bkd ]0c Bkd hHd 4g s , s w s s q s T Cgu rî{fof skt g xky ed rgc ji hoƒi lb Syflb 4g k;yf jd klkjH kdu T s q 1 , s b u hHl jxe 4g rî{fof go ]y jd klkjH kt kdub 4kjd re klkjH kdlb s , s s s s s 44gncf ydl jke utf ]g jkcrb k;D kdkr s s , 2CIef jkv Cuc 4g hgj O , T m jhdy hd ue ; e huki lb 4g gj Om sycc sd ue ; e hÈef lb `L\dv X s X T s w s X k;D hdlm 4hg g hÈef kr g; `ur g; jkv 4skvkP re kd kjkpof ]kd krk0l , s , s s X s X a f lkc ]jk/m g; ]kd jpd syx7sLl g; 4g kvg hg kje g; 4kxSkt je ue g; s s s \ , q ~ ~ ~ ]koe ue ukt re Tr q , 4kujd re klkjH rgc hH kd s q gn ]kujd re klkjH rgc hH kd ue 4kuy re klkjH rgc kd gn lb jkv s s q s s q s ,

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 103 egaP

4g d cyre /cl cl akg; 4g T s a a , hjH /xn jrhH 4g O> yG cl udfy ]skvktl l kywG Nπv hg urdf 4g d q T w w s s X s s T s <"k' /cl cl akg; 2g hg LkF kun Nd gér 6g kuIy Nd ler df g Sg S s a a , s s\ s q X q , w q s q T q kIt Syflb hr¬kn ler xky cl kg; 4Bx hr¬kn cl kr Cgu ]re jH kuxke q s s q s a s s a 4kn kr xke kjlwn ]kg 4re kxke df g hlS hr¬kn cl hd kg; 4k;x krku df e s s s a a s a , s s a i kxke u hu®i 6k;x krku df ]ei kxke u rfi 4g rkt II yeke Cgo ]kn N zs a s zs a s T s w s s d ]BH df kgd l hldf kgt 4g d jiM7jiM lc ræjf7rku cl d k;ufqn lb q s a T s s s s 448gn Nd8 kgd gVct ]Sx Cgcr kjkp g; s q X 4gu kd uikykc ]rl oÂge uke jnkv s s 4g hjkll hgo ]g kgj , a , ht kt jd[j klkjH ji ryx jkv 4g klkjH ji ryx klkjH cl dr cr 4g s s , , s s , rkH kukjrb cl dr cr ky ukt u kd roæk' iNf jrhH uiv dr ct `kuk az s s s s jrb k;D ji lb `kuLdv k;D ji lb 4sxkyt e xkv kr Cgu 6xSk[ sLkde7sLh \ s X s s a s\ \ d df 6sxSk[ hg sokd df hL\m lkl hg lt jkv 4rkt k[ okd kntV kr hrkg u a , a s , , s s , s s hPp hLep jxv 4g kL\Fky kd lke jrhH ]g hPp hLep 4kg; g Cgu hH Nd \ \ , s a , \ \ a , q 44xkd rk[ uoht kr ]hd ekp hrkg u hP\e s s s 4xkjuv g rtim ]d[fn hgsn jnqal q , s s 4kxSkt kg hÈef cl 4kjd u ukex s s q jdki gn jnqal 4re kLdv 6hH kd ukot ]hH kd Pc 6;el g krkt k[ kdcl s s \ s s s w\ , s 44uko† k;D kPc k;D ]kxSk[ kjjn ykd w\ s 4ukeqx jd bkd re ]d;ki hgsn jnqal , s s 4ku kt kg rF¬f e a;o¬ Ag krkg Fv kdlm 4g kjk;î kLc nç' ;ƒ¬ko¬ 4g ;ƒ¬ko¬ hg s X , s Z , \ , e ke®keji ilf 4kg hg e uk[yxki er dr cr ]kg ke®keji er df xkukt X Z s X s q s q s ss u er dr ct 4kg gj ykc l uk[yxki er kr ]kg ue er df kg r>el jx q s s s s s q s s q s s v er 4kg gj ykc l uk[yxki er kr ]kg jhj' er df kg sr>el jxv eqr q s s s s s q s s q s 2g gj LkN >e s; kr hHr 4g Wgu ykyj T s s\ s q s wa s gkot rLfi e df krgd Cgu hHd e ]g ukd ikv df Ni l>e [ky Bkd cv a T T T , s w s q s 2re hg kuykc cv 2kujd Cgu cv ekd g; ]k;H df g kry kcn jrhH kd j s , wa s s gy df g hjke jke go jxe ]g hrOm jgy hHd7hHd hH hHv jrhH dfkykg 4 , , a

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 203 egaP

2y ync hr“r Cgd ]g henkv jk;'fksg ]g krdl ksg df k;kv yk;[ slm jG s , , f udfy 4k;yf jd kdDi cklgf cl ulm hH jGf jxe ]hF hgj Li eyke hre s s \ w w ? k;ufn hjkl cl ]F gj Li Bk[nf yksLkokaL j{v cl dfkaykg 4g k;D eku d q s s \ , f kd ukdn hdlm k;yf Pi hH kr“r 4 g hjWt huy jd ukpgi dhO df cl q \ , s k;yf [n l jkx ulm kr 2Skt u ync yd Cgd 2Skt u kpi hUOv g; Cgd s s , s s df ]g krgj kr 'ksg kurb hH e s'u ]kF ksr 'ksg kurb hH jGf kF e 'u hpe , s X X s hGv 4kusy y sukv Okv yd ]BkH df kgd ulm kr F Cgu li II lki d jknu s s s s s , sw s kdn ]kF k;iQ nxu kji 4hy BkOef jH jl ]hF hryef BkOef jl ukv Okv ]hu q w s s s kgd hxkg hukji 6hnhj[ BkOef l ukdn hd BkOef dS rkj dS u hpehGv dS s q s q s 4hxSkt Ig k;kN ]kxSkt Ig cd qHi dfkX;D 6sr z dl ksg Cgu dyfke er dlm kr ]Skt hH yef k;kN jkv `g hrkt htks[ Cgd q s s , T a Sk;kN 4kg rjGf rtks[ k;kN er udfy 4g hrkt yef ikv7uiv ksr krHi kr s s s q s , s q z s k;x yef Hi 4g k;kN hd qHi ksr krHi 4Cgu hd krHi ]kjd tks[ hd Hi kr q z , z q z q z s q z s ksg kuki Nd jxv 4g krkt Fkg hyk[ ]g krkv Fkg hyk[ 4g krje hg hjk[H q , , , f jkv g krgj hg hjk[Hf go ]g kgj je Syf d krHi kt jkv 4g krkt kg u , , , s q z s , , s hy e kol hdlm Nd cl kd rxt jkl ]g htkj ksd uje Syf d ke®keji kt X s q . s , s s s 44;ksg hlkn krHi kr q z s ~ ~ ~g krje Syf d Hi kst ~ ~ ~ , s q z ~ ~ ~ ]je ksd Hi Bksd kt , q z s 3g g; e , ;uf kOuv kd uoht ]g g; kte jkv 4krgkp Cgu Bkd Syf d ke®keji udfy w , , s s s ~ ~ ~ ;ksd u je kd Hi ]je cl ksd hgkrHzi , s q z T q O‘syef '; ]syef kRge ]yef oÂge ]syef ni ]yef krHi df g rgkp xky cl s s q z T s s 4g Rfi‘uf 4kd kXupo jkl dum g jkl jkv rgc g kjk;î , s s , , q , 44;ksg hlkn krHi kr ]je ksd Hi Bksd kt q z s , q z s 4;ksd u je kd Hi ]je cl ksd hgkrHzi , s q z T q A_l hj[fkv kd dye w w ~ ~ ~4;ksd u je kd Hi ]je cl ksd hgkrHzi , s q z T q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 303 egaP

eg g; 4Cgu <jkd d suksg kni e yd7 <‰kc ilf 6g gd <‰kc ksd suiv hg s , X q z Z T s z jdukt ksd ‰c eg 4gj rksg <‰kc l oHuv ]Cgu <‰kc h'bkni 6Cgu <‰kc z s s z s q z , z sw s s O> ]gj rksg <‰kc d pepl e jkojfi jkeg df kgd u dykYm jk,v 4g < z s q X s s , ‰kc Cgo ]g krPi ksd a;o¬ kst dfk;D 2kv jdPi ksd a;o¬ r 2kv jd P\i lm z , \ X \ w s wr ]kt r 4kxSkv ekd knl kt ]g roæk' kst ]g jrhH kr ;®l hylv ]g srkt w s , , s T jtqx wa; unf jkp jkv ]g hd unf jkp k;ufqn udfy ]g krkv ekd e k;ufqn ] , , s , X g dhO kuPi cl ; 4kPi Cgu ksd uiv hHv ur 4Cgu hg k;kv jdPi ksr thp , \ s \ s s w \ hylv r 2kt lifko kIc ]kgd u dykYm ksr `g gj jd rkc ikv hdltf g _ w s s T s , ¬k' kl7uk,d g; jxe ]kPi cl ]kPi ;økd ]kPi <jdk;ø ]hPi k"kH ]kPi <kjqi \ \ \ \ \ ]kPi lkgrfb ]hP\i ykxH sue ]kgd su rdroæ `g krkt k;yf ukt cl sl uy \ s w T q s s , s s ukt kdltf Cgu k; kukt go ur udfy ]k;kv Pi cl r ]Ic ]kNi llm u s s w s \ w ss w s s dykYm ]jdki k{'f ]l ydQx ]kIky lifko l eJkv rdroæ kIc kd dykYm s q q , s q s s s 4g krkt k;yf ki cl jdki kdltf3kjhg kd kjhg xksy ki , s X s er jkv ]ky hdcL jrhH uiv jdkg jFf LkF ]kuc uke jkv ;ü' ]rk' LkF q , s q s s s s\ s , , w a s s\ ]ksjd rDe ksd uiv l krr¬;ø hgj yp e hLiks[ hjkgér ]kLks\N kd yxjks' gj q s s X \ q s s q s yp e hL\iks[ hjkgér kjt\ 4g kvg hg kyef dyfke go 4g krd;æokv hd okH X q , q , ]hd rDfH ]hd ;nÔ yezsi ]yeuf dS ilf Syf d uki ksd dyfke lm hd d Z Z s s Z r u ]g krd;æokv hd 0fc hLc rgc Bkd ksr u Syf d uki ksd dyfke jkv , q \ q s s s , 4g kuyp jrhH uiv ]g kukt Cgu jn Cgd Syf d uLdi ksd dyfke lm jkv , s , w s s \ , 4g hjkgér k;kN hdlm jGf ]k , q s y Ldi ksd dyfke lm `ry Ldi Cgu k;D ksd dyfke 4g krkt IN jk,v kyef \ s s \ X , w cv ]kyef cv ]g krxy jkcjkc 4g dju ]g kLhi ]g [An ]g kryGof 6g nk" , , , \ , q , , of kd jkll lb kr hg; 4hxSkt IN7IN jkv hxxy hrkv e Fkg jkc7jkc 4hx a s w w , s X Skv u Fkg jkgér k;kN ]kxgj krIg ksr dyfke kd k;kN ]xkLdi ksd k;kN eqr s q s s s \ 2uekl d ukdn hjln hxksg Bx Oc jd Om lH `klksjH k;D kd lH cv s s q w , T T 4hF hOc yd kgt ]g hOc Cgo lH 2gj , a , , T s Cgo hd Cgo kst ky [n thp hlS Bkd df kF k;x [n hg yd e 6lH k[n go s s s s s T T s s 6kukuc 0c ksd jk,v hldf er Akyksc hpehGv `BkOef hd kagd ]ukdn hd kagd w q q q 6g gj jd rkc hd kagd ]kgd ulm ]kdkTp kLc ksr Bku go `kg gj kuc rek T s X s \ s s tg Syf kjr¬m tkv kagd jkv F gj jd ukdqn hd BkOef kgd 22Nhi d hUOv , s s a s s ]hy ync dr rkt jv ]kync hg kync ksr kr“r 2k;yf ync hH k// ]hync s a Cgu hg ukdn 2hy ync ukdn Nhi d hUOv ]Bx ksg ng Akgd jk,v hy L\di un q q s s jx hd jknukdn jkv k;x l? e ukdqn endS l hg rkv jkv ]k;kv unf jlwn q , q X s s , s 4k;yf jd ektrb hH klo ulm k a , s s r 4Cgu ∂Gf Nd hH ksr sy ync hH hr“r df ksyp d jd ektrb klS Nd kr q s a s q s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 403 egaP

g jkgér s; rhx xhHlj T s q s Ta s g jk;î rgc rhx3g jk;î q T s g kukv ji exjl tuf kd>qe , s s X l kykrjl d ji kxksg k;D q s kXg Skv l k<ki hg uiv s X z s xem7xem kt g hgo ksr okH s , X kg Skx u kOd hg uiv s X a s lyg7lyg kst g hgo kr rhx q q , s g kukuxux jkv nN dS , q q , a , g kukx >e jkv rhx dS s q , ]ukoxH 4hg kurb tkv 4g uoht hylv kjkgér hg e ;®e hjkgéqr 2kg Idi ke®keji kr , q X q 1 s z s ksIef er 6g krkt ksg {o ksr Ief thc 6g hrkt ksg jxkl ksr Ief nc 4Sgfkp q , 1 s , s wa kuksg gér l,t sxkdl ksg lo er hHr 6kxksg kukt je gér kr lS ksg lt eqr X q s s s , q X q s s s s , 82je kst jkonekj8 AhxLi hujd hji r' dS gér Syf d uksg 8go8 jxe s s q s \ w Z X q s s 4ksg hgo er 4lfeoÂr 4Cgu –jfn ]Cgu uhn e q q s s r 2kg l¬gf d dyfke lm er dfk;D ]g kjkgér ;†kekl kd oæof jkl lb 2g s q X , q z s s j re? suc sxe[Hf er jk,v kF jrhH jkgér l knl dyfke kd kXdyfke ]xskvk s w a q s q s s t ksg rdfp er jkv ]ksvky krdn√kg e jkdi hjkgér kjt\ ]ksjH l kvlkav kjt q , X q q s X q \ ]kjd hyhx [kv kjt\ ]ksjkdi kjt\ ]k'kyr kjt\ 4g kOc kiNf jrhH jkgér ‰c s X a q s , , s q z 2kv j dukt ksd ‰c r 2Ik,y jdksg <‰kzc r 2kt r ]rdroæ ]Cgu kjiji hd yd jk z w w w q s s a q s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 503 egaP

4g e k wa X /ofn hLc `Wd k;D e 4g kgj jd r"√dkv lk;ül kdikv cr g k;kv jlov q \ a T , a , kd suuc h_e df ct cv jkv g k;koax hg e rfhutkj hxntV huiv e ]ukoxH a , wa X T g kukt Cgu Iky Skxuv , , ksd k;Lf? hd ol®m eji lm X \ a Mkt ki ksd koref uiv Te s 2je onQx ksn jd klS Nd ss s q s q a Mkt kv j? uiv kyH Te s w 2je ukoxH ksn jo klS Nd ss s q g kukxt kd rhi Xe lrv , s z a g kuxyl e xkv hg huiv , q X kxWkdi uc jhi hd krjfl a q hg kuiv yef u jxkl dr ct s kxWkrm hrjkv hd wlkv a a kxSkv u kugki go dr ct q g kuktc hg tkl kd kX<kzi , g kukpj cv gk;ç hH kdub , g jkaoD hHv rhx je ji T s ss g krkg jokNk;ü e ji ub wa s , T
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 603 egaP

kxWkrm hrjkv hd walkv a kxSkv u kugki go dr ct q g kuktc hg tkl kd kX<kzi , g kukpj cv gk;ç hH kdub , g jkaoD hHv rhx je ji T s ss g krkg jokNk;ü e ji ub wa s , T g jkgér s; rhx xhHlj T s q s T s g jk;î rgc rhx3g jk;î q T s g kukv ji exjl tuf kd>qe , s s X l kykrjl d ji kxksg k;D q s kXg Skv l k<ki hg uiv s X z s xem7xem kt g hgo ksr okH s , X kg Skx u kOd hg uiv s X a s lyg7lyg kst g hgo kr rhx q q , s g kukuxux jkv nN dS , q q , a , g kukx >e jkv rhx dS s q , ]ukoxH Auæi kygi z
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 703 egaP

4rv Bksd u ]g Hjki Bksd kdlm u 4hd rev ]hd roæk'3g /xl hg /xql a , a z 1 , a q a jGf 4g rkt y[f yed hg yed jGf 6g rOm j> rhx hg rhx jGf ]ksd rhrk T s T s }} lm ]ksukpgi lm 4e r u g krkel e e u kst ]g uketkjof hH klS jrhH a s X w , X T , s s q jkgér dS 4hH e ksn ukt jk,v hH r kn sukt 4g Cgu k/kc Bksd jk,v rDjfrfv T s w s , s q jkgér phc jkgér jk,v ke®keji 4g Cgu okdIH Bksd jkv rDjfrfv d jkdagv s q , , s 4kxSkdIH hg jkdgv go 4xksgj rdp a s s w dr cr 4sxkdl kx u dr cr ]ksg kje rhx ]kxMkx rhx kuiv df e ue kxgj ss s a X s gkse g; dr ct 4Sx ksg rîkel r jkv e kgt g Cgo okHofkv kd rhx lm ] w , T a , Z rfwHquv hd rhx lm 6kjkgér u ]g kje u rhx go 6kd neége u kd jhokge u q , s q ]kd I¬bk∂ u g kd <‘Î u rhx go 4r u ]g krksg e kago u ]l ;ü' rhx go , w , T s w g krOm 4g kuLks\N hH ksd e ]g hg kuLks\N kr ksd wr 4g r Bksd u jk,v g e B , , T , s , w , T ksd ksr u e rxt d rhx lm 4g k;kji u ]g kuiv kr u rhx go 2erhzi xk; X . s , , s s g kukuxux jkv nN dS , q q , a , g kukx >e jkv rhx dS s q , g kukt Cgu Iky Skxuv , , ksd k;Lf? hd ol®m eji lm X \ a Mkt ki ksd koref uiv Te s 2je onQx ksn jd klS Nd ss s q s q a Mkt kv j? uiv kyH Te s w 2je ukoxH ksn jo klS Nd ss s q g kukxt kd rfhi Xe lrv , s z a g kuxyl e xkv hg huiv , q X kxWkdi uc jhi hd krjfl a q hg kuiv yef u jxkl dr ct s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 803 egaP

4g okdIH kago hgo ]g , , q s s a rl kt kg; 4g k/kc kago hgo ]g hPhl kt kag; 6g krkt kg h/ksjof hgo ]g kr , , \ s , s , s w kg eyke hxk;gl kt kag; 4e rxt d ei ]e rxt d uk;÷ g krkt ksg ryx s s X . s zs X . s , hgo ]g krxy hgl kt e rxt d dr jkv r<fx ]e rxt d ue ]Xe rxt lb , s X s Z , X s . 4hxyef u hHd n;k' 4Cgu h X yef k;Lfk,d jkp o ]g kdQ henkv go hHv ]k;x rhc ykd ruv7ruv `Iufe a \ s , a a f dS kago jGf ]hxksg jckjc d Lks\jd hLk,\d dS kgt 22Iufef dS `ikv >el s a s 4dQ Iufef dS Akgd u rnon 4ksn n jk/m >qe k;Lf\k,d jkp ]ksjd k X s w s s s a urb ksr ]g gjr hd k;Lfk,d kg; SiQ kLks\jd e .rxt je df g klS jxv kgd T X \ a X X ss , s s ulm 4kF krdl Cgu ksg htkj kd uuke l huklkv hurb 4kF knk,l ddfk,yjki s s s ]kF knk,l hH g; ]hg gjr hd ;klo;ø kF k;df hH cl g; ]h;klo;ø ksr kF ]g o kF ksd ugd kr henkv de√k/ 4g krrhc yi kg; ]g rkt rhc "o XkLks\jd Xe s s , a T s Z rxt jkgér 4jkv yk,r hd kg; ]jkv ike kd kg; 4_ke<v 6g Ndku kg; ]g s q , a , a q , q a , krLi Bk[nf kLc rgc kst e rxt jkgér ]g hLk,\d kg; g Lks\jd kst e rxt \ \ q X . s q , a , X . jkgér ]Cgu kri gér n;k' Akgd ulm jkv ]k;kjd¬qe rnon 4hn kuxf ræjfgG s q X q s , q w s s hjkl ]eJk01o urb ]eJko/of urb ]yd¬ surb ]ykri¬v urb ]Skyk'e/ hu s s w s a Z rb ]jnfe urb 4k;df ukn kd kLks\jd7kXLks\jd Akgd ulm `ksg Sky kr_ki hl7uk a s X s , d `g k;df utv k;D `g Bked k;D ]ksg rn dr¬n ji xo¬ Akgd jk,v k[n d , Z , s s Z s r jiM l phu lm u ykijk} ]ky[ jk} 4kF jkdgv elm jk,v hF hn dr¬n j s s s s q a X i jk} 4kF kjH l kre¬fv ]kF kjH l Ldv hg rpæfuf 4hF k_k; dS hg hd Ze s s \ / uoht kjkl kdlm 6Sdf uog ]Sdf K; ]k;kIy u/ e kFhr ]hn hIksj ksd k[ q X ë X H ]k;nf huki kd klk;î ]CF Bkuc aSkyk'e/ ]F Skuc jnfe 6kF k;df ukn e w s X Z s a X uoht rgc ulm 4hn dr¬n ji jk} d xo¬ u rDf;ø dS 4g hukgd 0lfi dS q s s Z s , z 4jkv tkjr d kago ]jk,v ike kd kago ]jk,v yksr hd akg , w s o 4dp gjr hjc df dp jH<d kago 4g krkt ksg kylkG ruv7ruv kukt dp s w q s w , a a w jH pb e dky d ke®keji lm jkv 4Sx dp l7kjt\ ji 4g hd xke dhO7dh a X s s , w s , a O uer 4kupv hg; ]ktwi hg; 4g kuFki kr hg; `klîhHv hxksg k;D Rknm knk; s q Z , Z z s † llb jk,v ~ ~ ~g Rknm klîhHv ]g jnl k{kadkv 4hgd jdrfhi rkc ueqr cv s , , qa z s 4g j?f eg llm hH jGf ]Cgu krxy T s s Fkg 4rsn Lks\N kr krkv e Ldi ]rn Lkr ksr kr[nf 4g nc elm eg jk,v krL s s X \ s s s\ T a X i Cgu Bk[nf 4g ok>ym kurb kd e kr Syflb ]hrLi Cgu hg Bk[nf ksr jkoh \ , T s \ n ]g krLi Bk[nf jkijkv ]g jkohn ñ'njki ]g jkohn hd pkd ]g Cgu jkohn h , \ , , a , H hd gky Bksd ]g jkohn hg hl7huh> 4g Ldi hHv gér gkse kl7kIksN hgo 4ky ss , , s \ X q kL NkXi kd hn[ ukgütf hg lum jxe ]g kjrm jkc rgc ]g kjrm kn[ 4Sx I s q s X s , q , q ef kt g k;kx hg lum ksr g k;kx ke®keji hH ct 4g rhx roxH hg rhx go s , s , , .
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 903 egaP

4g kgj kt kLi ji ukÈp Cgd 6kgj ki , \ pgi Cgu e r[ thc 4g kgj kt kdwp jxe ]kF krdl kg "f+ 4g krkg u≈yal qa X s , s , s Xe kti hd jkdgv suiv ofd jg 4krkg Cgu jk;r kd uuke kd jln7dS Bkd w a s , s s s s w s 4g hrkg gyd ]Z"?l kLc ]g hrkg rfhutkj hLc ]g rkg Lk[v d k;ofd 4skg , s a \ , s \ T s s s \ s X krjd jkv Bkd hg n;k' ]g rjd kupkykv gjr ltf hd jln7dS ofd jkv , s T s s s w , g rL\y l jlwn7dS gjr hjc ltf d;®fgfkl 4g krkg e kxky hg ed ]g krskg T s s s q , s X X s , X X e k;ofd jkdgv kurtf jkv 4<jkd d jkdgv g krkt pc l ukg "f+ ofd a , s a , s s s 4F thc l dS cl 4hH o ]L s s s s i e r[ 6hH so ]Li ji Le 6hH o ]Li ji gkj 6hH o ]Li ji jF®i 6F hHl \ X s s \ s\ s s \ s s \ s thc udfy 4hxSkt Li jokH hdum ]sxaSkt Lt Fkl d ke®keji o ]xSkt skg s a \ X a q\ s s s a rgfkoof so ]sxgj u jkoD so 4hxkg kr0c;y ]kxkg /acl 0crhxl dS Fkl d X s a s s a a s o®r¬fv kdum 4sxjd rhprkc l kjkr7nkp o 6kg k;kx dye ]kg k;kx jhcd X s X a s s w s ]kg k;kx duku Bkd lt ]sxSkuxuqx e kvkog o 6kg kpku ;ürp Bkd df ]kg h s s s , a q X X s s , s s pku kjhe Bkd l,t ]xpku e kvkog so ]sxuc {o o ]hxj> /xl lum ]xy[f a s s s X X X X 1 s s a q s s X o dfk;D 4g hyk';≈kHkl thc o 6g Le kgo u ]g gkj kgo u ]g jF®i kgo u s X T , s , s\ a , a T a 4e efH kjZom hd r[ 4g rLi e r[ thc Nd df g kgd u llht jGf jkv X w s T s \ X s q , s , 4hxy j? rke jkv hxSkt gj end kn ytfe 4xSkt d s s , , s a s a p rpgi7rpgi 4sxaSkt je ruc7ruc /ki ]sxSki Cgu dIf thc hH ji Le 4k w s qa s qa s s s , a s\ s d suykL jke kd k/ki g hGkd hg kurm udfsy3hxSkv jdy utkH hu®i hd u s X , , s s kldf hldf ]kxjtqx ukldf Bkd 6g ryp xsky LkF 6g ryp hHd7hHd udfy 6 s s T s s s\ T s s s ryp Cgu urb xky ji kLe3g rkv hH /ki ]g krkg hH <jdv eum ]g srkt s s X s\ T s s , , s q a X T Li ji kLe hd r[ thc Nd 4rki pgi Cgu dr kyG hH o 4g rkt je jd \ X s\ s q s qa X w s T s cn7cn sphu d kji hH kr g krkt kg hH <jdv ]g krgj kryp I? lhckp k s X , s , s q a , s a , s r kr¬kj udfy ]g krkg kr <jdv eum 4g rkt Li ji r¬kj thc Nd 4Bx skg s , s s q a X T s \ s q k;®g7<H hd kuokHl udfy ]hF kr kuokHl 4krkg Cgu <jdv hHd eum ]g zw a s s a s q a X T rkt gj hg jF®i lc 4Sx Li ji jF®i udfsy ]thc jln urtf F thc hg u s \ s w s s s rm hH so ]g rkt Li ji jF®i thc kt kr g krkc thc Bkd Ag kgd u llht T s \ s s , s s , s 4kxSkt kg kudp lc ]e Lkv hd thc s w X \ Skt kv Ldd dS 4g hrdl n kdp thp hl7hIkN hHd jkv 4Skt hH dp ]hH \ a , s q s , w kg 4g krdl kg yG thc 4g Cgu yG thc ]ku[j uk;÷ udfy 4g kuokHal hL s , s w , w s , c jrhH jkgér 4kukt y[f yG ]kukt kv ji jkgc ]kukt uc {o kd thc hlm \ s q w 1 "f+ ]g thc ofd 4g kre{ hd ukg "f+ jrhH dltf df g krkg hg; hg ZF , , s s s , s v kd ofd 4g kre{ hd sukg "f+ jrhH jkgér 4g krj> ;økd jrhH jkgér j , s s q , s q kv kg ofd er 4g krkg eüt kd kokH jnl jrhH jkgér jkv 4g k;nf eku er , s q , s X aq s q , , hi xk; gér ue Syfhlb 2kg jk;î henkv er 2erhi ]hgd hjk;î kr rkc ueqr z s X q s T s s q z s s

je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 013 egaP

g urkul ]g hgo knl ;®l de®fk;÷kv 4de®fk;÷kv g rkg ;®l ]djfklakl g sr T T T s s T ksg ;ƒr 4e /cl d ;ürp g rkg ;®l ]e /cl d Fkni g rksg ;ƒr 4h[erv X a a s , T s s X a a s Z T s qZ a g rkg ;®l ]h[egfc g rksg ;ƒr 4d jrhH g rkg ;®l ]d jgkc g rksg ;ƒr T s s qZ T s s T s s s T s 4kxLi u nH Nqd ]gj s \ s s hrksg tk[ hg hurdf jkv 4Cgu hg hret y/ ji lm 4Cgu klkc hH kjt\ 6ktkr s , w ksjr hg kurm 4g klo kd klo hH cv go 4g ;®l go ]kukt u 0c kt udfy , , , , s q s s 4kxksg kuket jGf7jGf ksd k;ƒr ukji eg ]sxkXg <"oüv Su ]hxksg tk[ slt7sl X s q X s s , ,t 4xaSkt ync kt ]g rksg ;ƒr ilf e ukKof 4kxSkt gj Cgu ;®l xkv ]kF ; s s T s Z X s ®l Syf d uhI¬bkv kt 4kgj u ;®l Syf d uhI¬bkv go ]kF ;®l Syf d uI s a s s a s ≈LVS kt 4kgj u ;®l Syf d uI≈LVS go ]kF ;®l kt Syf d uIw;ü 4g krkt s s s s , ync tksj ukKof Syflb 4xy u ;®l n;k' kr hxkg uhctks[ jkv yd ]g krx s s s , , y ;®l tkv ;ƒr 4g nH hg; kd ;ƒr jkv ;®l 4Cgu dr ;®l ]g rpgi dr , s , T s aq ;ƒr knk;† l knk;† 4g pgi Cgu dr ;®l hHd o ]g k;kOcf r<fx ukXgütf j s T s qa s , s , kv 4jdkuxux e hr¬e dS jk,v jdkOcf r<fx skr dS 4l rfHuv ]l okH dS q q X s w q s 6l jkpof7pkl ]l d‘r¬fe ]l dr kr dS Ag krdl kt ktks[ l gjr kn ;®l s s s s Z s , s s 4g krofd 'kyr hd ;®l l ;nÔ 4g krofd , s , eku kd kre{ hd suukpgi l ei ]Cgu l dr kd uoht 4g krofd eku kd s zs s Z s , kyd hd su[n l [kv hd ;nkl ksd uoht 4g xP kd u[n ]g I‘fnrv dS ;øk s s a Z T , a s s , 1Z a d df kxgd Syflb 4kxgd ofdkge kdum e hH jGf ]h[yf Cgu krofd hH d wa wa s T S u 0c 4g Cgu krofd kuy ket kd knç' 4g rksg ncdqr ksr ofd cuk;üuf Xe s q , s s X T s a s , T kl 4g Cgu ofd jkv g r[yf Skrofd kst ]g rksg ncdr rgc ksr lS 4ksg of , T s a T s a q q s s d hg ksr ks[yf krofd er df g Cgu Fv kje l ofd ]ku[j yk;[ ji 4kxsdl q , Z s s ksg u de√k/ go ]g Cgu ofd rDf;ø kst jkv 4g hPhl Z;koufv hd e/ ;økd Xe , , , \ Z I‘fn hje 4g okgc kd ;nÔ `k;D g ;økd dfk;D 4g ukLm hpM l hpM ;økd 1 s , , X , \ a s a 4kxkg kuyp dZoiuk;÷ hg kurm ]jdykHl hg kurm 4g jL kd ukt s w a , s yt e k[i hg surm ]xksjH ukLm hpM hurtf jkv 4g krdl Lm e 'kdkv X X a s \ a , , \ X ]g krdl yp ji k;Ifksp ]g kejfx hd ;‘ue 4g krkg uri kd ;‘ue ilf ]rj , X , q , s q Z s xf Cgu h{i7q'i 4g rjxf l kX;bkpM 4g rjxf xksy l xo¬ `kxSkt kagd ksr kx T s s a T s s Z jxf l dju `k[n rjxf ksd hldf uer l dju `kxjxf kgd jdkg I‘H cv ` s s s s s q s s a s z kxksg I‘H k;D jkv cv `kxksg k;D I‘H7xkH `kul nç' klt 8I‘H7xksH8 uer z , z s q , z s q udfy 68I‘H7xk;8 Ag nç' lki jkeg Syflb 4l k;Ifksp hd kLk\gi g rjxf ]Cg s z s , s s X X T s u rjxf xky ji kXFitkj 4krksg Cgu jL kd sujxf ksd uyp ji efH yrel 4g s s s w , krksg jL hg kurm kd ujxf dfk;D kxksg kuyp jdyHl hg kurm ]xksyp ji k; s X a s X bkpM hurtf 4g krkg ;≈kZHn kvg kLt e Fkl hg kurm ]g krksg ;≈kHk,l kLc a , s q q q\ X , \ kurtf ]ku[j uk;÷ knl udfsy `g hrdl ksg rkc k;D hd ;≈kHkl jk,v knk;† sl , , lb 4g ;nÔ kd ofd jrhH jkgér 4g kre{ hLc ]g kre{ hjkgér 2erhzi xk; , s q , \ , q s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 113 egaP

4g yH hjkeg ]g rfkH hjkeg go 6Sx gj ip jd gd ofdkge , w , az q ]Sx gj ip eg jd gd ofd ilf 4rgd "f+ güm eg kF;üv ]kdl kt Cgu q Z s X k>el l dhO ksd Fku–Coj 4g hd kupo d 0c kst ]g k;Bkpm hgo ]g kejfx h s , X s q T a a , d ukjd e krhx d Fku–Coj 4g lj kd kXn"ufim Xe krhx d Fku–Coj Syfhlb q X X s , X s 4g krLks\r l Gjr huiv u ]g krLkt u l Gjr huiv 4krykL Cgu k/kc Te wa s wa s\ s 4g krkt krjkrm kd hlm ]lc ]g krkuxux kt go ]Cgu kr[yf rhx e 4ksg wa s , q q s T kugc lm klt ]dl gc go ]Skt gj u k/kc Bksd 4aMkt Ief hH e dfkr ]g k s , s T wa ry jd nc tkojn7jk} Syf d sun jd <je¬of yd¥cf kd hxntk,e hd sjln S s a s s s q s w w yflb 4g krkt ksg nwtk,e hH e e hxntke hd jln 4g rkt ksg L[ Fkl7Fkl wr wa T X w , s w T s s \ jk,v e 4Cgu krIef e ksr ]g krksg nwtk,e r jxv ]g rkg ntke jxv jln df T T , w T s s w , s w kgd u Fku–Coj kr `g rjWt k;D hd ujd nc ktkojn7jk} j[fkv su hldf s s , s a slum kNi 4hd lk;î7[H hje kujd re ∂Gf er 4kxaMkv yduf jdyks[ jk} ; w w s q a o¬ e ksr kxSkv jrm kjwi rhx ct 4sn u hH dr¬n ji jk} Bksd kr ]y jd nc T s wa a jk} e ct df hF kKkv hdum jxe 2uk'ji ;‘'f ]uk'ji jkojfi ]uk'sji hu® T s s i 6∂Gf hd uku¬ u ]∂Gf hd utksH u 4rkt rhc unf uhr hHd ]unf ksn hHd s ]unf hHd 4F ry jd nac tkojn7jk} ksr ]F r[yf rhx hHd hH ct Fku–Coj s s s s s s 4hxSkt ksg upLv IokdQ hjkgéqr 4kuykL re hg IokdQ elm \ X eqr 4kn ukuxux lm ]gkp kukx kt ]gkp kukx go 4rgc hg kurb ]ksvkv u Xe s s q q s s s s q phc er 4hGkd hg kurb ]ksn u k/kc er 4gc ler ]dlm rhx 4hyk[ 4kuc h q q X s q s s jxkXi hd lkc ]erhzi xk; 4sxksvkt gj hjxkXi hd lkc ksr er 6kxksg rhx kd ke® a s a q keji go 6kxksg kni rhx jGf 4g ke®keji hgo ]g krksg oHuv kdltf e okHv , , , q X lm d e jkv 4Cgu hg g e sxksvki unf lm ]hxksg hji tk[ unf ltf 4xksvki s T , , T w s s ed hg kurm ]sxktks[ kurtf 4sxksvki u hH Cgd ksd e ]k'kyr jrhH uiv kjt\ s T s s 4jkv , rkc hdum ]k[j uke ]Cgu hg ktks[ sukgütf ]kag 4k;ki Cgu ]g ktks[ ukgütf 4C X , s X gu hg g e 4g Cgu O> Bkd hLc llb ]g kOw> yd¥cf ]g kFkF yd¥cf e jkv , T , w s \ s , q , s q T , `hxksg k;D jkv krPe knk;† llb 4g gj dp l ke®keji jkv g gj Ldi kd , w\ s T s w s , T s \ s T T s e 2g gj dp l knil hLc hurdf eg jdLdi ksd e dfk;D ]hukdpc Syfl w s a \ \ T X b 4Cgu rkc Bkd jkv hukdpc knk;† l e 4g krkt gj hg kukdpc 4krksg Cgu s , s T , Pki hHd go ]g krgj kLi kt e r7e lb jk,v 4kxSkt kg ydæfe kuyduf jg ,\ z , \ s X w T s q kc llb 4hy pC[ k[j<e”y lkilkv uiv l Fkg hg uiv ksr gj Li Xe r7e s s s s s s s \ w T g; `kjr k;D ]kje k;D ]g kukx rhx kd ke®keji 6g kukx rhx 2rkc g; skLkN s s , , s\ 4sxksvki pgi u er dr yG 4kxSkt gj thc thc kr qa q w s ]k;x kv e phc jkdgv jxv udfy 4g krofd eku kd kyd hd uukt ksd k; X a s , s X ®l ub 4g lkHk/ksjof kdum klsS ]Su l Su jkv g ukji l ukji 6g roæk' 6 , s , T s q s s q T
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 213 egaP

Aksg rgd eqr s 4ksn nkc ksd ui s v er jxe 6sxaSkt Skx rhx jktg k;D dS 6sxaSkt Skuxux nN duv k;D dS q q q a s g kukuxux jkv nN dS , q q , a , g kukx >e jkv rhx dS s q , Aksg rgd eqr s 84Cgu Nd e>e kje8 2k;D kje 4g kjkgér hH go ]g kgj q X q s s , q wa gd kst e ]sxkvki er cr jkv 6g hjkgér hH ukjd ]xkvki er cr jk,v 6g jk T s q , , q q s s q T s gér hH n"ufim ]sxksvki er cr jkv 4kn ukt jxf ksd e 4kn ukt okH kd e q q , s s T s s T ]ksn Lks\N rkc dS udfy ]hjkgér g kuokHl hLc jkv ]ksg ofd er 2erhzi xk; s q , a \ , q s 4g ;økd kago g krtgl kagt jkv 4 , , , g ;økd kago g ei kagt j,,kv 4g rfhi jxe ]g Cgu ;®Lfkai eub 4g gkoi ]g kj , , zs , z , X , z , k/ eub 4g dhO s; 4ksg ryx l I‘fn hd ;økd df Cgu hjWt go ]g ryx sl I X T s 1 , ‘fn hd k"kH kt udfy ]g ryx s; l I‘f1n hd k"kH df g kr>el hH e 4g dh 1 s s T s wa T T O ; df kgd 2k;x ksg htkj endS lIB ]F [j ygi ukgüm kt ]Skrc nç' ui s . s s s s X s s v u Fku–Coj 4g rDeknk;e ]g <‘Î kr ;økd ]g hg LkF eRk"Qi7knk;e ]g h s , q Z , s T s s\ s q Z T g LkF ht–pekj Bksd ;økd 4g krLkr ksd kvknk;e hjkl ;økd `krku k;D sl < s s\ a , s\ X Z jdk;ø jk,v kd ;økd 6e Lk\H kn ukt ksd <jdk;ø df kgd u lIB 4F ryx sl X s s s . s I‘f1n hd <jdk;ø nç' je df kgd u Fku–Coj 4CF hn koync u t*)@LüS ) ss s s ≠ GS )hl kt CF hg so gxt jkp o jkv 4kxksg kd nofk"kH ]kag 4g Cgu kd ofd s X s , , hldf nç' lt g krxy klsS gxt jkp 4k;x kv jF®i e kjk/ lt 6Bx ksg 0 s , , X s , Qov kjk/ l,t df g krxy klsS gxt jkp udfy ]g dhO ksr cl jk,v df kgd s , s , jdksg L[ u lIB ofd Lc rgc d htzsxv dfk;D ]Sx gj dkov ]dum k;kv s \ s . s \ q s a X s u hg e >el ]Sg rdfp ]Sg ukjg Lc o kr ]k;kul jdPi nkouv htxv k X q q , s \ s s q \ q zs a d yftkrhx e hO‘kx hl7hIksN dS hd kX;ofd e uny jkc hygi ukgüm ct jGf a X s X a s X 4k;yf jd klo u t*)@LüS kg , s ≠ d klt 4k;yf jd jk/l <{®r u Fku–Coj 4g ryx htxav l I‘fn hd <jdk; , q s , zs s 1 ø df ]Bk[nf dpyH gxt jkp u t*)@LüS )@#!iS )hl 4Cgu ksr dpyH hd w w s ≠ w w k"kH Bksd Cgd e nkouv je ]aSkt [n kGn dS df kgd l t*)@LüS )@#!iS X q ss s s ≠ )hl 4y sy gkyl l hldf kpkl ksr 4krdl kt Cgu e k"kH hjln kt ]g krskg wa s s X w s , nN kuiv ]g hrksg kexfHokH 4hrjrm Cgu e k"kH hjln kt ]g hrkg hy';øk a , a X w s , s , d huiv hd k"kH jg 6g krksg xj kuiv ]g hrkg ;y huiv hd k"kH jg dfk;D , a , s X 4g uOfd kd |i ]g krkt ksg nkoquv ksr kd |x 2nkouv kd ;økd jGf 4k"kH , , q h;kji dfk;D 4F /≈nfl LkF 4e htzsxv k;df nkouv kd yftkrhx u Fku–Coj X s a s s\ X a q a s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 313 egaP

4e phc k;ky Cgu ykrjl kuiv 4hLk X q s\ t rDfi Bksd l Gjr huiv sulm Cgu 4g krkt y e ku<x hd kX;"f+ slm okH a s , s X g; kdlm jkv 4g hGkd hg rkl kd sukuc ofdkge lm 4g hGkd hg rkl ud , T s s T fsy 4Cd hji aSkrofd rkl yod ulm 4kxWd Cgu hji lm e 4hxSkt ks[ ofN ] w s s a w s T kxSkt Ig go ]hxSkt Li Bk[nf ofN hdlm ]kxSkv uekl go 6g <in e 4g \ s wa Z T wa ufo÷rfi e 4g krn kjgksn ksd jkdi hdlm ]g krjkdi go ilf e 6g ugko Zilf z T wa s q , q Z T wa e 4k;x dQ hH e ]k;x dQ go ji urb 4kxn Ls\kt e kr kxLks\t rDfi dS hg T T s wa T s s a o ]hxksg ñte hg hdlm ct ]g h;kx k;rDfi hurb ultf 4kxLkt Cgu e df kr T a a s wa s T gd tjfyd udfsy 4hxSkt ksg hji krofd jkv g jk,v rjWt hd rDfi dS Zil w w , , a f Cgd `g h[j jd hj/v k;D ; df gj rgd llm _ef dlm jHhxntV jkv T w X s s s s s , 2jktg lhykp 4Cyef hj/v aSkrofd jktg lhykp e j? dlm ksr ]kje tjfyd w X s w ofdkge kd htxv 4g tuf Bksd u jk,v g ji Bksd u kgo ]g ykrjl hH kgt zs a , , a , q a g kukv ji exjl tuf kd>qe , s s X l kykrjl d ji kxksg k;D q s Aer ksg srgd q 4g kte kd supku xem7xem hg ksr 4g kte , , kd ulyg hg kr ]Skt ksg "f+ ofd jkv 4Skt ksg "f+ ofd kr ]skn Lks\N r' s q s , s Z g; 4kn Lks\N r' g; 4kvkxy u r' hd e elb 4g eku kjln hg kd ke®keji s Z s Z T X , w ksr <ki `,g k;D <ki udfsy 4Tg rxy okH eer ct hg lS ]g rxy yG jkv z z s X q s s T s w , Ri e kX{1o slt 4g rkv xem tgl ]g rkv xem7xem kt g hgo okH ]hg pl s X , T s T s s T kXg Skv l k<ki hg uiv s X z s xem7xem kt g hgo ksr okH s , Aksg srgd 4kxSkt II nN 4kxsn w a jd kjlc cl go 4Od kuiv go ]hxgj k/kc hg dS e ulyg lb ji ]klyg q s a s X s q s q c[ ]dhO kr lyg7lyg 84kXg Skx su kOd hg suiv ]lyg7lyg kst8 ]rgd er w s q q X a q q s q 8]g hgo kr rhx8 `ksg gj ykL Xe phc Od kuiv kX;D er kr ]ksg htkj kd ukx , s s a q s s s nq[ Odyhu ct jk,v `g kuiv Od uk,d akg; 4g dlm Od cl `kg Sg yxki a , a T s a s q X kg Skx u kOd hg uiv s X a s lyg7lyg kst g hgo kr rhx q q , s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 413 egaP

kH kd knç' e k[kv hdltf jkv 4hF rkc hd h[nk[n go 6hF Cgu hyko ukv X X X a , s s s y¥i je kr hrksg hd h[yfk[yf go 84rkc h[nk[n ]Cgu g hd h[yfk[yf8 2g s ss s s s , , hlS Nd hg rkc go df kvg Syflb g; `kvg k;D `kvg ld g; df g kr>e s q q q X q s , wa l e cv df g k;nf hH jRm hg u jhcd j@#!if `kvg ld g; `kvg k;D g T , s q s , q ; 4BN Cgu hH hgk;¬ ]kvN Cgu hg txkd hHd ksr ue ]8Cgu k;N nxkd lfe8 w q s T s w Ag kgd ksr su jhcd 4g Cgu /cl hH kd jn l ;®Lfkai kdutf ]k;yf up ksd , , a a w s q llht ]k;yf uqp kd neége ]k;yf up kd lkndye ]k;yf up kd duku ]k;y s q q s w q s f up ksd jhcd u ke®keji Syflb 4kxjd hL[ I>> jktg rLfikge 2krksg Cg q s s \ X a a u htkj llb e ]Cgu k;“k;ø hje g; df 4g UHf l no g; ]kgd ur kt g; s T s , s s s w s df 4g yH hd <jdk;ø elb ]g kgj ykc r kst g; df kxgd rLfikge 22g kr , w X , s w s a wa kx e 2gj ip r df kxgd hg llm rLfikge dfk;D ]krdl up Cgu ksd rLfai T q w s s a X q kge 4g Cgu kuokHl Bksd hdlb ]kxjd hH xkv jkv 4hd Cgu yH hlS ulm d , a s s , w s s r cv 2Cgu hg kruqp ksd kXrLfikge go ]g c[ hH ke®keji udfy 6kup ksd r a , w s s q Lfikge hldf ]kuqp ksd rLfi hldf 6g jkoax ]g Piv yd¥cf e ]Cgu k[yf7kP\i a s a wa wa \ q T Te ]krukt Cgu kukuqxux e ]krukt Cgu kukx e Ag rgd neége jkv `hr¬Znc q T T T s q , t jkv kuqxuqx ]kx df jrhH g krgd Bkd Cgd lS 4k;x ksg ckj[ xkenf df , , s s s sx>el xksy df kpksl dfk;D ]Cgu hH kgd ukgüm l jkv hldf 4Skv j? xkH o X X s X s , s s 4F jkpof hHd u ] s s s s F pksl hHd ukgüm u kt g gj jrm nç' lS Nd jkv 4g kgj kuxux Bksd ]g s X s T s s s q , , q q , kgj kx Bksd l kOd dum ]l kOksv dum df ]rI? jkd®ep k[n ukgüm jkv 2 s X a s s X s s s s X , s Z n xke ]n gkj 2kuxux r ]kx r ]jd re ∂@#!if r df h;kv l jrhH j@#!i s q q w w w s f tkokv udfsy `kuqxuqx ]kx Ag kgj gd uk,d g; df rgc Sx ksg rhH;H ]rg , q q c Sx jL 4kF jckjc lH güm j{v kykd 4g k[yf7kPisc ]g Cgu hH k[yf7kP\i T X wa \ wa T e 6Cgu k;kuqxuqx hHd ]Cgu k;kx hHd 6g krukt kukuxux u ]g krukt kukx wa q q wa u e ]kgd u neége udfy 2kuqxux ]kx Ag krksg Fv kd nç' ukjd 2kuxux T s q s q , Z q q q 6kx AkF go ]k;kv e neége "k?nm kygi kst 4g kFd hd k;"f+ hHl go 4g X q s . , X , jdrfhi kFd go `g kri gér ksr hjrm r;kv hygi kGn hygi ji neége ct z , X q q `xksvkt kLc? er kr ]xy upku sj s \ q s X s kr7nkap jkl ]Skt kv 'kdkv kji e uxakv jkgér lt `kg k;D jk,v kr Skt u s w X s q s , s s kLc? nc ksr 6Skv jrm jxkl Bksd e nc l,t dfkX;D 4dofkHko¬ 4Sx kLc? r \ wa X wa s \ gc kr Sg I‘ofkv l ke®keji neége kGn hygi ct 4llm k;x ksg I‘ofkv Te q s q s q s df 4k;x ksg jkol ji >e df 4gjr hd <jdim k;yf jd xk;im kje ulm q s s s df Te g hxkH;ü/ 4g hgo hH kykoukx 4g hgo ksr kykoupj 4g kpj ue df kg wa , s , s , s T d Cgu g; u neége udfsy ]k;kx su neége ksd ukjd 2Sdf Cgu hH [r¬n ui s q q q s v ukgüm ]Skx ukXgütf dfk;D 4Skx uldf n"ufim df Cgu kri eg kr Syfhlb s X s X s X s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 513 egaP

g kuxyl e xkv hg huiv , q X kxWkdi uc jhi hd krjfl a q hg kuiv yef u jxkl dr ct s kxWkrm hrjkv hd wlkv a a kxSkv u kugki go dr ct q `k;D g e>e kje jk,v 4Cgu U , X q s Hf sl er e udfsy 4g ;‘ofH kjkgér e 4g kgj gd tkv e go xksgd yd eqr q T wa q T wa T s skt 4g kgj gd kso ]g kgd Cgu suer kst 6g kgj jkdi 4g kgj n tkokv jdxk wa , q wa q wa s t e lm ]g kLi k;ksl hHv jrhH jkgér kt 4g kgj n Od ksd krhx hg jkgér T s , \ s q s wa s a X s q Te 4g hdcl so ]g hjkgér o 4g hd jk,v hldf o sl,t ksy klS ksd kXrkc hje re T T q s T s s s g kuktc hg tkl kd kX<kzi , g kukpj cv gk;ç hH kdub , g jkaoD hHv rhx je ji T s ss g krkg jokNk;ü e ji ub wa s , T g jkgér s; rhx xhHlj T s q s T s g jk;î rgc rhx3g jk;î q T s Aer ksg srgd 2erhzi xk; q s 4g Cgu oH , a l g; ]Sg yxki kucf Skt ksg ofd Bksd jkv 4krksg Cgu ofd Sg yxki kucf q , q Bksd 4g krksg hg dS cyre kd kukn df g g; rkc pl 4k;x ksg ofd k; k;x , X s , ksg yxki e ksr k; df gd nç' kn su neége 4k;x kg yxki e k; k;x ksg ofd T s s q s T T e ksr k; df kgd ukgüm `kvg k;D gér ]kgd u hu®i 4F gj ikad jFjF go s X q X q s s s 4ykL ycd jiM je jkv ky l hn¥t df kgd jdkt l hu®i huiv su neégqe a ss , s s 4hd su[sn g , hrksg kre{ 6g hrkg I‘fn lki dlm ]hrkg Cgu y/ hd k_¬k' jk,v krksg Cgu j , s 1 s s w X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 613 egaP

4hxkg hL[ upLv ksr k X \ X \ s ykssc u lm 4kxL\i hg kuyskc lm 4kryp Cgu kucf ykc lm ]g jk/kv kdlm Te s s s s s s , ]g re√uf lkilkv d e k"kH hjkgér 6Cgu kryp ekd kucf Sdf xks;im kd , s T q nç' 8e8 Xelm ]g krLi kujd xk;im kd k"kH ]g hjcte 4xkvkt xy ujd j T , \ s , w s s s q q q q li7jl[ eqr kF;üv wan kjgkn gér jGf3g Cgu Nd kjse elb jkv 4g "h'kv k s X q , q X , , uksg kje 4g kgj n hg "h'kv Xgér kr e 4kXg rn hH ik'Hfv hHd gér skt ]Xn s wa s q s T s s X q s o ksr uknjo 4Cgu rkc Nd hd sun 4g uknjo e 4g kgj n yirfi uknjo ksr Te q s wa T wa s z a Mkt kv j? uiv kyH Te s w 2je ukoxH ksn jo klS Nd ss s q Aksg srgd 4kxSkt j/l cl jkv ksy jk/l dp hl7hurm 4Bx q , q w ksg dp Cgo ]lc 4Bx kv Ii hd jkdgv e rkc hjkgér 4Bx ync jrhH jxe w q a X q ]l jiM g hrxy hl,t dS yd¥cf rkc `kxksg k;D l krhx Skji Aksg rgd eqr s , q s X s 2hn jd W' jli7jl[ suer jkv 4kLks\N kd ukK jk/m Ajkc7jk q q q q q q , s s c g kgd ler sue 4kxkt 8er8 df g kgj gd e df k>el uer 4hn jd W' , s q T s q wa T s q q jli7jl[ suer 2kuxy sujd re jlqi7jl[ udfy 4kxkt Ag krgd ler hH Te q q q q q q q q s s wa s q 4g hujd hg jli7jl[ kr g kgd ukgüm jli7jl[ ct d , q q q q s , s X q q q q f kgd ukgüm ]jli7jl[ ]jkpcf pπc IkN `g kgj ksg k;D g; df hxy ulg k s X q q q q s s ss , s a rut 2k;x ksg ckj[ dIku kjkl 22 ~ ~ ~ jli7jl[ ]jli7jl[ ]jli7jl[8 Ag q q q q q q q q q q q q T gj kjgksn l jkt7jkst Nhi spπc jkl df kvg ukjg kLc d{'f jkv ]g kgj kP s s s s s q , \ , , i d{'f ]k;kv ;æn kd k{d ]kOm knji 4Skt kg FkF; ]dofr¬ko yd¥cf ;æ1n \ 1 s Z q dfkr 4kugj rjd jli7jl[ 6kugj Oc re ikpip er ]ks[n df kgd sl k;ZF s q q q q s, q q s X fk|of sNhi ulm Syf d ujd rF¬fim kji kd kji kdlm ]g rfF¬f hd k{d d s s s w w s , uf/kv hlt ]kd k{d jkv 4g kgj Ni Nd go lum jkv ]g ñFk|of d xkv ] q , , , w q s , T s s g d{'f elm ]g ;æn kd k{d dS 6kF k;df jk;r kd kXpπc u d{'f ltf 4k , X , 1 , s s F ol®m d"√ko 4F gj jd dIku pπc IkN7IksN 4kF kgj ksg dIku Xe yd¬ dS s s s ss s w 4kxksg ryx cl sxk>el hH kt er ksr e uil jkv 4g kuil 8e8 g s s q X s , , T ; 4Tg suil ksr s; ]g rkc ; ]g rkc Bx h[n e nCu ksr s; 4g rkc hd ukg Skl T X s T X s X T X s s s s kr g; 4Cgu hg ksg er df xksvki er kr xkxkt 4ksg er df xksvki er kr x q s q s s s q s q s s s kxkt er ct df g kgj gd Cgu g; e udfy 2kxkt Ag krgd ler jrjuf Te q wa T s s wa s q a 4g Cgu hH Bkd jk,v rDjfrfv dlm 4g hgo 4hxgj hrLi k/kc <jkd hlb df , s s , s \ xksvki kr sxksjrm jrhH kjt\ jxe 4kxsxy dhO yd¥cf kr xkspskl l jiM7jiM s s q s s s g kukxt kd rfhi Xe lrv , s z a
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 713 egaP

klB su hldf ]k;nf kuc ukeyle u hldf 6hLkxyc hd gjr hg dS go ]k;nf q s \ , kuc ngV gér u hldf 4g k;nf kdIH c[ gér sukgüm 4xn kdIH gér o 4kugj w X q s , w X q X s X X q s uk/okl kjt\ lum ]g gj jd ''fkd hd ukpgi kt gér 4ksg e j? suiv eqr s T s s s qa s X q X 4hpat Nd rkc g; ]kgd su hckj' 4ksg j? kjr hH kagt q s kxn kpgi ]kt Oc elm 4g krky jdrkt hLkxyc huiv Te ]dQ r ]kgd ulm wa qa , X wa s \ , w s j,kv 4g kgj kv kyp jdhi ckj' hH hFkl kjln kdlm hHr 4g kgj kv Cgu Xe , w , >el ]g kgj Li Cgu hH Bkul Nd lm 2kry u [n hg n[ ksr krdl [sn hg , \ q q s s s q s l jk,x go cv 2[n ksr l jk,x kjt\ ]yxki jv ]g j? kjr g; df xy ujd s s s , s s s dr kLc ]sxy uk>el ]Sx kg Ødb xky d y¥gkse 4g gj diI j>j> lakv sl Z \ s s s s s s T s w X a k[kv hdlm ]g kgj ksj go 2ksvkrc j? kje ]re kvk>el >e ]re kvkylG > , s s s q s q s e ]re kvkygc >e ]Cgu7Cgu df kgd sulm 4g kgj gd ekjkrke l>e r ]g q s s q , s q w wa kae hjr e ]g j? kjr g; `k;x k;D ksg >r ]kIc ]kgd u ke hdlm 4g krgj s T , s s q s s a wa e y¥gke hlb ]e g krgj Cgd Cg; 4kxksg kri gér 4ksn kpgi j? je >qe `g X s s T wa X q qa ss s , kagd j? kje ]ekjkrke g df kgd k;yf Ldi ji sdlm 4kukpgi Cgu hH ksd k; s s \ , Pf\c lm go 4kyk[ ktkojn su ke hdlm 4kF kgj Cgu >l Nd df kF klS k'u q s a w q s jxe 4hn n hH dr¬n ji tkojn 4j? uiv k;x pgi ]kF kuLe kgt k;x Lq\e s s s aq q\ a 4hF rnkv hd tksj ]'ornkv 4k;x pgi j? uiv hH ksr kF e 'u ]'ornkv qa s X s jk,v kyduf e 'kyr hd j? uiv jdhi ckj' jk,v 6hy hi ckj' u henkv dS X s s 4ksg Sx kl ilf ]Sgfkp u s Z s ksg kagt ksg Cgo er3Cgu k;x Cgd Bkd3Cgu Sx hHd er l j? 2aWd jqli7jql q s q s q q [ Fkl jkgér hH e 2Mkt kv j? uiv e df ksn uknjo Nd ]kg rNi er jk s q T a s T q s s w q , v sOc e j? uiv g kr[n gér e 2k>el rchle hH hje `l j? cd Sx eqr , X s wa s X q T s q s s a Mkt kv j? uiv kyH Te s w 2je ukoxH ksn jo klS Nd ss s q Aksg srgd 4sxksdl sy uknjo ksr Sgfkp reégf hd suIef 2Sgfkp reégf hLc ]Sgfkp \ reégf Syf d usy uknjo 4Cgu ry er jxe 4g kgj hg n gér uknjo ksr Te s s s s q wa s X q 4g djfkgok;ø k"kH hjkl 4g jkgo;ø7dky , , s 4kxLi hg kuky kd 8e8 lm jGf `ukd huk; ekj df u kxLi kukrc kdlm kr s \ s T , s \ s s `uk,d huk; ekj ]kxsNi henkv go cv ]g hxy lk;î ksd ekj df kgd ygi 2g w , s , hxy lk;î s>e df rn gd hg /hl 2kvg kuLdi ukd kI¥m jkv g; 2e huk; q s s s q \ , T ekj ]rgd o ]jv `uk,d huk; ekj ]rgd so ]r[n j/m7j/b xky kr hrksg gx s s s s s s s s t Bu 4g hxy lk;î ksd ekj Argd so kr hrxy lk;î 2hF hrkg hL[ I>> jkv , s s s \ a , `g krLi dG k;D llb jxe 4F rjd Cgu xks;im kd nç' e Fhrekj heko¬ , \ Z s s s T Z
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 813 egaP

g kukt Cgu Iky Skxuv , , ksd k;Lf? hd ol®m eji lm X \ Aksg srgd 4<je¬ ]rfjl 4Sgfkp ukpgi ilf 4Sgfkp kKHf;® q Z i Zilf 4ksg Skv er jH ]ksg er jH ]sxkvkt jH er 4g Cgu kuokHl Bksd hd z q s q s s s q , a s ukt hyk[ l uoht lb ksr ]kdl ul ksd rkc hje jdkIg ksd këri hd ukK ]hd s s q s kXjkpof ksd // hd ue uiv er ]'kd ]erhzi xk; ]g krdl gd ler e Sy qa s q s wa s q T fhlb jkv 4g kO,c jrhH jkgér rhe ]g hg kyef rhe 4Mkt ki ksd rhe uiv Te , , s q , a s a Mkt ki ksd koref uiv Te s 2je onQx ksn jd klS Nd ss s q s q Aksg srgd 4g kujk>d> ksd uiv kLkF 4g kuxkt Cgo ]ksg kgt 4g kuxkt ]erhi , s s s\ , a , z xk; ]g Cgu kukt Cgd Syflb 4jk/kv kjkgér hgo ]<ki kjkgér hgo 4rdl Cg s , q z q s u ksg er kucf d ke®keji 4g ke®keji Cgo ksg kagt er ]g Cgu rjWt hd kXLk q s , q , s\ ? Cgüdf ]g Cgu rjWt hd kXoku Cgüdf ]g Cgu rjWt hd k;Lfkxyc Cgüdf jkv , , X \ , , 2kg Sx ksg jkol ji s X kLks\? urdf ewyke7u er 4g hy jd hjkol ji kXoku cl kr uer 2g dhO kr sn s q , s s q , s rfeül hgo ]g klksjH hg kd ukoxH ksr cv 28ukoxH n rfeül ksdcl ]eku sj , s r joæB gky¥v8 4g Oc Fkl dS e k;Lfkxyc Bd7Bd cv g Oc henkv Xe hL s T s, X X \ , T s, \ , kxyc dS7dS ed7l7ed 4hF Bg u hHd hd henkv k'nn hlS 4g k;x skg rJ s q Zq s , fef cl eer 6g k;x ksg 0k,c kl¬gf Bksd ]g k;x ksg BklB kl¬gf Bkd ]g k;x k X q , , s , s g ukeyle kl¬gf Bksd ]g k;x ksg ngV kl¬gf Bksd kjkgér ksr ]xk[n l j,kx eqr q , w q s s s s jxv tkv 4g Sx ksg LdI7LdI jkgér tkv 4g Cgu hlS rykg tkv ]ksg uke T s \ q s \ q s q , s yle ]skg ngV er df kvkg rpkl yH er ]g Cgu kdDi gér 6k;nf kuc ut j q w q s s s s s q , X q , dLdi jlf uhldf ]k;nf jd ngV jdLdi Fkg uhldf ]hn jd BklB jdLdi x \ s w \ s \ akI uhldf 6kvkt j/m g kgj gd Bkd ]ksvkt j/b g kgj gd Bksd ]g kgj pC[ s s , s , , ji Bksd ]g kgj pC[ Fkg Bksd 4g hgj kt Bg rghtG hjkgér e jktkc jkv , , , q q X , 4e hLkxyc hjkeg kOc ]kvkv 4xn kdIH cl jk,v krdl Cgu kpgi kjln jkv X \ , s , s s X qa w , ]g rdl kpgi hg eg df g gj jd kokn cl jkv 4xSkpgi eg df g gj jd T s qa T s , s a qa T s kokn cl jkv ]rt yc e hldf ]rqt Lk? e hldf 2xP dum xjcf7xj 4k;Lfkx , s q , X s s s\ X a s s a a a \ yc hd gjr7gjr 6k;nf kuc 0k,c u hldf ]k;nf kuc ut u hldf ]k;nf kuc B , s , s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 913 egaP

u Bcc jGf 4kF kgd hg uikv df kgd u hu®i `kyef kd ukOm >r rDo g; a s s s s q ]I‘n ]kgd ]k;x kg kl¬qx endS ]k;x Oc jdOm endS 4tc gN k;nf kOm u q s , s s hu®i ksr 4g kukt Bcc ]g huLdi uI ]stc gN ]kun kOm l hn¥t >e df Xe r , a , \ ≠s s s s q kj kF kgd rkj hg u ky¥e 4k;kOm gcl7gcl su hu®i hdlm kd uhYQlu ky¥qe s q q q s 4xkvkt ksg tkj s s ku hg er df g g; o–im kLc l cl e uxkt jkv 4kxkt er df g kI‘p hjse q , \ s X s , s q , s 4ksg jHuf7ji ]kg ;kglv er dr cr ksg Skl er dr ct Z s q s q 4g krdl ksg <"ks' kjkgér dr cr kg Sksl er dr ct 4g hrdl kt hIkd c , q s q T X s t hjkgér dr cr ksg Skl er dr ct dfk;D 4g Hky kd krLfi Xe ugj Skl q s q X , X a s s sdum 4ksn sugj k;kl güm 4ksn kyif kon hd nCu j,kv ksr ]kg chjd d uII nCu s X s s s w jxv 4ksn kPm jkv ycd kjt\ kr kXg Sx L?m jxv 4kvkuc n[l jk,v kd nCu \ , a s \ s q s hdum ]g gj kl xky 2kvkul hjksy Ag dS ekd kdcl um ]krLi Cgu dG Nd T s s s s q , \ Z q ]kXg hjk[c ekeb d nt¬fe kekt gkp jk,v ]kXg Z;kpkjd' d hji gkp jkv ]d q s s a s q s , s X , X kut ]kg hlyr ;kpkv o gkp jGf 4g rkul hjky ]g rjd rl7/kl rFfdkF q Z s s T s q s T s a q r jkgér hgo 2Skt kv nCu jkv lm df ]kvkul hjky lm ksr kg huk[ u hykx s q , s s q s s s s l henkv Skl jxv 4Sgfkp hg kukg jk;r Syf d uk[ hykx ksr kd henkv S s s , s s s s s s kl xkvkxt 4hxLi3g hgj Li k;yfkx hurb >e kr Syflb 4kxLi Cgu yduv X \ T \ a s q s s \ w q s q X q q jkgér e W'7W' kujd dfk;D 4re kuxkH kr Wd Nd e df ]ku[j nk; 4W X s a q T a d Nd ]Mkxt gér e df ksg gj gd hg n[ er df g hNπv rkc dS udfy q a X q T s q q , s 2Gky[f d ñte hdum ]x s s s kvkxt ksd kxky Sg Skl 6xky Skl udfy 4F xky lt Ceg ; `k;df u kxky X s q s s s s s s s , s s X s udf ; 4k;x k;kyif jgt ksd rkjdl ]Sx Ikd ji7Fkg d jle ]hxy hywl ksd s q s , s w a llht ]Li jF®i ksd k0c kr Syfhlb 4dl jd u ke{ hHd gér 6Skt ksg ueæ s \ X q s s X q q n Syf d knl kjkgér go ksr ]kn kxt skdlm er jkv3ksg kxe[Hf lS jk,v3skg s q s q , a s s k;x ksg Ikel df ]e uil ksg kgj nk[ ukn[ hd u/ go jxv 4g krxy kjc z X s s , q rgc kr ]ksg kgj [n kuil j/e kOhe Bksd go jxv jkv 4g krxy kjc ksd he q s s q , , q nkv Sg Skl `ksg rxy ukOm kdlm er ct g krLi nli cd kd henkv Sg q s s s s q , \ a s q Sksl dfk;D 2Li u k; Li nli gér df krjd Cgu ∂Gf hH hdlb jk,v 4g kgj X s \ s \ a X q wa jd ]g krdl jd kt e 4g /çyim ksr "h'kv jse 4g krtuf hjkgér 6g okHo wa s T T s , q , ¬ kjkgér 6g kuokHl tgl ]g kuokHl hjkgér kuxkt 4ksg rdl xkt er 4u kx q , a , a q s q s kt er df g Cgu <jkd Bksd jkv 4Skt gj k;kxuv rhx df g Cgu <jkd Bkd q , , , s 4g rjd j T s Gf7jGf hgo7hgo 4g rjd hg hukji hH XyH eg 4rjd Cgu Bu hH yH eg 4g T s q w s X w T srkt Skjgksn ksd kyH Cgüm7Cgüm ro_a; eg 4g hrkt ksg rnkv hd ukjgksn jkcjk X w , s c 4g hrkt ksg rnkv hd sukjgksn ksd krnkv hukji jkv 4ksg Sx Iky Skxuv jkc , X q , , Bd jk,v kg eüt jkc Bd udfsy 4hd sukt Iky Skxuv g Cgu krd;æokv Bkd s s , , s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 023 egaP

Xe jnfe so 2g krLi Bk[nf hg tÌf ksr g ryduf hH ct jkv 2uHkyi jktg a , \ T s , s z 2I>> jktg 2Sg Syf pofLl g kgj kv kyp kIc jkv ]/x hrkv l dk,p jkv X a q X , s , a s s , ]kdk,p jkv 4g hrkv nk; hd [H hg [H jHunf ksr gj e j? dfk;D 4g srkt , , w w X X X T Oc jdkt e jnfe yko ujd lkoim3F sOc Sdf lkoim kt F ntke xksy d , X a s s s , s s w , s okax hH jk,v 4[j ykHl ksd suiv gjr hldf h[nk[n hd jln7dS 6h;kpc r s s a s s s w t†b huiv ukgüm ]h;kpc rt†b huiv suer 4gj rkygf jlf ]gj rul Oc e s X q s s s s q s, X [H hH er ]gj rykc ksd ukyH [H huiv e [H hH go 4gj rul uk;“k;ø w q s s s s q w X w s s q kd htufe ]k;nf jktx e jnfe gjr hldf ksr jHunf cv ]g k;yf jd lkoim q q X a , X e unf ]g gj yp rzo d <";i df ky >el ~ ~ ~ hxy [H gér e rkj slt 4 T s s wZ s w X q X , T s g hxk;gl d nCu uil ]g Cgu rhjiof d nCu uil df g hrgd tks[ dufq/kv s s T s s , 4g htkj l tks[ duf/kv hH e jkv 4g kI¥m wa s q T , , llb dhO ]g jkv Nd go g hrgd kst tks[ duf/kv 4g Cgu htkj llb tk[ s , , q , q , s s duf/kv 2Ski u kl l dhO ]gj rkv uil jHrkj df g rgd jdOm gcql x q s s s s s T s s , ky 6g k<jk/ ekv g; 4ksg e hryx er 4g hrksg ckj[ nCu <jkd d uîo¬ df X q , s ksg rpksl er l jkrekv 4g hxk;gl ]g Cgu h/ksjof kd k–uf uîo¬ df g g; g s q s , , s , , o ]g kxy Fkg ;®l <ioÂge d/fkol lcl kt e uhctk[ lb jk,v g hd uhc , Z w Z s s X s , tks[ hLc ji nCu u ukKofkue duf/kv df hxkg hukjg g; jdukt gér n;k' \ s s q s , X q 4g kLi LkF hg klS e nCu Bksd 4g gj [n uil xky , \ s s\ s X T s s s s 2g njknu hg kræjfG jxe 2n kr Nd , s s q 2hgl hg cçu kjr 2g dhO hg kukji yp ]hgl hg cukØv yp ]BkH ]n u scuk; s s , q s s üuf df g krgd e jk,v 4krLi Cgu Bk[nf kræjfG ksr g krjd nc hH [kv cv wa T \ wa a a jxe 4kF chjd d uIi hg uIi knkl jkv ]n n cuk;üuf ]ksyp kNπv df kF k s s s , , s s s yko hg ugd e ]lc 2k;nf kxt jdkv ur I‘n hHr `kykoukv klS Bksd hH Te s T s w q s s jk,v 6sy y cukjrf ]y sy cukc ]y sy cuk;Db Agd go 4kF kræjfG ltdkge s s s s s s s w a ]kF kgj Pc jh/7jh/ hH go 4n n ed ukv gjkc ]n n ed ukv Okv ]n sn e \ s s s s s s s s s d ukv gN ]sn sn ed ukv jkp ]yp ksr n u kl jxv kNπv kgd ue 4kF kgj s s s , s T yp knkl ]hF hgj yp rhprkc llm kr 4ky sy scçu ]kxn Cgu ksr kl ]kxy ug , s s s aw , s d go 4xkae SiQ kl llm ue skl 4g kuxkae k;D y xkae df kF kgj gd skt ]Xe s , s s T , s uil kF kgj [n e kræjfG dS 4k;nf jd hg ckj[ cl ur df kgd u ky¥qe s s T s w s `cuk;üuf kd kagd ]cyre k;D df kgd s jkv k;yf uhN ycd `g kLi e jG d cuk;üuf ldf g; 2g k;D kjtk\e g; kg , a , \ X s s s , d u hu®i 4hgl hg cuk;üuf kNπv df g kgj gd jrhH d ycd uiv ky¥e jk s s , s a s q , v `g k;D kyeke ]g k;D rkc df g hrul l jk,x rgc k;u®fi ksr Skncnc jx , , T q s q a q q v rfi dfk;D Bx kv lki hH go `g k;D rkc ]kgd u hu®i 4kxy ujd ncnc X , s s q q Nd jkv 4k;x Iy jdPkv ycd d jd nc [kv l hn¥t jkv 2ksd henkv Sg q , s s\ a s a a s , fkp kukxt ksr jd>el7pkl 2hd Bcc hlr hd hlS ]kgd u ky¥e `g kukt Cg s a , s s q ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 123 egaP

Pp roi hH L\xy7syy ]g rkt ksg jnl iWd 4g srkt ksg ukoyc jkted ]g sr \ Z s a w T s aq q T s T kt rht Sg jkg ]g rkt ksg Ikel hjk[Hf 4henkv g krkt ksg jki l kXvkrpV c q s T s z , s l ]g rkt yH [An cl e nCu 6g [An rgc ]g [An e uoht 6g SkrpV rqgc T s w q X T q q T q X T a ]g aSkrpV unfaun 4jgkc d kXvkrpV g hrkt sy lm k–uf 4hxII k–uf hdlm 4x T , s , s sw s Xw II suil dlm ]xkvkxt ksd hldf er hH ct jkv 4g rjd k{j hd k–uf uîo¬ s s s q , T s 4kxksg Idi e kuil jkgér3`g kagd xksj kjkgér `ksg gj z X X s q , q s jd uen kd thp ldf `ksg gj kcn k;D er df xn krc uil jkgéqr 4kxsOm r s q s X s s kj go ]g k;kcn e jHunf kt7kst jGf 4k;x ksl kyko un kjgi 4xkvksl jGf `h , X s s s s s H xksdF 6k;yf sn gjr hldf jHunf 2xksgj rn kjgi hg LkF I? lhck,p j[fkv s s s s s s\ s a 4g krkt kl kykouykHl dfk;D ]g krkt j[cf e rkj go ]g k;yf ykHl gj , s s a X , X , a r hldf e unf kt go 4g gj n jc[ hd rkc hgl knk;† jkpof d kulkoekd X s T s s s o ksr 4g rkt kv jkpof d kulkoekd s>e kr e uîo¬ 4krki /kl Cgu e kuil s T s s q s X X X rkj udfy ]g krsy /kl Z;p‰c e ksr jHunf df g k[yf e kFde®kv huiv s wa z T , X s u h/kax ke®kge 4l k;ufn ksg gj kiNf er kt g rn rkc hgo uil 4g jknuke s q s q s T s s s T B L\c uil 4g dpl Lc uil 4ksg r[sn suil eqr d kthp um7um g hed hd s s T w s \ s s s X , X kthp utf7utf e hxntV hjkgér 4g hed kagd e hxntV hjkgér df g kryp kr X q , X q , i l kuil jkgér dfk;D 4g rjd <"syæof kd kXuil jkgér dufkKokue Syflb s X s q X T s s q , s 4g k{jl hd nCu kuil 4Bx pc nCu 4krLi hg kuII ksd nCu 4hrII nCu kr Cg , q \ w w s u 4l uil k;nf n k[ks/ ksd jhj' suer `jL k;D cv ]k;x kg utksH 4ksg srkt s s s q s ksl jdy Iojd rpæVuf er jdn k[k/ g; 4g k[ks/ dS kuil 4ksg sry n k[ s q s s , s s sk/ lsS ksd suiv ]ksg ry jd er e nCu utksH kd jkdi uiîN g; 2e k;ufqn g s s s q X z X T ekd hH jkv `g hLi kdldf ]utksH kd jkdi uiîN kr Cgu 4g rjd lkoim , , \ s z s T s s , o ]g krksg kusy kte kd ujd utksH d jkdi uiîN ksd kxksy utf df g g; y s s z X , k;[ kuiv kje 4krkv Cgu kr Cgu ]g krkv e rkj kte kd ujd utksH d jk s s , X s s di uiîN hHr ksjd lkoim ~ ~ ~4g tl utksH d jkdi uiîN 4kg Sg r_feuf z T s s z s q a Xe tksHtkj `hd ugj [H g rjWt k;D df g krgd ue 4ue g krjd kni kui s s w , , , , l dS 4sxksdl u ksl er <jkd d [H lb cv 4g hryt xkv ]g krkLcLd Isi q s w , , q\ q\ 4g hxy [H Ag krgd ksr e nCu ]gj Sk>ym ]gj SkyH jHunf gjr hldf 4 , w , X s s q g krjd xkae jhj' ]g hrxy [H ksr e nCu 4g rkv ekd rk0lf u ]g srkv e , , w X T s a T kd _¬k' u 4g hrkt ksg ydæfe hLc e nCu jkv 4kxLi kukv j? ksr rkj jxe , q \ X , s \ 2xy jktx ]g rkc hd s X q , unf7kn7unf ksr ]k;yf jktqx l jHhxntV henkv g; jxv ]Cgu dÌf Bksd df s s g kry jd reégf ji uiv henkv jd[n güm 4Cgu kyko uksg e®[ hHd kd k , s s s X s X jkpc kdub ]kxSkt ksg e®[ e unf uhr7kn ksr oi <"wZ;i kjkeg df 2jrgsc Ce s X s Z g ksr lub df ]g hrkv k;n jk,v jd[n güm ][H hH jkv o ]tkjkge ufqe 2Cg s , s X s w , s u hH Nd ]hd utksH /x u ]kdk,p u ]pπc u ]pofLl u ]tÌf u 4g rkt Oc q a s X T s ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 223 egaP

4_¬o djfx s; ]g rkvQ' ilf ksr g; jk,v ~ ~ ~kuhi Cgu hg kon jxv `ksg g , , q Z s j jd uk'ji kd dl®dfpf kX;D jkv `ksg gj kg uk'ji Syf d gkd kr 4xShi s s , s s s s s s s a Cgu kon hdikv udfy ]g rgkp kukojd tkyb likv eg df ksgd jk,v kvkt s T s s s lki d dl®dfpf er l,t df kvg hg lsS ksr g; 4xugi Cgu kyke ]xXugi Cgu s q s q s s X s _¬o djf,x udfy ]g rgkp kukg hlk;ül eg g rgd o ]g rkv xksy lki jse s T s s a T s s T s s 4g hrkt Li k/kc l kthp hIkN7hIksN jkv , \ s X s , 4kxkg kuksg htkj ksd u s s yp Fkl je gér 4kxkg u Nd l k"h'kv je ilf jxe ]g hrdl I? ]hxI? r ss X q s q s X ss Z , s fka∂ Xe uoht hlb ]erhi xk; ]g krn ulkoækv gér e 4g hrksg kni lkOef hLc z s wa s X q T , , \ X e uoht dlm3g xk; ksr hgo ]kuy hi ksd IgkoLd hd ;®l ]g kZ;pæir hgo s , s s \ , ]g ku/kl kr hgo3g krk[nf krji®r hd suy> ksd IgkoLd hygi kst jxe 4g , s , s \ , krksg koLd hg sygi go `g krkg htkj ukd l ;®l 4g rkt kg htkj sl hn¥t \ , s , s T s s xky kd ;®lv Syflb kOhe Nhi ]g krksg koLd ygi ;®l jkv 4koLd Nhi ] s s s , \ s , \ s g krksg kOhe e W' ;®lv Ag kgd su 0c 4g krksg koLd rgc e W'7W' ;®l , X q , q , \ q X q q jkv 4hxLi hg huLkr udfy ]n;k' hxkg nCu n[l ]xkg uil n[l 6hxII nC , s \ s\ s s q s X s q sw u ]xII uil 4kvkIt reégf hd uxkt udfsy 4g kd ukxt gér ksr "h'kv kjse s Xw s s q s , s s X q 4htkj7ku ji k; htkj sji k sw w s r k; 4kxyp Cgu ekd kr ]Cgu htkj l urb jkv htkj l urb eg df ksgd e s s s s , s s q T s q\ r 4g Lt jkr jkl elm 4g kF¬o;ø rtfk;ufl dS go ]g kgj gd hH kst e 4 s X , s q wa T krdl ksg Cgu kjkoIc ]krdl kg Cgu knk,l ]krdl kg Cgu krk>el 4skg Cgu ht a s s , kj l kXrkc hji hje ksr ksg Cgu htkj l >e er jGf k; ]kg htkj l kXrkc hji s w s s q q s s w hje ksr ksg htkj l >e er ksr k; An gd l er e jkv 4g Cgu htkj l kXrkc s s q q aw s q T , T s hurb jxe 6g htkj l kXrkc hurb hdikv eg ]g rgd o ]g rkv xksy lki jse T s T s s T s s 4rkg Cgu htkj er l "' 6ksg rkt ykI er ksd "' ]krykL Cgu k/kc e s s q s s s q s X nCu hjkgér kurtf ]g krLi yduv jkgér kurtf kg rul hg kurm 4ksg ryp q , \ w q s q s s q s jd pkl7pkl lc Fkl je hH er 4kxy uksg rhjiof d Pf\W Bg h/c hjkgéqr Te s s ss q s s q a 6kxy ukt Gky[f d kXrnkv hjkgér e ]hxy suII nCu hjkgér Ag Fv kd uskg s s q T w q , Z s u ydquv d k<jk/ 4Bg hxtkjku hdum df kgj Cgu yduv d k<jk/ e hg w s q w q s T s l,t ]dhO yd¥cf dr cr g ydquv e d k<jk/ hdum dr ct 4g rkt ksg t q wa w T s T s kjku Cgo ]hxy Iksp ksd k<jk/ hdum kgt 4g rkt ksg tkjku jkc rgc sl>e h a T s q q H hlk;ül je 2g krksg kg; tksj g; 4jkc rgc xkvkt ksg tkjku l>e hH er a ss , a q s s s q q 4kxkg hjWt kuII hH kd kXuîo¬ jkgér 4xII hH uîo¬ jkgér udfy 4g rdl Lk s w s q s Xw s q s T s s\ r hg ksd k–uf hjkgér "h'kv je 4g jk;r kd uLks\r e nCu hjkgér 2erhzi xk; q s s wa , s s T q s 4ksvkj gx jk,v kd nCu er df g rgkp o 4kvkx hjsky er df g rgkp o 4o hg xkXg s q T s s s q T s s s s ksr tkjku kr sxkLks\r er jxv ksd kuil lS jkv 4e uil go jxe ]g srxy u s s q X s s , X s T s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 323 egaP

rv Bksd l suuc h_e;“e jkv `kxuc ukd h_e;“e jGf 4kxksg hg LkF rv sl a s a q , s , a q s s\ a uuc h_e 2g kgj y Ldi Fkg kjkgér ygi d sujxf e &^!x dhO df 2g hrk s a , s s \ q s s X s , s g ji kxksy ed rgc kiduv hurb 4g kiduv hLc ji er hd joæB 2Fku–jql X q a q , a q \ q X 4g e k/ofqn hLc wa X \ ]Wd k;D e 4g kgj jd r"√dkv lk;ül kdikv cr g k;kv jlov kd uuc h_ a T , a , s e df ct cv jkv g k;kox hg e rfhutkj hxntV huiv e ]ukoxH Auæi kjlwn a , wa a X T z 4g krn ulkoækv gér e kdlb ]g hrdl ksg rfka∂ hg Xe uoht wa s X q T , lb 4Skt Ief hH j/v ]kLkN kuykI ji yd ]kLks\N kujd rxfF¬ ]ksn LkN jsn s a s s\ s s\ 4g l Gjr hjkgér hH js/v ]g sl , s q a , Gjr hjkgér hH jn 4g j/v u ]g jn u l Gjr hdlm Ag krgd ler Te 2g q s , s a , s s wa s q , s l Gjr hdhlm jn ]g rdl jd k;D eg elm cv ]g jn jxe ]Xe eüt yxv s T s X , s s jkv ksr Cgu e eüt yxv ]e eüt yxv kr Cgu Xe eüt lb ]jWt kr kxksg , X s X s s s ]g Cgu j/v df k;yf hH k>el ksd uiv ]Cy kuc chdjr kukn uer `g k;kv , s a s X X s s q , hHd yd 4kxksg yd 6g jn dfk;D ]g kykouksg Cgu kr tkv 2kxksg hHd7u7hH , s X , s s d ]re kvkLc? df k;nf kynf lkoæof ksd uiv sllb ]g Cgu j/v jkv `jd k s \ s , s a , X ;D eg ]l Gjr hdlm ksr g jn df g; ksr dS 4Cy ykduf chdjr kn ukgüm s , s X s s X hlS 2Cgu j/v jxe g jsn Ag henkv jk;'fkg Lc 4Cgu j/v jxe g jn Xe k; s s a , T s s \ s a , s ufn hd ke®keji df g rgd xky `g rgd k;D xksy 6g jk;'fskg Lc xsky jxe q T s s T s T s \ 4Cgu l Gjr hdlm 4g l Gjr hjkgér jn 4g jn hjkgér ]lc 4g s , s q s , s q , krdl ksg tkv ]g Cgu krd;æokv Bkd hd uksg rxfF¬ ]g Cgu rjWt Bksd hd , s s , ujgO e ;‘ofH Syf d ke®keji 2g krdl kg Cg; ]g krdl ksg hHv ]g krd s X s , s , , l ksg tkv ]k;D e uoht hlb3g krdl ksg e uoht lb jkv 4g htkj ksd ujH X X , X , wa s jxkl e jxkx hjkgér e 4ksjd h/hl kd hdIe 4ksg Oc [j hI¥m er dfk;D ]hy X q T s s, s q X k[ hd hyk[ hdIe hjkgér jkv g gj ljc "h'kv 4g kgj n ukyG Cgu hyk> q , T s , s s , s 8e8 kjkgér go jkv 2kvkyG hyk> ]kvk[nf hjk;r hd uy> "h'kv ]erhzi xk; T q , s , s s , s s s `kxksg k;D cr ]hxaSkv ka;bkPp uOfd jk,v kt xkv jGf ksr skg Cgu ht \ s s kj er hH Syf d rkc hl7hurb jxv ]sxjd /ksjof ]xjd knuV ]xjd kuNky ] q s X s X s X a xlg xksy 6kg Cgu htkj kd uy> rchle hl7hurb eqr jxv 2hxkg rchle Cgo s X a s s s s q s q xkvkt kagt cv ]e yx jkgér hn ykL kyke ]gér Snf kugi _¬o djfx 2g u s s X s s q X q , , iyxki g; 4kg htkj ksd uksg er ksr L\i kuksg hH yxki gér Fkl je jxv df s s q s X q ss kd uy rfÎho¬ hd rkc lb ler g xP kje g; 4g krdl kv e Ldi hH kpg s s s q , a s , X \ qa i kr h;kv e Ldi hyqxv jk,v 4kd uLdi hyqxv hjkgér kje g xP g; 4,g ut s X \ a s \ a q s , a s z q k;i Nd kdum udfy 4sxkvkt ksg Cgu /çyim ksd ke®keji er l uy ykL ky s s q s s s ke df g krukt hH e ]g Cgu rjWt hd ukrc gér Nd >e ]xkvkt ksg Cgu wa T , s X q q s q s s /çyim ksd ke®keji Bksd er l usy ugi _¬o djfx df g krukt hH e kr g; q s s , wa T s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 423 egaP

jnv d k;ufn jGf a s q ]k;ufn jnav k;ufn q q ]g k;ufn , q jnv d k;ufn8 a s q ]k;Lfx hIkN lcl \q s s hykc l>e jdul kurb s s q q 8`kukt g; kjr k;D s ]jnv sd k;Lf\x hurdf r a X q w ]k;Lfx8 \q ]ue kNi g; s T w s l k;Lfx hIkN lcl \q s s 6k;Lfx e k;Lfx jGf \q X \q ]k;Lfx \q jrhH d k;Lfx jGf s \q ]k;Lfx jrhH k;Lfx \q \q ]g k;Lfx , \q ]jrhH d k;Lfx s \q 4g y[ kd o , s –im kLc ksr rfhutkj kr Cgu 2g kgj kv ekd ji rDo 4g ;≤i Bksd kd keüt \ s , , q X s yNif jWt 2g rkg ed xky hyk';≈kHkl urb 22kg hyk';≈kHk,l rpæVuf eqr T s s s , s s 2kNi ksr l hj/k,p kjt\ s w s 2hj/k,p ]k>c hygi s w s 2hjdkad ksr Bk[ ]hj/kXt kr h/Cj s ]hjtkc ksr hIkd \ ]hrelkc ksr k;kc s 2kNi kr rykg hdum 2kNi k'n kr hdum ] s w s s w s g Sx uc kst jkv 2g gj Lk> hRyn hLc /x 4g jlov kLc kurm g k/x kLc T , T s \ q \ s , \ , \ kurtf kt 2g kgj kv kd /x jg ]Fku–jl ]g kgj kv Cgu hg kjkgér 4g kr> s , s Xq , q wa el hH e g; ]g kgj kv ksr jlov jkv 2g kgj kv jlov kd ukg ]Cgu Sg h T , , , s s q _e hHv3Cgu hg g Nd hHv ksd uLks\N dfk;D ]kxgd Cgu Nd Bksd kr xksn Lk a , q s X s q s s s\ N hHv 2ksgj IL ksr cv `ksg gj xkH jdLkN ukne ]jv df g rxy ugd hH s s s\ , s T s s xksy jGf 2g hrxy hH tkydksy e ujrm jGf ksr ]Sx Pp k;Pf\hl jkp7kn 4g , X s \ a s , krkt ksg ydæfe rgc kujrm Nhi dfk;D ]ksvkt jrm ji hPh\l hg hygi df g q q s X , kNπv jkv 2g ky[J hcy hd uiyxki dS kr g; 2`h_aeuk/i jkv h_euk/i7 , , 1a a s z , a z im jGf 2g rv Bkd l suuc h_e ;h–d jkv `kxuc ukd h_e ;h–d jGf 2g , a s s a X , s , a X ,
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 523 egaP

4Skt pgi ksr jc[ jkc dS jxe 4g kOhe k; g kjk[ df qa , , g rsy ukt ksr g rhi jdkv xksy jGf 4Skt pgi jc[ hdlb ]g kjk[ huki d T s T s qa , f hgl hg; ]kyp 4kxSkt kv go g kukv ksdltf jGf 4hxSkt pgi dr jn7jwn s , qa w ksr jc[ ed7l7ed 2hgl hg hekunc ksr kvg u eku Nd ]ksyp 6krksg Cgu uk s q q jg l hekunc e kr Syfhlb 2g rgc hekunc 2 ~ ~ ~g kvg kyG dr sukssd jn7 , s T s , q , q , w jn d k;ufn kri kd eJkv ]Skt kv ikv ]kgd lum ue 4n kotHf ksd hldf w s q a s s T X l eJkv 6g krgkp kukv e ]g kgj ykc h_e;“e7im e df kgd ukgüm skr ]hx s wa T wa s a q T s X s yp Cgu hd opfl kg; ]kxyp Cgu kr¬kj gjr lb df k[n ct udfy ]<_eu a s s s a f >qe ksr g krgkp kukv e df jd uksG ld ksr /hl dfk;D 2hg lki sxkg Oc ~ s wa T X s , s X X s, ~ ~k;yf uksG ;o¬ su h_e;“e7im kr Cgu hyx ykn Nd hd hjI∂l ct 2g h_ a a q s q s s T ae;“e7im d 'ni;÷e o ]Cgu df g hgj ksg Gkl rkc ksdikv ]g hgj kg yH Xe q s sz s , , s w u>el n;k' df kykc hjIs∂l 22Sjfk/i ]Sbkv jWt ]Sbkv ]kukv df krjGf s s s krn Cgu <_euf Bksd kvd 6ji aSd Skv ksr ksg kukv ksd lk;î 4n <_euf eg s a a q q s X a df ]Cgu krdl®m Bksd hjkeg ]g güm kukv `g k;D ykol kd <_euf skr g srg q , X , a T kp kukv ct ]k;x kgd kdum kr `aSkv ld o d <_euf kucf udfy ]kgd uk s s s , s s a s s X güm 4aSkv jWt ]g dhO df k;x kgd ksr 4g rgkp kukv h_e;“e7im df k;df , T s a q uksG u hjI∂l dum 4F e kui h_e;“e7im d 'ni;÷e ygi unf hg Nd hHv s s s s s X w a q s sz s q 2g rkv cl jkv lt ]skvkv er 4Cgu Syf d k;_fe ]g krdl koyn T s , s , q s X a wa f Syf dcl jkv <_euf df g krgd lum e jkv `Skv ld eg <_euf kucf s , a wa s T , a s , a dfk;D 4aSkoynf <_euf eg df g rgd o `rjd jc[ k;D 4g rjd jc[ o X a X T s s s T s s ygi ksr g rgkp kukv kg; hH h_e 2kn;kG kd ukg u h_e dS ]ks[n 4rki kv s T s a a s s a s s Cgu kg; ksr rkg h_e ~ ~ ~Sx kv dr kg; jkv ]ksg Sx dOOf LkF er jxv a s s a a , s s\ q Xelb 4g jdDp d hxntV lb l,o g kryp lt yc kd g¥kd `kxksg ld kji k T s s , s , , w s s , w s r g hg jdDp ct 2ksgj ryp ]ksgj ryp ]ksgj ryp df g krksg g; hg cyre , s s s , kd jdDp `g rkg ji Cgd jdDp `g k;ki jd kji ukd ksd jdDp jkv ]y T s s sw , w , , X jd hg kji kdlb g Sx Li e jdDp lb cv ]Bx ksg jn rgc cv `jd k;D w s T \ X s q X cv jxe ]g hrpt hdikv rkc df g rgd l>e hH o ]g Sx uc Nd 4hrkt , a T s s q s T q ksg ydæfe hLc kr cr rkt uc ]g hgj ksg k/ofqn hHv 4kugd re l>e jGf 2 q \ s s , s q g rkj hd lokev jGf 2g rkj jGf 6g hrksg ek' nkc d uuc h_e ~ ~ ~Cgu h , , , s s a g uc h_e ksr hHv 4Bg Cgu hH ek' ksr hHv jk,v 4krkt kgd Cgu kdIH kr S s a q s kt kv j? hH ek' kdIH kd gcl jkv 4g kjol hHr kvkt xkt ct 2Fku–jql q , , s s X `g rv Bkd kdlb 4jdDp e jdDp jGf 4g jdDp e jdDp skr rfhutkj , a s X , X `kuklb s>r ukH a q ]jrhH d k;ufn hurdf r s X q w 6k;ufn Xe k;ufn jGf q q ]k;ufn q
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 623 egaP

2g kIkd su Rd k;D , s q ]M ~ ~ ~ kv ~ ~ ~ qr ~ ~ ~ qr kd uuc h_e a s s a 4g kIk? k;D kd klsS ji hrj/ hd kdye lkn , X w ]Ski ygf jH7yrf u 'n s s, s s Oc klS kt kl7jxtv ]Skdgc ksd ue <x Lt \ dgp klS kt kl7hNi s s s a 2g kIkd su Rd k;D , s q ]M ~ ~ ~ kv ~ ~ ~ r ~ ~ ~ r kd uuc h_e a q q s s a 4g krkt k;kuc Cgu ]g krjd k;yf eüt hxkP , , X 2kxSkpe xkcLg go X \ X X a q\ s e kxnLg d rfhutkj ]kxSkPp Fv7j{v \ Z ji h<ko kst dr ljc Okl 2g kIkd su Rd k;D , s q ]M ~ ~ ~ kv ~ ~ ~ r ~ ~ ~ r kd uuc h_e a q q s s a `g krkv jcu cd kd suuc h_e jkgér ]/ac , a a s q q 3g rkOm uæi li7l[ T s z q q jdkt y e ydv >e s X s s s q ]g rkv d Iduf _ef T s s kpgi l ct e kHl;†kj qa s X 2g kIkd su Rd k;D , s q ]M ~ ~ ~ kv ~ ~ ~ r ~ ~ ~ r kd uuc h_e a q q s s a `k;D hg kvg jkv e rjkH e kykl lhr 2g h_ae oir q , X X X , Z w H hgo ks[n skt 2sxkXg hg rksg hH rH ksr g h_e oirH urb 2g cv jxe 6kF w s s w T a Z w w s , Cgu lkoæof e krwH >e ygi ~ ~ ~e 'n lb g h_e oirH ksr urdf `xksy ki X X s q s X s T a Z w w s s k;D `kxksg k;D h_e hH jduc 2Sx ksr kv kr 4Cgu Sg hHv h_e df ,g kNπv a s q a 4dl kIt reégf Cgu jxe s q 2e kui g kgj Cgu hH kt Bksd Cgd kr jk,v ~ ~ ~4g srkv X w , s T s y eJkv ]g kukt kagd Cgu hg rNi syko'Djf 4kxLi Cgu hH kugd 222kxsn k , s w s s \ pgi eJkv jdkOcf endS kyko'Djf hH Bksd ]Skt ksg L[ ji r¬kj jdugi _ qa s a s \ s ¬o djfx ilf kr ksg krxy pkdl e sugd ksdikv jxv jkv 2kxSkv y kyko' , Z s s a X , s s Djf hH Bskd ]kxSkv y hH Bkd 2g rdl kv ]g Oc hg e kui df kgd ue kr s s T s T s, X w s T s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 723 egaP

2dl ksg ksr ekd Nd 6Ief I s q s >> llb 6ksg ed upLv llb 4hpko;kZ;i kukg h_e jkv kuksg ;hrjkH `g up a s \ s s a , , Lv k;D elb 4h_e rDf;ø ds;®i lsS ];hrjkH rDf;ø ds;®i lt 2h_e xky hH \ X a z s z s , a s l df Sgfkp hun jd k<"k? ksd hHl ksr l cklgf je df g kgj yG l jskt u s s s ss , , s s rb o–im g; 4g krkt ksg jgkc d rækZnc hH g; 4kvht gjr hd henkv <jk/ , s s kl cv jd pgi ji BkpM hurb df 4g krxy ukeiv jGf dfkX;D 6kxy Xe kI‘ aq a , s p hd uki lm jGf ksr Skt UNf jxv ñld j@#!if 4g hrkt xy Rf' hjkl Xe s s s q , s \ s q s uLdt l ñld kr ]Skt yef kRl jGf 6kvkxy hxntV elm ]ksvki ksd kRl y s X s gi `g kgd ;el `g lki dldf rlG hd ekd d 'n lb `jd uk,d ekd kd , a , s Z q s s s 'n lb 2g krkxy e ugj pc rdkr hjkl cr g krkt kg ct jk,v ]g krkxy s , X s s , s , X e suksg rdkr hjkl dr cr krki Cgu ksg dr ct go ]Skt ksg kst dfk;D 4kx X Skt ksg Iek;Ife 'sn e sukg d hHl jkv 2sxgj jdkg hHl df g hpe hlS Lkn s X s s , X s , s ,\ 4Sgfkp kun jd r"fk? h_e skd hHl s s a 2h_e ]Sx a kv j? kuiv ]k;yf IdGfI√l ]k;df ket k;iQ dS e jr@#!in d jknyhlg s X s r 2g h[j kxy r;kpi k;D g; `k;D hg I>> g; 4Sgfkp kun jd r"fk? h_ae , a a s s ksd 'n jkl eg kr ]ksg hjkn>el e eg jxv df g g; ksr Bkpl cv 4g kgj s s X s X , , kv chjd kd hHl cv 2g kgj kv chjd jlov kd uksg h_ae cv ]Mkt kg h_ , s a s a s , e ld df kgj e i/7Lkn hlb ksr jHhxntV df hxkg hrksg upLv gér cv df X w ,\ s \ X q g kr>el e jxe 2hjkH kLyi kd Bked lm jk,v 4Gjr dS kuked kd <{ d wa T \ S lm jk,v Gjr dS kukoax kd jHuoht ksr Skt jH l 'kssg jxv hH ygi < s s { dS d uje 4g krdl kt hH k;ked Nd ]Bx ksg Cgu jn hH hHv 4ksvkt skg s s , q s uk/okl hH hHv 4ksvkt dkTp hH hHv 4ksg Skox 4hF hrdl ksg k/ofn ksr kvskg a q s Sked Nd ]kag `g k/ofn k;D jkv cv ksr ]Skox df kg Bx kv e >el rkc q , q , a s X g; jxv 4g k;koax hg e rfhutkj hxntV huiv e df ]Fku–jl ]ksg rgd eqr wa X T Xq s 4g kgj kuc r¬jfgG wa s 2Mkt u yH ]k;x ksg yxki jGf 4kxIkd nkc d ukg yxki kdutf ]g kgj [ a w wa s s s s wa yf eku d k;efnkv um e 2`k;D r;hle7r;hlo ]kgd u uhYQlu ky¥e `g g s X T s q T s j [yf r;hlo k;D df kNi u jIDkL df l htr hurb 4l htr endS ]sl jkt w s s s s s s Nd ji txkd k;x xy u[yf jdOc endS ky¥e 4hn eyd7txkd l hn¥t q s , q s u jIDkL 4n eyd jk,v txkd >e l hn¥t df kgd ]kul g; u uhYQlu ky¥qe s X s q s q s 4kxSkt ksg yxki henkv g; df g jL 4Cgu kri Nd ]kxjd Cgu d , q s f kxjd ekd hH u'Dtb cv ]Bx kg jn rgc ]kgd u jIDkL 4ykri¬v lm xk s s a s s q s s s y sd j? dlm Sx y 4k;yf Ikd u Rd yxki dS unf dS kd uhYQlu ky¥qe s s s s q s 2k;df u u s hYQlu ky¥e kt ksjd hgo er ksr ksg kIkd u Rd jxv jkv `kIkd u Rd géqr q s q s s q , s s q X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 823 egaP

4yjxj o Skpe ]rxH Sk[ dD/ ]SkPp IH s a s a a s a \ X ]jp e ne kRH7kRl w X ]Li g Lc jkv llm s a T s \ , s ]jg'e hLc jk,v kegfe w \ ]u'n ji kLc eku kIkN Z \ s 4yc jxku kU/f Lxkr s \ ]kjdc jcçt ]hcn7jcçv s 2kg rxkae [hH k;D 2ksg rjGf sr s s s Lks\t Fkg k;D 4kg Sg kni ksd sukx er kst MkOm rhx e er e df 6LN jkr sj s q , q a X q T wa s kgéqr e df ]ksn kdk,e ]htkj ksd uktc kd h_r7;nÔ hjkgér e 2`ksg Li e ∂Gf T s s a q T s \ X hd h_e er 4g kgj ksg nku kd nuknpπfl 4kago g hgj tc k<ho roæk' 4g n a q , a , , a ukv ]g rfka' hd ;o¬ 4g kuksg kd ;o¬ 4g o®0c ]ksg u k; kg Nd lki d 0c , a , a , q s q s q 2kujd ekd k;D phu d henkv –{ lS 4krdl jd Cgu ekd s s q s s jGf phu jkgér e 2jkd¬eu kje k; ]kdq> e k<jp dum ]Syf d rxko¬ d s s q T s s X X s s s 0c Fkl je kvkv ksr k; 4g knil hylv /fkel 4Cgu Nd /fkel jkv Cgu N q ss s , a q , d uk;÷ jkv g Nd ;†kj df ]g Nd u/ df g krpkl kt df g Cgu /ksc hH q , , q , q , s s , kurb ltf kujd ekd phu d henkv lsS 4g Cgu rkc hl7hurb ]kgd u jhto s s s s , s 2ji rkc hl7hurb ]g gj Lks\N ikv ]kgd ulm 4kF krgj uhy e lkyofxksH ui T s s X s v ksr ktkj 4kF kgj ykHl ksd ;†kj jkl Arr¬o hgo dfk;D ]kF krdl Cgu yp a s q X ekd kucf d jhto lm udfsy 4kxdl jd Cgu ekd phu dikv e ]y jd jk s wa s s T X dho¬ kGhr¬b kje jGf ksr ]kgd jkv k[n Gjr hd ktkj u jhto `g k;D rjW s , s s , t hd ukt Syf d rxko¬ dlm je 4g Ikel e ]g hjk[Hf go `Skt kX;D eg s s s s s wa z T , a df kgd u ktkj 4g kgj ksg uexkv kd 0c ]jgkc d okx ]Sgfkp kuyp ksd uj s , q s a s d rxko¬ eg df kgd l ktkj uiv u jhto d okx lm 4Skv e okax dS 0c X s s s s a X q 4g –jfn jndlf hH kr ]ksg u T a s hH hLkd ]ksg u k; kg Nd lki d 0c if|; 4suekl d k0c g –jfn hH jndlf ,\ s q s q s X q T a 4Cgu e thp jk,v hldf e X X k;ufn lb go ]g kte kst kd uksg dyfke uiv jkv 4r;dfyke ji uiv Ag kr q , s s , s , s Z kg Fv kd lk;ül 4r;dfyke ji kjln ]ktçd ji jln Ag krksg Fv kd rfhut a X w s w , Z kj 2ks[n hH ksd naukv lb 2ks[n hH xj kd lk;ül cv ]hy [n c[ ]rfhutkj s s a a s w hy [n 4r¬;ül kvkt kg 2re ksdp kd jlov lb 4g k;yf jkdi lt u ke®ke s a s s w s , q s , s ji gér ji ;el 4g hL? Hq' 4g kgj jd r"√dkv lk;ül kdikv jkv g e F X q , \ , a , , X kg jlov ]g k;x kv chjd yd¥cf ;el kd uuc h_e df ksg gj gd eqr cv , q s a s 2g rkc hd ukOcf Okx7Okl kjt\ ]g rdl uc h_e df g kgj xy kd , s a a T s a , s hHl jkv 4g hgj xt aSk{kadoÂge hd hHl dfk;D 4kxSkt kyp krksg ydæfe , T X q jk,v xkv jkv 2krdl Cgu hg ksg ksr ekd 4kdl ksg Cgu ekd Nd e Xkykl lhr s , q X
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 923 egaP

k\H7LhH ksd h_¬ jnl dS jkv 2kru 0q' yd¥cf3kektki jknhLp jk,v ]hnk[ j \ aq , s q w\ , kv ]hikI hnkoh/kx 4nGl 4kF k;x e huZ'ni dS Sg ugi hnk[ uhYQlu ky¥qe s a s X z q s 2rkt ksg Cgu /kl Lx Nd l uy ugi hnk[ 4g e s q s qa q s s s , ku kNπv kd hjhxkLqax rfhutkj 2xnLg 4o–im hg g rfhutkj 4Bx ksg rîkel rf a q\ , ka∂ xel go jdykL e krPe dS ]e krdtkjv ]e kry[Nπm dS ksd 'sn ji z X w\ X X ≠a sw jkv ]hF Bg W' rfk∂ zxel kago hHv7hHv 4Sgfkp huy[ rfhutkj e jkgcf kr , q q a s X s ksg hukojd rghtG hji jxv e 'n lb 4hxksg rgc rghtG df kgt ]l jkgc w X s q a s f xkXg ]Sgfkp ukg Fku–jl dr kagt jkv 2kxjd Nd Bkd ]kxjd Nd Bksd ]kx s s s Xq , s q s s q xkH y xakI hd ñld Bksd 6kxpC[ Fkg Bksd 6kxpC[ xkaI Bksd hg rOc ji ñld s s q s s s , q `xksvki [n kte er `r[n Cgu k'n hdum g ji ñld skt jxe 2ksy [sn kt s s q s s T q e hH kd ñld kLkF cv ]ksg gj unf surb 2ksy [n ksr kLkF jv df kxSk>el q s\ s s s\ s ue ksr ]hd jsn sueqr jxv 4g tkcykp rgc ue dfk;D 4kjd u jn jkv 2kvkt , q X s s , s s kg xyv jd dINf 2ksg Li e jdDp ldf ]ksg Li e jdDp d kgd ]Fku–jql s \ X s \ X s a X 4yc jxku kU/f Lxkr s \ ]kjdc jcçt ]hon jcçv 4y[ kvt su ht jLhy hn [j hojxf hPh\i g–ai s w 6jk/m 'n jg g krsn s , ]g h/c [kl ]e [ky p[\ , a X Z ]jktg td ]kLdl ukyî Z \ \ , ]Bkgn Itc ]Bkdb ;kv 4yc jxku kU/f Lxkr s \ ]kjdc jcçt ]hon jcçv s 2ydu7pC[ g kgj IM ]g ky[ nH ji kXunf rgc s , a , q s q 2jeylt jdkt pgi s , s qa ]F yp jksv hd Rdyd s s s 2j/av 6ky[f nkohtawi s ]kd tkel hnkotkel yx q 4yc jxku kU/f Lxkr s \ ]kjdc jcçt ]hon jcçv s yG\ er e htkceLdrf `uer k;ki k;D Cgu Ikso s q X \ s q X 6Ikso g jordkr lcl , \ s ]uIyl7uIyi ]hjgpd ]lyfqi ]Iksu ]ybkG\ ]jr@#!in ]jlGv \ ]g hH ulk' ]g hH ulkv , , 4yc jxku kU/f Lxkr s \ ]kjdc jcçt ]hon jcçv s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 033 egaP

k;xfc ]hxuc kog llm 4H' kurm ]Xxy suht jdLks\N kd rfhutkj e 'sn lb s s q s X xksy urtf 4H' kurm ]Skv yduf jgkc dlm xky urtf jkv 4g jgt ]g x s q a s s s , , , ksj rfhutkj 4g Cgu rjWt Bksd hd rfhutkj udfy 4g kF¬o;ø ]hdlm g rjWt , s , , 2g dhO ksr ;†kj 4g rkc hjln yd¥cf rfhutkj ]g rkc dS ;†kj 4g hrdl , , w q , , yp d rfhutkj kucf k;ufn udfsy 6hxdl yp d ;†kj kucf k;ufn df g kgj s q s s q wa gd Cgu g; e jk,v 4Sgfkp huksg rDe l rfhutkj k;ufn g; 4g jgt rfhutkj T q s q , 2g kyko hg ujH jgt e hyk;î hje ]g kyko , s X s , hg uxy jcu kje df Ig henkv jkv kn7dS ]lc ]xkv g kgj kt hg k;kv Te s a s s , s s wa yd¥cf e 8;D8 cv 2g kLi e k/ofn hLc e cv ]un jc[ hd rev g Skv q X w wa \ X q \ T s s 1 T ikv cv jkv g kgj kt hg k;kv yd¥cf jcu kje cv df ksg rgd er jkv 2k , , q a s s q , s g L[ Skxy 8w;D8 uekl d ukdn hd jgt df ksg er j,kv 4g jrkv skd uljc s \ s s q q , q s X q 1 e er rev <{ dS7dS 4g hgj kg kZ"o hdlm 'u√gv <{ dS7dS 4g ;¥we , s , gc <{ dS7dS ]xkvkt ksg rdfp er jkv `kvht l utH 2Sg rpku ]Sg srk q s s q , s s q s q uxux rhx ]l hr¬e 2k[n hH jdht l hy' jk,v dS ksd uoht 2xkyN sky ]}a} q q s s s s , a ksLks\N ]k/ofn kLkN 2re kudp jlov klsS 2Fku–jl ]g kgj jd ∂Gf hg lk[ q s s\ w Xq , hjkgér Nd 2g hrksg eyke kiduv "'of hd ke®keji kr g hOm jrhH sjkgéqr q q , w a q s s , rkc oHlv hLc hurb ct 6g rkc hlt oHlv chjd7chjd dfkt ]g kOm e a \ , , a s , X ue d Krfhutkj hH go jk,v 4g Hyn hH jk,v go ]g kOm okH kd lk;ül jd s , Z q , a kv jGf ]ksg Sx kv ]g Hyn kukv kr dS 2kukt re Fkg hyk[ kr ksg Sx kv , Z q s s 4g k;df oHuv ksd kejfx eji jkv , q , g kukpgi ksd ;®l eji d uoht sukgütf 6g kvht ]g kukt ukXgütf n Lkt sl , s X , , s s s\ um n Lkt l kjiji ;erfk;† lm hd uoht gér kt 4n Lks\t l k0c gér kt s s\ s a Z s X q s s s X q X q s ksjd klsS Nd e uoht ksr jkc dS 4l ue uiv kvkv yduf jgkc djd reég q X s s s s f jkc lb udfy 4hxgd ksd suuqp ryx rnkv hjkl hukji ksr hd ue 4kuy up s X X q s q re ryx ksr ]g hOm k/ofn e ue jkgér jkv hd ;≈kH,kl g Bx kv hL\? jxv , q X s q , , 4g krgd lk;ül ksd uLk wa a s s\ N okH7e 4g krgd lk;ül ksd uLkN 8e8 ]krgd Cgu lk;ül kd uLks\N jklal Te T wa a s s\ T a s s 4lk;ül l e Ag lk;ül 4rDfe l e 4xk;® kd e Ag lk;ül jkv 2g xksj kr hg a s T , a q s T T , a , , s e jkv 4g krkt k[ ksr hg e jkv 2g Nd e df `hxyef rîfr ksd jkdgv d T , , T , wa q T s 1 a f u hg; `g k;D kte kd rfhutkj 4g krLi kudkaP e k<jokv hg urm ]ksg ky , , \ X X s kd kurtf ynf 4g hrLi rjWt hd ukiNf hg kurm ]ksg kykd kurtf ynf jkv , \ s , 2g kykd hH hHv kr ynf ]g nGl hg L , s T s s id ]jv 4kukiNf k;D l kXyko uiv cv df kgd u uhYQlu ky¥e `ksg rjd Bk \ s s s s q s pπy hd gjr lb jk,v jdugi hnk[ ]jdugi _¬o nGl `hrkv Cgu e' df kg q s Z d sulm jGf ]k;df rækZnc ksr jn hLkF su h_¬ lm 4kxy un kdD/ jd[n Xe L s s\ s s s
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

m o c. dl r o w o h s o. w w w / / : p t t h

133 fo 133 egaP

4hg kurb tkv 2g krn <_euf e 6Lt elb Fkg hH kjkgér3ckyx d wa s a T s q\ X q q s lk;ül3Syf d uky[f ksd kckyqx ub ksuc jknhxkH hH eqr 4xy[f yG Su Xe a s s X s X w
je kt jkon ekj s s s q

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful