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Types of Rancidity • Hydrolytic rancidity – Lipase – Free fatty acids provide aroma • Oxidative rancidity – Radical oxidation – Aldehydes and other compounds provide aroma .
Oxidative Rancidity • Part 1: Form lipid hydroperoxides • Part 2: Break down lipid hydroperoxides .
Oxidative Rancidity • Initiation – A radical is formed • Propagation – Radicals react and transfer their unpaired electron to other compounds • Termination – Two radicals combine to stop the reaction .
H …Radical Migration .The Pentadiene Structure H H H C C C C C H H H RH R .
+O2 ROO . Each methylene interrupter can lead to three possible lipid hydroperoxides! . ROO +RH .Propagation R .Addition of Oxygen . ROOH +R .
Part 2: Hydroperoxide Breakdown (1) (2) .
Factors affecting rate • • • • • • Fatty acid composition Temperature Water activity Metal ions Oxygen Light .
BHT.Antioxidants • Metal chelators • Radical scavengers (primary and secondary) citrate. tocopherol . EDTA BHA.
Radical Scavenging Antioxidants .
e.: w3 PUFA Supplemented Yogurt w3 oil water Homogenize Pasteurize Store/ship w3 emulsion milk Culture ingredients Pasteurize Homogenize Pack Ferment Store .g.