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A THESIS SUBMITTED TO LAHORE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN UNIVERSITY IN FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN MASS COMMUNICATION
ANJUM ZIA DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION LAHORE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN UNIVERSITY, LAHORE, PAKISTAN 2007
To My Beloved Father G. D. ZIA I’m here just because of his blissful love, always showered on me and his continuous encouragement at every step of my life, he taught me to pay respect to humanity and to love all.
I, Anjum Zia, hereby declare that the matter printed in this thesis is my original work and has been carried out under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Mughees-ud-Din, Director Institute of Communication Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore. To the best of my knowledge, this thesis does not contain any material that has been submitted for the award of any other degree in any other university, neither does this thesis contain any material published or written previously by any other person, except in the text for which due references are given.
It is hereby certified that the thesis entitled “Effects of Cable Television on Women in Pakistan: A Comparative Study of Heavy and Light Viewers in Lahore” is based on original work carried out by Anjum Zia and that has not been previously presented for the higher degree. Anjum Zia has done her work under my direct supervision. She has fulfilled all the requirements and is qualified to submit the accompanying thesis according to the prescribed format for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Mass Communication.
Professor Dr. Mughees-ud-Din Supervisor
EFFECTS OF CABLE TELEVISION ON WOMEN IN PAKISTAN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HEAVY AND LIGHT VIEWERS IN LAHORE
DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION LAHORE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN UNIVERSITY LAHORE, PAKISTAN 2007
forbearing and perfect guidance. And this was nothing but the blessings of Allah. Had he not been there. LCWU extend an endless help. Riffat Saqlain. the light under which I dared to think of conducting the research. for her patronage and affection that always serve as a shelter for me. Dean of Management Sciences and Mrs. Fellow) for sparing much of his valuable time for me. Dr Mughees is known the world over for his enriched knowledge of the subject that had inculcated in me a constant. I am also obliged and deeply indebted to senior journalist Intikhab Hanif (My MA. former Chairman. LCWU. Department of Sociology. Registrar LCWU. But every time I lost heart. Several times during the study my will to complete it broke. constructive comments and support.i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I thank Allah Almighty for giving me strength and the opportunity to complete this research despite my arduous office work. I am also extremely grateful to Miss Shaista Vine. and his rich experience proved an invaluable asset for shaping up my mind and completing this research. Research and Ph. Dr Kousar J. Lahore for his advice. which I took as much as I could without fear of any reluctance. and struggled to complete it. I am greatly indebted to you sir for guiding me through.D. for their support and encouragement. His biggest support came at the time of writing this thesis. Lahore. Farhat Saleemi. I thank him for the kindness towards me. and the hours of editing are endless. University of the Punjab. Prof. Director. Vice-chancellor. I profoundly thank Prof Dr Bushra Mateen. I am grateful to him for his kindness. Director. Lahore College for Women University. Dean of Social Sciences. I am also grateful to Dr. as my supervisor. I may not have even a slightest idea of what a research for PhD is about. I was fortunate to have worthy Dr Mughees-ud-Din. Her valuable help and gracious cooperation instilled in me the spirit to fight the odds that were numerous. something pushed me up from within. Simply speaking this study has only been completed owing to his guidance based on his global exposure to the mass communication studies. and continuous personal obligations. University of Punjab. Lahore. I acknowledge Dr Muhammad Anwer. Institute of Communication Studies. I humbly thank you madam for affording an opportunity to aspire for the highest academic degree through this study. His bright ideas based on his visits to media houses and schools of journalism in the USA and Japan. His kind involvement gave me the knowledge that will continue to benefit me all my life. Cheema. .
my colleagues at Department of Mass Communication. Department of Mass Communication. Islamabad. Mehnaz (Department of Statistics. (a family friend). Lahore. Chairman. My extreme thanks for their unflinching support. Dur e Ajum. Sharif. Manzar. my nephew. sister in law for the love and support at home which helped me to concentrate on my work. my niece. Mazhar. Nadia and Rabia Khan). Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund (PPAF). Shams. Phil fellow). But it would be an injustice to miss Prof. PU. Sara Ali Khan. LCWU. Waleed Saqib. Naib Nazam. my cousin. LCWU. Sonia Saleem. Shahid Habib. Allama Iqbal Open University. I deeply regret however without their support this research would not be what it is now. the young girls who worked as interviewers (Fatima. my sister. Mohammad Shafiq.ii Those who supported me are numerous and I cannot mention them here for constraints of space. Anjum Zia . Ahmed Nadeem. renowned editor and reviewer of books and films. Shuja. I am also thankful to my mother in law. Aftab and Shahid. Syed Abdul Siraj. Hamza. The words would be short in their meanings to explain the discomfort caused to my husband Munzir Elahi as well as the emotional pain which both my children Zain and Zeerak went through during the course of this study. Mariam Pervaiz . Lastly. Idrees Mohammad. I warmly thank my mother. IBIT. Farooq Ahmed (My M. LCWU). daily ‘The News’ Khuram and Ibrar from PEMRA etc. Sehrish. Aisha. lecturer. Dr. my brother. my brother in law and Ayesha.
They were prone to accepting the role. favorite watching time.” The sub-hypothesis included ‘heavy viewers have greater effect on their activities. also making it the main source of entertainment. general and major findings of hypothesis testing. However. cultural practices. Pakistan” through survey using interviews’ schedule as a tool of data collection. going to cinema. The major hypothesis studied was “greater the exposure to cable television greater the impact on the lives of women. It targeted 432 women aged 18-40 years and viewing cable television for a minimum two years. . It confirmed that heavy viewing affected household and other activities of the women like newspaper reading. and they are more influenced by the television characters especially depicting western and urban Indian women than the moderate and light viewers. indicating increasing popularity of cable television in Lahore. control over remote and restrictions on viewing. The study recorded the respondent’s consumption patterns. the respondents complained that men had more rights to watch cable television than women. Majority respondents had cable connection for the last two years. preferred channels and programs.iii ABSTRACT This study investigates the “effects of cable television on the life patterns of women in Lahore. The data was analyzed through univariate and bivariate statistical procedures and the results are presented in two categories: i. and were heavy viewers. The study also identified a few areas for future researchers and made recommendations towards their improvement. There is no link between demographic characteristics and consumption patterns. were graduates but unemployed. the meals cooking and serving schedule. culture and lifestyle of western and Indian women watched on the cable channels.e. The general findings revealed that the majority of respondents were aged 31 to 40 years. confirming that ‘greater the exposure to cable television greater the effect on the lives of women’. It crossed checked the above factors with the level of viewing alongwith demographic characteristics of the respondents. belonged to the middle and upper middle class. family and social interaction patterns. level of viewing. their domestic or personal expenditure and interaction with friends or and relatives. The statistical test chi-square was applied for testing the hypothesis. domestic and personal expenditure.
Scientific and Cultural Organization. Pakistan Television Corporation Shalimar Television Network Statistical Package for the Social Science United Nation Educational. Compact Disk Channels Door Darshan (Indian Television) Direct To Home Local Multipoint Distribution Service Loop-Line Holder Category Master Antenna Television Multi-Channel Multipoint Distribution System New Information/Communication Technologies Nippon Electrical Company North Wrest Frontier Province (one of the province f . VCTC VTR Viewer Controlled Cable Television Video Tape Recorder Azad Jammu Kashmir Television Australian Broadcasting Commission Television Cable News Network Community Antenna Television).iv ACRONYMS / ABBREVIATIONS AJK TV ABCTV CNN CATV CD Channels DD DTH LMDS LH Category MATV MMDS NICT NEC NWFP Pakistan) PBC PTA PEMRA PTV STN SPSS UNESCO Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation Pakistan Telecommunication Authority Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority.
v TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement Abstract Abbreviations Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures List of Appendices i iii iv v viii xi xii 1 2 2 3 4 9 9 11 13 13 14 16 22 25 27 28 28 31 31 43 48 51 52 55 Chapter 1 1.7 1.1 3.6 1.12 1.13 1.10 1.2 1.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Uses and Gratification Cultivation Theory .1 2.3 1.8 1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW International Studies on Television/Cable Television National Studies on Televisions/Cable Television Studies on Women Chapter 3 3.4 1.14 1.9 1.1 1.11 1.5 1.15 1.16 INTRODUCTION Statement of Problem Objectives Hypothesis Rationale Brief History of Cable Television World History of Cable Television Development of Television in Pakistan Induction of Private Sector in Broadcast Media Cable Television Network in Pakistan Cable Television licenses Formation of Pakistan Media Regulatory Authority Private Sector in Broadcast Media Government and Private Television Channels in Pakistan International Channels Viewed in Pakistan MMDS and LMDS Situation Analysis Chapter 2 2.2 2.
2 5.15 5.2 4.5 5.8 (Part II) Research Design Survey Sampling Method Data Collection Data Processing Application of Statistical Test Chapter 5 5.7 4.16 5.8 5.3 Major Hypothesis Variables of the Study Conceptualization Chapter 4 4.1.7 5.6 5.12 5.vi 3.3 5.13 5.10 5.3 Social Learning Theory 58 Chapter 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (Part I) Hypothesis and Operationalisation of the Concepts 61 61 62 63 73 73 73 77 78 82 4.9 5. 4.17 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION (Part-I) Data Analysis-General Findings Cable Television Viewing Patterns of Women Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents Duration of Having Cable Television Connection Level of Viewing Duration of Cable Connection by Level of Viewing Demography and Level of Viewing Purpose of Watching Cable Television Preferences for Channels Respondents Preferred Programmes Preference of Watching Television Remote Control Favourite Time of Watching Cable Television Restriction of Watching Cable Television Women Rights to watch Cable Television Recreation Hurdle in Domestic and other Activities Affected Activities of Respondents 84 84 85 86 87 88 89 93 96 98 99 100 101 103 105 106 106 107 .14 5.5 4.4 4.4 5.6 4.1 5.11 5.
25 5.28 (PART III) DISCUSSION OF RESULTS General Findings of the Study Major Findings of Hypothesis Testing Related to the Dependent Variables 141 Chapter 6 6.22 Interaction Patterns Appearance and Style Cultural Practices Personal and Household Expenditure Role of Pakistani Women 109 111 111 115 115 117 117 118 118 118 127 129 Chapter 5 5.1 6.vii 5.21 5.27 5.19 5.26 (PART-II) BIVARIATE ANALYSIS Hypothesis Testing: Exposure and Effect Association Changes in Lifestyle Hypothesis Testing – Results Major Hypothesis Chapter 5 5.24 5.20 5.2 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 158 Recommendations Recommendations for Future Research 169 171 173 xiii References Appendices .23 5.18 5.
viii LIST OF TABLES Table Title 1.5 5.2 4. of Union Councils Opinion and Respective Values Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents Distribution of Respondents According to Duration of Having Cable Connection Distribution of Respondents by Level of Viewing Distribution of Respondents According to Duration of Cable Connection and Level of Viewing 5.A 5.15 5. 2001 by PTA Licenses Issued to Cable Operators till 2006 by PEMRA Number of Cable Television Subscribers in the Country Technology and Connection Charges Television Viewership by Household Income The PEMRA License Holder Private Channels Viewers Category by Hours of Viewing Sampling Dynamics Towns and No.7 Distribution of Respondents by their Age and Level of Viewing Distribution of Respondents by their Education and Level of Viewing Distribution of Respondents by their Profession and Level of Viewing Distribution of Respondents by their Residing Town and Level of Viewing 5.8 5.2 1.16 5.4 4.6 4.4 5.3 4.2 5.4 1.10 5.1 5.6 5.1 1.18 Distribution of Respondents by their Income and Level of Viewing Distribution of Respondents by Marital Status and Level of Viewing Purpose of Watching Cable Television Purpose of Watching Cable Television Level of Viewing Preferences for Channels Channel Preferences and Level of Viewing Respondents Preferred Programmes Respondents’ Preferred Programmes and Level of Viewing Preference of Watching Television Preference of Watching Cable Television and Level of Viewing Remote Control 91 92 93 94 95 xiii 97 xiii 99 xiv 100 xiv 88 89 90 90 Page 15 18 19 20 20 24 64 76 76 78 86 xii xii .5 5.17 5.5 1.11 5.13 5.9 5.14 5.3 1.12 5.3 Licenses Issued to Cable Operators from June 2000 to Dec.
25 5.35 5.44 Level of Interaction of Husband and Wife by Level of Viewing Chi-Square Test for Association: Exposure and Effect on Mother and Child Interaction 5.38 5.42 Chi-Square Test for Association: Exposure and Effect on Husband and Wife Interaction 5.43 5.47 5.40 5.33 5.39 5.20 5.29 5.22 5.34 5.41 Remote Control and Level of Viewing Favourite Time of Watching Cable Television Favorite Time of Watching Cable Television and Level of Viewing Restriction of Watching Cable Television Restricted Cable Television Channels.27 5.45 5.46 5.21 5.37 5. Programmes and Time for Men Women’s Right to Watch Cable Television Recreation Hurdle in Domestic and Other Activities Hurdles in Domestic and Other Activities and Level of Viewing Affected Activities of Respondents Domestic Activities and Level of Viewing Interaction Pattern Interaction with Husband and Children Appearance and Style Cultural Practices (Food) Cultural Practices (Dress) Cultural Practices (Language) Cultural Practices (Traditions) Cultural Practices (Religion) Personal and Household Expenditure Role of Pakistani Women in Society Chi-Square Test for Association: Exposure and Disturbance in Domestic and other Activities.48 Level of Mother-Child Interaction by Level of Viewing Chi-Square Test for Association: Exposure and Effect on Social Interaction Level of Viewing by Level of Social Interaction Chi-Square Test for Association: Exposure and Effect on Appearance and 121 121 122 122 123 120 121 101 xiv 102 104 105 xv xv xv 107 xvi 108 xvii 110 xviii xix xx xxi xxii xxii xxiii xxiv 119 119 .30 5.23 5.28 5.26 5.36 5.31 5. Level of Disturbance in Domestic and Other Activities by Level of Viewing 5.ix 5.32 5.24 5.19 5.
49 5.x Style 5. Chi-Square Test for Association: Exposure and Effect on Cultural Practices 5.53 5.52 Level of Cultural Practices by Level of Viewing Chi-Square Test for Association: Exposure and Effect on Personal and Domestic Expenditure 5.50 Change in Appearance and Style by Level of Viewing. 5.55 Level of Change in Social Role of Pakistani Women by Level of Viewing 126 126 125 125 124 124 123 .51 5.54 Level of Personal and Domestic Expenditure by Level of Viewing Chi Square Test for Exposure and Effect on Social Role of Pakistani Women.
12A 5.6 5.11 5.14 5.1 5.5 5.9 5.16 5.2 5.xi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 3.15 5.20 5.4 5.1 5.8 5.3 5.13 5.19 5.17 5.22 Title Model of Cultivation Theory Duration of Having Cable Connection Level of Viewing Purpose of Watching Cable Television Preferences for Channels Respondents Preferred Programmes Preference of Watching Television Remote Control Favorite Time of Watching Cable Television Women Right to Watch Cable Television Recreation Hurdle in Domestic and Other Activities Domestic and Other Activities and Level of Viewing Interaction Patterns Appearance and Lifestyle Culture Practices (Food) Cultural Practices (Dress) Cultural Practices (Language) Cultural Practices (Traditions) Cultural Practices (Religion) Personal and Household Expenditure Role of Pakistani Women Changes in Lifestyle Page 56 87 87 94 96 98 99 100 102 105 106 106 109 110 111 112 113 113 114 114 115 116 118 .18 5.10 5.21 5.7 5.
xii LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix I II III IV V VI Title Tables Profile of Lahore Map of City District Lahore The Kish Grid Details of Union Councils Questionnaire in English and Urdu Page xiii xxvi xxxiii xxxiv xxxvi xlviii .
The impact of pro-social content is a newer area and grew out of recognition that the same principles underlining the learning of anti-social activities ought to apply to more positive behaviour. with the availability of low-priced television and cable connection. Zia (2003) quotes. The study of the anti-social effects of viewing television and motion picture is one of the intensely researched areas of mass media. Prospects and Dilemmas. as well as evidence for its effects. Viewers have access to a variety of channels from local to foreign. this study analyses the “Effects of cable television in Pakistan.” In 2003. values and behavioural patterns. moderate and light viewers. this researcher had conducted an M. Phil study on cable television titled “Cable Television Network in Pakistan: Introduction. Phil) has now been used in this research. According to Aziz (2003) in 2002 almost four million households were enjoying its services in the country.1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The apprehensions of media communication. Wimmer (1993) has mentioned that the concern over the social impact of mediated messages was evident as far back as the 1920s when many critics charged that the motion pictures had a negative influence on children. It is a comprehensive study of effects on women in Lahore. Keeping in view the above-cited concern. The year 2000 witnessed a mushroom growth of cable television network all over Pakistan after the government legalized cable television network”. leading to the effects of cable television. Pakistan and provides results by comparing life patterns of heavy. Cable television viewership is no more restricted to the upper-middle class only. “The reasons for this rapid growth of cable television . People have always wondered how media messages are affecting them by bringing about an imperceptible change in their culture. it has become a common household facility for the lower class as well. are as old as the history of the subject itself. cable television network was initiated in Karachi in early 1980s and by 1998 was introduced in almost all the big cities of the country but functioned without rules and regulations.” The outcome of the study (M. They have always been concerned for the negative influence of a particular message or message system and have been curious about the potential prosocial effects of others. Zia (2003) quotes “In Pakistan. which provide them an opportunity to watch all types of programmes. Development.
access to satellite channels and a huge television viewership interested in entertainment only”. Therefore. According to Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) regional office. this research probed the effects of cable television on women in Lahore. as a communication technology. Punjab. 1. The question arises that cable television. particularly on their behaviour (Bukhari. regarding effects of cable television prior to this study. the number of households having access to cable television has increased manifolds. Naseem. Pakistan. conducted by the researcher showed that majority of them (60 percent) are spending 2-3 hours daily to watch cable television...35 million households in Lahore increases the chances of its effect/influence on the viewers as findings of a pilot study with 1200 sample size.2 included easy access.1 Statement of Problem Many research studies have been conducted to observe the impact of television on viewers. According to the Pakistan Advertisers’ Society. Malik. 1. Zia (2003) . enhances the choice and provides variety of channels and programmes that are foreign and local may have effects. is quite affordable. Pakistan.2 million in 2003 to 0. the subscription of cable television in Lahore has increased from 0. 2002. 2001. As Schiller (1976) confirms ‘importing programmes is importing lifestyles and exposure to foreign television programmes may transform the values of youth.35 million in 2006. 2001). Cable television subscription to 0. With the popularity of foreign television channels. fears have been expressed that lifestyles of viewers may be affected. 45 percent of the households were enjoying the cable television facility in 2006. the number of households that have access to cable television has increased to 29 percent in 2004 from 5 percent in 2002 whereas according to Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA). Findings of previous research had made the researcher to conclude that television does have some direct or indirect effects on viewers but no study has been carried out in Lahore. low cost. available to majority for 24 hours. Schiller (1976) defines cultural imperialism as a process of imposition of cultural institutions and values of less developed nations and dependant states by developed countries.2 Objectives of the Study By the year 2006.’ Concerns over the impact/effects of media always reinforce whenever a new communication technology is introduced in the society because technology always has positive or negative impact. A. M. The growth and usage of cable television was rapid in Pakistan.
Pakistan. It also tried to find out whether or not there existed any gender difference in cable television viewing. Determine relationship between viewing of cable television and changes in cultural practices. Find out relationship between viewing of cable television and its effects on personal appearance and style of women. General aim of this study was to ascertain effects of cable television on women in Lahore. The study also tends to find out respondents’ preferred channels and programmes. Star Plus. HBO. Assess association between viewing of foreign channels and role of Pakistani women in society. Pakistan.3 Hypothesis The hypothesis designed for the study was as follows: 1. Propose recommendations for policy-makers. it was high time to conduct a study on cable television effects. This study tried to record the demographic characteristics of cable television subscribers (women only) and measured their level of viewership. Gauge association between viewing of cable television and change in family and social interaction patterns of women (18-40 years) in Lahore. 1. The primary beneficiaries were the ZEE TV. sports channels etc. These western and Indian channels have grabbed attention of viewers in Pakistan and exposed its audience to programmes that were vividly different to the usual available programmes on local television channels. viewers and media practitioners. Sony. Examine association between viewing of cable television and its effect on house and personal expenditure of women in Lahore. Pakistan. So this research has been conducted to find out the effects of cable television in Pakistan.1 (A) Major Hypothesis Greater the exposure to cable television greater the effect on the lives of women in Lahore. Therefore. Pakistan .3 reports that growth of cable television has resulted into a spill over of the Indian and western channels to Pakistani audience. There was an apprehension among the public that these Indian and western channels may adversely affecting viewers’ minds and activities. Following were the specific objectives of the study to: · · · · · · · Explore how viewing of cable television was affecting their household chores and other activities.3.
values and behaviour patterns of female viewers through cable television. dress. 3. most of the researchers were of the view that television viewing generates socio-economic and cultural changes. Researcher had selected the above-mentioned factors based on the conclusion. Heavy viewers of cable television experience greater degree of effect on their cultural practices than moderate and light viewers. Family and social interaction patterns. Cultural practices i. 6.e.4 Rationale This study was aimed at finding out effects of cable television on Pakistani women with emphasis on measuring these effects on women belonging to Lahore and viewing cable television for a minimum of two years.e.. Heavy viewers of cable television tend to show a greater degree of acceptance of television characters’ appearance and style than moderate and light viewers.3. The following subhypotheses were formed on the basis of above-mentioned factors. Heavy viewers of cable television experience a greater degree of change in their family and social interaction patterns than moderate and light viewers. Domestic and personal expenditure. to what extent has it effected the women at basic level in terms of the following factors: · · · · · · Domestic and other activities. traditions and religion. food. and Role of Pakistani women in society. Appearance and style. Heavy viewers of cable television tend to show a greater degree of acceptance of roles of women as portrayed on Indian and western channels than moderate and light viewers. 1. language. 2.4 The core purpose of this study was to dig out the influence of foreign channels and Pakistani channels with foreign contents on social life.2 (B) Sub-Hypotheses 1. Heavy viewers of cable television experience a greater degree of effect on their domestic and personal expenditures than moderate and light viewers. The researcher was interested to examine if the cable television has any affects on women in Pakistan and if ‘yes’. after reviewing the relevant literature i. 5. 4. Heavy viewers of cable television experience greater degree of effect on their domestic and other activities than moderate and light viewers. 1. The study was important as there was a general .
healthy and constructive entertainment programmes for general public ((Zia. p. Cable television has been put under analysis as it is the most readily available form of media and is gaining immense popularity among the masses in Pakistan.4.10). 1. The authorities wanted to support the cable television network and increase its popularity among viewers. this household commodity has on its consumers. particularly on women of reproductive age in Lahore. Its rapid spread and acceptance within a short span of time. The concern of the researcher was carried on from here forth because cable television as a mass media tool was undeniably popular in Pakistan and has become a flourishing business. entitles for a proper study to gauge its effects. Thus.1 Selection of Cable Television With the advancement in technology. The government of Pakistan legalized cable television network in June 2000. Its status changed from “a luxury” and has rather become a household commodity.5 concern in the society about cable television and their impact/effects on women particularly if they were heavy viewers of cable television. education. media studies need to be shifted towards those new technological gadgets that seem to have become popular globally. 135). regulations and code of conduct to encourage smooth flow of information. The government explained that cable television had emerged as one of the most inexpensive means of entertainment in the county. 2003. Introduction of policies and proper rules and regulations by the government ensured transmission of good programmes through their channels. But little or no attention had been paid in the past to the actual consumption of cable television and its impact on audience. the research intended to bring under examination effects. knowledge. presented a fairly good picture of the availability and acceptability of cable television. p. The cable television has become a requirement across Pakistan and is not considered a luxury any more. A former study (sample size 2000) by the researcher regarding an opinion survey for cable viewing habits in Pakistan showed that 90 percent of the population of Lahore had access to cable television. 2004. 90 percent of the households in Lahore own a personal cable connection (Zia. According to a research report of sample size of 2000 conducted in Lahore by the researcher. The declared policy of cable television says that government in principles has decided to promote and strengthen this modern network through regular rules. . It. therefore. Pakistan.
With so much of what is perceived to be wrong. public policy makers and attract the interest of numerous scholars. Thus to judge the effects of cable television. Concerns over impacts/effects of media always reinforce whenever a new communication technology is introduced in the society because technology has never been neutral. James Current (1988) said “Empirically grounded audience research stressing audience power also raises difficulties”. A fundamental knowledge of media effects is a necessary criterion for excelling in the information age. Therefore. It always has negative or positive impact. the researcher believes that present study could perform the same function. from presidents to parents and from intelligentsia to beginning students. Much of this work is directed towards the short term media influence. has been blamed on the media of communication of some sort or another. Since the acceptability of cable television has been termed as a household commodity. even through media influence is primarily long term and cumulative. if it does have an impact. The researcher observed that laws and rules have been devised but the cable operators are not abiding them. concern over powerful media effects has been expressed by society’s educated elite. a communication system recently gained popularity in Pakistan is the most relevant and important area of research for communication experts and researchers. in today’s world. More importantly. We live in a world where we receive a multitude of mediated messages daily. Thompson and Bryant (2002) state that the knowledge of effects from mediated communication assumed an increased importance. Media effect is an important and fascinating research domain. . it was therefore necessary to check whether it has any impact on its consumers or not. the researcher intended to explore the nature of the impact. The issue of mass media effects has become one of the paramount social relevance. These historical instances of concern about detrimental societal affects of media messages have been strong and loud enough to influence lawmakers. new technologies and the spread of literacy led to the development of a remarkable new form of communication: the mass communication.2 Research on Cable Television Effects In 19th century.4. Computers and mass media are vital cogs in our societal infrastructure. individuals and groups from all strata of population. We have become information-oriented and information-dependent and some have dubbed ours as an “Information Society”.6 1. Since that period.
3 Study on Women Women population under study has been further divided into three categories: light viewers (watching cable television from 1-2 hours daily). They live in contrasting social set-ups. The study further revealed that satellite communication was introducing international culture and viewers were admiring the general living standards of social values of western and Indian societies. Usage. the female spectator must identify with the passive. the researcher intended to explore whether people are adopting these new trends and fashions or not. 1.4. Majority of the women respondents in this study were of the opinion that dresses hairstyles and jewellery of Indian and western models grabbed their attention the most. she first identifies with the cinematic apparatus. Secondly. fetish position of the female character . In light of the findings of the study conducted by the researcher herself: “Cable Television Network in Pakistan Development. Prospects and Dilemmas” in 2003 the programmes that were being projected on the satellite channels were pre-dominantly western and Indian. Through this dissertation. she desires the image. a lot of undesirable programmes and advertisements were also being screened without any fear of being checked as the government does not have any system of check and balance. Therefore. she has a narcissistic identification with the image and then as she moves from imaginary to the symbolic. new trends and fashions were making their way in our society. With the reference to passive audience behaviour of the women as stated by Bellour (1975). Viewers of programmes through dish antenna felt a change in their outlook towards life and became more broad-minded.7 A study conducted by Saleem (1994) on ‘Impact of Dish Antenna on Pakistani Society” concluded that 44 percent of the respondents felt considerable impact upon their social behaviour. On these cable television networks. have different levels of education. reside in different environments and have varying exposure to outer world and communication opportunities. moving images on screen function simultaneously for the imaginary and the symbolic. moderate viewers (watching cable television for more than 2 but less then 4 hours daily) and heavy viewers (watching cable television 4 and more then 4 hours daily). the projector functions as the eye. All these factors have been taken into consideration because the researcher intended to examine varying affects on females according to their demographic characteristics. As the spectator enters into a filmic experience. Laura Mulvey further suggests that in order to derive visual pleasure.
The study has provided certain recommendations on the bases of these affects. with such concern in the back of her mind. It is a general observation that females in Pakistan are the housewives. Further. this study focused on women only and analysed the affects of these programmes on them. the PEMRA does not have any proper system of check and balance and monitoring cable networks.3 percent of the women used cable television for information and awareness purpose. their perception falls back upon the mediated and glamorised reality via television. woman is also the one who is responsible for keeping intact the value system of the family unit and thus the women population holds the key to value system of the society in general. it was very necessary to measure those implicit and explicit effects that (might) affect the behaviour and attitudes of the female-audience. Thus. this study had a strong rationale for analyzing the effects women are receiving through the cable television. in Pakistan’s male-dominated society. On the other hand. Thus. explicit content. a woman is supposed to perform an important responsibility of bringing up their children. obscenity and vulgar language shown through cable television channels is evident and important. Even if the women possess communicative skills. this study was deemed significant for the public and the policy makers. Public concern over the ill effects of media violence and sexuality. Zia (2003) mentioned that cable television channels have been immensely popular among viewers. A very small segment of the female population professionally works. particularly among women folk in Pakistan. Hence. Hence. Hence their exposure to outside world is limited. Such observations developed the need of this study.8 on screen. Moreover. . It was reported in the national dailies several times that angry viewers physically attacked the cable operators. Therefore. A study by Zia (2004) concluded that entertainment was the primary purpose of viewing cable television and 70 percent female cable viewers were interested in watching only two kinds of programmes: films and dramas. In Pakistan. This also directed attention towards an important issue: the weak analytical and expressive powers of female population in general. This caused many to criticize the channels and express concern over the effects of such material on an innocent and expanding viewership. women are not encouraged to come forward and speak-out their minds. they are not provided with a proper platform to get themselves heard. Only 17. She is considered as the first institution of the society from where the child learns.
The term also includes systems that distribute signals solely via satellite. a succession of three overlapping technological stages that have taken place during the last 150 years (Zia. the early transmitters were not very powerful. had difficulty selling television sets to local residents because reception in the area was poor. Hence. functioning strictly in line with the values.1). The problem seemed to be the location of the town in a valley and nearly 90 air miles from the Philadelphia television transmitters.9 Thompson and Bryant (2002) expressed that new media enabled users to become more active in communication process and to be more selective with regard to messages they receive. Pakistan. We are living in an era which has frequently been characterized as ‘the age of communication revolution’ a cycle of profound and accelerating social and cultural change often attributed to the impact of new media technologies. These boosting inventions have. They may be called addressable users of micro multimedia television. signals could not pass through mountains and clear reception was virtually impossible except on the ridges outside of town. Naturally. It was frustrating for those who had just purchased an expensive set but not receiving clear transmission. in fact. norms. a system that distributes television signals by means of coaxial or fibre optic cables. Bellour (1975) considered women as passive audience but was converting them into an active audience. This communication revolution is. the study explored the area of cable watching and its effects with special reference to women residing in Lahore. If one lived close to the station. in fact. an appliance storeowner in a small town of Mahanoy.5 Brief History of Cable Television The traditional mass media had a confined sphere in countries where it initially grew. there . traditions and basic requirements of the local populace. 1. made the world a global village by transforming media into an international entity. with all these aspects in mind. For one thing. They were active agents rather than passive receivers of information. the invention of new technologies like satellite communication. p. Encyclopedia Britannica (1986) describes cable television that generally. Cable television system originated in United States in the early 1950s and was designed to improve reception of commercial network broadcasts in remote and hilly areas. cable television and internet has helped it cross national boundaries and address the worldwide audience. 2003.6 World History of Cable Television John Walson. Reasons for poor reception were well-understood. 1. But.
And as such the cable television was born in June 1948. the picture was often fuzzy. another appliance salesman named Robert (Bob) Tarlton experienced similar problems as those faced by Mr. one master antenna (MATV) could be used for all television in the building. He did not originate any new programming. And. Though it had not yet become popular. reception could be poor. Even a passing car could create electrical interference and fill the screen with ‘snow’ or cause the picture to roll. Milton Jerrold Shapp. Shapp’s new system and though it worked for apartment houses and department stores. city department stores displayed many different models for sale. At about the same time. television was fairly new. Under this new system. Mr. But for those living some distance away. His secret: the coaxial cable and signal boosters (amplifiers) capable of carrying multiple signals at once. To solve his problem. developed a system to consolidate the forest of antennas for city department stores and apartment buildings. Walson put an antenna on the top of a large utility pole and installed it on the top of a nearby mountain. it could work for his own town as well. In addition. the rooftops of stores were beginning to resemble forests of television antennas. It became his responsibility to improve the picture quality by using coaxial cable and self. it was behind a mountain that interfered with signals. In the early 1950’s. the fact that television signals travel in a straight line reduced the quality of reception or even made it impossible behind large buildings on the back side of hills or mountains and in similar positions. distorted or faint. He put up a big antenna and for a monthly fee he provided a cable hook-up to each subscriber’s home.10 were few limitations. television sales soared. Walson. All he did was to capture network broadcasts with his community antenna and relay them to homes on his system. . who later became governor of Pennsylvania. Television signals were received and transported over twin lead antenna wire down to his store.manufactured ‘boosters’ (amplifiers to bring cable television to the homes of customers who bought television sets. He read about Mr. He called his new business the “Panther Valley Television Company”. While the community was only 65 miles from Philadelphia. like an apartment house where every resident had his/her own television. Once people saw these early results. Tarlton decided to try a new approach. and he was able to supply excellent signals to people who could not otherwise operate a receiver. in the nearby town of Lansford.
Because it is so widely available. public service announcements. which is usually a mixed bag that includes network broadcasts plus special channels that feature weather. one can receive the ‘basic’ service. Pakistani public was a little bit familiar with television through an exhibition where Philips Electrical Company installed a few television sets and televised few foreign films. however there is certainly a greater variety of choice.300 miles over the equator and bounced back to receivers on the earth. microwave distributed services such as WOR-TV. sports. This represented the first successful pay cable service to the nation. Hence Pakistan entered into television broadcasting age with a small pilot television station at Lahore on November 26. rock music and various other kinds of content. 1. education and awareness. For a monthly fee.11 1.6. 1964 from where transmission was beamed black and white. The way it works is that a signal is beamed from the earth to a satellite in a stationary orbit some 22.1 Cable Develops in the World Pay television was launched in November 1972 when Service Electric offered Home Box Office or HBO over its cable system in Wilkes Barre. This station telecast some live but amateur programmes and some of foreign films.500. HBO was the first programming service to use a satellite to distribute its programming. news. By satellite distribution. HBO’s signals are available to cable operators throughout North America. Colombo plan and Japanese government. a national publicity conference was held under the chairmanship of the President Ayub Khan that decided to set up a television station in Pakistan. television centre was set up with the help of UNESCO. knowledge. religious programmes. it was thought that television could help in achieving progress in the country through dissemination of information. Despite the fact that HBO was only viewed by a few hundred people that first night. To meet the graving cost of television .7 Development of Television in Pakistan Authorities in Pakistan introduced television in 1964 with the aim to uplift the nation socially and culturally. Cable is in many ways a bit different. Before Pakistan television started in 1964.an independent station in New York city. Initially.000 viewers. it has gone on to become the world’s largest pay cable service with over 11. As Pakistan was a newly-born state and under-developed. Pennsylvania. For additional fees one can add movie channels or other special services. it had an advantage over the earthbound. So HBO decided to deliver its signals by satellite. In October 1963.
With the opening of Ptv World. targets Pakistani expatriates in the Middle East. Mideast Time. it switched over to color transmission. when the network procured the required VTR recording equipment. 1431 to Rs. which were established in 1967 and Peshawar and Quetta centres in 1975. it was perforce transmitting only live from the studios. On May 29. The shares of the government of Pakistan were greater then the private company. 1. 1. 1.7. 1.4 Ptv National The objective of the Ptv National is providing different local news as well as entertainment in all languages in different part of the country. 1967 the company turned into a public limited company namely Pakistan Television Corporation and registered under Company’s Act 1913. The central office of the corporation consists of seven divisions accordingly. an extension of Ptv World. . commercial telecast was also permitted but no license fee was charged on television set at that time. And in 1976.7. Ptv-Karachi Centre along with four re-broadcast stations at Thana Bola Khan.2 Development of Pakistan Television Corporation Limited Pakistan Television has now five centres throughout the country including Karachi and Rawalpindi television centres. 148 million net operating losses to Rs. Shikarpur. Now Ptv has been converted into a profitable organization with a leap of Rs.7. always nominated by the government. 38 million net operating profits.7.1 Pakistan Television Corporation Limited Initially the Government of Pakistan established a private company in collaboration with the Japanese Nippon Electrical Company (NEC) and Britain World known Thomas Television International which initially started television programming in 1964. connected to other centres in the country through microwave link. It has established its own training academy as well. Until 1968. from Rs.3 Ptv World A new satellite channel Ptv World was launched in 1991. and then mostly operating in rented buildings. 287 million from Rs. cover about 90 percent of the population.12 broadcasting. Pakistani programmes are now being viewed in other parts of the world via satellite. Noorpur and Thando Allahyar. is the managing and executive head of the corporation and implements rules formulated for the Corporation and its employees. A Board of Directors comprises 10 members and looks after policy maters and important affairs of the Corporation. The Managing Director. 1718 million in advertising income.
8 Induction of Private Sector in Broadcast Media In Pakistan the broadcast media has remained under the government control during the last 40 years of the country’s history. giving connections to each apartment from there. Cable operators who were relying on the video cassettes until now felt the need for installing satellite-receiving dishes to provide a variety of programmes to their subscribers through CNN. the last decade witnessed a great change in the media policy of the government and media gradually opened up to the private sector. The system in Karachi gradually flourished and many people entered in this business.9 Cable Television Network in Pakistan In Pakistan. according to Director Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA). 1. which assumed the shape of an industry. During early 1990’s satellite television became an irresistible phenomenon in Pakistan. the government allowed private radio and television outlets namely FM-100 and Shaheen Pay TV. 1.5 AJK TV AJK television is a Kashmiri Channel providing different programmes for local viewers and Kashmiri and Gojrati news. the cable television network was quietly introduced at a small scale in Karachi in the early 80’s in the absence of any regulatory law. particularly in Punjab. Cable system started to expand by a stringing of wires from one rooftop to another and so on. Thus the large scale cable network emerged out of the already established cable system. 2003) In 1982. However. But in 1998. In line with the global trends it also introduced the new media technologies in the country resulting in a rapid growth of broadcast media in the country.13 1. Operation rooms were usually set up in the basements of the buildings. Main attraction for subscribers was Indian and English movies and Ptv dramas which the operators would obtain on rent from nearby video centres. Each household was paying a small monthly fee to the operator for the service.7. all major channels were transferred to . Star TV and various Indian channels. (Zia. although partially state-owned as an alternate channel to Ptv in 1989. In 1996. The late 80’s and early 90’s marked a turning point on the electronic media landscape with the emergence of Shalimar Television Network (STN). It started from the city’s apartment buildings and worked without any large-scale equipment because of the close proximity of the apartments. the availability of satellite channels in Pakistan brought about a major change in the cable network operations.
total number of legal cable operators was 840 across the country. The army regime headed by General Musharraf legalized cable television operations in January 2000. 1. PTA chairman Mian Muhammad Javed explained that cable television had now emerged as one of the most inexpensive means of entertainment in the country which government wanted to make more popular among users and viewers by framing policies and proper rules and regulations to ensure transmission of good programmes through their channels. the Nawaz Sharif government was toppled and the armed forces took command of the nation’s destiny and started considering legalization of the cable television. Out of these. The government took notice of this illegal operation in the late 1998. A man once setup this satellite system for his own personal use and then started providing this service to neighbouring areas against a small fee. a majority of operators were based in Karachi. For the running of one small set-up at least 8-10 employees were required.000 people got employment through this system and were providing livelihood to about 50. in June 2000. . Therefore. cable television networks started functioning legally which initiated a new era of electronic media in Pakistan. This raised a number of new queries and gave an opportunity to people to discuss this new system of communication in Pakistan. this gave way to the business of cable television networking which established and flourished in a short period. The following is the data for the number of issued application forms and responses received till June 2000. About 8. 2003: 88). The Nawaz Sharif headed government came to conclusion that cable operation be made legal in Pakistan. which were a lot more expensive and the annual subscription was also beyond the reach of a common man. The legalization process of cable television networks started in November 1998 and completed in 2000. Thus. On the other hand illegal cable operators also continued to work. But before any action could be taken.10 Cable Television Licenses There were eight categories of cable television licenses ranging from B-1 to B-8 based on the number of subscribers. They add up to about 3. The Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) started the procedure of issuing licenses to the cable operators in January 2000. Till December 2001. Lahore and in some other major cities of Punjab.000 and were providing employment opportunities to a large number of people (Zia.14 decoders.000 persons.
The number of households using this service has crossed 2.5 million.e. In the densely populated cities. 2001 by PTA Category B-1 B-2 B-3 B-4 B-5 B-6 B-7 B-8 Total Islamabad/ NWFP 110 3 0 1 0 0 0 5 119 Punjab/ Lahore 328 7 2 1 0 0 0 0 338 Karachi 333 42 1 1 1 1 0 1 380 Total 771 52 3 3 1 1 0 6 837 Source: Pakistan Telecommunication Authority It can be seen from the above table that maximum licenses were issued in Karachi i.1: Licenses Issued to Cable Operators from June 2000 to Dec. like Karachi and Lahore.e.15 PTA issued nationwide licenses to the cable operators and the issuance of the license to an eligible firm(s)/company may take seven days on the receipt of the application. This shows that the growth of cable television network is at its peak in Karachi and in Punjab including that cable television was warmly welcomed in these areas and people accepted it with pleasure. 119 whereas Lahore issued 338 licenses throughout Punjab. houses are close to each other. Secondly. making . Table 1. the growth of cable television is rapid as the operators do not have to face high installation cost. 380 and minimum were issued in Islamabad/NWFP i. Cable television has been growing rapidly in major cities of the country since the government authorised PTA to issue licences to cable operators in early 2000.
16 supplying of connections easier than in cities like Islamabad where the houses are not so close. PEMRA inherited 848 licenses from PTA and issued around 1173 new licenses.11 Formation of Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority An independent cooperate body namely Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) was established to regulate the process of awarding licenses to private and public sector. cable network has expanded 25 percent in just one year. for smooth functioning of private media and to effectively deal with the public complaints on March 1.11. technology. sports. . current affairs. national. music. 2003: 89). cable television system is far from being a thriving trend as cable operators see dim business prospects in the field. education and entertainment To expand choices available to people of Pakistan in media for news. (Zia. religious knowledge.1 PEMRA Vision · To promote the electronic media in Pakistan so as: 1. 1. 1. Therefore. science. According to a study in which three thousand people were interviewed in different areas of town. This body is functional since April 15. To reflect the aspirations of people at national and international level 2. culture. social sector concerns. 2002. transparency and good governance by optimizing free flow of information 1.11. PEMRA consisted of a Chairman and nine members appointed by President of Pakistan.3 Functions of the Authority PTA is responsible for facilitating and regulating the establishment and operation of all the broadcast media and distribution services in Pakistan established for international. in the federal capital.11. district and local or special target audiences. drama and other subjects of public and national interest · · To improve people’s access to mass media at local and community level To ensure accountability. art.2 Mandate of PEMRA · · To improve the standards of information. 2002 after the lapse of the PEMRA Ordinance in 1997. To serve as a catalyst for socio-economic development · · Exploit indigenous human and financial resources in the broadcasting field to gain competitive advantage and become a leading player in the region Introduce state of the art technologies 1. economic development. provincial.
Other surveys have revealed that cable and satellite penetration has grown from 5 percent in 1998 to approximately 45 percent in 2006 in the country (Report 2003. developed a code of ethics for operators selected 54 eligible television channels for distribution detected over 2. whereas many more are being licensed and almost double the number are under process for regularization. Province-wise number of licenses issued is as follows: · Sindh -------------------. During the years 2003 .4 Aims and Objectives PTA thus underscored following key objectives: · · · · · To streamline cable television operations in Pakistan by identifying actual and potential cable television homes in Pakistan To mutually resolve issues/grievances between cable television operators and service providers by determining reasonable tariff structure To ensure positive contribution to the economy by attracting and encouraging potential investors in the field of electronic media To enhance the existing revenue base of PEMRA To avoid massive larceny of government revenue in the form of taxes and tariffs caused due to concealing of facts about actual income by cable television operators · To evade anomalies and piracy issues in electronic media For obvious reasons. PTA has evolved a comprehensive policy to grant licenses for establishing cable television networks. It covers over 5-6 million households with approximately 30.313 .06: PEMRA). an estimated investment in this segment is over Rs. As per Sedat and Murshad Associates survey and study. PEMRA has issued cable television regulations.17 1.2006.000 illegal cable television operators/loop line holders and regularized rural areas cable television operators. PEMRA has issued 788 licenses in various categories for launching cable television networks in various parts of the country that is in addition to the licenses inherited by the PEMRA from PTA.28 billion with annual growth rate of 132 percent for the last three years. there were 1.105 licensed cable television operators in the country. identifying for them baskets of television channels and introducing them to new media technologies.11. Till February 2004. cable television still remains the fastest growing sector in the domain of electronic media in the country. 7.000 personnel working on self-employment basis.
.18 · · · · Punjab -------------------235 NWFP------------------.52 Islamabad -------------.70 Table 1.2: Licenses Issued to Cable Operators till 2006 by PEMRA License category B(LH) B-1 B-2 B-3 B-4 B-5 B-6 B-7 B-8 B-9 B-10 Rural (R) Hotel (H) Total Islamabad Region 09 90 18 02 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 63 00 182 Punjab region 99 236 07 01 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 60 03 408 NWFP Region 12 50 03 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 17 00 82 Sindh Region 00 219 71 24 03 03 00 00 02 00 01 217 04 544 Balochistan Region 08 28 03 01 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 43 01 85 Total 125 622 94 25 05 04 00 00 02 00 01 365 08 1301 Source: Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority.118 Balochistan ------------.
periodically revising it to cater to public taste. cable operators do not have any device to censor whatever the channels are broadcasting.244 88.19 The authority retains the approved list of satellite television channels under constant review.037 8.332 22.000 3.905 1.000 499.356 17.922 .017 40. The list is enclosed at: · · · · · · Religious Channels ----------------------------02 News Channels ----------------------------11 Educational and Informational Channels----09 Entertainment Channels-----------------------06 Sports Channels --------------------------06 Entertainment Channels-----------------------15 The list is widely circulated among cable television operators for their information and compliance. However.392 Implemented subscribers through enforcement so far 223. In addition to this PEMRA does not have any system to monitor the channels which are being transferred to the connection holders by the cable operators. needs and demands. Table 1. The number of connections has been increased from 2.434 176.000 1. Its current list has on it 49 satellite television channels excluding the Pakistani ones.497.3: Number of Cable Television Subscribers in the Country Areas / Region Islamabad Sindh Punjab NWFP Balochistan Grand total Source: Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority Declared subscribers by cable television operators 40.011.270.9 million in 2003 to more 4 million homes in 2006 in Pakistan.
000 – 12000 Monthly subscription (in Rs) 225 – 350 200.843.843.) Up to 4.107. Table 1. the cable television operators at present in different parts of country were charging competitive rates from subscribers. Table 1.5: Television Viewership by Household Income Monthly household income (Rs.5 portrays a survey of the television viewership in the country by household income group. published by PEMRA. Table 1.350 250 – 350 Source: Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority The growth in subscription of above technologies is correlated with the cost effectiveness that is offered to end-users.4: Technology and Connection Charges Technology Connection charges/installation(Rs) Cable Television MMDS DTH 500 – 2000 1500 – 2000 10.000 17.000 11.000.000 4001-7000 7001-15000 15000+ Source: Gallup Survey of Pakistan Viewers percentage 35 51 72 81 Estimated numbers 14.845. 2.20 1.000 Cable television operators all over the country have been relaying programmes and advertisements on self-generated CD channels in explicit violation of the provisions . The one time connection fee ranges from Rs.5 Cost Effectiveness for End-Users According to 2003-2006 report.500 to Rs.000 7.11.
The number of such channels is now restricted to five (maximum) according to categories of cable television licenses. Both options were evolved in consultation with various representatives of cable television operators associations and stakeholders (PEMRA: Annual Report 2002-2003). it introduced for operators running their cable operations on loopline from any licensed cable television head-end operators.35 million subscribers. the sector had over the time come to be lighted massively by the courage of loopline connections. . By doing so they were causing damage to the satellite television channel operators by fetching advertisements at a very cheaper cost. Moreover. Instead of going for rather impracticable punitive actions. a category marked as cable television license of loop-line holders (LH Category). On the other hand. The very purpose of this policy is to ensure the level playing field for stakeholders by regulating illegal transpiration of in-house channels. Whereas. The license for in-house channel and its fee is in addition to the license for cable television operation. PEMRA has therefore devised a policy for registration of inhouse channels for cable television operators. the Authority thought it more prudent and practicable to bring the operators of these illegal connections in its net by offering them concessions. As such. PEMRA has issued 83 head-end licensees till 2006. It provides two options to such loop holders. In Lahore. some good results were obtained and PEMRA issued 640 head-end licenses till 2006 in Punjab. cable television operators of the country have persistently demanded PEMRA for granting permission for in-house channels and advertising on cable television networks. out of which 68 are active and 276 loop holders are successfully handling cable perorations and serving 0. Every cable operator/loop holder provides more than 100 channels to connection holder. No operator is allowed to transmit their local channels or to insert ads without prior permission/license of the Authority. content and quantity of such private channels was also devoid of PEMRA rules. They can either obtain an independent license in LH Category maintaining their independent status or they may become an agent to the licensed cable television operator.21 of PEMRA regulations. Moreover. To this end. in past they were showing 15 to 20 such channels by flouting all the regulations and norms.
People's Television Network. with PTV having an extensive reach because of its extensive network of stations and boosters. Presently. the last decade witnessed a great change in media policy of government and media gradually opened up to private sector. However. It has a greater acceptability and credibility of people in areas where it can be watched through cable network and satellite dish antennas. which assumed the shape of an industry. was established which brought Cable News Network (CNN) to Pakistan. This channel was also partially government controlled. Until August 1990. more than 20 satellite television channels having Pakistani contents are being broadcast with different names including foreign band channels including: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · AJK Geo TV Indus Plus Ptv 1 QTV UNI Plus ARY Digital Pakistan Indus Music Indus Vision Ptv Channel 3 The City Channel Geo News ARY One World Indus News KTN Ptv National The Music Apna Channel The present situation in Pakistan shows dominance both by public sector and private/commercial media. In line with global trends it also introduced new media technologies in the country and the resultantly a rapid growth of broadcast media in the country was witnessed. namely FM-100 and Shaheen Pay TV. education and entertainment. In practical terms. emerged as an alternate channel to Ptv.12 Private Sector in Broadcast Media In Pakistan the broadcast media has remained under the government control. in Pakistan we can differentiate three kinds of television channels: 1. Pakistan Television Corporation (Ptv) was the only state owned television channel. Currently. The government in 1996 allowed private radio and television outlets. however. At that time. In 1989 Shalimar Television Network (STN) although partially state-owned. State-owned television channels . another television channel.22 1. it meant competition and resultantly the creation of a broad spectrum environment for access to information.
6. .12. Drama Plus. Al-Irfan. Style Duniya. 1. Al-Noor. Privately-owned commercial television channels that are not PEMRA licensee but telecast from abroad 3. TV-ONE. They include Geo. Indus News.3 PEMRA Licensee PEMRA has issued 16 licenses in private sector till 2005 which are allowed to uplink from Pakistan. Iqra.23 2. Privately-owned commercial television channels that are PEMRA licensee 1. All of these are commercial channels. and Ptv World. Sun TV. Aaj TV and Apna channel.12. The Music. Those in bold type are on air and the remaining are about to become functional for public in a short period of time. These are enlisted in Table 1. UNI PLUS. 1. QTV. Business Plus.2 Non-PEMRA Licensee Several satellite television channels are freely telecasting their transmissions from outside Pakistan but originating virtually their entire content from within the country without facing major obstructions.12. ARY Asia.1 State-Owned Television Channels State-owned television channels are those whose 100 percent shares are with the government of Pakistan. Atv. Ptv has sold STN time to a private company that is running the channel with another name. Ptv National. These are Ptv.
.. 1 Name/Title of licensee Virtual University. No. Ltd. Ltd. Karachi [Two Channels] Licence issued for “ARY ONE World” “ARY Digital” 5 Mashriq Television Pvt. Islamabad. Karachi [Two Channels] License issued for “Indus Music” “Indus Vision” 3 AVT Prime Pvt.6: The PEMRA Licence Holder Private Channels Sr.) Ltd. Karachi 24-Seven Media Network (pvt) Ltd. Lahore.. Lahore. Licence Issued for “Khyber TV” 4 ARY Communications Pvt. Eye TV Ltd.) Ltd. Lahore Licence Issued for “Mashriq TV” 6 7 8 9 10 11 International Marketing and Trading Company (Pvt. Lahore [Two Channels] Name of channel License issued for “VTV 1” “VTV 2” “VTV 3” “VTV 4” 2 Indus TV Network (Pvt. Ltd.) Ltd. Top End Network (Pvt. Karachi Vision Network TV Ltd. Karachi Southern Networks Limited.24 Table 1. Islamabad Licence Issued Licence Issued "Hum TV" Licence Issued Licence Issued Licence Issued Source: Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority Number of Licenses 16 Gone ‘on-air’ 10 ..
24 Hour Urdu/English News Channel ARY Digital Pakistan ARY Digital USA ARY Digital Europe ATV .13 Government and Private Television Channels in Pakistan The cable operators are offering following local channels: AAG TV .Har Pal Geo! GEO News .Your Drama Channel INDUS Plus .24 Hour Pakistani Music Channel (Affiliated with MTV) INDUS Vision .Hur Lamha Aap Ke Saath! .24 Hour Pakistani Music Channel · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · AAJ TV .Hum Sub Kay Liay INDUS Music .24 Hour News Service HBO Pakistan .National Pushto Channel BUSINESS Plus TV .Profit From It Channel G-24 Hour Music Channel DM Digital Pakistan-UK Based Channel FILMAZIA .Punjabi Entertainment Television ARYONE World .24 Hour Children Programming CNBC Pakistan .24 Hour Hollywood Flims HUM TV .24 Hour Business News Channel Cartoon Network Pakistan .National Kashmiri Television AVT Khyber .Entertainment Television APNA .25 1.Aik Duniya Nayee AJK TV .Lollywood Film Channel GEO TV .
Online Educational Channel VIBE .UK Based Urdu Channel Sun Biz TV Ravi TV .National Urdu Channel Ptv National .Official Domestic State Television Ptv World .National Sindhi Channel Mashriq TV .Online Educational Channel Virtual TV2 .Pakistani Urdu Channel Virtual TV1 .24 Hours Round The Clock News INDUS USA .Karachi Metro Channel UNI Plus .Pakistan's Newest 24 Hour Music Channel Vectone .24 Hour Islamic Religious Channel Rung TV Sindh TV .26 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · INDUS News .Sindhi Language Television The Musik .Official International State Television Ptv Bolan .National Balochi Channel Ptv Channel 1 Ptv Channel 3 Ptv Prime Europe Ptv Prime USA QTV .24 Hour Pakistani Music Channel TVOne .For North American Viewers INDUS Europe .The ONE To Watch City Channel Karachi .For European Viewers KTN .
27 · Urdu Music Videos from IM of Pakistan 1.14 International Channels Viewed in Pakistan Following are the foreign channels offered by cable television operators: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Star World · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Star Plus · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Star Gold Star Movies Star Sports Sahara One Sur Sangeet Super Sports Ten sports Zee Movies Zee Tv Zee Smile ZOOM HBO HallMark AXN Balle Balle BBC Prime Bloom Berg Cartoon Network ESPN VOX Fashion TV ESPN FOX Reality TV MTV Channel V CNN Discovery channel National Geographic History SONY Saharay samay Saudi Tv LBC B4u music B4u movies S Max Sky sports South Aisa World Zee cinema .
Lahore and Islamabad. Some of them have subscriber basis as low as 1. the number of cable operators was 837 which increased to 1301 till 2006. An amazing rise of cable television is evident if one examines the growth rate of cable television operators over the years.15 MMDS and LMDS Electronic Media Review (2004) reports that the technology of wireless cable (MMDS) strengthened its roots in Pakistan in the year 1996. Initially. 2006). Shaheen Pay TV is operating in three cities: Karachi.28 · · · Star one · · · CNBC · · · MTV HITS MTV UK Nickelodeon Sky Movies Sky News The Hits Animal Planet 1. It will provide a wide choice. comparatively better television services to subscribers. 350 per month. 1. In 2002. Subscription fee varies from Rs.000 to as high as in hundreds and thousands. A majority of stakeholders now is the Southern Group. a subsidiary of Shaheen Foundation. Presently. Shaheen Pay TV used to broadcast 10 channels but later increased the number to twelve. Cable television network is gradually spreading out in a number of small towns extending to the rural areas providing the masses access to foreign and local satellite channels. PEMRA has issued two MMDS licenses for two cities to a company whereas 12 companies are being issued MMDS licenses in other 19 cities.16 Situation Analysis The cable industry and satellite channels played a mutual complimentary role in the country and giving a sound impetus to the private television network. People started enjoying this new freedom of choice and . Shaheen TV. 225 to Rs. LMDS system is not operative at the moment in Pakistan. Most of the networks are providing minimum of 30 to 40 and maximum of 120-150 channels to subscribers. The popularity of cable television in the country is owing to the availability of both local and foreign channels as well as access to round the clock availability of programmes of a wide variety. PEMRA plans to issue licenses in this technology in near future (PEMRA website. obtained license from the government of Pakistan to establish analogue Multi-channel Multipoint Distribution System (MMDS).
drama. For instance. Moreover. music channels. inexpensive and round the clock entertainment is available at their home for the entire family. music. interviews with personalities on news channels. international programmes. Apart from live coverage of major happenings. It lacked coverage to social and other issue of common man’s interests. political leaders and ministers were telecast. rapid growth of cable television in Pakistan has not only broken the monopoly of Ptv in the country but also possessed a challenge to the behaviour and values system of our nation. sports programmes etc. Therefore. food stuff and tickets. they have to spend on their travelling. One of the reasons for the attraction of cable television channels is the live coverage of international audience hitherto ignored by Ptv in the past. Further. if a family visits a cinema hall. foreign channels provide a variety of programmes. Star Plus. viewers of different age groups and different income groups can now approach different kinds of local and foreign channels. with the advent of .29 came out of the stagnant state of Ptv which monopolised the electronic media field for a long time. The Ptv news and current affairs programmes gave more coverage to government activities and most of the time full of statements and speeches of the VIPs. As a result these programmes are quite often monotonous and uninteresting. They were also amazed by visiting foreign lands by watching programmes on cable television foreign channels and were also exposed to the behaviour and lifestyle of other nations. In contrast. At the same time they may avoid the programmes on Ptv which lack variety. chat shows and other programmes have become quite popular among viewers of all income status groups. dramas on Geo. As a result. are unattractive and with a lot of coverage to the govt activities. non-stop entertainment and a choice to all the members of the family. The soap operas. though these programmes promote a very different values system from that of Pakistanis. Another reason for its acceptability and popularity among the viewers is the leisure and entertainment at their doorstep. With the introduction of cable television. ARY and Sports channels attracted both viewers and advertisers which posed a serious threat to Ptv. CNN and other private channels rather than statements by the government officials and celebrities. obviously being expensive to a middle class family. viewers were glad when they received news of events of their interests and interviews with personalities on BBC. with the ultimate number of channels on cable television. Viewers may have the cable connection by paying nominal amount and can watch a variety of channels which provide them unlimited number of films. Now. their uncensored presentation is found to be bold and attractive for them. talk shows.
Ptv and PBC Another important result of the media expansion is the fragmentation of audience. There are separate dedicated channels for sports. Star plus is projecting and promoting the Indian traditions. There might be the following reasons for this act: · · Private television channels are paying heavily to the media professionals i. values and culture in Hindi language. directors. local and state-owned television channels are following the production patterns of foreign channels. there are separate channels for different languages i. producers and broadcasters from Ptv to the new private television channels. music. drama. the whole broadcasting industry has been commercialized.e. etc. producers. religion etc. One of the important and clear trends observed in Pakistani broadcasting industry is the shifting of senior. In Pakistan. editors. Many indigenous programmes are just replicas of the western and Indian programmes. news. With emergence of private satellite channels. famous and creative directors. movies. This was required for the success of the government’s liberal media policy. . This shows that a variety of programmes are available but the content is almost the same. national. Media professionals are enjoying more freedom to work in private channels as compared to state-owned media i. The expansion of commercial broadcasting has created a consumer-oriented market which further expanded the marketing and advertising infrastructure of Pakistan’s economy. Consequently.e. Most of the channels show clichés of similar programmes having a few innovative ideas.30 satellite transmission and growth of cable television has enhanced the element of competition among the television channels. particularly Star Plus owned by Star TV Network. These channels provide diversity in content and theme targeting a specific group. international and regional. no other technology has been accepted and ever made a so sudden impact on minds of peoples as the cable television network has made. Similarly.e.
marriage and roles are not the same as projected in foreign programmes as they are within the native country. Yet technology is not neutral. interaction. Therefore. Literature review revealed that one of the major concerns amongst the researchers all over the world was the amount of exposure to foreign channels on cable television and its impact on the society. 2. emphasis was laid on media and audience by exploring what popular culture meant for Latin Amercian audience (Mcanany and Antonio. The focal point of this study was to evaluate the effects of cable television on women’s life patterns in Pakistan. a good deal of attention in Latin American communication writing was focused on critical analysis of media but with relatively little attention to audience. A logical and systematic review of the literature made the completion of this study possible. Technology is good or bad depending on the use to which it is put. Later. The following section presents a review of the results of relevant studies conducted in various countries and exposes that there has not been any similar research conducted in Pakistan. A review of the knowledge on new communication technologies pertaining to cultural identity by Jamias (1993) summarizes that fear burns rife over the negative impact potential of new communication technologies on cultural identity in rural Asia.31 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Literature review is considered to be the most important stage of the research process as it allows to earn from (and eventually add to) previous researches and also saves time. The importance of audience and media relationship has been recognized in the western countries thus the researcher felt the need of addressing the impact of cable television on the audience (women) in Pakistan also. 1994). Research results have shown both positive and negative aspects of media . the researcher reviewed all the relevant literature available on internet and in major libraries across Pakistan. Before 1970s. The impact of television’s incessant presentation of social roles is sometimes a problem for cultures that differ in their values from the place where these programmes originate. efforts and money. Ideas about family. particularly commercial television as the foreign cultural influence in their region.1 International Studies on Television / Cable Television Latin American communication researchers began to analyze the nature and perceived effects of the rapid spread of mass media.
may not only bring about serious social problems but also give rise to a new rich-poor gap in information between those who know to use the media and those who do not. He says that Palapa was an experiment in rural development through the use of advanced communication technologies by using a satellite based system of broadcasting and telecommunication to link vastly scattered villages with the centre. in short. In contrast. Yoshii (2001) finally considers how society and culture could change as a whole with increased dissemination of new media. We need to firmly establish media literacy and media ethics if we are to prevent these problems from arising. Keeping in view the concerns of the above mentioned researches the present research was the first in Pakistan on similar grounds. Goonasekera (1993) relates the relationship between media and social imperatives. It should inform the choices that people make in their media usage. if used improperly. changes in communication and states. And. The new media. It was considered the most cost-efficient and quickest way of linking the 150 million people of Indonesia.460 . improved health and hygiene to show how to protest the natural environment and to provide general information about the world outside. The results of this study could provide a guideline to the audience how to critically analyze the content of media and keep watch of negative impacts. Rahim (1994) conducted a survey on the impact of cable network on television and video viewing in Hyderabad. transform social organizations. And the world will shift to a value system that applauds changes. According to him: “Cable network introduced in India in 1984 are new phenomenon in media as compared to video. As a result of new media as a whole speeding up the flow of information. not merely at the whims of market forces. bringing about what business administrators call ‘temporariness’. individual citizens should be intellectually prepared to be discerning if not critical users of communication media and products. It is possible for a third world country to adopt communication policies to bypass early stages of industrialization and leapfrog the modern technology. These changes will. The appropriate research approach builds on the primacy of social needs. There were about 3. the ambivalent nature of new communication technology and research.32 technology. should inform media policy. The satellite system was used to launch a development communication programme aimed at teaching basic skills in production and marketing of rural areas-based goods to teach family planning. the world will undergo radical changes such as it has never before experienced. like it or not.
then there is less scope of development of a truly global culture which could include interaction. Although there is no significant variation of choice regarding news on DD and cable television but it is preferred for entertainment programmes and movies.” He concludes that cable subscribers are mostly from upper and middle income groups. assimilation. other family members.6 million. it is more useful for the advertiser. artistic and scientific cross fertilization. Sen (1993) narrates that in today’s world with fibre optics and satellites. On the contrary. evidence suggests that the third world people are changing more to their own . The researcher reported that the major activities affected are: · · · Exposure to other media and reading habits Interaction with children.” A research on the impact of cable television on women at a very basic level in terms of activities. If the global culture means domination of one over the other or replacing one by the other. husband. Delhi. Out of this. with an audience of 1.33 cable television networks in May 1990 and over 3. Hence. This study ascertains if the similar effects and viewer-ship patterns are present in Pakistan or if there is a deviation. 1994). it is hard to isolate one self from sounds and images from the west but no established and traditional and cultural entity wants to be overwhelmed and dominated by the accoutrements of another alien culture. More females watch entertainment programmes on television. Though it does not present as wide and personal selection of programme’s content as video but offers similar entertainment at less cost and also over come the problem of zapping of advertisements. exchange of ideas. time management and interaction with family members and the outside world revealed that 16 out of 30 women spent over 4 hours a day watching cable television and 10 of them spent 2 to 3 hours a day (Eashwer. friends and neighbours Cooking and other household work Women see two Indian feature films a day on cable television which pushes them to the world of fantasy and promotes violence. 60 percent of time is spent in watching programmes on cable and 40 percent on watching Door Darshan.3 million households in four metros namely Bombay.36 hours per day in each household. He concludes that there is no clear evidence of a global culture at present. The average time spent on watching television is 5. The above mentioned studies performed in South East Asia have not been conducted in Pakistan. Calcutta and Madras had been cable television.
34 music. In this study the researcher measured the impact of cable television on family and social interaction. As recommended by Karnik the need to address impacts on cultural issues caused by media was felt by researcher and this study aspired to fill that gap in this field with in . To this. Her study revealed that NICT facilitate the extension and outreach of education. Shariffadeen (1995) looks at some of the major economic. For society at large. The consumption of American products will more likely continue to expand the gap between the rich and the poor urban and the rural cultures. social role. Finally. cultural and social issues faced by developing countries arising from new technology in his study. need to be carefully examined. This new era invites a change in social and cultural patterns. art. She says that increasing privatisation and commercialisation of education is an evident trend worldwide. it engenders new forms of social organizations. At individual level. it raises the importance of mental and intellectual ability. technology has added a new dimension: globalization through trans-national satellite broadcast of distance education programmes. it is suggested that developing nations promote a learning culture among their people in order to gain foothold in the emerging information based economy. although technological advancement is the key enabler. The above mentioned studies target the scope and impact of cable television on education and information based economy. Prevalence of the American pop culture is more apparent in urban areas and among the elite of the third world countries but still the majority is in rural areas. The role of new information/communication technologies (NICT) in the field of education is examined by Karnik (1995). There are also numerous issues about cultural diversity versus homogeneity that need consideration but still NICT throw open a vast field of opportunities in the education sector. domestic and other activities of women in Pakistan. Its ultimate impact is social and cultural. especially for developing countries. Though this is just the beginning but this trend is likely to continue. A strategic approach involving full mobilization of critical resources is suggested as being the key to a higher level of achievements. The implications and effects of this trend. He concludes that the new communication era should not be perceived as a purely technological phenomenon. This study gave a new scope and dimension to researchers in other countries. Economic restriction will result from information intensification in production and delivery of goods and services. language and customers.
1991). Today they broadcast slanted news. But what we see. Tsai (1970) in a study among Taiwanese children who watch television found that they favoured elements of American culture and have a less favourable attitude towards their own culture than their non-viewing counterparts. hold terrible power. They are already doing that in Europe. Clearly the people. hear and witness is decided by media. There has been a slight influx of state-run Soviet television appearing on American cable television. And who control the powerful world media are not the national governments of developing or developed nations but a very few people. tomorrow they will broadcast raw pornography to corrupt our children and destroy our culture. Mohammad (1993) the prime minister of Malaysia is of the view that we live in information technology age. new issues identified regarding cultural diversity and national identity would provide thought provoking direction to the future researches. Skinner (1984) found that those who watch more US programmes had a more positive image of the US and a less favourable image of Trinidad. Similarly.35 Pakistan. Youth experienced the influence of television on the way they dress up. We can control the reception today but not afterwards. As the people who control the media control our minds and probably control the world. Today we can sit in our homes and watch and hear whatever happens in the world. His study reports the theory that television’s impact would be pervasive in some aspects as well as stimulate changes in others. Babi (1990) in Cameroon concluded that youth would have a favourable attitude towards elements of foreign culture and a strong preference for locally produced programmes. The results of all the studies indicated that those who watch two sessions of indigenous Soviet television formulated a significantly more positive opinion of Soviet Union than those who did not see the programmes. He further says that Malaysia believes in press freedom but with responsibility. . who decide what we should see and hear. The intrusting finding here is that viewers incorporate effective qualities from televised images and generalize these evaluations to the nation that those images depict. There has been and there will continue to be an unending explosion in the field of information technology. Furthermore. They have an effective weapon in the form of a worldwide television network. Three experiments were conducted on US viewers to see the change in the image of the Soviet Union (Lavin.
the author has mentioned about VCTC (viewer controlled cable television) in US. which allows viewers to create their own schedules. replays or computer-generated information as accompaniments to their viewing of the live coverage. tired and have lower incomes. According to the study of Umphrey. listeners and readers may now exercise choice across new. Identity Television. (1998) stated that the result seemed to meet the expectation of the research assumptions which ascribe little demographic difference between cable . Viewers. The main source of income for most channels is on a pay per view basis. The Parliamentary Channel. The Learning Channel. The author of “Studying the media: An introduction” has included a chapter on the changing media worlds in his book. that general viewership is higher among larger. Research findings of Atkin and LaRose. The Landscape Channel. The Arts Channel. advertising and sponsorship in some cases (Tim. increasingly specialized narrow cat channels and services in case of sports. Euro News etc.36 The above mentioned study concluded that impact of television is pervasive and stimulates the changes in viewer’s lifestyle. As Lin and Jeffers. Also available are local channels. 1994). movies. Super Channel. About half a million homes now receive cable services in Britain. Some of the cable services available to viewers in Europe who are connected are Asia Vision. (1991) cost was a factor in determining whether subscribers would upgrade and maintain their level of cable service. home lifestyle or children’s channels etc. younger and non-white families. Vision Broadcasting. (1991) suggest that access viewers do not fit the upscale information seekers profile typical of other public affairs consumers. for instance.Pakistan due to the cable television. While better educated and heavy access viewers are nevertheless likely to be older. The Box. Talking about the latest developments in the fields of cable television. Further. Some cable viewers in Britain were offered sports programmes where they could chose channels with different camera angles. The present study evaluated the type of changes occurring in viewers (women) in Lahore . Such research indicates. higher monthly bills may lead to greater expectations which have an effect on a subscribers’ ongoing evaluation of the medium along with other factors such as degree of satisfaction with local cable operators. Performance. Television is an effective tool to arouse change in a society. This is clearly not the case with access. foreign language channels and minority language channels etc.
therefore. The present study evaluated the subscription ratio of cable television among different income earning groups and determined subscribers channel preferences in Pakistan. Television brings families closer in the sense that they spend more time in each other’s presence after they acquire a television set. Perse and Ferguson. It is. Since cable is primarily a subscription medium. Indeed that is the case. its effects should be felt more on the consumer spending side conducted by Glascock (1993). Moreover. However. though cable television offers greater programme variety. The researcher concluded that there was no marked tendency for families to cut down on their viewing as they became accustomed to the set. (1993) pointed out that cable television was unrelated to the benefits of television viewing. The same kind of research study on behavioural changes entitled “The impact of television on family life in Boston area” was conducted by Lundberg (1958). which is kept in semi-darkness when the set is on and nearly all owners have their sets on at some time during the after-supper hours each day. The addition of cable subscription revenues change the trend for consumer’s spending from negative to positive. there is very little interaction among family members when they watch television together and the amount of time family members spend together exclusive of television is reduced. as more innovative individuals tend to have stronger need for ( and be earlier adaptors of) technology products in general. most of the sets are located in living room. While overall consumer spending on mass media has increased. other aspects of cable may be dissatisfying with management and customer service and the repetition of programme offering especially on more expensive pay channels. This means that reading. Many parents have difficulty in getting the children to leave the television set to come for their meals and some have solved this problem by serving meals to the children . It appears from this that consumer spending has increased for cable during the 1978-1990 at the expense of spending on traditional media. playing and conversing are at a minimum in the living room of television -homes during the evening. spending on traditional media has decreased.37 television adaptors and non-adaptors. As compared to other activities in the same room when a programme is on. It also appears that cable has attracted further consumer spending not previously devoted to traditional mass media. doubtful whether television brings the family together in any psychological sense.
Children are substituting television for radio. While some television time involves a shift from other mass media to television much of it is taken from playtime and some from helping around the house. The expectations promoted on television are beyond their economic means and the values and . they find it helpful in taking care of the children. Television interferes very little with homework. He concludes that majority who lives in urban area are virtually in undated with information. Bedtime is a fairly serious problem for parents and children living in homes that are in possession of a television set. cinema and reading to a significant extent. Children who have television spend more time watching it than they formerly spent with the other mass media so their total exposure to mass media has doubled. practicing musical instruments and other forms of activity which might be called “creative” or “productive”.38 in front of the set. Parents who have a television set do not feel it so rather they believe it has many advantages. keeps them off the streets and generally keeps them from harassing their parents. The number of children who do home work on Sunday is somewhat smaller in television than non. Such children go to bed later than children of the same age in homes without a television set. First of all.television homes. They say it keeps them quiet. The family and social interaction patterns were studied in this research to tackle the question of “Lundberg” that “television is bringing the families together but is it bringing them together only physically or is the closeness psychological as well?” Sinebare (1997) analyses the programmes advertised by Australian Broadcasting Commission Television (ABCTV) to see which culture was being promoted for each and every individual programme and how relevant these programmes were to Papua New Guinea. which is culturally irrelevant to Papua New Guinea audience. One-sixth of the families interviewed reported doing this every night and half do it on occasion. But beyond this. Parents very commonly use television as a “Pacifier”. television children seem to spend approximately the same amount of time in study as non.television children of similar ages and family background. Parents generally insist on their children’s finishing their homework before they watch television and virtually none of the children attempts to do their studying in the same room with the television set when some one is watching a programme. but on weekdays. They also find many of the programmes educational both for themselves and for their children. they enjoy television for the entertainment value.
television as an agent . They are imposed in the individual in an exaggerated form changing the behaviour with this propaganda machine. Personal interests and relationships are thus fed up with what media provides and it is altogether acceptable that the attitude of mass media should be taken in with materials. Wilson also agrees with the view that television can change the viewer’s attitudes and orientation. Many scholars and commentators have views about the “tube’s” impact. Understanding the effects of television on the human behaviour is one of the most different but also one of the most important problems faced by the social science community today Levy (1982). People act as obedient servants. Comparatively few have been able to demonstrate its effects in scientifically acceptable fashion. William Crawky and David Page (Linter 2001. In current study the researcher wanted to assess the impact foreign languages on local language in Pakistan due to cable television. the place of television viewing in the total leisure time and the way it displaces other activities. he emphasized the influence of television on moulding and restructuring their attitude (cited in Vijayalakshmi. 2005). news and sports and introducing even a new kind of lingua franca which has become to be known as Hinglish. In a chapter titled “Living with television” the author presented a quick but thorough discussion of the place when they watch television. In his book “Youth culture and universities” which was written in the background of youth disturbances worldwide. web) stated that the satellite television channels are using/projecting local languages in showing local network beam entertainment.39 lifestyles portrayed contradict and conflict with those of their own culture. television as a learning experience. Likewise Erick (1972) is also of this view that the information that the modern man receives pass through “Social Filter” creation moral values and facts pass through that filter. It also considered in another chapter. 2005: 41). Bryanc (1970) found that average individual in Britain today gives more time to mass communication in particular to television than to general reading or part time education. a mixture of English and Hindi that reflects everyday speech of many educated people in the Subcontinent (cited in Shahbaz. He does suggest that there is a new class of people gradually being homogenized in Papua New Guinea who are mentally Anglo-American or Australian and ethnically Papua New Guinean (cited in Vijayalakshmi. 2004: 85).
In short. however. (1961) stated that television has affected the reading habits and changed the routine of viewers. J. Mender. A meta analysis on the impact of foreign television on domestic audience conducted by Elasmar and John (1997). television and human communication is targeted by him. Belson. The meta. a pattern of changes where these are increased they tend to be among the paper of popular press where decreases among the more serious papers. Television appears to stimulate the reading items that deal with television programmes. Then people were describing some instruments you had never seen yourself. The study includes 27 studies from 21 different countries. In his book “Four arguments for the elimination of television”. Similarly Choukas (1965) in his thesis describes the propaganda spread by media have a wide effect over a society and its result can be seen easily. In his survey he concluded: · · There is.40 of socialization and television’s pro-social impact. It is not unlike alien operated influencing machine of the psychopathic fantasy. “Propaganda is an art of making people what they would not do if they were in possession of all the facts in situation”. I think the picture you would obtain is of machines that control the people who view it.analysis revealed weak positive correlation between exposure to . · · · · · · · · · · I feel hypnotized when I watch television Television soaks energy I feel it like a vegetable when I am stuck at the tube Television spaces me out Television is an addiction and I am an addict My kids look like zombies when they are watching television Television is destroying my mind It is making people stupid Television is turning my mind to a different arena My children walk around when they are in a dream because of it It may give exaggeration but the author collected opinion through the research survey and opinions have supported the scholars who firmly believe in the effect of television. W. (1965) wrote that if you could somehow drop all preconceptions of television and read this list.
just about one-third or less than one-third of respondents in India (22 percent). The majority of the respondents answered ‘no’ or ‘neutral’. Exposure to foreign television increases the purchase of foreign products. When the respondents were further asked whether western programmes adversely affecting their way of living. One-third (34 percent) of Indian. talked about using cable for information delivery. especially clothing and other consumer products. The book takes an optimistic view of cable it has come of age at last and its many early promises seems about to be fulfilled. The audience of the higher societies were therefore asked if they believe that global television had a negative impact on themselves or their cultures. attitude. what is para-social interaction and is it affected by the . when they ere asked if western programmes corrupted their cultures. Similarly Camella (2007) studied Para-social relationships in female college student soap opera viewers today. It deals with the non-entertainment uses of the cable television only. values and behaviours. more than two-third of respondents agreed that global television can help them understand other cultures and over 80 percent agreed that it could enrich their knowledge. more Asian audience valued the benefits of global television. Malaysia (37 percent) and the Philippines (34 percent) said ‘yes’. even less confirmation was found. However. On the other hand. way of living. 41 percent of Malaysian and 72 percent of Hong Kong respondents considered that global television could enrich their culture. Across all the five societies. The thesis of medical/cultural imperialism stipulates that the values portrayed in global television have deleterious effect on local cultures. The above findings show that only a minority of Asian audiences perceived any negative impact on their culture. Though the size of increase is small because foreign television accounts for only 5 percent of variation in foreign products purchasing but exposure to foreign television increases audience’s knowledge about the country originating the messages. This study concentrated on two main questions regarding this type of communication. This study is based on media impact data was collected through a questionnaire which was given to 20 females in Pinney Hall at Western Connecticut State University and was then compared to each other depending upon the number of episodes watched.41 foreign television and viewer’s knowledge. Hagiwara (1999) attempted to ascertain whether the values. Kenny (1983) in its edited book: “Cable for Information Delivery”. beliefs. attitudes and the styles of behaviour imparted by global television were at variance with the values and outlook of the countries receiving such programmes. children and local television production.
it becomes clear that television is one of today's most dynamic media vehicles touching more people than most other communication vehicles. Teachers . The entire study of mass communication is based on the premises that the media has significant effect in every society. The final outcome was the more as a student watched the higher degree of involvement occurred in this type of relationship. Yet there is little agreement on the nature and extent of these assumed effects. Eastman (1984) devotes a separate part to cable television. 2000.156). 2002. It includes a chapter on programmes and audience research covering the procedures and vocabulary of ratings or analysis for broadcasting and cable. holding chapters on the programming of cable systems. Perse. We dress in accordance to the weather broadcasts that means our buying habits are shaped through media (Mcquail. 8). media service is the nervous system of modern society. construct meaning and organize our very existence. Powell. p. More importantly. The trance of entertainment through television channels is so great that no common man irrespective of his age. Theorists have claimed that these relationships can in some cases be life changing and personality moulding. We choose what movies are based on what we see in advertisement or in newspaper. but definitely life impacting.42 amount of time spent watching? For this study Camella applied the cultivation theory which developed largely by George Gerbner and states that the more television watched the more you are likely to obtain distorted views of life (Wood. sex and education can claim immunity from it. It also presents the group ownership chapter into radio and cable to show the rule that multiple system owners are now having on cable programming. Therefore. Ultimately. viewers who have watched a personality consistently over time may perceive a sense of intimacy evolving from their expectations of increased intimacy in the past interpersonal experiences (Rubin. p. Electronic media. it appears that they can occur and one may not even realize it. is the most important invention in the communication technology. Today. premium services and local origination in the book “Broadcast / Cable Programming”. Media has occupied a prominent place in our daily lives. providing stuff from which we form our identities. 1985. 252) and Altman and Taylor (1973) who hypothesized that the more time people spend watching and involving themselves the more they become more intimate with the media personnel. particularly television. basic cable networks. p. He argues that heir affects take various forms. The answers and results found agreements with recent studies that have been done on these types of relationships.
While the new technology brings with it many dangers and some opportunities. the research on satellite channels was started in 1990s in various universities which have been thoroughly reviewed by the researcher before working on this study. It also reviews some of the local and national responses to the spread of a global media system. This book also talks about impact of cable network. The writer discusses the relationship between satellite and cable television. governments in the face of technological advance. 2. The writer explains that further advancement in the cable network system is expected in near future. It gives brief history of cable television or CATV (Community Antenna Television). Similarly Lebow (1995) talks about cable television in the chapter titled ‘Communication via space’ in the book “Information highways and byways”. He also describes the advantages and uses of cable television. These studies were unpublished and master’s level research but reviewed and referred .2 National Studies on Television/Cable Television Cable television is relatively a new medium in Pakistan but people (although not in majority) were already exposed to satellite channels since 1980s through dish antenna. Therefore.43 teach. It briefly introduces cable television highlights its channels. Whetmore (1988) discusses cable television in a chapter titled “New technologies and the future of mass communication” of his book “Mediamerica”. more particularly. “Power without responsibility”. It gives an account of the need and choices of the subscribers. The answer is that much depends on the behaviour of broadcasters and programme makers and. James (1988) covers a chapter on ‘The information society: video. Its purpose is to contribute to an understanding of the economic and political dynamics on growth and the effects of the globalization of media while pointing up alternatively and arguably more democratic media structures and policies. Both neophiliacs and cultural pessimists emphasize the power of new technologies. Machines and inventions are not inherently powerful. cable and satellite’ in his book. Herman (1997) traces the emergence of global media system and chronicles the political. its impact will depend crucially and especially in the early years on how it is managed. Now is the use to which they are put inevitable. economic and technological factors in his book “The Global Media”. The writer asks whether we should side firmly with the cultural pessimist against the neophiliacs. government governs and religious leaders preach but media totally changes the lifestyle of people.
Ali (2001) conducted a study on “Impact of satellite television channels on the people living in Lahore”.44 because the researcher could hardly find any published work on cable television in Pakistan. The sample was one-fourth of the whole. including the impact of these programmes on the people’s standard of living and their attitude and behaviour towards this media. The satellite channels are at the fingertips of everyone. She said that her research proved that it might be difficult to invade a new concept or diffuse new traditions in a society. The universe of the study comprised 800 social science students of the University of the Punjab. The emphasis of the said research was to see whether the lives of people living in Lahore were under the influence of satellite television channels. channel surfing has now become a favourite hobby. The trend of commercialisation has not only injected into the . The purpose of the study was to discover the opinion of the social science students of the university about the television programmes. but a systemic and regular propaganda can bring change in thoughts and beliefs of the public. Questionnaire was used for data collection. fashion. architect and social behaviour of the viewers There was an impact of the satellite channels on the style of living of the people living in Lahore Pakistani mass media was under the influence of satellite programming Satellite channels were intermingling the eastern and western cultures resulting in the formation of an “International Culture” Likewise conducted research on the opinion of social science students of the University of the Punjab about television programmes in Pakistan. Fatima (2000) in her thesis “Effects of satellite channels (Zee TV) on Lahore middle class” concluded that Zee TV is gaining popularity over Ptv and other channels among middle class and our social values are changing slowly and steadily. food. The researcher made the following conclusions: · · · · · The socio-cultural and religious thinking of the people was under the influence of foreign cultural values Satellite channels were influencing the language. The researcher after a careful study of all the data and its interpretation concluded that systematic television should bring a change in our traditional values and social norms and in introducing and reinforcing certain new trends.
Most of the people turn towards foreign channels. if we look around. different scenes in religious background. more girls wearing fashionable clothes. we will see more faces wearing makeup. and more boys with long hair fond of motorcycling. Advertisements presented through satellite television channels are not only the tools of marketing but they have become sources of entertainment for the viewers. sounds and prayers. Some of the religious scenes are the requirement of the story but most of the time . New Muslin Town and Garden Town.45 audience. where the cultures of foreign countries are shown in a very alluring and glamorous manner. They have become defenceless too. The researcher found that the sample soap operas directly and indirectly are giving maximum coverage to Hindu religion through the projection of names of gods and goddesses. but on cultural grounds. satellite television channels have greatly and deeply affected the society. Thus. So we can conclude that because of its interest-oriented programmes. In 1987 Yasmin of the Sociology Department of the University of the Punjab conducted her thesis research on “The Impact of television on style of living”. more stylish hair cuts.e. support. But the finding was that these two attributes i. S. extra projection and extra informative projection. exposure to television and change in style of living are negatively correlated. religious words and history. conclusively shows not only total percentage of this projection but also depicts it separately on abovementioned units of analysis that how much projection is given according to point scale of need.03. Model Town. coke and hotel. as the value was Z=0. On the contrary Butt. An alarming issue came to light that projection of other cultures and values has compelled 36 per cent respondents from all to think that Islam is a conservative religion and they appreciated socio-economic and religious values of western societies. religious verses. more teenagers fond of burgers. Samples were taken of housewives from Allama Iqbal Town. behaviours. A study conducted by Saleem (1995) “Cultural Imperialism: A case study of the impact of dish antenna on Pakistani society” concluded that dish antenna’s programmes are successfully influencing the socio-cultural and religious beliefs and values of Pakistani viewers. we can say that the effect of satellite television channels on its audience is not simply to the extent that it has left very little time for family get together but it is introducing new trends. (2005) pointed out in his research the perspective of analyzing the projection of Hindu religion in Star Plus soap operas. attitudes and standards for modern life as well. Therefore.
demands and idealism in Pakistani youth.9 percent) watched Indian and English movies on cable television. They are also affecting the language. The researcher also gave a future agenda for other researchers in which he included that first of all this study should be strengthened as an effect or impact study to check the effects of this projection on Pakistani Muslims especially on children and youth. The survey research concludes that the socio-cultural thinking of Pakistani youth is under the foreign cultural values through these Star Plus dramas. Similarly Tariq (2004) conducted a study on “Invasion of Indian culture through movies”. Star Plus is actually intermingling the eastern and western culture resulting in the formation of an ‘International Culture’ and promoting more liberalism and modernism in Pakistani society and youth. dresses. makeup. Four–fifth of the . Pakistan. Shahbaz Z. Because the viewership of these soap operas is not the countrywide but it is worldwide.46 their projection is unnecessary. jewellery and lifestyles. And through these dramas. These dramas have increased the generation gap. one more research study can be conducted on the behaviours of users and non-users of cable television after this effect study.Findings of the study revealed that majority of the respondents (87. They have impact on social interactions and on norms and values of youngsters and have increased the desires. They have created impact on the ‘lifestyle’ of middle class Pakistani youth and influenced the thoughts of modernist and traditionalist thinkers. Lahore . colours. fashion food and architect. These Star Plus dramas have frequent and intensive negative impact on Pakistani youth’s social and cultural norms and values. He included most famous for their programmes and if they are projecting Hindu religion with such percentage then projection of Hindu religion will affect their viewers. This study evaluated the influence of Indian movies on marriage traditions/celebrations in high class of Lahore. For this purpose quantitative analysis has been opted to analyze the contents of soap opera of Star Plus channel. (2004) emphasizes on the influence or impact of daily night transmission of Star Plus family dramas on social and cultural values and norms of Pakistani youth of middle class. hairstyles. Pakistani youths have become more money oriented. social behaviour and daily life style of Pakistani society. The sample size of this study was 100 respondents from Defence. 92. The researcher employed content analysis research methodology in this study to check the projection of Hindu religion in Star Plus soap opera.2 percent respondents were agreed that Indian movies show attractive marriage traditions. Further.
with reference to television. This study had made it crystal clear that “cable television channel Star Plus had influenced social and cultural norms and values of Pakistani youth. Indian dances and songs were played during the marriage ceremony. In some way. Impact of STN dramas on the residents of Multan by Rubia Ehsan (1998) concluded that STN’s dramas were not only influencing the citizens of Multan but they . Interindividual communication has decreased. It has been observed that audience with different media exposure have different effects of these foreign cultural contents. Similarly. this transmission is promoting the modern way of life. Multan. Three–fourth of the respondents admitted that dress of bride and bridegroom and their parents were influenced by Indian movies. Following are the researchers that had been produced at Bahauddin Zakariya University.47 respondents agreed that marriage functions in high class were following the patterns shown in Indian movies. and 46 percent chose dresses of foreign style and 50 percent of respondents felt change in their routine”. their routine and activities are affected. According to the thesis report of Khalid (2001) “66 percent respondents now got chance in their thoughts about world affairs. jewellery makeup and hairstyle of bride and stage decoration also had been changed by Indian movies. Results of the survey indicated that powerful culture traditions of alien culture. Malik (2003) carried out work on “the impact of cable television transmission on the residents of Multan”. The study also revealed that 64 percent of the respondents were using Hindi words whereas 34 percent were using phrases on different occasions. 84 percent began to eat foreign dishes of food in daily life. Qurat-ul-Ain (1998) conducted a study on “Cultural Invasion: An analysis of Ptv’s entertainment programmes and its effects on youth” that concluded that almost every Ptv programme contains traits/elements of foreign culture. She concludes it is obvious that the viewers who spend time watching cable television transmission. Marriage expenditures and traditions in Pakistan were influenced by Indian movies.” Fantasy which was showed in these channels was the main reason to attract the students and Pakistani new generation. It has been seen that higher education level helps create more effects while those with low level receive more effects. particularly Indian culture. 11 percent respondents were fascinated by foreign cultural and social norms and values as compare to local channels. are getting popularity due to cable television transmission. Moreover.
It also explored is it bringing changes in cuisine. Gallagher (1981). celebration of festivals. Krishnaswamy’s (1986) survey of women viewers in . (1979). This study determined the degree of satellite television. In the dramas of Ptv there was unlimited glamour and those dramas were playing an important role in putting the people in psychological conflicts. attire. Now there were ten channels in Urdu language at the same time so one could judge the position of Ptv. culinary practices. Ceulemans. Because of it people were developing materialistic tendency. and Frauconnier. Islam teaches simplicity. People were developing the habit of show-off. M. Scholars studying the Indian society so far have produced more studies on the representation of women in media than scholars studying Pakistan or any other South Asian country. people’s access to other medium of mass communication. approach to education.g. house decor and architecture. Shaikh (2007) conducted research on satellite television and social change in Pakistan: A case study of rural Sindh. clan and tribal system and comprehension of language(s) other than the mother tongue. their favourite channels. Joshi (1986) has surveyed the participation of women in decision making at Indian television (Door Darshan). music traditions. and their viewing time.48 were also becoming the cause of inferiority complex and class conflict among people. The standard of programmes was falling. International agencies like UNESCO have sponsored researchers on the portrayal of women in the media of developed and developing nations e. G. The effect of dish antenna on Ptv dramas by Noreen Shafiq (1995) concluded that the number of private satellite channels was increasing. social customs. With the arrival of dish antenna people liked to watch Zee TV and enjoyed BBC. scholars have shown an increasing interest to study media and women but the main focus remained studying and identifying the media images of women. The effect of Ptv dramas on the wedding ceremonies and Islamic thoughts by Ahtesham (1998) proved that in dramas of Ptv the marriage ceremonies which were shown were not in accordance with our Islamic traditions. The research concludes that changes are occurring in all the parameters except education approach. Ptv was not producing new and interesting programmes for the public. programmes. family system. The dramas of STN were putting negative impact on the social and moral consideration of people.3 Studies on Women During the past 35 years. 2.
Suleman (1990). appearance and style. p. family and social interaction patterns. with reference to Pakistan this was the first comprehensive study targeting “effects of cable television on women.49 Madras city indicates the superficiality of women’s programmes. the researcher has observed that extensive research is being done in the world on viewing patterns and effects of cable television. reflecting different conceptualizations about television and cable television. The extensive research done by researchers around the globe has opened up a number of important areas of inquiry for future studies. Pervez (1980). After having gone through the available literature. language. 2004.” Munir (2003) conducted a study on “Portrayal of women in Disney’s animated movies: The case of the white and coloured women”. Women related studies that are conducted in Pakistan also deal with the images of women in media e.” . traditions and religion). In Pakistan. this was a relatively new topic and only very few academic institutions have conducted studies on issues of cable television. M. dress. In the light of the above listed studies it is concluded that various researchers have approached the viewers in different ways. Agarwal (1993) observed besides representing a pan-Indian character of Indian women (cited in Saleem. The researcher had selected the variables for personal study after reviewing this massive literature. focused on portrayal and images of women and none of them have explored “impact of media on women. cultural practices (food.g. This study tried to address the specific issues like change in women’s life through cable television particularly impact on domestic and other activities. Noman and Pervez (1998).” Therefore. Pakistani women observe different values and life patterns from the other nations and a study to gauge the effects of the changed environment seemed imperative. 52). The new media environment accompanied by cable television provides a context for examining these issues. Kumar. The studies which targeted “women and media”. domestic and personal expenditure and the role of Pakistani women in society. Saleem (2004) conducted a study on “Portrayal of women in Ptv drama: A case study of drug addiction.
Kaye (2000) states “A good theory helps predict what will happen in future by giving practical insight into how the phenomenon being studied works”. It has become one of the common household commodities. powerful. Cable television provides a variety of local and foreign channels and helps people in selecting programmes according to their taste and choice. Therefore. particularly Indian and western. Being inexpensive and easy to access. The core purpose of this study was to dig out the influence of foreign channels. This theory identifies cable television consumption patterns according to needs and satisfaction of targeted class. Thus. They do not usually act immediately on what they learn from television. the first part of this study explored respondents preferred channels and kinds of programmes. cable television has a great acceptance and is being used extensively in Pakistan. cable television spread rapidly in Pakistan. reasons for watching cable television. gradual. It justified the application of ‘Uses and Gratification Theory’. indirect but cumulative and significant) through exposure (depending upon heavy and light viewership of cable television) and ‘Social Learning Theory’ which says that viewers attend and learn from models which are attractive. There was a need of such theories that could explain the uses and consequences of this new media technology in Pakistan. It demands discussion on theories based on observational learning and information processing emphasize lasting effects of exposure to media contents. preferred time of watching and control over the remote. As the new century progresses. Cable television viewership is no more restricted to the upper and upper-middle class of Pakistan as it used to be a few years back. the study also applies ‘Cultivation Theory’ in terms of effect (which can be small. rewarding and similar to themselves. the continual challenge for communication theorists will be to catch up and keep up (Thompson & Bryant. . The gratification factor leads to the exposure of channels/programmes which in turn can generate effects. Main part of the present research comes under the effect tradition. New communication theories that explain uses of new technologies are surely needed. Therefore. 2002).50 CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This study has analysed “Effects of Cable Television in Pakistan”. As a communication technology. this study attempted to understand whether demography influenced the viewership patterns of respondents or not. on the life patterns of female viewers.
51 Instead. He named simple functions of media as providing relaxation. Theorists say that media users seek out source that best fulfills their needs. often known as the “Uses and Gratifications Approach”. Blumler and Katz believe that media consumers can choose the influence media has on them as well as the idea that users choose media alternatives merely as a mean. These theories are discussed below in relation with the present study in brief. Users take an active part in the communication process and are goal-oriented in their media usage. feel and appreciate on the basis of their personal media usage. Uses and Gratifications Theory takes a more humanistic approach to looking at the media usage. Cultivation Theory and Social Learning Theory.1 Uses and Gratification Utility Theory. this research probed into which cable television channels and programmes are preferred by the targeted audience and which of their needs are satisfied by viewing them. offers another way of explaining why people expose themselves to some communications and not others (the preferred channels/programmes).e. they believe there are as many reasons for using media as there are media users. Uses and Gratification Theory. Instead. Hence. Uses and Gratifications Theory assumes that users have alternate choices to satisfy their needs (Griffin. perceive and remember information that is pleasurable or that will in some way help satisfy their needs. According to the theory. Blumler and Katz’s Uses and Gratification Theory suggest that media users play an active role in choosing and using media. they store such knowledge to be used when their own circumstances elicit it. 1968). Focus of this theory is that viewers attend. providing vicarious interactions and providing a common ground for social intercourse. 3. The idea of this study was to look for reasons for the evident appeal of media and various types of contents by asking the audience what they think. Blumler and Katz believe that there is not merely one way that the populace uses media. the framework of this research is based on the set of three theories i.only some of these (effects on lingo). why they perceive a fraction of these to which they are exposed and why they remember –correctly or incorrectly-. Therefore. stimulating the imagination. Variation in motives for attending to media was also studied as variables in effect research (Bulmer and McQuail. 2000). Uses and Gratifications Theory is the . media consumers have a free will to decide how they will use the media and how it will affect them. The approach was described by Klapper (1960) as a “functional orientation” which could account for the appeal of “escapist” media content.
2000: 332). D. (West. R. The theory takes out the possibility that media can have an unconscious influence on our lives and how we view the world. and Turner. attitude change might occur and thus affect other elements in the model. S. Miller and S.g. (1992) described the motives for media use as falling under one of the two headings: proactive or passive. the Expectancy Value Model (Palmgreen and Rayburn. Finn. M. A. 1986) proposes that certain elements in media system (e.1 Uses and Effects Model Communication scholars have developed several different models that attempt to explain individual level media uses and effects. structure of society and individual differences that result in highly personal motives) cause people to use and depend upon media. 1982) and the Uses and Dependency Model (Rubin. . etc at his/her home.. the Gratification Seeking and Audience Activity Model (Rubin. 1986). These include the Transaction Model (McLeod and Becker. Reese (1982) studied political effects and found that these (effects) were more likely to occur among those who relied more upon the medium rather than those who did not rely upon it. VCR. For example. 3.and Perse. For example a person with poor health and limited mobility would be more likely to be dependent upon a medium such as television for entertainment and diversion than a healthy person who enjoys many different activities. which is the principal focus of uses and gratification research. Each of these factors may be affected by any number of social or psychological characteristics. a person with limited mobility would be more likely to become dependent upon a medium such as television if he/she did not have access to other media options such as personal computer. The greater the dependency upon a medium the greater the likelihood that medium will have effects upon the viewer. H.2 Uses and Dependency Model Research has shown that dependency on a medium is the result of two major factors: viewer motives for obtaining gratifications and the availability of viewing alternatives.1. and Windahl. The Uses and Dependency Model (Rubin.52 optimist’s view of media. and Windahl. Further. 3. M. 1987). A. Dependency upon media may lead to effect in itself. L. 1974).1. system itself. Examples of proactive media use and watching a particular television programme in order to learn more about a specific subject of interest. The idea that we simply use media to satisfy a given need does not seem to fully recognize the power of media in today’s society. computer games.
(1972) were among the first to suggest that media uses and effects should be linked. Most viewers seeking excitement tended to watch action/adventure programmes. Research should ask what effects particular gratification may have or what effects particular uses of media may have. For example. In other words. entertainment or anything in particular. for example. these studies question: what do people do with media (Klapper. Greenberg (1974) and Rubin (1979). passive motives describe the usage of media in a lackadaisical (passive) sense. the motives for viewing changed with person’s age. most uses and gratification research now recognizes the following motives for media use among audience members: learning. 1963.53 watching a certain movie for the purpose of being entertained or using internet for information for a project at school or work. Most recent activity in the area of Uses and Gratification Theory had examined the motives behind the media usage. E. These research domains are similar in that each examines the consequences of mass communication from an individual or societal level. In other words. S. We are not actively seeking information. This does not mean that we will not be entertained or learn something we very well might. Based upon the work by B. 1994). K. arousal. S. . habit. Rubin. researchers have sought to find out why people watch television programmes or why they are influenced by some commercials but not by others. Both found. It only suggests that we did not begin the viewing experience with a particular proactive motive in mind. perception or behaviour. escapism or a way to pastime (Rubin. 1994). uses and effects researchers have adopted similar measures for viewers’ motives. focusing on what media do to peoples. relaxation. sometimes we turn on the television simply because it is there just to “see what’s on”. and Windahl. research has provided greater understanding of the uses and effects of mass media. Other researchers have also suggested that a synthesis of the two research realms would be logical and beneficial. needs and motives. Studies by Greenberg and Rubin produced similar results. Rosengren. media user actively seeks something from media based upon his/her wishes. Most habitual viewers liked watching comedies rather than news bulletins. Instead. changes in attitudes. They found that people depend upon the media to fulfil certain needs such as vicarious experience and escapism or involvement or interaction. In answer to criticisms regarding lack of uniformity. As the name suggests. companionship. Since the mid-1970.
The Cultivation Theory got its start with the cultivation hypothesis. ultimately. Gerbner’s work presents a Social Psychology Theory on communication effect on persuasion as related mass media. Gerbner views this television world as "not a window on or reflection of the world. gradual. and in response to which. Heavy watching of television is seen as ‘cultivating’ attitudes which are more consistent with the world of television programmes than with the everyday world. different individuals and group selections and interpretations of messages take place”. He argues that the mass media cultivate attitudes and values which are already present in culture. and the like.2 Cultivation Theory This study has used Cultivation Theory by George Gerbner as a guide in exploring the consequences/effects. The combined effect of massive television exposure by viewers over time subtly shapes the perception of social reality for individuals and. cultivation research is in the effects tradition. He begins developing cultivation as a structural piece for the long term examination of public messages in media influence and understanding. Media maintains and propagates these values amongst members of a culture. ethnic groups and political attitudes. However. or with any kind of direct communication effect”. for a focus on the topic of violence. 1993: 100). thus binding it together. Cultivation theorists argue that television has long-term effects which are small. some studies have also considered other mass media from this perspective and have dealt with topics such as gender roles. in particular. Cultivation theorists are best known for their study of television and viewers and. indirect but cumulative and significant. Nonetheless. but a world in itself" (McQuail. The Cultivation Theory asserts that heavy viewers' attitudes are cultivated primarily by what they watch on television. More accurately. Essentially. George Gerbner stands as the pioneer of the Cultivation Theory. education. in its most basic form. Under guidance of this theory. this study may be able to emerge as a new theory. persuasion. . Thus. his concern remains with “the collective context within which.54 3. Cultivation Theory. for our culture as a whole. suggests that television is responsible for shaping or ‘cultivating’ viewers’ conceptions of social reality. the theory states that heavy exposure to mass media namely television creates and cultivates attitudes more consistent with a media conjured version of reality than with what actual reality is. age groups. Gerbner clarifies that his objectives are not with “information. They emphasize the effects of television viewing on attitude rather than the behaviour of viewers.
attention.55 created by George Gerbner. other experiences Cultivation theorists argue that heavy viewing leads viewers (even among high educational/high income groups) to have more homogeneous or convergent opinions then light viewers (who tend to have more heterogeneous or divergent opinion). involveme nt Figure 3. 3. Gerbner argues that television has become the central cultural arm of the American society. focusing strategies. 1994) have written that there are two types of television viewers: heavy and light viewers. Gerbner presents research supporting “Cultivation Theory” that is based on comparison between heavy and light television viewers. Further.” Gerbner and his associates (Gerbner. television virtually monopolises and subsumes other sources of information.1: Model of Cultivation Theory Source: Hawkins and Pingree (1983) Inference Skills.2. Gerbner says that the effect of all this exposure to the same messages produces what he calls cultivation or the teaching of a common worldview. the one who tells most of the stories most of the time. ideas and consciousness. The cultivation effect of television viewing is one of the ‘levelling’ or ‘homogenizing’ opinion. common roles and common values. Gross. Gerbner analysed answers to question posted in surveys and found that heavy and light television viewers typically give different answers. Gross considered that 'television is a cultural arm of the established industrial . social structures. Morgan and Signorielli. 2007). For heavy viewers. heavy television viewers often give answers that are closer to the way the world is portrayed on television. “Television set has become a key member of the family. which attempts to understand how "heavy exposure to cultural imagery will shape a viewer's concept of reality" (Pierce.1 Conceptual Model of Cultivation Theory Television Viewing (Learning) Incidental Information (Construction) Social Reality Capacity.
Cultivation research looks at the mass media as a socializing agent and investigates whether television viewers come to believe the television version of reality the more they watch it. Cultivation theorists are best known for their study of television and viewers and in particular for a focus on the topic of violence. However. p. 1990: 171). People who watch a lot of television are likely to be more influenced by the ways in which the world is framed by television programmes than the individuals who watch less television programmes. age groups. ibid. threaten or weaken conventional beliefs and behaviours' (Boyd. Braham. Judith van Evra argues that by virtue of inexperience. Light viewers may have more sources of information than the heavy viewers. since on television women are most likely to be victims of crime. especially regarding topics of which the viewer has little first-hand experience. V. It may be due to the fact that lone viewers are more open to a cultivation effect than those who view with others (Evra. Crime on television is largely . The focus is on ‘heavy viewers’. some studies have also considered other mass media from this perspective and have dealt with topics such as gender roles. 167). For instance. The cultivation effect is also argued to be strongest when viewer's neighbourhood is similar to that shown on television. This is held to occur when viewer’s everyday life experiences are congruent with those depicted in the television world. stabilize and reinforce rather than to alter. ethnic groups and political attitudes. A study of American college students found that heavy soap opera viewers were more likely than light viewers to over-estimate the number of real-life married people who had affairs or who had been divorced and the number of women who had abortions (Wimmer and Dominick. Barrett.56 order and as such serves primarily to maintain. Gerbner and his colleagues contend that television drama has a small but significant influence on the attitudes. beliefs and judgments of viewers concerning the social world. 1993: 512). and Peter B 1987: 100). Gerbner reported evidence for 'resonance' a 'double dose' effect which may boost cultivation.). 1990. Although Hawkins and Pingree argue that some children may not experience a cultivation effect at all where they do not understand motives or consequences (cited by Evra. women heavy viewers are influenced by the usual heavy viewer mainstreaming effect but are also led to feel especially fearful for themselves as women. young viewers may depend on television for information more than other viewers do (Evra.
The most common (and pervasive) examples of social learning situations are television commercials. Bandura has emphasized the fact that people who observe responses of individuals tend to exhibit the same when placed in similar settings. functional and salient are more likely to be attended to. mass media enters the socialization process of an individual. alcohol attitudes and behaviour. environmental factors etc. Social Learning Theory is particularly relevant to study the impact of mass communication because the description and portrayal of social life is a frequent subject in media contents”. Direct experience and participation are important parameters which shape the youth’s impressions of the perceived structure of their environment.3 Social Learning theory The principal understanding of Social Learning Theory is tied to the social context of learning. The strongest effects of heavy viewing on attitudes to violence are likely to be amongst those in the high crime areas of cities (Gerbner. Commercials suggest that drinking a certain beverage or using a particular shampoo will make us popular and win the admiration of attractive people. Depending upon the component processes involved (such as attention or motivation). The Social Learning Theory explains how environment influences the behavior of an individual. behaviours and responses that are repeated. It also stresses the importance of viewer’s cognitive activities when consuming television messages (Bandura. particularly television. 1977). which receives some kind of reward like social approval. these forms of experience are usually limited to the immediate environment. plays a crucial role in bringing the outside world into homes. school. So urban heavy viewers are subject to a double dose and cultivation theorists argue that violent content 'resonates' more for them. pleasant experience and when the observer feels confident to perform. Any person’s socialization process is influenced by innumerable factors such as family. its symbolic imitation is facilitated. When observing an event. Mass media.57 urban. As an important institution. The social cognitive principle has been widely employed to explain the television effects on a variety of social issues such as aggression. distinct. . users may model the behavior shown in the commercial and buy the product being advertised. DeFleur and Sandra (1989) stated “despite general in nature. 3. According to Bandura. thus more likely to be learned. However. ethnic stereotypes. 1993). perceived as real.
it is important to mention that the researcher has formulated an amalgam of the three theories in order to assess what is the main reason of their watching. 1973). The researcher aimed at finding answers to questions such as what . Now. an important question arises. Cultivation and Uses and Gratifications theories. Hence. Are these effects long-lasting or short term (Cultivation Analysis and Social Learning Theory). Literature has shown that viewers acquire attitudes. Women would serve as a barometer to assess the influence of cable television. emotional responses and new styles of conduct from media especially from films and television (Bandura. Hence. does a woman’s behaviour reflect what she has watched on the television screen? The impact of foreign television programmes on women involves a number of indispensable factors such as interest in the programmes. An individual observes a character. attitude towards programmes and models of social reality that these programmes promote. reasons for watching. The study aimed at finding out whether and to what extent cable television channels affect women in Pakistan. The theory clearly establishes that the media can serve as agents in the socialization process. viewing pattern. with the availability of the foreign channels. the researcher intended to explore all this for which the base of above mentioned theories was most suitable and required. It was also assumed that the women (aged 18-40 years) are vulnerable to influences and tend to be inclined towards change. 1989). women of reproductive age (18-40 years) were selected for the study to determine the degree to which their attitudes were influenced by cable television.58 Actions of characters in the audio-visual media can serve as a model for others to imitate. 1973 and Liebert. They may acquire certain characteristics which in turn influence their attitudes. it has also measured what kind of effects are taking place in the lives of the sample under study? If there are effects that are changing attitudes of women under the study. the present study hypothesized that characters and their behaviour in programmes of cable television channels serve as a model for heavy viewers. identifies him/her as a model and remembers actions of model and performs them when confronted with similar circumstances (DeFleur and Sandra. their preferred channels and programmes (Uses and Gratifications Theory). Modelling Theory is also useful for describing the application of general Social Learning Theory which explains how new behaviours are acquired by people from media portrayals. While on the other hand. In the light of all these theories stated above. Based on the Social Learning.
Is there any restriction on women for watching cable television channels? Whether they experience an impact of these programmes on their attitudes or not? .59 women think about these programmes in terms of their preferences and relevance.
their consumption patterns and measures their level of viewing. and suggest some recommendations for policy-makers and broadcasters. Pakistan. Consequently.1 Major Hypothesis The major hypothesis designed for the study was “Greater the exposure to cable television greater the effect on the lives of women in Lahore. the researcher was interested in examining whether or not and how far is the cable television affecting women in Pakistan at grass-root level in terms of the following factors: · · · · · · Domestic and other activities Family and social interaction patterns Appearance and style Cultural practices i. language.60 CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Part I . Fundamental aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of cable television on women in Lahore.Hypothesis and Operationalisation of the Concepts The government of Pakistan relaxed the electronic media policy in 2000 and allowed cable operators to work legally. Hence. The study intends to record the demographic characteristics of cable television subscribers (women aged 18-40 years only). Therefore. This has not only broken the monopoly of the state-owned electronic media in the country and provided a variety in channels and programmes but also elevated the concern over its effects on viewers. values and behaviour patterns of female viewers. food. Pakistan”. The core purpose of this study was to dig out the influence of foreign channels or local channels with foreign contents on the social life. cable industry has grown rapidly and started transmitting local and foreign satellite television channels through their networks.e. traditions and religion Domestic and personal expenditure Role of Pakistani women in society . The number of subscribers increased swiftly and exposed to the western and Indian societies. this study was carried out to probe the effects of cable television in Pakistan. dress. It also probes whether or not there is any gender discrimination in cable television viewing and explores that how the viewing of cable television is affecting the lives of women residing in Lahore. 4.
2 Variables of the Study The study has independent and dependent variables: 4. the researcher has formed the following sub-hypothesis: 4. Therefore greater the time spend against cable television greater will be the exposure. dress. Most of the viewers were of the view that television viewing generates socio-economic and cultural changes. It means the time spend viewing cable television by the respondent.2.1 Independent Variable “Exposure to cable television” was an independent variable of the study.2 Dependant Variables “Effect on lives of women” as the dependent variable is explained below: · · · · · · Domestic and other activities Family and social interaction patterns Appearance and style Cultural practices i.1.e. language.2. food.61 The researcher has selected the above-mentioned factors based on the conclusion drawn after reviewing the relevant literature. Therefore.1 Sub-Hypotheses · · · · · · Heavy viewers of cable television experience greater degree of effect on their domestic and other activities than the moderate and light viewers Heavy viewers of cable television experience a greater degree of change in their family and social interaction patterns than the moderate and light viewers Heavy viewers of cable television tend to show a greater degree of acceptance of television characters’ appearance and style than the moderate and light viewers Heavy viewers of cable television experience greater degree of effect on their cultural practices than the moderate and light viewers Heavy viewers of cable television have experience a greater degree of effect on their domestic and personal expenditures than the moderate and light viewers Heavy viewers of cable television tend to show a greater degree of acceptance of role of women as portrayed on Indian and western channels than the moderate and light viewers 4. 4. traditions and religion Domestic and personal expenditure Role of Pakistani women .
Pakistan. western and Indian channels through coaxial or fiber optic cables. ii. Heavy Viewer The respondents who watch cable television channels for 4 and more than 4 hours per day are considered as heavy viewer. “An action of exposing. Formal “Lying open to reader an accessible.” (Oxford Dictionary (1958). moderate and light viewers. setting for the programme and liable to action and influence (Webster. lying open. Operational In this research. . Formal Encyclopaedia Britannica (1986) describes cable television as: “Generally. The researcher divided the viewers into three categories i. the researcher intends to define the time that women allocate towards viewing cable television channels. Moreover. so that it can determine the kind of “exposure” consequential to the “change in their life patterns”.2 Exposure i.” ii. and transmitting local. instead of two because the main aim of the study was to compare two extremes i. a system that distributes television signals by means of coaxial or fiber optic cables.e. liable to action or influence.3. heavy and light viewers. it (cable television) is referred only to those cable television networks which were working in Lahore. 802).3. 1967. i. The term also includes systems that distribute signals solely via satellite. 4. 4.3. Operational By exposure to cable television.3 Conceptualization The major terms used in the study are defined below: 4.1 Cable Television i. p.3 Level of Viewing The number of hours devoted to viewing cable television programmes per day determines the level of viewing for this study. this also pertains to the type of channels and programmes that the female viewers prefer to watch.62 4.e. heavy.
Table 4. Formal A woman is an adult female in contrast to a man. The researcher has deliberately avoided those females who have reached this age bracket but are studying in any institution.4 Women i.5 Change in Life i.3. 1999). Hence. and Syed. Light Viewer The respondents who watch cable television channels up to two hours per day are considered as light viewer. It distinguishes them from objects. Formal Change means people engaged in such activities that are different from those which they or their parents were engaged in. animals and plants have when they are not dead. the researcher considered only those 18-40 years old women who were working or house managers but not studying in any institution.2: Viewers Category by Hours of viewing Viewers category Heavy viewer Moderate viewer Light viewer Hours of viewing per day 4 and more than 4 hours More than 2 but less than 4 hours Up to 2 hours 4. . The reason of keeping them out of the sample was that they might get affected from their peer group instead of directly viewing of cable television. 4.3. Operational In this dissertation.63 ii. adult male. iii. (Saif. Life is the quality that humans. The term woman is used to indicate distinction based on sex and cultural bgender role or both. 1967). ii. a girl and a female child. the researcher has defined woman as a female of the reproductive age of 18-40 years old. materials and substances and is responsible for their growth and development (Websters’ Dictionary. Moderate viewer The respondents who watch cable television channels for more than two but less than four hours per day are considered as moderate viewer.
praying. outing and cinema. Formal Traditionally.6 Domestic and Other Activities i. emotions and family matters with each other. Operational The researcher has taken into account some of the aspects of target women’s life which were being affected by cable television channels. The researcher was interested in seeing the effects of paying time to watch cable television on women’s activities’ Eashwer (1994) did a study in India which revealed that 16 out of 30 women spent over 4 hours a day watching cable television and 10 of them spent 2 to 3 hours a day. Other activities of women include reading newspapers. going out for shopping and outing etc. listening to music. visit their neighbours and welcome . listening to music. cleaning. families in Pakistan have close relationship and interact with each other affectionately. friends and neighbours Cooking and other household work ii. One dependent variable which deals with changes in women’s daily routine life and its effect on their domestic and other activities i. Major activities affected are: · · · Exposure to other media and reading habits Interaction with children. husband. newspapers. They are used to share their feelings.e. reading of religious books. etc.3. household chores. Similarly. buying groceries or household goods and so on and so forth. washing. friends and relatives. books. social interaction is a part of Pakistan’s culture. Majority is used to live in joint family system and spend leisure time with parents. People meet frequently with their friends and peers. other family members. magazines and book reading. going out for shopping.64 ii. 4. They arrange gatherings. Operational This factor was operationalized. prayer and religious book reading. taking care of children and helping them in their studies. The wife/house manager is the one who generally does most of the household work such as cooking. 4. Formal Domestic role is especially significant in a Pakistani woman’s life.7 Family and Social Interaction Patterns i. magazines.3.
The researcher has personally viewed that such items like jewellery and outfits with the names of television drama characters are available in the shopping areas in Lahore. occupation and levels of responsibility within his/her culture also determine his/her lifestyle. neighbours and friends in terms of time and visit Family interaction: Change in family interaction patterns i. educational experience. p. . Media contents might be a topic of discussion among them. It is general observation that media content remains the topic of discussion among people these days. ii. with husband and children in terms of time at home. accent and leisure pursuits.e. Therefore. outing and interruption during watching cable television 4. Therefore. concentration might be more towards fashion. characters and predictions about what is going to happen next. Operational The study operationalized this factor into ten items which broadly deal with: · · Social interaction: Change in interaction patterns with relatives. this research was aimed at identifying the changes occurring in the family and social interaction patterns of women. Lifestyle also includes clothing. But their concentration might be more towards the television programmes instead of family and social issues. 2005. people prefer watching dramas and movies rather than interacting with family members or going out and meeting friends and neighbours. It seems that due to cable television channels. They are seen as role models. This may affect the family and social interaction. personal and family relationship and leisure that results in guiding principles which directs one’s life (cited in Vijayalakshmi. 61). Formal Lifestyle is defined as the integration of decisions in the realm of career. It is general observation that people follow celebrities shown in television programmes. A person’s qualification. Fashion and style introduced by them is considered as latest and advanced.65 them at their homes. Shopping of items related to personal appearance might be changing due to the exposure to foreign channels through cable television.3.8 Appearance and Style i. food.
66 ii. Operational This research tried to discover the target audience associating their personal appearance and lifestyle with television characters. The study described appearance and lifestyle as of dressing up hairstyle, make up, jewellery and accent adopted by women. Thus this dimension was operationalized into six dependant variables i.e. acceptance of resemblance with television characters, imitating television character’s hairstyles, accent, make-up, jewellery, etc.
4.3.9 Culture Practices
i. Formal Culture can be defined in several ways. It is the way of life in a particular society. Every culture has its own values system. In socialization, culture guides people what to do and what not to do. But there is no standardized definition of culture. Various scholars have defined it in different ways. Williams (1977) says culture is the sum of available description through which society makes sense and reflects their common experience. Williams states “culture is a way of life”. Culture is conceptualized in a variety of ways and is also widely used in inter-cultural communication. Although culture is defined in terms of a nation/state, most people conceptualized culture in terms of race, social class and gender identity etc. Culture patterns are normative to the extent that they represent the fundamental values and practices accepted by the whole society. (Vijayalaskshmi, 2005, p. 46). John F. Cuber (1968) states “there is one fundamental and inescapable attribute of culture: the fact of unending change. Phrases like “stagnant cultures” and “unchanging cultures” are misleading. All that squares with facts is that some societies sometimes change slowly, and hence in comparison to other societies seem not to be changing at all. But they are changing even though not radically or obviously so”. Jamias (1993) has reviewed the knowledge on new communication technologies pertaining to cultural identity. He summarizes that fear burns rife over the negative impact potential of the new communication technologies on cultural identity in rural Asia. Yet technology is not neutral. Technology is good or bad depending on the use. Shariffadeen (1995) research study looks at some of the major economic, cultural and social issues faced by developing countries arising from the new technology. It is suggested that developing nations promote
67 a learning culture among their people in order to gain a foothold in the emerging information-based economy. According to the above-mentioned statements, it is obvious that culture in Pakistan is changing with the passage of time. Therefore, it was intriguing for the researcher to find out changes occurring in the cultural practices in Pakistan and its relationship (if any) with the viewing of cable television. Thus, the researcher has taken language, food, religion and some traditions as indicators of culture practices. Language Language is a strong part of the culture and cable television channels have affected it. Urdu and English are the official languages of Pakistan. Formally and informally, people speak regional and Urdu languages. People watch more Hindi channels on cable television as the Hindi language is close to Urdu and they have a better understanding of it. English channels are also creating impact on language. In Pakistani culture, people feel proud when they speak English and those who cannot speak English frequently try to incorporate English words in their regional and Urdu language to leave an impression. This study evaluates whether and how these channels are affecting the language of Pakistani women. Food Habits At homes Pakistani people generally prefer light and simple food i.e. Daal, rice, Roti vegetables, chicken, meat, fruit, etc. Family members sit together at dining table and talk about family and social issues while having their meal and this is the best time to discuss their family matters. It is general observation that these days 24 hours access to the cable television and variety of channels is creating impact and the eating trend is in the process of change and people prefer to take their meals in front of television. Television channels are regularly showing food preparation programmes so it was assumed that this might have changed their food and eating habits. Further, in Lahori culture, eating is considered as the greatest passion and all the recreation activities revolve around this. On the basis of the above information, this study tried to assess that whether the food habits are changing among women viewers residing in Lahore as changed food habits in women will directly affect the food habits of the whole family.
68 Dress In urban areas the educated are dressed in a semi-western style at home. The local dress consists of the Kurta and Shalwar. Achkan and Sherwani are worn on formal occasions. The women's dress is generally more colorful. The important items of the women clothing are Shalwar Kamiz and Dopatta or Chaddar to cover their heads and upper parts of their body. Sari is only worn by women of the upper classes in cities on formal occasion. Shoes are worn by those living in city while women folk wear sandals and slippers; Purdah is not generally observed by city women. Religion Cable television is not only providing Pakistani channels but also transferring European, American, Indian and other channels. Through their programmes, religions other than Islam, are exposed to the public in Pakistan which have different values. The researcher assumed that such conditions might affect the religious trends in Pakistan. Some of the researches have proved that Indian channels are giving undue exposure to Hinduism through their dramas and movies (Pervez, 2006). Vulgarity and action scenes in these movies might influence their attitudes towards religion and their routine lives. Therefore, this research tried to evaluate effects on religious attitudes of light and heavy viewers. Traditions Pakistani people practice hospitality and show generosity towards others. They obey and respect each other, particularly their elders. Moreover, in Pakistan joint family system is as praised as compared to nuclear family. They share their happiness as well as sorrows. Now a days, people in Pakistan are being exposed to Indian, western and other culture’s rituals, traditions and celebrations like Valentine’s Day, Halloween, Holly, etc. not aligned with Pakistani norms and traditions. The rituals of Pakistani marriages have been changed as many norms and traditions of India are being followed now by the women in Pakistan. This statement is verified by a study conducted by Tariq (2004) on “Invasion of Indian culture through movies”. This study confirmed the influence of Indian movies on marriage traditions/celebrations in high class of Lahore, Pakistan. Keeping in view, the above-mentioned particulars, the researcher tried to figure out what types of changes are occurring in our traditions.
69 ii. Operational This factor was operationalized into 24 items which deal with the five parameters including language, food, dressing, religion and some of traditions as indicators of culture practices. · · · · · Food: Acceptance of television as the best source of learning new dishes and the usage of western and Indian dishes and changed pattern of dining Dressing: Acceptance of television as best source of fashion and dress designs and usage of western and Indian dresses as casual and party wear Language: Acceptance of television as the best source of learning languages and the usage of Indian and English language Traditions: Acceptance and practice of Indian and western traditions Religion: Acceptance of television as the best source of religious information and changing trends
4.3.10 Domestic and Personal Expenditure
i. Formal Many research studies have proved that exposure to television, especially to commercials, is affecting peoples household budgets. This imbalance of budge may compel the family members to discover new ways of earnings. Through cable television, women of Pakistan are getting exposed a variety of western and Indian channels. It is quite obvious that it disturbs their budget. Thus the research tried to discover the changes occurring in domestic and personal expenditures. The affect on expenditure is also assessed by the tendency of women to indulge themselves in any business service or some other means of earning. This may happen because of advertisements on cable television channels. People get motivated to purchase new products and try them which may affect their daily budget. ii. Operational Domestic and personal expenditures operationalized that how cable television affects their domestic and personal expenditures and are they ready to become an earning hand?
4.3.11 Role of Pakistani Women in Society
i. Formal Women in Pakistan are expected to be more fostering, integrative and conjugal. Principally, they are responsible for child-rearing and home-making while men are responsible for generating income and management. Women are made to realize from early days of life that they are frail, childish, dependent, domestic, gullible, irrational, scheming creatures and not susceptible to taking important decisions or doing important things. Such realizations persuade women to accept their role in society only as housewife, regardless of their education, aspirations or intellect. Traditionally, Pakistan has a culture for arrange marriages. Most of the time parents or relatives select the match for their children particularly for their daughters. Caste and status is also considered before making decision. Majority of the families have a joint set-up. Therefore, women in families other than house- keeping, preparing food and taking care of children, also have to look after the elders of the family. Education and increasing expenditures are pushing women out of home to join workplaces but they do not receive encouragement from their homes and society. Working women sometimes get little help from their families in making adjustment with regard to demand on their time and pressure of work. But their prime duty is still considered as home-making, fulfilling the responsibilities as daughter, wife and mother and their careers do get the same weightage. Therefore, such women always remain under stress. It is clear that media, both broadcast and print, play an important role in defining what we think, who we are and what is our place is in the society. Media also helps define how issues are interpreted and evaluated. Western channels show both husband and wife sharing the tasks of earning and homemaking. These channels portray women as independent, enjoying freedom, having strong careers and making decisions independently. Therefore, it would be important and exciting to discover whether exposure to cable television has brought any change in Pakistani women’s perspective of their role in the society. ii. Operational Behaviour of the female viewers, cognition and the way of reasoning also involves a problem-solving attitude of the subjects under study. This concept extends out to structuring and re-structuring of the social role, cultural,
methods of bringing up their children and taking care of their homes. nurturing children. Through this concept.71 linguistic. respect and freedom of women: Acceptance of the idea that women and men should have equal rights. getting their rights and freedoms. pattern of earning. religious and moral values of viewers. independence and respect in the society. This factor was operationalized into eight items which deal with following indicators: · · Acceptance of career women: Acceptance of career for women equivalent to the men Sharing of family responsibilities by men and women: Acceptance of equally sharing family responsibilities by husband and wife i.e. the researcher intends to go up to the level of finding out whether or not the contents of the cable television have deformed and reformed the social role of viewers and how is this reformation effecting their personality. sharing of household chores and income generation · Equal rights. .
Pathan. the total area covered by the study was Lahore only. survey method has been applied to obtain the data that is quantitative in nature from large representative but diverse and widely scattered population.4 Survey In this study. The expected number of women targeted in this study was one fourth of the total viewership.000 to 2. It was not feasible for the researcher to approach the total population therefore sampling technique was applied. 4. The researcher preferred this age group of women for the study because it is the most vibrant. Thus the researcher has applied sampling technique to collect the data considering the definition of Wimmer and Dominick (1993) “a sample is the subset of the population that is taken to be the representative of the entire population”. Wimmer and Dominick (1993) define population as “A group or a class of subjects. material.000. The survey has aided the researcher in collecting information directly from the cable television viewers (heavy. The changes in their lives have hence figured out through the information provided on a quantitative scale. The estimated total viewership in Lahore was 2. active and dynamic part of their lives. 4.” In the light of the above definition.000. 72 . variables.5 Sampling Method Even a modest sized survey typically requires considerable time. and Kashmiris etc belonging to different religions and speaking different languages (see Appendix II for further details).200. It consists of heterogeneous population comprising Punjabis.000. Baluchis. According to PEMRA the estimated number of cable television subscribers in Lahore was 350.RESEARCH DESIGN 4. The researcher selected Lahore as the field of study because it is the traditional capital city of Punjab and an urban center. money and assistance.72 Part II .000. The data was collected in 2005. It is the second largest city of Pakistan and cosmopolitan in nature. concepts or phenomena. Sindhis. total population of this study comprises all female cable television viewers aged 18 to 40 years and residing in Lahore.1 Population Due to the time and budgetary limitations.4. which were about 500. This research was conducted during February 2004 to May 2007. moderate and light viewers) so that a proper analysis could be made by comparing their lives.
73 Lahore is considered as the hub of media industry. transmitting programmes in English and Hindi languages. All television channels have their bureau offices in Lahore. used as the medium of instruction in most of the educational institutions in Lahore. According to PEMRA regional office Lahore. 73 . etc. Lahore was divided into six towns by the government for administrative purposes. working and house managers. education. English language. On the other hand the main cause of popularity of Indian channels among the public in Pakistan is the similarities of Urdu and Hindi languages. various FM radio channels are effectively working here. An established and oldest set up of Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) located in Lahore is working productively since the creation of the country. Max Media (decoder provider to the cable operators) it appeared that subscribers were almost equally distributed in all the towns. the Authority has issued 83 head end licensees till 2006. particularly in cosmopolitan cities like Lahore. So people are familiar with the language and thus take interest in English language channels and programmes. The researcher was able to target different groups of women of the society based on income. The researcher was interested in collecting the data from large population but due to time and financial constraints. is also considered as a status symbol in Pakistan. total 432 women cable television viewers belonging to Lahore were selected as a sample of the study. Upon discussion with MS. out of which 68 are active and 276 loop holders are successfully handling the cable operation and serving the 0. marital status. Besides PBC. Every cable operator and loop holder provides more than 100 channels to the connection holder.35 million subscribers. Most of these channels are western and Indian. Almost all national dailies have their offices and are published from here. These two languages are closer to each other and people understand them without putting any extra effort and thus feel comfortable watching Indian channels. including · · · · · · Aziz Bhatti Town Data Gunj Bakash Town Allama Iqbal Town Nishtar Town Ravi Town Shalimar Town (see Appendix III for further details) The government administrative “Division” was used because each division consists of demographically diverse population.
residing in Lahore and viewing cable television for minimum of two years. The researcher was also interested to find out the duration for which women of Lahore have been watching cable television.e. A screener was used to identify the respondent. Pakistan and in particular Lahore has witnessed rapid growth of cable television network after its legalization in year 2000. Appendix-VI). Only one respondent was selected from one household. Initially the researcher decided to draw a sample of 75 (being a modest no. Based on this criterion four categories were made: · · · · Watching cable television for the last 2 years Watching cable television for the last 3 years Watching cable television for the last 4 years Watching cable television for more then 4 years The selected women for interview fulfilled the criterion of sample i. To avoid any complication of decimal and to have an even number. heavy. Finally applying quota (a sampling method) and allocation of equal quota for each town and category it ended up at 18. 74 . In case. women aged between 18-40 years. it was decided to select equal respondents from each town by applying non-probability quota sampling. researcher decided to round it up at 18 (being an even number) and have a sample of 72 from each town which made total sample of 432 units. Allocation of Equal quota to each town was utilized to ensure that findings can be generalised to all of Lahore. moderate and light viewers for better results.) from each town making it a total of 450. more than one respondent were available in one household the Kish Grid (see Appendix IV) was utilized to select the respondent. One respondent was considered as one unit of analysis.e.75 per category. The researcher tried to create a balance among respondents from all categories i. The screener asked about the availability of television. Women viewing cable television for less than 2 years were excluded from the sample because the researcher believes that time period less than 2 years is insufficient to cause effects on viewers.74 Since no authentic and systematic list of viewers was available to the researcher. cable television connection and women aged 18-40 years (see Questionnaire.
The researcher.2 Household Route The universe of the study was Lahore and for data collection government administrative division was used which divided Lahore into six towns and 150 union councils. The researcher applied right hand rule and started selecting respondents from the first household at right hand side of the 75 .432) Duration of cable connection More than 4 years 4 years 3 years 2 years Total Aziz Bhatti Town Allama Iqbal Town Nishtar Town Ravi Town Shalimar Town 18 18 18 18 72 18 18 18 18 72 18 18 18 18 72 18 18 18 18 72 18 18 18 18 72 4. defined the household route.75 4. Details are as follow: Table 4. Table 4.4: Towns and No. No of union councils 13 33 26 25 30 23 (see Appendix V for further details) Addresses of town offices and union councils were collected and effort was made to approach maximum households in all towns (see Appendix V).3 indicates the division of the sample size. Every town has different number of union councils.5.5.1 Sampling Dynamics Table 4. of Union Councils Town Aziz Bhatti Town Data Gunj Bakash Town Allama Iqbal Town Nishtar Town Ravi Town Shalimar Town Sourse: Office of the District Nazim.3: Sampling Dynamics Data Gunj Bakash Town 18 18 18 18 72 (N. with the help of town offices.
3 Collection of Data and Field Experiences The researcher engaged six female interviewers who personally had the experience of conducting interviews for media research. the interviewers started data collection. To test the reliability of the instrument.18-40 years residing in Lahore. 2004). The interviewers had to face some difficulties in finding the target audience and in conducting interviews because of non-cooperative attitude of some of the respondents.6.1 Tool of Data Collection In this research. & Ahmad. 4. The enumerators were trained on how to conduct an interview and what to do if the respondent is distracted. Then the screener was applied and respondents were selected on the basis of sampling method for interview. Some of the respondents had difficulty due to personal reasons to answer at the time interviewers approached them. Some of the respondents hesitated to respond to some of the questions.2 Pre Testing and reliability test The interview schedule was pre-tested. 76 . 4.6. The instrument was formulated in English which was translated into standard Urdu language for the convenience of the interviewees. loses interest or runs out of time. Still the researcher gave them a thorough orientation regarding the instrument. The result revealed certain shortcomings in the instrument so the researcher made modifications before finalizing it. 4. Cronbach’s alpha approach was applied. Pre-testing was done by interviewing one respondent in each category from every town.e. Efforts were made to get the female interviewees of different socio-economic background.6 Data Collection 4. Total sample consisted of 432 women of reproductive age i. interviews’ schedule (verbal interview based on questionnaire) was selected as a tool for data collection because some of the respondents were illiterate and would not be able to read and answer the questionnaire. Data collection was completed in four months (August-November 2005). After a thorough review of the questionnaire. attitude and practice is conducted and questions are in the form of Likert’s scale (Likert’s-1952).76 town offices. In a Likert’s scale a person expresses an opinion by rating his agreement with a series of statements (Hanif.6. This method of testing the reliability is commonly used when study of knowledge.
graphs and composing the thesis script. this research study might have not been successfully accomplished. Similarly. “In Page” Urdu software was used. Each of dependant variables was operationalized into a set of parameters and the answers were obtained on Likert 3 – point scale as mentioned in table 4. S. Excel and MS Word were used for designing charts. Table 4. 2006.5: Opinion and Respective Values Opinion Agree Undecided Disagree Value 3 2 1 77 . Data was analyzed separately to examine each hypothesis. The researcher entered the data through SPSS. S. As the study evaluated the association between exposure to cable television and change in lifestyles of women. The researcher by experience felt that without the knowledge of computer in general and understanding the SPSS in particular. Data sheet was prepared by transferring information obtained from the respondents for the purpose of scoring. The Chi-Square test is often used in research work where the data consists of frequencies or counts. The data of this research was of categorical nature hence the researcher applied Chi-Square to analyse it. Besides. for composing and designing the Urdu version questionnaire.0) for analyzing the data.7. For data entry and analysis. tables. The results were tested at 5 % level of significance which means that researcher is 95% confident in making the correct decision (Chaudhry.77 4.5. & Kamal. The most common use of the test is probably with categorical data. p. particularly to learn SPSS. a statistical tool. 4. 129). the researcher had taken a very rigorous training course.7 Data Processing The researcher has used the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS Version 13. Chi-Square was used.1 Measure for Analysis After data collection scores were assigned to the respective categories of the questions which were necessary for quantification of variables.
Effect on Social Interaction Score index for Q15 to Q15: F · · Minimum value was = 7 Maximum value was = 21 The values are divided into three categories i. The responses were categorized into three categories i. medium and high on the basis of standard score.78 Construction of Scale The next step in measure is construction of scale. medium and low for dependent variable. comprising three points as high. Effect on Domestic Activities Score Index for Q14 · · Minimum Value = 1 Maximum Value = 3 In this question the researcher could get a maximum score of 3 and minimum score of 1. medium and low to measure the intensity of the effect. low.e. medium and high. high. The researcher made a three-point scale. Category Low effect Medium effect High effect Score 1 2 3 ii. Category From no to low effect Medium effect High effect Score 7 to 11 12 to 16 17 to 21 78 .e. The minimum and maximum score actually received by a respondent for a factor was divided into three categories i. i.e. low.
Appearance and Style Q16_16:E · · Minimum value was = 6 Maximum value was= 18 Score 1 2 3 The values are divided into three categories of low. medium and high. medium and high. Interaction of Husband and Wife Q15G · · Minimum value = 1 Maximum value = 3 The values are divided into three categories of low. Mother-Child Interaction Q15H · · Minimum value = 1 Maximum value = 3 Score 1 2 3 The values are divided into three categories of No to low. Category No to low effect Medium effect High effect Score 6 to 9 10 to 13 14 to 18 79 . medium and high effects. Category No to low effect Medium effect High effect v. Category No to low effect Medium effect High effect iv.79 iii.
Maximum value was= 24 80 . During data analysis it was noticed that minimum scored value was 10. Cultural Practices Q 17. Personal and Domestic Expenditure Q18-18: B · · Minimum value is = 3 Maximum value is= 9 Score 27 to 43 44 to 59 Above 59 The values are divided into three categories of low.19: G · · Minimum expected value was 8. Category No to low effect Medium effect High effect Score 3 to 5 6 to 7 8 to 9 viii. 27 was taken as the minimum value.17.80 vi. · Maximum value was= 75 The values are divided into three categories like low. medium and high. Social Role of Pakistani women Q19. Category No to low effect Medium effect High effect vii.1. medium and high. Therefore.5: A · Minimum expected value was 25 points but on the data analyses it was found that not a single respondent scored below 27 points.
tables. the Chi-Square statistical analysis was applied. 4. As the observation of the samples was classified according to two variables.1 Univariate Analysis This study has examined the relationship between exposure to cable television channels and changes in life pattern of women in Lahore. etc. ChiSquare (x2) Test for contingency table was applied to see whether the 2 variables of classification independent or dependant have any association. Therefore.81 The values are divided into three categories of low. their patterns of viewing and to find whether there was any gender discrimination in cable television viewing.8. 81 .8. univariate analysis was also used through percentage distribution and cross tab and presented the data in form of figures. Pakistan. 4. medium and high. The researcher was also interested in recording the demographic characteristics of cable television viewers. H1: The two variables of classification are associated. Category No to low effect Medium effect High effect Score 10 to 14 15 to19 20 to 24 4.8 Application of Statistical Test The following statistics were used to analyze the data. Procedure for Testing Hypothesis Testing hypothesis of associations for contingency tables: 1: Formula the null and alternative hypothesis: Ho: The two variables of classification are not associated.eij ) 2 eij Which if Ho is true has an approximate Chi-Square distribution with (r-1) (c-1) degrees of freedom.2 Bivariate Analysis For the hypotheses testing and verification of the association between the exposure and changes in life patterns of women. 2: 3: Decide the significance level α Test statistic to be used is c = åå 2 i =1 j =1 r c (oij .
otherwise.82 4: eij = Compute the expected frequencies under Ho ( Ai )( B j ) th n (i row total )( j th column total ) = Number of observations Also calculate the value of x² and the d. rest of the procedure is same. Decide as below: Reject Ho if the computed value of x² >= x² α (r-1) (c-1). Accept Ho. For a (2x2) table only test statistic is changed.f.f. 5: 6: Determine the critical region which depends upon and the number of d. Test statistic used in the case is x² = ( a+b+c+d)(ad-bc)² (a+b)(b+d)(c+d)(a+c) 82 .
Details of bivariate analysis have been given in part II (Analytic Section) of this chapter. tired and have lower incomes. Atkin and LaRose (1991) research findings suggested that access viewers do not fit the upscale information seekers profile typical of other public affairs consumers. this study attempted to understand whether demography influence the viewing pattern of respondents or not. control over remote. younger and non-white families. for instance. the researcher was also interested in understanding the restrictions and viewing trends of the sample. income. Pakistan.General Findings 5. cable television is being used by all classes of the country. The descriptive analysis section recorded demography of respondents and focused on age. The descriptive analysis was presented in percentage through cross tabs and figures (tables are provided as Appendix I). Some of the earlier studies indicated that demographic characteristics allow the development of media viewing habits of users. This is clearly not the case with access. this part of the study presented the data. It also analyses the relationship between above factors and level of viewing. Because of the inexpensive and easy access. that general viewership is higher among larger. according to duration of having cable television connections. respondents preferred channels and kinds of programmes. marital status etc.1 Cable Television Viewing Patterns of Women This study measured the association between the exposure to cable television channels and changes in life patterns of women in Lahore. preferred time of watching. While better educated and heavy access viewers are nevertheless likely to be older. Therefore. It has become one of the common household commodities.83 CHAPTER 5 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Part I . and tried to gauge their effects on the viewing of cable television. Therefore. Moreover. descriptive analysis was also carried out and results are presented in part I of this chapter. through the bivariate analysis. Such research indicates. right and restriction on viewing cable television. Besides. reasons for watching cable television. education. . Cable television viewing is no more restricted to upper and upper-middle class of Pakistan as it used to be.
1 percent) were house managers who stay at home and are directly or indirectly involved in domestic affairs. Table 5-A shows that minimum qualification of more then three-fifth of the respondents (63. However a majority of the respondents (73. They also apparently have economic means to translate impact of media in terms of their own lives. Studying the impact of cable television on their lives was important due to the fact that women of this age group are considered mature and comparatively independent. they are married at this stage and have children. dress and social interaction.2 Demographic Characteristics of Respondents A total of 72 respondents from each town of Lahore were interviewed. 31.7 percent were either divorcees or widowers. the highest number of respondents belonged to the monthly income group of over Rs 25.5 percent unmarried whereas 0. In most cases they constitute a social nucleus of the family and they tend to enjoy greater degree of influence on social and economic patterns of the family life. majority of the respondents were aged between 31 to 40 years (60 percent). The results justify suitability of respondents with this research as majority of them were educated and had capacity to understand a variety of messages even in foreign languages like English and Hindi.000. Normally. women enjoy a certain degree of freedom in deciding domestic expenditures. One-fourth of the respondents were working women who also supposedly handle their household matters. . Their role is also very important in the upbringing of children in a society where this role is strictly considered as a woman’s domain.8 percent) of the respondents were married. food. indicating that they had relatively less economic pressures and had enough time to watch cable television. Likewise. Besides being the house managers.84 5. The highest number (67. despite highly male-dominated norms of the society.2 per cent) was graduation. Again most of them were married having purchasing power of varying extent and could directly or indirectly influence media-motivated change in their lifestyle in their families. As illustrated through the Table 5-A. It is the period in their lives when they are settling down with a new family and they are learning more about family lifestyle through interaction with others and most importantly through television channels now available easily – courtesy cable network technology.
Age (years) Demographic characteristics Description of characteristics 18.7 100.3 Duration of Having Cable Television Connection The longer the duration of viewing of cable television.3 100. the greater may be the impact.1 (see .3 19.A: Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents Sr.7 13.7 24.5 .2 40.4 14. Therefore.0 73.0 16.2 32.25 26-30 31-35 36-40 Total 2.5 100.0 67.2 21.# 1. Education Up to primary Secondary Graduation Graduation plus Total 3.8 31.85 Table 5.0 29.1 26. the study intends to know the respondents’ past association with cable television in general and relationship between the time since the cable television facility was available and viewing level in particular. As illustrated through the Table 5. 1000 to 5000 5001 to 10000 Income (per month) 10001 to 15000 15001 to 20000 20001 to 25000 25000 plus Total 5.1 13.0 5. Profession House manager Working Total 4.9 100. Marital status Married Unmarried Others Total f 83 92 83 174 432 18 141 167 106 432 316 116 432 71 61 60 55 56 129 432 293 136 3 432 % 19.0 4.9 100.9 12.6 38.
attaining general acceptability.4 Level of Viewing Figure 5.0% MORE THAN FOUR YEARS Fig. moderate viewers (more than two but less than four hours) were 145 (33. 2: Level of Viewing . This shows equal representation of each category.1 per cent).1: Duration of Having Cable Connection 5.6 per cent) and light viewers 143 (33.1. This establishes that cable television became more popular in Lahore during the past two years (2003-05).6% 23.3% 33.8% UP TO TWO YEARS 29. Among 432 respondents.1% MORE THAN 2 BUT LESS THAN 4 HOURS 4 AND MORE THAN 4 HOURS 33.47 per cent) than those having cable television connections for the past three years or more.2 (see Appendix I) and illustrate the distribution of viewers according to their level of viewing. heavy viewers (daily 4 hours and above watching time) were 144 (33.4% THREE YEARS FOUR YEARS 23. 1-2 HOURS 33.86 Appendix I) and Figure 5. 5.2 and Table 5. respondents enjoying cable facility for the last two years were more in number (29.6% Fig 5.3 per cent). 23.
2 100(23.4 34 23.3: Distribution of Respondents According to Duration of Cable Connection and Level of Viewing Moderate Heavy viewers Light viewers Duration of viewers Total cable connection f % f % f % f (%) 40 27.5 26 18.5 Duration of Cable Connection by Level of Viewing Table 5.6 103(23.8) belongs to the category of respondents enjoying cable facility for the last two years and lowest percentage of heavy viewers (20. highest percentage of light viewers represents the first category of the table and lowest percentage stands for the category of respondents having cable connection from 25 to 36 months.8 38 26.8) Total 144 100.6) More Than 48 months 29 20. Table 5.2 49 34.0 143 100.4) 24 months 25 – 36 months 37 25.1) goes to the category of respondents having cable facility for more than four years.0 102(23. it is apparent from the table that highest percentage of heavy viewers (27.1 36 24.0 432(100) .3 127(29.7 37 25.8 38 26. Again.4 30 21.3 indicates no association between the level of viewing and duration of cable connection. However.0 145 100.87 5.1) 37 – 48 months 38 26.
The related findings are presented below: 5.8 83 (100) 26-30 36 39.5 shows an association between the level of viewing and qualification of respondents.3 174 (100) Total 144 33.1 33 39.. education.2 Education by Level of Viewing Table 5.1 22 26.6.5 63 36. Table 5.8) falls in the age group 26-30 and 18-25 years respectively. This is in contrast to the general belief that this age group falls in the heavy viewers’ category.2 58 33.6. . However. This is interesting to note that the lowest percentage of heavy viewers belongs to age group of 18-25.1 35 38. The 2/5 of respondents with secondary education was the heavy viewers whereas highest percentage of respondents with higher education (45.8 432 (100) 5. it is clear from the table that highest percentage of heavy and light viewers (39. profession etc or not.4: Distribution of Respondents by their Age and Level of Viewing Heavy viewers Age f % f % f % f (%) Moderate viewers Light viewers Total 18-25 25 30.1 25 30.e.9) fell in the category of light viewers.3 145 33. age.5 31 37.4 indicates no association between the level of viewing and age of respondents.0 21 22. income.6 Demography and Level of Viewing The research also finds out that if there is any association between level of viewing and demographic characteristics of respondents i. Thus it specifies that higher the level of qualification lower the level of viewing cable television.1 and 39.6 143 39.1 Age by Level of Viewing Table 5.3 83 (100) 36-40 53 30.8 92 (100) 31-35 30 36.88 5.
5 24 20.8 116 (100) Total 143 33.9 52 31.6 316 (100) % f % f % f (%) Moderate viewers Light viewers Total 11 9.4 141 (100) Graduation Graduation plus 60 35.1 55 32. Table 5.5: Distribution of Respondents by their Education and Level of Viewing Heavy viewers Education f Up to primary 7 38.3 62 19. who are non-professionals.3 432 (100) 5.9 33 23.6 143 33. spare more time for watching cable television as compared to the working class. House managers.7 81 69.89 Table 5.3 Profession by Level of Viewing Table 5.6 reveals that an association exists between the level of viewing and profession of respondents.3 145 33.1 432 (100) .8 36 34.6.2 Total 143 33.7 52 36.6 144 33.6: Distribution of Respondents by their Profession and Level of Viewing Heavy viewers Profession f House manager Working 133 42.1 121 38.8 6 33.3% 18 (100) % f % f % f (%) Moderate viewers Light viewers Total Secondary 56 39.9 167 (100) 106 (100) 21 19.0 49 46.1 145 33.9 5 27.
Table 5. the highest percentage of heavy viewers resided in Data Gunj Bakash Town and light viewers in Allama Iqbal Town.5 f 19 % 26.1 72 Nishtar Town 24 33.8 28 38.4 27 37.3 20 27.4 72 144 33.1 27 37.90 5.7: Distribution of Respondents by their Residing Town and Level of Viewing Heavy viewers Address f Aziz Bhatti Town Data Gunj Bakash Iqbal Town 26 % 36.5 19 26.5 26 36.6 24 33.6.3 145 33.4 f 72 Moderate viewers Light viewers Total 32 44.8 20 27.1 432 (100) . However.1 72 26 36.1 f 27 % 37.8 72 17 23.4 20 27.9 72 Ravi Town Shalimar Town Total 19 26.4 Residing Town by Level of Viewing Table 5.3 31 43.7 represents that there was no association between the level of viewing and residing area of respondents.6 143 33.
those belonging to monthly income group of over Rs.6 f 23 % 30. However.0 30 23.7 61 (100) 10001-15000 12 20.6.3 129 (100) Total 144 33.0 23 38.8 19 33.5 16 29.001-20.9 f 26 % 36.7 60 (100) 15001-20000 19 34.7 23 37.5 Income by Level of Viewing Table 5.4 55 (100) 20001-25000 15 26.8: Distribution of Respondents by their Income and Level of Viewing Heavy viewers Income f 1000-5000 22 % 30.1 432 (100) .3 25 41.3 145 33.9 22 39. Table 5.8 depicts that there is no significant association between the level of viewing and income of respondents. 25.1 20 36.6 12 19.91 5.1 143 33.000 were the highest heavy viewers and Rs 15.6 f (%) 71 (100) Moderate viewers Light viewers Total 5001-10000 26 42.3 56 (100) 25000 plus 50 39.0 49 38.000 the lowest heavy viewers.
3 145 33.4 f 99 % 33. .92 5.6 143 33. Marital status does not matter as each category has shown equal interest in watching cable television.7 Purpose of Watching Cable television The study also analyzed the respondents’ aim of watching cable television channels.9 indicates that there was no association between the level of viewing and marital status of respondents. The researcher took the first mentioned purpose only. education and guidance.1 45 33.1 432 (100) 5.6 Marital Status and Level of Viewing Table 5.1 46 33.8 f (%) 293 (100) Total Un-married 45 33. The second enlisted reason confirms that the curiosity about foreign lands itself makes respondents vulnerable to outlandish influences including culture.8 136 (100) Others 1 33.3 3 (100) Total 144 33.6.9: Distribution of Respondents by Marital Status and Level of Viewing Heavy viewers Moderate viewers Light viewers Marital status f Married 98 % 33.3 1 33.3 which indicate that the most frequently mentioned reason was entertainment and relaxation followed by the urge to know about foreign countries.3 1 33. Table 5.8 f 96 % 32. Their responses are mentioned in Table 5. Respondents could give multiple answers for the purpose of their watching the cable television. and more for a change.10 and Figure 5.
7 9 7.3: Purpose of Watching Cable Television .2% Figure 5.5% 9.3 100 Entertainment & Relaxation Know about other countries Education & Guidance Sit & Watch with family Time Pass News & Information Know more about Pakistan 6.9% 37.4% 7.2 12.3% 7.5 19.0% 12.7% 19.93 Table 5.9 7.10: Purpose of Watching Cable Television Purpose Entertainment and relaxation Know about other countries and their culture Education and guidance Sit and watch with family Pastime News and information Know more about Pakistan Total f 162 83 55 39 34 32 27 432 (%) 37.4 6.
0 95 100.11 exposes the association between the purpose of watching cable television and level of viewing as those who watch cable television for the purpose of entertainment and relaxation constitute 1/2 of heavy viewers.6 15 19.7 7.1 4 4.42 Moderate f 22 % 28.0 432 (100) .7.4) 12 4.3 11 14.94 5.6 21.7 21 11 20 22. Table 5.64 Total f (%) 162 (37.7) 68 26.6 11 14.2 83 (19.9) 32 (7.9 6. the highest number of light viewers is those who watch cable television for education and guidance.2) Heavy f 128 % 49.2 23 24.11: Purpose of Watching Cable Television and Level of Viewing Purpose of Watching Entertainment and relaxation Know about other countries and their culture Education and guidance Sit and watch with family Pastime News and information Know more about Pakistan Total 17 6.3) 259 100.2 27 (6.21 f 12 Light % 12. In contrast.1 Purpose of Watching Cable Television and Level of Viewing Table 5. Those who consider cable television watching merely as a source of time passing are the third highest number of heavy viewers.1 4 4.3 6. This is followed by those whose purpose is to know about other countries and their culture.5) 10 18 6 3.3 8 5 6 10.1 11.2 55 (12.9 2.1 39 (9) 34 (7.0 78 100.
Western channels like Star Movies. This was followed by Geo.12 (see Appendix I) and also illustrated through Figure 5. For foreign approval. The first overall preference was Star Plus. local or foreign.2% Star Plus GEO HBO Star Movies Indus Vision PTV World ARY ZEE TV BBC Sony 78.1% 12.7% 18. It dominates Pakistani electronic media scene because it is bolder than the official Ptv and broader than contemporary networks in private sector. Nevertheless. Indian and western cultures.95 5. An interesting thing to be noted is that ‘Star Plus’ topped all categories of channels.0% 69. Their responses are mentioned in Table 5. which is a strong reason for its popularity.4.5% 19.9% 33.5% 7. ARY and Indus Vision. 17. Geo shows Pakistani.6% 17. They were allowed to make multiple choices. HBO and BBC present western content/stuff which pours western culture in the minds of their viewers. it shows programmes with an international approach. Star Movies.8 Preferences for Channels Respondents were asked to enlist their preferred cable television channels.8% 22. its popularity was attributed to the dominant Indian content/stuff and Hindi language which is close to Urdu. having ample chances of influencing viewers.4: Preferences for Channels .2% Fig 5. a foreign channel. all Pakistani channels. The accumulated response put the total number of preferred channels to only 10 – six foreign and four Pakistani. HBO and BBC were the next preference.
Significantly.1 24.2 15.5 17.1 18.2 f 105 33 26 22 16 9.13 that respondents of all categories i. a foreign channel.8 13.96 5.2 6.7 30.3 42. moderate and light viewers’ first preference was ‘Star Plus’.5 f (%) 341 (78.6 16.6 22.7 18.3 72.1) 54 (12.13: Channel Preferences and Level of Viewing Heavy Channel Preferences f Star Plus Star Movies HBO BBC ZEE TV Sony Geo ARY Indus Vision Ptv World 119 23 22 32 19 10 98 40 26 27 % 82. .8 f 117 27 32 20 19 12 99 62 34 25 % 80.2) 80 (18.2 13.2) 301 (69.3 22.4 11.9 68.8 23.4 23.6) 95 (22. Geo got the highest percentage of the light viewers whereas ARY got the highest percentage of the moderate viewers.5) 74 (17.0 15. Moderate and light viewers go for the western channels than the heavy watchers.1 13.1 18. Table 5.8. these channels present dramas and other entertainment programmes.8) Moderate Light Total Base-multiple responses were allowed so the sum may add up to more than the actual number. Pakistani channels Geo and ARY come second and third in the category of most popular channels but in comparison of viewing hours.1 8.4 17. heavy.7) 145 (33. However.0) 77 (17.2 6.e.1 27.8 18.0 104 43 35 25 % 73.9) 83 (19.37 68.1 Channel Preferences and Level of Viewing It is evident from the Table 5.5) 31 (7.
9.3% Information Cooking Figure 5.15 indicates that drama was the first preference of all types of viewers.9 Respondents Preferred Programmes Figure 5. Movies were the second choice of heavy and moderate viewers because of their willingness to sit before television for a longer period of time which the light viewers do not.1 Preferred Programmes and Level of Viewing Table 5.0% Dramas Movies Music Religious 26. Drama was an across the board first choice because of their short duration.9% 34. 5.2% 16. . 9.5: Respondents Preferred Programmes. This also hints at the possibilities of accepting Indian and western culture and role or lifestyle of women in those societies through these programmes comprising drama (soap operas). making information-related programmes as the latter’s second option. The most favourite programme of the highest percentage of respondents was drama followed by movies and music. music and movies. This shows that respondents are receiving foreign culture through entertainment programmes presented by the top favoured television channels. Movies were the second choice of heavy and moderate viewers whereas light viewers gave second priority to information programmes.97 5.5% 76.14 (see Appendix I) show respondents’ preferred programmes on cable television.5% 25. The least interesting was cooking.5 and Table 5.
7. ALONE 51.6 per cent alone.15: Respondents’ Preferred Programmes and Level of Viewing Heavy viewers Preferred Programmes f Drama Movies Music Religious Information Cooking 119 58 43 23 28 15 % 82.3) 116 (26.8 f (%) 329 (76.9) 69 (16.6: Preference of Watching Television .5 7. even if it had more than one television set.2) 148 (34.0 19. Ptv.3 29.0) 110 (25.10 Preference of Watching Television Figure 5.16 (see Appendix I) indicate that 51 per cent of respondents watch cable television with their families whereas the remaining 48. 5.4 31.3 f 99 43 42 22 45 11 % 69.1 29.4 21.5 10.98 Table 5.2 30. This is a major shift from the initial practice wherein an entire family would watch the only available channel in Pakistan.4 16.6 25.4 10.4% 48.6% WITH FAMILY Figure 5.4 f 111 47 31 24 37 15 % 76.9 16.6 40.5) Moderate viewers Light viewers Total Base-multiple responses were allowed so the sum may add up to more than the actual number. The difference is narrow but it indicates that a growing number of people can separately watch channels of their choice – thanks mainly to the availability of more television sets in a house and a variety of programmes or channels through cable television.5) 41 (9.4 15.6 32.6 and Table 5.
5.10.1 Preference of Watching Cable Television and Level of Viewing
Table 5.17 states that an equal number of heavy viewers prefer to watch cable television with family or alone. Majority moderate viewers prefer to watch cable television alone and light viewers with family.
Table 5.17: Preference of Watching Cable Television and Level of Viewing Moderate Heavy viewers You watch f Alone With family Total 72 72 144 % 50 50 100.0 f 75 70 145 viewers % 51.7 48.3 100.0 f 63 80 143 % 44.1 55.9 100.0 f (%) 210 (48.6) 222 (51.4) 432 (100) Light viewers Total
5.11 Remote Control
Figure 5.7 and Table 5.18 (see Appendix I) the show that in most cases television’s remote was controlled by men (47 percent). This indicates male dominance in Pakistani society. Remote is less controlled by women because they need to attend the family when its members watch television jointly.
BY CHILDERN BY MEN
BY RESPONDENT BY OLD AGE
Figure 5.7: Remote Control
5.11.1 Remote Control and Level of Viewing
Table 5.19 indicates that men control the remote in homes of heavy, moderate and light viewing respondents (women) when the family watch cable television jointly. Respondents of heavy and light categories of viewing come second with regard to controlling the remote. This is so because they manage to control the remote when men are away. In the moderate category, youngsters control the remote after men, apparently because women allow their young children to watch programmes of their choice.
Table 5.19: Remote Control and Level of Viewing Remote is controlled by f Children Men Respondent Old age Youngsters Total 11 69 30 9 25 144 % 7.6 47.9 20.8 6.3 17.4 100 f 17 67 14 13 34 145 % 11.7 46.2 9.7 9.0 23.4 100 f 16 67 26 8 26 143 % 11.2 46.9 18.2 5.6 18.2 100 f (%) 44 (10.2) 203 (47.0) 70 (16.2) 30 (6.9) 85 (19.7) 432 (100) Heavy viewers Moderate viewers Light viewers
5.12 Favourite Time of Watching Cable Television
Figure 5.8 and Table 5.20 (see Appendix I) reflect that a majority of the respondents watch cable television after 7:00 pm which also justifies heavy viewing of Star Plus channels’ drama serials presented between 7:00 pm to 11:00 pm. The favourite time of watching cable television for both the working women as well as house managers was again after 7:00 pm. This also indicates that the free evening time, suitable for attending family and socializing, is being spent in front of television sets.
BEFORE 2 PM
2 PM TO 7 PM
AFTER 7 PM
Figure 5.8: Favourite Time of Watching Cable Television
5.12.1 Favourite Time of Watching Cable Television and Level of Viewing
Table 5.21 indicates that majority of heavy, moderate and light viewers prefer to watch cable television programmes after 7:00 pm. Only 14.6 per cent heavy viewers prefer to watch cable television before 2:00 pm. 17.2 per cent of moderate viewers’ second time preference is from 2:00 pm to 7:00 pm. The table establishes that 7:00 pm to onward is the prime cable television watching time for all sorts of respondents.
Table 5. 21: Favourite Time of Watching Cable Television and Level of Viewing Heavy viewers Favourite time of watching Before 2:00 PM 2:00 PM To 7:00 PM After 7:00 PM Moderate viewers Light viewers Total f (%) 44 (10.2)
5.13 Restriction of Watching Cable Television
Table 5.22 reveals the responses of restrictions on women for watching cable television programmes. It also indicates the restricted time slots for women. It is clear from the table that 296 women (68.5 per cent) do not have any type of restrictions on watching cable television whereas 77 women (17.8 percent) have to face certain restrictions. When they were asked about the restricted programmes and reasons of restrictions imposed on them for watching cable television, the response shows that majority is being restricted to watch movies followed by stage dramas and music programmes. The main reasons of restriction pointed out by respondents include vulgarity in programmes, their work and religion. Regarding restricted time, majority of the respondents expressed that they were disallowed to watch cable television at night because of strict family traditions. Some avoid watching cable television at night to stick to their reading habits.
103 Table 5.22: Restriction of Watching Cable Television Restriction Restricted cable television time/programme for women Total Not applicable If yes then women restricted programme Stage dramas Movies Music Total Not Applicable Working hours Reasons Vulgarity Away from religion Total Not applicable Night Time Evening Morning Total Not applicable Late night Time reasons Reading books Restricted environment Total 2 49 432 .5 11.3 100.0 16 4 432 354 27 3.7 .9 100.0 81.9 6.3 Category Yes Don’t know Not at all f 77 59 296 432 354 31 41 6 432 354 30 39 9 432 354 58 % 17.8 13.7 68.5 100.0 81.9 7.2 9.5 1.4 100.0 81.9 6.9 9.0 2.1 100.0 81.9 13.4
Programmes and Time for Men Table 5.20% LESS THAN MEN 58.24 (see Appendix I) show the responses of women to their right to watch cable television. It is evident from the table that majority of the respondents (253 or 58.9: Women’s Right to Watch Cable Television .8 as discussed in Table 9. This again supports the concept of male dominance and authority at home and in the society.13.104 5.2% NO 41. programmes and time for men If no restriction than why Mature and independent 432 100.23 shows that men do not have any restriction in terms of watching cable television as they are considered mature and independent as is the peculiarity of a maledominated society.0 5.0 Category f % No restriction 432 100.23: Restricted Cable Television Channels.6 percent) have less right to watch cable television than men. In contrast.14 Women’s Right to Watch Cable Television Figure 5. Programmes and Time for Men Restriction Restricted cable television channels. This shows discrimination of human rights and gender bias to approach the communication and information technology.1 Restricted Cable Television Channel. the percentage of women being restricted was 17.6% EQUAL TO MEN Figure 5. Table 5.9 and Table 5. 0.
25 (see Appendix I) indicate that the first priority of majority of the respondents was to enjoy cable television programmes during their free time.15 Recreation Figure 5.10 and Table 5.26 (see Appendix I) and indicate that for majority of the respondents cable television is a hurdle in the way of their domestic and other activities whereas 10 percent were not clear whether their activities were being affected by it or not.10: Recreation 5. making other healthy activities such as outing.6% BOOK READING OUTING OR GAME 13. This shows that cable television has become an important part of women’s lives residing in Lahore. 33% 57% DISAGREE UNDECIDED AGREE 10% Figure 5.4% Figure 5.16 Hurdle in Domestic and Other Activities Figure 5. Pakistan. games and book-reading second and third choices.105 5. 31.11 and Table 5.0% TV 55.11: Hurdle in Domestic and other Activities .
3) 45 (10.5 f 96 26 23 145 % 40.0 percent) respondents accepted that their cooking and food serving time had been disturbed.0 31.0 11.7 f 26 14 103 143 % 10.1 12.29 and Figure 5.3) 432 (100) f 121 5 18 144 % 50.0 57. Table 5. .1 16.1 72.27: Hurdles in Domestic and other Activities and Level of Viewing Domestic activities effected Agree Undecided Disagree Total Heavy viewers Moderate viewers Light viewers Total f (%) 243 (56.17 Affected Activities of Respondents Table 5.12 shows a strong relationship between the duration of watching cable television and its impact on the domestic and outside activities of the respondents. 153 (63.16.29 elaborates what types of activities are being affected.1 Domestic Activities and Level of Viewing Out of the total 432 respondents. Table 5. Heavy viewing heavily affects activities of respondents falling in this category. 243 have mentioned that their activities are adversely affected due to cable television viewing.5 24. The result confirms the hypothesis that the more one watches cable television.5 percent) newspapers and magazines reading habit which is followed by movie watching in cinema houses and listening to the music.0 37.0 37. It is clear from the Table 5. The affects are moderate for moderate viewers and light for light viewers. Further.27 that majority of heavy viewers (50 percent) were agreed that their domestic and personal activities are affecting due to cable television watching whereas only 10 percent of light viewers have the same opinion.106 5.7 5. It shows that the cable television viewing had affected majority of the respondents’ (95.4) 144 (33. the more one is affected by it.
34 13 10.0 48 39.107 Table 5.79 116 50.91 232 (100) 102 48. .56 225 (100) 36 51.29: Domestic Activities and Level of Viewing Effected domestic activities Cooking and serving time newspapers and magazines reading Listening to music Going for outing Going to movies Going for shopping Reading books Heavy viewers Moderate viewers f 63 % 41.38 195 (100) Prayers and reading 61 50.09 23 9.13 77 39.3 f 12 % 7.66 122 (100) religious books Base-multiple responses were allowed so the sum may add up to more than the actual number.49 30 15.25 6 12.25 15 31.37 211 (100) 27 56.5 48 (100) 111 49.28 24 11.57 7 10.91 Light viewers Total f (%) 154 (100) f 79 % 51.0 70 (100) 88 45.34 85 40.43 27 38.33 88 39.11 26 11.0 93 40.
4 9 1 9 48 8 50 60.2 1 .13 and Table 5.5 .5 7.5 39 30.6 6 4 0 .9 .00 0.2 5 38 0 6 15 .0 79 31 40. ies ic e g in g e 10 9. ti m ti m us in on ut g m ro m g ad se r ing rs ho v in in to fo to pp Re in en in fo & go go kk in li s t ag co rs M go in g g re ad g g Figure 5. Half of the respondents do not like to welcome guests and dislike interference by family members during watching cable television.108 Effected Activities for Vrious Levels of Viewers 51 .0 7 0 ok s in g bo ad in g re li g iou 4 .00 56 0 .3 49 Level of Effectivness .00 91 12 11 11 . majority of the respondents said that did go out with family during the prime time of Television watching. However.30 (see Appendix I) show how the interaction patterns of the target audience were changing.0 .3 50.3 50 51 . friends and neighbours was declining because of watching cable television.1 40 40 40 .0 .00 10.3 .00 4 39 5.3 . It indicates that majority of the respondents’ interaction time with their relatives.12: Domestic and other Activities and Level of Viewing.2 5 0 3 .4 3 .3 8 39 s bo .00 20. 5. pr Effected Activities Heavy Viewers Mod viewers Light Viewers pe pa ws ne ye r s & re ok s 10 .1 3 .00 7 .18 Interaction Patterns Figure 5.
5 0 e tiv ela R ur bo gh i Ne ds ien Fr sit Vi st ue eG ik tl No e lik ot N fe ter In re e nc Le s in ut so g 2.21 2.9 1.109 3 2.4 33 12.04 2.5 135 51. Data shows another important fact that majority of mother was disagreed with the statement that their interaction time with children is decreasing.18.0 111 37.23 2.1 1.6 m fa ily Figure 5.1 44 15.5 1 0.31: Interaction with Husband and Children Agree Variable f HusbandWife Interaction Time Decreased MotherChild Interaction Time Decreased % f % f % Undecided Disagree Mean Valid Respondents 138 47.5 293 96 36.5 2 1.13: Interaction Patterns 5.31 shows that the husband-wife interaction time too is on the decline because of cable television watching. Almost ½ of the total married respondents were agreed that their interaction time is decreasing.3 264 . Table 5.1 Interaction with Husband and Children Table 5.28 2.16 2.09 1.
5 2.14: Appearance and Style 5.20 Cultural Practices 5. Interestingly. an overwhelming majority of respondents considered cable television as an effective source of learning .15 1.55 and Table 5.20. The ratio for Indian dishes is zero mainly because of the reason that Indian channels do not concentrate much on cooking as their main thrust is on soap operas.06 2 1.91 2. This shows that the respondents just follow the outlook of the characters with respect to lifestyle and not themselves as a whole. Nevertheless. 3 2.6 2.19 Appearance and Style In the Figure 5. majority of the respondents disagreed that they did relate the characters to their own lives despite they do copy in more than one area. Figure and Table 5.14 mean values of the responses are shown.33 (see Appendix I) and show that majority of the respondents have started trying western dishes they learnt from cable television.3 ry lle e Em TV ch rs cte a ar ate ul ce ac nt TV te ac ar ch r m e ak up ok Lo th wi te ela R d an ss e Dr Figure 5.5 0 l ro as em el od e lik TV c rs cte ra ha W jew ar e 2.32 (see Appendix I) indicates that majority of the respondents do take television characters as role model and want to copy them in appearance and style.39 2. The reason for watching cable television is entertainment but the influence as a result of it is broader lifestyle outlook.5 1 0.1 Food Habits Figure 5.110 5.
5 2 1.2 Dress Figure 5. Significantly enough.20.14 A dd o i ti n of we A er st ti n sh di o es an di es is h d e in ag ns ai V tT pr r og am m es w . the respondents’ style of donning causal western dress in their routine lives and wearing oriental apparels for parties match the dress trends shown in the most favoured Star Plus soap operas. 3 2.31 2. i dd on n fI D D u isc n sio s TV ive ct fe Ef u so rc e en Figure 5. Similarly.34 (see Appendix I) indicates that one-forth of the respondents agreed that they like to wear casual western dress because it is comfortable. nearly 98 percent of the respondents said they did not wear casual Indian dress.15: Culture Practices (Food) 5.5 1 0.111 cooking. .16 and Table 5.5 0 1. only a fraction of the respondents said they wore western party dress. 35 percent said they wore Indian party dress mainly ‘Sari’. Over three-fifth of the respondents conceded that they dine in front of television and discuss television programmes more than their own issues during meals.09 2. 81. But an overwhelming majority of them replied in negative. Interestingly. It indicates a change in their eating style and discussion patterns due to cable television. sh di .43 2.5 percent of the respondents conceded that cable television is the best source of learning about fashion trends. This they may be doing because of the social taboos about western dress which they do not wear while attending parties. Another reason could be the fact that oriental party wear is more colourful and lavish which women yearn for.34 2.
They considered television as the best source of learning the other languages.17: Cultural Practices (Language) .57 2.16: Cultural Practices (Dress) 5.9 2.7 2.35 1.5 2 1.7 2.97 CA S L UA E DR SS W ES R TE d N c ss re al su a ly S ES R IN A DI N S W ES N ER T of d In n ia R PA TY D PA Y RT D S RE fe c e ss re d s .6 1.. Four-fifth of the respondents were learning English whereas more then three-fifth of the respondents were learning other languages through cable television.35 (see Appendix I) indicate that cable television is creating a significant impact on the language of the respondents... c.3 2.5 0 1.8 2.06 2.3 Language Figure 5. la h lis ng E n la ag gu e d in ge ua g an il ag Us ng fE eo ag Us fH eo eo rc ou r lea ng ni g in rn a Le H TV Figure 5.4 2.20. w di in n si rd o s as .58 2.. u.6 2. 2. Vast majority (three-fourth of the respondents) inclined to using foreign languages (English and Hindi) in their daily routine. tiv es o ce ur Ef Figure 5.5 1 0..2 2. . h lis n si rd wo . ca in rn ea fl g ..17 and Table 5.44 1.112 3 2.4 2.8 2.5 2.54 LI E K TO E US O ER TH .
16 1.5 0 i i e e n ay ol kh ee od .03 1 Figure 5.19: Cultural Practices (Religion) .5 Religion Figure 5..02 1..19 and Table 5.19 1. or ity el le v 2. The result shows that adoption level of some of the western and Indian traditions is increasing in our society.5 0 nf fi .113 5.37 (see Appendix I) and indicate that majority of the respondents (three-fourth) are dependant on television for the religious information whereas small percentage of respondents agreed that their religiosity level is being effected by television.19 1.4 Traditions Figure 5. .5 2 1.20..5 1 0. 2.2 percent) were celebrating Indian traditions in marriage ceremonies where as threefifth of the respondents were likely to celebrate Valentine’s Day.03 2.5 2 1.36 (see Appendix I) and indicate that majority of the respondents (51.18: Cultural Practices (Traditions) 5.6 TV is s be o ce ur o ts cr de s ea ed li Re os gi Figure 5.5 1 0. 3 2.18 and Table 5. fi r eD et eH on Ra ow Ch t l g in B e al ra nt at ria wa te la leb ar br ar eH ra a t le K m Ce ra leb n eV te Ce ia at Ce leb ra d br Ce In leb ele te Ce C a br ele C 2.20.63 1.
22 Role of Pakistani Women Figure 5.1 2 re . which is purely western culture. 3 2. For all the dependent variables.20: Personal and Household Expenditure 5. More than three-fifth of respondents were of the view that their expenditure has increased whereas two-fifth of the respondents agreed that they have developed the tendency to increase their earnings to meet their high budget. .5 1 0...8 percent) agreed that a girl should have right to love marriage and working women and housewife should have equal respect.114 5. Majority of the respondents were of the view that women and men both should equally share in household chores and looking after of children and women should take active part in decision making. a degree of agreement was evident.5 2 1.20 and Table 5. itu ng nd ni y r pe elr ea ex n ew a ld .21 and Table 5.5 2. This implies that womenfolk in Pakistan seem to be changing faster.5 0 2..m .39 (see Appendix I) indicate that viewing of cable television is also changing the attitude of the respondents towards the perceived role of women in the society. A vast majority (70.21 Personal and Household Expenditure Figure 5..38 (see Appendix I) indicate that cable television is also disturbing the budget of the families. Figure 5.j be ho th lo to se c y ou g( nc H sin de n es Te Dr .
.5 a e fl ep us to h tiv ho u r ha ld ht ri g ac st eq hi nd ig ld d s a ve R ke fc ou ul ei ta en ha sh m ro ho d d s te om ho en ul ul af en m ho or ho g gw f s s n n om wo n rl ki en ki W ar gi gle m oo or e l o n A W to Si W n re r al b to g ug le r ve d an ho us o eh p es ld i sib on y.97 1.5 2. si.2. l it ec . r ee ar m wo fo en e rh ig rr ig ht s ol i .1 2 1. sh ld ou . ve i rt n t ht d i ec .48 . .91 1...5 1 0. a m ia rr ge fe wi e ov Figure 5.29 2.115 3 2..21: Role of Pakistani Women .96 2.32 2.5 0 1.
0 Rejection to change lifestyle Undecided Acceptance for change in lifestyle Since the response to each question is likely to differ according to the level of viewing the statistical tool known as Chi-Square is used to compare the mean scores of a group of questions. As the study evaluated the association between the exposure to cable television and change in lifestyles of women.BIVARIATE ANALYSIS 5.116 Part II . These channels faced criticism that they can cultivate foreign values particularly the western and Indian among the viewers. In order to have a criterion for classification of respondents according to their opinion following cut of values are used: 1. In 2002. If the mean score was close to 3 it indicated change in life patterns and if it was close to 1 it indicated rejection to change. Women selected for the study were between 18 – 40 years of age.0-------1. Pakistan witnessed a quick expansion of cable television network and viewers. therefore statistical tool Chi-Square was used. .6-------3.6-------2. Each dependant variable was operationalized into set parameters and the answers were obtained on Likert 3– point scale as mentioned below: Opinion Agree Undecided Disagree Value 3 2 1 For each respondent. The results of Chi-Square are shown in subsequent tables. mean response score on each question was calculated with respect to the selected group or category. Most of the channels provided by the cable operators were Indian and western.23 Hypothesis Testing: Exposure and Effect Association Pakistan experienced a rapid and unregulated growth of cable television network in the late 90s. This study targeted to evaluate the effects of cable television viewing on women’s life. PEMRA was formed and started working to regulate cable television operations in the country.5 2. Sample data has been analyzed separately to examine each hypothesis.5 1. This network was regulated by government in year 2000 through Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA).
.25 Hypothesis Testing . personal appearance and style. cultural practices and role of Pakistani women in society. 5.26 Major Hypothesis Greater the exposure to cable television greater the effect on the lives of women in Lahore.117 5.24 Changes in Lifestyle Change in lifestyle Domestic and other activities (1 indicator) Family and other social interaction (9 indicators) Personal appearance and style (6 indicators) Cultural practices (25 indicators) Personal and domestics expenditure (3 1ndicators) Role of Pakistani women in society (8 Indicators) Figure 5. cultural practices has 27 indicators and role of Pakistani women in society has 8 indicators.22: Changes in Lifestyle For the purpose of this study. Pakistan. personal appearance and style has 6 items. Each of these factors was operationalized into a set of dependant variables.Results The results of Chi-Square for each hypothesis are summarized in the following section in sequence of the hypothesis being tested. 5. family and social interaction. family and social interaction has 9 indicators. The dimension of domestic and other activities has 1 indicator. the ‘change in lifestyle of women’ has been conceptualized as having six factors: domestic and other activities.
Table 5.5 84. On the other hand.0 100 f 23 26 96 145 % 15.3) 432 (100.1 Sub-Hypothesis 1 Heavy viewers of cable television experience greater degree of effect on their domestic and other activities than the moderate and light viewers.41 also indicate that among the heavy viewers there is high percentage of those who experienced disturbance in their domestic and other activities.26.9 17.4) 243 (56. Chi-Square value in the Table 5.5 3.0) . It is concluded that there is a significant association between the levels of cable television viewing and levels of effect on domestic and other activities.40:Chi-Square Test for Association: Exposure and Disturbance in Domestic and other Activities Variables Chi-square D.41: Level of Disturbance in Domestic and other Activities by Level of Viewing Level of viewing Total Level of effect Heavy viewers Moderate viewers f Low Medium High Total 18 5 121 144 % 12.40 shows that null hypothesis is rejected at 5% level of significance.2 100 f (%) 144 (33.3) 45 (10.992 432 4 - .000 - Significant - Total Respondents Table 5. It implies that high cable television viewing is affecting domestic and other activities of women in Pakistan.0 9.F P-value Conclusion Pearson Chi-Square 169.8 18.2 100 Light viewers f 103 14 26 143 % 72.118 5.9 66. among the light cable television viewers there is high percentage of those who have a low disturbance level. Therefore. The percentage values as seen in the Table 5. an alternative hypothesis of significant association between the level of cable television viewing and effect on domestic and other activities of women is proved.
124 293 D. neighbours and friends. The first one included interaction of the viewers with their families i.26. It proves that high cable television viewing has an impact on social interaction patterns.e.44). it was concluded that there is a significant relationship between the levels of cable television viewing and levels of social interaction. Pakistan have not disturbed much. Therefore. On the other hand. Chi-Square value shows in the table 5.000 - Conclusion Significant - Pearson Chi-Square Total Respondents . The percentage values.46 that null hypothesis regarding the second group of social interactions was rejected at 5% level of significance. husbands and children and the second group included relatives. Among the first group the null hypothesis was rejected at 5% level of significance for interactions with husbands as indicated in Table 5. family and social. Patterns of interactions were subdivided into two groups i.2 Sub-Hypothesis 2 Heavy viewers of cable television experience a greater degree of change on their family and social interaction patterns than the moderate and light viewers. An alternate hypothesis of significant association between levels of cable television viewing and levels of social interaction is accepted. among the light cable television viewers there is high percentage of those whose social interaction has not been affected.119 5. Table 5. as seen in the table 5.42:Chi-Square Test for Association: Exposure and Effect on Husband and Wife Interaction Variables Chi-Square 31. indicate that among the heavy viewers there is high percentage of women having reduced social interactions.e. In the case of children the null hypothesis was however accepted indicating that the interaction with children was not affected (Table 5. However family interaction patterns of women in Lahore.F 6 - P-value .42.47.
7 100 Light viewers f 34 5 46 58 143 % 23.3 31.8 31.7 3.8 25.120 Table 5.0) Table 5.2) 111 (31.1 45.3) 168 (38.9 31.8) 432 (100.6 12.4 30.0) .3 40.9 33.6 6.9) 139 (32.5 32.2) 432 (100.1 100 f 23 48 28 46 145 % 15.8 33.1 19.6 100 f (%) 44 (10.122 264 D.6 100 f (%) 96 (22.45: Level of Mother-Child Interaction by Level of Viewing Level of viewing Total Level of effect Heavy viewers Moderate viewers f Low Medium High Not Applicable Total 38 10 45 51 144 % 26.44:Chi-Square Test for Association: Exposure and Effect on Mother and Child Interaction Variables Chi-Square 3.538 Conclusion Insignificant - Pearson Chi-Square Total Respondents Table 5.3) 33 (7.9) 138 (31.9 30.F 6 P-value 0.7 100 Light viewers f 14 37 44 48 143 % 9.43: Level of Interaction of Husband and Wife by Level of Viewing Level of viewing Total Level of effect Heavy viewers Moderate viewers f Low Medium High Not Applicable Total 7 26 66 45 144 % 4.6) 135 (31.4 100 f 24 18 44 59 145 % 16.1 35.3 40.9 18.
concluded that high television viewing .4 100 f (%) 113 (26.4 66. among light cable television viewers there is high percentage of those who have denied imitating television characters’ appearance and style.731 432 D.4 36. Therefore.2) 159 (36.3 Sub-Hypothesis 3 Heavy viewers of cable television tend to show a greater degree of acceptance of television characters’ appearance and style than the moderate and light viewers.26. Percentage values as seen in the Table 5. Chi-Square value in the Table 5.0 43.0 100 f 29 63 53 145 % 20.6 100 Light viewers f 73 58 12 143 % 51.47: Level of Viewing by Level of Social Interaction Level of viewing Total Level of effect Heavy viewers Moderate viewers f Low Medium High Total 11 38 95 144 % 7.49 indicate that among heavy viewers of cable television.8) 160 (37.000 - Conclusion Significant - Total Respondents Table 5.6 26. an alternate hypothesis of a significant association between level of cable television viewing and level of acceptance of television character’s appearance and style is acknowledged. majority of the respondents imitate television characters’ appearance and style. It confirms that there is a significant association between the levels of cable television viewing and levels of adoption of television character’s appearance and style.0 40.0) 432 (100.6 8. On the contrary.48 indicates that null hypothesis is rejected at 5% level of significance.F 4 - P-value .46:Chi-Square Test for Association: Exposure and Effect on Social Interaction Variables Pearson Chi-Square Chi-square 88.121 Table 5. It was therefore.0) 5.
Chi-Square value in the Table 5. Hence. than light viewing.4 Sub-Hypothesis 4 Heavy viewers of cable television experience greater degree of effect on their cultural practices than the moderate and light viewers.3 43. majority of the respondents have had effect on their cultural practices as compared to moderate and light viewers.7) 189 (43.26.48:Chi-Square Test for Association: Exposure and Effect on Appearance and Style Variables Chi-Square 152. On the basis of above result it was concluded that there is a significant association between the levels of cable television viewing and .000 - Conclusion Significant - Pearson Chi-Square Total Respondents Table 5.49: Change in Appearance and Style by Level of Viewing Level of viewing Total Level of effect Heavy viewers Moderate viewers f Low Medium High Total 4 44 96 144 % 2.51 also indicate that among heavy viewers of cable television.5) 150 (34. Table 5.8 30.122 has significant impact on appearance and style of women residing in Lahore. Pakistan. Percentage values as seen in the Table 5. an alternate hypothesis of significant association between level of cable television viewing and level of effect on cultural practices stands proved.1 100 f (%) 93 (21.4 48.499 432 D.0) 5.7 100 f 12 63 70 145 % 8.8 30.1 16.6 f66.8) 432 (100.3 100 Light viewers f 77 43 23 143 % 53.50 indicates that null hypothesis is rejected at 5% level of significance.F 4 - P-value .
7) 432 (100.4 78. among light cable television viewers there is high percentage of those who have low effect on their domestic and personal expenditures.F 4 P-value . Percentage values as seen in the Table 5.246 432 D.7) 111 (25.6 67.51: Level of Cultural Practices by Level of Viewing Level of viewing Total Level of effect Heavy viewers Moderate viewers f Low Medium High Total 0 47 97 144 % 0.4 100 f 18 114 13 145 % 12.8 31.50:Chi-Square Test for Association: Exposure and Effect on Cultural Practices Variables Chi-square 332.0) 5.0 100 Light viewers f 97 45 1 143 % 67.6) 206 (47. Table 5. On the other hand. Pakistan.123 levels of effect on cultural practices. .7 100 f (%) 115 (26.5 0.53 indicate that among heavy viewers there is high percentage of those who have shown effect on their domestic and personal expenditures. and women are accepting western and Indian culture.000 Conclusion Significant - Pearson Chi-Square Total Respondents Table 5.6 9. It is thus verified that high television viewing is impacting cultural practices in Lahore. An alternate hypothesis of significant association between levels of cable television viewing and levels of effect on their domestic and personal expenditure is accepted.5 Sub-Hypothesis 5 Heavy viewers of cable television have experience a greater degree of effect on their domestic and personal expenditures than the moderate and light viewers.26. Chi-Square value in the Table 5.00 32.52 shows that null hypothesis of no association between the dependant and independent variables has been rejected at 5% level of significance.
53: Level of Personal and Domestic Expenditure by Level of Viewing Level of viewing Total Level of effect Heavy viewers Moderate viewers f Low Medium High Total 13 36 95 144 % 9.54 shows that null hypothesis is rejected at 5% level of significance.52:Chi-Square Test for Association: Exposure and Effect on Personal and Domestic Expenditure Variables Chi-square Pearson Chi-Square Total Respondents 174.26.543 432 D.F 4 P-value .0) 432 (100.6 100 Light viewers f 100 31 12 143 % 69.0 100 f 51 67 27 145 % 35.2 46.000 Conclusion Significant - Table 5. Table 5.9 21. it is proved that there is a significant association between the levels of cable television viewing and levels of effect on their domestic and personal expenditure.0 66. An alternate hypothesis of association between level of cable television viewing and level of acceptance of role of western and urban Indian women stands proved.6 Sub-Hypothesis 6 Heavy viewers of cable television tend to show a greater degree of acceptance of roles of women as portrayed on Indian and western channels as compared to the moderate and light viewers.2 18.0) 5. Percentage values as seen in the Table 5.55 also indicate that among heavy viewers there is high percentage of those who have shown acceptance of role of western .0 25.4 100 f (%) 164 (38.7 8. Chi-Square value in the Table 5. Pakistan.124 Therefore.0) 134 (31. It was concluded that high cable television viewing is impacting the domestic and personal expenditures of women in Lahore.0) 134 (31.
9 37.3) 153 (35.54:Chi-Square Test for Association: Exposure and Effect on Social Role of Pakistani Women Variables Chi-square Pearson Chi-Square Total Respondents 111.2 100 Light viewers f 67 53 23 143 % 46.1 100 f (%) 105 (24.55: Level of Change in Social Role of Pakistani Women by Level of Viewing Level of viewing Total Level of effect Heavy viewers Moderate viewers f Low Medium High Total 11 33 100 144 % 7. Table 5.659 432 D. It is accepted that there is a significant association between the levels of cable television viewing and levels of acceptance of roles of women as portrayed on Indian and western channels.0) .6 46.2 35. It was concluded that high cable television viewing is affecting the social role of women in Lahore.9 69.3) 432 (100.1 16.F 4 P-value .000 Conclusion Significant - Table 5.6 22. Pakistan.4) 174 (40.4 100 f 27 67 51 145 % 18.125 and urban Indian women. On the other hand among light cable television viewers there is high percentage of those who have high acceptance of role of western and urban Indian women.
Being a metropolis of the country’s largest province Punjab. the researcher assessed Indian and western channels impact through cable television on different aspects of women’s lives e. The number of subscribers increased swiftly and exposed viewers to the western and Indian values and norms. through the bivariate analysis. Consequently. illiterate to highly educated and from slump dwellers to an affluent living in posh colonies. cultural practices i.e.i. Pathan. whether changes in life patterns of women in Lahore. dress. Seraikis. the population of Lahore is quite varied. family and social interaction patterns.e. Lahore is also known as nation’s hub of media and cultural activities. Balochis. Lahore’s population is heterogeneous. etc. heavy and light viewers. etc. Sindhis. are linked to their exposure to the cable television channels or not. comprising people from all regions and ethnic groups like Punjabis. Lahore has retained its link to its past through its historic monuments and also boasts of modern buildings and shopping malls. Shariffadeen (1995). Kashmiris. The basis of this study was the confirmation by earlier researchers throughout the world that television does leave an impact on socio-economic and cultural aspects of lives of its viewers i. The basic target of this study was to find out. To pursue the main theme.126 PART III – DISCUSSION OF RESULTS The government of Pakistan liberalized electronic media policy in 2000 and allowed cable operators to work legally. traditions and religion. food. language. Tariq (2004). It is the second largest city of Pakistan and cosmopolitan in nature. The study targeted women aged between 18 to 40 years. All national dailies. This has not only broken the monopoly of the state-owned electronic media in the country and provided variety in channels and programmes but has also raised concern over its effects on viewers.heavy. from poor to rich. 432 women of the stated categories responded to the survey. moderate and light viewers instead of two because the main aim of the study was to compare two extremes i. Jamias (1993). Goonasekera (1993). the cable industry has grown up rapidly and started transmitting satellite foreign television channels along with local channels through their network. FM radios and television channels have their offices in . domestic and personal expenditure and on their overall role in society.e. This criterion was further divided into three categories -. Ali (2001). Above all. Lahore was selected as the field of study. appearance and style. Dominant religion is Islam but people of other followings like Christianity also reside here. Pakistan. In all. Hence. this study was carried out to probe the effects of cable television on women in Pakistan.
inter-item correlation reliability test ‘Cronbach’s Alpha’ was applied. was used and an equal number of respondents (72) was interviewed from each town of Lahore. As many as 68 head-end licensees are active and 276 loop-holders are successfully handling the cable proportion and serving 3. It also analyses the relationship between above factors and level of viewing besides demographic information of respondents i. . etc. age. The sub-hypothesis included heavy viewers of cable television have experienced a greater degree of effect on their domestic and other activities. income. The findings of the study have been presented in two categories.127 Lahore. The value of the Cronbach’s Alpha was computed using the SPSS-13 package and the value of reliability came out to be 88 percent. profession. Government administrative division. Most of these channels are western and Indian. The study was conducted during December 2003-07 and the data for this study was collected through a survey.5 million subscribers in Lahore. favourite time of watching. education. marital status. The total sample size was 432. To test the reliability of the instrument. on their family and social interaction patterns. cultural practices and on their domestic and personal expenditure than the moderate and light viewers.e. Interviews’ schedule (verbal interview based on questionnaire) was selected as a tool for data collection because some of the respondents were illiterate and would not be able to read and answer the questionnaire. which divided Lahore into six towns. resident area. · General findings: Discussion on general findings pertaining to the duration of having cable television connection. It was also hypothesized that heavy women viewers of cable television tend to show a greater degree of acceptance of television character’s appearance and style and of role of western and urban Indian women than moderate and light viewers. transmitting programmes in English and Hindi languages. reasons for watching. what channels and kinds of programme are preferred. control over remote. Every cable operator/loop-holder provides more than 100 channels to the connection holder. women’s right to watch cable television and restriction on viewing cable television. · Findings on hypothesis testing: The major hypothesis was that a greater exposure to cable television leaves a greater impact on the lives of women.
000. Generally.4 percent). In Pakistan. This group is of fundamental importance for studying the impact of cable television on their lives due to the fact that they play an active role in shaping lives of their children in particular and those of their families in general. minimum qualification of more then three-fifth of the respondents (63. Motherhood defines women’s identity in Pakistan.1 percent) of them were house-managers that indicates that they were able to afford more time watching cable television. Although the sample of the study consisted of all income groups but the majority belonged to middle and upper middle class and had a monthly income of above Rs. Nearly three-fourth (73. if this group gets affected by cable television viewing. They were further divided almost evenly into four brackets i. the researcher purposely selected such respondents who were associated with cable television for a minimum period of two years. consequences are bound to impinge upon other family members too. three years (23 .27 General Findings of the Study When demographic characteristics of the respondents were analyzed the researcher found that a majority of the respondents are aged 31 to 40 years (60 percent). Therefore. Again. Therefore. most of them were married. by virtue of social settings they enjoyed a key role in the lives of their families and had purchasing power of varying extent and could directly or indirectly influence media-motivated change in their lifestyle or that of their families. Marital life for a Pakistani woman is the time when she starts discovering her identity and a self-conscious image of a figure which is very closely attached to her domestic and family life. women of this age group generally are the ones who have started their marital life and are raising their families. therefore majority of these women were found in heavy viewers category. they are the nucleus of the family and responsible for household activities. Hence. 20. Referring to education.e. the study also sought to find out respondents’ past involvement with cable television in general. Therefore. Findings revealed that a greater portion of them were married and unemployed. it is believed that increase in duration of viewing cable television may increase the impact on the viewers. More often than not. respondents enjoying cable facility for the last two years (29. taking care of husband and in some cases elderly relations as well. nurturing of children. The results of demographic characteristics justified the suitability of respondents with this research as majority of them were educated and had the capacity to understand a variety of messages even in foreign languages like English and Hindi.2 percent) was graduation (Table A).128 5.
However. The analysis of the association between the respondent’s education and level of viewing revealed that the percentage of heavy viewers was less among the graduates as compared to the respondents with the secondary level of education. People having the cable facility for less than two years were deliberately avoided as shorter period of exposure to cable television may not have had sufficient impact.6 percent) and more than four years (23. two-fifth of the respondents aged 18 to 25 come under light viewers (Table 5.4). moderate (viewing more than 2 hours but less then 4 hours daily) and light viewers (1 to 2 hours daily) i. It may be concluded that the level of viewing cannot be determined by the duration of cable facility. The findings revealed that the sample was fairly uniform in terms of percentage of heavy (viewing cable television for 4 and more than 4 hours daily).3). respondents’ professions also played a major role in determining the level of viewing. This result establishes an association between the level of viewing and respondent’s education. This sums up that respondents of different age groups have almost the same viewing patterns and have spent almost equal time on cable television.e. The comparison of duration of cable connection and the levels of viewing carried out indicated that there was no significant association between the two.1). two-fifth of the heavy viewers belonged to the age group of 26 to 30 years followed by 31 to 35 years whereas other age groups have the same percentage which is 30 percent.5). However. four years (23. As 80 percent of the house managers were fall in the category of heavy and moderate . the highest percentage i.e.2). However. Women having masters or a higher degree of learning were the light viewers (Table 5. This concludes that the level of acceptance and popularity of cable television amongst the people of Lahore has readily increased in the recent times. almost 33 percent (Table 5. The analysis of the association between respondents by their age and level of viewing exposed that no considerable pattern was established amongst the two. The researcher found more respondents in the category of people having cable connection for the last two years (Table 5. conversely. the findings exposed that highest percentage of heavy viewers and light viewers belonged to the category of respondents who had cable connections for the last two years (Table 5. Similarly.129 percent).6 percent). an interesting finding was portrayed in light viewer’s category. Though. The analysis of the association between the respondent’s education and level of viewing revealed that the percentage of heavy viewers was less among the graduates as compared to respondents with secondary level of education. one would have expected this age group to fall in the category of heavy viewers.
000 have had similar viewing patterns (Table 5. Pakistan.7) as the results of cable viewing in different towns were almost identical. these respondents watch cable television programmes to learn about other countries. Findings did not establish any relationship between the level of viewing and towns where the respondents live (Table 5. were mostly home managers or staying at home.6). they might have cable television as the only source of entertainment. foreign values and cultures which consequently open avenues for their adoption of foreign values consciously or unconsciously.5 percent) and 7.000 to more than Rs. Marital status does not matter when the level of cable television viewing is studied as married and unmarried women have almost the same model (Table 5. Respondents belonging to different economic and social groups and salary ranging from Rs 1. On the other hand. Secondly. 25. Consequently.10). Therefore. a considerable number of the respondents mentioned that entertainment is their major reason for viewing the cable television.9). As far as respondents’ intentions of watching cable television channels are concerned they were asked to give multiple answers. house managers are most likely to be affected by cable television.9 percent respondents watch cable television to kill their time which is basically another way of watching cable television for entertainment and relaxation. Their responses indicate that the highest number of respondents watch cable television for entertainment and relaxation (37. Also. 8). This conclusion is drawn from the fact that the respondents. This confirms that house managers can spend a lot more time in front of cable television than working women. whether married or not. . This shows that greater part of respondents unwind in the evening while watching cable television entertainment programmes. In turn. This concludes that income is not a major factor when it comes to cable television exposure. there was also no relationship to be seen when comparing the levels of income with cable television viewing levels. This may give them extra time to sit in front of cable television. women in Lahore. Likewise. it can be concluded that in the form of entertainment. their exposure to a variety of programmes and subsequently to the values through cable television channels may influence their behaviour and lifestyle. only one-fourth of the respondents watch cable television for information and awareness (Table 5.130 viewers whereas almost 70 percent working women were light viewers (Table 5. are receiving a wide variety of influencing messages about foreign culture and values. However.
1 cable television channel for the last seven years. Star Plus is India’s most watched Hindi language general entertainment television channel. Also.11). To wrap it up. two-fifth of them were interested in knowing about other countries through cable television programmes (Table 5. Their responses were accumulated. It has been India's No. This shows greater interest of Pakistani women in foreign channels and they were devoting most of their viewing time to foreign channels. Indus Vision and Ptv World. . light viewers were more interested in seeking information and education and showed greater family values while watching cable television rather than entertainment and relaxation. The data reveals that 70 percent of moderate and heavy viewers’ first priority of watching cable television is entertainment and relaxation. One-fourth of the light viewers cited educational programmes as their main reason for watching cable television followed by sitting and watching with their families. Sony Entertainment TV. It is also known for bringing in a revolution in the Indian television world with new shows in 2000. Foreign channels preferred by respondents included Star Plus.12). Web. heavy viewers were not information seekers but solely entertainment addicts. 2007). The data clearly confirms that heavy and moderate viewers are watching entertainment based programmes from 2 hours to more than 4 hours that might have a much greater effect on their lifestyle than the light viewers. Findings also revealed an interesting result that the Indian channel ‘Star Plus’ had the highest following among foreign and local channels. HBO and BBC whereas Pakistani channels included Geo TV. Thus the impact of these cable television channels would be evident. On the contrary.3 percent) and their main aim of watching cable television is to relax. Ten channels (six foreign and four Pakistani) emerged as popular ones among respondents. This channel is the part of the Star TV network’s family of channels. ARY. it was found out that a majority of the heavy viewers watched entertainment-oriented programmes (50 percent) as compared to information and news (2. Respondents were also asked to prioritize their preferred channels of cable television (foreign or local). reaching more than 50 million viewers every week with 45 out of top 50 shows on Indian cable and satellite television (Wikipedia. Star Movies. This can be concluded that there is a strong association between heavy viewing and entertainment-oriented programmes.131 When respondents were categorized according to the level of viewing and the purpose of watching. foreign channels were greater in number (Table 5. It has been noted that among the favourite channels. Zee TV.
which is not Indian. extravagant wedding and other Hindu ceremonies. Shahbaz (2002) also confirmed that these dramas are very popular among an overwhelming majority of cable television viewers. and Towhid. mix gatherings. Women with desires to lead a glittering social life and with crushing desire to take it all out on their husbands and other in-laws find it all too easy to gratify their suppressed desires through these plays. (2006) stated that the culture portrayed in Star Plus soap operas. Sony Entertainment Television is a general entertainment channel. A culture of parties. love affairs both extra-marital and otherwise. another study conducted by Butt in 2005 analyzed the projection of Hindu religion in Star Plus soap operas. As such they are deliberately constructed to appeal to the emotions of women living in joint families. They are also famous for long serials on themes similar to Star TV soap operas. Star Plus is the most popular channel among all the cable television channels. and is creating frustration among Indians also. She employed content analysis and the final results found “soap operas on star Plus directly and indirectly are giving maximum coverage to Hindu religion through the projection of names of gods and .132 The point to be noted regarding Star Plus is that its programming primarily consists of family soap operas which mainly portray female protagonists and mother-in-law and daughter-in-law relationships in joint families system. etc. which broadcasts in Hindi and Urdu. Other two Indian channels with a reasonable following were Sony and Zee TV although with low percentage i. 7.e. Similarly. Star TV’s soap operas directly target emotions of women and thus leave greater effect on them. Anjlee. But these plays essentially lack any coherent plot or storyline and are based mainly on sensational and theatrical situations.2 percent and 12. stark portrayal of Hindu religion. All these Indian channels are popular for long drawn out sensational soap operas with gaudy expensive dresses. In South Asian family traditions. owned or co-owned by Sony Pictures Entertainment whereas Zee TV is the first Indiabased satellite television channel in the Zee Network umbrella. Ganpati Baba’s festival. Karwa Choath and other such purely Hindu religious festivals are very prominently portrayed in these plays. tension between these relationships is a common topic and hence the theme is very close to the heart of every married woman. Projection of blown up version of upper middle class Indian culture through Star Plus is not only considered a disturbing sign in Pakistan but it is criticized in India also.5 percent respectively. Deewali. According to the study findings. Loona. Hindu festivals like Holi. women locked in vile household conspiracies and melodramatic situations are all the salient features of these soap operas. heavy make-up and upper-middle class women living in big houses.
was being watched by 17. It is an American premium cable television network.133 goddesses. It was preferred by almost 70 percent of the respondents followed by ARY (33. Star Movies is the No.5 percent and 19. values and culture which may influence viewers directly or indirectly because regular exposure to a specific action serves as a model for others to imitate. This may affect viewers at a large scale because the viewing of these soap operas is not countrywide but worldwide.2 percent of the respondents respectively. This channel is owned by Jang Group of Publications. Regular viewers of these channels are exposed to various kinds of effects. Apart from these channels. HBO telecast feature films. Star Movies also features the Emmy award-winning and critically acclaimed series Lost and the science-fiction smash hit trilogy. HBO is operated by Home Box Office Group. Its .” Another survey research was carried out on the ‘impact of cable television transmission on the residents of Multan. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) usually known as the BBC. The results of the survey indicated “powerful cultural traditions particularly of Indian culture are getting popular in the country due to cable television transmission (Malik. different scenes in religious background.1 English movie channel based in India. The Triangle. Geo TV is a mix of news and entertainment. religious words and history. Although a majority of respondents mentioned that entertainment is the sole purpose of watching such channels but imperceptibly they get influenced by these programmes and adopt similar values and norms. The stated mission of the BBC is "to inform. religious verses. As such it can be concluded that Star Plus dramas under the cover of entertainment were resulting in deculturisation and aculturisation of audience. educate and entertain”. It brings audiences the biggest blockbusters from the Hollywood. Geo TV is an Urdu Pakistani television network that officially began transmission in October 2002. radio and internet. HBO and Star Movies (purely entertainment and movie channels) were preferred by 18. sounds and prayers. Six Feet Under and Sex and the City. It is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of the number of audience. It produces programmes and information services on television. part of Time Warner.1 percent respondents. Geo TV (a Pakistani private channel) was the second most popular channel among respondents. Some of the religious scenes were the requirement of the story but most of the time their projection is unnecessary. All of these channels project western view. its own original television movies and various original series including flagship programmes The Sopranos. 2003).6 percent) and Indus Vision (22 percent) respectively.
This is a strong reason for the popularity of Geo TV. they show programmes with an international approach. topof-the-hour news broadcasts and current affairs/events programmes. Most programmes cater to the needs of South Asians. lifestyles and cultures through a mix of Indian and Pakistani channels. these channels. It would be worthwhile to express that the impact of western and Indian societies is obvious on respondents as not only western and Indian channels but Pakistani channels are also portraying same values to some extent. Pakistan and quoted by Business Week as the most watched television channel in Pakistan Indus Vision was another satellite channel operating in Pakistan. children's programmes. there were some other channels which were watched by some of the respondents which included QTV. It has a network of channels with each having an independent focus such as ARY One World. Indian and western cultures. particularly Geo TV. fashion shows. Main cause of its low preference is its tag of the state-owned television. Ptv World is aimed at attracting domestic and international audience and competing with other television channels targeting viewers in the region and the Subcontinent.134 programming includes interactive infotainment programmes. QTV and The City Channel. It is considered as one of the pioneer in Pakistani media and broadcasting industry. Therefore. The Musik. It has been rated by the Gallup. Hum TV. sitcoms. ARY Digital. It dominates Pakistani electronic media scene because it is bolder than the official Ptv and broader than other contesting networks in the private sector. cartoons. Therefore. cooking shows.8 percent respondents preferred to watch Ptv World. reflect a potpourri of Pakistani. respondents are getting significant amount of exposure of foreign values. Apart from the above-mentioned channels. but it has not been able to compete the foreign and Pakistan’s private television channels. ARY is another popular Pakistani television network in Pakistan. entertainment and magazine shows. All of these Pakistani channels are private and telecast programmes for international audience. It operates as a 24-hour entertainment channel and comprises a strong line-up of Urdu programming that includes dramas. Though Ptv World has improved and brought drastic changes in its programming. talk shows. especially Pakistani community. It also telecasts Urdu programmes and songs. B4U. etc. Only 17. Zoom and Style Dunya as well as local channels which play English and Indian movies and . although it is considered as Pakistan's first family entertainment satellite channel. Similarly. For foreign approval. television films. Middle East and Europe. Ptv World was ranked the lowest among major Pakistani channels as far as the findings of the study are concerned.
The findings of a survey by Rahim (1994) on “Impact of Cable on Television and Video Viewing in Hyderabad” also support the results of this study. It was confirmed that Star Plus is the first priority of the respondents (Table.news and infotainment. News section works for news and current affairs programmes whereas the infotainment section is responsible for entertainment programmes based on information. Pakistani channels Geo and ARY. “Average .135 Pakistani stage plays round the clock. Newly-wed women along with those living in joint families were more prone to watching these channels. were equally interested in ‘Star Plus’ with percentage of 82. The Music and Hallmark MGM. Star Sports. moderate and light viewers). the result was again the same i. However. Least watched channels were Ten Sports. Geo TV got the highest percentage of light viewers whereas ARY had the highest percentage of moderate viewers.e. their social lives thus leading to a kind of race among women to get latest information about Indian fashions. The reason for preferring QTV is simply that women of our society are under the influence of male family members and they follow the pattern shown to them whether its verbally or simply conveyed through gestures.7 and 73. When preferred channels of the respondents were compared with the level of viewing. As such the reason for watching QTV is mainly the obedience factor. 80. Therefore. Music Max. Significantly. viewers of Geo TV were not only watching informative programmes but getting entertainment as well.13). He concludes. Findings also show that moderate and light viewers go for western channels more than heavy viewers (Table 5. it may be concluded that entertainment channels are preferred by heavy and moderate viewers than light viewers.6. B4U is yet another Indian movie channel which was making inroads into our society with a similar impact on viewers. film industry and so on. either they have tendency towards religious channels or they watch the offensive channels which shows the contrast of choices at the same level. which come second and third in the category of most popular channels in comparison with viewing hours. respondents of all categories (heavy. HUM TV is an entertainment and fashion-oriented channel and it was mostly watched by women of well-to-do families and those who want to have a style. Lundberg (1958) in his study on the “Impact of Television on Family Life” also confirms that viewers prefer television for entertainment. 5:12). Therefore. Geo has two sections . these channels present dramas and other entertainment programmes which reinforce findings regarding the purpose of viewing. Respondents’ preference in watching QTV clearly gives the impression of two extremes.4 respectively.
In such a situation. health care and western music programmes. information programmes were preferred by one-forth of the respondents and the least interesting. Other programmes being watched by some of the respondents were fashion shows.14. These dramas project extraordinarily rich high and posh class of the society. Although most of the happenings are highly exaggerated versions of real life situation presented in an attractive and interesting way thus grabbing the attention of viewers. Their power of decision making and their central role in the family again could be a source of disturbance among women in Pakistan. More females watch entertainment programmes on television. The above mentioned findings are hardly surprising. It has already been verified that the most favourite channel of the respondents is Star Plus which primarily broadcasts soap operas based mainly on never ending family and business politics. there is an ample chance for viewers to get influenced by their roles.5.136 time spent on watching television is 5. particularly the house managers in Pakistani society are not much interested in national and international politics. 2004: 258).36 hours per day in each household. were cooking programmes with the percentage of 9. kids and comedy. Pakistani stage dramas. Thus they do not like watching news and current affairs programmes. Findings again correspond to the result of preferred channels and purpose of their viewing. Although there is no significant variation of choice regarding news between Door Darshan and cable television but cable television is preferred for entertainment programmes and movies. Middle-aged women are portrayed in heavy make-up and jewelry and young girls as fashion models.” As far as respondents preferred programmes are concerned. they were asked to enlist all of their favourite programmes on cable television channels and their responses were accumulated and found that majority of the respondents preferred to watch purely entertainment-oriented programmes.3 percent) whereas music was preferred by one-forth of the total respondents. appearance and style. Viewers develop para-social relationships with these characters and take them as role model. Their lavish lifestyle and luxuriously . On the contrary. Some of these dramas boast female protagonists and mother-in-law and daughter-in-law relationships in joint families. The data indicated that the most favourite programme of the three-forth respondents was drama followed by movies (34. Women are shown cunning and manipulator (Shahbaz. As a result. as indicated in the Table 5. their attitude and behavior experience a change. Main reason of respondents’ less interest in news and current affairs is that women. Their interest in cooking programmes is due to the reason that they have to work in the kitchen so they develop a liking towards cooking shows.
allowing them to concentrate on programmes. Again. heavy. But with the introduction and acceptance of cable television in our society. This is also an indication of possibilities of acceptance of Indian and western culture at the cost of Pakistani values and culture. Main reason is the choice and variety of channels but the researcher’s concern was that watching cable television alone would reduce interaction among family members. alone or with their families.17 states that association exists between the preference of watching cable television . A few years back when Ptv was the only choice available to the people in Pakistan. It is expected that people who prefer to watch cable television alone would gradually increase and in turn their interaction amongst their families would further decline. Table 5. On the contrary.e. This assumption could be confirmed through a longitudinal study. information programmes were the second priority of light viewers and third choice of moderate viewers. It was noticeable that drama is the first preference of all types of viewers i. The difference between the two categories is not significant. Movies were the second choice of heavy and moderate viewers as they were glued to the television for a much longer period of time. This confirmed that respondents are influenced by the foreign culture and lifestyle. However. 48. particularly the Indian. it has been observed that people are developing a habit of watching cable television alone instead of watching it along with their families. through entertainment programmes presented by the popular television channels. Reason may be that dramas are of short duration and affordable by light viewers. therefore. resulting in lesser interaction with family members.16 revealed that majority of the respondents (51. It was a tradition that the whole family would sit together and watch prime time programmes and would have greater degree of interaction. Respondents were also asked to mention how they prefer to watch cable television. which has already had a downfall since the spread of cable television in the country.15 reinforce the above mentioned concern and confirm a significant association between the level of viewing and preference for specific programmes.137 decorated huge home with expensive furniture could be a source of frustration among viewers Results of Table 5. moderate and light. Table 5. heavy viewers’ third choice was music whereas information programmes were their forth option.6 percent of the respondents preferred to watch cable television alone.4 percent) were interested in watching cable television with someone or with their families.
Pakistani society is a male dominated one where man is the bread winner and majority of women are domestic creatures. which was previously used for social and family bonding. preferably watched on Star Plus. time and programming by their families. more than three-fourth of the respondents preferred to watch cable television after 7:00 pm (prime time). almost half of the respondents told that male members of the family controlled the remote of television. is now spent in front of the television. These viewing patterns of respondents indicated that their free evening time. This confirmed the above-mentioned point as the starting time of dramas on Star Plus is 7:00 pm to 11:00 pm. In response to the favourite watching time. Hence.7 percent). Whereas.e. Although cable television is widely accepted in Pakistani society. still certain restrictions were observed on women watching these programmes.138 alone/with family and level of viewing.18). heavy. drove us away . Therefore. respondents were asked to reveal whether such restrictions were imposed on them or not. As far as the television’s remote control device is concerned. This proves the fact that cable television is warmly accepted and used without any hesitation. moderate and light viewers. similar situation prevailed.19 which indicated men’s control over the remote and Table 5. Only a small number (17. moderate and light viewers) preferably watch cable television after 7:00 pm.e. In all the cases i.5 percent) denied any such restrictions. a few years back people were of the view that cable television promoted vulgarity. the remote was controlled by the younger viewers shows their freedom and strength.20 which reveals that the favourite watching time for women was 7:00 pm onwards. threatened our traditions and values. decisions are mostly taken by the men. It is again confirmed that all types of respondents (heavy. It has already been verified that the respondents’ first priority in programmes was dramas. In some families (19. Another interesting finding was derived by comparing the Table 5. It indicates that heavy viewers prefer to be isolated or watch such programmes which they cannot watch with their families. This is because the respondents were able to control the remote all day and were more concerned about managing their families when they were watching cable television together rather than having control over the remote. Majority of the heavy viewers (34.4 percent) preferred to watch cable television alone whereas the highest number of light viewers (36. It is a fact that men are equally interested in watching Star Plus dramas during prime time of cable television.0 percent) was interested in watching cable television while sitting with their families. (Table 5.8 percent) of them responded that some restrictions are enforced i. whereas majority of the respondents (68.
25). they were also asked whether the women at their homes have equal rights as men to watch cable television. Whereas almost three-fifth of them complained that men had more rights to watch cable television. we can say that young generation would certainly follow in their foot steps. Judging by the data it can be said that cable television has become an important household commodity and an important part of women’s daily life in Lahore. However. Night time is the restricted one as they would be unable to give time to their families and secondly it would disturb their reading habits. music programmes and movies. playing games and going out for leisure.23). . still cable television was the first priority during the free hours of most of the respondents’ (Table 5. In turn. Restrictions were imposed because of vulgarity in programmes as this is against the religion.2 percent of the total responded that they had more rights than men (Table 5. Two-fifth of respondents claimed that they are treated equally as men in reference to watching cable television. the result was obvious that men do not have any restriction of watching cable television as they are considered mature. independent and masters of their will (Table 5. Although the findings above made it clear that a few respondents (women) were restricted to watch cable television’s certain programmes at times.24).139 from our religion and was sheer wastage of time and money. Only 0. which further supports the fact that our society is male dominated. if women keep on pursuing this unhealthy activity (excessively watching cable television). When respondents were asked to point out whether men also face restriction on watching cable television. Respondents were also asked what they prefer to do in their free time and majority of them claimed that they enjoy watching cable television instead of reading books. This concludes that discrimination in watching cable television also exists in the use of communication technology. Although reading books and outing are considered healthy activities as compared to cable television watching. Respondents who were restricted claimed that they were told not to watch stage dramas. against their values and culture and viewing cable television can affect their working.
e. a pattern of changes where these are increased they tend to be among the paper of popular press-where decreases among the more serious papers. When types of activities affected were asked. etc. Thus. outing and cinema. The data analyzed by Chi-square produced statistically significant association between levels of cable television viewing and level of the effect on domestic and other activities. listening to music.1 Variables i. Four-fifth of the heavy viewers mentioned that their activities are adversely affected by watching cable television and more than threefifth of the moderate viewers agreed with heavy viewers. 2. newspaper. Similar results were also presented by William Belson (1961) when he stated that television has affected reading habits and changed routine of viewers. The hypothesis for the dependent variable ‘domestic and other activities’ was: Heavy viewers of cable television experience greater degree of effect on their domestic and other activities than the moderate and light viewers. There is. His survey concluded: 1.140 5. 5.28 Major Findings of Hypothesis Testing related to Dependent Variables The major findings of hypothesis testing related to the dependent variables used are presented below. going out for shopping.28.26). prayer and religious book reading. Domestic and Other Activities This factor of the research was operationalized in one dependent variable which deals with changes in women’s daily life routines. . less than one-fifth of light viewers agreed to this statement. household chores. however. As such it is concluded that heavy television viewing has more impact on domestic and other activities of women than light viewing. fourfifth of the respondents replied that their habit of reading newspapers and magazines and going out for movies is badly affected (Table 5. Television appears to stimulate reading items dealing with television programmes. it analyses the cable television’s effect on their domestic and other activities i. However. magazine and book reading. Findings revealed that majority of the women (57 percent) claimed that cable television is affecting their domestic and other activities whereas only 33 percent of the respondents disagreed with the statement.
e. This supports the idea that lives of women in Lahore are changing due to the cable television watching. It revealed that 16 out of 30 women spent over 4 hours a day watching cable television and 10 of them spent 2 to 3 hours a day. The least affected category of heavy viewers (45.29).0 percent) was going out for movies (Table 5. which pushes them in the world of fantasy and promotes violence. less than one-fifth of the total respondents. Bryan (1970) had the similar opinion when he wrote “average individual in Britain today gives more time to mass communication in particular to television than he gives to general reading. part time education and personal interests. It can be concluded that as the time spent in front of cable television increases so does the effect on respondent’s daily activities is increased. other family members. This means that reading.13 percent) was reading books whereas of light viewers (10. Whereas light viewers claimed that their activities had a negligible effect when compared to heavy viewers.” Similarly. playing and conversation are at a minimum in the living room of televisionhomes during evening. The researcher declared “Nearly all owners have their television sets on at some time during the after-supper hours each day. time management and interaction with family members and outside world which presented almost the same results. Major activities affected are: · · · Exposure to other media and reading habits Interaction with children. Relationships are thus fed up with what media provides and it is altogether acceptable that attitude of mass media should be taken in with materials”.141 The present study also found that 70 percent of the respondents listening to audio music were affected. A local study by Malik (2003) carried on the “Impact of Cable Television Transmission on the Residents of Multan” also found the same results and it concluded that viewers who spent time watching cable television transmission their routine and activities are affected. Majority of them also complained that their cooking and serving time was affected and also more than two-fifth insisted that watching cable television affected their prayers and reading religious books. . friends and neighbours Cooking and other household work. Eashwer (1994) conducted a research on the impact of cable television on women at a very basic level in terms of activities. Also through cable television women see two Indian feature films a day. husband. Lundberg (1958) conducted the same kind of research study on behavioural changes entitled “The Impact of Television on Family Life in the Boston Area”. Light viewers were mostly affected in reading books i.
Whereas the second most affected group was of relatives (mean value 2. outing and interruption during watching cable television. When this data was analyzed the most affected were friends (mean value 2. husband. they were not ready to welcome or entertain their guests during these hours. The statistical analysis Chi-square was applied which shows that a significant association exists between levels of cable television viewing and levels of social interaction.21) during primetime hours. The study operational zed this factor into ten items dealing broadly with: · · Social Interaction: Change in interaction patterns with relatives. The data analysis clearly stated that interaction patterns were under the influence of cable television and changing rapidly.e. with husband and children in terms of time at home. guests arrival. There were eight indicators chosen for the confirmation of this theory which included interaction with children. It may be concluded that cable television was seriously affecting social interaction patterns as respondents would rather enjoy their cable television programmes than socialization which was a major part of Pakistani culture. neighbours. One of these concerns was erosion of family ties as well as changed social interaction patterns. Interaction Patterns Pakistani tradition proclaims that family and social interaction should be given proper importance. The hypothesis assumed that Heavy viewers of cable television experience a greater degree of change on their family and social interaction patterns than the moderate and light viewers. visits to others. family comes first but with the introduction of cable television the time spent in front of television readily increased which raised certain concerns. neighbours and friends in terms of time and visit Family Interaction: Change in family interaction patterns i. relatives. This study also targeted to find out how our socialization patterns are changing. Similarly. However.23).28) interactions with friends readily declining. family interference and outing. Guests are warmly welcome by people. It was found out that respondents disliked visiting others’ houses (mean value 2.142 ii. the null hypothesis for mother-children interaction was accepted indicating that the interaction with children was . As far as the respondents’ family interaction is concerned. no association exists between levels of cable television viewing and level of family interaction particularly interaction between mother and child. friends.
acceptance of . Thus this dimension was operationalzed into six dependant variables i. hairstyle. make-up. moderate and light viewers have effects on social interaction levels due to cable television. Sometimes they would also avoid going out with their families in turn declining even more family interaction (Table 5. She stated that inter-individual communication has decreased due to cable television watching. The mother-children interaction mean value of 1. When level of viewing was compared with the effect on interaction a significant association can be seen (Table 5.47). jewellery and accent adopted by women. Since the most interactively-productive time of the day is consumed in watching cable television by heavy viewers. iii.5) was being affected a little.30).4 percent). heavy. However. Similar conclusion was also made by Malik (2003) through her study on the ‘The Impact of Cable Television Transmission on the Residents of Multan’. In the case of husband-wife interaction (mean value 1. It is therefore doubtful whether television brings the family together in any psychological sense. It may be concluded that viewing has had an impact when it comes to social interaction.3 also confirms this fact. Lundberg (1958) expressed in her research study titled “The Impact of Television on Family Life in Boston Area” that television brings families together in the sense that they spend more time in each other’s presence after they acquire a television set. The study described appearance and lifestyle as dress style. All three categories i.47). It was found that the heavy viewers’ viewing has inversely proportionate relationship between the level of the heavy viewers’ viewing and level of social interaction (Table 5.143 not affected. Two-third of the heavy viewers was the most affected whereas the least affected are the light viewers (8. there is very little interaction among family members when they watch television together and the amount of time family members spend together without watching television is reduced. it affects their interaction patterns enormously. It is clear that the husband-wife interaction maybe affected as the time for bonding was decreasing when the wives as well as husbands concentrate on cable television.” This study tried to get the answer of this query and findings revealed that majority of the respondents does not like any type of family interference while watching cable television especially during primetime. Appearance and Style This research tried to discover: ‘Was the target audience associating their personal appearance and style with television characters?’.e.e.
49) and light viewers were showing minimal effects in terms of appearance and style.39).6) Jewellery worn by drama characters have a greater market acceptance and is immediately copied by manufacturers.144 resemblance with television characters. Although our society norms and cultural background suggest that the appearance of women has to be stylish yet modest and use of jewellery and ornaments should conform to local culture but the characters’ glamorous lifestyles especially in drama are far from reality. But only 34 percent of the respondents agreed that they relate themselves to television characters. the hypothesis was statistically supported. It approves the hypothesis of the study. It was established from the research that favourite programme of respondents is drama and their favourite channel are Star Plus and Geo TV. as compared to light viewers. etc. A majority of heavy viewers was being highly affected (Table 5. jewellery. Pakistan. They follow the television characters compellingly for formal dressing and make-up (mean value 2.15). Hence.’ Chi-square value indicated a significant association between level of cable television viewing and levels of acceptance of television characters’ appearance and style. Jewellery designs and styles were associated with particular characters and it has greater satisfaction value amongst heavy viewers. Programmes on cable television are conceived and produced with overwhelming approach of profit maximization for the television channels. The data analysis suggests that almost half of the respondents considered television characters as their role model for appearance and style and they wanted to look like those characters (mean value 2. In order to attract greater commercial value they have to generate larger viewership and that in turn provides in roads for larger than life glamorous characters and startling lifestyles. accent. The hypothesis developed was ‘heavy viewers of cable television tend to show a greater degree of acceptance of television characters’ appearance and style than the moderate and light viewers.30). The style and glamour projected through drama is although out of line from our original style but was making an impact on viewers according to their level of viewing. imitating television characters’ hairstyles. It confirms that heavy television viewing has significant impact on appearance and style of women residing in Lahore. The effects of cable television programmes were measured upon respondents and it indicated that the greatest impact of watching cable television is on jewellery and ornamental style (mean value 2. Pakistani women were . Respondents copy these characters for decorative jewellery and try to emulate their accent (mean value 2. make-up.
’ They state: ‘If we look around. we can say that the effect of satellite television channels on its audience is not simply to the extent that it has left very little time for family get together but is introducing new trends. Usage of Indian and English language Traditions: Acceptance and practice of Indian and western traditions · Religion: Acceptance of television as the best source of religious information and changing trends. iv. So we can conclude that because of its interest-oriented programmes. for better or worse. attitudes and standards for a modern life. by emulating television characters. The hypothesis stated that heavy viewers of cable television experience greater degree of effect on their cultural practices than the moderate and light viewers. food. · · · · Food: Acceptance of television as the best source of learning new dishes. Latifa and Arif (1999) have also presented similar results in their study on ‘The Impact of Satellite Channels. Usage of western and Indian dishes and changed pattern of dining Dressing: Acceptance of television as the best source of fashion and dress designs. This practice ensures family interaction and . Thus. dressing. religion and some of the traditions as indicators of culture practices. Coke and hostelling’. Pakistan. The statistical analysis of the data has been done by chi-square which significantly proves association between the level of cable television viewing and the level of the effect on cultural practices. and women are accepting western and Indian culture. This study also confirms and approves the Social Learning and Modelling theories. more girls wearing fashionable clothes. Cultural Practices Dependent variable cultural practices were operationalized into 25 items which deal with five parameters including language. Pakistani traditional culture advocates that all the family members should have one main meal a day together at home. more stylish hair-cuts and more boys with long hair fond of motorcycling. we will see more faces wearing make-up. Usage of western and Indian dresses as casual and party wear Language: Acceptance of television as the best source of learning languages. behaviours. more teenagers fond of burgers. It implies that high television viewing is influencing cultural practices in Lahore. satellite television channels have greatly affected the society.145 showing inclination towards change.
Meat is the main ingredient of most of the dishes. discussion is on television programmes during meals. Data (Table 5. Another change in traditions witnessed is that majority of the respondents prefer to dine in front of the television (mean value 2. ARY and Indus Vision run programmes on food every day with celebrities as hosts. family issues were going on the back-burner and television characters are becoming family members.51) signifies that heavy viewers are highly affected by such programmes and similarly light viewers are least affected by them.146 discussion on family and general matters of interest.34). Also the most-viewed television channels of Pakistan like GEO. Another factor for this trend is that all the ingredients are now easily available in Pakistani markets. The finding confirms that there is more acceptance of BBC Food channel that introduces the western dishes in easy recipes and with complete nutrition values.43). the addition of Indian dishes was negligible according to the respondents because the number of food programmes is very few and they are mostly focused on vegetables and not on meat. However. Therefore. The traditional Pakistani cuisine has a great value and taste in our culture. it is convincing that cable television was affecting its viewers in the dress trends and its effects are directly related to the viewership.44). Thus. Instead of personal family matters. But a majority of the respondents does not feel inclination for western party dresses. food and dining habits were selected as a part of the study to judge the impact of cable television on the cultural practices There has been an evident pattern and impact of cable television according to the study as two-third of the respondents suggested that they have introduced western food dishes in their homes (mean value 2.31). More than two-third of the respondents consider television programmes to be an effective source of learning cooking (mean value 2. change in food preparation and selection of food affects the whole family. Since women have the control over the kitchen. therefore. almost all the respondents replied in negative in response to wearing Indian dresses (Saree) casually but one-third liked to wear it as a party wear due to their colour and grace. Exposure to more western food programmes was introducing new recipes and courage to try them at home. Therefore. Two-third of the respondents considered cable television as an effective source of learning about fashion trends (mean value 2. On the other hand. with heavy viewers being affected the most. Casual western dressing has inspired one-fourth of the respondents and they like to wear western dresses. . The focus of viewers of Indian channels was on drama and they are not eager to watch food programmes on television channels like Star Plus.
Majority of the respondents (83 percent) liked to use colloquial English and are learning new English words from cable television. Impact of foreign traditions that are being introduced through cable television has been studied in this study.57). Three-fourth of the respondents submitted that they learnt new Hindi words from television and two-third of the respondents admitted using Hindi words in their daily routine. But Urdu language was being influenced by Hindi language and the impact is evident from the study. Valentine’s Day is warmly celebrated by majority of respondents (59.5 percent) and Halloween and Bonfire are also celebrated by a minority of respondents. The impact again shows high influence on heavy viewers and little on light viewers. These findings strongly suggest that cable television was resulting in erosion of Pakistani culture and introducing Indian and western culture in the country. Most startling revelation has been that although a very small number (1. Majority of the respondents (51 percent) admitted that they celebrate Hindu marriage traditions. Since women are centre to every household and early education. Urdu language is getting strong impact due to invasion of foreign words. Majority of the respondents (75 percent) agreed . The study revealed that high impact on language of heavy viewers and light impact on language of light viewers supports the hypothesis. Three-fourth of the respondents agreed that television is the best source of learning languages. Religious sentiments are easily inflamed and all the channels are particularly careful not to raise any religion conflict. Urdu language has its roots embedded in a rich cultural heritage and a history with superb literary work performed over the ages. Introduction of new words and different ways to use them provide continuity and diversity in language. training and learning of children is carried out by them. Both Social Learning and Cultivation theories can be aptly applied to the situation. This is a start of accepting something totally against our traditions. Any effect on women shows up in the upbringing of the children and outlook of the family in general.6 percent) of the respondents are celebrating Holi. The strength of culture and character of a nation can be judged by the vastness of its language. Traditions play an important part in every culture and they play a key role in the formation of cultural identification. Introduction of foreign languages’ words in Urdu is on the rise and three-fourth of the respondents have agreed to this (mean value 2. Urdu has experienced and survived hard and tough times while co-existing with Hindi language and facing the wrath of the Britishers. Religion has been the main driving force for the campaign for independence of Pakistan.147 Proud nations take pride in promoting their language and expanding its use.
news and sports and introducing even a new kind of lingua franca which has become to be known as Hinglish. are getting popularity due to cable television transmission. Moreover. dining habits. resulting in an ‘international culture’ and promoting liberalism and modernism in Pakistani society. So is the case with Urdu language in Pakistan. Another study by Saleem (1995) on “Cultural Imperialism: A case study of the impact of dish antenna on Pakistani society” concluded that dish antenna’s programmes are successfully influencing the socio-cultural and religious beliefs and values of Pakistani viewers. dressing. Many international and national researches supported the results of this factor of the study. A national study by Malik (2003) on “The impact of cable television transmission on the residents of Multan” supports the results of this study by concluding that powerful cultural traditions. social behaviour and daily lifestyle of Pakistani society. a mixture of English and Hindi that reflects in everyday speech of many educated people in the Sub-continent (cited in Shahbaz 2004 85). food and architecture. Ali (2001) and Shahbaz. particularly Indian culture. (2004) conducted studies on the “Impact of satellite television channels on the people living in Lahore” and the “Impact of Star Plus dramas on youth in Pakistan” respectively also emphasizes on the influence of Star Plus family dramas on social and cultural values and norms of Pakistani youth of middle class. traditional celebrations and religion. The impact is a reality and it needs to be thoroughly researched to check the positive or negative influence on our culture. Another supporting statement comes from William Crawky and David Page (Linter 2001: web) when they said that the satellite television channels are using (projecting) local languages in showing local entertainment. They are also affecting language.148 that television is the best source of religious information. But Pakistani culture is failing to make an impact on other cultures. fashion. a minority of the respondents (17 percent) think that their religious level is decreasing due to cable television. Z. The trend according to this research is showing patterns that should be a cause of concern as women are accepting other cultural influences. According to the thesis report of Khalid 84 percent people began to eat foreign dishes of food in daily life. Cable television influenced our traditional and cultural values and its impact is clearly visible on food. The eastern and western cultures are intermingled in these dramas. 46 percent chose dresses of foreign style and 50 percent of the . The survey research concludes that socio-cultural thinking of Pakistani youth is under the influence of foreign cultural values.
9 percent) watched Indian and English movies on cable television.2 percent of the respondents were agreed that Indian movies showed attractive marriage traditions. Similarly. The researcher expressed concern that if they are projecting Hindu religion with such percentage then it will affect their viewers because viewership of these soap operas is not only countrywide but it is worldwide. which was showed in these channels. religious verses. Four–fifth of the respondents agreed that marriage functions in high class were following the patterns shown in Indian movies. Tariq (2004) conducted a study on “Invasion of Indian culture through movies”. This factor is operationalzed into . whereas 34 percent were using phrases on different occasions. According to final results. This study made clear that “cable television channel Star Plus had influenced social and cultural norms and values of Pakistani youth”. jewellery and lifestyles. different scenes in religious background. hairstyles. 11 percent of the respondents were fascinated by foreign cultural and social norms through foreign channels invasion. Norms suggest that only family head works and takes care of his entire family. Domestic and Personal Expenditures: Social set-up in Pakistan is male-dominated and winning bread and butter is the responsibility of males. This study evaluated the influence of Indian movies on marriage traditions/celebrations in high class of Lahore. Findings of the study revealed that majority of the respondents (87. The study also revealed that 64 percent of the respondents were using Hindi words. makeup. Similarly. religious words and history. jewellery make-up and hairstyle of bride and stage decoration also had been changed by Indian movies. Indian dances and songs were played during the marriage ceremonies. colours. The pattern of expenditure is considered as a very important factor in the household and that is why it was selected for this study. Some of the religious scenes are the requirement of the story but most of the time their projection is unnecessary. Marriage expenditures and traditions in Pakistan were influenced by Indian movies. sounds and prayers. v. dresses. Fantasy. Sen (1993) Shariffadeen (1995) has also worked on impact of television on culture and concluded similar results. Butt (2005) pointed out in his research the perspective of analyzing the projection of Hindu religion in Star Plus soap operas. Pakistan. In some way. was the main reason to attract students and Pakistan’s new generation.149 respondents felt change in their routine. the researcher found that sample soap operas directly and indirectly are giving maximum coverage to Hindu religion through the projection of names of gods ad goddesses. 92. Three-fourth of the respondents admitted that dress of bride and bridegroom and their parents were influenced by Indian movies.
We dress in accordance with telecasts that means our buying habits are shaped” (p. Hypothesis of the study was designed as ‘heavy viewers of cable television have experience a greater degree of effect on their domestic and personal expenditures than the moderate and light viewers. the researcher intended to go up to the level of finding out whether or not the contents of the cable television have deformed and reformed the social role of viewers and how this . The entire study of mass communication is based on the premises that media has significant effect in every society. The broad picture that emerges from the results is that majority of the respondents (48. The trend of this impact is again directly related to the amount of time spent for viewing cable television.’ Chi-square value confirms a significant association between level of cable television viewing and level of the effect on their domestic and personal expenditure. yet there is little agreement on the nature and extent of these assumed effects. Through this concept. there were a growing number of women (43 percent) who are intending to become an earning hand to meet and provide for this growing expenditure as one male earning for whole family now could not provide for it alone.8). It proves that high cable television viewing is impacting the domestic and personal expenditures of women in Lahore.150 three items which deal with the cable television affects on their domestic and personal expenditures. sex and education can claim immunity from it. Role of Woman in Society This means attitude of female viewers.53). (Table 5. vi. Moreover. Two-third of the respondents also agreed that their household expenditure has increased as the exposure they are getting through cable television is changing their lifestyle and luxuries are being presumed as necessities. Pakistan. where high impact is seen on heavy viewers and lighter impact on light viewers.5 percent) admitted that their expenditure on personal dressing and appearance has got an impact from watching cable television. Mcquail (1969) supports the finding of this study as “the trance of entertainment through television channels is so great that no one irrespective of his age. This concept extends to structuring and re-structuring of social role of viewers. He argues that their effects take various forms. More is being spent on personal grooming and clothing in comparison to the past decades. cognition and the way of reasoning. We choose what movies are based on and what we see in advertisements or in newspapers.
151 reformation was affecting their personality. This factor was operationalzed into eight items which deals with following indicators: · · Acceptance of Career Women: Acceptance of career for women equivalent to men Sharing of Family Responsibilities by Men and Women: Acceptance of equally sharing family responsibilities by husband and wife i. Respect and Freedom of Women: Acceptance of the idea that women and men should have equal rights. The role of Pakistani men and women in our social set-up is very clearly defined where the external responsibilities are linked to men and most of the matters within the house are responsibilities of women. Pakistan. nurturing children. it was claimed by two-fifth of the respondents that earning is not only the responsibility of man alone but should be shared by husband and wife. sharing of household chores and income generation · Equal Rights.54) shows a significant association between levels of cable television viewing and levels of acceptance of role of western and urban Indian women. Women are not aware of their legal and Islamic rights and are acting according to the traditional role enforced on them.e. Pakistani woman should pursue a career like the western woman and should put in efforts to get her due . method of bringing up their children and taking care of their homes. being the bread winners for the family. The role of western women and urban Indian women is comparatively opposite to the role of Pakistani women.purely a western approach. But the exposure to the foreign media is making an impact and introducing changes in traditional and stereotype role of Pakistani women. independence and respect in the society The hypothesis stated that ‘heavy viewers of cable television tend to show a greater degree of acceptance for roles of women as portrayed on Indian and western channels and as compared to moderate and light viewers’. getting their rights and freedom. Decision-making rests with the men. The broad picture that emerged from the findings of the study confirms that women respondents accept non-traditional roles. pattern of earning. It established that high cable television viewing is affecting the social role of women in Lahore. Chi-square value in the (Table 5. According to 40 percent of the respondents. Half of the respondents agreed with the statement that looking after of children and household is equal responsibility of man and woman . Similarly.
1 Major Hypothesis Greater the exposure to cable television the greater the effect on the lives of women in Lahore. cultural practices. Since the most preferred channels by women are Star Plus and Geo TV. social and family interaction patterns. Today. In his book “Youth culture and universities” which was written in the background of youth disturbances worldwide. He stated that “media has occupied a prominent place in our daily lives. The impact was directly related to the amount of time spent in viewing and high impact is visible in heavy viewers and lighter impact in light viewers. There should not be any discrimination or character assassination of the working woman and should be treated with respect and honour. rich and powerful families. Teachers teach. construct meaning and organize our very existence. Electronic media is the most important invention in the communication technology. Mcquail (1969) also expressed the significance of media with reference to its effects. Pakistan. appearance and styles. The major hypothesis is sustained by all the factors under the study that included domestic and other activities. media service is the nervous system of modern society. Clear majority of respondents (70 percent) submitted that woman should also have the right and say in their marriage. Two-third of the respondents suggested that there should be an equal respect for working woman as well as for the housewife. Wilson also agrees with the view that television can change viewers’ attitudes and orientation. . The statistical analysis and percentage of responses proves all the sub-hypothesis of the study except interaction patterns which is partially accepted. dramas on these channels show women in very powerful roles and show them involved in intrigues to run and control large. Pakistan. providing stuff from which we form our identities. These feelings are creeping in the minds of viewers in their responses and this clearly confirms the hypothesis that cable television is having a great impact on its viewers. expenditure and role of women in Pakistani society. Majority of the respondents (55 percent) submitted that single woman should have the right to live a respectable life and if married should have the right to take decisions on an equitable basis.152 rights from the society. he emphasized the influence of television on moulding and restructuring their of attitude. The findings of the study confirmed that greater the exposure to cable television the greater the effect on the lives of women in Lahore. 5.28.
entertainment. This theory explores individuals’ fantasy seeking and looking for an escape from their everyday lives. the study confirmed that the utility of television for them to seek entertainment and time-passing as compared to learning and getting information. Each of these factors may be affected by any number of social or psychological characteristics. goals and needs and these factors influence what they actually see and hear (Hockney. it investigated what are the reasons of watching cable television and what channels and programmes the respondents preferred to watch. The targeted population of the present study was women of Lahore.. Thus the communication behaviour of audience is goaloriented and motivated. educational. According to Uses and Gratifications Theory.153 governments govern and religious leaders preach but media totally changes the lifestyle of people. Users take an active part in the communication process and are goal-oriented in media usage. Research has shown that dependency on a medium is the result of two major factors: Viewer motives for obtaining gratifications and the availability of viewing alternatives. This was again confirmed through their preferred channels and programmes. cooking. Therefore. the findings revealed that entertainment was the first priority of majority of the respondents. which suggests that media users play an active role in choosing and using the media. Although a variety of channels (news. They make viewing selections on personal motivations. Pakistan. This indicates that television may be the best or the only source of entertainment for them. Thus. If the . 1988: 130).) are available to women and they can approach them with the click of a button. at home. etc.” This study strengthens the concept of Blumler and Katz’s Uses and Gratification Theory. only and majority of respondents were house managers. The ‘Uses and Gratification Theory’ looks at the ways individuals use media to gratify their needs. computer games etc. media consumers have a free will to decide how they will use media and how it will affect them. As for as the reasons of their watching were concerned. Are they really seeking reality and using media as a learning instrument? As this study was based on the impact of cable television which provides variety of channels and freedom of choice to viewers. VCR. A person with limited mobility would be more likely to become dependent on a medium such as television if he/she did not have access to other media options such as personal computer. but a majority of the respondents were used to watch entertainment channels only and their most favorite programme was drama followed by movies and music. informative.
those who are heavy viewers are affected more. it can be concluded that most of the time women don’t have alternatives for entertainment. To satisfy their recreation needs like sports facilities. creates and cultivates attitudes more consistent with a media-conjured version of reality than with what actual reality is. People who watch a lot of television are likely to be more influenced by the ways in which the world is framed by television programmes than are individuals who watch less regarding topics of which the . expenditure and role of women in Pakistani society. cultural practices . Dependency upon media may lead to effect in itself. The reason for watching cable television was entertainment but the unconscious influence as a result of it is change in the attitude and getting away from real and personal values. Thus. cultural and traditional values of the societies. To investigate the effects of cable television watching on women.domestic and other activities. The idea that we simply use media to satisfy a given need does not seem to fully recognize the power of media in today’s world. Gerbner and his colleagues contend that television drama has a small but significant influence on attitudes. appearance and styles. attitude change might occur and thus affect other elements in the Model. the best possible option for gratifications for most of women in Pakistan is television and particularly entertainment channels and programmes. namely television.. beliefs and judgments of viewers concerning the social world. The greater the dependency upon a medium. It is easy to assume that television has become a daily activity in our society so it is not surprising that in some cases people may go beyond the actual act of just watching for entertainment. Therefore. through these dramas (soap operas) and movies they get fascinated and managed to escape from the bitter realities of their lives for some time. the focus of study was on heavy viewers. Thus. According to this theory. For example. they are dependent on television for this purpose. The result of the study supports the theory as heavy viewers were affected more than light viewers at all levels . The theory takes out the possibility that media can have an unconscious influence over our lives and the global perspective. the more likely that medium will have effects upon the viewer. social and family interaction patterns. outing. the present study also holds up cultivation research by George Gerbner. parties. etc.154 situation of women in Pakistan is analysed with this reference. Cultivation Theory states that television is developing thinking of human being slowly and steadily which affects social. which states that heavy exposure to mass media.
ultimately. Despite general in nature. Their socialization patterns were gradually changing as heavy viewers’ social interaction time is reducing particularly with friends. Light viewers may have more sources of information than heavy viewers. “Social Learning Theory is particularly relevant to study. Cultivation Theory suggests that peoples’ values and their outlook towards life can become distorted and greatly affected by soap operas. the more they watch it. learning occurs when the observer perceives events or behaviour in television and he/she feels competent in performing them. The theory clearly establishes that media can serve as agents in the socialization process. The Cultivation Theory asserts that heavy viewers' attitudes are cultivated primarily by what they watch on television. Actions of the characters in cable television dramas have served as a model for respondents to imitate.155 viewer has little first-hand experience. Bandura also suggested that behaviour is likely to be imitated when it is . for culture as a whole. emotional responses and new styles of conduct from media. They have also acquired behaviours by people from media portrayals.1973). 1973 and Liebert et al. The Cultivation Theory in its basic form suggests that television is responsible for shaping or ‘cultivating’ viewers’ conceptions of social reality which is being confirmed through this study. especially from films and television (Bandra. According to him. It looks at mass media as a socializing agent and investigates whether television viewers come to believe television version of reality. Literature has shown that viewers acquire attitudes. The results of the present research strengthen the concept of cultivation through media. A majority of the respondents have accepted and practicing the Indian and western values systems consciously or unconsciously. the impact of mass communication because the description and portrayal of social life is a frequent subject in media contents” (DeFleur and Sandra 1989). The results of this research also support Gerbner when he says that combined effect of massive television exposure by viewers over time subtly shapes the perception of social reality for individuals and. Their language has been affected. Western and Indian traditions celebrations were followed more by heavy viewers as compared to light viewers. The finding of the study also corresponds to the observation made by Albert Bandura while discussing Social Learning Theory. This study witnessed a clear change in food and eating habits. The Cultivation Theory suggests that peoples’ values and their outlooks on life can become distorted and greatly affected by soap operas which are confirmed by this study. The present study also applied the Social Learning Theory which explains how environment influences the behaviour of an individual.
More importantly.156 socially rewarded. particularly television. Majority of the respondents have inclined towards and ready to accept the role of western women exposed to them through cable television channels. Mass media as an important institution enters the socialization process of an individual. it becomes clear that television is one of the today's most dynamic media vehicles touching more people than other communication vehicles. . However. it appears that they can occur and one may not even realize it. plays a crucial role in bringing the outside world into homes. environmental etc. majority of the respondents disagreed that they did relate characters to their lives despite they do copy in more than one area. They love to talk in their accent. Mass media. Heavy viewers were imitating cable television drama characters jewellery. Direct experience and participation are important parameters which shape his/her impressions of the perceived structure of their environment. think and behave like them. This shows that the respondents just follow the outlook of characters with respect to lifestyle and not themselves as a whole. Pakistan and implies an association between cable television viewing and affects on viewers. Interestingly. these forms of experience are usually limited to the immediate environment. This study proves the hypothesis ‘greater the exposure to cable television greater the effect on the lives of women in Lahore. Ultimately. make-up and hair style. Any person’s socialization process is influenced by innumerable factors such as family. The study has claimed that this relationship can in some cases be life-changing and personality moulding. school. Reason may be that characters shown in cable television dramas are not acceptable or may not be rewarded in our society. dresses. The result indicates that majority of the respondents do take television characters as their role models and want to copy them in appearance and style. but definitely life impacting.
Pakistan. It was also hypothesized that heavy viewers (women) of cable television tend to show a greater degree of acceptance of television characters appearance and style and of role of western and urban Indian women than the moderate and light viewers. women’s right and restriction on viewing. These factors were based on the conclusion drawn after reviewing the relevant literature as most of the studies were of the view that television viewing generates socio-economic and cultural changes. Cable television technology has been introduced in Pakistan during the last decade. reasons and favorite time of watching. moderate and light viewers. The major hypothesis studied was “greater the exposure to cable television greater the impact on the lives of women. . control over remote. age. education. Therefore. Findings of previous related research have made the researcher conclude that television does have some direct or indirect effects on viewers but no study has been carried out to gauge it in Lahore. available round the clock. both foreign and local.e. channels and kinds of programs are preferred. profession. marital status.e. The year 2000 witnessed mushrooming of the cable television network all over the country after getting a legal approval from the government. at one level the study records the consumption patterns and measures their level of viewing i. Therefore. It also analyses the relationship between above factors and level of viewing besides demographic information of respondents i. etc. cultural practices and on their domestic and personal expenditure than the moderate and light viewers.” The sub-hypotheses included heavy viewers of cable television experience a greater degree of effect on their domestic and other activities. Pakistan. resident area.” The study provided results by comparing life patterns of heavy. This raised the question that the cable television may have effects on viewers because it is quite affordable. The core purpose of this study was to dig out the influence of foreign channels or local channels with foreign contents on the social life and attitudes of female viewers. Pakistan. on their family and social interaction patterns. income. duration of having connection.157 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This study explored the “effects of cable television on life patterns of women in Lahore. enhances the choice and provides a variety of channels and programmes. this research probed into whether or not and how much effect cable television has on women in Lahore.
The total sample size was 432 and interviews’ schedule (verbal interview based on questionnaire) was preferred as a tool for . The respondents selected for data collection were aged 18-40 years and viewing cable television for a minimum period of two years. gradual. Due to the time and budgetary limitations. the study also applied Cultivation Theory in terms of effect (which can be small.000 and the expected number of women targeted in this study was one fourth of the total viewership.heavy viewers (viewing cable television for 4 and more than 4 hours a day).e. i. aged 18 to 40 years.158 The researcher has formulated an amalgam of three theories. Cultivation Theory and Social Learning Theory. rewarding and similar to themselves. Thus.000. Hence. moderate viewers (viewing cable television for more than 2 but less than 4 hours a day) and light viewers (viewing cable television for 1 to 2 hours a day) -. reside in Lahore and viewing cable television for at least two years. Main part of the present research comes under the effect tradition. It was not feasible for the researcher to approach the total population therefore sampling technique was applied. It demanded discussion on theories based on observational learning and information processing to emphasize lasting effects of exposure to media contents. their preferred channels and programmes ‘Uses and Gratifications Theory’ was applied. active and dynamic part of her life. Uses and Gratification Theory. indirect but cumulative and significant) through exposure (depending upon heavy and light viewership of cable television) and Social Learning Theory which says that viewers attend and learn from models which are attractive. In this study. The researcher preferred this period of life of a woman for the study because it is the most vibrant. This criterion was further divided into three categories -. the total area covered by the study was Lahore only. powerful. According to PEMRA the estimated number of cable television subscribers in Lahore was 350.e. In order to assess what is the main reason of the respondents’ watching cable television.e. The total population of this study was all female cable television viewers. survey method has been applied to obtain data that was quantitative in nature from large representative but diverse and widely scattered population. The government administrative division (which divides Lahore into six towns) was used and equal respondents from each town were selected by applying non-probability quota sampling. 500. light and heavy viewers.instead of two as the researcher intended to have two extremes i. Working women and house managers both were interviewed whereas students were deliberately excluded from the sample. the framework of this research was based on the set of three theories i.
income. But also indicates that the respondents are sticking to television at the cost of healthy mental and physical activities. Sample data has been analyzed separately to examine each hypothesis. medium and low for dependent variables. age. The research also probed whether there was any association between level of viewing and demographic characteristics of respondents i. The study was carried out during 2004-07 and the data was collected in 2005. And it is established that majority of them were heavy viewers because they had easy access to cable network and ample time to watch it. education. highest percentage of heavy and light viewers fell in the age group 26-30 and 18-25 years respectively. The conclusion is that there was no association between the level of viewing and age of respondents. As the study evaluated the association between exposure to cable television and change in the life patterns of women. and they are enjoying watching cable television instead of reading books.159 data collection because some of the respondents were illiterate and were not able to read and answer the questionnaire. The researcher made a three-point scale. This proves that the level of acceptance and popularity of cable television amongst the people of Lahore is increasing day by day. taking care of husband etc. Each of dependant variables was operationalised into a set of parameters and answers were obtained on Likert–point scale. rearing of children. The data was analyzed through univariate and bivariate statistical procedures and the results have been presented in two categories: i. The general findings concluded that majority of respondents have cable connection for the last two years. profession etc. Majority of the respondents belonged to middle and upper middle class with graduation. general and major findings of hypothesis testing.e. More than often they are the nucleus of the family and responsible for household activities. women of this age group are generally married. as minimum qualification but unemployed or house managers.0) for analyzing the data. The next step in measure was construction of scale. statistical tool ChiSquare has been used. comprising three points as high. playing games and going out for leisure. The researcher has used the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS Version 13. However.e. In Pakistan. Majority of the respondents were aged 31 to 40 years (60 per cent). It has become a main source of entertainment in Pakistan which like other developing countries has limited recreation facilities. This was interesting to note that . The conclusion is that heavy viewers belonged to this age and income group are probably neglecting their basic family role. therefore.
000 the lowest heavy viewers. However. no significant association between the level of viewing and income of respondents was seen. Findings also reveal an interesting result that the Indian channel ‘Star Plus’ has the highest following among foreign and local channels mainly because of it soap operas. House managers. who were non-professionals. ARY. those belonging to monthly income group of over Rs. The most frequently mentioned reason was entertainment and relaxation followed by the urge to know about foreign countries. it was found out that a majority of the heavy viewers watch entertainment-oriented programmes as compared to information and news and their main aim of watching cable television is to relax. Similarly. Indus Vision and Ptv World. There was no association between the level of viewing and residing area of respondents. The study also analyzed the respondents’ aim of watching cable television channels. 25.160 the lowest percentage of heavy viewers belonged to the age group of 18-25 years as it is in contrast to the general belief that this age group falls in the heavy viewers’ category. Zee TV. education and guidance. Foreign channels preferred by respondents included Star Plus. The second enlisted reason confirms the curiosity about foreign lands but it makes respondents vulnerable to outlandish influences including culture. As for as the association between the level of viewing and qualification of respondents is concerned the study concludes that higher the level of qualification lower the level of viewing cable television. HBO and BBC and Pakistani channels included Geo TV. they were asked to enlist all of their favourite programmes on cable television channels and their responses were accumulated and found that majority of the respondents preferred to watch purely . It has been noted that foreign channels are the most popular among the respondents. Sony Entertainment TV. Similarly an association exists between the level of viewing and profession of respondents. Thus establishes those house managers are more vulnerable to effects from cable television as compare to working class. Marital status does not matter as each category has shown equal interest in watching cable television. spare more time for watching cable television as compared to the working women. When respondents were categorized according to the level of viewing and the purpose of watching.000 were the highest heavy viewers and Rs 15. As far as respondents preferred programmes are concerned. Star Movies.001-20. Likewise there was no association between the level of viewing and marital status of respondents.
heavy. against their values and culture and viewing cable television can affect their working. When respondents were asked to point out whether men also face restriction on watching cable television. heavy.e. This confirms the notion that males dominate society in Pakistan. more than three-fourth of the respondents preferred to watch cable television after 7:00 pm (prime time). Restrictions were imposed because of vulgarity in programmes as this is against the religion. It indicates that heavy viewers prefer to be isolated or watch such programmes which they cannot watch with their families. and women do not have full freedom even in matters like selecting a television channel. Majority of the heavy viewers prefer to watch cable television alone whereas the highest number of light viewers was interested in watching cable television while sitting with their families. The data indicated that the most favourite programme of the three-forth respondents was drama followed by movies. The respondents also complained that men have more rights to watch cable television than women.5 percent) denied any such restrictions. This proves the fact that cable television is warmly accepted and used without any hesitation.8 percent) of the respondent admitted that restrictions regarding certain time and programmes are enforced on them by their families. the result indicated that men do not have any restriction of watching cable television as they are considered mature. It has already been verified that the respondents’ first priority in programmes was dramas. information programmes were preferred by one-forth of the respondents. A significant association between the level of viewing and preference for specific programmes was found. music programmes and movies. Night time is the restricted one as they would be unable to give time to their families and secondly it would disturb their reading habits also. In response to the favourite watching time. With reference to the restrictions on watching cable television only a small number (17. similar situation prevailed.161 entertainment-oriented programmes. almost half of the respondents told that male members of the family control the remote of television. moderate and light. It was noticeable that drama is the first preference of all types of viewers i. . On the contrary. moderate and light viewers. preferably watched on Star Plus. As far as the television’s remote control device is concerned. whereas majority of the respondents (68. Respondents who were restricted claimed that they were told not to watch stage dramas.e. independent and masters of their will. In all the cases i.
It confirmed that our social interaction patterns are under the influence of cable television and changing rapidly. But still the situation is alarming as majority does not like family interference and avoid going out with their . playing games and going out for leisure during their free time. This confirms that Mother-child interaction is not disturbing due to the viewing of cable television. which further supports the fact that our society is male dominated. Types of activities affected were newspaper and magazines reading and going out for movies.wife interaction is being affected but not as much as social interaction. Decline in Mother-child interaction was not proved by the statistical analysis. they were also asked whether the women at their homes have equal rights as men to watch cable television. The first sub-hypothesis was heavy viewers of cable television experience greater degree of effect on their domestic and other activities than the moderate and light viewers. Majority of respondents claimed that they are treated equally as men in reference to watching cable television. It is concluded that cable television is affecting social interaction patterns as respondents are rather enjoying their cable television programmes than socializing which is a major part of Pakistani culture. The second hypothesis heavy viewers of cable television experience a greater degree of change on their family and social interaction patterns than the moderate and light viewers was also statistically proved. This concludes that discrimination (at limited level) in the use of communication technology also exists. The most affected categories were friends and relatives interactions.2%) admitted that they had more rights than men. husband. Respondents dislike visiting others and do not welcome open heartedly or entertain their guests during primetime hours.162 Although the findings above made it clear that a few respondents (women) were restricted to watch cable television’s certain programmes at times. Almost three-fifth of them complained that men had more rights to watch cable television and a negligible percent (0. The conclusions of hypothesis testing related to the dependent variables. As far as the respondents’ family interaction was concerned. The data analyzed by Chi-square produced statistically significant association between level of cable television viewing and level of the effect on household and other activities. Judging by the data it can be concluded that cable television has become an important household commodity and an important part of women’s daily life in Lahore. However. Majority of the respondents also claimed that they enjoy watching cable television instead of reading books.
for better or worse. dressing. hairstyle. This research also tried to discover: “Was the target audience associating their personal appearance and style with television characters”? The study describes appearance and lifestyle as dress style. It was hypothized as heavy viewers of cable television experience greater degree of effect on their cultural practices than the moderate and light viewers. The data showed that greatest impact of watching cable television is on jewellery and ornamental style. The hypothesis developed was ‘heavy viewers of cable television tend to show a greater degree of acceptance of television characters’ appearance and style than the moderate and light viewers. Whereas. Respondents copy these characters for dressing. wife and mother as well as children are glued to cable television. and women are accepting western and Indian culture. The statistical analysis significantly proves association between the level of cable television viewing and the level of the effect on cultural practices. There has been an evident impact of cable television on food habits as majority has introduced western food dishes in their homes. This factor was dealing with five parameters including language. Our women are inclining towards change. It implies that high television viewing is influencing cultural practices in Lahore.’ Chi-square value indicated a significant association between level of cable television viewing and level of acceptance of television characters’ appearance and style. Therefore family interaction time is decreasing because husband. jewellery and accent adopted by women. The affection and bond among the family members is the beauty of our culture which may be affected badly because of cable television viewing. by following television characters. But majority of respondents does not agree that they relate themselves to television characters. decorative jewellery and try to copy their accent. the addition of Indian dishes is negligible according to the respondents because the Indian food programmes are few . Another investigated factor through this research was culture practices. make-up. religion and some of the traditions. This study also confirms and approves the Social Learning and Modelling theories. Half of the respondents considered television characters as their role model for appearance and style and they wanted to imitate those characters. The style and glamour projected through drama is although out of line from our original style but is making an impact on viewers according to their level of their viewing. A majority of heavy viewers was being highly affected and light viewers were showing minimal effects in terms of appearance and style.163 families while watching cable television. Pakistan. food. make-up.
Traditions play a key role in the formation of cultural identification therefore effect of foreign traditions that are being introduced through cable television has also been studied in this study. On the other hand. training and learning of children is carried out by them. Most of the respondents preferred to dine in front of television and discuss television characters than family issues. Urdu language is getting unwanted additions due to invasion of foreign words (Hindi and English). robbing people of the tradition of eating together and making the routine an opportunity of discussing their issues. Therefore. The study concluded that high impact on language of heavy viewers and light impact on language of light viewers supports the hypothesis. almost all respondents replied in negative in response to wearing Indian dresses (Saree) casually but one-third liked to wear it as a party dress due to their colour and grace. Casual western dressing has inspired one-fourth of the respondents and they like to wear western dresses. The focus of viewers of Indian channels is on drama and they are not eager to watch food programmes on television channels like Star Plus. with heavy viewers being affected the most. This is a start of accepting something totally against our traditions. Those who still dine together mainly discuss television programmes they watch.6 percent) of the respondents were celebrating Holi. Two-third respondents consider cable television as an effective source of learning about fashion trends. Mother tongue is the language which a child learns from his or her mother. A new language which is a mix of Urdu. And a defective mother tongue means adulteration in the very beginning. Majority of the respondents admitted that they celebrate Hindu marriage traditions and a very small number (1. But a majority of the respondents does not feel inclined to western dresses.164 and they are mostly focused on vegetables and not on meat dishes. it is convincing that cable television is affecting its viewers in dress trends and its effects are directly related to the viewership. The impact again shows high influence on heavy viewers and little on light viewers. This hints at a major change in our society. This proves that now the television is connecting people to the world unknown while creating a communication gap in their own families. Any effect on women’s language is transferred to their children and other members of their families. These findings strongly suggest . English and Hindi words is emerging. Since women are centre to every household and early education. Valentine’s Day is warmly celebrated by majority of respondents and Halloween and Bonfire are also celebrated by some of the respondents.
The social role of Pakistani men and women is clearly defined where the external responsibilities are linked to men and most of the house matters are responsibilities of women.165 that cable television is resulting in erosion of Pakistani culture and is introducing Indian and western culture. Women are not aware of their legal and Islamic rights and are acting according to the . Pakistan. being the bread winners for the family. Decision-making rests with the men. It establishes that high cable television viewing is affecting the social role of women in Lahore. dressing. traditional celebrations and religion. The study also hypnotized that ‘heavy viewers of cable television tend to show a greater degree of acceptance of roles of women as portrayed on Indian and western channels as compared to moderate and light viewers’. The influence is a reality and it needs to be thoroughly researched to check the positive or negative impact on Pakistani culture. Moreover. Cable television is influencing traditional and cultural values in Pakistan and respondents are accepting it. The broad picture that emerges from the results is that majority of the respondents admitted that their expenditure on personal dressing and appearance has got an impact from watching cable television. dining habits. More is being spent on personal grooming and clothing as compared to the past decades. Religious sentiments are easily inflamed and all the channels are particularly careful not to raise any religion conflict. a growing number of women are intending to become an earning hand to meet their families’ increasing expenditure and to share the burden of their men. Another Sub-hypothesis of the study was designed as ‘heavy viewers of cable television experience a greater degree of effect on their domestic and personal expenditures than the moderate and light viewers.’ Chi-square value confirmed a significant association between level of cable television viewing and level of the effect on their domestic and personal expenditure. The effects are clearly visible on food. Chi-square value showed a significant association between level of cable television viewing and level of acceptance of role of western and urban Indian women. Majority of the respondents agreed that television is the best source of religious information. Household expenditure has increased as the exposure they are getting through cable television is changing their lifestyle and luxuries are being presumed as necessities. language. Religion has been the main driving forces for the campaign for independence of Pakistan. The trend according to this research is showing patterns that should be a cause of concern as far as cultural values are concerned in Pakistan.
As far as the consumption patterns and reasons of their watching were concerned the study concluded that women use cable television primarily for fantasy and to escape their routine lives. It implies an association between cable television viewing and affects on viewers. Although a variety of channels (news. The study has claimed that this relationship can in some cases be life-changing and personality moulding. informative. . Pakistan. The impact is directly related to the amount of time spent in viewing and high impact is visible in heavy viewers and lighter impact in light viewers. The role of western women and urban Indian women is comparatively contrary to the role of Pakistani women. Majority of the respondents are inclined to foreign culture and are ready to accept the appearance and role of western women exposed to them through cable television channels. expenditure and role of women in Pakistani society. pursuing a career and should have say in their marriage like the western woman. The study supports the Uses and Gratifications Theory because media consumers (women in this study) have a free will to decide how they will use media and how it will affect them. More importantly. cultural practices. Similarly. single women should have the right to live a respectable life. The major hypothesis is sustained by all the factors under the study included household and other activities.166 traditional role enforced on them. it appears that it can occur and one may not even realize it. Half of the respondents agreed with western approach that earning should be shared by husband and wife and looking after of children and household is equal responsibility of man and woman. which suggests that media users play an active role in choosing and using the media. and they should strive to get their due rights. This study strengthens the concept of Blumler and Katz’s Uses and Gratification Theory. social and family interaction patterns. But the exposure to the foreign media is making an impact and introducing changes in traditional and stereotype role of Pakistani women. Thus proves the major hypothesis ‘greater the exposure to cable television greater the effect on the lives of women in Lahore. it claimed that a woman should have equal rights in decision making. The statistical analysis and percentage of responses proves all the sub-hypotheses of the study except mother child interaction. The study also concluded that society should give respect to working women as well as to housewives. The broad picture that emerged from the findings of the study confirms that women respondents are accepting non-traditional roles. It is not a source of seeking reality and using media as a learning instrument for the majority. but definitely life impacting. appearance and styles.
It seems that mass media has worked as a socializing agent. Western and Indian traditions celebrations are followed more by heavy viewers as compared to light viewers. etc. Respondents with limited mobility (house managers) would be more likely to become dependent on a medium such as television if she does not have access to other media options such as a personal computer. appearance and styles. they are dependent on television for this purpose. expenditure and role of women in Pakistani society. cooking. Apparently the reason for watching cable television is entertainment but the unconscious influence as a result of it is change in the attitude and getting away from real and personal values. cultural practices . the present study also applied cultivation research by George Gerbner. which states that heavy exposure to mass media. social and family interaction patterns. the best possible option for gratifications for most of women in Pakistan is television and particularly entertainment channels and programmes. at home. To investigate the effects of cable television watching on women. Therefore. the study witnessed a clear change in food and eating habits. According to this theory. outing. those who are heavy viewers are affected more.167 educational. entertainment. namely television. A majority of the respondents have accepted and are practicing the Indian and western values systems consciously or unconsciously. Their socialization patterns are gradually changing as heavy viewers’ family and social . Thus the study concludes that television is the best or the only source available to women for entertainment. etc. To satisfy their recreation needs like sports facilities. The heavy viewers' attitudes are cultivated primarily by what they watch on television... VCR. Their language has been affected.) are available to women but a majority of the respondents were used to watch entertainment channels only and their most favorite programme was drama followed by movies and music. Through dramas (soap operas) and movies the respondents get fascinated and managed to escape from the bitter realities of their lives for some time but these lead to effects. creates and cultivates attitudes more consistent with a media-conjured version of reality than with what actual reality is. It is easy to assume that television has become a daily activity in our society so it is not surprising that in some cases women may go beyond the actual act of just watching for entertainment. cultural and traditional values of the societies. Thus. computer games etc. It says television is developing thinking of human being slowly and steadily which affects social. The result of the study supports the theory as heavy viewers are affected more than light viewers at all levels – household and other activities. parties.
168 interaction time is reducing particularly with friends and relatives. . ultimately. They have also acquired behaviours by people from media portrayals. This shows that the respondents just follow the outlook of characters with respect to lifestyle and not themselves as a whole. Reason may be that viewers have the fear that characters shown in cable television programmes are not acceptable or may not be rewarded in the society. The Cultivation Theory in its basic form suggests that television is responsible for shaping or ‘cultivating’ viewers’ conceptions of social reality which is being confirmed through this study. Actions of the characters in cable television dramas have served as a model for respondents to imitate. for culture as a whole. The result indicates that majority of the respondents do take television characters as their role models and want to copy them in appearance and style. Social Learning Theory also suggested that behaviour is likely to be imitated when it is socially rewarded. The conclusion of the study also corresponds to the observation made by Albert Bandura while discussing Social Learning Theory. learning occurs when the observer perceives events or behaviour in television and he/she feels competent in performing them. According to him. a majority of the respondents have disagreed that they relate characters to their lives despite copying them in more than one area. Interestingly. It may be concluded that combined effect of massive television exposure by viewers over time subtly shapes the perception of social reality for individuals and.
These programmes can change their attitude and make them emotional. Policy-makers should take extreme care while formulating rules and regulations. viewers are required to be alert and use it sensibly. Therefore. This kind of situation may arise because Pakistani society is not media literate.169 6. television and internet.1 Recommendations This study proved the hypothesis ‘greater the exposure to cable television greater the effect on the lives of women in Lahore. Similar conclusion was made in the study by Altman and Taylor (1973). Therefore. More importantly. It is not surprising that in some cases people may go beyond the actual act of watching it for entertainment. This research also supports the Cultivation Theory by George Gerbner that states that “more you watch television the more you are likely to obtain distorted views on life”. Majority of population is not trained how to analyze/utilize different forms of media like news papers. People may take more dramatic approach to their personal situation. which hypothesized that the more time people spend watching television and involving themselves with the characters. This study reveals that television has grown enough to become an important and an integral part of daily activities in today’s world. Especially the aspect of sexual behavior should be stressed upon because the Cultivation Theory . Television is one of the most dynamic media vehicles influencing more people than most other communication vehicles. it appears that these changes can occur and one may not even realize them. It is therefore recommended that efforts should be made for the enhancement of media literacy at mass level. They may unconsciously live more closely with characters of cable television programmes as compared to people in their real life. The study claimed that this relationship in some cases can change life patterns or mould personalities. This study gives the same indication. radio. The soap operas are a unique form of entertainment. it is recommended that effects of these soap operas must be targeted for research studies in future. different from other television drama and are especially significant because the target audience appears to be predominantly women. Pakistan’ and implied that there is an association between cable television viewing and effects on viewers. This study exposes that soap operas and movies were among the most watched by women on cable television. the more they become intimate with media persona. It is interesting to note that hardly any in-depth study has been conducted on this type of mass communication in Pakistan.
To minimize and resist the effects of western and Indian channels. These channels should produce and broadcast quality programmes that could help in the promotion of Pakistani values and traditions and improve the image of Pakistan at international level. As a media scholar. The results of the study have confirmed the impact on women cable television impacting women in Pakistan and they have been influenced by western and Indian values. the researcher feels that this issue should be taken seriously and best effort should be made to sensitize producers and broadcasters for improving the quality of whatever they are bringing to general public. it is suggested that local channels should be strengthened and programmes should have better content. . People who produce programmes for television have great responsibility in today’s world.170 suggests that peoples’ values and their outlooks on life can become distorted and greatly affected by soap operas. It is evident that television influences many lives across the board.
Therefore. Small-scale studies (laboratory. income levels. the researcher is interested in conducting such a study in future for publication in research journals.171 6. etc. The present research did not study the impact of specific programmes of foreign television on the viewers. Similarly. There is a need to gauge the impact on population belonging to different social classes. observational) can permit refinement of questions. Further research must take into account gender difference in general and also in different environments. music preferences. can also be investigated. low cost. One can find sexual media content easily in the foreign programmes which enhancing the importance of research on effects of sexual media contents in Pakistan. Functions and effects of media contents may vary for boys and girls or for males and females substantially. So a combination of content analysis and a survey in a study may be more interesting and valuable. measures and methods in a relatively low-cost and efficient way.2 Recommendations for Future Research This section presents some recommendations for future research regarding the effects of cable television channels. The validity and reliability measures of this research cannot be generalized to all of the population as it only targeted women. availability of satellite channels and large number of television viewers. qualifications and among different age groups. The cable television requires systematic studies based on a variety of methods and diverse populations. psychological. etc. the researcher has planned to work in future on more specific aspects and evaluate effect on women with different demographic background. This study has provided a baseline study on the effects of cable television technology particularly on women. Pakistani society is a male dominated and gender discrimination has been verified through some of researches in social science. some other dimensions like family norms. Cable television has spread all over the country due to its legalization. economic. easy access. Cable television provides a variety of channels including local and foreign. This study also slightly dealt with this issue . Research in this area (effects of cable television) requires inter-disciplinary approaches as its effects may be social. survey. It has explored only some factors and analyzed the effects on women in general. However. There is a need to begin with smallscale studies and move to a larger field and longitudinal studies.
. It is suggested that this issue should be addressed separately in an in-depth study and men should also be interviewed to accurately determine the gender discrimination.172 and concluded that in Pakistan men as compared to women do not have any restriction in cable television viewing.
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1 100.48 months More than 48 months Total Table 5.6 23.8 100.3 33.6 33. 2: Distribution of Respondents by Level of Viewing Level of viewing Heavy viewers Moderate viewers Light viewers Total f 144 145 143 432 % 33.4 23.1: Distribution of Respondents According to Duration of having Cable Connection Duration f 127 100 102 103 432 % 29.1 23.0 .xiii APPENDICES APPENDIX – I Table 5.0 24 months 25 – 36 months 37 .
5 7.0 25.9 69.0 19.multiple responses were allowed so the sum may add-up to more than the actual number.xiv Table 5.1 12. .2 Preferred Channels Star Plus GEO ARY Indus Vision Star Movies HBO Ptv World BBC ZEE TV Sony Base.5 17.9 16.14 : Respondents Preferred Programmes Programmes Drama Movies Music Religious Information Cooking f 329 148 116 69 110 41 % 76.6 22. 12: Preferences for Channels Channels Identity Foreign Pakistani Pakistani Pakistani Foreign Foreign Pakistani Foreign Foreign Foreign f 341 301 145 95 83 80 77 74 54 31 % 78.3 26.5 9.2 34.multiple responses were allowed so the sum may add-up to more than the actual number.7 33.8 17. Table 5.5 Base.2 18.
7 100.2 12.6 Table 5.8 100.2 47.9 19.4 f 210 % 48.xv Table 5. 20: Favourite Time of watching Cable Television Time Before 2 pm 2 pm To 7 pm After 7 pm Total f 44 52 336 432 % 10. 18: Remote Control Family Members Children Men (family head) Respondent (women) Old age Youngsters Total f 44 203 70 30 85 432 % 10.2 6.0 77.0 . 16: Preference of Watching Television Watching television Alone 222 With Family 432 Total 100.0 16.0 51.0 Table 5.
0 Table 5.0 Total 432 100.2 58.6 41.xvi Table 5.4 Disagree( low) 144 432 33.4 Outing or game 134 31.3 100.6 Book reading 58 13.3 10.2 100.0 Table 5. 26: Hurdle in Domestic and other Activities Hrdles Agree (high) Undecided (moderate) f 243 45 % 56. 25: Recreation Source of Recreation Television f 240 % 55.0 Total . 24: Women’s right to watch Cable Television Right to watch Not at all Less than men Equal to men Total f 1 253 178 432 % 0.
0 95.8 92.2 50. 28: Affected Activities of Respondents Activity Cooking and serving time Reading newspaper and magazines Listening of music Going for outing Going to movies going for shopping Reading books Prayer and reading religious books f 154 232 211 48 225 70 195 122 % 63.6 28.8 19.multiple responses were allowed so the sum may add-up to more than the actual number .xvii Table 5.5 86.2 Base.8 80.
5 65 15.23 2.3 2.04 Mean 258 59.60 Husband-Wife 138 47.5 2.09 97 22.6 46.8 136 31.7 38 8.5 96 Interaction Time Decreased Note--.30 .6 2.6 11.50 36.4 141 32.5 1.9 1.5 67 15. 30: Interaction Pattern Variable f Relative interaction reduced Neighbor interaction decreased Friends interaction decreased 240 199 Agree % 55.4 1.xviii Table 5.1 44 15.6 Disagree f 142 183 % 32.5 164 38.0 111 Interaction Time Decreased Mother-Child 135 51.9 58 13.1 33 12.Number of respondents is different for each variable.0 2.1 Undecided f 50 50 % 11.9 42.16 201 46.1 76 17.6 144 33.0 270 62. 37.21 212 49.4 2.28 Do not visit others Does not like to welcome guest Does not like interference of family Less time for outing with family 233 53.
8 1.1 2.0 100 23.8 52 12.7 50 11.8 2.6 107 24.30 Base---Total Respondents for each variable= 432 .91 254 58.7 2.06 206 47.39 Relate with television character Formal dressing and make up 147 34.2 143 33.15 Wear jewellery resembling Television characters Emulate accent of television characters 319 73.32: Appearance and Style Variable f Television characters as role model Look like television characters Agree % Undecided f % Disagree f % Mean 206 47.6 180 41.8 53 12.0 61 14.1 185 42.3 125 28.xix Table 5.4 46 10.4 83 19.9 2.60 275 63.1 2.
6 401 92.7 Undecided f 1 % .31 233 53.6 2.xx Table 5.1 2.8 32 7.9 28 6.5 171 39. 33: Cultural Practices (Food) Variable f Addition of western dishes 288 Agree % 66.6 24 5.34 Mean Addition of Indian dishes Dine in front of television Discussion on television programmes during meals Television an effective source of learning cooking 7 1.14 291 69.4 133 30.43 Base---Total Respondents for each variable= 432 .2 115 26.2 18 4.2 Disagree f 143 % 33.8 2.09 267 61.6 2.8 1.
97 36 8.06 205 47.4 1.6 2.8 0 0 420 97.5 1.35 393 67.8 37 8.9 1.1 218 50.44 Base---Total respondents for each variable= 432 .3 79 18.1 f 0 % 0 f 302 % 69.34: Cultural Practices (Dress) Agree Variable f Wear casual western dress Wear casual Indian dress Wear Indian party dress Western party dress An effective source of learning about fashion trends 130 % 30.5 9 2.xxi Table 5.3 317 73.60 Undecided Disagree Mean 12 2.2 1.6 102 23.
6 27 6.58 372 86.40 327 75.1 2.xxii Table 5.8 f 41 % 9.3 118 27.7 291 67.3 2.54 .3 2.57 Undecided Disagree Mean 360 83.3 15 3.2 2.1 33 7.7 2.4 23 5.3 78 18.1 2.7 91 21.35: Cultural Practices (Language) Agree Variable f Like to use other languages Usage of english words in casual language Usage of Hindi words in casual language Television as source of learning languages Learned english language 319 % 73.5 57 13.2 16 Learned Hindi language Base---Total Respondents for each variable= 432 3.5 f 72 % 16.80 325 75.7 27 6.
4 1.3 1.37: Cultural Practices (Religion) Variable f Television is best source of religious information Religiosity level decreased 325 Agree % 75.1 1.00 257 59.9 0 0 428 99.03 Mean 4 Celebrate Rakhi 7 Celebrate Holi Celebrate Karwa Chode Celebrate Valantine Day Celebrate Halloween 0 .5 0 0 175 40.0 Disagree f 51 % 11.2 Undecided f 2 % 0.1 0 0 397 91.5 2.6 Base---Total Respondents for each variable= 432 .6 0 0 425 98.19 35 8.5 248 57.16 42 9.4 2.4 1.2 Undecided f 56 % 13.9 1.1 110 25.7 0 0 390 90.63 Mean 74 17.03 0 0 0 432 100 1.5 Disagree f 209 % 48.19 Celebrate Bonfire Base---Total Respondents for each variable= 432 Table 5.8 2.02 1.36: Cultural Practices (Traditions) Variable f Celebrate Hindu marriage traditions 221 Agree % 51.xxiii Table 5.
jewellery.1 60 13.00 Base---Total Respondents for each variable= 432 .2 2.7 2.) House hold Expenditure Tendency to be an earning hand 209 Agree % 48.1 2. make up.38: Personal and Household Expenditure Variable f Dressing (cloth.8 68 15.4 Undecided f 58 % 13.xxiv Table 5.50 186 43.4 Disagree f 165 % 38.5 81 18. etc.9 186 43.10 Mean 283 65.
A girl should have right of love marriage 222 Agree % 51.3 90 20.91 189 43.8 205 47.4 194 44.5 101 23.48 306 70.39: Role of Pakistani Women in Society Variable f Looking after of children and house hold Earning is equal responsibility of husband and wife Right to be career women Women should struggle for her rights Single women should have right to live respectable life Women should take active part in decision making Working women and housewife should have equal respect.7 58 13.0 212 49.5 1.9 2.9 83 19.1 Mean 180 41.0 47 10.8 38 8.0 112 25.xxv Table 5.96 237 54.8 2.8 36 8.9 1.4 61 14.97 173 40.9 2.1 1.1 69 16.5 Base---Total Respondents for each variable= 432 .2 112 25.1 2.29 251 58.4 Undecided f 31 % 7.2 Disagree f 179 % 41.4 2.32 270 62.
Some of these still . and built the Lahore Fort. Jehangir. it had been the cultural center of Northern India extending from Peshawar to New Delhi. Lahore is the city of poets. This preeminent position it holds in Pakistan as well. His son. when they want to emphasize the uniqueness of their town say "Lahore is Lahore". reached its peak of glory during the Moghul rulers.xxvii APPENDIX – II The Profile of Lahore History The people of Lahore. Close by is the mausoleum of the famous Moghul Empress. artists and the center of film industry. The traditional capital of Punjab for a thousand years. The city as we know it today. as well as the city walls which had 12 gates. who is known for introducing the rose plant and for initiating several cultural movements in the Sub-Continent. It has the largest number of educational institutions in the country and some of the finest gardens in the continent. Akbar the Great held his Court In Lahore for 14 years from 1584 to 1598. especially in the reign of Akbar the Great. who made it his capital. Nur Jehan. is buried in its outskirts and his mausoleum is one of the places frequented by tourists and Lahorites alike.
which now lies a few miles away from Lahore. The GPO and YMCA buildings built to commemorate the golden jubilee of Queen Victoria . the great Badshahi Mosque. They built some important buildings. touched the ramparts of the Fort and the Mosque. dak bungalows were built for the weekends at Shalamar Gardens. Most of the gems that decorated the palaces and the forts were also taken out. but a great deal needs to be done to maintain them for posterity. A stream still flaws there and is known as the"Old River". Montgomery Hall. along with their environments. Gothic and Victorian styles of architecture. the builders of the Taj Mahal in Agra and the Shalamar Gardens in Srinagar and Lahore. Within the walled city you may come across old Havelis or the spacious houses of the rich. It can also be conjectured that Lahore was an industrial center in the Moghul period. built palaces and tombs. by harmoniously combining Mughal. Jehangir and Shah Jehan. Anarkali's tomb was used as an office and later consecrated as a place of worship called St. At one end of The Mall stands the University . At that time the river Ravi.perhaps the largest center of co-education in Asia. they had a habit of damaging the Muslim monuments and took little interest in gardens. the National College of Arts. which give you an inkling of the style of the rich and notables in the Moghul reign. Aurangzeb (1838 . The last great Moghul Emperor. It also has the prestigious and largest University of women (Lahore College Women University) at Jail Road. Efforts are being made to preserve some of the buildings.an event marked by the construction of clock towers and monuments all over India. The Sikhs ruled it in the 18th and 19th centuries. the Museums. Adrew's Church. British British were responsible for the desecration of many of Lahore's tombs and monuments. Tollinton Market.xxviii survive. The British during their reign (1849 -1947) compensated Lahore. Their perfection shows that the industry was quite advanced. and though it was their capital. the Government College. like the High Court. . It is said that they took enough marble from the Moghul monuments of Lahore to build the Golden Temple at Amratsar twice over. the Punjab University (Old Campus) and the Provincial Assembly.1707) built Lahore's most famous monument. Victorian heritage is only next to Mughal monuments. The famous guns which lie in front of the Central Museum and other places were molded in the foundries of Lahore. At one stage the Attorney General maintained an office at the Shah Chiragh Mosque.
Sheesh Mahal (Palace of Mirrors) built in 1631 is the most richly decorated building inside Lahore Fort. the Jallo Park the newly built lqbal Park and Changa Manga Forests. at 31°34′N 74°20′E (31.35000 East).560000 North.xxix Moti Masjid or Pearl Mosque beyond the audience hall was for the exclusive use of royal ladies carved from marble having the luster of pearls.5 million and the second largest city in Pakistan and considered to be the 24th largest city of the world. fretted marble work screens hiding the occupants from view. Lahore offers some delightful picnic spots. Mughal architecture can be seen in the Badshahi Mosque. Lahore Fort and Shalimar Gardens. Tourists can find shady groves and green carpets at Shalamar Gardens. Nearby "Naulakha". a marble pavilion is inlaid with floral motifs and precious gems. 74. Jehangir's Tomb and the Jinnah Gardens. Boats can be hired at the river Ravi. It has a population of 6. While the Lahore Museum and Lahore High Court’s buildings represent British architecture. or at Baradari. it is named for the elaborate mosaic of convex mirrors set in Stucco work tracery and the gilded interior. Lahore is located near the river Ravi and the Indian border. . Built by emperor Shah Jehan. for his empress and his harem. The Data Durbar of Hazrat Syed Abul Hassan Bin Usman Bin Ali Al-Hajweri is the most widely visited and venerated place for the natives and represents pre-Mughal times’ architecture. another of the river-side pleasure-houses built by the Mughals and an ideal place for relaxation Old Names of Lahore Laha-war Laha-noor Loh-pur Mahmood-pur Labokla Samandpal Nagiri Lohar-pur Geography Lahore occupies a central position in the province and is generally called ' The Heart of Pakistan'.
Data Gunj Baksh Town.2%. January and February are the coldest months when temperatures drop to 0 −1 degree Celsius.000. Much of the wall remains intact today.xxx Lahore covers a total land area of 404 km. Mela Chiraghan and National Horse and Cattle Show. Basant. There are known to be more than a million Pashtun in Lahore probably about 15% of the population.000 of the population are Punjabis. The summer leads into the monsoon which brings heavy rainfall throughout the city and province as well. Demography In 1998 the population of Lahore was recorded to be 5. The Lahorites are generally known in Pakistan as the Zinda Dilan Lahore owing to their liveliness and flare for celebration. Some of the main town of Lahore includes: Ravi Town.of which 2. while temperatures soar to 45–50 Celsius and it is the hottest time of the year. Iqbal Town and Nishtar Town.000 are Muhajirs. 10. Lahore marathon.402. Here are some celebrations and festivals celebrated in Lahore. Independence Day. Shairanwala Gate (the lion’s gate). The Walled City of Lahore. Finally. June. According to the 1998 census 86.000. Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha.² Lahore witnesses extremes climates during the months of May.4% number about 32.Bhati Gate.896.000 were females. Shalamar Town. while December. Shahalmi Gate. the Seraikis at 0. Mori Gate.2% or 816. Aziz Bhatti Town. Delhi Gate. or 6. Mochi Gate. Lohari Gate (also known as 'Lahori Gate'. Roshnai Gate. Kashmiri Gate.063. Taxali Gate and Yakki Gate. Akbari Gate. and July.661.000 were males and 2. Masti Gate. also known as the Old City or Anderoon Shehr is the section of Lahore which was fortified by a city wall during the Mughal era. .
xxxi Culture Marriages and Betrothal Betrothal always precedes a marriage. or jawar. The party is then entertained. While in urban areas. Pulses and vegetables are quite common items of diet. The proposal is initiated by the near relatives of the boy or girl and the women of both the sides take leading part in finalizing the proposal. Marriage between the same sections of tribe or caste is customary. A marriage party is received by the relatives and friends of the parents of the girl. But inter-marriage between people of different tribes and castes in cities and towns is becoming more frequent. The chief meals are taken just before mid day and in the evening soon before sunset. Zarda. House are mostly built of bricks and Concrete. rice and pulses. or sometimes beef. Meat is frequently taken specially in cities. one early in the morning the other at mid day and the third after sunset. Then the party returns to the house of the bride groom with the bride but in a doli or in a car. But the city folk generally have three meals. On the wedding day the relatives and friends of the boy assemble and proceed in procession to the girl's house. The final bringing home of the bride is called Muklawa. Pulao. The dowry in the shape of ornaments. clothing and furniture etc. mutton. The marriage procession is generally headed by a musical band. The wedding may take place at any time after the betrothal. maize. barley. Food The staple food of the city people is wheat. Thereafter the Nikah ceremony is performed by the Nikah registrar and a feast is given to the party. The usual age of marriage for boys is 20 to 30 years and that for girls is from 18 to 25 years. The special dishes for guests in rural areas consist of halwa. Houses Houses are a mixture of old and modern style of architecture. grams. is given to the girl from her parents. Since independence many new residential colonies have been built in and around Lahore city. chicken. She stays for a couple of days and then returns to her father's house. The ordinary food of villagers. sewaiyan. roti made from flour of wheat. In villages morning meal is usually taken with skimmed yogurt or curd mixed with water known as Lassi. . Alms are distributed to beggars and Village Mueens are fed.
purdah is not generally observed by city women. . Deaths On the death of a person. Comphor and rose water are sprinkled over the body which is placed on a charpai and those present have a last look. Sari is only worn by women of the upper classes in cities on formal occasion. Dress and Ornaments In urban areas semi-western dress is worn by educated people while indigenous dress is worn at home. when Qul ceremony is performed.xxxii Buriyani and qorma are served. On the 40th day. Tea is almost universal popular in cities and regulary taken at breakfast and in the evening. the local Church authorities are informed of the occurrence and bells start tolling in the Church. The dead body accompanied by the mourners is then carried to the grave-yard where Namaz-e-Janaza is offered before it is lowered into the grave. Just after the death. The local dress consists of the kurta and shalwar. The corpse is bathed. One goat is sacrificed in case of a girl and two in case of a boy. Villagers also take tea especially after meal. called Chaliswan. the face of the deceased is turned towards the Ka'aba and the dead-body is kept in a proper posture. Money is also given to the Mueens (village artisans) on the birth of a male child at the time of circumcision ceremony which is either performed soon after the birth or less commonly after a few years. Aqiqa ceremony is performed both for a male and a female child. Christians also bury their dead. relatives and the poor. relatives and friends assemble at the house of the deceased to console the bereaved family. Births Birth of a male child is considered an occasion of great rejoicing and is followed by the distribution of sweets to friends and relatives who come to offer congratulations to the parents. the Mullah or an elderly male member of the family recites Azan (call for Muslim prayer) into the ears of the child. The important items of the women clothing are shalwar kamiz and dopatta or chaddar to cover their heads and upper parts of their body. meals are served to friends. The women's cloths are generally more colorful. The women-folk mourn with great vehemence. Soon after the birth of a child. and wrapped in a coffin of new cotton sheet. neighbourers. The death is mourned for three days. Achkan and sherwani are worn on formal occasions. Immediately after death. Shoes are worn by those living in city while women folk wear sandals and slippers.
Rich Hindus still use Ghee and Sandal wood to burn their dead. Budhists and Jain burn their dead. where mantra-chanting priests lead the prayer. The body is shifted to a nearby temple. Hindues.xxxiii The service for the dead is held in the Church where verses from the Bible are recited and a brief sermon delivered. The body is then taken to 'Ghaat' where it is placed under a pile of dried wood and burnt. The body is then taken to the graveyard and interred. if available in the vicinity. Funeral processions often departs from the house of the dead with musicians in the vanguard. . After the body is completely burnt and reduced to ashes the same are collected and thrown in river or tossed to the winds.
xxxiii APPENDIX .III .
APPENDIX - IV
The Kish Grid
This is a table of numbers named after the statistician who invented it. The number of people in the household is discovered, and a random number is chosen to select a particular person. My research in Australia found that the Kish method can cause a high refusal rate: elderly women, in particular, are often suspicious when the first question in a survey is “How many people live in your household?”- Particularly if they alone. In developing countries, where few old people live alone, this may not be a problem. Here’s an example of a Kish Grid with instructions. This is based on 8 households per cluster, interviewing 1 person per household.
1. Find out how many people living in the household are eligible to be interviewed. Include people who sleep there, but are not there when you visit. Ignore children aged under 15 2. The youngest (excluding children under 15) is number 1, the second youngest is number 2 and so on. 3. The first household where you do an interview is household 1, the second is household 2 , and so on, up to household 8 – the last household. 4. Look up the columns for the household number and the row for the number for the number of eligible person. The number in cell where the column and row meet is the person to interview. For example, if household 2 has 3 adults, interview the 2nd youngest (shown in bold). If that person is not there when you call, arrange to come back later.
Eligible Person 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 or more 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Household 4 1 2 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 1 1 2 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 1 2 3 2 3 6 6 6 6 6 7 1 1 1 3 4 3 7 7 7 7 8 1 2 2 4 5 6 4 8 8 8
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
The reason for numbering the household members from the youngest upwards (instead of the seemingly more obvious oldest downwards) is the younger person are more difficult to find at home, so the above grid gives young people a slightly higher chance of being interviewed.
Quota selection within a household
When selecting a respondent within a household, the most practical method is often a type of quota sampling. Though quota sampling was criticised earlier in this chapter, most of its problems do not apply when selecting a member of a household. A common approach is to interview a woman in half of all respondents and a man in the other half- in most parts of the world, where the sex balance is close to 50/50. To ensure a good balance of old and young people, age-based quotas can also be applied. One of the simplest quota systems is to ask to interview the oldest person in the household (in half the households) and the youngest person (in the other half of house holds). Household quotas can be based on other factors apart from sex or age group. It can be useful in radio and television surveys to have separate quotas for the people who stay home most of the time.
Addresses and Telephone No’s of Nazmeen UC s and Distric Members Zila Council, Lahore Ravi Town
S No 01 Name of UC Kot Begam Name of Nazim Khalid Mehmood S/o Shaukat Ali M.Afzal S/o Abdul Majeed Naeem Ahmed S/o Rasheed Baig Raheem Gulshad S/o Ahmad Khan M.Iqbal Khan S/o Ghulam Rasool Ch. Iftikhar Yousaf S/o Haji M.Yousaf Sajjad S/o Shah din Hamid Hussain Khan S/o Ahmad Hussain Khan Sohail Mehmood Malik S/o Muhammad Mehmood Malik Al-haaj Mukhtar Ahmad Butt S/o Haji Abdul Rehman Butt Haji M.Ilyas Usman S/o Haji M.Sadique M.Mushtaq Mughal S/o Abdul Ghani M.Nawaz S/o Address H No245 St No7Begam Kot Shahdara Jinnah Park Kot Shahab Ud Din Shahdara H-No-80 Lajpat Nagar Shahdra Lahore Islam Pura Shahdara H No-8 Adnan St, Ghazi Park Shahdara Shahdara Town Lahore Maqbara Morr Shahdara Town Bara Dari Road Shahdara UC No 7915402 Cell 03334358183 Residence 7929659
Kott Mohibbu Aziz Colony Faisal Park Qaiser Town Dhair
7932210 7933396 7928217 7932864 7910382
03009488229 03334274647 03204613837 03334274318 03004260108 03008454637 03334317211 7921339 7228369 5837240
7914489 7932608 7911706 7228480 7918480 7918480 7228480 7913242
Qila lachman Singh
155-Ravi Park,Ravi Road Lahore
H No-01, A St No 17 Nabi Park Ahmed Ali Road Lahoe Siddique Pura Badami Bagh H-02,St-21 Data Nagar BadamiBagh Lahore Khokhar Pind
Siddique Pura Bangali Bagh
6260073 7601585 7669244 7601585
Colony 14 Bhamma n Baghat Pura Gujjar Pura Rehmet Pura M.Yaqoob Ch. Ghulam Nabi S/o Haji M. Siddique Bashir Ahmed Butt S/o Allah din Butt M. Asghar S/o M.Ashiq Mahboob Arshad S/o M.Arshad P.O.Chah Miran Lahore 149 Azam St, Yasrab Colony Bhagat Pura H No-63,St No 3 ShadBagh M Din Park Kot Khawaja Saeed Lahore 121- A, Sher Shah Road, Jahangir Park, BaghbanPura Lahore H. No 33, Ahmed Market Gujjar Pura Goray Shah Lahore H. No. 31 A, St09,Makhan Pura Lahore H. No. 17, Kot Khawaja Saeed Lahore H No-17,St No19, Haji Shah Mohallah Chahmirah Lahore 6275931 7609554 42041554 03334212611 6261747 7220318 6833360 6856008 6862973 03334313946 7286835, 6277664,
Haji M.Ahmed S/o M.Anwar
Chah Miran Bilal Park Makhan Pura
Asif Iqbal S/o Abdul Hameed M.Asghar Khan S/o Inayat Khan Mian M. Attique S/o Mian M.Rafiq
03334213252 03004512512 6844111
Kot Khawaja Saeed Shad bagh Wassan Pura
M. Bilal S/o Ch.M.Rafi Mian Abdul Ghafoor S/o Dil Muhammad M. Asghar butt S/o M. Ashfaq Butt M. Shahid Hussain S/o Ch. M. Hussain M. Tariq S/o M. Siddique
Androon Dehli Gate
22 Fazal Park, No 1 Shadbagh Lahore H No-05,St No48, Kashmiri Mohallah Wasan pura Lahore 38 A Akram Road Near P.S Misri Shah Kahore H No-15, St No21, Shamsabad Misri Shah Lahore H No-24, Koocha Loharan Androon Mochi Gate, Lahore
7280840 6262866 7280451
28 Rang Mehal Shahid Bilal S/o Akhtar Ali Sheikh 3186 D Koocha Akalian Mohallah Molin Androon Lohari Gate, Lahore H No1102,Koocha Shah Anayat Androon Bhatti Gate Lahore 7673623 030094663667 7639830
Androon Bhatti Gate
Mian M. Shahzad S/o Main M. Zafar
7634036 7663562 7231466
Androon Taxali Gate
Shahid Maqsood Butt
S No 31 Name of UC Railway colony Daras Barey Mian Crown Park Name of Nazim Tahir Aslam S/o Abdul Islam Tasneem Shafi S/o M.Shafi Shafqat-UnNisa W/o Ikhlaq Ahmed Ch. Jabbar S/o Abdul Qadar Address H # 02, 45-G.T Road Wireless Colony 171-Met-II Mughalpura 315-G.T Raod Near Girls College Stop Bahghbanpura H #08,St81,Muhallah Kala Burj Baghbanpura Karma Wala Street Ghosia Colony College Road, Baghbanpura Shahbaz Park Madina Colony Baghbanpura Sultan Mehmood Road Shalimar Town Lahore St-15 Sultan Mehmood Road Shalimar Town Lahore Bund Road Shadi Pura Lahore Momanpura G.T Road Lahore UC No 6823313 6816017 6821818 6852381 6547019 6542369 6810272 6814342 6847575 Cell 0300421590994 03008450682 03008441633 Residenc e -
Madhu Lal Husain Muhamm ad Colony
M. Waseem S/o Gulam Yaseen
Baghban pura Muslimab ad Sultan MEhmoo d Shadipura Salamat Pura
Asif Iftikhar S/o Iftikhir Ahmed Syed Zahid Ali Shah S/o Asad Ali Shah Balqees Begam
03004115172 6861238 03334313526 03004234705
Shahid S/o Imtiaz Khaliq Haji Gulam Mustafa S/o Haji Abdul Raheem M .Iftkhar S/o
6545424 6547102 6544447 6854575 6545703 6558238
xxxix Pura 42 Darogha Wala Haji M. St # 01/A. Sarfaz S/o Ch. St # 40.St#12. Manzoor Husain S/o Haji M.A Rehman Nishtar Town Darogha Wala H # 12. Near Takia Mughal Pura H # 03.Nadeem S/o Gahragh Din Mian Fayyaz Ahmed S/o Mian Ghulam Nabi Khalid Aziz S/o Aziz Ur Rehman Harbans Pura Lahore H # 21. Bilal Colony Darogha wala S . Saddique Shahid Mehmood S/o Mehmood-UlHassan M.Nawaz S/o Salah-Ud-Din 6817915 03009424938 48 Mughal Pura 49 Lakho Dher 50 Bhaseen 51 Dogria Kalan Manawan 52 53 Minhala Mushtaq Ahmed Khokhar S/O M . Mujahid Abad Mughal Pura 6540282 4257199 03008444485 6542044 43 Rashid Pura Fateh Garh 44 6544952 6541293 -5 6549136 03334216834 6826790 45 Nabi Pura 6555138 6553182 03334221840 03004130199 03009454673 46 Angoori Bagh M. M. Madina Colony Saddique –EAkbar Road Lal Pul Mughal Pura New Shahid Park Behind Pakistan Mint Kotli Peer Abdul Rehman Lahore H # 12. Hussain Manzoor Ahmed S/o Inayat Ali Awan Gulam Habib S/o Shah Muhammad Ch. St # 19 Ghosia Colony Sahoo Wari Lahore H # 513. Tufail 6850111 6547602 47 Mujahid Abad M. Ijaz Rana S/o Rana M. Sharif Khokhar Ch. Altaf Muhammad Tahir Majeed S/o Abdul Majeed 03204209109 Warra Gujran Lahore 6558681 6540119 03004105594 Dewan Wala Bata Pur 6581655 6583627 03334239437 6581411 03004244152 Off:6580 760 Village Attoka Awan Manawan Batta Pur Lahore Noor Pur Jallo Pind Lahore 6582546 5874862 6582595 03334251322 03009462467 03008123781 6582326 6580653 . St #01.
xl Azia Bhatti Town
S No 54 Name of UC Mian Meer Name of Nazim Munir Aftab S/o Khlik Muhammad Arif Sarwar S/o Gulam Sarwar Naeem Ullah Khan S/o M. Ibrahim Shaukat Ali S/o Haji Imam Din Ch. M Afzal S/o Ch. M. Sharif Address H # 5-A, St # 06, Mustafaabad Lahore H # 750-A, St # 22, Gulistan Colony Lahore Sarial Mian Esa Main Road Ghazzi Abad Lahore St # 06, Mohallah Taj Pura Lahore Ittehad Colony Ghazi Abad Taj Pura Road Lahore Al-Faisal Town Bahar Road Lahore Main Road Chungi Gujar Pura Lahore Dera PO Herbans Pura Tehsill Cantt Lahore Mauiza Lidhar Badian Tehsil Cantt, Lahore Dera Ch. Akhtar ali Shaheed Mauza Kmahan Tehsil Cantt Hair Khas Badian Road Cantt Mohallah Araiyan Hadiara Tehsil Cantt Mauza Saraich Tehsil Cantt Lahore UC No 6827148 Cell 03334238428 Residenc e
Mustafa Abad Ghazi Abad
Al Faisal Town Gulgasht Colony Bhangali
Ch. Talib Hussain Chohan Zulfiqar Ali Manj S/o Alam Khan Malik M.Saeed S/o. Badar Din
03004359634 03009468892 6675772 6667137
6560619 6550279 6560895 6561262 0300 8434462 03334237081 5722972
Arif Ali S/o Sardar Ali Nasir Mehmood S/o Haji Juma Khan
Muhammad Afzal S/o Malik Talib Hussain Mian Mahboob Alam S/o Mian Aziz Din Arshad Hussain S/o Muhammmad Ali
6561265 6560386 6360350 6560368 7353677
03334265322 03009412154 03009499453
xli Data Gunj Buksh Town
S No 67 Name of UC Kasur Pura Ameen Park Name of Nazim Abdul Waheed Tariq S/o Mian Abdul Rasheed Zufiqar Mehmood S/o Ghulam Rasool M. Nawaz S/o M. Mali Mian Majid Hussain S/o Mian Muzaffar Hussain Mazher Iqbal Bhalli S/o Haji M. Tufail Butt Waheed Alam khan S/O M.Sharif Arjuman Mehmood S/o Abdul Waheed Usman Saleem S/o Fazal Din Fayyaz Virkk S/o Abdul Aziz Virk Address T # 02, Infront of Mali Pura Stop, Lahore H # 151, Block # 02, Karim Park Ravi Road Lahore Shafiq Abad Bund Road Lahore H # 24, St # 18, Ibrahim Road Islam Gunj Lahore H # 01, St # 08, Sheesh Mehal Road Lahore H # 1 Anarkali Lahore H.No. 06, St. No. 99, Nisbat Road, Lahore 21 Ahata Mian Sultan Landa Bazar Lahore 3 –D ,Allama Iqbal Road, Lahore H # 7, St # 42, Ghari Shahu Lahore H # 68 Digna singh Building, Lahore 4- Din pur G.O.R – 1, Lahore H # 120 Tempal Road, Lahore H # 07, St # 44, Sant Nagar, Lahore H #10, St # 25, Muslim Park UC No 7709665 Cell 03004207160 Residenc e 7703492
Kareem Park Gunj Kalan
7111965 7225375 7225373 7210289 7231698 7238553 7212196 7671569 7631992 6369090 6313542 03204826839 03009456042 03009448256 03007571744 03036142630 03009441803 03009472374 03008450107 03334364919 03008404070 03008430631 R7244605 O7232862
Gawalm andi Sarai Sultan Bibi Pak Daman
Garhi Shahu Qila gujjar singh Race course Mozzan g Jinnah Hall
Zulfiqar Ali Advocate S/o M. Ashfaq Raza Salah-ud-Din S/o Miraj Din
6311949 6367588 6311949 7234252 6360078 7721782 7720204 6307511 6367721 6313153 7320942
Abdul Rahman S/o Abdullah Haji Mian M.Tariq S/o Mian Feroze Din M. Ilyas S/o Haji M. Aslam Khan
Khalique Ahmad Buttt S/o Sufi
Atiq Ahmad 82 Islam Pura Hafiz Naseem Ahmed chishti s/o M. Amin chishti Shoukat Ali S/o Barkat Ali Habib Ullah Bhatti S/o Haji Muhammad Abdul Waheed Qureshi S/o M. Zaman Qureshi Mian Maqsood Ahmed S/o Mian M. Sharif Mian Waheed S/o Haji M. Latif Raj Garh, Lahore 66 Azmat Munzil Nation Town Sanda Road 62-A, Jalal Colony Sanda Khurd, Lahore Mohallah Puthroo Bund Road, Lahore Al-Sultan Building Afzal Road Sanda, Lahore 31-D-1, Gulshan Ravi, Lahore H # 25, St # 03, Sanda Bhatian Wala Bund Road H # 20, St # 02, Naunarian Lahore Mian Colony Lahore Babu Sabu LHR 6-8, Mian AlKhayyam Road, Firdos Mill Bund Road, Lahore 168- Multan Road Lhr 7231242 7214654 7222535 7465344 7114307 7240293 7469735 7413332 03009483538
Chohan Park Abu Bakar Siddique Colony Sanda Kalan
Sanda Khurd Sham Nagar
Gulgasht Colony Gulshane- Ravi Babu Sabu Rizwan Park
Saeed Ahmed Khan S/o Safdar Khan Mian Haris Saleem S/o Mian M. Saleem Javaid Hussain S/o Hajj M. Sarwar CH. Mubrik Ali S/o Ch. Barkat Ali
7414733 7463764 7470567 7464301 7470567 7464940 7470569 7465304
03009476564 03009473466 03334228415 03334246471 7847445
M. Shoaib Khan S/o Amir Khan Niazi Ch. M. Mumtaz Sarwar S/o Ch. M. Sarwar
7410892 7464011 7400314 7554529 03008474231 03004419933 7551111 7577972 03009443242 Off7596803
Bahawal Pur House
Hafiz Asad Ubaid S/o Maulana M. Ubaid Ullah Waheed Akhtar S/o Abdul Majeed
H # 17, Muhallah Shabli Street Islamia park, Lahore H # 01, Jamia Ashrafia Feroz Pur Road H # 01, St # 25, Canal Park Gulberg II
96 Zaman Park Gulberg Tahir Altaf S/o M. Altaf Ch. Abdul Gafoor S/o Haji Noor Muhammed Haji M. Sarwar S/o CH. M. Anwar Umar 910-Wazir Ali Road Basti Saiden Shah Ghouse-eAzam Colony 114- Gulgerg III H # 90-D, St # 06, Makkah Colony Gulberg III, Lahore 196, M Block, St # 211, Gulberg III 5752500 03004267296 03008410222 5756231
M. Yousuf Rafique S/o Ch. M. Rafique Gill
xliv Iqbal Town
S No 100 Name of UC Ichhra Name of Nazim Shahid Hafiz S/o Ch. M. Hafiz M. Ashfaq S/o Ch. M. Haji Rafiq Shahid Latif S/o Abdul Latif Jaffar Ali S/o M. Ibhraim CH. Rana Azher Abbas S/o Ch. Abdul Raheem Irfan Maqbool Baig S/o Maqbool Baig Mian M. Afzal Iqbal S/o Mian M. Iqbal Javid Iqbal Khan S/o M.Afzal Syed Mooen Arif S/o Syed M. Arif Iftkhar Ahmed S/o M. Yousuf Ch. M. Taqi S/o M. Rafiq M. Javaid Lambardar S/o M. Latif M. Irshad Shahid Hassan Muhammad Shahzad Aslam S/o Mian Muhammad Aslam Zia Ahmed Nagira S/o Hakeem Address H # 01, St # 22 Noor Muhallah Ichra H # 1/C, St # 139, Ittehad colony Faisal Street Ichra 24 Union Park Samanabad, Lahore H # 07, Chanib St # 13 Pakki Thathi, Lahore 129- Jahanzeb Block Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore Tariq Street AlMumtaz Road Saman abad 11-S, Feteh Sher Road, Mozang H # 17, St # 10,Tariq abad near rehman pura Clifton colony near wahdat colony 124- Mehran Block Allama iqbal Town B-175 Madeena Block Awan Town Muhallah Aqil Pura Multan Road H # 128-B, Block G Liaqat Chock sabza Zar scheme H # 141, BlockB,Sabzazar Scheme , Multan Road Jhugian Nagra Bund Road, Lahore UC No 7598097 7120013 7587991 7534144 7582017 7564279 7554335 Cell Residence
New Samana bad Shah Kamal Pakki Thathi Kashmir Block
Nawan Kot Saman Abad Rehman Pura
7564567 7598164 7536106 9211507 7222542 7232542
03009441291 03009441291 03009400467
Gulshan -e-iqbal Sikandar Block Awan Town Said Pur
0333429192 5423712 7841880 7841384 03334231730 03334233186 03004495106
7537229 7567966 7562447
Lahore Hanjarwal 5865139 111-111567 7237288 7238696 5433591 03037587590 03008486050 03008434791 033342516443 03008476436 7444902 117 118 5422683 5420239 119 Khan Pur. Manawar Khan S/o Haji Naik Muhammad Azhar Khurshid S/o Khurshid Ahmad Sarfaraz HussainS/o Atta Muhammed Bukhtiar Ahmad S/o Rana Bashir Ahmad Ijaz Mehmood Bhatti S/o Haji m. Lahore 04951380338 7860119 5850797 5882260 7860123 03334212315 03008452494 04951380154 125 Manga Basti Khalidabad Multan Road. Saddique Javed Umar S/o Sardar Khalid Umar Aqil Umar S/o Sardar Khalid Umar 115 Muslim Town Jouhar Town Hanjarw al Niaz Baig Shah Pur 116 16-sadiq St. Lahore 7541105 7540516 03334304382 123 124 Sham Ke Bhattian Sultan Kay Sham Ke Bhattian Mauza Sultanke. F-II Jouhar Town H # 12Gulshan Park Multan Road. Lahore 03036409008 . Shah Pur 7511590 120 Ali Raza Abad Shadiwal Mahaja 5321452 5175455 03334243312 121 Chohang Mohallah Punj Gran Chohng 7510636 03334312587 122 Maraka Maraka Quarter. Lahore 645. Sadiq Khan Sajjad Rubbani S/o Gulam Rubbani Zahoor ahmad S/o M.MuslinTown. Saddiq Zulfiqar Ali Bara S/o Farmaish Ali M.xlv AliNagira Naveed Sadiq Khan S/o M.
Tariq Ch. Babar Awan S/o Malikm. Town Ship Kothi # 318. M Akram Haji Sutan Ahmad Awan s/o Abdul Gahfoor S/o Abdul Ghani Address 106-L Model Town Extention 3-H Model Town Lahore Akram Complex Link Road Model Town G. Town Ship. Elim Din 136 Sitara Colon y Farid Colon y Ker Kalan Green M. Bota Awan Gulam Hussain Bhatti S/o Gulam M. Karmawala Bazar KOt Lakhpat `Pindi Rajputan.xlvi Nishter Town S No 126 Name of UC Garde n Town Model Town Fasial Town Name of Nazim Shahid Aslam S/o M. Ch. Behind General Hospital H # 24./B I.712 Model Town 124. Bhatti M. Sadiq 03454214908 5834092 M. Block 5822536 03008406783 5822536 03008406783 5823961 5813652 03334220968 5823961 5813652 `512299 03009463607 03004102589 03005141516 5154407 . Sector A I Town Ship UC No 5162168 7311553 5854575 5880468 5169465 Cell 03037582002 03008404484 03009455550 5887302 Residence 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 Liaqat Abad Kot Kakh Pat New Abadi Pindi Raj Poota n Town Ship Town Ship Sector A-I. Aslam Col (R) Tahir Hussain Karadr s/O Nusrat Kardar Dr . Riaz S/o Haji M. Lahore `Bhatti Colony Chungi Amer Sidhu 510-B I. A II Bosta n Colon y 5881355 5176207 5881355 5856196 03008470200 03009459069 Dr. M. Amjad Mustafa S/o Ch. Aslam Pervaiz S/o Shamas Din Syed Asghar Ali Shah S/o Syed Khursheed 5156132 5110330 5112331 5150135 03009440437 03036406518 Mian Abdul Razzaque S/o Lal Din 135 Ismael Nagar Barkat Ali Asif S/o Ch. Lahore H # 227. Lahore 89-16-B 1. H # 03. Sajad Khan S/o Mansab Khan M. 437/LDA St # 04. Nadeem Park. Muhallah Zubair Colony Behind General Hospital Pind Bandian Wala Chungi Amer Sidhu. S/o 137 138 139 Awami Colony.
Ferroz Pur Road Mauza Dullu Kaln Khured PO Islam Nagar. Lahore 250-A Gowala Colony. Riasat Ali Sindhu M.xlvii Town 140 Mareu m Colon y Atari Sarob a Dilo Ford Kalan Chand roy Halo Ke Gajo mata Khana Noo Jia Baga Paji Ch. 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 Awan Market 17 K.O Khana Nau. Mandi Raiwind 150 Pando Ke Subhan Khan S/o Chand Khan Village Budhukey P. Bashir Bhatti Rana Sharafit Ali S/o Rana Sher M. Sardar Jamail Asghar Bhatti S/o M. Abdul Sattar Gulsher Kahan S/o Jalal Khan -2. Younas s/o Haji M. Lahore 03008490149 03334252644 5271313 .Green Town Off5111227 5111140 5122808 4218669 03006452007 141 Nadenm Liaqat S/o Liaqat Ali Mian Maqsood Alam S/o Haji Hussain Din Ch. Newain 5821133 03009466286 03008462377 5270175 5271677 03004297655 03334302064 03009430223 03009469131 03334276140 5320198 5321521 5274205 5273146 5272061 5330347 04951374024 04951391238 04951392700 149 Raiwi nd Zaildar St.Sector C I. Kabna Nau Village Rai Ladheykey.M. Rukh sadaye. Ramzan S/o Ahmad Din Naeem Asroo S/o Asroo Khan M. Ramzan S/o Taj Din M. Town Ship 327-111-D11. Lahore Chamru Pur Gajjomata Ferooz Pur Road Ward #03.
i) _______________ ii) _______________ iii) _______________ iv) _______________ 4. Do you have cable TV connection at home? If NOT then terminate the interview. Since when do you have cable connection at home? i) 2 years ii) 3 years iii) 4 years iv) More than 4 years If less than 2 years then terminate the interview. i) _______________ ii) _______________ iii) _______________ iv) _______________ Yes____ No____ Yes____ No____ . Why do you watch cable television? Start from the most important reason and finish with the least important reason. If YES. Do you have woman aged 18. then terminate the interview. 2. C) If YES. get answers of the following questions from the targeted women: 1. How many hours daily you watch cable television? i) 1 to 2 hours ii) More than 2 hours but less than 4 hours iii) 4 or more than 4 hours 3. Which cable television channels do you usually watch? Start from your most preferred ones.xlviii APPENDIX-VI Questionnaire Used by the Interviewer (Screener) A) Do you have Television at your home? If NOT then terminate the interview. B) If YES.40 years at your home? Yes____ No____ If NOT.
M. For what reasons? i) _______________ ii) _______________ iii) _______________ iv) _______________ . to 7 P. iii) After 7 P. Who has the remote when all your family watches cable television together? i) Children ii) Men iii) Yourself iv) Elders v) Youngsters 8.xlix 5.M. If ‘YES’.M.M. then which programme? i) _______________ ii) _______________ iii) _______________ iv) _______________ 9-B. Is it considered inappropriate for women of your home to watch any particular CTV programme at any particular time? i) Yes ii) Don’t Know iii) No 9-A. 9. What time do you like to watch cable television? i) From morning till 2 P. You like to watch cable television i) Alone ii) Along with someone 7. ii) From 2 P. i) _______________ ii) _______________ iii) _______________ iv) _______________ 6. Which cable television programs do you usually watch? Start from your most preferred ones.
For what reasons? i) _________________ ii)_________________ iii)_________________ iv)_________________ 9-E. If ‘YES’. If ‘YES’. then why? i) _________________ ii)_________________ iii)_________________ iv)_________________ 10. then at what time? i) _________________ ii)_________________ iii)_________________ iv)_________________ 9-D. If ‘YES’.l 9-C. then which programs? i) _________________ ii)_________________ iii)_________________ iv)_________________ 10-B. For what reasons? i) _________________ ii)_________________ iii)_________________ iv)_________________ 10-C. then at what time? i) _________________ ii)_________________ iii)_________________ . Is it considered inappropriate for men of your home to watch any particular CTV programme at any particular time? i) Yes ii) Don’t Know iii) No 10-A. If ‘No’.
then at what time? i) _________________ ii)_________________ iii)_________________ iv)_________________ 11-D. then why? i) _________________ ii)_________________ iii)_________________ iv)_________________ 11. For what reasons? i) _________________ ii)_________________ iii)_________________ iv)_________________ 10-E. For what reasons? i) _________________ ii)_________________ . If ‘YES’.li iv)_________________ 10-D. If ‘YES’. then which programs? i) _________________ ii)_________________ iii)_________________ iv)_________________ 11-B. If ‘No’. For what reasons? i) _________________ ii)_________________ iii)_________________ iv)_________________ 11-C. Is it considered inappropriate for boys of your home to watch any particular CTV programme at any particular time? iv) Yes v) Don’t Know vi) No 11-A.
then why? i) _________________ ii)_________________ iii)_________________ iv)_________________ 12. What do you like to do for entertainment in your free time? e. ______________ h. Do women / girls have right to watch cable television in your home? a. Cable television causes hurdles in my domestic and personal activities.lii iii)_________________ iv)_________________ 11-E. Interaction with my relatives is decreasing these days. Not at all 13. If ‘YES’. ______________ Activities 13. More than men b. ______________ g. Equal to men c. If ‘No’. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree . then which activities? i) ______________ ii) ______________ iii)______________ iv) ______________ Interaction 14. ______________ f. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 14-A. Less than men d.
I don’t like anyone visiting us at the time of my watching cable television. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 15-D. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 15-B. The time I spend with my husband is decreasing these days. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 15-C. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 15-E. Interaction with my neighbors is decreasing these days.liii 15-A. My outing with family is decreasing these days. I don’t like to visit anyone at my time of watching cable television. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree Note: Only Married Woman should fill this part: 15-G. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 15-F. The time I spend with my children is decreasing these days. i) Agree ii) Undecided . I don’t like to be disturbed by my family while watching cable television. Interaction with my friends is decreasing these days. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree Note: Only mothers should response to this part: 15-H.
I like to formally dressed up like different characters of CTV i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 16-C. I like to be formally dressed up at all times. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree Cultural Practices Culture . I like to wear jewelry resembling jewelry worn by different characters of CTV. I like to talk in style resembling characters of cable television. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 16-E. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 16-D. These days. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 16-A. I like to track resemblances between television characters and myself. food. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree There is an evident inclusion / addition of western dishes in our everyday .Food Habits 17.liv iii) Disagree Appearance and Style 16. I consider television characters as my role models i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 16-B.
i) Agree ii) Undecided ii) Disagree Culture . I consider cable television to be the best source of information for new designs and fashion trends. There is an evident inclusion / addition of Indian dishes in our everyday food. I prefer to wear western dress (jeans. I prefer to wear Indian dress (Sarree) casually. My family prefers to dine in front of television. shirts) casually. Television programs are under discussion instead of family topics at the dinning table.Dress 17-1. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-1-C. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-2-B.lv 17-1-A. I like to wear Indian dress formally. . i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-2-C. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-1-B. Television is the best source for learning new food recipes. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-2-A . i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-1-D.
I like to speak English words during my conversation with others. I have learned Hindi words evidently from cable television. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-3-A. I prefer to wear western dress formally. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree . usually. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree Culture . I like to speak foreign languages. usually. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-3-D. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-3-B.Language 17-2. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-3-E. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-3-C. I have learned English words evidently from cable television.lvi i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-2-D. Cable television is the best source to learn other languages. I like to speak Hindi words during my conversation with other.
Our family has started celebrating “Karwa Chodh”. Our family has started celebrating “Raakhi”. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-4-F. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-4-B. Our family has started celebrating “Holli”. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree Culture . i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-4-A.At the event of Marriage the tendency to perform Indian rituals in addition to Pakistan traditions. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-4-D. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-4-E.Religion 17-3. Our family has started celebrating “Valentine’s Day”. i) Agree . is increasing. Our family has started celebrating “Bon Fire”. Cable television is the best source for religious information.lvii Culture . i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-4-C.Traditions and Celebrations 17-4. Our family has started celebrating “Haloween”.
Our monthly domestic budged is getting disturbed by purchase of things introduced by cable television these days. Woman should have the equal right to pursue a career like a man. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 18-B. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 19-B. It should be equal responsibility for man and woman to earn. My expenditure on Jewelry. I want to be a compulsory earning hand to improve my household income. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree Role of Pakistani Women in Society 19. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 18-A. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree Personal and Domestic Expenditure 18. make-up and clothes is increasing these days. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 19-A. My religious tendency is declining these days.lviii ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 17-5-A . i) Agree ii) Undecided . Household chores and taking care of children should be equal responsibility of man and woman.
Woman should strive / struggle for her rights. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 19-D. Single woman should have a right to lead her life honorably. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 19-E. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree . i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 19-G. Working woman and a housewife should have same status and respect. Woman should have the right to decide like a man. i) Agree ii) Undecided iii) Disagree 19-F.lix iii) Disagree 19-C. A girl should have the right to choose her life partner.
lx Basic Information Name: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Age: i) ii) iii) iv) Education: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Illiterate Primary Middle Matriculation F.Sc B.A / B.Sc 18 to 25 years 26 to 30 years 31 to 35 years 36 to 40 years Address / Town --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Profession: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Monthly Income: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Marital Status: i) ii) iii) Married Unmarried Other 1000 – 5000 5001 – 10000 10001 – 15000 15001 – 20000 20001 – 25000 More than 25000 .Sc M.A / M.A / F.
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