11,12 March 2011


Shri K. N. Ramajayam Chairman G Narayanan Educational Trust

Shri B. Prative Chend Chief Executive Officer G Narayanan Educational Trust Group of Institutions

Dr. S. Padmanabha Director G Narayanan Educational Trust Group of Institutions

Dr. K. Murugu Mohan Kumar Dean CARE School of Engineering

Dr. A. K. Santra Dean CARE School of Computer Applications Dr. S. Ramanathan Dean CARE School of Business Management

Dr. K. Rangnathan, Professor, CARE School of Business Management 2


Dr. K. Revathy HOD, Mathematics Dr. S. Parthasarathy HOD, Chemistry Mr. P. Ravindran HOD, Civil Mrs. D. Vimala HOD, MCA Mr. A.Velsamy HOD, MBA Mr. K. Karunamurthy HOD, Mechanical Mrs. J. Maya HOD, Material Science

Mrs. S. Santhi Mr. B. MuthuKrishnan Mr. M. Murali Mr. M. Anish Alfred Vaz Mr. C. Senthil Nathan Mrs. J. R. Lekha Ms. K. A. Sarah Mr. D. Vasudevan Mrs. S. Bhuvaneshwari Mrs. M. Bhuvaneshwari Mrs. K. Sathya Prabha Ms. P. R. T Malathi Ms. S. Akilandeswari

M. Clarita II MBA C. Raja guru II MBA M. Ranganathan II MBA M. Sneka II MCA M. Sooriyaa II MCA R. Sujitha I MBA P. Yazhina I MBA S. Balaji I MBA T. Dhivya I MBA J. Hariharan I MBA G. Maunndeeswari I MCA S. Manjul I MCA D. Sagesthwaran I MCA 3

K. Guhanathan II CIVIL A. Balamurugan II CIVIL M. Alexzander II MECH P. Balaguru II MECH S. Manikandan II MSE R. Kurubakaran II MSE P. Vikram II EEE N.S. Vignesh II EEE T. M. Praveen Kumar I MECH P. Balasubramanian I MECH C. Santhosh Kumar Roa I MSE G. Madhura I EEE K. Vijay I CIVIL


Shri K. N. Ramajayam Chairman, GNET

It is a great pleasure for CARE group of Institutions to conduct its 1st Integrated National Conference titled ‘Keynote ‘. “Education should bring to light the ideal of the individual”, said J.P. Richter, and I hope this Endeavour would spread the light of knowledge far and wide. I also hope that this conference would be a good platform for professionals, researchers and students of various disciplines to gain and exhibit their knowledge. I wish the organizers and participants and grand success.

Date: 07.03.2011

K. N. Ramajayam



Shri B. Prative Chend Chief Executive Officer, GNET

The social focus on education has been just on graduating and getting a high paying job. In the process other countries hold most of the Intellectual Property rights. We pay a premium to use their ideas in our products. Is this the way forward? We believe our country has an abundance of brilliant minds. KEYNOTE is our little effort to change the dynamics in bringing out great ideas from our Professionals, Research Scholars, Faculty and Students and using it to build cost effective useful products and processes. Together let us set the tone for the future.

Date: 07.03.2011

B. Prative Chend



Dr. S. Padmanabha Director, GNET-CARE

This institute is one green ambience and beauty location place at Cauvery basin where you could be away from the world, yet still be a part of it in which new ideas and creativity can flourish in the efficient hands of multicultural faculties. We have lot of stuff to provide your brain an incomparable fuel to pace up with the today’s most updated and refined knowledge of the basic and advanced Engineering/Technological and application oriented concepts at our esteemed institute. “KEY NOTE-2011”, a National Conference being organized on 11- 12 March 2011 on the themes “Technology for Sustainable Tomorrow” by School of Engineering, “Business Strategies for Sustainable Economy by School of Business Management and on Computer Intelligence & Applications jointly organized by School of Computer Applications & Mathematics Department. I wish good luck to all the Delegates, Paper presenting authors and at large the participants a pleasant stay with value addition.

Date: 07.03.2011

Dr. S. Padmanabha



S. No
1 2 3 4

Technical Session – I ( 11.03.2011 : 11.15 pm – 01.00 pm ) Technical Session – II ( 11.03.2011 : 02.15 pm – 04.00 pm ) Technical Session – III ( 12.03.2011 : 09.30 am – 11.30 am ) Technical Session – IV ( 12.03.2011 : 11.45 am – 01.45 pm )

School of Computer Applications
Computational Intelligence and Applications
5 6 7 8 Technical Session – I ( 11.03.2011 : 11.15 pm – 01.00 pm ) Technical Session – II ( 11.03.2011 : 02.15 pm – 04.00 pm ) Technical Session – III ( 12.03.2011 : 09.30 am – 11.30 am ) Technical Session – IV ( 12.03.2011 : 11.45 am – 01.45 pm )

School of Engineering
Technology for Sustainable Tomorrow
9 10 11 12 Technical Session – I ( 11.03.2011 : 11.15 pm – 01.00 pm ) Technical Session – II ( 11.03.2011 : 02.15 pm – 04.00 pm ) Technical Session – III ( 12.03.2011 : 09.30 am – 11.30 am ) Technical Session – IV ( 12.03.2011 : 11.45 am – 01.45 pm )

School of Business Management
Paper ID
13 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 MBA-MAR-03 MBA-MAR-06 MBA-FIN-02 MBA-FIN-05 MBA-FIN-06 MBA-FIN-07 MBA-FIN-03 MBA-HR-05 MBA-HR-06 MBA-HR-07 MBA-HR-02 MBA-HR-03 MBA-HR-04 MBA-ED-01

Paper Title


28 29 30 31



School of Computer Applications
Paper ID
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 SCA47 SCA48 SCA61 SCA65 SCA71 SCA58 SCA64 SCA68 SCA82 SCA22 SCA46 SCA63 SCA75 SCA 83 SCA 85 SCA01 SCA02 SCA40 SCA51 SCA55 SCA80 SCA84

Paper Title

School of Engineering
Paper ID
54 55 56 57 58 SCE01 SCE02 SCEO3 SCE04 SCE05

Paper Title


59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82




CARE School of Business Management
National Conference On Business Strategies on Sustainable Economy
Technical Session-I
Date: 11.3.2011

Venue: H3 (Drawing Hall I st Floor)
Time: 11.15am – 01.00pm

Major Area: Marketing

Miss.Sarunya.T & Miss. Saranya.D M.I.E.T. Engineering College Trichy/ Tamilnadu





S.Paul Raj (Student) Nathania Savielle, Hameetha

Sudarsan Engineering College

Pudukkottai/ Tamilnadu



Holy Cross College

Trichy/ Tamilnadu


CARE School of Business Management
National Conference On Business Strategies on Sustainable Economy
Technical Session-II
Date: 11.3.2011

Venue: H3 (Drawing Hall I st Floor)
Major Area: Finance
NAME OF INSITUTION Sudharsan Engineering College Holy Cross College Garden City College P.A. College Of Engineering Technology PLACE /STATE

Time: 02.15pm – 04.00pm



S.Jeroke Sharlin

Pudukkottai/ Tamilnadu




Suman Mrs. Reshma Sibichan

Trichy/ Tamilnadu






C. Hemalatha Gopinath S.T. Shenbagavallir. Anu

Pollachi/ Tamilnadu




Anna University

Trichy/ Tamilnadu


CARE School of Business Management
National Conference On Business Strategies on Sustainable Economy

Technical Session-III
Date: 12.3.2011

Venue: H1 (New Library Building)
Major Area: HR Management
NAME OF INSITUTION Dayananda Sagar College Of Engineering, PLACE /STATE

Time: 09.30am -11.30am
NAME OF AUTHOR Ms. Shubha N, Prof. S.A. Vasantha Kumara, Ms. Reena Y.A Mohammed Ziaulla, S A Vasantha Kumarag. Mahendra Anju.S.B Dr. H. Ramakrishna, Kaushik. M.K Naveen Kumar P, S A Vasanthakumara Darshan Godbole Asha D.B S. A. Vasantha Kumara























Dayananda Sagar College Of Engineering




Miss V.Sujo & Miss. M.Mubeena Begum

M.I.E.T. Engineering College

Trichy/ Tamilnadu


CARE School of Business Management
National Conference On Business Strategies on Sustainable Economy
Technical Session-IV
Date: 12.3.2011

Venue: H3 (Drawing Hall I st Floor)
Major Area: General Management/Ed
NAME OF INSITUTION Hallmark Business School Srinivasa Engineering College DSCE PLACE /STATE

Time: 11.45am – 01.45pm


Dr. B.Balamurugan



Trichy/ Tamilnadu



Dr. Malaramannan Krishna S Gudi Dr N S Kumar R.V.Praveena Gowda M. Samtha

Perambalur / Tamilnadu Bangalore/Karnataka





Holy Cross College

Trichy/ Tamilnadu



Dr.Chitra Devi

Vel Sri Ranga Sanku College

Avadi/ Tamilnadu


CARE School of Computer Applications
National Conference On Computer Intelligence and Applications

Technical Session-I
Date: 11.3.2011

Venue: H2 (Drawing Hall I st Floor)
Time: 11.15 am – 01.00 pm Major Area: Image Processing
NAME OF INSITUTION Hindustan Institute Of Technology And Science PLACE /STATE Chennai/ Tamilnadu








Naresh Allam Punithavathy Mohan B. V. Santhosh Krishna



J. Manokaran K. Usha Kingsly Devi

Anna University Of Technology

Tirunelveli/ Tamilnadu



Rajendiran Manojkanth B. Mari Kesava Venkatesh K. Baskar K. Gnanathangavelu S. Pradeep S.Balamurugan G.Saravanan

PSNA College Of Engineering And Technology Bharathidasan University Technology Park Periyar E.V.R College Prist University

Dindigul / Tamilnadu



Trichy/ Tamilnadu Thanjavur / Tamilnadu




CARE School of Computer Applications
National Conference On Computer Intelligence and Applications

Technical Session-II
Date: 11.3.2011

Venue: H1 (New Library Building)
Major Area: Real Time Applications
NAME OF INSITUTION Pbcet College Of Engineering And Technology Bharathidasan University Technology Park Periyar E.V.R College PLACE /STATE

Time: 02.15pm – 04.00pm

S.No 1.



Trichy/ Tamilnadu



V. Mahalakshmi J .Maria Shilpa K. Baskar

Trichy/ Tamilnadu



K.Baskar Prof. Geetha Prof .Shantha Rrobinson

Periyar E.V.R College

Trichy/ Tamilnadu



S. Sangeetha

J.J.College Of Arts And Science



CARE School of Computer Applications
National Conference On Computer Intelligence and Applications
Venue: H2 (Drawing Hall I st Floor)
Major Area: Cloud Computing
NAME OF AUTHOR A.Jainulabudeen B .Mohamed Faize Basha Palivela Hemant Nitin.P.Chawande Hemantwani NAME OF INSITUTION Jamal Mohammed College Annasaheb Chudaman Patil College Of Engineering

Technical Session-III
Date: 12.3.2011

Time: 09.30am – 11.30am








Trichy/ Tamilnadu



Mumbai/ Maharashtra



Padmini Priya S. Chandra

Vit University

Vellore/ Tamilnadu




S. Sabarirajan

Jj College Of Engineering & Technology Government Arts College, Salem, Sasurie College Of Engineering, Vijayamangalam Tirupur Government Arts College, Salem, Sasurie College Of Engineering, Vijayamangalam Tirupur

Trichy/ Tamilnadu



Dr. G. M. Nasira S. Ashok Kumar M. Siva Kumar

Salem/ Tamil Nadu




S. Jayasankari, Dr. G.M. Nasira, P. Dhakshinamoorthy m. Sivakumar

Salem/ Tamil Nadu


CARE School of Computer Application
National Conference On Computer Intelligence and Applications

Technical Session-IV
Date: 12.3.2011

Venue: H2 (Drawing Hall I st Floor)
Major Area: Networking & Security Issues
NAME OF INSITUTION Dayanand Sagar College Of Engineering Dayanand Sagar College Of Engineering V.R Siddhartha Engineering PLACE /STATE Bangalore/ Karnataka

Time: 11.45am – 01.45pm

NAME OF AUTHOR G. Bhargav R.V. Praveena Gowda




G. Bhargav, R.V.Praveena Gowda Dr. K. Sri Rama Krishna S. Chittibabu J. Rajeswara Rao R. Ahalya

Bangalore/ Karnataka



Vijayawada/ Andhrapradesh



Bharathidasan University

Trichy/ Tamilnadu



J. Martin Sahayaraj

Prist University

Thanjavur/ Tamilnadu



P.Sathya R.Gobi Dr.E.Kirubakaran Dr. G. M. Nasira S. Vijayakumar P. Dhakshinamoorthy

Jayaram College Of Engg. & Tech Bharathidasan University & Bhel Government Arts College, Salem, Sasurie College Of Engineering, Vijayamangalam Tirupur

Trichy/ Tamilnadu




Salem/ Tamil Nadu


CARE School of Engineering
National Conference On Technology for Sustainable Tomorrow
Technical Session-I
Date: 11.3.2011
S. No 1. 2. PAPERID SCE01 SCE02

Venue: H1 (New Library Building)
Time: 11.15 am – 01.00 pm Major Area: EEE
NAME OF INSITUTION MKCE Rajalakshmi Engineering College Kumaraguru College Of Technology KSR College Of Engineering PLACE /STATE Karur / TamilNadu Chennai / TamilNadu Coimbatore / TamilNadu Namakkal / TamilNadu


NAME OF AUTHOR V.Naga Sushimitha S.Meenakshi R.Venkatraman B.Vasanth N.Chitra devi V.Renganathan P.Sathish N. Dhivya M.Murugan








KSR College Of Engineering

Namakkal / TamilNadu



C. Devigarani Dr. I. Gnanambal S. Mahendran

KSR College Of Engineering

Namakkal / TamilNadu



J.Vikram Prohit

SMK Fomra Institute Of Technology

Chennai / TamilNadu


CARE School of Engineering
National Conference On Technology for Sustainable Tomorrow
Technical Session-II
Date: 11.3.2011

Venue: H2 (Drawing Hall I st Floor)
Major Area: CIVIL

Time: 02.15pm – 04.00pm

S. No


NAME OF AUTHOR P.M.MohammedHaneef C.Periathirumal


Nagapattinam / TamilNadu




Sandeep Kumar & M. Vinodh Kumar

Jayam College of Engineering

Dharmapuri / TamilNadu




G. Parthipan R. Lakshmikanth

Periyar Mainaymai University

Thanjavur/ TamilNadu



Sheik Imam S, Karthick C

PSNA College Engineering

Coimbatore / TamilNadu




M. sokkalingam P. Gowtham

JJ College of Engineering

Trichy / TamilNadu




D Subashri, A Sangeetha

Periyar Mainaymai University Institute of Road Transport and Technoloy

Thanjavur/ TamilNadu




P C Karthick

Erode/ TamilNadu


CARE School of Engineering
National Conference On Technology for Sustainable Tomorrow
Technical Session-III
Date: 12.3.2011
S.No 1. 2. 3. PAPER-ID SCE15 SCE16 SCE17

Venue: H3 (Drawing Hall I st Floor)
Major Area: Civil / Mechanical
NAME OF INSITUTION AUTThirukuvalai AUTThirukuvalai CARE School of Engineering PLACE /STATE Nagapattinam / TamilNadu Nagapattinam/ TamilNadu Trichy / TamilNadu

Time: 09.30am – 11.30am

NAME OF AUTHOR P.Satishkumar M.munesh C.Justin Raj R. Vinoth Kumar B Vijayakumar M Ranjith



Raja T

Prist University

Thanjavur/ TamilNadu

SCE19 5.

Vinayaka Murthy V

Prist University

Thanjavur/ TamilNadu

SCE20 6.

Baskaran R

Prist University

Thanjavur/ TamilNadu



P Rajesh

JJ College of Engineering Dayanand Sagar

Trichy / TamilNadu



R Mukesh R V Praveena Gowda

Bengaluru / Karnataka


CARE School of Engineering
National Conference On Technology for Sustainable Tomorrow

Technical Session-IV
Date : 12.3.2011

Venue: H1 (New Library Building)
Major Area : Mechanical
NAME OF INSITUTION JJ College of Engineering Dayanand Sagar College of Engineering Dayanand Sagar College of Engineering PLACE /STATE Trichy / TamilNadu Bengaluru / Karnataka Bengaluru / Karnataka

Time : 11.45am – 01.45pm



NAME OF AUTHOR Mugesh Babu K, Prakash K Rashmi L .Malghan M.B.Kiran Vigneshwar Shankar , R.V.Praveen Gowda, Dr.H.K.Ramakrishna, G. Mahesh, Dr. Murugu Mohan Kumar S.Vignesh, S.Vignesh Kumar K Karunamurthy, K Murugu Mohan Kumar R Suresh Isravel , A L Vignesh S Harini Reddy, R.Ravindran , D. Shakthivel., P. Shivakumar.









Indira Ganeshesan of Engineering JJ College of Engineering JJ College of Engineering

Trichy / TamilNadu Trichy / TamilNadu Trichy / TamilNadu







Dr Mahalingam College of Engineering

Pollachi/ TamilNadu


Miss.Sarunya.T & Miss. Saranya.D Final Year MBA, M.I.E.T. Engineering College, Trichy

Abstract Currently, there is mounting awareness among the consumers all over the world concerning protection of environment. The growing awareness among the consumers regarding their environmental protection had inculcated the interest among people to bestow a clean earth to their progeny. Various studies by environmentalists indicate that people are concerned about the environment and are changing their behavior pattern so as to be less hostile towards it. Now we see that most of the consumers, both individual and industrial, are becoming more concerned about environment-friendly products. Most of them believe that environment-friendly products are safe to use. Now is the era of recyclable, non-toxic and environment-friendly goods. As a result, green marketing has emerged, which aims at marketing sustainable and sociallyresponsible products and services in the society. 22

This has become the new mantra for marketers to satisfy the needs of consumers and earn better profits. In this paper the authors limelight the essence of green marketing and its relevance in

improving the competence levels of the companies in the global competition. INTRODUCTION Green marketing refers to the process of selling products and/or services based οn thеіr environmental benefits. Such a product or service mау bе environmentally friendly іn іt οr produced аnd/οr packaged іn аn environmentally friendly way. One of the major assumptions of green







Most of the companies are venturing into green marketing due to the following reasons:

significantly decide a product or service on the basis of its ‘greenness’. Also the consumers wіll bе willing tο pay more fοr green products thаn thеу wοuld fοr a less-green comparable alternative product. According to the American Marketing Association, green marketing іѕ the marketing οf products thаt аrе presumed tο bе environmentally safe. Thus green marketing incorporates broad range οf activities including product modification, changes tο thе production process, packaging changes, аѕ well аѕ modifying advertising. According to Mr. J. Polonsky, green marketing can be defined as, "All activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchange intended to satisfy human needs or wants such that satisfying of these needs and wants occur with minimal detrimental input on the national environment." WHY GREEN MARKETING?
Companies that develop new and improved products and services with environment inputs in mind give themselves access to new markets, increase their profit sustainability, and enjoy a competitive advantage over the companies which are not concerned for the environment. There are basically five reasons for which a marketer should go for the adoption of green marketing. They are:

a. Opportunity or Competitive Advantage: In India, around 25% of the consumers prefer environmental-friendly products, and around 28% may be considered healthy conscious. There fore, green marketers have diverse and fairly sizeable segments to cater to. The Surf Excel detergent which saves water (advertised with the message—"do bucket paani roz bachana") and the energy-saving LG consumers durables are examples of green marketing. We also have green buildings which are efficient in their use of energy, water and construction materials, and which reduce the impact on human health and the environment through better design, construction, operation, maintenance and waste disposal. In India, the green building movement, spearheaded by the Confederation of Indian industry (CII) - Godrej Green business Center, has gained tremendous impetus over the last few years. From 20,000 sq ft in 2003, India's green building footprint is now over 25 million sq ft. b. Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) Many companies have started realizing that they must behave in an environment-friendly fashion. They believe both in achieving environmental objectives as well as profit related objectives. The HSBC became the world's first bank to go carbon-neutral last year. Other examples include Coca-Cola, which has invested in various recycling activities. Walt Disney World in Florida, US, has an extensive waste management program and infrastructure in place. c. Governmental Pressure

a) b) c) d) e)

Opportunities or competitive advantage Corporate social responsibilities (CSR) Government pressure Competitive pressure Cost or profit issues 23




framed by


Many companies want to have an early-mover advantage as they have to eventually move towards becoming green. Some of the advantages of green marketing are as given below:

government to protect consumers and the society at large. The Indian government too has developed a framework of legislations to reduce the production of harmful goods and by products. These reduce the industry's production and consumers' consumption of harmful goods, including those detrimental to the environment; for example, the ban of plastic bags in Mumbai, prohibition of smoking in public areas, etc. d. Competitive Pressure Many companies take up green marketing to maintain their competitive edge. The green marketing initiatives by niche companies such as Body Shop and Green & Black have prompted many mainline competitors to follow suit. e. Cost Reduction/ Cost of Profit Issues

• It ensures sustained long-term growth along with profitability. • It saves money in the long run, thought initially the cost is more. • It helps companies market their products and services keeping the environment aspects in mind. It helps in accessing the new markets and enjoying competitive advantage. • Most of the employees also feel proud and responsible to be working for an environmentally responsible company.
PROBLEMS OF GREEN MARKETING Many organizations want to turn green, as an

Reduction of harmful waste may lead to substantial cost savings. Sometimes, many firms develop symbiotic relationship whereby the waste generated by one company is used by another as a costeffective raw material. For example, the fly ash generated by thermal power plants, which would otherwise contributed to a gigantic quantum of solid waste, is used to manufacture fly ash bricks for construction purposes. BENEFITS OF GREEN MARKETING Today's consumers are becoming more and more conscious about the environment and are also becoming socially responsible. Therefore, more

increasing number of consumers' ant to associate themselves with environmental-friendly products.

Alongside, one also witnesses confusion among the consumers regarding the products. In particular, one often finds distrust regarding the credibility of green products. Therefore, to ensure consumer confidence, marketers of green products need to be much more transparent, and refrain from breaching any law or standards relating to products or business practices. Many marketers tried and failed with green sales pitches over the last decade. Some of their wrong approaches include:

companies are responsible to consumers' aspirations for environmentally less damaging or neutral products. the

a. Overexposure and lack of credibility:
So many companies made environmental claims that public became skeptical of their validity.


Government investigations into some green claims (e.g. the degradability of trash bags) and media reports of the spotty environmental track records behind others only increased consumer’s doubts. This backlash resulted in many consumers thinking environmental claims were just marketing gimmicks.

products. This will help the society in the long run. Companies which embark on green marketing should adopt the following principles in their path towards "greenness."

Adopt new technology/process or modify existing technology/process so as to reduce environmental impact. Establish a management and control system that will lead to the adherence of stringent environmental safety norms. Using more environment-friendly raw

b. Consumer behavior:
Research studies have shown that consumers as a whole may not be wiling to pay a premium for environmental benefit, although certain market

segments will be. Most consumers appear unwilling to give up the benefits of other alternatives to choose green products. For example, some consumers dislike the performance, appearance, or texture of recycled paper and household products. And some consumers are unwilling to give up the convenience of disposable product such as diapers.

materials at the production stage itself. • Explore possibilities of recycling of the used products so that it can be used to offer similar or other benefits with less wastage.
MARKETING STRATEGIES The marketing strategies for green marketing include:

c. Poor Implementation:
In jumping on the green marketing bandwagon many firms did a poor job implementing their marketing program. Products were poorly designed in terms of environmental worthiness, overpriced, and

Marketing Audit (including internal and Develop a marketing plan outlining strategies Implement marketing strategies Plan results evaluation
For green marketing to be effective, you have to

external situation analysis) • with regard to 4 P's • •

inappropriately promoted. Some ads failed to make the connection between what the company was doing for the environment and how it affected individual consumers. PATHS TO GREENNESS Green marketing involves focusing on

do three things; be genuine, educate your customers, and give them the opportunity to participate. 1) Being genuine means that a) that you are actually doing what you claim to be doing in your green marketing campaign and

promoting the consumption of green products. Therefore, it becomes the responsibility of the companies to adopt creativity and insight, and be committed to the development of environment-friendly


b) that the rest of your business policies are consistent with whatever you are doing that's environmentally friendly. Both these conditions have to be met for your business to establish the kind of environmental credentials that will allow a green marketing campaign to succeed. 2) Educating your customers isn't just a matter of letting people know you're doing whatever you're doing to protect the environment, but also a matter of letting them know why it matters. Otherwise, for a significant portion of your target market, it's a case of "So what?" and your green marketing campaign goes nowhere. 3) Giving your customers an opportunity to participate means personalizing the benefits of your

NTPC Limited has decided to allocate 0.5% of distributable profit annually for its "Research and Development Fund for Sustainable Energy," for undertaking research activities in development of green and pollution free technologies. In India, around 25% of the consumers prefer environmental-friendly products, and around 28% may be considered healthy conscious. Therefore, there is a lot of diverse and fairly sizeable untapped segment in India which green marketers can serve through offering eco-friendly products for profitability and survival in the era of globalization. For example, Mahindra Group has formally announced the launch of project Mahindra Hariyali in which 1 million trees will be planted nation-wide by Mahindra employees and other stakeholders including customers, vendors, dealers, etc. by October 2008. Of these, 1,50,000 trees have already been planted by

environmentally friendly actions, normally through letting the customer take part in positive environmental action. INITIATIVES TAKEN UP BY BUSINESS ORGANISATIONS

Mahindra employees since September 2007. TOWARDS GREEN MARKETING Many companies have started realizing that they must behave in an environment friendly fashion. environmental impact of our products throughout our They believe both in achieving social & environmental operations, beginning with the extraction of raw objectives as well as financial objectives. India is materials and ending with recycling, treatment of growing at 9% annually and expected to double its waste, and recovery of used materials. energy consumption between 2005 and 2030, is under pressure to take action for providing clean environment for all future generations to come. Many Indian companies have come forward for the cause of environmental concerns and issues requiring immediate attention like: global warming, Water and Air pollution, E-waste. India is a world leader in green IT potential, according to a recently released global enterprise survey. Indian respondents scored over respondents from 10 other countries in expecting to pay 5% or more for green technology if its benefits for the environment and return on investment (ROI) are proven in a survey conducted by GreenFactor, which researches and Nokia's environmental work is based on life cycle thinking. This means that we aim to minimize the


highlights green marketing opportunities. Among the companies that have succeeded thus far in their green marketing strategies are Apple, HP, Microsoft, IBM, Intel, Sony and Dell. HCL has a comprehensive policy designed to drive its environment management program ensuring sustainable development. HCL is duty bound to manufacture environmentally responsible products and comply with environment management processes right from the time products are sourced, manufactured, bought by customers, recovered at their end-of-life and recycled. Potato starch trays made by Dutch PaperFoam protect the new iPhone just launched by Apple Computer which equals 90 percent reduction in the carbon footprint compared to the plastic tray used in the past. Indian Oil also aims at developing technoeconomically viable and environment-friendly products & services for the benefit of millions of its consumers, while at the same time ensuring the highest standards of safety and environment protection in its operations CONCLUSION A clever marketer is one who not only convinces the consumer, but also involves the consumer in marketing his product. Green marketing should not be considered as just one more approach to marketing, but has to be pursued with much greater

vitality, as it has an environmental and social dimension to it. With the threat of global warming alarming large, it is extremely important that green marketing becomes the norm rather than an exception or just a fad. Marketers also have the responsibility to make the consumers understand the need for and benefits of green products as compared to non-green ones. In green marketing, consumers are willing to pay more to maintain a cleaner and greener environment. Finally, consumers, industrial buyers and suppliers need to pressurize effects on minimize the negative effects on the environment-friendly. REFERENCE

1. 2. ml 3. industries 4. 5. ml 6. industries 7. research/marketing/green mix


S.Paul Raj Sudharsan Engineering College. .Pudukkottai

Abstract: "Green marketing is a phenomenon which has developed particular import in the modern market. This concept has enabled for the re-marketing and packaging of existing products which already adhere to such guidelines.

This article analyzes the promotional materials of three companies that advertise their environmental consciousness: Burt's Bee's Inc., Tom's of Maine, Inc., and The Body Shop Inc. Responding to an increasing online shopping market, these companies make their promotional and marketing materials available online, and these web-based materials replicate their printed catalogs and indoor advertisements. As part of selling products to consumers based on a set of ideological values, these companies employ two specific discursive strategies to sell their products: they create enhanced notions of beauty by emphasizing the performance of their natural products, and thus infuse green consumerism with a unique environmental aesthetic. They also convey ideas of as health through community values, which in turn enhances notions of personal health to include ecological well-being. This article explicates the ethical implications of a personal natural care discourse for eco-marketing strategies, and the significance of a green consumer aesthetic for environmental consciousness in general. AUTHOR: S.PAUL RAJ

Green consumerism is on the rise in America, but its environmental effects are contested. Does green marketing contribute to the greening of American consciousness, or does it encourage corporate green washing? This tenuous ethical position means that eco-marketers must carefully frame their environmental products in a way that appeals to consumers with environmental ethics and buyers who consider natural products as well

conventional items. Thus, eco-marketing constructs a complicated ethical identity for the green consumer. Environmentally aware individuals are already guided by their personal ethics. In trying to attract new consumers, environmentally minded businesses attach an aesthetic In an quality era to environmental goods. where

environmentalism is increasingly hip, what are the implications for an environmental ethics infused with a sense of aesthetics? 28




negative effects

on the

The physical

development and marketing of products designed to

Purpose & Scope:
It seems like every day another familiar brand claims to have gone green. Companies marketing their green achievements were once a small segment of forward thinking organizations, but have since grown into a group of unlikely advocates that includes an oil company and the world’s largest retailer. Just what is green marketing, and to what extent are companies integrating its principles into their communications, and green thinking into their operations? The objective of this paper is to provide marketing executives with a high level understanding of green marketing and some of the recent developments in this space.

environment or to improve its quality. 2

Environmental Definition: The efforts by
organizations to produce, promote, package, and reclaim products in a manner that is sensitive or responsive to ecological concerns. 3 All three of these definitions speak to the fact that green marketing involves informing consumers about initiatives you’ve undertaken that will benefit the environment, with the overall goal of improving sales or reducing costs. The term green marketing is often used loosely and in the wrong context. It’s worth noting that ‘green marketing’ is actually related to another topic that is gaining visibility in corporate circles – corporate social responsibility (CSR). There are four general buckets encompassed in corporate social responsibility, one of which specifically can be tied to green marketing:

Torque has addressed 4 key questions from the perspective of a marketing executive:
1. What is green marketing? 2. Does it pay to go green? 3. Who else is going green?

4. What should companies consider when going green? Green Marketing – What is it? Green marketing has been around for longer than one might suspect – in fact, a workshop on ‘ecological marketing’ was held by the American Marketing Association in 1975. Since then, the definition has been refined and segmented into 3 main buckets:

Social responsibility (i.e. avoid child labor)






blowers, have respectful workplace policies)

Environmental responsibility (i.e. adopt business

safe. 1





practices that are environmentally friendly) Governance (i.e. fulfilling requirements for a neutral board of directors) 29

products that are presumed to be environmentally

average This context is important to consider, because it clarifies that every time a company does something that feels nice, it cannot be parlayed into a green marketing campaign – only activities which benefit the environment can. Can going green actually provide financial returns and create shareholder value? Let’s consider this question from a number of different perspectives:







outperforming their sector peers. While this study considers a company’s ‘green’ attitude along with other elements of corporate social responsibility, the findings still suggest that companies can in fact ‘do good by being good’. There are other signs that investors are starting to pay more attention to green companies – the San Francisco Chronicle reports that there are at least 25 green funds that invest in companies based, at least in part, on their approach to dealing with environmental issues.

1. Do CEOs consider the environment as part of their strategy?
CEOs are ultimately responsible for determining which strategies will create value – their current thinking on the impact of going green is one valuable data point in assessing the value of green marketing. A 2007 survey of 2,000 executives indicates that 60% view climate change as important to consider with regard to their company’s overall strategy. However, 44% of CEOs indicate that climate change is not a significant item on their agenda.4 Thus, while there is significant awareness among CEOs of the extent through which consumers view them through a green lens, it would appear that a minority are currently acting on this knowledge.

3. Doesn’t going green really just mean spending money?
Going green often means reducing waste – this can actually have a positive impact on the bottom line in addition to providing valuable stories to fuel marketing messaging. Giving out fewer napkins, using less ink and paper, encouraging customers to use online billing – these are all green initiatives that can quickly reduce company costs.

4 MCKINSEY SURVEY + MARKETING MAGAZINE Who Else Is Going Green? (And have they really gone green?)

2. Do Green Companies outperform the market?
A 2007 study by Goldman Sachs reveals that companies on an ethical list (compiled by Goldman Sachs) outperformed the MSCI World Index by an 30 The normal business operations of every business inevitably have an impact on the environment. With consumers becoming increasingly conscious and critical of any negative environmental impacts, you

don’t have to look hard to find examples of companies that have gone green in an effort to persuade consumers that they’re doing all they can for Mother Earth. The challenge consumers take on (with varying levels of diligence) is to identify which companies are authentically green, and which are imposters guilty of ‘green washing’. Consider the following examples and place them in the context of the green washing continuum: Green washing Continuum

The origins of green washing stem from the popular political term, whitewashing – “a coordinated attempt to hide unpleasant facts, especially in a political context”. Companies guilty of green washing are the ones that have publicly made vague, or misleading, irrelevant unrepresentative, unsubstantiated

claims about their green initiatives. Authentic Green – to achieve this status, a company would have launched legitimate green initiatives that generally stand up to scrutiny from consumers or 3rd party accreditation bodies.

Green washing authentic green

3. FAIRMONT Fairmont has attempted to position their brand as an industry leader in green practices through several

1. WAL-MART Wal-Mart launched it’s highly visible environmental strategy in 2004. Since then, their goals have encompassed everything from: • Cutting energy usage at stores by 30% to reduce greenhouse gas emissions • Spending $500 million per year to improve truck fleet fuel economy • Working towards monitoring overseas suppliers to ensure they meet environmental standards

approaches, including: • Hiring a full time director of environmental affairs • Launching a 200-ton per year recycling program • Offering free parking for guests with hybrid cars • Retrofitting lighting with energy efficient bulbs

In 2005, GE launched their Ecomagination campaign. Clarifying how the green positioning is integrated with their overall business strategy, CEO Jeffrey Immelt notes that the campaign is primarily “a way to sell more products and services”. To this end, GE has pledged to: • Double investments in clean R&D by 2010 • Increase revenues from Ecomagination products to $20 billion by 2010 31

2. BRITISH PETROLEUM In 2000, British Petroleum rebranded to “BP” and adopted the slogan “beyond petroleum.” According to BP, this positioning captures their goals of finding cleaner ways to produce and supply oil, as well as researching and developing new types of fuels.

• Reduce their own greenhouse gas emissions by 1% over 7 years (When they would have increased by 40%)

those who are imposters. It’s usually immediately evident when the only green thing about a company is their logo and marketing materials. Consumers are looking for green thinking to be ingrained across the value chain – from product development to distribution.

In 2007, CEO Gaelen Weston appeared in company advertisements touting their promise to reduce waste through the introduction of reusable shopping bags. GO GREEN WHERE IT ACTUALLY MATTERS Some green strategies are harder for consumers to buy than others. To legitimately market you as ‘green’, a company should select an area of their business where benefits from going green will be CONSIDERATIONS BEFORE GOING GREEN If you don’t completely buy into all of the green initiatives listed above, you’re not alone. In fact, a recent study suggests that 72% of consumers are skeptical about most companies’ claims of being environmentally conscious.5 unfortunately; this makes things more difficult for companies with legitimate green agendas to capture the trust of consumers. DON’T FIRE EVERYONE BUT YOUR CHIEF GREEN OFFICER To ensure your green marketing campaign is well designed and captures the interest and admiration of consumers, consider the following rules: Don’t ask marketing to paint you green Skeptical consumers can quickly discern between companies with legitimate green strategies, and 32 Merely positioning a company as ‘being green’ will seldom deliver does success not – in isolation a this positioning provide sustainable actually sizeable. For example, British Petroleum would have a difficult time convincing consumers that they’re green on the grounds that their sales team no longer prints copies of their PowerPoint presentation before the Monday meeting. Marketing these types of trivial (and unrepresentative) commitments to ‘going green’ destroys credibility with consumers.

competitive advantage. Instead, green strategies must be aligned with a solid business strategy and complemented by sound leadership. For example, the marketing team behind GE’s creative

Ecomagination campaign would not look quite as intelligent if there wasn’t also a team of engineers and product development analysts that identified the clean tech and clean energy sectors as growth opportunities for GE. Without their buzzword…. insight, Green marketing is gaining significant attention from both CEOs and consumers. Given that a carefully crafted green marketing strategy can earn credibility with customers and provide a platform for revenue growth, it’s an area worthy of additional consideration. Ecomagination would just be another hollow CONCLUSION

4. RISK ANALYSIS IN INVESTMENT PORTFOLIO S. Jeroke shalin, Sudarsan Engineering College, Pudukkottai

ABSTRCT Most of the investors’ objective in investment is to earn a fair return on their money with minimum risk. But risks and returns are inseparable one. Risk in holding securities could result in the possibility of realizing lesser returns that was originally expected by way of dividends or interest. Risk includes the possibility of loss or injury and the degree of probability of such a loss. Portfolio is a combination of securities such as stocks, bonds and money market instruments like commercial papers, certificate of deposits etc., These assets are blended together so as to obtain optimum return with minimum risk. The 33 This paper put in plain words about i) Risk analysis by calculating Standard deviation, Variance and beta and ii) Reducing risk by portfolio diversification. The risks can be eliminated by diversifying the portfolio of securities. i.e., holding securities of two companies in a particular industry is more risky than holding securities of two companies belonging to two different industries. Diversification relates to the principle of “putting all eggs in different baskets”. main objective of portfolio management is to maximize yield and minimize risk.

So, proper diversification and holding number of security types across industry lines such as electronic, steel, chemical, automobile, utility, mining etc., minimizes risk.

computer preference, etc. The unsystematic risks can be eliminated by diversifying the portfolio securities. Standard deviation and variance

Standard deviation is a good measure for calculating the risk of individual stocks. The concepts of standard deviation and variance, beta, correlation co-efficient, co-variance etc., are also used to explain *S.Jeroke sharlin, Lecturer, Department of MBA, Sudharsan engineering college, Pudukottai. Mail Mobile-9944372411 the measure of risk. Standard deviation and variance are the most useful methods for calculating variability. In the following example, stocks of X Ltd and Y Ltd. are compared. 1. Risk of stocks of X Ltd and Y Ltd. X Ltd (Stock) Risks are of two types. Namely, 1) Market risk or systematic risk 2) Company risk or unsystematic risk. Systematic risk arise due to general factors in the market such as money supply, inflation, economic recession, industrial policy, interest rate policy of the government, credit policy, tax policy, etc.These are the factors which affect the whole market. These risks cannot be eliminated and so they are called non diversifiable risk. Arithmetic Mean=Total return/n, Unsystematic risk represents fluctuations in returns of a security due to facts associated with a particular company and not the market as a whole. The factors causing unsystematic risks include labour unrest, strike, change in market demand, change in competitive environment, change in fashion and The expected returns for both the companies are the same. But the spread differs –X Ltd is riskier than Y Ltd., because returns at different points of time are uncertain with respect to its stock. The average stock 60/5=12 10 18 2 21 9 Expected returns = 60 Y Ltd. (Stock) 13 10 12 14 11 Expected returns= 60


for X Ltd and Y Ltd is 12. But X Ltd seems to be riskier than Y Ltd., considering future outcomes.

Though both the companies X Ltd., and Y Ltd., have identical expected average returns their spread differs. The range or spread in X Ltd is from 8 to 12 while for Y Ltd., it ranges between 9 and 11 only. The spread of dispersion can be measured by standard deviation.

Another example of probability distribution is given below, to specify expected return as well as risk. The expected return is the weighted average of returns. Weighted average returns (expected average returns) are arrived at by multiplying each return by the associated probability and adding them together. Beta measures non-diversifiable risk and so it is referred to as systematic risk to the market. Beta shows how the price of a security responds to market forces. In effect, the more responsive the price of a security is to changes in the market, with the returns for the market. So, it shows the relationship between the stock return and market return. 2. Stocks of X Ltd and Y Ltd., Betas are useful to investors in assessing risk and (1) Return (Ri) 1 2 3 4 5 8 9 10 11 12 Total X Ltd (2) Probability (Pi) 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.20 0.15 1.00 Weighted average Return (PiRi) 1.20 1.80 3.00 2.20 1.80 10.00% 9 10 11 (1) Return (Ri) understanding the impact of the market movements Weighted on Y Ltd the return expected from a share of stock. For (2) average example, if the market is expected to provide 10% Probability Return rate of return over the next year, a stock having a beta of (Pi) would be expected to give an increase in 1.70 (PiRi) return approximately 17%(1.70x10%) over the same period. Beta is a better measure of risk used in the analysis of portfolios. 0.30 2.70 0.40 4.00

0.30 3.30 Portfolio Construction 1.00 10.00% Portfolio construction refers to the allocation of funds among variety of financial assets open for

Expected return= = E(R)= ∑ (PiRi)

investment. Portfolio construction is undertaken in the light of the basic objective of the portfolio 35

management. The basic objective of portfolio management is to maximize yield and minimize risk. The other objectives of the portfolio management include i) regular income or stable return ii) Appreciation of capital iii) Marketability and Liquidity iv) Safety of investment and v) minimizing tax liability. Approaches in portfolio construction There are two approaches in the construction of the portfolio of securities (1)Traditional approach (2)Markowitz efficient frontier approach The traditional approach is basically a financial plan applicable to individuals. It takes care of individuals needs such as housing, life insurance, and pension plans The steps involved in the traditional approach are: Markowitz model which is described as modern approach lays emphasis on the process of selecting portfolio. Under Markowitz model, selection of common stocks portfolio receives more attention than that of bond portfolio. The selection stock is not based on the need for income or appreciation. But 1. Analysis of constraints 2.Determination of objectives, 4.Assessment 3.Selection of risk of and portfolio, return; and risks and return analysis plays a major role in the selection of stock portfolio. Investors are keen on getting returns which may be in the form of dividend or interest. Harry Markowitz’s model explains how an investor can build an efficient portfolio which results in
Analysis of constraints Diversification Bond and Common Stock Assessment of Risk and return Bond Selection of portfolio

Common Sto

5.Diversification These are evident from the following chart

maximization of returns with minimum risk.

1. The
Determination of objectives





performance of portfolio only in terms of the 36

rate of return, particularly in comparison with other assets of the same risk class. 2. Markowitz theory and the modern theory of Portfolio evaluate on the basis of risk adjusted return. Modern portfolio theory holds that the portfolio evaluation should be based on both risk and return and the objective should be to optimize the return for a given level of risk. An investor can reduce portfolio risk simply by holding combinations of instruments which are not perfectly positively correlated (correlation coefficient )). In other words, investors can reduce their exposure to individual asset risk by holding Reducing risk by Diversification a diversified portfolio of assets. Diversification may allow for the same portfolio expected return with reduced risk Holding securities of a single company is more risky than those of two or more companies. It is further analyzed that holding securities of two companies in a particular industry is more risky than holding securities of two companies belonging to two different industries. To put it in other words, two companies- say, one in electronic industry and the other in automobile industry are less risky than two in either electronic industry or automobile industry. So, proper diversification and holding number of security types across industry lines such as electronic, steel, chemical, automobile, utility, mining etc., minimizes risk. 4.Markowitz, H.M. (1959). Portfolio Selection: Efficient Diversification of Investments. New York : 2. Mean variance analysis and the diversification of risk by Leigh H.Halliwell. 3. Security analysis and portfolio management by Punithavathy pandiyan. Reference 1. Markowitz, H., 1952, Portfolio selection, Journal of Finance, Vol.7, No.1, p7-91.


5. Risk Analysis in Investment Portfolio
Suman k asrani Holy crossTrichy-620017

The purpose of RISK ANALYSIS IN INVESTMENT is to assess the economic prospects of a proposed investment project. It is a process of calculating the expected return based on cash flow forecasts of many, often inter-related, project variables Introduction :• Your investment portfolio is not only about pursuit of returns; it is also about risk management. • An investment portfolio generally consists of various investment instruments such as Mutual funds, Bonds, Securities (Primary and secondary market), Real Estate, Precious metals, commodities (gold/silver) etc…. Risk can be classified under two main heads Systematic and Unsystematic Risk • Systematic Risk :– – Market Risk – Risk inherent to Risk that cannot be eliminated the market Unsystematic :Company Specific Risk – Risk inherent to the specific • E.g. Microsoft Stock has Beta :• security risks beyond investing in the • • • • • –

stock market, such as antitrust, competitors, management succession, etc. Diversifiable – Can be eliminated through diversification Various Risk Measures :Standard Deviation Alpha Beta Treynor’s ratio Sharpe’s ratio

Standard Deviation :• • Standard Deviation is the square root of Standard Deviation is a measure of the variance dispersion around the mean. The higher the standard deviation, the greater the dispersion of returns around the mean and the greater the risk. When an asset is held in isolation, the appropriate measure of risk is standard deviation

When an asset is held as part of a well-

diversified portfolio, the appropriate measure of risk is its co-movement with the market portfolio, as measured by Beta. • 38 Beta (ß)

A measure of market risk, to

Risk and performance analysts use

which the returns on a given stock move with the market – – – If beta = 1.0, average stock If beta > 1.0, stock riskier than If beta < 1.0, stock less risky

Sharpe and Treynor ratios to analyze the effectiveness of the portfolio manager – If the Sharpe and Treynor ratios are below 1.0, then the portfolio manager is taking too much risk for the return the portfolio is generating.

average than average Most stocks have betas in the range of 0.5 to 1.5 Sharpe and Treynor Ratios :• Sharpe Ratio – calculates the average return over and above the risk-free rate of return per unit of portfolio risk. – Sharpe Ratio = (Ri – Rf) / si Ri = Average return of the portfolio during period i Rf = Average return of the risk-free rate during period i si = standard deviation (risk) of the portfolio during period i Treynor Ratio – calculates the average return over and above the risk-free rate of return per unit of the world market portfolio risk. – Treynor Ratio = (Ri – Rf) / bi Ri = Average return of the portfolio during period i Rf = Average return of the risk-free rate during period i bi = The systematic (market) risk of the world market portfolio during period i •

Tips for wise investments in Real estate : • Speculating versus Investing Buying a chunk of land and hoping it goes up in value is SPECULATING. Buying a property to collect high income in the form of rent is INVESTING. Investing is a much safer (and smarter) way to go.

“Property Will Always Go up in Value”

Don’t believe this dangerous myth! Japanese real estate at the close of the century and American real estate today indicate that buying because “it has to go up” is one of the worst reasons to do so. Hoping for – or worse, expecting – a price rise is speculation. Make sure the investment makes great sense from a positive-cash-flow perspective first. Then if the property falls in value, you’re still “right side up” on your cash flows. Consider any appreciation to be simply icing on the cake when it comes to speculative real estate investing. • Getting Started in Real Estate Investing

Sharpe and Treynor Ratios :-

with Residential Property


It’s easier to understand, purchase and manage than other types of property. If you’re a homeowner, you’ve already got experience here. And you’re the boss. Start close to home, so you can stay on top of things. • Truthful Real Estate Investment Advice:

disabled them to invest in blue chip companies. 2. LACK OF EXPERT ADVICE - Expert advice used to be out of their reach due to affordability problem. 3. HIGH BROKERAGE RATES - Small investors had to purchase shares through brokers who used to charge high brokerage and there were lot more fraudulent activities to misguide small investors. 4. TIME LAG - This was another problem in receipt of shares There used to be delay in getting the shares 5. LIMITED ACCESS TO INFORMATION They used to face problem in receiving information regarding the shares and Companies 6. PROBLEM REGARDING ALLOTMENT OF SHARES - They used to face this problem in case of big companies because big companies normally used to allot on pro rata basis.

Don’t Believe Everything You Hear or Read Sellers and real estate agents ultimately want you to buy that property. So what they’re telling you is most likely the rosy scenario, not the actual scenario. If the property has been a rental, ask the seller for his Schedule E form from his taxes. It’ll show his ACTUAL revenue and expenses, or at least the ones he reported to the government. What you can expect to earn is somewhere between what he reported to the IRS and what he’s promising you. • Where To Buy There is – as you probably know – a widely held belief that the three most important factors involved in real estate success are “Location, Location, Location.”

Clear view of risks involved in mutual funds : Mutual funds are the ultimate solution for a small investor. A small investor used to face various problems before the introduction of mutual funds. These were: 1. LIMITED FUNDS - Small investors had to face the problems of investing in the big companies .They used to have limited fund with them which 40

7. COMMISSION AND BROKERAGES - High rate of commission and brokerages had to be borne by them.

Simple tips for investment in securities:-

• • • • Get Long-Term Tax Breaks Be Sure to Lock in the 15% Think Twice Before Borrowing

Watch Out for Tax Rate on

Foreign Dividends

on Short-Term Investments Rate on Qualified Dividends to Buy Dividend-Paying Shares

6. Risk Analysis in Investment Portfolios
Reshma Sibichan, Garden City College, Bangalore, Karnataka

I. INTRODUCTION Risk in a common man’s language is uncertainty. Hence, Risk Analysis means the analysis of uncertainty. Risk analysis may also be defined as a technique which identifies and evaluates reasons that may put at risk the success of a project or achieving a set target. Risk Analysis helps to reduce the level of uncertainty and to identify measures to profitably deal with these uncertainties. Investment portfolio is a basket of various investment options that an investor chooses to maximize his/her returns on the investment. While making an investment portfolio, the first question that comes to the mind

important to understand what should not be included in the basket and why? An investment portfolio is very vital to the financial growth of an investment. Like a well nurtured plant the portfolio must be controlled and pruned and should be well maintained to see it grow and bear fruit which can be enjoyed at leisure or at the time of need. To ensure that our portfolio will yield results that we can smile at, the portfolio should be analyzed systematically over the period of time. A portfolio analysis will look at the life and the health condition of an investment to make sure that the money grows even when we are asleep. By the analysis we get to understand the different investments that need to be added into the portfolio and the investments that need to be removed from the portfolio so that the bearing of risk on the investor is evened out. The analysis will determine that at no point in time the investor is exposed to 41

of any investor is the appetite for risk he/she has and the second thing is the purpose and expectation of the investment. When we discuss what can be added into our basket of portfolio, it is also

risks that he cannot bear or that an investment is not giving the desired return because it is not completely exposed to the risk which can be borne by the investor. An investor will be in charge of his investments by analyzing his portfolio periodically. He will have the direction that he needs to follow to get the maximum return on his investment and also cautions him from taking decisions which may prove to be very expensive. Proper and systematic analysis of one’s portfolio will give him the comfort on which he can lean and relax when his investments work for him.

portfolios are open to the elements of specific risk. However, the investors compensate them with other options because of the character of this risk. It is generally associated with investment to a certain security and this risk can be minimized or eliminated by adding more securities from the same class of investments. To make it more specific let me take an example of investments make in the banking sector. If I expose my investments to own shares of SBI, I expose my investment to specific risk. The performance of my investment is based on the performance of that particular share and my risk is high. If I need to cope with specific risk, all I need to do is spread my investments to 15


different shares of the banking industry and my risk is diversified. When I make my investment in 15 different shares, I would have an asset class

Understanding the different risks associated in an investment portfolio is very crucial to reducing if not eliminating risk in a portfolio. Each investment is associated with a different type of risk and in some cases few investments may be associated with all types of risks. So understanding different types of risks will help to striking a balanced portfolio and also will make an investment perform better. The risks are mainly classified as 1. Unsystematic risk or Specific Risk and 2. Systematic Risk. Unsystematic Risk or Specific Risk are from known sources and can be controlled. All most all 42

and as such Asset Classes are not associated with Unsystematic Risks because they are diversified. Unsystematic risks can be caused due to one or more of these factors. 1. Business Risk are risks which relates to the performance of the business, turnover, returns, profits, market share etc which is directly linked to the market conditions, suppliers, product, position of competitors. This risk will have direct bearing on the performance of the company. It can be set right by making an analysis into the company policies and corrective measures can be implemented.

2. Financial Risk relates to the financial policies followed by a company. It may relate to debt equity ratio, turnover ratios with regards to stock, sales, creditors and debtors, liquidity ratio, bad debts etc. Fallouts on these factors will lead to less profit and less earnings to the investors. This can be corrected by proper financial planning situation. 3. Insolvency Risk relates to a situation where in the borrower of securities may default in making payments with respect to interest and principal amount. The credit rating of the borrower may have tarnished and may be due to certain governmental policies the company becomes insolvent and the investor does not get any thing in return for his investment. This risk again can be eliminated by proper management and by making necessary changes in the company policies which will adapt itself to the current scenarios. The second type of risk which is mainly faced by an investor is the Systematic Risk. This risk is associated with a certain asset class. When an asset class becomes free of all specific risks, it is exposed to systematic risk which cannot be diversified. Each and every asset class has to face this risk and overcome it to achieve the desired returns. Every asset class has a chronological relationship with another asset class. This means that a certain sector of investment perform in a different manner at different point of time in a fiscal phase. To make it more clear let me highlight it with an example. 43 and analysis of the

During the economic recession almost all the sectors were hit very badly. Some of the industries which did very badly were the construction field, real estate. The prices of the yellow metal varied during 2008. The stock markets struggled during the first and second quarter and completely went down in the third quarter. The investment that did well was government securities where the returns were linked to the interest rates. Even though the performance of almost all the asset classes dipped in 2008 during the economic recession, the degree to which each asset class plundered varied. Hence, an investor who had diversified his portfolio into various asset classes performed better than those who had their portfolio only in equity. The most classic example of systematic risk is the movement of the stock market and their impact on the earnings. If our portfolio basket has stocks from various sectors, it does not spread the systematic risk. However the risk can be lessened by prevarication the investments in un related assets which is easy said than done. The risk can also be managed to a certain extent by optimum stop management options to ensure that the capital invested is secure. This is should be used in the portfolio analysis strategy. The various examples of systematic risk are: 1. Market Risk: This risk is the outcome of changes in the demand and supply in the market based on the information being available and the expectations being set up in the market. The market will be influenced by the perceptions of the

investors based on the information and over which we do not have any control. 2. Interest Rate Risk: The ROI is always linked on the interest rate that has been indicated on it and the difference in the market interest rate periodically. Since the cost of borrowed funds is depended on the interest rate, the perception of investors would change according to the changes noticed in the interest rates. Since the investors do not have control over the credit policies and the changes in the interest rates, the return on investments would be risky and in some cases may warrant early refund of the borrowed fund. 3. Purchasing Power Risk: The increase in inflation would give rise to increased prices which in turn increases the production costs and decreases the profit margins. The expected ROI will change due to the same and also there may be a demand which may be created by having shortage of supply which will further increase the prices. This demand may be due to the expectation of changes in interest rates in the future or due to the inflation. This will have its bearing on the purchasing power and this is something that cannot be controlled. These are some of the systematic risks that we come across when we analyze our investment portfolios. Apart from these risks we also come across risks which are controllable and some which are uncontrollable. They are, Political Risks which may arise due to change in Government or their policies, 44

Management Risks which may arise due to mismanagement and wrong management decisions which may lead to financial losses, and Marketability Risks involving liquidity problem of assets or conversion of assets from one form to another.

III Factors Determining Risk Appetite

There are several factors that determine the Risk appetite or the Risk bearing capacity of an investor. The risk appetite varies from investor to investor. Some of the factors that is discussed here are Age, Income, Sex, Education, Investment Period, Purpose of Investment available for investment. Age is a very vital determinant of the risk an investor would want to take for his investments. The relation between Age and Risk is inversely proportionate. As the age increases the risk an investor will bear will come down. Younger the investor higher will be the risk he will take as he has got his whole life to rebuild his capital in case of any downhill he faces. As and when an investor reaches his age of retirement he would want to secure his investment and it is acceptable for him to earn fewer returns rather than to bear more risk. In the current market scenarios a portfolio manager always keeps in mind the age of an investor when formulating his client’s portfolio. and Amount

Income is also an important component in determining the risk aversion a customer has. Higher the disposable income a customer has the risk he agrees to take will be high. If a customer sets apart major part of his income towards meeting basic necessities, then he falls under a low income bracket and any investment he makes would be too close to his heart and it will directly be linked to very secure investments and this type of customer would be very conservative. Sex and Education also has a direct bearing on the investment decision that will be made. If the Customer is a female, then if her income is the primary source of income to the family, then the risk bearing appetite will be less and if it is vice versa i.e. if her income is the secondary income to the family then she would be ready to bear a certain amount of risk. Likewise an educated person will be able to understand the dynamics of the market and is ready to take the risk and experiment. Investment Period is another factor that should be considered when analyzing risk. Risky portfolios require the investor to be invested for a longer period of time to get the maximum of the portfolio. Any temporary setbacks should not trigger off any hasty decisions which results in the portfolio taking a nose dive into loss. An appropriate example for this is the investors who waited when the market went into down and there were huge losses which were on paper. The customers who had faith in the market and waited for it to regain got back the lost however, the 45

customers who did not follow the game of wait and watch incurred huge setbacks because they allowed the loss on paper to be executed. The last aspect that needs to be looked into is the purpose for investment. The customers financial goals is also a major determinant of the risk an investor will take. Customers is their middle age would not want to risk the funds set aside for the higher studies of their children or funds set aside for the marriage of their daughters. If the customer is looking at capital gains over a period of time, then he will surely be able to take on more risk to get maximum returns.

IV Techniques to Analyze Risk

There are several methods by which the risk of a portfolio can be analyzed. They are broadly classified as traditional and modern. We shall look at the traditional techniques first. They are: 1. Standard Deviation of Returns of an Investment Portfolio: What we would focus here is the variance in return of each investment and the expected return on the investment portfolio. 2. Tracking the Error: Here the standard deviation of the variance in return between the investment

portfolio and a particular benchmark is tracked to identify the error in the portfolio. 3. Relative Risk Measure: Here we analyze the covariance of a security with the market index and it is separated by the difference in the market index, and 4. Prospects of loss: Here we analyze the chances that the earnings from an investment will be below the point of reference. The modern techniques of risk analysis are: 1. Value at Risk: Here we analyze the probability of the maximum extent to which loss can be incurred during a specific period. 2. Restricted Value at Risk: Here we analyze the losses we expect which will exceed the Value at Risk. 3. Anticipated Deficit: Here we analyze the variance between the returns we have actually received with the specified returns of the portfolio when we incur loss. These are the techniques by which risk can be analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Apart from these techniques, risk can also be analyzed based on the prices of an asset, the financial reports, and also ratios associated with risk. Price of an asset speaks a lot about the risk the asset carries. The costlier an investment the less risky it will be. So also the financial reports can be used to analyze risk. The better the earnings of a company over a period of time, the investment will 46

be less risky. Also by analyzing the financial health of a company using ratios we can determine the risk we will be bearing by investing in the company.

V Methods to Minimize Risk







investment, the risk element would be present in all investments. There is a certain amount of risk which is present in all portfolios. The only thing we can do is to minimize it to the least extent possible. The basic factor that needs to be done by an investor is to first find out the risk level he is willing to bear. Based on that he can design his portfolio with risky but, performing asset. Investors can also minimize their risk by diversifying their portfolios in different asset classes and also by diversifying into various options in a specified asset class. The asset classes which require an investor to be invested for a longer period of time can be chosen to meet the long term financial goals of the investor. To meet the immediate or short term financial goals an investor can invest in the asset class which is highly liquid. Sometimes investors can be influenced by the testimonials of few individuals who have made big bucks over a short span of time. However, this may not be a safe bet as the risk involved is very high and in some cases may wipe out the entire portfolio.

Investors who do a proper homework and analyze the financial reports of various options and understand their trend can reduce their risk to a great extent. The risk can also be minimized by using a certain class to evade the risk of another asset class. A risky asset class can be combined with a less risky asset class. For example when investment in land can be used to earn capital gains, another investment can be made in bonds that are safe and secure. Another way to reduce risk is by making investments in liquid markets where there is always market to buy and sell the assets. Assets that cannot be marketed readily are subject to huge losses which may be sudden in nature. Investing in asset classes that are noncorrelative is also an ideal way to reduce risk. An investor can own assets that do not have any correlation with each other to earn high return with reduced risk. So when a certain asset class fails to perform well, there is another asset class which will make it up for the portfolio. By understanding the risk of each asset class an ideal portfolio can be created that can perform well under any market conditions. When diversifying a portfolio, all specific risks that are associated with it needs to be addressed and eliminated and efforts should be put in to minimize the systematic risk which is inevitable in all portfolios however good they may be. 47 VI Conclusions By the details provided in this paper it has become evident that even the most conservative portfolios have a certain amount of risk factor. Portfolio management is not about eliminating risk but rather in formulating strategies to earn maximum return while exposing oneself to the risk he is capable of bearing. Risk Analysis is not a onetime analysis or a study that once the portfolio is designed we can forget about it and relax but, it is an ongoing exercise that needs to be done religiously and systematically over a period of time till the investment holds good. The investor who has the patience to watch and wait and allow their portfolio to perform will earn the maximum from their investment than those investors who change portfolios at the slightest of change in the market conditions and are always unhappy about their portfolio. Before any investment is designed, it is very important to consider all the possible risks the portfolio will be open to. It is not worth to take all the risks but rather be a moderate risk taker and have a financial future which is more relaxing and fruitful.

Hemalatha.C P.A.College of Engineering and Technology, Pollachi.

Abstract The main reason why people have professionals manage their portfolio is to leverage their expertise in order to generate maximum wealth from their investments. A well-managed portfolio will not only take care of diversification, but also allocate resources per the investor's financial objectives and appetite for risks. Besides, portfolio management makes sure there is constant monitoring of your investments. Many companies have forayed into this area of financial service. One such company is GEPL. It offers investment portfolio management services to help its clients realize their financial goals. The main aim of risk analysis in portfolio is to give a caution direction to the risk and return of an investor on portfolio. Individual securities have risk return characteristics of their own. Therefore, portfolio analysis indicates the future risk and return in holding of different individual instruments. The portfolio analysis has been highly successful in tracing the efficient portfolio. Portfolio analysis considers the determination of future risk and return in holding various blends of individual securities. 48

An investor can sometime reduce portfolio risk by adding another security with greater individual risk than any other security in the portfolio. Portfolio analysis is mainly depending on Risk and Return of the portfolio. The expected return of a portfolio should depend on the expected return of each of the security contained in the portfolio. The amount invested in each security is most important. The portfolio’s expected holding period value relative is simply a weighted average of the expected value relative of its component securities. Using current market value as weights, the expected return of a portfolio is simply a weighted average of the expected return of the securities comprising that portfolio. The weights are equal to the proportion of total funds invested in each security. Tradition security analyses recognize the key importance of risk and return to the investor. However, direct recognition of risk and return in portfolio analysis seems very much a “seat-of-thepants” process in the traditional approaches, which rely heavily upon intuition and insight. The result of these rather subjective approaches to portfolio analysis has, no doubt, been highly successfully in

many instances. The problem is that the methods employed do not readily lend themselves to analysis by others. Most investor thus tends to invest in a group of securities rather than a single security. Such a group of securities held together as an investment is what is known as a portfolio. The process of creating such a portfolio is called diversification. It is an attempt to spread and minimize the risk in investment. This is sought to be achieved by holding different types of securities across different industry groups INVESTMENT PORTFOLIO IS AN IMPORTANT ASSET: An investment portfolio is an important asset for your financial well-being. Controlling your portfolio, keeping it healthy and up-to-date will help your nest egg to grow so you can afford that great retirement, vacation home, or college tuition for your children. A good way to make sure your portfolio is heading the best direction is with a professional portfolio analysis. So what is a portfolio anyway? Your financial portfolio is all of your investments together. A good portfolio will usually consist of a mix of stocks, bonds, precious metals like gold, real estate, and/or bank accounts. It is the total value of all that you are worth, financially. An investment portfolio analysis will take a look at the health of your investments to make sure your 49

money is working for you. Most financial portfolio analysis reports consist of two parts; a risk aversion assessment and a return analysis. For very simple portfolios without a whole lot of money or investments, there are several computer programs that can help to analyze your portfolio's return rates; however, these programs are not always as accurate or complete as a human analysis. Also, most programs do have an accurate risk aversion assessment. The risk aversion takes a look at how "risky" your portfolio is. The younger a person is when they start their portfolio, the more risk should be applied to that portfolio. The closer to retirement the investor gets, however, more and more of their investments should be applied to "safe" investments, such as bonds. The safe investments do not have the potential to grow as much, but will grow more steadily then the high-risk investments could. The risk aversion will also take into account the amount of risk a client is willing to have to their portfolio. If your risk aversion is high, for example, you will choose to move most of your money into safer bonds. Risk aversion is different for everyone. The second part of the assessment is to analyze your returns. This report will give the investor a good idea of how their portfolio is doing, where it is going, and how long it will take to mature. Some specialists will also study your portfolio to find out the recovery period from a bad market of the

current portfolio, which also gives insight into the quality of the portfolio. It is possible for a lot to change in the market on a daily basis, so it is important to keep track of your investments and your portfolio. Do not let your portfolio fall into disrepair; make sure to run an analysis on your investment periodically to make sure all of your stocks, bonds, and other investments are still sound. Once the analysis is complete, an investor will have a good idea of which of your investments are sounds, which are good, and which need to be changed. This will help the investor to make smart choices now, and avoid costly mistakes in the future. Although your portfolio may appear sound, it may need a few tweaks to be making you the most money it can make. Portfolio Risk: Portfolio risk is the possibility that an investment portfolio may not achieve its objectives. There are a number of factors that contribute to portfolio risk, and while you are able to minimize them, you will never be able to fully eliminate them. 1. Systemic Risk Systemic risk is one factor which contributes to portfolio risk. It is also a risk factor you can never eliminate. Systemic risk includes the risk associated with interest rates, recession, war and political instability. All of these factors can have significant repercussions for companies and their share prices. 50

By their nature, these risk factors are somewhat unpredictable. While you may be able to determine the long-term trend of interest rates, you cannot predict the amount they will rise or fall. And in most cases, the stock market will "price in" the anticipated change, long before the individual investor will even consider it.

2. Unsystematic Risk This is the risk you can control, or at least minimize. Also known as "specific risk," it relates to the risk associated with owning the shares of a specific company in your portfolio. As you increase the number of different companies within your portfolio, you essentially spread the risk across your portfolio, thus reducing the overall impact of an underperforming stock An investment portfolio analysis will take a look at the health of your investments to make sure your money is working for you. Most financial portfolio analysis reports consist of two parts; a risk aversion assessment and a return analysis. For very simple portfolios without a whole lot of money or investments, there are several computer programs that can help to analyze your portfolio's return rates; however, these programs are not always as accurate or complete as a human analysis. Also, most

programs do have an accurate risk aversion assessment. The risk aversion takes a look at how "risky" your portfolio is. The younger a person is when they start their portfolio, the more risk should be applied to that portfolio. The closer to retirement the investor gets, however, more and more of their investments should be applied to "safe" investments, such as bonds. The safe investments do not have the potential to grow as much, but will grow more steadily then the high-risk investments could. The risk aversion will also take into account the amount of risk a client is willing to have to their portfolio. If your risk aversion is high, for example, you will choose to move most of your money into safer bonds. Risk aversion is different for everyone. The second part of the assessment is to analyze your returns. This report will give the investor a good idea of how their portfolio is doing, where it is going, and how long it will take to mature. Some specialists will also study your portfolio to find out the recovery period from a bad market of the current portfolio, which also gives insight into the quality of the portfolio. It is possible for a lot to change in the market on a daily basis, so it is important to keep track of your investments and your portfolio. Do not let your portfolio fall into disrepair; make sure to run an analysis on your investment periodically to make sure all of your stocks, bonds, and other investments are still sound. 51

Once the analysis is complete, an investor will have a good idea of which of your investments are sound, which are good, and which need to be changed. This will help the investor to make smart choices now, and avoid costly mistakes in the future. Although your portfolio may appear sound, it may need a few tweaks to be making you the most money it can make The main aim of portfolio analysis is to give a caution direction to the risk and return of an investor on portfolio. Individual securities have risk return characteristics of their own. Therefore, portfolio analysis indicates the future risk and return in holding of different individual instruments. The portfolio analysis has been highly successful in tracing the efficient portfolio. Portfolio analysis considers the determination of future risk and return in holding various blends of individual securities. An investor can sometime reduce portfolio risk by adding another security with greater individual risk than any other security in the portfolio. Portfolio analysis is mainly depending on Risk and Return of the portfolio.. The portfolio’s expected holding period value relative is simply a weighted average of the expected value relative of its component securities. Using current market value as weights, the expected return of a portfolio is simply a weighted average of the expected return of the securities comprising that portfolio. The weights are equal to the proportion of total funds invested in each security.

Tradition security analyses recognize the key importance of risk and return to the investor. However, direct recognition of risk and return in portfolio analysis seems very much a “seat-of-thepants” process in the traditional approaches, which rely heavily upon intuition and insight. The result of these rather subjective approaches to portfolio analysis has, no doubt, been highly successfully in many instances. The problem is that the methods employed do not readily lend themselves to analysis by others. Most traditional method recognizes return as some dividend receipt and price appreciations aver a forward period. But the return for individual securities is not always over the same common holding period nor are he rates of return necessarily time adjusted. An analyst may well estimate future earnings and P/E to derive future price. He will surely estimate the dividend. But he may not discount the value to determine the acceptability of the return in relation to the investor’s requirements. A portfolio is a group of securities held together as investment. Investments invest their funds in a portfolio of securities rather than in a single security because they are risk averse. By constructing a portfolio, investors attempt to spread risk by not putting all their eggs into one basket. Thus diversification of one’s holding is intended to reduce risk in investment. Most investor thus tends to invest in a group of securities rather than a single security. Such a group 52

of securities held together as an investment is what is known as a portfolio. The process of creating such a portfolio is called diversification. It is an attempt to spread and minimize the risk in investment. This is sought to be achieved by holding different types of securities across different industry groups. Portfolio Selection: Portfolio analysis provides the input for the next phase in portfolio management, which is portfolio selection. The proper goal of portfolio construction is to generate a portfolio that provides the highest returns at a given level of risk. A portfolio having this characteristic is known as an efficient portfolio. The inputs from portfolio analysis can be used to identify the set of efficient portfolios. From this set of efficient portfolios the optimum portfolio has to be selected for investment. Harry Markowitz portfolio theory provides both the conceptual framework and analytical tools for determining the optimal portfolio in a disciplined and objective way such as commission and brokerage.. 1. Intrinsic difficulty: Portfolio revision is a difficult and time-consuming exercise. The methodology to be followed for portfolio revision is also not clearly established. Different approaches may be adopted for the purpose. The difficulty of carrying out portfolio revision itself may act as a restriction to portfolio revision. 2. Taxes: Tax is payable on the capital gains arising from sale of securities. Usually, long term capital

gains are taxed at a lower than short-term capital gains. To qualify as long-term capital gain, a security must be held by an investor for a period not less than 12 months before sale. Frequent sales of securities in the course of periodic portfolio revision of adjustment will result in short-term capital gains which would be taxed at a higher rate compared to long-term capital gains. The higher tax on shortterm capital gains may act as a constraint to frequent portfolios. ADVANTAGES OF PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT: A. 1. Identify Lagging Assets One of the main benefits of analysis is showing an investor how his assets stack up. By dividing his assets into certain categories, such as asset class, and subdividing these categories further into groups such as industry, the investor can identify which of his holdings are performing better and which are lagging behind. This allows him to prune his portfolio appropriately. B. 2. Provide Historical Context A portfolio analysis will generally break down the investor's holdings over time, showing how the assets have performed over the course of various years. This is most often demonstrated graphically. The advantage of this method is to allow the investor to match his portfolio against changes in the broader economy. For example, if his assets performed well during a boom, but fell during a

recession, he may want to purchase assets less affected by economic ups and downs. C. 3. Benchmark Performance It's difficult to measure the performance of a portfolio without knowing the performance of other comparable groups of assets, with which the portfolio can be compared. For this reasons, a portfolio analysis will generally include a comparison of the performance of the portfolio with a number of different indexes over time, such as the Dow Jones Industrial Average, the S & P 500, or a well-regarded mutual fund. D. 4. Calculate Risk A good portfolio analysis will also attempt to identify the relative risk of any investor's portfolio. For example, if a large amount of an investor's holdings are tied up in low-rated bonds, a portfolio analysis may identify his as susceptible to a severe depreciation of his assets. By turns, if the investor has concentrated most of his holdings in conservative mutual funds, the analysis may show that he could stand to take on some more risk, so as to improve his potential upside. E. Conclusion: Finally, a risk analysis will generally identify areas in which he has concentrated his holdings, giving him an idea of where he is financially exposed. For example, if a large percentage of the portfolio is composed of assets that hinge upon a high interest rate for performance, such as certain types of interest rate derivatives or variable-rate bonds, he 53

could be exposed if the interest rate were to

experience a severe drop 1

8. Employee Perception Survey- A Effective tool for an Entrepreneur in a current scenario
*Shubha N, ** Prof S.A Vasantha Kumara., ***Ms Reena Y.A *PG Student, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, DSCE, Bangalore-78 **Associate Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, DSCE, Bangalore-78 ***Lecturer, Industrial Engineering and Management, DSCE, Bangalore-78 *, **, ***  commitment by identifying the root causes of workplace Abstract— Entrepreneur need to work hard in present attitudes. And further providing the information about the challenging facets to be a successful entrepreneur, which extent to which employees are passionate about their work, requires understanding of how employees pursue about their and commitment of the employees towards their organization employer, therefore Employee Perception Survey (EPS) is an personally. Listening to employees' insight and suggestions for employee attitude survey that provides an important view of improvement provides the entrepreneur with valuable organization through the attitudes of test, organization’s interpretation. employees. This survey allows employees to give honest, confidential input about their job and their organization. I. INTRODUCTION This discreet feedback acts as a powerful tool for Entrepreneurship is the act of being an understanding and meeting employee needs. Employees that entrepreneur, are satisfied and motivated perform better, which can be defined as "one who undertakes promoting customer loyalty and there by leading for betterment innovations, finance and business acumen in an effort to transform of the innovations into economic goods". This may result in entrepreneur. The EPS defines for management, new in detail, organizations or may be part of revitalizing mature employee needs and concerns. The EPS gives organizations in response to a perceived opportunity. The employees the opportunity to evaluate the organization for which most they work obvious form of entrepreneurship is that of starting through numerical ratings, as well as open-ended new freebusinesses (referred as Startup Company); however, in response questions. recent Key words: years, the term has been extended to include social and political forms of entrepreneurial activity. When Employee Perception Survey (EPS), hypothesis entrepreneurship is describing activities within a firm or 54

information that can be acted upon to increase large employees’ organization it is referred to as intra-preneurship satisfaction in the workplace. Further by conducting and may include corporate venturing, when large entities spin- hypothesis test- the results will allow the entrepreneurs in off scrutinizing and further boosting their organizational organizations. productivity and motivating the employees of various cadres Employee surveys are an important and popular toolin that his/her organization. There by providing effective tool for organizations use to solicit employee feedback. measuring and enhancing relationship of employee and Employee employer in the organization. attitude survey and graphical interpretation of the Perception is defined as the process by which people survey organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order provides a way to improve levels of productivity and to give meaning to the world around them [1]. Perception is basically how each individual views the world . around them. What one perceives can be very different from actually reality [1]. The perception of one person will vary greatly from that of another person. Perception can have a huge impact on an organization's behavior in whole. Employee perception surveys can boost the morale of the employees of those who may not have many other opportunities to confidentially express their views. Employee attitude surveys provide a way to improve levels of productivity and commitment by identifying the root causes of workplace attitudes. Employee satisfaction surveys allow for increased productivity, job satisfaction, and loyalty by identifying the root causes of employee satisfaction and targeting these areas. Employee perception surveys measure the extent to which employees are passionate about their work and emotionally committed to their company and to their coworkers. Organizations may also benefit by conducting a more comprehensive organizational assessment survey. Listening to employees' insights and suggestions for improvement provides the organization with valuable information that can be acted upon to increase satisfaction in the workplace. The information from these surveys will allow you to boost organizational productivity and positively affect


Employee Perception Survey-A Effective Tool for an Entrepreneur in a current scenario


your organization's top and bottom lines. This is very  Strengthening supervision. effective tool for measuring and ultimately improving  Evaluating customer-service issues. various relationships within organizations.  Assessing training needs. also alleviate absenteeism and stress, address issues An employee perception survey reveals the of entrepreneur about their various facets of bullying and harassment and accurately identify employees’ workplace attitude towards the organization. Perception is psychosocial risk factors [3][4]. EPS have been in reality, existence because employees at every organization act on the since the early 1900s [5]. Developed initially by basis industrial of their perceptions, management must be keenly psychologists, EPS was traditionally underpinned by aware of extensive statistical analyses. This enabled employees' views. Carrying out an employee organizations to perception be confident that the instruments they were using survey delivers a successful means of measuring were and accurate and assessed stable employee opinions and acting upon employees' current beliefs on many perceptions, rather than transient feelings and jobthoughts [4]. related subjects. Understanding and working with In other words, the results are the same irrespective of employees will show improvements in motivation what and time period employees are surveyed and are not retention across the organization. Surveys can be distorted by carried any external factors. out online or as paper based documents and tailored Though many researchers have proposed many to the tools needs of the organization. Employees that are for employee perception measures they could not satisfied and address all motivated perform better, leading to improved the aspects of employee perception. In this context company the loyalty. The EPS defines for management, in proposed method assumes special significance. detail, employee needs and concerns. Employee satisfaction is II. BENEFITS OF EPS TO THE ENTERPRENEUR IN improved when needs are met and concerns are THE shared CURRENT SCENARIO openly. The EPS gives employees the opportunity to The following are the some of the benefits of EPS: evaluate the organization for which they work through  Identifying cost-saving opportunities. numerical ratings, as well as open-ended free Improving productivity. response  Reducing turnover. questions. Costs are dependent on size of  Curbing absenteeism. organization and extent of survey. Employee perception surveys are widely used for gathering and assimilating HR-related data in companies and agencies of all sizes across the world [2]. They have the potential to improve dramatically workplace environments and can be used to identify emerging hotspots and mitigate the downside of organizational change initiatives. They can 56

 Streamlining communication.  Benchmarking the organization’s progress in relation to the industry.  Gauging employees' understanding of, and agreement with, the company mission.  Assisting to understand your position with Investors in People reaccreditation. III. FACTORS LEADING TO EMPLOYEE PERCEPTION These are some critical factors which lead to Employee Perception. Some of them identified are: FIGURE 1: FACTORS LEADING TO EMPLOYEE PERCEPTION [6].

Career Development- Opportunities for Personal Development Organizations with high level of commitment provide employees with opportunities to develop their abilities, learn new skills, acquire new knowledge and realize their potential. Leadership- Clarity of Company Values Employees need to feel that the core values for which their companies stand are unambiguous and clear. Leadership – Respectful Treatment of Employees Successful organizations show respect for each employee’s qualities and contribution regardless of their job level. Leadership – Company’s Standards of Ethical Behavior A company’s ethical standards also lead to engagement of an individual.


mployee Perception Survey-A Effective Tool for an Entrepreneur in a current scenario



QUESTIONNAIRES TABLE I: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRES Employee Perception Survey-A Effective Tool for an Entrepreneur in a current scenario NOTE: SD D N Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral A SA Agree Strongly Agree

V. HOW TO MEASURE EMPLOYEE PERCEPTION? Step I: Listen The employer must listen to his employees and remember that this is a continuous process. The information employee’s supply will provide direction. This is the only way to identify their specific concerns. When leaders listen, employees respond by becoming more perceived. This results in increased productivity and employee retention. Perceived employees 58

are much more likely to be satisfied in their positions, remain with the company, be promoted, and strive for higher levels of performance. Step II: Measure current level of employee perception. Employee perception needs to be measured at regular intervals in order to track its contribution to the success of the organization. But measuring the perception (feedback through surveys) without planning how to handle the result can lead employees to disengage. It is therefore not enough to feel the pulse—the action plan is just as essential. Step II1: - Identify the problematic areas. Identify the problem areas to see which are the exact areas, which lead to turn over of employees. Step IV: Take action to improve employee perception by acting upon the problematic areas. Nothing is more discouraging to employees than to be asked for their feedback and see no movement toward resolution of their issues. Even the smallest actions taken to address concerns will let the staff know how their input is valued. Feeling valued will boost morale, motivate and encourage future input. Taking action starts with listening to employee feedback and a definitive action plan will need to be put in place finally. VI. ANALYSIS AND RESULT The questionnaires which are designed in EPS are divided into 3 categories. i.e. 1. Perception of the employee before joining. 2. Perception in the current working situation. 3. Perception of the expectation from the organization. Reliability test carried on EPS Questionnaires.  Construct level reliability measures.  Correlation of the latent variables.  Reliability measures for whole instrument.


Employee Perception Survey-A Effective Tool for an Entrepreneur in a current scenario


According to the reliability measures,  Composite reliability for the different level of the perception of the employee is as given in the Table I, is high in all levels.  Average Variance Extracted (AVE) is high compared to the current situation and alpha is also high in all 3 levels.  Reliability measure for the whole instrument is also high and hence the reliability of the perception measurement tool is high. VII. CONCLUSION Using EPS Tool consistently helps the entrepreneur to determine employee’s attitude towards their organization which in turn helps in detecting the factors effecting productivity, employee- motivation, turnover rate, work satisfaction etc. Employee Perception lies in the hands of an organization and requires a perfect blend of time, effort, commitment and investment to craft a successful endeavor. REFERENCES [1] Research Paper # 93706 ―Perception and Decision Making‖. [2] Kraut, A. I. (1996). Organizational surveys: Tools for assessment and change. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco [3] Carr, J.Z., Schmidit, A.M., Ford, K. & DeShon, R.P. (2003). Climate perceptions matter: A meta-analytic path analysis relating molar climate, cognitive and affective states and individual level work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88:4, pp. 605-619. [4] Cotton, P. (2003). Using employee opinion to improve people outcomes, Australian Government Comcare, March 2005. [5] Reichers, A.E. & Schneider, B. (1990). Climate and

Figure III: Snapshot of the Survey questionnaires. The figure III shows the sample snapshot of the


After getting the feedbacks on EPS questionnaires from 25 employees of a concern, the reliability measures of the data are as following: Table I: Construct level reliability measures Construct Composite AVE Cronbach Reliability Alpha Before 0.94227 0.529685 0.928998 Current 0.901247 0.28163 0.863066 Future 0.936817 0.551676 0.923944 Table II: Correlation of the latent variables Correlations Before Current Future Before 0.599 0.528 Current 0.284

Table III: Reliability measures for whole instrument Construct Composite AVE Cronbach Reliability Alpha Perception 0.954775 0.312036 0.949381

Note: AVE – Average variance Extracted. The reliability a measure was carried by the software 60

called ―visualPLS‖. Table I shows the construct level reliability measures for three different constructs. Table II shows the correlation of the latent variables. i.e. for current and before correlation is 0.599 and for future and before is 0.528. Table III shows the reliability measure for whole instrument.

culture: An evolution of constructs. In B. Schneider (Ed.), Organizational climate and culture. [6] Nitin Vazirani Dean in OB and HR SIES College of Management Studies Nerul- Employee Engagement WPS05. [7]Simon Kettleborough Performance Through Inclusion ―Capturing employee perception. [8] Steve Crabtree – (2004) Getting personnel in the work place – Are negative relationships squelching productivity in your company? – Gallup Management Journal, June 10, 2004. [9] Glenda Goodin, Terry Goodin "Thinking Like an Entrepreneur-The Secret Ingredients of Successful Problem Based Learning Modules"Middle Tennessee State University, USASBE_2011_Proceedings-Page0403. [10]David B. Audretsch and Doga Kayalar-Erdem ―Determinants of Scientist Entrepreneurship: An Integrative Research Agenda‖. nd [11]Dan Remenyi Proceedings of the 2 European Conference on ― Entrepreneurship and Innovation‖

*Mohammed Ziaulla, ** S A Vasantha kumara, *** G. Mahendra *M.Tech (MEM) student, Dept of Industrial Engineering & Management,DSCE, Bangalore – 78 Email:, Contact no: 9535089229 **Associate Professor, Dept of Industrial Engineering & Management,DSCE, Bangalore – 78, E-Mail: *** HR Manager, Bombay Rayon Fashions Limited, Bangalore

Abstract - The unpredictable economic environment has forced organizations to include and facilitate best management practices as one of the important tool to win over its employees so as to recruit & retain the skilled & talented resources over the competitive edge. One of the important problems faced by the organization is in selecting the right candidate from the pool of applicants, motivating employees and also retaining the right kind of employee celebrities in the organization. Companies are forced to function in a world of change and complexity and hence it is more important to have the right employees in order to survive the surrounding competition. Recruitment plays a very crucial role and can be used as a proactive tool in retaining employees by selecting the most stable applicant with a relevant job profile. High turnover affect company in negative way and retention strategies should be high on agenda. One strategy doesn’t fit across all the organizations to recruit and retain employees. Many of the techniques, practices have to be tailored in accord to the organizations culture. Work profile is another major constituent of job satisfaction and motivation. The best practice applied to cultivate a better fostering environment has to be an integral part of the organization so as to meet the employee’s expectation.

Company sells its products to other textile manufacturers, exporters as well as retailers. The Company has 32 manufacturing facilities across India with a total capacity to manufacture 220 million meters of fabric per annum, while the garment manufacturing facilities stands at 88.80 million pieces per annum. The Company's fabric that is manufactured is used for captive consumption and sold in the domestic market, as well as exported to Middle East and European countries. During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010 (fiscal 2010), the Company commenced commercial production of its manufacturing facilities of yarn dyeing, weaving, processing at Tarapur and garmenting at Ichalkaranji, Islampur, Latur and Osmanabad. Bombay rayon group has fashion fabrics manufacturing units in New Mumbai, Silvassa, Sonale and Bangalore. The company has ultra modern facilities for product development, design studio and efficient sampling infrastructure to provide quality service to its customers in India and abroad. Bombay Rayon Fashions Limited, together with its subsidiaries, engages in the manufacture and sale of fabrics and apparels. It offers cotton fabrics and cotton fabrics mixed with manmade fibers under the Bombay Rayon brand name to garment manufacturers and retailers. The company’s apparel collections include casual and formal wear for men, women, boys, and girls. Bombay Rayon Fashions also provides various accessories, including buttons. In addition, the company involves in wholesale marketing and distribution of clothing products. Further, it operates approximately 15 retail stores/outlets under the brand name Guru and 9 franchises in Spain, Italy, the Netherlands, and Dubai. It operates in India, The Middle East, Europe, and

Keywords – Motivation, Recruitment, Retention, Skills, Talent.

Bombay Rayon Fashions Limited (BRFL) is an India based company. The Company is an integrated textile company, engaged in the manufacture, export and retailing of high-end designer range of fabrics and garments. The

the United States. The company was founded in 1986 and is headquartered in Mumbai, India.

Year key Events 1986 Bombay Rayon Private Limited, the first company of Bombay Rayon Group incorporated for undertaking the business of manufacture of woven fabric 1990 Start of manufacturing facilities for woven fabric at Navi Mumbai by BRPL 1992 BRFL incorporated for undertaking the business of manufacture of woven fabric 1998 Start of manufacturing facilities for woven fabric at Sonale in Thane district by BRFL 1998 Fabric export started in the Group. B R Exports was formed for undertaking this business segment 2003 group turnover reaches Rs. 100 crores. * Start of Group's Silvassa unit for manufacture of woven fabric under Reynold Shirting Private Limited * Garment manufacturing for exports started in the Group. Garden City Clothing was formed for undertaking this business 2004 * Decided to set up an integrated facility of yarn dyeing, weaving, process house and garment manufacturing at the apparel park in Doddaballapura near Bangalore * Awarded contact to Gherzi Eastern Limited for technical appraisal of the Expansion Project * Land allotment by KIADB at the apparel park being developed in Doddaballapura near Bangalore 2005 * Consolidation of business of companies and firms of the Promoters *Group turnover crosses Rs. 140 crores *Company ventures into home furnishing and made ups


Our Company was incorporated as Mudra Fabrics Private Limited (MFL) on May 21, 1992. On October 13, 1992 the Company was converted into a public limited company. Subsequently, on September 30, 2004, name of the Company was changed to Bombay Rayon Fashions Limited (BRFL). In March 2005, with a view to consolidate business of our Group, Bombay Rayon Private Limited (BRPL) was amalgamated with MFL Company and two partnership firms of the Group, i.e., B R Exports and Garden City Clothing were taken over by BRPL and MFL respectively

The Bombay Rayon Group

The Bombay Rayon Group started in 1986 with the incorporation of BRPL. The Group is in the textile industry having facilities for manufacture of fabrics, garments, design development, sampling etc. Presently, the Group is engaged in carrying out the activities of manufacture of fabrics for domestic sale and export and manufacture of garments for export. The Bombay Rayon Group was promoted by Mr. Janardan Agrawal. Subsequently Mr. Aman Agrawal and Mr. Prashant Agarwal, sons of Mr. Janardan Agrawal joined the Group and are now in charge of the management of the company as well as our Group companies. Key Events in the history of the Bombay Rayon Group / BRFL.

*Incorporates a Wholly Owned Subsidiary at Almere, the Netherlands * EXIM Bank acquired equity in the company.. This was the first time that EXIM Bank has acquired an equity stake in an Indian Company on preferential basis 2007- Bombay Rayon Fashions Ltd bought LNJ Apparels, a unit of Rajasthan Spinning & Weaving Mills Ltd, for a sum of Rs 25.50 crore.

objective, recruitment helps to create a pool of prospective employees for the organization so that the management can select the right candidate. The main challenge in this is competitive global world and increasing flexibility in the labour market, recruitment is becoming more and more important in every business. Therefore, recruitment serves as the first step in fulfilling the needs of organisations for a competitive, motivated and flexible human resource that can help achieve its objectives.their culture do more in order to retain their employees? Or even more important, what do employees want from their employer in order to feel committed and prefer to stay. There may be a difference between how employers try to retain employees with respect to how employees actually would prefer to be retained by their employers and this causes a gap in developing strategies to retain employees.

III RECRUITMENT IN GARMENT INDUSTRY The Garment Industry is standing on the substratum of Fashion Industry. Fashion apparel is nothing but clothing that is in style at a particular time. The concept of fashion implies a process of style change, because fashions in garment have taken very different forms at different times in history. This has led to an increase in demand of candidates with higher productivity and efficiency and enhanced design capabilities with expertise in garment manufacturing to help increase in productivity. They should not have a sense of creativity, but also a passion to excel in this industry. It is a demanding sector that requires a combination of diligence as well as skill. India has a mature garment industry which in turn ensures that India has a vast body of trained manpower. We have an exclusive database on key personnel in each area, from merchandising, design and manufacturing, import-export government regulations, freight and shipments. Recruitment is an important part of an organization’s human resource planning and their competitive strength. Competent human resources at the right positions in the organisation are a vital resource and can be a core competency or a strategic advantage for it. The objective of the recruitment process is to obtain the number and quality of employees that can be selected in order to help the organization to achieve its goals and objectives. With the same

III. IV EMPLOYEE RETENTION IN GARMENT INDUSTRY Employee Retention involves taking measures to encourage employees to remain in the organization for the maximum period of time. Corporate is facing a lot of problems in employee retention these days. Hiring knowledgeable people for the job is essential for an employer. But retention is even more important than hiring. There is no dearth of opportunities for a talented person. There are many organizations which are looking for such employees. If a person is not satisfied by the job he’s doing, he may switch over to some other more suitable job. In today’s environment it becomes very important for organizations to retain their employees. The top organizations are on the top because they value their employees and they know how to keep them glued to the organization.

Employees stay and leave organizations for some reasons. The reason may be personal or professional. These reasons should be understood by the employer and should be taken care of. The organizations are becoming aware of these reasons and adopting In this section we are going to study about various topics related to employee retention, why is it needed, basic practices, myths, etc. in detail

Work profile is another major constituent of job satisfaction and motivation. The best practice applied to cultivate a better fostering environment has to be an integral part of the organization so as to meet the employee’s expectation. Study was conducted at BRFL. It was found that there were noticeable attrition and hence continuous recruitment process was inevitable. Instrument was designed for the workers to query the recruitment process and working condition in the factory, further the supervisors were also questioned about the relationship with the workers, and their opinion in the improving relationship. This paper gives a proposal of the study. The outcome of the study should through light on major issues and hence recommend the management for the corrective actions • • During the survey separate questions were asked for workers and the staff of BRFL. Two rounds of survey have been done to know the basic criteria of retention in the industry. VI CONCLUSION


The unpredictable economic environment has forced organizations to include and facilitate best management practices as one of the important tool to win over its employees so as to recruit & retain the skilled & talented resources over the competitive edge. One of the important problems faced by the organization is in selecting the right candidate from the pool of applicants, motivating employees and also retaining the right kind of employee celebrities in the organization. Companies are forced to function in a world of change and complexity and hence it is more important to have the right employees in order to survive the surrounding competition. Recruitment plays a very crucial role and can be used as a proactive tool in retaining employees by selecting the most stable applicant with a relevant job profile. High turnover affect company in negative way and retention strategies should be high on agenda. One strategy doesn’t fit across all the organizations to recruit and retain employees. Many of the techniques, practices have to be tailored in accord to the organizations culture.

Finally we can conclude that there should be a proper communication channel between the workers and the staff of the garment industry and even there is a need of bonding system between the management and the workers and the staff. By means of bonding system we can reduce the attrition rate in the garment industry.


[1] Sources for the data quoted: (a) World Investment Report, 2002 by U.N.C.T.A.D. (b) http: / / gaia / global02. [2] Sources for data used in this section are: ( a ) Oxfam Hong Kong Briefing Paper, April, 2004: Turning The Garment Industry Inside Out. ( b ) Behind The Brand Names, I.C.F.T.U. [3] References for the history of the garment industry discussed in this section are: (a) ‘Women In The Global Factory’ by Annette Fuentes & Barbara Ehrenrich, 1983, South End Press, U.S.A., Cornerstone Publication, India. [4] Birnbaum (2000): ‘Birnbaum’s Global Guide To Winning The Great Garment War’, Hong

Kong, Third Horizon Press. Descriptions of activities of Lee & Fung and other trading companies can be had at ‘World Investment Report 2002 [5] Quoted in the report to the Indian Parliament by central minister Sankar Singh Baghela on December 17, 2004, from ‘Cost Benchmarking Study: India vis a vis Bangladesh, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, China, & Pakistan’ by Cotton Textile Export Promotion Council, India. [6] Ballesteros Rodriguez, Sara “Talents: The Key for Successful Organizations” (2010)

Anju. S. B*, Dr. H. Ramakrishna**, Kaushik. M. K ***
* PG Student, Department Of Industrial Engineering and Management, DSCE, Bangalore-78, India **Professor & Head, Department of Industrial Engineering & Management, DSCE, Bangalore-78, India. *** Manager, HDFC SLIC, Bangalore-68, India.


Employees are the basis of every A study of the employee


satisfaction at company is carried out to assess the employee satisfaction level in present

competitive environment of Industry to help knowing and reading of the minds of the current generation Company atmosphere, professionals Culture, regarding their Work Job

An organization focuses all their energy on customer service and their satisfaction. At the same time it is important not to lose sight of people who deliver the end product or service to the customers – the employees. These are the people who deliver the service to the customers. The organization will only thrive and survive when its employees are satisfied.

Compensation, support,


satisfaction, performance appraisal and Career

Keeping morale high among workers can be of tremendous benefit to any company, as happy workers will be more likely to produce more, take fewer days off, and stay loyal to the company.

Employee satisfaction has been defined as a function of performance delivered and expectations met. It is a persons’ feeling of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing an outcome to his/her expectations. If the performance falls short of expectations, the employee is dissatisfied and if it matches the expectations, the employee is satisfied. A high satisfaction implies improvement in efficiency and performance doing work or service. It is more important for any organization to offer high satisfaction, as it reflects high loyalty and it will not lead to switching over once a better offer comes in.

growth opportunities. Keywords: Job satisfaction, Working conditions, Company culture, Performance appraisal, Career growth.

Employee satisfaction is paramount as this is what will determine the success or failure of a company. When employees are satisfied and happy about working in an organization, the customer is the first person to notice that. Raises and bonuses can seriously affect employee

A. Introduction:

satisfaction, and should be given when possible. Though money cannot solve all morale issues, and if a company with widespread problems for workers cannot improve their overall environment, a bonus may be quickly forgotten as the daily stress of an unpleasant job continues to mount.

The "Employee satisfaction” is the terminology used to describe whether employees are happy and contented and fulfilling their desires and needs at work.

If possible, provide amenities to your workers to improve morale. Make certain they have a comfortable, clean break room with basic necessities such as running water. Keep facilities such as bathrooms clean and stocked with supplies.

is too late and the employee makes the decision to quit. This understanding gives the employers an edge and gives them the time to take corrective measures if necessary, in order to prevent talent loss. It could be that the employee is not happy with the environment or is suffering from a relationship issue with a colleague or a superior. These issues need to be handled before they get out of hand. Employee satisfaction mapping can be the key to a better motivated and loyal workforce that leads to better organizational output in the form of better products and services and results in overall improvement of an organization. If a person is not satisfied by the job he is doing, he may switch over to some other more suitable job. In today’s environment it becomes very important for organizations to retain their employees. The organizations are becoming aware and adopting many strategies for employee retention.
B. Need for study:

One of the best ways to maintain employee satisfaction is to make workers feel like part of a family or team. Holding office events, such as parties or group outings, can help build close bonds among workers. Basic considerations like these can cared for by their employers. The backbone of employee satisfaction is respect for workers and the job they perform. In every interaction with management, employees should be treated with courtesy and interest. An easy avenue for employees to discuss problems with upper management should be maintained and carefully monitored. Even if management cannot meet all the demands of employees, showing workers that they are being heard and putting honest dedication into compromising will often help to improve morale. Satisfaction being a continuous process starts from the day 1 and gets reinforced with time depending on the importance of the various factors considered to be important for the individual employee. Loyalty towards the organization starts to develop when the employee continues to get the positive reinforcements on various important aspects for the duration of the employment. It becomes important to be aware and understand the signals that are given out by the employees. The management should do well to catch them before it improve

employee satisfaction, as workers will feel well

The study of "employee satisfaction" helps the company to maintain standards & increase productivity by motivating the employees. This study tells us how much the employees are capable & their interest at wok place. What are the things still to be satisfy to the employees. Although "human resources" are the most important resources for any organization, so to study on employee’s satisfaction helps to know the working conditions & the things that affect them not to work properly. Always majority of work is carried out by the machines/equipments but without any manual

moments nothing can be done. So to study on employee satisfaction is necessary.
C. Problem statement:

Findings can also be considered to assess the training needs of the employees

To assess the satisfaction level of Employees on various work related aspects and provide suggestion for improving the same as a way of tangible expression of concern of employers towards their employee’s welfare and well being.

E. Methodology:

The methodology followed for conducting the study includes the specification of, questionnaire design,
TABLE I GENDER AND LEVEL OF SATISFACTION Level of Satisfaction Very satisfied Male 8 Somewhat satisfied 25 Neutral Somewhat Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied 1 Total

D. Objectives of study:

To identify the various Employee satisfaction





data collection and statistical tools used for analyzing the collected data. To study the level of satisfaction from various job related aspects Likert scaling techniques has been used for each question. To study the inter-relationship between job aspects and level of satisfaction 1. Strongly agree 2. Agree 3. Neutral 4. Disagree 5. Strongly disagree
F. Sample constituents:

1. Officer/Director/Manager/Supervisor-29 2. Professional-4 3. Sales Representative-10 4. Administrative Support- 2 5. Group Leader-1 6. Customer Service-4
G. Tools of Analysis:


Null hypothesis: The association between the gender of the respondents and their level of satisfaction


Level of Satisfaction Very satisfied Somewhat satisfied 16 Neutral Somewhat Dissatisfied 0 Very dissatisfied 3

towards job is significant.





Chi-Square Test: Chi-square test is applied to test the goodness of fit, to verify the distribution of observed data with assumed theoretical distribution. Therefore it is a measure to study the divergence of actual and expected frequencies; Karl Pearson’s has developed a method to test the difference between the theoretical (hypothesis) & the observed value. Chi – square test (X2) = (O – E) 2 / E Degrees Of Freedom = V = (R – 1) (C -1) Where, ‘O’ = Observed Frequency ‘E’ = Expected Frequency ‘R’ = Number of Rows ‘C’ = Number of Columns For all the chi-square test the table value has taken @ 5% level of significance.

As the calculated Chi-square (14.2654) is greater than the table value (9.488) at 5% level of significance for 4 degrees of freedom, the null hypothesis is rejected and it can be concluded that the association between the gender of the respondents and their level of satisfaction towards job is not significant Education of the respondents and the level of satisfaction towards job The education-wise classification of the sample respondents and their level of satisfaction towards their job are given in Table 2. In order to find out the association between the gender of the respondents and their level of satisfaction towards the job, Chi-square test is applied. Null hypothesis: The association between the education of the respondents and their level of satisfaction towards job is not significant.

The results of the analysis of the collected data are presented under different heads. Gender of the respondents and the level of satisfaction towards job The gender-wise classification of the sample respondents and their level of satisfaction towards their job are given in Table 1. In order to find out the association between the gender of the respondents and their level of satisfaction towards the job, Chi-square test is applied.

As the calculated Chi-square (4.089492) is less than the table value (9.488) at 5% level of significance for 4 degrees of freedom, the null hypothesis is accepted and it can be concluded that the association

between the education of the respondents and their level of satisfaction towards job is not significant Age group of the respondents and the level of satisfaction towards job The age-wise classification of the sample respondents and their level of satisfaction towards their job are given in Table 3. In order to find out the association between the gender of the

respondents and their level of satisfaction towards the job, Chi-square test is applied

Null hypothesis: The association between the experience of the respondents and their level of satisfaction towards job is not significant. As the calculated Chi-square (12.2094) is less than

respondents and their level of satisfaction towards the job, Chi-square test is applied Null hypothesis: The association between the age of the respondents and their level of satisfaction towards job is not significant. As the calculated Chi-square (6.2845) is less than the table value (15.507) at 5% level of significance for 8 degrees of freedom, the null hypothesis is


Level of Satisfaction Very satisfied Somewhat satisfied 4 Neutral Somewhat Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied Total

Less than 3 months 3 months toless than1 year 1 year to less than 4 year
















the table value (26.296) at 5% level of significance for 16 degrees of freedom, the null hypothesis is accepted and it can be concluded that the association between the experience of the respondents and their level of satisfaction towards job is not significant


Level of Satisfaction Very satisfied Somewhat satisfied Neutral Somewhat Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied Total

Below 25 25-30







Position of the respondents and the level of
6 16 2 1 0 25

accepted and it can be concluded that the association between the age of the respondents and their level of satisfaction towards job is not significant Experience of the respondents and the level of satisfaction towards job The experience-wise classification of the sample respondents and their level of satisfaction towards their job are given in Table 4. In order to find out the association between the gender of the

satisfaction towards job The position-wise classification of the sample respondents and their level of satisfaction towards their job are given in Table 5. In order to find out the association between the position of the respondents and their level of satisfaction towards the job, Chi-square test is applied.

Null hypothesis: The association between the position of the respondents and their level of

Maintaining good working conditions, availability of latest tools and technologies, providing proper training, arranging tours and trips, recognition from supervisors, frequency of incentives and bonuses, opportunity to work on interesting projects and


Level of Satisfaction Very satisfied Somewhat satisfied 18 Neutral Somewhat Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied Total

career growth are some of the factors that needs to be taken care of by the employers in order to maintain high level of satisfaction of employees

Officers/Director/ Manager/Supervisor Professional Sales Representative




0 4

0 5

1 2

1 1


2 12


satisfaction towards job is significant. From above study we can identify and measure the As the calculated Chi-square (24.5568) is less than the table value (31.410) at 5% level of significance for 20 degrees of freedom, the null hypothesis is accepted and it can be concluded that position and level of satisfaction is significant

various work related elements and their association with the level of satisfaction of employees, accordingly the employers should strive to work on the factors that directly affects the level of satisfaction amongst employees, thereby increasing their level of satisfaction to get higher productivity from employees as well as to contain the increasing attrition rate in an organization

In order to contain and keep a check of the attrition rate in an organization Employee Satisfaction survey should be carried out at regular intervals by the employers as a way of tangible expression of care and concern of employers towards their employee as well as to assess the training needs of employees. Though it may not be possible to meet all the expectations of an employee, sincere efforts should be made by an employer in this regard in order to maintain high morale among the employees

K. A shwathappa, “Human Resource Management” 5th Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Companies, New Delhi. S. P. Gupta:”Statistical Methods, 36th Edition, Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi. Stephen Robbins “Essential Of Organizational Behaviour” Prentice Hall International Edition

*Naveen Kumar P, ** S A Vasantha kumara, *** Darshan Godbole
* PG Student, Department Of Industrial Engineering and Management, DSCE, Bangalore-78, India **Associate Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering & Management, DSCE, Bangalore-78, India. ***Branch Manager, Wenger & Watson Inc., Bangalore-94. *,**,***

the employees

Abstract—Culture is concerned with beliefs and values on the basis of which people interpret experiences and behave, individually and in groups. The economy is always a roller coaster ride. The organization is prone to the changes of its marketing and economic environment. The trend in the organization has to be continuously monitored and balanced so as to leverage itself to survive. Culture determines the make or break of the company. The unnecessary flavours in the organization have to be removed and newer ingredients have to be introduced to achieve the desired change within the boundary of the culture. The performance, satisfaction level and incremental transitional changes don’t happen within a day and the process requires time and monitoring. Motivation and training has to be included so as to foster a comfortable organizational environment. The orchestration among the various departments, teams or individuals has to be precisely managed atleast, so the resistance to the change in the culture can be minimized. A survey was conducted in an organization to determine the impact of the organization culture on the employee performance & productivity level and also the role played by organization culture to retain the employee. Demographic parameters like gender, age and work experience were considered. The analysis of the survey suggests that the organization culture plays a very crucial role in determining the employee performance and productivity level and also contributes to understand that it has a role to play in retaining

Keywords – Culture, performance, retention



INTRODUCTION A. Culture - The foundation: Culture plays a very important role in establishing a base for the smooth functioning of the organization. Culture determines the make or break of the company. No two companies have the same culture. The most successive companies too have to change and adjust their culture with the time so as to manage and sustain itself in the ongoing competition around. Culture of an organization reflects itself on the employee‟s performance and productivity. B. The environment to live: Company culture is the one that promotes and fosters a better working environment where every employee can feel a sense of life. Promoting transparency in the companies and its procedure to certain extent can really make a difference. Every employee has to be considered as an asset who can

A company may undergo several cultural changes over a period of time with the invasion of varying marketing perform and deliver a better result. Company culture is the trend, distinctive personality of the organization. It determines how economic changes, technological advancements etc. members act, how energetically they contribute to teamwork, The problem solving, innovation, customer service, productivity, culture needs to be restructured periodically and and quality. It is a company's culture that makes it safe (or appropriately so as to make a close fit for a stable not safe) for a person, division or the whole company to raise working issues and solve problems, to act on new opportunities, or to environment. move in new, creative directions. Defining a new structure or modifying the existing structure C. Emphasizing the values is not an easy task. There are several constraints The values are the core beliefs of the employees about that really their job – how they do it. The job performance is greatly downturn the restructuring ambition. The culture can affected and reflected by company‟s culture. Culture and be personality are similar. When people describe a national, structured periodicallyregional, or organizational culture they use words that can 1. One predefined structure exists in a company apply to a person like „tough or friendly‟, „supporting or and offensive‟ etc. the employees have to adjust to the existing culture II. DEFINING THE STRUCTURE 2. Based on the changes in the work management and Given to consideration, any company or every company leadership styles, the culture can be fine tuned is classified or categorized into different functional levels. to fit The culture is applicable to all the levels of the organization the chord. but may be slightly tuned to match appropriate levels. For No matter what changes are made or what styles are example, the culture may provide liberty to the management followed side where as it can act bit tough to the working level. This in the organization culture the bottom line is to may not be same across all the company but they are tailored keep accordingly. employees happy and result oriented.

The problem – Defining the new culture: Paradigm shift in the working style and in the culture is not an easy game to play on. Resistance is the one opposing force that really acts as a barricade to any cultural changes. This resistance comes from every organizations greatest asset – “Employees”. Keeping the employees satisfied is not an easy task to handle. Motivation is also another factor that drives employee‟s performance and productivity. Organization culture has to stress more on motivating employees and should also retain their employee. If the culture can make any employee committed to their respective organizations then the culture has played a very positive influence on the employees mindset. What do employees want from their organization in order to feel committed? The primary reason for working is to obtain money (Jackson and Carter, 2007), but could employers and their culture do more in order to retain their employees? Or even more important, what do employees want from their employer in order to feel committed and prefer to stay. There may be a difference between how employers try to retain employees with respect to how employees actually would prefer to be retained by their employers and this causes a gap in developing strategies to retain employees. Job satisfaction: High levels of absenteeism and staff turnover can affect your organization. Recruitment and retraining take their toll. Few practices (in fact, few organizations) have made job satisfaction a top priority, perhaps because they have failed to understand the significant opportunity that lies in front of them. Satisfied employees tend to be more productive, creative and committed to their employers. The job of a manager in the workplace is to get things done through employees. To do this the culture should be able to

motivate employees. Motivation practice and theory are difficult subjects, touching on several disciplines. Human nature can be very simple, yet very complex too. An understanding and appreciation of this is a prerequisite to effective employee motivation in the workplace and therefore effective management and leadership style and a part of organizations [3] culture Job satisfaction is the one key factor that drives an employee to work and work. Leadership style: Is leadership style or style of managing people such an important thing? Does it influence employees in any way? Is it the culture of the organization that sprouts the leadership style? We do come across many organizations and the style they have adopted to manage people. Definitely, yes is the answer for the above questions. Organization culture plays a very important role in developing and implementing leadership style so as to manage people very effectively and efficiently and also avoid micro management and emphasize more on employee‟s welfare. Motivating employees is one of important yet uneasy task to manage along with leadership. Leadership style is a part of the organizations culture and accounts to either create a positive or negative impact on employee‟s performance level.

From these interviews Herzberg went on to develop his theory that there are two dimensions to job satisfaction: motivation and "hygiene" Hygiene issues, according to Herzberg, cannot motivate employees but can minimize dissatisfaction, if handled properly. In other words, they can only dissatisfy if they are absent or mishandled. Hygiene topics include company policies, supervision, salary, interpersonal relations and working conditions. They are issues related to the employee's environment. Motivators,

Figure 1: Organization culture & elements III. MOTIVATION THEORIES Different researchers carried out different researches on motivation applicable in general as well as for the employees. In spite of enormous research, basic as well as applied, the subject of motivation is not clearly understood and more often than not poorly practiced. To understand motivation one must understand human nature itself There are various motivating theories and practice that concentrate on various theories regarding human nature in general and motivation in particular. Included are articles on the practical aspects of motivation in the workplace and the research that has been undertaken in this field, notably by Frederick Herzberg (two factor motivation hygiene theory,) Abraham Maslow (theory z, hierarchy of needs), David McClelland (achievement motivation.)[4] A. Herzberg two factor theory In the late 1950s, Frederick Herzberg, considered by many to be a pioneer in motivation theory, interviewed a group of employees to find out what made them satisfied and dissatisfied on the job. He asked the employees essentially two sets of questions: 1. Think of a time when you felt especially good about your job. Why did you feel that way? 2. Think of a time when you felt especially bad about your job. Why did you feel that way?

on the other hand, create satisfaction by fulfilling individuals' needs for meaning and personal growth. They are issues such as achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility and advancement. Once the hygiene areas are addressed, said Herzberg, the motivators will promote job satisfaction and encourage production. B. Abraham Maslow Theory of needs: Maslow has set up a hierarchic theory of needs. All of his basic needs are instinctual, equivalent of instincts in animals. Humans start with a very weak disposition that is then fashioned fully as the person grows. If the environment is right, people will grow straight and beautiful, actualizing the potentials they have inherited. If the environment is not "right" (and mostly it is not) they will not grow tall and straight and beautiful. Maslow has set up a hierarchy of five levels of basic needs. Each stage of needs have to understood and then the motivating techniques have to be used accordingly [5]

and are no longer controlling thoughts and behaviors, the needs for security can become active. Adults have little awareness of their security needs except in times of emergency or periods of disorganization in the social structure (such as widespread rioting). Children often display the signs of insecurity and the need to be safe. Needs of Love, Affection and Belongingness When the needs for safety and for physiological well-being are satisfied, the next class of needs for love, affection and belongingness can emerge. Maslow states that people seek to overcome feelings of loneliness and alienation. This involves both giving and receiving love, affection and the sense of belonging. Needs for Esteem

Figure 2: Maslow hierarchy of needs Physiological Needs These are biological needs. They consist of needs for oxygen, food, water, and a relatively constant body temperature. They are the strongest needs because if a person were deprived of all needs, the physiological ones would come first in the person's search for satisfaction. Safety Needs When all physiological needs are satisfied

the easily attained success is not a genuine achievement. In When the first three classes of needs are high-risk projects, achievers see the outcome as one of satisfied, chance rather than one's own effort. High nAch the needs for esteem can become dominant. These individuals involve prefer work that has a moderate probability of success, needs for both self-esteem and for the esteem a person ideally a 50% chance. Achievers need regular gets feedback in from others. Humans have a need for a stable, firmly order to monitor the progress of their acheivements. based, They high level of self-respect, and respect from others. prefer either to work alone or with other high achievers. When Affiliation these needs are satisfied, the person feels self-confident Those with a high need for affiliation (nAff) and need valuable as a person in the world. When these needs harmonious relationships with other people and need to are feel frustrated, the person feels inferior, weak, helpless accepted by other people. They tend to conform to the and norms worthless. of their work group. High nAff individuals prefer work Needs for Self-Actualization that When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, provides significant personal interaction. They perform then well and only then are the needs for self-actualization in customer service and client interaction situations. activated. Power Maslow describes self-actualization as a person's need to A person's need for power (nPow) can be one of be two and do that which the person was "born to do." "A types - personal and institutional. Those who need musician personal must make music, an artist must paint, and a poet power want to direct others, and this need often is must perceived write." These needs make themselves felt in signs of as undesirable. Persons who need institutional power restlessness. The person feels on edge, tense, lacking (also something, in short, restless. If a person is hungry, known as social power) want to organize the efforts of unsafe, others not loved or accepted, or lacking self-esteem, it is very to further the goals of the organization. Managers with a easy high to know what the person is restless about. It is not need for institutional power tend to be more effective always than clear what a person wants when there is a need for those with a high need for personal power. selfactualization. C. David Mcclellands motivation theory [ d/] David McClelland proposed that an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences. Most of these needs can be classed as achievement, affiliation, or power. A person's motivation and effectiveness in certain job functions are influenced by these three needs. McClelland's theory sometimes is referred to as the three need theory or as the learned needs theory. Achievement People with a high need for achievement (nAch) seek to excel and thus tend to avoid both low-risk and highrisk situations. Achievers avoid low-risk situations because

retaining its employees? The motivation theory has to be practically implemented and use to understand employee‟s mindset and try to provide job satisfaction in their domain. Job satisfaction has a direct impact on employee‟s retention in an organization. Too often employee retention is viewed as a process or function of the human resources department. Somehow there is an expectation that the recruiting staff should not only identify and hire employees, but that they should also ensure their retention through some sort of strategy or program. The reality is that employee retention is everyone's responsibility. According to experts, while most managers believe employees leave due to money issues, in actuality it is an employee‟s relationship with their supervisor that has the greatest impact on whether they stay or go. This means that not only do organizations need a performance management system that recognizes and rewards supervisors for meeting objectives that reduce employee turnover, supervisors need to understand what steps they can take to meet their responsibility in employee retention and job satisfaction [6] IV.WHAT THE STUDY WAS ABOUT? A research survey was conducted in an organization to know how the organization‟s culture has an influence on employee‟s performance and productivity level and also its influence on retaining its employees. Demography was based on gender, years of work experience and age. Questionaries: 1. Does organization culture have an influence on job performance? 2. Can the productivity level of the employee determined by company‟s culture? 3. Does employee‟s age and experience play a crucial role in adapting to company‟s culture? 4. Does organization‟s culture play a crucial role in Methodology 1. Conducting a survey 2. Collecting data 3. Applying hypothesis & Analysis Conducting a survey: As said before a survey was conducted in an organization to assess the culture and its influence on employee‟s performance. Responses were collected using five point grading scale or Likert scale. Collecting data Sources used in research can be classified into two types: primary data and secondary data. The primary data is the data collected by researcher in the intention to directly use in the study. Secondary data is the material collected and cultivated by others, often with another purpose than the one of the actual study. The practical way is to combine both

to all the employees. Every individual is different, his needs primary data and secondary data. Secondary data can are different, and his emotions, his problems are different. also be The used to analyse gathered primary data. corrective actions applied or strategy taken to account has The primary data was collected by conducting to a be appropriate to that particular organization. Culture has survey with a set of questionnaires given to to employees and be developed and structured so that the result should also for students who had just joined the company. make a The positive impact on the employee as well as on the questionnaires were common to both of them to get overall the organization. Again the leaders and their leadership varying results from experienced employee to fresh qualities employee. make a huge difference on the psychology of an The secondary data were the reference made to employee the along with culture. other research papers and journals confining to organization culture and retention strategies. V. CONCLUSION Take a look at your organization Are you doing your best Questionnaires were also added from few previous to research retain your top talent? Make sure the work place is a papers and the methodology was followed happy appropriately. Questionnaires were developed and attached to emails one, which every employee would love to spend time. and Human resources department along with senior was mailed to respondents. The participants were management presented to be anonymous so that frank opinion can be obtained must take steps to make sure of this. It not the about organizations big infrastructure and campus, it‟s all about about their organization. understanding employees and their purpose. Before a manager can think he can make lot of money, let him Analysis: The gathered data were analysed to get the actual and know to get respect from many. People feel good to a organization common problem of an employee towards their organization. Demography was based on age, gender, and work experience in an organization. only when organization feels good to them. Money is Hypothesis test used was chi square method to decide the part of questionnaires asked were valid or not. Each of the strategy to retain an employee but it is not everything questions to an was hypothesised and analysis was made to know the employee. impact of the organization culture and its importance in retaining employees. The result proved that all the questionnaires asked had the same output proving that the organization culture has an impact on the employee performance & productivity level. Corrective actions: Corrective action greatly varies from one organization to other and also from one employee to the other. It‟s the same way how one motivating technique cannot be applied

VI FIGURES [1] Organisation Culture & Elements [2] Maslow hierarchy of needs VII REFERENCES [1] Linda Lindgren, Sanna Paulson “Retention” (2008) [2] Ballesteros Rodriguez, Sara “Talents: The Key for Successful Organizations” (2010) [3] [4] [5] eachtip/maslow.htm [6] [7] [8] [9] e.htm [10] [11]Piyali Ghosh, Geetika, “Retention strategy in Indian IT industry”, Indian Journal of economics and business (Dec 2006)


Analysis on The Effectiveness Of Performance Appraisal
Asha D.B and Associate Prof. S. A. Vasantha Kumara
1 2

1 Research Scholar, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bangalore, India. 2

Associate Professor , Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bangalore, India.

Abstract Performance Appraisal is a Systematic
evaluation of the performance of the employees. It is the process of estimating or judging the value of excellence, equalities organization. With the change towards

knowledge-based capitalism, maintaining talented knowledge workers is critical. This paper describes a Comparative Study
on Effectiveness of Performance appraisal.

and status of an employee.


appraisal of employee is important in

managing the human resource of an

The objective of the study , methodology and Broad framework of analysis/ tools and

techniques to be used is highlighted. Introduction People differ in their abilities and their aptitudes. There is always some difference between the quality and quantity of the same work on the same job being done by two different people. Performance appraisals of Employees are necessary to understand each employee‟s abilities, competencies and relative merit and worth for the organization. Performance appraisal rates the employees in terms of their
performance. Performance Appraisal is a

Systematic evaluation of the performance of the employees. It is the process of estimating
or judging the value of excellence, equalities

and status of an employee and the organization to check the progress towards

the desired goals and aims. ACCORDING to Moon, C. et al. Performance appraisal of candidates in relation to a particular position, is a key task towards managing the human resources of an organization. Supervisors are concerned with performance appraisal judgments and evaluations that they have to make on their subordinates. On the other hand, subordinates are increasingly realizing the importance of performance appraisal since it would very much affect their rewards and future career path. As the world began to shift towards knowledge based capitalism, it reminds all organizations on the importance of maintaining their talented knowledge workers. Therefore, discovering and promoting the most qualified candidates is essential because valuable human expertise is the main source of competitive advantage for the organizations. Thus, the creation of performance criteria is an important requirement towards performance appraisal. Performance appraisal is usually conducted periodically within an organization to examine and discuss the work performance of subordinate so as to identify the strengths and weaknesses as well as opportunities for improvement among employees. Following this, most of the employers use the performance appraisal result to determine if a particular staff should be terminated or reinforced; as an employee development and coaching tool; to give a practical evaluation of an employee‟s readiness for promotion;

and to serve as the foundation for giving merit bonus. Literature review The following literature review was
compiled from journals and published books. The purpose of this literature review is to establish a foundation based in theory for this study. The findings of the literature

In his book, “Essentials of Organizational Behavior”, Stephen P.Robbins (1994) states, “Performance
appraisals serve a number of purposes in

review examined different aspects of performance appraisals. Performance Appraisal is increasingly considered one of the most important Human Resource practices (Boswell and Boudreau 2002). It is crucial for employees to know what is expected of them, and the yardsticks by which their performance will be assessed. Borman and Motowidlo (1993) identified two types of employee behavior related to performance appraisal. “Task Performance” and “Contextual Performance”. Task performance includes technical aspects of performance, while contextual performance includes volunteering for extra activities, completing job requirements with enthusiasm and contributing in organizational building process. Boice and Kleiner (1997) suggested that overall purpose of performance appraisal is to let an employee know how his or her performance compares with the manager‟s expectations. Performance appraisal is the system by
which a formal review of an employee‟s work performance is conducted. it is the

organizations. First, management uses appraisals for general personnel decisions such as promotions, rewards, transfers, and terminations. Second, appraisals identify training and development needs, not only for individual employees, but also the organization as a whole. Third, performance appraisals can be used to validate selection and development programs. Fourth, appraisals provide feedback to the employees on how the organization views their performance” (p.228).
Goals and objectives are methods by

which job expectations can be measured. “Managers must be able to clearly explain the differences between goals and standards to their employees so that both parties know how they will be used during the appraisal process” (Maddux, 1987, p.169). A goal is a statement of expected results in the performance appraisal process.
“Goals can describe: (1) conditions

process of evaluating the contribution of each employee in a factory or organization. “Performance appraisals are management tools that may be used to direct and control employee behavior, distribute organizational
rewards, improve performance, or employee work develop employee

that will exist at the end of a period, (2) the time frame required for the desired results and (3) the resources required to achieve the results. Goals should be established with employee participation and designed to reflect their abilities and training”(Maddux, 1987, p.170). This setting of goals and objectives is important because employees may not understand that their current behavior is not producing desired results.
In his article Succession Planning,

capabilities” (Tompkins, 1995, p.250).

Coleman (1988) states, “The performance evaluation system utilized by an agency should include an assessment of an employees potential for promotion” (p.24). Performance appraisal system gives employee‟s feedback in relation to their work performance. Without feedback, employees are left to their own opinions

regarding performance. There are two
potential concerns when employees are not

provided with timely feedback. They may feel they are performing at the department
standards, when in fact they are not. Or, they may feel their performance is substandard,

when in fact their performance is exceptional. Most employees want to do a respectable job and if their performance is
unknown to them it may add unneeded

stress. One of the biggest potential benefits of performance appraisals ,lies in the belief , that the lines of communication are further opened between the executives and the
employees.” Effective communication

possibility of subjective reviews. GomexMejia, Page and Tornow (1985) propounded four basic components which should be included while designing and evaluating the effectiveness of PAS. These components are as follows- (i) Job related appraisal form (ii) An appraisal model (iii) A support system (iv) Monitoring and tracking network. In the analysis done by them it was found that if the aforesaid features were incorporated as total package, then PAS would be most effective. Objectives of the study 1. To study and analyze the effectiveness of performance Appraisal system. 2. To know whether the employees are satisfied with the present performance appraisal system. 3. To know whether the Performance Appraisal identifies the training needs of the employees. 4. To study the impact of
Performance Appraisal in

during the performance review process can
only enhance the executive –worker relation”. Even if both parties don‟t agree on the outcome of the performance review, an

opportunity exists for the dialog. Another prospective aspect of performance appraisal is that training issues can be explored.”Training is an essential component of quality assurance it will help reduce some of the inconsistencies that may occur in ratings, and will provide a framework for executives to use in conducting performance appraisals”. If executives are not given the proper training to conduct the appraisal process , then the executives are left to their own opinions with regard to the content of the program.
The problem revealed with several

employee‟s motivation , promotion and productivity 5. To know the degree of fairness/
impartiality in performance

performance appraisal systems in existence today are: that it is extremely difficult to develop a program which is completely objective. However ,there are some long standing concerns with regards to performance appraisals. The fact is “No one is free from bias and prejudice. “The fact is that no matter how objective the performance appraisals are conducted there is always the

appraisal for promotions. 6. To study whether the incentives are directly proportionate to the performance of the employees in the organization. Scope of the study :This study focuses on employee feedback, training , motivation , productivity and also suggests new methods of Performance Appraisal. Procedures Tools for data collection The research was carried out through survey method. A well structured, close ended and

well designed questionnaire was utilized to get clear idea of respondents‟ perception. The respondents were asked to respond on „Likert Scale‟ (Five Point Scale) ranging rfrom “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree”. Feedback form Two feedback forms were developed A & B to determine the effectiveness of performance appraisal. One for Executives
(A) and the other one for Non -Executives

Data Analysis After gathering the questionnaires, the necessary data were obtained from them. Various statistical tools used in order to analyze the data, includes: 1.Descriptive statistics: Simple percentage analysis, frequency tables, and the calculation of the central indices . 2.Inferential statistics: to test the hypothesis, Z-test is used. Limitations and assumptions While not every employee was surveyed it was assumed that this random selection would represent a fairly even statistical analysis of the department overall. It is assumed that all members answered honestly and openly. Conclusion Performance appraisal is one of the important functions of HRM .it is conducted by the top management in order to assess the performance of the employee and motivate him to work better by providing the training. Performance appraisal is directly proportionate to the monetary benefits. The organization has a peaceful working environment in which the employees will be motivated to work. Employees are the biggest asset of any organization and therefore the asset has to be taken care of, to accomplish the organizational goal. The findings of the study need to be implemented on a stepwise approach within a particular timeframe for the greater success and efficiency in the performance appraisal system in the organization.

(B). The purpose of this research was to determine : the effectiveness of performance Appraisal system ,t o know whether the employees are satisfied with the present performance appraisal system, to know
whether the Performance Appraisal

identifies the training needs of the employees, to study the impact of Performance Appraisal in employee‟s motivation, promotion and productivity, to know the degree of fairness or impartiality in performance appraisal , to know what
employees think about performance

appraisal system and determining if performance appraisal system could be improved. There were two reasons for two forms. The first reason was to determine the different
views of both executives and non executives

concerning performance appraisals. The second one was to determine if there was a disparity between the two groups of respondents concerning about the amount of feedback given. Potentially the executives may feel that they are providing feedback on
a consistent basis while the workers may

feel otherwise. Sample size It is made up of 15% of Executives and 10% of Non- Executives.

References [1] Boswell, W.R. & Boudreau, J. W. (2002) Separating the development and evaluative performance appraisal uses. Journal of Business and Psychology. Vol 16, pp 391412.
[2] Borman, W. & Motowidlo, S. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include

elements of
contextual performance. In N. Schmitt & W. Borman (Eds.). Personnel Selection in

Organizations. 71-98; New York; JosseyBass. [3] Moon, C., Lee, J., Jeong, C., Lee, J., Park, S. and Lim, S. (2007), “An Implementation Case for the Performance Appraisal and Promotion Ranking”, in IEEE International Conference on System, Man and Cybernetics, 2007.

[4] Coleman, R.J. (1988,February). Succession Planning. Fire Chief, 23-26. [5] Maddux, R.B. (1987). Effective Performance Appraisals. Los Altos, CA: Crisp Publications 6] Gomex-Mejia, L. R., Page, R. C. and Tornow, W. (1985). Improving the effectiveness of performance appraisals. Personnel Journal. Vol 360 (1). pp 74-78. [7] Tompkins, T. (1995). Human Resource Management in Government. New York, NY:Harper Collins Websites praisal ppraisals.html

13. A Study on the perception of Entrepreneurs’ towards Entrepreneurship Development Programme organised by SISI Dr. B.BALAMURUGAN, PhD
Director - Hallmark Business School, (Affiliated to Anna University) Somarasempettai post - Trichy 620 102

Introduction: The concept of entrepreneurship is a complex phenomenon. Broadly, it relates to entrepreneur, his vision and its implementation. The key player is the entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship refers to a process of action an entrepreneur (person) undertakes to establish his/her enterprise. It is a creative and innovative response to the environment. Entrepreneurship is thus a cycle of actions to further the interests of the entrepreneur. In this chapter, the concept of entrepreneurship and the related issues are analyzed, discussed and deliberated One of the qualities of entrepreneurship is the ability to discover an investment opportunity and to organize an enterprise, thereby contributing to real economic growth. It involves taking of risks and making the necessary investments under conditions of uncertainty and innovating, planning and taking decisions so as to increase production in agriculture, business, industry, etc. Entrepreneurship is a composite skill, the resultant of a mix of many qualities and traits. These include imagination, readiness to take risks, ability to bring together and put to use other factors of production, capital, labor, land, as also intangible factors such as the ability to mobilize scientific and technological advances. Above all, entrepreneurship today is the product of team work and the ability to create, build and work as a team: The entrepreneur is the maestro of the business orchestra, wielding his baton to which the band is played.

Definition of an Entrepreneur:

The term "entrepreneur" is defined in a variety of ways. Yet no consensus has been arrived at on the precise skills and abilities that make a person a successful entrepreneur. The term "entrepreneur" was applied to business initially by the French economist, Cotillion, in the 18th century, to designate a dealer who purchases the means of production for combining them into marketable products. The New Encyclopedia Britannica considers an entrepreneur as "an individual who bears the risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about the future conditions”. Peter Ducker has aptly observed that, “Innovation is the specific tool of entrepreneurs, the means by which they exploit changes as an opportunity for a different business or a different service. It is capable of being presented as a discipline, capable of being learned and practiced. Entrepreneurs need to search purposefully for the sources of innovation, the changes and their symptoms that indicate opportunities for successful innovation. And they need to know and to apply the principles of successful innovation”.

Further, India which itself is an underdeveloped country aims at decentralized industrial structure to militate the regional imbalances in levels of economic development, small-scale entrepreneurship in such industrial structure plays an important role to achieve balanced regional development. It is unequivocally believed that small-scale industries provide immediate large-scale employment, ensure a more equitable distribution of national income and also facilitate an effective resource mobilization of capital and skill which might otherwise remain unutilized. Lastly, the establishment of Entrepreneurship Development Institutes and alike by the Indian Government during the last decades is a good testimony to her strong realization about the primum mobile role of entrepreneurship played in economic development. Thus, it is clear that entrepreneurship serves as a catalyst of economic development. On the whole, the role of entrepreneurship in economic development of a country can best be put as "an economy is the effect for which entrepreneurship is the cause”.

Objectives of the Study Importance of Entrepreneurship Economic Development in 1. To know the entrepreneurs perceptiontowards entrepreneurship development Programme. 2. To find out the usefulness of Entrepreneurship Development Programme (EDP) 3. To suggest suitable policy measures for improvement.

The role of entrepreneurship in economic development varies from economy to economy depending upon its material resources, industrial climate and the responsiveness of the political system to the entrepreneurial function.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Statement of the Problem:

The task before the national leadership today is to industrialize a predominantly agricultural society, where capital is scarce and labor is plentiful. The gap between the indigenous arts and even the improved crafts, on the one hand, and the imported and also the indigenous technology, on the other, is wide enough and is further widening day after day with the explosion of innovative research. Furthermore, the economy has been historically and unavoidably polarized between a few mighty industrial centers and the far-flung rural areas. With all the progress during the two decades and a half, the national economy is beset with all kinds of shortages and scarcities of inputs, most vital to new entrepreneurs, when they launch their small or tiny units. Besides, they have, at times, to contend and compete with the well-established small, medium or large industrial units in the same lines of production. Newly emerging industries, particularly of the first-generation entrepreneurs, even in the underdeveloped economies are slowly but certainly tending to become high investment industries and the entrepreneurs have to battle against formidable force of hostile elements, such as (i) erratic shortages of raw materials, (ii) flourishing black market, (iii) rigged up prices by monopolists, (iv) administrate misdistribution, (v) gaps between official

promise and performance, (vi) inefficiency of industrial' management, (vii) irresponsible attitude to work, (viii) rising cost of capital and credit, (ix) deficient and arrogant institutional banking, (x) inadequacy of common services, (xi) primitive wholesale and retail trade outlets and others. New entrepreneurship in India has to be cradled in this environment. The present stage of entrepreneurship development programmes as a factor contributing to the industrialization of backward and other areas needs a proper direction and organization for making it more effective and purposeful. The contribution of entrepreneurship development programmes is very uneven among different regions and definite programmes need to be chalked out to bring about some degree of uniformity and up gradation.

Area of the study

The participants of the Entrepreneurship Development Programme organized by SISI Chennai at ITCOT centre in Thanjavur District were belongs to Thanjavur, Thiruvarur, Nagapattinam Districts. It is purposively selected due to proximity & availability of factual data.

Period of the study

The cross section data obtained from the participants. The primary data collection was done during Dec 2011.

2. The study is not exhaustive but only practical to serve the purpose 3. Recall bias of the respondents 4. The conclusion arrived at in this study needs modification for application elsewhere. ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (EDP) Entrepreneurial Development Programme is defined as a programme designed to help an individual in strengthening his entrepreneurial motive and in acquiring skills and capabilities necessary for playing his entrepreneurial role effectively. It is necessary to promote this understanding of motives and their impact on entrepreneurial values and behavior for this purpose. EDP means a programme designed to help a person in strengthening his entrepreneurial motive and in acquiring skills and capabilities necessary for playing his entrepreneurial role effectively. It is necessary to promote his understanding of motives, motivation pattern, their impact on behavior and entrepreneurial value.

Scope of the study: This study would provide the guidelines to the organizers of Entrepreneurship Development Programme (EDP). This could help in formulating EDP suitable course content & methodology in to improve the efficiency of entrepreneurs. Method of sampling:

In order to study the entrepreneurs’ perception towards EDP, all the 38 participants were selected. Hence, Census method was followed to collect the data. The sample size was 38. Data collection Description research was conducted. A specially designed interview schedule was used to collect information from the respondents.

Analysis of data & interpretation


This chapter discusses analysis of data and interpretation of the information collected through primary data collection. Table No. 1 Gender wise Classification Gender No of Percent

1. The study is restricted to the participants of entrepreneurship development Programme Conducted by Small Industries Service Institute, Chennai at ITCOT Centre at Thanjavur.

respondents Male Female Total 3 35 38 7.9 92.1 100

From the above table it has been inferred that Majority of the respondents are female. In the present scenario women are not only part of the family but also part of the Economic development of the society. It is clearly showed. Out of 38 participants 35 of them female participants. Women want to contribute more in the growth of the family income, by showing much interest in starting Small Scale Units. To gain more knowledge on Entrepreneurship they are showing high interest in attending Entrepreneurship Development.

The Table clearly shows the classification of the participants on the basis of community. Community playing major role in one’s development and interest in a particular field. In this study majority of the participants are belongs to scheduled caste and scheduled tribe. It is very good sign to the developing country like India, that scheduled caste and scheduled tribe community people are showing much interest in starting small scale units. Table No. 3 Age wise Classification Age Upto-35 years 35 to 50 Above 50 Total No of Percent respondents 13 25 0 38 34.2 65.8 0 100

Table No. 2 Community wise Classification Community FC BC MBC SC/ST Total No of Percent respondents 1 4 10 23 38 2.6 10.5 26.3 60.5 100 Age is an important factor in taking good decision in the one’s life. Generally aged persons are expected to be better judges in selecting appropriate decision during the course of the business. The analysis showed that majority of the respondents 65.8 percentages belonged to middle – aged group category. Table No. 4 Literacy wise Classification Literacy No of respondents Percent

Illiterate Secondary Higher Secondary Collegiate Professional Total

0 5 23 9 1 38

0 13.2 60.5 23.7 2.6 100

same kind opinion. In our analysis majority of the respondents are agreeing that entrepreneurship is a risk taking. Without risk we can’t achieve any thing. Each and every work is having risk, only those who are ready to face to risk alone can be succeeding. Though there is lot of characteristics to become successful entrepreneurs, the first and foremost is risk taking ability. The participants of the Entrepreneurship Programme are clearly understands this feature. Table No. 6 Factors Influenced to go for the Entrepreneurship No of Percent respondents Self Family members Friends Govt schemes/incentives Any other specify Total 6 16 11 5 0 38 15.8 42.1 28.9 13.2 0 100

Education plays an important role in improving knowledge, attitude and practices in doing a business. Education fine tunes one’s ability to become successful in one’s life. Among the total sample respondents, majority of them 60.5 percentage had studied up to Higher secondary level. Table No. 5 Opinion about Entrepreneurship Opinions Profit oriented Risk taking Independency Self-esteem & prestige Any other specify Total No of Percentage respondents 0 26 0 12 0 38 0 68.4 0 31.6 0 100

Opinions are always differed to person to person. It is very rare to see the

Starting a Small Scale Units is involved in risk taking. It is a practical law of the Entrepreneurship. In spite of this, one person entering into a business means that he/she is really taking high risk, that too family members are motivating one self to start a business clearly shows the attitude of the family. In this study majority of them (42.1 %) are attending Entrepreneurship Development Programme because of their family members motivation. 28.9% of them

are motivated by their friends and 15.8 percent of them are motivated by self. It should be noted here that this 15.8 percent of the participants will do the business for long period of time. Because they are motivated by self and they will be in the race without expecting anything from any body else. There should be some basic reason for one’s activity. Attending an Entrepreneurship Development Programme is based on lot of factors or reasons. In this present study majority of the respondents are agreed that they attend the EDP programme to know the new projects and products. In the globalization era one can’t do the business with same set of projects and products. To reach the customers’ needs and desires the entrepreneurs has to change the design, style and quality of the products regularly. Attending Entrepreneur Development Programme will be helpful to the Entrepreneurs to know the new projects / product and the recent trends in the business. That is why majority of the respondents are given first rank and second rank to these factors. FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS

• • •

60.5% of the Respondents are Higher secondary level of education 68.4% of the Respondents are earning income up to 1 lakh per annum Out of 38 participants attended the Entrepreneurship Development Programme, majority of them (92.1%) are doing business.

2. General Information about Entrepreneurship:

• • • • • • •

1. Socio-Economic the respondents:


of 3.

68.4% of the Respondent’s opinion about Entrepreneurship is Risk taking. 42.1% of the Respondents are influenced by their family members 78.9 % of the Respondents are came to know about the Entrepreneurship Development Programme (EDP) through their friends 97.4 % of the Respondents have attended the Entrepreneurship development Programme (EDP) for the first time. The respondents were asked to rank the factors regarding the reason for attending the EDP programme. It is clear from the analysis that, the first rank goes to the factor ‘to select new projects / products’, the second rank was assigned to the factor ‘to know the recent trends/opportunities’, and the third rank was secured by the factor ‘to increase the contacts with Govt Agencies’. Level of Perception of Entrepreneurship Development Programme as revealed by the respondents: From the analysis it is concluded that there is no significant difference between the gender and level of perception on EDP

• • •

Majority of the respondents (92.1%) are female. Majority of the 60.5% of the respondents are belonging to the SC/ST. 65.8% of the Respondents belong to the age group of 35 to 50 years.



3. 4.


From the analysis it is disclosed that there is no significant difference between the Community and level of perception on EDP. The study reveals that there is no significant difference between the age and level of perception on EDP. The study brings out that there is no significant difference between the Literacy and level of perception on EDP. The study sheds light on the fact that there is no significant difference between the family income and level of perception on EDP


playing major role in promoting Entrepreneurship, more interaction with the officials from these agencies should be arranged. The certificate of the programme should be given at the end of the programme.


Suggestions On the basis of the study the following suggestions can be stated to improve the Quality of Entrepreneurship Development Programme. 1. The Organizers of the Entrepreneurship Development Programme has to concentrate more on giving the complete outline about the EDP at the beginning of the programme. Giving complete outline or information about the EDP in the beginning of the programme enables the participants to attend the programme confidently. Since the EDP is conducted for one month, the course design should be more effective. The study materials / Handouts can be given not at the end of the session, but at the beginning of the session. The selection of resource persons of the programme should have expertise knowledge in the area of Entrepreneurship. Since Government agencies like DIC, SIDO, TIIC & Commercial banks are

The study titled “Entrepreneurs’ Perception towards Entrepreneurship Development Programme” provides vital information regarding EDP. The objectives of the study were framed and various findings were evaluated. The study throws light on several factors. From the study the researcher came to know that organizing Entrepreneurship Development Programme is highly useful to the Entrepreneurs in improving their Entrepreneurial quality.

2. 3.


The conduct of the EDP is good. The organizers have reached the participants in improving the skills of the Entrepreneurship among the participants. However there are some areas where the organizers look into, to improve the quality of the programme. The future for the Entrepreneurship Development Programme will be very good if the programme caters to the needs and wants of the Entrepreneurs. In order to cater the needs and wants of the Entrepreneurs the organizers has to adopt radical steps, in designing the course materials for the programme, inviting the resource persons, and the overall conduct of the programme.


In this study the perception of the Entrepreneurs’ about the Entrepreneurship Development Programme (EDP) and suggestion for further improvement are given. It will help to improve the quality of the EDP further in future if the suggestions are implemented. REFERENCES Entrepreneurship Development, 1998, Prepared by Colombo Plan Staff College for Technician Education, Manila, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi Hisrich, 2001, Entrepreneurship, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.

Khanka S.S. 2001, Entrepreneurial Development, S.Chand Company Ltd, New Delhi. Murthy.C.S.V 2003, Small Scale Industries and Entrepreneurial Development, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai Saravanavel, P 1997, Entrepreneurial Development, Ess Pee Kay Publishing House, Chennai.. Vasant Desai, 2002, Small-Scale Industries and Entrepreneurship, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai. Vasand Desai, 2002, Dynamics of Entrepreneurial Development and Management, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai.

14.Profile of a Global Entrepreneur in the present business scenario
Prof. V C Malarmannan
Srinivasan Engineering College

The developmental reality of the 21st century is plagued with complex socio-cultural, economic, political and technological milestones and challenges. During the last 100 years, the globe has witnessed extraordinary entrepreneurial novelty, higher frequency of ground breaking technological innovations and discoveries. community is no longer ignorant ,It is indeed the epoch of increased global integration of national economies at least at continental and regional levels. The current global scenario has heightened competition in areas such as manufacturing, trade finance, construction and technology among other business activities. 7 out of 10 Globally richest men are First generation entrepreneurs and now the

These phenomena have changed the way we live, think, plan, act and function.

Due to rapid globalisation, the world business

smartest enterprises

are challenging the






advantage of emerging business opportunities, well versed with the nitty gritty of global trade regimes; regional and bilateral trade and economic partnerships; national socio-

entrepreneur qualities and weights for various entrepreneurial qualities so that Global

entrepreneurial level score could be assigned to every one and it provides scope for

economic settings; industrial and economic productivity ambience and corporate business practices. Embracing an “international attitude” is important in shaping the degree of success in the vital international business opportunity hunt. The study could provide a model for Global entrepreneurship Prism and also would provide a scale for measuring the

improvements and study. The study is an exploratory study and analysis various

entrepreneurial qualities and also the qualities of 27 Globally reputes entrepreneurs were analysed. The study was able to analyse the profile of 10 top entrepreneurs in India and also 17 top entrepreneurs in the Global market and also the quality of 10 greatest entrepreneurs of the century. The study considers various

entrepreneurship capabilities, Orientations and Qualities. The study could be extended to measurement of Entrepreneurship qualities specific to various Industries and Markets.

qualities and factors that are required to empower the modern Entrepreneurs like personal dedication and tenacity in taking

Introduction The Entrepreneurs for over a century, began their activities by focusing on their home markets. More and more, however, are now being born global - chasing opportunities created by distance, learning to manage faraway operations, and hunting for the planet's best manufacturing locations, brightest talent, most willing investors, and most profitable customers wherever they may be - from day one. First are the logistical problems and psychic barriers created by distance and by differences in





religion, and economic development levels. Even something so basic as accommodating the world's various workweek schedules can put a strain on a small start-up's staff. Second is managing the challenges (and opportunities) of context - that is, the different nations' political, regulatory, judicial, tax, and labor environments. Third, like all new ventures, global start-ups must find a way to compete with bigger incumbents while using far fewer resources. To succeed, Isenberg has found, global






organized his and

set or

of her

characteristics uniquely cognitions, in various

competencies: They must clearly articulate their reasons for going global, learn to build alliances with more powerful partners, excel at international supply chain management, and create a multinational culture within their organization. Think global, act local Rudimentary and easy, but a rule we most often forget to implement. The various qualities like ‘Be specific, be succinct and be direct’ , ‘Deliver on your commitments’, ‘Learn to do business on voice mail’ and ‘Talk the local talk—Let’s face facts’. The study has analysed 27 Entrepreneurs (Global and Local) and also 10 Entrepreneurs in the history to establish the profile of a global entrepreneur. facets and 1. The each facet dimensions of Entrepreneurial profile were listed in 9 consists of 7 2. Social 4. parameters for evaluation. The 9 facets are Individual Personality personality setting 6. 3. Functional expertise Professional

possessed influences

by a person that behaviors


situations. The word "personality" originates from the Latin persona, which means mask. Significantly, in the theatre of the ancient Latin-speaking world, the mask was not used as a plot device to disguise the identity of a character, but rather was a convention employed to represent or typify that people the character. Jung postulated that degree to which they

differed from one another depending on the developed conscious use of four functions: thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition. Thinking enables us to recognize meaning, feeling helps us to evaluate, sensation provides us with perception, and intuition points to possibilities available to us. Jung's typology of the Extrovert/Introvert, Intuitive/Sensing and Feeling/Thinking model. The Zamora Personality Test provides a characterization of ten Individual Attributes and ten Social Attributes that incorporate the five central factors in personality: 1) Extroversion versus Introversion, 2) Neuroticism, 3) Agreeableness, 4) Conscientiousness, and 5) Openness to experience. The identified factors contributing to Individual personality characters are 1. Global achievement

Managerial Qualities

5. Vision & Goal Culture

7. Organisational building 8.Environment Monitoring & Exploitation and 9.Support building.

Individual personality characters of a Global Entrepreneur ‘Personality’ can be defined as a dynamic

Perspective 2. Emotional and Sensational driven and Control taking ability Creativity personality and of a 3. Energy and 7. These Enthusiasm 4. Intellectual capability 5. Risk 6. Endurance and Innovativeness. Global

listening.Interpersonal skills refers to mental and communicative social algorithms applied and during communications

interaction to reach certain effects or results. Few social qualities are ‘Think positive and maintain good relationships’, ‘Do not criticise others or yourself’, ‘ Learn to listen’, ‘Have a sense of humor’, ‘Treat others and their experience with respect’, ‘Praise and compliment people when they deserve it’, ‘Look for solutions’, ‘Don’t complain’, ‘Learn to appreciate’ and ‘Treat your team members and colleagues as friends and not as strangers or subordinates’.

personality factors could establish Individual entrepreneur.

Social personality characters of a Global Entrepreneur Social and Interpersonal skills are the skills that a person uses to interact with other people. also referred to as people skills or communication skills. Interpersonal skills involve using skills such as active

15. Quality Management System in R&D Environment
*Krishna S Gudi, **Dr

N S Kumar, ***R.V.Praveena Gowda

Abstract— R&D is one of essential factorsof technological innovation system. Quality in research and development (R&D) work has become increasingly important as companies commit themselves to quality improvement programmes in all areas of their activity. Quality improvement forms an important part of their competitive strategy. Quality management systems

have been successfully designed and implemented for manufacturing and service sectors; but so far the quality principles and systems have been difficult to translate to the R&D sector and implementation of quality assurance in R&D laboratories is still the domain of a few pioneers. Look at the challenge of effective implementation of quality management and total quality principles in R&D and with the help of questionnaire to highlight weakness in quality system, by suggesting the problems and the benefits, and how to overcome the shortcomings through a more comprehensive view of TQM that employs innovation as much as improvement and maintenance. This study finally suggests how to evaluate the capabilities of an R&D organization in terms of total quality management. Keywords: TQM, R&D, Quality INTRODUCTION

Quality is a perceptual, conditional and somewhat subjective attribute and may be understood differently by different people. Consumers may focus on the specification quality of a product/service, or how it compares to competitors in the marketplace. Producers might measure the conformance quality, or degree to which the product/service was produced correctly. Numerous definitions and methodologies have been created to assist in managing the qualityaffecting aspects of business operations. Many different techniques and concepts have evolved to improve product or service quality.

A. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM A fully documented QMS will ensure that two important requirements are met:

The customers’ requirements – confidence in the ability of the organization to deliver the desired product and service consistently meeting their needs and expectations.

The organization’s requirements – both internally and externally, and at an optimum cost with efficient use of the available resources – materials, human, technology and information

These requirements can only be truly met if objective evidence is provided, in the form of information and data, to support the system activities, from the ultimate supplier to the ultimate customer.

A QMS enables an organization to achieve the goals and objectives set out in its policy and strategy. It provides consistency and satisfaction in terms of methods, materials, equipment, etc., and interacts with all activities of the organization, beginning with the identification of customer requirements and ending with their satisfaction, at every transaction interface. It can be envisaged as a “wedge” that both holds the gains achieved along the quality journey, and prevents good practices from slipping:

Fig. 1 Quality Journey


The phrase research and development (also R and D or, more often, R&D), according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.

Fig. 2 Cycle of Research and Development

New product design and development is more often than not a crucial factor in the survival of a company. In an industry that is changing fast, firms must continually revise their design and range of products. This is necessary due to continuous technology change and development as well as other competitors and the changing preference of customers.

A system driven by marketing is one that puts the customer needs first, and only produces goods that are known to sell. Market research is carried out, which establishes what is needed. If the development is technology driven then it is a matter of selling what it is possible to make. The product range is developed so that production processes are as efficient as possible and the products are technically superior, hence possessing a natural advantage in the market place.

R&D has a special economic significance apart from its conventional association with scientific and technological development. R&D investment generally reflects a government's or organization's willingness to forgo current operations or profit to improve future performance or returns, and its abilities to conduct research and development.

In general, R&D activities are conducted by specialized units or centers belonging to companies, universities and state agencies. In the context of commerce, "research and development" normally refers to future-oriented, longer-term activities in science or technology, using similar techniques to scientific research without predetermined outcomes and with broad forecasts of commercial yield.

On a technical level, high tech organizations explore ways to re-purpose and repackage advanced technologies as a way of amortizing the high overhead. They often reuse advanced manufacturing processes, expensive safety certifications, specialized embedded software, computer-aided design software, electronic designs and mechanical subsystems.

The workflow of the research and development department is defined depending on the functions the department is associated with. There are several main functions such as follows:

• • •

Researches for and development of new products. Product maintenance and enhancement. Quality and regulatory compliance.

Researches for and development of new products

Usually, the primary function of the R&D department is to conduct researches for new products and develop new solutions. Each product has a finite commercial life. In order to be competitive, the company continuously needs finding ways for new technological development of product range. When researching and developing new products, both the R&D managers and their staff take responsibility of performing the following key tasks:

• • • • •

Ensuring the new product meets the product specification. Researching the product according to allocated budget. Checking if the product meets production costs. Delivering products in time and in full range. Developing the product to comply with regulatory requirements and specified quality levels.

Product maintenance and enhancement

Probably, this is the most important secondary function of R&D department. It helps to keep the company product range ahead of the competition and enhance the life of products. Existing products should be maintained ensuring that they can be manufactured according to

specification. For instance, an element required for an existing product may become obsolete. When this situation happens, the department is expected to discover an alternative quickly so that the product manufacturing will not be postponed. At the same time, the commercial life of a product may be extended through enhancing it in some way like giving it extra features, improving its performance, or making it cheaper to manufacture, etc. Many companies maintain and enhance their product range, especially those ones which are engaged in microelectronics sector. Quality and regulatory compliance

Quality is a major issue and R&D department is deeply involved in ensuring quality of new products and attaining the required levels of regulatory requirements. In cooperation with the quality assurance department, R&D department develops a quality plan for new products.


Extensive literature survey has been done as follows:

1. General R&D Environment

2. Defence R&D Environment

3. Requirements i. ii. iii. Feasibility Study Conceptualization Preliminary Design Review (PDR)

iv. v.

Quality Assurance (QA) Verification and Validation

vi Critical Design Review (CDR) vi. Trail

vii. Transfer of Technology (ToT)


Feasibility Study

Feasibility studies aim to objectively and rationally uncover the strengths and weaknesses of the existing business or proposed venture, opportunities and threats as presented by the environment, the resources required to carry through, and ultimately the prospects for success. In its simplest term, the two criteria to judge feasibility are cost required and value to be attained

As such, a well-designed feasibility study should provide a historical background of the business or project, description of the product or service, accounting policies, statements, financial details data, of legal the operations and management, marketing and project implementation. research and

requirements and tax obligations. Generally, feasibility studies precede technical development



A conceptualization can be defined as an intentional semantic structure that encodes implicit knowledge constraining the structure of a piece of a domain.

An explicit representation of the objects and relations among them existing the world of interested. One mark of efficient organizations is their ability to look beyond areas of expertise to see the larger picture to understand the problems that may arise, to suggest a fool proof alternative that addresses the core of issue and to make the project work without hindrances. We lay lot of emphasis to the different stages of conceptualization and as much possible we make it sure to involve the clients and stimulate real time situations to go deep into the subject.


Preliminary Design Review (PDR)

The preliminary design phase may also be known as conceptual design or architectural design. During this phase, the high-level design concept is created, which will implement the complex electronics requirements. This design concept may be expressed as functional block diagrams, design and architecture descriptions, sketches, and/or behavioral HDL (hardware description language).

The PDR (Preliminary Design Review) shall be a formal technical review of the basic design approach for the item. It shall be held after the technical specification, the software design document, the software test plan, hardware test plan are available, but prior to the start of detailed design. The PDR may be collectively done for an item as a system or individually for different sub-systems and assemblies, spread over several events. The over-all technical programme risks associated with each sub-system or assembly shall also be reviewed on a technical, cost and schedule basis. For software, a technical understanding shall be reached on the validity and degree of completeness of the software design document.


Quality Assurance (QA)

Quality is the ongoing process of building and sustaining relationships by assessing, anticipating, and fulfilling stated and implied needs. Quality assurance is the process of verifying or determining whether products or services meet or exceed customer expectations. Quality assurance is a process-driven approach with specific steps to help define and attain goals. This process considers design, development, production, and service. The most popular tool used to determine quality assurance is the Shewhart Cycle, developed by Dr. W. Edwards Deming. This cycle for quality assurance consists of four steps: Plan, Do, Check, and Act. These steps are commonly abbreviated as PDCA.

Fig. 3 PDCA Cycle


Verification and Validation

Verification and validation is the process of checking that a product, service, or system meets specifications and that it fulfills its intended purpose. These are critical components of a quality management system such as ISO 9000. Sometimes preceded with "Independent" (or IV&V) to ensure the validation is performed by a disinterested third party.

Fig. 4 Verification and Validation Process

Verification is a Quality control process that is used to evaluate whether or not a product, service, or system complies with regulations, specifications, or conditions imposed at the start of a development phase. Verification can be in development, scale-up, or production. This is often an internal process. Validation is a Quality assurance process of establishing evidence that provides a high degree of assurance that a product, service, or system accomplishes its intended requirements. This often involves acceptance of fitness for purpose with end users and other product stakeholders.


Critical Design Review (CDR)

This review is held when a major product deliverable—or the entire integrated project deliverable—has reached a point in design and prototyping work where "viability" of the design can be judged, and by extension, the project can be considered to have reached a state of significantly reduced risk.

The "design review" terminology (as opposed to project review) arose from standard use of this design checkpoint on technology-oriented projects. However, the concept is applicable to any project. Based on what the project is charged with creating—whether a technical system, a new process, marketing literature, written documents, etc.—we want to reach a point where we know our solution is truly viable. We want to reach a point where we can confidently say, yes, as designed, we know this is going to work, meet customer needs, and meet project goals, because we have built something real, reviewed it against the goals, and conquered all the major related risks.

CDR shall be conducted for each item when detailed design is essentially complete. For complex/large systems CDR may be conducted on an incremental basis, that is, progressive reviews are conducted for different sub systems and software, instead of a single CDR. The purpose of this review will be to:

1. Determine that the detailed design of each item under review satisfies the performance and engineering requirements of the design specification.

2. Establish the detailed design compatibility among the item (sub system, assembly, equipment) under review and other items of the system, facilities, computer software and personnel.

3. Assess risk areas (on a technical, cost and schedule basis) for each item of the system.

4. Assess productivity of each item of system hardware.



Any particular performance of a random experiment is called a trial. By Experiment or Trial in the subject of probability, we mean a Random experiment unless otherwise specified. Each trial results in one or more outcomes. A user trial focuses on two specific areas: 1. Operational Effectiveness.


Operational Suitability.

Both operational effectiveness and operational suitability go hand in hand and are virtually inseparable, as elements within one are readily inclusive in either test area.

Operational effectiveness is determined by how well a system performs its mission when used by service personnel in the planned operational environment relative to organization, doctrine, tactics, survivability, vulnerability, and electronic, nuclear or non-nuclear threats.

Operational suitability is determined by the degree to which a system can be placed satisfactorily in the field, with consideration given to availability, compatibility, transportability, interoperability, reliability, wartime usage rates, maintainability, safety, human factors, manpower and logistics supportability, documentation and training requirements.


Transfer of Technology:

Technology transfer is the process of sharing of skills, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing, samples of manufacturing and facilities among governments and other institutions to ensure that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users who can then further develop and exploit the technology into new products, processes, applications, materials or services. It is closely related to (and may arguably be considered a subset of) knowledge transfer.

Technology Transfer Activities include:

Processing and evaluating invention disclosures; filing for patents; technology marketing; licensing; protecting intellectual property arising from research activity; and assisting in creating new businesses and promoting the success of existing firms. The result of these activities will be new products, more high-quality jobs, and an expanded economy.

D. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY: 1. The current status of quality in R&D. 2. The perceived knowledge of the participants (employees, scientists). 3. Quality programs that have been used.


1. Interaction with all members in R&D department. 2. Questionnaire

A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Although they are often designed for statistical analysis of the responses.


1. Delphi Method

The Delphi method is a structured communication technique, originally developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method which relies on a panel of experts.

In the standard version, the experts answer questionnaires in two or more rounds. After each round, a facilitator provides an anonymous summary of the experts’ forecasts from the previous round as well as the reasons they provided for their judgments. Thus, experts are encouraged to revise their earlier answers in light of the replies of other members of their panel. It is believed that during this process the range of the answers will decrease and the group will converge towards the "correct" answer. Finally, the process is stopped after a pre-defined stop criterion (e.g. number of rounds, achievement of consensus, and stability of results) and the mean or median scores of the final rounds determine the results.

2. Statistical Methods

In displaying data of result the following statistical tools is to be used:

To Show


Data Needed

Trend Over

- Line graph



- Run chart

taken in Chronological order


As Quality in research and development (R&D) work has become increasingly important as companies commit themselves to quality improvement programmes, but so far the quality principles is difficult to translate to indian based R&D sectors. The quality system can be enhanced by R&D professionals actively involved in total quality improvement.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my deep and sincere gratitude to my external guide, Dr N S Kumar, Scientist ‘F’ of DEBEL, Bangalore and internal guide R V Praveena Gowda, Assistant Professor Dayananda sagar engineering college bangalore. Their wide knowledge and their logical way of thinking have been of great value for me. Their understanding, encouraging and personal guidance have provided a good basis for the present paper.


[1] Pande, K.B., In-house R&D and Innovation in Indian Pattnaik, B.K. (ed.), Allied Publishers, New [2]

Industry: Under Market Economy, Volume II,

Technology Transfer and In-house R&D in Indian Industry (in the later 1990s, Delhi, 1999:422-426

Takahashi, T., (1997) Management for enhanced R&D Management, 14: 789-803.

Productivity, International

Journal of Technology

[3] Rose, Kenneth H. (July, 2005). Project Quality Lauderdale,

Management: Why, What and How. Fort

Florida: J. Ross Publishing. p. 41. ISBN 1-932159-48-7.

16. Microfinance is but one strategy battling an immense problem
M.Samtha Holy Cross College Trichy

Abstract: Microfinance is the provision of financial services to low-income clients or solidarity lending groups including consumers and the self-employed, who traditionally lack access to banking and related services. More broadly, it is a movement whose object is "a world in which as many poor and near-poor households as possible have permanent access to an appropriate range of high quality financial services, including not just credit but also savings, insurance, and fund transfers." Those who promote microfinance generally believe that such access will help poor people out of poverty.

As these financial services usually involve small amounts of money - small loans, small savings, etc. - the term "microfinance" helps to differentiate these services from those which formal banks provide

Why are they small? Someone who doesn't have a lot of money isn't likely to want or be able to take out a $50,000 loan, or be able to

open a savings account with an opening balance of $1,000. It's easy to imagine poor people don't need financial services, but when you think about it they are using these services already, although they might look a little different.

Micro – Finance Microfinance is the provision of financial services to low-income clients or solidarity lending groups including consumers and the self-employed, who traditionally lack access to banking and related services. More broadly, it is a movement whose object is "a world in which as many poor and near-poor households as possible have permanent access to an appropriate range of high quality financial services, including not just credit but also savings, insurance, and fund transfers."[1] Those who promote microfinance generally believe that such access will help poor people out of poverty Microfinance is a broad category of services, which include microcredit. Microcredit can be defined as the provision of credit services to poor clients. Although microcredit by definition can achieve only a small portion of the goals of microfinance, conflation of the two terms is epidemic in public discourse. In other words, critics attack microcredit while referring to it indiscriminately as either 'microcredit' or 'microfinance'. Due to the broad range of microfinance services, it is difficult to assess impact, and no studies to date have done so. Meaning of Empowerment: Empowerment implies expansion of assets and capabilities of people to influence control and hold accountable institution that affects their lives (World Bank Resource Book).Empowerment is the process of enabling or authorizing an individual to think, behave, take action and control work in an autonomous way. It is the state of feelings of self-empowered to take control of one’s own destiny. It includes both controls over resources (Physical, Human, Intellectual and Financial) and over ideology (Belief, values and attitudes) (Batliwala, 1994) Empowerment can be viewed as a means of creating a social environment in which one can take decisions and make choice either individually or collectively for social

transformation. It strength innate ability by way of acquiring knowledge power and experience Empowerment is a multi-dimensional social process that helps people gain control over their own lives communities and in their society, by acting on issues that they define as important. Empowerment occurs within sociological psychological economic spheres and at various levels, such as individual, group and community and challenges our assumptions about status quo, asymmetrical power relationship and social dynamics. Empowering women puts the spotlight on education and employment which are an essential element to sustainable development. 1) EMPOWERMENT: FOCUS ON POOR WOMEN: In India, the trickle down effects of macroeconomic policies have failed to resolve the problem of gender inequality. Women have been the vulnerable section of society and constitute a sizeable segment of the poverty-struck population. Women face gender specific barriers to access education health, employment etc. Micro finance deals with women below the poverty line. Micro loans are available solely and entirely to this target group of women. There are several reason for this: Among the poor , the poor women are most disadvantaged –they are characterized by lack of education and access of resources, both of which is required to help them work their way out of poverty and for upward economic and social mobility. The problem is more acute for women in that groups of women are better customers than men, the better managers of resources. If loans are routed through women benefits of loans are spread wider among the household. having countries like India, despite the fact that women’s labour makes a critical contribution to the economy. This is due to the low social status and lack of access to key resources. Evidence shows women’s component .They are the Indira Awas Yojona (IAJ), National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP), Restructured Rural Sanitation Programme, Accelerated Rural Water Supply programme (ARWSP) the (erstwhile) Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), the (erstwhile) Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) and the Jowahar Since women’s empowerment is the key to socio economic development of the community; bringing women into the mainstream of national development has been a

major concern of government. The ministry of rural development has special components for women in its programmes. Funds are earmarked as “Women’s component” to ensure flow of adequate resources for the same. Besides Swarnagayanti Grameen Swarazgar Yojona (SGSY), Ministry of Rural Development is implementing other scheme Rozgar Yojana (JRY) (a) WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT AND MICRO FINANCE: DIFFERENT PARADIGMS Concern with women’s access to credit and assumptions about contributions to women’s empowerment are not new. From the early 1970s women’s movements in a number of countries became increasingly interested in the degree to which women were able to access poverty-focused credit programmes and credit cooperatives. In India organizations like Self- Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) among others with origins and affiliations in the Indian labour and women’s movements identified credit as a major constraint in their work with informal sector women workers. The problem of women’s access to credit was given particular emphasis at the first International Women’s Conference in Mexico in 1975 as part of the emerging awareness of the importance of women’s productive role both for national economies, and for women’s rights. This led to the setting up of the Women’s World Banking network and production of manuals for women's credit provision. Other women’s organizations worldwide set up credit and savings components both as a way of increasing women’s incomes and bringing women together to address wider gender issues. From the mid-1980s there was a mushrooming of donor, government and NGO-sponsored credit programmes in the wake of the 1985 Nairobi women’s conference (Mayoux, 1995a). The 1980s and 1990s also saw development and rapid expansion of large minimalist poverty-targeted micro-finance institutions and networks like Grameen Bank, ACCION and Finca among others. In these organizations and others evidence of significantly higher female repayment rates led to increasing emphasis on targeting women as an efficiency strategy to increase credit recovery. A number of donors also saw femaletargeted financially-sustainable micro-finance as a means of marrying internal demands

for increased efficiency because of declining budgets with demands of the increasingly vocal gender lobbies. The trend was further reinforced by the Micro Credit Summit Campaign starting in 1997 which had ‘reaching and empowering women’ as it’s second key goal after poverty reduction (RESULTS 1997). Micro-finance for women has recently been seen as a key strategy in meeting not only Millennium Goal 3 on gender equality, but also poverty Reduction, Health, HIV/AIDS and other goals. (i) FEMINIST EMPOWERMENT PARADIGM:

The feminist empowerment paradigm did not originate as a Northern imposition, but is firmly rooted in the development of some of the earliest micro-finance programmes in the South, including SEWA in India. It currently underlies the gender policies of many NGOs and the perspectives of some of the consultants and researchers looking at gender impact of micro-finance programmes (e.g. Chen 1996, Johnson, 1997). Here the underlying concerns are gender equality6 and women’s human rights. Women’s empowerment is seen as an integral and inseparable part of a wider process of social transformation. The main target group is poor women and women capable of providing alternative female role models for change. Increasing attention has also been paid to men's role in challenging gender inequality. Micro-finance is promoted as an entry point in the context of a wider strategy for women’s economic and socio-political empowerment which focuses on gender awareness and feminist organization. As developed by Chen in her proposals for a sub sector approach to micro credit, based partly on SEWA's strategy and promoted by UNIFEM, microfinance must be: Part of a sectoral strategy for change which identifies opportunities, constraints and bottlenecks within industries which if addressed can raise returns and prospects for large numbers of women. Possible strategies include linking women to existing services and infrastructure, developing new technology such as labour-saving food processing,

building information networks, shifting to new markets, policy level changes to overcome legislative barriers and unionization. Based on participatory principles to build up incremental knowledge of industries and enable women to develop their strategies for change (Chen, 1996). Economic empowerment is however defined in more than individualist terms to include issues such as property rights, changes intra-household relations and transformation of the macroeconomic context. Many organisations go further than interventions at the industry level to include gender-specific strategies for social and political empowerment. Some programmes have developed very effective means for integrating gender awareness into programmes and for organizing women and men to challenge and change gender discrimination. Some also have legal rights support for women and engage in gender advocacy. These interventions to increase social and political empowerment are seen as essential prerequisites for economic empowerment. MICRO FINANCE INSTRUMENT FOR WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT: Micro Finance is emerging as a powerful instrument for poverty alleviation in the new economy. In India, micro finance scene is dominated by Self Help Groups (SHGs) – Bank Linkage Programme, aimed at providing a cost effective mechanism for providing financial services to the “unreached poor”. Based on the philosophy of peer pressure and group savings as collateral substitute , the SHG programme has been successful in not only in meeting peculiar needs of the rural poor, but also in strengthening collective selfhelp capacities of the poor at the local level, leading to their empowerment. Micro Finance for the poor and women has received extensive recognition as a strategy for poverty reduction and for economic empowerment. Increasingly in the last five years , there is questioning of whether micro credit is most effective approach to economic empowerment of poorest and, among them, women in particular. Development practitioners in India and developing countries often argue that the exaggerated focus on micro finance as a solution for the poor has led to neglect by the state and public institutions in addressing employment and livelihood needs of the poor.

Credit for empowerment is about organizing people, particularly around credit and building capacities to manage money. The focus is on getting the poor to mobilize their own funds, building their capacities and empowering them to leverage external credit. Perception women is that learning to manage money and rotate funds builds women’s capacities and confidence to intervene in local governance beyond the limited goals of ensuring access to credit. Further, it combines the goals of financial sustainability with that of creating community owned institutions. Before 1990’s, credit schemes for rural women were almost negligible. The concept of women’s credit was born on the insistence by women oriented studies that highlighted the discrimination and struggle of women in having the access of credit. However, there is a perceptible gap in financing genuine credit needs of the poor especially women in the rural sector. There are certain misconception about the poor people that they need loan at subsidized rate of interest on soft terms, they lack education, skill, capacity to save, credit worthiness and therefore are not bankable. Nevertheless, the experience of several SHGs reveal that rural poor are actually efficient managers of credit and finance. Availability of timely and adequate credit is essential for them to undertake any economic activity rather than credit subsidy. The Government measures have attempted to help the poor by implementing different poverty alleviation programmes but with little success. Since most of them are target based involving lengthy procedures for loan disbursement, high transaction costs, and lack of supervision and monitoring. Since the credit requirements of the rural poor cannot be adopted on project lending app roach as it is in the case of organized sector, there emerged the need for an informal credit supply through SHGs. The rural poor with the assistance from NGOs have demonstrated their potential for self help to secure economic and financial strength. Various case studies show that there is a positive correlation between credit availability and women’s empowerment. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS:

Numerous traditional and informal system of credit that were already in existence before micro finance came into vogue. Viability of micro finance needs to be understood from a dimension that is far broader- in looking at its long-term aspects too .very little attention has been given to empowerment questions or ways in which both empowerment and sustainability aims may be accommodated. Failure to take into account impact on income also has potentially adverse implications for both repayment and outreach, and hence also for financial sustainability. An effort is made here to present some of these aspects to complete the picture. A conclusion that emerges from this account is that micro finance can contribute to solving the problems of inadequate housing and urban services as an integral part of poverty alleviation programmes. The challenge lies in finding the level of flexibility in the credit instrument that could make it match the multiple credit requirements of the low income borrower without imposing unbearably high cost of monitoring its end use upon the lenders. A promising solution is to provide multipurpose lone or composite credit for income generation, housing improvement and consumption support. Consumption loan is found to be especially important during the gestation period between commencing a new economic activity and deriving positive income. Careful research on demand for financing and savings behavior of the potential borrowers and their participation in determining the mix of multi-purpose loans are essential in making the concept work. The that:

organizations involved in micro credit initiatives should take account of the fact

Credit is important for development but cannot by itself enable very poor Making credit available to women does not automatically mean they have control income they might generate from micro enterprises. In situations of chronic poverty it is more important to provide saving services A useful indicator of the tangible impact of micro credit schemes is the number of

women to overcome their poverty.

over its use and over any

than to offer credit.

additional proposals and demands presented by local villagers to public authorities.

Nevertheless ensuring that the micro-finance sector continues to move forward in relation to gender equality and women’s empowerment will require a long-term strategic process of the same order as the one in relation to poverty if gender is not to continue to ‘evaporate’ in a combination of complacency and resistance within donor agencies and the micro-finance sector. This will involve:

• Ongoing exchange of experience and innovation between practitioners • Constant awareness and questioning of ‘bad practice’ • lobbying donors for sufficient funding for empowerment strategies • bringing together the different players in the sector to develop coherent policies and for gender advocacy. India is the country where a collaborative model between banks, NGOs, MFIs and Women’s organizations is furthest advanced. It therefore serves as a good starting point to look at what we know so far about ‘Best Practice’ in relation to micro-finance for women’s empowerment and how different institutions can work together. It is clear that gender strategies in micro finance need to look beyond just increasing women’s access to savings and credit and organizing self help groups to look strategically at how programmes can actively promote gender equality and women’s empowerment. Moreover the focus should be on developing a diversified micro finance sector where different type of organizations, NGO, MFIs and formal sector banks all should have gender policies adapted to the needs of their particular target groups/institutional roles and capacities and collaborate and work together to make a significant contribution to gender equality and pro-poor development.


Fisher, Thomas and M.S. Sriram ed., 2002, Beyond Micro-credit: Putting Development Back into Microfinance, New Delhi: Vistaar Publications; Oxford: Oxfam. Harper, Malcolm, 2002, “Promotion of Self Help Groups under the SHG Bank Linkage Program in India”, Paper presented at the Seminar on SHG-bank Linkage Programme at New Delhi, November 25-26, 2002. Kabeer N (2001),“Conflicts Over Credit: Re-evaluation the Empowerment Potential of Loans to Women in Rural Bangladesh”: World Development,Vol.29,No.1. Mayoux, L. 1998a. Women's Empowerment and Micro-finance programmes : Approaches, Evidence and Ways Forward. The Open University Working Paper No 41. Ackerley, B. (1995). Testing the Tools of Development: Credit Programmes , Loan Involvement and Women's Empowerment. World Development, 26(3), 56-68.

17. To study the role government supportive that affects the growth of women entrepreneur in small scale sector.
-Dr.Chitra Devi MBA.,M.Phil.,Ph.D.,Assistant professor MBA dept,Vel sri Ranga Sanku College, avadi.

Introduction: The government of India announced a new policy for small and tiny sector and raised the investment to Rs.5 lakhs, irrespectively of location of the unit. The government has accepted the recommendation of the Abid Husain Committee regarding enhancement in investment ceiling and raised the same for the small scale sector.

The government raised the investment limit in plant and machinery of the small scale sector to Rs. 3 crores, from the prevailing Rs.60 lakhs with effect from February 7, 1997. The investment limited for the ancillary sector and for export oriented units had been raised from Rs. 75 lakhs to 3 crores. The investment ceiling for the tiny sector had also been increased five fold to Rs. 25 lakhs from the prevailing Rs.5 lakhs.

The scope of small scale industries as recommended by the small scale industries board in 1996 is defined as Small scale Industries will include all industrial units with a capital investment of not more than Rs. 7.5 lakhs irrespective of the number of person employed. Capital investment for this purpose will mean investment in plant and machines only.

Women in several industries:

Women entrepreneurs have been making a significant impact in all segments of business like retail trade, restaurants, hotels, education, culture, cleaning, insurance and manufacturing. Women and their business skills are not properly utilized across the world, Even though a large number of women set up their business, they are still facing a lot of problems from the society They have to put up more efforts to prove their efficiency rather than men. The hidden opportunities of women should identify themselves and adopt the best entrepreneurial style to run their business. Different styles of entrepreneurial and leadership skills are adopted by successful Women entrepreneur of India. Ekta Kapoor of Balaji Teleflims, Kiran Mazumdar Shaw of Deacon and Shahnaz Husain and her beauty products business and Lijat papads are shinning some examples of women’s business power.

Today we find women in different types of industries, traditional as well as non traditional such as engineering, electronics, readymade garments, fabrics, eatables, handicrafts, doll-making poultry, plastics, soap, ceramics, printing, toy making, nurseries, crèches, drugs ,textile designing, dairy, canning, knitting ,Jewellery design ,solar cooker etc. According to

Mclelland and winter, motivation is a critical factor that leads one towards entrepreneurship. This apart, the challenge and adventure to do something new, liking for business and wanting to have an independent occupation, deeper commitment to entrepreneurial ventures propel women to business. Defining of Small Scale Units: • In order to boost the development of small scale industries and to ensure their rapid growth, Government has decided: • To increase the limit of investment in the case of tiny units from Rs.1 lakh to Rs.2 lakhs; • To increase the limit of investment in the case of small scale units from Rs. 10 lakhs to Rs. 20 lakhs; and • To increase the limit of investment in case of ancillaries from lakhs to Rs. 25 lakhs. Objective: 1. To analysis the supportive factor of government with women entrepreneur in small scale sectors. 2. To study the views of women entrepreneur about the government role Review of literature: A study by Madhuri Modekurti (20071) analyzes the participation of women in entrepreneurship and examines the impact of specific norms of different countries that support women entrepreneurship. The study reveals the contributing push factors to female entrepreneurship are the lack of opportunities, economic and institutional deficiencies, dissatisfaction with one’s wage, unemployment etc. The lucrativeness of greater returns to skill is also instrumental in contributing in this direction. Besides these push factors there are certain pull factors, which are encouraging women to venture into entrepreneurship like greater


Madhuri Modekhurti, (2007). “The Normative Context for Women’s Participation in Entrepreneurship”, The ICFAI Journal of Entrepreneurship Development Vol.IV No.1 (Pp 95).

independence, initiative, creativity and flexible working hours which provide more time for the family. Tagoe et al (20052) has examined the financial challenged facing by urban SMEs under financial sector liberalization in Ghana. Main challenges faced by urban SMEs are access to affordable credit over a reasonable period. To manage this challenge SMEs should manage record keeping in an effective manner. Moreover, availability of collateral improves SMEs access to formal credit. But better availability of investments avenues further reduces the accessibility. While women were considered less willing to delegate responsibility and control to

others, the evidence from the agencies and providers suggested that, unlike men, women valued the flexibility derived from owning the business more than the opportunity to be their own boss. They also preferred collegial rather than hierarchical managerial relationships inherent in conventional models of business expansion, a finding supported by Clifford (19963).

Sabbagh.Z (19964) Women on family lies at core of society playing the major role in political, economic, social and religious behaviour. People are conscious of each others family, membership. Family links facilities that access to institutions jobs and government services.

Data analysis

Risk is the major factor in the growth of entrepreneurs:
Tagoe et al.(2005) ‘financial challenges facing urban SMEs under financial sector liberalization in Ghana;.Journal of small business management, 43,pp331-343. 3 Cliff, J.E. (1998), ``Does one size fit all ± exploring the relationship between attitudes towards growth, gender and business size'', Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 13 No. 6, pp. 523-42.
4 2

Sabbagh.Z pp194-95 (1996) Arab women between defiance and restraint, olive branch press New York.

Most important in promoting small and medium enterprises, which generates more jobs and often use Labour intensive methods of production. Industries and business of smaller size also work towards promoting better income distribution and development of entrepreneurship by expansion diversification and modification the business to increase the profit earnings. This table shows the following aspects of the growth of business.

Table 1: Risk is the major factor in the growth of entrepreneurs Factors Expansion Diversification Valid Modification Total Source: Primary data Interpretation: The above table shows the diversification of business 38.3% required factor on government policy, 31,7% on expansion , 30% on modification of business venture. 72 240 30.0 100.0 Frequ ency 76 92 Valid Percent 31.7 38.3

Government policy for small scale enterprises: Development of small scale sector has been imbued with multiplicity objective. Important among these are 1) the generation of immediate employment opportunities with relatively low investment, 2) the promotion of more equitable distribution of national income, 3) effective mobilization of untapped capital and human skills and 4) dispersal of manufacturing

activities all over the country, leading growth of women entrepreneur the government plays the important role in developing such industries. This table shows the women entrepreneur attitudes towards the government.

Table 2 :Government policy for small scale enterprises Government policy high satisfy moderate satisfy Valid partial not Total Source: Primary data Interpretation: The above table shows the high satisfaction on 13.8% on government policy, moderate satisfaction and satisfied with government policy 33.8%, partial satisfaction with 16.7% and not satisfied with supportive factor of government policy with 2.1%. 40 5 240 16.7 2.1 100.0 Frequency 33 81 81 Valid Percent 13.8 33.8 33.8

Factor analysis for factors of Motivation focused on Government role:

Table: 3(a) Factor analysis for factors of Motivation focused on Government role

KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square Degree of freedom Sig. .076 923.811 10 .000

Source: Primary data Table :3 (b) Total Variance for motivation factor Component Initial Eigen values % Total of Variance 1 2 3 4 5 1.625 1.369 1.047 .950 .009 32.503 27.377 20.941 18.998 .182 Cumulative % 32.503 59.879 80.820 99.818 100.000 Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings % Total of Variance 1.496 1.331 1.214 29.919 26.625 24.276 Cumulative % 29.919 56.545 80.820

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Interpretation: From the above table it is found that the KMO measure of sample accuracy 0.076. The Chi square value is 923.111 is statistical significance of 5% level. The 5 variables of motivation

explained 80.820% of variance with three components and Eigen values 1.496, 1.331 & 1.214. Individually the 3 factors explained 29.919%, 26.625% & 24.276% respectively. This really shows that 5 variables are suitable for the application of factor analysis with high variance of opinion of women entrepreneur. It further implies the women entrepreneur vary in their opinion about motivational factors which influence them to be a successful women entrepreneur. The 5 variables are converted into 3 components with following loadings.

Table :3 (c) Ranking components for the variables Ranking factor 1 Seminar\ -.924 conference Private agency Newspaper Association Government .761 -.832 .792 .997 Component 2 3

Interpretation: Hence this factor is called ‘Basic Motivation’ which is based on the seminar and conference & private agency with the variables 0.924 & 0.761.The second variables comprises of Newspaper and Women Association. The respective variables loading 0.832 & 0.792. Therefore this factor predominately named as ‘Public Motivation’. The factor consists of unique variables government loading 0.997. Hence the named of the factor can be given as ‘Government Motivation’.

Conclusion : The factor analysis over 5 variables of business related technology polices and methods are completely based on good acquaintance of women entrepreneur with properly accelerated ideas and indispensable motivation from the public sources. Both central and state government are playing vital role in motivating the successful women entrepreneur in their business venture. Findings: • • High satisfaction on 13.8% on government policy was represented by the respondent. Majority of respondents views that diversification of business 38.3% required factor on government policy, • Hence the factor is called ‘Basic Motivation’ which is based on the seminar and conference & private agency with the variables 0.924 & 0.761. Suggestion: • The NGOs, psychologists, managerial experts and technical personnel should be provided assistance to induce the self confidence and lack of success in existing and emerging women entrepreneurs. • The Women Entrepreneur's Guidance Cell set up to handle the various problems like social, psychological, financial factors of women entrepreneurs all over the state and central government. • The study focus to the Involvement of Non Governmental Organizations and governmental organizational in women entrepreneurial training Programmes and counseling should be given to overcome the factors affecting the entrepreneurial while starting their business venture. • Central and state government should come forward to arrange seminars and meeting should arrange regularly by the entrepreneur cell to develop the women in all sorts of their business venture. • The study focused the governmental rules in small and medium enterprises of women entrepreneur to promote the training programmes in suitable managing capabilities in the sources of risk in developing the infrastructural activities and scarcity of resources.

Conclusion: . Majority of women entrepreneurs, especially in small sized industries, choose to

manufacture food based, beauty, computer centre, departmental stores, book stall products because their technical knowledge comes in low factor and in other factor there is necessary to depend on the male support for the technical and technological needs. Most state governments and their appointed agencies offer financial and technological, technical support as development

of women entrepreneurship is important for women's development as well as the development of the women entrepreneur in the economy.




Punithavathy Mohan


B.V.Santhosh Krishna

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract The Intelligence of Human-Computer

squares method, we can classify and identify the feature information Key words : AAL, canny detector

Interaction is one of the hot researching areas. Facial expression recognition is an important part of human-computer interaction. At present, the research of facial expression recognition has entered an era of a new climax. In real-time facial expression recognition system, the paper presents an expression feature extraction method that combined canny operator edge detection with the AAM (active appearance model) algorithm. During the Canny edge detection, the adaptively generated high and low thresholds, increased the capability of noise suppression, and the time complexity of the algorithm is less than the traditional canny operator. Finally, by using leas

1. Introduction Besides fingerprints and iris, faces are currently the most important and most popular biometric characteristics observed to recognize individuals in a broad range of applications such as border control, access control and surveillance scenarios A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the ways to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database. It is

typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems.[The method is combining the AAM and adaptive Canny operator edge detection to carry out the expression feature extraction. When using the canny operator to detect the edge of the facial image, the algorithm can adaptively generate the dynamic threshold

extracted and compared with the available database. This process is shown in figure1.

Figure 1: Enrollment process The template is retrieved when an

individual needs to be identified. Depending on according to the edge gradient information of sub-image and combined the feature information of global edge gradient. So it needn't human intervention. 2. Face Recognition Process In "The variations between images of the same face due to the illumination and viewing direction are almost always larger than image variations due to change in face identity”. Face recognition scenarios can be classified into two types: (i) Face verification (or authentication) and (ii) Face identification (or recognition). Enrollment process: Figure Enrollment process is the process of collecting the faces of persons. For this purpose, the system uses sensors or cameras to capture the images (faces), which were placed at railway stations, airports, police stations and passport offices etc. The captured image features are Face verification: Face verification is a one to one match that compares a query face image against a template face image whose identity is claimed. Verification occurs when the biometric 2: Identification process an identification application, the biometric device reads a sample and compares that sample against every record or template in the database. This type of comparison is called a “one-to-many” search (1: N). This is illustrated in figure2 the context, a biometric system can operate either in verification (authentication) or an identification mode. Face identification:

system asks and attempts to answer the question “Is this X?”

such as wavelets and neural networks. At present many of the face recognition methods have good results on the static image recognition [1, 2]. Recognition methods for the image sequence have also emerged [3]. Another biologically inspired algorithm that is commonly used for face recognition is the genetic algorithm (GA). While a neural network mimic the function of a neuron, genetic algorithms mimic the function of

Figure 3: Verification process After the user claims to be X. In a verification application, the biometric system requires input from the user, at which time the user claims his identity via a password, token, or user name (or any combination of the three). The system also requires a biometric sample from the user. It then compares the sample to or against the user-defined template. This is illustrated in figure 3. 3. Related works In recent years face recognition has received substantial attention from both research communities and the market, but still remained very challenging in real applications. A lot of face recognition algorithms, along with their modifications, have been developed during the past decades. While this growth largely is driven by growing identification application demands, for law such as and enforcement


4. Principle Components Analysis Method Principle Components Analysis: PCA is an algorithm that treats face recognition as a two dimensional recognition problem. The correctness of this algorithm relies on the fact that the faces are uniform in posture and illumination. PCA can handle minor variations in these two factors, but performance is maximized if such variations are limited. The algorithm basically involves papering a face onto a face space, which captures the maximum variation among faces in a mathematical form. Next, the algorithm finds the eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of normalized faces by using a speedup technique that reduces the number of multiplications to be performed. Lastly, the recognition threshold is computed by using the maximum distance between any two face paper ions. In the recognition phase, a subject face is normalized with respect to the average face and

authentication for banking and security system access, advances in signal analysis techniques,








Every image I can be expressed as a matrix of f (x, y)s of dimension m X n. Let F be the set of M training images of same dimension expressed as a array of dimension (m X n) X M _______ (1) F = (I1 I2 I3………….I M)

eigenvector matrix. Next, the Euclidean distance is computed between this paper ion and all known paper ions. The minimum value of these comparisons is selected and compared with the threshold calculated during the training phase. Based on this, if the value is greater than the threshold, the face is new. Otherwise, it is a known face. Principal component analysis technique can be used to simplify a huge data set consisting of a number of correlated data values into a smaller set of uncorrelated values by reducing the dimension of the data set while still retaining most of the inherent data. The process begins with a collection of 2-D facial images into a database called the face space. Using the Eigen feature method, the similar and dissimilar variations of the faces are obtained as a mean image of all the faces in the face space. This gives the training set of images. The difference image is computed by subtracting the mean image from every image in the training set, which provides the covariance matrix. The weight vector for the test image is also calculated and the distance between them determines the presence or absence of a similar face in the face space. 4.1 Mathematical Modeling Let f (x, y) be a two-dimensional function, where x and y are spatial coordinates and the amplitude of f at any pair of coordinates (x, y) is called the intensity of the image at that point.

These M images are converted as vectors X i, 1  i  M of dimension N (= m X n) where X i is an N X 1 vector corresponding to the image Ii in the image space F. Now F becomes F = (X1 X2 ………..XM) _______ (2) The mean image is calculated by summing all the training images and dividing by the number of images with dimension (N X 1) as follows



i =1


____ (3)

The difference image is obtained by subtracting the mean image from all the training images X i is stored in a vector  i





The main idea behind the eigenfaces technique is to exploit the similarities between the different images. For this purpose the covariance matrix Сv with dimension N X N is defined as
1 M



∑ Φ .Φ
i =1 i

T i



__ (5)

Where Τ = ( 1 2 3 ...M) is of dimension N X M. This covariance matrix

dimension will normally be huge matrix, and full eigenvector calculation is impractical Substituting the value of B in eqn. (7) Τ Τ. Υ i =  . Υ i _____ (8)

Multiplying both sides with Τ in eqn. (8), we obtain Τ. Τ Τ. Υ i = Τ.  .Υi ___(9)

Since ΤΤ Figure 4: Training set of face images

 is a scalar quantity, .ΤΥi= .ΤΥi _____(10) in

Substituting the value of Сv = Τ Τ eqn.(10), we obtain С v. Τ Υ i = . Τ Υ i___ (11) 4.2 Dimensionality Reduction in Covariance Matrix Now, let  We assume that without loss of generality of the whole training set, we can reduce the dimensionality of the covariance matrix B with dimension M X M defined as B = Τ Τ =
1 M

= Τ Υ i and 

are M

eigenvectors and eigen values of С v. In practice, a smaller set of ((M – 1) < M) eigenfaces is

sufficient for face identification because the subspace is the basis for the face space, i.e., we can represent the original face as a linear combination of these vectors. Hence, only

∑ Φ .Φ
i =1 i

T i

__ (6)

The eigenvectors of the covariance matrix С v are computed by using the matrix B. Then the eigenvector Υ i and the eigenvalue  problem | B -  I | = 0 B. Υ i =  .Υi _____ (7) of B are

significant eigenvectors of Сv, corresponding to the largest Eigen values are selected for

the eigenfaces computation thus resulting in a further data compression. 4.3 Recognition Now, the training images are papered into the Eigen face space and the weight of each

obtained by solving the characteristic eigenvalue

eigenvector to represent the image in the Eigen face space is calculated. The weight is simply the dot product of each image with each of the eigenvectors. Wk =  .i= . (Xi - X ) _____(12)

empirical threshold value. If the threshold value is less than the Euclidean distance ( k) and greater than , then it recognizes the face as close as to the face space but do not represent a known face class. If the threshold value is less than both the Euclidean distances, the system recognizes it as unknown object.

Where k = 1, 2 ….

. All the weights 5 .Algorithm of PCA method

are converted in the form of a matrix with dimension X1 ____ (13)

 = [w1, w2, w 3………..wk]

To test an unknown image  , we evaluate its weight (wi) by multiplying the eigenvector ( i) of the covariance matrix (С v ) with difference image ( – X ) W i =  (  – X )_______(14)

Now the weight matrix of the unknown image becomes  = [w1, w2, w 3………..wM’] __ (15) The Euclidean distance  k between unknown image and each face class is defined by k2 = ||  - k || 2; k = 1, 2,…….,Nc _____ (16) Calculating the Euclidean distance 6. Results and Discussions The database used in this context contains a set of face images of 130 individuals each with 3 different expressions and poses under similar illumination. The dimension of each image is 200 X 150 pixels in gray mode. PCA technique is Figure 5 :Algorithm of PCA method

between two data points involves computing the square root of the sum of the squares of the differences between corresponding values. These Euclidean distances are compared with an

applied to the database with a test set of random images. Eigen faces represent prominent features of face images of the training set. The highest eigenvalues representing the Eigen faces of 80 individuals with a training set of one face per individual is plotted in figure 7. In order to find out the proper value of M ’, the eigen values of the covariance matrix is ranked in descending order. Suppose there are M ’ eigenvalues, i.e.,  1,  2,  3, … M’, (it is convenient if these are appropriately arranged such that 1  2 3 … M’ ).where  1 is the largest eigen value while  M’ is the smallest one. The eigen value range of the training data provides useful information for the choice of the reduced PCA space M’. It is also observed from Figure 7, that the Eigen value variation of the training face images increases gradually as the face space grows from 1 to 80 with 10. In the figure 7, the number of As the number of the Eigen faces in the database increases, the Eigen value is observed to have exponential decay till it reaches the value zero. . From the figure 7, it is observed that as the distance goes on increasing, the recognition rate drops correspondingly until it reaches zero, which means that the recognition rate is inversely proportional to the Euclidean distance with the Eq.5.18 is presented in figure 7. (a) Figure 7: Eigen faces VS Eigen value variation Figure 6 Edge images with different operators Original and with perwitt operator

(b) Figure 7: Euclidean distance VS Recognition rate Figure9: For our experiments we have considered 200 images from the entire face database for which the timing diagram is illustrated in the figure 7 The figure shows timing plots for both the cases – with covariance matrix reduction and without covariance matrix reduction. It is observed from the graph that the timing for face recognition with covariance matrix reduction is around 34 seconds while without eduction of the covariance matrix, it is around 176 seconds. Figure 10: Execution time with and without reduction This shows that without covariance matrix reduction, the execution time for the face recognition algorithm is almost five times that of with covariance matrix reduction. covariance matrix dimension Number of Eigen faces VS Recognition rate

6 Conclusion and future work This paper gives an elaborate discussion about modeling and results of face recognition algorithm using principal components analysis with edge detection algorithms.. Dealing with

Figure 8: Comparison of with and without canny operator

Eigen faces, Eigen values and recognition rates, we plotted the corresponding graphs that are obtained using MATLAB 7p0. By reducing the dimension of the covariance matrix, we could achieve faster implementation of the algorithm, which is brought down to a few seconds over a database of 200 images. By using the canny edge detection algorithm it is found that recognition rate is improved with less matching time. also possible in enhancing the It is reduced

Chinese Journal of Computers, vol.23,no.6,pp. 602-608, 2000. [4] H. Rowley, S. Baluja, and T. Kanade, .Neural Network- Based Face Detection,. IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysisand Machine Intelligence, Vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 23-38, Jan. 1998. [5] M. Ogawa, K. Ito, and T. Shibata, .A generalpurpose employing vector-quantization processor twodimensional bit-propagating

dimensional images without filtering artifacts. This can be accomplished by wavelet principal components analysis approach with Hoff field network. The scheme refers to computing principal components for a modified set of wavelet coefficients to find Eigen spectra in spectral domain and then papering the original image on to wavelet principal comments analysis. In this way the features are indirectly emphasized. References: [1] Pantic M, Rothkrantz L, “Facial action recognition for facial expression analysis from static face images” , IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics-Part B, vol.14,no.3,pp.1449-1461, 2004. [2] Kotsia I, Zafeiriou S, Pitas L1. “Texture and shape information fusion for facial exp ression and facial action unit recognition”, Pattern Recognition, vol.41, no.3, pp.833-851, 2008. [3] Jin Hui, GaoWen. “The human facial combined expression recognition system”,

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19. A Hybrid Cooperative Quantum-Behaved PSO Algorithm for Image Segmentation Using Multilevel Thresholding
J. Manokaran#1, K. Usha Kingsly Devi*2
Applied Electronics Anna University of Technology Tirunelveli Tirunelveli, India
Assistant Professor Anna University of Technology Tirunelveli Tirunelveli, India

Abstract- Segmentation is one of the major steps in image processing. Image Segmentation is the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments. The goal of segmentation is to simplify and change the representation of an image something that is more meaningful and easier to analyze. Multilevel thresholding is one of the most popular image segmentation techniques because of his simplicity, robustness, and accuracy. In this project, by preserving the fast convergence rate of particle swarm optimization (PSO), the quantum - behaved PSO employing the cooperative method (CQPSO) is proposed to save computation time and to conquer the curse of dimensionality. Maximization of the measure of separability on the basis of between class variance method (often called the OTSU method), which is one of the classic thresholding technique, for image segmentation. The experimental results show that, compared with the existing populationbased thresholding methods, the proposed PSO algorithm gets more effective and efficient results. It also shortens the computation time of the classic method. Therefore, it can be applied in complex image processing such as automatic target recognition, biomedical images. Keywords-cooperative method, multilevel thresholding, OTSU, particle swarm optimization (PSO), quantum behavior.

INTRODUCTION The goal of image segmentation is to extract meaningful objects from an input image. It is useful in discriminating an object from objects that have distinct gray levels or different colors. Proper segmentation of the region of interest increases the accuracy in the processing result. In recent years, many segmentation methods have been developed—segmentation based on fuzzy C means and its variants, mean shift filters, and nonlinear diffusion [1-5]. Among all the existing segmentation techniques, the thresholding technique is one of the most popular due to its simplicity, robustness, and accuracy [6]. Many thresholding techniques have been proposed. Thresholding then becomes a simple but effective tool to separate objects from the background. Examples of thresholding applications are document image analysis, where the goal is to extract printed characters, logos, graphical content, or musical scores: map processing, where lines, legends, and characters are to be found. We categorize the thresholding methods in six groups according to the information they are exploiting. These categories are histogram shape-based methods, where, for example, the peaks, valleys and curvatures of the smoothed histogram are analyzed. Clustering-based methods, where the gray-level samples are clustered in two parts as background and


foreground (object), or alternately are modeled as a mixture of two Gaussians. entropy-based methods result in algorithms that use the entropy of the foreground and background regions, the cross-entropy between the original and binaries image, etc. object attribute-based methods search a measure of similarity between the gray-level and the binaries images, such as fuzzy shape similarity, edge coincidence, etc. The spatial methods use higher-order probability distribution and/or correlation between pixels. Local methods adapt the threshold value on each pixel to the local image characteristics. OTSU proposed a nonparametric and unsupervised method of automatic threshold selection for picture segmentation is presented. An optimal threshold is selected by the discriminant criterion, namely, so as to maximize the separability of the resultant classes in gray levels[7]. The procedure is very simple, utilizing only the zeroth- and the firstorder cumulative moments of the gray-level histogram. In general, the OTSU method has proved to be one of the best thresholding techniques for uniformity and shape measures. However, the computation time grows exponentially with the number of thresholds due to its exhaustive searching strategy, which would limit the multilevel thresholding applications. Optimization plays an important role in computer science, artificial intelligence, operational research, and other related fields. It is the process of trying to find the best possible solution to an optimization problem within a reasonable time limit. The goal of an optimization problem is to find a valuation for the variables that satisfies the constraints and that maximizes, or minimizes, the fitness (objective) function. The type of fitness function to optimize determines the mathematics model that may be used to solve the problem. At first Ant colony optimization (ACO) method to obtain the optimal parameters of the entropybased object segmentation approach [8]. The experiment showed that the ACO algorithm is more acceptable than other comparable algorithms. Distributed computation avoids premature convergence. Limitation is No centralized processor to guide the ant towards good solution. Genetic algorithms (GAs) can

accelerate the optimization calculation but suffer drawbacks such as slow convergence and easy to trap into local optimum [9]. Extracting from several highest performance strings, a strongest scheme can be obtained. With the low performance strings learning from it with a certain probability, the average-fitness of each generation can increase and the computational time will improve. On the other hand, the learning program can also improve the population diversity. This will enhance the stability of the optimization calculation. It is a application dependent one particularly applicable for specific application. In this paper, propose a new optimal multilevel thresholding algorithm particularly suitable for multilevel image segmentation, employing the particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. Compared with other population-based stochastic optimization methods, such as GA and ACO, PSO has comparable or even superior search performance for many hard optimization problems, with faster and more stable convergence rates [10]. It has been proved to be an effective optimum tool in thresholding [11], [12]. Lack of population diversity in PSO algorithm leads local optima which means it cannot guarantee that the global optima. In QPSO, the particle can appear any where during iteration, thus enhancing the population diversity. It is easier to control than the PSO algorithm for it only has one parameter. However, for QPSO, updating the position of the particle as a whole item, like PSO, also has the problem of the curse of dimensionality. The performance of QPSO deteriorates as the dimensionality of the search space increases. Hence, a new hybrid QPSO algorithm with the cooperative method (CQPSO) is proposed in this paper for solving this problem. The cooperative method is specifically employed to conquer the “curse of dimensionality,” by splitting a particle with composite high dimensionality into several 1-D subparts. Then, the particle in CQPSO makes contribution to the population not only as a whole item but also in each dimension. The OTSU method is employed to evaluate the


performance of CQPSO. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is more efficient than the traditional OTSU algorithm; it also outperforms the compared population based segmentation algorithms both from the point of view of maximizing the fitness function as well as the stability. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section II presents the proposed hybrid cooperative approach QPSO algorithm in detail. Section III presents the OTSU-based measure employed for optimal thresholding. In Section IV, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Finally, Section V concludes the paper.

In PSO, the position and velocity vectors of the ith particle in the d-dimensional search space can be represented as Xi = (xi1, xi2. . . xid) and Vi = (vi1, vi2, . . . , vid), respectively. According to a userdefined fitness function, let us say that the best position of each particle (which corresponds to the best fitness value obtained by that particle at iteration t) is Pi = (pi1, pi2, . . . , pid), and that the fittest particle found so far at iteration t is Pg = (pg1, pg2, . . . , pgd). Then, the new velocities and the positions of the particles for the next fitness evaluation are calculated using the following two equations: Vi(t+1) = ώVi(t)+c1 rand1 *(Pi-Xi)+c2 rand2*(PgXi) (1) Xi(t+1) = Xi(t)+Vi(t+1) (2) Where c1 and c2 are positive constants, and rand1 and rand2 are two separately generated uniformly distributed random functions in the interval (0, 1). The variable ώ is the inertia weight that ensures the convergence of the PSO algorithm. Since the introduction of the PSO algorithm, several improvements have been suggested, many of which have been incorporated into the equations shown in (1) and (2). Each particle must converge to its local attractor Q = (Q1,Q2, . . . , Qd), of which the coordinates are given by Qd = rand ∗ Pid + (1 − rand) ∗ Pgd (3)


PSO Algorithm

PSO is a recently proposed population-based stochastic optimization algorithm [13], which is inspired by the social behavior of animals, like bird flocking. The algorithm searches a solution space by adjusting the trajectories of individual vectors, called “particles.” The target of the particles is to find the best result of the fitness function. The position of the particles is randomly initialized from the search space . At each iteration, each particle is assigned with a velocity also randomly initialized in . The velocity of each particle is updated using the best position that it visited so far and the overall best position visited by its companions. Then, the position of each particle is updated using its updated velocity per iteration. The achievement of each particle is evaluated by the fitness function. At each iteration, the best position of the particle visited so far and the overall best position by its companions will be saved as personal and population experiences. From these experiences, all the particles will converge to the solution. Thus, as compared to other population-based methods, e.g., GA or differential evolution, PSO has a memory that gives it a fast convergence rate.

One problem found in the standard PSO is that it could easily fall into local optima in many optimization problems. According to (1), particles are largely influenced by Pi and Pg. Once the best particle has no change in a local optimum, all the remaining particles will quickly converge to the position of the best particle found so far. Therefore, PSO is not guaranteed to find the global optima of the fitness function (often called premature). The searching space of particles having a quantum behavior mainly focuses on the local area of Q, but differs from PSO that it can also appear far away from Q. This enables QPSO to have a more powerful global searching ability than PSO. In QPSO, the velocity equation in the PSO


algorithm is neglected. Further, each individual particle moves in the search space with a δ potential well on each dimension to prevent the particle from explosion, of which the center is the point Q. Then, the particle’s probability distribution in search space is set as follows: D(Xi-Q) = 1 ⁄ Li e−2|Xi−Q| / Li (4)

if f(pi)< f(pg) pg = pi end Calculated using equation (3) if rand >0.5 Xi = Q + a*|Q-Xi|* ln(1/u) else Xi = Q-a*|Q-Xi|* ln(1/u) end end Until termination criterion is satisfied. Here formulate each particle as a candidate solution to the multilevel thresholding Xi = (t_1, t_2, . . . , t_M−1) (7)

where Li, which is relevant to the mass of the particle and the intensity of the potential well, is the characteristic length of the distribution function. The particle in the QPSO equation: Xi(t+1)=Q ± Li(t+1) ⁄ 2* ln(1/u) (5)

Q, is the main moving direction of the particles, and its equation is presented in (3). The region near Q is the valuable searching area in PSO. Therefore, this term enables QPSO to have fast convergence, like PSO. The second term gives the step size for the particle’s movement. u is a random number uniformly distributed in [0, 1]. Li is evaluated by the gap between the particle’s current position and Q for getting the experience from the other particles. Li(t+1)=2* a |Q-Xi(t)|. (6)

Cooperative Method

Weakness of QPSO, each update step is performed on a full d-dimensional particle. This leads to the possibility of some components in the particle having been moved closer to the solution. While other have actually been moved away from the solution. Cooperative learning is employed to overcome the ‘‘curse of dimensionality’’ by decomposing a high-dimensional swarm into several one-dimensional swarms. CQPSO Algorithm Initialize population: random Xi repeat: for each particle i €[1,S] Performing particle updates using QPSO algorithm b=pg for each dimension j €[1,d] if f(b(j,Xij))<f(b(j,Pij)) Pij = Xij end if if f(b(j,Xij))<f(b) Pgi = Xij end if end for end for Until termination criterion is satisfied By applying the cooperative method into the thresholding segmentation field, each particle in CQPSO contributes to the population not only

As described in (4), we can see that during the iteration, the particles with a quantum behavior can appear anywhere the searching space, even far away from Q. It effectively enhances the population diversity. Hence, QPSO shows the excellent ability for conquering the problem of being premature. Furthermore, only one parameter a controls the position of particles, it is easier to control than PSO. a linearly decreases from 1.0 to 0.5, from the beginning of the iteration to the end. QPSO Algorithm: Initialize population: random Xi repeat: for each particle i€[1,S] if f(Xi)<f(pi) P i = Xi end


as a whole item, but also in each dimension. Therefore, it is not limited to the dimension of optimal thresholds and is particularly suitable for multilevel thresholding. Another benefit from using the cooperative method is that each particle in CQPSO can potentially make a contribution to the optimal thresholds in each dimension; this ensures that the search space is searched more thoroughly and that the algorithm’s chances of finding better results is improved.

0 ≤ t_1 ≤ t_2 ≤ · · · ≤ t_M−1 ≤ L (8) where σB 2 = ∑ With uk=∑ k =∑ PRi, iPRi / k , k=1,2,……M k * (uk - utk*) 2,


The OTSU criterion, as proposed by Otsu, has been popularly employed in determining whether the optimal thresholding method can provide histogram-based image segmentation with satisfactory desired characteristics. The original algorithm in OTSU can be described as follows. In the beginning, we consider an image containing N pixels of gray levels from 0 to L. h(i) represents the number of the ith gray level pixel,and PRi is the probability of i. Then, we have PR1 = h (i)/N, N= ∑ h i Assuming that there are M-1 thresholds, {t_1, t_2 , . . , t_M−1}, that divide the original image into M classes. C1 for [0, . . . . . . , t_1] C2 for [t_1 + 1, . . . , t_2] CM for [t_M−1, . . . . , L] Thus M-1 thresholds, separate the input gray level values into M classes. The optimal thresholds, {t∗_1, t∗_2, . . . , t∗_M−1}, chosen by the OTSU method is depicted as follows: { t∗_1, t∗_2, . . . , t∗_M−1} =arg max{ σ2B(t_1, t_2, . . …..t_M−1)}, Range .

For evaluating the performance of the proposed algorithm, to implemented it on a wide variety of images. These images include the popular tested image, which is also used in existing technique, and the other 100 images are provided by the Berkeley segmentation data set [14]. The segmented results of two images are shown in this paper. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by comparing its results with some other popular algorithms developed in the literature so far, e.g., traditional OTSU method, QPSO algorithm. A. Multilevel thresholding results and efficiency of different methods, with M -1=3,4,5 Fig. 1 presents these two input images. To employ (8) as the fitness function to provide a comparison of performances. Since the classical OTSU method is an exhaustive searching algorithm, we regarded its results as the “standard.” Table I shows the optimal thresholds by OTSU method. Table II shows computation time by OTSU method. Therefore, regardless of which population-based algorithms used for multilevel thresholding, we strive to obtain the correct threshold values and bigger fitness values with fast computation ability. Using CQPSO and other population-based algorithms, the average fitness function values and the corresponding optimal thresholds obtained by the test algorithms (with M −1 = 3,4,5) are shown in Tables III and IV. The bigger value shown in table III means that the algorithm gets the better results


(a) Fig. 1 Test images. (a)LENA (b)PEPPER TABLE I OPTIMAL THRESHOLDS BY THE OTSU METHOD Image Three No of segments Optimal thresholds 70,128 68,136 Four No of segments Optimal thresholds 58,103,146 61,118,165 TABLE II


Five No of segments Optimal thresholds 50,88,121,156 52,92,128,170


COMPUTATION TIME BY THE OTSU METHOD Image LENA PEPPER Three No of Four No of segments segments Computation time Computation time 0.39314 0.43071 0.11013 0.19589 TABLE III Five No of segments Computation time 0.539767 0.254489

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF OBJECTIVE FUNCTION VALUES FOR CQPSO AND QPSO ALGORITHMS Image LENA PEPPER No of segments 3 4 5 3 4 5 Objective value CQPSO 49146 61933 71026 57958 73067 83993 QPSO 43563 57895 68567 51341 68346 81049




No of segments 3 4 5 3 4 5

Optimal thresholds CQPSO 13,141,206 48,93,159,211 38,75,127,169,205 14,152,221 52,100,171,227 41,80,137,182,220 TABLE V

QPSO 13,115,206 48,93,144,211 38,75,115,169,205 14,124,221 52,100,154,227 41,80,124,182,220

COMPUTATION TIME FOR TESTING IMAGE DERIVED BY CQPSO AND QPSO ALGORITHMS Image LENA PEPPER No of segments 3 4 5 3 4 5 Computation time CQPSO 0.03817 0.04036 0.06580 0.15860 0.15351 0.15345 QPSO 0.22987 0.34483 0.44756 0.19433 0.19555 0.20313

(a) (a’) (b) (b’) Fig. 2 Thresholded images by the OTSU method and the CQPSO based algorithm (Four number of segments)


From the result shown in Table I-V, and figure 3-6 compared with the other populationbased algorithm, the CQPSO-based algorithm gets results equal to or nearest the traditional OTSU method with less computation time. Therefore, CQPSO is more efficient than the OTSU method. Furthermore, among the population-based algorithms tested in the paper,

Fig. 2 shows the segmented images by the traditional OTSU method and the CQPSO-based algorithm, with M − 1 = 4. We can see that the CQPSO-based algorithm gets very similar results with those of OTSU method. Furthermore, except for being evaluated by the benchmark images shown in this paper, the proposed algorithm is also tested using 100 images. The results prove that the CQPSO based algorithm is more efficient and effective than the other population-based algorithms.

V.CONCLUSION Fig. 3 objective value comparison for Lena image In this paper, we have described an optimal multilevel thresholding algorithm that employs an improved variant of QPSO. By combining the merits of QPSO and the cooperative method, this algorithm is employed for several benchmark images, and the performance of each image shows a significant improvement compared to several other popular contemporary methods. As a fast populationbased method, the CQPSO algorithm can also be incorporated to other popular thresholding segmentation methods based on optimizing the fitness function. In our future work, we aim at finding a simpler and more efficient PSO algorithm and then apply it to complex image processing and computer vision problems. REFERENCES [1]J. C. Bexdek, “A convergence theorem for the fuzzy ISODARA clustering algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. PAMI-2, no. 1, pp. 1–8, Jan. 1980. [2] S. R. Kannan, “A new segmentation system for brain MR image based on fuzzy techniques,” Appl. Soft Comput., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1599–1606, Sep. 2008. [3] M. Li and R. C. Staunton, “A modified fuzzy C-means image segmentation algorithm for use with uneven illumination patterns,” Pattern Recognit., vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 3005–3011, Nov. 2007. 152

Fig. 4 objective value comparison for pepper image
LENA computation time

1 0.5 0 seg=3
no:of segments OTSU QPSO




Fig. 5 computation time comparison for Lena image
0.3 0.2 0.1 0 SEG=3 SEG=4 SEG=5 OTSU QPSO CQPSO

Fig. 6 computation time comparison for pepper image

[4] D. Comaniciu and P. Meer, “Mean shift analysis and zpplications,” in Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Comput. Vis., Kerkyra, Greece, 1999, pp. 1197– 1203. [5] P. Perona and J. Malik, “Scale-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 12, no. 7,pp. 629–639, Jul. 1990. [6]N. R. Pal and S. K. Pal, “A review on image segmentation techniques,” Pattern Recognit., vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1277–1294, Sep. 1993. [7] N. Otsu, “A threshold selection method from gray-level histograms,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., vol. SMC-9, no. 1, pp. 62–66, Jan. 1979. [8] W. B. Tao, H. Jin, and L. M. Liu, “Object segmentation using ant colony optimization algorithm and fuzzy entropy,” Pattern Recognit. Lett., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 788–796, May 2008. [9]L. Cao, P. Bao, and Z. K. Shi, “The strongest schema learning GA and its application to

multilevel thresholding,” Image Vis. Comput., vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 716–724, May 2008. [10] J. Kennedy and R. C. Eberhart, Swarm Intelligence. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2001. [11]P. Y. Yin, “Multilevel minimum cross entropy threshold selection based on particle swarm optimization,” Appl. Math. Comput., vol. 184, no. 2, pp. 503–513, Jan. 2007. [12] E. Zahara, S. K. S. Fan, and D. M. Tsai, “Optimal multi-thresholding using a hybrid optimization approach,” Pattern Recognit. Lett., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1082–1095, Jun. 2005. [13] J. Kennedy and R. C. Eberhart, “Particle swarm optimization,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Neural Netw., Perth, Australia, 1995, vol. 4, pp. 1948– 1972. [14] [Online]. Available: s/CS/ vision/bsds//

20. BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION IN PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION Rajendiran Manojkanth 1, B.Mari Kesava Venkatesh2 Electronics and Communication Engineering Department PSNA College of Engineering and Technology,Dindigul-624 622, India 1 2 Abstract Advances in the field of Information Technology also make Information Security an inseparable part of it. In order to deal with security,Authentication plays an important role.This paper presents a review on the biometric authentication techniques and some future possibilities in this field. In biometrics, a human being needs to be identified based on some characteristic physiological parameters. A wide variety of systems require reliable personal recognition schemes to either confirm or determine the identity of an individual requesting their services. The purpose of such schemes is to ensure that the rendered services are accessed only by a legitimate user, and not anyone else. By using biometrics it is possible to confirm or establish an individual’s identity. The position of biometrics in the current field of Security has been depicted in this work. We have also outlined opinions about the usability of biometric authentication systems, comparison between different techniques and theiradvantages and disadvantages in this paper. Keywords: biometric, pattern, IRIS, authentication.

1. Introduction Information security is concerned with the assurance of confidentiality, integrity and availability of information in all forms. There are many tools and techniques that can support the management of information security. But system based on biometric has 153

evolved to support some aspects of information security. Biometric authentication supports the facet of identification, authentication and nonrepudiation in information security. Biometric authentication has grown in popularity as a way to provide personal identification. Person’s identification is crucially significant in many application and the hike in credit card fraud and identity theft in recent years indicate that this is an issue of major concern in wider society. Individual passwords, pin identification or even token based arrangement all have deficiencies that restrict their applicability in a widely-networked society. Biometric is used to identify the identity of an input sample when compared to a template, used in cases to identify specific people by certain characteristics. Possession based: using one specific "token" such as a security tag or a card and knowledge-based: the use of a code or password. Standard validation systems often use multiple inputs of samples for sufficient validation, such as particular characteristics of the sample. This intends to enhance security as multiple different samples are required such as security tags and codes and sample dimensions. So, the advantage claimed by biometric authentication is that they can establish an unbreakable one-to-one correspondence between an individual and a piece of data. In this paper, we present a detail survey on Biometric Authentication and we hope that this work will definitely provide a concrete overview on the past, present and future aspects in this field. 2. Overview Biometrics (ancient Greek: bios ="life", metron ="measure") refers to two very different fields of study and application. The first, which is the older and is used in biological studies, including forestry, is the collection, synthesis, analysis and 154

management of quantitative data on biological communities such as forests. Biometrics in reference to biological sciences has been studied and applied for several generations and is somewhat simply viewed as "biological statistics" [1].Authentication is the act of establishing or confirming something (or someone) as authentic, that is, that claims made by or about the thing are true. A short overview in this field can be divided into three parts and they are Past, Present and Future. 2.1. Past European explorer Joao de Barros recorded the first known example of fingerprinting, which is a form of biometrics, in China during the 14th century. Chinese merchants used ink to take children's fingerprints for identification purposes. In 1890, Alphonse Bertillon studied body mechanics and measurements to help in identifying criminals. The police used his method, the Bertillonage method, until it falsely identified some subjects. The Bertillonage method was quickly abandoned in favor of fingerprinting, brought back into use by Richard Edward Henry of Scotland Yard. Karl Pearson, an applied mathematician studied biometric research early in the 20th century at University College of London. He made important discoveries in the field of biometrics through studying statistical history and correlation, which he applied to animal evolution. His historical work included the method of moments, the Pearson system of curves, correlation and the chi-squared test. In the 1960s and '70s, signature biometric authentication procedures were developed, but the biometric field remained fixed until the military and security agencies researched and developed biometric technology beyond fingerprinting. 2.2. Present Biometrics authentication is a growing and controversial field in which civil liberties groups express concern over privacy and

identity issues. Today, biometric laws and regulations are in process and biometric industry standards are being tested. Face recognition biometrics has not reached the prevalent level of fingerprinting, but with constant technological pushes and with the threat of terrorism, researchers and biometric developers will stimulate this security technology for the twenty-first century. In modern approach, Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes: a. Physiological are related to the shape of the body and thus it varies from person to person Fingerprints, Face recognition, hand geometry and iris recognition are some examples of this type of Biometric. b. Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. Some examples in this case are signature, keystroke dynamics and of voice . Sometimes voice is also considered to be a physiological biometric as it varies from person to person.

Recently, a new trend has been developed that merges human perception to computer database in a brain-machine interface. This approach has been referred to as cognitive biometrics. Cognitive biometrics is based on specific responses of the brain to stimuli which could be used to trigger a computer database search. 2.3. Future A biometric system can provide two functions. One of which is verification and the other one is Authentication. So, the techniques used for biometric authentication has to be stringent enough that they can employ both these functionalities simultaneously. Currently, cognitive 155

biometrics systems are being developed to use brain response to odor stimuli, facial perception and mental performance for search at ports and high security areas. Other biometric strategies are being developed such as those based on gait (way of walking), retina, Hand veins, ear canal, facial thermogram, DNA, odor and scent and palm prints. In the near future, these biometric techniques can be the solution for the current threats in world of information security. Of late after a thorough research it can be concluded that approaches made for simultaneous authentication and verification is most promising for iris, finger print and palm vain policies. But whatever the method we choose, main constraint will be its performance in real life situation. So, application of Artificial System can be a solution for these cases. We have given emphasis on the Iris recognition. According to us, after detection of an iris pattern, the distance between pupil and the iris boundary can be computed. This metric can be used for the recognition purposes because this feature remains unique for each and every individual. Again, an artificial system can be designed which will update the stored metric as the proposed feature may vary for a particular person after certain time period. After doing the manual analysis of the above discussed method, we have got a satisfactory result. Due to the dynamic modification of the proposed metric, the rejection ration for a same person reduces by a lot. The work is being carried out to make the system viable. 3. Detail, Techniques and Technologies We have already stated that there exist two kind of biometric characteristics. So, techniques for biometric authentication have been developed based on these characteristics. Details of different techniques are discussed below. 3.1. Finger Print Technology A fingerprint is an impression of the friction ridges of all or any part of the finger. A friction ridge is a raised portion of the on the

palmar (palm) or digits (fingers and toes) or plantar (sole) skin, consisting of one or more connected ridge units of friction ridge skin. These ridges are sometimes known as "dermal ridges" or "dermal ". The traditional method uses the ink to get the finger print onto a piece of paper. This piece of paper is then scanned using a traditional scanner. Now in modern approach, live finger print readers are used .These are based on optical, thermal, silicon or ultrasonic principles [22, 23, 27]. It is the oldest of all the biometric techniques. Optical finger print reader is the most common at present. They are based on reflection changes at the spots where finger papilar lines touch the reader surface. All the optical fingerprint readers comprise of the source of light, the light sensor and a special reflection surface that changes the reflection according to the pressure. Some of the readers are fitted out with the processing and memory chips as well. The finger print obtained from an Optical Fingerprint Reader is shown in figure 1. The size of optical finger is around 10*10*15. It is difficult to minimize them much more as the reader has to comprise the source on light reflection surface and light sensor. Optical Silicon Fingerprint Sensor is based on the capacitance of finger. Dccapacitive finger print sensor consists of rectangular arrays of capacitors on a silicon chip. One plate of the capacitors is finger, other plate contains a tiny area of metallization on the chips surfaces on placing finger against the surfaces of a chip, the ridges of finger print are close to the nearby pixels and have high capacitance to them. The valleys are more distant from the pixels nearest them and therefore have lower capacitance. Ultrasound finger print is newest and least common. They use ultrasound to monitor the figure surfaces, the user places the finger 156

on a piece of glass and the ultrasonic sensor moves and reads whole finger print. This process takes 1 or 2 seconds. Finger print matching techniques can be placed into two categories. One of them is Minutiae based and the other one is Correlation based. Minutiae based techniques find the minutiae points first and then map their relation placement on the finger. Correlation based techniques require the precise location of a registration point and are affected by image translation and rotation [2, 3, 19, 24]. 3.2. Face Recognition Technology A facial recognition technique is an application of computer for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. It is the most natural means of biometric identification [6]. Facial recognition technologies have recently developed into two areas and they are Facial metric and Eigen faces. Facial metric technology relies on the manufacture of the specific facial features (the system usually look for the positioning of eyes, nose and mouth and distances between these features), shown in figure 2 and 3. 3.2. Face Recognition Technology A facial recognition technique is an application of computer for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. It is the most natural means of biometric identification [6].Facial recognition technologies have recently developed into two areas and they are Facial metric and Eigen faces. Facial metric technology relies on the manufacture of the specific facial features (the system usually look for the positioning of eyes, nose and mouth and distances between these features), shown in figure 2 and 3. The face region is rescaled to a fixed pre-defined size (e.g. 150-100 points). This normalized face image is called the canonical image. Then the facial metrics are

computed and stored in a face template. The typical size of such a template is between 3 and 5 KB, but there exist systems with the size of the template as small as 96 bytes. The figure for the normalized face is given below. The Eigen Face method (figure 4) is based on categorizing faces according to the degree of it with a fixed set of 100 to 150 eigen faces. The eigen faces that are created will appear as light and dark areas that are arranged in a specific pattern. This pattern shows how different features of a face are singled out. It has to be evaluated and scored. There will be a pattern to evaluate symmetry, if there is any style of facial hair, where the hairline is, or evaluate the size of the nose or mouth. Other eigen faces have patterns that are less simple to identify, and the image of the eigen face may look very little like a face. This technique is in fact similar to the police method of creating a portrait, but the image processing is automated and based on a real picture. Every face is assigned a degree of fit to each of 150 eigen faces, only the 40 template eigen faces with the highest degree of fit are necessary to reconstruct the face with the accuracy of 99 percent. The whole thing is done using Face Recognition softwares [24, 25, 32, 39]. 3.3. IRIS Technology This recognition method uses the iris of the eye which is colored area that surrounds the pupil. Iris patterns are unique and are obtained through video based image acquisition system. Each iris structure is featuring a complex pattern. This can be a combination of specific characteristics known as corona, crypts, filaments, freckles, pits, furrows, striations and rings [7]. An IRIS Image shown in figure 5. The iris pattern is taken by a special gray scale camera in the distance of 10- 40 cm of 157

camera. Once the gray scale image of the eye is obtained then the software tries to locate the iris within the image. If an iris is found then the software creates a net of curves covering the iris. Based on the darkness of the points along the lines the software creates the iris code. Here, two influences have to take into account. First, the overall darkness of image is influenced by the lighting condition so the darkness threshold used to decide whether a given point is dark or bright cannot be static, it must be dynamically computed according to the overall picture darkness. Secondly, the size of the iris changes as the size of the pupil changes. Before computing the iris code, a proper transformation must be done. In decision process, the matching software takes two iris codes and compute the hamming distance based on the number of different bits. The hamming distances score (within the range 0 means the same iris codes), which is then compared with the security threshold to make the final decision. Computing the hamming distance of two iris codes is very fast (it is the fact only counting the number of bits in the exclusive OR of two iris codes). We can also implement the concept of template matching in this technique. In template matching, some statistical calculation is done between a stored iris template and a produced. Depending on the result decision is taken [27, 30, 34]. 3.4. Hand Geometry Technology It is based on the fact that nearly every person’s hand is shaped differently and that the shape of a person’s hand does not change after certain age. These techniques include the estimation of length, width, thickness and surface area of the hand. Various method are used to measure the hands- Mechanical or optical principle [8, 20]. There are two sub-categories of optical scanners. Devices from first category create

a black and white bitmap image of the hand’s shape. This is easily done using a source of light and a black and white camera. The bitmap image is processed by the computer software. Only 2Dchararcteristics of hand can be used in this case. Hand geometry systems from other category are more complicated. They use special guide marking to portion the hand better and have two (both vertical and horizontal) sensors for the hand shape measurements. So, sensors from this category handle data of all 3D features [5, 24, 33]. Figure 6 and 7 shows the hand geometry system. Some of hand geometry scanners produce only the video signal with the hand shape. Image digitalization and processing is then done in the computer to process those signals in order to obtain required video or image of the hand [14, 30]. 3.5. Retina Geometry Technology It is based on the blood vessel pattern in the retina of the eye as the blood vessels at the back of the eye have a unique pattern, from eye to eye and person to person (figure 8). Retina is not directly visible and so a coherent infrared light source is necessary to illuminate the retina. The infrared energy is absorbed faster by blood vessels in the retina than by the surrounding tissue. The image of the retina blood vessel pattern is then analyzed. Retina scans require that the person removes their glasses, place their eye close to the scanner, stare at a specific point, and remain still, and focus on a specified location for approximately 10 to 15 seconds while the scan is completed. A retinal scan involves the use of a low-intensity coherent light source, which is projected onto the retina to illuminate the blood vessels which are then photographed and analyzed. A coupler is used to read the blood vessel patterns. A retina scan cannot be faked as it is currently impossible to forge a human retina. Furthermore, the retina of a deceased person decays too rapidly to be used to deceive a retinal scan. A retinal scan has an 158

error rate of 1 in 10,000,000, compared to fingerprint identification error being sometimes as high as 1 in 500 [9, 30]. 3.8. Other Techniques Some other available techniques for biometric authentication are described below. 3.8.1. Palmprint: Palmprint verification is a slightly different implementation of the fingerprint technology. Palmprint scanning uses optical readers that are very similar to those used for fingerprint scanning, their size is, however, much bigger and this is a limiting factor for the use in workstations or mobile devices [40, 15]. 3.8.2. Hand Vein: Hand vein geometry is based on the fact that the vein pattern is distinctive for various individuals Vein pattern matching involves scanning the vein patterns on the back of a user’s hand. The user places their hand into a reader. Inside a small black and white camera and LED array are used to capture the digital image. The LED array, combined with filters also inside the reader, is used to magnify the contrast of the veins under the skin. This results in a vein distribution pattern that may be used for authentication. Certain vein aspects or points, as well as the whole distribution, are used for verification.. One such system is manufactured by British Technology Group. The device is called Vein check and uses a template with the size of 50 bytes [4, 13, 20]. 3.8.3. Ear Shape: Identifying individuals by the ear shape is used in law enforcement applications where ear markings are found at crime scenes. Whether this technology will progress to access control applications is yet to be seen. An ear shape verifier (Optophone) is produced by a French company ART Techniques. It is a telephone type handset within which is a lighting unit and cameras which capture two images of the ear [4, 18]. 4. Applications

Biometric authentication is highly reliable, because physical human characteristics are much more difficult to forge then security codes ,passwords ,hardware keys sensors ,fast processing equipment and substantial memory capacity , so the system are costly. Biometric based authentication applications include workstation and network access, single sign-on, application logon, data protection, remote access to resources, transaction security, and Web security. The promises of e-commerce and e-government can be achieved through the utilization of strong personal authentication procedures. Secure electronic banking, investing and other financial transactions, retail sales, law enforcement, and health and social services are already benefiting from these technologies. Biometric technologies are expected to play a key role in personal authentication for large scale enterprise network authentication environments, Pointof-Sale and for the protection of all types of digital content such as in Digital Rights Management and Health Care applications. Utilized alone or integrated with other technologies such as smart cards, encryption keys and digital signatures, biometrics is anticipated to pervade nearly all aspects of the economy and our daily lives. For example, biometrics is used in various schools such as in lunch programs in Pennsylvania, and a school library in Minnesota. Examples of other current applications include verification of annual pass holders in an amusement park, speaker verification for television home shopping, Internet banking, and users’ authentication in a variety of social services [4] 5. Evaluation When it is time to use the biometric authentication, the degree of security is concerned. In this paper, we have discussed the various types of biometric authentication techniques. In this section, we will evaluate 159

different techniques and find degree of security. There are various parameters with the help of which we can measure the performance of any biometric authentication techniques. These factors are described below [28, 29, 30]. Table 1 shows the evaluated vales of various evaluation techniques. 5.1. Factors of Evaluation 5.1.1. False Accept Rate (FAR) and False Match Rate (MAR): The probability that the system incorrectly declares a successful match between the input pattern and a non matching pattern in the database. It measures the percent of invalid matches. These systems are critical since they are commonly used to forbid certain actions by disallowed people. 5.1.2. False Reject Rate (FRR) or False Non-Match Rate (FNMR): The probability that the system incorrectly declares failure of match between the input pattern and the matching template in the database. It measures the percent of valid inputs being rejected. 5.1.3. Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC): In general, the matching algorithm performs a decision using some parameters (e.g. a threshold). In biometric systems the FAR and FRR can typically be traded off against each other by changing those parameters. The ROC plot is obtained by graphing the values of FAR and FRR, changing the implicitly. A common variation is the Detection Error Tradeoff (DET), which is obtained using normal deviate scales on both axes. This more linear graph illuminates the differences for higher performances (rarer errors) . 5.1.4. Equal Error Rate (EER): The rates at which both accept and reject errors are equal. ROC or DET plotting is used because how FAR and FRR can be changed, is shown clearly. When quick comparison of two systems is required, the ERR is

commonly used. Obtained from the ROC plot by taking the point where FAR and FRR have the same value. The lower the EER, the more accurate the system is considered to be. 5.1.5. Failure to Enroll Rate (FTE or FER): The percentage of data input is considered invalid and fails to input into the system. Failure to enroll happens when the data obtained by the sensor are considered invalid or of poor quality. 5.1.6. Failure to Capture Rate (FTC): Within automatic systems, the probability that the system fails to detect a biometric characteristic when presented correctly is generally treated as FTC. 5.1.7. Template Capacity: It is defined as the maximum number of sets of data which can be input in to the system. 5.2 Results of Evaluation The evaluations of various techniques using the above parameters are presented in a tabular format. 5.2.1. Finger Print Technology: The finger print bit map obtained from the reader is affected by the finger moisture as the moisture significantly influences the capacitance .This means that too wet or dry fingers do no produce bitmaps with sufficient quality and so people with unusually wet or dry figures have problems with these silicon figure print readers. 5.2.2. Face Recognition Technology: The accuracy of face recognition systems improves with time, but it has not been very satisfying so far. There is need to improve the algorithm for face location.. The current software often doesn’t find the face at all or finds “a face” at an incorrect place .This makes result worse. The systems also have problems to distinguish very similar person like twins and any significant change in hair 160

or beard style requires re – enrollment .glasses also causes additional difficulties .It doesn’t require any contact with person and cab be fooled with a picture if no countermeasures are active The liveness detection is based most commonly on facial mimics. The user is asked to blink or smile .If the image changes properly then the person is considered “live”. 5.2.3. Iris Technology: The artificial duplication of the iris is virtually impossible because of unique properties .The iris is closely connected to the human brain and it is said to be one of the first parts of the body to decay after the death. It should be therefore very difficult to create an artificial iris to fraudulently bypass the biometric systems if the detection of the iris liveness is working properly. 5.2.4. Hand Geometry Technique: Its condition to be used is hand must be placed accurately, guide marking have been incorporated and units are mounted so that they are at a comfortable height for majority of the population. The noise factors such as dirt and grease do not pose a serious problem, as only the silhouette of the hand shape is important. Hand geometry doesn’t produce a large data set. Therefore, give a large no. of records, hand geometry may not be able to distinguish sufficiently one individual from another. The size of hand template is often as small as 9 bytes. Such systems are not suitable for identification at all. It shows lower level security application.5.2.5. Retina Geometry: The main drawbacks of the retina scan are its intrusiveness. The method of obtaining a retina scan is personally invasive. A laser light must be directed through the cornea of edge. Also the operation of retina scanner is not easy. A skilled operator is required and the person being scanned has to follow his

or her direction. However, retina scanning systems are said to be accurate, It is used where high security is concerned. 6.Considerations How well a system performs its stated purpose is probably the most important fact to consider when looking at any authentication solution. For example, does it have a suitable and realistic false acceptance rate that meets your organization’s needs? These performance measurements were discussed in detail earlier. However, when an organization is making the decision on whether to use biometrics or not, there are some additional considerations that should be made. Some of these considerations may be more or less important depending on the need of the organization. Additionally, there may be other facts not listed here that need to be taken into account when implementing a biometric solution. In general, the following should be considered any time it is decided that biometrics are a viable solution for your organization. 6.1. User Acceptability : Next to performance, and in some cases before, this is usually the main concern of users. Is the system intrusive and hard to use? Will users feel that their privacy is being violated or will they feel like criminals (e.g. fingerprinting)? Will the users feel that they are potentially exposing themselves to harm (e.g. light scanning their retina)? In most cases user acceptability can be increased in some degree by education and information. 6.2. Uniqueness of the Biometric : The key to the strength and security of any biometric is its uniqueness. Fingerprinting and iris and retinal scans are typically considered the most unique. This does not necessarily mean that they cannot be replicated; rather it means that they have a sufficient number of complex patterns or traits that can be used to build a strong template for authentication. 161

6.3. Resistance to Counterfeiting : Can the biometric be easily replicated by an intruder? Again, this is different from #2 above. Fingerprints, for example, are very unique. However, there have been many detailed successful attempts at replicating fingerprints. Iris scans on the other hand, are considered to be almost impossible to replicate as well as extremely unique. 6.4. Reliability : The system should experience minimal downtime. If the system where to go down, it should be fairly easy to bring it back up with minimal loss of productivity and data. In order for a biometric system to perform its stated purpose it is imperative that it be reliable. If users cannot authenticate or gain access, they most likely will be unable to do their jobs. If consumers or customers are unable to authenticate they will be angry and revenue and faith may be lost. 6.5. Data Storage Requirements : How big are the templates being stored on the system? New hardware may be required if there is not sufficient storage space. This may also have an impact on processing speeds and network traffic. 6.6. Enrollment Time : How long will it take the organization to enroll its users? Some systems make require several hours. An organization will have to look at this lost “productivity” and see if it is justified. 7. Conclusion While biometric authentication can offer a high degree of security, they are far from perfect solution. Sound principles of system engineering are still required to ensure a high level of security rather than the assurance of security coming simply from

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K.Baskar Dept of Statistics Periyar E.V.R College, Trichy-23 . K.GNANATHANGAVELU * Dept of Computer Science & Eng, Bharathidasan university, Trichy-23. S.Pradeep**Dept of Computer Science & Eng, Bharathidasan university, Trichy-23.

Abstract : the high-band frequency content of the image. Dynamic textures are common in natural scenes. E xa mp le s o f d yn a m ic t extures in video include , smoke, clouds, volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes in infra-red (IR) videos, trees in the wind, sea and ocean waves, etc. Researchers extensively studied 2-D textures and related problems in the fields of image processing and computer vision. On the other hand, there is very little research on dynamic texture detection in video. In this dissertation, signal and image processing methods developed for detection of a specific set of dynamic textures are presented. Signal and image processing methods are developed for the High frequency nature of the boundaries of regions is also used as a clue to model the flame flicker. Temporal and spatial clues extracted from the video are combined to reach a final decision. detection of flames and smoke in open and large spaces with a range of up to 30m to the camera in visible-range (IR) video. Smoke is semitransparent at the early stages of . Edges present in image frames with smoke start loosing their sharpness and this leads to an energy decrease in Introduction Local extrema in the wavelet domain correspond to the edges in an image. The decrease in the energy content of these edges is an important indicator of smoke in the viewing range of the camera. Image regions containing flames appear as –colored (bright) moving regions in (IR) video. In addition to motion and color (brightness) clues, the flame flicker process is also detected by using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) describing the temporal behavior. Image frames are also analyzed spatially. Boundaries of flames are represented in wavelet domain.


Dynamic textures are common in many image sequences of natural scenes. Examples of dynamic textures in video include ¯ re, smoke, clouds, volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes in infra-red (IR) videos, trees in the wind, sea and ocean waves, as well as traffic scenes, motion of crowds, all of which exhibit some sort of spatio – temporal stationarity. They are also named as temporal or 3-D tex-tures in the literature. Researchers extensively studied 2-D textures and related problems in the fields of image processing and computer vision [1]. On the other hand, there is comparably less research conducted on dynamic texture detection in video [2]. There are several approaches in the computer vision literature aiming at recognition and synthesis of dynamic textures in video independent of their types [3]. Some of these approaches model the dynamic textures as linear dynamical systems [4], some others use spatio- temporal autoregressive models [5]. Other researchers in the field analyze and model the optical flow vectors for the recognition of generic dynamic tex-tures in video [6]. In this dissertation, we do not attempt to characterize all dynamic textures but we present smoke and detection methods by taking advantage of specific properties of smoke and . The motivation behind attacking a specific kind of recognition problem is influenced by the notion of `weak’ Artificial Intelligence (AI) framework which was first introduced by Hubert L. Dreyfus in his critique of the so called `generalized’ AI 166

[7]. Dreyfus presents solid philosophical and scientific arguments on why the search for `generalized’ AI is futile . Current content based general image and video content understanding methods are not robust enough to be deployed for detection [8]. Instead, each specific problem should be addressed as an individual engineering problem which has its own characteristics. In this study, both temporal and spatial characteristics related to flames and smoke are utilized as clues for developing solutions to the detection problem. Another motivation for video and pyroelectric infra-red (PIR) sensor based detection is that conventional point smoke and detectors typically detect the presence of certain particles generated by smoke and by ionization or photometry. An important weakness of point detectors is that they cannot pro-vide quick responses in large spaces. Furthermore, conventional point detectors cannot be utilized to detect smoldering s in open areas. In this thesis, novel image processing methods are proposed for the detection of flames and smoke in open and large spaces with ranges up to 30m. Flicker process inherent in is used as a clue for detection of flames and smoke in (IR) video. A similar technique modeling flame flicker is developed for the detection of flames using PIR sensors. Wild smoke appearing far away from the camera has different spatio-temporal characteristics than nearby smoke. The algorithms for detecting smoke due to wild are also proposed. Each detection algorithm consists of several sub-

algorithms each of which tries to estimate a specific feature of the problem at hand. For example, long distance smoke detection algorithm consists of four sub-algorithms: (i) slow moving video object detection, (ii) smoke-colored region detection, (iii) rising video object detection, (iv) shadow detection and elimination. A framework for active fusion of decisions from these subalgorithms is developed based on the least-meansquare (LMS) adaptation algorithm.

to detect flicker in

regions. In

Fast Fourier

Trans- forms (FFT) of temporal object boundary pixels are computed to detect peaks in Fourier domain, because it is claimed that turbulent flames flicker with a characteristic flicker frequency of around 10 Hz independent of the burning material and the burner in a mechanical engineering paper [10] . We observe that flame flicker process is a wide-band activity below 12.5 Hz in frequency domain for a pixel at the boundary of a flame region in a color-video clip recorded at 25 fps . Liu and Ahuja [48] also represent the shapes of regions in Fourier domain. However, an important weakness of Fourier domain methods is that flame flicker is not purely sinusoidal but it’s random in nature. Therefore, there may not be any peaks in FFT plots of regions. In addition, Fourier Transform does not have any time information. Therefore, Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) can be used requiring a temporal analysis window. In this case, temporal window size becomes an important parameter for detection. If the window size is too long, one may not observe peakiness in the FFT

Related work Video based detection systems can be useful for detecting in covered areas including auditoriums, tunnels, atriums, etc., in which conventional chemical sensors cannot provide quick responses to . Furthermore, closed circuit television (CCTV) surveillance systems are currently installed in various public places monitoring indoors and outdoors. Such systems may gain an early detection capability with the use of a detection software processing the outputs of CCTV cameras in real time. There are several video -based and flame

data. If it is too short, one may completely miss cycles and therefore no peaks can be observed in the Fourier domain. Our method not only detects and flame colored moving regions in video but also analyzes the motion of such regions in wavelet domain for flicker estimation. The appearance of an object whose contours, chrominance or luminosity values oscillate at a 167

detectio n algor it hms in the literature [9], . These methods make use of various visual signatures including color, motion and geometry of regions. Healey et al. [38] use only color clues for flame detection. Phillips et al. [9] use pixel colors and their temporal variations. Chen et al. [17] utilize a change detection scheme

frequency higher than 0.5 Hz in video is an important sign of the possible presence of flames in the monitored area [11]. High-frequency analysis of moving pixels is carried out in wavelet domain in our work. There is an analogy between the proposed wavelet domain motion analysis and the temporal templates of [12] and the motion recurrence images of [13], which are ad hoc tools used by computer scientists to analyze dancing people and periodically moving objects and body parts. However, temporal templates.

modeled in a Markovian setting. In the following sub-sections, the general overview of the proposed algorithms are developed. In all methods, it is assumed that a stationary camera monitors the scene.

2.Flame Detection in Visible Range Video Novel real-time signal processing techniques are develo ped to detect fla mes by processing the video data generated by a visible range is camera. by In addition to the

4. Markov Models Using Wavelet Domain Features for Short Range Flame and Smoke Detection. A common feature of all the algorithms developed in this thesis is the use of wavelets and Markov models. In the proposed approach wavelets or sub-band analysis are used in dynamic texture modeling. This leads to computationally efficient algorithms for texture feature analysis, because computing wavelet co- efficient is an Order-(N) type operation. In addition, we do not try to determine edges or corners in a given scene. We simply monitor the decay or increase in wavelet coefficients’ sub-band energies both temporally and spatially. Another important feature of the proposed smoke and detection methods is the use of Markov models to characterize temporal motion in the scene. Turbulent behavior is a random phenomenon which can be conveniently 168

motion and color clues used by [64], flame flicker detected analyzing video in wavelet domain. Turbulent behavior in flame boundaries is detected by performing temporal wavelet transform. Wavelet coefficients are used as feature parameters in Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). A Marko v mo de l is t rained w it h flames and another is trained with ordinary act ivit y o f human beings and other flame colored moving objects. Flame flicker pro cess is a lso det ect ed by u sing an HMM. Markov models representing the flame and flame co lored ordinary mo ving objects are used to distinguish flame flicker p r o c e s s fr o m mo t io n o f f l a m e c o lo r e d moving objects. Other clues used in the detection algorithm include irregularity of the boundary of the colored region and the growth of such regions

in time. All these clues are combined to reach a final decision. The main contribution of the proposed video based detection method is the analysis of the flame flicker and integration of this clue as a fundamental step in the detection process.

5. Short-range Smoke Detection in Video Smoldering smoke appears first, even before flames, in most s. Contrary to the common belief, smoke cannot be visualized in LWIR (8-12¹m range) video. A novel method to detect smoke in video is developed. The smoke is semi-transparent at the early stages of a . Therefore edges present in image frames start loosing their sharpness and this leads to a decrease in the high frequency content of the image. The background of the scene is estimated and decrease of high frequency energy of the scene is monitored using the spatial wavelet transforms of the current and the background images. Edges of the scene produce local extrema in the wavelet domain and a decrease in the energy content of these edges is an important indicator of smoke in the viewing range of the camera. Moreover, scene becomes grayish when there is smoke and this leads to a decrease in chrominance values of pixels. Random behavior in smoke boundaries is also analyzed using an HMM mimicking the temporal behavior of the smoke. In addition, boundaries of smoke regions are represented in wavelet domain and high frequency nature of the boundaries of smoke regions is also used as a clue to model the smoke flicker. All these clues are combined to reach a final decision. Monitoring the decrease in the subband image energies corresponding to smoke regions in video constitutes the main contribution of this work.

3.Flame Detection in IR Video A novel method to detect flames in videos captured with Long-Wavelength Infra- Red (LWIR) cameras is proposed, as well. These cameras cover 8-12¹m spectrum. range Image in the electromagnetic regions

containing flames appear as bright regions in IR video. In addition to motion and brightness clues, flame flicker process is also detected by using an HMM describing the temporal behavior as in the previous algorithm. IR image frames are also analyzed spatially. Boundary of flames are represented in wavelet domain and high frequency nature of the boundaries of regions is also used as a clue to model the flame flicker. All of the temporal and spatial clues extracted from the IR video are combined to reach a final decision. False alarms due to ordinary bright moving objects are greatly reduced because of the HMM based flicker modeling and wavelet domain boundary modeling. The contribution of this work is the introduction of a novel sub-band energy based feature for the analysis of flame region boundaries.


6. Flame Detection Using PIR sensors A flame detection system based on a pyroelectric (or passive) infrared (PIR) sensor is developed. This algorithm is similar to the video flame detection algorithm. The PIR sensor can be considered as a single pixel camera. Therefore an algorithm for flame detection for PIR sensors can be developed by simply removing the spatial analysis steps of the video flame detection method. The flame detection system can be used for detection in large rooms. The flame flicker process of an uncontrolled and ordinary activity of human beings and other objects are modeled using a set of Hidden Markov Models (HMM), which are trained using the wavelet transform of the PIR sensor signal. Whenever there is an activity within the viewing range of the PIR sensor system, the sensor signal is analyzed in the wavelet domain and the wavelet signals are fed to a set of HMMs. A probability. 6.Detection of Rising Regions Wild smoke regions tend to rise up into the sky at the early stages of the . This characteristic behavior of smoke plumes is modeled with threestate Hidden Markov Models (HMM) in this chapter. Temporal variation in row umber of the upper-most pixel belonging to a slow moving region is used as a one dimensional (1-D) feature signal, F = f(n), and fed to the Markov models 170 or no decision is made according to the HMM producing the highest

shown fig 1 in One of the models (λ1) corresponds to genuine wild smoke regions and the other one (λ2) corresponds to regions with clouds and cloud shadows. Transition probabilities of these models are estimated o®line from actual wilds and test s, and clouds. The state S1 is attained, if the row value of the uppermost pixelin the current image frame is smaller than that of the previous frame (rise-up). If the row value of the upper-most pixel in the current image frame is larger than that of the previous frame, then S2 is attained and this means that the region moves-down. No change in the row value corresponds to S3.

Figure 1: Markov model λ1 corresponding to wild smoke (left) and the Markov model λ2 of clouds (right). Transition probabilities aij and bij are estimated off-line

Conclusion detection systems are vital in saving people’s lives, and preventing hazards before they get out of control. Particle based detectors are commonly used in such systems. These sensors are sensitive

to produced during . An alarm is issued only if these chemicals physically reach the sensor and their presence is detected by either ionization or photometry. This requirement makes these

Recognition Systems (CORES), pages 17{26, 2005. [3] A. Chan and N. Vasconcelos. Layered dynamic textures. In Proceedings of the Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS), pages 203{210, December 2005. [4] C.-B. Liu, R.-S. Lin, N. Ahuja, and M.-H. Yang. Dynamic textures synthesis as nonlinear manifold learning and traversing. In Proceedings of the 17th British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC), pages 859{868, 2006. [5] C. Liu and N. Ahuja. Vision based ¯ re detection. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), volume 4, 2004. [6] R. Vidal and A. Ravichandran. Optical °ow estimation and segmentation of multiple moving dynamic textures. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), volume 2, pages 516{ 521, 2005. [7] H. Dreyfus. What Computers Still Can’t Do:

sensors dependent on the distance to re replace as well as their location. Besides, these sensors cannot be used outdoors. Image and video based systems can be an alternative to particle sensors for detection. In this work, we developed novel signal and image analysis techniques for automatic detection using cameras and infra-red sensors. Detection problem can be also viewed as a problem of recognition of a specific dynamic texture type in video. Dynamic texture and flame and smoke behavior can be modeled using stochastic methods. In this research, we used Markov models which are tailored for flame and smoke detection. We developed specific methods for flame, smoke and wild smoke which have various spatio-temporal characteristics.

Reference [1]. D. Forsyth and J.Ponce. Computer Vision: A Modern Approach. Prentice Hall, 2002. [2] D. Chetverikov and R. Peteri. A brief survey of dynamic texture description and recognition. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Computer

A Critique of Arti¯ cial Reason. MIT Press, 1992. [8] M. Naphade, T. Kristjansson, B. Frey, and T. Huang. Multimedia Objects (Multijects): A Novel Approach to Video Indexing and Retrieval in 171

Mul- timedia Systems. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), pages 536{540, 1998. [9] W. Phillips, M. Shah, and N. Lobo. Flame recognition in video. Pattern Recognition Letters, 23:319{327, 2002. [10] B. Albers and A. Agrawal. Schlieren analysis of an oscillating gas-jet di®u-sion. Combustion and Flame, 119:84{94, 1999. [11] W. Straumann, D. Rizzotti, and N. Schibli. Method and Device for Detecting s Based on Image Analysis. European Patent EP 1,364,351, 2002. [12] J. Davis and A. Bobick. The representation and recognition of action using temporal templates. In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), pages 928{934, 1997. [13] O. Javed and M. Shah. Tracking and object classi¯ cation for automated surveillance. In Proceedings of the European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), pages 343{357, 2002.



S.Balamurugan [1] & G.Saravanan [2]
[1] [2]

PG Scholar, Prist University, Thanjavur-613403, Tamil Nadu

PG &Lecturer, Prist University, Thanjavur-613403, Tamil Nadu




K. SENTHIL M.E (Computer Science) Final Year Mr. D. SARAVANAN M.E., Asst. Professor CSE PABCET

PAVENDHAR BHARATHIDHASAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY - TRICHY ABSTRACT Mobile video learning is framework proposes to provide a reliable and adaptive delivery of video lectures to the mobile clients. Index Terms – E-Learning, Mobile Computing, Mobile Learning, Mobile of the video and audio signal to reduce bandwidth. By adaptively choosing the appropriate type of codec dynamically, this

technically challenging due to the limited computational power of mobile devices storage, bandwidth and limited computational power. Mobile learning is an active and vast area of research since mobile phones have a much higher penetration rate than laptop and desktop computers. The aim of this proposed work is to design a mobile learning system that streams lectures to the student‟s mobile devices. Due to the synchronous nature of the system, students can interact with the teacher during the lecture. The proposed to create a framework that incorporates the use of third generation of cellular networks-3G for its increased operational bandwidth speed of over 3Mbps and with a failover mode of operation in Global Packet Radio Service (GPRS), which is used as the streaming medium for the video lectures. All the mobile devices are connected to the central server through this framework. This framework also hosts an adaptive codes choosing mechanism that dynamically updates itself depending upon the type of the mobile phone and its connectivity medium. Codec‟s play a vital role since it is responsible for compression


Multimedia Applications, Mobile Video. 1.2 MOBILE USABILITY 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 BASIC TECHNOLOGY This section describes the technological foundations of MLVLS system design. We start by discussing the development platform, followed by an overview on GPRS, which was used as the streaming medium for the video lectures. Finally, we will present the employed codecs, that is, the software used for compressing the video and audio signal to reduce bandwidth. Developing for a mobile setting brings forth its own challenges. The limited size of the mobile devices enables portability, but has consequences on usability. The small screen size, compared to laptop/desktop computers, is often quoted as making reading and viewing information difficult, even though this is not automatically the case The limitations depended on the modality: text was read fine, but details got


lost in images and video. This needs to be taken into account when transmitting visual information such as slides. In any case, designing learning materials specifically for mobile devices is a difficult and resource-intensive task [2]. In our setting where we aim at a wide adoption, it was not an option to require the teachers to author additional learning material just for the mobile learners. In such a case, only very few teachers would use the MVLS. We therefore opted for an approach that streams the standard video lectures to the mobile devices. Readability issues, the system transmits three different views to the clients. • Large resolution view of the teaching screen (slide-view). This view typically displays the slides and thus needs to be clearly readable. We decided to broadcast this screen in 320x240px, a format higher than the typical screen resolution of a mobile device (usually 176x144px). Within this screen, the user can zoom out to get a complete overview, and zoom in to see details. • Slide- and teacher-view. In this view, the user sees a close-up of the lecturer superimposed on the teaching screen (64x80px). Thus, the student sees both the learning material as well as the teacher explaining it. • Teacher-view. The teacher-view consists of a larger resolution view of the lecturer (176x144px).

1.3 CLIENT PLATFORM Symbian is a real-time, multitasking, 32-bit operating system, with low power consumption and memory footprint. It is a stable and mature system, with support for all existing wireless data communication protocols. For these reasons, we selected it as the operating system platform for our mobile learning software. 1.4 THE GPRS NETWORK GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is a mobile data service, used for mobile Internet access. Compared to the original GSM dial-up access based on a circuit data transmission, GPRS is a packet switching technology, which provides relatively fast transmission times and offers highly efficient, low-cost wireless data services. 1.5 REUSED VIDEO AND AUDIO CODECS Codecs compress and decompress digital data. The purpose of video/audio codes is to reduce the size of the data to reduce bandwidth load while retaining sufficient information for the data to be understood by its consumers. Compression is especially important in a mobile context since mobile transmission channels still have limited bandwidth compared to desktop Internet connections. Low bit rate: compared to MPEG-2 and MPEG-4, the size of data compressed with H.264 is 1/8 of that of MPEG-2 and 1/3 of MPEG-4, with similar image quality. Thus, using H.264 reduces download time and data transfer costs. High quality: standard video data processed with H.264 has high quality when played back.

Fig 1.2 Three view of Mobile video


2 FRAME WORK DESCRIPTION Strong fault-tolerance: H.264 deals efficiently with errors due to unstable network environments, such as packet loss. Strong network adaptation ability: H.264 integrates a network adaptation layer that simplifies the transmission of H.264 documents in different networks. Even though audio information requires less space than video documents, it is still very large and requires compression, too. The standard MPEG-4 accPlus [30] combines three kinds of technologies: Advanced Audio Coding (AAC), Spectral Band Replication of Coding Technologies (SBR) Parametric Stereo (PS). 2. FRAMEWORK In the existing system many number of user can access the services which may lead to expensive, high delay etc. to avoid it our idea is to completely implement the p2p video platform in a cloud computing which is an emerging field. By implementing it in cloud computing many numbers of users can occupy whatever resources they want by paying the amount .due to this scalability increases, bandwidth consumption is reduced. (using 2.1 USER IDENTIFICATION. Three types of user can enter into the System. The user can be a Mobile, Pc or IPTV. Mobile user will connect to the server using WAP (wireless application protocol) browser and Pc users via Web browser whereas IPTV users through EGP (Exterior gateway protocol) server. 2.2 IDENTIFYING COMMUNICATION MODE. and The user can communicate via various different forms using GSM, GPRS, BLUETOOTH, 3G technologies. General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a packetbased wireless communication service that promises data rates from 56 up to 114Kbps and continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users. The higher data rates allow users to take part in video conferences and interact with multimedia Web sites and similar applications using mobile handheld devices as well as notebook computers. GPRS is based on Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication and complements existing services such circuit-switched cellular phone connections and the Short Message Service (SMS). Bluetooth is an open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances short wavelength radio Fig 2.1 Video Streaming To Multi Terminal Users transmissions) from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security. International Mobile Telecommunications2000 (IMT--2000), better known as 3G or 3rd Generation, is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunications services fulfilling specifications by the International Telecommunication Union.[1] Application 179

services include wide-area wireless voice

telephone, mobile Internet access, video


calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment. Compared to the older 2G and 2.5G standards, a 3G system must allow simultaneous use of speech and data services, and provide peak data rates of at least 200 Kbit/s according to the IMT2000 specification. Recent 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to laptop computers and 2.3 VIDEO CONVERSION FFMPEG is a command line tool convertor that, implements a decoder and then an encoder, thus enabling the user to convert files from one container/codec co to another format. FFMPEG can also do a few basic manipulations on the audio and video data just before it is re-encoded by the target codec‟s. These manipulations include changing the sample rate of the audio and advancing or delaying it with respect to the video. They also [5] include changing the frame rate of the resulting video, cropping it, resizing it, placing bars left and right and/or top and bottom in order to pad it when necessary, or hanging the aspect ratio of the picture (if the container supports anamorphic display − not all do). Furthermore, FFMPEG allows importing audio and video from different sources. 2.4 VIDEO STREAMING IN PC 2.4.1 True streaming The Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) is a network control protocol designed for use in entertainment and communications systems to control streaming media servers. The protocol is used for establishing and controlling media sessions between end points. Clients of media servers issue VCR-like commands, such as play and pause, to facilitate 181

real-time control of playback of media files from the server. The transmission of streaming data itself is not a task of the RTSP protocol. Most RTSP servers use the Real time Transport Protocol (RTP) for media stream delivery; however some vendors implement proprietary transport protocols. 2.4.2 HTTP STREAMING This is the simplest and cheapest way to stream video from a website. Small to medium-sized websites are more likely to use this method than the more expensive streaming servers. To Create HTTP Streaming Video *Create a video file in a common Streaming media format * Upload the file to your web server *Make a simple hyperlink to the video file, or use special HTML tags to embed the video in a web page. 2.5 USER AUTHENTICATION. User authentication module is done by using the username and password entered by them in a mobile or in a pc .Information entered by the user is verified by connecting to a database. Database connection is done using Data source name as well as without Data source name. Once user has been verified. Using FFMPEG command line convertor user can receive many video format supported by their mobile CONCLUSION: In video streaming in personal computer, video conversion from one format to another, database connection for authentication has been implemented. The modules to be completed is video streaming in mobile as well as in IPTV streaming and the whole p2p video platform is to be implemented in cloud

computing. In Future it can be connected with the pervasive computing and make easy use.

REFERENCES: [1] A Survey on Peer-to-Peer Video Streaming Systems Yong Liu · Yang Guo · Chao Liang [2] H. Yin, C. Lin, Q. Zhang, Z.J. Chen, and D. Wu, ‟TrustStream: A Secure and Scalable Architecture for Large-scale Internet Media Streaming‟, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology (CSVT), VOL. 18, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2008. [3] P2P Streaming Systems: A Survey and Experiments Gustavo Marfia, Giovanni Pau,Paolo Di Ricoy, Mario Gerla Computer Science Department University of California Los Angeles, CA 90095 Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Universita„ degli Studi di Pisa. [4] J.C. Liu, S. Rao, B. Li and H. Zhang, “Opportunities and Challenges of Peer-toPeer Internet Video Broadcast,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Special Issue on Recent Advances in Distributed

[5] C. Huang, J. Li and K.W. Ross, “Can Internet VoD be Profitable?”, in Proc. of ACM Sigcomm 2007, Kyoto, 2007. [6] S. Banerjee, B. Bhatacharjee, C. Kommareddy. “Scalable Application Layer Multicast”. In: ACM SIGCOMM 2002:43-51 [7] Y. Chu, S. Rao and H. Zhang, "A Case For End System Multicast", Proceedings of ACM Sigmetrics, Santa Clara,CA, pp. 1–12.,2000 [8] D. Wu, C. Liang, Y. Liu, K.W. Ross, View-Upload Decoupling: A Redesign of Multi-Channel Video Streaming Systems, IEEE Infocom Mini-Conference, Rio de Janeiro, April 2009 [9] C. Feng, B. C. Li. "On Large-Scale Peer-to-Peer Streaming Systems with Network Coding," in the Proceedings of ACM Multimedia 2008, Vancouver, British Columbia, October 27 - November 1, 2008.


24. A comprehensive study of Credit Card Fraud Detection Techniques using Statistics tools
V.MAHALAKSHMI, Dept of computer Science & Eng BUTP, Trichy-23 J.MARIA SHILPA* Dept of computer Science & Eng BUTP, Trichy-23 K.BASKAR** Dept of computer Science & Eng BUTP, Trichy-23

ABSTRACT In this advanced electronic E-world, the usage of credit cards has significantly increased, and a credit card becomes the most important and most popular mode of payment for online transactions as well as offline transactions, cases of fraud also rising associated with it. In this survey paper we analyses, categorizes, compares, summarizes and evaluate Based on recently published almost all research papers regarding credit card fraud detection methods and techniques such as Distributed Data Mining method ,Neural Data Mining method, Behavior-Based Credit Card Fraud Detecting Model, Detection Model Based on Similar Coefficient Sum, Detection Model Based on Distance Sum, BLAST-SSAHA Hybridization Model, Web Services-Based Collaborative Scheme and Fraud detection Using Hidden Markov Model. Keywords: Data mining, credit card fraud, Hidden Markov Model, Neural Network. 1. INTRODUCTION & MOTIVATION The popularity of online shopping is growing day by day. According to an ACNielsen study conducted in 2005,one-tenth of the world’s population is shopping online [1]. Germany and Great Britain have the largest number of online shoppers, and credit card is the most popular mode of payment (59 percent). About 350 million transactions per year were reportedly carried out by Barclaycard, the largest credit card company in the United Kingdom, toward the end of the last century [2]. Retailers like Wal-Mart typically handle much larger number of credit card transactions including online and regular 183

purchases. As the number of credit card users rises world-wide, the opportunities for attackers to steal credit card details and, subsequently, commit fraud are also increasing. The total credit card fraud in the United States itself is reported to be $2.7 billion in 2005 and estimated to be$3.0 billion in 2006, out of which $1.6 billion and $1.7 billion, respectively, are the estimates of online fraud [3].Credit-card-based purchases can be categorized into two types: 1) physical card and 2) virtual card. In a physical-card- based purchase, the cardholder presents his card physically to a merchant for making a payment. To carry out fraudulent transactions in this kind of purchase, an attacker has to steal the credit card. If the cardholder does not realize the loss of card, it can lead to a substantial financial loss to the credit card company. In the second kind of purchase, only some important information about a card (card number, expiration date, secure code) is required to make the payment. Such purchases are normally done on the Internet or over the telephone. To commit fraud in these types of purchases, a fraudster simply needs to know the card details. Most of the time, the genuine cardholder is not aware that someone else has seen or stolen his card information. The only way to detect this kind of fraud is to analyze the spending patterns on every card and to figure out any inconsistency with respect to the “usual” spending patterns. Fraud detection based on the analysis of existing purchase data of cardholder is a promising way to reduce the rate of successful credit card frauds. Since humans tend to exhibit specific behaviorist profiles, every

cardholder can be represented by a set of patterns containing information about the typical purchase category, the time since the last purchase, the amount of money spent, etc. Deviation from such patterns is a potential threat to the system. Several techniques for the detection of credit card fraud have been proposed in the last few years. We briefly review some of them. 2. RELATED WORK ON CREDIT CARD FRAUD DETECTION Credit card fraud detection has drawn a lot of research interest and a number of techniques, with special emphasis on data mining and neural networks, have been suggested. Ghosh and Reilly [4] have proposed credit card fraud detection with a neural network. They have built a detection system, which is trained on a large sample of labeled credit card account transactions. These transactions contain exam- ple fraud cases due to lost cards, stolen cards, application fraud, counterfeit fraud, mail-order fraud, and nonreceived issue (NRI) fraud. Recently, Syeda et al. [5] have used parallel granular neural networks (PGNNs) for improving the speed of data mining and knowledge discovery process in credit card fraud detection. A complete system has been imple- mented for this purpose. Stolfo et al. [6] suggest a credit card fraud detection system (FDS) using metalearning techniques to learn models of fraudulent credit card transactions. Metalearning is a general strategy that provides a means for combining and integrating a number of separately built classifiers or models. A metaclassifier is thus trained on the correlation of the predictions of the base classifiers. The same group has also worked on a cost-based model for fraud and intrusion detection [7]. They use Java agents for Metalearning (JAM), which is a distributed data mining system for credit card fraud detection. A number of important performance metrics like True Positive—False Positive (TPFP) spread and accuracy have been defined by 184

them. Aleskerov et al. [8] present CARDWATCH, a database mining system used for credit card fraud detection. The system, based on a neural learning module, provides an interface to a variety of commercial databases. Kim and Kim have identified skewed distribution of data and mix of legitimate and fraudulent transactions as the two main reasons for the complexity of credit card fraud detection [9]. Based on this observation, they use fraud density of real transaction data as a confidence value and generate the weighted fraud score to reduce the number of misdetections.Fan et al. [10] suggest the application of distributed data mining in credit card fraud detection. Brause et al. [11] have developed an approach that involves advanced data mining techniques and neural network algorithms to obtain high fraud coverage. Chiu and Tsai [12] have proposed Web services and data mining techniques to establish a collaborative scheme for fraud detection in the banking industry. With this scheme, participating banks share knowledge about the fraud patterns in a heterogeneous and distributed environment. To establish a smooth channel of data exchange, Web services techniques such as XML, SOAP, and WSDL are used. Phua et al. [13] have done an extensive survey of existing data-mining-based FDSs and published a comprehensive report. Prodromidis and Stolfo [14] use an agent-based approach with distributed learning for detecting frauds in credit card transactions. It is based on artificial intelligence and combines inductive learning algorithms and meta learning methods for achieving higher accuracy. Back Propagation neural networks as the base classifiers. A metaclassifier is used to determine which classifier should be considered based on skewness of data. Although they do not directly use credit card fraud detection as the target application, their approach is quite generic. Vatsa et al. [16] have recently proposed a gametheoretic approach to credit card fraud detection. They model the interaction between an attacker and an FDS as a multistage game between two players, each trying to maximize his payoff. The

problem with most of the abovementioned approaches is that they require labeled data for both genuine, as well as fraudulent transactions, to train the classifiers. Getting real-world fraud data is one of the biggest problems associated with credit card fraud detection. Also, these approaches cannot detect new kinds of frauds for which labeled data is not available. In contrast, we present a Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based credit card FDS, which does not require fraud signatures and yet is able to detect frauds by considering a cardholder’s spending habit. We model a credit card transaction processing sequence by the stochastic process of an HMM. The details of items purchased in individual transactions are usually not known to an FDS running at the bank that issues credit cards to the cardholders. This can be represented as the underlying finite Markov chain, which is not observable. The transactions can only be observed through the other stochastic process that produces the sequence of the amount of money spent in each transaction. Hence, HMM is an ideal choice for addressing this problem. Another important advantage of the HMM-based approach is a drastic reduction in the number of False Positives (FPs)—transactions identified as malicious by an FDS although they are actually genuine. Since the number of genuine transactions is a few orders of magnitude higher than the number of malicious transactions, an FDS should be designed in such a way that the number of FPs is as low as possible. Otherwise, due to the “base rate fallacy” effect [17], bank administrators may tend to ignore the alarms.

Figure 1: Hierarchy chart of white-collar crime perpetrators from both firm-level and community-level perspectives. With reference to figure 1, the profitmotivated fraudster has interactions with the affected business. Traditionally, each business is always susceptible to internal fraud or corruption from its management (high-level) and non-management employees (low-level). In addition to internal and external audits for fraud control, data mining can also be utilised as an analytical tool. the fraudster can be an external party, or parties. Also, the fraudster can either commit fraud in the form of a prospective/existing customer(consumer) or a prospective/existing supplier (provider). The external fraudster has three basic profiles: the average offender, criminal offender, and organised crime offender. Average offenders display random and/or occasional dishonest behavior when there is opportunity, sudden temptation, or when suffering from financial hardship. 3.2 Schematic processing path

3. BACKGROUND This section highlights the types of fraudsters and affected industries. 3.1 Fraudsters

Fig 2 Schematic processing path


Affected Commercial Industries


Moreau et al, 1999; Murad and Pinkas, 1999; Taniguchi et al,1998; Cox, 1997; Ezawa and Norton, 1996) are monitored. 4. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES This section examines seven major methods commonly used, and their corresponding techniques and algorithms for credit card fraud detection. Figure3 Bar chart of fraud types from 51 unique and published fraud detection papers. The most recent publication is used to represent previous similar publications by the same author(s). Figure 2 details the subgroups of internal, insurance, credit card, and telecommunications fraud detection. Internal fraud detection is concerned with determining fraudulent financial reporting by management (Lin et al, 2003; Bell and Carcello, 2000; Fanning and Cogger, 1998; Summers and Sweeney, 1998; Beneish, 1997; Green and Choi, 1997), and abnormal retail transactions by employees (Kim et al, 2003). There are four subgroups of insurance fraud detection: home insurance (Bentley, 2000; Von Altrock, 1997), crop insurance (Little et al, 2002), automobile insurance (Phua et al, 2004; Viaene et al, 2004; Brockett et al,2002; Stefano and Gisella, 2001; Belhadji et al, 2000; Artis et al,1999), and medical insurance (Yamanishi et al, 2004; Major and Riedinger, 2002; Williams, 1999; He et al, 1999; Cox, 1995). Credit fraud detection refers to screening credit applications (Wheeler and Aitken, 2000), and/or logged credit card transactions (Fan, 2004; Chen et al, 2004; Chiu and Tsai, 2004; Foster and Stine, 2004; Kim and Kim, 2002; Maes et al, 2002; Syeda et al, 2002; Bolton and Hand, 2001; Bentley et al, 2000; Brause et al, 1999; Chan et al, 1999; Aleskerov et al, 1997; Dorronsoro et al, 1997; Kokkinaki,1997; Ghosh and Reilly,1994). Similar to credit fraud detection, telecommunications subscription data (Cortes et al, 2003; Cahill et al, 2002; Moreau and Vandewalle, 1997; Rosset et al, 1999), and/or wire-line and wire-less phone calls (Kim et al, 2003; Burge and Shawe-Taylor, 2001; Fawcett and Provost, 1997; Hollmen and Tresp, 1998; 186

Figure 4: Structured diagram of the possible data for analysis. Data mining approaches can utilise training/testing data with labels, only legal examples, and no labels to predict/describe the evaluation data Figure 3 shows that many existing fraud detection systems typically operate by adding fraudulent claims/applications/ transactions/accounts/sequences (A) to “black lists” to match for likely frauds in the new instances (E). Some use hard-coded rules which each transaction should meet such as matching addresses and phone numbers, and price and amount limits (Sherman,2002).An interesting idea borrowed from spam (Fawcett, 2003, p144, figure 5) is to understand the temporal nature of fraud in the “black lists” by tracking the frequency of terms and category of terms (style or strategy of fraudster) found in the attributes of fraudulent examples over time. Below outlines the complex nature of data used for fraud detection in general (Fawcett, 2003; 1997):  Volume of both fraud and legal classes will fluctuate independently of each other; therefore class distributions (proportion of illegitimate examples to legitimate examples) will change over time.

 Multiple styles of fraud can happen at around the same time. Each style can have a regular, occasional, seasonal, or once- off temporal characteristic.  Legal characteristics/behaviour can change over time.  Within the near future after uncovering the current modus operandi of professional fraudsters, these same fraudsters will continually supply new or modified styles of fraud until the detection systems start generating false negatives again. 4.1. Behavior-Based Detecting Model Approach of Fraud

In this approach. A credit card fraud detecting model is established based on the behavior patterns of the credit card holder. Different with traditional models which were based on demographic and economic information, this model detects credit card fraud with historical behavior patterns of the credit card.

algorithms compare the new behavior with history behavior pattern .If the new behavior is similar to history behavior pattern then it is legal one, otherwise it is suspected behavior. With the detection results, bank can take planned actions, such as decline the request or call the cardholder. 4.4.2 Neural Data Mining Approach for Credit Card Fraud Detection In this Research, One major obstacle for using neural network training techniques is the high necessary diagnostic quality: Due to these credit card transaction proportions complete new concepts had to be developed and tested on real credit card data. This research shows how advanced data mining techniques and neural network algorithm can be combined successfully to obtain a high fraud coverage combined with a low false alarm rate. 4.4 3Generalizing and weighting the association rules In contrast to standard basket prediction association rules [19], [20] research goal does not consist of generating long associating rules but of shortening our raw associations by generalizing them to the most common types of transactions. Although generalizations are common for symbolic AI, start with the data base of fraud transactions and compare each transaction with all others in order to find pairs of similar ones. Each pair is then merged into a generalized rule by replacing a non-identical feature by a ‘don’t-care’symbol ‘*’. By doing so, a generalization process evolves. Fig. 5 explained. Here, the generalization of two transactions with the feature tuples x1 = (F,D,C,D,A) and x2 = (F,D,G,D,A) (dotted circle) to the rule (F,D,*,D,A) and further up to (F,*,*,D,A) and to (*,*,*,D,*) is shown. Thus, each generalization provides at least one ‘don’tcare’-symbol for an unimportant feature, increases the generalization level by one and shortens the rule excluding one feature. All generalizations which have not been generalized themselves are the root of the sub graph, forming a tree.

4.1.1 Detection Model

Figure 5 Credit Card Fraud Detection Process When a credit card is used to withdraw money from bank or Automatic Teller Machine(ATM),the information of behavior is collected, and the history transaction data of this credit card are queried from credit card transaction database. Then these data are pre-processed so that the fraud detection algorithms can work on them. The processed data as input information are sent to fraud detection algorithms. The fraud detection 187

transaction is taken on the basis of the observations by these two analyzers. In order to achieve online response time for both PA and DA, suggest approach for combining two sequence alignment algorithms BLAST and SSAHA In credit card application, the card holder’s past transactions form profile sequences. Last few transactions including the incoming one are taken as a query sequence which is aligned with the profile sequences. There may be some fraudulent transactions in the query sequence that would not match with the cardholder’s profile form a fraud sequence. 4.7 Credit Card Fraud Detection Using Hidden Markov Model In this paper, model the sequence of operations in credit card transaction processing using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and showed how it can be used for the detection of frauds. An HMM is initially trained with the normal behavior of a cardholder. If an incoming credit card transaction is not accepted by the trained HMM with sufficiently high probability, it is considered to be fraudulent. At the same time, try to ensure that genuine transactions are not rejected. Detailed experimental results to shows the effectiveness of this approach and compare it with other techniques available in the literature. 4.7.1 Use of HMM for Credit Card Fraud Detection An FDS runs at a credit card issuing bank. Each incoming transaction is submitted to the FDS for verification. FDS receives the card details and the value of purchase to verify whether the transaction is genuine or not. The types of goods that are bought in that transaction are not known to the FDS. It tries to find any anomaly in the transaction based on the spending profile of the cardholder, shipping address, and billing address, etc. If the FDS confirms the transaction to be malicious, it raises an alarm, and the issuing bank declines the transaction. The concerned

Fig.6 The generalization graph

4.4.4 Mining the analog data Each transaction is characterized by symbolic and analog data. only used the symbolic part of the transactions. Does the analog part containing transaction time, credit amount etc. The problem of fraud diagnosis can be seen as separating two kinds or classes of events: the good and the bad transactions. problem is indeed a classification problem. One major approach for dynamic classification with demand driven classification boundaries is the approach of learning the classification parameters, the classification boundaries, by an adaptive process. Learning is the domain of artificial neural networks, and used a special model of it to perform the task. 4.5 A Web Services-Based Collaborative Scheme for Credit Card Fraud Detection A web services-based collaborative scheme for credit card fraud detection is proposed in this approach With the proposed scheme, participant banks can share the knowledge about fraud patterns in a heterogeneous and distributed environment and further enhance their fraud detection capability and reduce financial loss. 4.6 BLAST-SSAHA Hybridization for Credit Card Fraud Detection In this paper, proposed to use two-stage sequence alignment in which a profile analyzer (PA) first determines the similarity of an incoming sequence of transactions on a given credit card with the genuine cardholder’s past spending sequences. The unusual transactions traced by the profile analyzer are next passed on to a deviation analyzer (DA) for possible alignment with past fraudulent behavior. The final decision about the nature of a 188

cardholder may then be contacted and alerted about the possibility that the card is compromised. To map the credit card transaction processing operation in terms of an HMM, first deciding the observation symbols in this model. quantize the purchase values x into M price ranges V1; V2; . . . VM, forming the observation symbols at the issuing bank. The actual price range for each symbol is configurable based on the spending habit of individual cardholders. These price ranges can be determined dynamically by applying a clustering algorithm on the values of each cardholder’s transactions. We use Vk, k = 1; 2, . . .M, to represent both the observation symbol, as well as the corresponding price range.In this work, considered only three price ranges, namely, low(l) medium ً m), and high(h). set of ( observation symbols is, therefore, V ={l,m,h} making M = 3. A credit cardholder makes different kinds of purchases of different amounts over a period of time. One possibility is to consider the sequence of transaction amounts and look for deviations in them.

given to the states to denote purchase types like Groceries, Electronic items, and Miscellaneous purchases. Spending profiles of the individual cardholders are used to obtain an initial estimate for probability matrix. 5. CONCLUSION & FUTURE WORK This research presents methods and techniques together with their problems. Compared to all related reviews on Credit Card fraud detection, In this survey paper we analyze and evaluate the following credit card fraud detection methods and techniques such as Distributed Data Mining method ,Neural Data Mining method ,BehaviorBased Credit Card Fraud Detecting Model, Detection Model Based on Similar Coefficient Sum, Detection Model Based on Distance Sum, BLAST-SSAHA Hybridization model ,Web Services-Based Collaborative Scheme and Fraud detection Using Hidden Markov Model. and is the only one, which proposes Hidden Markov Model is one of the most effective solutions for credit card fraud detection, because HMM can detect whether an incoming transaction is fraudulent or not. Experimental results show the performance and effectiveness of this system and demonstrate the usefulness of learning the spending profile of the cardholders. Comparative studies reveal that the Accuracy of the system is higher than other methods REFERENCES [1] “Global Consumer Attitude Towards On-Line Shopping,” 05_cc_online shopping.pdf, Mar. 2007. [2] D.J. Hand, G. Blunt, M.G. Kelly, and N.M. Adams, “Data Mining for Fun and Profit,” Statistical Science, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 111-131, 2000. [3] “Statistics for General and On-Line Card Fraud,”, Mar. 2007. 189

Fig. 7. HMM for credit card fraud detection After deciding the state and symbol representations, the next step is to determine the probability matrices A, B, and π so that representation of the HMM is complete. These three model parameters are determined in a training phase using the Baum-Welch algorithm [18]. The initial choice of parameters affects the performance of this algorithm and, hence, they should be chosen carefully. We consider the special case of fully connected HMM in which every state of the model can be reached in a single step from every other state, as shown in Fig. 13. Gr, El, Mi, etc., are names

[4] S. Ghosh and D.L. Reilly, “Credit Card Fraud Detection with a Neural-Network,” Proc. 27th Hawaii Int’l Conf. System Sciences: Information Systems: Decision Support and Knowledge-Based Systems, vol. 3, pp. 621-630, 1994. [5] M. Syeda, Y.Q. Zhang, and Y. Pan, “Parallel Granular Networks for Fast Credit Card Fraud Detection,” Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. Fuzzy Systems, pp. 572-577, 2002. [6] S.J. Stolfo, D.W. Fan, W. Lee, A.L. Prodromidis, and P.K. Chan, “Credit Card Fraud Detection Using Meta-Learning: Issues and Initial Results,” Proc. AAAI Workshop AI Methods in Fraud and Risk Management, pp. 83-90, 1997. [7] S.J. Stolfo, D.W. Fan, W. Lee, A. Prodromidis, and P.K. Chan, “Cost-Based Modeling for Fraud and Intrusion Detection: Results from the JAM Project,” Proc. DARPA Information Survivability Conf. and Exposition, vol. 2, pp. 130-144, 2000. [8] E. Aleskerov, B. Freisleben, and B. Rao, “CARDWATCH: A Neural Network Based Database Mining System for Credit Card Fraud Detection,” Proc. IEEE/IAFE: Computational Intelligence for Financial Eng., pp. 220-226, 1997. [9] M.J. Kim and T.S. Kim, “A Neural Classifier with Fraud Density Map for Effective Credit Card Fraud Detection,” Proc. Int’l Conf. Intelligent Data Eng. and Automated Learning, pp. 378-383, 2002. [10] W. Fan, A.L. Prodromidis, and S.J. Stolfo, “Distributed Data Mining in Credit Card Fraud Detection,” IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 67-74, 1999. [11] R. Brause, T. Langsdorf, and M. Hepp, “Neural Data Mining for Credit Card Fraud Detection,” Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. Tools with Artificial Intelligence, pp. 103-106, 1999.

[12] C. Chiu and C. Tsai, “A Web Services-Based Collaborative Scheme for Credit Card Fraud Detection,” Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf.e-Technology, e-Commerce and e-Service, pp. 177-181, 2004. [13] C. Phua, V. Lee, K. Smith, and R. Gayler, “A Comprehensive Survey of Data Mining-Based Fraud Detectioesearch,”ttp:// eople/cphua/, Mar. 2007. [14] S. Stolfo and A.L. Prodromidis, “AgentBased Distributed Learning Applied to Fraud Detection,” Technical Report CUCS-014-99, Columbia Univ., 1999. [15] C. Phua, D. Alahakoon, and V. Lee, “Minority Report in Fraud Detection: Classification of Skewed Data,” ACM SIGKDD Explorations Newsletter, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 50-59, 2004. [16] V. Vatsa, S. Sural, and A.K. Majumdar, “A Game-theoretic Approach to Credit Card Fraud Detection,” Proc. First Int’l Conf. Information Systems Security, pp. 263-276, 2005 [17] Teuvo Kohonen."Self-Organizing Maps".Springer,2000. [19] Wang Xi. Some Ideas about Credit Card Fraud Prediction China Trial. Apr. 2008, pp. 7475. [20] Liu Ren, Zhang Liping, Zhan Yinqiang. A Study on Construction of Analysis Based CRM System. Computer Applications and Software.Vol.21, Apr. 2004, pp. 46-47. [21] S Ramaswamy, R Rastogi, K Shim. Efficient Algorithm for Mining Outliers from Large Data Sets[C]. In: Proceedings of the ACM .SIGMOD Conference,2000:473-438 [22] R. Agrawal, T. Imielinski, and A.N. Swami, “Mining Association Rules Between Sets of Items in Large Databases”, Proc. of the 1993 ACM SIGMOD Int. Conf. on Management of Data, pp. 207-216, 1993. 190

[23] XML [24 Predictive Model Markup

Schema, Language,

Analysis, Wiley Series in Probability and Math. Statistics, 1990 [27] L.R. Rabiner, “A Tutorial on Hidden Markov Models and Selected Applications in Speech Recognition,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 257286, 1989. . 1. Introduction :

[26] L. Kaufman and P.J. Rousseeuw, Finding Groups in Data: An Introduction to Cluster

25. A Comparative Study of Algorithms For Forest Fire Detection
First A K.BASKAR, Second B Prof. GEETHA., and Third C. Prof .SHANTHA ROBINSON

Abstract. In this E- world, environment is polluted day by day due to various factors. One of the causes is forest fire. The application of remote sensing and satellite is at present a significant method for forest fire monitoring, particularly in huge and remote arias. Deferent Method have been presented by researchers for forest fire detection. The forest fire is due to local climate, radiation balance, biogeochemistry, hydrology and the diversity and abundance of terrestrial species. This paper presents a comparative study of three time series based algorithms for detecting in forest fire. In particular, one of the algorithms significantly outperforms the other two since it accounts for variability in the time series.

The climate and earth sciences have recently undergone a rapid transformation from a data- poor to a data-rich environment. In particular, climate and ecosystem related observations from remote sensors on satellites, as well as outputs of climate or earth system models from large-scale computational platforms, provide terabytes of temporal, spatial and spatial temporal data. These massive and informationrich datasets offer huge potential for advancing the science of land cover change, climate change and anthropogenic impacts. The process of identifying previously hidden but valuable information from vast spatial databases is known as spatial data mining[1]. The development of novel techniques and tools in assist for humans, aiding in the transformation of data into useful knowledge, has been the heart of the comparatively new and interdisciplinary research area called the “Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD)”[2]. Data mining techniques profit a number of fields like marketing, manufacturing, process control, fraud detection and network management. Other than this, a huge variety of data sets like market basket data, web data, DNA data, text data, and spatial data. Other 191

Key word : Artificial Neural Networks, Forest Fire Detection, Remote Sensing, Spatial data mining, Time series

than this, a huge variety of data sets like market basket data, web data, DNA data, text data, and spatial data [3]. The complexity of spatial data types, spatial relationships, and spatial autocorrelation than that of the conventional numeric and categorical data. Involves Spatial Data mining Spatial data mining techniques involves visual interpretation and analysis, spatial and attribute query and selection, characterization, generalization and classification, detection of spatial and non spatial association rules, clustering analysis and spatial regression in addition to a wide variety of other fields [4]. Data mining combines machine learning, pattern recognition, statistics, databases, and visualization techniques into a single unit so as to enhance efficient information extraction from large databases [5]. Ecosystem-related observations from remote sensors on satellites offer huge potential for understanding the location and extent of global land cover change. This Author has been explained that a comparative study of three time series based algorithms for detecting changes in land cover [6]. Some distinguishing characteristics of spatial data that forbid the usage of regular data mining algorithms include: (i) rich data types (e.g., extended spatial objects) (ii) inherent spatial relationships between the variables, (iii) other factors that influence the observations and (iv) Spatial autocorrelation among the characteristics [7]. Classification of data mining In general, data mining is classified into two categories namely descriptive and predictive data mining. The process of drawing the necessary features and properties of the data from the data base is called descriptive data mining. Some examples of descriptive mining techniques include Clustering, Association and Sequential mining. In case of predictive mining patterns from data are inferred so as to make predictions. Common predictive mining techniques include Classification, Regression and Deviation detection [8]. More recently, several time series change detection techniques have been explored in the context of land cover change detection. Lunetta et 192

al. [ 9] presented a change detection study that uses MODIS data and evaluated its performance for identifying land cover change in North Carolina.

A. Author Student in Dept of Computer Science & Eng, Bharathidasan university Trichy-23 . B. Author Professor in Dept of Computer Science & Eng, Bharathidasan university Trichy-23 . C. Author Professor in * H. O.D Of Statistics in Periyar E.V.R College, Trichy- 23.

Kucera et al. [10]. Describe the use of CUSUM for land cover change detection. However, no qualitative or quantitative evaluation was performed. The Recursive Merging algorithm proposed by Boriah et al.[11]. Follows a segmentation approach to the time series change detection problem and takes the characteristics of ecosystem data into account. They provide a qualitative evaluation using MODIS EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) data for the state of California and MODIS FPAR (Fraction of Photo synthetically Active Radiation) data globally.

2. Related work There is an extensive journalism on time series change detection that can, in principle, be applied to the forest fire detection problem. Time series based change detection has significant advantages over the comparison of snapshot images of selected dates since it can take into account information about the temporal dynamics of landscape changes. In these schemes, detection of changes is based on the pattern of spectral response of the landscape over time rather than the differences between two or more images collected on deferent dates. Therefore, additional parameters such as the rate of the change (e.g. a sudden forest _re vs. gradual logging), the extent,

and pattern of regrowth can be derived. By contrast, for image-based approaches, changes that occur outside the image acquisition windows are not detected, it is difficult to identify when the changes occurred, and information about ongoing landscape processes cannot be derived.

limit change: In this setting, the time series is expected to follow a particular distribution and any significant departure from the distribution is flagged as a change. Fang et al. [19] presented a parameter change based approach for land cover change detection. CUSUM (and its variants) is the most well-known technique of the parameter change approach.

Fires have been a source of trouble for a long time now. Fires have remarkable influence over the ecological and economic utilities of the forest being a principal constituent in a huge number of forest ecosystems [12]. Forest and wild land fires have been witnessed in the past. They have played a remarkable role in determining landscape structure, pattern and eventually the species composition of ecosystems. Controlling factors like the plant community development, soil nutrient availability and biological diversity forms the integral part of the ecological role of forest fires [13].

Segmentation: The goal of the segmentation problem is to partition the input time series into homogeneous segments (the subsequence within a segment is contiguous). Segmentation is essentially a special case of change detection since by definition, successive segments are not homogeneous, which means there is likely to be a change point between the segments. Recursive merging follows a segmentation-based approach to change detection.

Analytical: Predictive approaches to change detection are based on the assumption that one can learn a model for a portion of the input time series, and detect change based on deviation from the model. The underlying model can range from relatively simple smoothing models to more sophisticated filtering and state-space models. The change detection algorithm used to generate the Burned Area Product (a well-known MODIS data set) follows a predictive approach.

Fig 1 Since the forest fires cause notable economical and ecological damage despite jeopardizing human lives they are considered as a significant environmental issue [12]. Annually several hundred million hectares (ha) of forest and other vegetation are deteriorated by the forest fires [14]. Intermittently forest fires have compelled the evacuation of vulnerable communities besides heavy damages amounting to millions of dollars. 19.27% or 63.3 million ha of the Indian land has been classified into forest area as per the report of the Forest Survey of India [15], of which 38 million ha alone are hoarded with resources in abundance (crown density above 40%). Thus the country’s forests face immense difficulty. Indian 193

3.Forest fire detection

forests are also in jeopardy due to the forest fires leading to their degradation [16]. Fires caused huge damage in the year 2007 affecting huge territories besides notable number of human casualties [17]. Forest fires pose continuous threats to ecological systems, infrastructure and human lives. Detecting the fires at their early stages and reacting in a fast pace so as to prevent the spread is the only viable and effective option to minimize the damage. Henceforth huge efforts have been put forth to facilitate early detection of forest fires, conventionally being carried out with the aid of human surveillance [18]. Forest fire, Drought, Flood and many other phenomena particularly the ones with huge spatial extent are some of the spatial phenomena that posses predictable spatial patterns that are noticeable through remote sensing Images/products.

the scheme (due to this method of z-score computation) is that at each yearly boundary, same fraction of locations undergo land cover change. Note that high values of z-score indicate a decrease in vegetation and vice-versa. In subsequent discussions, we will refer to the scheme described above as the LUNETTA0 scheme.


4.1. Lunetta et al. Scheme. This anomaly based method for identifying changes relies on the fact that in a spatial neighborhood most of the locations remain unchanged and only a few locations get changed at any particular time interval. For every location the algorithm computes the sequence of the annual sum of vegetation index for each year. The deference between the annual sum of consecutive years is then computed. We will refer to this as diff -sum. This is equivalent to applying first-order differencing [7] to the time series of annual sums. High values for the difference in the annual sum for consecutive years indicate a possible change. To determine the \strength" or \significance" of this change, Lunetta et al. compute a z-score for this diff-sum value for the combination of each year boundary and spatial location. When computing the z-score, Lunetta et al. define the standard deviation across all the spatial neighbors of the pixel for that time window in the data set and they further assume that diff-sum is normally distributed with a mean of 0 in the spatial neighborhood. An implicit assumption made by 194

4.2. CUSUM. Statistical parameter change techniques assume that the data is produced by some generative mechanism. If the generative mechanism changed then the change will cause one of the parameters of the data distribution to change. Thus changes can be detected by monitoring the change in this parameter. CUSUM technique is a parameter change technique that uses the mean of the observations as a parameter to describe the distribution of the data values. The basic CUSUM scheme has an expected value for the process. It then compares the deviation of every observation to the expected value, and maintains a running statistic (the cumulative sum) CS of deviations from the expected value. If there is no change in the process, CS is expected to be approximately 0. Unusually high or low values of CS indicate a change. A large positive value if CS indicates an increase in the mean value of the vegetation (and vice-versa). We will refer to this scheme as CUSUM MEA. 4.3 Recursive Merging Algorithm. The main idea behind the recursive merging algorithm is to exploit seasonality in order to distinguish between points that have had a land cover change and those that have not. In particular, if a given location has not had a land cover change, then we expect the seasonal cycles to look very similar going from one year to the next; if this is not the case, then based on the extent to which the seasons are different one can assign a change score to a land location. Recursive Merging follows a bottom-up strategy of merging annual segments that are consecutive in time and similar in value. A cost corresponding to each merge is defined as a notion of the distance between the segments. We use Manhattan distance in our

implementation of the algorithm, although other distance measures can be used. One of the strengths of the Manhattan distance is that it takes the seasonality of the time series into account because it takes difference between the corresponding months. The key idea is that the algorithm will merge similar annual cycles and most likely the nal merge would correspond to the change (if a change happened) and would have the highest cost of merging. In case the maximum cost of merging is low, it is likely that no change occurred in the time series. The algorithm described above takes into account the seasonality of the data but not the vari- ability. A high cost of merge in a highly variable time series is perhaps not as reliable indicator of change as a moderate score in a highly stable time series. In recursive merging algorithms the cost for the initial merges can be used as an indicator of the variability within each model. To account for this variability, the change score is defined as the ratio of the maximum merge cost (corresponding to difference in models) to the minimum merge cost (corresponding to the intra-model variability). Time series with a high natural variability, or time series with noise data due to inaccurate measurement have a high minimum cost of merging also, thus a smaller change score. We will refer to this scheme as RM0.

Figure 3.Comparison of algorithms with noisy data (DS3).

Ground Truth Data Figure 4. Example of a polygon the boundary of a fire. representing

Figure 2. Comparison of algorithms on DS1.


Source: MODIS Land Group, Alfredo Huete and Kamel Didan, University of Arizona. Figure 5. The above MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) map shows the density of plant growth over the entire globe for October 2000. Very low values of EVI (white and brown areas) correspond to barren areas of rock, sand, or snow. Moderate values (light greens) represent shrub and grassland, while high values indicate temperate and tropical rainforests (dark greens).

how this normalization leads to false positives when a time series with relatively low mean undergoes a small shift. Additionally, there are several limitations of the experimental evaluation in this study. For ex-ample, the ground truth data set consists of only one type of forest fires, thus excluding many other changes of interest. Furthermore, the nature of vegetation data in California can be quite different from other parts of the world such as the tropics, where the issues of noise are acute because of persistent cloud cover.

Reference :

Evaluation Data Set. Since our ground truth is about forest fires in California we created two data sets DS1 and DS3 which consists of forest pixels in California as described below(from fig 5)

[1] Shekhar, S., Zhang, P., Huang, Y. and Vatsavai, R.R., Trends in spatial data mining. In: Kargupta, H., Joshi, A. (Eds.), Data Mining: Next Generation hallenges and Future Directions, AAAI/MIT Press, pp. 357-380, 2003. [2] Martin Ester, Hans-Peter Kriegel, Jörg Sander, “Algorithms and Applications for Spatial Data Mining", Published in Geographic Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, Research Monographs in GIS, Taylor and Francis, 2001. [3] K. Julish, Data Mining for Intrusion Detection, a Critical Review, in pplications of Data Mining in Computer Security, D. Barbara and S.Jajodia (Eds.), Kluwer Academic Publisher, 2002.

5.Conclusion A amount of insights can be derived from the quantitative evaluation of the algorithms and their variations presented in this paper. On relatively high quality datasets, all three schemes perform reasonably well, but their ability to handle noise and natural variability in the vegetation data differs dramatically. In particular, Recursive Merging algorithm significantly outperforms the other two algorithms since it accounts for variability in the time series. However, the algorithm has several limitations that need to be addressed in future work. For example, due to manner in which the segments are constructed from annual cycles, changes occurring in the middle of segment boundaries are given lower scores than changes occurring at the segment boundaries. The algorithm normalizes the change score for a given time series by the estimated variability. The normalization is currently performed using the minimum distance between a pair of segments, which is not optimal: 196

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ABSTRACT Image based steganography uses the images as the cover media. LSB is a commonly used technique in this filed. “The goal of Information Hiding is to hide messages inside other harmless messages in a way that does not allow any enemy to even detect that there is a second secret message present”. In this paper, we present a new algorithm for image based steganography. Our algorithm introduces the way of storing variable number of bits in each channel (R, G or B) of pixel based on the actual color values of that pixel: lower color component stores higher number of bits. Hiding the variable number of bits in each channel gives additional security to the message to be hide. This algorithm offers very high capacity for cover media compared to other existing algorithms. The size of the original image and the information embedded image are the same. Keywords: Steganography, RGB image, cryptography, information hiding.

No one can detect the existence of message or information in the image.Hereby strengthening tight security to information.

Figure 1. Steganography tradeoff parameter

1. INTRODUCTION Steganography is the art and science of hiding information by embedding messages within other, seemingly harmless messages. Steganography, meaning covered writing, dates

back to ancient Greece, where common practices consisted of etching messages in wooden tablets and covering them with wax, and tattooing a shaved messenger's head, letting his hair grow back, then shaving it again when he arrived at his contact point. Different types of Steganographic techniques employ invisible inks, microdots, character arrangement, digital signatures, convert channel, and spread spectrum communications. 198

Steganography techniques require two files: cover media, and the data to be hidden . When combined the cover image and the embedded message make a stegofile, which is in our work for image steganography known as stego-image image [3]. One of the commonly used techniques is the LSB where the least significant bit of each pixel is replaced by bits of the secret till secret message finishes . The risk of information being uncovered with this method as is, is susceptible to all ‘sequential scanning’ based techniques [1], which is threatening its security. Steganography deals with embedding information in a given media (called cover media) without making any visible changes to it [1]. The goal is to hide an embedded file within the cover media such that the embedded file’s existence is concealed. Image based steganography uses images as the cover media. Several methods have been proposed for image based steganography, LSB being the simplest one. Techniques involving bitmap images (RGB images) as cover media use single or multichannel hiding, RNG or color cycle methods [2] etc. In the pixel indicator technique where one channel is used to locate the channel to store data. In this paper, a new technique for RGB image steganography is introduced, where color intensity (values of R-G-B) is used to decide the no of bits to store in each pixel. Channels containing lower color values can store higher no of data bits. The sequence of channels is selected randomly based on a shared key. Our technique ensures a minimum capacity (as opposed to [3]) and can accommodate to store large amount of data. Experimental results show that our algorithm performs much better compared to the existing algorithms. Our algorithm can also be used to store fixed no of bits per channel, but can still offer very high capacity for cover media.

2. REQUIREMENTS Designing any stego algorithm should take into consideration the following three aspects Capacity: The amount of data that can be hidden without significantly changing the cover medium. • Robustness: the resistance for possible modification or destruction in unseen data. • Invisibility (Security or Perceptual Transparency): The hiding process should be performing in a way that it does not raise any suspicion of eavesdroppers. The Figure 1, shows the relation between these three main parameters. If we increase the capacity of any cover to store more data than a practical possible threshold, then its transparency or robustness will be affect and visa versa. Similarly, transparency and robustness are related; if any of these two parameters are influenced, it can affect the performance in the other one. The capacity, robustness, and security parameters relation issues can be driven by the application need and its priorities. • 3. Review In this section, we review the pixel indicator technique in [3]. The pixel indicator technique uses the least two significant bits of one of the channels from Red, Green or Blue as an indicator for existence of data in the other two channels. The indicator channels are chosen in sequence, with R being the first. Table 1 shows the relation between the indicator bits and the amount of hidden data stored in the other channels. Table 1: Relation between the indicator bits and the amount of hidden data. 199

Indicator bits 00 01 10 11

Channel 1 No hidden data No hidden data 2 bits of hidden data 2 bits of hidden data

Channel 2 No hidden data 2 bits of hidden data No hidden data 2 bits of hidden data

The disadvantage of the algorithm in [3] is that the capacity depends of the indicator bits and based on the cover image, the capacity can be very low.

Also, the algorithm in [3] uses fixed no of bits per channel (2 bits) to store data and the image may get distorted if more bits are used per channel. Our algorithm guarantees a minimum capacity for every cover image and the number of bits stored in each channel varies depending on the intensity.

more bits can be changed per channel of an RGB image. Figure2 shows one example. In (a) the color is WHITE (R=255, G=255, B=255). In (b), we only change the last 4 bits of R to zeros, resulting in a color where distortion can be noticed. In (c), the color component is same as (a), except that R = 55. In (c), we again set the least 4 bits of R to zeros, resulting in a color which seems to be same as (c). Our idea is that, lower color-value of a channel has less effect on the overall color of the pixel than the higher value. Therefore, more bits can be changed in a channel having ‘low’ value than a channel with a ‘high’ value. Therefore, we propose the following algorithm. • Use one of the three channels as the indicator. The indicator sequence can be made random, based on a shared key between sender and receiver. • Data is stored in one of the two channels other than the indicator. The channel, whose color value is lowest among the two channels other than the indicator, will store the data in its least significant bits. • Instead of storing a fixed no of databits per channel, no of bits to be stored will depend on the color value of the channel. The lower the value, the higher the data-bits to be stored. Therefore a partition of the colorvalues is needed. Through experimentations, we show that optimal partition may depend on the actual cover image used. • To retrieve the data, we need to know which channel stores the data-bits. This is done by looking at the least significant bits of the two channels other than the indicator: O If the bits are same, then the channel following the indicator in cyclic order stores the data. O Otherwise, the channel which precedes the indicator in cyclic order stores the data. 200

Figure 2: Effect in colors for changes in the Red values. 4. The algorithm In this section, we briefly outline our proposed algorithm for RGB image based steganography. The idea behind our algorithm is that, for ‘insignificant’ colors, significantly

Here, the cyclic order is assumed to be RG-B-R- G-B and so on. The appropriate bits can be set while the data is stored. Figure 2 shows the encoding (at sender’s side) and decoding (at receiver’s side) part of our algorithm in flow charts. Note that, it is assumed that a shared key and partition scheme is already agreed upon by the two parties. Figure 3 demonstrates one example of storing data bits in a channel. In step – 1, the indicator channel (here G) is selected randomly. In step – 2, the data channel is chosen (R). In step – 3, no of data bits to store is determined from the current channel value and partition scheme. Step – 4 stores the data bits and step – 5 modifies the other channel (B) LSB, which is used while retrieving the data. 4.1. Partition schemes In our algorithm, a partition scheme is defined as a monotonically decreasing sequence [ai], i = 1 to 8. Assume that the color value of a channel is c. Then that channel with value c stores i no of data bits if c >= ai and for all j, j < i, c < aj. For correctness of the algorithm, we only use valid partitions schemes. We define a valid partition scheme as follows: let [ai] be a partition scheme where lower i bits of ai is all 0. Let [bi], i = 1 to 8, be another sequence, where bi is generated by setting the lower i bits of ai all 1. If ai > bi+1, i = 1 to 7, then [ai] is a valid partition scheme. This simple condition ensures that the same no of data bits are read from a channel in the receiver’s side a s stored in the sender’s side. 4. Experimentations We implemented our algorithm in JAVA and carried our experimentations with different cover images and data files exploring different values for shared keys and partition schemes. Here, we only present the 201

results obtained using the cover image and the data file as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 5 shows the stego files for 4 different partition schemes. The value of the key was 17 and the indicator sequence was chosen randomly using this shared key.

Figure 3b: Flow charts of the decoding part of our algorithm.

Figure 3a: Flow charts of the encoding part of our algorithm.

Figure 4: An example of hiding data 202

bits inside a channel.

(a) Cover Image Image size : 640 X480, No of pixels = 307200

(a) Constant 3 bits per channel Pixels utilized in cover media : 50939 Partition Scheme : [256,256,0,0,0,0,0,0]

(b) Data File (a bitmap) Image size : 150 X117, Data length = 150896 bits Figure 5: Cover media and data file used in the experimentations. (b) 3 to 4 bits per channel Pixels utilized in cover media : 41061 Partition Scheme : [256,256,96,0,0,0,0,0]

The same set of images were used to evaluate the algorithm in [3], the pixel indicator technique. Table2 shows the comparative results of the two algorithms. Table 2 clearly shows that, intensity based variable-bits algorithm clearly performs better than the pixel indicator algorithm in terms of capacity utilizations. whereas pixel indicator method cannot store the data file due to capacity shortage!

For comparison purpose, we have modified the pixel indicator algorithm to store up to 3 or 4 data bits per channel. But this modification leads to visual distortions to the cover image. Our algorithm ensures a minimum capacity for any cover image, whereas for pixel indicator method, the capacity may sometimes become very low. As an example, for the cover image and data file of Figure 6, our algorithm uses only 16.5% of the capacity of the cover image (for fixed 3 bits data per channel),


Table 2: Comparison of performance of two steganography algorithms.

6. Conclusion and future works In this paper, a new idea in image based steganography is introduced, where variable no bits can be stored in each channel. Our algorithm uses actual color of the channel to decide no of data bits to store. This approach leads to very high capacity with low visual distortions. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm performs better than other similar algorithms. There are several ways to improve our variable- bits algorithm: • Select the partition at run time, based on the cover media, rather than using the static (fixed) partition scheme for all cover images. • Use color information of all three channels to determine the partition. This will lead to using Different partition schemes for different parts of the image.

7. References [1] Provos, N., Honeyman, P, Hide and seek: An introduction to steganography, IEEE Security & Privacy Magazine 1 (2003) pp. 32-44 [2] Karen Bailey, Kevin Curran, An evaluation of image based steganography methods using visual inspection and automated detection techniques, Multimedia Tools and Applications, Vol 30 , Issue 1 (2006) pp. 55-88 [3] Adnan Gutub, Mahmoud Ankeer, Muhammad AbuGhalioun, Abdulrahman Shaheen, and Aleem Alvi, Pixel indicator high capacity technique for RGB image based Steganography, WoSPA 2008 – 5 IEEE International Workshop on Signal Processing and its Applications, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, U.A.E. 18 – 20 March 2008. 204

[4] D. Artz, "Digital Steganography: Hiding Data within Data", IEEE Internet Computing: Spotlight, pages

75-80, May-June 2001. t h


ABSTRACT In general cloud computing as divide it into two sections: the front end and the back end. They connect to each other through a network, usually the Internet. The front end is the side the computer user, or client, sees. The back end is the "cloud" section of the system. The front end includes the client's computer (or computer network) and the application required to access the cloud computing system. Not all cloud computing systems have the same user interface. Services like Web-based e-mail programs leverage existing Web browsers like Internet Explorer or Fire fox. Other systems have unique applications that provide network access to clients. In this paper expands the system and architecture and stuffs in information technology. Keywords: network, Internet, . Services, technology…. Introduction: A central server administers the system, monitoring traffic and client demands to ensure everything runs smoothly. It follows a set of rules called protocols and uses a special kind of software called middleware. Middleware allows networked computers to communicate with each other. The front end includes the client's computer (or computer Setwork) and the application required to access the cloud computing system. 205

Not all cloud computing systems have the same user interface. Services like Web-based e-mail programs leverage existing Web browsers like Internet Explorer or Fire fox. Other systems have unique applications that provide network access to clients. On the back end of the system are the various computers, servers and data storage systems that create the "cloud" of computing services. In theory, a cloud computing system could include practically any computer program you can imagine, from data processing to video games. Usually, each application will have its own dedicated server. If a cloud computing company has a lot of clients, there's likely to be a high demand for a lot of storage space. Some companies require hundreds of digital storage devices. Cloud computing systems need at least twice the number of storage devices it requires to keep all its clients' information stored. That's because these devices, like all computers, occasionally break down. A cloud computing system must make a copy of all its clients' information and store it on other devices. The copies enable the central server to access backup machines to retrieve data that otherwise would be unreachable. Making copies of data as a backup is called redundancy. Cloud computing:

The success of cloud computing is largely based on the effective implementation of its architecture. In cloud computing, architecture is not just based on how the application will work with the intended users. Cloud computing requires an intricate interaction with the hardware which is very essential to ensure uptime of the application.

Architecture: Clouding computing is no more considered as an emerging technology. Now, it’s a reality and this low-cost computing power is gaining popularity among businessmen, especially medium and small size, and governmental organizations, as people are releasing the power of cloud environments.

Applications: The following diagram shows that how cloud computing used in various fields.

Though there is no official definition and straight forward way to explain what exactly


cloud computing is, but it can be expressed in general as the following statement: “cloud computing is such a type of computing environment, where business owners outsource their computing needs including application software services to a third party and when they need to use the computing power or employees need to use the application resources like database, emails etc., they access the resources via Internet.” Cloud Computing Service Architecture: Mainly, three types of services we can get from a cloud service provider. 1. Infrastructure as a service- service provider bears all the cost of servers, networking equipment, storage, and back-ups. You just have to pay to take the computing service. And the users build their own application software’s. Amazon EC2 is a great example of this type of service.2. Platform as a service-service provider only provides platform or a stack of solutions for your users. It helps users saving investment on hardware and software. Google Go engine and provide this type of service. For example, In data centers: One of the most distinguishing characteristics of cloud computing architecture is its close dependency on the hardware components. An online application is just a simple application that could be launched in different servers but when the application is considered with cloud computing, it will require massive data centers that will ensure the processes are done as expected and timely. Data centers for cloud computing architecture are not your run-of-the-mill data processing centers. It’s composed of different servers with optimal storage capacity and processing speed. They work together to ensure that the application will be operating as expected.

The area is usually in a highly controlled environment where it would be constantly monitored through various applications and manually checked for actual physical problems. Features: Microsoft India today announced the commercial availability of its Windows Azure platform, an Internet-scale cloud services platform, which will help it provide software, platform and infrastructure services to businesses through cloud computing. Conclusion: Cloud computing is closely related to grid computing and utility computing. In a grid computing system, networked computers are able to access and use the resources of every other computer on the network. In cloud computing systems, that usually only applies to the back end. Utility computing is a business model where one company pays another company for access to computer applications or data storage. References: i)The Vision of Autonomic Computing, by Jeffrey O Kephart and David M Chess, IBM Thomas J Watson Research Center, 2001 ii)Autonomic Computing Manifesto, ttp:// /autonomic_computing.pdf, International Business Machines Corporation 2001 iii)web Services 2.0, by Thomas B Winans and John Seely Brown, Deloitte, 2008.iv)Farber, R. Cloud Computing: Pie in the Sky?, November/December 2009 v) Davies, K. Amylin, Amazon, and the Cloud. BioIT World, November/December 2009, pp. 35, 42.

28. Issues in Cloud computing solved using middle server technology

Mr. Palivela Hemant Computer Science and Engineering Dept. Annasaheb Chudaman Patil College of Engineering, Navi Mumbai, India

Mr. Nitin.P.Chawande Computer Science and Engineering Dept. Annasaheb Chudaman Patil College of Engineering, Navi Mumbai, India

Mr. Hemant Wani Computer Science and Engineering Dept. Annasaheb Chudaman Patil College of Engineering, Navi Mumbai, India

Abstract— Location independency can be achieved through distributed systems but cloud computing has become a new era altogether for distributed systems. But there are lot of hurdles in accomplishing this idea in the form of security parameters and backup issues. In this paper we have discussed the solution to there issue by integrating the encryption and server management techniques in order to make a smooth transaction between the user and the server. We propose a new prototype system where we have introduced a governance body which will handle all the transactions from the user to the actual server from where the user is requesting. We have introduced routing table at each end server and middle server (Governance server) so as to get the database of client to server connectivity.

firewall,Service level agreement, SSL technology. I. distributed computing and grid computing. Here the user can access any service which he/she wants for a specific task and for a specific amount of time. Cloud computing provides us with a facility of sharing and interoperating the resources between different users and the systems being owned by the organizations. Security is a major hindrance in such type of systems because if the users are storing their data in a remote location owned by an unknown person and an organization then their data is not protected. Members communicating to each other should have a good level of trust so as to share the data and resource with each other. In actual scenario, the cloud is the concept of virtualizing 208 INTRODUCTION Cloud computing emerged from so called

Keywords-Central server,Application level

the local system of the user using remote cloud operating system to get a virtual desktop with a specific or a choice of choose and to store the personal data and execute the application form anywhere. The customers or the user purchase the computing power depending on their demand and A. Public cloud are not concerned with the underlying technologies used. The party and operated by them. This third party may not be located in the same area the user lives may be in the state or country. important to improve the security and the dependable in users pay as per their use which becomes very useful and cost effective for the companies they are working for and for themselves. But the web services the user is using can works for an utmost ease still it has a lot of security issues. It can be very well handled with SLA (Service Level Agreement) but some strategy has to be taken into consideration to provide additional support and security. The cloud vender and the user should agree upon the system which can be mutually coordinated but with some more security aspects taken into account. B. Private Cloud The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise [1]. 209 Public cloud is basically used by lot of users in the whole world and the security aspects act as utmost hindrance computing in the cloud and various backup issues sorted. We have used a middle server named as governance server central server. II. CLOUD STRUCTURE AND TYPES

operating systems to choose of operating systems to trusted platform which will perform the action of a

resources used and data accessed are owned by a third such situations. It is basically a pay per use model in which

In this paper we propose a new way that is veryget spikes in their amount of usage. But even if the model

There are hybrid solutions such as the Nasuni filer or Nirvanix hNode to tier storage between your onpremises storage products and public clouds. But, those still use some amount of public cloud storage solutions. Now there is an alternative to bring it all internal in terms of where the data resides, yet you can get the scalability and ease of access associated with public cloud storage technologies. In private cloud we get additional benefits like additional security as the company has the server at its end. As a way to exercise greater control over security and application availability, some enterprises are moving toward building private clouds. With the right approach and expertise in place, this type of setup can offer the best of both worlds: the costeffectiveness of cloud computing and the assurance that comes with the ability to manage data and applications more closely. Cloud services are owned and delivered only within


Today, almost every enterprise could be said to have an an enterprise or organization. Private clouds employ advances in virtualization technologies and automated management technologies to enhance scalability and utilization of local data centers while reducing administrative and management tasks. Private clouds can be built on existing on-premises computing infrastructures using open-source cloud software (Cloud ware) or thirdparty. C. Hybrid cloud A hybrid provides services by combining private and public clouds that have been integrated to optimize service. The promise of the hybrid cloud is to provide the local data benefits of the private clouds with the economies, scalability, and on-demand access of the public cloud. The hybrid cloud remains somewhat undefined because it specifies a midway point between the two ends of the continuum of services provided strictly over the Internet and those provided through the data centre or on the desktop. 211 A. Model 1:Infrastructure as a service(Iaas) III. MODELS OF CLOUD COMPUTING IT infrastructure containing some elements of both extremes. Meshing them into a common structure is what becomes interesting and offers a range of new possibilities in handling local and cloud-based data, but it also introduces a range of complexities in data transfer and integration [2]. In our proposed system we have included a strategy by which we can have connectivity between all the clouds and have provided additional security as we have introduced a governance body like a central server which can have the routing table in it as shown in fig. 1. The primary difference between hybrid cloud and private cloud is the extension of service provider-oriented low cost cloud storage to the enterprise. The service provider based cloud may be a private cloud (single tenant) or a public loud (multitenant) [3].

The key aspects of IT infrastructure, hardware, facilities, of IT departments within each company. Dedicated personnel other devices in support of their respective employers. This equipment requires dedicated housing as well as environmental controls, emergency power, and security systems to keep it functioning properly. Finally, every company allocates additional space where IT personnel work to support the infrastructure that is in place. Every aspect of IT infrastructure has evolved on its own, yet-until now - has not moved toward integration. For example, a company purchases software it needs and then purchases a server to run it. If data storage is necessary for files or the mix to accommodate the needs of the company. A local network

is maintained to provide employees access to IT resources, and high speed internet connectivity for voice and data added to the company account as necessary. Practically speaking, each IT system has its own management system, with some systems requiring the addition of a worker to the staff. Infrastructure as a service takes the traditional components of IT infrastructure, takes them off site, and offers them in one unified, scalable package to companies who can manage them through one management interface. Infrastructure as a service results in IT services that easily conform to the changing requirements of a business. Because the infrastructure does not reside on the premises, obsolete equipment, upgrades, and retrofits no longer play a role in the company's decision to adopt new technology: the IaaS provider takes care of that seamlessly, allowing the business to focus on its mission .Cost effectiveness augments the convenience of IaaS. Because the IaaS provider has massive platforms segmented for each customer, the economies of scale are enormous, providing significant cost savings through efficiency. The need for every company to maintain its own infrastructure is eliminated through IaaS. The power of IaaS brings the contracts to businesses of every size. IaaS improves reliability because service providers have specialized workers that ensure nearly constant uptime and state-of-theart security measures. Infrastructure as a Service is a form 212

and administration have traditionally been the domain is

install and configure servers, routers, firewalls, and specialized

databases, disk arrays and hard drives are added into resources needed to service government and enterprise

of hosting. It includes network access, routing services and storage. The IaaS provider will generally provide the hardware and administrative services needed to store applications and a platform for running applications. Scaling of bandwidth, memory and storage are generally included, offered on their dynamic services. IaaS can be purchased with either a contract or on a pay-as-you-go basis. However, most buyers consider the key benefit of IaaS to be the flexibility of the pricing, since you should only need to pay for the resources that your application delivery requires [4]. During many phased of SDLC, there is a need to create hardware and software environments repeatedly to perform development, integration testing, system testing and user acceptance testing. This repeated deployment of hardware and software takes lot of time and eats into the bandwidth of today’s delivery organization to focus on the core responsibility of delivering tested application. Delivery organization also needs to provision and re-provision hardware and software for ever increasing

requirements of development and testing in addition to the resources. Also, setting up of separate hardware and software takes time as well as prone to configuration errors. Plus, separate hardware installations consume space which is at a premium. The solution to above mentioned usage pain points is to setup private cloud. Eucalyptus, an open source private cloud provider provides software that can be deployed to setup private cloud within the organization’s scalable IaaS-style private and hybrid clouds. Eucalyptus implements the Amazon Web Services (AWS) API which

and vendors compete on the performance and pricing internal premises. Eucalyptus is software that implements


allows interoperability with existing AWScompatible services and tools. You can read more here B. Model 2:Software as a Service(SaaS)

June 2009, a study conducted by VersionOne found that 41% of senior IT professionals actually don't know what cloud computing is and two-thirds of senior finance professionals are confused by the concept, highlighting the young nature of the technology. In Sept 2009, an Aberdeen Group study found that disciplined companies achieved on

Software is ubiquitous in today’s business world, average an 18% reduction in their IT budget from cloud where software applications can help us track shipments across multiple countries, manage large inventories, train employees, and even help us form good working relationships with customers. For decades, companies have run software on their own internal infrastructures or computer networks. In recent years, traditional software license purchases have begun to seem antiquated, as many vendors and customers have migrated to software as a service business model. Software as a service, or 'SaaS', is a software application delivery model by which an enterprise vendor develops a web-based software application, and then hosts and operates that application over the Internet for use by its customers. So far the applications segment of cloud 214 computi ng are the only segment that has proven successf ul as a business model. By running business applicati ons over the internet from centrali zed servers rather than from on-site servers, compan ies can cut some serious costs. Furtherm ore, while avoiding maintena nce costs, licensing costs and the costs of the hardware required for running servers on-site, companies are able to run applications much more efficiently from a computing standpoint [8]. Customers do not need to buy software licenses or additional infrastructure equipment, and TABLE I. COMPARISON CHART computing and a 16% reduction in data center power costs.

typically only pay monthly fees (also referred to as annuity payments) for using the software. It is important to note that SaaS typically encapsulates enterprise as opposed to consumer-oriented web-hosted software, which is generally known as web 2.0. According to a leading research firm, the SaaS market reached $6.3B in 2006; still a small fraction of the over $300B licensed software industry. However, growth in SaaS since 2000 has averaged 26% CAGR, while licensed software growth has driven down IT-related costs, decrease deployment times, and foster

Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud

Google Application Engine

Go Grid


Platforms:Li Platforms: Platforms:CE Platforms:Li nux Based Any python NT OS and nux Based Systems 2.5 that web Red Hat Systems application Enterprise Linux with operates in Apache, a sand box. PHP, MYSQL. Cost: 10 cent About per hour for million a (1.7 small free instance 5 12 cents per 22 cents per hour of a CPU hour for a Ghz server. High throughput 500 NAS cost 50 of cents per GB while core. 2.83

page views Load after that, balancing, of 10 to 12 of hour DNS,

remained relatively flat. Demand for SaaS is being GB by real business needs — namely its ability to drive GB instance

memory, 160cents per GB CPU core, incoming

of storage and per month, data transfers archival free, storage costs significantly

storage), 15 15 to 18 of data GB

cents per GB cents per are

of outbound

storage per storage per data transfers lower. month, 10 month and cost 25 cents to 9 to 13 per GB. 17cents per cents per gigabyte of GB of data innovation [5]. Both public and private cloud models are 215 data now in use. Available to anyone with Internet access, public transferred. transfer.

models include Software as a Service (SaaS) clouds All these services are cost effective but have a lot of issues like IBM LotusLive™, Platform as a Service (PaaS) clo These hybrids are designed to meet specific business and technology requirements, helping to optimize security and privacy with a minimum investment in fixed IT costs. In Gives a general description of security services and related mechanisms, which can be ensured by the Reference Model, and of the positions within the Reference Model where the services and mechanisms may be provided. Extends the field of application of ISO 7498 [6] to cover secure communications between open systems. Adds to the concepts and principles included in ISO 7498 but does not modify them. In the fig 1, we have showed how the requirements are fulfilled in our proposed system. regarding security and backup. Depending upon the implementation and platform needed the central server can send the request to the respective server. IV. REQUIREMENTS OF SECURITY


authorization A. Authentication and Authorisation User can be identified in this model as we are using the SSL security for that purpose. A governance body is acting as an interface between the user and the cloud servers. There will be encryption between the user and central server and between the central server and cloud of servers. User details will be stored within the central server in the form of UserID etc and validation will be done accordingly. Hence the requirement is fulfilled in this. Authorization is not a big issue in private cloud because the system administrator can look into it by granting access only to those who are authorized to access the data. Whereas in public cloud it will become more hectic due to requests from normal users have to be taken into considerations. Privileges over the process flow have to be considered as the control may flow from one server to another. Respective UserID will be saved in the central servers after the registration and 217 can be done easily as the respective rights can be stated there. B. Confidentiality Confidentiality plays a very important role as the data has to be secure and should not be reviled anywhere. This can be achieved in this system as we have used Dual SSL technology. User’s data, profiles etc have to be maintained and as they are virtually accessed various protocols (security) have to be enforced. If we standardize the whole cluster of a particular sector then it can be easily imposed. With regard to data-in-transit, the primary risk is in not using a vetted encryption algorithm. Although this is obvious to information security professionals, it is not common for others to understand this requirement when using a public cloud, regardless of whether it is IaaS, PaaS or SaaS. It is also important to ensure that a protocol provides confidentiality as well as integrity (e.g., FTP over SSL [FTPS], Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure [HTTPS], and Secure Copy Program [SCP])—particularly if

the protocol is used for transferring data across the Internet. Merely encrypting data and using a non-secured protocol (e.g., ―vanilla‖ or ―straight‖ FTP or HTTP) can provide confidentiality, but does not ensure the integrity of the data (e.g., with the use of symmetric streaming ciphers) [6]. C. Integrity Integrity is maintained as the hashing is done in SSL technology. The major drawback in case of this technology is the excessive redundant data due to which the bandwidth is used up and the packet size is increased. From a privacy and confidentiality perspective, the terms of service may be the most important feature of cloud computing for an average user who is not subject to a legal or professional obligation. It is common for a cloud provider to offer its facilities to users without individual contracts and subject to the provider’s published terms of service. A provider may offer different services, each of which has distinct 218

terms of service. A cloud provider may also have a separate privacy policy. It is also possible for a cloud provider to conduct business with users subject to specific contractual

content of all the servers in the cloud with corresponding agreements between the provider and the user that provides better protections for users. The contractual model is not examined further here. If the terms of service give the cloud is likely bound by those terms. A cloud provider may acquire the and share with affiliates or with the world the user’s a cloud provider may claim as a condition of offering services be important if a user’s local records differ from the records maintained on the user’s behalf by a cloud provider. D. Non-repudiation a sender is sending the data to the other end. In our proposed system this requirement is fulfilled by the central server because it has the routing table as well as the table of server ID, name, location etc. Due to the routing table’s entry of server ip, receiver and sender ip we can state that if the user has sent the request he cannot deny it and if receiver gives acknowledgement or response he also cannot deny of giving it. V. USE OF PROPOSED MODEL we have defined a central server which will be having a router table which contains cloud Id, the corresponding user Id , the actual server Id to which the user is connecting to. the table. It also contains the actual amount of data flow that will be personal firewall and the connectivity between the user and the central server will be encrypted using SSL Again at the Central server’s end there will be an application level firewall which will check whether the packets are malicious or not. Application-level firewalls into the application data going through their filters. Fig.2 shows the architectural diagram of the proposed system. By considering the context of client requests and application responses, these firewalls attempt to enforce correct organizations ensure the safety of sensitive information and systems. They can log user activity too. Applicationlevel filtering may include protection against spam and viruses as well, and be able to block undesirable Web sites based on 219

provider rights over a user’s information, then a user In the proposed system we have introduced an idea in which

through its terms of service a variety of rights, including The source ip and the destination ip also have been put into right to copy, use, change, publish, display, distribute, is the packets per second transfer rate. On the user end there

information. There may be few limits to the rights that encryption standards that are regularly used now-a-days.

to users. Audits and other data integrity measures may(sometimes called proxies) have been looking more deeply

Non-repudiation is the requirement which states that if application behavior, block malicious activity and help

content rather than just their IP address. [6] Further what we have suggested is to make a separate cluster of clouds for banking sector, educational sector, government bodies (will not contain confidential data). The user has a personal firewall at his end. The central server say for banks as an example consists of a table which consists of the userID, server id, its name and all the related information through which a governance body can back track the server and the


user. When a user tries to connect to a particular server from the cloud then his/her user id sever id source ip and destination ip are saved. The total time of synchronization, packet size being transferred server name and the total lease time in case of a secure connection is saved in the table incase if the user is not able to connect to a server i.e., if the ping shows connection time out we can easily track the server from the central servers routing table. Even the user credentials and the session are secured by SSL technology. Further we can achieve more security by clubbing different security algorithms with SSL. There is a secured connectivity between the user and the central server and between cloud’s servers. Due to double encryption all the security requirements are fulfilled in this model. Tracking the server is also simple because their will be a table which will help us know the cloud id server name, server id and the corresponding organizations name whose server it is. So if the server is not getting connected then we can track it. We also have to standardize all the servers in the cloud for a particular sector like banking sector, all the banks like ICICI, HDFC and all the centralized banks and co-operative banks etc have to come together and use standardized protocols so as to achieve this proposal . Even by standardizing in education sector we can achieve a common place to gain knowledge and we can use the services as according. We have also included the routing table below which depicts the actual scenario. TABLE II. UID SID Source IP 1216 3 221 ROUTING TABLE Destn IP

2532 5 123.13 8.63.6 3 8650 2535 1 Time Clou Packe Server d ID t Size Name Lease Time Figure 1. Diagram of proposed model Architecture

VI. CONCLUSION The model we have submitted is having its own advantages 500 ms 124 255k Rudra b 15mins in case of security and backup. Due to a governance body in between the user and the cloud server we can easily track the user as well as the server in the cloud. We can also nexus both public cloud and private cloud together in one with hybrid clouds. Due to SSL security the security 800 ms 263 500k Indra b 25mins parameters are also taken into consideration. This model can help cloud computing and make it reach new ends.


[1] Peter Mell and Tim Grance,‖The NIST Definition of

Cloud Computing‖ [2] Architectural Requirements Of The Hybrid Cloud Information Management Online, February 10, 2010 Brian J. Dooley [3] Steve Lesem on January 25, 2010 [4] R. Nicole, ―Title of paper with only first word capitalized,‖ J. Name Stand. Abbrev., in press. [5] vice [6] Tim Mather, Subra Kumaraswamy, and Shahed Latif‖Cloud Privacy and security‖ pp. 529–551, September 2009: First Edition [7] "IBM Point of View: Security and Cloud Computing"Cloud computing White paper November 2009. [8] ―Whitepaper Computing.doc uds such as IBM Computing on Demand™, and Security and Data Protection as a Service (SDPaaS) clouds like the IBM Vulnerability Management Service. Private clouds are owned and used by a single organization. They offer many of the same benefits as public clouds, and they give the 223 on cloud computing‖

owner organization greater flexibility and control. Furthermore, private clouds can provide lower latency than public clouds during peak traffic periods. Many organizations embrace both public and private cloud computing by integrating the two models into hybrid clouds.

Padmini Priya Chandra.S PG Scholar, VIT University ABSTRACT This paper analyses the previously existing instant messengers and implements a secure mobile instant messenger for mobile environments that undergoes problems and possibilities with applications targeted at computers. The interface scalability, changing and querying the state, security while data transmitted from mobile to any kind of computers and vice versa are some major issues for a mobile instant messaging system designed for mobile environments. This system overcomes the above issues all the way through the xml security enhancements at both the server and the client side. The location awareness, end to end encryption and access control enhancement mechanisms all work together to provide greater security throughout the data transmission from client1-server-client2. The concept here is implemented using Jabber at the server side which takes over other protocols by its unique properties. An attempt to connect with the Timber xml database is targeted to provide the xml security features at database level. Finally, a fine grained mobility and security is obtained, when jabber and Timber work together. KEYWORDS: Jabber, timber, access control, encryption and instant messaging. 224 I.INTRODUCTION More than millions use instant messengers these days. These instant messenger services provide two major problems for the organizations. The first one is the adaption driven by the end user and not by the management and the other is the client services mainly targeted at home users and not on the business environment. As a result, emphasize on functionality over security is made in the project. The various users of instant messengers (IM) undergo number of security risks. For example, sending attachments in through IM fosters a richer experience and the files are subject to viruses and other malware. IM attachments often bypass antivirus software. Some IM networks are susceptible to eaves dropping. The problem looming in the horizon is “spim” i.e. the IM version of spam. The other need to develop a secure IM environment is it’s hardly difficult to verify instant messaging source that sends unwanted messages to IM clients and bogus advertisements, solicitations for personal information. II. WORMS AND VULNERABILITIES IN IM ENVIRONMENT “The risk is comprised of assets, threats, vulnerabilities and counter measures thus it is a function of threats exploiting vulnerabilities

against threats”. The worms in an IM environment can reduce to connectivity of the environment, delay the time to generate the instant hit list, can increase the user interaction time and decrease IM integration in applications. The above worms have the most popular mechanisms for propagation. A few requires user action, but some may not require user actions. They are automatically downloaded. Malicious file transfer and malicious URL in a message are examples for worms that need user actions. Exploitation of implementation bugs in IM clients and exploitation of vulnerabilities in operating systems or commonly used software applications are examples for worms that may or may not need user actions. [1] A scenario for the need of the security in mobile environment is discussed here. Consider that you want to communicate a secret to your friend. You will definitely feel that your message should reach your friend safely without any distractions and changes when the message passes through the communication medium. You should be acknowledged that your friend got your message exactly and you both are safe with the environment. The same scenario can be extended for military and submarines where secure message passing is the main focus. The different security threats derivatives from the scenarios are eaves dropping i.e. over hearing the conversation using attacks like man in the middle and hosts that pass worms are common nowadays. So here, the location, context awareness and access control with greater security is provided through the jargon instant messenger, that is developed using the jabber server and timber database. III. SECURITY MECHANISMS IN IM: A. Jabber properties: Jabber XMPP protocol overcomes all the drawbacks over the existing protocols having support for asynchronous message relaying, transport layer security, unlimited number of contacts, bulletin to all contacts, standardized spam protection, with audio and video support. The support for groups, access for non body and non members are made as optional phase. This enhances the privacy in a communication between two members. Therefore,

my point here is jabber is an excellent protocol for an instant messenger that no other can take into that place for secured data transfer between various computers (including audio and video based data transfer)[2]. B. XML security in Jabber: The instant messenger traffic simply cannot be blocked at the firewalls with the support of native IM port. Many instant messengers such as AIM, Yahoo, MSN are “port-agile” that when their native port is closed, they can open other port instead. In this paper, we focus on some solutions by Jabber/XMPP to define specific services, to block specific features, to Log IM access and communication, and to block by categories [3].

C. Jabber security in IM: Jabber XMPP protocol which was standardized by IETF, is an open standard can be accessed using the unique jabber ID. There are other open standard instant messaging protocols like Gale, IRC and PSYC which are compared below to differentiate the excellence of Jabber protocol. • The GALE protocol can only support transport layer security using public/private key and form groups. • The IRC can support asynchronous message relying but was done via memo system that differs from main system. The IRC had transport layer security depending on individual support, with simplistic routing of one-to-many multicast. This had a medium level of spam protection and support for groups. • PSYC had paved way for all kinds of technology support including asynchronous


message relaying, transport layer security, unlimited number of contacts, and bulletin to all contacts, customized multicast, and higher level of spam protection. But the major drawback of PSYC was that allowed channels for non members to access the instant messenger, also had no support for audio and webcam/video. Table I: comparison of properties of jabber with other protocols Protoco Transpo Groups Spam Audi ls rt layer and protecti o/ security non on Vide membe o rs Gale Yes Yes No No IRC Yes Yes Medium No level PSYC Yes Yes, but Higher No allow level non member Jabber Yes Yes, Higher Yes doesn’t level allow nonmember s Figure I: comparative study of jabber with other open sourced protocols. D. Timber database properties: Timber was one of those XML database systems, used to store the information and to process queries the data which were semistructured. Algebraic underpinning is the basic principle in this XML database. The exchange of data and the integration, everything is denoted in XML documents and XML DTDs. Our instant messenger uses this database system for experimental evaluation all the way through several XML datasets with a variety of queries [4] [5]. E. XML security in Timber: The database resources integration in the pervasive environment is the need for database level security enhancement. The security 226

mechanisms in this project are implemented using the XML and Web services provided by Timber2.1 database, that the problems of security are solved for various platforms in the pervasive environment [6]. F. XML security in Access control: Access control critically protects against security threats in computer environments. Authorizing, guaranteeing and managing are the target of the access control strategies [7]. For example, consider an organization access control strategies using administration models in the diagram followed. Figure II: comparing administration models with access control strategies.

XACML2.0, the access control mark up language defines schemas and namespaces for access control strategies in XML, rather the objects being identified in xml. This language has the features of digital signatures, multiple resources, hierarchical resource, Role Based Access Control, Security Assertion Mark up Language and other privacy enhancement mechanisms. G. End to end encryption: End to end means that the data is protected from the point it is captured, the intermediary processes it passes through and till it reaches the destination point. Encryption transforms information using an algorithm that makes the information unreadable unless using keys [8]. Consider the encryption zones applied for our jargon instant messenger: Figure III: Encryption zones

IV. JARGON INSTANT MESSENGER: The security enhancement for the newly designed ‘Jargon Instant Messenger’ is the focus. The enhancements include the support for server side database ‘Timber2.1’, Jabber and XMPP servers which act as gateways to other IM protocols. The list of users in this system is maintained in buddy list. The attempt is to combine the many disparate protocols inside the IM server application and to provide secure transmission, to maintain the state of users with the help of Timber which has the in-built features of the xml streams based effective cost estimation and the query optimization techniques [9]. Jargon Instant Messenger is all new messenger for secured communication in an organization that controls data and security breaches with security algorithms discussed above. The whole messenger is to be developed based on xml technology such that the risks management is the main focus. Server implementation: The main function of instant messenger is to connect both the clients (who would like to chat to the server) and when once they both are getting connected, the path for them is established. From next messages they establish peer to peer connection. Security algorithms such as access control and location awareness are included at all levels for preventing security and data breaches. Even the diagram below describes the “jargon instant messenger environment for a secure chat” [10]. Figure IV: Server implementation for jargon i.

Client implementation: The end to end encryption at various zones of a client communicating with other client at other space is implemented. The clients have the following user interfaces that are designed in J2ME platform using Java Mobile Information Device Profile and Java specifications. The interfaces are browser based and can support any kind of mobile devices in such way the application is device independent [11] [12]. Figure V: Client communicating through Jabber server


Communication in IM:
Jabber server Middlewar e for encryption and access control

Timber xml database

Architecture of Jargon Instant Client 1 Messenger: Client 2 The messenger’s overall structure is represented. browser Plug-in plug-in The clients of different computers are connected browser Java web Java web with the start plug-ins. The plug-ins start establishes connections from the browser to the server. The user profiles are recognized using Java MIDP applications and the details of the users are encrypted. The profiles are forwarded to jabber server. Here various attempts to integrate the features of other existing protocols such as sip, wap and http are made. The timber xml database is the back end storage for profile information. The gateways to connect other networks are available [13] [14]. Figure VI: Overall architecture




Mobile phone network gateway

Waiting fo r client to respo nd to challen ge alo ng wi th lo gin credenti als

Verif y user authentic ation online

Serv er steady state

S uccess ful peer to peer c onnection. A llow data transmis sion

Timber xml database

Jabber server sip xmpp wap

Timber xml database

Jabber client Plug-in

Jabber client PDA

Jabber client PC

Jabber client mobile phone

vi. Evaluation of client and server: The evaluation scheme for client and server denotes the working of client and server independently in “Jargon Instant Messenger”. Figure VII: Client evaluation
Waiting for server to respond Waiting for server to verify username and password

Initial state

Waiting for servers List all users


Waiting for peer to peer respond to challenge

Waiting for server to respond to challenge

List displayed in a new pop up window

View message integrity

UserA and userB authenticated. Peer connection established

Figure VIII: Server evaluation

V. DISCUSSION This messenger mainly targets at the attempt to connect the jabber server with Timber xml database, where no other existing messengers had done this ever before. The messenger has implemented the unique open sourced jabber protocol. This decision has been made by the comparative study made on the already available existing instant messaging protocols. The whole messenger is of xml based such that xml security using jabber is the main focus of this messenger. The extensions for file transfer, video and audio communications are under study. This system will be helpful for military purposes, message passing in submarines, profit/ non profit organizations where the data communication should not undergo any data or security breaches. REFERENCE [1]. Ubiquitous Computing Environment Threats and Defensive Measures, Dr. Byeong-Ho KANG, Associate Professor, School of Computing and Information Systems, University of Tasmania. [2]. A Jabber Based Framework for Building Communication Capable Java Mobile Applications, Mohy Mahmoud, Sherif G. Aly, Ahmed Sabry, Mostafa Hamza, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, P.O. Box 74, New Cairo, 11835, Egypt. [3]. Instant messaging: Architectures and Concepts, Linan Zheng, Institute of communication networks and computer engg, university of Stuttgart. [4]. Querying XML in TIMBER, Yuqing Wu Indiana University, Stelios Paparioz Microsoft Research, H.V.Jagadish University of Michigan. [5]. Estimating answer sizes for XML Queries, Yuqing Wu, Jignesh.M.Patel, H.V.Jagdish, University of Michigan, MI, USA. [6]. Grouping in XML, Stelios Paparizos, Shurug Al-Khalifa, Srivastava, Yuqing Wu, University of Michigan, USA. 228

[7]. Privacy Access Control Model with Location Constraints for XML Services Yi Zheng1, Yongming Chen2 and Patrick C. K. Hung2. [8]. ToWebServicesSecurity.pdf. [9]. The JavaSpaces Specification. Sun Microsystems, Inc. [10]. Enabling Interoperability between Mobile IM and different IM applications using Jabber, Mohd hilmi hasan, Zuraidah sulaiman, nazleeni samiha haron, azlan fazly mustaza, CIS Department, University Teknologi, Malaysia.

[11]. Xml security-A comparative literature review, Andreas Ekelhart, Stefan Fenz, Geront Goluch, Markus Steinkellner, Edgar Weippl. [12]. Mobile Information Device Profile Final Specification 1.0a. JSR-000037, Sun Microsystems, Inc. [13]. The instant messaging personalization using behaviour pattern “A review of theories and research based on instant messaging”, Qiao Xinxin, Department of industrial design, Zhejiang University of Technology, China. [14]. Jabber/J2ME based Instant Messaging, Client for Presence Service, A Master Thesis in Media Computer Science, submitted to the University of Applied Science Stuttgart, Hochschule der Medien.

30. Cloud Computing – The Virtual World
¹ S.Sabari Rajan, Dept.Of.MCA ² S.Anand Asst Prof, Dept.Of.MCA
Department of MCA, JJ College of Engineering and Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract —

This paper describes the real effectiveness of Cloud comes from its core called ‘Virtualization’, which provides abstraction for the user. It explains clouds, its business benefits, and outlines the cloud architecture and its major components. It discovers how a business can use cloud computing to foster innovation and reduce IT costs. [1] “Cloud is designed to be available everywhere, all the time. By using redundancy and geo-replication, cloud is so designed that services be available even during hardware failures including full data centre failures.” Cloud computing offers a new, better and economical way of delivering services and all the stakeholders will have to embrace the dramatic changes to exploit opportunities to avoid becoming irrelevant. Cloudcomputing-based technologies will enable the borderless delivery of IT services based on actual demands to keep costs competitive. It promises different things to different players in the IT ecosystem. It offers a radical way of collaborating, delivering applications and content. [1]

Keywords: Cloud computing, redundancy, georeplication, IT Services

The cloud computing industry represents a large ecosystem of many models, vendors, and market niches. Today, organizations of all sizes are investigating cloud computing and the benefits it can bring to their company. Cloud Computing,[2] the long-held dream of computing as a utility, has the potential to transform a large part of the IT industry, making software even more attractive as a service and shaping the way IT hardware is designed and purchased. Developers with innovative ideas for new Internet services no longer require the large capital outlays in hardware to deploy their service or the human expense to operate it. They need not be concerned about over provisioning for a service whose popularity does not meet their predictions, thus wasting costly resources, or under provisioning for one that becomes wildly popular, thus missing potential customers and revenue. Cloud Computing refers to both the applications


delivered as services over the Internet and the hardware and systems software in the data centres that provide those services. The services themselves have long been referred to as Software as a Service (SaaS). The data centre hardware and software is called as Cloud. When a Cloud is made available in a pay-as-you-go manner to the general public, it is called as Public Cloud; the service being sold is Utility Computing. The term Private Cloud is used to refer to internal data centres of a business or other organization not made available to the general public. [2]

Advanced clouds typically include other computing resources such as SANs, network equipment, firewall and other security devices. Cloud computing also describes applications that are extended to be accessible through the Internet. These cloud applications use large data centers and powerful servers that host Web applications and Web services. Anyone with a suitable Internet connection and a standard browser can access a cloud application.


“Cloud” is the aggregation of Servers, Low end computers and storage hosting the program and data. It is a metaphor for the internet, based on how it is depicted in computer network, diagrams and is an abstraction for complex infrastructure it conceals. A cloud can: Host a variety of different workloads, including batch-style back-end jobs and interactive, user-facing applications. Allow workloads to be deployed and scaled-out quickly through the rapid provisioning of virtual machines or physical machines, Support redundant, selfrecovering, highly scalable programming models that allow workloads to recover from many unavoidable hardware/software failures. WHAT IS CLOUD COMPUTING? [3]Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction [3]. [4]Cloud computing is a term used to describe both a platform and type of application. Servers in the cloud can be physical machines or virtual machines. [4] Cloud computing offers the ability to access software or information that can be delivered ondemand, over the internet, without the need to store it locally.

Figure 1. Latest Evolution of Hosting

On-demand self-service: A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service’s provider. Broad network access: Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs). Resource pooling: The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. There is a sense of location independence in that the customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or data centre). Examples of resources include storage, Processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machines. Rapid elasticity: Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned, in some cases automatically, to quickly scale out and rapidly released to quickly scale in. To the consumer, the 230

capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be purchased in any quantity at any time. Measured ServiceCloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service.


CRM/ERP/HR Industry


Software as a Service (SaaS)

client devices through a thin client interface such as a web browser. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructures. The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumercreated or acquired applications created using programming languages and tools supported by the provider. Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems; storage, deployed applications, and possibly limited control of select networking components (e.g., host firewalls).


Web 2.0 Application




Platform as a Service (PaaS)



Data Center


Shared virtualized, dynamic provisioning

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

Figure 2. Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS). Cloud platform services or "Platform as a Service (PaaS)" deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS): SaaS is hosting applications on the Internet as a service (both consumer and enterprise). The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. The applications are accessible from various 231

[5]In a cloud computing system, there's a significant workload shift. Local computers no longer have to do all the heavy lifting when it comes to running applications. The network of computers that make up the cloud handles them instead. Hardware and software demands on the user's side decrease. The only thing the user's computer needs to be able to run is the cloud computing system's interface software, which can be as simple as a Web browser, and the cloud's network takes care of the rest.[5]

. EC2 Site Architecture Diagrams – Cloud Computing Images Depending on the computer resource requirements and budget, RightScale provides the user with the flexibility to create a custom architecture that provides the necessary

performance and failover redundancy necessary to run the site in the Cloud. Use one of the “All-in-one” Server Templates, such as the LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) Server Template to launch a single server that contains Apache, as well as the application and database.

bucket. Each front-end server acts as a load balancer and application server.

Figure 6 Intermediate 6-Server Setup Additionally, it will also have a master and slave database for redundancy and failover. Backups of database are saved as gziped (*.gz) dump files. The same can be used as non-EBS, MySQL-S3 database setup in other architectures as well. In the intermediate architecture, the two front end servers are used strictly as load balancers, so it can be expanded out the number of application servers.

Figure 4 All-in-one Single Server Setup


Figure 5 Basic 4-Server Setup with EBS This is the most common architecture on the cloud. Each front-end server acts as a load balancer and application server. There will be a master and slave database for redundancy and failover. Backups of the database are saved as EBS Snapshots.

Figure 6 Basic 4-Server Setup without EBS If the persistent storage of EBS is not required, then it can be used with standard MySQL-S3 setup, which saves regular backups to the S3

The Enablers: Enablers provide resources that drive and support the creation of solutions in terms of both hardware and software that the consumer utilizes. Following are the buzz words in the enabler’s arena: Consolidation and Integration: With the markets changing rapidly, it is imperative for players to find new opportunities. Some of the recent acquisitions highlight the clear horizontal expansion across hardware and software towards services. Ubiquity and Virtualization: The fact that the consumer would demand seamless access to content, impacts both the enablers as well as the delivery. This mandates higher investment in product development but does not necessarily allow a longer concept-to market cycle. To support the increased demand and adoption of cloud computing, the enablers are aligning their resources to provide multi-tenanted architectures, virtualization technologies along with support to highly scalable and elastic services. Virtualization technologies span platforms, resources and applications and the likes of VMware’s Mobile virtualization platform are steps in that direction.


Environmental Sustainability and Data Centers: Environmental awareness will further drive enterprises towards cloud computing as it allows considerable reduction in energy costs. Gartner estimates that over the next five years, most enterprise data centers will spend as much on energy (power and cooling) as they do on hardware infrastructure. ”Cloud enabling technologies like virtualization and server consolidation can help enterprises reduce energy costs by as much as 80%. Cloud computing is also driving the usage of net books or laptops that are enhanced for mobility, compromised on computing capacity with a reduced storage capacity. Therefore, there will be an increased demand for transfer processing and storage in data centers Marginalization of Fringe Players: Desktop based utilities and tools like MS Office and Norton antivirus will see a reduction in their installed user base and will ultimately be marginalized, as the same services will be available online. The traditional fringe players will have to re-invent themselves to align with the new modes of delivery, warranted by the cloud. Adobe is already providing an online version of its graphics editing program called Photoshop. Appistry is one of the more innovative companies and has recently launched the Cloud IQ platform, offering enterprises the capability to port nearly any enterprise application to the cloud. The Delivery Agents: Delivery agents are value added resellers of the capabilities offered by the enablers. Following are the key changes that we foresee in this domain: Collaboration, Partner Driven Work Environments: Industry alliances are being forged and it is important for the delivery agents to weigh pros and cons before investing in the platforms. In the retail space Microsoft and Google can emerge as dominant players due to the inertia keeping consumers tied to its suite of products. Supporting them will be hardware players and virtualization providers like Citrix and VMware. Death of the System Integrators: System integrators, as we know them today, will have to take a second look at their model of operation. With the rising popularity of subscription based

applications like Siebel On-Demand and, the demand for customized compromised will decrease, taking away with it the biggest market of the SIs. Once cloud computing technology reaches the critical mass, there will be an increased demand from enterprises to migrate data, applications and content to the cloud. Last Mile Connectivity: Internet service providers (ISPs) and last mile access supplier will have to ramp up their offerings rapidly to meet the increasing requirements of the bandwidth hungry content and applications, with fiber being the predominant technology for last mile access. New Pricing and Delivery Models: Sales channels will also have to evolve to provide ubiquitous delivery models and the revenues are going to be long-tailed as the sales model will shift to a subscription based service, which will imply that customer retention and loyalty becomes all the more important. Piracy: With the onset of the cloud, the users will no longer be required to download or install applications in the traditional sense. In the online world, controlled access implies that piracy will become increasingly difficult, if not impossible. Likewise with online gaming, the problem of pirated copies of the games being spread around, resulting in millions of dollars worth of revenue loss can be curbed. The Consumers: Consumers are the demand side of the cloud equation and following are the trends for them Convergence, On-Demand: The retail customer will now, more than ever, come to expect on demand everything - be it multimedia content, applications, gaming or storage. AMD’s new campaign ‘The Future is Fusion’ is again reflective of the changing times. For the retail user, it is all about bringing together convergent multimedia solutions on any screen supported with advanced graphics capabilities; for the enterprise user it is delivering enhanced server and powerful virtualization capabilities. Collaboration and Social Networking: Cloud based platforms like Facebook and Twitter will become destinations for collaboration, ecommerce and marketing. Enterprises are already


planning to listen to the voice of the customer using such tools. Collaboration and virtual workspace solutions will see increased investments. A key player in this space is WebEx, acquired by Cisco in 2007 for $3.2 billion – again an example of a hardware player moving to the software cloud domain. Another promising technology is IBM’s Bluehouse, based on Lotus Notes. Back to Core Competencies: The cloud enables businesses to focus on their core competency and cloud source the IT estate enabling the consumers to transfer risk. ‘My problem’ now becomes a look at an IDC study makes it clear that businesses want the cloud because of the cost benefit. Decentralization of Management: The traditional view of management and governance of IT resources through standards and frameworks like ITIL, Sarbanes Oxley, HIPPA, etc., will change. As much as the technological impacts, the challenges for enterprises will also be to manage employee expectations working in a decentralized and distributed manner. Enterprises need to clearly understand and estimate the risks of losing visibility and control over critical data. DEPLOYMENT MODELS Private cloud: The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise. Community cloud: The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or offpremise. Public cloud: The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services. Hybrid cloud: The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or

proprietary technology that enables data and application portability


Hardware Payback: The hardware savings come from improving server utilization and decreasing the number of servers. The typical server in a datacenter is running a single application and is being utilized on average from 5% to 25% of its capacity. As systems are consolidated and virtualized in a cloud environment the number of servers required can drop significantly and the utilization of each server can be greatly increased resulting in significant savings in hardware costs today and the avoidance of future capital investment. Software payback: The two major components of software costs are virtualization software that enables consolidation and more importantly the service management software that enables visibility, control and automation of your environment to ensure efficient service delivery. Automated provisioning: Automated provisioning provides the ability to provision systems without the long and error prone manual process used in non-automated environments. Automated provisioning tools allow a skilled administrator to record and test provisioning scripts for deploying cloud services. These scripts can then be used by automated tools to consistently provision systems without the human error introduced through the use of manual provisioning processes. This greatly reduces the amount of time required to provision systems and allows skilled resource to be leveraged over many more systems, while improving the overall quality of the provisioning process. Productivity improvements: For achieving productivity improvements two projects should be implemented; a user friendly self-service interface that accelerates time to value and a service catalog which enables standards that drive consistent service delivery. These two projects will enable end users to request the services they need from a service catalog and provide an automated


approval process to enable the rapid delivery of new services. System administration: In a cloud environment there are less physical servers to manage, but the number of virtual servers’ increases. Virtual systems are more complex to administer and this can lead to higher administrative costs. That is one of the reasons that a strong service management system is so critical to an efficient and effective cloud environment. With the proper service management tools for a highly virtualized environment, the administration savings can range 36% savings 15 from 36% to 45%. [6] Table -1 Summary of savings and costs Area Saving Metrics Cost Metrics Hardware Reduction in number of Servers Drives reduction in server depreciation cost, energy usage and facility costs Software Reduction in Cost of the number of virtualization OS licenses software o Cost of cloud management software Automated Reduction in Training, Provisioning number of deployment, hours per administration provisioning and task maintenance cost for automation software Productivity Reduction in number of hours waiting for images per project System Improved Administration productivity of administration 235

and support staff (support more systems per administrator) LEADING COMPANIES [7]Google is the perceived leader for setup, infrastructure and application management in a Public Cloud and IBM is the top choice of developers for Private Clouds according to Evans Data recently released Cloud Development Survey 2010. Over 40% of developers sited Google as the Public cloud leader and almost 30% identified IBM as the top Private Cloud provider. own search – and are working on owning the cloud.[7] With Gmail, Google Docs, Google Calendar, and Picasa in its line-up, Google offers some of the best known cloud computing services available.[9] They also offer some lesser known cloud services targeted primarily at enterprises, such as Google Sites, Google Gadgets, Google Video, and most notably, the Google Apps Engine. The Apps Engine allows developers to write applications to run on Google’s servers while accessing data that resides in the Google cloud as well as data that resides behind the corporate firewall. While it has been criticized for limited programming language support, the Apps Engine debuted Java and Ajax support in April, which may make it more appealing to developers. Although it was somewhat late to the cloud computing party, IBM launched its “Smart Business” lineup of cloud-based products and services in June. The company is focusing on two key areas: software development and testing, and virtual desktops. But the company makes it clear that the cloud model has much wider-reaching implications, noting that “cloud computing represents a true paradigm shift in the way IT and IT-enabled services are delivered and consumed by businesses.”

Leading cloud pioneer Amazon offers several different in-the-cloud services. The best known is Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, or Amazon EC2, which allows customers to set up and access virtual servers via a simple Web

interface. Fees are assessed hourly based on the number and size of virtual machines you have ($.10 -$.80 per hour), with an additional fee for data transfer. EC2 is designed to work in conjunction with Amazon’s other cloud services, which include Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3), Simple DB, Cloudfront, Simple Queue Service (SQS), and Elastic MapReduce. The software giant’s ambitious Azure initiative has a solution for every Microsoft constituency, from ISVs to Web developers to enterprise clients to consumers. Microsoft is investing a king’s fortune in a network of $500 million, 500,000-square-feet data centres around the country. The facilities will presumably form the physical backbone of the cloud network. If all goes according to plan, Microsoft will not only control the software but also the physical infrastructure that delivers that software. More than 59,000 companies use’s Sales Cloud and Service Cloud solutions for customer relationship management, which has helped make it one of the most wellknown and most successful cloud computing companies. In addition, through, it allows developers to use the platform to develop their own applications. Users can also purchase access to the cloud infrastructure to deploy their applications. have been optimizing the cloud for over ten years, building a global computing platform that helps make cloud computing a reality. the Cloud Operating System Company, was founded by the team that developed the industry-leading Amazon EC2 service. Nimbula delivers a new class of cloud infrastructure and services system that uniquely combines the flexibility, scalability and operational efficiencies of the public cloud with the control, security and trust of today’s most advanced data centres. [10] Security and availability are the most critical elements in any system that contains your business data. NetSuite has been developed 236

and implemented with multiple layers of data redundancy for comprehensive security and business continuity. [10] , can be used to create, deploy, manage, and share individual copies of IT with end users on-demand, in seconds. There’s no install or recoding required. Beyond basic remote access, hosted machines, and “virtual labs,” CloudShare supports private label branding, user hierarchy and permissions, analytics, management features, billing, and other line of business needs. NASA AND JAPAN ANNOUNCE CLOUD COMPUTING COLLABORATION [10] NASA and Japan’s National Institute of Informatics (NII) have announced plans to explore interoperability opportunities between NASA’s Nebula Cloud Computing Platform and Japan’s NII Cloud Computing Platform.

NASA Nebula and NII’s Cloud are built entirely of open-source components and both employ open-data application programming interfaces. NASA and NII will collaborate on open source reference implementations of interoperable cloud services. [10] CLOUD COMPUTING PROS The great advantage of cloud computing is “elasticity”: the ability to add capacity or applications almost at a moment’s notice. Companies buy exactly the amount of storage, computing power, security and other IT functions that they need from specialists in data-centre computing. The metered cost, pay-as-you-go approach appeals to small- and medium-sized enterprises; little or no capital investment and maintenance cost is needed. IT is remotely managed and maintained, typically for a monthly fee, and the company can let go of “plumbing concerns”. Since the vendor has many customers, it can lower the per-unit cost to each customer. Larger companies may find it easier to manage collaborations in the cloud, rather than having to make holes in their firewalls for contract research organizations. SaaS deployments usually take less time than in-house ones, upgrades are easier, and users are always using the most recent version of the application. There may be fewer bugs because

having only one version of the software reduces complexity. Dependability / Redundancy: Cloud computing offers cost effective solutions that are dependable, and reliable. Flexibility / Scalability: Cloud computing solutions give clients the ability to choose the resources they need in a way that can grow over time or instantaneously as needs change. Levelled Playing Field – Democratization: Small corporations / organizations now have the same capabilities for computing and information access, as larger ones. Meets Client Expectations for Innovation and Options: Users no longer have any adherence or loyalty to traditional technologies or approaches. Users will embrace cloud computing if it provides the needed functionality at the right price. Security: Often the primary concern of a client is whether or not their systems will be secure in the cloud. Cloud computing providers recognize that security is paramount and focus a lot of attention on ensuring security. Identity Management and Access Control: Cloud computing solutions must and do provide advanced solutions for access control and identity management measures that ensure users and uses of the data are legitimate.

Cloud computing offers many advantages and some disadvantages while offering its servers to be used by customers. Security is both an advantage and disadvantage of the cloud-based environment. Because of the immense size, skilled and dedicated professionals of the cloud providers offer improved security, privacy and confidentiality of your

data. Security Because of Large Scale: Large scale implementation of anything is much cheaper than that of small scales. Cloud computing servers provide their services to a large number of

businesses and companies. It is easier and more economical for them to make sure that their system is 100% secure from hackers, accidents, and bugs. They can easily afford all types of defensive measures like filtering, patch management, and cryptography techniques. Security as Market Demand: Today everyone is searching for foolproof security measure to insure of the safety of important data. Security has ultimately become one of the core factors determining which cloud provider to choose. This has persuaded cloud computing vendors to put special emphasis on security from the very beginning of this technology. More Chances of Standardization and Collaboration: The majority of the servers will be owned and kept by service providers rather than by individual companies. With this there are more chances for standardization and collaboration for improving security services. This leads to more uniform, open and readily available security services market. Improved Scaling of Resources: Cloud computing service providers can easily relocate resources and data for filtering, traffic controlling, verification, encryption and other security measures. This ability provides more resilience against security threats. Advantage of Concentrated Resources: The concentration of resources is potentially dangerous for security, however at the same time; this can be used for improving security by other methods. It allows service providers cheaper physical access and security control. The saved resources in terms of money, time and location can be reallocated to improve security. Evidence-gathering and Investigation: Cloud computing services offer quick evidence gathering for forensic and investigation purpose. In traditional systems this is attained by turning your server offline, but cloud based servers don’t need to be turned down. The customers can now store logs more cost-effectively, allowing comprehensive logging and increasing performance.



In the cloud the user may not have the kind of control over the data or the performance of the applications that is needed, or the ability to audit or change the processes and policies under which users must work. Different parts of an application might be in many places in the cloud. Complying with federal regulations such a Sarbanes Oxley, or FDA audit, is extremely difficult. Monitoring and maintenance tools are immature. It is hard to get metrics out of the cloud and general management of the work is not simple.3 there are systems management tools for the cloud environment but they may not integrate with existing system management tools, so you are likely to need two systems. Cloud customers may risk losing data by having them locked into proprietary formats and may lose control of data because tools to see who is using them or who can view them are inadequate. Data loss is a real risk. Cloud computing is not risky for every system. Potential users need to evaluate security measures such as firewalls, and encryption techniques and make sure that they will have access to data and the software or source code if the service provider goes out of business. It may not be easy to tailor (SLAs) to the specific needs of a business. Compensation for downtime may be inadequate and SLAs are unlikely to cover concomitant damages, but not all applications have stringent uptime requirements. It is sensible to balance the cost of guaranteeing internal uptime against the advantages of opting for the cloud. It could be that your own IT organization is not as sophisticated as it might seem. Calculating cost savings is also not straightforward. Having little or no capital investment may actually have tax disadvantages. SaaS deployments are cheaper initially than inhouse installations and future costs are predictable; after 3-5 years of monthly fees, however, SaaS may prove more expensive overall. Large instances of EC2 are fairly expensive, but it is important to do the mathematics correctly and make a fair estimate of the cost of an “on-premises” operation. Standards are immature and things change very rapidly in the cloud. All IaaS and SaaS providers

use different technologies and different standards. The storage infrastructure behind Amazon is different from that of the typical data centre (e.g., big Unix file systems). The Azure storage engine does not use a standard relational database; Google’s App Engine does not support an SQL database. So you cannot just move applications to the cloud and expect them to run. At least as much work is involved in moving an application to the cloud as is involved in moving it from an existing server to a new one. There is also the issue of employee skills: staff may need retraining and they may resent a change to the cloud and fear job losses. Last but not least, there are latency and performance issues. The Internet connection may add to latency or limit bandwidth. In future, programming models exploiting multithreading may hide latency.[5[ Nevertheless, the service provider, not the scientist, controls the hardware, so unanticipated sharing and reallocation of machines may affect run times. Interoperability is limited. In general, SaaS solutions work best for non-strategic, nonmission-critical processes that are simple and standard and not highly integrated with other business systems. Customized applications may demand an in-house solution, but SaaS makes sense for applications that have become commoditized, such as reservation systems in the travel industry. BENEFITS AND RISKS The shift of the computing stack provides an opportunity to eliminate complexities, cost and capital expenditure. The main benefits of cloud computing are therefore economies of scale through volume operations, pay-per-use through utility charging, a faster speed to market through componentisation and the ability to focus on core activities through the outsourcing of that which is not core (including scalability and capacity planning). Providing self-service IT while simultaneously reducing costs may be highly attractive but it creates a competitive risk to doing nothing. However, it should be remembered that we are in a disruptive transition at this moment. This transition creates commonly-repeated concerns covering management, legal, compliance


and trust of service providers. A Canonical survey of 7,000 companies and individuals found that, while over 60 per cent of respondents thought that the cloud was ready for mission-critical workloads, less than 30 per cent are planning to deploy any kind of workload to the cloud. In addition to these transitional risks, there also exist the normal considerations for outsourcing any common activity, including whether the activity is suitable for outsourcing, what the second-sourcing options are and whether switching between providers is easy. Though service level agreements (SLAs) can help alleviate some concerns, any fears can only be truly overcome once customers can easily switch between providers through a marketplace. Until such markets appear, it is probable that many corporations will continue to use home-grown solutions, particularly in industries that have already expended capital to remove themselves from lock-in, which is widespread in the product world. While the cloud lacks any functioning marketplaces today, it is entirely possible that ecosystems of providers will emerge based on easy switching and competition through price and quality of service. In such circumstances, many of the common concerns regarding the uncertainty of supply will be overcome. The benefit of cloud computing are many and obvious, there exist the normal concerns associated with the outsourcing of any activity, combined with additional risks due to the transitional nature of this change.

Future Educational Uses An expansion of Microsoft live@edu: More useful spending of technology budgets, Classroom collaboration, Offline web applications, Google Docs Future Personal Uses: No more backing up files to thumb drives or syncing computers together, Services replace devices, A single hard drive for the rest of a person’s life, accessible anywhere with internet Expansion: Resources are expected to triple by 2012, from $16 billion to $42 billion, Cloud computing is said to be the foundation of the next 20 years of IT technology CONCLUSION Cloud Computing is the fastest growing part of IT and provides tremendous benefits to customers of all sizes. Cloud computing promises different things to different players in the IT ecosystem. It offers a radical way of collaborating, delivering applications and content. Cloud services are simpler to acquire and scale up or down, it provides the key opportunity for application and infrastructure vendors. The public clouds work great for some but not all applications, and private clouds offer many benefits for internal applications. Also, Public and private clouds can be used in combination. Economic environment is accelerating adoption of cloud solutions. It is important to realize that the complete shift to the cloud is not imminent, but enterprises will be better off with a long term vision for technology, people, information, legality and security to leverage capabilities offered by cloud computing.


Cloud is in the infancy stage: Many companies are using cloud computing for small projects. The trust hasn’t been accepted. Details such as licensing, privacy, security, compliance, and network monitoring need to be finalized for the trust to be realized


SETLabs Briefing VOL 7 NO 7 Gaurav Rastogi Associate Vice Presiednt, Amitabh Srivastava Senior Vice Presiedent Microsoft Technologies. Above the Clouds: A Berkeley View of Cloud Computing, Michael Armbrust, Armando Fox, Rean Griffith, Anthony D. Joseph, Randy Katz, Andy Konwinski, Gunho Lee, David Patterson, Ariel Rabkin, Ion Stoica, and Matei Zaharia, February 10, 2009. The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing, Authors: Peter Mell and Tim Grance, Version 15, 10-7-09. INTERNATIONAL SUPERCOMPUTING CONFERENCE, Hamburg,Germay, june 2009. [5] by Jonathan Strickland


Cloud Computing Payback, Richard Mayo Senior Market Manager Cloud Computing, Charles Perng IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, November, 2009

[7], by saas-buzz on May 19, 2010 in Cloud Computing. [8] [9] [10] nfrastructure/main.shtml

31. Conjugate Gradient Algorithms in Solving Integer Linear Programming Optimization Problems
Dr. G. M. Nasira
Assistant Professor in CA Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College, Salem,

S. Ashok Kumar
Assistant Professor, Dept. of CA, Sasurie College of Engineering, Vijayamangalam Tirupur,

M. Siva Kumar
Lecturer, Dept. of CA, Sasurie College of Engineering, Vijayamangalam, Tirupur,

Abstract – Integer Linear Programming optimization problem is one in which a few or all the decision variables are required to be non-negative integers. Integer Linear Programming Problems are usually solved with Gomory cutting-plane method or the Branch and bound method is used. In this work we have considered implementation of Integer linear programming problems with Conjugate gradient Artificial Neural Network algorithms with a new proposed method of solving Integer Linear Programming problem. Literature reviews proves that Integer Linear Programming problem is used more in solving optimization problems such as transportation problem, assignment problem, traveling

salesman problem and sequencing problem. Solving these problems analytically using traditional method consumes more time. The implementation of artificial intelligence to this method will allow predicting the answers at acceptable rate. Keywords - Artificial Neural Network, Conjugate Gradient, Integer Linear Programming, Optimization problems

Linear programming Problem (LPP) is an optimization method appropriate for solving problems in which the objective functions 240

and the constraints are linear functions of the decision variables. The constraints in linear programming problem will be in the form of equalities or inequalities [2]. Integer Linear Programming problem (ILPP) is an extension of linear programming where some or all the variables in the optimization problem are restricted to take only integer values. The most popular methods used for solving all-integer Linear Programming is by the use of gomary cutting-plane method and Branch-and-Bound method [1]. The integer programming literature review shows that there exist a lot of algorithms used in solving the integer programming problems. ILPP occurs most frequently in various problems like transportation problems, assignment problems, traveling salesman problems and sequencing problems [5][7]. A new technique for solving the integer linear programming problem called primal-dual method designed by Karthikeyan et al is considered in this work [2]. The algorithm taken is a hybrid (i.e., primal-dual) cutting plane method for solving all Integer Linear Programming Problems.

C= (c1, c2) and


x1 x2

Where ai1, ai2, bi, x1, x2, c1, c2 >= 0, i=1,2,…n and x1, x2 are integers. The algorithm presented by Karthi Keyan [2] is found to have many advantages like, that it does not need to use of simplex algorithm repeatedly, no need of additional constraints as of in Gomory cutting plane method, no branching to ILPP into sub problems is required and finally the method overcomes the problem of degeneracy. Due to such advantages this primal-dual algorithm was taken for neural network implementation which could provide faster solution, handle huge volume of data and time saving than conventional systems.

Consider the following type of integer linear programming problem. Maximize Z =CX such that AX ≤ B where

A= B= b1

a11 a12 a21 a22 ------b2 -an2 bn 241


Artificial Neural networks (ANN) process information in a similar way the human brain does. The network is composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements called neurons which works in parallel to solve a specific problem. Neural networks take a different approach in solving a problem than that of conventional methods. Conventional methods use algorithmic approach, where the method follows a set of instructions in order to solve the problem. Unless we know the specific steps in prior that the method needs to follow, only then the computer can solve the problem. That restricts the problem solving capability of conventional methods to solving problems. But a method would be so much more useful if they could do things that we don't exactly tell them rather train them how to do [13]. A detailed literature

survey was made in the area of neural network which has motivated us to apply this technique to solve this problem [7].

A Back Propagation network learns by example. You give the algorithm examples of what you want the network to do and it changes the network’s weights so that, when training is finished, it will give you the required output for a particular input. The backporpogation algorithm works as follows: 1.First apply the inputs to the network and work out the output – the initial weights were random numbers. 2.Next work out the error for neuron B. The error is ErrorB = OutputB (1-OutputB) x (TargetB – OutputB) 3.Change the weight. Let W+AB be the new (trained) weight and WAB be the initial weight. W+AB = WAB + (ErrorB x OutputA) 4.Calculate the Errors for the hidden layer neurons. Unlike the output layer we can’t calculate these directly (because we don’t have a Target), so we back propagate them from the output layer. This is done by taking the Errors from the output neurons and running them back through the weights to get the hidden layer errors. ErrorA = OutputA (1 - OutputA)(ErrorB WAB + ErrorC WAC) 5.Having obtained the Error for the hidden layer neurons now proceed as in stage 3 to change the hidden layer weights. By repeating this method we can train a network of any number of layers. IV. CONJUGATE GRADIENT ALGORITHMS

The basic backpropagation algorithm adjusts the weights in the steepest descent direction (negative of the gradient), the direction in which the performance function is decreasing most rapidly. It turns out that, although the function decreases most rapidly along the negative of the gradient, this does not necessarily produce the fastest convergence. In the conjugate gradient algorithms a search is performed along conjugate directions, which produces generally faster convergence than steepest descent directions [15]. A search is made along the conjugate gradient direction to determine the step size, which minimizes the performance function along that line. The conjugate gradient method is an algorithm for the numerical solution of particular systems of linear equations namely those whose matrix is symmetric and positive-definite. The conjugate gradient method is an iterative method [15]. Conjugate gradient is a method of accelerating gradient descent. In ordinary gradient descent, one uses the gradient of energy to find the steepest downhill direction, and then moves along that line to the minimum energy in that direction. Hence successive steps are at right angles. However, this can be very inefficient, as you can spend a lot of time zigzagging across an energy valley without making much progress downstream. With conjugate gradient, the search direction is chosen to be in a conjugate direction to the previous direction. A. Powell - Beale Conjugate Gradient In Conjugate gradient algorithms the search direction is periodically reset to the negative of the gradient. The standard reset point occurs when the number of iterations is equal to the number of network parameters weights and biases. One such 242

reset method was proposed by Powell and Beale. This technique restarts if there is very little orthogonality left between the current gradient and the previous gradient. This is tested with the following inequality

Another version of the conjugate gradient algorithm was proposed by Polak and Ribiére [15][16]. As with the FletcherReeves algorithm, the search directions at each iteration is determined by
p k = − g k + β k p k −1 For the Polak-Ribiére update, the constant β k is computed by




g k ≥ 0.2 g k


If this condition is satisfied, the search direction is reset to the negative of the gradient [7][8]. B. Fletcher - Reeves Conjugate Gradient All the conjugate gradient algorithms start out by searching in the steepest descent direction that is in the negative of the gradient on the first iteration.
p0 = −g 0 A line search is then performed to determine the optimal distance to move along the current search direction X k +1 = − X k + α k p k Then the next search direction is determined so that it is conjugate to previous search directions. The general procedure for determining the new search direction is to combine the new steepest descent direction with the previous search direction [15][16] p k = − g k + β k p k −1 The various versions of the conjugate gradient algorithm are distinguished by the manner in which the constant β k is

β k = ∆g k


−1 g k



−1 g k −1

This is the inner product of the previous change in the gradient with the current gradient divided by the norm squared of the previous gradient.


A. Simulation Environment The primal dual algorithm was converted into a program. The language used was Turbo C. The data required for simulation and testing was collected and segregated. The data set was formed for testing and simulation separately. The data was simulated with MATLAB 7.0.4 on a computer with Intel Core 2 Duo processor with 2.53GHz speed, 1 GB of RAM and 160 GB of Hard disk capacity.

computed. For the Fletcher-Reeves update the procedure is
T βk = gk gk



−1 g k −1

C. Polak - Ribiére Conjugate Gradient

We solved Integer Linear Programming Problems analytically and obtained 110 data sets. Out of these 110 data sets we took 100 data sets for training purpose and the remaining 10 data set was used for simulating the network with new inputs to predict the output. The data set consists of 8 input variables namely a11, a12, b1, a21, a22, b2, c1, c2, and 3 output variables namely x1, x2 and Z.


The designed neural network was trained with the 100 data sets formed. After the training process the network was simulated with the 10 testing data set that was kept reserved. C. Proposed Work The size of hidden layer in a Neural Network can impact how effectively it learns. The size of the hidden layer was varied from 10 to 80 nodes for all the three conjugate gradient algorithms. The convergence was achieved for all the three algorithms with different number of hidden nodes, with different epoch values and with different goal value. The network designed for all the three algorithms were then simulated with the 10 data sets that was kept as reserved for predicting. The neural network was good in predicting the solutions with acceptable error percentage. The three conjugate gradient algorithms in predicting the results of ILPP problems was thus implemented with the help of three conjugate gradient backpropagation algorithms. The solution to the Integer Linear Programming Problem by neural simulation of these algorithms was within acceptable limits.

the Fletcher-Reeves Conjugate Gradient algorithm took more number of epochs to converge than that of the Polak-Ribiére and Powell and Beale conjugate gradient algorithms. Thus the implementation of the proposed mathematical method for solving ILPP with neural network will produce acceptable results than that of the regular mathematical solutions.





The analysis of the results obtained through the three conjugate gradient methods stated that it produces results within acceptable limits. The convergence showed that the computational efficiency of [6] Meera Gandhi, S.K. Srivatsa. “Improving IDS Performance Using Neural Network For Anomalous Behavior Detection”, Karpagam JCS. Vol. 3. Issue 2. Jan-Feb 2009. [7] Foo Yoon-Pin Simon Takefuji. T. “Integer linear programming 244

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problem”, 2003. ISBN:1-58603-394-8 pp. 42-49. [9] Dan Roth, “Branch and bound algorithm for a facility location problem with concave site dependent costs”, International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 112, Issue 1, March 2008, Pages 245-254. [10] H. J. Zimmermann, Angelo Monfroglio. “Linear programs for constraint satisfaction problems”. European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 97, Issue 1, pp. 105-123. [11] Mohamed El-Amine Chergui, et. al, "Solving the Multiple Objective Integer Linear Programming Problem”, Modeling Computation and Optimization in Information Systems and Management Sciences, 2008, Volume 14. [12] Ming-Wei Chang, Nicholas Rizzolo, “Integer Linear Programming in NLP,

Constrained Conditional Models”, NAACL HLT 2010. [13] Kartalopoulous, Stamatios V. “Understanding neural networks and fuzzy logic”, Prentice hall 2003. [14] AVan Ooyen and B. Nienhuis, “Improving the convergence of the backpropagation algorithm in Neural Networks”, 1992 pp. 450- 475. [15] Yuhong Dai , Jiye Han , Guanghui Liu , Defeng Sun , Hongxia Yin , Ya-xiang Yuan, “Convergence Properties Of Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Methods”, “ /p984-net.p”. [16] Y. H. Dai , Y. H. Dai , Y. Yuan , Y. Yuan, “A Three-Parameter Family Of Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Methods”, ““, DBLP.

32. A Survey on Meta-Heuristics Algorithms
Ms. S. Jayasankari1, Dr. G.M. Nasira2, Mr. P. Dhakshinamoorthy3, Mr. M. Sivakumar4

Lecturers/ Dept. of Computer Applications, Sasurie College of Engineering, Viyayamangalam, Tirupur (Dt), Tamil Nadu, India.

Asst. Prof./Dept. of Computer Science, Govt. Arts College(Autonomous), Salem-7. Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract — Scheduling problem is one of the difficult combinatorial problems, and classified as NP-hard problem. The objective is to find a sequence of operations that can minimize the completion time or optimized time. These types of problems can be solved by meta heuristics algorithms or combination of meta heuristics algorithms in an efficient way. This paper, outlines the algorithms and particulars about meta-heuristic and combination of meta-heuristics 245

to achieve the optimal solution. Index Terms— Evolutionary algorithms, Genetic Algorithms, Meta-heuristics, Optimization, PSO, Tabu search, Simulated Annealing.
1. Introduction

According to Moore's Law, computer processing capacity doubles approximately every 18 months. This idea has more or less held since it's introduction in the early 1970s. Still, computational problems those are so complex that it will not be possible to optimally solve them in the estimated future. Most challenging problems are of combinatorial nature. Because of their complexity, deterministic search can not be used for solving such problems to optimality, but it is possible to find solutions that are good enough within computational limits.

discovery. Heuristic methods are used to speed up the process of finding a good enough solution, where an exhaustive search is impractical. Examples of this method include using a "rule of thumb", an educated guess, an intuitive judgment, or common sense. In more precise terms, heuristics are strategies using readily accessible, though loosely applicable, information to control problem solving in human beings and machines. The term heuristic is used for algorithms which find solutions among all possible ones ,but they do not guarantee that the best will be found, therefore they may be considered as approximately and not accurate algorithms. These algorithms, usually find a solution close to the best one and they find it fast and easily. Sometimes these algorithms can be accurate, that is they actually find the best solution, but the algorithm is still called heuristic until this best solution is proven to be the best. The method used from a heuristic algorithm is one of the known methods, such as greediness, but in order to be easy and fast the algorithm ignores or even suppresses some of the problem's demands.Besides (finitely terminating) algorithms and (convergent) iterative methods, there are heuristics that can provide approximate solutions to some optimization problems:
• • • • •

2. Different types of Algorithms

2.1 Evolutionary Algorithms In our daily life, we encounter problems that require an optimal arrangement of elements to be found. Examples are the order, in which a salesman visits his customers or the order, in which jobs are processed by a machine. In each case, costs and duration have to be minimized and certain constraints have to be hold. For these problems, the number of possible solutions grows exponentially with the number of elements (customers or jobs). More formally, we talk about combinatorial optimization problems. Finding solutions for this class of instances is expensive in most cases. However, combinatorial problems occur often in many areas of application. Finding (suboptimal) solutions is necessary to increase economical efficiency. A. 2.2 Heuristics for Combinatorial Optimization Problems Heuristics can be used to increase the quality of solutions that can be found. There exist many different types of heuristical methods, among which metaheuristics, which are algorithmic approaches to approximate optimal solutions for combinatorial problems. Some recent metaheuristics are special in that they draw inspiration from the natural world. Heuristic refers to experience-based techniques for problem solving, learning, and 246

• • •

Differential evolution Dynamic relaxation Genetic algorithms Hill climbing Nelder-Mead simplicial heuristic: A popular heuristic for approximate minimization (without calling gradients) Particle swarm optimization Simulated annealing Tabu search

To solve NP-complete problems two different types of algorithms have been developed. Exact algorithms guarantee to find an optimal solution for an optimization problem by using techniques cutting plane, branch & bound or branch & cut. These algorithms try to avoid exponential runtime complexity by cutting subtrees that cannot contain

an optimal solution while traversing the search tree. Still, a large amount of time is required. E.g. to prove the optimality of a Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) instance with 24978 cities, nearly 85 cpu years were necessary. Alternatively, there are problem specific heuristic algorithms (e.g. 2-opt for the TSP), that, unlike exact algorithms, do not necessarily find an optimal solution. In exchange, heuristics can find good suboptimal solutions in a fraction of time that would be required to find an optimal solution. Heuristics utilize problem instance specific structure (like neighborhood structures) to construct (construction heuristics) or the improve (improvement heuristics) solutions. Typically, both types are used in combination. Improvement heuristics terminate when no local search step in the neighborhood structure results in a better solution (local optimum).
2.3 Meta-heuristics Metaheuristics embed simple heuristics (e.g. local search) to guide them from local optima to distant and more promising areas in the search space. The most simple metaheuristics restarts a improvement heuristic with different start solutions and returns the best local optimum as its result. The most prominent metaheuristics include simulated annealing, tabu search, Ant Colonoy Optimization (ACO), genetic and evolutionary algorithms and various hybrid variants (e.g. memetic algorithms [8]). Whereas heuristics work problemspecific, metaheuristics are unspezific and solve different problems depending on the embedded heuristic. By using metaheuristics, the solution quality of heuristics can be improved significantly. NP-complete problems are an interesting area of research, as there are no efficient solving algorithms known. Still, they have a high relevance for practical applications such as scheduling in commercial environments. 3. Different types of Meta-heuristics Algorithms Simulated annealing, tabu search, evolutionary algorithms like genetic algorithms and evolution strategies, ant colony optimization, estimation of distribution algorithms, scatter search, path relinking, the greedy randomized

adaptive search procedure (GRASP), multi-start and iterated local search, guided local search, and variable neighborhood search are – among others – often listed as examples of classical metaheuristics.

3.1 Hybridization of mete-heuristics algorithms

The motivation behind such hybridizations of different algorithmic concepts is usually to obtain better performing systems that exploit and unite advantages of the individual pure strategies, i.e. such hybrids are believed to benefit from synergy. The vastly increasing number of reported applications of hybrid metaheuristics and dedicated scientific events, document the popularity, success, and importance of this specific line of research. In fact, today it seems that choosing an adequate hybrid approach is determinant for achieving top performance in solving most difficult problems.

Actually, the idea of hybridizing metaheuristics is not new but dates back to the origins of metaheuristics themselves. At the beginning, however, such hybrids were not so popular since several relatively strongly separated and even competing communities of researchers existed who considered “their” favorite class of metaheuristics “generally best” and followed the specific philosophies in very dogmatic ways. For example, the evolutionary computation community grew up in relative isolation and followed relatively strictly the biologically oriented thinking. It is mostly due to the no free lunch theorems that this situation fortunately changed and people recognized that there cannot exist a general optimization strategy which is globally better than any other. In fact, to solve a problem at hand most effectively, it almost always requires a specialized algorithm that needs to be compiled of adequate parts.
4. Conclusion


Multiple possibilities of hybridizing individual metaheuristics with each other and/or with algorithms from other fields exist. A large number of publications documents the great success and benefits of such hybrids. Based on several previously recommended taxonomies, a unified classification and characterization of meaningful hybridization approaches has been presented. It helps in making different key components of existing metaheuristics explicit. We can then consider these key components and build an effective (hybrid) metaheuristic for a problem at hand by selecting and combining the most appropriate components.

[8]. Blum, C., Roli, A.: Metaheuristics in combinatorial optimization: Overview and conceptual comparison. ACM Computing Surveys 35(3) (2003) 268–308 [9]. Glover, F., Kochenberger, G.A.: Handbook of Metaheuristics. Kluwer (2003) [10]. Hoos, H.H., St¨utzle, T.: Stochastic Local Search. Morgan Kaufmann (2005) [11]. Glover, F.: Future paths for integer programming and links to artificial intelligence. Decision Sciences 8 (1977) 156–166


[12]. Voß S., Martello, S., Osman, I.H., Roucairo, C.: Meta-Heuristics: Andvances andTrends in Local Search Paradigms for Optimization. Kluwer, Boston (1999) [13]. Blum, C., Roli, A., Sampels, M., eds.: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hybrid Metaheuristics, Valencia, Spain (2004)

[1]. Combinatorial optimization. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [2]. Metaheuristic. FromWikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [3]. Steven Alter. Information Systems, chapter 1, pages 23.24. Prentice Hall, 2002. [4]. E Bonabeau,M Dorigo, and G Theraulaz. Inspiration for optimization from social insect behaviour. Nature, 406(6791):39.42, July 2000. [5]. Antonella Carbonaro and Vittorio Maniezzo. Ant colony optimization: An overview, June 1999. [6]. Alberto Colorni, Marco Dorigo, and Vittorio Maniezzo. The ant system: Optimization by a colony of cooperating agents. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 26(1):1.13, 1996. [7]. Peter Tarasewich and Patrick R. McMullen. Swarm intelligence: power in numbers. Commun. ACM, 45(8):62.67, 2002. 248

[14]. Blesa, M.J., Blum, C., Roli, A., Sampels, M., eds.: Hybrid Metaheuristics: Second International Workshop. Volume 3636 of LNCS. (2005) [15]. Wolpert, D., Macready, W.: No free lunch theorems for optimization. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation 1(1) (1997) 67– 82 [16]. Cotta, C.: A study of hybridisation techniques and their application to the design of evolutionary algorithms. AI Communications 11(3–4) (1998) 223–224

[17]. Talbi, E.G.: A taxonomy of hybrid metaheuristics. Journal of Heuristics 8(5) (2002) 541–565 [18]. Blum, C., Roli, A., Alba, E.: An introduction to metaheuristic techniques. In: Parallel Metaheuristics, a New Class of Algorithms. John Wiley (2005) 3–42 [19]. Cotta, C., Talbi, E.G., Alba, E.: Parallel hybrid metaheuristics. In Alba, E., ed.: Parallel Metaheuristics, a New Class of Algorithms. John Wiley (2005) 347–370 [20]. Puchinger, J., Raidl, G.R.: Combining metaheuristics and exact algorithms in combinatorial optimization: A survey and classification. In: Proceedings of the First International WorkConference on the Interplay Between Natural and Artificial Computation, Part II. Volume 3562 of LNCS., Springer (2005) 41–53 [21]. El-Abd, M., Kamel, M.: A taxonomy of cooperative search algorithms. In Blesa, M.J., Blum, C., Roli, A., Sampels, M., eds.: Hybrid Metaheuristics: Second International Workshop. Volume 3636 of LNCS., Springer (2005) 32–41 [22]. Alba, E., ed.: Parallel Metaheuristics, a New Class of Algorithms. John Wiley, New Jersey (2005) [23]. Moscato, P.: Memetic algorithms: A short introduction. In Corne, D., et al., eds.: New Ideas in Optimization. McGraw Hill (1999) 219–234

[24]. Ahuja, R.K., Ergun, ¨ O., Orlin, J.B., Punnen, A.P.: A survey of very large-scale neighborhood search techniques. Discrete Applied Mathematics 123(1-3) (2002) 75–102 [25]. Puchinger, J., Raidl, G.R.: Models and algorithms for three-stage two-dimensional bin packing.


33. Distributed video encoding for wireless lowpower surveillance network
Bhargav.G *P.G.Student Researcher, Dept of Industrial Engineering & Management, DSCE, Bengaluru-78, India,

Abstract— Transmission of real time video over a network is a very bandwidth intensive process placing large demand both on the network resource and the end terminal computing points. To improve throughput rates and reduce bandwidth requirement video encoding is resorted to. This project addresses the video encoding process for wireless low-power surveillance networks.Real time video encoding is a CPU intensive task. A number of algorithms exist to share the encoding process over multiple computer platforms. This is called as parallel processing. In this project I have attempted to split a video into multiple chunks and encode them separately in different computers and then merge them into a compressed video retaining all the major details but with reduced bandwidth occupancy. This project demonstrates setting up a distributed video encoder in a LAN network .To date this concept is prevalent only in high end grid computing platforms.Furthermore, and of particular interest to distributed processing, input video files can be easily broken down into workunits. These factors make the distribution of video encoding processes viable. The majority of research on distributed processing has focused on Grid technologies, however, in practicality, Grid services tend to be inflexible and offer poor support for ad-hoc interaction. Consequently it can be difficult for such technologies to efficiently exploit the growing pool of resources available around the edge of the Internet on home PCs. This project attempts to overcome these deficiencies.

Keywords: - Real time video encoding process, parallel processing, and high end grid computing platforms.

1. INTRODUCTION The Distributed Video Encoder is a utility application tool used to encode conventional video with the assistance of a distributed network of desktop workstations. Our main objective in this project is to implement an encoder that can make use of the processors of the computers connected in the network to do the video compression .This will increase the speed of the encoding process by about N times (if there are N computers in the network) .We will implement this encoder on a specific video format to demonstrate the feasibility of the application and to derive results that will later be used for a wider range of video formats [1].

1.1 Introduction to the Problem Area Video encoding is a lengthy, CPU intensive task, involving the conversion of video media from one format to another. Furthermore, and of particular interest to distributed processing, input video file scan be easily broken down into work-units. These factors


make the distribution of video encoding processes viable. The majority of research on distributed processing has focused on Grid technologies, however, in practicality, Grid services tend to be inflexible and offer poor support for ad-hoc interaction. Consequently it can be difficult for such technologies to efficiently exploit the growing pool of resources available around the edge of the Internet on home PCs. It is these resources that the DVE uses to provide a distributed video encoding service [2].

edges. In the body of a plain object, high spatial frequencies are absent and need not be transmitted at all.

1.2 Overview of Video Encoding A Video File contains both useful and redundant information about the video that it contains. Video files are quite large in size compared to other kinds of files like text files or music files. Thus it would be advantageous to compress it for the purpose of efficient storage or for transmitting it faster over the network. Video Encoding works by removing the redundant part of the information from the video file. If a very high degree of compression is required then the quality of the video file can be tweaked to achieve higher compression. A compression encoder works by identifying the useful part of a signal which is called the entropy and sending this to the decoder. The remainder of the signal is called the redundancy because it can be worked out at the decoder from what is sent. Video compression relies on two basic assumptions. The first is that human sensitivity to noise in the picture is highly dependent on the frequency of the noise [3].

1.3 Overview of Distributed Computing Over the past two decades, advancements in microelectronic technology have resulted in the availability of fast, inexpensive processors, and the advancements in communication technology have resulted in the availability of cost-effective and highly efficient computer networks. The net result of the advancements in these two technologies is that the price-performance ratio has now changed to favor the use of inter-connected, multiple processors in place of a single high-speed processor

Computer architectures consists of two types 1.3.1. Tightly Coupled Systems In these systems, there is a single system wide primary memory (address space) that is shared by all the processors. Any communication between the processors usually takes place through the shared memory. 1.3.2 Loosely Coupled Systems In these systems, the processors do not share memory, and each processor has its own local memory. All physical communication between the processor is done by passing messages across the network that interconnects the processors. Tightly coupled systems are referred to as parallel processing systems and loosely coupled systems are referred to as Distributed Computing Systems.

The second is that even in moving pictures there is a great deal of commonality between one picture and the next. Data can be conserved both by raising the noise level where it is less visible and by sending only the difference between one picture and the next. In a typical picture, large objects result in low spatial frequencies whereas small objects result in high spatial frequencies. Human vision detects noise at low spatial frequencies much more readily than at high frequencies. The phenomenon of large-area flicker is an example of this. Spatial frequency analysis also reveals that in many areas of the picture, only a few frequencies dominate and the remainder is largely absent. For example if the picture contains a large, plain object, high frequencies will only be present at the

1.4 Problem Statement To create a parallel video encoder which utilizes the processing power of the computers in a Local Area Network to complete the Encoding Process in a lesser duration of time when compared to a single encoder run on a single computer .

2. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS The basic purpose of software requirement specification (SRS) is to bridge the communication


between the parties involved in the development project. SRS is the medium through which the users’ needs are accurately specified; indeed SRS forms the basis of software development. Another important purpose of developing an SRS is helping the users understand their own needs. 2.1. System Requirements Specification 2.1.1 Introduction Purpose This Software Requirements Specification provides a complete description of all the functions and constraints of the Distributed Video Encoder, Version 1, developed for commercial and industrial use. Intended Audience The document is intended for the developers and testers working on the project and other independent developers who are interested in plug-in development for DVE. Project Scope The DVE is used to encode uncompressed video data into a compressed format in the shortest time possible by harnessing available distributed computing power in a network. It facilitates a hassle free environment to encode large volumes of video data quickly and efficiently. Similar software technology exits for large server farms that contain hardware that is dedicated specifically to video processing which prove to be expensive for individuals and small organizations that prefer to use only a part of such technology on a short time basis. Clearly they would opt for a cost effective technology that can be used with commercially available hardware and minimal technical know how on video compression.

The main features of the DVE are • It can encode video files in parallel and hence produce results in a shorter duration of time that a standalone encoder is able to provide. It will consist of a GUI based interface for easy user interaction with the application. The GUI will be a Windows Application Form based that can be run directly on the Windows Platform. It will provide automated network connectivity which will display connections to systems that are ready to contribute resources to the encoding process. It will feature a software interface for external programs to run and perform the tasks asynchronously and provide means to retrieve results from the above processes. Operating Environment The project will be designed for the Intel 32 bit architecture range of workstations that requires Microsoft Windows NT based operating system coupled with the Microsoft .NET runtime environment. Assumptions and Dependencies The project requires having a fully working and scalable user network of workstations devoid of any issues regarding connectivity and usability. Tools regarding support for multimedia in the windows platform are present in the systems being used by the product. Up-to-date versions of .NET 2.0 runtime environment or higher must also be present. The project will utilize the features of the FFMPEG encoder and the MPGTX splitter that will provided along with the above mentioned. The network on which the application will run is a LAN network which is completely connected over an Ethernet switch. Limited resources will enable us to develop a distributed encoder for only a specific type of video file format known as MPEG -1. The encoder will convert the mentioned file format to that of the MPEG-4 standard format only.

4.1.2 Overall Description Product Perspective The DVE is a technology bridge between standalone encoders on workstations and massively distributed parallel hardware encoders. It combines the requirements of the former and the computing power of the latter with minimal compromise on productivity. Product Features

2.2 System Features 252

System Feature 1: Network Information Description: Contains the information regarding the network id of a participating workstation connected to the distributed network. It is used to map network address to a user given host name for a workstation. This feature is critical in nature and is required for the establishment of the network. Functional Requirements: IP Addressing scheme, DNS naming scheme. If these schemes are not present or have not been enabled or are inaccessible to the user then this feature should intimate the user as an error and suggest necessary action to be performed. Since this is a critical part in establishing the network, the application must halt and not proceed any further.

System Feature 5: File Information Description: To store all the information regarding the details of a file Functional Requirements: File Name, Stored, Number of parts (if it is split) Directory

System Feature 6: Split File Description: To generate arguments to an external program to split pieces of files according to the given constraints. Functional Requirements: File Information, Number of Workers connected mpgtx.

System Feature 2: Execute Command Description: Will execute an external program that is required by the application for completing tasks such as splitting, joining and encoding of video. This feature is critical in nature and is necessary for a software interface to third party programs. Functional Requirements: process name, process arguments. Error or failure of execution of the command must be checked and the cause of the issue must be identified and informed to the user.

System Feature 7: Join File Description: To generate arguments for an external program to combine multiple pieces of a single file which has been split and processed previously. Functional Requirements: File Information, All parts of a single file entity, ffmpeg.

System Feature 8: Encode File Description: To generate parameter arguments necessary for an external program to encode a given video file successfully. Functional Requirements: Input file, Output file, input video type, output video type

System Feature 3: Send File Description: A feature that utilizes the TCP protocol to send a file stored on a workstation across to any remote workstation accessible within the network directly. Functional Requirements: Destination workstation, File to be transferred.

System Feature 9: Helper Program Information Description: This utility feature can be used to set and access the stored location of external programs necessary for the working of the application. Functional Requirements: Directory access to external programs.

System Feature 4: Receive File Description: A feature that utilizes the TCP protocol to receive an incoming file from a remote workstation in the network directly and store it on the specified location in the workstation. Functional Requirements: store location. Source workstation, File

2.3 External Interface Requirements


2.3.1User Interface: Worker UI

Description: It is used to provide a user interface to a workstation. It contains all the details regarding on connecting to an existing server in the network. It must be implemented as a Windows Application Form

Fig 2 Server User Interface Interface for selecting the video file

Fig 1 Worker User Interface Server UI

Description: A file dialog has been provided for selecting the video file for encoding. This dialog enables the user to choose a file in a manner convenient to the user as this dialog is a standard for all windows systems

Description: It is used to provide a user interface to a server. This will contain all the details regarding on connection initialization, Video file encoding and preview and also to manage external software (mentioned in the software interface) that will be required for the application.

254 Hardware Interface: None Software Interface: MPGTX Description: It is command line MPEG audio/video/system file toolbox that slices and joins audio and video files, including MPEG1, MPEG2 and MP3. It is used as a single independent executable that can be run as a process. It is an Open Source application released under the GPL. Its current version is 2.0. FFMPEG Description: FFmpeg is a complete solution to record, convert and stream audio and video. It includes libavcodec, the leading audio/video codec library. FFmpeg is developed under Linux, but it can compile under most operating systems, including Windows. Is is used as a single executable that uses the POSIX threads for Windows library. It is an Open Source application released under the GPL. Its current version is 0.4.9 FFPlay Description: A form with open dialog boxes have been provided to locate the utility programs. A filter has also been provided so that only executable files are selected. Description: FFplay is a player that can be used o play MPEG videos files in the absence of Window Media Codec’s. This application is an extra utility for the project and is not necessary for the functioning of the application. This player is bundled along with the FFMPEG encoder. Communication Interface TCP The network that the application will run on is the IEEE 802.3 LAN Technology. All systems in the network will be connected over a single switch. The communication will occur as transmission of raw bytes over the TCP Send/Receive protocols. It is a connection oriented protocol and can guarantee the transmission of data from source to destination.

Fig 3 Video File Selection Dialog Interface for selecting the location of the utility programs

Fig 4 Utility Program Location

2.4 Hardware Requirements • Pentium 4 2.0Ghz or above processor nodes • 10 / 100 mbps Network • Network card in the nodes • Graphics Processors in nodes(Separate Integrated) • Sound Card


Module Name: FileEncoder 2.5 Software Requirements • Windows XP with SP2 • Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0 • Ffmpeg encoder • Mpgtx splitter • Network Drivers and Support in Win XP • Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2005 3. IMPLEMENTATION The purpose of this chapter is to give a brief description about the various implementation tools like the programming language, the modules created and the details of each module implementation. The goal of the implementation phase is to translate the design of the system produced during the design phase into code in a given programming language. This involves the details of the methods and interfaces used and their integration. This module acts as a helper module for the Execute Command module. This modules function is to generate arguments for the file encoder (ffmpeg) and then pass this argument to the Execute Command process for execution [5]. Algorithm 1: FileEncoder Input: Filename Step1: Copy Filename to InputFIleName Step 2: End Algorithm2: Generate Argument Step 1: Concatenate the filename; format required (“.avi”) and the output file name Step 2: Return the above file as an argument. Step 3: End. 3.1 Modules Module Name: Execute Command This module is used for running an external program or a command. Our project consists of three helper programs which are used for the purpose of splitting the files, encoding the video files and for playing or previewing the file. This module is used for executing these programs. The module takes in the process name and arguments as input. Options for displaying the executing process have also been provided for monitoring its progress [4]. Module Name: FileJoiner This module also acts as a helper module for the Execute Command module. This modules function is to generate arguments for the copy command which is used for concatenating all the split pieces. The second function of this module is to generate the transcoding arguments for ffmpeg for generating the output file. Algorithm1: Generate Argument Input: NoofFiles, Filename Step 1: Generate the filename; format required (“.avi”) Step2: Do Step 1 for every piece of the file. If all pieces are done, GOTO Step 3 Step3: Return the above generated text as an argument. Step 4: End. Module Name: FileSplitter This module is used for generating arguments for the file splitter (mpgtx). It takes the number of pieces as input. This data is obtained from the number of workers connected to the server. Algorithm1: Generate Argument Input: Filename

Algorithm 1: Execute Command Input: Command, Arguments Step1: Check if arguments present Step 2: If present GOTO Step 2.1 else GOTO Step 3 Step 2.1: Start new process with command and arguments Step 2.2: Execute Process and wait till end of process Step 2.3: Complete execution and GOTO Step 3 Step 3: End


Step 1: Generate the filenames for each peice; format required (“.avi”) Step2: Do Step 1 for the whole file. If EOF is reached, GOTO Step 3 Step3: Return the above generated text as an argument and the number of pieces. Step 4: End. Module Name: NetworkInfo This module is responsible is responsible for providing network related information like IPAddress and the Host Name of the computer. Algorithm 1: Get Network Information Input: None Step1: Get IP Address of the system and store as List Step2: Get the Host name of the system as store as text Step 3: Done Module Name: NodeList This module is used to manage the worker nodes. Functions for adding, deleting nodes are provided. Each node stores information about a specific worker. This information is then used by the server to communicate with the workers. Algorithm 1: Add Node Input: Node Step 1: Add node to an array of Nodes Step 2: Done Algorithm2: Delete Node Input: Node Step 1: Search for the given node in the array of Nodes and delete it. Step 2: Done. Algorithm 3: Count Input: None Step 1: Count the number of nodes in the array Step 2: Return the count as an integer

Step 3: Done. Algorithm 4: Pop Node Input: None Step 1: Remove the topmost node in the array of Nodes Step 2: Return the node from the array and delete the node Step 3: Done. Module Name: ReceiveFile This module is used for receiving a file which has been sent from a remote node. A connection is first established with the remote node. Then Information about the file is received, this is used to create a new file. The file contents are then received. Algorithm 1: Receive File Input: port, noofFiles Step 1: Start a TCP Client to receive files. Initialize count to 0 Step 2: If count < noofFiles, then continue else GOTO Step 3 Step 2.1: Accept the incoming Node information as fname Step 2.2: Accept the incoming data with a buffer of 2048 bytes. Step 2.3: Write the data to a file as mentioned in the fname object Step 2.4: Increment count and GOTO Step 2. Step 3: Close the TCP client. Step 4: Done. Module Name: SendFile This module is used for sending a file to a remote computer. This module is used for sending file chunks to the worker and for sending the compressed files back to the server. Algorithm 1: Send Input: FileName, Node Step 1: Get the file name and the node information 257

Step 2: Start a TCP Client and connect to the system that has to receive the file Step 3: Transmit the Node directly over the network stream Step 4: Do the steps till the EOF is reached else GOTO Step 5 Step 4.1: Copy contents of Filename to a 2048 byte size buffer Step 4.2: Transmit buffer data as a byte stream to the system over a socket. Step 4.3: Confirm transfer and GOTO Step 4. Step 5: Close the File and Disconnect from the system Step 6: Done.

Module Name Function Input Expected Results Actual Results Remarks

Network Set Port Number Input entered consisted of a string of characters Do not accept the string as a port number Show an error message and reset the field Only valid port numbers are accepted

Test Case 3 Module Name Network Connect to Server Provide Incorrect server port and then attempt to connect. Show a user friendly message about the error A Message is displayed that the server is not listening at that specified port. Only those ports that the server is listening at can be used for connecting.

4. STRUCTURAL TESTING Structural testing - This testing is based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application’s code. Also known as Glass box Testing. Internal software and code working should be known for this type of testing. Tests are based on coverage of code statements, branches, paths, conditions [6]. 4.1 Test Cases Test Case 1 Module Name Function Input Expected Results Actual Results Network Set Port Number Input entered as a number greater than 65000 Do not accept the number as a valid port number An error message is displayed and the port field is reset to the default value Only valid port numbers are accepted

Function Input Expected Results Actual Results


Test Case 4 Module Name Function Input Expected Results Video Select Video File Choose a file that is not a MPEG 1/2 video file Inform the user that a valid file has not been selected and provide an option to choose the video file again. An error message is displayed after which the open dialog prompts to select a new file


Actual Results Test Case 2 258


Only MPEG files can selected as the input file


Expected Results Actual Results

The Encoding process will not occur The system shows a message informing the user that at least 1 worker must be present for the encoding to take place. A minimum of 1 worker is needed for execution

Test Case 5 Module Name Function Input Expected Results Video Preview Choose a file that is not a MPEG 1/2 video file Inform the user that a valid file has not been selected and hence do not execute FFPLAY The file is not accepted and an error message is displayed Only valid video files can be previewed Test Case 8 Module Name Function Input Expected Results Test Case 6 Module Name Function Input Expected Results Video Encode Encode when only 1 worker is present The splitting and joining phases are skipped. The video file is encoded directly The file is encoded in the single system Encoding works even if there is only one worker Test Case 9 Module Name Function Input Expected Results Actual Results Remarks Test Case 7 Module Name Function Input Video Encode Encode when no workers are present Test Case 10 Module Name Function 259 Actual Results Remarks Remarks

Actual Results Remarks

DVE Encode MPEG 1 video file Compressed MPEG 4 Video file Compressed MPEG 4 Video file The encoder MPEG 1 files can compress

DVE Encode MPEG 2 video file Compressed MPEG 4 Video file Compressed MPEG 4 Video file The encoder MPEG 2 files can compress

Actual Results Remarks

DVE Encode

Input Expected Results Actual Results Remarks

AVI compressed File Error Message DVE does not accept the video file Only MPEG files are currently supported


Fig 7 Server Accepting 2 workers on ports 9000 and 9002

Fig 5 Server Main Screen

Fig 8 setting the server register, data ports and the worker port.

Fig 6 Server Utility Program Selection Fig 9 MPGTX splitting the video file into 3 pieces


Fig 13 Worker after finishing encoding 3 pieces of video

Fig 10 FFMPEG : Encoding the video chunk

Fig 11 FFMPEG : Used for Transco ding the Joined Chunk

Fig 14 FFPLAY - previewing video files before encoding


Fig 12 Server Info Box Showing Status after the conversion is done

The DVE is capable of handling further additional features that can improve the quality of encoding and also provide a wider spectrum of options for the application. The following enhancements are listed below as follows [7]. The application can be made compatible for Real Media, QuickTime Video and H.264 video codecs which also can support parallelization. File formats such as Matroska (.mkv), Real format (.rm), Vobris (.ogg) can be used as a more efficient alternative for AVI file structures. Features such as HTTP, FTP and various application level protocols can be used for control and data transfer of video.


Custom made plug-ins for splitting video files and joining them can be written for various file formats that can be supported as mentioned above. The application can be mapped and reimplemented on to a Linux operating system and thus can be made to run in the UNIX environment giving more flexibility and freedom for development [8]. System and Network Diagnostics can be implemented to automate the workload distribution across the entire system and can provide tracking results and work progress back to the operator. Decentralization of the entire model can be implemented on larger scaled applications with higher grade network management features such as session handling and metadata in feedforward cycles across the network. The whole application can be scaled beyond the LAN network to the WAN and other networks to cover a larger region of users who need the services of the above application [9]. The application can be plugged into a Cloud computing architecture that can enable a user to utilize the feature from a remote location. This also opens business prospects for large software and multimedia based companies.



Audio Video Interleaved. Microsoft format for digital audio and video playback from Windows 3.1. Somewhat cross-platform, but mostly a Windows format. Has been replaced by the ASF format but is still used by some multimedia developers. A software or hardware device to encode and decode video, audio or other media. The encoder and decoder for a particular compression format. The word is contracted from Coder- Decoder. The codec refers to both ends of the process of squeezing video down and expanding it on playback. Compatible coders and decoders must be used and so they tend to be paired up when they are delivered. Discrete Cosine Transform algorithms are used in MPEG encoders to compress the video. A popular standard for compressing video to a reasonably good quality at low bit rates. A 2-hour movie compresses to a size that comfortably fits on a CD-ROM. This is derived from the MPEG- 4 standard with some additional enhancements that make it noncompliant in some minor respects. Joint Photographic Experts Group.



With the above seen results one can clearly guarantee that we have accomplished all the necessary objectives we initially laid out for the Distributed Video Encoder application. Academically, we have also managed to understand the latest technology available and have successfully used it to design and develop the application.


We have also spoken about how the product can be enhanced further and this project should lay a cornerstone for other developers and designers who are interested to work and develop on the related field. I hope that this paper serves as a beacon of light to those who want to venture along the path of technological development and progress for the betterment of mankind.




Local Area Network. Usually Ethernet running at 10 Megabits or 100 Megabits. Sometimes 1000 Mbits are deployed and referred to Ethernet. as Gigabit

interactive content. It is not a codec but a platform. It has some unique codecs that are not available anywhere else but you should be using open-standard codecs rather than these. When it is referring to a video format, it is talking about a codec jointly developed by Apple and Sorenson. It gets improved from time to time as successive versions of QuickTime are released. This is a popular name for the Sorenson codecs. TCP / IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internetworking Protocol describes the message format and connection mechanisms that make the Internet possible. It is built on top of UDP. It contains ack/nak (acknowledge/negative acknowledge) protocols to ensure that all packets have arrived It does this at the expense of timeliness.


Video pictures are degenerated to blocks of 16 × 16 or 8 × 8 pixels so that similarities can be found. Motion Picture Experts Group. A working group within the ISO/IEC standards body. This group is concerned with the standardization of movingpicture representations in the digital environment. The original MPEG video standard designed for CDROM applications and other similar levels of compression. This is a legacy format. Still useful for some solutions but new projects should use a later codec. Widely used for digital TV and DVD products. A much improved codec that supersedes MPEG-1 in many respects. It has been popularized by DVD content encoding and DVB transmission. A huge leap forward in the description of multimedia content.MPEG-4 is the essence container. A platform for developing and playing rich multimedia, video, and




[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]



(1) References A Practical Guide to Audio and Video Compression – Cliff Wooton Video Demystified - Keith Jack MPEG encoding basics – Snell and Wilcox C# and the .net Framework – Andrew Tolstein Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) Software Engineering – Ian Sommerville Object Oriented Analysis and Design – Ali Bahrami


34. J2ME-Based Wireless Intelligent Video Surveillance System using Moving Object Recognition Technology.
*Bhargav.G, ** R.V.Praveena Gowda, *P.G.Student, Dept of Industrial Engineering & Management, DSCE, Bengaluru-78, India, **Assistant Professor, DSCE, Bengaluru-78,

Abstract— A low-cost intelligent mobile phone-based wireless video surveillance solution using moving object recognition technology is proposed in this paper. The proposed solution can be applied not only to various security systems, but also to environmental surveillance. Firstly, the basic principle of moving object detecting is given. Limited by the memory consuming and computing capacity of a mobile phone, a background subtraction algorithm is presented for adaptation. Then, a self-adaptive background model that can update automatically and timely to adapt to the slow and slight changes of natural environment is detailed. When the subtraction of the current captured image and the background reaches a certain threshold, a moving object is considered to be in the current view, and the mobile phone will automatically notify the central control unit or the user through phone call, SMS (Short Message System) or other means. The proposed algorithm can be implemented in an embedded system with little memory consumption and storage space, so it’s feasible for mobile phones and other embedded platforms, and the proposed solution can be used in constructing mobile security monitoring system with low-cost hardware and equipments. Based on J2ME (Java2 Micro Edition) technology, a prototype system was developed using JSR135 (Java Specification Requests 135: Mobile Media API) andJSR120 (Java Specification Requests 120: Wireless Messaging API) and the test results show the effectiveness of proposed solution.

technology, the differences of various hardware platforms are minimized. All embedded platforms with camera equipped and JSR135/JSR120 supported can install this system without making any changes to the application.

Also, the system can be extended to a distributed wireless network system. Many terminals work together, reporting to a control center and receiving commands from the center. Thus, a low-cost wide-area intelligent video surveillance system can be built. Furthermore, with the development of embedded hardware, more complex digital image process algorithms can be used to give more kinds of applications in the future.

Keywords: - Mobile phone-based, moving object detecting, background subtraction algorithm, Java to Micro Edition technology, JSR135/JSR120, distributed wireless network system

1. INTRODUCTION The increasing need for intelligent video surveillance in public, commercial and family applications makes automated video surveillance systems one of the main current application domains in computer vision. Intelligent Video Surveillance Systems deal with the real-time monitoring of persistent and transient objects within a specific environment.

The moving object recognition technology led to the development of autonomous systems, which also minimize the network traffic. With good mobile ability, the system can be deployed rapidly in emergency. And can be a useful supplement of traditional monitoring system. With the help of J2ME


Intelligent surveillance system has been evolution to third generation, known as automated wide-area video surveillance system. Combined computer vision technology, the distributed system is autonomic, which can also be controlled by remote terminals. A low-cost intelligent wireless security and monitoring solution using moving object recognition technology is presented in this paper. The system has good mobility, which makes it a useful supplement of traditional monitoring system. It can also perform independent surveillance mission and can be extended to a distributed surveillance system. Limited by the memory consuming and computing capacity in a mobile phone, background subtraction algorithm is presented to be adopted in mobile phones. In order to be adapted to the slow and slight changes of the natural environment, a self-adaptive background model updated automatically and timely is detailed. When the subtraction of the current captured image and the background reaches a certain threshold, a moving object is thought to be in the current view, and the mobile phone will automatically notify the central control unit or the user through phone call, SMS, or other means. Based on J2ME technology, we use JSR135 and JSR120 to implement a prototype [1].

document gives the detailed explanation of both functional and non-functional requirements. With this application the mobile phone user should be able to do the following things: Can process the consecutive snapshots to find the motion detection. • Can transmit the captured image to the server. • Can reset or disconnect the mobile application from the server. The application should have user-friendly GUI. The communication between the phone and the computer should take place through GPRS. This means that the mobile can transmit the information to a remote user. • The mobile part of the application should be written in J2ME as it provides very good GUI. 1.3 Requirement Specifications

1.1. Limitations • Depends on the mobile phone camera used by the user (i.e. the better the pixels of the particular mobile phone better the clarity of the picture). Can be used only with mobile phones supporting J2ME applications like we can use all the major phone vendors (Nokia, Motorola, Sony-Ericsson, etc), which has OS like Symbian. On the server side a static IP address is required to receive pictures from the mobile phone (client) and also to send message to the mobile phone (administrator).

The basic purpose of software requirement specification (SRS) is to bridge the communication between the parties involved in the development project. SRS is the medium through which the users’ needs are accurately specified; indeed SRS forms the basis of software development. Another important purpose of developing an SRS is helping the users understand their own needs. In this chapter the requirements to develop program namely the hardware requirements, software requirements, functional requirements and nonfunctional requirements are specified so that the user program deploy the program with ease.

1.4 Functional Requirements • To protect a room from intruder attack. • To respond when the room is under attack. • To prevent most attacks from succeeding. 1.5 Non Functional Requirements B. 1.5.1 Hardware Interfaces • Computer: PC installed with Internet connection with unique IP address. The application should be running to accept the request and to send response to mobile based on the option. Mobile: GPRS enabled mobile with CLDC 1.1 and MIDP 2.0 or higher version.

1.2 Problem Definition

To develop a J2ME-Based Wireless Intelligent Video Surveillance System using Moving Object Recognition Technology. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate the requirements of the project “Motion Detector”. The 265 •


Fig 2: Activity Diagram Network: Internet. Application: Java, J2ME, NetBeans 1.6. Operating System: Windows XP. J2ME Wireless Toolkit 2.5.1

• • • •

2.3 Deployment Diagram

A. 1.5..3. Communications Interfaces • GPRS will be used as Communication interface between server and mobile. 2. DETAILED DESIGN 2.1 Sequence Diagram

Fig 3: Deployment Diagram

2.4 Piximity Algorithm Fig 1: Sequence Diagram This algorithm is used to calculate the difference between the first snap and consecutive snaps. We take the RGB value of each pixel of a image and store each different combination in a Colour array, we then calculate the Colour count of each of these values and store it in a Colour count array. These are explained below in figure

2.2 Activity Diagram

3.1.3 getImage Step 1: Display a transmitting bar in the canvas on server side Step 2: Read the image in form of bytes from the input stream Fig 4: Piximity Algorithm Step 3: Call the StoreImage module which stores the byte array in the form of JPEG in the disk Step 4: End 3. Modules 3.1 Server Side 3.1.1 Module Name: MotionDetectorWelcome This module is used for displaying the welcome screen when the application is launched on the server side. Input: None Step1: Obtain the image from the disk Step 2: Set boundaries for the image Step 3: Set time duration for which the image must be displayed Step 4: End 3.1.4 Module Name: MotionDetectionSuit This module is a supporting module for Motion Detection Processor which is used to call the audio file placed in the disk, create the directory name for storing image. Step 1: Call the audio file and play it thrice with a gap of 1 min between them Step 2: Get the current date time and give that as the name to the directory Step 3: Call the inbuilt File module to create the directory Step 4: End 3.1.2 Module Name: MotionDetectionProcessor This module is used for receiving the image, storing the image, displaying it on the canvas & calling the SendMail module which sends a message to particular number. Input: Command, Arguments Step1: Obtain the inputstream from the client side Step 2: Check the command received in the stream Step 2.1: If command is to receive image then call getImage() function which receives the image Step 2.2: If command is motion detection alarm then call the function MotionDetectionSuit which alarms at the server side and sends a message to the specified user Step 3: End Step 1: Print on the command prompt which directory the image is being stored Step 2: Use the FileOutputStream inbuilt module to store the jpeg image in the directory Step 3: Using Write function we store the bytes in to jpeg file Step 4: End 3.1.5 Module Name: StoreImage This module is a supporting module for Motion Detection Processor which is used to store the image in the directory created and print on the screen that is command prompt if image is created or not it is stored in jpeg format.


3.1.6 Module Name: MotionDetectorNavigator This module implements the server side GUI which gives option to Disconnect, Reset Connection, Play the stored video at three different speeds, and even run loop.

Step 2: Mention user name and password of the gmail account Step 3: Mention the mobile number Step 4: Mention the message to be sent Step 5: End

Step 1: Create the GUI by extending the module to JFrame Step 2: Create the Checkbox, Create buttons for play video, change the connection Step 3: End 3.2.1 Module Name: WelcomeScreen 3.1.7 Module Name: PlayVideoChooser This is a supporting module for MotionDetectionServer which gives the user option to play from a set of videos stored Step 1: This module extends JFrame which is used to displat the list. Step 2: When the user clicks on a video file the file from it played using PlayVideo module Step 3: End This module is used to display image on the mobile before the launch of the application with ok and exit as two options Step 1: Obtain the image from the disk Step 2: Align it to the center of the screen Step 3: Add two commands OK and EXIT Step 4: End 3.2 MOBILE SIDE

3.2.2 Module Name: RecordStorage This module is used to store the values of the time, ipaddress,threshold Step 1: If there is Records already stored then we take it from the records or we take it from user Step 2: We would have three functions to receive time, threshold,ipaddress Step 3: End

3.1.8 Module Name: PlayVideo This is a supporting module for PlayVideoChooser which obtain the video and plays it.

Step 1: Obtain the video from the disk Step 2: Play the video by using DrawImage inbuilt function Step 3: End

3.2.3 Module Name: MotionDetectionScheduler This module is used to schedule the application so that it will capture the motion after some time as scheduled Step 1: Here we use sleep the function to delay for the time as specified

3.1.9 Module Name: SendMail

This module is used to send sms to a airtel number using a gmail id Step 1: Establish a smtp connection with gmail server

Step 2: After the scheduled time we call the capture module Step 3: End 268

3.2.4 Module Name: MotionCapture This module is used to calculate the difference between the two images of the first image and consecutive images if the difference between them is greater than threshold then alarm signal will be sent. This is a supporting module for above to modules it uses piximity algorithm. Step 1: We check if the snap received is the first one we take it as test snap Step 2: From then on we take the first image as back ground image & then calculate the difference of consecutive images using Piximity algorithm and isMotionDetected() Step 3: End

color_found=true; break; } } if(!color_found) { array_count=array_count+1; color_array[array_count]=image[i]; color_count[array_count]=1; }

3.2.5 Piximity Algorithm int pixmityAlg(int image[]) { int LENGTH = image.length; int color_array[] = new int[LENGTH]; int color_count[] = new int[LENGTH]; int temp; int array_count=1; boolean color_found=false; color_array[0]=image[0]; for(int i=0;i<LENGTH;i++) { for(int j=0;j<=array_count;j++) { color_found=false; if(color_array[j]==image[i]) { color_count[j]=color_count[j]+1; 3.2.7 Module Name: AlertMessage This is a supporting module for MotionCapture used to send the AlertMessage Step 1: We create a socket connection with the server using the ipaddress given by the user Step 2: We use output data stream to write on the server side Step 3: End Step 6: Done. 269 } 3.2.6 isMotionDetected(). Step 1: Here we use sleep the function to delay for the time as specified Step 2: After the scheduled time we call the capture module Step 3: End return array_count; }

4. Results

4.1 Server Side

Fig 6: Motion detector viewer

Fig 5: Start up screen


Fig 8: The user has to launch the application

Fig 7: The image shows that a message was sent, the directory were image is being stored is mentioned

4.2 Mobile Side

Fig 9: The welcome screen is being launched


Fig 10: User has to choose between two modes

Fig 11: User enters the three options Capture After, Threshold, and IP Address



The current implementation of security in Wireless Vigilance can be enhanced with the following features. Some of the many possible future enhancements are: Storing images in other format than JPEG Quality of the image captured can be improved Messages can be sent to a group of users instead of one There might be more scope for improvement, which could not have come to our notice. We would definitely keep track of the feedback for people’s opinion and would try and implement to bring out the necessary improvements to appeal others. • • •

Fig 12: The Difference between images is being calculated


The moving object recognition technology led to the development of autonomous systems, which also minimize the network traffic. With good mobile ability, the system can be deployed rapidly in emergency. And can be a useful supplement of traditional monitoring system. With the help of J2ME technology, the differences of various hardware platforms are minimized. All embedded platforms with camera equipped andJSR135/JSR120 supported can install this system without making any changes to the application. Also, the system can be extended to a distributed wireless network system. Many terminals work together, reporting to a control center and receiving commands from the center. Thus, a low-cost wide-area intelligent video surveillance system can be built. Furthermore, with the development of embedded hardware, more complex digital image process algorithms can be used to give more kinds of applications in the future. Fig 13: SMS received by the user


(1) (2) References [1] M Valera, SA Velastin, Intelligent distributed surveillance systems: a review. IEE Proceedings on Visual Image Signal Processing, April. 2005, vol. 152, vo.2, pp.192-204. [2] [M. Picardy, Background subtraction techniques: a review, IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Oct. 2004, vol. 4, pp. 3099– 3104. [3] [Alan, M. McIvor, Background Subtraction Techniques, Proceedings of Image & Vision Computing New Zealand2000 IVCNZ’00, Reveal Limited, Auckland, New Zealan, 2000. [4] C. Enrique Ortiz, The Wireless Messaging API, 2002 [5] [Sun Microsystems, Inc., JSR 120 Wireless MessagingAPI (WMA) specification, 2002. [6] Herbert Schildt JavaTM 2: The Complete Reference Java2 ,TATA McGraw Hill, Fifth edition,2002 [7] Patrick Naughton, The java Handbook, Tata McGraw-Hill Edition,1997 [8] htm [9] 566311.pdf?arnumber=4566311 [10] 4542819.pdf?arnumber=4542819 [11] idocs/ [12] idocs/packages.html [13] n/Programming/Java/jdk1.4/api/javax/swing/ JComponent.html [14] n/Programming/Java/jdk1.4/api/javax/swing/ package-summary.html


35. The NS-2 simulator based Implementation and Performance Analyses of Manycast QoS Routing Algorithm
J.Rajeswara Rao M.TECH –2nd Year ECE, V.R Siddhartha Engineering College, Vijayawada, A.P Email:

S.Chittibabu Asst.Professor of ECE, V.R Siddhartha Engineering College, Vijayawada, A.P Email:

Dr.K.Sri Rama Krishna Professor & Head of ECE, V.R Siddhartha Engineering College, Vijayawada, A.P Email: srk_kalva @

Abstract: - In network communications, there are many methods to exchange packets or to deliver data from sources to destinations. During the past few years, we have observed the emergence of new applications that use multicast transmission. In many distributed applications require a group of destinations to be coordinated with a single source. Multicasting is a communication paradigm to implement these distributed applications. However in multicasting, if at least one of the members in the group cannot satisfy the service requirement of the application, the multicast request is said to be blocked. On the contrary in manycasting, destinations can join or leave the group, depending on whether it satisfies the service requirement or not. This dynamic membership based destination group decreases request blocking. Manycasting over optical burst-switched networks (OBS) based on multiple quality of service (QoS) constraints. These multiple constraints can be in the form of physical layer impairments, transmission delay, and reliability of the link. Each application requires its own QoS threshold attributes. Destinations qualify only if they satisfy the required QoS constraints set up by the application. Due to multiple constraints, burst blocking could be high. We propose one algorithm to minimize request blocking for the manycast problems. Using NS2 based simulation results, we have analyses these constraints for manycast algorithm and then focuses on introducing how it is simulated based on NS2 and analyzing algorithm performance. 275

Key-words: - NS2 (Network Simulator-2), manycast, optical burst-switched networks (OBS), quality of service (QoS), simulation. 1. Introduction With the advent of many Internet-based distributed applications, there is a continued demand for a high capacity transport network. Networks based on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) are deployed to tackle the exponential growth in the present Internet traffic. WDM network include optical circuit switching (OCS), optical packet switching (OPS), and optical burst switching (OBS). In OBS the user data is transmitted alloptically as bursts with the help of an electronic control plane. One of the primary issues with OCS is that the link bandwidth is not utilized efficiently in the presence of bursty traffic. On the other hand, many technological limitations have to be overcome for OPS to be commercially viable. OBS networks overcome the technological constraints imposed by OPS and the bandwidth inefficiency of OCS networks. In this paper, we focus on the optical transport network being OBS. Most of the discussed algorithm can easily be modified to work for OCS and OPS networks. There has been recent emergence of many distributed applications that require highbandwidth, such as video conferencing, telemedicine distributed interactive simulations (DIS), grid computing, storage area networks (SANs), and distributed content distribution networks (CDNs).These delay constraints can be met effectively by using OBS as the transport paradigm. These distributed applications require a

single source to communicate with a group of destinations. Traditionally, such applications are implemented using multicast communication. A typical multicast session requires creating the shortest-path tree to a fixed number of destinations. The fundamental issue in multicasting data to a fixed set of destinations is receiver blocking. If one of the destinations is not reachable, the entire multicast request (say, grid task request) may fail. A useful variation is to dynamically select destinations depending on the status of the network. Hence, in distributed applications, the first step is to identify potential candidate destinations and then select the required number. This dynamic approach is called manycasting. Manycasting has caught the attention of several researchers during the recent past, due to the emergence of many of the distributed applications described above. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: we first discuss the problem Formulation for service attributes in Section 2. In Section 3, implementation of Manycast algorithm is explained. Section 4 discusses the analyses of simulation results. Finally, Section 5 concludes the paper.
2. Problem Formulation In this section, we explain the mathematical framework for manycasting. Our work focuses on selecting the best possible destinations that can meet the service demands effectively. Destinations chosen must be able to provide quality of service attributes. A destination is said to qualify as the member of quorum pool if it satisfies the service requirements of the application. The proposed methods are based on distributed routing, where each node individually maintains the network state information and executes the algorithm. Algorithms implemented in the centralized way, may fail due to a single failure and resulting in poor performance. Our proposed algorithm has the following functionality: 1) Handle multiple constraints with the help of link state information available locally. 2) Service differentiated provisioning of manycast sessions.

3) Find the best possible destinations in terms of service requirements for the manycast sessions.
A. Notations The algorithm description of simulated manycast QoS routing algorithm is as follows Input: network topological graph G=(V,E), Gs(A)={S1,…,Sq}(q<n), G(A)={d1,…,dk}(k<n), crossover rate Pc, mutation rate Pm, evolution algebra maxgen Output: optimal path that satisfies constraint conditions

{ gen = 0; Initializing population; Calculating the fitness value of population individual; while (dissatisfying pausing condition or gen<maxgen) { gen++; Selection operation(); Crossover operation(); Repair operation(); Mutation operation(); Repair operation(); Fitness calculation (); Retaining the optimal population individual; } Output of the path of optimal individual }
B. Service Attributes We define , , and as noise factor, reliability factor, and end-to-end propagation delay for the Link j , respectively. The noise factor is defined as the ratio of input optical signal to noise ratio OSNRi/p = OSNRi and output optical signal to noise ratio OSNRo/p = OSNRi+1; thus we have / ----- (1)

Where OSNR is defined as the ratio of the average signal power received at a node to the average amplified spontaneous emission noise



power at that node. The OSNR of the link and q factor are related as


Where Bo and Be are optical and electrical bandwidths, respectively. The bit-error rate is related to the q-factor as follows: BER = 2 erfc -----(3) √ We choose a route that has a minimum noise factor. Thus the overall noise factor is given by ∏ ------- (4) The other two parameters considered in our approach include the reliability factor and the propagation delay of the burst along the link. The . This reliability factor of the link j is denoted value indicates the reliability of the link, and its value lies in the interval (0, 1]. The overall reliability of the route is calculated as the multiplicative constraint and is given by
∏ -------(5) The propagation delay on the link j is denoted , and the overall propagation delay of the route is given by ∑ --------(6) 3. Implementation of Manycast algorithm

Since manycast is a new network model and there is little simulation implementation with NS2, our simulation experiment was conducted basing on the C++ and Otcl levels. NS2 needs first to be extended to support the simulation of manycast QoS routing algorithm. The main steps are as follows: 1) Declare relevant variables In programming, the relevant variables of routing algorithm shall be first declared, which can be extended in /ns2.34/routing/route.h. 2) Add compute route function When the compute_routes ( ) function is extended in /ns2.34/routing/, we add a compute_routes _delay ( ) function, and the manycast QoS routing algorithm is embedded into this compute_routes () function. 3) Modify command ( ) fuction In accordance with the separation of C++’s compiled class and Otcl’s interpreted class in NS2, the configuration of nodes and structure of network topological graph are implemented on Otcl level, and some related parameters are transmitted to C++ level through Tclcl mechanism to assist the implementation of C++ function. When the manycast QoS routing algorithm is implemented in C++, we need to know the numbers of request nodes and service nodes, and the command () function is used to transmit the contents of relevant parameter argv [2] and argv [3] in Otcl to C++. Since the data types on Otcl level belong to character types, the data types need to be transferred when they are transmitted. After C++ is modified, the work on compiling level is basically finished.

There are 2 levels in the simulation of NS2: one is based on configuration and construction of Otcl, which can use some existing network elements to realize the simulation by writing the Otcl scripts without modifying NS2; the other is based on C++ and Otcl. Once the module resources needed do not exist, NS2 must be upgraded or modified to add the required network elements. Under these circumstances, the split object model of NS2 is used to add a new C++ class and an Otcl class, and then program the Otcl scripts to implement the simulation. The process of network simulation in NS2 is shown in Fig. 1.
A. Extension of C++ level


$ns at 0.2 “$n(1) color blue “ $ns at 0.2 “$n(1) label Request “ $ns at 0.2 “$n(1) request-anycast $rcvr1 $group” $ns at 1.2 “finish” 8) Finish nam. Proc finish {} { global ns $ns flush-trace puts "running nam..." exec nam out.nam & exit 0} To transfer the finish process of various nodes at 1.2 seconds to end the whole program and to close and out.nam files. 9) Run Tcl script. $ns run Fig. 1: The simulation process of NS2 B. Program Otcl test scripts 1) Create NS simulation object and define routing simulation module. Set ns [new Simulator] 2) Define the way of routing for simulation object. $ns multicast $ns mrtproto manycast 3) Create node object. In this experiment, we use a for circle of tcl grammar to create node_n simple nodes. for {set i 0} { $i < $node_n } {incr i} {set n($i) [$ns node]} 4) Create connections between different nodes. $ns simplex-link <node0> <node1> <bandwidth> < delay> <queue_type> 5) Create tracking object. set f [open w] $ns trace-all $f $ns namtrace-all [open out.nam w] Where an file is created to record the trace data during simulation process and make variable f pointing at this file; an out, nam file is created to record the trace data of nam. 6) Create receiving source. set group [Node allocaddr] set rcvr1 [new Agent/LossMonitor] set rcvr2 [new Agent/LossMonitor] 7) Create the sending and finishing time of packets. 278 4. Analyses of simulation Results The OTCL script ex-manycast.tcl uses a simple and randomly generated network topological structure with 30 nodes as its basic experimental environment, of which the link delay and cost are randomly generated. After program running, we can use Nam tool and Xgraph tool to obtain clearer experimental results. The following experimental results are obtained basing on this basic experimental environment. 4.1 Analyses of Nam animated results

Fig. 2: Animated demonstration of 30 nodes (Before running)

Fig. 2 shows the network topological graph that is randomly generated, and the regular network check-up is necessary before the running of manycast routing algorithm program. As demonstrated in the Figure, the data transmission between node 1 and node 3 show that the network works well. Under this circumstance, the node 1 requests a service, and the nodes 3 and 7 are service nodes, the simulated algorithm is to select an optimal node from service nodes 3 and 7 to communicate with the node 1.

Fig. 4 shows the average delay of packet transmission between 1 and 7. As shown in Fig. 4, a routing path is obtained from the simulation of manycast routing algorithm, on which the average delay of packet transmission remains a basically stable value, which shows the performance stability of this algorithm.
2) Delay jitter

Fig. 3: Animated demonstration of 30 nodes (During running) Fig. 3 shows that the simulated manycast routing program finally chooses the node 7 that can provide optimal service to communicate with the request node 1.
4.2 Xgraph curve 1) Average end-to-end propagation delay of data message

Fig. 5: Delay jitter. The results show that, under circumstances of network stability, the delay jitter on the routing path obtained from the simulation of manycast routing algorithm tends to be 0. Sequentially we can conclude that the manycast path based on this algorithm is a path with relatively good performance.
3) Throughput

Fig. 6: Throughput of the neighbor nodes The results show that the throughput of all nodes, except for the source node and the destination node, on the routing path obtained from the simulation of manycast routing algorithm remain a stable value. Once the routing is formed, there is

Fig. 4: End-to-end propagation delay of data message


little packet loss among different nodes, what is transmitted into equals to what is sent out.
4) Comparison algorithm with traditional routing

We sincerely thank Dr. Balagangadhar G. Bathula for his valuable guidance, suggestions and encouragement.

Fig. 7: Comparison of path finding time between Dijkstra and Manycast Fig. 7 shows that, under the same manycast transmission and the same network environment, when the number of nodes is small, the path finding time of manycast algorithm is relatively slower than that of Dijkstra. However, as the number of nodes increases, manycast shows more advantages. It not only uses less time compared with Dijkstra but also finds an optimal QoS path to provide services. When the path finding time and path fitness are comprehensively considered, the manycast QoS routing algorithm has good application perspective in manycast communication models.
5. Conclusion Since manycast is a new network model, many researchers are researching various routing protocols and routing methods to satisfy QoS demands in application layer and network layer. It is important for the application development of manycast routing software to simulate various QoS manycast routing algorithm in NS2 so as to implement the evaluation and analyses of algorithm performances. This shall be an important perspective in the research of manycast routing algorithm. 6. Acknowledgements

[1] R.Hinden, S.Deering IP version 6 Addressing Architecture in RFC2373, July 1998. [2] M. Tan, Y. Lin and Ch. Lu. “Simulation and results analyses of distance vector algorithm based on NS2”. Computer Simulation, vol. 4, 2005, pp: 165-168. [3] X. Wang and M. Zheng. “Research and application of network simulation based on NS2,” Computer Simulation, vol. 12, 2004, pp: 128-131. [4] B. G. Bathula and J. M. H. Elmirghani” Constraint-Based Anycasting Over Optical Burst Switched Networks”, VOL. 1, NO. 2/JULY 2009/ J. IEEE Transaction on OPT. COMMUN. NETW. [5] D. Simeonidou and R. Nejabati (editors), “Grid Optical Burst Switched Networks (GOBS)”, Global Grid Forum Draft, Jan 2006. [6] Pushpendra Kumar Chandra, Ashok Kumar Turuk, Bibhudatta SOO,” Survey on Optical Burst Switching in WDM Networks”, Intemational Conference on Industrial and Information Systems, IClIS 2009,28 - 31 December 20M, Sri Lanka. [7] Ayman Kaheel, Tamer Khattab, Amr Mohamed and Hussein Alnuweiri,” Quality-of-Service Mechanisms in IPover-WDM Networks”, IEEE Communications Magazine • December 2002 [8] Wei Tan, Y.H.Pan, Du Xu, Sheng Wan& Lemin Li, Zhizhong Zhang,” A QoS-based Batch Scheduling Algorithm in Optical oBurst Switching WIPM Networks” 07803-8647-7/04/5208.2004 IEEE, [9] P. DU, "QoS Control and Performance Improvement Methods for Optical Burst Switching Networks," PhD thesis, Department of Informatics, School of Multidisciplinary Sciences, The Graduate


University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), March 2007. [10] Admela Jukan,” Optical Control Plane For The Grid Community”, 3rd Quarter 2007, Volume 9, No. 3. [11] H. Alshaer J.M.H. Elmirghani,” Differentiated resilience services support in heterogeneous IP over wavelength division multiplexing networks”, IET Commun., 2010, Vol. 4, Iss. 6, pp. 645– 662. [12] Elio Salvadori, Roberto Battiti,” Quality of Service in IP over WDM: considering both service differentiation and transmission quality”, IEEE Communications Society, 2004 IEEE. [13] A. Kaheel, T. Khattab, A. Mohamed, and H. Alnuweiri. Quality-ofService Mechanisms in IP-over-WDM Networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, pages 38–43, December 2002. [14] M. Yoo, C. Qiao, and S. Dixit, “ QoS Performance of Optical Burst Switching in IP-Over-WDM Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Commun., vol. 18, pp. 2062- 2071, Oct. 2000. [15] B. Lannoo, Jan Cheyns, Erik Van Breusegem, Ann Ackaert, Mario Pickavet, and Piet Demeester, "A Performance Study of Different OBS Scheduler

Implementations," In Proceeding of Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Amsterdam, 2002. [16] C. Qiao and M. Yoo, “Optical Burst Switching (OBS) - A New Paradigm for an Optical Internet”, Journal of High Speed Networks, 8(1), Jan 1999. [17] V. Vokkarane, J. P. Jue, and S. Sitaraman, "Burst Segmentation: An Approach for Reducing Packet Loss in Optical Burst Switched Networks," In Proceeding of IEEE ICC 2002, pp. 26732677,2002. [18] Y. Xiong, Marc Vandenhoute, and Hakki C. Cankaya, "Control Architecture in Optical Burst Switched WDM Networks," IEEE JSAC, vol. 18(10), pp. 1838-1851, October 2000. [19] K. Dozer, C. Gauger, J .Spath, and S. Bodamer, "Evaluation of Reservation Mechanisms for Optical Burst Switching," AEU International Journal of Electonics and Communications, vol. 55(1), pp. 2017- 2022, January 2001.

36. Study of PSO in Cryptographic Security Issues

M.Tech., Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli.

Abstract: Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is a stochastic search technique, which has exhibited good performance across a wide range of applications. Encryption is an important issue in today’s communication since it is carried out over the air interface, and is more vulnerable to fraud and eavesdropping. In security issues, that

is cryptographic based encryption, it reduces the number of keys to be stored and distributed. Also it is difficult for the cryptanalyst to trace the original message.The time taken for encryption by Message is less. PSO has been successfully applied in many areas: function optimization, artificial neural network training, fuzzy system control.


Keywords: Cryptography, PSO, Security. 1. INTRODUCTION

Reynolds [12] proposed a behavioral model in which each agent follows three rules:

Cryptography is a fundamental building block for building information systems, and as we enter the so-called “information age” of global networks, ubiquitous computing devices, and electronic commerce, we can expect that the cryptography will become more and more important with time. Cryptography is the science of building new powerful and efficient encryption and decryption methods. It deals with the techniques for conveying information securely. The basic aim of cryptography is to allow the intended recipients of a message to receive the message properly while preventing eavesdroppers from understanding the message. A stream cipher encrypts one individual character in a plaintext message at a time, using an encryption transformation which varies with time [11]. Stream cipher is a symmetric key encryption where each bit of data is encrypted with each bit of key. The Crypto key used for encryption is changed randomly so that the cipher text produced is mathematically impossible to break. The change of random key will not allow any pattern to be repeated which would give a clue to the cracker to break the cipher text.

Separation: Each agent tries to move away from its neighbors if they are too close.

Alignment: Each agent steers towards the average heading of its neighbors.

Cohesion: Each agent tries to go towards the average position of its neighbors.

Kennedy and Eberhart [6] included a ‘roost’ in a simplified Reynolds-like simulation so that:

• • •

Each agent was attracted towards the location of the roost. Each agent ‘remembered’ where it was closer to the roost Each agent shared information with its neighbors (originally, all other agents) about its closest location to the roost.

2. PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION James Kennedy and Russell C. Eberhart [1] originally proposed the PSO algorithm for optimization. PSO is a population-based search algorithm. The particle swarm concept originated as a simulation of simplified social system. The original intent was to graphically simulate the choreography of bird of a bird block or fish school. However, it was found that particle swarm model can be used as an optimizer. Although originally adopted for balancing weights in neural networks [2].So PSO as soon became a very popular global optimizer.

Two are the key aspects by which we believe that PSO has become so popular: 1. The main algorithm of PSO is relatively simple (since in its original version, it only adopts one operator for creating new solutions, unlike most evolutionary algorithms) and its implementation is, therefore, straightforward. Additionally, there is plenty of source code of PSO available in the public domain. 2. PSO has been found to be very effective in a wide variety of applications, being able to produce very good results at a very low computational cost [3, 4]. In order to establish a common terminology, in the following we provide some definitions of several technical terms commonly used. • 282 Swarm: Population of the algorithm.

Particle: Member (individual) of the swarm. Each particle represents a potential solution to the problem being solved. The position of a particle is determined by the solution it currently represents. Pbest (personal best): Personal best position of a given particle, so far. That is, the position of the particle that has provided the greatest success (measured in terms of a scalar value analogous to the fitness adopted in evolutionary algorithms). lbest (local best):Position of the best particle member of the neighborhood of a given particle. gbest (global best): Position of the best particle of the entire swarm. Leader: Particle that is used to guide another particle towards better regions of the search space. Velocity (vector)): This vector drives the optimization process, that is, it determines the direction in which a particle needs to “fly” (move), in order to improve its current position.

• •

The Particle key generation is used to generate the key stream for encryption based on the character distribution in the plain text. The character in the key stream denotes the keys to be used for encryption. To ensure security the same sequence of keys is never used more than once [5]. The plain text and the characters in the key stream that are present in the plain text are replaced by the values what we evaluated. The plain text with a character code table will enhance the security of the system. Even if the characters in the key stream are found, the values will not be known to the hackers since an encoding operation is done. The plain text is divided into blocks of size of key stream length. The values of the character in the key stream form the keys for the first block. In this way reduces the computational load and the key storage.


Figure.1 shows the encryption and decryption process. The sender sends the plain text which is encrypted sing a set of keys by the encryption system. The cipher text is given to the decryption system which decrypts using the same set of keys and the plain text is given to the receiver.

PSO optimizes an objective function by undertaking population-based search .The collective behaviors of simple individuals interacting with their environment and each other. Someone called it as swarm intelligence. The population consists of potential solutions, named particles, which are a metaphor of birds in flocks. These particles are randomly initialized and freely 283

fly across the multi-dimensional search space. During flight, each particle updates its own velocity and position based on the best experience of its own and the entire population. The updating policy drives the particle swarm to move toward the region with the higher objective function value, and eventually all particles will gather around the point with the highest objective value. When PSO is applied to real-life problems, the function evaluations themselves are the most expensive part of the algorithm.

flying dynamics; R1 and R2 are random variables in the range [0,1]; C1 and C2 are factors controlling the related weighting of corresponding terms. The inclusion of random variables endows the PSO with the ability of stochastic searching. The weighting factors, C1 and C2, compromise the inevitable tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. After updating, Vi should be checked and secured within a pre-specified range to avoid violent random walking.
Position Updating:

The detailed operation of Particle Swarm Optimization is given below:

Assuming a unit time interval between successive iterations, the positions of all particles are updated according to: P1 = Pi +Vi After updating, Pi should be checked and limited to the allowed range.
Memory Updating:


The velocity and position of all particles are randomly set.
Velocity Updating:

At each iteration, the velocities of all particles
The pseudo code of the procedure is as follows For each particle Initialize particle END Do For each particle Calculate fitness value If the fitness value is better than the best fitness value (pBest) in history set current value as the new pBest End Choose the particle with the best fitness value of all the particles as the gBest For each particle Calculate particle velocity according equation (a) Update particle position according equation (b) End While maximum iterations or minimum error criteria is not attained

Update Pi,best and gi,best when condition is met. Pi,best = Pi gi,best =gi if f (Pi) > f (Pi,best) if f (gi) > f (gi,best)

where f(x) is the objective function subject to maximization. After finding the two best values, the particle updates its velocity and positions with following equation (a) and (b) . v [ ] = v [ ] + c1 * rand( ) * ( pbest [ ] present [ ] ) + c2 * rand( ) * ( gbest[ ] – present [ ] ) (a) present [ ] = persent [ ] + v [ ]

are updated according to: Vi = WVi + C1R1 (Pi,best –Pi) + C2R2 (gi,best –Pi) where Pi and Vi are the position and velocity of particle i, respectively; Pi,best and gi,best is the position with the ‘best’ objective value found so far by particle i and the entire population respectively; w is a parameter controlling the

v[] is the particle velocity, persent[] is the current particle (solution). pbest[] and gbest[] are defined as stated before. rand () is a random number between (0,1). c1, c2 are learning factors. Usually c1 = c2 = 2. Particles' velocities on each dimension are clamped to a maximum velocity Vmax. If the


sum of accelerations would cause the velocity on that dimension to exceed Vmax, which is a parameter specified by the user. Then the velocity on that dimension is limited to Vmax.
Termination Checking:

The algorithm repeats Velocity Updating, Position Updating, and Memory Updating until certain termination conditions are met, such as a predefined number of iterations or a failure to make progress for a certain number of iterations. Once terminated, the algorithm reports the values of gbest and f (gbest) as its solution.

leader that will guide the search. It also uses a mutation operator that acts both on the particles of the swarm, and on the range of each design variable of the problem to be solved. In more recent work, Toscano and Coello[11] adopted clustering techniques in order to divide the population of particles into several swarms in order to have a better distribution of solutions in decision variable space. In each sub-swarm, a PSO algorithm is executed and, at some point, the different sub-swarms exchange information: the leaders of each swarm are migrated to a different swarm to variate the selection pressure.
Zhiwen Zeng, Ya Gao, Zhigang Chen, Xiaoheng Deng[12]: As there are many malicious nodes spreading false information in P2P networks, it is of great importance to build a sound mechanism of trust in the P2P environments. To avoid the shortage of the existing trust model, this paper provides a Trust Path-Searching Algorithm based on PSO. In this algorithm, after initializing the particle swarm, each particle can update its speed and location according to its information, and then produce a new particle with better value. Doing that process continuously, implementing the global search of the space, finally, we can get a better overall value, which is the better trust path in the networks. The simulation results show that it can get the overall optimum solution in a relatively short time after many times of iteration, and the more times it iterates, the better the trust path is. It can be proved that to a certain extent, the algorithm can prevent the fraud. A. M. Chopde, S. Khandelwal, R. A. Thakker, M. B. Patil, K. G. Anil [15]:Efficient DC parameter extraction technique for MOS Model 11, level 1100 (MM11) is outlined. The parameters are extracted step-by-step depending upon the characteristics where they play a major role. We have used Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) to extract parameters for NMOS device with 65 nm technology. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the first application of PSO algorithm for MOSFET parameter extraction. It has been observed that PSO algorithm performs much better as compared to GA in terms of accuracy

There have been several proposals to extend PSO to handle multiple objectives. We will review next the most representative of them:
Ray and Liew[6]: This algorithm uses Pareto dominance and combines concepts of evolutionary techniques with the particle swarm. The approach uses crowding to maintain diversity and a multilevel sieve to handle constraints. Hu and Eberhart[7]: In this algorithm, only one objective is optimized at a time using a scheme similar to lexicographic ordering. In further work, Hu et al.[8] adopted a secondary population (called “extended memory”) and introduced some further improvements to their dynamic neighborhood PSO approach. Fieldsend and Singh[9]: This approach uses an unconstrained elite archive (in which a special data structure called “dominated tree” is adopted) to store the nondominated individuals found along the search process. The archive interacts with the primary population in order to define local guides. This approach also uses a “turbulence” (or mutation) operator. Coello et al.[10]: This approach uses a global repository in which every particle deposits its flight experiences. Additionally, the updates to the repository are performed considering a geographically-based system defined in terms of the objective function values of each individual; this repository is used by the particles to identify a


and consistency. The proposed extraction strategy has been verified for the same technology for 150 nm and 90 nm devices.
Heinz Muhlenbein and Thilo Mahnig[16]For discrete optimization, the two basic search principles prevailing are stochastic local search and population based search. Local search has difficulties to get out of local optima. Here variable neighborhood search outperforms stochastic local search methods which accept worse points with a certain probability. Population based search performs best on problems with sharp gaps. It is outperformed by stochastic local search only when there are many paths to good local optima. 7. CONCLUSION

[6] Ray, T.,Liew ,k.: A Swarm Metaphor for Multiobjective Design Optimization. Engineering Optimization 34(200) 141-153. [7] Hu, X., Eberhart, R.: Multi-objective Optimization Using Dynamic Neighborhood Particle Swarm Optimization. In: Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC’2002). Volume 2., Piscataway, New Jersey, IEEE Service Center(2000) 1677-1681. [8] Hu,X., Eberhart, R.c., Shi, Y.: Particle Swarm with Extended Memory for Multi-objective Optimization. In:2003 IEEE Swarm Intelligence Symposium Proceedings, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA,IEEE Service Center (2003) 193-197. [9] Fieldsend, J.E., Singh, S.: A Multi-objective Algorithm based upon Particle Swarm Optimisation, an Efficient Data Structure and Turbulence. In: Proceeding of the 2002 U.K. Workshop on Computational Intelligence,Birmingham, UK92002) 37-44. [10] Coello Coello, C.A., Toscano Pulido, g., Salazar Lechuga, M.: Handling Multiple Objectives With Particle Swarm Optimization. IEEE Transaction on Evolutionary Computation 8(2004) 256-279. [11] Biham, E. and Seberry, J.”Py (Roo): A Fast and Secure Stream Cipher”. EUROCRYPT'05 Rump Session, at the Symmetric Key Encryption Workshop (SKEW 2005), 26-27 May 2005. [12] Zhiwen Zeng, Ya Gao, Zhigang Chen, Xiaoheng Deng, "Trust Path-Searching Algorithm Based on PSO," Young Computer Scientists, International Conference for, pp. 1975-1979, 2008 The 9th International Conference for Young Computer Scientists, 2008. [13] Kennedy, J., and Eberhart, R. C. (1995). Particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (Perth, Australia), IEEE Service Center, Piscataway, NJ, IV: 1942-1948. [14] Ozcan, E., and Mohan, C. K. (1998). The Behavior of Particles in a Simple PSO System. ANNIE 1998 (in review).

In this paper, the Study of PSO and its Cryptographic security issues are considered in it .At some point in the near future; we believe that there will be an important growth in the number of applications that adopt PSOs as their search engine.


[1] James Kennedy and Russell C. Eberhart. Particle swarm optimization. In proceedings of the 1995 IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, Pages 1942-1948, Piscataway, New Jersey, 1995.IEEE Service Center. [2] Russell C.Eberhart, Roy Dobbins, and Patrick K. Simpson. Computational Intelligence PC Tools. Morgan Kaugmann Publishers, 1996. [3] Andries P.Engelbrecht. Fundamentals of Computational Swarm Intelligence. John Wiley & Sons,2005. [4] James Kennedy and Russell C. Eberhart. Swarm Intelligence. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, California, 2001. [5] B.Schneier, Applied Cryptography, Second Edition protocols, algorithms and source code in C. pp 15-16 John Wiley and Sons, 1996.


[15] R. van Langevelde, A.J. Scholten and D.B.M. Klaassen, “Physical Background of MOS Model 11,” Nat.Lab. Unclassified Report, April 2003. [16] E.H.Aarts, H..M. Korst, and P.J.Van Laarhoven, Simulated annealing, in E.Aarts and J.K.Lenstra, editors, Local Search in Combinatorial Optimization, pages 121-136, Chichester, 1997, Wiley. [17] Peter J. Angeline. Using selection to improve particle swarm optimization. In Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary

Computation, pages 84–89, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 1998. IEEE Press. [18] Ioan C. Trelea.The particle swarm optimization algorithm: Convergence analysis and parameter selection.Information Processing Letters, 85(6):317–325, 2003.

37. Enhancing Iris Biometric Recognition System with Cryptography and Error Correction Codes
J.Martin Sahayaraj,PG Scholar,Prist University,Thanjavur-613403,Tamilnadu. jjmartin48@,Ph.No:9941165641
Abstract—Major challenge on iris and most biometric identifier is the intra user variability in the acquired identifiers. Iris of the same person captured in different time may differ due to the signal noise of the environment or the iris camera. In our proposed approach, Error Correction Code, ECC is therefore introduced to reduce the variability and noise of the iris data. In order to find best system performance, the approach is tested using 2 different distance metric measurement functions for the iris pattern matching identification process which are Hamming Distance and Weighted Euclidean Distance. An experiment with the CASIA version 1.0 iris database indicates that our results can assure a higher security with a low false rejection or false acceptance rate.

I. INTRODUCTION In today society, security has been a major concern and is becoming increasingly important. Cryptography has become one of the most effective way and has been recognized as the most popular technology for the security purposes. History shows that human can remember only short password [1], most of the user even tend to choose password that can be

easily guessed using dictionary or brute force attack.This limitation has triggered the utilization of biometric to produce strong cryptographic key. Biometric is unique to each individual and it is reliable. For years, securities to the world are mostly based on what one knows such as password, PIN, or a security question such as mother’s maiden name. This security feature is easily forgotten, stolen, shared and cracked. Biometric is a measurement of the human body biological or physical characteristics to determine the human identity of (who you are?). There are different types of biometric technologies available today which include fingerprints, face, iris/retina, hand geometry, signature, DNA, keystroke, tongue and etc. Biometric offered an inextricably link from the authenticator to its owner, which cannot done by passwords or token, since it cannot be lent or stolen [2]. Biometric is used to enhance the privacy and security weaknesses exist in the current security technology such as simple password or PIN authentication. Another advantage of biometric is that it can detect and prevent multiple ID’s. Although biometric is unique among all individuals, it is not possible to use biometric as a direct cryptography key for the


system due to the difference bits occur in the template during every authentication. Biometric images or templates are variable by nature which means each new biometric sample is always different. Noises and error may occur in the captured image due to burst or background error and hence the

generated template is different during every authentication. There is also awareness concerning the privacy and the security of personal information due to the storage of the biometric templates. The loss or compromise of biometric templates may end up to unusable biometric. Human physiological biometric is hardly change or do modification if the image template has been stolen or compromised. This paper presented an ideal biometric authentication system which fulfils the important properties such as non-repudiation, privacy, and security. The important idea to achieve these properties is by combining both the iris biometrics and password. The intra personal variation (noises and error occurred in the genuine iris code) is solved by introducing the Error Correction Codes (ECC). The Error Correction Codes helps to correct errors on the genuine identification making the threshold value to be smaller which significantly helps in improving the user separation of the impostor verification. In this paper, two different distance metric function used in the template matching process will be compared. The next section provides the review of the literature work, followed by the methodology and experimental results. Finally, the last section gives the conclusion remarks and the future work of this paper. II. LITERATURE REVIEW A. Biometric Technologies Biometric has become a very popular topic and gained high interest from the researcher for around 25 years. Biometric refers to the identification and verification of a human identity by measuring and analyzing the physiological or the biological information of a human. The term “biometric” come from Greeks gives the meaning of “the measurement of life”. In recent century, there is a wide varieties of identification and authentication options for the security which is something you have (key, smartcard, ID badges) and something you know (password, PIN, security questions). So why do most security professionals will still choose biometrics to be the “best” method for the identification and authentication purpose? The answer is biometric come from the nature and it is the determination of “who you are”. The uniqueness of biometric is an undeniable reality known by all. Biometric can be basically divided into two categories which are structural (face, hand geometry or veins patterns, fingerprints, iris patterns, retina patterns, DNA) and behavioral (voice, signature, keystroke). The diagram is shown in Figure 1.


F a c e Fi ng Structural ge P rp rin

B. Error Correction Codes Error Correction Codes are widdely used in the field of

t P a


l m Iri s/
/R eti na

communication channels. Role of the Error Correction Codes is to correct errors that could occurr during the transmission over a noisy channel. Changing onee bit in the ciphertext of a good cryptography system may caause the plaintext to be unreadable. Therefore, a way of dettecting and correcting the error occur is needed. To overcomme the noisiness of the biometric data, Error Correctionn Codes technique has therefore been suggested. Dependiing on the type of error occur on the biometric identifier, errror correction codes were use to eliminates the differences bettween the enrollment and verification readings [4]. Reed Soloomon Code is introduced by Irving Reed and Gus Solomon on January 21, 1959 on their paper title “Polynomial Coddes over Certain Finite

D V o i c e Si g n n at u r e K e yy st ro k e Fig. 1. Different types of biometriic COMPARISON OF VARIOUS BIOMETRIC TECHNNOLOGIES[1]

Each biometric has its own strength and weaknesses, Jain have identified seven factors of the bbiometric[3]. The comparison of various biometric accordinng to these seven factors is shown in Table 1.











Fields” [5]. Reed Solomon Codes is a block based error correcting codes which is able to straaight forward decode and have an excellent burst correction caapability. This block code described by a tuple (n,k,t) where n is the length of Reed Solomon codes, k is the length of tthe message, and t is the number of error to be corrected. C. Template Matching
There are several matching methhod for image biometric

Fingerprint M Hand Geometry Keystroke
Hand veins



M H M M M L Permanence Collectability




recognition. Some example of the fefeature matching methods are such as Euclidean Distance [7]], Absolute Distance [7], Standard Related coefficient [7][8][[9], Neural Network [10] and etc. In this research, two diffeerent matching distances metric which is Hamming Distance and Weighted Euclidean Distance are being applied to the ssystem and each of their performance to corresponding threshhold value is recorded and evaluated. D. Past Works The earliest history work on iris biiometrics is by Daugman. The concept of Daugman has becommes a standard reference model for the researcher in this parrticular field [11]. There have been several researches on integgrating cryptography into biometric in these recent years. Thee major challenge that we identify on biometric cryptography is the intra user variability in the acquired biometric identifiers. Traditional cryptography method such as RSA, AES or DES is not ideal or suitable to use for storing the bioometric templates in and encrypted form and perform the mmatching directly. Minor changes in the bits of the featuree set extracted from the biometric may lead to a huge differrence in the results of the encrypted feature. To solve the above problems, some techniques have been introduced by several researchers. These techniques can be basically caategorized into three types which is Cancellable biometric, Keyy Binding Cryptosystem, and Key Generating Cryptosystem. Cancellable biometric possessed tthe characteristic of that if a biometric template is being comproomised; a new one can be issues using different transform [12]. In this paper [12], Davida store the error correction bbits in the database that might have lead to some leakage off the user biometric data. The assumption of iris code bit cchanges among different




H L L H Acceptability Circumvention

Iris Retinal scan H Signature Voice Facial thermograph Odor H DNA Gait Ear Canal








H=High, M= Medium, L=Low





Unique ness


Performance Performance











presentation of the iris of a person in this work is only 10%. However the fact is 30% bits of the iris code could be different due to the presentations of the same iris [21]. [13] and [14] are also referred to cancellable biometric, which uses one way transformation to convert the biometric signal into irreversible form. Soutar et al. [15] proposed a key binding algorithm in the fingerprint matching system. The user fingerprints image is bind with the cryptographic key during the time of enrolment and the key is only retrieved during successful authentication. Another well known key binding cryptosystem is proposed by Juels and Wattenberg in the Fuzzy Commitment Scheme [16]. Key Generation from voice based on a user spoken password is also introduced in [17]. Another similar approach using key generation scheme based on palmprints feature is also introduced in [19]. Hao et al.
[18] also proposed a key regeneration scheme on iris biometric by combining the Hadamard Code and Reed

B. Enrollment Process

Solomon Error Correction Code. In this scheme, the biometric matching problem is transformed into an error correction issue. The shortcoming of their system is of low security [20]. Hence, in order to improve the security and increase the total success rate of the system, we propose a secured iris biometric template using iris biometric and passwords. In our approach, Error Correction Code, ECC is introduce and adopted in our system to reduce the variability and minimize the signal noise of the biometric data. Two different template matching distance metric will also being applied and experimented for results. Details of the approach are discussed in Section III. III. METHODOLOGY This section discussed the overall process for the iris biometric verification. It consists of two main phases which is the enrollment and verification process. Dataset and the template matching distance metric that is use for the experimental result will be describe in detail in this particular section. A. Datasets Datasets used for the experimentation is CASIA Iris Database Version 1.0. The Chinese Academy of Sciences – Institute of Automation (CASIA) eye image database version 1.0 contains 756 grayscale iris images taken from 108 candidates and with 7 different images for each candidate collected in two sessions. Image captured is especially for iris recognition research using specialized digital optics developed by the National Laboratory if Pattern Recognition, China and also educational purpose. All iris images are 8 bit gray-level JPEG files, collected under near infrared illumination.

Fig. 2 Enrollment Process Diagram

The flow of the enrollment process is shown in the Figure 2. The enrollment steps are described below: Step 1: Iris is extracted through iris Segmentation, Iris Normalization and Feature Extraction process to generate the iris template and to produce the iris binary code. Step 2: The binary code for the iris image will then undergo the Reed Solomon Code Encoding Process. Step 3: A RS Code is then generated after the enrolment process. Step 4: The RS Code is then encrypted with the enrolment password using Advanced Encryption Standard Cryptography Algorithm to generate a cipher text. Step 5: The generated cipher text is then stored into the database. C. Verification Process


Fig. 3 Verification Process Diagram


The flow of the verification process is shown in the Figure 3 and the steps to verify are described as below. Step 1: A tested iris image is extracted using iris segmentation, normalization, and feature extraction to obtain the iris binary code and the iris template of the testing iris image Step 2: A password is required to authenticate the user, and this password is use to decrypt with the cipher text obtain from the database using AES decryption process to obtain the RS code. Step 3: The RS code is then use to decode with the testing iris template code to obtain the enrolled iris template code
using Reed Solomon decoding process. Reed Solomon

distance metrics are being applied for this iris recognition approach. The distance metric used is Hamming Distance and Weighted Euclidean Distance. 1. Hamming Distance Hamming Distance is a distance measurement metric which gives a measure of how many same bits occur between two given bit patterns. Comparing the bit pattern A and B, HD is calculated as the total of different bits over the total number of bits in the bit pattern, n. The equation is shown in (1). =


decoding process is also used to correct the error of the testing iris template code in this process. Step 4: The both iris template code is then undergoes the template matching process using Distance Metric Function (Hamming Distance, Weighted Euclidean Distance). Step 5: If the iris template is found match under a corresponding threshold value, the user will be authenticate, otherwise the system will be exit. D. Reed Solomon Code

2. Weighted Euclidean Distance Another distance measurement metric used in this research for the pattern matching is Weighted Euclidean Distance. The minimum value obtained from the Weighted Euclidean Distance determines whether the two iris pattern is match. Equation of the Weighted Euclidean Distance is shown in (2). ( ) = ( ) (2) F. Performance Measure The False Rejection Rate (FRR) measures the probability of an enrolled individual not being identified by the system. Equation to determine the FRR is shown in (3). = (3)

Fig. 4 Diagram of Reed Solomon Error Correction Process on Iris Verification

Figure 4 shows the diagram of Reed Solomon Error Correction Process on the Iris Verification. The difference bit of the two iris images is treated as the corrupted codeword
(noisy code) and is corrected during the decoding process. There are several important parameters in Reed Solomon Coding algorithm, i.e. number of bit per symbol, m; length of Reed Solomon codes, n; length of the message, k and the

The False Acceptance Rate (FAR) measures the probability of an individual being wrongly identified as another individual using equation (4). =

number of error to be corrected, t.

There is another performance measurement which is called Total Success Rate (TSR) is obtained from FAR and FRR. It can also represent the verification rate of the iris cryptography system and is calculated as follow [22]. = 1 IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS There are many different template matching method can be
used for pattern recognition purposes. For this research, two

m =? (Number of bit per symbol) n = 2m – 1 k = n – 2t
n represent length of Reed Solomon codes k represent the length of the message t represent the number if error to be corrected.


In our research, the length of RS code, n is 210– 1 = 1023, t is 250, and k= 523. That is the (1023, 523,250) RS coding algorithm is selected. E. Template Matching Distance Metric


. The experiment has been performed by conducting altogether 648(108×6) genuine identification and 80892(108×107×7) imposter verification to show the False Rejection Rate (FRR) and False Acceptance Rate (FAR) with

its corresponding threshold value. The approach has been implemented and results were analyzed using MATLAB 7.0. The set of images used for testing is obtained from CASIA Database version 1.0.



Threshold value 0 0.05 0 0.1 0 0.15 0 0.2 0 0.25 0 0.3 0 0.35 0.4 0.028 0.45 10.2 0 0.5 99.4 0

False Acceptance Rate, FAR% 0

False Rejection Rate, FRR% 100 93.17 6.83 77.19 55.55 44.45 33.52 15 85 6.43 93.57 2.92 0.39 99.58

Total Success Rate, TSR % 0 22.81 66.48 97.08 89.8 0.6


On the other hand, Table III above shows the FAR and FRR on different threshold values for the measurement using Weighted Euclidean Distance. The result shows that 30 gives the best FAR and FRR value. Comparing both of the results obtained, Hamming Distance with Total Success Rate of 97.08% is better compared to Weighted Euclidean Distance with Total Success Rate of 96%. Figure 5 and 6, shows the histogram of Hamming Distance while figure 7 and 8 shows the histogram of Weighted Euclidean Distance between the iris codes for both genuine and imposter testing. From the graph, we can see the range different between threshold value for genuine and imposter is large making it easier to differentiate between both imposter and genuine. This is due to the powerful correction capability of the Error Correction Codes in minimizing the intra variance of the iris.

Table II shows the FAR and FRR on different threshold values for the measurement using Hamming Distance. From the above result, 0.35 gives the best FAR and FRR and hence, it is chosen as the threshold value for this proposed iris cryptography system. Although threshold value of 0.4 gives result of higher total success rate, it is not chosen because the system not allowed successful decryption from imposter, therefore the FAR must be 0.

Fig. 5 Hamming Distance Between Iris Code for Genuine Testing

Threshold value

False Acceptance Rate, FAR% 0 10 0
15 0 20 0 25 0

False Rejection Rate, FRR%

Total Success Rate, TSR % 1.4 49.85 9 23.3 5 15.28 7.72 9 4.01 8 . 5 2 1 0 0 0 09 08 0. 09 06 0 0


30 35 0.12 2.16 40 4.24 1.24 45 19.66 1.08 50 40.85 0.77 55 59.39 0.31 60 73.43 0.15 65 82.13 70 88.13 75 92.22 80 94.9 85 96.89 90 97.86



50.15 76.7 84.72 92.28 96 97.72 94.52 79.26 58.38 40.3 26.42 17.87 11.87 7.78 5.1 3.11 2.14 1.48 1.04

Fig. 6 Hamming Distance Between Iris Code for Imposter Testing

Fig. 7 Weighted Euclidean Distance Between Iris Code for Genuine Testing


Fig. 8 Weighted Euclidean Distance Between Iris Code for Imposter Testing

V. CONCLUSION The main aim of this research is to produce a robust and reliable iris recognition approach by minimize the intra variance (FRR) and maximize the inter variance of the iris. Conventional biometric system store templates directly in database, hence if stolen, they will lose permanently and become unusable in that system and other system based on that biometric. In our approach, an iris biometric template is secured using iris biometric and passwords. Error Correction Code, ECC is also introduce to reduce the variability and noisy of the biometric data. The Error Correction Code used in this research is Reed Solomon Codes. Reed Solomon Codes is proven as a very powerful cryptography error correction codes and very suitable for iris biometric cryptography Using Reed Solomon Codes, the FRR is reduced from our previous work [23] of 26% to around 2.92% which enhanced the recognition performance of the iris. Both of the performance is nearly the same between two of the distance metric functions. Among the two distance function which is Hamming Distance and Weighted Euclidean Distance, we found that Hamming Distance provides the best result. Advanced Encryption System (AES) is utilized to assure a more secured transaction on the password. With the combination of password usage, the security of the iris biometric authentication has also increase to a higher level. The security of AES has been identified as a world standard
algorithm that has been used for many protections on

sensitive information. Since this is the preliminary works, only one dataset has been used for the experimental results, different dataset of the iris will be tested in the future. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to acknowledge the funding of MOSTI (Sciencefund) Malaysia, and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia under the project title Iris Biometric for Identity Document. Portions of the research in this paper use the CASIA iris image database. REFERENCES
[1] Kuo, C., Romanosky, S., and Cranor, L. F., ”Human selection of mnemonic phrase-based passwords”. In Proceedings of the Second

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Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,
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Teoh, A.B.J., D.C.L. Ngo, and A. Goh, Personalised cryptographic key
generation based on FaceHashing. Computers & Security, 2004. 23(7):

p. 606-614. Jain A.K., Bolle R. and Pankanti S., “Biometrics: Personal Identification in Networked Society,” eds. Kluwer Academic, 1999. Sheikh Ziauddin, Matthew N. Dailey, Robust iris verification for key management, Pattern Recognition Letters, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 4 January 2010, ISSN 0167-8655 Reed I. S. and Solomon G., “Polynomial Codes Over Certain Finite Fields” SIAM Journal of Applied Mathematics, Volume 8, pp. 300-304, 1960 Bowyer, K.W., K. Hollingsworth, and P.J. Flynn, Image understanding
for iris biometrics: A survey. Computer Vision and Image


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Understanding, 2008. 110(2): p. 281-307. Pattraporn A., Nongluk C., “An Improvement of Iris Pattern Identification Using Radon Transform,” ECTI Transactions On Computer And Information Technology, vol. 3, No.1 May 2007, pp. 45–50. Wildes, R.P., Asmuth, J.C., Green, G.L., Hsu, S.C., Kolczynski, R.J., Matey, J.R., McBride, S.E.: A System for Automated Iris Recognition. In: Proc. of the 2nd IEEE Workshop on Applicant Computer Vision, pp. 121–128 (1994) Wildes, R.P.: Iris Recognition: An Emerging Biometric Technology. Proceedings of IEEE 85, 1348–1363 (1997) Chen, C., Chu, C.: Low Complexity Iris Recognition Based on Wavelet Probabilistic Neural Networks. In: Proceeding of International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, pp. 1930–1935 (2005) John Daugman, Biometric personal identification system based on iris analysis. U.S. Patern No. 5,291,560, March 1994. Davida G. I., Frankel Y., and Matt B. J., “On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification,” in Proc. 1998 IEEE Symp. Privacy and Security, pp. 148–157. Ratha N. K., Chikkerur S., Connell J. H., and Bolle R. M., “Generating cancelable fingerprint templates,“ IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol.29, no. 2, pp. 561-572, April 2007. Savvides M., Kumar B. V., and Khosla P., “Cancelable biometric filters for face recognition,” in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR04), vol. 3, August 2004, pp. 922–925. Soutar C., Roberge D., Stojanov S. A., Gilroy R., and Vijaya B. V. K. Kumar, “Biometric encryption using image processing,” in Proc. SPIE, Optical Security and Counterfeit Deterrence Techniques II, vol. 3314, 1998, pp. 178–188. Juels A. and Wattenberg M., “A Fuzzy Commitment Scheme,” in Proceedings of Sixth ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, Singapore, November 1999, pp. 28–36. Monrose F., Reiter M., Li Q., and Wetzel S., “Cryptographic key generation from voice,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, May 2001, pp. 202–213. Hao F., Anderson R., and Daugman J., “Combining crypto with biometrics effectively,” IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol. 55, no. 9, pp.1081–1088, 2006. Xiangqian Wu, Kuanquan Wang, David Zhang, “A cryptosystem based on palmprint feature,” ICPR 2008, pp. 1-4. Wu, X., Qi, N., Wang, K., and Zhang, D., “ A Novel Cryptosystem Based on Iris Key Generation”. In Proceedings of the 2008 Fourth international Conference on Natural Computation - Volume 04 (October 18 - 20, 2008). ICNC. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, 53-56. Daugman J. G., “High confidence visual recognition of persons by a test of statistical independence,” IEEE Trans. Patterm Anal. Machine Intell., vol. 15, pp. 1148–1161, Nov. 1993. Tee C., Andrew T., Michael G., David N., “Palmprint Recognition with PCA and ICA”, Faculty of Information Sciences and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka, Malaysia, Palmerston North, November 2003. Sim Hiew Moi, Nazeema Binti Abdul Rahim, Puteh Saad, Pang Li Sim, Zalmiyah Zakaria, Subariah Ibrahim, "Iris Biometric Cryptography for Identity Document," 2009 International Conference of Soft Computing and Pattern Recognition, IEEE Computer Society Conference on, pp. 736-741, Dec 2009.

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38. The New Perspectives in Mobile Banking
P.Sathya1, R.Gobi2, Dr.E.Kirubakaran3 sathyamca86@gmail.com1, gobi86@gmail.com2, e_kiru@yahoo.com3 Lecturer1, Research Scholar2, Sr. Deputy General Manager3 Jayaram College of Engg. & Tech1, Bharathidasan University2, BHEL Tiruchirappalli3

Abstract: Today the mobile is a way of life. Mobile Phones have brought the world to your fingertips and promise a revolution in communication. The mobile offers ‘anytime, anywhere’ convenience not only for communication but increasingly for mobile financial services - even for parts of the world where traditional banking does not exist. The number of worldwide mobile phone users who perform mobile banking will double from 200 million this year to 400 million in 2013, according to Juniper Research. This paper will examine current mobile banking technology adoption and deployment trends, and provide a roadmap to achieve strategic value from the new perspectives of mobile banking. 1. Introduction: Demand for mobile business technology is growing at a tremendous rate. Using mobile phones as multi-functional computing, entertainment and communication devices is certainly the new trend in the wireless world. Today mobile

phones that integrate voice, video, music, gaming, and web browser in one device are common, mobile phones are increasingly resemble personal computers in terms of functionality. Such devices will undoubtedly provide users with unprecedented convenience to users, and could be disruptive to certain segments of the business oriented industries such as digital purchases from mobile devices, mobile banking, mobile ticketing, mobile advertising and mobile shopping. However, as an extension of existing technologies (computers and personal digital assistants) and their services are similar to mobile in the sense that they are more evolutionary than revolutionary, and more a supplement than a substitute to existing technologies and services The advantage of mobile penetration enables mobile operators to provide value added service like mobile banking, location based services and etc. The rapid pace of advancement in mobile commerce applications makes a revolutionary change in the banking services by offering anytime anywhere

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banking. Mobile banking is the service that allows a mobile client to request and receive information about a personal account, or to transfer funds between accounts using the personal mobile phone. As mobile services and applications have become a significant part of individual and organizational life in the last two decades, research on mobile business has also flourished. A wide spectrum of Mobile/branchless banking models is evolving. However, no matter what business model, if mobile banking is being used to attract low-income populations in often rural locations, the business model will depend on banking agents, i.e., retail or postal outlets that process financial transactions on behalf telecoms or banks.

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2. Mobile Banking:

Mobile banking is the service that allows a mobile client to request and receive information about a personal account, or to transfer funds between accounts using the personal mobile phone. The earliest mobile banking services were offered via SMS. With the introduction of the first primitive smart phones with WAP support enabling the use of the mobile web in 1999, the first European banks started to offer mobile banking on this platform to their customers. Today most of the banks offer the application based solutions which are interactive solutions. In mbanking, the customer not only carries out banking transactions but also interacts with the bank databases, files, records etc. indirectly to get relevant details. Since data at customer end and databases at server end is very sensitive and the mobile devices are vulnerable to threats and attacks, security is a major area of concern. Due to the wide customer acceptance, mobile banking is now widely used. It is with these devices that the users can perform portable computing and gain instant access to their account. With the help of mobile devices and technologies, people are able to access services like website surfing, m-banking, m-shopping and voice-mail etc. anywhere anytime While it is important to understand the factors that influences user adoption or acceptance of mobile services and application. In the recent years, the third generation and beyond 3G mobile telecommunications networks have been widely deployed or experimented. These networks offer large bandwidths and high transmission speeds to support wireless data services besides traditional voice services. For circuit-switched voice services, mobile operators have provided security protection including authentication and encryption. On the other hand such as mobile banking are likely to be offered by the third parties (e.g., banks) who cannot trust the security mechanisms of mobile operators.

Some of the reasons for preference of mbanking over e-banking are No place restriction; High penetration coefficient; fully personalized; Availability. However, in general, the mobile banking has been well received as it increases the convenience of the customers and reduces banking costs. The banking services are divided into two groups of mobile agency services and mobile banking services. Mobile banking services are the same as the conventional banking services and are generally divided into the following four categories: 1. Notifications and alerts: These services are offered to inform the customer of the transactions done or to be done with his account. 2. Information: Information on the transactions and statements are sent in specific periods. 3. Applications: An application is sent by the customer to the service provider regarding his account or a special transaction. 4. Transfer: Transfer of money between different accounts of the customer or payment to third parties. As mentioned earlier, there are two types of services offered in m-banking, i.e. A) notifications and alerts and B) information, in which the bank sends messages containing information or notification needed by the customer. In developing countries, the role of the mobile phone is more extensive than in developed countries, as it helps bridge the digital divide. The mobile phone is the one device that people already carry at all times, and services beyond voice and text messaging are booming all over the globe. But cost is an important factor, as new services will be widely adopted, but pricing must be carefully considered, since Internet users have come to view the service as free. 3. State of the art of m-banking: The diagram above reflects a typical mobile banking architecture. It would require integration into an MNO (Mobile Network Operator) to facilitate the usage of the network’s bearer channels and in order to access the consumer’s mobile phone.

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4. Hackers Gateway in m-banking:

Fig.1 Overall architecture of M-Banking The mobile banking infrastructure thus sits in a similar technical environment to the banks ATMs, POS, branch and internet banking service offerings. The mobile banking channel can be delivered to the consumer through two bearer or application environments. Client-side applications are applications that reside on the consumers SIM card or on their actual mobile phone device. Client-side technologies include J2ME and SAT. Server-side applications are developed on a server away from the consumer mobile phone or SIM card. Serverside technologies include USSD2, IVR, SSMS and WAP. The bank would only need to select one of these Access channel for a consumer from their mobile phone, such as SSMS, WAP, USSD2, etc. , or bearer channel strategies, for implementation. However, in some markets it would be wise to implement more than one bearer channel in order to manage consumer take up and the risk associated with non-take up of a specific technology. In client-side applications, the consumer data is typically stored on the application, or entered by the consumer, and encrypted by the application in the SIM or handset. In server-side applications, consumer data that enables the processing of transactions, such as account/card details, are typically stored in a secured environment, on a server at a bank or at their allocated service provider.

The mobile bearer channels have been seen to be ‘in-the clear’ largely due to the understanding that your data travels across the air (literally) and thus can’t possibly be safe. The concerns are that a fraudster is able to tap-in or listen in to your call, or data transmission, and record the data for malicious or fraudulent reasons. The facts prove differently. GSM security is as strong, and if not stronger, than that of your traditional fixed line communications. It would take money, time and effort to be able to actually penetrate the GSM network, steal data, and then use it fraudulently. Data carried across the mobile network is protected by the standard GSM security protocols at the communication layer. The subscriber identity is also protected across this chain. The risk in transporting data across the GSM channel may be found in the number of stops the data makes before reaching the bank. Unlike fixed line communication, data being carried across the mobile network jumps from one base station to the next, which means that the chain of encrypted communication is broken. The data is also unencrypted when it hits the network operator. Thus, there is a broken encryption between the consumer and the bank. It therefore seems not feasible for a fraudster to expend his money and energies on attempting to break the communication layer. The various security solutions and their issues in the mobile applications are discussed below Amir Herzberg has discussed some of the challenges and opportunities involved secure payments in banking transactions. He proposed a modular architecture for secure transactions. This architecture consists of three independent processes. In the first process, the device identifies the user through physical possession, passwords or biometrics. The second process is authentication, which states that, the mobile provider authenticates the transaction request

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from the device via either subscriber identification or cryptographic mechanisms. The third process is secure performance, according to which the transaction is performed by the mobile transaction provider. The above processes do not provide the secure implementation procedure of mobile banking transaction. Buchanan et al. propose an approach, combining the SET protocol with the TLS/WTLS protocols in order to enforce the security services over the WAP 1.X for the payment in the mcommerce. Kungpisdan et al. propose a payment protocol for account-based mobile payment. It employs symmetric-key operations which require lower computation at all engaging parties than existing payment protocols. In addition, the protocol also satisfies transaction security properties provided by public-key based payment protocols such like SET. The Mobile Banking solution provides end-toend security and confidentiality of data by ciphering information in the SIM for secure transfer over the mobile phone, the GSM network, the operator’s infrastructure and the connection to the financial institution. The information entered by the user is collected and encrypted by the applet residing in the tamper-proof SIM card. 5. Regulatory Impact: Some regulators appear to be pro-active in supporting mobile banking, as well as open to discussion on how relevant regulations can be implemented or existing regulation can be changed to support implementations, yet still protect the consumers. The regulatory impact results from the actual application of the technology. When a bank decides to add the mobile option, it will need to consider the necessary KYC, AML, branchless banking (agency), electronic money, and data privacy regulations that are relevant to the implementation. There may also be a need to assess the potential risk of fraud and to make

provision for it, especially in the light of the Basle II implementation. As a first step towards building a mobile banking framework in India to ensure a smooth rollout of mobile banking in the country, the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) have reached an understanding on its regulation. Early rollout of mobile banking will speed up the government’s plans towards financial inclusion. These guidelines are meant only for banking customers – within the same bank and across the banks. It would be the responsibility of the banks offering mobile banking service to ensure compliance to these guidelines. To ensure inter-operability between banks and mobile service providers, it is recommended that banks may adopt the message formats being developed by Mobile Payments Forum of India (MPFI). Message formats such as ISO 8583, which is already being used by banks for switching of mobile transactions, may be suitably adapted for communication between switches where the source and destination are credit card/ debit cards/pre-paid cards. 6. Mobile Banking Vendor The Mobile Banking Vendor plays the pivotal role of integrating the bank and the MNO and technically delivering the application to the consumer. The Mobile Banking environment requires both a bank and a MNO to deliver a transactional or informational banking service to a consumer through the mobile phone. In this description, neither the bank, nor the MNO, can deliver the solution to the consumer in isolation. In some cases, the bank has delivered a bank branded mobile banking application to the consumer. However the bank has had to make use of, or partner with the MNO for its infrastructure to provision the application and for ongoing financial transactions. Often times, the debate as to who owns the customer for a mobile financial service is the deal breaker between the two parties.

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Fig.2 Role of the Mobile Banking Vendor The MNO’s role in the delivery of Mobile Banking Applications varies from that of bearer channel provisioning where the MNO’s role is marginal to that of full platform provisioning where the MNO is central to the delivery of the banking application and creating value for the MNO in the service offering, but is not much of a competitive differentiator as most MNOs would be able to offer similar solutions. 7. Conclusion Mobile banking is moving up on the adoption curve, which is evident in the number of implementations known in the world and the level of interest and discussion around the technology and its implementation. It is also evident in the number of technology providers emerging in the mobile banking space. There are several choices when considering how to implement mobile banking. These choices include whether or not to develop the technology within the bank, use a shared infrastructure, or purchase the enabling technology from one of many vendors. The selected implementation option including bearer channel, vendor and value proposition, should be driven by consumer adoption of the technology, technical capability of the handsets in the target market, affordability of the bearer channel, and the consumers ease of accessing the service.

The ideal vendor would be able to deliver an adequate transaction set, on a broad number of bearer channels/ applications that the consumer could adopt within the market. This vendor would have shown proof of a successful implementation, and if not in our market, would show proof of ability to implement. This would have completed a bank and MNO integration and complied with industry standards for security and financial transaction processing. Mobile banking is poised to be a big mcommerce feature and if it could well be the driving factor to increase revenues. Nevertheless, Bank's need to deep look into the mobile usage patterns among their target customers and enable their mobile services on a technology with reaches out to the majority of their customers. The users in the advantages of reduced integration by leveraging common interface messages, maintenance and deployment costs and ensured their trust on technology. REFERENCES 1) Xing Fang, Justin Zhan “Online Banking Authentication Using Mobile Phones” 978-1-4244-6949-9/10/ ©2010 IEEE. 2) C. Kaplan, ABA Survey: “Consumers Prefer Online Banking”, American Bankers Association, September 2009. 3) C. Narendiran, S. Albert Rabara, N. Rajendran “Public Key Infrastructure for mobile banking security” ISBN978-14244-5302-3 Global Mobile Congress ©2009 IEEE. 4) Gavin Troy Krugel , Troytyla mobile for development (FinMark Trust) “ Mobile Banking Technology Options” Aug 2007. 5) GSMA Mobile Banking money_for_the_unbanked/. 6) RBI Operative Guidelines to Banks for Mobile Banking

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9) 10) Mobile Payments Forum of India (MPFI), Mobile Banking in India - Guidelines

7) king 8) Juniper Research " Mobile Banking Strategies“ ng_strategies

39. Performance Evaluation of Destination Sequenced Distance Vector and Dynamic Source Routing Protocol in Ad-hoc Networks
Dr. G. M. Nasira Assistant Professor in CA Department of Computer Science, Government Arts College, Salem, S. Vijayakumar Assistant Professor, Dept. of CA, Sasurie College of Engineering, Vijayamangalam Tirupur, P. Dhakshinamoorthy Lecturer, Dept. of CA, Sasurie College of Engineering, Vijayamangalam, Tirupur,

Abstract—Ad-hoc network is an infrastructure less network where the nodes themselves are responsible for routing the packets. The routing protocol sets an upper limit to security in any packet network. If routing can be misdirected, the entire network can be paralyzed. The main objective of this paper is to discuss about performance evaluation of Ad- hoc routing protocols. We define some criteria that can be used to evaluate Ad-hoc routing protocols.

Keywords-Ad-hoc routing protocol, protocol.

network, Table driven on-demand routing


An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of existing network infra-structure or centralized administration. Due to the limited transmission range of wireless network interfaces, multiple
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network hops may be needed for one node to exchange data with another across the network. In such a network, each mobile node operate not only as a host but also as a router, forwarding packets for other mobile nodes in the network, that may not be within the direct reach wireless transmission range of each other. Each node participates in an ad hoc routing protocol that allows it to discover multi hop paths through the network to any other node. The idea of an ad hoc network is sometimes also called an infrastructure-less networking, since the mobile nodes in the network dynamically establish routing among themselves to form their own network on the fly. Some examples of the possible use of ad hoc networks include students using laptop computers to participate in an interactive lecture, business associates sharing information during a meeting, soldiers relaying information for situational awareness on the battlefield, and emergency disaster relief personnel coordinating efforts after a hurricane or earthquake.

suffer from limited performance. The routing process usually directs forwarding on the basis of routing tables which maintain a record of the routes to various network destinations. Thus, constructing routing tables, which are held in the router's memory, is very important for efficient routing. Most routing algorithms use only one network path at a time, but multipath routing techniques enable the use of multiple alternative paths. Routing, in a more narrow sense of the term, is often contrasted with bridging in its assumption that network addresses are structured and that similar addresses imply proximity within the network. Because structured addresses allow a single routing table entry to represent the route to a group of devices, structured addressing (routing, in the narrow sense) outperforms unstructured addressing (bridging) in large networks, and has become the dominant form of addressing on the Internet, though bridging is still widely used within localized environments. Routing is said to contain three elements: Routing protocols, the things that allow information to be gathered and distributed b) Routing algorithms, to determine paths c) Routing databases to store information that the algorithm has discovered. The routing database sometimes corresponds directly to routing table entries, sometimes not.

Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks, including the telephone network (Circuit switching) , electronic data networks (such as the Internet), and transportation networks. This article is concerned primarily with routing in electronic data networks using packet switching technology. In packet switching networks, routing directs packet forwarding, the transit of logically addressed packets from their source toward their ultimate destination through intermediate nodes, typically hardware devices called routers, bridges, gateways, firewalls, or switches. General-purpose computers can also forward packets and perform routing, though they are not specialized hardware and may

A. Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc Networks There are different criteria for designing and classifying routing protocols for wireless ad-hoc networks. For example, what routing information is exchanged when and how the routing information is exchanged, when and how routes are computed etc. In Proactive vs. reactive routing, proactive Schemes determine the routes to various nodes

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in the network in advance so that the route is already present whenever needed. Route Discovery overheads are large in such schemes as one has to discover all the routes. Examples of such schemes are the conventional routing schemes, Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV). Reactive schemes determine the route when needed. Therefore they have smaller route discovery overheads. In Single path vs. multi path there are several criteria for comparing single-path routing and multi-path routing in ad hoc networks. First, the overhead of route discovery in multi-path routing is much more than that of single-path routing. On the other hand, the frequency of route discovery is much less in a network which uses multi-path routing, since the system can still operate even if one or a few of the multiple paths between a source and a destination fail. Second, it is commonly believed that using multi-path routing results in a higher throughput. In Table driven vs. source initiated, the table driven routing protocols, up-to-date routing information from each node to every other node in the network is maintained on each node of the network. The changes in network topology are then propagated in the entire network by means of updates. DSDV and Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP) are two schemes classified under the table driven routing protocols head. The routing protocols classified under source initiated on-demand routing create routes only when desired by the source node. When a node requires a route to a certain destination, it initiates what is called as the route discovery process. Examples include DSR and AODV. B. Challenges faced in Ad-hoc Networks Regardless of the attractive applications, the features of Ad-hoc introduce several challenges that must be studied carefully before a wide commercial deployment can be expected. 1. Internetworking: the coexistence of routing protocols for the sake of internetworking

a Ad-hoc with a fixed network in a mobile device is a challenge for the mobility management. 2. Security and Reliability: An ad-hoc network has its particular security problems due to e.g., nasty neighbor relaying packets. Further, wireless link characteristics introduce also reliability problems because of the limited wireless transmission range, the broadcast nature of the wireless medium (e.g., hidden terminal problem), mobility-induced packet losses and data transmission errors. 3. Routing: Since the topology of the network is constantly changing, the issue of routing packets between any pair of nodes becomes a challenging task. Most protocols should be based on reactive routing instead of proactive. 4. Quality of Service (QoS): Providing different quality of service levels in a constantly changing environment will be a challenge. 5. Power consumption: For most of the lightweight mobile terminals, the communication-related functions should be optimized for less power consumption. A lot of work has already been done in the area of unicast routing in ad hoc networks. I proposed only in the following two categories: 1. Table driven 2. Source initiated (demand driven)

Table driven routing protocols attempt to maintain consistent, up to date routing information from each node to every other node in the network. These protocols require each node to maintain one or more tables to store routing information, and they respond to changes in network topology by propagating updates throughout the network in order to maintain a consistent network view. The areas in which they differ are the number of necessary routing related tables and the methods by which changes in network structure are broadcast.

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Some of such routing protocols are: 1. Destination Sequence Distance Vector Routing 2. Cluster Head Gateway Switch Routing 3. Wireless Routing Protocol Destination Sequence Distance Vector Routing DSDV is a table-driven routing scheme for ad hoc mobile networks based on the BellmanFord algorithm. It was developed by C. Perkins and P.Bhagwat in 1994. The main contribution of the algorithm was to solve the routing loop problem. Each entry in the routing table contains a sequence number, the sequence numbers are generally even if a link is present; else, an odd number is used. The number is generated by the destination, and the emitter needs to send out the next update with this number. Routing information is distributed between nodes by sending full dumps infrequently and smaller incremental updates more frequently.




C 28

00150 0

Naturally the table contains description of all possible paths reachable by node A, along with the next hop, number of hops and sequence number. A. i)Selection of Route If a router receives new information, then it uses the latest sequence number. If the sequence number is the same as the one already in the table, the route with the better metric is used. Stale entries are those entries that have not been updated for a while. Such entries as well as the routes using those nodes as next hops are deleted. B. ii) Advantages DSDV was one of the early algorithms available. It is quite suitable for creating ad hoc networks with small number of nodes. Since no formal specification of this algorithm is present there is no commercial implementation of this algorithm. DSDV guarantees for loop free path. C. iii) Disadvantages DSDV requires a regular update of its routing tables, which uses up battery power and a small amount of bandwidth even when the network is idle. Whenever the topology of the network changes, a new sequence number is necessary before the network re-converges; thus, DSDV is not suitable for highly dynamic networks. (As in all distance-vector protocols, this does not perturb traffic in regions of the network that are not concerned by the topology change.) The template is used to format your paper and style the text. All margins, column widths, line spaces, and text fonts are prescribed; please do not alter them. You may note peculiarities. For example, the head margin in this template measures proportionately more than is customary. This measurement and others are

Fig.3.1 Routing information is distributed between nodes

For example the routing table of Node A in this network is Destinatio n A B Nex t Hop A B Numbe Sequenc r of e Hops Number 0 1 A 46 B 36 Install Time 00100 0 00120 0

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deliberate, using specifications that anticipate your paper as one part of the entire proceedings, and not as an independent document. Please do not revise any of the current designations.


A different approach from table driven routing is source initiated on demand routing(Demand Driven Routing). This type of routing creates routes only when desired by the source node. When a node requires a route to a destination, it initiates a route discovery process within the network. This process is completed once a route is found or all possible route permutations have been examined. Once a route has been established, it is maintained by a route maintenance procedure until either the destination becomes inaccessible along every path from the source or until the route is no longer desired. The following protocols fall in this category: a) Dynamic Source Routing b) Ad Hoc On Demand Routing Protocol c) Associativity Based Routing Dynamic Source Routing Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) is a routing protocol for wireless mesh networks. It is similar to AODV in that it forms a route ondemand when a transmitting computer requests one. However, it uses source routing instead of relying on the routing table at each intermediate device. Many successive refinements have been made to DSR, including DSRFLOW. Determining source routes requires accumulating the address of each device between the source and destination during route discovery. The accumulated path information is cached by nodes processing the route discovery packets. The learned paths are used to route packets. To accomplish source routing, the routed packets contain the address of each

device the packet will traverse. This may result in high overhead for long paths or large addresses, like IPv6. To avoid using source routing, DSR optionally defines a flow id option that allows packets to be forwarded on a hopby-hop basis. This protocol is truly based on source routing whereby all the routing information is maintained (continually updated) at mobile nodes. It has only two major phases, which are Route Discovery and Route Maintenance. Route Reply would only be generated if the message has reached the intended destination node (route record which is initially contained in Route Request would be inserted into the Route Reply). To return the Route Reply, the destination node must have a route to the source node. If the route is in the Destination Node's route cache, the route would be used. Otherwise, the node will reverse the route based on the route record in the Route Reply message header (this requires that all links are symmetric). In the event of fatal transmission, the Route Maintenance Phase is initiated whereby the Route Error packets are generated at a node. The erroneous hop will be removed from the node's route cache; all routes containing the hop are truncated at that point. Again, the Route Discovery Phase is initiated to determine the most viable route. DSR is an on-demand protocol designed to restrict the bandwidth consumed by control packets in ad hoc wireless networks by eliminating the periodic table-update messages required in the table-driven approach. The major difference between this and the other ondemand routing protocols is that it is beaconless and hence does not require periodic hello packet (beacon) transmissions, which are used by a node to inform its neighbors of its presence. The basic approach of this protocol (and all other on-demand routing protocols) during the route construction phase is to establish a route by flooding RouteRequest packets in the network. The destination node, on

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receiving a RouteRequest packet, responds by sending a RouteReply packet back to the source, which carries the route traversed by the RouteRequest packet received. Consider a source node that does not have a route to the destination. When it has data packets to be sent to that destination, it initiates a RouteRequest packet. This RouteRequest is flooded throughout the network. Each node, upon receiving a RouteRequest packet, rebroadcasts the packet to its neighbors if it has not forwarded it already, provided that the node is not the destination node and that the packet’s time to live (TTL) counter has not been exceeded. Each RouteRequest carries a sequence number generated by the source node and the path it has traversed. A node, upon receiving a RouteRequest packet, checks the sequence number on the packet before forwarding it. The packet is forwarded only if it is not a duplicate RouteRequest. The sequence number on the packet is used to prevent loop formations and to avoid multiple transmissions of the same RouteRequest by an intermediate node that receives it through multiple paths. Thus, all nodes except the destination forward a RouteRequest packet during the route construction phase. A destination node, after receiving the first RouteRequest packet, replies to the source node through the reverse path the RouteRequest packet had traversed. Nodes can also learn about the neighboring routes traversed by data packets if operated in the promiscuous mode (the mode of operation in which a node can receive the packets that are neither broadcast nor addressed to itself). This route cache is also used during the route construction phase. If an intermediate node receiving a RouteRequest has a route to the destination node in its route cache, then it replies to the source node by sending a RouteReply with the entire route information from the source node to the destination node.

A. i) Advantages B. This protocol uses a reactive approach which eliminates the need to periodically flood the network with table update messages which are required in a table-driven approach. In a reactive (on-demand) approach such as this, a route is established only when it is required and hence the need to find routes to all other nodes in the network as required by the tabledriven approach is eliminated. The intermediate nodes also utilize the route cache information efficiently to reduce the control overhead. C. ii)Disadvantages The disadvantage of this protocol is that the route maintenance mechanism does not locally repair a broken link. Stale route cache information could also result in inconsistencies during the route reconstruction phase. The connection setup delay is higher than in tabledriven protocols. Even though the protocol performs well in static and low-mobility environments, the performance degrades rapidly with increasing mobility. Also, considerable routing overhead is involved due to the sourcerouting mechanism employed in DSR. This routing overhead is directly proportional to the path length.

In comparing the two protocols, the evaluation could be done in the following two metrics: 1) The packet delivery ratio defined as the number of received data packets divided by the number of generated data packets 2) The end to end delay is defined as the time a data packet is received by the destination minus the time the data packet is generated by the source.

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A. Packet Delivery Ratio

Figure 5.1 shows packet delivery ratio with pause time varying from 2 to 10 for DSDV and DSR routing protocol. The red line shows graph for DSDV and the green line shows the graph for DSR protocol. The delivery ratio for both the protocols is always greater than 90 percent. The basic difference between the two protocols is very less. But generally the graph for the DSR protocol lies above than that of DSDV for most cases. However in certain cases the DSDV protocols is also better.

(in number of hops), the longer time it can take before the source receive a RERR and hence, more data packets can be lost. When the pause time interval increases, a mobile node receives less gateway information and consequently it does not update the route to the gateway as often as for short advertisement intervals. Therefore, the positive effect of periodic gateway information is decreased as the advertisement interval increases.

Average End To End Delay The average end-to-end delay is less for the DSDV approach than for the DSR approach. The reason is that the periodic gateway information sent by the gateways allows the mobile nodes to update their route entries for the gateways more often, resulting in fresher and shorter routes. With the DSR (reactive approach) a mobile node continues to use a route to a gateway until it is broken. In some cases this route can be pretty long (in number of hops) and even if the mobile node is much closer to another gateway it does not use this gateway, but continues to send the data packets along the long route to the gateway further away until the route is broken. Therefore, the end-toend delay increases for these data packets, resulting in increased average end-to-end delay for all data packets

Figure 5.1 Packet delivery ratio verses pause time

It is more likely for the mobile nodes to have fresher and shorter routes to a gateway and thereby minimizing the risk for link breaks. Link breaks can result in lost data packets since the source continues to send data packets until it receives a RERR message from the mobile node that has a broken link. The longer the route is

The average end-to-end delay is decreased slightly for short pause time intervals when the advertisement interval is increased. At the first thought this might seem unexpected. However, it can be explained by the fact that very short advertisement intervals result in a lot of control traffic which lead to higher processing times for data packets at each node

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DSR performance is the best considering its ability to maintain connection by periodic exchange of information. DSDV performs almost as well as DSR, but still requires the transmission of many routing overhead packets. At higher rates of node mobility it’s actually more expensive than DSR. .
(1) (2) References








This paper does the realistic comparison of two routing protocols DSDV and DSR. The significant observation is, simulation results agree with expected results based on theoretical analysis. As expected, reactive routing protocol

D. Kim, J. Garcia and K. Obraczka, “Routing Mechanisms for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks based on the Energy Drain Rate”, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing. Vol 2, no 2, 2003, pp.161-173 C.E. Perkins & P. Bhagwat, “Highly Dynamic Destination Sequence-Vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile Computers”, Computer Communication Review, vol. 24, no.4, 1994, pp. 234-244. C.E. Perkins and E.M. Royer, “Ad-Hoc onDemand Distance Vector Routing,” Proc. Workshop Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (WMCSA ’99), Feb. 1999 pp. 90-100 David B. Johnson and David A. Maltz. “Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks”, Mobile Computing, Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1996 pp.153–181, 1996. M. S. Corson, J. P. Maker and G. H. Cirincione , "Internet-Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networking," IEEE Internet Computing, Vol. 3, no. 4, July-August 1999, pp. 63-70

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Student of III Year B.E(ECE), M Kumarasamy College of Engineering, Karur

ABSTRACT: This paper presents a new charging scheme based on distance vehicle traveled in different areas determined by GPS positioning and digital road network database in GIS. The system architecture is designed and system modules are presented. The new system not only more consistent with road pricing principles and objectives of reducing traffic congestion and air pollution, but also more flexible for the integration of ERP system with other Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). The capital investment and operating costs are less than traditional ones and is relatively simple to implement and modifying. 1. Introduction

discussed. The new scheme charging will be based on distance vehicle traveled in different areas determined by GPS positioning and digital road network database in GIS. This makes the new system not only more consistent with road pricing principles and objectives of reducing traffic congestion and air pollution, but also more flexible for the integration of ERP system with other Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) such as emergency assistant and dynamic traffic assignment. At the same time, it has lower capital investment and operating costs, and is relatively simple to implement and modifying.
2 System Design The new designed system consists of the management center, the in-vehicle unit, and the communication link, and some program modules.

Road pricing has been effective in managing congestion on roads in the metropolis of Asia and all over the world. Changes have been made to the road-pricing scheme since its implement from a manual scheme based on paper permits to an electronic version. Technologies like Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) make the expansion and more effective of the road pricing scheme possible. This paper presents a new charging scheme for the next phase of Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) system based on GPS and GIS. The system architecture is designed and some basic modules are

2.1 The management center The proposed management center of next ERP system is functioned to tracking, monitoring, charging and guiding all the vehicles traveling on the road. Charging and guiding scheme is on the basis of collected traffic information and map database. Figure 1 shows the architecture of management center. Communication server is used to exchange information through Internet, which is the interface between the in-vehicle unit transceiver and the

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management center. It is not only used for vehicular position to be sent to the management center from the vehicle side, but also for the road map to be transmitted to the vehicle when it requires to display but has no map itself. The guidance command and charging scheme are also transmitted to the vehicle from the communication server. Traffic information

analysis provides the statistics of traffic flow on the road on the basis of the real time vehicle position, makes charging scheme for each road and guiding scheme for the vehicle. Tracking and Monitoring provides an interface for the operator in the management center.

Fig. 1 The diagram of the next ERP system management Center

2.2 In-vehicle unit The proposed in-vehicle unit in next ERP system is shown as in figure 2. Integrated GPS/Dead Reckoning (DR) positioning provide continuous vehicular position output even in urban area where dense high buildings or the tunnel will block the GPS signal. To further improve the positioning accuracy, Map Matching (MM) could be applied in the in-vehicle unit if there is map database and enough processing power or implemented in the management center. The accurate positioning information could be used to

assist the traffic flow analysis on the exact road. The Data fusion is mainly for fusing all the sensors’ data to get more accurate, robust positioning information. Status provides the vehicular or road status such as alarm, breaking down or congestion. Display shows some related information to the driver including guidance, charging information or electronic map if there has. Transceiver provides two-way data link via wireless network and IP based packet data transmission. The data would be broadcast into the Internet so that any authorized user can make full use of them to provide valueadded services. Control card is the crucial part for organizing all these information. Smart card interface is for charging via smart card inserted into the in-vehicle unit.

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Fig. 2 Design of the in-vehicle unit for ERP


Communication link Wireless communication is used to transmit all the vehicles position and status to management center, and broadcast the updates of the traffic information when required or periodically. For Singapore next ERP system, current cellular mobile systems or third generation wireless communication could be employed and the mobile set could be embedded in the IU. As 2.5 Generation wireless communication, General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) has quicker session setup, permanent connection, lower cost, higher data rate performance[5]. Furthermore, it is IP based data transmission so the transceiver is unnecessary in the management center, which is connected with Internet. It is better choice for the next ERP system and can be easily upgraded into the next generation wireless communication.

be the junction and cross point of road, link representing road segment. The points between two adjacent nodes are also included in the spatial database. 2) Non-spatial database: This includes address name, road name and attribute etc. 3) Topological relationship: It includes relationship between node and node, node and link, among links. 3.2

Positioning of vehicle In next ERP system, widespread installation of expensive gantries is not necessary because the position of vehicle will be used for charging. There are many positioning systems are available for the civil application; among them GPS could provide 10 meters accuracy without SA and can work in all weather, at any time of the day, and under specified 3 System Modules conditions of radio-frequency interference, signal Based on the proposed architecture of inavailability. However, in an urban environment, vehicle unit and management center, the main satellite signals are blocked by high buildings or modules include electronic map database, integrated heavy foliage, and the urban canyon limits satellite positioning, and map matching. visibility. To solve these problems, many aided positioning methods such as dead reckoning (DR), 3.1 Electronic map database wireless communication were adopted [3]. In In next ERP system in Singapore, electronic comparison to DR, wireless aided method is still road map could be used for assist positioning, dependant on the radio environment. DR uses the charging scheme and route guidance. The contents distance and direction changes to provide the and data structure in the electronic map database are vehicular position relative to the original point. As described as follows. DR has error accumulated over time and reliable GPS solution are often not available in urban area, 1) Spatial database: This includes node, which may multi-sensor integration systems, therefore, are 316 | P a g e

required for next ERP systems, which is shown in the diagram of figure 1. The GPS receiver is for the absolute positioning and set up the original point for DR, while the distance and direction sensor provide the distance and direction information for DR algorithm. When the GPS data is available, the fusion algorithm predicts the errors of distance and direction sensor; the DR algorithm will provide the positioning while GPS data is not available. The traffic flow statistics will be dependant on the road where vehicle travels while its position is transmitted to management center. However, sometimes the GPS and/or DR cannot give an accurate position, which cannot determine which road the vehicle travels on. Therefore map matching is needed to integrate with GPS/DR in next ERP system. Map matching is simply a method of using stored electronic map data information about a region to improve the ability of a position determination system to handle errors[4]. Its algorithm has basically two categories: as a search problem or as a statistic estimation problem. As a search problem, map matching is to match the measured vehicle position to the closest node or point within a predefined range in the road network. This approach is fast and fairly easy to implement and it is suitable for the vehicles that have fixed track such as buses or travel in accordance with planning route. As a statistics estimation problem, map matching use probabilistic approaches to make the match more accurate through modeling errors in an ellipse or

rectangle of uncertainty that represents the area in which the vehicle is likely to be located. It is

suitable for any vehicle that does not have fixed route in traveling. 3.3 Map matching Map matching algorithm in CCS processes the received vehicle position and searches the map database to create the list of road links the vehicle traveled. The

required payment is calculated according to the road link price in database and deduction is made from

prepaid card or stored to the vehicle ID account for monthly-based payment. Different from vehicle navigation system[6], map matching for ERP does not require real time calculation. This means that the searching of road link vehicle traveling on current can use not only the past and present vehicle position but also the following vehicle position. The off time matching makes it much more accurate and reliable. The matching processes (as shown in figure 3) are: initialization (O), position between intersections (M-N), position near intersection and no turn detected (M), position near intersection and turn detected (P), and re-initialization.

Fig. 3. Map matching process

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A probabilistic algorithm is designed to match the initial position of the vehicle. Since the actual location of the vehicle is never precisely known, so we determine an error ellipse, i.e. confidence region, that vehicle is likely to be within. From estimation theory, the input and output signals can be modeled as stochastic process. Variable associated with the true and measured values can be modeled as random variables. Variance-covariance information is propagated through appropriate algorithms to derive the variances and co-variances as functions of the original random variables or as functions of parameters estimated from the original observations. These variances and covariances are used to define confidence region. The determination of the

Matching the start position to initial location O on link L1, record the distance OM by GPS and DR distance sensor. When vehicle near node M, three possible connections are considered and match to link L2 while no turn is detected at M. Among 3 possible connections at N, when a turn is detected, link L3 is selected according to azimuth measurements or angle turned. Repeat the same processes above. The vehicle trace recorded is L1-L2-L3L4, … Suppose the recorded links in one month for a vehicle are Li (i=1,2,3, … , m), then the monthly payment P for the vehicle can be calculated according to price scheme in the database,

confidence region should also consider the map accuracy as well as the road width. Searching process proceed until there are candidates within the region. A match completed if there is only one road link cross or within the region. If more than one candidates exist, the candidates are eliminated with the following standards until the only correct link is matched: direction difference between road link and vehicle traveling, traffic restrictions such as oneway road, distances between vehicle position and candidate link. One matched link can be used to verify the immediate past link with their topology relationship.

After a valid start point is known, only three situations are to be considered: vehicle on a road link between intersections, vehicle near an intersection while no turn is detected, and vehicle near an intersection while a turn detected. Suppose the route traveled is O-M-N-P-Q, the map matching processes are as following (fig. 3).

4 Conclusions When vehicular position is collected via wireless communication, traffic flow analysis will be made in the management center to provide dynamic route guidance for vehicle on the road and then improve the quality of service of the transportation. If MM is done in the management center, no additional cost is added into the in-vehicle unit. When MM is done in the in-vehicle unit, additional storage space is required for map database, but the storage media

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is so cheap even for hundreds of megabytes memory that it can be neglected. But How to make the charging scheme and accurately analysis the traffic flow to provide efficient

dynamic route guidance need to be further studied.

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P. Venkataramanan, B. Vasanth Electrical and Electronics Department, Rajalakshmi Engineering College Thandalam, Chennai-602105.

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ABSTRACT: Fuel cost and pollution is a major issue today. The price hike is also a major cause economically and the pollution has also leaded to the global warming. So the alternate fuels have come into existence which helps in saving the world from global warming. Thus the pollution is decreased and management of the fuel price is also easier. This method of employing drive trains in trucks helps in towing heavy tonnes of load which a normal induction machine needs more modification.

diesel mode it drives the drive train coupled to it works a generator and charges the battery. So this battery can be used as a power source to drive the truck in electric mode. So regenerative braking is the basic concept used in this.

DIESEL AS FUEL: Diesel is most often used a s a fuel in heavy earth moving vehicles since it can drive the engine to high torque and gain high efficiency. Even locomotives uses diesel as a fuel for its working.

INTRODUCTION: Drive trains are DC series motors employed in high speed locomotives. Thus these drive trains can be employed in long travelling trucks thus helping them to tow up the tonnes of load. Roadways are considered to be the cheapest mode of transport. These trucks carrying loads nearly travel upto 30004000 kms. Travelling these much kms continuously leads to more fuel consumption and pollution because it is a diesel. Diesel is most commonly used because it is most efficient than gasoline. Diesel engines give more power upto 320hp.So these power output will be matched by a drive train only.

Fig2. Diesel Engine

BASIC PRINCIPLE: An electric motor can be used as a auxiliary engine in trucks where the output power from the drive train can be fed to a auxiliary battery which is storage device. Fig1. Chassis of model vehicle

TRUCKS AS MAJOR ROAD TRANSPORT: Trucks which we see all along are considered as the heavy carrier of loads. These nearly carry about load of 3tonnes-5tonnes based upon their build up. As truck engines are built up with an aim to yield up a greater horse power of nearly 300hp.These trucks cover up to 3000-4000kms.

COMPONENTS: 1) Chassis. 2) Drive train. 3) Auxiliary battery. COST AND DECREASED EFFICIENCY: The red line shows the auxiliary battery placement As seen already due to a long drive there is fuel and yellow line shows the placement position of a scarcity since the maximum mileage of the engine is drive train. Regenerative braking is a major 6.5-7.Considering an important fact that even due to phenomena used here. When the truck works in the 321 | P a g e

long run there is a decreased efficiency of the engine. Thus the engine needs to be stopped for a time-while. This increases the travelling time also.

WHY TRACTION MOTORS? We use traction motors of locomotives such that they can easily drive the vehicle with load where a normal induction machine needs a more special design. Fig5. Truck Battery


Fig3. Truck in a highway

REGENERATIVE PRINCIPLE: Regenerative braking as we are very familiar is used here. Accordingly when the truck runs in diesel mode the drive train can pull it up to generate power which is there by stored in a auxiliary battery.

Fig6. Test Results

USAGE: Thus by this principle, when the electric modes are used the diesel engine is left idle .So the fuel consumption decreases a high extent because the truck can run in this mode for nearly a long way. By this the engine efficiency is increased.

Fig4. Block Diagram

ADVANTAGES: The engine’s heating effect is reduced. Pollution less travel. 322 | P a g e

Saving wasted power by regenerative principle. DISADVANTAGES:
The motor couldn’t pull up the whole truck when it is subjected to heavy load. Exact input supply to the battery is not possible since it needs a special circuit which may be complex. CONCLUSION:

Employing this method can lead to fuel saving to the large extent. This method can also help to tackle the fuel scarcity. Pollution less environment will be possible. REFERENCE:

[1] [2]

42. Implementation of Zero Voltage Switching Resonant DC–DC

Converter with Reduced Switching Losses Using Reset Dual Switch for High Voltage Applications

N.Divya and



1- P.G scholar, 2- Asst.Professor K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, Namakkal. 637215. Contact no:9791997671

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Abstract—This paper presents a new topology named implementation of zero-voltage switching (ZVS) resonant DCDC converter with reduced switching losses using reset dual switch for high voltage applications, which, compared with resonant reset single switch forward dc–dc converter, maintains the advantage that duty cycle can be more than 50%, at the same time disadvantages of high voltage stress for main switches and low efficiency are overcome. In addition, ZVS is achieved for all switches of the presented topology. Therefore, this proposed topology is very attractive for high voltage input, wide range, and high efficiency applications. In this paper, the operation principle and characteristic of this topology are analyzed in detail. Finally the closed loop controller is used to obtain the regulated output voltage. Keywords —Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS), Voltage Stress, PI Controller, duty cycle.


The resonant reset single switch forward dc–dc converter, whose merit is specified as having a duty-ratio that can exceed 50%, is appropriate for wide range applications. However, while similar to the other single switch forward converters, this topology is not favorable for high-line input applications due to quite high voltage stress of the main switch as well. This is the first

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disadvantage of this topology. In addition, the voltage across the resonant capacitor is input voltage before the main switch is turned on. Once the main switch is turned on, the power, which is stored in both . The value of , which is a resonant capacitor paralleled with , is much larger than the parasitic capacitor of the main switch, therefore, it can be considered that the equivalent switching dissipation of this converter is greatly increased, which results in the decrease of efficiency. This is the second disadvantage of this topology [1]-[3]. For reducing voltage stress across the main switches, the dual switch forward converter is proposed . The voltage stress of each switch contained in the topology is the same as the input value, which is approximately half that of the single switch forward topology. Therefore, this topology is appropriate to high-line input applications and it is categorized into one of three-level topologies. However, the cost of ZVS working for the dual switch forward converter is rather high. In general, a complex auxiliary circuit is added to achieve ZVS, which belongs to the snubber type soft switch and not the control type soft switch. In addition, the duty-ratio of the dual switch forward converter must be less than 50%, which is disadvantageous for wide range applications [4]. A new active clamping Zero-Voltage Switching Pulse-Width Modulation Current-Fed Half-Bridge converter. Its Active Clamping Snubber can not only absorb the voltage surge across the turned-off switch, but also achieve the ZVS of all power switches. Since auxiliary switches in the snubber circuit are switched in a complementary way to main switches, an additional PWM IC is not necessary. In addition, it does not need any clamp winding and auxiliary circuit besides additional two power switches and one capacitor while the conventional current-fed half bridge converter has to be equipped with two clamp windings, two ZVS circuits, and two snubbers. Therefore, it can ensure the higher operating frequency, smaller sized reactive components, lower cost of production, easier implementation, and higher efficiency. The high-power step-up DC-DC conversion technique increasing necessities and power capability demands in applications such as electric vehicles, Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS), servo-drive systems, semiconductor fabrication equipments, and photovoltaic systems. By using an auxiliary switch and a capacitor, ZVS for all switches is achieved with an auxiliary winding in one magnetic core. A small diode is added to eliminate the voltage ringing across the main rectifier diode. In hard switching boost converter the reverse recovery of the rectifier diode is a problem, especially at high switching frequency. Therefore, the reverse recovery of the diode prevents the increases of the switching frequency, the power density, and the efficiency. With two coupled input inductors the reverse recovery of the diode can be reduced, and the circuit is simple, but the switching loss is still high, and the voltage ringing across the boost diode is large. With an auxiliary clamp diode the voltage ringing can be eliminated, but the ZVS ranges for the main switch and the auxiliary switch are reduced because part of current is freewheeling in the clamping diode especially at light load, and this circulating current also increases the conduction loss. Using other active clamping techniques all switches can achieve ZVS, but the conduction losses of the switches are high due to the large circulating current, or the main switches and auxiliary switch are connected in series. Further, the voltage stress of rectifier diode is doubled, which results in high cost and conduction loss [5]. A modified Pulse Width Modulation Control technique for Full Bridge Zero Voltage Switching DC-DC Converter with equal losses for all devices. It has the disadvantage that the switching devices IGBT’s or MOSFET’s have different switching and conduction losses which becomes a drawback at high power level. This modified PWM control technique provides equal switching and conduction losses for all the devices. The quasi-resonant and multiresonant converters do not reduced frequency range for control but the high component stress makes them impractical for high power applications. The constant frequency resonant converters eliminate the disadvantage

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presented by the varying frequency but the increased component stress still limits its applicability to the relatively low power level. The phase shifted zero voltage switching converter uses the circuit parasitic elements in order to achieve resonant switching. The soft switching is achieved is for all switches. This operates all switches in a full bridge configuration with a 50% duty-cycle [6]. A Zero Voltage Switched (ZVS) Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) boost converter with an energy feed forward auxiliary circuit. The auxiliary circuit, which is a resonant circuit consisting of switch and passive components and the converter’s main switch and boost diode operate with soft switching. This converter can function with PWM control because the auxiliary resonant circuit operates for a small fraction of the switching cycle. Since the auxiliary circuit is a resonant circuit, the auxiliary switch itself has both a soft turn on and turn off, resulting in reduced switching losses and Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI). Peak switch stresses are only slightly higher than in a PWM boost converter because part of the energy that would otherwise circulate in the auxiliary circuit and drastically increase peak switch stresses is fed to the load. During the diode’s reverse recovery time, which occurs whenever the switch is turned on, a high and sharp negative spike appears in the diode current because there is a temporary shoot through of the output capacitor to ground (as the full output voltage is placed across the switch). The turn-off losses are caused by the switch. This converter has nearly lossless auxiliary switch turns off is achieved with a soft instead of a hard turn off, which limits EMI. It include PWM control with soft switching for all active and passive switches, and low peak switch stresses due to a simple energy feed forward auxiliary circuit[7]. An RCD reset dual switch forward converter is proposed . The main advantage of this topology is that duty cycle can be more than 50%. Therefore, it is suitable for wide input voltage range applications. However, hard switching operation shows in the topology. A ZVS resonant reset forward converter is proposed, which can overcome the second disadvantage of the resonant reset forward converter. However, the structure of this converter is quite complex, where two diodes, two inductors, two capacitors, one transformer, and one switch are added. The converter controls bi-directional Direct Current (DC) flow of electric power between a voltage bus that connects an energy generating device such as a fuel cell stack, a photovoltaic array, and a voltage bus that connects an energy storage device such as a battery or a super capacitor, to provide clean and stable power to a DC load. A resonant reset dual switch forward converter within the feature of soft switching, which, being the same case as the resonant reset single switch forward converter, has the advantage that duty-ratio can be more than 50%. Furthermore, the voltage stress of the main switch of this converter is greatly reduced due to the adoption of the dual-switch structure. Another merit of the proposed topology is that soft switching can be achieved for all switches, which improves efficiency of the converter [8]. II. BLOCK DIAGRAM

The block diagram of zero voltage switching resonant converter with reduced voltage stress using reset dual switch is shown in Fig. 1

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Fig. 1 Block diagram of ZVS Resonant DC-DC Converter Using Reset Dual Switch

In Fig.1 DC supply is given to an ZVS resonant converter. It converts the DC power into AC power. The DC input voltage is converted to AC in order to increase the efficiency of the converter. The boosting operation is done in the converter circuit, which is also a boost converter. Each MOSFET acts as a switch without any switching losses and facilitates the operation of the converter. Now the boosted voltage is further passed through an isolation transformer to isolate output from the input variations if any and also the input from the load variations. The isolation transformer is connected to the rectifier circuit on the other half, where the AC voltage is converted to the DC output voltage. PI controller with closed loop is used to produce constant output voltage.


The circuit diagram of the ZVS resonant reset dual switch forward converter is given in Fig.1 , , and are respectively, the parasitic capacitor of , , and . is the resonant capacitor, which is paralleled

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between the drain and source of . Because the value of is much larger than the parasitic capacitor of , can be ignored. Lm is the magnetizing inductance and is the saturable inductance, which is added to prevent the transfer of magnetizing current to the secondary side and assures the ZVS of .e converter, it is assumed that the circuit operation is in steady state and the output capacitor is large enough to be considered as a constant voltage source. During one switching period of the proposed converter, it can be divided into eight operation modes. It is defined that is the dead time, is the dead time, is the descending time of , is the blocking time of .

Fig. 2 Circuit Diagram of the Proposed Circuit

Fig. 3 Control Pulse Waveform

ZVS for both the main switch and auxiliary switch can be achieved. The key of the realization of ZVS for is that prevents the transfer of magnetizing current to the secondary side until the moment of , when is out of

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saturation. So the magnetizing current of the primary side can drastically discharge the charge stored in parasitic capacitor of .


is the time of discharging for


is the dead time mentioned above, and

is the blocking time of


Actually, the period of dead time can’t be very long, therefore an acceptable maximum of must be determined. By experience, is approximately from 1% to 5% of switch period. Assuming the output diodes are ideal, the delay caused by saturable inductance and reverse recovery of output rectifier will not be considered. Therefore, the dimension of the saturable reactor can be greatly decreased. However, a transistor and a diode is added.

Input and output of the forward converter satisfy the following expression:

Put (3) into (2)

The voltage stress of and is input voltage, while the voltage stress of transformer, which is defined as .

is peak of reset voltage of the

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Fig. 4 Simulation Circuit of ZVS Resonant DC-DC Converter with Reduced Voltage Stress Using Reset Dual Switch

The control system block is shown below, it consists of PI controller. The closed loop controller is used to obtain the constant output voltage.

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Fig. 5 Simulation Circuit of Control System


The input voltage waveform for ZVS resonant converter is shown in Fig. 6. The constant DC voltage of 250volt is given to the zero voltage switching resonant converters.

Fig. 6 Input Voltage Waveform

The switching pulse waveform for pulse generator1 is shown in Fig. 7

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Fig. 7 Switching Pulse Waveform

The switching pulse waveform for pulse generator2 is shown in Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Switching Pulse Waveform

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The output voltage waveform for ZVS resonant converter is shown in Fig. 9

Fig. 9 Output Voltage Waveform

The output current waveform for ZVS resonant converter is shown in Fig. 10

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Fig. 10 Output Current Waveform


The new topology presented in this paper, which, compared with a resonant reset single switch forward dc–dc converter, maintains the advantage that duty cycle can be more than 50%, besides, priority of the dual switch structure can be utilized and therefore voltage stress of the switches can be reduced greatly. According to the previous analysis, main switches and bear respective input voltage and reset voltage, auxiliary switch bears input voltage as well. In addition, soft switching is achieved for all switches of the presented topology, which results in improvement of conversion efficiency and power density. The closed loop controller is used to obtain the regulated output voltage. Therefore, this proposed topology is very attractive for high voltage input, wide range, and high efficiency applications.


[1] N. Murakami and M. Yamasaki, “Analysis of a resonant reset condition for a single-ended forward converter,” in Proc. IEEE PESC’98 Conf., 1998, pp. 1018–1023. [2] Xie, J.Zhang, and G. Luo et al., “An improved self- driven synchronous rectification for a resonant reset forward,” in Proc. IEEE APEC’03 Conf., 2003, pp. 348–351.

[3] G. Spiazzi, “A high-quality rectifier based on the forward topology with secondary-side resonant reset,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 725–732, May 2003. [4] L. Petersen, “Advantages of using a two-switch forward in single-stage power factor corrected power supplies,” in Proc. INTELEC’00 Conf., pp. 325–331. [5] Sang-Kyoo Han, “A New Active Clamping Zero-Voltage Switching PWM Current-Fed Half-Bridge Converter” IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, Vol. 20, No. 6, pp.1271-1279.

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[6] Liviu Mihalache, (2004) “A Modified PWM Control Technique For Full Bridge ZVS DC-DC Converter With Equal Losses For All Devices” in Proc. IEEE, pp.1776-1781. [7] Yan-Fei Liu, (1999) “A Zero Voltage Switched PWM Boost Converter with an Energy Feed forward Auxiliary Circuit” IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp.653-662. [8] Y. Gu, X. Gu, and L. Hang et al., “RCD reset dual switch forward dc–dc converter,” in Proc. IEEE PESC’04 Conf., 2004, pp. 1465–1469.

43. Three-Port Series-Resonant DC–DC Converter to Interface Renewable Energy Sources With Bidirectional Load and Energy Storage Ports
P.KARTHIKEYAN , FINAL YEAR DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING, K S R COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, THIRUCHENCODE ph:9789626844 Abstract—In this paper, a three-port converter with three active full bridges, two series-resonant tanks, and a three-winding transformer is proposed. It uses a single power conversion stage with high-frequency link to control power flow between batteries, load, and a renewable source such as fuel cell. The converter has capabilities of bidirectional power flow in the battery and the load port. Use of series-resonance aids in high switching frequency operation with realizable component values when compared to existing threeport converter with only inductors. The converter has high efficiency due to soft-switching operation in all three bridges. Steady-state analysis of the converter is presented to determine the power flow equations, tank currents, and soft-switching region. Dynamic analysis is performed to design a closed-loop controller that will regulate the load-side port voltage and source-side port current. Design procedure for the three-port converter is explained and experimental results of a laboratory prototype are presented. Index Terms—Bidirectional power, phase-shift control at constant switching frequency, seriesresonant converter, soft-switching operation, threeport converter, three-winding transformer. I. INTRODUCTION


renewable energy systems will need to interface several energy sources such as fuel cells, photovoltaic (PV) array with the load along with battery backup. A three-port converter finds applications in such systems since it has advantages of reduced conversion stages, high-frequency ac-link, multiwinding transformer in a single core and centralized control [1]. Some of the applications are in fuel-cell systems, automobiles, and stand-alone self-sufficient residential buildings. A threeport bidirectional converter has been proposed in [2] for a fuel-cell and battery system to improve its transient response and also ensure constant power output from fuel-cell source. The circuit uses phase-shift control of three active bridges connected through a three-winding transformer and a network of inductors. To extend the soft-switching operation range in case of port voltage variations, duty-ratio control is added in [3]. Another method to solve port voltage variations is to use a frontend boost converter, as suggested in [4] for ultra capacitor applications. To increase the power-handling capacity of the converter, three-phase version of the converter is proposed in [5]. A high-power converter to interface batteries and ultra capacitors to a high voltage dc bus has

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been demonstrated in [6] using half bridges. Since the power flow between ports is inversely proportional to the impedance offered by the leakage inductance and the external inductance, impedance has to be low at high power levels. To get realizable inductance values equal to or more than the leakage inductance of the transformer, the switching frequency has to be reduced. Hence, the selection of switching frequency is not independent of the value of inductance. A series-resonant converter has more freedom in choosing realizable inductance values and the switching frequency, independent of each other. Such a converter can operate at higher switching frequencies for medium and high-power converters. A three-port series resonant converter operating at constant switching frequency and retaining all the advantages of a three-port structure is proposed in this paper. Other circuit topologies [7]–[12] are suggested in the literature for a three-port converter such as the current-fed topologies [11] that have more number of magnetic components and flyback converter topologies [12] that are not bidirectional. Aconstant-frequency phasecontrolled parallel-resonant converter was proposed in [13], which uses phase shift between input bridges to control the ac-link bus voltage, and also between input and output bridge to control the output dc voltage. Such high-frequency ac-link systems using resonant converters have been extensively explored for space

applications [14] and telecommunications applications [15]. The series-resonant three-port converter proposed in this paper uses a similar phaseshift control but between two different sources. The phase shifts can be both positive and negative, and are extended to all bridges, including the load-side bridge along with bidirectional power flow. A resonant converter topology is suggested in [16] but phase-shift control is not utilized for control of power flow; instead, the converters are operated separately based on the power flow direction In this paper, a three-port bidirectional series-resonant converter is proposed with the following features. 1) All ports are bidirectional, including the load port for applications, such as motor loads with regenerative braking. 2) Centralized control of power flow by phase shifting the square wave outputs of the three bridges. 3) Higher switching frequencies with realizable component values when compared to three-port circuits with only inductors. 4) Reduced switching losses due to soft-switching operation. 5) Voltage gain increased by more than two times due to the phase-shifting between input and output bridges as opposed to a diode bridge at the load side. Analysis of the converter in steady state is presented in the following section. A control method for regulating the output voltage and input power of one of the sources is is proposed in, along with a dynamic model.

Three-port series-resonant converter circuit.

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II. STEADY-STATE ANALYSIS The proposed circuit is shown in Fig. 1. It has two series resonant tanks formed by L1 and C1 , and L2 and C2 , respectively. The input filter capacitors for port 1 and port 2 are Cf 1 and Cf 2, respectively. Two phase-shift control variables φ13 and φ12 are considered, as shown in Fig. 1. They control the phase shift between the square wave outputs of the active bridges. The phase shifts φ13 and φ12 are considered positive if vohf lags v1hf, and v2hf lags v1hf, respectively. The converter is operated at constant switching frequency fs above resonant frequency of both resonant tanks. Steady-state analysis is performed assuming sinusoidal tank currents and voltages due to filtering action of resonant circuit, under high quality factor. The waveforms of the tank currents and port currents before the filter are shown in Fig. 2(b) and (c), respectively. The average value of the unfiltered output current iolf in Fig. 2(c) is given by (1). Phasor analysis is used to calculate ˆI3 (2), which is the peak of the transformer winding 3 current. After substitution, the resultant expression for output current is (3):

If the load resistance is R, the output voltage is Vo = IoR, as given by


The average value of port 1 current i1lf from Fig. 2(c) can be expressed as in (7). Substituting the peak resonant tank 1 current ˆIL1 from phasor analysis, the port 1 dc current is then given by (8). Similar derivation is done for port 2, and the results are given in (9) and (10)

Fig. 2. (a) PWMwaveforms with definitions of phase-shift variables φ13 and φ12 . (b) Tank currents and transformer winding 3 current. (c) Port currents before filter

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It is known that the voltage gain for a two-port seriesresonant converter with load-side active bridge is more than the load-side diode bridge. This is due to the fact that the phase-shift angle between the input-side and load-side active bridge can reach a maximum angle of 90◦. The same is true for a three-port converter. A plot of per unit output voltage using (13) and (12) is shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b), respectively. In the plot, the values ofm1 andm2 are chosen as 1.0,Q1 andQ2 as 4.0, and F1 and F2 as 1.1. It is observed that the maximum possible output voltage for the load-side active bridge is 2.8 times the output voltage for the load-side diode bridge. Also the output voltage has a wider range in Fig. 3(b) due to the additional control variable φ13. Port 1 and port 2 power in per unit are given in (15) and (16), respectively. This is calculated using the average values of port currents [see (8) and (10)] The analysis results are normalized to explain the characteristics of the converter, to compare with existing circuit topologies and to establish a design procedure. Consider a voltage base Vb and a power base Pb . For design calculations, the base voltage is used as the required output voltage and the base power as the maximum output power. The variable m1 (11) is defined as the normalized value of port 1 input voltage referred to port 1 side using turns ratio n13. Similar definition applies form2 (11). The per unit (p.u.) output voltage is then given by (12) If a diode bridge replaces the active bridge [17] in port 3, as shown in Fig. 1, the phase-shift angle φ13 is equal to the angle θ3 . The normalized output voltage expression using this condition is derived as follows:

Fig. 3. Output voltage in per unit versus phase-shift angle φ12 for different values of φ13 . (a) Load-side diode bridge (13). (b) Load-side active bridge (12).

i = 1, 2, j= 1, 2, i_= j (load-side diode bridge).

Fig. 4. Port power in per unit versus phase shift angle φ13 for different values of quality factor. (a) Port 1. (Note: The plot remains same for different values of quality factor.) (b) Port 2.

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all switches in port 1 and port 2 bridges operate at zerovoltage switching (ZVS). This translates to θ1 > 0 for port 1 and θ2 − φ12 > 0 for port 2. Note that in the analysis the angles are considered positive if lagging. Using phasor analysis, the soft-switching operation boundary conditions are given by (18) and (19) for port 1 and port 2, respectively

Plots of port 1 and port 2 power in per unit as a function of phase shift φ13 are shown in Fig. 4(a) and (b) for three different quality factors. The phase shift φ12 is chosen such that the output voltage in per unit Vo,p.u. is kept constant at 1 p.u. The output power Po,p.u. at maximum load Q = 4.0 is 1 p.u. It is observed from Fig. 4(a) that the port 1 power does not vary with load as long as output voltage is maintained constant. The phase shift φ13 is kept positive for unidirectional power flow in port 1. Port 2 power P2,p.u. can go negative as seen from the plot, and hence used as the battery port. In the plots, the values ofm1 and m2 are chosen as 1.0, and F1 and F2 as 1.1.

Fig. 6. Three-winding transformer model, including the leakage inductances. The steady-state analysis results can be modified to include the effect of magnetizing inductance Lm and the leakage inductance Llk3 of the load-side winding of the transformer, as shown in Fig. 6. The inductors L1 and L2 include the leakage inductances of port 1 and port 2 side windings of the transformer respectively. III. RESULTS A 500-W prototype was realized in hardware with the controller implemented in Digilent Basys FPGA board. The pulses for the MOSFETs are generated using a ramp carrier signal and two control voltages for the two phase shifts. The pulse generation module was implemented also in FPGA. Since all the pulses are at 50%, pulse transformers are used for isolation in gate drive. The converter parameters are given in Table I. The battery port has three 12 V, 12 A・h lead-acid batteries connected in series. Port 1 uses a dc source with magnitude 50 V, to emulate a renewable energy source. The converter operates in closed loop with output voltage regulated at 200 V. Results of applied tank voltage and tank currents for port 1 and port 2 are shown in Fig. 10(a) and (b), for operation around point B in Fig. 8, where the load is equally shared between port 1 and port 2. It is observed from these figures that the tank currents lag their applied voltages, and hence ZVS occurs in all switches of port 1 and port 2. In Fig. 10(b), the magnitude of current during

Fig. 5. (a) Port 3 soft-switching operation boundary for various values of m1 and m2 . (b) Port 2 peak normalized current versus φ13 for various values of load quality factors The conditions for soft-switching operation in the active bridges can be derived from Fig. 2. If port 1 and port 2 tank currents lag their applied square wave voltages, then

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the switching transition is 1 A, which is sufficient for lossless transition. The load-side high-frequency port voltage vohf , which switches between }200 V along with the current in winding 3 of the transformer is shown in Fig. 11(a). The current leads the voltage, which is the condition for ZVS in port 3 based on the current direction mentioned in Section II. The phase shift φ12 between the port 1 and port 2 applied voltages is zero, as observed in Fig. 11(b), and also from analysis in Fig. 9. At operating point C in Fig. 8, the power supplied by port 2 to the load is zero. The results of port 2 voltage and current around Dynamic response of the converter for a step-load increase from 400 to 500WCh. 1 battery current (4 A/division), Ch. 2 port 1 current (4 A/division), Ch. 3 output voltage (100 V/division), and Ch. 4 trigger input.\ IV. CONCLUSION In this paper, a three-port series resonant converter was introduced to interface renewable energy sources and the load, along with energy storage. It was proven by analysis and experimental results that power flow between ports can be controlled by series resonance and phase-shifting the square wave outputs of the three active bridges. The converter has bidirectional power flow and soft-switching operation capabilities in all ports. Dynamic model and controller design were presented for centralized control of the three-port converter. A design procedure with normalized variables, which can be used for various power and port voltage levels, was presented. Experimental results verify the functionality of the threeport converter. REFERENCES [1] H. Tao, A. Kotsopulos, J. L. Duarte, and M. A. M. Hendrix, “Family of multiport bidirectional dc–dc converters,” Inst. Electr. Eng. Proc. Elect. Power Appl., vol. 153, no. 15, pp. 451–458, May 2006. [2] J. L. Duarte, M. A. M. Hendrix, and M. G. Simoes, “Three-port bidirectional converter for hybrid fuel cell systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 480–487, Mar. 2007. [3] H. Tao, A. Kotsopoulos, J. Duarte, andM. Hendrix, “Transformer-coupled multiport ZVS bidirectional dc-dc converter with wide input range,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 771–781, Mar. 2008. [4] H. Tao, J. Duarte, and M. Hendrix, “Three-port triplehalf-bridge bidirectional converter with zero-voltage switching,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 782–792, Mar. 2008.

Fig. 10. (a) Applied port 1 voltage v1hf (50 V/division) and tank current i1hf (5 A/division) around operating point B. (b) Applied port 2 voltage v2hf (50 V/division) and tank current i2hf (5 A/division) around operating point B. The response of the converter for a step-load increase from 400 to 500 W is shown in Fig. 16. It is observed that the port 1 current I1 maintains its value of 6 A and the port 2 battery current I2 increases to supply the extra power to the load. This is useful when a slow dynamic response fuel cell is connected to port 1. The output voltage settles back to its original value after 30 ms as seen from the response.

Fig. 11. (a) Transformer winding 3 voltage vohf (200 V/division) and current iohf (5 A/division) around operating point B. (b) Applied port 1 voltage v1hf (50 V/division) and applied port 2 voltage v2hf (50 V/division) showing zero phase shift around operating point B.

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[5] H. Tao, J. L. Duarte, andM. A.M. Hendrix, “Highpower three-port threephase bidirectional dc–dc converter,” in Proc. IEEE Ind. Appl. Soc. 42nd Annu. Meet. (IAS 2007), pp. 2022–2029. [6] D. Liu and H. Liu, “A zvs bi-directional dc–dc converter for multiple energy storage elements,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1513–1517, Sep. 2006. [7] H. Al Atrash, F. Tian, and I. Batarseh, “Tri-modal half-bridge converter topology for three-port interface,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 341–345, Jan. 2007. [8] F. Z. Peng, M. Shen, and K. Holland, “Application of z-source inverter for traction drive of fuel cell battery hybrid electric vehicles,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 1054–1061, May 2007. [9] Y.-M. Chen,Y.-C. Liu, S.-C. Hung, and C.-S. Cheng, “Multi-input inverter for grid-connected hybrid pv/wind power system,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 1070–1077, May 2007. [10] G.-J. Su and L. Tang, “A multiphase e,modular, bidirectional, triple-voltage dc-dc converter for hybrid and fuel cell vehicle power systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 3035–3046, Nov. 2008. [11] H. Krishnaswami and N. Mohan, “A current-fed three-port bi-directional dc–dc converter,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Telecommun. Energy Conf. (INTELEC 2007), pp. 523–526. [12] B. Dobbs and P. Chapman, “A multiple-input dc–dc converter topology,” IEEE Power Electron. Lett., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 6–9, Mar. 2003. [13] F. Tsai and F. Lee, “Constant-frequency phasecontrolled resonant power processor, ” in Proc. IEEE Ind. Appl. Soc. 42nd Annu. Meet. (IAS 1986), 2009, pp. 617– 622. [14] F.-S. Tsai and F. Lee, “High-frequency ac power distribution in space station,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 239–253, Mar. 1990. [15] P. Jain and H. Pinheiro, “Hybrid high frequency ac power distribution architecture for telecommunication systems,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 138–147, Jan. 1999. [16] H. Pinheiro and P. K. Jain, “Series-parallel resonant ups with capacitive output dc bus filter for powering hfc networks,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 971–979, Nov. 2002. [17] H. Krishnaswami and N. Mohan, “Constant switching frequency series resonant three-port bidirectional dc–dc converter,” in Proc. IEEE P ower Electron. Spec. Conf. (PESC 2008), pp. 1640–1645.

[18] D. Maksimovic, R. Erickson, and C. Griesbach, “Modeling of crossregulation in converters containing coupled inductors,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 607–615, Jul. 2000.

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44. Implementation of Zero Voltage Transition Current Fed Full Bridge PWM Converter with Boost Converter

C.Deviga Rani , 2 S.Mahendran and 3Dr. I Gnanambal

1- P.G scholar ,2- Asst. professor and 3-professor Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, Namakkal. 637215. Contact no : 04288-276468

Abstract— In this paper, a new zero-voltage transition current-fed full-bridge converter with a simple auxiliary circuit is introduced for high step-up applications. In this converter, for the main switches, zero voltage switching condition is achieved at wide load range. Furthermore, all semiconductor devices of the employed simple auxiliary circuit are fully soft switched. The proposed converter is analyzed and a prototype is implemented. Finally, the proposed auxiliary circuit is applied to other current-fed topologies such as current-fed push-pull and half-bridge converters to provide soft switching.

Index Terms—Current-fed dc–dc converters, zerovoltage switching (ZVS) .

I.INTRODUCTION High step-up dc–dc converters are vastly used in industry as an interface circuit for batteries, fuel cells, In these techniques, an auxiliary switch is added to solar cells, etc., where the low input voltage should regular PWM converters to provide soft switching be converted to high dc output voltage. In medium condition [9]. The ZVT and active clamp techniques power applications, current- fed half-bridge or pushare applied to current- fed converters in [3 ]–[6] in pull converter is applied, whereas current-fed full342 | P a g e

bridge converter is used for high power applications. These topologies have many desirable advantages such as high voltage conversion ratio, continuous input current, and isolation between input voltage source and load. Also, natural protection against short circuit and transformer saturation are other merits of these converters. Due to ever increasing demand for processing in smaller space, higher density power conversion is required. In order to achieve highdensity power conversion, high switching frequency is essential in dc–dc converters. However, high switching frequency results in high switching losses and electromagnetic interference (EMI), especially in isolated converters due to the existence of leakage inductance. To reduce switching losses and EMI, soft switching techniques are vastly applied to dc–dc converters [1]-[8]. Zero-voltage transition (ZVT), zero-current transition (ZCT), and active clamp techniques can be applied to regular pulse width modulation (PWM) dc–dc converters, especially isolated converters, to improve the efficiency and overcome the mentioned problems caused by leakage inductance [1]–[8].

order to provide zero-voltage switching (ZVS) condition for converter main switches. An active clamp and ZVS current-fed full-bridge converter is introduced in [9]. Active clamp circuits have several advantages, but soft switching condition is loaddependent and lost at light loads. In addition to the aforementioned disadvantage, the auxiliary circuit applied to the converter of [8] considerably increases the current stress of the main switches. An active clamp and ZVS current-fed half-bridge converter is introduced in [7]. This converter suffers from the same disadvantages. A ZVT current-fed full-bridge converter is introduced in [8]. In this converter, an auxiliary circuit is added to the transformer secondary side that provides ZVS for the main switches. However, this converter is not a proper solution when the output voltage is high since the auxiliary switch would be subjected to a high voltage stress. Also, in this converter, the snubber capacitor is placed at the secondary side of the transformer. Therefore, the snubber capacitor is incapable of limiting the voltage spikes on the main switches due to the transformer leakage inductance at turn-off time. In the implementation of this converter, a resistor– capacitor–diode (RCD) snubber is also added at the transformer primary side that can increase the converter losses. The other ZVT current-fed fullbridge converter introduced in [16] employs a rather complex auxiliary circuit at the primary side of the transformer. Furthermore, the auxiliary circuit cannot recover the transformer leakage inductance energy that becomes more important at high output voltages.

The proposed ZVT current-fed push-pull and halfbridge converters require only one auxiliary switch, whereas active clamp current-fed counterparts need two auxiliary switches. Also, in the proposed converters, the snubber capacitor is in series with a diode. This protects main switches from sudden discharge of snubber capacitor at turn-on instant when the auxiliary circuit has failed to operate correctly and discharge the snubber capacitor. This is an important advantage of the proposed converters. Furthermore, in the proposed converters, the auxiliary switch emitter pin (considering MOSFET element) is connected to ground that simplifies the switch driver circuit. The proposed ZVT current-fed full-bridge converter is analyzed in the second section and the design considerations are discussed in the third section. In the fourth section, a prototype converter is implemented and the presented experimental results confirm the validity of the theoretical analysis. In the fifth section, the proposed auxiliary circuit is applied to a current-fed push-pull and a half-bridge converter to provide soft switching. II. BLOCK DIAGRAM

In this paper, a new ZVT current-fed full-bridge converter with a simple soft switching auxiliary circuit is introduced. In this converter, the snubber capacitor is placed at the primary side, and thus limits the voltage spikes caused by the transformer leakage inductance while recovering the leakage inductance energy. The auxiliary circuit can provide soft switching condition for all semiconductor devices at wide load range. No load condition or absolutely light load conditions are exceptional since current- fed converters become unstable at these conditions. Also, in this converter, the auxiliary circuit is in parallel with the main switches, and when the auxiliary switch is ON, energy is stored in the input inductor. In other words, this auxiliary circuit boosts the effective duty cycle, which is another advantage of this converter.

Fig. 1 Block diagram of a ZVT Current Fed Full Bridge PWM Converter for Different Load

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For this circuit, Voltage is 48v is given as the input to the inverter. The inverter is used to convert the given input DC in to AC. The inverter output is given to isolated transformer. The high AC voltage is given to the uncontrolled diode rectifier. The rectifier converts the high AC into the high DC. The DC voltage is again boosted up by using the boost converter at the end of rectifier. The rectifier output is doubled at the boost converter. The high voltage is used in industry as an interface circuit for batteries, fuel cells, solar cells, etc. III.PROPOSED CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

To simplify the converter analysis, it is assumed that all semiconductor devices are ideal, the input inductor current is almost constant and equal to and output capacitor voltage is constant and equal to in a switching cycle. Thus only one half cycle of converter operation that is composed of nine different operating intervals is analyzed.

The converter is composed of an input inductor, the main switches , transformer T with primary to each secondary turns ratio of 1:n and its leakage , rectifying diodes and and inductance of capacitor C , which is the converter output voltage filter. The auxiliary circuit is composed of auxiliary switch , two auxiliary diodes and , two coupled inductors and with turns ratio of 1:m and the snubber capacitor of the main switches . The voltage across and current through are defined, and definitions for all other switches are similar.

The Fig. 2 presents the equivalent circuit of each operating interval. Before the first interval, it is is conducting and all other assumed that , and semiconductor device is OFF. In addition voltage , which is slightly greater is assumed to be than /n.

Fig. 3 Control pulse waveform

Fig. 2 Circuit diagram of ZVT current fed full bridge PWM converter

The voltage is boosted up and the voltage is given to the high power application. The inverter operation can be explained in nine stages of interval. This interval starts by turning the auxiliary switch ON. By turning ON , voltage is placed across and its current increases in a resonance fashion until voltage decreases to /n. The auxiliary switch turns on is under zero current (ZC) condition due 344 | P a g e

to is

. The

current equation during this interval IV. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

sin (

(t- ))



cos (

(t- ))









The input inductor, main transformer, and output capacitor filter are designed similar to a regular current-fed converter. Using Ca, charging interval can be calculated, which depends on the converter load (neglecting I1/ m in comparison to IL1a ). Then, according to the main switches turn-off speed and converter operating power Ca, can be selected like any turn-off snubber. The current slope Sa in depends on the value of La1, and thus, this inductor is selected similar to any turn-on snubber inductor. Also, the auxiliary switch current peak (I4 ) depends on the value of La1 . It can be observed that when all the main switches are ON, there is some additional current stress on every switch in comparison with its hard switching counterpart. This additional current stress can be reduced to a desirable value with proper selection of m. But m cannot be chosen very large because this will result in a greater value for La2 , and consequently, its current cannot reach zero in the sixth interval. The maximum duration of the sixth interval is equal to one of the main switches off time. Therefore, the following equation is obtained :(11) where is the switching period and is the maximum on time of each switch. According to (11), the maximum value of can be calculated.


(7) V. SIMULATION RESULT ANALYSIS (t) = sin ( (t )) (8) The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through simulation results. The simulation result of the ZVT current fed full bridge PWM converter is shown in the Fig.4 and 5,6,7 it confirms the better output is obtained by using the proposed method.

(t) =





(t)= +

+ )sin(




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Fig. 6(a) Input voltage waveform

Fig. 4 Simulation circuit of a ZVT current fed full bridge PWM converter

Fig. 6(b) Input current waveform Fig. 5 Control pulse waveform

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bridge, half-bridge, and push-pull converters. The proposed auxiliary circuit provides ZVS condition for the main switches while its semiconductor elements are also soft switched. The proposed ZVT full-bridge current fed converter was analyzed. A prototype converter was implemented and the presented experimental results confirmed the theoretical analysis.


[1] Adib.E and Farzanehfard.H, “Family of isolated zero voltage transition PWM converters” IET Power Electron., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 144–153, 2008. Fig. 7(a) Output voltage waveform [2] Bin Su and Zhengyu Lu “An Improved SingleStage Power Factor Correction Converter Based On Current-Fed Full- Bridge Topology” in proc, IEEE PESC conf., 2008,pp.1267-1271. [3] Bor.c ,Bor-Ren.M.CLin,Chien-LanHuang,andJi FaWan”Analysis, Design, and Implementation of a Parallel ZVS Converter” IEEE Trans on Ind. Electronics, vol. 55, no. 4, April 2008

[4] Cho.J.G ” IGBT based zero voltage transition full bridge PWM converter for high power applications” in proc, IEEE PESC conf., 1996,pp.196-200. [5] Ehsan Adib ,and Hosein Farzanehfard” ZeroVoltage Transition Current-Fed Full-Bridge PWM Converter” IEEE Trans on Power Electronics, vol. 24, no. 4, April 2009. [6] Frohleke .N, Mende .R, Grotstollen .H, Margaritis .B, Vollmer .L” Isolated Boost Fullbridge Topology Suitable for High Power and Power Factor Correction” IEEE PESC conf., 1994, pp. 843-849. [7] Hengchun Mao, Fred , Lee .C.Y, Xunwei Zhou, Heping Dai, Mohummet Cosan, and Dushan Boroyevich” Improved Zero-Current Transition Converters for High-Power Applications” IEEE Trans on Ind. Applications, vol. 33, no. 5, Sep/Oct 1997. [8] Jumar Luis Russi, Mario Lucio da Silva Martins Hilton Abilio Grundling, Humberto Pinheiro , Jose Renes Pinheiro, and Helio Leaes Hey” A

Fig. 7(b) Output current waveform


In this paper, a new auxiliary circuit was introduced that can be applied to current-fed full-

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Unified Design Criterion for ZVT DC-DC PWM Converters With Constant Auxiliary Voltage Source” IEEE Trans on Ind. Electronics, vol. 52, no. 5, Oct 2005. [9] Jung-Goo Cho, Chang-Yong Jeong, Hong-Sik Lee, and Geun-Hie Rim” Novel Zero- VoltageTransition Current-Fed Full-Bridge PWM Converter for Single-Stage Power Factor Correction” IEEE Trans on Power Electronics, vol. 13, no. 6, Nov1998.


A high class security system for detection of abandoned object using moving camera.
J. Vikram Prohit SMK Formra Institute of Technology Chennai

Abstract: This paper presents a novel framework for detecting non-flat objects by matching a reference and target video sequence. The reference video is taken by a moving camera when there is no suspicious object in the scene. The target video is taken by a camera following the same route and may contain the suspicious object. The objective is to find this object in the scene. This is done by aligning the two videos. Here we use two sets of alignment procedure one is intersequence alignment based upon homographies, computed by RANSAC, to find all suspicious areas; an intrasequence frames to remove false alarms in flat areas. Last step is temporal filtering which to confirm the existence of suspicious object.

Introduction: In recent years, visual surveillance by intelligent cameras has attracted increasing interest from homeland security, law enforcement, and military agencies. The detection of suspicious (dangerous) items is one of the most important applications. We here propose a method to detect static objects. We investigate on how to detect non flat object in the scene using moving camera. Since these objects have arbitrary shapes, texture or colour, state of art category specific (e.g., face/car/ human) objects detection technology, which is usually done by training images. To deal with this detection problem we propose a simple but effective framework based upon matching a reference and target video sequences. The reference video is taken by a moving 348 | P a g e

camera when there is no suspicious object in the scene, and the target video is taken by a second camera following the same trajectory, and observing the scene where suspicious object may have been abandoned in the meantime. The objective is to find this object .

correlated with drop off events and the distance of the owner from the object is used to determine warning and alerts for each camera view. The abandoned objects are correlated within multiple camera views using location information, and a time-weighted voting scheme between the camera views is used to issue the final alarms and eliminate the effects of view dependencies. All of the previously techniques utilizes the static cameras installed in some public places, where the background is stationary. However, for some application, the space to keep a watch on is too large to use static cameras. Therefore, it is necessary to use a moving camera to scan these places. We in this project use a moving platform in which the camera is mounted to scan the area of interest. Proposed approach: Given a reference video and a target video which are taken by a camera following the similar trajectories, GPS is used to align the two frames. Now normally GPS alignment will provide information about the same geographical location but cannot guarantee that camera has same view point for both reference and target video, also the speed of camera also matters, which may cause variation between the reference and target videos. Therefore a fine geometric alignment is necessary. A feature based alignment method is used, for because it is a better choice when illumination and other environment factors are different for both reference and target frames. We propose to use a 2D homographies alignment system. Homographies system can align two images by registering their dominant planes, and that any non-flat objects on dominant planes are deformed while the flat objects remain almost unchanged after the alignment. Homography alignment play a key role in the detection of abandoned object. Therefore the following assumption are made: the object is a nonflat object, and when it is in target it is placed on the ground.

The steps involved in detection are: an intersequence geometric alignment based upon homographies to find all possible suspicious areas. An intrasequence alignment (between consecutive reference frames) to remove false alarms on high objects. A local appearance comparison between two intrasequence frames to remove false alarms in flat areas, and A temporal filtering step using homography alignment to confirm the existence of suspicious object. Existing Systems: Almost all existing systems for detection of static suspicious object aimed at finding abandoned object using static camera in a public places, e.g., commercial centre, metro station or airport hall. Spengler and schiele propose a tracking system to automatically detect abandoned objects and draw the operator’s attention to such objects. It consists of two major parts: A Bayesian multiperson tracker that explain the scene as much as possible, and a blobbased object detection system that identifies abandoned objects using the unexplained image parts. If a potentially abandoned object is detected, the operator is notified, and the system provides the operator the appropriate key frames for interpreting the incident.

Guler and Farrow propose to use a background With this assumption we use intersequence subtraction based tracker and mark the projection of and intrasequence homography alignment based on a the centre of mass of each object on the ground. The modified RANSAC. The flowchart of the process is., tracker identifies object segmentation and qualifies them for possibility of a “drop-off” event. The stationary object detector running in parallel with the Reference video frames Target v compare tracker quickly identifies potential stationary foreground objects by watching for pixel region that consistently deviate from the background for a set of duration of time. The stationary objects detected All suspicious areas Removing false alarms on high objects 349 | P a g e
Suspicious areas only in flat areas

Removing false alarms in flat areas by local appearance compari


By using the intersequence alignment , all possible suspicious areas are highlighted as candidates by setting a suitable threshold on the normalized crosscorrelation(NCC)image of the aligned intersequence frame pair. By using the intrasequence alignment on reference video, we can remove false alarms caused by high objects and other moving vehicles. By using the intrasequence alignment on both reference and target video, most of the false alarms corresponding to the nonsuspicious flat areas (e.g. Caused by shadow and highly saturated areas)can be removed. Finally, a temporal filtering step is used to remove the remaining false alarms.

1. Apply SIFT algorithm to get a set of SIFT feature descriptors for reference and target. 2. Find the putative matches, D:{X1 X2} , between these SIFT feature of reference and target videos. 3. Call mRANSAC to find the optimal Hinter. mRANSAC: Input: Np pairs of putative matches – D:{X1 X2}. Hm-the homography model used to fit the data. n-the minimum number of data required to fit the model(4) mI-the maximum number of the iteration allowed (500) mInd- the maximum number of trials to select a non-degenerate data set (100) t- a threshold for determining when a datum fits a model (0.001) Output: bestH- model which optimally fits the data 1. Normalizing X1. A homogeneous scale factor of 1 is applied as the last coordinate of X1. Then move their average to origin by subtracting their mean, and scale them to average length of sqrt(2). Let T1=Tscale X Ttranslate. Similarly normalize X2 and get T2. Represent the normalized data by D:{X1 X2}. 2. Let trialcount= 0; trialcountND=0;best H=nil; Let N=1;inliers= nil;maxScore=0;best inliers= nil; 3. While (N>trialcount)&(trialcount<= mI) degenerate=1; count=1; While(degenerate)& (count<=mInd); Randomly sample n pairs of data, Pn, from D If Pn is not degenerate. Call H-fitting to get Htemp from Pn. If Htemp is empty degenerate=1; count= count+1; if(degentrate) trialcount=trialcount+1;

A. Intersequence geometric alignment: The SIFT features descriptor is initially applied to the GPS-aligned frame pairs (we also tried the Harris corner detector, but the result is worse). To reduce the effect of SIFT features of high objects (e.g.,trees) on the homography estimation , it is better to apply it only to the image area which corresponds to the ground plane. Specifically, we first compute a 128-dimensional SIFT descriptor for each key point of the reference and the target frames (the extraction process just follows Lowe’s method). For each descriptor in the reference, we search its nearest in the reference frame. If the two nearest neighbours are consistent, we view them as a match. Next mRANSAC is applied to find the the optimal inliers that can be used to compute the homography matrix Hinter. We use the following algorithm to detect optimal inliers:

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break evaluate Htemp by the inliers matching Htemp. HX1= Htemp X X1; invHx2=(Htemp)^1 X X2 HX1= HX1./HX1(3,:); invHX2=invHX2./invHX2(3,:); d2=sum(X1-invHX2).^2 )+ sum ((X2HX1).^2) inliers=find(d2<t); ninliers= |inliers|x scatter(inliers); if(ninliers>maxScore) maxScore= ninliers; bestInliers=inliers; bestH=Htemp; fracinliers= ninliers/Np; pNoOutliers= 1=fracinliers^n; N=log(1-p)/log(pNoOutliers); trailcount= trialcount+1; 4.Call H-fitting based on best inliers to get H; 5.H=T2^-1 X H X T1; H-fitting Input: randomly sampled n pairs of data, Pn Output:3x3 Homography matrix HT=(h1, h2,h3) 1. Noramlizing Pn in the way as in RANSAC and denoting the normalised Pn as nrP 2. For each pair of data in normalised nrP, nrP1i=[u1,v1,w1]T and nrP2i=[u2,v2,w2], i=1,…….n construct Ai= ot -w2x(nrP1i)T i T v2 x(nrP1 ) ot -w2x(nrP1i)T i T u2x(nrP1 ) -v2x(nrP1i)T -u2x(nrP1i)T ot 3. Stack the n Ai into a 3nx9 matrix A=[A1,……………..An]T. 4. Get the least square solution of Axh=o 3 by SVD of A:A=∑ΦAt . The unit vector corresponding to the singular value is the solution h. 5. Reshape h into H and denormalize H as in RANSAC. Intrasequence Geometric alignment: The procedure for intrasequence geometric alignment is similar to that for intersequence alignment. The difference is that both the reference (the frame to be warped) and target frames are from the same video this time. The intrasequence alignment generally aligns the dominant planes very

well (even when shadow appears in one and disappears in the other). 1) Removal of False Alarms on High Objects: After applying the intrasequence alignment to reference Ri and Ri-k . We warp Ri-k into nrRi-k to fit. Thus, we can obtain the NCC image between nr Ri-k and Ri-k . Intuitively, we can locate the high-object areas in Ri by setting a suitable threshold t2 on the NCC image because the high objects in Ri-k are deformed and the NCC scores at these locations are usually low. The pixels whose NCC values are lower than t2 are treated as possible high-object areas of Ri. These false alarms can be discarded by using the result of intrasequence alignment for both reference and target. Due to the problem caused by the blurring resulting from the homography transformation, we will seek the difference of illumination-normalized aligned frames instead of normalised cross correlation of them again. 2) Removal of False Alarms on the Dominant Plane: Given that any 3-D objects lying on top of the dominant plane are deformed after the intrasequence alignment, while any flat objects remain almost unchanged, we use the difference of grayscale pixel values between target Ti-k and Tk , and that between Ri-k and Ri for removing false alarms on the dominant plane . The appearances of the patches are quite different in non-flat areas in the target and warped reference frames, while they are very similar in the flat ones. Therefore, we can remove the false alarms in flat areas by setting a threshold on the difference image. Generally, a small threshold should be used if T is taken at dawn or dusk, while a large one is preferred if T is taken at noon (especially with strong light). C. Temporal Filtering We use temporal filtering to get our final detection. Let K be the number of buffer frames used for temporal filtering. We assume that Ti is the current frame, and the remaining suspicious object areas in Ti after intersequence and intrasequence alignment . We stack, and into a temporal buffer . We also stack the homography transformations between any two neighboring frames of the buffer into Hbuffer. The algorithm for temporal filtering is: Input: target video sequence, T, buffer size K, and potential suspicious areas. Output: detection map 1. Initialization: stack the initial suspicious area into the buffer Tbuffer. Compute the

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homography matrix H for any neighbouring frame of initial K-1 frames of T and stack them into Hbuffer. 2. For an incoming frame, Ti, i=K,………∞, do: 2.a Get suspicious area and let Tbuffer(K)=suspicious area; compute H between TK-1 and TK , and let Hbuffer(K-1)=H; Let Idp= Tbuffer(K). 2.b. For u=1 to K-1 M1= Tbuffer(u); For v=u to K-1 M2= Hbuffer(v) x M1. M1 = M2 ; Idp = Idp ∩ M1; 2.c. Update Tbuffer ; For j=1 to K-1 Tbuffer(j)= Tbuffer(j+1); 2.d. Update Hbuffer; For j=1 to K-2 Hbuffer(j)= Hbuffer(j+1). CONCLUSION This paper proposes a novel framework for detecting nonflat abandoned objects by a moving camera. Our algorithm finds these objects in the target video by matching it with a reference video that does not contain them. We use four main ideas: the intersequence and intrasequence geometric alignment, the local appearance comparison, and the temporal filtering based upon homography transformation. Our framework is robust to large illumination variation, and can deal with false alarms caused by shadows, rain, and saturated regions on road. It has been validated on fifteen test videos. Authors: Shreya Somani ECE department,final year. Vikram Prohit.J ECE department,final year.

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P M Mohamed Haneef, C Periathirumal, Students of III B.E (Civil) Anna University of Technology Tiruchirappali, Thirukuvalai Campus

ABSTRACT: Cement concrete reinforced with steel bars is an extremely popular construction material. One major flaw, namely its susceptibility to environmental attack, can severely reduce the strength and life of these structures. External reinforcements using steel plates have been used in earlier attempts to rehabilitate these structures. The most important problem that limited their wider application is corrosion. Recent developments in the field of fibre reinforced composites (FRCs) have resulted in the development of highly efficient construction materials. The (FRCs) are unaffected by electro-mechanical deterioration and can resist corrosive effects of acids, alkalis, salts and similar aggregates under a wide range of temperatures. This technique of rehabilitation is very effective and fast for earthquake affected structures and retrofitting of structures against possible earthquakes. This technique has been successfully applied in the earthquake-affected Gujarat. In the present paper important developments in this field from its origin to the recent times have been presented. INTRODUCTION: Hundreds of thousands of successful reinforced concrete and masonry buildings are annually constructed worldwide, there are large numbers of concrete and masonry structures that deteriorate, or become unsafe due to changes in loading, in use, or in configuration. Also from the earthquake of Gujarat it is clear that the old structures designed for gravity loads are not able to withstand seismic forces and caused wide spread damages. Repair of these structures with like materials is often difficult, expensive, hazardous and disruptive to the operations of the building. The removal and transportation of large amounts of concrete and masonry material causes concentrations of weight, dust, excessive noise, and requires long periods of time to gain strength before the building can be re-opened for service.Fibre Reinforced Composite (FRC) materials are

being considered for application to the repair of buildings due to their low weight, ease of handling and rapid implementation. A major development effort is underway to adapt these materials to the repair of buildings and civil structures. Appropriate configurations of fiber and polymer matrix are being developed to resist the complex and multi-directional stress fields present in building structural members. At the same time, the large volumes of material required for building repair and the low cost of the traditional building materials create a mandate for economy in the selection of FRP materials for building repair. Analytical procedures for reinforced and prestressed concrete and masonry reinforced with FRC materials need to be developed, validated, and implemented, through laboratory testing, computational analysis, full-scale prototyping, and monitoring existing installations. This paper reports recent developments in research, especially experiments that have been carried out to determine the efficacy of the system. A good proportion is looking for a sound rehabilitation and retrofitting technique for earthquake affected and vulnerable areas. STRUCTURAL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKE: Earthquake generates ground motion both in horizontal and vertical directions. Due to the inertia of the structure the ground motion generates shear forces and bending moments in the structural framework. In earthquake resistant design it is important ensure ductility in the structure, ie. The structure should be able to deform without causing failure. The bending moments and shear forces are maximum at the joints. Therefore, the joints need to be ductile to efficiently dissipate the earthquake forces. Most failures in earthquake-affected structures are observed at the joints. Moreover, due to the existing construction practice, a construction joint is placed in the column very close to the beam-column joint (fig. 1(a)). This leads to shear or bending failure at or very close to the joint. The onset of high bending moments may

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cause yielding or buckling of the steel reinforcements. The high compressive stress in concrete may also cause crushing of concrete. If the concrete lacks confinement the joint may disintegrate and Figure 1 (a) failure at construction joint the concrete may spall (fig. 1(b,c)). All these create a hinge at the joint and if the number of hinges is more than the maximum allowed to maintain the stability of the structure the entire structure may collapse. If the shear reinforcement in the beam is insufficient there may be diagonal cracks near the joints (fig. 1(d)). This may also lead to failure of the joint. Bond failure is also observed, in case, lap splices are too close to the joints. However, in many structures these details have not been followed due to perceived difficulties at site. In most of the structures in Gujarat lack of confinement and shear cracks have been found to be most common causes of failure. A rehabilitation and retrofitting strategy must alleviate these deficiencies from the structures.

Figure 1 (c) Spalling of concrete

Figure 1 (d) Diagonal shear crack CORROSION PROBLEMS: Cement concrete reinforced with steel bars is an extremely popular construction material. One major flaw, namely its susceptibility to environmental attack, can severely reduce the strength and life of these structures. In humid conditions, atmospheric moisture percolates through the concrete cover and reaches the steel reinforcements. The process of rusting of steel bars is then initiated. The steel bars expand due to the rusting and force the concrete cover out resulting in spalling of concrete cover. This exposes the reinforcements to direct environmental attack and the rusting process is accelerated. Along with unpleasant appearance it weakens the concrete structure to a high degree. The spalling reduces the effective thickness of the concrete. In addition, rusting reduces the cross sectional area of steel bars, thereby reducing the strength of the reinforcements. Moreover, the bond between the steel-and the concrete is reduced which increases the chances of slippage. The rusting related failure of reinforced concrete is more

Figure1(a) failure at construction joint

Figure1(b) Crushing of Concrete

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frequent in a saline atmosphere because salinity leads to a faster corrosion of the steel reinforcements. In a tropical country like India, where approximately 80% of the annual rainfall takes place in the two monsoon months, rusting related problems are very common, especially in residential and industrial structures. India also has a very long coastline where marine weather prevails. Typically, a building requires major restoration work within fifteen years of its construction. EARLY METHODS OF REPAIR: From the above discussion we can conclude that the three main weaknesses of RCC structures that require attention are: • Loss of reinforcement due to corrosion • Lack of confinement in concrete especially at the joints. • Deterioration of concrete due to attack of multiple environmental agencies. The present practice of repairs in India is focused towards delaying the deterioration. However, there have been some attempts to strengthen the dilapidated structures. In the last two decades the attempts on rehabilitation of damaged RC structures have been mainly concentrated in two methods external post tensioning, and the addition of epoxy bonded steel plates to the tension flange. High strength steel strands are used in external post tensioning to increase the strength of damaged concrete structures. However, the main obstacle faced in this method is difficulty in providing anchorage in post-tensioning strands. The lateral stability of the girder may become critical due to post-tensioning. Moreover, the strands are to be protected very carefully against corrosion. An alternative to the post tensioning method is the use of epoxy bonded steel plates. This alleviates the main difficulties of using the post-tensioning method -anchorage and lateral stability. This method has been applied to increase the carrying capacity of existing structures and to repair damaged structures as well. Several field applications of the epoxy bonded steel

plate have been reported recently. Several cracked slabs and girders of the elevated highway bridges in Japan have been repaired using this method. A number of damaged reinforced concrete bridges in Poland and erstwhile USSR have been repaired by bonding steel plates. The main advantage of using this method in repairing bridges is that it does not need closing down of the traffic during the repair. Experimental studies on post-reinforcing concrete beams by using steel plates. Two series of beams of different dimensions were tested using two different glues. The yield strength of the steel plates was also varied. Several aspects such as glue thickness, precracking prior to bending, plate lapping etc were studied. It was observed that the steel plate reinforced beam increases the allowable load on the structure and delays the usual cracks. The reinforcement improves overall mechanical characteristics of the Beam. The concrete beams of rectangular cross section reinforced with steel plates gives an improvement in performance in the ultimate load, stiffness and crack control. But the exposure tests revealed that considerable corrosion takes place in steel plates with natural exposure causing a loss of strength at the interface. Composite Materials as Post-Reinforcement: Recent developments in the field of fiber reinforced composites (FRCs) have resulted in the development of highly efficient construction materials. They have been successfully used in a variety of industries such as aerospace, automobile and ship building. The FRCs are unaffected by electromechanical deterioration and can resist corrosive effects of acids, alkalis, salts and similar aggregates under a wide range of temperatures. FRCs thus holds a very distinct advantage over steel plates as an external reinforcing device. Moreover, FRCs is available in the form of laminas and different thickness and orientation can be given to different layers to tailor its strength according to specific requirements. The difficulties encountered in using steel plates as reinforcement lead us to the use of fiber reinforced composite materials as post-

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reinforcements. Due to their high specific strength (strength/weight ratio) the composite reinforcements are very light and easy to handle. The composite materials are available as unidirectional fibers of a huge length. Therefore, joints in the reinforcement can be avoided very easily. Moreover, the corrosion of the reinforcements can be avoided completely. Research work is gaining momentum on the application of composite materials as post-reinforcement. The potential use of fiber reinforced composites in civil structures is manifold. The scope of the present paper is limited to the repair of - existing concrete structures only. FRCs can be used in the concrete structures in the following forms:

fibre reinforced epoxy laminates are examined for rehabilitation of concrete bridges.

The main advantages of carbon fibre composite laminates have been found to be - No corrosion and therefore, no corrosion protection is necessary. - No problem of transportation as it is available in rolls . - Higher ultimate strength and Young’s modulus . - Very good fatigue properties - Low weight The main disadvantages are found to be - Erratic plastic behavior and less ductility.

Plates -at a face to improve the tension capacity. Bars -as reinforcement in beams and slabs replacing the steel bars. Cables -as tendons and post tension members in suspension and bridge girders. Wraps -around concrete members to confine concrete and improve the compressive strength.

o o


Material For Strengthening Of Structures: - Susceptible to local unevenness. It can be seen that the non-metallic fibers have strengths that are 10 times more than that of steel. The ultimate strain of these fibers is also very high. In addition, density of these materials is approximately one-third of steel. Due to its corrosion resistance FRCs can be applied on the surface of structure without worrying about its deterioration due to environmental affects. They in turn protect concrete core from environmental attack FRPC sheets being malleable can be wrapped around the the joints very easily. We shall investigation on application of FRP on concrete. FRC PLATES AS REINFORCEMENT TO CONCRETE BEAMS: FRC for strengthening of structures can be glued to an old and deteriorated concrete surface to improve its strength. This method is more convenience and durable than epoxy bonded steel plates. The suitability of carbon - High cost. The performance of CFC laminates in post strengthening of cracked concrete beams is as follows. The load deflection graph of a post strengthening beams has been compared with that of unstrengthening beams. It was observed that a point 3mm thick CFC laminates has doubled the ultimate load of 300x200 beam of 2m span. They also presented an account of failure modes in such beams. It is observed that the tensile failure of laminate occurred suddenly with a sharp explosive snap. However, it was announced in advance by cracking sound. They stressed on the Importance of an even bonding surface and guarding against shear cracks. They also indicated the high potential of such repair work in wood and other metal structures and in prestressed girders as well. Prestressing of the reinforcing laminate is advantageous for several applications. It has been observed that the

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prestressed laminates are effective in closing the crack in damaged structures and therefore, increase the serviceability of the strengthened structure. Prestressing also reduces the stresses in the reinforcing steel. This is advantageous when the steel is weakened due to corrosion. Another significant advantage of prestressing is that it reduces the tendency of delaminating at the crack front. The experiments on beams of 2 m and 6 m span under static and dynamic loading are as follows. The prestressing favorably influenced the number and the width of cracks. Therefore, the prestressed beams had a very good fatigue behavior. He observed that the FRP sheet has no plastic reserve strength. Therefore, maximum flexural strength of the beam is obtained when the failure of the laminate occurs at the instant of plastic yielding of the steel. FRC BARS REINFORCEMENT IN SLABS AND BEAMS: Steel reinforcement in concrete structures has responsible for detoriations. The equipment FRC rebar is non- metallic and noncorrosive in nature. However FRC bars have much less ductility and unpredictable plastic behavior. FRC bars have much less elastic modulus. Therefore deflection was limiting criterion in case of FRC Reinforced beams. The ultimate load supported by slabs reinforced with FRPC was equal to higher than that supported by the companion slabs reinforced with steel. FRCs AS CABLES AND TENDONS: Corrosion problems are very severe in transportation structures, especially those exposed to marine environment. This encourages use of FRCs in bridges. The FRC cables, post – tension tendons and plating can be used to improve the durability of bridges. Moreover, FRC cables are much lighter than the conventional steel cables leading to lesser self weight. Therefore, much longer spans can be designed by using FRC cables. FRC cables would allow tripling of limiting span of cable stayed bridges in comparison to steel wires.

The tensile strength of concrete is much less than in comparison to its compressive strength. As results, even compression members often fail due to the tensile strength that develops perpendicular direction of compressive load. If such a concrete is confined using a wrapping the failure due to tensile cracks can be prevented. The compressive strength of concrete elements is several times higher than the unwrapped concrete elements. Although this is known for a long time effective application of confinement could not be achieved due to lack of suitable wrapping material. If the wrapping is torn the capacity of the element reduces dramatically. Therefore the durability of wrapping material is of utmost important. In addition, the wrapping material remains exposed to environmental attack. Therefore the steel is unsuitable for this purpose. FRCs due to non –corrosive in nature offer an attractive alternative. Moreover the light FRC fibers can be very easily wrapped around an old column.A typical stress-strain curve of cylindrical specimen wrapped with FRPC of varying number of layer is presented. It may be noted that one layer of FRPC wrap the ultimate strength of specimen is being increased by a factor of 2.5. The ultimate strength went on to increase up to 8 times when 8 layer of wrap were used. The ultimate strain is increased by 6 times with one layer of wrap. This feature is particularly attractive for earthquake resistant structures. For earthquake structures thin wrap that offers high ultimate strain but low stiffness is desirable. Glass fibers that have considerably lower stiffness than the carbon fibers and higher ultimate strain is desirable. Glass fiber is much less expensive than carbon fiber. Glass fibers can be used in rehabilitation and retrofitting of structures in Gujarat.



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From the above discussion it can be observed that the fiber reinforced composite are very attractive proposition for repair and upgrading of damaged concrete structures. However the success of this method depends on followings. Availability of design methods: The design methods are already developed. However it needs wider publicity and possible inclusions in Indian Standards.Availability of materials: CFRP is available in adequate quantity. CFRP needs imported new production facilities will be extremely important as the use of technique gains popularity. Availability of technology: This technique needs several knowledge about new construction m materials. A large research base is available awareness in India about this materials is scan. Durability under Indian conditions: These materials are chemically inert and show little degradation over a time even in harsh conditions


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Sandeep Kumar,M Vinodhkumar Jayam College of Engineering and Technology, Dharmapuri

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Food, clothing and shelter is a basic human requirement. Of our One Billion plus population, as of now, only a small percentage can afford to live in a decent residential accommodation of their own. According to Tenth Five year plan Report India has a shortage of 41 million housing units! In Tamil Nadu alone, the shortage is 2.81 million units. As per Chennai metropolitan development authority’s (CMDA) second master plan the city requires over 4.13 lakh houses by 2011, of which 3,52,000 should cater to low-income and middle-income groups. This project seeks to examine how a greater understanding of the issue by all concerned, including the prospective home owner, can work towards enabling housing at much lower cost, and even for those who cannot dream of it today.Haphazard and unauthorized construction is one of the problems that is ailing the housing sector. The extent of encroachment on public land is simply phenomenal. Lack of housing and the resultant human plight makes it difficult for the State to prevent encroachment. As a result, slums proliferate (According to a recent study a total of 42.6 million people in India live in slums constituting 15% of the total urban population of the country).The multi-unit apartment with its attendant efficiencies, as here in proposed is going to be the 'home' of tomorrow. In fact, it is the only way to enable housing for the millions. The mission is neither impossible nor all that difficult. The 'Unit-hold' concept is an arrangement of freehold ownership of units in building complexes. Unit-hold comprises of two elements, namely, units (or flats), belonging to individual owners; and the land and common areas, owned by a Unit-hold entity or the UHE.

1. INTRODUCTION Food, clothing and shelter is a basic human requirement. Of our One Billion plus population, as of now, only a small percentage can afford to live in a decent residential accommodation of their own. According to Tenth Five year plan Report India has a shortage of 41 million housing units!

THE TIMES OF INDIA (03/07/2010) states that In Tamil Nadu alone, the housing shortage is 2.81 million units. As per Chennai metropolitan development authority’s (CMDA) second master plan the city requires over 4.13 lakh houses by 2011, of which 3,52,000 should cater to low-income and middle-income groups. This project seeks to examine how a greater understanding of the issue by all concerned, including the prospective home owner, can work towards enabling housing at much lower cost, and even for those who cannot dream of it today. A look at some of the ground realities first. Haphazard and unauthorized construction is one of the problems that is ailing the housing sector. The extent of encroachment on public land is simply phenomenal. Lack of housing and the resultant human plight makes it difficult for the State to prevent encroachment. As a result, slums proliferate (According to a recent study a total of 42.6 million people in India live in slums constituting 15% of the total urban population of the country). The multi-unit apartment with its attendant efficiencies is going to be the 'home' of tomorrow. In fact, it is the only way to enable housing for the millions. The mission is neither impossible nor all that difficult. Ideally, housing must be viewed in the light of what the person can afford-with a clear title and a cost not exceeding four time the gross annual household income.

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Financing is another issue and hence there is need for documents enabling a mortgage in favour of a financing bank from the initial stages through the transition, up to completion and possession, and even beyond. More innovative financial instruments are needed to bring flexibility. Public private partnership models and other new ways to support new projects are imperative. .METHODOLOGY ADOPTED - A Holistic Approach: As mentioned earlier, the low-cost housing problem is an interdisciplinary one. There are at least four different areas that one needs to address in order to come up with a holistic solution. “The first is land costs that are often a significant percentage of the overall costs of a housing project. The second deals with technological innovation, both from the perspective of cheaper building materials as well as time-reducing construction practices. The third area relates to the prevailing policy environment. Here again, FSI rules, the use of Public-Private-Partnerships, stamp duties, Transferable Development Rights (TDR) and a host of other parameters play a role in increasing or decreasing the cost of housing. The fourth issue looks at the sustainability of the project and deals with the financing and operation of low-cost houses, once they are built” (Roundtable Discussion on Low-Cost Housing, IITM).

lines, to the concept of housing and development. To enable supply of land, the Development Plan or the Master Plan should not be of a small area. It will need to cover a much larger area so that the requirements of today; of 20 years hence; and even of 50 years hence can be visualised, and the plan prepared accordingly.
CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY After land costs, and before we proceed to the cost of construction, we must note the difference a proper architectural design can make. While for the luxury sector, architectural design has its own connotation, for the non-luxury sectors, it assumes importance in a different form. Expertise and sophistication in design (or good architecture) increases spatial efficiency, i.e., maximises the usefulness of space or makes small spaces feel great, which can solve many problems. If the required area of a flat is reduced by design sophistication, naturally, the quantity (area) of land required as also the cost for the construction shall get correspondingly reduced. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

One of the main cost components of a flat or a house is land cost. Land cost depends on availability of land. The State Planning Boards, Town & country Panning Boards / Departments, local development Authorities and Municipalities need to duly adjust and tailor their planning process, namely, the preparation of a Regional plan and other Development plans on scientific

One of the primary goals of architecture is to strike the balance between structural integrity, functional efficiency, and aesthetic beauty, while keeping in view the affordability by the potential occupier. Compact living units can offer a high utilisation level with all basic (and even some 'modern') conveniences within just a small space.

Construction cost in practical terms, needs to be approached in two separate parts: (1) the cost of making the basic superstructure; and (2) the finishing costs for the flat. The difference between these two must be recognised, while the cost of making the basic superstructure has limited scope for reduction,
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the latter (finishing costs), there is wide scope where persons financial status play a key role.

If these, as also a few other factors are catered to by laws and systems, the problem of housing would stand substantially solved. To state it in point form, we need to consider:

Mass production Optimization of designs standardization of elements Use of pre-stressed and pre-casted elements Improvement in production process and planning Incorporating green building concepts to make it energy efficient. Use of Light weight concrete for door, panel walls, etc. LAW AND POLICY
To clarify, here, we are not addressing the rich man's home, but that of the middle class. The market of 50 million homescosting 2 lakhs to 30 lakhs-lies untapped because: There is grossly insufficient availability of legally built flats with Clear title at reasonable cost and in sufficient quantity; The flat Buyer (and the Bank) do not trust the Builders; The inability (for income tax reasons) to make the down payment; bank finance is not available to most intending flat Buyers; Economies of scale for construction costs cannot be achieved; There is lack of ready movement (sale &purchase) of ownership with the flat continuing 'under mortgage' with a Bank; and The typical potential flat Buyer of today believes that purchasing a flat is beyond him, and if all his savings are invested in it, there will be nothing left as old age reserve.

The concept of unit hold entity (UHE); A statutory authority or enabler for the purpose in each district; A new framework of property ownership, transfer and mortgage laws- particularly rules which enable mortgage to be effected at the time of the booking itself; The concept of certifier-cumperformance guarantor (CPG Co); (“affordable housing” by Dr. Arun Mohan).

Housing must be viewed in the light of what the person can afford-with a clear title and a cost not exceeding four times the gross annual household income. It also has to have value for money. 'Affordability', as used here, does not mean compromise on construction quality or safety or even provision of civic amenities and economic infrastructure in the vicinity. Our aim must be to create affordable and commercially viable housing specifically for the middle income group. Smaller unit sizes in suburban or peripheral areas are acceptable if they meet the budget requirement. Further, where ownership is not possible, at least decent accommodation at affordable rent must be available. CONSTITUTION OF HOUSING FINANCE BANK In so far as construction costs are concerned, R & D along with bulk construction will help achieve economies of scale - over 30% less than that at present. Reduced land cost component and construction cost as also a modern architectural design, which permits greater utility from lesser floor area of a flat, will

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bring down the costs substantially and make it 'affordable' in the true sense of the term. However, despite that, a large segment of the population will not be able to afford it, and to fill this gap, it needs bank finance.

2. CONCLUSION The great Indian middle class-who can afford, is being denied the opportunity to own a house or even obtain an accommodation at a reasonable rent, just because the right laws and systems are not in place. The concept of unit-hold entity and the certifier-cumperformance guarantor (CPG Co) along with institutional enablers as herein addressed can only lead to the wider goal of housing for all. To enumerating some of the advantages / benefits it could bring:-

owners of a proper flat tomorrow or even a tenant at reasonable rent. Any other approach will serve a vested interests and not for the citizens living in the slums. Thus, a holistic approach taking into account all the above factors can only solve, the problem of low income housing which, hopefully will ensure an ownership home not only for the well-to-do strata of society, but also for the common man.
REFERENCES “Roundtable Discussion on LowCost Housing” at Indian institute of technology, madras (2010). Arun Mohan (2010) “Affordable housing how law and policy can make it possible”. Kavita Dutta, Gareth A. Jones (2000) “Housing and finance in developing countries: invisible issues on research and policy agendas”. Anand Sahasranaman (2010) “Approaches to Financing Low Income Housing in Urban India”. “1st CRGP-IITM Roundtable on Private-Public Partnerships” at Indian institute of technology, madras (2010). Piyush Tiwari (2000) “Housing and development objectives in India”. Deepa G. Nair (2005) “Sustainable Affordable Housing for India”.

First, it would enable 30%+ cost reduction. Second, it would bring legal ownership homes within the reach of middle class people and thus cater to large segment of the populace. Third, haphazard and unauthorized construction will be prevented. Fourth, the only solution to the problem of slums, which is only sympathized with rather than analyzed and solutions found, is the unit-hold ownership and bank financing as herein expounded, which will enable the slum dwellers of today to be the

48. Cost Effective Construction Technology to Mitigate the Climate Change
G.Parthiban, Periyar Maniammai University, Thanjavur.


Concentration of greenhouse gases play major role in raising the earth’s temperature. Carbon dioxide, produced from burning of fossil fuels, is the 363 | P a g e

principle greenhouse gas and efforts are being made at international level to reduce its emission through adoption of energy-efficient technologies. The UN Conference on Environment and Development, made a significant development in this field by initiating the discussion on sustainable development under the Agenda 21. Cost-effective construction technologies can bring down the embodied energy level associated with production of building materials by lowering use of energy-consuming materials. This embodied energy is a crucial factor for sustainable construction practices and effective reduction of the same would contribute in mitigating global warming. The cost-effective construction technologies would emerge as the most acceptable case of sustainable technologies in India both in terms of cost and environment. In this paper we are going to explain about the technologies present in cost effective methods to mitigate the climate change.

principle GHG. The major part of India’s emissions comes from fossil fuel-related CO2 emissions. A World Bank report2 has identified six countries, namely, USA, China, the European Union, Russian Federation, India and Japan as emitters of the largest quantity of CO2 into the atmosphere. India generates about 1.35 bt of CO2 which is nearly 5% of the total world emission. India, a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol (see Note 1), has already undertaken various measures following the objectives of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These are almost in every sector like coal, oil, gas, power generation, transport, agriculture, industrial production and residential. While in most of the above areas stress has been imparted on increasing energy efficiency and conservation, it is felt that reduction in consumption in various fields and rationalization of uses of energy-guzzling systems would also substantially contribute to our country’s efforts in reducing GHGs and mitigating global warming.
Role of construction industry in climate change

I. Introduction: ‘WARMING of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level’ – observed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in its recent publication1. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) released due to human activities are the main cause of global warming and climate change, which is the most serious threat that human civilization has ever faced. Carbon dioxide produced from burning of fossil fuels, is the

The construction industry is one of the major sources of pollution. Construction-related activities account for quite a large portion of CO2 emissions. Contribution of the building industry to global warming can no longer be ignored. Modern buildings consume energy in a number of ways. Energy consumption in buildings occurs in five phases. The first phase corresponds to the manufacturing of building materials and components, which is termed as embodied energy. The second and third phases correspond

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to the energy used to transport materials from production plants to the building site and the energy used in the actual construction of the building, which is respectively referred to as grey energy and induced energy. Fourthly, energy is consumed at the operational phase, which corresponds to the running of the building when it is occupied. Finally, energy is consumed in the demolition process of buildings as well as in the recycling of their parts, when this is promoted3. We have found that the costeffective and alternate construction technologies, which apart from reducing cost of construction by reduction of quantity of building materials through improved and innovative techniques or use of alternate low-energy consuming materials, can play a great role in reduction of CO2 emission and thus help in the protection of the environment.
CO2 emission during production of construction materials

consuming process and it has been found that about 0.9 t of CO2 is produced for 1 t of cement5. Sand is a natural product obtained from river beds, which does not consume any energy, except during transport. The energy thus consumed has not been considered in this article. Brick is one of the principal construction materials and the brick production industry is large in most Asian countries. It is also an important industry from the point of view of reduction of GHG emissions as indicated from the very high coal consumption and the large scope that exists for increasing energy efficiencies of brick kilns. In a study by GEF in Bangladesh (where the method of brick is the same as in India), an emission of 38 t of CO2 has been noted per lakh of brick production6.
Use of cost-effective technologies in India – Reduction in GHG emission and cost of construction

Production of ordinary and readily available construction materials requires huge amounts of energy through burning of coal and oil, which in turn emits a large volume of GHGs. Reduction in this emission through alternate technologies/practices, will be beneficial to the problem of global warming. To deal with this situation, it is important to accurately quantify the CO2 emissions per unit of such materials. In India, the main ingredients of durable and ‘pucca’ building construction are steel, cement, sand and brick. Emission from crude steel production in sophisticated plants is about 2.75 t carbon/t crude steel4. We may take it as 3.00 t per t of processed steel. The actual figure should be more, but is not available readily. Cement production is another high energy

As already mentioned, there are other improved alternate technologies available like bamboo panels, bamboo reinforced concrete, masonry stub foundation, etc. All of them can contribute significantly, if not more, in reducing in the cost of construction and CO2 emission. For academic purpose, this article restricts discussion to rat-trap bond wall, brick arches and filler slabs only, for which data on material consumption and reduction from conventional techniques are readily available. By adopting the techniques mentioned above, a reduction of 20% can be achieved in the cost of construction without compromising on the safety, durability and aesthetic aspect of the buildings (Figure 6). In 2006, the cost of structural work for a building with ordinary masonry wall and slab in

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India was to the tune of Rs 3000 per sq. m. It may vary by 15–25% depending upon the location and availability of materials. A 20% saving in cost means reduction by Rs 600 per sq. m and for a 50 sq. m residential house, the saving will be to the tune of Rs 30,000. The figures given in Table 2, when related to the Table 1 show reduction in CO2 emission for a 50 sq. m building. The above reduction of 2.4 t in CO2 may qualify for carbon trading (see Note 5) also and according to the current rate of trading may fetch a minimum of Rs 1800 also. (Experts feel that though subject to wide fluctuations, the going rate of one Carbon Emission Reduction (CER) unit in the European market is around 12–13 Euros. One Euro is now equivalent to Rs 57.43.) In case of houses made of compressed mud block, reduction in CO2 emission would be to the tune of 8000 kg or 8 t per 50 sq. m of the house. The Indian housing scenario and scope of reduction of CO2 emission Increase in population, rise in disposable income, and aggressive marketing by financial institutions to provide housing loan on easier terms are pushing up the demand for durable permanent houses in both urban and rural areas of India. Construction of permanent market omplexes, malls and other recreational amenities in big cities has also undergone phenomenal growth in recent times. In accordance with India’s National Housing and Habitat Policy 1998, which focuses on housing for all as a priority area, with particular stress on the needs of the economically weaker sections and low income group categories, the Two Million Housing Programmed was launched during 1998– 99. This is a loan-based scheme, which envisages facilitating construction of 20

lakh (2 million) additional units every year (7 lakh or 0.7 million dwelling units in urban areas; 13 lakh or 1.3 million dwelling units in rural areas). If we consider that each house will be of a bare minimum area of 20 sq. m according to the standards of different government schemes, the total area of construction per year will be 40 million sq. m. If cost- effective construction technologies like rat-trap bond and filler slab are adopted, India alone can contribute to a reduction of 16.80 mt of CO2 per year and at the same time can save Rs 24,000 million (20% cost reduction over 40 million sq. m of construction @ Rs 3000 per sq. m), which will go to the state exchequer as the schemes are funded by the Government. The reduction in CO2 emission in monetary terms is equivalent to a CER of nearly Rs 1200 million

Figure 6. Office building with rat-trap bond wall, filler slab (source: FOSET). Table 2. Reduction in CO2 emission for a 50 sq. m building

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Building material required by conventional method

Reduction by using costeffective construction technology (rattrap bond wall, brick arch and filler slab) 20%, i.e. 4000 nos 20%, i.e. 0.6 t 25%, i.e. 0.125 t

Reductio n in carbon dioxide emission (kg)

Brick – 20,000 nos Cement – 60 bags or 3.0 t Steel – 500 kg or 0.5 t Total reduction in carbon dioxide emission


540 375 2355 (say 2.4 t)


Now it is the task of scientists, engineers and policy makers of our country to popularize the technology, so that India can significantly contribute to reduction in CO2 emission from its huge and rapidly growing construction sector. Most Government Bodies and Municipalities in India are reluctant to accept this technology and give permission to people to build their house with cost effective technology (CET). The following steps may be taken to ensure proper and extensive use of CET in the light of sustainable development and protection of the environment: • Sensitization of people: Extensive awareness campaigns and

demonstrations among general public and also among engineers and architects to make them familiar with these technologies. The market force of cost reduction will definitely play a major role in acceptance of CET if Governments/Municipal Bodies acknowledge these technologies and direct their concerned departments to adopt them. Promotion of cost-effective technologies through institutes like the HUDCO-sponsored building centers may also be thought of. • Manpower development: Shortage of skilled manpower can play a crucial role in implementing any sort of new technologies in the construction sector. To promote cost-effective technologies, skill up gradation programmers has to be organized for masons. These technologies should also be a part of the syllabus for students of civil engineering and architecture at undergraduate and diploma level. • Material development: The Central and State Governments should encourage the setting up of centers at regional, rural and district levels for production of costeffective building materials at the local level. The building centers set up by HUDCO for this purpose should be further strengthened. Appropriate field level research and land-to-lab methodology should be adopted by leading R&D institutes and universities to derive substitutes to common energyintensive materials and technologies. Reuse of harmless industrial waste should also be given priority. • Technical guidance: Proper guidance to general public through design, estimation and supervision has to be provided by setting up housing guidance centers, in line with the concept mooted by the HUDCO building centers. We

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have solutions in hand to reduce global warming. We should act now through use of clean and innovative eco-friendly technologies, and evolve policies to encourage their adoption by the statutory bodies to stop global warming. Along with other key sectors, this relatively ignored construction technology sector can also play a major role in reduction of CO2 emission and mitigate global warming. With sincere efforts of all stakeholders, the goal can be achieved.

Notes 1. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is an amendment to the international treaty on climate change, assigning mandatory emission limitations for the reduction of GHG emissions to the signatory nations. The objective is the ‘stabilization of GHG concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system’. 2. Laurie Baker (1917–2007): An awardwinning English architect, renowned for his initiatives in low-cost housing. He came to India in 1945 as a missionary and since then lived and worked in India for 52 years. He obtained Indian citizenship in 1989 and resided in Thiruvananthapuram. In 1990, the Government of India awarded him with the Padma Shri, in recognition of his meritorious service in the field of architecture. 3. Stretcher: Brick (or other masonry blocks) laid horizontally in the wall with the long, narrow side of the brick exposed. Header: The smallest end of the brick is horizontal, aligned with the surface of the wall and exposed to weather.

4. Corbelling: A layer (or course) of bricks or any other type of masonry units that protrude out from the layer (or course) below. 5. Carbon trading: (i) Under Kyoto Protocol, developed countries agreed that if their industries cannot reduce carbon emissions in their own countries, they will pay others like India (a signatory to the Protocol) to do it for them and help them meet their promised reduction quotas in the interest of worldwide reduction of GHGs. (ii) The ‘currency‘ for this trade is called Carbon Emission Reduction (CER). One unit of CER is one tonne equivalent of carbon dioxide emission. (iii) UNFCCC registers the project, allowing the company to offer CERs produced by the project to a prospective buyer.


1. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis – Summary for Policymakers, IPCC, 2007, p. 5. 2. 3. Buildings and Climate Change – Status, Challenges and Opportunities, United Nations Environment Programme, Chapter 2.1, p. 7. 4. Corporate Sustainability Report 2003– 04, TATA Steel; ironmental/ev_09.htm 5. 05/03Cement 6. UNDP Project Document, Government of Bangladesh, Improving kiln efficiency in the brick making industry, 2006, p. 50. 7. ml

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C Karthik, 2S.Sheik Imam, Students of II B.E(Civil), PSNA College of Engineering


Specimens from each geonet were placed under various compressive loads in a vessel containing a solution of 10% surfaceactive agent and 90% water at a temperature of 50˚C. Then the surface morphology study of the specimen was performed after 500 hours test duration. The results show that all of these geonets did not appear any kind of stress cracking in the condition of 400 kPa, which is a typical landfill’s loading condition. However, in the case of bi-planar geonet there were some deposits on the surface of geonet’s strand and it is expected that this phenomena is due to the results of chemical clogging. On the other hand, in the case of the tri-planar and circular type biplanar geonets, it maintained very clean flow channels until the end of the test. For high normal pressure some environmental stress cracks were detected for the circular type bi-planar geonet. The results show that the resistance to the environmental stress cracking is related to its polymer density,

crystallinity and also mechanical properties.

rigidity not


KEYWORDS: geonet, compressive loads, surface morphology, stress cracking, chemical clogging, flow channels INTRODUCTION:

Land filling, by all indications, will continue to be the predominant method of solid waste disposal. As the use of high density polyethylene (HDPE) geonets increase in landfill applications, it is required to evaluate their long-term properties in several chemical conditions. Typically, the high crystallinity of polyethylene geonets provides an excellent chemical resistance to harsh chemical leachate, however can be problematic with regard to environmental stress cracking. Under low stresses in the circumstance of

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room temperature polyethylenes will fracture by slow crack growth. This mode of failure limits the lifetime of polyethylenes used in critical applications as drainage materials, lining under landfills. Geomembranes and geonets are used as a barrier and drainage component in this system, respectively. With addition of carbon black which is an anti-oxidation material HDPE geomembranes and geonets are normally used in hazardous landfill system as a barrier and drainage respectively. Many researchers and a lot of work about environmental stress cracking resistance for the geomembranes were done and many beneficial reports have already been published. However a few research results on the environmental stress cracking resistance for the geonet drainage material were performed. Therefore, in this study the resistance to environmental stress cracking (ESCR) was examined mainly in morphological issues for various geonets (bi-planar, tri-planar and circular type of biplanar geonet) under condition of various normal pressures.

using the procedures set forth in Standard Test Method for Determining Short-term Compression Behavior of Geosynthetics (ASTM D6364) to evaluate basic mechanical properties of samples. Specimen is positioned between two rigid steel platens and compressed at a constant rate of 1.0 mm/min. To control an accurate temperature of specimen of 23˚C heating platens were manufactured and its heating is 14˚C/min. Also special test equipment for ESCR under compression was manufactured and this equipment is shown Fig. 2. The specimens were immersed in a solution of 90% water and 10% I-gepal CO630 at a temperature of 50˚C. The solution level was checked daily and deionized water used to keep the bath at a constant level. And the solution was replaced every 2 weeks. 200, 400 and 700 kPa for sample A, 600, 1,000 and 1,200 kPa for sample B and 400, 600 and 800 kPa for C of load were subjected as compressive load using 6:1 arm lever loading system within considering their compressive strengths. The immersion duration was 500 hours and during and after the test apparent observation and microscopic morphology was evaluated for the specimen.


Total three types of geonets were test in this study. Sample A has 5.6 mm mean value of thickness and two layers which means bi-planar geonet. The cross sectional shape of strand of Sample A is more likely to a square. Sample B has average of 8.6 mm thickness and has 3 layers (tri-planar). Sample C is also bi-planar geonet however has circular type cross sectional shape and thicker than sample A. The raw material of all these samples is high density polyethylene (HDPE). Typical specifications of the samples are provided in Table 1. Fig. 1 shows these samples. Short-term compressive deformation test was performed

Table 1 Typical specification of the samples


Test Unit method ASTM D5199 Mm g/m2 %

Sample A 5.6 920 2.3 B 8.6 1700 2.2 C 8.2 2300 2.3


Mass per ASTM unit area D5261 Carbon black Density ASTM D4218 ASTM

g/cm3 0.942 0.944 0.940

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D1505 Crystallinity ASTM D2910 % 56 55 61

(a) Sample A

Fig. 2 Compressive environmental stress cracking test equipment

(b) Sample B

(c) Sample C

Considering the compressive strength and strain properties, the sample C has the stiffest behavior in these three Samples. Initial 5% elastic modulus is much higher than other samples. From this behavior of Sample C it is expected that sample C has rigid structure and has high crystallinity of over 60%. Table 1 confirms this phenomenon. In the other hand Sample A
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and C have more flexible behavior and low initial elastic modulus.

than the other samples and therefore high modulus indicate more rigid than others. High rigidity has brittle failure pattern rather than ductile failure and this can induce a stress crack during the compressive creep test. Also it seems that the chemical act a stress cracking accelerator.

Fig. 3 Short-term compression test results

Figs. 4-9 exhibit the results of apparent observations and microscopic morphologies. Some kind of chemical clogging due to the I-gepal solution is expected for the Sample A because of its flow channel and thickness. This chemical clogging for the Sample A was confirmed by the apparent observation. Fig. 4 shows the results of apparent observations for Sample A. In this figure many deposits on the surface of the specimens were detected during and end of the test and it seems that these deposits which were induced from the chemical solution may occur clogging and therefore affect geonet’s in-plane flow capacity. Also there is no chemical clogging on the surface of the specimen for Sample B and this fact was confirmed by apparent observation (Fig. 5). Considering flowing pattern of the Igepal solution through out the specimen, the I-gepal has zigzag flow pattern and this courses some frictions with strands of sample A, therefore the chance of clogging is higher than the Sample B which has straight flow pattern. Also thin thickness compared to other samples can increase chance of any clogging. For the Sample C, the initial creep deformation was very low which means the initial modulus is higher

Fig. 4 Apparent observation during and end of the test for sample A (200kPa)

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Fig. 6 Apparent observations end of the test for samples under various normal pressures

Fig. 5 Apparent observation during and end of the test for sample B (700 kPa)

Fig. 7 Microscopic morphologies of Sample A after the test for various normal pressures

Figs. 6-9 confirm this environmental stress cracking phenomenon. From these exhibitions it is clear that Sample A and Sample B which have relatively more flexible HDPE strand than Sample C didn’t experience any kind of environmental stress cracking. For the Sample C which is more rigid and has high crystallinity (Table 1) likely has to chance of stress cracking. The microscopic morphologies indicate that the extent of environmental stress cracking observed in the Sample C is related to its flexibility and crystallinity. And from the morphologies it seems that the stress cracks occurred at the junction point of the strands first and then propagate to strands with increasing normal pressure.

Fig. 8 Microscopic morphologies of Sample B after the test for various normal pressures

Fig. 9 Microscopic morphologies of Sample C after the test for various normal pressures

In this study long-term (500 hours) environmental stress cracking resistance for various geonets under various normal pressures were evaluated. The conclusions are as follows: 1. ESCR property is one of the most critical parameters for evaluating

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long-term chemical resistance of HDPE geonets which used in hazardous landfill systems. 2. Traditional bi-planar geonets which have square type strand and tri-planar geonet have very strong chemical and stress cracking resistance even high normal pressure. 3. Cylindrical type bi-planar geonets is more rigid material than other samples and it is very weak to environmental stress cracking with increasing normal pressure.

• • • •


Bobsein RL (1999) factors influencing SP-NCTL test results, Proceedings of the 13th GRI Seminar: 46-57 Carlson, DS, etc. (1993) laboratory evaluation of HDPE geomembrane

seams, Geosynthetics 93, Vancouver, Canada: 1543 Lagaron JM, Pastor JM, Kip BJ (1999) Polymer 40: 1629-1636 Peggs ID, Kannien MF (1995) Geosynthetics International Qian R, Lu X, Brown N (1993) Polymer Thomas, RW (1998) evaluating the stress crack resistance of HDPE seams, 6th International Conference on Geosynthetics Thomas RW, Deschepper BW (1993) stress crack testing of unnotched HDPE geomembrane and seams, Proceedings of the 7th GRI seminar Dec. 14-15 Ward AL, Lu X, Brown N (1990) Polymer Engineering and Science, Sep 30(18)

M Sokkalingam, P Gowtham
Students of Final B.E(Civil), JJ College of Engineering and Technology, Trichy


Concrete is an essential material for construction, because of its composition and performance it is used every where. Nowadays, while designing a structure, more important is being given to strength and durability of the concrete. Each structure is built in accordance with its

needs, so the special properties are to be satisfied by them for their good performance. We know that concrete is a compressive material rather than a tensile material. For increasing its compressive strength, we add the chemical admixtures into the concrete. This concrete has higher strength as compared to that of ordinary concrete. The strength and durability of this concrete is mainly depends on its mix proportions. Reactive powder concrete

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(RPC) is a developing composite material that will allow the concrete industry to optimize the material use, generate economic benefits, and build structures that are very strong, durable, and sensitive to environment. A comparison of the physical, mechanical, and durability properties of RPC and high performance concrete(HPC) shows that RPC posses better strength(both compressive and flexural) Compared to HPC. This paper reviews the available literature on RPC, and presents the results of laboratory investigation such as fresh concrete properties, compressive strength, flexural strength, comparing RPC with HPC. Specific benefits and potential applications of RPC have also been described.

microstructure is optimized by precise gradation of all particles in the mix to yield maximum density RPC is emerging technology that lends a new dimension to the term “High Performance Concrete “. It has immense potential in construction due to its superior mechanical and durability properties compared to conventional high performance concrete, and could even replace steel in some applications.



HPC is not a simple mixture of cement, water, and aggregates. Quite often, it contains mineral components and chemical admixtures having very specific characteristics, which impart specific properties to the concrete. The development of HPC results from the materialization of a new science of concrete, a new science of admixtures and the use of advanced scientific equipment to monitor concrete microstructure.

Reactive powder concrete has been developed to have a strength of 200 to 800 Mpa with required ductility. It is new technique involved in the civil engineering .Reactive powder concrete in made by replacing the conventional sand and aggregate by grounded quartz less than300 micron size, silica fume, synthesized precipitated silica ,steel fibers about 1 Cm in length and 180 micron in diameter . RPC is composed of very fine powders (cement, sand, quartz powder, and silica fume), steel fibers (optional) and a super plasticizer. The super plasticizer, used at its optimal dosage, decreases the water binder ratio (w\b) while improving the workability of concrete. A very dense matrix is achieved by optimizing the granular packing of the dry fine powders. This compactness gives RPC ultra –high strength and durability .Reactive powder concretes have compressive strength ranging from 200 Mpa to 800Mpa

RPC was first developed in France in the early 1990s and the world’s first RPC structure, the Sherbrooke Bridge in Canada, was constructed in July 1997. RPC is an ultra high-strength and high ductility cementation composite with advanced mechanical and physical properties. To consists of a special concrete where the

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Typical composition of reactive powder concrete 800 Mpa

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 8. 2. 9. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Portland cement – type V Fine sand ( 150 – 400 micron) Silica fume (18 m2/gm) Precipitated silica (35 m2/gm) Super plasticizer (polyacrylate) Steel fibers (length 3mm and dia.180µ)

1000 kg/m3 5001 kg/m3 390 kg/m3 230 kg/m3 18 kg/m3 630 kg/m3 955 kg/m3 Mpa 490 – 680 1051 – 1023Mpa 45 kg/m 229 kg/m3 10 kg/m3 13 kg/m3 191 kg/m3 153 kg/m3

Typical composition of reactive powder concrete 200kg/m3 Total water 180 Mpa

Portland cement – type V Compressive strength (cylinder) Fine sand ( 150 – 400 micron) Flexural strength Silica fume (18 m2/gm) Precipitated silica (35 m2/gm) Super plasticizer (polyacrylate) Steel fibers Total water

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8. 9. 10.

Compressive strength (cylinder) Flexural strength Young’s modulus

170 – 230 Mpa 25 – 30 Mpa 54 – 60 Mpa


Some of the general principles for developing RPC are given below, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Elimination of coarse aggregates for enhancement of homogeneity. Utilization of the pozzolanic properties of silica fume. Optimization of the granular mixture for the enhancement of compacted density. Optimal usage of super plasticizer to reduce w/b and improve work ability. Application of pressure (before and during setting) to improve compaction. Post-set heat-treatment for the enhancement of the microstructure. Addition to small-sized steel fibres to improve ductility.


The mixture design of RPC primarily involves the creation of a dense granular skeleton. Optimization of the granular mixture can be achieved by the use of packing models.

Property of RPC Reduction aggregate size


Recommended value

Type of eliminated


in Coarse aggregate Maximum size of fine Mechanical, are replace by fine sand is 600 µm chemical & thermosand, with a mechanical reduction in the size of the coarse aggregate by a factor of about 50. Improved Young’s modulus values Distribution on the mechanical in 50-75 Gpa range mechanical stress properties of the field paste by the addition of silica fume

Enhanced mechanical properties

Reduction in Limitation of sand Volume of the paste is By any external aggregate to matrix content at least 20 % voids source (for example ratio index of non-compacted formwork). sand

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The RPC family includes two types of concrete, designated RPC 200 and RPC 800, which offers interesting implicational possibilities in different areas. Mechanical for the two types of RPC are given in the table. The high flexural strength of RPC is due to addition steel fibres.
Comparison of RPC 200 Mpa and RPC 800 Mpa:

Property Pre-setting Mpa

RPC 200 Mpa pressurization, None

RPC 800 Mpa 50 490 to 680 650 to 810 45 to 141

Compressive strength 170 to 230 (using quartz sand), Mpa Compressive strength (using steel aggregate), Mpa Flexural strength, Mpa 30 to 60

Comparison of HPC (80 Mpa) and RPC 200 Mpa:

Property Compressive strength, Mpa Flexural strength, Mpa Modulus of elasticity, Gpa Fracture toughness, J/m2

HPC (80 Mpa ) 80 7 40 <103

RPC 200 Mpa 200 40 60 30x103

Table shows typical mechanical properties of RPC compared to a conventional HPC having compressive strength of 80 Mpa. As fracture toughness, which is a measure of energy absorbed per unit volume of material to fracture, is higher for RPC, it exhibits high ductility. Apart from their exceptional mechanical properties, RPC have an ultra-dense microstructure, giving advantageous water proofing and durability characters. These materials can be therefore be used for industrial and nuclear waste storage facilities.

RPC has ultra-high durability characteristic resulting from its extremely low porosity, low permeability, limited shrinkage and increasing corrosion resistance. In comparison to HPC,
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there is no RPC given in table enable its use in chemically aggressive environments and where physical wear greatly limits the life of other concretes.

Laboratory investigations:

The materials used for the laboratory study, there is specification and properties have been presented in the table.

Materials used in the study and their properties: Sample 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Cement, OPC, 53-grade Micro silica Quartz powder Standard sand, grade-1 Steel fibres (30 mm) River sand

Specific gravity 3.15 2.2 2.7 2.65 7.1 2.61

Particle size range 31 µm – 7.5 µm 5.3 µm – 1.8 µm 5.3 µm – 1.3 µm 0.6mm – 0.3 mm Length: 30 mm and diameter:0.4 mm 2.36 mm – 0.15 mm

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Mixture design of RPC and HPC:

The process of mixture selection of RPC and HPC is given below. Considerable numbers of trial mixtures were prepared to obtain good RPC and HPC mixture proportions.

MIXTURE PROPORTIONS OF RPC AND HPC: Material Mixture proportions RPC – F Cement Silica fume Quartz powder Standard sand grade 1 River sand 30 mm steel fibers Admixture (polyacrylate based) Water 0.4 0.4 1.00 0.25 0.31 1.09 0.20 0.03 HPC – F 1.00 0.12 0.023

Workability and density were recorded for the fresh concrete mixtures. Some RPC specimens were heat cured by heating in a water bath at 90o C after until the time of testing. Specimens of RPC and HPC were also cured in water at room temperature. The performance of RPC and HPC was monitored over time with respect to the following parameters. • • • • Fresh concrete properties. Compressive strength Flexural strength Water absorption

The workability of RPC mixtures (with and without fibres), measured using the mortar flow table test as r\per ASTMC10916, was in the range of120-140%. On the other hand, the workability of HPC mixtures (with fibres), measured using the slump test as per ASTM C23117, was in the range of 120-150mm. The density of fresh RPC and HPC mixture was found to be in the range of 2500-2650 kg/m3.

Compressive strength: The compressive strength analysis throughout the study shows that RPC has higher compressive strength than HPC, as shown in fig. compressive strength is one of the factors linked with durability of a material.
HPC - F normal curing RPC - F normal curing

Fresh concrete properties:

pressive strength, Mpa

140 120 100 80 60 40 20

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any additional steel reinforcement. This cost reduction in reinforcement can compensate the increase in cost by the elimination of coarse aggregates in RPC to some extent.



RPC –F NC 18


HPC – F NC 10

NC = Normal curing. The maximum compressive strength of RPC obtained from this study is as 200Mpa, while the maximum strength obtained for HPC is 75Mpa. The incorporation of fibres and use of heat curing was seen to enhance the compressive strength of RPC by 30 to 50%. The incorporation of fibres did not affect the compressive strength of HPC significantly.

Water absorption:

Flexural strength:

A common trend of decrees in the water absorption with age is seen here both for RPC and HPC. The percentage of water absorption of RPC, however, is very low compared to that of the HPC. The quality of RPC is one among the desired properties of nuclear waste containment materials.

Water absorption percent

Plain RPC was found to possess marginally higher flexural strength than HPC. Table clearly explains the variation in flexural strength of RPC and HPC with the addition of steel fibers. Here the increase of flexural strength of RPC with the addition of fibers is higher than that of HPC. As per literature, RPC 200should have an approximate flexural strength of 40 Mpa. The reason for low flexural strength obtained in the study could be that the fibers used (30mm) were long and their diameter was relatively higher. Fibre reinforced RPC (with appropriate fibres) has the potential to be used in structures without

3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 7 14 21 Age, days 28 HPC RPC

Water absorption of RPC and HPC

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Each mould is to be cleaned and assembled properly. Then inside and joints of mould are thinly coated with mould oil. The concrete is to be filled into the mould in layers. For cubical specimen the concrete is to be subjected using table vibrator 30 seconds per layer. The specimens are stored at a room temperature of 27o ± 2o C for 24 hours ± ½ hours form the time of addition of water to the dry ingredients. After this period, the specimen are marked and removed from the moulds and immediately submerged in clean water. The specimens in water are taken after 28 day. The specimens shall not be allowed to become dry at any time until these are tested.


Test specimens are prepared to determine the strength of concrete. Cube specimens are used to test the compressive strength of the HPC and RPC.


Specimen size = 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm Volume of one cube = 0.1 x 0.1 x 0.1 = 0.001 m3


1000 KN compression testing machine is used for testing specimen for its compressive strength.


Procedure: The specimen stored in water is to be tested immediately on removal from the water and they are still in the wet condition. Surface water and quit is to be wiped of the specimen and any projecting fines are removed. The dimensions and weights of the specimens are to be taken. Placing the specimen in the testing machine.

The above mix calculated quantities of cement, aggregates, admixtures and water are weighed properly. Cement, fine aggregates and mineral admixtures are mixed thoroughly in dry conditions. These coarse aggregate is added and mixed well. Finally water and super plasticizer are added and mixed until the concrete appears to be homogeneous and has the designed consistency.

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The bearing surface of the testing machine and the surface of the specimens are to be cleaned. The specimen is to be placed in the machine in such a manner that the load is to be applied to the opposite side of the cubes as cast that is not at the top and bottom. The axis of the specimen is to be carefully aligned with the center of the thrust of the spherically seated platen no packing is to be used between two faces of the specimen and the steel platen of the testing machine.The movable portion is to be rotated gently by hand so that uniform seating may be obtained.The load is to be applied until the resistance of the specimen to the increasing load breaks down and no greater load can be restrained.The maximum load applied to the specimen is to be recorded and the appearance of the concrete and any unusual features in the type of the failure is noted.

conventional concrete (5 to 10 times higher than HPC). RPC should be used in areas were substantial weight savings can be realized and where some of the remarkable characteristics of the material can be fully utilized . Owing to its high durability, RPC can even replace steel in compression members where durability issues are in ( for example in marine condition ). Since RPC in its infancy, the long term properties are not yet known. CONCULSION: A laboratory investigation comparing RPC and HPC led to the following conclusions. • A maximum compressive strength of 198 Mpa was obtained. This is in the RPC 200 range (175 Mpa – 225 Mpa). The maximum flexural strength of RPC obtained was 22 Mpa, lower than the values quoted in literature (40 Mpa). A possible reason for this could be the higher length and diameter of fibres used in this study. A comparison of the measurements of the physical, mechanical and durability properties of RPC and HPC shows that RPC better strength (both compressive and flexural) and lower permeability compared to HPC.


In a typical RPC mixture design, the least costly components of conventional concrete are basically eliminated and replaced by more expensive. In term of size scale, the fine sand used in RPC becomes equivalent to the coarse aggregate of conventional concrete, the Portland cement plays the role of the fine aggregate and the silica fume that of the cement. The mineral component optimization alone results in a substantial increase in cost over and above that of

51. Automation in Waste Water Treatment

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Abstract— Due to tremendous increase in the industrial processes waste water generation also increases in the same way which creates a major problem in its treatment and also in its disposal. Proper supervision of the treatment units is necessary which is done manually is updated by industrial computer system named SCADA which monitors and control the treatment units which leads to the safer environment.

INTRODUCTION Waste water from industries causes serious ill effects in the environment when it is not safely treated and disposed off. Due to the lack of skilled labours and treatment units the waste water from the industries has to be monitored and controlled by a centralised computer system which collects data and according to the condition prevailing it controls the treatment units and safely dispose the waste water or it directs the waste water to recycle by acquiring its preliminary characteristics. The term SCADA usually refers to centralized systems which monitor and control entire sites, or complexes of systems spread out over large areas (anything between an industrial plant and a country). Most control actions are performed automatically by Remote Terminal Units ("RTUs") or by programmable logic controllers ("PLCs"). Host control functions are usually restricted to basic overriding or supervisory level intervention. For example, a PLC may control the flow of cooling water through part of an industrial process, but the SCADA system may allow operators to change the set points for the flow, and enable alarm conditions, such as loss of flow and high temperature, to be displayed and recorded. The feedback control loop passes through the RTU or PLC, while the SCADA system monitors the overall performance of the loop.

Data acquisition begins at the RTU or PLC level and includes meter readings and equipment status reports that are communicated to SCADA as required. Data is then compiled and formatted in such a way that a control room operator using the HMI can make supervisory decisions to adjust or override normal RTU (PLC) controls. Data may also be fed to a Historian, often built on a commodity Database Management System, to allow trending and other analytical auditing. SCADA systems typically implement a distributed database, commonly referred to as a tag database, which contains data elements called tags or points. A point represents a single input or output value monitored or controlled by the system. Points can be either "hard" or "soft". A hard point represents an actual input or output within the system, while a soft point results from logic and math operations applied to other points. (Most implementations conceptually remove the distinction by making every property a "soft" point expression, which may, in the simplest case, equal a single hard point.) Points are normally stored as value-timestamp pairs: a value, and the time stamp when it was recorded or calculated. A series of valuetimestamp pairs gives the history of that point. It's also common to store additional metadata with tags, such as the path to a field device or PLC register, design time comments, and alarm information. A Human-Machine Interface or HMI is the apparatus which presents process data to a human operator, and through which the human operator controls the process. An HMI is usually linked to the SCADA system's databases and software programs, to provide trending, diagnostic data, and management information such as scheduled

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maintenance procedures, logistic information, detailed schematics for a particular sensor or machine, and expertsystem troubleshooting guides. The HMI system usually presents the information to the operating personnel graphically, in the form of a mimic diagram. This means that the operator can see a schematic representation of the plant being controlled. For example, a picture of a pump connected to a pipe can show the operator that the pump is running and how much fluid it is pumping through the pipe at the moment. The operator can then switch the pump off. The HMI software will show the flow rate of the fluid in the pipe decrease in real time. Mimic diagrams may consist of line graphics and schematic symbols to represent process elements, or may consist of digital photographs of the process equipment overlain with animated symbols. The HMI package for the SCADA system typically includes a drawing program that the operators or system maintenance personnel use to change the way these points are represented in the interface. These representations can be as simple as an onscreen traffic light, which represents the state of an actual traffic light in the field, or as complex as a multi-projector display representing the position of all of the elevators in a skyscraper or all of the trains on a railway. An important part of most SCADA implementations is alarm handling. The system monitors whether certain alarm conditions are satisfied, to determine when an alarm event has occurred. Once an alarm event has been detected, one or more actions are taken (such as the activation of one or more alarm indicators, and perhaps the generation of email or text messages so that management or remote SCADA operators

are informed). In many cases, a SCADA operator may have to acknowledge the alarm event; this may deactivate some alarm indicators, whereas other indicators remain active until the alarm conditions are cleared. Alarm conditions can be explicit - for example, an alarm point is a digital status point that has either the value NORMAL or ALARM that is calculated by a formula based on the values in other analogue and digital points - or implicit: the SCADA system might automatically monitor whether the value in an analogue point lies outside high and low limit values associated with that point. Examples of alarm indicators include a siren, a pop-up box on a screen, or a coloured or flashing area on a screen (that might act in a similar way to the "fuel tank empty" light in a car); in each case, the role of the alarm indicator is to draw the operator's attention to the part of the system 'in alarm' so that appropriate action can be taken. In designing SCADA systems, care is needed in coping with a cascade of alarm events occurring in a short time, otherwise the underlying cause (which might not be the earliest event detected) may get lost in the noise. Unfortunately, when used as a noun, the word 'alarm' is used rather loosely in the industry; thus, depending on context it might mean an alarm point, an alarm indicator, or an alarm event. The technology is based on a type of recirculatory evapotranspiration channel. Primary treatment is obtained though the use of anaerobic sludge chambers and in-line filters. Secondary treatment techniques use a combination of aeration, aggregate biofilms, and sand, soil and rhizofiltration. Tertiary treatment relies on biological activity from microorganisms and selected plants as well as the cation exchange capacity of specific aggregates. Reuse is through evapotranspiration or if desired though a

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variety of transpired




effluent can recirculate through the system until used.

Infrastructure and Alarm Types of the SCADA System

The monitoring and control of the system is accomplished using SCADA arrangements in the field to control pump function and water flow, and to enable supervision of the operational aspects of the site. The on site alarm and control system are powered with an un-interruptible power supply (UPS) with a reserve capacity of at least 12 hours. The SCADA units communicate to a central monitoring location via redundant links of differing formats. These links consist of a physical link through the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and a redundant global systems mobile (GSM) link through the mobile network (MN). Both the PSTN modem and the GSM modem is powered via the UPS allowing site monitoring at all times. Pumps are monitored for correct operation; alarms are raised in the event of a failure. Water levels in the holding tanks are continuously monitored and the pump run times are automatically modified to keep the levels within specified limits. Effluent flow rates are monitored in the feed lines to ensure correct operation of diversion and flow control valves and assist in the detection of system abnormalities. The SCADA control system, UPS, PSTN modem and GSM modem will be housed in a lockable stainless steel enclosure rated to IP 65 and mounted either on a pole, slab, or

nearby shed, close to the system .Primary power circuit breakers, pump control relays and pump current monitors as well as any primary power metering will be housed in a separate lockable stainless steel enclosure also rated at IP 65 and mounted near the SCADA enclosure Urgent alarms will be reported immediately to the Central monitoring station flagged for urgent action. Types of alarms in this category will directly and immediately affect system operation and should be attended to without delay. NonUrgent alarms will be reported on the next scheduled site scan by the Central Monitoring station. Types of alarms in this category will not directly affect system operation or integrity but may indicate unusual operational parameters. Off-Normal alarms indicate manual intervention has been initiated and will be reported on the next scheduled scan by the Central Monitoring station. These alarm categories may be reported visually and/or audibly locally if required by legislation. The level sensors are placed in the lid of each tank, facing directly into the water. The sensors are PIL brand 50kHz 24 V DC ultrasonic transmitter/ receivers with a 0 – 10 V analogue output proportional to the distance of the target from the sensor. Sensor range is 200 mm to 2000 mm. The sensors are power fed from the SCADA and the analogue output is processed directly by the SCADA. The output from these sensors is used to mitigate the pumping regime established in each tank. These sensors are also used to trigger some alarm conditions to be reported to the control station.
2.2 SCADA Software Instruction Summary for waste water treatment System

The computer program behind the SCADA infrastructure is what determines its effectiveness. This next section describes the software instructions that control the

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operation and data collection procedures of the SCADA system gure 2. One of the main aims of the computer program is too equalize flows through the treatment processes, as wastewater production at schools typically occurs in surges, in accordance with the school schedules. Very little wastewater is produced outside of normal school hours orschool holidays unless a special event is occurring. The site also had installed an irrigation tank (tank 4) as the excess recycled water from the treatment system is used toirrigate a cabinet timber plantation and the school oval (subsurface).
Tank 1 Requirements:

2. No pump if tank level less than 25% 3. No pump if emergency pump P5 is running 4. No pump if level sensor fails 5. No pump to tank 1 if tank 1 level more than 75%
Emergency Overflow requirements

1. Pump P4 (to Tank 4) run if level in T3 is more than 90%. Pump down to 35% 2. No pump (to Tank 4) if Tank 4 is less than 85% 3. Revert to subsurface drip if Tank 4 is less than 85% 4. No pump if level sensors in Tank 3 or 4 fail
Tank 4 (irrigation commissioning root feed tank) and

1. Pump P1 run for 15 minutes every 3 hours 2. No pump if tank level less than 50% 3. No pump if level sensor fails 4. Pump run immediately if tank 1 level more than 75%. Pump down to 60% then revert to 15 minutes every 3 hours 5. Stop pumping if emergency overflow pump is running
Tank 2 Requirements:

1. Pump P4 run at 0530 for 3 hours 2. No pump if Tank 3 level below 25% 3. Pump P4 run at 1703 for 3 hours 4. No pump if Tank 3 level below 25% 5. Pump P5 run at 0530 for 3 hours 6. No pump if Tank 4 level below 25% 7. Pump P5 run at 1703 for 3 hours 8. No pump if Tank 4 level below 25%
Transpiration levels

1. Pump P1 run for 15 minutes every 3 hours 2. No pump if tank level less than 50% 3. No pump if level sensor fails 4. Pump run immediately if tank 2 level more than 75%. Pump down to 60% then revert to 15 minutes every 3 hours 5. Stop pumping if emergency overflow pump is running
Tank 3 Requirements:

1. Measure level in Tanks 2,3,4 before cyclic pump 2. Wait for 15 minutes then log the levels in Tanks 2, 3 and 4 again 3. Calculate difference in levels

1. Pump P3 run if tank level more than 75%

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4. Log difference
Pump Run Logs

1. Record the hours run for each pump 2. Log hours run
Tank Level Logs

The operation of the SCADA technology in conjunction with the PLC system has so far been successful. SCADA technology may solve some of the control and monitoring problems associated with medium to large on-site wastewater treatment and reuse systems.

1. Record tank levels every 3 hours halfway through pump cycle 2. Log levels


1. If contractors operate without a valid pump run command raise an “OFF NORMAL” alarm and Exception Report to Control Centre 2. Sensor Fail raises “URGENT ALARM” and send Exception Report to Control Centre. 3. Total system reserve less than 20% Send SMS and Exception Report to Control Centre. The data collection aspects of the program are aimed at providing information that would highlight any operating or maintenance problems within the system. Pump failures or line blockages are easily identified, as are storm water intrusions and infrastructure failures at the school (eg malfunctioning urinal). The health of the plants in the channels can also be monitored via the evapo transpiration volume; if these decrease with no logical explanation, such as extended overcast weather conditions, it can be assumed that something is wrong and needs correction, and a visit to the site can be made.

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1. A321065.html. Retrieved 2008-0530.[dead link] (Note: Donald Wallace is COO of M2M Data Corporation, a SCADA vendor.) 2. D. Maynor and R. Graham. "SCADA Security and Terrorism: We're Not Crying Wolf". ns/bh-federal-06/BH-Fed-06Maynor-Graham-up.pdf. 3. Robert Lemos (2006-07-26). "SCADA system makers pushed toward security". SecurityFocus. 11402. Retrieved 2007-05-09. 4. J. Slay, M. Miller, Lessons learned from the Maroochy water breach, Critical Infrastructure Protection,, vol. 253/2007, Springer, Boston, 2007, pp. 73-82 5. External SCADA Monitoring 6. "S4 2008 Agenda". genda.pdf. 7. KEMA, Inc. (November 2006). Substation Communications: Enabler of Automation / An Assessment of Communications Technologies. UTC - United Telecom Council. p. 3–21. 8. Mills, Elinor (2010-07-21). "Details of the first-ever control system

malware (FAQ)". CNET. Retrieved 21 July 2010. 9. "SIMATIC WinCC / SIMATIC PCS 7: Information concerning Malware / Virus / Trojan". Siemens. 2010-0721. m/WW/llisapi.dll?func=cslib.csinfo &lang=en&objid=43876783&caller= view. Retrieved 22 July 2010. "malware (trojan) which affects the visualization system WinCC SCADA." 10. "Siemens: Stuxnet worm hit industrial systems". icle/print/9185419/Siemens_Stuxnet _worm_hit_industrial_systems?taxon omyName=Network+Security&taxo nomyId=142. Retrieved 16 September 2010.

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C Karthikeyan, P C Pandithurai Students of IV B.E(Civil), Institute of Road and Transport Technology Erode

Gravity load designed (GLD) structures are vulnerable to any major earthquake and require immediate assessment of their seismic performance to avoid any undesirable collapse. Nevertheless, there is no information available on comparative performance of existing structures designed based on prevailing practicing standards in different stages of their development. Further, stipulated provisions for seismic design of structures differ from one standard to another. Beam-column joint is an important part in seismic resistant design of reinforced concrete moment resisting frames since they ensure continuity of a structure and transfer forces from one element to another. The flow of forces within the beam-column joint may be interrupted if the shear strength of the joint is not adequately provided.In the present study, these issues are covered by considering different stages of Indian standards provisions for designing the reinforced concrete framed structure. An exterior beamcolumn joint (D-region) of a building frame has been selected as the target sub-assemblage to be studied under reverse cyclic load. The study is aimed at evaluating the seismic performance of the structural component designed according to different stages of standard provisions. I. INTRODUCTION resisting frame structures in recent earthquakes all over the world has highlighted the consequences of poor performance of beamcolumn joints. Beam-column joints in a reinforced concrete moment resisting frame are crucial zones for transfer of loads effectively between the connecting elements (i.e. is beams and columns) in the structure. In the analysis of reinforced concrete moment resisting frames, the joints are generally assumed as rigid. Generally, a three phase approach is to design a structure to resist earthquake loading, i.e., (i). The structure must have adequate lateral stiffness to control the inter-story drifts such that no damage would occur to nonstructural elements during minor but frequently occurring earthquakes, (ii). During moderate earthquakes, some damage to non-structural elements is permitted, but the structural element must have adequate strength to remain elastic so that no damage would occur, and (iii). During rare and strong earthquakes, the structure must be ductile enough to prevent collapse by aiming for repairable damage which would ascertain economic feasibility.Beam-column joints in a reinforced concrete moment resisting frame are crucial zones for transfer of loads effectively between the connecting elements(i.e.beams & columns)in the structure. In normal design practice for gravity loads, the design check for joints is not critical &hence not warranted. But, the failure of reinforced concrete frames during many earthquakes has demonstrated heavy distress due to shear in the joints that culminated in the collapse of the structure. Detailed studies of joints for buildings in seismic regions have been undertaken only in the past three to four decades. It is the worth mentioning that the relevant research outcomes on beam-column joints from different countries have led to conflicts in certain aspects of

Globally reinforced concrete structures, even in seismic zones, were being designed only for gravity load, and hence their performance under earthquake could be questionable. In most cases, those structures are vulnerable to even moderate earthquakes and so these structures need immediate assessment to avoid catastrophic failure. Moreover, for new structures, the specifications and detailing provisions, though available to certain extent, have to be considered in such a way that the structure would be able to resist seismic actions.The behavior of reinforced concrete moment

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design. Co-ordinated programs were conducted by researchers from various countries to

identify these conflicting issues & resolve them.

XXIII. BEAM-COLUMN JOINT A beam-column joint defined as that portion of the column within the depth of the deepest beam that frames into the column throughout this document, the term joint is used to refer to a beam. Types of joints in a Moment Resisting Frame (i) Interior Joint

column joint. A connection is the joint plus the columns, beams and slab adjacent to the joint. A transverse beam is one that frames into the joint in a direction perpendicular to that for which the joint is shear is being considered

(ii)Exterior joint

(iii) Corner joint

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XXIV. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME The experimental investigation focuses on the behavior of an typical exterior beam-column joint which is a part of the three storeyed building subjected to constant gravity loading & varying transverse loading.

General arrangement of the building frame considered for the study

Details of Formwork


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XXVI. MATERIALS PROPERTIES The concrete used for the construction of all specimens consists of the following materials. XXVII. CEMENT Cement used for the specimen ordinary Portland cement. specification gravity of cement determined as per IS: 576-1964 &found to be 3.15.

fine aggregate used for concrete was determined &found to be 2.65. COURSE AGGREGATE The coarse aggregate used in the mixes are hard blue granite stones from quarries. 12mm size aggregate was stored in separate dust proof containers. The DIMENSIONS OF THE SPECIMEN The specimens are cast using 12mm thickness film coated plywood sheet made to suit the dimensions of the model. The dimension of mould for beam region 380mm x 125mm x 120mm &that for column region is 600mm x225mm x120mm. The moulds are properly nailed to a base plywood sheet, in order to keep the alignment accurately. The mould is oiled before placing the concrete.

was The was (10)

FINE AGGREGATE The fine aggregate used for all the specimens in river sand. The fine aggregate used casting was sieved through IS: 4.75 mm sieve. The specific gravity of

TEST SETUP AND TESTING PROCEDURE Each specimen was tested under reverse cyclic loading in the structural laboratory. The column of the test assembly was placed in a loading frame. The column was centered accurately using plumb bob to avoid eccentricity. The bottom end was fixed in box shaped section made of steel plates. The dimension of the box section is chosen in such a way that column face exactly packed in the section. In top of column mild steel plate over 10 tones proving ring and operated screw jack is fixed. It’s used for applying axial load for column and also avoids the movement of column.

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Deflection meter is used to measure the downward & upward displacements in the beam at a distance of 350mm from the clear face of column. The deflection meter was connected to its stand that was in turn connected to the loading frame available in the laboratory. BEHAVIOUR OF COLUMN JOINTS RC BEAM-

The beam-column joint was gradually loaded by increasing the load level during each cycle. The load sequence consists of 1.8KN, 2.4KN, 3.0KN and up to failure load. The defection measured at centre was 1.15mm during the first cyclic of loading. As the load level was increased in each cycle, the observed deflection was greater than it was in earlier cycle. MODE OF FAILURE The exterior beam-column joint test specimen was tested under cyclic loading. During the forward loading cracks have been developed at the top of the specimen. As the loading was progressed the width of back have been widened. And the reversal of load the specimen has to be in the reversed position, cracks have been formed at the bottom tension and the cracks already formed in the tension face have to be closed. And new cracks have been opened at the tension face. This opening & closing of the cracks have been confirmed till the final failure of the specimen takes place.

In this experimental result of RC beamcolumn joint under reverse cyclic loading has been enumerated. The Parameters like load carrying capacity, ductility factor & energy absorption capacity and stiffness were studied. LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY The first crack was witnessed during 3rd cycle at the load level of 9KN. As the load level was increased, further cracks were developed in other portions. The ultimate load carrying capacity of the RC beamcolumn joint was 19.5KN recorded at 7th cycle.

The exterior beam-column joint specimen was subjected to quasi-static cyclic loading simulating earthquake loads. The load was applied by using screw jack totally 7 cycles were imposed.


Stiffness is defined as the load required to causing unit deflection of the beam-column joint.
a) A tangent was drawn for each cycle of the hysteric curves at a load of P=0.75 Pu where Pu- was the maximum load of that cycle. Determine the slope of the tangent drawn to each cycle, which gives the stiffness of that cycle. In general, with the increase in the load there is degradation of stiffness.

analysis and found good agreement between the experimental and theoretical load versus displacement response”. ► R.Park and T.Paulay, (1975) ‘’He investigated the effect amount and arrangement of transverse steel in the joint region and the method of anchoring the beam steel on thirteen full scale reinforced concrete beam–column subassemblies”. ► Sathish Kumar et al. (2002), have carried out an experimental study to clarify the effect of joint detailing on the seismic performance of lightly reinforced concrete frames.


CONCLUSIONS An experimental study was carried out on exterior beam-column joints which are tested under reverse cyclic loading. Based on the investigation reported in earlier chapters, the following conclusions are drawn. They are summarized below.
1. First crack load of the beam-column joint was observed at 9KN 2. 3. The ultimate load carrying capacities of beam-column joints are 19.5KN The initial stiffness of the beamcolumn joint has been observed as 1.655kN/mm.

RC beam-column joint with secondary reinforcement shows an overall better behavior in terms of load carrying capacity, ductility, energy absorption and stiffness. Hence it is highly suitable for the structure in severe seismic prone zones. REFERENCES
► Eligehasuen. R, Ozbolt. J, Genesio. G, Hoehler. M. S, Pampanin. S (2006) ‘ThreeDimensional Modelling of Poorly Detailed RC Frame Joints’, NZSEE Conference (2006) ► Geng et al. ~1998! and Mosallam ~1999! Used composite overlays to strengthen simple models of interior beamcolumn joints and recorded increases in the strength, the stiffness, and the ductility of the specimens. ► Gergely et al. ~1998! “he analyzed one of the aforementioned bents by performing pushover

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Abstract: Watershed management is a great boon for our country for which more steps are taken to improve .Watershed management is an indispensable one ,it mainly deals with storing runoff water during rainfall .India receives rainfall only during monsoon season average annual rainfall in India has decreased due to anthropogenic activities. Due to over exploitation of ground water, the ground water levels in many areas show a declining trend, which in turn tends to increase both the investment cost and the operational cost. This problem can be alleviated to some extent by artificially recharging the potential aquifer and efficient harvesting of the rainwater. GIS is advanced method to detect areas of runoff. Watershed management is drained by lake ,ponds ,rivers, runoff. “IT IS IMPORTANT TO APPLY THE TECHNOLOGY OF WATERSHED MANAGEMENT TO SOLVE ITS ANNUAL PROBLEMS OF DROUGHTS AND FLOODS.”

In India, where a lot of water goes waste, it is important to apply the technology of Watershed management to solve its annual problems of droughts , floods. Watershed to achieve maximum production with minimum hazard to the natural resources and for well being of people. The demand for water exceeds its supply. Water covers about 3/4 of the earth's surface, but only about 2% is fresh water, and a larger portion of it is polar ice. 86% of Asia's fresh water is used for agriculture, 8% for industry and 6% for domestic purposes. Our country uses 83% of fresh water for agriculture. Fresh water, once considered an inexhaustible resource, is now fast becoming a rare and scarce commodity. . Conflicts sharing water resources are on the rise. Due to over exploitation of ground water, the ground water levels in many areas show a declining trend, which in turn tends to increase both the investment cost and the operational cost. This problem can be alleviated to some extent by artificially recharging the potential aquifer and efficient harvesting of the rainwater.


DEFINITION: Watershed management is the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within a watershed boundary. Watershed management basically involves harmonizing the use of soil and water resources between upstream and downstream areas within a watershed toward the objectives of natural resource conservation, increased agricultural productivity and a better standard of living for its inhabitants. Principles of Watershed Management: The main principles of watershed management based on resource conservation, resource generation and resource utilization are: Utilizing the land based on its capability Protecting fertile top soil Minimizing silting up of tanks, reservoirs and lower fertile lands Protecting vegetative cover throughout the year In situ conservation of rain water Safe diversion of gullies and construction of check dams for increasing ground water recharge Increasing cropping intensity through inter and sequence cropping. Alternate land use systems for efficient use of marginal lands. Water harvesting for supplemental irrigation.




The term watershed management is nearly synonymous with soil and water conservation with the difference that emphasis is on flood protection and sediment control besides maximizing crop production. The basic objective of watershed management is thus is thus meeting the problems of land and water use, not in terms of any one resource but on the basis that all the resources are interdependent and must, therefore, be considered together. The watershed aims, ultimately, at improving standards of living of common people in the basin by increasing their earning capacity, by offering facilities such as electricity, drinking water, irrigation water, freedom from fears of floods, droughts etc. Adequate water supply for domestic, agricultural and industrial needs. Abatement of organic, inorganic and soil pollution.
WATERSHED: A watershed is an area from which all water drains to a common point, making it an interesting unit for managing water and soil resources to enhance agricultural production through water conservation.

Improving socio - economic status of farmers

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Watershed Approach Management




GIS BASED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: In many parts of the world rapid growth in population, agriculture sector and industrialization have increased the demand for water. With the increasing use of water for various activities, ground water declines at an accelerated rate. In order to prevent the fast depletion of ground water levels, artificial recharge is required. Various artificial recharge and water harvesting structures are required to allow the movement of rainwater from the catchment surface into the underground formations. Selection of suitable sites for artificial recharge and water harvesting structures needs a large volume of multidisciplinary data from various sources. Remote sensing is of immense use for natural resources mapping and generating necessary spatial database required as input for GIS analysis. GIS is an ideal tool for collecting, storing and analyzing spatial and non - spatial data, and developing a model based on existing factors to arrive at a suitable natural resources development and management action plans. Both these techniques in conjunction with each other are the most efficient tools for selecting suitable sites for artificial recharge structures and water harvesting structures.

The figure below demonstrates the Watershed Approach to Water Quality Management. By looking at watersheds, the state can evaluate all the sources of pollution that may be affecting the water quality and quantity.

The Watershed Approach is an ongoing cycle of tasks: setting standards for surface water quality; taking measurements of the conditions; assessing the data and identifying the impairments including establishing priorities; verifying the pollution sources and developing plans for restoring water quality; and implementing pollution source controls. Pollution source controls can be things such as permits, rules, and nonpoint source management practices. Planning: Determine the watershed planning unit . Data Collection: collect routine water quality and quantity data at specific locations. Assessment and Targeting: Compare current water quality to state and federal stds.

Strategy Development: Develop goals and strategies to maintain or achieve water quality standards and meet future demands. Implementation: Implement goals and strategies through permits, best management practices (BMPs) and education. One would also measure progress



Integrated watershed management approach (IWMA) is the process of utilisation, development and conservation of land, water, forest and other resources for continually improving livelihoods for communities in a hydrologically independent region. OBJECTIVES OF IWM:

Promote sustainable economic development through (i) optimum use of land, water and vegetation (ii) provide employment (and local capacity 399 | P a g e building) Restore ecological balance through sustainable development of natural resources and community participation; encouragement of available low cost technologies for easy

SWAT hydrological model: (SOIL AND WATER ASSESSMENT TOOL) The SWAT model is designed to route water and sediments from individual Watersheds, through the river systems. It can incorporate the tanks and the reservoirs/check dams off-stream as well as onstream. The agricultural areas can also be integrated with respect to its management practices. The major advantage of the model is that unlike the other conventional conceptual simulation models, it does not require much calibration and therefore can be used on engaged watersheds. SIGNIFICANCE OF GIS IN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT: Watershed prioritization is an important aspect of planning for implementation of the watershed management programme. Two such applications, one for finding the interaction between the administrative and watershed boundaries that shall help in allocation of financial resources with respect to the watershed boundaries and the other to locate the waterharvesting structures, which is a common feature in the watershed management programme, have been formulated and demonstrated. The application can also be used for monitoring and evaluation of the watershed programmes which is an important component, but is invariably missing.

DEFINITION: Rainwater harvesting means making use of each and every drop of rainwater to recharge the groundwater, by directing the rainfall to go into the well or under the ground, without wasting the rainwater. OBJECTIVES:
To conserve the surface run-off during monsoons. To recharge the aquifers and increase availability of ground water.

To improve the quality of ground water where required. To overcome the problem of flooding and stagnation of water during the monsoon season. To arrest salt-water intrusion RAINWATER HARVESTING THROUGH WATERSHED MANAGEMENT:

By using the existing well: Due to over exploitation of ground water, the ground water levels in many areas show a declining trend, which in turn tends to increase both the investment cost and the operational cost. This problem can be alleviated to some extent by artificially recharging the potential aquifer and efficient harvesting of the rainwater. RAIN WATER HARVESTING: Through percolation pits: “Every Drop of Rain Water is Precious-Save it” Percolation pits (1m x 1m x 3m) may be dug a little away from the building. The pit is then filled with brick jelly/pebbles followed by river sand for the purpose of better percolation. The top layer of sand 400 | P a g e The run-off water from rooftops can be led into the existing well through pipes and a small settling pit to filter the turbidity and other pollutants. In this costeffective process we not only conserve the precious rainwater but also help to increase the local ground water table. Even an abandoned well can be used for this purpose.

may be cleaned and replaced once in two years to remove the settled silt for improving the percolation.

TECHNIQUES OF ARTIFICIAL RECHARGING TO GROUND WATER: DEFINITION: Artificial recharge (also sometimes called planned recharge) is a method of storing water underground at times of water surplus to meet demand in times of shortage. REASONS OF A.R.:

Decentralized percolation trenches: This method can be adopted by those who reside in houses with large open areas. Run-off water from the rooftop can be diverted into bare soil/ garden in the premises. Apart from this a longitudinal trench of 1.0m depth and 0.5 m width may be dug at the periphery of the plot and filled with pebble stones and sand in order to store the excess run-off during rainy season that will eventually percolate into the ground.

The main reasons for carrying out artificial recharge may be summarized as follows:
promoting recovery of overexploited aquifers; storage of surficial waters during flood periods to maintain and improve supply in the dry season; storage of local or imported water in the aquifer; preventing seawater intrusion by creating freshwater barriers; increasing the value of aquifers for water distribution in areas with many wells; discharging certain wastewaters, such as cooling water;

reducing groundwater salinity in agricultural areas; reducing subsidence caused by high pumping rates; and groundwater quality improvement


Rainwater is bacteriologically pure, free from organic matter and soft in nature. It will be help in reducing the flood hazard. To improve the quality of existing ground water through dilution. Rainwater may be harnessed at place of need and may be utilised at time of need. The structures required for harvesting the rainwater are simple, economical and ecofriendly.

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Basins: Basins are large shallow depressions where recharge water is stored. Their shape and dimensions are generally adapted to local topography. Many basins need scheduled maintenance to improve the capacity of the bed for infiltration. Floods: This method is used on level ground, where waters are spread directly on the natural surface to

Non-Conventional Methods: Non-conventional water resource technologies that may be used in artificial recharge schemes include:
desalination of salty or brackish waters wastewater recovery or regeneration climate modification programs schemes to reduce evaporation.

Groundwater Recharge Precautions: These provisions should apply to:
effluents and sludges produced by wastewater treatment plants; domestic waste disposal sites; subsurface waste containment by deep-well injection or storage.

produce a thin water layer. The ground must retain its natural vegetation cover. Ditches: Parallel ditches (Figure 4) do not distribute water deeply, and are usually located very close to one another. They are usually arranged in three different ways:
with a "zigzag" course following the contours and land slope; with branches from a main channel; or with ditches arranged perpendicular to the main channel.

Advantages and Disadvantages Groundwater Recharge : Advantages:



The excess of recharge water flowing from the ditches is collected in a discharge channel. Ditches vary in width from 0.3–1.8 m; the slope must be very slight to minimize erosion and to increase the wetted section. These methods may differ in areas with irregular topographic. CONVENTIONAL AND CONVENTIONAL METHODS: CONVENTIONAL METHOD: The major problem with surface storage is the loss of land covered with water, and the ecological, environmental, and social problems generated. NON-

Very little special equipment is needed to construct drainage wells Groundwater recharge stores water during the wet season for use in the dry season, when demand is highest. Most aquifer recharge systems are easy to operate. In many river basins, controlling surface water runoff to provide aquifer recharge reduces sedimentation problems.

o Groundwater recharge may not be economically feasible unless significant volumes can be injected into an aquifer. A very full knowledge of the hydrogeology of an aquifer is required before any full-scale recharge project is implemented.


Conclusion: “SAVE THE SILVER DROPS !GET REWARDS IN THE FUTURE!” Watershed management is a great boon to our country India , which will help in providing sustainable water to the present and future generation. Awareness programme should be conducted among

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people through which they will come to know the importance of watershed management.

C.Justin Raj , R.Vinoth Kumar, Anna University ,Thirukkuvalai Campus

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During the last three decades, significant developments have taken place to improve the mechanical and durability properties of cement concrete. The sustained efforts of researches all over the world to innovate and incorporate unmatched excellence in construction materials have led to development of several advanced technology such as nano technology in cement concrete composite. Recently it is envisaged that the nano scale concrete dramatically improved the properties from conventional grain size materials of the same chemical composition. Micro silica has been one of the world’s most widely used products as an additive in the concrete since eighty years. Nowadays many researches are going on with Nano silica by fully replacing the Micro silica in concrete. The aim of replacing the Nano silica is to fulfill the environmental regulation. This paper briefly deals about the properties of “NANO CONCRETE AND NANO FIBRES”. The latest generation of instruments with unique ability to generate the particle sizes in the Nano range is the NANO SPRAY DRYER B-90, which is also discussed in this paper.

It was found that the first Nano product called CUORE CONCRETE which surpassed the expectation of the designs and afford concrete with higher workability, strength and improved durability at low volume of cement concrete. Secondly NYCON G –NANO, a Nano sized reinforcing fibrous concrete plays major role in concrete technology and provides an environmentally challenging choice for globally responsible, truly sustainable product. It can withstand a temperature up to 255C (491 F) and reduces cracking of concrete. NANO FIBRES offer a further incentive to “GO GREEN”. This paper is highly useful and appreciable in today’s environment conscious thanks to the entry of nano tech in concrete composite. “EVERYBODY AND EVERYTHING CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN THE GREEN REVOLUTION”

INTRODUCTION: 404 | P a g e

A long time used material in concrete is for the first time fully replaced by a nano material.It is well known in physics and chemistry that a well designed and developed nano material produces better and cheaper cost at this level: a thousand fold smaller than the older level: “micro” (0.000001 mt). Results than traditional materials, to the stabilization and reinforcement of matter particles. Civil engineers deal with designing, building and maintaining the various structures that make civilization function. Roads, bridges, canals, tunnels, traffic systems, public transportation and other structures that operate on a large scale are subject to special considerations that require engineers to account for earthquakes, winds, massive public movement and even military strikes. These special requirements give multiple applications for nanotechnology, from earthquakeresistant building materials to graffiti-resistant subways. Construction: Nano is used in construction to improve the properties and functions of commonly used materials like:

Conventional concrete is partly made up of silica. But if you use nano-scale particles of silica in the concrete mix, you can make the structure of the concrete more denser. This means it is better at blocking water and as a result is more durable. Use of carbon nano tubes or nano clays can also help to make new lighter and stronger materials which last longer and are easier to work with and more able to resist shocks such as earthquakes. MICRO SILICA: Micro silica has been one of the world’s most widely used products for concrete for over eighty years. Its properties allowed high compressive strength concretes; water and chemical resistant concretes, and they have been part of many concrete buildings that we see nowadays. Its disadvantage, though, has been its relatively high cost and contamination, which affects the environment and the operators’ health. As micro silica, as a powder, is thousand fold thinner than cigarette smoke. Operators must take special precautions to avoid inhaling micro silica and not to acquire silicosis, an irreversible disease. In the middle of 2003, a product which could replace micro silica seen the contaminant effects, having the same or better characteristics and at a reasonable cost was on the design table. The goal: silica fulfilling the environ-mental regulation: ISO-14001.Using tools from physics, chemistry and recent Nanotechnology Advances, the challenge was fulfilled.Lab tests and production tests proved that the nano silica did not contaminate (because its state), but it also produced better results

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than micro silica, and a litre bottle of the product was equivalent to a barrel full of micro silica, extra cement and super plasticizing additives. CUORE CONCRETE: Because of its innovation the nano silica was tested for over a year in the world’s largest subterranean copper mine to prove its long term characteristics. Cuore concrete takes care of the environment, the concrete and the operators´ health. It is the first nano product that replaced the micro silica. Cuore concrete surpassed the expectations of its design and gave concrete not only the high initial and final resistance but in addition, plasticity, impermeability, minor final cost of work, and cement savings of up to 40%. Also, it lowered the levels of environmental contamination. In addition, a liter bottle of Cuore concrete equals a whole barrel of micro silica, extra cement and super plasticizers. If before a 2 meters thick beam was required to hold a bridge correctly, now only 75 cm are required. If before 28 days were necessary in order to achieve compressive strengths of 80MPa, now only 1 day is required. The pre stressed beams that before required 3 days to be ready and needed to be cured with water and steam, now require only 1 day and they do not need water. Moreover, Cuore concrete became one of the first indicators of the properties that the next commercial nano cements in the market will have: nano particles of silica turn into nano particles of cement (nano cement) in the chemical reactions that take place in the concoction of the concrete, Thanks to all these advantages, the entrance of nano silica Cuore concrete into the market modified the concept of what is possible and what is not in the concrete field. Properties of concrete with Cuore concrete nanosilica:

In high compressive strengths concretes (H-70), Cuore concrete is 88% more efficient than micro silica, added to concrete and super

plasticizers. ( For an average 9,43 Kg. of Cuore concrete Nanosilica, 73Kg. of all the others additives are used).

• • • •

The production cost of is drastically lower than using the traditional production method or formulas. It has an air inclusion of 0% to 1% The cone test shows that It preserves the cone shape for more than one hour. (with a relation of H2O/Cement=0.5, adding 0.5% of Nano silica of the metric volume of the cement used, it conserved a its circle shape of 60 cm for two hours, with a lost of only 5%). The nano silica has a plasticity that has 406 | P a g e

• • •

been compared to the policarboxilate technology. Therefore the use of super plasticizing additives is unnecessary. High workability with reduced water/concrete levels, for example: 0.2. Easy homogenization. The reduction of mixing times allows concrete plants to increase their production Depending on the cement and the formulations used for concrete (tests from value H-30 to H-70), shows that the material provides compressive

• •

strengths between 15 MPa and 75 MPa at 1 day; 40 MPa and 90 MPa at 28 days and 48 MPa and 120 MPa at 120 days. Nano silica fully complies with ISO 14001 regulations regarding the environment and health. It preserves operators of the danger of being contaminated with silicosis and does not contaminate the environment. It successfully passed all the tests and since the beginning of this year it is being commercialized in different parts of the world..

Immediate benefits for the user:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Cessation of contamination caused by micro silica solid particles. Lower cost per building site. Concrete with high initial and final compressive and tensile strengths. Concrete with good workability. Cessation of super plasticizing utilization. Cessation of silicosis risk. High impermeability. Reduction of cement using Cuore concrete Nanosilica.

9. Cuore concrete nano silica on itself produces nano cement. 10. During the moisturizing reaction of the cement, the silica produces CSH particles, the “glue” of the concrete ensuring the cohesion of all the particles. 11. Cuore concrete has a specific surface near to 1,000m2/gr (micro silica has only 20m2/gr) and a particle size of 5nm to 250 nm.
As a consequence of its size, Cuore concrete produces nano crystals of CSH, filling up all the micro pores and micro spaces which where left empty in traditional concrete production. Former described function reinforces the concrete structure on levels, thousand times smaller then in the case of traditional concrete production. This allows the reduction of the cement used and gives the compression needed to reduce over 90 % of the additives used in the production of H-70 concrete. 407 | P a g e

Cuore concrete allows to save in between 35% and 50% of the used cement.We do stress that we recommend to change the formula of the concrete in order to take

advantage of the characteristics of the Cuore concrete Nano silica particle. Less material is needed to obtain better results, using Cuore concrete. The results are the proof:

1. Resistance to compression from 40 to 90MPa in 1 day. 2. Resistance to compression from 70 to 100 MPa (or more) in 28 days. 3. Versatile: produces high resistance even with low addition (1 to 1.5 % of the cements weight) and gives self compacting characteristics with higher proportions (2.5 %). 4. Meets the norms of environmental protection (ISO14001). 5. 70% less use of additives as traditional silica, super plasticizers or traditional fibres.
NANO FIBRE – CONCRETE: As a structural material, Nycon's reinforcing fibers allow products to withstand the forces of nature for decades. Now, with NyconG-Nano fibers, your products are kinder to nature than ever before. In addition to superior threedimensional fiber reinforcement, NyconG-Nano is a nano-sized,

free flowing, fibrous material that provides an environmentally sound choice for globally responsible, truly sustainable products. Proven effective in countless applications, NyconG-Nano fibers are made from 100% recycled nylon from reclaimed carpet. For years little has been done with carpet waste besides throwing it away. Today, thanks to an advanced patented technology (U.S. Patent #6,971,784, other US and foreign patents pending), Nycon "harvests" carpet waste, much like an agricultural asset. Carpet once taken to landfills is now a resource for producing our proprietary, high-value reinforcing fibers. And more than just conserving landfill space, recycling carpet saves water and reduces carbon dioxide emissions that contribute to global warming. Along with outstanding performance properties at reduced cost, NyconG-Nano fibers provide a further incentive to "go green". Everybody and everything can make a difference in the Green Revolution, and Nycon is committed to making a difference. We do this by reducing our reliance on scarce resources, extending the useful life of our reinforcing products--and now, with environmentally friendly NyconG-Nano 408 | P a g e

fibers, reducing energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and landfill waste.

1) NyconG-Nano Physical Properties:
Designed specifically as a free-flowing, nano fiber reinforcement, NyconGNano is a microscopic blend of nylon fibers and a carefully controlled percentage of calcium carbonate particles made from 100% reclaimed carpet. Production and packaging standards of NyconG fibers adhere to strict quality control measures, including random testing to insure minimal environmental impact.

2) NyconG-Nano Performance Characteristics:
• • • • • • •

Three-dimensional, uniform nano reinforcement Stronger than polypropylene Free flowing product Unlike polypropylene, will not float to the surface Corrosion-free Virtually unnoticeable in finished products Withstand temperatures up to 491°F (255°C)

Overall improvement in product integrity and soundness

3) Performance Benefits of NyconG-Nano Reinforced Products:
• • • • • •

Reduced cracking Improved tensile strength Increased compressive strength, impact resistance Improved fatigue crack-resistance Reduced strip and finishing time Overall improvement in integrity and soundness

4) Business Advantages of NyconG-Nano Reinforced Products:
• • •

Lower production costs Environmentally friendly Ideal for all dry package applications and products requiring free-flowing 'Green' fiber reinforcement

REDUCTION IN CO2 GAS: Concrete is the most widely used man-made material, and the manufacture of cement--the main ingredient of concrete--accounts for 5 to 10 percent of all 409 | P a g e

anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, a leading greenhouse gas involved in global warming. But now, researchers at MIT

studying the nanostructure of concrete have made a discovery that could lead to lower carbon-dioxide emissions during cement production. The researchers found that the building blocks of concrete are particles just a few nanometers in size, and that these nanoparticles are arranged in two distinct manners. They also found that the nanoparticles' packing arrangement drives the properties of concrete, such as strength, stiffness, and durability. "The mineral [that makes the nanoparticle] is not the key to achieving those properties ... Rather, it's the packing [of the particles]," says Franz-Josef Ulm, a civil- and environmental-engineering professor at MIT who led the work. "So can we not replace the original mineral with something else?" The goal is to formulate a replacement cement that maintains the nanoparticles' packing arrangement but can be manufactured with lower carbon-dioxide emissions. Cement manufacture gives rise to carbon-dioxide emissions because it involves burning fuel to heat a powdered mixture of limestone and clay at temperatures of

1,500ºC. When cement is mixed with water, a paste is formed; sand and gravel are added to the paste to make concrete. But scientists do not fully understand the structure of cement, Ulm says. The biggest mystery is the structure and properties of the elementary building block of the cement-water paste, calcium silicate hydrate, which acts as the glue holding together all the ingredients of concrete. "All of the macroscopic properties of concrete in some way are related to what this phase is like at the nanometer level," says Jeffrey Thomas, a civil- and environmental-engineering professor at Northwestern University. If this structure was better understood, researchers could then engineer cement on a nanoscale to tailor the properties of concrete, says Hamlin Jennings, a civiland environmental-engineering and materials-science professor at Northwestern. Because researchers do not know the behavior of cement on a nanoscale, until now, "progress in concrete and cement research has largely been hit-and-miss," Jennings says. Jennings had predicted that calcium silicate hydrate is a particle with a size of about five nm.

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Ulm and his postdoctoral researcher Georgios Constantinides have confirmed this structure using a technique called nanoindentation, which involves probing cement pastes with an ultrathin diamond needle. Nano spray dryers: Nano spray dryers refer to using spray drying to create particles in the nanometer range. Spray drying is a gentle method for producing powders with a defined particle size out of solutions, dispersions, and emulsions which is widely used for pharmaceuticals, food, biotechnology, and other industrial materials synthesis. In the past, the limitations of spray drying were the particle size (minimum 2 microns), the yield (maximum around 70%), and the sample volume (minimum 50 ml for devices in lab scale). Recently, minimum particle sizes have been reduced to 300 nm, yields up to 90% are possible, and the sample amount can be as small as 1 ml. These expanded limits are possible due to new technological developments to the spray head, the heating system, and the electrostatic particle collector. To emphasize the small

particle sizes possible with this new technology, it has been described as "nano" spray drying. However, the smallest particles produced are in the submicron range common to fine particles rather than the nanometer scale of ultrafine particles. NANO SPRAY DRYER B-90 World novelty for fine particles from minimal sample quantities at high yields!

The latest generation of instruments – the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 –revolutionizes today’s spray drying possibilities with the unique ability to generate particle sizes in the nano range for milligram sample quantities at high yields. The Mini Spray Dryer B-190, B-191 and B-290 systems are nano scale spray dryers. Customer benefits:
• •

Production of submicron- or even nanoparticles with very narrow size distribution for new breakthroughs in R&D Only a minimal sample amount of high value product needs to be invested to receive a dry powder 411 | P a g e

“Cast in concrete” is not all it’s cracked up to be. Concrete structures from bridges to condominium complexes are susceptible to cracks, corrosion and other forces of natural and man-made chemical assault and degradation. Aging structures can be repaired, but at significant cost. Florence Sanchez is looking into the tantalizing world of nanoscience for ways to strengthen concrete by adding randomly oriented fibers ranging from nanometers to micrometers in length and made of carbon, steel or polymers. (A nanometer is roughly the size of four atoms.) The assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering at Vanderbilt University has won the prestigious CAREER Award from the National Science Foundation (NSF) for her research on longterm durability of nano-structured cementbased materials. The award, given to select junior faculty for their exceptionally promising research, will enable Sanchez and her associates to study the complex chemistry of nanofiber-reinforced cement-based materials and how these new materials will perform over time, in a variety of conditions due to weathering.

Benefit from minimal loss of high value products due to uniquely high yields • Efficient and fast process thanks to simple assembling, easy cleaning and fast product changes • Simple instrument adjustment for specific needs by taking advantage of the various accessories (e. g. spray drying organic solvents, controlling particle size)

• • • •

Pharmaceuticals Biotechnology Materials Nanotechnology

Application areas: Nanoparticle suspensions/nanoemulsions • Microand nanoencapsulations/englobing • Nanoparticle agglomerations • Structural modifications • Generation of nanoparticles with high recovery rates • Spray drying of aqueous and organic solvent samples


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Conclusion: Nanotechnologies show a lot of promise for big benefits in terms of better pollution sensors and clean up systems, cheap and portable water treatment and more effective filters for pollution and viruses. In addition, the potential for environmentally friendly fuels like solar cells and hydrogen storage, better fuel efficiency and energy storage (see energy) pesticide replacements and more efficient, lighter cars, planes, ships (see transport) all help save materials and fuel, indirectly benefiting the environment.

“Cement is an ancient material that has been used for centuries but its chemistry is still not well understood,” Sanchez says. “We mix cement with aggregate to create concrete, which we often reinforce with steel rebar. The rebar corrodes over time, leading to significant problems in our transportation and building infrastructure.” Sanchez wants to explore how new materials being developed by the nanoscience community might contribute to solving the problem. Nanofibers made of carbon, for example, might be added to a concrete bridge, making it possible to heat the structure during winter or allowing it to monitor itself for cracks because of the fibers’ ability to conduct electricity. Because nanostructured materials are new, little is known about how they will behave in concrete. “We know that nanofibers improve the strength of concrete at 28 days, but we don’t know how well it resists weathering over the long term,” Sanchez says, “We do not fully understand the chemistry, the mechanisms of interaction, or how molecular level chemical phenomena at the fiber-cement interface influence the material performance during environmental weathering”.

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B.VIJAYAKUMAR M.RANJITH II Year Civil, CARE School of Engineering

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deicing systems; and the like. Additionally, predictive techniques are being developed in order to allow advanced modeling and comparison with historical baseline data. Some of the constituent technologies typically implemented in ITS are described in the following sections. 1) Wireless communications Various forms of wireless communications technologies have been proposed for intelligent transportation systems. Radio modem communication on UHF and VHF frequencies are widely used for short and long range communication within ITS. Short-range communications (less than 500 yards) can be accomplished using IEEE 802.11 protocols, specifically WAVE or the Dedicated Short Range Communications standard being promoted by the Intelligent Transportation Society of America and the United States Department of Transportation. Theoretically, the range of these protocols can be extended using Mobile ad-hoc networks or Mesh networking. Longer range communications have been proposed using infrastructure networks such as WiMAX (IEEE 802.16), Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), or 3G. Long-range communications using these methods are well established, but, unlike the shortrange protocols, these methods require extensive and very expensive infrastructure deployment. There is lack of consensus as to what business model should support this infrastructure.
2) Computational technologies



XXIX. INTRODUCTION Interest in ITS comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion and a synergy of new information technology for simulation, real-time control, and communications networks. Traffic congestion has been increasing worldwide as a result of increased motorization, urbanization, population growth, and changes in population density. Congestion reduces efficiency of transportation infrastructure and increases travel time, air pollution, and fuel consumption. A. Intelligent transportation technologies Intelligent transportation systems vary in technologies applied, from basic management systems such as car navigation; traffic signal control systems; container management systems; variable message signs; automatic number plate recognition or speed cameras to monitoring applications, such as security CCTV systems; and to more advanced applications that integrate live data and feedback from a number of other sources, such as parking guidance and information systems; weather information; bridge

3) Recent advances in vehicle electronics have led to a move toward fewer, more capable computer processors on a vehicle. A typical vehicle in the early 2000s would have


between 20 and 100 individual networked microcontroller/Programmable logic controller modules with non-real-time operating systems. The current trend is toward fewer, more costly microprocessor modules with hardware memory management and Real-Time Operating Systems. The new embedded system platforms allow for more sophisticated software applications to be implemented, including model-based process control, artificial intelligence, and ubiquitous computing. Perhaps the most important of these for Intelligent Transportation Systems is artificial intelligence. ITS by GIS Mechanism Developing Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) in Geographic Information System (GIS) is main objective of current project. In this system shortest path, closest facility and city bus routes were included. Besides these features location wise information and inter city traveler information like bus, train and airways timing are also included. Mechanism involved in the development of package is described in following sections.

journey. It is widely recognized as a fundamental issue in the field of transportation. A variety of route optimization criteria or planning criteria may be used in route planning. The quality of a route depends on many factors such as distance, travel time, travel speed and number of turns. These all factors all can be referred as travel cost. Some drivers may prefer the shortest path The route selection criteria can be either fixed by a design or implemented via a selectable user interface. In the current project route selection is via user interface. In the optimization of the travel distance (road segment length), distance was stored in digital data base and the route planning algorithm was used. In the optimization of travel time, road segment length and speed limit on that road are stored in digital data base and travel time was calculated (distance/speed limit). The calculated travel time was used as travel cost in the performance of path optimization.

2.1.2 Closest facility In the closest facility problem route length and travel time (drive time) were considered as travel costs. Different facilities like hospitals, bus stations, and tourist places were taken as themes in the project. Closest facility algorithm calculates all the routes from selected origin to facilities based on travel cost. It compares travel costs of these routes and gives one optimal

2.1.1 Shortest path Route planning is a process that helps vehicle drivers to plan a route prior to or during a


route as output [1]. 2.1.3 City bus routes City buses with their numbers were stored in a data base in a compressed format because on one road segment there will be more than one bus. A search algorithm was used to find bus service number from selected origin and destination. According to bus number, road segments on the map were selected and highlighted with different color. The schematic flow chart of the package is shown as Fig 1. 2.3 Source Program The source program for this package has been written in Avenue programming language. Avenue is object-oriented and scripting language for ArcView GIS. Customization of the package was done in Avenue. The source code was divided into many numbers of scripts because in Avenue language functions or procedures are not available. Each script is used for a specified purpose. 2.4 Software Hyderabad City Development for


5) Floating car data/floating cellular data Virtually every car contains one or more mobile phones. These mobile phones routinely transmit their location information to the network – even when no voice connection is established. This allows them to be used as anonymous traffic probes. As the car moves, so does the signal of the mobile phone. By measuring and analyzing triangulation network data – in an anonymous format – the data is converted into accurate traffic flow information. With more congestion, there are more cars, more phones, and thus, more probes. In metropolitan areas, the distance between antennas is shorter and, thus, accuracy increases. No infrastructure needs to be built along the road; only the mobile phone network is leveraged. In some metropolitan areas, RFID signals from ETC transponders are used. Floating car data technology provides great advantages over existing methods of traffic measurement:
• • • •

ArcView GIS version 3.1 Network Analyst version 1.1b Avenue programming language

much less expensive than sensors or cameras more coverage: all locations and streets faster to set up (no work zones) and less maintenance works in all weather conditions, including heavy rain


6) Sensing technologies Technological advances in telecommunications and information technology coupled with state-of-the-art microchip, RFID, and inexpensive intelligent beacon sensing technologies have enhanced the technical capabilities that will facilitate motorist safety benefits for Intelligent transportation systems globally. Sensing systems for ITS are vehicle and infrastructure based networked systems, e.g., Intelligent vehicle technologies. Infrastructure sensors are indestructible (such as in-road reflectors) devices that are installed or embedded on the road, or surrounding the road (buildings, posts, and signs for example) as required and may be manually disseminated during preventive road construction maintenance or by sensor injection machinery for rapid deployment of the embedded radio frequency powered (or RFID) in-ground road sensors. Vehicle-sensing systems include deployment of infrastructure-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure electronic beacons for identification communications and may also employ the benefits of CCTV automatic number plate recognition technology at desired intervals in order to increase sustained monitoring of suspect vehicles operating in critical zones.

placed in a single lane or across multiple lanes, and they work with very slow or stopped vehicles as well as vehicles moving at high-speed. 8) Video vehicle detection Traffic flow measurement and automatic incident detection using video cameras is another form of vehicle detection. Since video detection systems such as those used in automatic number plate recognition do not involve installing any components directly into the road surface or roadbed, this type of system is known as a "nonintrusive" method of traffic detection. Video from black-and-white or color cameras is fed into processors that analyze the changing characteristics of the video image as vehicles pass. The cameras are typically mounted on poles or structures above or adjacent to the roadway. Most video detection systems require some initial configuration to "teach" the processor the baseline background image. This usually involves inputting known measurements such as the distance between lane lines or the height of the camera above the roadway. A single video detection processor can detect traffic simultaneously from one to eight cameras, depending on the brand and model. The typical output from a video detection system is lane-by-lane vehicle speeds, counts, and lane occupancy readings. Some systems provide additional outputs including gap, headway, stopped-vehicle detection, and wrong-way vehicle alarms. B. Intelligent transportation applications 1) Electronic toll collection

7) Inductive loop detection Inductive loops can be placed in a roadbed to detect vehicles as they pass over the loop by measuring the vehicle's magnetic field. The simplest detectors simply count the number of vehicles during a unit of time (typically 60 seconds in the United States) that pass over the loop, while more sophisticated sensors estimate the speed, length, and weight of vehicles and the distance between them. Loops can be

Electronic toll collection at "Costanera Norte" Freeway, downtown Santiago, Chile Main article: Electronic toll collection Electronic toll collection (ETC) makes it possible for vehicles to drive through toll gates at traffic speed, reducing congestion at toll plazas and automating toll collection. Originally ETC systems were used to automate toll collection, but more recent innovations have used ETC to enforce congestion pricing through cordon zones in city centers and ETC lanes. Until recent years, most ETC systems were based on using radio devices in vehicles that would use proprietary protocols to identify a vehicle as it passed under a gantry over the roadway. More recently there has been a move to standardize ETC protocols around the Dedicated Short Range Communications protocol that has been promoted for vehicle safety by the Intelligent Transportation Society of America, ERTICO and ITS Japan. While communication frequencies and standards do differ around the world, there has been a broad push toward vehicle infrastructure integration around the 5.9 GHz frequency (802.11.x WAVE). Via its National Electronic Tolling Committee representing all jurisdictions and toll road operators, ITS Australia also facilitated interoperability of toll tags in Australia for the multi-lane free flow tolls roads. Other systems that have been used include barcode stickers, license plate recognition, infrared communication systems, and Radio Frequency Identification Tags (see M6 Toll tag).

2) Emergency vehicle notification systems The in-vehicle eCall is an emergency call generated either manually by the vehicle occupants or automatically via activation of in-vehicle sensors after an accident. When activated, the in-vehicle eCall device will establish an emergency call carrying both voice and data directly to the nearest emergency point (normally the nearest E1-1-2 Public-safety answering point, PSAP). The voice call enables the vehicle occupant to communicate with the trained eCall operator. At the same time, a minimum set of data will be sent to the eCall operator receiving the voice call. The minimum set of data contains information about the incident, including time, precise location, the direction the vehicle was traveling, and vehicle identification. The pan-European eCall aims to be operative for all new typeapproved vehicles as a standard option. Depending on the manufacturer of the eCall system, it could be mobile phone based (Bluetooth connection to an invehicle interface), an integrated eCall device, or a functionality of a broader system like navigation, Telematics device, or tolling device. eCall is expected to be offered, at earliest, by the end of 2010, pending standardization by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute and commitment from large EU member states such as France and the United Kingdom.

Congestion pricing gantry at North Bridge Road, Singapore. 3) Cordon zones with congestion pricing Main article: Congestion pricing Cordon zones have been implemented in Singapore, Stockholm, and London, where a congestion charge or fee is collected from vehicles entering a congested city center. This fee or toll is charged automatically using electronic toll collection or automatic number plate recognition, since stopping the users at conventional toll booths would cause long queues, long delays, and even gridlock. The main objective of this charge is to reduce traffic congestion within the cordon area. 4) Automatic road enforcement Main article: Traffic enforcement camera

radar to detect a vehicle's speed or electromagnetic loops buried in each lane of the road. Red light cameras that detect vehicles that cross a stop line or designated stopping place while a red traffic light is showing. Bus lane cameras that identify vehicles traveling in lanes reserved for buses. In some jurisdictions, bus lanes can also be used by taxis or vehicles engaged in car pooling. Level crossing cameras that identify vehicles crossing railways at grade illegally. Double white line cameras that identify vehicles crossing these lines. High-occupancy vehicle lane cameras for that identify vehicles violating HOV requirements. Turn cameras at intersections where specific turns are prohibited on red. This type of camera is mostly used in cities or heavy populated areas.

5) Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence Intelligent RFID traffic control has been developed for dynamic traffic light sequence. It has circumvented or avoided the problems that usually arise with systems such as those, which use image processing and beam interruption techniques. RFID technology with appropriate algorithm and data base were applied to a multi vehicle, multi lane and multi road junction area to provide an efficient time management scheme. A dynamic time schedule was worked out for the passage of each column. The simulation has shown that, the dynamic sequence algorithm has the ability to intelligently adjust itself even with the presence of some extreme cases. The real time operation of the system able to emulate the judgment of a traffic policeman on duty, by considering the

Automatic speed enforcement gantry or "Lombada Eletrônica" with ground sensors at Brasilia, D.F. A traffic enforcement camera system, consisting of a camera and a vehiclemonitoring device, is used to detect and identify vehicles disobeying a speed limit or some other road legal requirement and automatically ticket offenders based on the license plate number. Traffic tickets are sent by mail. Applications include:

Speed cameras that identify vehicles traveling over the legal speed limit. Many such devices use

number of vehicles in each column and the routing proprieties.

C. ITS World Congress and Exhibition 2009 The World Congress and Exhibition on Intelligent Transport Systems and Services, takes place in Stockholm in September 2009. The 16th annual event, which rotates between Europe, the Americas and the Asia-Pacific region, comes to Sweden for the first time and takes place at Stockholm International Fairs (Stockholmsmässan), from 21 - 25 September 2009. The theme of this prestigious event is ‘ITS in Daily Life’, exploring how ITS can improve everyday mobility with strong emphasis on comodality. Conclusion "Road operators, infrastructure, vehicles, their drivers and other road users will cooperate to deliver the most efficient, safe, secure and comfortable journey. The vehicle-vehicle and vehicle-infrastructure co-operative systems will contribute to these objectives beyond the improvements achievable with stand-alone systems." D. References 1. ^ Monahan, Torin. 2007. "War Rooms" of the Street: Surveillance Practices in Transportation Control Centers. The Communication Review 10 (4): 367-389. 2. ^ Trend in Road Accidents, Japan 3. ^ Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence, Science Publications 4. ^ 3rd eSafety Forum, 25 March 2004


56. Optimization of Machining Parameters for Form Tolerance in Electrical Discharge Machining for Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites

M. Tech Student PRIST University

Metal matrix composites (MMC) are being increasingly used in Automotive and Aircraft industries. MMC’s possess extreme hardness and temperature resistant properties. The property does not change at elevated temp make it in unique engineering applications. Among the MMC’s, Aluminium Metal Matrix composites (AMC) have been found applications in surgical components. The strength and high hardness with reinforcement makes difficult to machine in the conventional machining process. The use of conventional techniques causes serious tool wear due to the abrasive nature of reinforcement. These materials can be machined any of the unconventional machining, but machining in Water Jet machining and Abrasive Jet machining are limited to linear cutting only. Electrical Discharge Machining is found best option for MMC’s. The working is based on the thermoelectric energy. Spark is created between the wok and electrode and both were immersed in dielectric fluid with conduction of electric current.

During the process a gap (10-100µm) is maintained. The ignition of discharge is initiated by a high voltage, overcoming the dielectric breakdown strength of the small gap. Machining was controlled by

some process parameters namely pulse current, pulse on time, and pulse off time, intensity and flushing pressure. The performance measures in the process are material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR), surface roughness (SR) and form tolerances that are affected by the above said process parameters. Material removal rate increases with increase in current mean while EWR are also increases. Surface roughness also increases while increase in current. The objective of this work is to optimize the process parameters for the optimum performance measures. A suitable material is going to be machined and an optimization technique is applied to find the optimum process parameters.


Identifying the set of process variables( current, pulse on time & pulse off time) which

2. Background and Justification of the Problem
gives the higher MRR, lower EWR , higher Surface finish and optimum Form tolerance (Circularity, Cylindrical, Flatness and Straightness) for the material. Validating the optimized values. To achieve the better performance measures with optimized process variables in composite materials.

Aluminum composite materials Emerging material Applied in Aerospace and Automotive Industries 422

The constituent – hard reinforcement Difficult to machine in the conventional machines So Unconventional machining is best Laser cutting and WJM – limited in linear cutting So EDM is preferred d for machining composites Machining on EDM results on max MRR, min EWR, better SR and better form tolerance. If MRR increases EWR increases. If MRR increases SR increases. So an optimum value is needed to machine the composite with better form tolerance

STEPS for the MMC Fabrication Process
Collection and preparation of the raw materials to put as charge Placing raw materials in a graphite crucible under nitrogen gas into a furnace Heating the crucible above the liquidus temperature and allowing time to become completely liquid During cooling stirring is started at the semisolid condition and continued until a temperature where less than 30% of the metal is solidified is reached Pouring into the mould Withdrawal of the composite from the mould Desired fabricated MMCs ingots

3. Material Preparation 4. Sinker EDM
The material is going to be prepared by stir casting method Aluminum is matrix material SiC is reinforcement material Suitable electrode material is going to be selected (Brass or Copper) Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are a range of advanced materials that can be used for a wide range of applications within the aerospace, automotive, nuclear, biotechnology, electronic and sporting goods industries. MMCs consist of a non-metallic reinforcement incorporated into a metallic matrix which can provide advantageous properties over base metal alloys. These include improved thermal conductivity, abrasion resistance, creep resistance, dimensional stability, exceptionally good stiffness-to-weight and strength-to-weight ratios and better high temperature performance. Sinker EDM, also called cavity type EDM or volume EDM, consists of an electrode and workpiece submerged in an insulating liquid such as, more typically oil or, less frequently, other dielectric fluids. The electrode and workpiece are connected to a suitable power supply. The power supply generates an electrical potential between the two parts. As the electrode approaches the workpiece, dielectric breakdown occurs in the fluid, forming a plasma channel, and a small spark jumps. These sparks usually strike one at a time because it is very unlikely that different locations in the interelectrode space have the identical local electrical characteristics which would enable a spark to occur simultaneously in all such locations. These sparks happen in huge numbers at seemingly random locations between the electrode and the workpiece. As the base metal is eroded, and the spark gap subsequently increased, the electrode is lowered automatically by the machine so that the process can continue uninterrupted. Several hundred thousand sparks occur per second, with the actual duty cycle carefully controlled by the setup parameters. These controlling cycles are sometimes known as "on time" 423

Methodology and Approach
and "off time", which are more formally defined in the literature. The on time setting determines the length or duration of the spark. Hence, a longer on time produces a deeper cavity for that spark and all subsequent sparks for that cycle, creating a rougher finish on the

• •

There is no direct contact between tool and work piece. Therefore delicate sections and weak materials can be machined without any distortion. A good surface finish can be obtained. Very fine holes can be easily drilled.

5. Facility required
workpiece. The reverse is true for a shorter on time. Off time is the period of time that one spark is replaced by another. A longer off time, for example, allows the flushing of dielectric fluid through a nozzle to clean out the eroded debris, thereby avoiding a short circuit. These settings can be maintained in micro seconds. The typical part geometry is a complex 3D shape,often with small or odd shaped angles. Vertical, orbital, vectorial, directional, helical, conical, rotational, spin and indexing machining cycles are also used. Any combination material can be prepared and the effect of machining can be studied Change in mechanical properties of composite materials can be studied. Surface topography and RCL formation can be studied Preparing/ purchasing Al- SiC composites. Design of Experiments. Performing EDM process. Measurement of performance. Optimization and validation Electrical Discharge Machining (DieSinking Type)-J.J.C.E.T Roughness Tester –J.J.C.E.T Weight Balance – J.J.C.E.T Coordinate Measuring Machine – N.I.T

Some of the advantages of EDM include machining of:

Complex shapes that would otherwise be difficult to produce with conventional cutting tools

Scope and Objectives

Extremely hard material to very close tolerances

Scanning Electron Microscope – N.I.T

Expected outcome

Very small work pieces where conventional cutting tools may damage the part from excess cutting tool pressure.

Optimization Software’s.



Optimized parameters of Peak current, Pulse on time and Pulse off time will be found. With those levels better performance will be measured for the Al- SiC Composite material

Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) for achieving optimal machining performance (Tarng et al., 1995). The Taguchi method (Taguchi, 1990; Ghani et al., 2004), is a systematic application of design and analysis of experiments for the purpose of designing

with different percent volume of SiC.

and improving product quality. Dr. Taguchi proposes the plan of quality project (called the Taguchi method) with the robust design based on design of experiment, to simplify a great quantity of fully factor experimentation. It had extensively applied in engineering design and the analysis of optimal manufacturing. To deliberate multiple performance characteristics by the Taguchi method it requires further research effect A statistical Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is performed to identify the process parameters that are statistically significant. Based on ANOVA the optimal combinations of the process parameters are predicted.In the grey relational analysis, the experimental results of electrode wear ratio, material removal rate and surface roughness are first normalized in the range between zero and one, which is also called the grey relational generating. Next, the grey relational coefficient is calculated from the normalized experimental results to express the relationship between the desired and actual experimental results. Then, the grey relational grade is computed by averaging the grey relational coefficient corresponding to each performance characteristic. As a result, optimization of the complicated multiple performance characteristics can be converted into optimization of a single grey relational grade. Optimal level of the process parameters is the level with the highest grey relational grade. Furthermore, a statistical Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is performed to see which process parameters are statistically significant. With the grey relational analysis and statistical analysis of variance, the optimal combination of the process parameters can be predicted

Optimization technique of machining parameters grey relational analysis
For the Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process, material removal rate is a higher-the-better performance characteristic. However, surface roughness and electrode wear ratio are a lower-thebetter performance characteristic. As a result, an improvement of one performance characteristic may require a degradation of another one. Hence, optimization of the multiple performance characteristics is much more complicated than optimization of a single performance characteristic. The grey relational analysis based on grey system theory can be used to solve the complicated interrelationships among the multiple performance characteristics effectively. In the grey relational analysis, a grey relational grade is obtained to evaluate the multiple performance characteristics. In this way, optimization of the complicated multiple performance characteristics can be converted into optimization of a single grey relational grade. the use of the orthogonal array with the grey relational analysis can greatly simplify the optimization procedure for determining the optimal machining parameters with the multiple performance characteristics in the EDM process. As a result, the method developed in this study is very suitable for practical use in a machine shop. The relation between machining parameters and performance can be found out with the Grey relational analysis. Grey relation analysis has even been applied in facing recognition combining with other statistical methods (Chen et al., 2000). It is important to select machining parameters in


Narender Singh P, Raghukandan K, Pai BC (2004) Optimization by Grey relational of EDM parameters on machining Al–10%SiCp composites. J Mater Process Techno 155– 156:1658–1661 Narender Singh P, Raghukandan K, Rathinasabapathi M, Pai BC (2004) Electric discharge machining of Al–10%SiCp as-cast metal matrix composites. J Mater Process Techno 155–156:1653–1657 Mohan B, Rajadurai A, Satyanarayana KG (2004) Electric discharge machining of Al– SiC metal matrix composites using rotary tube electrode. J Mater Process Techno 153– 154:978–985 Seo YW, Kim D, Ramulu M (2006) Electrical discharge machining of functionally graded 15-35 vol.% SiCp/Al composites. Material and Manufacturing Processes 21:479–487 Sushant D, Rajesh P, Nishant S, Akhil S, Hemath KG (2007)Mathematical modeling of electric discharge machining of cast Al–4Cu– 6Si alloy–10 wt.% SiCp composites. J Mater Process Techno 194:24–29 Akshay D, Pradeep K, Inderdeep S (2008) Experimental investigation and optimization in EDM of Al 6063 SiCp metal matrix composite. Int J Machin Machinab Mater 5(3/4):293–308. Narender Singh P, Raghukandan K, Pai BC (2004) Optimization by Grey relational of EDM parameters on machining Al–10%SiCp composites. J Mater Process Technol 155– 156:1658–1661


V. VINAYAKAMURTHY Student of M.Tech (Manufacturing Technology) PRIST UNIVERSITY – THANJAVUR

Prof. P. VIJAYA KUMAR M.E Department of Mechanical Engineering PRIST UNIVERSITY – THANJAVUR From the experimental data, the second
order equations were developed for LM6 and LM24 aluminum alloy using MINITAB software. The maximum and minimum

Squeeze casting process is a special
casting process by which net or near net shaped components can be formed from the molten. There are number of process parameters generally considered for the

soundness of cast components.
The process parameters that were taken into account are squeeze pressure, die

preheating temperature, pressure applying
duration and die material. LM6 and LM24 aluminum alloy material have been chosen

for squeeze casting process.
In this project, the process parameters were optimized for minimization of the wear

of squeeze cast component. A pin on disc
wear measuring instrument was used for

determining the wear of squeeze cast components. 427

squeeze cast and sand cast components were values of process parameters were taken as constraints. The optimal values of process compared and it confirms squeeze cast components have better wear property the sand cast components.
Objective of the Project

parameters were obtained through simulated annealing algorithm. MATLAB software was used for coding.
The wear of LM6 and LM24 aluminum

The squeeze casting process parameters such as squeeze pressure, pressure applying duration, die pre- heat temperature and die material are going to optimized using stimulated annealing algorithm for minimization of wear of those components.

alloy was compared for optimum process parameter values and it shows LM6 aluminum alloy has better wear property than the LM24 aluminum alloy. The wear of


Finally the wear of LM6 and LM24 aluminum alloy was compared for optimum
process parameter values and the wear of a

States, U.K and Japan for aluminum alloys and metal matrix composites. Squeeze casting technique is still in the experimental stage in India. The rapid expansion of automotive and aerospace sectors, the demand for superior engineering components is expected to increase in course of time and squeeze casting has the potential and it will play an important role in improving the quality of the engineering products.
Advantages of Squeeze Casting

squeeze cast material and sand –cast material also compared.
About the Squeeze casting process

Squeeze casting process, a combination of gravity die casting and closed die forging
uses the technique by which molten metal

solidifies under pressure within closed dies halves.
The applied pressure helps in making the solidifying metal an intimate contact with the mould which produces rapid heat transfer condition that yield a pore free, grained casting with mechanical properties

Ability to produce part with complex profiles and thin sections beyond the capability of conventional casting and forging techniques. Substantial improvement in material yields because of elimination of gating and feeding systems. Ability to use both cast and wrought

approaching those of a wrought product.
Squeeze casting was introduced in the United States by group technology centre. These are also some investigations carried out in Russia, Germany, Japan and India. This process though not popular, is slowly

compositions. Improvements in product quality in regards to surface finish, dimensional accuracy. Casting may be heat treated. Complete elimination of shrinkage and gas porosity.

picking up moment.
In recent years, squeeze casting has found some production application in United


Potential for using cheaper recycled material
without the loss properties that would occur

The technological




manufacturing of metal-ceramic composites, along with the ability to make complex parts to near net shapes. Squeeze casting process suggest that this process will find application where cost consideration and physical properties of alloy are factors.
Benefits of Squeeze casting process

with other processes. The potential for the increased productivity in comparison with the gravity die casting and low pressure die casting.
Suitable for production of cast composite

material. Improved mechanical properties.
Application of Squeeze Casting
The micro structural refinement and integrity of squeeze cast product are

By improving the squeeze casting process, a new option will be available to the casting industry for producing the complex, light weight aluminum parts that are increasingly demanded in competitive markets such as that for automotive components. This will in melted energy savings due to the lower melt temperature for aluminum Vs Alternate metals. Improving the current knowledge of the Squeeze casting process also will be reduce the scrap by an estimated 15% in addition to a significant reduction in solid waste dust.

desirable for many applications.
As the Squeeze casting process

generates the highest mechanical properties
attainable in a cast product it has been successfully applied to a variety of ferrous

and non-ferrous alloys in traditionally cast and wrought compositions.
Application include Aluminum ally piston for engine and the disc brakes, automotive wheels, trucks hubs ,barrelhead and hub bed flanges, brass and bronze brushing and gears, steel missile

components, affordable cost.







Density -2.65 g/cm3 Tensile Stress – 200 N/mm2 Percentage Elongation – 13 Brinell Hardness Number – 60 Co-efficient of Expansion per degree x 10-6 – 20 Thermal Conductivity at 25 deg – 142 W/mk Electrical 37%IACS Fluidity, hot tears resistance, pressure tightness, corrosion resistance – Strength at elevated temperature and mach inability – poor
Fig 1 Flow chart Composition and Properties Application

conductivity at 20 deg –

Water cooled manifolds and jacket, motor cars and road transport fitting, the motor housings, meter cases and switch boxes.
LM24 Aluminum Alloy

LM6 Aluminum Alloy

Equivalent to AL 413.0

Equivalent to AL 380.0

Aluminum – 88% Silicon – 12%



Aluminum – 88% Silicon - 8 % Cu - 3% Fe – 1%

some sub areas. That we will discuss in this chapter.
9.0 Reference

1. S.Seshan, 1996, “Squeeze casting – Present status and future trends” Indian foundry journal. 2. Kunal Basu, 1989, queeze casting of Aluminum and its alloy” Indian journal 3. Kalyanmoy Deb., (2000) Optimization for Engineering Design Algorithms and Examples. Prentice Hall India Limited. (1998) Engineering

0.2% proof stress (MPa): 126 UTS (MPa): 233 % Elongation: 2.7

.S.Rao., Suitable for general purpose die casting application and air craft application.
About the Wear Wear
Wear material loss due to a force that act slides surface relative to one another wear is

a complicated area, where there seems to be few predictive relations. Most of the design criteria seem to be “rules of thumb”.
In order for these rules to be applicable, they are limited to certain special areas for

wear. Thus, wear is usually divided into optimization. Theory and practice. 5. Jukka Kohonen., (1999) A brief comparison of simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm approaches., Term paper for the “Thress Concepts Utility”, course. 432

6. S.Kirkpatirck, C.D.Gelatt, Jr. M.P. Vecchi., (13 May 1983) optimization by Simulated Annealing., Science., Volume 220, Number 4598.


Student of M.Tech (Manufacturing Technology) PRIST UNIVERSITY-THANJAVUR

Faculty of Mechanical Department PRIST UNIVERSITY-THANJAVUR


Non destructive testing of engineering materials, components and structure has steadily increased in recent years at an unprecedented rate because of the all round thrust for improving material quality, component integrity and performance reliability. The demands for absolute safety and reliability in strategic industries like atomic energy, aerospace, defence etc. that are aimed to obtain almost defect free components. This is possible only through effective and reliable use of NDT methods. Radiography Testing is one of the NDT technique in which the materials are completely examined without damage to the materials. RT method used for the detection of internal defects such as porosity and voids. Various rays are used to expose the film. With proper orientation of the X-ray beam, planar defects can also be detected with radiography. Generally X rays are used. In this technique various defects Porosity, slag inclusion, blow

holes and cracks are identified and quality levels are maintained. According to the density of the materials, RT films are exposed. Higher density material gives the white color film and lower density material will give darker film. Experimentally, we take five cases (Mild Steel and Stainless Steel) of specimens are prepared and tested in Radiography testing method. The detection of defects are optimized by using POD concept. The probability of detection is done for radiography testing at 90/95% of confidence level. The film evaluations with respect to density changes are done. Variations in the darkness may be interpreted to provide information concerning the internal structure of the material.

Reliability comes through improving the quality level of components. The quality of 433

products, components or parts depends upon many factors; important among them are the design, raw material properties and fabrication techniques. Quality is related to the presence of those defects and imperfections in the finished product which impair the performance level. Many defects are also generated during service. Knowledge of these defects with a view to detect and evaluate them and then minimizing them in the product is essential to achieve improved or acceptable level of quality. There is therefore, a need to have methods by which the defects in the products can be examined without affecting their performance. Non-Destructive Testing and NonDestructive Inspection are the terms used in this connection to represent the techniques that are based on the application of physical principles employed for the purpose of determining the characteristics of materials or components or systems and for detecting and assessing the in homogeneities and harmful defects without impairing the usefulness of such materials or components or systems. NDT plays an important role not only in the quality control of the finished product but also during various stages of manufacturing. NDT is also used for condition monitoring various items during operation to predict and assess the remaining life of the component while retaining its structural integrity.


Non-destructive Test and Evaluation is aimed at extracting information on the physical, chemical, mechanical or metallurgical state of materials or structures. This information is obtained through a process

of interaction between the information generating device and the object under test. The information can be generated using X-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, ultrasonic methods, magnetic and electromagnetic methods, or any other established physical phenomenon. The process of interaction does not damage the test object or impair its intended utility value. The process is influenced by the physical, chemical and mechanical.



To optimize the Radiography Testing film Evaluation with respect to density changes. During the testing, good one is rejected or bad one is accepted both are create serious problem in manufacturing industry We need to achieve the 100% of defect detection using Radiography Testing

NDT Methods range from the simple to the intricate. Visual inspection is the simplest of all. Surface imperfections invisible to the ye may be revealed by penetrate or magnetic methods. If serious surface defects are found, there is often little point in proceeding further to the more complicated examination of the interior by other methods like ultrasonic or radiography. The principal NDT methods are Visual or optical inspection, Dye penetrate testing, Magnetic article testing, Radiography testing and Ultrasonic testing. ASNT American Society for Non destructive Testing ISNT International Society for Non destructive Testing CWI Certified Welding Inspector


NDT testing





NDE Non Destructive Evaluation NDI Non Destructive Inspection Level –I working under the supervision. Level-II Calibrate, Test, Interpret and evaluate with respect to code and standard. Level –III Establish techniques and procedure for specific process

1. Nuclear, space, aircraft, defence, automobile, chemical and fertilizer industries. 2. Heat exchanger, Pressure vessels, electronic products and computer parts. 3. High reliable structures and thickness measurement.













Penetrate Testing

Magnetic Particle testing

Radiography Testing

Ultrasonic Testing

Depth of thickness Cracks Slag Porosity Undercut Laminations Speed Accuracy Effectiveness Cost

None Excellent Good Good Good NA Rapid Good Fairly effective Low Cost

Fair Excellent Good Fair Excellent Poor Fairly rapid Good Fairly effective Low cost

Good Excellent Good Excellent Fair Poor Slow Excellent Very effective Expensive

Good Excellent Good Excellent Poor Superior Fairly rapid Excellent Very effective Expensive

2. Stress Analysis of piping systems

by C.Basavaraju 3. Practical Non destructive Testing , Narosa Publishing, Baldev Raj 4. Non Prasad 437 destructive Test and

1. Hand book of piping design by G.K.Sahu

Evaluation of materials, TMG, J

5. Welding technology Today by Craig Stinchcoms 6. Non destructive testing hand book, R Hamsaw 7. Research Techniques in NDT , R.S. Sharp

8. Non destructive testing of welds,


P.RAJESH,Student of M.E (CAD/CAM), JJ College of Engineering and Technology,

ABSTRACT In this paper, we discuss optimum Robot design based on task evolutionary optimization approaches employed simple NSGA, DE. These grinding operation. In order to ensure the position and orientation accuracy of a robot end effectors as well as to reduce the assembly cost of the robot, it is robot end effectors in the presence of uncertain factors. The objective function minimizes the torque required for the motion subject to deflection and physical constraints with the design variables being the link physical characteristics (length and cross-section area parameters). In this work, we 1. Introduction In this paper, we discuss optimum robot design based on task specifications using two evolutionary optimization approaches. The two evolutionary optimization approaches employed Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA), and differential evolution (DE). These approaches were used for the optimum

specifications optimization

using evolutionary approaches. Two

approaches were used for the optimum design of a planar Robot used for necessary to quantify the influence of the uncertain factors and optimally allocate the tolerances. This involves a study of the direct and inverse kinematics of experimented with various crosssections. The main findings of this research are that the differential evolution converges quickly, requires significantly less number of iterations and achieve better results. The results obtained from various techniques are compared and analyzed design of SCARA type manipulators. The objective function minimizes the torque subject to deflection and physical constraints for a defined manipulator motion with the design variables being the link physical characteristics (length and cross sectional area parameters). The links of serial manipulators are usually over designed in order to be able to support the subsequent links on the chain and the task to be manipulated. However, increasing the size of the links 438

unnecessarily requires the use of larger actuators resulting in higher power requirements.

the best of our knowledge has never been investigated or applied to the optimum design of serial link manipulators. This paper addresses the application and comparison of two evolutionary techniques for optimum design of serial link robotic manipulators based to task specifications. The objective function minimizes the required torque for a defined motion subject to various constraints while considering kinematics, dynamic and structural conditions. The kinematics and dynamic analyses are derived based on robotic concepts and the structural analysis is performed based on the finite element method. The design variables examined are the link parameters and the link cross sectional characteristics. The developed environment was employed in optimizing the design variables for a SCARA type manipulator.

Optimum robot design has been addressed by many researchers as found in the open literature based on kinematics or dynamic specifications. Oral and Idler optimized a planar robotic arm for a particular motion. They described the minimum weight design of high-speed robot using sequential quadratic programming [1]. Yang and Ming-Chen applied the minimized degree of freedom concept in a modular robotic system in order to maximize the load carrying capacity and reduce the power requirements using an evolutionary algorithm (a variation of GA) [2]. Paredis and Khosla discussed optimum kinematics design for serial link manipulators using simulated annealing based on task specifications [3]. Tang and Wang compared Langrangian and primal-dual neural network for real time joint torque optimization of cinematically redundant manipulators. They used desired acceleration of end effectors as input for a specific task [4]. Chen and Cheng described various control schemes and explained advantages of “minimum velocity norm method” over other methods for local joint torque optimization in redundant manipulator [5]. Paredis used a distributed agent based genetic algorithm to create fault tolerant serial chain manipulators from a small inventory of link and modules [6]. Chedmail and Ram stein used a genetic algorithm to determine the base position and type (one of several) of a manipulator to optimize workspace reach ability [7]. The DE technique to

This paper is organized as follows. In section 2, the proposed NSGA and DE techniques to obtain the minimum torque of the SCARA manipulator are presented. The optimization problem definition is given in section 3. In section 4, a numerical example, the industrial robot with 4DOF (SCARA) is presented to illustrate the use of the proposed NSGA and DE techniques to find out the objective function. In section 5, the results obtained in various methods are presented and compared. The conclusions are presented in section 6.

2. Proposed methods


In this section, the computational techniques used for obtaining minimum objective function of the manipulator in the working area are described.


Initialize Population

3. Non-dominated Sorting Algorithm (NSGA)



The no dominated sorting genetic algorithm was proposed by Srinivas and Deb and is based on several layers of classifications of the individuals. Before the selection is performed the population is ranked on the basis of no domination: all no dominated individuals are classified into one category. To maintain the diversity of the population, these classified individuals are shared with their dummy fitness values. Then this group of classified individuals is ignored and another layer of no dominated individuals is considered. The process continues until all individuals in the population are classified.

Is population classified?

Gen = gen + 1

Reproduction according to dummy fitness



Is gen < max gen ?

Figure: Process of Non-dominated Sorting Genetic algorithm (NSGA)


4. Differential Evolution The DE approach contains the same processes of population initialization, mutation, crossover and selection. It emphasizes direct use of the objective function. A cost function, C, is used to rate the individual vectors according to their capability to minimize the objective function, f. otherwise

sectional area characteristics, and the allowable deflection of the end effectors. In addition, constraints are imposed that address physical limitations such as the range of motion of the actuators of the manipulator.

Objective Function

Solution vectors without constraint violations have cost functions equal to the objective function. Any constraint violation tends to increase the cost of a vector by a value I greater than the objective function. For our study of torque minimization, the lower the cost the better or more fit the design variables are.

The objective function is defined as the cumulative sum of the torques for each joint during the motion of the manipulator, f(x) = sqrt( ∑
i =1 Time Jo int s


2 ij



where tij is the torque at time i for joint j . Optimization Problem Definition Constraints

The optimization problem investigated is that of optimizing the link parameters for a robotic manipulator to obtain minimum power requirements or joint torques. The task specification is subdivided into two elements, the kinematics characteristics (the required position of the end effectors) and dynamic characteristics (the time required to complete the task motion while carrying the tool and considering the inertia properties of the links themselves). Constraints are imposed on the minimum and maximum (range) values of the link parameters that include the link length, and the link cross-

The constraints for this optimization include the deflection of the end effectors of the manipulator, physical constraints such as the limits on the joint values, and the structural characteristics of each link.



The deflection δ is evaluated using finite element analysis techniques when the manipulator is at its maximum reach (completely stretched out) since this will yield the maximum deflection. Any other configuration will yield a smaller deflection value considering that the same payload is carried. The deflection evaluation is a function of the structural and material properties of the links and the payload. The constraints on the joint limits or range of motion of the manipulator actuators are imposed due to physical constraints. The joint constraints are defined as (3) where θi is the joint value for joint i and n ∈ ℜn with n being the number of joints.. These constraints are defined as

Analysis Procedure

The first step in the analysis process is to define the problem, define the design variables, assign values to all the parameters and define the constraint vector. The problem definition consists of defining the kinematics structure of the manipulator to be analyzed using Denavit-Hartenberg, (DH) parameters, the desired initial and final position of the manipulator in Cartesian space and desired time for the motion, the payload, and the material property and crosssection type of the links. The schematic of this process is shown in figure. . The analysis routines related to manipulator motion analysis are inverse kinematics, joint space trajectory generation and dynamics. These are evaluated using standard robotic analysis algorithms.


Where d j indicates the j structural characteristic, and d∈ ℜm with m being the number of structural characteristics. The design space for the structural characteristics always consists of the link length with the remaining parameters depended on the type of cross section being considered. In this work, the cross-sections considered are hollow rectangular, square and cylindrical and a C-channel and are shown in Figure 4. The number of the structural constraints is dynamic and depends on the type of cross section being considered in the analysis.

Inverse kinematics evaluates the required joint variables initials and final based on the desired Cartesian coordinates of the initial and final positions.Joint space trajectory generates the position θ(t) (cubic polynomial profile), velocity θ’(t) and acceleration θ”(t) profiles based on the desired motion time and joint variables.Dynamics evaluates the individual joint torques based on the structural characteristics of the links, the payload and the position, velocity and acceleration profiles. The


dynamics are evaluated according to the Newton-Euler method


Figure: Analysis Flow-Chart REFERENCES: 1, S.ORAL and S.K.IDER, Optimal design of high speed flexible robotics arms with dynamic behavior constrains, computer and structure volume 65(2)255-259, 1997

2, G. YANG and I.MING CHEN, Task based optimization of modular robot configuration, Minimized degree of freedom approach, Mechanism and machine theory. Volume35, 517-540, 2000

3, J.J. PAREDIS and P.K. KHOSALA, Kinematics design Of serial link manipulator from task 4, Specifications, Internal Journals of Robotic Research. Volume 12(3), 274-287, 1993



Mukesh R Research Scholar
Departement Of Industrial Engineering And

Management,Dayananda Sagar Col ege Of Engineering,Bangalore,India

Abstract— Car Infotainment is going to be a growing opportunity into the next decade. There is a giant need in the Information Systems Industry, for better Project Management skills. The necessity of Project Management in Technical aspects is growing day by day. Initially we receive the SRD (Software Requirement Description) document from the customers. The SRD is formed by repeated discussions with the clients. In Planning phase the project is scheduled and planned in a systematic manner to meet the specified objectives within the time period. Here the Project is sub-divided into modules and work-packages which are subsequently assigned to the human resources. In the Execution phase, the modules are implemented using suitable Tools. Project Tracking involves monitoring of the entire project with project specific tools. We track and control the process such that the Quality and time is not impeded. Project Execution or Implementation works hand-in-hand with the Tracking process. The software generated is tested for the required prospects and is delivered within the scheduled time period. Project Delivery is a phase where the products or the software is delivered to the clients or the end-users. We plan the releases according to the features implemented. We are committed to deliver the products through Quality and Innovation. Hence defines the value of Project Management in Software Development for improving software quality and productivity.

Keywords:- Infotainment System, SRD, Work-package, Project planning, Execution, Tracking and Delivery. I.INTRODUCTION Project management is ―the application of knowledge skills tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements‖[1].Project management is not only about striving to meet specific scope, time, cost, and quality goals of projects, it also includes facilitating the entire process to meet the needs and expectations of people involved in or affected by project activities. To discuss project management it is important to understand the concept of a pro ject. [2]―A pro ject is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result‖. Operations on the other hand are work done in organizations to sustain the business. Pro jects are d ifferent


R V Praveena Gowda Assistant Professor Department Of Industrial Engineering And Management, Dayananda Sagar College Of Engineering,Bangalore, fro m operations in that they end when their objectives have been reached or the project as been terminated. A.PROJECT CHARA CTERISTICS 1. It is temporary – temporary means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end. Project always has a definitive time frame. 2 .A pro jects creates unique deliverables, which are products, services, or results. 3. A pro ject creates a capability to perform a service. 4. Project is always developed in steps and continuing by increments – Progressive Elaboration B.INFOTAINMENT SYSTEM Project Management in ―In fotain ment Systems‖ is

going to be a growing opportunity into the next decade. Infotain ment System is a system which is combination of Information and Entertain ment.

Infotainment= Information + Entertainment. Information system includes modules which prov ide information. Various modules that come under this are: Navigation, Climate, Traffic information. Entertain ment system also includes modules which provide entertain ment. Various modules under this include Television, Radio, Bluetooth, multimedia etc. C. TRIPLE CONSTRAINT: Trip le Constraint in Pro ject Management is the act of organizing resources such as Scope, Time and Cost to bring about a desired result. Triple Constraint is the balance of the


project‘s scope, schedule (time) and cost. It is sometimes called Dempster‘s triangle wherein one of the sides or corners represent the scope, time and cost of a project being managed by the project managers. Triple constraint is used to gauge whether a project‘s objectives are being met. During the p lanning process of a project, the pro ject management team define the project scope, time, cost and quality of a project. As the process continues, the project managers discover that there may be some changes or adjustments to be made in one of the project‘s scope, time and cost. When this happens, the other factors of the triple constraint are likely to be affected as well. For examp le, if the cost increases, it is logical to assume that the scope and time will increase as well. The same thing happens if the cost decreases, the scope and time will decrease too. It is the job of the project management team to respond to the project risk which is a possible incident or condition which can have a good or bad effect on the project.

Fig 1: Shows Triple Constraint[6],[9] II. DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT MANA GEMENT PROCESSESS: Traditionally, pro ject management includes a number of elements: four to five process groups, and a control system. Regardless of the methodology or terminology used, the same basic project management processes will be used.


Fig 3: Shows Project Management Processes Major process phases generally include: Initiation Planning or develop ment Execution or Imp lementation Monitoring and Controlling Deliverable or Closing Fig 4. Project Process Phases[4] 1. INITIATION: Initiating process include, defin ing and authorizing a project or project phase. Initially we receive the SRD (Software Requirement Description) document fro m the customers. The SRD is formed by repeated discussion with the customers. The project charter and project scope is defined along with this process. 2. PLANNING AND DESIGN: After the initiation stage, the project is planned to an appropriate level of detail. The main purpose is to plan time, cost and resources adequately to estimate the work needed and to effectively manage risk during project execution. As with the Initiation process group, a failure to adequately plan greatly reduces the project's chances of successfully accomplishing its goals. In project p lanning phase the project is scheduled and planned in a systematic manner to meet the specified objectives within the time period. In this phase the requirements are kept into consideration and are planned

accordingly. Here the project is subdivided into modules and work – packages which are subsequently assigned to the human resources. Project planning generally consists of determining how to plan (e.g. by level of detail or according to the features to be implemented); developing the scope statement; selecting the planning team; identifying deliverables and creating the work breakdown structure; identifying the activities needed to comp lete those deliverables and networking the activ ities in their logical sequence; estimating the resource requirements for the activities; estimating time and cost for activities; developing the schedule; developing the budget; risk p lanning; Gain ing formal approval to begin work. Additional processes, such as planning for communications and scope management, identify ing roles and responsibilities, determining what to purchase for the project and holding a kick-off meeting are also generally advisable. For new product development projects, conceptual design of the operation of the final product may be perfo rmed concurrent with the project planning activities, and may help to inform the planning team when identifying deliverables and p lanning activities. 3. EXECUTING Executing consists of the processes used to complete 449

the work defined in the pro ject management plan to acco mplish the project's requirements. In this phase the modules are implemented using suitable tools. The features are implemented according to the Project plan. The work – packages are executed according to planned release process. Execution process involves coordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and performing the activities of the project in accordance with the project management plan. The deliverables are p roduced as outputs from the processes performed as defined in the pro ject management plan. 4. MONITORING AND CONTROLLING: Monitoring and controlling consists of those processes performed to observe project execution so that potential problems can be identified in a timely manner and corrective action can be taken, when necessary, to control the execution of the project. Tracking involves monitoring of the entire project with project specific tools. We track and control the process such that the Quality and Time is not impeded. The key benefit is that project performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances fro m the project management plan. Project Execution or Implementation works hand – in – hand with the tracking process. The software generated is tested for the required prospects and is delivered within the scheduled time period. [6]Any deviation fro m the requirements or the specifications will be considered as bugs or errors and hence an ticket is raised.

Monitoring and Controlling includes: Measuring the ongoing project activities ('where we are'); Monitoring the project variables (cost, effort, scope, etc.) against the project management plan and the project performance baseline (where we should be); Identify corrective actions to address issues and risks properly (How can we get on track again);


Influencing the factors that could circumvent integrated change control so only approved changes are imp lemented In multi-phase projects, the monitoring and controlling process also provides feedback between project phases, in order to implement corrective or preventive actions to bring the project into compliance with the project management plan. Project Maintenance is an ongoing process, and it ] includes: Continuing support of end users Correction of errors Updates of the software over time

fro m third parties, to name a few. Beyond executing the change in the field, the change normally needs to be documented to show what was actually constructed. This is referred to as Change Management. Hence, the owner usually requires a final record to show all changes or, mo re specifically, any change that modifies the tangible portions of the finished work. The record is made on the contract documents – usually, but not necessarily limited to, the design drawings. The end product of this effort is what the industry terms as -built drawings, or more simply, ―as built.‖ The requirement for providing them is a norm in construction contracts. When changes are introduced to the project, the viability of the pro ject

Fig 5: Monitoring and cycle[9]


In this stage, auditors should pay attention to how effectively and quickly user problems are resolved. Over the course of any construction project, the work scope may change. Change is a normal and expected part o f the construction process. Changes can be the result of necessary design modifications, differing site conditions, material availability, contractor-requested changes, value engineering and impacts 451

has to be re-assessed. It is important not to lose sight of the initial goals and targets of the projects. When the changes accumulate, the fo recasted result may not justify the orig inal proposed investment in the project. 5. DELIVERY OR CLOSING Project Delivery is a phase where the products or the software is delivered to the clients or the end-users. We plan the releases according to the features implemented. Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof. [10],[9]Administrative activ ities include the archiv ing of the files and documenting lessons learned. This phase consists of: Project close: Finalize all activ ities across all of the process groups to formally close the project or a project phase Contract closure: Co mplete and settle each contract (including the resolution of any open items) and close each contract applicable to the project or project phase. ―We are co mmitted to deliver the products

or deliverables through Quality and Innovations‖. III. DESCRIPTION OF INFOTAINMENT SYSTEM Infotain ment System consists of various modules which is shown using the following diagram. Infotain ment system basically is formed fro m two words, Information and Entertain ment. Information module consists of the support of Nav igation system with help of GPS System. It provides details about the possible routes to a particular destination. Vo ice support is also provided for the navigation system. Map of the particular country or reg ion is displayed along with the current position of a car or any vehicle on the map. Navigation has various features associated with it, which includes the point of interest or (POI) where the user can select a particular location wh ich of a certain interest to him and the route guidance to the particular ‗set destination‘ is provided accordingly.


Fig 6: Infotain ment System in a Car [5] Traffic information is also provided in this system. The possible routes to a particular destination and dynamic routes based on the traffic situation over particular route is provided and hence suitable route is displayed to the user. Climate Information provides the various temperature and the weather details of any locality. It also predicts the various natural phenomena which are likely to occur. Entertain ment module consists of various features which are supported by it. It includes Radio, Television, Bluetooth, Internet, Telephone pairing and other Multimedia facilities are included with in. IV. CONCLUSION Technical Fields when solely imp lemented may have various constraints and difficu lties associated with it. Th is was the case previously. Hence the inclusion of Project Management shed light on how it leads to the better way of implementation of the project in a much organized and procedural manner. The blend of Managerial Skills and Technical skills can provide better imp lication of skills, management of resources, meeting the specifications according to the requirements within specific time constraints. It also reveals that Project Management can moderate the effects of Planning and control on the process involved in the implementation of the requirements and hence

reduce the effects on the end user. In some cases controlling the project performance without managerial skill seems to be inefficient. The results indicate that the Project Management makes a greater contribution to product performance when there is high level of inherent uncertainty. Thus it helps in accurate understanding of the approach and reduces the risks or tickets which results in the greater success of project or product. V. REFERENCES 1]. Kathy Schwalbe, Ph.D, PMP, Augsburg College, Information Technology Project Management, 2006. 2]. PMBOK Gu ide, 4e (2008 Project Management Institute, Inc). 3]. PCI Group, PM Best Practices Report, October 2001. 4]. International Journal of Pro ject Management, Elsevier, ISSN: 0263-7863. 5]. m/casestudies/7782/ - United States/ Developing Car Infotain ment System. 6]. Project Management Technology – Software Tech Support Centre. 7]. The Definitive Guide to Project Management, NOKES, Sebastain, 2e, 2007 8]. Dennis Lock, 2007, Pro ject Management, 9e, Go wer Publishing, ltd, 2007, ISBN 0-566-08772-3 9]. Morgen Witzel, 2003, Fifty Key Figures in Management, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 0-415-36977-0, 96-101. 10]. Boo z Allen Hamilton – History of Boo z Allen, 1950.



Mugesh Babu K, Prakash K

Students of JJ College of Engineering and Technology, Tiruchirappalli

Abstract: Solar Ponds are pool of salt water which is used as thermal energy storage system. To tap the availability of solar energy for various applications, thermal energy storage systems are required because the availability of solar energy is intermittent. Various methods are available to store the thermal energy. Also the stored thermal energy should be exchanged properly for required applications; during this heat energy exchange process better ways of transferring heat is also an important aspect. In this paper we have attempted to increase the rate of heat transfer in a simulated pilot solar pond by providing twisted tapes in the flow passage.

Key words: Solar Pond, Augmentation, Twisted tapes, Thermal energy storage.

also known as a "halocline", in which low-salinity water floats on top of high-salinity water. The layer of salt solutions increases in concentration with depth i.e., density of water increases with depth. When solar energy is absorbed in the water its temperature increases, this causes thermal expansion and reduced density of water. If the water were fresh, the low-density warm water would float to the surface, causing convection current. The temperature gradient alone causes a density gradient that decreases with depth. However the salinity gradient forms a density gradient that increases with depth, and this counteracts the temperature gradient, thus preventing heat in the lower layers from moving upwards by convection and leaving the pond. This means that the temperature at the bottom of the pond will rise to over 90 °C while the temperature at the top of the pond is usually around 30 °C Below a certain depth; the solution has a uniformly high salt concentration. Thus these salt gradient solar ponds are of non convecting type.


Solar ponds are low-cost, large scale, solar thermal energy collectors with integrated heat storage. The saltwater naturally forms a vertical salinity gradient


There exist distinctly three different zones in solar ponds.

Fig 1: Solar pond Zones[2]

A. Upper Convecting Zone (UCZ)

the water is higher than the UCZ but lower than LCZ. In this zone variation of density along the depth is predominant.

This is the top layer of the pond with less dense liquid. This zone is transparent allows the solar radiation to pass through.

C. Lower Convecting Zone (LCZ)

B. Non Convecting Zone (NCZ)

This is an intermediate zone which acts as a thermal insulator. The density of

The bottom layer of the solar pond contains highest salinity among other zones. The maximum storage of heat occurs in this zone and hence the maximum compared to other zones. The exchange of heat from solar pond is achieved from the lower convective zone.



Fig 2. Heat Exchange in a Solar Pond

The conventional method adopted for exchanging the heat from the solar pond to any medium (usually water) is shown in the schematic sketch. The hot water leaving the pond is used for process heat or it can exchange heat with low boiling point fluids

and can develop power by operating in an organic rankine cycle. In conventional method of heat exchange the rate of heat transfer is less and this provides the scope for augmentation of heat transfer in the solar pond technology.



Data Logger


Sampling vents

Water Inlet

Water Outlet

Solar Pond Water Storage Heat


Fig.3 Schematic Sketch of Simulated Pilot Solar Pond

Two Solar Ponds are fabricated using GI sheet of 1.5 mm thick with the following dimensions 50mm x 60mm x 50mm(height). A heat exchanger made of copper tube of 12mm dia was installed in the fabricated pond.

In the second solar pond twisted tapes were inserted, these twisted tapes were of 10 mm height and made of copper sheets. The solar ponds are insulated with glass wool for 20 mm followed by styrofoam for 25mm

. The four sides and the bottom of the ponds were insulated. The fabricated ponds are filled with salt water of 100% concentration for a depth of 25 mm, This region forms the Lower Convective Zone (LCZ). Above this zone water with 50% concentration of salt is filled for a depth of 25 mm.This zone forms the Non Convective Zone (NCZ). Finally 10 mm of depth is filled with ordinary water, to form the Upper Convective Zone (UCZ). Sampling vents were provided at every 10 mm to determine the density of water. Thermocouples of T type were placed in all the three zones to determine the temperatures. The two solar ponds after filling with salt water were left for three days.


The presence of halocline was ensured by checking for variation of density with depth. Every day samples were taken from sampling vents to confirm the existence of halocline. The densities of the sample are determined by measuring the mass of 10 ml of sample using electronic chemical balance. The ponds were heated by two numbers of 500 W halogen lamps. The thermocouples were connected to the digital tempera