# 88 AUTOMOTIVE METER

USERS MANUAt

PN 666842 November 1998

FLUKE@

Contents

TIITLE INTRODUCTION USING THE METER SAFELY GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH YOUR METER Terminals and Input Alert Switch Push buttons Digital and Analog Displays ; Display Symbols ...................................•...................................... Turning on the Display Backlight HOW TO PERFORM BASIC ELECTRICAL TESTS Automotive Electrical System Tests What is a Measurement Range and Why It's Important
(RANGE)

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1 3 3 4 5 5 5 5 9 9 10 II , , 12 14

» •••••

Selecting a Measurement Range

"'V., =V, =mV Measuring Voltage
-.t-

Testing Diodes

rnA A ~ I))

n

= , rnA

A'"

Measuring Current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 16 20

Testing Circuit Continuity. . .. . .. .. . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . .. . . .. 18

n Measuring Resistance

ii

USING PUSHBUTTON FUNCTIONS IN TYPICAL APPLICATIONS ~ Measuring RPM ~ (Hz) Testing BPI MAP Sensors with Frequency Output (%DUTY) Measuring Duty Cycle on a Feedback Carburetor (%DUTY) (ms-PULSE) Measuring Pulse Width
(MIN MAX)

22 22 24 26 28

Measuring Voltages on an O2 Sensor .. "

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30 32 34 36 38 39 39 40

(HOLDCI) Measuring Starter Circuit Voltage Drop Testing the Throttle Position Sensor Using the Analog Pointer (zERoA)iCompensatingfor Test Lead Resistance .:

o SMOOTHING .....

Rapidly Changing Inputs

TRIGGER) Changing the Trigger Slope

SELECTING POWER-UP OPTIONS USING THE HOLSTER AND FLEX-STAND MAINTENANCE General Maintenance Replacing the Battery Testing the Fuse(s) Replacing the Fuse(s) Basic Performance Test If the Meter Does Not Work " " , , , .. " , " .. , .. " " .. ,

41 42 42 42 44 44 45 45 46 48

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ACCESSORIES AND REPLACEMENT PARTS SPECIFICATIONS APPENDICES A Duty Cycle to Dwell Conversion Chart

" 55

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""'C Hllt.RESPONSE AUTOfIANQE ~ ~ PUSHBUTTONS @!) ~ we.I5t:C.. AND FUSE WARNINGS .IP£NDANCEIfNOClNl"UT ~ ~ TESTROTAAYSWITCH ROTARY SWITCH ~ ~ WARNING Ii!! TO AVOID ELECTRICAL SHOCK REMOVE TEST LEADS BEfORE oPENING CASE TO PREVENT DAMAGE OF INJURY ELECTRICAL SHOCK ."". I IN'~~~~~...__".ltC POWEA-OfF HlACCUAACY. l000V MIN INTERRUPT 9V NEOA 1804 RATING 17 OOOA €3- FUSE RATINGS BATTERY TYPE INPUT TERMINALS FRONT '1 ~ /.. WHILE TIJANING METER ON o lOW. OHM&'HIGtt RESOLUTION OISAIIlfi AUTOM..POWER-UP DISPLAY OPTIONS ~~.'i II Ell (€ G"'"- BACK iv .o.~~"'OPTION\$~ PRESS 2 SEC..:!~=~~~~TH MIN INTERRUPT RATING 10000" F 11...::::-E3-===F 1=OOO=V===~ 44I1=OO=A .

If the Meter is damaged or something is missing.A. Singapore: +65-*-276-6196 . contact the place of purchase immediately. battery-operated instrument for testing and troubleshooting automotive electronic systems. call 1-800-526-4731. Your Fluke Automotive Meter (referred to as "the Meter") is a hand-held. USING THE METER SAFELY A WARNING identifies conditions and actions that pose hazard(s) to the user.com. For complete maintenance. Consult your car's service manual for the test procedures that apply to your particular car. and calibration instructions. refer to the 88 Service Manual (PN 666856). Anywhere in the world: + 1-425-356-5500 Or. CE ~ Conforms to European Union Directives __j_ - Ground See explanation in manual AC-alternating current ~ ---~ DC-Direct current [g] -E3Figure 1. LhWARNING READ "USING THE METER SAFEL V" BEFORE USING THE METER. a Caution identifies conditions and actions that may damage the Meter.Tapan: +81-3-3434-0181 . International electrical symbols used are explained in Figure I.fluke. To order in U. call one of the following telephone numbers: USA and Canada: 1-888-99-FLUKE (1-888993-5853) Europe: +31 402-678-200 . NOTE Some typical automotive tests are provided in this manual.INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION An Applications Guide on the inside of the front and back covers identifies some tests that you can perform with the Meter. These tests are designed to help you learn how to use the Meter. To contact Fluke. International Double insulation (protection class) Either DC or AC Fuse Electrical Symbols . visit Fluke's Web site at www.S. repair.

Input Terminals 3 .FUSED FUSED & ~~~ . rnA COM RPM. RPM / @@@~@ L400mA_)IL _j L lOA . Avoid working alone. Volts. NEVER ATIEMPT A VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT IF A TEST LEAD IS IN THE AMP (A) OR MILLIAMP (MA) INPUT TERMINAL.AMAGE. Common (Return) Terminal for All Measurements Milliamp (1/1000 A).. the beeper emits an Input Alert that sounds like a clicking noise. Amperes (Current) For inputs to 10 A continuous (20 A overload for 30 sec) ~ A \ . If a test lead is in an amp input terminal (A or rnA) and the rotary switch is not set to an amp setting (rnA A ac or de). Ohms. Remember to place the meter in series with the current.. Use the proper function and range for your measurement applications. turn off circuit power before connecting the meter in the circuit. For inputs to 400 rnA. GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH YOUR METER Input Terminals and Input Alert The Meter has four input terminals (Figure 2) that are protected against overloads to the limits shown in the specifications. continuity or diodes. The Input Alert™ function can be disabled by holding ~LERTtV down while turning the rotary switch from OFF to any position. • • • & WARNING TO AVOID PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT D.INPUT TERMINALS AND INPUT ALERT Caution To avoid possible damage to the meter or to equipment under test: • Disconnect the power to the circuit under test and discharge all high voltage capacitors before testing resistance.. Figure 2. When measuring current. and Diode Test vn ...

Range: 3. Ranges: 40 mA or 400 mA for mA input terminal 4000 mA or 10 A for A input terminal Figure 3. Ranges: 400 n. turn the rotary switch (Figure 3) to a switch setting.) Continuity/Ohms (Resistance).ROTARY SWITCH Rotary Switch To turn the Meter on and select a function. (If you press and hold down any pushbutton while turning the meter from OFF to on. 300 ~ \ Volts AC Ranges: 400 mV. 400 . 40 V. 4 V. 4 kn.kn.000 V Volts DC and RPM Ranges. Ranges: 40 mA or 400 mA for mA input terminal 4000 mA or 10 A for A input terminal Diode Test. 300 V ________-t: Meter Off / Milliamps or Amps AC. Rotary Switch 4 . Range 400 mV Milliamps or Amps DC. 4 Mn. 40 kn. the display remains lit until the pushbutton is released. The whole display lights for one second as part of a selftest routine. 40 V. 4 V. Then the Meter is ready for use. (400 Mn in Manual Range Only) 40 Mn Millivolts DC.

PUSH BUTTONS & DISPLAY Push buttons Turning on the Display Backlight Push buttons select the operations shown in Figure 4 and Table 2. Resistance Kilohm (1000 ohms). Counting one cycle per spark. Resistance Megohm (1. In Duty Cycle. a display symbol lights. and the beeper sounds (unless all beeper functions have been turned off.) . Digital and Analog Displays Press SMOOTH to toggle the display backlight on and off.000 ohms). Frequency Revolutions/minute. Current Milliampere (1/1000 amps) Percent (lor duty cycle readings only) Ohms. OL (overload) is displayed if the input signal stays high or low. Counting 2 cycles per spark Milliseconds (1/1000 sec) '<?rPulse Width measurements. If a measurement is too large to be displayed. If the inputs are stable. Refer to USING PUSHBUTTON FUNCTIONS IN TYPICAL APPLICATIONS later in this manual for examples using the pushbuttons. Turning the rotary switch to another switch setting resets all pushbuttons to their default state. The Meter has a digital and analog display (Figure 5). if the inputs are rapidly changing. Resistance Hertz (1 cycle/sec). the digital display offers the more accurate reading. Revolutions/minute. [See SELECTING POWER-UP OPTIONS]). (See Figure 5 and Table 1.000. Display symbols indicate what the Meter is doing. When a button is pushed. Measurement SYMBOL AC DC V mV A mA Unit Symbols MEANING . OL (overload) is shown on the digital display and the whole analog display lights. Frequency Kilohertz (1000 cycles/sec). The backlight turns off automatically after 68 seconds. read the analog pointer. Display Symbols 0/0 Q kQ MQ Hz kHz RPM 1 RPM 2 ms Alternating current or voltage Direct current or voltage Volts Millivolts (1/1000 volts) Ampere (amps). Table 1.

then 2) press SMOOTH for less than 1 second to turn the backlight on.) Press to Select Duty Cycle. In Pulse Width and Duty Cycle Press to Toggle between + or . Press Again to Exit. Press to Select Continuity Beeper. Average. Minimum. / (4-Cycle Engines. In Q Functions. Meter defaults to Autorange.PlJSHBUTTONS In Manual Range (RANGE displayed): Press to Step Up 1 Range at a Time Press and Hold for 2 sec to select Autorange In Autorange (AUTO displayed): Press Again to Select Manual Range (In volts do.· (Tums off automatically after 68 sec. Press Again to Exit.I ~ (ZERO A) (MIN MAX) ! (%DUTY) ms-PULSE / Press to Select Touch Hold Press Again to Exit (HOLD Ill) (ALERT ~) ±TRIGGER SMOOTH o ~ C§":J Hz Pres. Figure 4. / SMOOTH On or OFF AND/OR Press Less than 1 sec to Toggle Backiight On or OFF. and Present readings Press and Hold for 2 sec to Exit Press to Select ZERO Function Press Aqaln to E. In volts ac. In Q or amps. Pushbuttons 6 . • To use SMOOTH and backlight simultaneously: 1 ) press SMOOTH for more than 1 second to select SMOOTH.. Press Again to Exit. Mo. (2-Cycle Engines and DIS) Press Again to Select Frequency (Hz).) Press to Select MIN MAX Recording Press to Step Through Maximum..Trigger Slope. Press to Select Change Alert Beeper. than 1 sec 10 Tog~. Meter defaults to 40 V range in Manual Range. Press to Select RPM 2. In V or A Function. Press Again to Exit. Press Again to Select Pulse Width. not DIS) Press Again to Select RPM1. Meter defaults to 4 V) range in Manual Range.

MIN. A new stable reading. AVG flANGE.9 ms displayed. _ SMOOTH o "" L- 7 .0-99. FWM@ IRPM 2. Continuity Beeper._ • . In Q function selects Continuity Test. not DIS (counts 2 cycles/spark). Duty Cycle or Pulse Width Duty Cycle between 0. Display is frozen. Change Alert. TRIG. causes beeper to sound and display to update.AUTO Operations DISPLAY SYMBOLS m If Meter is in MIN MAX Recording. but recorded readings are not erased. or Hz. MAX. Average (AVG) Hecordinq. or turns Meter of I'. Maximum (MAX). change alert.9% displayed. Press YELLOW button to turn on or off display back-Iiqht. or SMOOTH when meter is in Touch Hold causes Meter to exit Touch Hold and enter MIN MAX Recording. RPM 1. selects autorange. Pushbutton PUSHBUTTON FUNCTION ZERO (Relative Reading) Function Displays difference between the measured value and the stored value. IRPM 1. ms (ALERT~) ±TRIGGER 1(1 .. RPM.002-1999. Pulse Width between 0. or ± Trigger Hz (%DUTY) ms-PULSE 0/0. Pressing (MIN MAX) I. (ALERTUi) . +. (Backliqht turns off automatically after 68 sec.) . or SMOOTH_ ~ RPM 2. Records minimum. Hz counts frequency between 0. & calculates true averaqe.!. SMOOTHING Function and Back-light Display SMOOTH displays average of last eight readings. RECORD. »)))) In voltage or current function selects Change Allert. In Autorange Meter selects range automatically. Meter stays in that range until user changes it.PUSH BUTTONS Table 2. In Duty Cycle or Pulse Width selects trigger slope. Pulse Width. Manual Range or Autoranqo In Manual Range user selects fixed ranqe. or Frequency liz FlPM(l. 4-cycle engines. Touch Hold interrupts the function.5 Hz and 200 kl-lz. maximum. Duty Cycle. Minimum (MIN). Touch Hold Touch Hold holds last stable reading on display. 2-cycle engines and DIS (counts 1 cycle/spark).

User Selects Fixed Range.1'...DISPLAY Minimum Reading Recorded in MIN MAX True Average of all Readings Recorded in MIN MAX MIN MAX Recording Touch Hold Manual Range." '=IGfA":. '" ~~:~~~. Displays 4... UL (Overload) Analog Pointer (32 Positions) Range Indicator.RAN':'IRECI. -'IIIII~ RP~:·'~~ I II .~~~Ycle Measurements) SMOOTH Function (Average of 8 Readings. or 4000 for mV.) / Replace Battery...•.or. A.•.::. 400. shown) Zero Function (Relative Readings) -*Il ~o ~ ...~:·s~~~~ge ~~ ~ ~ / Milliseconds (Pulse Width Measurements) ~. "I'... Displays 8 . Figure 5.. ~/1:-. M~ Analog Display Polarity (+. or Q Functions. V.s oD~l"l 0 ~A } Measurement (SeeTable1) Units Continuity Test or Change Alert (Flashes in Change Alert) Trigger Slope Enabled (Slope indicated by + or-) . 40. Autoranqe Overridden..

AUTOMOTIVE HOW TO PERFORM BASIC ELECTRICAL TESTS Automotive Electrical Systems Tests ELECTRICAL SYSTEM TESTS Table 3 shows some electrical tests that can be performed on common components. Charging Alternators Connectors Diodes Regulators System • • • • Switches • • • • • • • • • • Cooling System Connectors Fan Motors Relays Temperature • • • • • • • • • • Ignition System Coils Condensors Connectors Contact Set (points) MAF Sensors Magnetic Pick-up MAP/BP Sensors 02 Sensors Starting System Batteries Connectors Interlocks Solenoids Starters • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 9 . Table 3. Automotive Systems and Electrical Tests MEASUREMENT TYPES Resistance (Ohms) Frequency (Hz) SYSTEM & COMPONENTS Voltage Presence & Level Voltage Drop Current (Amps) .

~a.000V.. I DC v if) . DC v I C.000V range.00V.0V range is too high for the 12. the Meter drops the last digit and displays the measurement less accurately: RANGE What is a Measurement Important A measurement range determines the highest value the Meter can measure. you wrap to the 4V range. Because the 300. the Meter defaults to the 40V range (in Manual Range)..0V range. + '-'S Ie . 300. the display (overload).=+ . If the Meter measured 12.. 40. the Meter displays overload: RANGE For example. When you select the volts dc function . the volts de function has four ranges (4.S7V.--. and 300V). Most Meter functions have more than one range (see SPECIFICATIONS. you put the Meter in the 300.S7V input signal is too high for the 4. Because the 12.S7V input signal. the display will not give you the most accurate measurement. If you pres~(RANGE) twice more. the display shows: RANGE LIL .(RANGE) RANGING Range and Why It's If you press (RANGE) once..00V.) Being in the right measurement • range is important: shows OL ra LI If the range is too low. DC v • If the range is too high.

In Autorange • In Manual Range (RANGE). and hold down (RANGE) for two seconds. When you select the volts dc function. press (RANGE). The Meter enters Manual Range in the range it is in. When in Manual Range. If you manually change the measurement range after Touch Hold. the Meter wraps to the lowest range. When you select an fl or amp function. MIN MAX Recording.(RANGE) RANGING (RANGE) Selecting a Measurement Range NOTE The Meter has Autorange and Manual Range options. the Meter defaults to the 40V Manual Range.) To switch back to Manual Range. 11 . the Meter selects the best range. the Meter exits these functions. press (RANGE) to step up a range. the Meter defaults to Autorange. To switch from Manual Range to Autorange. (The Meter stays in the range you select until you change it or return to Autorange. This allows you to switch from one test point to another without having to reset the range. press • (AUTO). you select the range. This allows you to override Autorange. When you select the volts ac function. and/ or ZERO are entered. In the highest range. the Meter defaults to the 4V Manual Range.

Insert the red test lead in the V n. 2... & WARNING TO AVOID PERSONAL INJURY OR EQUIPMENT DAMAGE. the display indicates negative polarity with a minus sign [-]. What is the voltage level? The voltage level tells you whether the proper voltage is arriving at the component. IF YOU ATTEMPT TO DO SO (AND THE BEEPER IS NOT DISABLED). Read the voltage. to measure voltage drop: 1. input terminal. In de voltage. 12 . NEVER ATTEMPT A VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT WITH A TEST LEAD IN THE AMP (A) OR MILLIAMP (MA) INPUT TERMINAL. • • For example. Touch the probes to the circuit. == mV MEASURING VOLTAGE Voltage is the difference in electrical potential (charge) between two points. Set the rotary switch to a voltage function (mV de or V acjdc).. if you reverse the connections. Measuring voltage allows you to answer the following questions: • Is voltage present? The presence of voltage tells you that the circuit is delivering voltage to the component you are testing. with the red probe nearer to the voltage source than the black probe. THE BEEPER EMITS AN INPUT ALERT IN THE FORM OF A CLICKING SOUND. What is the voltage drop? The voltage drop tells you how much of the voltage is being consumed by the component.. Figure 6 shows how to measure the no-load voltage of a battery. =-= V. Voltage must always be measured with the Meter in parallel with the circuit.<: V. and insert the black test lead in the COM Terminal. 3. This puts the Meter in parallel with the circuit (see example in Figure 6).

== V

1. Insert test leads in the input terminals shown. 2. Set switch to volts do. 3. Turn on lights for 1 rninute to bleed off surtace charge. 4. Turn lights off and touch probes to circuit as shown. 5. Read display. A fully charged battery typically shows about 1 2.6 V. (See other typical values in table below.) The no-load voltage indicates the state of charge not the condition of the battery. A weak battery may indicate a full terminalvoltage when it Is not supplying current to some accessory.

Voltage 12.60V 12.45V 12.30V 12.15V

% Charge 100 75 50 25

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HI

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'~4)

:rRIGGER

LIGHT CIRCUIT

BLACK

Figure 6. Measuring No-Load Voltage of Battery

13

-.+-

TESTING DIODES
Caution To perform diode tests using the beeper: 1. Perform steps 1 and 2 in the procedure above, then press (HOLD Ill) to enter Touch Hold. ® Touch the red probe to the positive side of the diode and the black probe to the negative. (The negative side has bands.) Reverse the probes. • If the diode is good, the Meter beeps when the probes are in one position and remains silent when they are reversed. • If the diode is shorted (or resistance is less than about 40000), the Meter beeps in both directions. • If a diode is open, the Meter remains silent in both directions. Figure 7 shows how to check two diodes in series in an alternator. NOTE

To avoid possible damage to the meter or to equipment under test, disconnect the power to the circuit under test and discharge all high voltage capacitors before testing resistance, continuity or diodes. A good diode allows current to flow in one direction only. To test a single diode, turn the power off, remove the diode from the circuit, and proceed as follows: I. Insert the red test lead in the V input terminal, and insert the black test lead in the COM Terminal. Set the rotary switch to -..,- . Touch the red probe to the positive side of the diode and the black probe to the negative (see Figure 7). Read the display. Reverse the probes and measure the voltage across the diode again. • If the diode is good, the display shows OL. • If the diode is shorted, the display show 0 in both directions. • If display shows OL in both directions, the diode is open.

2.

n

*

2. 3.

4.

The procedure in Figure 7 is not valid for avalanche diodesfound in many late model GM cars.

14

--.rBand(s) on negative side (cathode)

TESTING ALTERNATOR DIODES

(An~hOde)

~I
(-)

(+)

When a diode fails, it usually shorts (although it can sometimes open). Shorted diodes in the alternator can cause a low current output and run the battery dead overnight. 1. Disconnect battery cable from alternator output terminal. 2. Insert the test leads in the input terrninals shown. 3. Turn switch to diode test. 4. Touch probes as shown. 5. Read Meter. If neither diode shorted, about O.BOO V displayed. If one diode shorted, about 0.400 V displayed. If wire open, diode(s) open, or voltage above 3 V, OL is displayed. If you suspect an open diode, dismantle the alternator and test each diode separately.

SMOOTH

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...

("WTY)

(~

RED (Touch to Chassis

BATTERY CABLE TERMINAL

Figure 7. Testing Diodes on Alternator

15

Turn off power to the circuit. FOR YOUR FUNCTION MEASURE- Set the rotary switch to mAl A (ac ordc). USE PROPER AND RANGE MENT. 5. n lor -+I. Current is the flow of electrons through a cond uctor. 4. use the lOA input until you are sure the current draw is less than 400 rnA. • • ALWAYS USE CLAMP-ON PROBES (DC CURRENT CLAMPS) FOR CIRCUITS OF MORE THAN 10A. If you set the\switch to volts!ac Ionde. Insert the red test lead in the A or rnA input terminal and the black lead in COM. • • TURN OFF CIRCUIT POWER BEFORE CONNECTING THE METER IN THE CIRCUIT. This puts the Meter in series with the circuit being tested. Do not attempt a measurement until you set the switch to mAl A (ac or de). Disconnect the circuit from the battery or remove the fuse. TERMINALS. FUSES (SEE 3. the beeper emits a rapid clicking sound (Input Alert). 2. You might be injured or damage the Meter. BEFORE MEASURING CHECK THE METER'S "TESTING THE FUSE(S)"). Touch the red probe to the side of the break closest to the power source and the black probe closer to ground.rnA A == rnA I A <: MEASURING CURRENT . Current must always be measured with the Meter in series with the circuit. CURRENT. REMEMBER TO PLACE THE METER IN SERIES WITH THE CURRENT.(and the beeper has not been disabled). To avoid blowing the fuse on the Meter's 400 rnA input. (A current measurement can be made without breaking the circuit by using a current clamp. causing all current to flow through the Meter (see Figure 8). To measure current: I.) Figure 8 shows how to measure current to isolate a circuit drain.& WARNING TO AVOID ELECTRIC SONAL INJURY: • SHOCK OR PERNEVER ATTEMPT AN IN-CIRCUIT CURRENT MEASUREMENT WHERE THE OPEN-CIRCUIT POTENTIAL TO EARTH IS GREATER THAN 300V. Use a current clamp for circuits of more than lOA. 16 .

Isolating Circuit Causing Current Drain 17 .. Current reading will drop when the fuse on the bad circuit is pulled. ~ ( %DUTY) H. 6. Isolate circuit causing current drain by pulling out one fuse after another while reading the display. You could blow the fuse in the Meter.rnA rnA A ---. CAUTION Do not crank the engine or operate accessories that draw more than 10 A.. 5. 4. 3. (ZERO A) (MIN MAX) (RANGE) (""'Dm) (ALERTIO :rRIDGER SMoorH 0 . DO NOT OPERATE STARTER Figure 8. WARNING TO AVOID ELECTRIC SHOCK OR PERSONAL INJURY. Turn switch to mNA dc. DO NOT ATTEMPT THIS TEST ON A LEAD-ACID BATTERY THAT HAS RECENTLY BEEN RECHARGED. Reinstall fuse and test components (including connectors) of that circuit to find defective component(s) 1.. Disconnect battery terminal and touch probes as shown. A '" MEASURING CURRENT &. NOTE Many computers draw 10 mA or more continuously Insert the test leads in the input terminals shown. 2.

~J))) n TESTING CIRCUIT CONTINUITY Caution To avoid possible damage to the meter or to equipment under test. less less less less less less than than than than than than 40Q 200Q 2 Jill 20 Jill 200 kQ 200 kQ Insert the test leads in the V input terminals. 400. etc. Touch the probes to the circuit and listen for the beeper. disconnect the power to the circuit under test and discharge all high voltage capacitors before testing resistance. For other ranges. NOTE A beeper tone does not necessarily mean 0 resistance. n.000 MQ 40. 1R . A continuity test verifies that you have a closed circuit. the Meter always emits a continuous tone. To check continuity using the beeper: I. Figure 9 shows how to use continuity to check a stoplight switch. relays. Beeper Responses Input Range In Continuity Test Beeper On @.000 kQ 40. Table 4. connections.00 Jill 400. 3. switches. A continuous tone confirms that you have circuit continuity. In the 4000 range. The ~J))) n * and COM >I< 2. The continuity function detects opens or shorts of as little as I millisecond. This can be a valuable troubleshooting aid when looking for intermittents associated with cables. 4. The beeper can sound at resistances above those indicated. The Meter defaults to the 4000 range (in Manual Range).0Q 4. resistances of less than 400 cause the beeper to come on.00 MQ symbol appears on the Below these resistances the beeper will always sound.0 kQ 4. continuity or diodes. Set the rotary switch tOI~'»)) Press (ALERTnDl' display. at resistances below the values listed in Table 4.

~')I)) is displayed.3.CONTINUITY IN STOPLIGHT SWITCH 1. Press brake pedal and listen for tone. If tone sounds. Press ALERT button. TYPICAL STOPLIGHT SWITCH BRAKE PEDAL PIVOT POINT I I I I J I I I + FEMALE CONNECTOR I BRAKE PEDAL Figure 9. 4. Connect probes to stoplight switch. 5. 2. Testing for Continuity in a Switch 19 . stoplight switch is good. . Insert test leads in the input terminals shown. Turn rotary switch to continuity test.

Insert the test leads into the inputs. The resistance displayed is the total resistance through all possible paths between the probes. This rangemust be slected manually. This is why the resistance of a resistor measured incircuit often does not correspond to its color code. continuity or diodes. it is impossible to take an accurate measurement of the resistance of that cornponet.) To avoid possible damage to the meter or to equipment under test. Read the resistance. 2. Resistance in standard test leads is about 0. Then press MIN MAX three times to step to average (AVG). Figure 10 shows how to measure the internal resistance of an ignition coil.and COM 4. If an external voltage is present across a component. NOTE The Fluke 88 has a Lo Ohms/High Resolution power-up option that allows you to measure resistances as low as 0. To measure resistance: 1. Rapidly changing display readings (noise) can sometimes be eliminated if you change to a higher range. press the YELLOW button while turning the rotary switch on to o.o MEASURING RESISTANCE Caution NOTE The Meter will not autorange into the 400. . The ZERO function can compensate for test lead resistance (see Figure 18). Refer to "SMOOTHING Rapidly Changing Inputs" later in this manual. Turn off power on the test circuit. disconnect the power to the circuit under test and discharge all high voltage capacitors before testing resistance. 5. (See "Selecting a Measurement Range" earlier in this manual. You can also smooth out noise somewhat by using the averaging (AVG) feature of the MIN MAX Recording function. Set the rotary switch to O.20. Press MIN MAX to enter MIN MAX Recording.1-0. Touch the test lead probes across the resistance to be measured. vn +t. 3.0 Nfl range.010. Resistance hinders the flow of current. To select this feature.

Figure 10.o INTERNAL RESISTANCE OF IGNITION COIL NOTES: 1. oil. Measuring Internal Resistance of Ignition Coil 21 . 2. 4. Insert test leads in the input terminals shown. 1. When measuring resistance. Turn rotary switch to n. Measure resistance in the primary and secondary coils when the coil is hot and cold. Touch probes as shown to measure resistance in secondary windings. 3. Touch the probes as shown to measure resistance in primary windings. Resistance should be less than a few ohms. 5. rust or other foreign matter seriously affect resistance. Observe display. Resistance should typically be in the 10 kn range. be sure that the contact between the probes and the circuit is clean. Dirt. 2. paint. Observe display. 6.

Mode. Consult your car's service manual for the specific procedure(s) for your car. (The range is indicated by the number shown at the right end of the analog bar graph. move to the 40V range by pressing Ie RANGE) once. These applications are intended only to assist you in learning how to use the Meter. Hz • • • 22 . the last digit on the display might not settle. Note When RPM measurements are displayed. RPM (2) appears on the display. Press again to select RPM 1 for 2-cycle engines or waste spark 4-cycle engines (I count/revolution). RPM using the USING PUSHBUTTON APPLICATIONS This section uses some typical automotive testing applications to show you how to use the pushbuttons. RPM (I) appears on the display. The Inductive Pickup takes the magnetic field generated by the current in the spark plug wire and converts it to a pulse that triggers the Meter's RPM measurement. Press again to select the Frequency appears on the display. If you want a more stable display. Press again to exit. shows how to measure Inductive Pickup. In SMOOTH.) If the reading is unstable. use the SMOOTHINGTM function. Figure 11. The Meter comes with an Inductive Pickup. ~ Measuring RPM Two RPM functions are available: • Press ~ to select RPM 2 for conventional 4-cycle engines (1 count/ Z revolutions). the Meter is in the 4V dc range. Refer to "SMOOTHING Rapidly Changing Inputs" later in this manual.~ MEASURING RPM FUNCTIONS IN TYPICAL When RPM is first selected. The Meter can also read RPM directly from appropriate signals (like the camshaft position sensor or tach signals) using test leads rather than the inductive pickup. the last eight measurements are averaged before a value is displayed.

the Pickup may need to be reversed. move to the 40 V range by pressing RANGE once. press RPM once to select RPM(2). Turn rotary switch to volts dc. 3. and for waste spark DIS systems. Measuring RPM with Inductive Pickup 23 . depending on what side of the coil the plug is on. For 4-cycle engines that fire once every two revolutions. If your Pickup has a dual banana connector. Make sure the black plug is in COM and the red is in RPM. THE IGNITION SYSTEM CAN CREATE A POTENTIAL SHOCK HAZARD. Figure 11. 1. 3. 4. Connect output plug of Inductive Pickup in the input terminals shown. the plug with the GND (Ground) tab goes in COM. Turn engine off. On some systems with non-resistor plugs. the Pickup may need to be moved away from plug. Clamp the Inductive Pickup to a plug wire near the spark plug. 2. ENSURE THAT THE ENGINE IS OFF BEFORE CONNECTING OR REMOVING THE PICKUP. press RPM twice to select RPM(1). SPARK PLUG WIRE SPARK PLUG CAUTION: If the engine has been running. 6. Read RPM on the display. 5.~ MEASURING RPM ~WARNING TO AVOID PERSONAL INJURY. (Make sure that the jaws are closed completely and the side labeled SPARK PLUG SIDE faces the spark plug). Turn engine off before removing Pickup. NOTES 1. On waste spark systems. For systems that fire every revolution (2-cycle engines). If meter reading is too high or is unstable. Turn engine on. 2. the Pickup might be hot if it has been lying near the exhaust manifold.

Compare the frequency at various vacuum readings with the specifications in your car's service manual. 4. Watch the frequency change on the display. Vac. 5. Insert the test leads in the input terminals shown in Figure 12. pump the vacuum up. 3. Make sure the 4V range is selected. frequency should match specification for your altitude. Press ~ three times to select frequency. Hz shows on the display. With the ignition KEY ON but the ENGINE OFF (KOEO). Frequency measurements can be made on voltage (V de. Set the rotary switch to volts de. or m V de) or current inputs (mA] A ac or de). most Frequency measurements will be made using the volts de function. NOTE 2. Connect the test lead clips to jumper wires. In automotive applications. "4" should be showing at the right end of the analog pointer scale. 24 . however.~ (Hz) MEASURING FREQUENCY Testing BP/MAP Sensors with Frequency Output To use the Frequency function to check barometric pressure! manifold absolute pressure (BP! MAP) sensors: I. At 0 inches-of-Hg.

Checking Barometric Pressure/Manifold Absolute Pressure (BP/MAP) Sensors 25 .~ (Hz) FREQUENCY ON BP/MAP SENSORS BP/MAP SENSOR Figure 12.

warms up and goes into closed should change up and down. • • • Press (%DUTY) to select Duty Cycle. The slope is indicated by a + or . and %. the reading is in open loop operation. 3. . The Meter defaults to . In Duty Cycle (and Pulse Width). Connect the test lead clips.(%DUTY) :MEASURING DUTY CYCLE Measuring Duty Cycle on a Feedback Carburetor Duty cycle is the percentage of time (0-99. Dwell is the number of degrees of distributor rotation that the points remain closed.trigger. Read display when the engine is warm (closed loop). and read display when the engine is cold (open loop). Turn the car on. Press again to exit. 5. When the engine cycle is a steady When the engine loop.sign below TRIG in the lower-left corner of the display. refer to the Quick Reference Guide or the Duty Cycle to Dwell Conversion Chart in Appendix A. To convert duty cycle to dwell. Most automobiles have the points closed for a duty cycle between 50-70%.9%) a voltage is positive versus negative. 2. Set the rotary switch to volts dc. To measure duty cycle on a feedback carburetor: l. You can also use the formula shown in Figure 13. -. Insert test leads in the input terminals shown in Figure 13. ms+ or ms. Press again to select Pulse Width Mode. % is displayed. Press (%D~TY). 4. and the display shows TRIG.is displayed. duty value (see car's specifications). press (ALERT~ (± TRIGGER) to toggle between a positive or negative trigger slope. 26 .

of cylinders X % Duty Cycle 100% o~ SMOOTH (%DUTY) (.. NOTE: If the Meter displays OL.uEArlll) ~ TRIGGER ..(%DUTY) DUTY CYCLE ON FEEDBACK CARBURETC'R To Convert Duty Cycle To Dwell: Dwell = 360. FEEDBACK SOLENOID Figure 13. Measuring Duty Cycle on a Feedback Carburetor 27 . clip the red lead to the other jumper. No..

In Pulse Width (and Duty Cycle). The display shows ms. Read the display. Press again to exit.(% DUTY) (ms-PULSE) MEASURING PULSE WIDTH Press (% DUTY) twice to select Pulse Width. 3. ms is displayed. Press'CALERT~ (± TRIGGER) to toggle between (±) trigger slope.sign below TRIG in the lower-left corner of the display. Start the 'engine. Connect the test leads as shown. Press (%DUTY) twice to select Pulse Width. (time signal is low). The slope is indicated by the + or . 28 . 4. the meter defaults to (-) trigger slope. Set the rotary switch to volts de. 2. Insert test leads in the input terminals shown in Figure 14. 5. To measure pulse width on most port fuel injectors: 1.

Measuring Pulse Width on a Port Fuel Injector 29 . FEMALE CONNECTOR Figure 14.(% DUTY) (ms-PULSE) PULSE WIDTH ON PORT FUEL INJECTOR NOTE: If the meter displays OL. clip the red lead to the other jumper.

press (HoLDm) again to resume recording. but the analog display continues to be active. When recording is interrupted. and maintains the average of all measurements. Press (MIN MAX) again to display the minimum reading (MIN).(MIN MAX) MIN MAX RECORDING Measuring Voltages on an 02 (Lambda) Sensor • • • MIN MAX Recording stores the lowest and highest measurements. NOTE Press (MIN MAX) to display the maximum reading (MAX). indicating that MIN MAX Recording and Manual Range are selected. minimum and maximum readings are still recorded. Press and hold (MIN MAX) for two seconds to erase stored measurements and exit. but new averages are not calculated. and present values are locked on the digital display.) If you manually change the measurement range after MIN MAX Recording is selected. ' If the Meter is in MIN MAX Recording for more than Because Autorange is turned off in MIN MAX Recording. In MIN MAX Recording. and average voltages of an O2 sensor. Press (MIN MAX) again to display the average value (AVG). In MIN MAX Recording. maximum. RECORD and RANGE are displayed. (See "Selecting a Measurement Range" earlier in this manual. The last average calculated is retained as the average reading. use Manual Range to select the range before selecting MIN MAX Recording. to see stored readings: 35 hours. average. the minimum. Press (MIN MAX) to select MIN MAX Recording. Figure IS shows how to use MIN MAX Recording to store minimum. If an overload (OL) is recorded. the Meter exits MIN MAX Recording and enters SMOOTH. the average value becomes OL. maximum. After MIN MAX Recording is selected. The beeper sounds when a new minimum or maximum value is recorded. the Meter exits MIN MAX Recording. 30 . Readings are stored until you turn the Meter OFF or exit MIN MAX Recording. If SMOOTH is selected. Automatic Power-Down (Sleep Mode) and Autorange are turned off. press CHoLDm) to interrupt recording (stored readings are not erased).

Depending on the driving conditions.(MIN MAx) MAXIMUM. press and hold down MIN MAX for 2 seconds to exit. Start the engine. Press MIN MAX button to display maximum (MAX) 02 voltage. & AVERAGE VOLTAGES ON 02 SENSORS Watch analog pointer sweep as 02 voltage changes. 3. Measuring Voltages on 02 Sensor using MIN MAX Recording 31 . 2.450 V do. BLACK GOOD GROUND SIGNAL VOLTAGE WIRE ~ HEATER WIRES (Not found on all sensors) O2 (LAMBDA) SENSOR Figure 15. 5. 4. but it usually averages around 0. MINIMUM. fast-idle the car for a few minutes. press again to display minimum (MIN) voltage. press again to display average (AVG) voltage. 6. If the 02 sensor is unheated. Shut the engine off and insert test lead in the input terminals shown. Then press MIN MAX to select MIN MAX Recording. Connect the test leads as shown. Set the rotary switch to volts dc. Manually select the 4 V range by depressing the range button three times. 1. the 02 voltage will rise and fall.

respectively. the Meter exits the Touch Hold/unction. Pulse Width. or Hz when Touch Hold is selected. OR • If you are not in MIN MAX Recording.USING TOUCH HOLD Measuring Starter Circuit Voltage Drop & WARNING TO AVOID ELECTRIC SHOCK OR PERSONAL INJURY. RPM. NOTE If you manually change the measurement range after Touch Hold is selected. When a new. The display does not update. or Hz when Touch Hold is selected. Press (HOLD m) to select the Touch Hold Function. the last stable reading is held on the display. DO NOT USE TOUCH HOLD TO DETERMINE THAT CIRCUITS WITH DANGEROUS VOLTAGES ARE DEENERGIZED. stable reading is detected. RPM. Duty Cycle. Duty Cycle. Pulse Width. the beepet sounds. Figure 16 shows you how to use Touch Hold to measure voltage drop across components (except solenoids) and connections while you are inside the car cranking the engine. Touch Hold interrupts the function. I:J is displayed. Pressing (MINMAX) or SMOOTH when you are in Touch Hold causes you to exit Touch Hold and enter MIN MAX Recording or SMOOTH. This function allows you to take measurements in dangerous or difficult circumstances when you cannot look at the display. depending on the function the Meter is in when Touch Hold is selected: • If you are in MIN MAX Recording. 32 . but recorded readings are not erased. Touch Hold operates in two different ways. Press (HOLD m) again to exit Touch Hold (and resume recording or counting). and the display updates.(HOLDm). TOUCH HOLD WILL NOT CAPTURE UNSTABLE OR NOISY READINGS.

CHOLDW) MEASURING STARTER CIRCUIT VOLTAGE DROP Since Touch Hold ignores readings of 0. Insert test leads in the input terminals shown. it will retain the voltage drop after you quit cranking. 5. Measuring Starter Circuit Voltage Drop Using Touch Hold 33 . Set the rotary switch to mV dc. 2. SOLENOID Figure 16. 4. CJ is displayed. 3. Crank engine 4-5 seconds. 1. Touch probes across connection to be measured. Press HOLD to select Touch Hold. Meter holds voltage drop to ground on the display.

-...L L'L' n :e .L' L'L' :J .ANALOG POINTER Testing a Throttle Position Sensor (Throttle Valve Switch) with Analog Pointer The analog pointer functions like the needle on an analog meter. . r. . _'. For example. Example 6 DC RANGE v . (If the pointer is too sensitive.) The pointer turns off in RPM. the digital and analog display shows examples 4-6. or ms-Pulse Width.. %Duty Cycle. See Figure 17. it can be used to check a throttle position sensor (TPS). .-. the first time across the scale. .-.-. the pointer is fast enough to capture contact bounce when relay contacts bounce open (causing intermittent problems).-. DC v 34 .-. :J .-. L' L' L'L DC v Example 4 RANGE Example 5 DC RANGE + 1:. Example RANGE I DC Example 2 -RANGE L'..-.-. 'L'U v r. In most functions. the digital and analog display shows examples 1·13. select a higher range. Example 3 DC RANGE v . Examples 1-6 show a reading on the digital display and its equivalent on the analog display. . v L'. Because the pointer excels at displaying trends or slowly changing signals.-.-..-. In the 4V range. .r. Read the analog display when a rapidly changing signal makes the digital display hard to read..' L'L' . the pointer moves across the scale two times for each range.The second time across the scale.

Figure 17. Rotate the TPS by moving the throttle. As you rotate the TPS to change resistance. Press RANGE to select Manual range.TESTING THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR WITH ANALOG POINTER Pull a TPS from stock or use one installed on a car. 6. Set the rotary switch to Q 3. Connect the test leads as shown. 2. and moves erratically if it is bad. 1. Look at the display and watch the pointer move as the TPS turns. Insert test leads in the input terminals shown. 4. 5. Press RANGE repeatedly to step to 4 kQ range. USing Analog Pointer to Observe Sweep of Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) 35 . the pointer moves smoothly if the TPS is good.

.....UJ) (ALERrUl) STRIGOf"R H.) (IIINMAX) n (RANG" ) (~UTV) 0 SMOOTH ..{UU(". ~ mI (~f~!) (A!!!'~) ~'RIGGE'R @.A O~A)~('''~'''''~) ~(RA~_!)!(~.t:.(ZERO A) TEST LEAD RESISTANCE 000. Using ZERO Function to Compensate for Test Lead Resistance ."... I (ZEIIO..A mA COM RPM~ I 0 RED BLACK RED Figure 18....D. o mY nlll'lI mA A~ vn...

2. If you are in the SMOOTHING function and: • An overload condition is detected. To select the SMOOTHING function: 1. then press SMOOTH again to turn the backlight on. while the analog display continues to show actual measurements. Press SMOOTH again for longer than I second to exit SMOOTH. 38 .SMOOTH o ~ SMOOTHING RAPIDLY CHANGING INPUTS In the SMOOTHING function. • You press CHoLDm). NOTE Selecting SMOOTH while you are in MIN MAX or Touch Hold causes you to exit these functions and enter SMOOTH. 3. press SMOOTH for more than I second to select SMOOTH. NOTE To use SMOOTH and backlight simultaneously. the Meter resumes smoothing. the Meter exits SMOOTH and enters MIN MAX Recording. Press (HOLOCI) again to exit Touch Hold. • You press (MIN MAX) . OL is displayed. the Meter exits SMOOTH and enters Touch Hold. When the input signal changes rapidly. the digital display shows the average of the last eight measurements. Set the rotary switch to any function. Press SMOOTH for longer than 1 second. When the overload condition 1S removed. SMOOTH provides a steadier reading on the digital display.

Selects High Input Impedance.PlOWER-UP OPTIONS SEILIECTING POWER-UP OPTIONS Some Meter options can be selected only when you turn the Meter on. These power-up options are listed in Table 5 and on the rear of the Meter. Duty Cycle.) The Meter turns back on if rotary switch is turned or a button is pushed._---------_._--- See 86/88 Service Manual. is activated for '/2 hour. Selects High Accuracy Recording Speed. readings always recorded at 1 reading/sec. Meter displays measurements measurements to . To select power-up options. When volts ac or de function is selected. Press in Volts ac and dc Functions. at 10 times the resolution. Only records changes of more than 1 sec duration. DESCRIPTION -_------- SM007H l-_ o Selects 4'h-digit display. press and hold down one or more pushbuttons while turning the rotary switch to any on position. Table 5. Increases input impedance of mV de function to about 4000 M. Power-up options remain selected until the Meter is turned off.) Selects Autorange Autoranqo. ij is displayed. All normal Meter functions are disabled. ---_. Disables All Beeper Functions. the Meter's selects (!1ANGE) to select Manual Range.O. Disables Automatic Power-Down. and Pulse Width. 40 . Rotary Switch Test. (In RPM. For servicing purposes only. Allows low ohm Automatic Power-Off turns the Meter off if neither rotary switch nor pushbutton (Automatic Power-Off is not allowed in the MIN MAX Recording. Power-Up Options PUSHBUTTON OPTION Lo-Ohms/Hiqh Resolution.OH2.

HOLSTER & FLEX-STAND USING THE HOLSTER AND FLEX-STAND The Meter comes with a snap-on holster that absorbs shocks and protects the Meter from rough handling. Some uses of the holster with Flex-Stand are shown in Figure 19. The holster is equipped with a Flex-Stand™ rest. Holster and Flex-Stand 41 . HOLSTER WITH FLEX-STAND BENT HOLSTER WITH PROBE IN CLIP HOLSTER WITH FLEX-STAND EXTENDED 'uu u u [j • u EJ HOLSTER WITH FLEX-STAND LOOPED OVER CAR DOOR METER IN HOLSTER FACE DOWN FOR PROTECTION (Store Quick Reference Card Under Meter) HOLSTER WITH FLEX-STAND LOOPED OVER BELT Figure 19.

Disconnect test leads from any live source. 6F22. and remove the test leads from the input terminals.TESTING & REPLACING BATTERY & FUSES MAINTENANCE &WARNING TO AVOID ELECTRIC SONAL INJURY. REMOVE ANY INPUT SIGNALS PRIOR TO REMOVING TEST LEADS AND OPENING CASE USE ONLY PARTS. SPECIFIED REPLACEMENT • • SCREWED TOGETHER ATING THE METER. ensuring that the gasket is properly seated and the two snaps on the case top (at the end near the LCD) are engaged. ALLOW WATER TO GET INSIDE 2. repair. MAKE SURE THE CASE ISCLOSED AND BEFORE 3. do not use abrasives or solvents. Lift the battery from the case bottom. remove the three screws from the case bottom and turn the case over. Complete disassembly. 5. General Maintenance Periodically wipe the case with a damp cloth and detergent. service. and carefully disconnect the battery connector leads. &WARNING TO AVOID FALSE READINGS. WHICH COULD LEAD TO POSSIBLE ELECTRIC SHOCK OR PERSONAL INJURY. Dress the battery leads so that they will not be pinched between the case bottom and case top. and calibration information is in the 88 Service Manual (PIN 666856). Ensure that the rotary switch and circuit board switch are in the OFF position. OPER- This section provides some basic maintenance procedures. • • DO NOT CASE SHOCK OR PER- 1. I: +1 7. set the rotary switch to OFF. 6. reassembly. Using a Phillips-head screwdriver. Lift the 'end of the case top nearest the input terminals until it gently unsnaps from the case bottom. To replace the battery: 42 1604. or . REPLACE THE BATTERY AS SOON AS THE BATTERY INDICATOR (81) APPEARS. Replacing the Battery its 4. The case bottom is secured to the top by three screws and two snaps at the LCD end (see Figure 20). Reinstall the three screws. Snap the battery connector leads to the terminals of a new battery and reinsert the battery into the case bottom. The Meter uses a 9V battery (NEDA 006P). Calibrate the Meter once a year to maintain performance specifications. Replace the case top.

TESTING & REPLACING BATTERY & FUSES &FUSE (F2). 600V RMS 10 OOOAMINIMUM INTERRUPT RATING & FUSE (F1). F15A. 600V RMS 10 OOOAMINIMUM INTERRUPT RATING ~ "A" LCD /' '/ I' I Figure 20. F1A. Battery and Fuse Replacement 43 .

Replace properly dressed. 5. 600V).0 and 000. The display should indicate between 0.o. have the Meter serviced. If the display reads OL (overload).) 2. the battery leads are properly and the two snaps on the case top (at the the LCD) are engaged.0. Ensure that the rotary switch and circuit board switch are in the OFF position. The display should read between 000. the case top.input terminal and the A input terminal. If the display reads any other value. Install a. To replace fuses: I. Set the rotary switch to . replace the fuse and test again. replace the fuse and test again. 4. move the probe from the A input terminal to the mA Input terminal. ensuring that the gasket is seated. new fuse of the same size and rating. INSTALL ONLY SPECIFIED REPLACEMENT FUSES. 3 of the battery replace- Locate the defective fuse (see Figure 20) and remove it by gently prying loose one end of the fuse and sliding the fuse out of the fuse bracket. To test F I (I A. be sure probe to the upper half of the a test lead into the touch the probe to the input terminals that you touch the input terminal. end near screws. have the Meter serviced. Make ~ure the new fuse is centered in the fuse holder. 44 . Perform steps I through ment procedure. plug V n -+I.TESTING & REPLACING BATTERY & FUSES Testing the Fuse(s) To test the internal fuses of the Meter: I. If the display reads OL (overload). Reinstall the three 3. To test F2 (15A.o and 1. If the display reads any other value.995 k. Replacing Fuse(s) &WARNING TO AVOID ELECTRIC SHOCK OR PERSONAL INJURY. (Because contain split contacts.5.005 k. 600V). 2.0. 3.

000 kO 3. If the warranty has lapsed. Set the rotary switch to O. (If you are using a test probe. and test leads and replace as needed. Fluke assumes no responsibility for damage in transit. postage paid. to the nearest service center. To run a basic performance test: 1. Review this manual to make sure you are operating it correctly. 4.BASIC PERFORMANCE TEST Basic Performance Test Refer to the 88 Service Manual for complete performance test procedures. If the Meter does not Work • Examine the case for physical damage. Include a description of the problem. the Meter will be repaired and returned for a fixed fee. Contact the nearest service center for information and prices. fuse(s). test the A input fuse (15A) by inserting the plug end of the test lead into the A input. If damage is detected. The beeper clicks if the fuse is good. Remove the test lead from the A input terminal and insert it in the rnA input. See the registration card for warranty terms. A Meter under warranty will be repaired or replaced (at Fluke's option) and returned at no charge. contace a Fluke service center or make repairs as described in the 88 Service Manual (PN 666856). • * Check the battery. • ± 5 digits. touch the top half of the input contact. pack it securely and forward it. 45 . With the rotary switch still at 0. The beeper clicks if the rnA input fuse (IA) is good.) The display should read 1. 2. Connect a test lead from the V n input to the rnA input terminal. If the Meter still does not work.

. Fusible. FLUKE PN 614487 875661 830828 820829 832246 824466 831933 875307 832550 aTV 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 - F1*. F15A. 600V rms Fuse. Fluke 88 Quick Reference Guide .ACCESSORIES AND PARTS NOTE When servicing the Meter use only the replacement parts specified. 46 . molded carrying Fuse. use Bussman BBS-1 or Fluke Part No. H1 MP1 MP2 MP3 R1 AC70 AC85 AC89 TL20 TL24 TL26 TL70 TP20 TM1 TM2 TM4 TM5 - - 1 1 1 - - 666842 666849 666856 880968 1 1 1 • To ensure safety. 830828 only .1:. input receptacle RPM Pickup Resistor. F2. To order replacement parts in the USA. use exact replacement part only. . contact the nearest service center. yellow Case.To ensure safety. call 1-800-526-4731.1:.1:. Fluke 88 (European) Service Manual. 1k 2w Alligator Clips Alligator Clips Insulation Piercing Clip Industrial Test Lead Set Silicone Insulated Test Leads 5-Way Multipoint Test Leads Right Angle Test Lead Set Industrial Test Probes Users Manual. 6F22 or 006P) Holster. 600V rms Screw. Fluke 88 (English) Users Manual. Accessories and replacement parts are shown in Figure 21 and listed in Table 6. F1A. Table 6. non-skid O-Ring. case Foot. To order outside the USA. Replacement Parts and Accessories ITEM BT 1 C81Y DESCRIPTION Battery. 9V (NEDA 1604.

Parts 47 . Replacement .ACCESSORIES AND PARTS _) H1 I I I MP1 Figure 21 .

0%/1. In the complete specifications.15% 0.8% 3.digit mode. multiply the number of least significant digits (counts) by 10. accuracy is given as: ±([% of Reading] + [Number of Least Significant Digits]). 48 . In the 4 1!2 . for a period of one year after calibration. average responding. and calibrated to the RMS value of a sine wave input. AC Conversions are ac-coupled. Basic Accuracy FUNCTION Volts AC Volts DC =V Resistance V BASIC ACCURACY (±% OF READING) 1:5% 0.SPECIFICATIONS Accuracy is specified at 18°C to 28°C (64°F LO 82°F) with relative humidity up to 90%.01% Complete Accuracy Specifications The complete Meter specifications follow.5% 0.2% DC (mA A=) AC (mA A-) n Milliamps/Amps Milliamps/Amps Frequency Hz 0. Summary of Accuracy Specifications The table below provides summary accuracy specifications for basic meter functions.

5 kHz ±(1.001V 0.9% + 5) ±(1. 20 A overload for 30 seconds maximum. dc to 60 Hz >60 dB.1V ±(1. Volts AC -V (Input Impedance: 10 MQ (nominal).01 mV 0. add 10 digits.1 mA A mA 0.00 400.0 MO 3.5% + 5) 1V ±(2.5% + 5) ±(1.00 400.SPECIFICATIONS Input Terminals Limits ROTARY SWITCH FUNCTION -V =V RPM ···mV '11))0 * RED LEAD vO* RPM vO* RPM VO* RPM VO* RPM MIN DISPLAY READING 0. <100 pF) mA A* mA A* RANGE RESOLUTION 45Hz-1 ACCURACY kHz 1 kHz .9% + 5) ±(1.00V 300.001 mA * 10 A continuous.5% + 5) 300V * Below a reading of 200 counts.0 mV 400. 49 . dc to 60 Hz >60 dB.5% + 5) ±(1.9% + 5) ±(2.0mV 4. dc to 60 Hz 400.5% + 5) ±(1.0V 0.1 mA mA A A= mA 0.1 mV 0.000V 40.010 (Lo-ohms) 0.0 20.0001 V 0. ** 107V-Hz maximum.000V 20.9%+ 10) COMMON MODE REJECTION RATIO (1 kQ unbalance) >60 dB.01V 0.0001 V MAX DISPLAY READING 1000V 1000V 400.0 MAXIMUM INPUT·· 300V 300V 300V 300V 300V 10 400 10 400 Al600V* mAl600V Al600V* mAl600V VO* RPM 0. dc to 60 Hz >60 dB. dc to 60 Hz >60 dB.5% + 10) ±(1.01 mV 0.01 mA AmA 0.

1 MQ Resolution in cobmination ACCURACY* ±(0.0 kQ 4.000 MQ n RESOLUTION O.00 kQ 400.000V 0.1 mV ±(0. Manual Range must be selected.0 mV 0.lV ±(0. 50 Hz or 60 Hz .15% + 2) 300V lV ±(0.0Q 4.001 kQ 0.001V ±(0. >60 dB at 50 Hz or 60 Hz 300. 50 .15% + 2) Resistance RANGE 400. 4.OlV ±(0. 50 Hz or 60 Hz >120dB at dc.01 MQ 0.3% + 2) >60 dB at 50 Hz or 60 Hz Millivolts DC RANGE = mV COMMON MODE RESOLUTION ACCURACY REJECTION RATIO (1 kn unbalance) >120 dB at dc. 50 Hz or 60 Hz >120 dB at dc.2 ~A 0.2% +2) ±(1% +3) ±(1%+20) SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT 700 ~A 170 ~A 20~A 2~A 0. < 100 pF) NORMAL REJECTION MODE >60 dB at 50 Hz or 60 Hz COMMON MODE RANGE RESOLUTION ACCURACY REJECTION RATIO (1 kn unbalance) >120 dB at dc.000 kQ 40. ranges can be selected only in Manual Range.01 kQ 0.D1Q 0.2% +2) ±(0.1 kQ 0.2% +2) ±(0.2% + 2) ±(0.2% +2) ±(0.2~A 40.2 ~A 0. 50 Hz or 60 Hz NORMAL REJECTION MODE >60 dB at 50 Hz or 60 Hz 400.00V O.15% + 2) >60 dB at 50 Hz or 60 Hz .15%+2) 40.001 MQ 0. 50 Hz or 60 Hz >120 dB at dc.SPECIFICATIONS Volts DC = V (Input Impedance: 10 MO (nominal).0V O.0 MQ ** 'When using Lo-Ohms/High "These with Touch Hold.00 MQ 400.

00 mA 400. •• Below a reading of 200 counts. mAlA AC (45 Hz to 2 kHz) mA A"" BURDEN VOLTAGE (TYPICAL) 2.03 VIA RANGE 40.1 mA 1 mA 0.001V ACCURACY ±(2% +2) SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT 1.~% + 2) ±(0.SPECIFICATIONS Diode Test RANGE 3.5% + 5) * 10A continuous.rRESOLUTION 0.0 mA typical mA/ADC mA A= RESOLUTION 0.03 VIA 0.000V -.1 .03 VIA RANGE 40.03 VIA 0.3 mV/mA 0. 20A overload for 30 seconds maximum .0 mA 4000 mA 10.3 mV/mA 2.5%+ 5) ±(1.01A ACCURACY·· ±(3% + 10) ±(3% + 5) ±(1.3% + 2) * 10A continuous.0 mA 4000 mA 10.00A * ±(0.1 mA 1 mA 0.8% + 2) ±(1.00 mA 400.01 A ACCURACY BURDEN VOLTAGE (TYPICAL) 2.01 mA 0. add 10 digits.3 mV/mA 2. 20A overload for 30 seconds maximum.00A * RESOLUTION 0.01 mA 0.8ofo + 2) ±(O.3 mV/mA 0. E.

01% +1) ±(0.01 0.000 0.5 Hz to 200 kHz.01% +1) Unspecified ±2RPM .200 kHz APPROXIMATE (DC VOLTAGE TRIGGER LEVEL SINEWAVE) FUNCTION) 400 mV de 400 mVae 4.9 5.001 kHz 0.7V 7V 70V (~14 kHz) Input for Specified Accuracy = lOx range or 300V 40mV 1. For rise times <1 118.Duty Cycle accuracy: ±(0.0500 RESOLUTION (rns) 0.01% +1) ±(0.7V 4V 40V 52 . RPM. Pulse Width >2 us) # " .99 Hz 1999. The current inputs are always de-coupled.002 ms + 3 digits). Pulse Width> Pulse Width" 0. Pulse Width >2 us) RPM 1 RPM 2 %Duty Cycle" 199. Pulse Width range is determined by the frequency of the signal. and Pulse Width FUNCTION RANGE RESOLUTION ACCURACY PULSE WIDTH RANGE (rns)# 1999.9 Hz 19. Duty Cycle.01 Hz 0.9% (0.2% per kHz + 0.01% +1) ±(0.5 Hz to 200 kHz.00V 300V 'Maximum 70 mV (to 400 Hz) 150 mV 0. ± 2 ~s) 2RPM 0.1 Hz 0.002-1999.0001 Frequency' (0.01 kHz 0. Frequency measurements can be made on voltage or current inputs.99 kHz >200 kHz 30-9.SPECIFICATIONS Frequency.001 0.999 kHz 199.000 60-12.0-99.1 0.1%).5 Hz . Counter Sensitivity and Trigger Level INPUT RANGE* MINIMUM SENSITIFITY (RMS @ 0.1 kHz 1 RPM 1 RPM ±(0. Pulse Width accuracy: ±(0. .000V 40.00 0.500 0.9 ms (4 Hz to 200 kHz.

then turns off automatically if not turned off by user. 3/sec in RPM. 4Y2-digit Mode only. Update Rate: 1/sec in High Resolution.SPECIFICATIONS MIN MAX Recording NOMINAL 100 ms to 80% 1 sec RESPONSE ACCURACY Specified accuracy ± 12 digits for changes> Same as specified accuracy for changes> 200 ms in duration.000 19. Frequency.999 in Righ Resolution. -20 to 55°C (-4 to 131°F) -40 to 60°C (-40 to 140°F) Meter Storage Temperature 53 . General Maximum Voltage between any Terminal 300V 10 MQ (nominal). 2 seconds in duration. and Pulse Width.999 3/sec @ >10 Hz Frequency and RPM Counts: Update Rate: Backlight Meter Operating Temperature Backlight turns on for 68 seconds. 4/sec in all other functions and ranges. Duty Cycle. Analog 2 x 32 Segments Update Rate: 40/sec 19. < 100 pF and Earth Ground Input Impedance Fuse Protection mA 1A 600V FAST FUSE 15A 600V FAST FUSE A Display (LCD) Digital Counts: 4. 4Y2-digit Mode only.

0 oz (624g) 2000m Pickup: 54 .06 in x 3. CAN/CSA 22. UL License. NEDA 1604 or 6F22 or 006P 500 hrs typical with alkalline Per MIL-T-28800 for a Class 2 Instrument Battery Type Battery Life Shock. CSA License. Performance above 1 Vim is not specified. 32 to 95°F) 0% to 70% (35 to 55°C. ANSIIISA S82.1: 1992 Overvoltage Category 11/300volts. Specified for spark-plug wire use only.41 in x 7.05 x (Specified Accuracy)/"C Relative Humidity 0% to 90% (0 to 35°C.5 oz (355g) 22. 9V.1 cm x 8.2 No.35 in (3.25 in x 3.6 cm) With Holster & Flex-Stand: 2.8 cm x 20.01-1994. 1010.93 in (5. 12.6 cm x 18.1 cm) Weight Meter only: With Holster & Flex-Stand: Altitude Safety Meter: Complies with EN61010-1:1993. Vibration Size (HxWxL) Meter only: 1. <64 or 0.2 cm x 9.000 In an RF field of 1Vim on all ranges and functions: Total accuracy = Specified Accuracy. TUV License. 95 to 131°F) Inductive Pickup Input: Output: Maximum RPM: Electromagnetic Compatibility Magnetic field from Spark Plug Pulse to Trigger 12.SPECIFICATIONS Meter Storage Temperature Temperature Coefficient -40 to 60°C >82°F) HO to 140°F) «18 or >28°C.86 in x 7.

9 1.4 75.4 51.0 55.0 73.6 46.4 27.5 12.2 31.8 34.2 25.4 10.1 26.9 6.APPENDIX A.6 58.9 1.4 18.2 34.4 19.5 23.6 4 0.6 18.1 27.8 18.5 25.4 9.5 27.2 6 20.4 33.1 8.0 21.3 11.2 25.6 40.0 27.0 12.7 3.2 8 15.2 44.8 36.1 28.6 22.1 22.0 31.0 19.6 17.6 45.4 24.2 80.8 47.0 1.9 21.3 2.0 45.6 10.8 7.7 21.6 16.8 78.6 27.2 43.6 22.6 31.8 20.6 37.8 72.7 14.8 11.9 44.8 29.6 40.6 13.2 68.2 22.2 26.4 2.8 8.3 36.0 18.4 33.0 5.0 61.5 48.7 26.6 52.2 3.9 46.8 17.4 5.4 63.2 25.8 5.3 29.8 29.6 4.3 41.4 15.6 70.0 18.8 16.8 32.3 18.4 14.1 45.8 66.7 8.2 1. OF CYLINDERS) (%) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 3 0.6 10.4 60.5 41.4 30.4 33.9 28.8 25.2 21.0 18.5 43.0 3.5 50.4 42.7 17.0 14.2 8.2 20.2 .6 40.7 12.1 4.2 7.3 24.2 35.2 38.1 9.6 13.2 20.4 20.0 41.8 8 0.2 31.2 7.8 2.4 3. DUTY CYCLE TO DWELL CONVERSION CHART DUTY CYCLE DWELL (NO.7 48.8 54.6 28.9 37.2 16.4 36.1 10.4 15.6 25.9 3.2 2.7 3.8 23.2 38.4 1.2 13.9 19.6 58.9 24.3 34.5 23.0 5.6 4.8 6 0.8 30.2 13.6 22.3 25.4 9.9 19.0 27.2 10.6 4.5 5.0 9.3 5 24.9 10.6 4.0 0.2 12.8 2.4 10.5 9.4 45.0 43.4 46.6 22.7 21.2 14.4 69.1 54.2 16.0 79.0 9.2 4.0 36.0 13.1 46.8 29.1 36.2 7.6 19.0 39.4 12.5 14.8 35.8 26.0 49.5 14.3 43 .0 15.6 13.2 19.7 37.5 0.4 38.4 21.2 53.4 23.0 0.0 33.7 5 0.3 16.8 42.1 13.1 17.6 27.8 16.0 54.5 30.4 21.9 55.1 15.4 6.8 38.2 32.5 18.4 39.1 18.0 6.0 24. 55 .8 11.8 47.4 28.0 36.0 27.4 51.0 7.0 23.5 59.0 67.2 37.0 31.8 12.6 16.2 8.4 57.8 29.9 (%) 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 3 40.6 22.8 42.4 28.7 19.0 0.8 14.6 34.7 12.0 36.8 6. OF CYLINDERS) DUTY CYCLE DWELL (NO.4 39.7 39.0 30.7 30.0 0.2 26.8 20.9 28.2 28. 2 44.6 9.1 33.9 8.4 3.5 5.3 20.0 23.6 9.8 11.3 52.4 15.6 7.8 38.7 57.4 6.3 6.6 49.2 17.7 1.4 15.2 56.4 4 30.6 1.6 34.6 4.2 74.8 48.8 6.0 37.2 62.8 56.3 15.5 7.9 26.6 64.5 32.6 35.0 13.0 25.7 32.4 24..6 31.8 2.0 9.0 18.6 28.9 39.9 10.4 33.2 2.8 24.6 76.2 50.4 27.3 5.8 11.3 7.8 60.3 23.

6 118.4 32.0 57.6 36.2 80.4 117.3 33.9 57.0 32.3 59.0 42.8 114.4 69.0 36.6 67.4 37.4 51.2 116.6 94.6 40.7 84.8 70.8 43.7 50.4 57.1 72.8 65.6 85.9 42.6 55.4 87.2 46.2 49.8 108.4 69.5 36.0 109.1 64.4 56.0 85.4 41.4 42.8 44.0 49.4 93.0 115.7 55.8 84.0 54.6 43.6 58.2 55.2 71.0 72.6 46.3 88.8 96.4 51.2 67.2 98.1 31.4 87.9 37.5 77.1 44.0 45.8 38.8 52.1 35.0 103.2 43.2 52.6 88.0 48.6 53.8 4 61.1 5 49.4 45.8 56. OF CYLINDERS) (%) 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 3 81.8 74.3 79.8 59.DUTY CYCLE TO DWELL CONVERSION DUTY CYCLE DWELL (NO.8 102.6 49.0 67.4 99.0 51.2 92.3 54.6 76.2 110.0 54.6 82.3 70.2 56.2 86.7 44.8 41.4 48.4 54.1 51.2 43.2 61.6 106.7 39.3 38.4 64.0 81.9 62.4 8 30.8 50.7 35.0 59.5 66.6 58.8 60.0 97.5 41.9 64.5 86.5 32.1 40.2 58.6 100.4 78.9 73.0 91.8 53.6 71.6 52.2 104.3 6 40.8 34.2 39.6 112.1 81.8 90.8 47.2 34.5 61.4 111.0 41.8 65.7 68.2 62.1 63.0 63.3 42.6 56 .7 75.6 63.1 69.9 33.4 105.7 66.5 68.6 31.2 89.8 83.9 82.