First Published in 2011 by M C COMPUTER PRESS

This e-version was produced in 2011 by Engr. Udochukwu Mark

ISBN: 978-978-48201-7-2

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording and/or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publishers. This book may not be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise disposed of by way of trade in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published, without the prior consent of the publishers.



This is a basic Workshop Practice text for undergraduate students of Engineering, Science and Technology. It covers the essential aspects of the syllabuses/curricula of Engineering Workshop Practice I, II and III as currently run at the Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO). A text of this nature has been long overdue and it is hoped that its publication will fill the yearning gap for years I and II students of Engineering and Technology across the country. The contributing authors are all drawn from the Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri. The work is the outcome of teaching and coordinating the Workshop Practice Courses in FUTO for the past twenty-three years. A vast amount of information is now available on every imaginable subject, not just in print, but also on the internet. However, none of these can be effectively utilized by the average student unless there is proper guidance and understanding of the fundamental concepts with regards to the practices, processes and materials by the lecturer. This text is one way of providing that basic guidance in the vast subject of manufacturing processes. The authors are highly indepted to many colleagues and authors who were consulted in the course of preparing this text.

Engr. Prof. O.E. Okorafor Editor



 Engr. Prof. O.E. Okorafor [Chapters 13a, 14 and 19]  Dr. J.E.O. Ovri [Chapters 5 and 13b]  Engr. A.I. Ogbonna [Chapters 8, 9 and 12]  Engr. U. Mark [Chapters 4, 6, 7, 15, 16,17, 18 and 20]  Engr. P.C. Agu [Chapter 1]  Mr. C.C. Ugwuegbu [Chapters 10 and 11]  Mr. V.C. Igwemezie [Chapter 2]  Mrs. C.E. Njoku [Chapter 3]


CONTENTS Preface ……………………………………………………… Contributors ………………………………………………… .iii iv

Chapter One: Industrial Safety…………………………… 1.1 The Health and Safety of Work Act ………………………. 1.2 The Factories Act 1990…………………………………..... 1.2.1 Objective of Safety Legislation/Factory Act……………. 1.2.2 Structure of the Act……………………………………… 1.3 Health and Safety: Definition and Relevance……………… 1.4 Terms Commonly Used in Safety………………………… 1.5 Behaviour Analysis and Safety Consciousness…………… 1.5.1 Duties of Employers and Employees…………………… 1.5.2 Provision of Healthy Working Conditions……………… 1.5.3 Workshop Hazards and Precautions………………………. 1.5.4 Sources of Workshop Accidents………………………… 1.6 Workshop Accidents……………………………………… 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.7 1.7.1 1.7.2 1.7.3 1.7.4 1.7.5 1.7.6 1.8 1.9 1.9.1 1.9.2 1.9.3 Classes of Workshop Accidents and Precautions……... Need to Investigate/Report Accidents………………… Safety Devices………………………………………….. Machine Guards………………………………………. Isolator Switch………………………………………… Stop Buttons…………………………………………… Stop Switches…………………………………………… Emergency Kick-bars…………………………………… Eye Protection…………………………………………… Safety Colours and Signs………………………………….. Fire………………………………………………………... Terms Used in Fire Safety……………………………… Physics and Chemistry of Fire………………………….. The Fire Triangle…………………………………………

1-32 1 3 3 4 4 5 7 7 7 8 10 14 15 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 22 23 23 24 25


1.9.4 Causes of Fire……………………………………………… 1.9.5 Classification of Fire……………………………………..... 1.9.6 Fire Extinguishers: Types and Methods of Application…… 1.9.7 Fire Prevention Hints……………………………………… 1.10 First Aid…………………………………………………….. 1.10.1 Aims and Objectives of First Aid…………………………. 1.10.2 Scope of First Aid………………………………………… 1.10.3 Qualities of a First Aider…………………………………. Reference………………………………………………….. Chapter Two: Hand Tools and Processes……............................ 2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………… 2.2 Engineering files……………………………………………… 2.3 The Hacksaw…………………………………………………. 2.4 Chisels………………………………………………………… 2.5 Scrapers……………………………………………………….. 2.6 Striking Tools………………………………………………… 2.7 Tightening Tools……………………………………………… 2.8 Scribers………………………………………………………... 2.9 Drills…………………………………………………………… 2.10 Reamer………………………………………………………... 2.11 Taps and Die………………………………………………….. 2.12 Hand Shears or Snips………………………………………… 2.13 Punches………………………………………………………. 2.14 Powered Hand tools………………………………………….. Questions……………………………………………………... References……………………………………………………. Chapter Three: Marking Out…………………………………… 3.1 Datums………………………………………………………… 3.2 Marking-out Equipment……………………………………….. 3.2.1 Scriber……………………………………………………….. 3.2.2 Punches………………………………………………………

25 26 27 28 30 30 30 31 32 33-71 33 33 38 40 43 44 48 52 53 57 59 62 62 63 70 71 72-88 72 73 73 73


3.2.3 Dividers and trammels……………………………………….. 3.2.4 Hermaphrodite Calipers……………………………………… 3.2.5 Combination set……………………………………………… 3.2.6 Box Square…………………………………………………… 3.2.7 Try Square…………………………………………………… 3.2.8 Workshop Protractor………………………………………… 3.3 Marking-out Equipment for Providing Support……………….. 3.3.1 Surface Plates/Tables………………………………………… 3.3.2 Angle plates…………………………………………………. 3.3.3 Parallels……………………………………………………… 3.3.4 Clamps………………………………………………………. 3.3.5 Jacks and Wedges…………………………………………… 3.3.6 Marking Dye………………………………………………… 3.3.7 Vee Blocks………………………………………………….. 3.4 Examples of Marking-out……………………………………... Questions……………………………………………………… References…………………………………………………….. Chapter Four: Sheet Metalwork…………….…………... 4.1 Meaning and Gauge Sizes of Sheet Metals…………….. 4.1.1 Metals Used in Sheet Form…………………………… 4.2 Sheet Metalwork……………………………………….. 4.2.1 Products of Sheet Metalwork………………………... 4.2.2 Sheet Metalworkers…………………………………. 4.3 Production of Sheet Metal Products…………………… 4.3.1 Cutting Sheet Metal………………………………….. 4.3.2 Notching…………………………………………….. 4.4 Bending and Folding…………………………………... 4.4.1 Press Brake Forming (Bending)……………………... 4.4.2. Types of Bending…………………………………… 4.4.3 Bend Axis and Grain Flow Direction…………….. 4.5 Other Shaping Operations………………………….

74 75 76 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 81 82 87 88 89-131 89 91 92 93 93 94 95 98 99 100 100 105 106


4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.6.3 4.6.4

Making of Hems [Edge Folding and Seams]………… Making of Seams……………………………………... Hollowing or Blocking……………………………….. Design and Mathematics of Sheet Metalwork………. Shape Development [Pattern-making]……………….. Bend Allowance……………………………………… Bend Deduction……………………………………… Software Solutions for Bend Allowance/Deduction….. Questions……………………………………………… Projects……………………………………………….. References……………………………………………

106 107 109 110 110 111 123 124 125 126 131 132-140 132 132 132 132 134 136 136 137 137 137 137 139 139 141-168 141 141 143 151

Chapter Five: Measuring Equipment………………………….. 5.0 Measurement……………………………………………. 5.1 5.2 Direct and indirect measurements…………………… Direct measurements………………………………...

5.2.1 Vernier scale………………………………………… 5.2.2 The Micrometer…………………………………….. Precautions in the use of the micrometer…………… 5.3 Measuring Machines…………………………………. 5.3.1 Indirect……………………………………………… Dial Indicators……………………………………… 5.4 Electronic Comparators…………………………………. 5.5 Optical Comparators……………………………………. 5.6 5.7 Air Gauges or Comparators…………………………. The Brook Level Comparator………………………..

Chapter Six: Cutting Tools and Cutting Fluids…………......... 6.1 Machining and Cutting Tools…………………………….. 6.2 Cutting Tools and Machine Tools………………………… 6.3 Cutting Tool Materials…………………………………….. 6.4 Cutting Tool Geometry and Nomenclature………………...

6.5 Cutting Parameters…………………………………………. 6.6 Tool Life and Machinability………………………………. 6.7 Cutting Tool Maintenance………………………………… 6.7 Cutting Fluids……………………………………………… 6.7.1 Types of Cutting Fluid…………………………………… 6.7.2 Cutting Fluids versus Workpiece Materials……………… 6.7.3 Application of Cutting Fluids……………………………. 6.7.4 Safety in the Use of Cutting Fluids……………………… Questions…………………………………………………. References………………………………………………… Chapter Seven: Drilling……………………………………….. 7.1 Introduction………………………………………………… 7.2 Common Types of Drills…………………………………… 7.2.1 Twist Drill………………………………………………… 7.2.2 Selection of Drills………………………………………… 7.3 Drilling Allied Operations………………………………….. 7.4 Types of Drilling Machines………………………………… 7.5 Tool Holding……………………………………………….. 7.6 Work Holding (Clamping)………………………………….. 7.7 Drilling Operations…………………………………………. 7.7.1 Drilling Sheet Metal and Plastics………………………….. Questions………………………………………………….. References…………………………………………………. Chapter Eight: Turning & Centre Lathe Operations………… 8.1 Introduction…………………………………………………. 8.2 Centre-lathe Elements…………………………………… 8.3 Center- lathe controls……………………………………. 8.4 Workholding……………………………………………. 8.5 Centre-lather operations…………………………………….. 8.6 Taper turning…………………………………………………

153 155 158 159 160 162 163 164 167 168 169-186 169 169 170 172 172 175 179 179 181 183 186 186 187-215 187 187 193 194 203 207


8.7 Screw-cutting………………………………………………… Questions……………………………………………………... Reference……………………………………………………… Chapter Nine: Shaping Operation………………………………. 9.1 Shaping……………………………………………………….. 9.2 The shaping machine………………………………………… 9.3 Controls……………………………………………………… 9.4 Shaping operations…………………………………………… Chapter Ten: Milling……………………………………………... 10. 1 Introduction………………………………………………… 10.2 Milling Machine Elements………………………………….. 10.3 Controls………………………………………………………. 10.4 Milling Cutters………………………………………………. 10.5 Cutter Mounting……………………………………………... 10.6 Work Holding………………………………………………... 10.7 Milling Operations………………………………………….... 10.8 Cutting Speed and Feed……………………………………… Questions…………………………………………………….. References…………………………………………………… Chapter Eleven: Surface Grinding……………………………… 11.0 Introduction………………………………………………….. 11.1 Surface Grinding…………………………………………… 11.2 Elements of a Surface Grinding Machine………………….. 11.3 Controls……………………………………………………. 11.4 Workholding……………………………………………….. 11.5 Grinding Wheels…………………………………………… 11.6 Classification of Grinding Wheels…………………………. 11.7 Surface Grinding Operations……………………………….. 11.8 Calculating Wheel Size or Speed…………………………… Questions…………………………………………………… References…………………………………………………..

210 215 215 216-225 216 216 220 221 226-243 226 227 230 231 233 237 238 242 243 243 244-254 244 244 245 247 248 248 249 251 251 254 254

Chapter Twelve: Fastening and Joining Techniques………….. 12.0 Introduction…………………………………………….. 12.1. Methods of Joining……………………………………… 12.1.1 Mechanical Locking…………………………………… 12.1.2 Bolts, Screws, and Rivets………………………………. 12.1.3 Soldering……………………………………………….. 12.1.4 Brazing…………………………………………………. 12.1.5 Adhesive Bonding………………………………………. 12.1.6 Welded Joint…………………………………………….. 12.2 Pressure (Solid Phase) Welding…………………………… 12.2.1 Hot Pressure Welding……………………………………. 12.3 Weld formation in general……………………………….. 12.3.1 Types of welded Joint…………………………………….. 12.4 Typical Fusion welding Process…………………………….. 12.4.1 Arc Welding……………………………………………… 12.4.2 Arc Types…………………………………………………. 12.5 Arc welding Classifications…………………………………. 12.5.1 Manual Metal Arc welding (MMA)……………………… 12.5.2 Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding…………………………… 12.5.3 Submerged – Arc welding (SAW)………………………… 12.5.4 Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding……………………… 12.6 Gas Welding………………………………………………… 12.6.1 Fuel Gas Safety……………………………………………. 12.7 Resistance (Spot) Welding………………………………… 12.7.1 Spot Welding……………………………………………… 12.8 Process Regulation and control of Fusion welds…………….. 12.9 Effect of Dilution on Composition………………………… Electrode Coding………………………………….. 12.10 Electrode Coatings………………………………………… 12.10.1 12.11 Edge Preparations…………………………………………. 12.12 Welding of Carbon and low alloy steels…………………… 12.12.1 Structure of Welds……………………………………….. 12.12.2 Composition of steel and carbon Equivalent (CE)……….

255-295 255 255 256 256 256 257 257 257 258 260 260 261 262 262 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 273 274 274 276 277 279 281 281 283 283 284

12.12.3 Heat Affected Zone……………………………………… 12.13 Basic Welding Symbols…………………………………… 12.13.1 Weld Joints, Symbols and Joint Design Principles……… 12.13.2 Weld Symbols…………………………………………… 12.13.3 Weld Dimensions………………………………………… Questions…………………………………………………. References………………………………………………… Chapter Thirteen: Materials in Engineering…………………. 13.0 Introduction [Part 1]……………………………………….. 13.1 Physical Properties………………………………………. 13.2 Mechanical Properties……………………………………… 13.3 Selection of Materials…………………………………… 13.4 Ferrous Materials…………………………………………… 13.4.1 Steel………………………………………………………. 13.5 Heat Treatment of Plain Carbon Steel…………………... 13.6 Applications of Ferrous Materials………………………… References………………………………………………… Questions…………………………………………………. 13.7 Copper and Its Alloys [Part 2]………………………………. 13.7.1 Composition of Copper…………………………………… 13.7.2 The Commercial Grades of Copper……………………….. 13.8 Copper Based Alloys………………………………………… 13.9 Aluminium and Its Alloys…………………………………… 13.9.1 Control of Corrosion in Aluminium And Its Alloys………. 13.4 Protective Coating and Painting…………………………. 13.4.1 Introduction……………………………………………… 13.10.2 Metal Coatings……………………………………………. 13.10.3 Non-metallic Coating…………………………………….. 13.10.4 Typical Coating Process………………………………….. Chapter Fourteen: Plastics in Engineering…………………….. 14.1 Nature of plastics……………………………………………. 14.2 14.3 Polymerization…………………………………………... Thermoplastics…………………………………………..

285 285 286 289 289 290 295 296-330 296-314 296 300 302 303 304 306 310 312 313 315-330 315 316 317 318 319 319 319 321 325 328 331-351 331 332 333

14.4 14.5 14.6

Thermosets………………………………………………. Properties and uses of plastics…………………………... Working in plastics………………………………………

336 339 341 341 342 343 346 349 350

14.6.1 Forming………………………………………………….. 14.6.2 Machining of Plastics……………………………………. 14.7 Joining of plastics…………………………………………… 14.8 Encapsulation…………………………………………….. References…………………………………………………… Questions……………………………………………………..

Chapter Fifteen: Wood in Engineering………………………… 15.1 Introduction…………………………………………………. 15.2 Nature and Types of Wood…………………………………. 15.3 Composition and Properties of Wood………………………. 15. 4 Basics of Woodworking…………………………………….. 15.4 .1 Marking and Measuring Tools……………………………. 15.4.2 Holding and Supporting Tools…………………………….. 15.4.3 Cutting Tools………………………………………………. 15.4.4 Boring Tools……………………………………………….. 15.4.5 Striking Tools……………………………………………… 15.4.6 Miscellaneous Tools and Materials………………………… 15.5 Common Woodwork Joints…………………………………. 15.6 Woodworking Machines……………………………………. 15.7 Pattern Making……………………………………………... References…………………………………………………… Chapter Sixteen: Automobile Work…………………………. 16.1 Introduction [Part A: History, Theory and Principles]………

352-386 352 352 354 356 356 357 361 373 377 379 380 380 383 386 387-434 387


16.1.1 From Carriages To Cars………………………………….. 16.2 Basic Parts of the Automobile……………………………… 16.3 Power Train…………………………………………………. 16.3.1 Engine……………………………………………………. 16.3.2 Internal Combustion (I.C.) Piston Engine………………… 16.3.3 Operations and Functions Piston Engine………………….. 16.3.4 Engine Types and Power………………………………….. 16.4 Fuel Supply………………………………………………….. 16.5 Exhaust System……………………………………………… 16.6 Cooling and Heating System………………………………… 16.7 Drivetrain……………………………………………………. 16.7.1 Transmission and Transaxle………………………………. 16.7.2 Front- and Rear-Wheel Drive……………………………... 16.8 Support Systems…………………………………………….. 16.8.1 Chassis and Suspension System………………………….. 16.8.2 Wheels and Tires (Tyres)…………………………………. 16.9 Control Systems…………………………………………….. 16.9.1 Steering…………………………………………………… 16.9.2 Brakes…………………………………………………….. 16.10 Electrical System………………………………………….. 16.10.1 Ignition System…………………………………………. 16.11 Body and Safety Features………………………………… 16. 12 Automobiles and the Future……………………………… 16.13 Introduction [Part B: Simple Diagnosis and Repairs]……. 16.14 Helpful Preventive Maintenance Tips…………………….. 16.15 Starting System Maintenance…………………………….. 16.16 Battery Maintenance……………………………………… 16.17 The Alternator……………………………………………. 16.18 Changing Oil and Oil Filter……………………………… 16.19 Cooling and Heating System……………………………. 16.20 The Carburetor………………………………………….. 16.21 Ignition System Maintenance……………………………

388 388 390 391 393 395 399 399 401 401 402 403 405 407 407 408 408 409 409 411 411 413 414 415 416 419 420 421 422 422 422 424

16.22 Tachometer/Dwell Tachometer………………………… 16.23 Compression Testing…………………………………… 16.24 Vacuum Testing………………………………………… 16.25 Car Servicing and Tune-up…………………………….. 16.26 General Car Maintenance……………………………… References…………………………………………….. Chapter Seventeen: Electrical Work……………………….. 17.1 Basic Wiring and Cables………………………………… 17.2 Cables……………………………………………………. 17.2.2 Cable Selection………………………………………… 17.2.3 Colour Coding of Wires………………………………. 17.2.4 Colour Coding of Flexible Cables……………………. 17.3 Main Switches…………………………………………… 17.4 Connections to Socket-Outlets and Plugs……………….. 17.5 Basic Electrical Symbols………………………………. 17.6 Resistors……………………………………………….. 17.7 Capacitors……………………………………………… 17.7.1 Types of Capacitor…………………………………… 17.8 Safe Electrical Installations……………………………. 17. 9. Electrical Shock and Overload Protection……………. 17. 10. Protection against Overcurrent………………………. 17.11 Electric Shock…………………………………………. 17.12 Electrical Hand Tools…………………………………. 17. 13 Electrical Power Tools………………………………… Problems………………………………………………. References……………………………………………. Chapter Eighteen: Corrosion Problem and Remedies…….. 18.1 Introduction……………………………………………… 18.2 The Problem of Corrosion……………………………….. 18.3 Economic Dimensions of the Problem…………………...

425 427 427 428 428 433 435-464 435 436 437 438 439 439 439 440 444 448 448 451 453 453 456 457 461 462 464 465-475 465 465 466


18.4 Definition and Types of Corrosion………………………. 18.5 Useful Aspects of Corrosion…………………………….. 18.6 Corrosion Control……………………………………….. 18.6.1 Design, Fabrication and Material Selection…………… 18.6.2 Modification of the Environment and Inhibition………. 18.6.3 Modification of Metal Properties………………………. 18.6.4 Cathodic Protection…………………………………….. 18.6.5 Protective Coatings…………………………………….. References……………………………………………… Chapter Nineteen: Foundry Practice………………………… 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.4.1 19.4.2 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.7.1 19.7.2 19.8 19.9 19.9.1 19.9.2 19.10 Introduction……………………………………………. Advantages and Limitations…………………………… Sand Mould Making Procedure………………………… Patterns…………………………………………………… Pattern Materials………………………………………. Types of Patterns……………………………………… Moulding Materials……………………………………… Moulding Sand Properties and Testing………………… Gating and Risering……………………………………… Elements of a Gating System…………………………… Riser…………………………………………………….. Melting and Pouring……………………………………… Casting Cleaning and Inspection…………………………. Fettling…………………………………………………... Inspection……………………………………………….. Defects in Castings………………………………………. References………………………………………………... Questions………………………………………………….

467 468 469 471 472 473 474 474 475 476-499 476 476 477 479 480 482 484 485 486 487 489 490 491 492 493 494 497 498


Chapter Twenty: Quality Inspection & Limit System…….. 20.1 Introduction………………………………………………. 20.2 Measurement versus Quality/Inspection…………………. 20.3 Sampling Inspection……………………………………… 20.3.1 Acceptance Sampling………………………………….. 20.4 Sampling Plans…………………………………………… 20.4.1 Single Sampling Plan…………………………………… 20.4.2 Double Sampling Plan…………………………………. 20.4.3 Sequential Sampling……………………………………. 20.5 Operating Characteristic (OC) Curve…………………….. 20.6 Limits and Tolerance……………………………………… 20.7 Interchangeability………………………………………… 20.8 Terminology Used In Limit System……………………… 20.8.1 Ways of Placing Limits…………………………………. 20.9 Types of Fit………………………………………………... 20.10 Bases of Limit System…………………………………… Questions………………………………………………… References……………………………………………….. Index………………………………………………………

500-522 500 501 501 502 503 503 504 504 507 511 511 512 515 515 517 521 522 523-530




The Health and Safety of Work Act

Safety legislations are enacted for employers to ensure the safety of persons and the protection of assets and the environment. Safety legislation, as we have them today, had their origins in government‘s response to the protests of early industrial workers and their families because of injuries and deaths to workers at places of work. The transition from manual production in the homes and on the farms (cottage industries as they were known), to production with machines in factories in the 18th century in England, the United States and other industrialized countries in the 19 th century; referred to as the Industrial Revolution, brought a new series of hazards at the workplace. People were employed to work in these factories without adequate training or requisite experience. They were exposed to machinery with unguarded moving parts, cutting blades and power operations that could go on continuously unless shut off; as well as to large concentrations of inherently dangerous chemicals, fumes and dusts. Also, they worked long hours from sunrise to sunset; the factories were poorly built with inadequate ventilation, lighting, heating, aisle space and sanitation. This situation resulted in several accidents in which the employees were seriously injured, disabled or killed. The reaction of the injured employees or families who lost their loved ones (who may be breadwinners) was to claim against the employers at common law, but they had handicaps; which were:  An employee who had an accident and hopes to go back to work upon recovery would be afraid to take his employer to court as he would put his work in jeopardy by so doing whether or not he wins the case in court. The need to prove the negligence of the employer was difficult to meet because any employee that testifies against the employer in court would be putting his employment in jeopardy.


On the other hand, the employer had three strong pleas that were difficult to overcome and they were:    That the employees negligence contributed to or caused the accident That the accident was the employee‘s fellow worker‘s fault That the employee knew the hazards of the job and assumed the risk when he accepted the job.

Moreover, where an employee succeeded in winning his action in court, the award was so small that it may not even offset the cost of litigation. This situation was seen as unsatisfactory and employees together with their families and other well-meaning citizens protested to government about it. In reaction to the outcry for help by people, the government enacted the Safety Legislation to improve the lot of the employees. England, and later some states in America, enacted laws requesting employers to provide safe tools and machinery, and to maintain safe and healthy working conditions. It soon became evident that legislation by itself was not enough without enforcement. In England, the Factory Commission of 1833 made a survey of conditions in the developing factories and found that earlier factory legislation had been almost inoperative with respect to the legitimate objects contemplated by it. The commission therefore, recommended the setting up of a professional inspectorate, appointed and paid by the government and responsible for enforcing the law. Consequently, the Factory Act of 1833 authorized the King of England to appoint four persons to be Inspectors of Factories. From here, the British Factory Inspectorate initiated a form of government action which is now found in every country of the world and which received international support in 1947 by ILO Convention. Thus, almost every country now has qualified labour inspectors maintaining or executing organized inspection of work places and working conditions as part of effort to improve health and safety at work.



The Factories Act 1990

The ILO, in its effort to improve health and safety at work, produced a manual called ―Model code of Safety Regulations for Industrial establishments for the Guidance of Government and Industries‖. This manual was based on a draft prepared by experts and approved by a Tripartite Technical Committee held in Geneva in 1948, in accordance with a decision of the Governing Body of International labour Office. This code was put in its final form in 1949 and was placed at the disposal of governments and industries for guidance in framing or revising their own safety regulations. Nigeria, as a member of the ILO, ratified and adopted the relevant ILO convention and in 1955 enacted ―An Ordinance to Make Provision for the Health, Safety and Welfare of Persons Employed in Factories and other Workplaces, and for Matters Incidental thereto and Connected therewith‖. This ordinance came into force on 1st September 1956. It became Chapter 66 of the Laws of the Federation of Nigeria and Lagos in force on the first day of June 1958. On being reviewed by a military regime, it became the Factories Decree 1987 with a commencement date of 11th June 1987. It is currently the Factories Act 1990 (Cap. 126).

1.2.1 Objective of Safety Legislation/Factory Act The safety legislation framework is to promote, stimulate and encourage high standards of health, safety and welfare in industrial establishments with the aim to:   Secure the health, safety and welfare of persons at work. Protect persons other than those at work, against risks to health or safety arising out of or in connection with the activities of persons at work. Involve everyone, both management and employees, and make them all aware of the importance of safety and health.



Structure of the Act

The Factories Act is arranged in eleven parts, each specifying provisions for the achievement of each of the stated objectives. The subject matter of each of the various parts is as follows:            1.3 Part I – Registration of Factories Part II – Health (General Provisions) Part III – Safety (General Provisions) Part IV – Welfare (General Provisions) Part V – Health, Safety and Welfare (Special Provisions and Regulations) Part VI – Notification and Investigation of Accidents and Industrial diseases Part VII – Special Applications, Extension and Miscellaneous Provisions Part VIII – General Register, etc. Part IX – Administration Part X – Offences, Penalties and legal Proceedings Part XI – General Health and Safety: Definition and Relevance

Health means more than sound physical conditions. According to WHO, health is a state of complete wellbeing of an individual (physically, mentally, socially and emotionally), not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Its relevance includes:  Every individual desires to be fit and healthy to enable him work to earn a living.  The employer needs his employee to be of good health to be able to perform to standard required for the achievement of set goals.  The community needs healthy members who will contribute effectively to community affairs – financially, physically and mentally.  The nation needs citizens who would pay taxes as well as contribute physically and mentally.  Families need their breadwinners and companions alive and healthy.


Safety can be defined as a state of being free from danger or harm or injury or damage. It can be said to be the theory and practice of providing adequate safeguards for reducing life and property/machinery loss by accidents. The relevance of safety includes:  Every individual wants to be safe for a worthy life.  Every organization needs its employees to be safe for continuous operations to meet targets and objectives as well as to conserve its vital resources.  Families, communities and nations all need their folk to be safe to continue to provide needed service and contributions; physically, mentally and financially. Objectives/Advantages of Safety i. ii. iii. iv. To protect people To protect property/machinery For continuity of operations [reduction of downtimes] To reduce costs due to repair of damaged equipment or medical treatment given to injured personnel/operators. Terms Commonly Used in Safety


Accident: an unplanned unwanted event which results in unacceptable or ugly consequences. Accidents are caused, they don‘t just happen.

Incident: An unwanted occurrence that has caused or is capable of causing damage/injury to people, assets, reputation or environment. When it results in actual injury/damage, it is accident.

Hazard: The potential to cause harm to people, machine, product or environment.

Risk: the probability that an undesirable event will occur combined with the severity of the consequences of the event. Risk Pro a ility Severity Pro a ility

Consequences…….. 1.1

Near-miss: An incident that could have caused injury to people, asset or environment, under slightly different circumstances, but with no consequence; OR, an incident that occurred without injury or damage to life or property. Precaution: the action or step taken to prevent an accident or control a hazard. Unsafe Act: An act or action by an individual that could possibly cause injury, damage, illness, death etc. examples include wearing unsafe clothing, going at an unsafe speed, using unsafe equipment, etc. Unsafe Condition: A condition/situation/state that could potentially cause injury, damage, illness etc. examples include: unsafe clothing, defective machinery, hazardous/unsafe methods, etc. Bow Tie: A concept that explains what controls are in place to prevent the hazardous event happening or escalating. Barriers: Countermeasures put in place to prevent a threat or combination of threats ultimately resulting to the release of a hazard. For example, for corrosion, barriers could be a corrosion resistant coating; and for overpressure, the barrier could be a pressure relief system or valve. Threat: Something that could potentially cause the release of a hazard and result in an incident e.g. poor visibility, over-pressure, lack of knowledge/competence, corrosion, etc. Asset: Any valuable or useful person or thing put in place in an organization for the survival and realization of the company‘s set goals and o jectives. In other words, asset is anything that allows the company to function and achieve its aims. Examples include: personnel, cash, land, equipment and machinery, goods and products and official documents. First Aid: The skilled application of accepted principles of treatment on the occurrence of any injury or sudden illness, using facilities or materials available at the time. It is the approved method of treating a casualty until placed, if necessary, in the care of a doctor or removed to a hospital.



Behaviour Analysis and Safety Consciousness

1.5.1 Duties of Employers and Employees It is, the duty of the employer to ensure, so far as reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work of all his employees. The employer achieves this over-riding objective through the following:  Provision of a healthy and safe work plan.  Ensuring that systems are maintained in good order.  Provision of safe storage of chemicals and other harmful products or raw materials.  Ensuring safe entry and exit at the work place.  Provision of safety instruction and training to the employers regularly.  Enforcing safety laws and punishing employees for not complying with them.  Provision of adequate facilities and gadgets at the workplace.  Piping away of harmful by-products like dust, fumes, noise.  Provision of medical facilities for employees and their relatives. On the other hand, the employees are expected to execute the following roles in order to ensure their safety at the workplace. They include:  The employee must take reasonable care of the safety of himself and others at the workplace.  Must comply with safety rules and policies of the workplace.  Must never interfere with anything provided in the interests of safety.  Must report accidents/incidents so that the employer can prevent reoccurrence.  Must use all safety facilities and avoid short-cuts. 1.5.2 Provision of Healthy Working Conditions What constitutes a healthy working condition? They include the following:  Cleanliness (good housekeeping).  Maintenance of a reasonable temperature.  Effective ventilation.


    

Suitable lighting. Proper drainage of floors. Adequate sanitary accommodation. Medical unit Proper storage of toxic/poisonous substances.

1.5.3 Workshop Hazards and Precautions a) Dust and Fumes: [such as asbestos dust and trichloroethylene fumes] Precautions: i. Totally enclose the process concerned to prevent the escape of dust and fumes. ii. Use wet methods to control dust. iii. Use a properly designed hood or exhaust system. iv. Use an appropriate respirator. b) Noise: [Prolonged exposure to excessive noise can result in permanent damage to hearing in addition to interfering with the operator‘s a ility to concentrate i.e. distraction] Precautions: i. Locate the source and reduce noise level. ii. If it is not possible to reduce the noise level, screen the operator from the noise by means of walls or acoustic panels. iii. Use suitable ear protector. c) Chemicals: [Mineral oil used as cutting fluid, chromic acid used in chromium plating, synthetic resins, paraffin, turpentine etc. are chemicals that dissolve the natural grease on the skin and enter the human body. They can cause industrial dermatitis of the skin characterized by redness and irritation among other features]


Precautions: i. Use mechanical aids such as tongs, scrappers, etc. ii. Wear protective clothing, which should be always cleaned and isolated from other clothing. iii. Bath always with hot water and use clean towels. iv. Use appropriate barrier creams. v. Have first-aid treatment for every injury, however small. d) Toxic Substances: [These poisonous and harmful substances which can be solid, liquid or gases given off as fumes/vapours by flammable industrial solvents. The common industrial solvents include paraffin, petrol, turpentine, trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. They can be absorbed into the lungs by inhalation, through the skin by physical contact or through the mouth by swallowing] Precautions: i. The precautions for chemicals as contained under (c) above are applicable here. Additionally, we have the following: ii. Avoid smoking in such areas as there is a risk of fire and these vapours are more dangerous when inhaled a lighted cigarette. iii. Pay attention to warning notices. e) Metal Vapours and Cyanide Salts: [Some metals give off toxic vapours when heated or molten e.g. during welding] These metals and the effect of their vapours are: 1. Aluminium – inhalation of fumes causes aluminosis in the lungs. 2. Cadmium – the fumes cause industrial poisoning. 3. Chromium – contact affects nasal membranes and lungs. 4. Lead – fumes, dust or vapour can be fatal. 5. Mercury – swallowing causes acute poisoning and contact causes dermatitis (itching). 6. Nickel – contact causes dermatitis (nickel itch). 7. Zinc – inhaling zinc oxide fumes results in metal –fume fever.


Cyanide salts used in industrial heat treatment and electroplating processes are extremely dangerous and can kill, quickly and painfully too. They can be absorbed through contact with skin, by inhalation or ingestion if contaminated food is eaten. Precautions: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Efficient fume extraction should be in operation. Use appropriate personal protective equipment, PPE. Always wash thoroughly after handling. Never eat or drink in the near vicinity. If an accident occurs, seek medical attention immediately. Ensure that drums containing cyanide are correctly labeled and properly stored. Follow the correct procedures laid down for any process using cyanide.

1.5.4 Sources of Workshop Accidents The accidents that occur in the workshop come from one or more of the following sources: (a) Housekeeping, (b) Hand tools, (c) Manual handling, and (d) Machinery.

a. Housekeeping: More accidents are caused by people falling, jumping into
and stepping on things than are caused by machinery. A tidy workplace reduces the risk of accidents. Floors, stairs, passages and gangways must be soundly constructed, properly maintained and kept free from obstruction and any substance likely to cause a person to slip. Handrails must be provided for stairs. All ladders must be solidly constructed and properly maintained. Openings in floors, shall wherever necessary to be allowed, be securely fenced. Precautions:  Always walk, never run in the workplace.  Never throw rubbish on the floor.  Keep gangways and work areas free of metal bars, protrusions, etc.  Use approved routes when moving about, don‘t use short-cuts.


 If any liquid (oil, water, grease and chemical) is spilled, wipe up immediately.  Wear safety shoes – with anti-slip soles and metal toe-caps to protect the feet from falling objects.  Use only stable piles of boxes, adequate and strong scaffolding and secure ladders for working at heights.  Ladders must be ascertained okay before use, placed at correct angle and on a firm base. They must be secure to avoid sideways movement at the top or outward shift from the base, and long enough; at least one metre above the platform you wish to reach.

b. Hand tools: There are many hand tools in use and they give rise to
numerous accidents. This is because; the tools may be worn out, broken or worse still not suitable for the job concerned. Precautions:  Regularly examine hand tools.  Don‘t use tools that are defective. It is an unsafe act. They cause injuries to the hands or eyes.  Handles must be securely fitted to files, scrapers, screws drivers, and hammers and they must not be split [See Fig. 1.1].  Do not use hammers with chipped heads, a piece may fly off and injure the eye or hands.  Use the correct size of spanner; incorrect size can slip and cause injury.  Do not use chisels with ‗mushroomed‘ heads, a piece could fly off and cause injury [See Fig 1.2].  Use a tool for what it is made for. Don‘t use a screw driver or pliers to do the work of a spanner.  Keep workplace clean and tidy and put tools in a safe place after use.  Never carry loose tools in the pocket. You may slip and fall on them and cut your body.


c. Manual Lifting/Handling: A large portion of injuries is attributable to
the handling of objects, caused while lifting and carrying. It is usually assumed that these injuries may be caused by handling excess weight and the only regulation that exists in connection with this is the Factories Act rule which says ―a person shall not e employed to lift, carry or move any load so heavy as to cause an injury‖. However, the main cause of these injuries is the adoption of incorrect body position and faulty handling techniques. Injuries associated with manual handling include: back strains, hernias, fractures, bruises, cuts. Causes of these injuries are specifically: (i) unsafe practices e.g. improper lifting, carrying too heavy a load, incorrect


gripping, failing to observe proper foot or hand clearances, failing to use PPE; and (ii) poor job design. Precautions:  Get a firm grip on the object.  Keep fingers and hands away from pinch points especially when putting materials down.  Wipe off greasy, slippery or dirty objects before trying to handle them.  Keep hands free of oil and grease.  Inspect materials for jagged edges, burrs, rough or slippery surfaces.  Wear gloves, hand leathers or other protectors. The Six-step Lifting Procedure:

1. Keep feet parted: One foot should be kept alongside the object being lifted and one behind. The rear foot is in position for the upward thrust of the lift. There is greater stability with feet comfortably spread. 2. Back: Use the sit-down position and keep back straight but not vertical. A straight back keeps the spine, back muscles and organs of the body in correct alignment. It minimizes the compression of the guts that can cause hernia. 3. Arms and elbows: The load should be drawn close and the arms and elbows tucked into the side of the body. When the arms are held away from the body, they lose much of their strength and power. Tucking the arms in also helps keep the body weight centred. 4. Palm: Palm grip is very important in lifting. Use the full palm since fingers alone have little power. The fingers and the hand should be extended around the object to be lifted. 5. Chin: Tuck in the chin so your neck and head continue the straight back line and keep your spine straight and firm. 6. Body weight: Position body so its weight is centred over the feet. This provides a more power line of thrust and ensures better balance. Start the lift with a thrust of the rear foot


d. Machinery: Equipment with moving/rotating parts is always a source of
danger. Equipment can cause accidents if they malfunction, operator‘s attention is distracted, operator‘s concentration is lowered y fatigue or stress, operator cannot handle equipment, etc. Precautions:  Ensure you know how to stop the machine before you set it in motion.  Remain concentrated while the machine is in motion.  Never leave your machine unattended while it is in motion.  Do not distract or startle other machine operators.  Never clean or repair a machine while it is in motion/running.  Never use compressed air to clean a machine; it may blow in your face or someone else‘s and cause eye injury.  Never clean any swarf with bare hands. A suitable rake should be used.  Keep hair short or under cap so that it does not get entangled with rotating/moving parts of machinery.  Avoid loose clothing; wear a snug-fitting suit and ensure that any necklace is tucked in (does not dangle).  Do not wear rings or wrist watches at work; they may get hooked on projections.  Always ensure that all guards are correctly fitted and in position to prevent operator coming in contact with moving parts of machinery. 1.6 Workshop Accidents Different types of accidents occur in the workshop. They include: 1. Dangerous Occurrence – where damage is done to machinery/property and no injury to persons or loss of life. 2. Minor Accidents – where there is no serious injury, no life lost and no serious damage to property/machinery. 3. Major/fatal Accidents – where there is injury or even death and serious damage to property.


1.6.1 Classes of Workshop Accidents and Precautions a) Minor Wounds and Scratches: Precautions:  Treat immediately  Wash wound from the middle outwards before applying dressing. b) Severe bleeding: Precautions:  Stop bleeding by applying direct pressure with the fingers to the bleeding point.  If dressing is available, apply directly over the wound and press it down firmly.  Cover with a pad of soft material and retain the dressing and pad with a firm bandage.  Send for a doctor or ambulance. c) Fractures: Precautions:  Immobilize the fractured point using splints or bandages.  Call the doctor immediately/send casualty to hospital. d) Burns and Scald: Precautions:  Put a sterilized dressing on the burn or scald.  Never use an adhesive for dressing; apply no lotions or oil.  Do not burst blister or touch the burned area in order to reduce risk of infection.  Send for a doctor. e) Eye injuries:[caused by particles of grit or small fragments of metal lodged under the eyelid]


Precautions:  Remove speedily with sterilized cotton wool.  Prevent the casualty from rubbing the eye.  If the object is not easily removed, close the eyelids cover with a soft pad of cotton wool secured lightly in position with a bandage.  Obtain medical aid. f) Electric Shock: When human body accidentally comes into contact with an electric conductor connected to the supply, the electric current passes through the body. This current will produce violent spasms which may fling the body across the room or fall off a ladder etc. In extreme cases, the heart may stop beating. Burns are caused by the current arcing between the conductor and the human body. Internal heating may also take place and can lead to partial blockage of blood flow through the blood vessels.  Remedial action for a victim: i. If victim is still in contact with the electric current, switch off or remove the plug. ii. If current cannot be switched off, stand on a dry nonconducting surface and pull the victim clear using a length of dry cloth or other dry items. Do not touch the victim; you will end up completing the circuit and also receive a shock. iii. When free, apply artificial respiration immediately. iv. Call for medical assistance. General Precautions:  Let correctly wired plugs with correct colour codes be used for all portable equipment.  Never improvise by jamming wires in sockets with nails or watches.


 All electrical connections must be secure. Loose wires can arc and cause overheating which could result in a fire.  Let fuses of correct rating be fitted always.  Never use make-shift fuses like pieces of wire.  Any external metallic part must be correctly earthed so that if any fault develops, the fuse will blow and cut off the supply.  Never run power tools from lamp sockets.  Connection between the plug and the equipment should be made with the correct three-core flexible cable suited to the current rating of the equipment.  Old and threadbare cable should never be used. Have it replaced by a qualified electrician.  Equipment should always be disconnected from the mains before making any adjustment, even changing a lamp. Personal Electrical Safety Precautions:  Any article of clothing containing any metal parts increases the likelihood of accidental electrical contact. Metal fitting such as buttons, buckles, metal watches or wrist bracelets, and even rings could result in shock or burns.  Wetness or moisture at surfaces increases the possibility of leakage of electricity, by lowering the resistance and thus increasing the current. Contact under the above conditions therefore increases the risk of electrical shock.  All metals are electrical conductors and therefore all metallic tools are conductors. When any tool is brought near a currentcarrying conductor, there is a possibility of shock. Even tools with insulated handles do not guarantee that the user will not suffer shock or burns.


1.6.2 Need to Investigate/Report Accidents Accidents do not just happen; they are caused. When they are investigated, the cause or causes will be ascertained. If operators and employees have information on the cause of a particular accident, they will take informed precautionary measures against re-occurrence. Hence, there is need to report and investigate accidents as the following requirements will show.  Legal requirements: The Factories Act 1990, Part VI, requires that industrial accidents be investigated and reported.  Company needs: Information gathered from investigating and reporting of accidents will help the company to; (i) learn, (ii) prevent reoccurrence, and (iii) establish/recognize trends.  Individual needs: The operator/employee needs the information in order to; (i) improve performance, (ii) establish basis for possible compensation.  Public requirements: The public should be in the know of what happens in the factory.  Stakeholders‘ needs: The investors, employees and host community would like to know what happens in the factory/firm. 1.7 Safety Devices

These are pieces of gadgets/facilities put in place to ensure safety of operators and machinery.

1.7.1 Machine Guards The two main types of machine guards are fixed and interlocking guards. Fixed Guards: These are guards used to protect the operator from the rotating parts of the machine. The guards do not rotate or shift. They are ‗fixed‘. To e effective, these guards should:  Prevent all access to the dangerous part from all angles/sides and during all operations.


 Be of robust construction and be firmly and securely installed.  Be carefully designed so that the machine can be operated efficiently.  Be arranged so that it does not have to be removed for routine maintenance or lubrication. Interlocking Guards: Where it is not practicable to use a fixed guard, the interlocking guard is used. This type of guard shifts/moves and locks to prevent unwarranted/unintended further movement. It is moved/shifted again when operator desires. It is designed so that:  It has to be closed in such a way as to prevent access to or contact with the dangerous part before the machine can be operated.  It remains at the closed position until the dangerous part is at rest. 1.7.2 Isolator Switch This is a safety device that is aimed at stopping equipment in an emergency (Fig. 1.3). The stopping is achieved by isolating the electrical supply to the equipment.

1.7.3 Stop Buttons These are fitted to all machines so that the operator can readily stop the machine. They must be situated within easy reach of the operator. The stop button should have a large mushroom head which can be easily operated by a quick stroke of hand, (Fig. 1.4). They must be non-self-resetting i.e. once the equipment has been stopped it should not be possible to restart it until the button has been reset manually. Stop buttons usually are in place together with start buttons. The start buttons should be shrouded so that they cannot be pressed inadvertently.

1.7.4 Stop Switches They are fitted with no volt release and if the supply is interrupted, the machine will automatically be switched off. No volt release ensures that once the supply has been interrupted for any reason at all, the machine cannot be restarted unless a button is pushed (even if the supply is reconnected).


1.7.5 Emergency Kick-bars Kick bars are fitted on some machines e.g. centre lathes so that by foot pressure, the electrical supply to the machine could be cut off. In some instances, the kick-bar will also operate a brake which will stop a rotating spindle e.g. on a centre lathe (Fig. 1.3).

Figure 1.3: Isolator switch and kick-bar on a centre lathe

Figure 1.4: Mushroom-headed stop button

1.7.6 Eye Protection Eye protection serves as a guard against the hazards of impact, splashes from chemicals or molten metal, liquid droplets (chemical mists and sprays), dust, gases and welding arcs. This is achieved by the use of equipment to protect the eyes. Examples of eye protectors are safety spectacles, goggles,

eye-shields, face-shields and facescreens (Fig. 1.5). Eye protectors must be worn because of risk of injury to the eye due to particles/fragments of metal in addition to glare and ultraviolet radiation.

Eye protection must be worn for the following processes:  While using high-speed metal-cutting saws or abrasive cutting-off wheels.  Working at a furnace containing molten metal.  Pouring or skimming molten metal in foundries.  Toning or dressing an abrasive wheel.  Fettling of metal castings.  Machining of metals, including dry-grinding processes.  Welding of metals (by electrical-resistance methods).

Figure 1.5: Eye protection



Safety Colours and Signs

They are intended to draw attention quickly/rapidly to objects, materials and/or situations that affect or pose danger to health and safety. They do not replace the need for proper accident prevention measures. Table 1.1 shows details. Examples of the shape and colour of the signs are shown in Figs 1.6.

Table 1.1: Safety colours, signs, meanings and applications Safety colour
Red (white background colour with black symbols)

Stop. Prohibition (Don’t do)

Examples of use/Applications
Stop signs. Emergency stops. Prohibition signs.

Red (white symbols and text) Yellow (black symbols and text)

Fire-fighting equipment. Warning/caution (risk of danger)

Position of fire equipment, alarms, hoses, extinguishers, etc. Indication of hazards (electrical, explosive, radiation, chemical, vehicle, etc.) Warning of threshold, low passages, obstacles

Green (white symbols and text)

Safe condition (the safe way)

Escape routes Emergency exits Emergency showers First-aid, and Rescue stations

Blue (white symbols and text)

Mandatory action (MUST do)

Obligation to wear personal safety equipment, PPE


Figure 1.6: Shape and colour of signs 1.9 Fire

Fire is a rapid combination of two or more substances with oxygen resulting in the production of heat and light.

1.9.1 Terms Used in Fire Safety A. Combustion – A rapid chemical reaction or series of reactions in which heat is emitted as well as light. Products of combustion are: fire gases, flame, heat and smoke. B. Fuel – Any material that can burn. It is classified into three categories namely: (i) organic solids such as wood, cloth, plastic, leather, saw


C. D. E.



dust, etc.; (ii) organic liquids e.g. petrol, diesel oil, oils, alcohol, etc.; (iii) gases e.g. natural gas, propane, butane, acetylene, hydrogen, etc. Heat – Energy in disorder which moves from a high temperature region to a low temperature region. Temperature – Measure of the intensity and degree of heat. Flash Point – The minimum temperature at which a liquid gives out vapour in sufficient quantity to form a mixture with the air that will ignite or flash temporarily if a source of ignition is introduced. The flash point of some petroleum products are: petrol, 45 oC; toluene 40oC; kerosene, 100oC; diesel fuel, 125oC; motor oil, 300oC. Fire Point – the lowest temperature at which the heat from the combustion of a burning vapour is capable of producing sufficient vapour to sustain combustion. Ignition Temperature – The lowest temperature at which the substance will ignite spontaneously.

1.9.2 Physics and Chemistry of Fire The production of heat and light constitute what is known as the physics of fire/combustion; while the rapid combustion of combustible materials with oxygen is known as the chemistry of fire. In fact, the chemistry of fire involves all the following:

 The materials that are burning;  The behavior of such materials and reactions;  Hazards involved and the type of extinguisher needed to put out such fire. It is the consideration of the above details that informed the statement that ―no two fires are the same‖. The fire triangle (Fig. 1.17) will illustrate this better.


Figure 1.7: Fire triangle 1.9.3 The Fire Triangle The fire triangle (Fig. 1.7) represents the three basic elements for a fire to take place. The three elements are fuel, oxygen or air and heat. A union of these will create fire while if one of them is absent, fire cannot occur. i. ii. iii. Oxygen: As found in air must be equal to or greater than 21% in concentration. Fuel: Must be up to critical temperature. The critical temperature of fuel differs according to the type of material. Heat: Must be rapid i.e. fuel must be heated rapidly.

1.10.4 Causes of Fire The causes of fire are grouped into three, namely: major causes, common causes and natural causes. i. ii. Major Causes – The causes of fire under this group are man, women and children and this is due to ignorance and carelessness. Common Causes – Fires are commonly caused by the following common occurrences and practices: smoking in prohibited areas, flammable liquids, defective electrical equipment, spontaneous ignition, arson. Natural Causes – Works of nature have caused major disasters claiming whole cities. Such natural causes that can ignite fire are: thunder and lightning, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions.


1.9.5 Classification of Fire The five classes of fire are alphabetically coded A, B, C, D, and F with the nature of the materials involved in the burning (i.e. the fuel) taken into consideration. Table 1.2 has the details including methods of extinguishing the fires. The combination of the fire extinguishing method and the fire triangle gives Fig. 1.8; where starvation means limitation of fuel, smothering means limitation of oxygen, and cooling means reduction of temperature i.e. below ignition temperature

Table 1.2: Classes of fire and method of extinguishing
Class A Materials/commodities/fuel Freely burning fires fuelled by ordinary combustible materials such as wood, cloth, fabric, paper, plastics, leather, saw dust, etc. Fires fuelled by flammable liquids such as petrol, diesel oil, kerosene, oils, spirits, paint, alcohol, wax [involving liquids or liquefiable solids, soluble or insoluble in water] Fire fuelled by flammable gases such as gases e.g. natural gas, propane, butane, acetylene, hydrogen. Method of extinguishing cooling by applying water


1. Starvation by cutting off fuel supply. 2. Smothering by applying appropriate cover e.g. foam, CO2, etc. 1. Starvation by cutting off fuel supply. 2. Application of CO2 extinguisher 3. Allow to burn out



Fires involving flammable metals such as lithium, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, or aluminium powders or swarf, etc.

1. 2.

Smothering by using chemical powder, DCP Use dry sand


Fires involving electrical hazards. [NB: Electrical fires nolonger constitute a class since fires started by an electrical source would normally involve elements with class A, B, C, D, or even F]

1.Smothering by using dry chemical powder, DCP 2.Application of CO2 extinguisher


Fires fuelled by cooking oils and fats.

Use of a wet chemical is the most effective way of extinguishing this type of fire.


Figure 1.8: The fire triangle and fire extinguishing methods

1.9.6 Fire Extinguishers: Types and Methods of Application The extinguishing of a fire is generally brought about by depriving the burning substances of oxygen and by cooling them to a temperature below which the reaction is not sustained. By far the most important extinguishing agent, by reason of its availability and general effectiveness, is water. It is more effective than any other common substance in absorbing heat, thereby reducing the temperature of the burning mass. The steam produced also has a smothering action by lowering the oxygen content of the atmosphere near the fire. For these reasons the use of a water hose reel in factories is common and is suitable for most fires except those involving flammable liquids or live electrical equipment. Every employee should know where the portable fire extinguishers, the hose reels and the controls for extinguishing are located and how to operate extinguishers in their working area. The fire extinguisher should be sent to the fire service unit for refilling immediately after use. Table 1.3 captures the types and colour codes of fire extinguishers, their uses and method of application.


1.9.7 Fire Prevention Hints The best and most effective way of controlling fire is to prevent it from occurring in the first place. The following guidelines are therefore useful for fire prevention. a) b) c) d) e) f) Good Housekeeping: - Workplace must be kept tidy and unused com usti le materials stored at designated place after each day‘s work. Flammable Liquids: - Smoking or any form of ignition must be prohibited. Such liquids must be kept at a designated place. Delivery Pipes: - They should be airtight and have no leaks. Any spills must be cleaned or reported immediately. Welding Work: - Welding must be done in a clean environment free from combustible materials such as oil, petrol, papers, rugs, fluff, etc. Rubbish: - Must be kept in waste/rubbish bins. At the end of work day, rubbish must be burnt 100 ft (30.5 m) away from combustible materials. Smoking: - ―No smoking‖ signs must e o eyed. Smoking should be done where necessary, in the office, using a metal base ashtray. Workers must not smoke while working. Work Permit: - obtain a work permit before carrying any welding or fireworks. Access to fire extinguishers: - Access to fire extinguishers and fire hoses must be kept free from obstruction. Installation of fire extinguishers: - Fire extinguishers must be installed in fire hazard areas and all staff must be trained to know their names, uses and operation.

g) h) i)


Table 1.3: Fire extinguishers
Type and Colour Code Container Use Practical Demonstration 1. Remove safety pin. 2. Strike knob and direct at base of fire. As above

Water [coded red]. 9 litres size

A cooling agent. Absorbs heat from fire. Not to be used on electrical equipment. Suitable for class A types of fire. Contain special additives and are particularly effective for cooling and penetrating the fire and can be up to 300% more effective than the ordinary jet water extinguisher. A flame inhibitor for gas, flammable liquids and electrical equipment fires

Water with [coded red]


CO2 gas [coded red with black colour zone]. Sizes available are 5kg, 10kg (15-30kg are on wheel trolley)

1. Pull out safety pins or clip as the case may be. 2. Direct horn at flame. 3. Squeeze lever, discharge at base of fire.

Dry chemical powder [coded red with blue colour zone]. Sizes are 1kg, 2kg, 9kg (75kg on wheel trolley)

A smothering agent. For all fires except gas fires having explosion risks.

1. Remove safety clip or cap. 2. Press knobs. 3. Squeeze nozzle/lever. 4. Direct at base of fire in a sweeping manner.

Wet chemical [coded red with canary yellow colour zone]

Specifically developed to deal with class F fires. The specially formulated wet chemical, when applied to the burning liquid, cools and emulsifies the oil changing it into soap form, extinguishing the flame and sealing the surface to prevent re-ignition. It is also capable of fighting class A fires. A smothering agent with a cooling effect. These are ideal in multi-risk situations where both class A and B type fires are likely.

As above

Foam extinguisher [code red with cream white zone]. Sizes are 9 litres, 50 litres and 75 litres.

1. Remove safety pin. 2. Strike lever. 3. Direct on top of burning substance.



First Aid

First aid is the skilled application of accepted principles of treatment on the occurrence of any injury or sudden illness, using facilities or materials available to you at the time. It is the approved method of treating a casualty until placed, if necessary, in the care of a doctor or removed to hospital.

1.10.1 Aims and Objectives of First Aid a) To save or preserve life:  Maintain an open airway by positioning the casualty correctly.  Begin artificial respiration if the casualty is not breathing and heart is not breathing (pumping) and continue treatment until skilled medical aid is available.  Control bleeding. b) To prevent further injuries/complications:  Dress wounds.  Immobilize any fractures.  Keep casualty in the most comfortable position. c) To promote recovery:  Relieve casualty of anxiety and give confidence and hope.  Attempt to relieve casualty of pain and discomfort.  Handle casualty gently.  Protect casualty from cold and wets. 1.10.2 Scope of First Aid a) Diagnosis – A first aider should be able to identify quickly and say in simple terms what the problem of the victim is e.g. breathing, broken bones, unconsciousness, etc. b) Treatment – This involves all measures taken to prevent the life of the victim or prevent the condition from worsening and relieve pain. It does not involve use of drugs. c) Evaluation – The first aider should start evacuation procedure to a hospital or the factory clinic as quickly as possible.


1.10.3 Qualities of a First Aider The first aider needs to possess the following qualities in order to render skilled assistance to a casualty. The first aider should be: a) Observant – must be able to make a quick survey of the scene to know the next line of action. He must consider the following questions and be able to arrive at answers in a matter of seconds: i. Is the scene safe (for the first aider and the victim)? ii. What happened or is happening to the victim? iii. Are there bystanders that can help? b) Carefulness – must handle victim carefully in order not to worsen the victim‘s condition or even cause the death of a victim. c) Confidence – must be sure of whatever he/she is doing so as not to be confused by the suggestions of by-standers. d) Resourceful – must be able to improvise when and where the need arises. e) Tactful – must be able to secure the confidence of the victim and bystanders and assume control of the situation. f) Sympathetic – reassuring the casualty and treat him with kindness and tenderness. g) Perseverance – should not be easily discouraged by a little failure. h) Explicit – should be able to give precise, detailed and accurate information about the casualty and treatment given either when calling for help or handing over to medical crew.


REFERENCES Bruce J. Black (2004): Workshop Processes, Practices and Materials, Third Edition; Amsterdam: Elsevier Fife and Machin (?): Redgraves Factories Act, Twenty First Edition. Handley, W. (1977): Industrial Safety Handbook, Second Edition National Fire Protection Association, USA (1976): Fire Protection Handbook, Fourteenth Edition National Safety Council, USA (?): Supervisors Safety Manual, Sixth Edition National Safety Council, USA (1959): Accident Prevention manual, Fourth Edition Petersen (1971): Techniques of Safety Management SHELL (2001): HSE – MS Training Manuals and Materials Simonds and Grimaldi (1963): Safety Management, Revised Edition Wentz, C.A. (1990): Safety, Health and Environmental Protection, International Edition; New York: Mc-Graw-hill





Tools are objects designed to perform a specific work mostly by material removal processes. They are employed in engineering, manufacturing, woodwork, and metalwork to perform operations such as cutting and shaping of parts and they can be hand-, or machine-operated. Tools are important for efficient manufacturing. This chapter will focus mainly on some of the common hand tools that are used in the various workshop practices.


Engineering files

Files are widely used as hand cutting tools in the workshops. They are hardened piece of high grade steel with slanting rows of teeth. They can be used to cut, smooth, or fit metal parts. It can cut all metals except hardened steels and it cuts only on the forward stroke. A typical file consists of the tang, handle, heel, face, cutting points and edge as shown in Fig. 2.1. The tang is usually pointed and is fitted into the handle and the metal ring on the file handle is called ferrule. The ferrule prevents the splitting of the handle. The heel is next to the handle. The point is the end opposite the tang. The safe edge or side of a file is part of it that has no teeth.

Fig. 2.1 Parts of a file


Classification of Files The files are classified according to the size, type of cut, grade and sectional form. (A) Size of file. The size of a file is specified by its length and this is the distance from the point to the heel without the tang. Common lengths of files in use are 20 – 45 cm and 10 – 20 cm for finer work. Type of Cut. Fig. 2.2 shows the most commonly used files according to cuts of teeth and they are single-cut file, double-cut file and rasp-cut file. Grade of Cut of file. This classification is based on the spacing between the rows of teeth or pitch of the teeth. Those in general use are (i) Rough, (ii) Smooth, (iii) dead smooth (iv) Supersmooth (v) Second cut, and (vi) Bastard. Rough grade is used for heavy reduction and filling castings after chipping. The Smooth grade is for smoothening and filling surfaces; Dead smooth and Supersmooth are for finer and accurate finishing. The Second cut grade is for general work and Bastard grade for reducing bulky work.



Fig. 2.2 Types of files according to cuts of teeth


Shape of File. General classifications based on different sectional forms are shown in Fig. 2.3.


Cut or teeth on files Teeth or cuts of files can be grouped into single-cut and double-cut. In single-cut files, the teeth are arranged in parallel formation across the file at an angle of about 60° to the centre line of the file. These files are usually flat and find application in working with hard metals. A double-cut file has two sets of teeth, the first set or over-cut teeth are at about 60° to the centre line of the file and the second set of teeth or the up cut teeth are arranged diagonally across the first set of teeth at angle of about 80° to the centre line. Single-cut and double-cut files are further classified according to the coarseness or spacing between the rows of the teeth as discussed above. These files are used for finishing general surface work.

Uses of Various Files 1. Hand file. Hand file has parallel width throughout but with tapered thickness [Fig. 2.3(1)]. Both faces of the file are double cut. Either both edges are single cut or one is uncut to provide a safe edge. The safe edge prevents opposite surface cutting while the other face is being filed. Commonly used for finishing surface work.


Fig. 2.3 General classification of files based on shapes or cross sections

2. Flat file. Flat file has tapered width and thickness [Fig. 2.3(2)]. It has double cut on both faces and single cut on both edges. They are used for filing flat surfaces and general work.

3. Triangular file. This file has equilateral triangular cross section with the three faces double cut and the edges single cut [Fig. 2.3(3)]. It is commonly used to file or smooth down corners between 60° and 90° and for sharpening wood working saws.

4. Square file. This file is square in shape. It is parallel to about two-thirds of its length and then tapers towards the tip [Fig. 2.3(5)]. They are double cut on all sides and tapers. It is commonly used to smooth down square corners and slots.

5 Round file. A Round file is generally used for opening out holes and rounding inside corners. It has round cross-section. If the width is parallel all through is called parallel round and if width is parallel up to middle and then tapering towards the tip is called rat file. The file is usually double cut on the Rough and bastard qualities over 15 cm long while second cut, smooth and the Rough and Bastard under 15 cm are single cut [Fig. 2.3(4)].

6. Half round file. This file has somewhat semicircular shape of about onethird of a circle [Fig. 2.3(6)]. The flat side of the half round file is used for general work and the half round side for smoothening concave surfaces. These files are double cut on the flat side and the curved side is single cut, smooth or second cut.

7. Knife-edge file. These files are commonly used for cleaning out acuteangled corners. The two faces of these files are double cut, while the edge is single cut [Fig. 2.3(7)]. Their sizes range from 10 to 20 cm and made of different shapes and cuts. They are extremely delicate and are used for fine work such as pierced designed in thin metal.

8. Pillar file. This file is similar to hand file but it is thicker and narrower. It is used for narrow works such as slots, grooves and keyways. Both faces are double cut and either both edges are single cut or one is uncut to provide a safe edge of the file [Fig. 2.3(8)].

9. Needle file. Needle file is generally used for filling keys tooth wheels of clocks, pierced design in sheet metal and other curved surfaces [Fig. 2.3(9)].

10. Mill file. Mill file has similar feature with flat file but parallel on both width and thickness and have both edges rounded. It is commonly used for filing half round recess and gullet of mill saw.


11. Warding file. This file is also similar to flat file but thinner and parallel on its thickness. It commonly finds application in filling narrow openings. Files for fine work are usually from 100 to 200 mm and those for heavier work from 200 to 450 mm in length.

12. Rasp. This tool is similar to file, but with larger teeth on its cutting surface. It is used for scraping or smoothing wood or metal. The sharp cutting teeth on its surface enable it to perform these functions (Fig. 2.4). In carpentry, files are used to remove rasp marks, and the scratches left by the file are finally removed using scraper and glass paper.

Fig. 2.4 Rasps


The Hacksaw

Hacksaw is one of the various kinds of cutting tools in the workshop. The Hand hacksaw consists of a frame (which is usually made of steel), handle, prongs, tightening screw and nut, and blade as shown in Fig. 2.5. The frame holds the blade firmly.

Fig. 2.5 Hacksaw Hand hacksaws are made in two types namely a fixed frame and adjustable frame oriented as shown in Fig. 2.6 (a) and (b). The frame of the fixed type is solid and so the length cannot be adjusted. For the second type, the length can be adjusted to hold blades of different sizes. The blade is put in


tension by the wing nut. The blade is specified by its length and pitch and the length of the blade is the distance between the outside edges of the holes which fit over the pins. The dimensions of the blade are usually 25cm long and 1.25 cm wide. The pitch or point is measured by the number of teeth per 2.5 cm length. The hand hacksaws are designed for cutting metals.


(b) Fig. 2.6 The Hacksaws (a) fixed frame type, (b) adjustable frame hacksaw

The teeth of the blade has bent points that permit a wide groove to be cut in the material and to prevent rubbing or jamming of the blade in the saw cut. The bending of the teeth to the sides is called setting of the teeth. The setting breaks up chips and helps the teeth to clear themselves. For best performance, the blade must be tightened sufficiently in the frame and a steady stroke of about 50 per minute to be used. The working pressure should be light for thin materials and good for solid metals.


There are many hacksaw variants such as (i) panel hacksaw where the frame is eliminated so that the saw can cut into panels of sheet metal without the length of cut being restricted by the frame, (ii) junior hacksaws which are the small variant, while larger mechanical hacksaws are used to cut working pieces from bulk metal.



Chisel is one of the most important tools in the sheet metal, fitting and forging shops. A Chisel has strong sharp edge cutting tool with a sharp bevel edge at one end. It consists of a handle, tang, ferrule, shoulder, and blade. Chisels are generally made up of high carbon steel or tool steel.


(b) Fig. 2.7 Parts of a chisel Chisels are widely used for cutting, nicking prior to breaking and chipping the work piece. The size of a chisel is described by its length and width of edge. When the cutting edge becomes blunt, it is sharpened by grinding. When cutting a workpiece, it is placed vertical on the job and then hammered on the head. For chipping work, it is inclined at an angle to the workpiece. The angle of the cutting edge of the chisel is 35°-70° according to


the metals to be cut. Depending on the working temperature, Chisel can be referred to as cold or hot chisel. A cold chisel has hardened and tempered edge with an angle of about 60. The hot chisel has an edge with angle of 30° and it is generally used in forging shop. Fig. 2.8 shows various types of chisels in use in some workshops.





(e) Fig. 2.8: Various types of chisels

Different types of chisels are in use. For example in fitting work, flat chisel, cross cut chisel, diamond point chisel, half round chisel, cow mouth chisel and side cutting chisel are in common use. Firmer chisel, beveled edge firmer chisel, pairing chisel and mortise chisels (Fig. 2.8) are common in carpentry shop. Hot chisel finds application in forging shop. Firmer Chisel. Firmer chisel as shown in Fig. 2.8(a) has a blade of rectangular section. It is used in carpentry shop for general bench work. The Beveled edge firmer chisel (Fig. 2.8(b)) is identical to the firmer chisel except that the edges of the back of the blade are beveled. This enables the chisel to be


used for cutting right into the corner of acute-angled wood work such as the base of a dovetail. Paring Chisel (Fig. 2.8(c)) has a longer and usually slightly thinner blade than firmer chisel. It may be obtained with a blade of rectangular or beveled edge section and is used in pattern making and where long accurate paring is required. It is manipulated using hand pressure and not by blows. Mortise Chisel (Fig. 2.8(d)) is designed for heavy work, such as making deep cuts during framing. The blade is very nearly square in section and so may be used as a lever for removing chips and will withstand heavy blows from a mallet. The hot chisel (Fig. 28 (e)) is generally used in forging shop. In carpentry work a curved chisel known as gouge is in common use for scooping or cutting round holes (Fig. 2.9). Outside ground gouges are called firmer gouges and inside ground gouges are called scribing gouges. The scribing gouges are made long and thin, they are known as paring gouges. Several varieties of chisels are available, each having special characteristics which fit it for its special use.

Fig. 2.9 Gouge

Cold Chisel. This type of chisel has no wooden handle which distinguished it from other chisels. It is usually made from 1 – 2.5 cm thick material and the cutting edge ground to an angle that depends on the work-piece to be worked on. For example, the cutting angles for wrought iron and mild steel are about


55 – 60o, copper 45o and aluminium 30o. It has length of about 15 – 20 cm and tapered part is from 5 – 8 cm long. The main difference between hot chisel and cold chisel is the edge. The cutting edge of a cold chisel is hardened, followed by tempering to increase the cutting ability and with an angle depending on the workpiece, whilst the edge of a hot chisel is about 30° and the hardening is not necessary. Hot chisel finds application in forging shop where work is usually done at elevated temperature while cold chisel is generally used in fitting shop to shear or cut cold metals. Common types of cold chisels are Flat chisel, Cross-cut or Cape chisel, Half round chisel, Diamond pointed chisel and Side chisel.



The scrapers are hand cutting tools used to scrap metal surfaces by rubbing the work surface. The removed material comes out in form of thin slices or flakes to produce smooth and fine surfaces. The process of removing metal with scraper is known as scraping. The machined surfaces are not always perfectly true as desired, hence areas of differences are removed using scraper. Scrapers are made of tool steel or made from old worn-out files and provided with wooden handle. The cutting part of the scraper is hardened but usually not tempered and then ground with at least one sharp cutting edge. The scrapers are made in a variety of lengths from 100 mm upwards and in many shapes, depending upon the type of work to be done. In carpentry shop, scraper is used to clean up veneered work and after planning, scraper can be used to obtain a smooth surface before final glass papering. Where the grain in wood is particularly twisty so that even a finely set plane tends to tear it, a sharp scraper will be found most useful to tackle this problem. If scraping is necessary, the workpiece surface which is covered by blue or red lead is rubbed on a surface plate to identify the high spots after which the spots are scrapped down to the desired finish. The scraper is held at about 30oC to the workpiece with the left hand on the blade close to the cutting


edge and the right hand on the handle. The thumb and first finger should point to the direction of the cutting edge. Scrapers come in various shapes. Common types generally used for scraping job work in fitting shop are flat scraper, triangular scraper, halfround scraper and hook scraper as shown in Fig. 2.10.

Fig. 2.10 Common types of scrapers

The flat scraper is commonly used for removing slight irregularities on a flat surface, producing a perfectly flat surface. The hook scrapers are widely used for scraping minor job work. The triangular type has three cutting edges and is used for finishing small holes and for removing sharp corners and rough edges and the length is about 15 cm. The half-round scraper is used for scrapping curved surfaces and halve of bearings to give the right type of fit to the mating shaft or journal. They can be used to remove high spots in bore. Scrapers are stored carefully for protection of cutting edges from damage.


Striking Tools

Striking tools are the various hammers used in workshop practices. A hammer consists of a head, striking face, peen and a handle which may be wood or metal as shown in Fig. 2.11. Hammer heads are made of cast steel and, their ends are hardened and tempered. The striking face is made slightly


convex. The center part of the head left unhardened to avoid brittle failure. The handle may be wood or metal depending on the usage. The handle fits into a hole in the head and is held in position by wooden or metal wedges and sometimes the handle of heavy duty hammers are welded to the head. The weight of the hammer varies according to the work it performs. Hand hammers may weigh about 0.5 to 2 kg whereas the weight of a sledge hammer varies from 4 to 10 kg.

Fig. 2.11 Parts of a common type of ball peen hammer

Various Types of Hammers Ball peen hammer, Straight peen hammer, Cross-peen hammer, are commonly found in forging, fitting and sheet metal shops (Fig. 2.12). Warrington, peen and claw hammers are generally used by carpenters. Sledge hammers which may be classified as (a) Double face hammer, (b) straight peen hammer, and (c) cross peen hammer finds applications in the forging shop.

In sheet metal work, hammers are used for forming shapes by hollowing, raising, stretching or throwing off processes. Some of the common hammers found in sheet metal shop are Ball peen hammer, Smoothing hammer, Riveting hammer, Hollowing hammer, Raising hammer, Planishing hammer, Creasing hammer, Tray hammer, Stretching hammer, etc. Fig. 2.13 shows some of the common sheet metal working hammers.


Fig. 2.12 Different types of Hammers


Fig. 2.13 Sheet Metal Work hammers

Uses of various types of hammers The main use of Warrington Hammer is used for knocking in nails, assembling joints and setting wooden plane blades. Peen Hammer is used for striking nails where the use of the face is not possible. Claw hammer uses one of its ends, curved end for extracting nails. The other end is used for light striking work. A strong handle on claw hammer is always necessary for carrying out the task. Smoothing hammer is used for leveling and smoothing a sheet metal joint. Stretching hammer is used for stretching sheet. Creasing hammer is used to close down joint edges of sheets metal part. Hollowing hammer is used for hollowing sheet metal part and generation of sharp radii


also. Riveting hammer is used for forming riveted heads. Planishing hammer is used for removing small marks or indentations from the sheet metal job surface and to true the shape of the work. It smoothens off the finished sheet metal work.

2.7 Tightening Tools The tightening tools include pliers, wrenches, and screw driver.

(A) Pliers Pliers are a hand tool used to hold objects firmly, for cutting, bending, or physical compression. Generally, pliers consist of a pair of metal first-class levers joined at a fulcrum positioned closer to one end of the levers, creating short jaws on one side of the fulcrum, and longer handles on the other side. This arrangement creates a mechanical advantage, allowing the force of the hand's grip to be amplified and focused on an object with precision. The jaws can also be used to manipulate small objects that may be difficult to manipulate with fingers. There are many kinds of pliers made for various general and specific purposes. Fig. 2.14 shows various types of pliers.


(c) Flat nose pliers

(d) locking nose pliers

(e) Needle nose pliers Fig. 2.14: Some common types of pliers

Long nose and combination pliers are used in many workshops for various applications. Needle-nose pliers which can also be called long-noise pliers are used for gripping objects in confined spaces. Locking pliers is like a vice where the gripped object can be locked in position. There are other types of pliers found in engineering workshops such as channellock or tongue-andgrooved pliers, parallel pliers and special purpose pliers like break-grozier pliers, wire-stripping pliers. Other specialized pliers are the adjustable pliers, cutting pliers, crimping pliers and rotational pliers.

(B) Wrench A wrench or spanner is a tool used to provide grip and mechanical advantage in applying torque to turn objects such as nuts and bolts or to keep the objects from rotating.


(a) Combination wrench


Monkey wrench

(c) Open-end wrench (or spanner)

(d) Allen wrench

(e) Adjustable wrench Fig. 2.15 Common types of wrenches

Wrenches are open single ended, open double ended, closed ended adjustable, ring spanner, offset socket, t- socket, box wrench, pipe wrench and Allen wrench. Fig. 2.15 shows different types of wrench. Higher quality wrenches are typically made from chromium-vanadium alloy tool steels and are often drop-forged. They are frequently chrome-plated to resist corrosion and for ease of cleaning.


(C) Screwdriver Screwdriver is a screw tightening tool and can be used to rotate other machine elements with the mating drive system. A typical hand screwdriver comprises an approximately cylindrical handle of a size and shape to be held by a human hand, and an axial shaft fixed to the handle, the tip of which is shaped to fit a particular type of screw. Fig. 2.16 shows the most commonly used standard screw driver with its parts labelled. The handle and shaft allow the screwdriver to be positioned and supported and, when rotated, to apply torque.

Fig. 2.16 Standard screw driver with its parts labeled

Screwdriver is generally used by hand for tightening the screws. It comes in various types depending upon the kind of work it is meant for. The blade of a screwdriver is made of hardened and tempered tool steel so that its tip can withstand the great strain put upon it while screwing. Screwdrivers are made in a variety of shapes, and the tip can be rotated manually or by an electric motor or other motor. Screwdrivers come in a large variety of sizes to match those of screws. If a screwdriver that is not the right size and type for the screw is used, it is likely that the screw will be damaged in the process of tightening it. When tightening a screw with force, it is important to press the head hard into the screw, again to avoid damaging the screw. Some screwdriver tips are magnetic, so that the screw remains attached to the screwdriver without requiring external force. This is particularly useful in small screws, which are otherwise difficult to handle. Many screwdriver designs have a handle with


detachable head or bits, allowing a set of one handle and several heads to be used for a variety of screw sizes and types. Ratcheting screwdrivers Some manual screwdrivers have a ratchet action whereby the screwdriver blade is locked to the handle for clockwise rotation, but uncoupled for counterclockwise rotation when set for tightening screws; and vice versa for loosening. Spiral ratchet screwdrivers turn pressure (linear motion) into rotational motion. The user pushes the handle toward the workpiece, causing a pawl in a spiral groove to rotate the shank and the removable bit. The ratchet can be set to rotate left or right with each push, or can be locked so that the tool can be used like a conventional screwdriver. Powered screwdrivers commonly use an electric or air motor to rotate the bit. Cordless drills are sometimes used as power screwdrivers, with many models featuring a torque-limiting clutch to prevent over driving or breaking the screws.

2.8 Scribers Scriber is used for scratching lines on the sheet metal during the process of laying out a job. To a metal worker, scriber is like a pencil. Various types of scribers are shown in Fig. 2.15. Generally, scribers are made from high carbon steel and the scribing edge hardened.

Fig. 2.17 Scribers




Drill is a common tool widely used for making holes in a solid metal piece in fitting shop. The drilling process produces or enlarges a hole in the workpiece. A twist drill is the common type for the drilling process and it usually possesses two major cutting edges one on each flank, inclined at an angle with the axis. Hence twist drill is classed as a multiple point cutting tool and it is used in combination with drilling machine (Read detailed drilling processes in chapter 7). Fig 2.18 shows the geometry and nomenclature of a twist drill.

Twist drills are made up of high speed steel while they could be made of HSS alloys of high cobalt series for metals more difficult to cut. The two cutting lips are usually inclined at an angle of about 118°. The chips formed at the cutting edges are automatically guided upwards through the helical grooves cut into the body of the drill; these grooves are called flutes as shown in Fig. 2.18(a). This manner of chip removal is necessary, to avoid interference of the chip with the drilling process.

Types of Drill Drills are broadly classed into three types namely: 1. Flat drill, 2. Straight-fluted drill, and 3. Twist drill. The cutting angle of a Flat drill is usually 90o and the relief or clearance at the cutting edge is 3 to 8 o. The major disadvantage of flat drill is that its diameter reduces each time it is ground to obtain a better cutting edge. For fast and accurate drilling work, twist drill is normally preferred. It is ground with both lips at 59° to the axis of the drill, with equal lengths of the cutting edges.

Parts of a Twist Drill The principal parts of twist drill are the drill point or dead center, the body and the shank. The twist drill body extends from the extreme cutting end to the beginning of the shank. The sharpened end of the drill body consisting of all parts shaped to produce lips, faces and chisel edge is the drill point while


the longitudinal center line is the drill axis. The Flutes are the grooves in the body of the drill, which provide lips, allow the removal of chips, and permit cutting fluid to reach the lips while the flute length is the axial length from the extreme end of the point to the termination of the flutes at the shank end of the body (Fig. 2.19(b)).


Fig. 2.18 Geometry and nomenclature of a standard general-purpose twist drill

Fig. 2.19: Types of Twist drill


The cutting edge or lip is the edge formed by the intersection of the flank and the face. The flank is that surface on a drill point which extends behind the lip to the following flute while the face is that portion of the flute surface adjacent to the lip on which the chip impinges as it is cut from the work. The lip length is the minimum distance between the outer corner and the chisel-edge corner of the lip. The Chisel edge is the edge formed by the intersection of the flanks. Heel is the edge formed by the intersection of the flute surface and the body clearance. Body clearance is that portion of the body surface reduced in diameter to provide diametric clearance. Core or web is the central portion of the drill situated between the roots of the flutes and extending from the point end towards the shank; the point end of the core forms the chisel edge. Lands are the cylindrically ground surfaces on the leading edges of the drill flutes. The width of the land is measured at right angles to the flute. Recess is the portion of the drill body between the flutes and the shank provided so as to facilitate the grinding of the body. Parallel shank drills of small diameter are not usually provided with a recess. Outer corner is the corner formed by the intersection of the lip and the leading edge of the land. The shank is the part of the drill that is fitted into the drilling machine. It could be tapered to fit into the tapered sleeve of matching taper of the drilling machine or machined parallel (Fig. 2.17(a)). In the latter case a special collect chuck is fitted in the drilling machine to hold the drill. When the tapered sleeve rotates, the twist drill also rotates along with it due to the friction between two tapered surfaces. As the drill rotates, cutting is achieved at the lip. The drill has two lips at the other end where the cutting takes place, when the drill rotates. Drill diameter is the measurement across the cylindrical lands at the outer corners of the drill. Lead of helix is the distance measured parallel to the drill axis between corresponding points on the leading edge of a flute in one complete turn of the flute. Helix angle is the angle between the leading edge of the land and the drill axis. Rake angle is the angle between the flute and the


work, usually 70 -75oC. It helps to secure the lip over the correct space to curl the chip. More rake angle means no edge for cutting and if it is less the cutting edge will be too thin and may break under strain of work. Lip clearance angle is the angle formed by the flank and a plane at right angles to the drill axis; the angle is normally measured at the periphery of the drill. To make sure that the main cutting edges can enter into the material, the clearance faces slope backwards in a curve. The clearance angle is measured at the face edge, must amount to 5° up to 8°. Point angle is the included angle of the cone formed by the lips. A machine feed provides the axial force that drives the twist drill into the workpiece to form the desired hole. Fig. 2.20 shows the various hand drills and their operations. To commence cutting, a little depression is made at the center of the hole to be drilled using a punch. This is to facilitate the gripping of the workpiece by the cutting edge.

Fig. 2.20 Types of hand drilling machine

2.10 Reamer The reamer is used to produce a hole of accurate dimension and good finish after drilling operation has been performed. Common hand reamer is shown in Fig. 2.21. The metal removal is usually in the order of 100 to 150 micron for rough reaming and 5 to 20 micron for fine reaming.


Fig. 2.21: A common hand reamer

Types of reamers The common types of reamers are (i) Hand reamer, (ii) Machine reamers, (iii) Parallel reamer, (iv) Taper reamer, (v) Reamers with straight flutes, (vi) Reamers with spiral flutes, (vii) Adjustable reamer, (viii) Expanding reamer. The Hand reamer is operated or rotated by hand to finish holes. The Machine reamer is designed for slow speeds for use on drill presses, lathes, vertical milling machines etc. The Taper reamer is widely used for finishing taper holes smoothly and accurately. It is also used to provide a taper to a drilled hole when a taper pin is to be used. It is generally performed with either straight or spiral flutes. It has spaces ground into the cutting edges or teeth to prevent overloading the entire length of each tooth of the reamer. These spaces are staggered on the various teeth to help in stock removal. The spiral fluted reamer has a shearing action that eliminates chatter and is generally preferred. Large size taper reamers are made in both roughing and finishing types. When a large amount of stock is to be removed, a roughing reamer is generally used. The finishing reamer is commonly employed to control size and smooth the hole. Spiral fluted reamer performs greater shearing action than one with straight flute. During reaming operations, the job should be properly supported and rigidly held. A stock wrench of appropriate size for holding the reamer is used. The reamer must be kept in its correct position relative to the job. It must be


run slowly and excessive feed must be avoided. It should always be turned in the cutting direction. Sufficient amount of cutting fluid should also be employed. When removing the reamer, it must be turned in the cutting direction. Reamers with blunt or chipped edges must not be used.

2.11 Taps and Die TAPS Taps are used for production of internal threads of either left or right hand kind in nuts or pre-drilled holes. Tap looks like a bolt with flutes cut along the side to provide the cutting edges. It is made of hardened piece of carbon or alloy steel. To provide cutting edges, grooves known as flutes are ground along the threaded portion of the tap so that the thread is divided into rows of teeth. The number of flutes on tap varies from two to eight whereas four being the most common. The flutes acts as channels to carry away the chips formed during tapping or threads cutting. Fig. 2.22 shows the nomenclature of a typical tap. For hand tapping, it comes in three sets namely (1) taper tap (2) plug tap (3) bottoming tap as shown in Fig. 2.23. For thread cutting, the tapper tap, tapered off for 8 or 10 threads, is the starting piece because it gives straight and more gradual cutting action on the thread. No other tap is usually needed if the job is just a through hole. The intermediate tap usually has two or three threads chamfered. The second tap can finish a through hole. For blind holes, taper, plug, and bottoming taps should all be used in the order named. The plug tap has a full-sized un-tapered thread to the end and is the main finishing tap. In the case of the blind hole, a plug tap must be used. Other taps are available and named according to the kind of thread they cut such as hand taps, machine taps, pipe taps, solid taps, straight and bend shank taps. Where a hole is to be tapped, the pre-drilled hole much be of such a size as to provide the necessary metal for the threads. Such a hole is referred to as a tap size hole. , The threads are cut by grinding to give a high class finish.


Fig. 2.22 Nomenclature of a tap

Fig. 2.23 Types of hand taps

Tapping is the process of cutting internal threads into a drilled hole by using a tap. To commence tapping the drilled hole should have a diameter smaller than the outsider diameter of the thread on the tap. The tapping size (hole to be drilled) is given mathematically by the equation:

After obtaining the tapping size, the taper tap is then fixed in the tap wrench and screwed in the hole. Before tapping, the tap position should stand square with the tap surface of the work. When this squareness is achieved, the cutting starts. After about half turn, the tap turning is reversed slightly to clear the threads. Lubrication is usually needed for good finish of the thread.


Die Die is used for cutting external threads on bars or tubes. It consist of a nut having portions of its thread circumference cut away and shaped to provide cutting edges to the remaining portions of the threads. It is normally screwed on to the bar or pipe the thread is to be made. Adjustable type is the most common and it can be made to cut either slightly undersize or oversize. The die stock is used to hold the die when performing hand threading. Self-opening dies and collapsible taps are used to eliminate back-tracking of the tool and to save time. Some common types of dies are solid die nut, circular die and split die. The solid die nut is mostly implored to rectify damage and knocks to existing screws such as on studs or bolts. It has about five or more cutting edges and there is no means for adjustment. The circular die can cut threads on a material in one pass. It permits some degree of adjustment in the size that the die will cut. The adjustment is done by opening and closing of the die with the help of screws in the stocks. The split die has two dies or jaws that are clamped together in the stock by a screwed ring. These dies slide and can be adjusted by the set screw on the stock. The adjustment permits the dies to be set a small amount open while the first cut is taken down a bar and closed into the correct sizes for the final finishing cut. Dieing is the process of cutting external threads on the round stems of materials such as studs, bolts and pipes by using a die and stock. Before dieing, the work is cleaned and its end slightly chamfered for easy entry into the die. The work is then held by a vice or other suitable clamping device.the desired die is selected and held in a stock. Care is taken to ensure that the face of the die is square with workpiece axis. The stock is now rotated with both hands and at the same time the die is pressed on to the end of the bar to commence threading. As cutting starts, the die is rotated back and forth in a similar manner as for tapping. Cutting oil is usually needed for easy dieing process. When the desired thread length is reached, the stock screw is then tightened and threading process repeated one more time or until correct depth of thread is obtained. However, a solid die completes the dieing process in one operation.


Major disadvantage of solid die is that it does not give satisfactory results, particularly in large work.


Hand Shears or Snips

Hand shears or snips look like a pair of scissors and are used as such to cut thin soft metal sheets to size and shape. They can be used to make circular or straight cuts. Fig. 2.24 shows the types of hand shears or snips. Three common types are the Straight hand shear, Universal shear and Curved hand shear. The straight hand shear is for general purpose cutting, making a straight line or to trim the edges of a workpiece. The universal shear can, in addition to making a straight cut, perform internal and external cutting of contours. The curved hand shear is mainly used for cutting circular or irregular curved shapes. They find application mostly in the sheet metal workshop.

Fig. 2.24 Types of hand shears or snips 2.13 Punches

Punches are used primarily for marking lines in the workshops. The tool has two ends, one end is ground to an angle and the other end is the head chamfered to prevent it from developing rough edges. Often the body is knurled to facilitate gripping. It is made from 1 cm octagonal cast steel about 10 cm long. Punches in common use are the center punch and prick punch as


shown in Fig. 2.25. Other types are solid punch and hollow punch found mostly in sheet metal shop.

Fig. 2.25 Typical prick and centre punch The center punch is used to locate center of indentation mark for drilling process and to mark bend lines on workpiece. The tip is 60 or 90 o. The prick punch is used for making indentation marks on layout lines in order to make them last longer or for marking points for dividers and trammel points. The angle of prick is generally ground to 30° or 40°. Solid punch is used for punching small holes in thin metal sheets while the hollow punch can punch open a hole up to 10 mm or above from metal sheets. 2.14 Powered Hand tools

Powered hand tools are tools operated by a source other than manual operation. They are driven by air, electrical or mechanical means. Some of the hand powered tools discussed in this book are Pneumatic and electrical drill, Sanders, Jigsaw and Circular saw , power wrench or impact wrench, Pneumatic Nailing and Stapling machine, and Die Grinder.

(A) Hand powered drill A drill or drill motor is a tool fitted with a rotating cutting tool, usually a drill bit, for drilling holes in various materials. The cutting tool is gripped by a chuck at one end of the drill and rotated while pressed against the target material. The tip of the cutting tool does the work of cutting into the target material. Drills are commonly used in woodworking and metalworking. There are many varieties of hand-powered drills, such as pistol grip (corded) drill,


hammer drill and cordless drill. Fig. 2.25 Shows hand powered drills while Fig 2.26 shows parts of a power drill.

Fig. 2.25 Hand powered drills

Fig. 2.26 Pistol-grip (corded) drill

Hammer drill is similar to a standard electric drill, except that it is provided with a hammer action for drilling very hard surfaces. The hammer action may be engaged or disengaged as required. The pulsing (hammering) action is measured in Blows Per Minute (BPM) with 10,000 or more BPMs being common. A typical application for a hammer drill is installing electrical boxes, conduit straps or shelves in concrete. Other variants are the rotary/pneumatic hammer drill that accelerates the bit only and the cordless drills. A typical application for a rotary hammer drill is boring large holes for lag bolts in foundations, or installing large lead anchors in concrete for

handrails or benches. A cordless drill is an electric drill which uses rechargeable batteries. They are available in the hammer drill configuration and most have a clutch, which aids in driving screws into various substrates while not damaging them. Also available are right angle drills, which allow a worker to drive screws in a tight space. Modern types allow drilling up to 25 mm diameter holes. Drills of 7.2V, 24V, 28V, and 36V battery packs are available. Increased voltage produces increased torque in the tool.

(B) Belt Sander Belt sander is a machine used to sand down wood and other materials for finishing purposes. It consists of an electrical motor that turns a pair of drums on which a seamless loop of sandpaper is mounted as shown in Fig. 2.27.

Fig. 2.27 Schematic and Pictorial representation of Belt sanders

Belt sanders can be either hand-held, where the sander is moved over the material, or stationary (fixed), where the material is moved to the sanding belt. Belt sanders can have a very aggressive action on wood and are normally used only for the beginning stages of the sanding process, or used to rapidly remove material. Sometimes they are also used for removing paints or finishes from wood. Fitted with fine grit sand paper, a belt sander can be used to assure a completely smooth surface.


Belt sanders vary in size from the small hand-held unit (Fig. 2.27) to units that can sand a full 4-by-8 foot sheet of plywood in a manufacturing plant. Some can be as tall as 1.2 m and 70 cm long. However for health reasons, they employ dust collection system in their operation.


Jigsaw (power tool)

Jigsaw is a tool used for cutting arbitrary curves, such as stenciled designs or other custom shapes, into a piece of wood, metal, or other material ( Fig.2.28(b)) Other saws like circular saw (Fig. 2.28(a)), typically cut in straight lines but jigsaw can cut in artistic manner. Although a jigsaw can be used to cut arbitrary patterns, making a straight cut freehand is difficult even with a guide.Traditional jigsaws are hand saws, consisting of a handle attached to a small, thin blade. Modern jigsaws are powered by electric motor and a reciprocating saw blade. A Jigsaw may also be referred to, by some manufacturers, as a "bayonet saw".


Fig. 2.28: Hand Power saws


Power or Impact Wrench

Power or Impact wrench (also known as an impactor, air wrench, air gun, rattle gun, torque gun) is a socket wrench power tool designed to deliver high torque output with minimal exertion by the user, by storing energy in a rotating mass, then delivering it suddenly to the output shaft. Compressed air is the most common power source for impact wrenches, although electrical or hydraulic power is also used. Electric impact wrenches are either 12-volt or 24volt DC-powered. Recently, cordless electric impact wrenches have become common, although typically their power outputs are significantly lower than


corded electric or air-powered equivalents. Impact wrenches are one of the most commonly used air tools, and are found in virtually every mechanic shop. They are made in different sizes and shapes with inline grip (the user holds the tool like a screwdriver with the output on the end) or pistol grip (the user holds a handle which is at right angles to the output) forms.



Nail gun, or Nailer is a type of tool used in the carpentry shop to drive nails into wood or some other kind of material. It is usually driven by electromagnetism, compressed air (pneumatic), highly flammable gases such as butane or propane, or, for power-actuated tools, a small explosive charge. Nail guns have in many ways replaced hammers as tools of choice among builders. Nailguns use fasteners mounted in long strips or collated in a paper or plastic carrier, depending on the design of the nailgun. Some full head nail guns, especially those used for pallet making and roofing, use long plastic or wire collated coils. Some strip nailers use a clipped head so the nails can be placed closer together, which necessitates less frequent reloading. Nail guns vary in the length and gauge (thickness) of nails they can drive. Fig. 2.29 shows a kind of Pneumatic Nailing and Stapling Machine.

Fig. 2.29 Pneumatic Nailing and Stapling Machine


A variation on the nailgun is the palmnailer which is a lightweight handheld pneumatic nailer that straps to the hand. It is convenient for working in tight spaces where a conventional nailer will not fit and is flexible enough to drive either short nails into metal straps or six inch nails into timber. By repeated hammer action (of around 40 hits per second) the fastener is driven into the material by a more constant palm pressure (as opposed to a conventional nailgun which drives the nail against the inertia of the nailgun).


Die grinder

Die grinder is a handheld power tool used to grind material, such as metal, plastic, or wood (Fig. 2.30). They are either electrically or pneumatic powered and most have multiple speed setting; the most powerful can exceed 30,000 RPM (unloaded). The cutting is done with a burr, bonded abrasive or coated abrasive. The cutter is usually held in a collet to allow for quick changes in cutters. They are commonly used for engraving, cylinder head porting, and general shaping of a part.

Fig. 2.30 Die grinders


QUESTIONS 1. Make a sketch of a twist drill with a taper shank and label the parts. What part of the drill is used for cutting? 2. How are files classified? 3. What do you understand by tapping? What tool is used for internal threads in a blind hole? 4. What is the purpose of a bottoming tap and on what type of work is it used? 5. Distinguish with neat sketches the various types of scrappers. 6. With the help of a well labeled sketch discuss the function of a twist drill. 7. Discuss the procedure for cutting external threads on a pipe. 8. Explain the following tools (i) Drill (ii) Reamer (iii) Taps (iv) Die and die stock. 9. Differentiate between cold chisel and other types of chisels.


REFERENCES Singh R, (2006). Introduction to Basic Manufacturing Processes and Workshop Technology. New Age International (P) Ltd, New Delhi. Gupta, H. N., et al. (2009). Manufacturing Processes. New Age International (P) Ltd, New Delhi. Khurmi, R. S. and Gupta J. K. (1981). A Textbook of Workshop Technology (Manufacturing Processes). Nirja Construction & Development Co, New Delhi. Ostwald, P. F. and Muñoz, J. (1997) Manufacturing Processes and Systems. 9th ed. John Wiley & Sons, Singapore. Monroe, T (1996). Engine builder's handbook. HPBooks, p. 27. Benford, T (2006). Garage and Workshop Gear Guide. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing, p. 87.





Datums are the reference positions (points, lines or edges) from which all dimensions are taken and also all measurements are made. They depend on the shape of the workpiece. For a plane surface, two datums that are mutually perpendicular to each other are used to position a point. The datum for cylindrical and symmetrical work is its centre line, and the features on the end of a circular component have a point datum. Consider the following diagrams and also take note that all the dimensions in each direction originate from a face (edge), a line or a point. Figure 3.1 shows a workpiece where the datum is a point; Fig. 3.2 shows a workpiece where both datums are edges, and Fig. 3.3 shows a workpiece where both datums are centre lines.

Fig. 3.3: Line datum

The same edges, lines or points as those on the drawings are normally used when marking out workpieces. The datums must be well cleaned of dirt, grease, rust or any protective coating before they are used in marking out.


Marking-out Equipment

Marking out is the scratching of lines or drawing on metals so as to provide guidelines for a workman to work on or the transferring of drawing dimensions to the workpiece. Marking-out equipment are the tools used for making such lines. There are a number of different marking-out tools in use which include the following:

3.2.1 Scriber A scriber is used to scribe (scratch) lines on metal surfaces. It is made of hardened and tempered steels with each end ground to a very fine point which must always be sharp so as to make clear lines. An oil stone can be used to keep the scribing point needle sharp. This is shown in Figure 3.4

Fig. 3.4: Scriber

3.2.2 Punches Punches are used for making permanent marks, dimples or indentations in the surface of the metal. There are dot, centre and nipple punches and each type of punch produces a different type of dimple as shown in Fig. 3.5

Fig. 3.5 Punches: (a) dot; (b) centre punch; (c) nipple punch

The dot punch has a 60 o point or less and is used to preserve scribed lines and to provide witness marks, also for locating the legs of instruments like dividers and trammels. The centre punch has a 90o point or more. It is used to increase the diameter of a dot-punched dimple and to make larger dimples suitable for locating the point of a drill. The parallel diameter of the nipple punch makes it possible in locating the dimple accurately in the work without the need for marking out.

Fig. 3.6 shows the correct way of using dot, centre and nipple punches.

Fig. 3.6: (a) and (b) correct way to use dot and centre punches, (c) correct way to use a nipple punch.

3.2.3 Dividers and trammels Dividers are used for scribing circles and arcs. They are set to the required radius as shown in Fig. 3.7 (a).The instrument is held and turned by a peg on the bow, and the leg about which the dividers pivot is normally located in a fine centre dot mark as shown in Fig. 3.7 (b), before being used to scribe circles or arcs (Fig.3.7 (c)).


Fig. 3.7: (a), (b) and (c); using dividers to mark out a circle, (d) trammels

Trammels are used to scribe larger circles and the scribing points can be adjusted along the length of a beam (Fig. 3.7(d)).

3.2.4 Hermaphrodite Calipers These are equally known as ‗odd-legs‘ or ‗jennies‘ and they consist of a caliper leg and a straight-pointed divider leg. They are used for scribing lines parallel to the edge of a workpiece. To set a hermaphrodite caliper correctly, it is held at 90o to the work, the heel against the edge of the work and its point on the work as shown in Fig. 3.8 It has an accuracy limit within ±0.5mm when marking out.

Fig. 3.8: Odd leg calipers used to scribe a line parallel to a datum edge


3.2.5 Combination set This comprises a strong, relatively thick and hardened rule with three individual ‗heads‘ in conjunction with the rule (as shown in Fig. 3.9). The three heads are square head, protractor head and centre head.

Fig. 3.9: Combination set    The square head can both be used as a spirit level and for marking and checking 45o A protractor head also spirit-level fitted is used to mark out lines that are at any angle except 90o or 45o to the edge. The centre head or centre hook is used to mark out the centre of a circular workpiece or round bar.

3.2.6 Box Square This is used to mark out lines parallel to the axis of a cylindrical component. A box square and the way to use it is shown in Fig. 3.10


Fig. 3.10: Scribing a straight line using a box square

3.2.7 Try Square Try square is used to measure and scribe a line perpendicular to a datum edge (Fig 3.11(a) and (b)).

Fig. 3.11: (a) and (b); how to use the try square on the workpiece

3.2.8 Workshop Protractor This is used in marking out angles on workpieces. When used as a hand-held tool, it is used to guide a scriber and also serves as a work-setting device on a surface plate. This is shown in Fig. 3.12 (a) and (b).


Fig. 3.12: (a) using a workshop protractor as a hand held tool, (b) using a workshop protractor as a work setting device


Marking-out Equipment for Providing Support

3.3.1 Surface Plates/Tables Surface plates are used on the bench to provide a flat reference surface for small workpieces. An example is shown in Fig. 3.13(a). Surface tables (Fig. 3.13(b)) do the same but are used when marking out larger workpieces. The surface plates/tables are both of heavy and rigid construction and are made of cast iron machined to various grades of accuracy. They can also be made from granite or glass but these do not possess the self-lubricating and hard-wearing properties of those from cast iron. The working surface must be carefully handled:     Clean before and after use Heavy objects must be slid gently onto the surface from the side Remove sharp corners and rough edges from the workpiece before being placed on the surface Oil the working surface if not to be used for some time.


Fig 3.13: (a) surface plate, (b) surface table

3.3.2 Angle plates Angle plates are used to position or support a workpiece perpendicularly on a surface plate so that it can be marked out accurately. They are made from cast iron and the working faces machined at 90 o to each other. Work set up for marking out using angle plate is as shown in Figure 3.14. Angle plates can be plain or adjustable.

Fig 3.14: Work positioned on an angle plate

3.3.3 Parallels Parallels can be used to raise workpieces off from the reference surface and also to support workpieces of irregular shapes on a surface plate. This is shown in Fig. 3.15. They are from finish-grounded hardened steel and are


made in matching pairs. A variety of sizes should be made available so as to enable all types of workpieces to be set up.

Fig. 3.15 Parallels on surface plate

3.3.4 Clamps Clamps are used to clamp workpieces together or to securely fix a workpiece to the face of an angle plate. A toolmaker‘s clamp or ‗G‘ clamp can be used depending on the surfaces to be clamped (Fig 3.16 (a) and (b)). A toolmaker‘s clamp is used for clamping parallel surfaces only, while the ‗G‘ clamp can clamp greater thicknesses and also non-parallel surfaces.

Fig 3.16: (a) Toolmaker’s clamp, (b) ‘G’ clamp

3.3.5 Jacks and Wedges These can be used for supporting heavy, irregular and awkward in shape workpieces. This is shown in Fig. 3.17.


Fig 3.17: (a) Wedge, (b) Jack used to support

3.3.6 Marking Dye The surfaces of dull metals can be sprayed or brushed with a coloured dye before marking out. The dye has to be quick drying and be able to provide a good contrast so that the scribed lines can be easily seen.

3.3.7 Vee Blocks Vee blocks are used for holding circular work (or shaft) on surface plates for marking out or drilling on its sides or ends. Rectangular work can be supported by one corner with a vee block so that the sides of the work are held at 45o. They are supplied in matched pairs together with a clamp so as to secure the work in position. This is shown in Fig.3.18.

Fig 3.18: A pair of vee blocks and their clamp



Examples of Marking-out Example 3.1

Fig. 3.19: Component 3.1 (all dimensions in mm)

Fig 3.20: The operations


The procedure for marking out Component 3.1 in example 3.1 is as follows: 1. Using file and try square, prepare datum faces A and B. 2. Having set odd leg callipers at 10mm, scri e a hole‘s centre line from face A. 3. The odd leg callipers set at 15mm, scri e Ø6 hole‘s centre line from face B. Set the divider to a 6mm diameter hole and with one leg at the intersection of the centre lines, scribe a circle. 4. Scri e Ø10 hole‘s centre line from face B with odd leg callipers set at 40mm. Set the divider to a 10mm diameter hole and with one leg at the intersection of the centre lines, scribe a circle. 5. The odd leg callipers set at 63mm (i.e. 75 ˗ 12), scri e the radius‘ centre line from face B. 6. The odd leg callipers set at 18mm (i.e. 30 ˗ 12), scri e a centre line. 7. Set one of the divider‘s legs at dot-punched intersection of the centre lines and scribe R12 to complete the marking out.

Example 3.2

Fig 3.21 Component 3.2


Fig 3.21: The operations

Using a plate of correct thickness, the actual length and angled faces can be marked out thus: 1. Determine the datum point using a steel rule to measure from two adjacent edges and dot punch the datum point. 2. With protractor set at required angle, scribe line through the datum point. 3. For second angle, reset the protractor and scribe a line through the datum point. With the protractor at the same setting, scribe the other two lines parallel to the first one. 4. With the dividers located in datum centre dot and set at correct distances, mark positions along scribed line. 5. Complete the marking out by resetting the protractor and scribing lines through marked positions.


Example 3.3

Fig 3.22: Component 3.3

Fig 3.23: The operations

Assuming a flat metal of correct thickness, component 3.3 can be marked out using the following operations: 1. Use the edge of a precision steel rule to scribe a centre line along the middle of the cleaned plate. 2. Step off the hole centre distance of 75mm with dividers set at this distance and strike the arcs. 3. Dot punch the intersections of the centre line and the arcs. 4. Scribe the 18mm diameter hole with the dividers set to 9mm. 5. With the dividers set to 18mm, strike the smaller end radius using the same centre dot as in (4). 6. With the dividers set to 12.5mm, scribe in the 25mm diameter hole using the other centre dot. 7. With the dividers set to 25mm, strike the larger end radius using the same centre dot as in (6).

8. Use the steel rule to guide the scriber, and scribe tangential lines to join the 18mm and 25mm end radii. 9. Dot-punch the outline to preserve it. 10. Centre punch to enlarge the dot-punched hole centres, thus completing the marking out.


QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. List the marking out tools for making lines. Why are datums used when marking out? Explain the uses of a set of trammels. Explain the uses of odd-leg callipers. Name the heads of a combination set and their uses. When marking out, why are surface plates and tables used? With the aid of sketches, show how a box square can be used and its purpose. 8. Describe the difference between a centre punch and a dot punch and explain their uses. 9. When will it be necessary to use a marking dye? 10. Explain the use of vee block when marking out.


REFERENCES 1. Black, B. J. (2004), ‗Workshop Processes, Practices and Materials‘, 3rd Edition, Elsevier, Burlington, USA. 2. Timings, R.L. (2002), ‗Engineering Fundamentals‘, 1st Edition, Elsevier, Woburn. 3. Salmon, D and P. Powdrill (2002), ‗Mechanical Engineering Level 2 NVQ‘, 1st Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Woburn. 4. Brink, McNamara, Rademeyer and Laidlaw (2008), ‗FCS Engineering Fa rication and Boilermaking L4‘, 1st Edition, Pearson Education South Africa (Pty) Ltd, Capetown. 5. Timings, R. (2008), ‗Fa rication and Welding Engineering‘, 1st Edition, Elsevier, Burlington, USA.




Meaning and Gauge Sizes of Sheet Metals

Sheet metal is simply metal formed into thin and flat pieces; i.e. metal in sheet form. Metal sheets are produced by pressing metal forms (ingots and billets) between until the desired thickness is achieved. It is one of the fundamental forms used in metalworking, and can be cut and bent into a variety of different shapes. Countless everyday objects are constructed of the material. Sheet metal has applications in car bodies, airplane wings, medical tables, roofs for building and many other things. Thicknesses can vary significantly, ranging generally from 1.5 mm to about 10 mm; although extremely thin pieces of sheet metal would be considered to be foil or leaf, and pieces thicker than 1/4 inch (0.25″) or 6.4 mm can be considered plate. Sheet metal is generally produced in sheets less than 6mm and is available as flat pieces or as strip in coils. It is characterized by its thickness or gauge of the metal. Just like the diameter of wires the thickness of sheet metals is designated by gauge numbers, or by fractions (decimal numbers) of an inch. The Sheet metal and wire gauges shown in Figure 4.1 are used to check the diameter of wires or thickness of sheet metals.

Figure 4.1: Sheet metal/wire gauges; (a) BSWG, (b) ASWG


The sheet metal/wire gauge has slots which correspond to the different gauge or width sizes of sheet metals or wires. On one side of the gauge is stamped the gauge number; on the opposite side is stamped the decimal equivalent of the gauge number. The Imperial Standard Wire Gauge (abbreviated SWG) is the most commonly used wire gauge. Table 4.1 shows some gauge sizes (3 – 24 only are shown) and their corresponding thicknesses in the SWG and American Standard Wire Gauge. Note that the sheet thickness is inversely proportional to the gauge number; that is, the higher the gauge number, the thinner is the metal. Whenever sheet metals or wires are ordered, it is necessary to specify the decimal thickness of the material in inches (or the millimeter equivalent), and give the name of the gauge and the gauge number, if any. [NB: 1 inch = 2.54 cm = 25.4 mm].

Table 4.1: Typical sheet and wire gauge sizes
Imperial (British) Standard Wire Gauge (SWG) Gauge Number 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Decimal equivalent (inch) 0.2520 0.2320 0.2120 0.1920 0.1760 0.1600 0.1440 0.1280 0.1160 0.1040 0.0920 0.0800 0.0720 0.0640 0.0560 0.0480 0.0400 0.0360 0.0320 0.0280 0.0240 0.0220 Approximate size in millimeters 6.4 6.0 5.4 4.9 4.5 4.1 3.7 3.3 3.0 2.6 2.3 2.0 1.83 1.63 1.42 1.22 1.02 0.91 0.81 0.71 0.61 0.56 American Standard Wire Gauge (or the Brown & Sharpe Gauge) [not used for iron, steel & zinc sheets] Decimal equivalent (inch) 0.2294 0.2043 0.1819 0.1620 0.1443 0.1285 0.1144 0.1019 0.0907 0.0808 0.0720 0.0641 0.0571 0.0508 0.0453 0.0403 0.0359 0.0320 0.0285 0.0253 0.0226 0.0201 Approximate size in millimeters 5.8 5.2 4.6 4.1 3.7 3.3 2.9 2.6 2.3 2.1 1.83 1.63 1.45 1.30 1.15 1.02 0.91 0.81 0.72 0.64 0.57 0.51


4.1.1 Metals Used in Sheet Form There are many different metals that can be made into sheet metal. Aluminium, brass, copper, cold rolled steel, mild steel, tin, nickel and titanium are just a few examples of metal that can be made into sheet metal. The type of sheet metal most commonly used in sheet metalwork is called tinplate. [Traditionally, most people still regard all sheet metals as tinplate or simply tin. Even the workroom for cutting and shaping sheet metal is still called a tin shop, and the sheet metalworker, a tin man. In fact, some tools for working sheet metal have traditionally retained their names such as tin snips]. However, tinplate is just one of the metals used in sheet metalwork. It is made from mild steel with low carbon content which has been rolled into thin sheets and coated with liquid tin. Most of the tinned (canned) food we buy from the market is stored in tinplate containers. The following metals generally used in sheet metalwork are worth describing: a) Black iron sheet or uncoated sheet: - this metal corrodes rapidly, and its use is therefore restricted to articles that are to be painted or enameled, e.g. stove pipes, tanks and pans. b) Tinplate: - as noted earlier, it is a steel sheet coated with pure tin. c) Terneplate: - this is a steel sheet coated with a mixture of molten tin and lead (and sometimes antimony). Because of the poisonous nature of lead, terneplate is not recommended for containers that are meant to hold foods. d) Galvanized iron sheets: - it is soft steel coated with molten zinc, which improves the surface appearance and resists corrosion. The zinc coating also facilitates soldering. They are used extensively in many fabricated products. e) Stainless steel plate: - it is alloyed steel with ability to resist corrosion without additional surface coating. One notable example is the so-called 18/8 stainless steel which contains 18% Cr and 8% Ni. Stainless steel sheets are widely used in applications where great strength and corrosion resistance are important. f) Aluminium sheets: - they are sheets of wrought aluminium alloys with high strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance qualities; and can be easily fabricated.



Sheet Metalwork

Sheet metalwork is the process of making articles with sheets of metal. It is the aspect of metalwork that deals with the making and installation of objects of sheet metal. Sheet metalwork requires a thorough knowledge of projective geometry, especially as it relates to the development of surfaces. The work demands some training and skill in algebra, trigonometry, geometry, physical science, mechanical drawing and blueprint reading, and general shop processes. The laying out of pattern and cutting of metal sheets to correct sizes and shapes requires such knowledge. Various operations are performed in a sheet metal shop, viz.: marking out, cutting or shearing, bending and folding, seam making, riveting, etc. These operations require space which can be provided by a good plant/facility layout. Plant or facility layout is the physical arrangement of buildings, machinery, equipment, work places and other production facilities to accomplish the most efficient utilization of men, machines and materials. A good plant layout, by implication, also ensures efficient management of money and higher productivity. Figure 4.2 shows a typical layout of a sheet metal shop.
10 m

Painting room




5m 3 5 6 Supervisor room





Legend: 1 – Shearing machine 2 – Bending machine 3 – Circle cutting machine 4 – Buffing and polishing machine 5 to 8 – Workbenches 9 – Inspection table

Figure 4.2: Typical layout of a sheet metal shop


4.2.1 Products of Sheet Metalwork Objects of sheet metalwork are found everywhere around us. Street and road signs, washing and drying machine cabinets, television and file cabinets, computer cases, desks and mailboxes are common sheet metal products. Metal doors and gates and sheet metal parts for buses, trawlers, boats and ships, aircraft and space vehicles all came as a result of sheet metalwork. Galvanized iron sheet is used extensively to fabricate products such as pans, buckets, ovens/furnaces, heating ducts, cabinets, etc. Copper sheets are used for water pipe, roofing, gutters and other parts of buildings. Aluminium sheets are used in the manufacture of refrigerator trays, windows, aircraft bodies, and as roofing material. Stainless steel sheet is widely used in constructing streamlined trains, food handling equipment, kitchen wares, etc. Beverage cans, water tanks, buckets, cooking pots, kettles, etc. are made of tinplate.

4.2.2 Sheet Metalworkers A sheet metalworker is a person who works primarily with sheet metal. The heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, transportation, construction, and appliance industries all have need for skilled sheet metalworkers. Auto body repair requires workers with ability to fashion and reshape sheet metal parts – the so-called panel beaters. The Bureau of Labour Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labour described sheet metalworkers and their work as follows: ―Sheet metal workers make, install, and maintain heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HAVC) duct systems; roofs; siding; rain gutters; downspouts; skylights; restaurant equipment; outdoor signs; railroad cars; tailgates; customized precision equipment; and many other products made from metal sheets. They also may work with fiberglass and plastic materials. Although some workers specialize in fabrication, installation, or maintenance, most do all three jobs. Sheet metal workers do both construction-related work and mass production of sheet metal products in manufacturing.


“Sheet metal workers first study plans and specifications to determine the kind and quantity of materials they will need. They then measure, cut, bend, shape, and fasten pieces of sheet metal to make ductwork, countertops, and other custom products. In an increasing number of shops, sheet metal workers use computerized metalworking equipment. This enables them to perform their tasks more quickly and to experiment with different layouts to find the one that wastes the least material. They cut, drill, and form parts with computer-controlled saws, lasers, shears, and presses. In shops without computerized equipment, and for products that cannot be made on such equipment, sheet metal workers make the required calculations and use tapes, rulers, and other measuring devices for layout work. They then cut or stamp the parts on machine tools. “Before assembling pieces, sheet metal workers check each part for accuracy using measuring instruments such as calipers and micrometers and, if necessary, finish pieces using hand, rotary, or squaring shears and hacksaws. After inspecting the pieces, workers fasten seams and joints together with welds, bolts, cement, rivets, solder, specially formed sheet metal drive clips, or other connecting devices. They then take the parts to the construction site, where they further assemble the pieces as they install them. These workers install ducts, pipes, and tubes by joining them end to end and hanging them with metal hangers secured to a ceiling or a wall. They also use shears, hammers, punches, and drills to make parts at the worksite or to alter parts made in the shop…‖


Production of Sheet Metal Products

Sheet metalwork involves various operations, among which are: marking-out, cutting, notching, bending, riveting, soldering, edge folding (hem making), seam making, hollowing or blocking, etc. Marking out or scribing is the scratching of lines (straight lines, arcs, circles and irregular curves) on the surface of a sheet metal. Before making out, a paper or metal pattern of the object is prepared; and making out operation transfers the shape and outlines of


the pattern onto the sheet metal. The tools and techniques employed in marking out are discussed in Chapter Three. We shall be concerned here with: 1) Cutting and notching, 2) Bending and/or folding, 3) Shaping, namely; (i) making of hems and seams, (ii) Hollowing or blocking 4.3.1 Cutting Sheet Metal Sheet metal is cut by shearing it between hardened blades just the same way a piece of paper or cloth is cut by means of a pair of scissors. Cutting is done after marking out properly. The type of cutting tool employed depends on the thickness and strength of the sheet metal. Consequently, cutting of sheet metal can be done in various ways from hand tools called tin snips up to very large powered shears. For thin sheets (1.5 – 2.0 mm), hand snips may be used. For thick ones (4 mm upwards), the bench shear and the guillotine machine are used. Some sheet metal cutting tools are shown in Figure 4.3. Also shown are the uses of straight-cutting snips (Figure 4.4) and the offset or curve-cutting snips (Figure 4.5). Tin snips or hand shears usually have safety stops incorporated into their design to prevent the ends of the handles pinching the user‘s flesh. They also come in electric and pneumatic models to make cutting easier.

Figure 4.3: Sheet metal cutting tools; tin snips and shears


Figure 4.4: Making straight cuts with straight-cutting compound snips

Figure 4.5: Cutting curves with curved compound snip

With the advances in technology, sheet metal cutting has turned to computers for precise cutting. Most modern sheet metal cutting operations are now based either on CNC Lasers cutting or multi-tool CNC punch press. CNC, often abbreviated NC, means Computer Numerical Control. It is the use of computer software to control machine tools. It is an essential element of Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM), which comprises ComputerAided Design (CAD) and Manufacturing (CAM). CNC laser involves moving a lens assembly carrying a beam of laser light over the surface of the metal. Oxygen or nitrogen or air is fed through the same nozzle from which the laser beam exits. The metal is heated and then burnt by the laser beam, cutting the metal sheet. The quality of the edge can be mirror smooth, and a precision of around 0.1mm can be obtained. Cutting speeds on thin (1.2mm) sheet can be as high as 25m a minute. Most of the laser cutting systems use a CO 2 based laser source with a wavelength of around 10µm; some more recent systems use a YAG (yttrium, aluminium, and garnet) based laser with a wavelength of around 1µm.


Punching is performed by moving the sheet of metal between the top and bottom tools of a punch - a stamp-like tool used to punch holes into sheet metal. They come in various shapes and sizes. Figure 4.6 shows some punching tools and machines. Large diameter punches are hollow and cut a circle out of the sheet metal. The top tool (punch) mates with the bottom tool (die), cutting a simple shape (e.g. a square, circle, or hexagon) from the sheet. An area can be cut out by making several hundred small square cuts around the perimeter. A punch is less flexible than a laser for cutting compound shapes, but faster for repetitive shapes (for example, the grille of an airconditioning unit). A typical CNC punch has a choice of up to 60 tools in a "turret" that can be rotated to bring any tool to the active punching position. A modern CNC punch can take 600 blows per minute. A typical component (such as the side of a computer case) can be cut to high precision from a blank sheet in less than 15 seconds by either a punch or a laser CNC machine.

Figure 4.6: Punching tools and machines

4.3.2 Notching In order to avoid overlapping of metal where corners will come together when the metal is bent or folded, it is necessary to clip or trim the metal to provide small openings in the stretch-out or pattern of the workpiece. The openings left at the corners of seams and edges are called notches and the operation is known as notching. The notcher, Figure 4.7, is a hand-operated machine which makes a 90o cut or notch in a workpiece. It facilitates the easy cutting out of the corners of a workpiece which will become a box, pan, or tray for example. The size, type or location of notches is a function of the shape of the object to be fabricated. Common types of notches used in sheet metalwork are: square notch, straight notch, v-notch, slant notch and wire notch. Figure 4.8 shows the laying out of a square notch and a straight notch; the dashed lines designate edges which must be folded or bent to form the shape.

Figure 4.7: Tube Notcher

Figure 4.8: Laying out notches



Bending and Folding

Bending and folding are very critical processes in sheet metalwork. Put simply, bending in sheet metalwork is the process by which flat or straight lengths are caused to have curves or angles thereby forming various shapes, e.g. channels, drums, tanks, etc. Folding is, strictly speaking, bending that takes place around the edges of sheet metal to make the edges of the article smooth and safe for handling. Technically, bending is a manufacturing process by which metal can be deformed by plastically deforming the material and changing its shape. The material is stressed beyond its yield strength but below its ultimate tensile strength. There is little change to the materials surface area. Bending generally refers to deformation about one axis only. Bending of sheet metal can be performed using simple tools. It can be done over stakes, blocks of wood, pieces of angle iron, anvil or the edge of a bench top; and with the aid of bending bars, hammers/mallets, and hand groovers. Sometimes bending can be carried out using various bending machines, e.g. bar folders (Figure 4.9), rollers (Figure 4.10) and bend brakes (Figure 4.11). Commercially, bending is done using Press Brakes (Figure 4.12) - a usually hydraulic machine that can either stamp shapes out of sheet metal, or deform it over a mold. Press Brakes can normally have a capacity of 20 to 200 tons to accommodate stock from 1m to 4.5m (3 feet to 15 feet). Larger and smaller presses are used for diverse specialized applications. Programmable back gages, and multiple die sets currently available can make bending a very economical process.


4.4.1 Press Brake Forming (Bending) This is a form of bending, used for long and thin sheet metal parts. The machine that bends the metal is called a press brake. The lower part of the press contains a V shaped groove. This is called the die. The upper part of the press contains a punch that will press the sheet metal down into the v shaped die, causing it to bend. The press usually has some sort of back gauge to position depth of the bend along the workpiece. The backgauge can be computer controlled to allow the operator to make a series of bends in a component to a high degree of accuracy. Simple machines control only the backstop, more advanced machines control the position and angle of the stop, its height and the position of the two reference pegs used to locate the material. The machine can also record the exact position and pressure required for each bending operation to allow the operator to achieve a perfect 90 degree bend across a variety of operations on the part. There are several techniques (bending types), but the most common modern method is "air bending".

4.4.2 Types of Bending The principal types of bending in sheet metalwork are air bending, bottoming and coining. Other bending types in common use include: vbending, u die bending, wiping die bending, double die bending, and rotary bending. Each type is described and illustrated in the following section.



Air Bending

Air Bending is a bending process in which the punch touches the work piece and the work piece does not bottom in the lower cavity (Figure 4.13). As the punch is released, the work piece springs back a little and ends up with less bend than that on the punch (implying greater included angle). This is called spring-back or elastic recovery. The amount of spring back depends on the material, thickness, grain and temper. The spring back will usually range from 5 to 10 degrees. The same angle is usually used in both the punch and the die to minimize set-up time. The inner radius of the bend is the same as the radius on the punch. In air bending, there is no need to change any equipment or dies to obtain different bending angles because the bend angles are determined by the punch stroke. The forces required to form the parts are relatively small, but accurate control of the punch stroke is necessary to obtain the desired bend angle.

Figure 4.13: Air Bending



Bottoming is a bending process where the punch and the work piece bottom on the die (Figure 4.14). This makes for a controlled angle with very little spring back. The force required on this type of press is more than in air bending. The inner radius of the work piece should be a minimum of 1 material thickness. In bottom bending, spring-back is reduced by setting the final position of the punch such that the clearance between the punch and die


surface is less than the blank thickness. As a result, the material yields slightly and reduces the spring-back. Bottom bending requires considerably more force (about 50% to 60% more) than air bending.

Figure 4.14: Bottoming



Coining is a bending process in which the punch and the work piece bottom on the die and compressive stress is applied to the bending region to increase the amount of plastic deformation (Figure 4.15). This reduces the amount of spring-back. The inner radius of the work piece should be up to 0.75 of the material thickness.

Figure 4.15: Coining




In V-bending – shown in Figure 4.16, the clearance between punch and die is constant (equal to the thickness of sheet blank). It is used widely. The thickness of the sheet ranges from approximately 0.5 mm to 25 mm. The bend angle may be acute, 90o, or obtuse.

Figure 4.16: V-bending


U Die Bending

U-die bending or channel bending is performed when two parallel bending axes are produced in the same operation. A backing pad is used to force the sheet contacting with the punch bottom (Figure 4.17). It requires about 30% of the bending force for the pad to press the sheet contacting the punch.

Figure 4.17: U Die Bending



Wiping Die Bending

Wiping die bending is also known as flanging or edge bending. One edge of the sheet is bent to 90 while the other end is restrained by the material itself and by the force of blank-holder and pad (Figure 4.18). The flange length can be easily changed and the bend angle can be controlled by the stroke position of the punch.

Figure 4.18: Wiping Die Bending


Double Die Bending

Double die bending can be seen as two wiping operations acting on the work piece one after another, Figure 4.19. Double bending can enhance strain hardening to reduce spring-back.

Figure 4.19: Double Die Bending



Rotary Bending

Rotary bending is a bending process using a rocker instead of the punch, Figure 4.20. The advantages of rotary bending are: a) b) c) d) Needs no blank-holder Compensates for spring-back by over-bending Requires less force More than 90 degree bending angle is available.

Figure 4.20: Rotary Bending


Bend Axis and Grain Flow Direction

Wrought products such as sheet metals exhibit grain flow as a result of plastic deformation. Sheet metal is produced by rolling (deforming a material between rollers) it out of large billets and this causes a grain flow in the metal. By observing the elongation of the grains in the metal, the working or rolling direction should be apparent. The working direction of a rolled plate is known as the longitudinal face. Figure 4.21a shows the direction of grain flow due to rolling. Before bending, it is essential to determine the direction of grain flow because if the bend axis is parallel to it, cracking may take place along the bend (Figure 4.21b). The bend axis is an imaginary line in the metal around which bending or folding takes place. It is along this line that the metal will eventually crack if the deformation is so severe.


When bends are at right angles to each other, as in the bracket in Figure 4.22, the developed shape should be marked out at 45 o to the edge of the metal strip.

Figure 4.21: Effect of bending on grain flow direction

Figure 4.22: Marking out to ensure that no bend axis is along the grain flow direction

4.5 Other Shaping Operations 4.5.1 Making of Hems [Edge Folding and Seams] The edges of sheet metal articles are naturally thin and weak. They are also sharp and dangerous to handle. Imagine using an empty corned-beef can whose edges are sharp as a cup. Folding of the edges of sheet metal objects is


done to take care of these problems. Folded edges are of three common types, namely: single hem, double hem and wired edge. Figure 4.23(a, b) shows the single and double hems. The first step in the making of a wired edge is shown in Figure 4.23(c) and the final form is shown in Figure 4.24. Hems, seams and wired edges are made to stiffen the edges of sheet metal articles, remove the rough or sharp edges and also make them have a beautiful look. A hem is an edge or border made by folding with the aim of stiffening the sheet metal and removing sharpness of the edges. The single hem is made by folding or turning the edge over to make it smooth and stiff. This operation is normally done in the bar folder. Alternatively, it may be done by using either a hatchet stake and mallet or a vise and mallet depending on the size of the hem. The double hem is a single hem folded again i.e. the edge is folded twice. A wired edge is a metal edge which has been folded round with a thin wire inside the fold to give extra strength, safety and good appearance to the metal edge. It is made by first making an open fold (Figure 4.23c). The wire is then inserted in the open fold, and the fold is finished or closed up.

Figure 4.23: Types of folded edge

4.5.2 Making of Seams A seam is formed where two pieces or edges of sheet metal are joined. It is a joint made by fastening two edges together. There are many types of seams as there are methods of making them. In any case, the type of seam is a function of the thickness of metal and the purpose for which the object is to be used. The following types of seams are in common use. (a) Lap seam: - the simplest type of seam where one edge overlaps the other edge and they are soldered or riveted. This type of seam is generally used on flat or cylindrical work such as boxes and cylinders. Figure 4.22 shows a cylindrical can where this type of seam and a wired edge are used.


Figure 4.24: Lap seam and wired edge

(b) (c)



Grooved seam: - a seam made by hooking two single hems together and then locking them. Single seam: - a seam made by gradually bending the edge of the bottom of a container, for example, over the edge of the body. It is used to join bottoms to the bodies of vertical containers of various shapes such as cylindrical, square or rectangular shaped vessels. Double seam: - is actually a single seam which is bent up against the body of the container. The bottom of the cylinder shown in Figure 4.24 can be attached to the cylinder this way. The double seam is used to connect the parts of a container for an application that requires an exceptionally strong joint. Like the single seam, the double seam is used on cylindrical, square or rectangular shaped vessels Flanged or burred bottom seam: - a seam consisting of a narrow flange or collar which may be joined to the outside or inside of a vessel by soldering. The flange on cylindrical jobs is often referred to as a burr and the process of making it is known as burring, and it is done using a burring machine. This type seam of seam is used to join the bottom of a container to its body. The flange could be square, rectangular or cylindrical depending on the shape of the container. The bottom of beverage cans can be fixed by this method.



Dovetail seam: - consists of narrow strips of metal formed by slitting the end of a pipe or collar/flange, and bent in such a manner that they form a joint with another pipe or flat plate. It is used to join sections such as one pipe to another pipe or a flat plate to a pipe. This seam can also join square as well as cylindrical objects.

4.5.3 Hollowing or Blocking This is the process of beating sheet metal into a desired shape such as bowl or sauce pan lid; usually on a hollowing block made of wood, Figure 4.25a. The work-piece is placed on top of the hollowing block over a suitable hole and hammered with a bossing mallet or hollowing hammer, as shown in Figure 4.25b. The metal is normally beaten down in concentric circles from the edge to the centre with the result that the metal thins down towards the centre. So, the work should be annealed after each completed set of circles, and the process repeated until the desired shape is obtained. In order to avoid forming crinkles or wrinkles at the edge, the hammering should be done with caution. The hollowing or blocking process may also be performed on a sand bag, as shown in Figure 4.25c. The major advantage of using sand bag is that the top is indentation free.

Figure 4.25: Hollowing or blocking process


4.6 Design and Mathematics of Sheet Metalwork 4.6.1 Shape Development [Pattern-making] Sheet materials like cloth, leather or sheet metal require the use of a pattern to make objects from them. For example, a tailor makes a pattern of a shirt before he sews it; and to make metal box, one needs to make a pattern of it. The pattern is a flat piece of paper or sheet metal cut to shape (according to the outlines drawn or traced on it) so that when folded, it becomes the object intended. The pattern is often referred to as the development or stretch-out of the object, that is, what the article looks like when stretched out or flattened out. In developing the pattern, provision is made for the lengths that will be required for bending, folding or joining as the object is formed into shape. It is therefore necessary to consider the thickness of the sheet metal during laying out (marking out) and before bending. If the metal sheet is very thin, the effect of metal thickness may be ignored; but the thickness must be included in the calculation for objects made of thicker materials. As a general rule, the inside bend radius should not be less than 1.5 times the thickness (see bend allowance calculations). Shape development is the making of patterns of various shapes and dimensions. A sheet metalworker must know how to make patterns of any article he wants to produce. This is where knowledge of geometry and engineering drafting/drawing becomes relevant. The developments or patterns of some shapes (3D objects) are shown in Figure 4.26.


Figure 4.26: Developments of some shapes for sheet metalwork

The pattern may be drawn on paper before it is transferred to the sheet metal or it may be laid out straight on the metal. There are two methods of transferring a paper pattern to the sheet metal: (a) By using carbon paper; (b) By making punch marks of the outlines on the metal through the paper spread out on it, and then connecting the punch mark by means of a pencil or scriber. Where a pattern is to be used many times, it is good reason to make it of metal so that it can last. Such a metal pattern is called template or master pattern.

4.6.2 Bend Allowance In dressmaking, tailors usually add extra lengths called allowances to the actual measurements of different parts of our body. This is necessary to help them join or fold the cloth pattern together without reducing the proposed


size of our clothes. This practice is even more necessary in sheet metalwork because sheet metals are thicker and more rigid than cloths. Therefore bend allowance (BA) is the dimensional adjustment required to allow for the forming of sheet metal. It is a term which describes how much material is needed between two panels (flat rectangular parts) to accommodate a given bend. Sheet metal stretches minutely as it is being formed. The greater the inside bend radius is, the less the stretching. Material hardness and elasticity also have a lot to do with how much it stretches. Therefore, the amount of allowance to be added depends on the size of the article, the thickness and nature of the sheet metal, and the nature of the joint to be formed. Bend allowance, while being oftentimes tricky to determine for all cases, is fairly easy to predict and calculate for many standard circumstances. Determining end allowance is commonly referred to as ―bend development‖ and it is an essential part of shape development or pattern making. The practical implication is that if we want a work piece with a 90 degree bend in which one leg measures A, and the other measures B, then the total length of the flat piece is not A + B as one might first assume. This is illustrated in Figure 4.27 where a bend allowance must be added to the panels designated as X and Y in (a) or length and height in (b) to give the total length required for the shape.

Figure 4.27: Illustration of bend allowance (BA)


Fundamental Principles

When sheet metal is bent, the inside surface of the bend is compressed (in compression) and the outer surface of the bend is stretched (in tension). The


strain (deformation) in the bent material increases with decreasing radius of curvature. Somewhere within the thickness of the metal lies its neutral axis (NA), which is a line in the metal that is neither compressed nor stretched. The neutral axis lies at the centre of an unbent material. Based on the material thickness, bend radius and bending methods, the ratio of compression to tension in the part will change. However, the stretching of the bend causes the NA to shift towards the inner surface. A part that is bent over a very sharp radius, when compared to the thickness, will stretch more on the outside, which means that the neutral axis will lie closer to the inside of the bend. A part that is gradually bent will have less outside stretch, which means that the neutral axis will lie closer to the center of the part.

Figure 4.28: The NA lies between compression and tension zones I. The Length of NA Does Not Change. When developing a flat blank length, there is a length of the part that does not change. This length is called the neutral axis (Figure 4.29). Material on the inside of the neutral axis will compress, while material on the outside will stretch.

Figure 4.29: Length of NA is constant before, during and after bending


The K-Factor Tells the Position of the NA The location of the neutral line varies depending on the material itself, the radius of the bend, the ambient temperature, direction of material grain, and the method by which it is being bent, etc. The location of this line is often referred to as the K –factor as it is signified as ―K‖ in bend allowance or development formulae. K-factor is a ratio that represents the location of the neutral sheet with respect to the thickness of the sheet metal part, and is designated by t/T as shown in Figure 4.30.

Figure 4.30: Illustration of k-factor


Compression/Tension Ratio is Mostly a Function of Geometry. Ordinarily, it is expected that the inside compression should be equal to the outside tension of the bend. Based on this premise, the NA should lie exactly in the middle of the metal giving a k-factor of exactly 0.50. This means that the neutral axis cannot migrate beyond the midpoint of the material (i.e. towards the outside). However, the tension is greater than the compression in most cases, resulting in more stretching. We have noted earlier that sheet metal stretches minutely as it is being formed; and that the smaller the inside bend radius is, the more the stretching. [Small bend radius - angle tending towards acute or less than 90o - implies that the bending is sharp, tight, firm or severe. On the other hand, large bend radius (angle is obtuse or more than 90o) implies gradual or loose bending, Figure 4.31a]. The stretching of the bend causes the neutral axis of the section to move towards the inner surface. This means that the k-factor can never exceed 0.50. In most cases, the distance of the neutral axis from the inside of the bend (i.e. the k-factor) lies between 0.25T to 0.50T, where T is the thickness of the metal. Figure 4.31b illustrates the migration of NA and the corresponding changes in the k-factor.


Figure 4.31: Bend geometry and the migration of the neutral axis


NA Migrates Based on Compression/Tension Ratio The neutral axis migrates based on the compression to tension relationship of the given bend so as to bring the compression (outward push) and tension (inward push) to a balance, Figure 4.32. Of course we have already established that the compression/tension ratio depends on geometry, namely, the size of bend radius or severity of bending.

Figure 4.32: The NA migrates to balance the compression and tension

B. I.

Calculation of Bend Allowance Bend Allowance Formula Based on Effective Radius, Ri Bending involves a ending angle θ and ending radius R. However, the effective radius for bending depends on the metal thickness, T. Considering

Figure 4. 33, the following two radii may be defined. The bend radius (or inside bend radius), R, is measured from the centre to the inside surface of the bend as shown. The effective bend radius, Ri, is measured from the centre of the bend to the neutral axis, NA.

Figure 4.33: 360 degrees bending – ring bending

The difference between the two radii depends on the k-factor (t/T ratio) which ultimately depends on the metal thickness, T. Consequently, the value of Ri varies with T; and three expressions are used for Ri depending on the sheet metal thickness thus:  For very thin metal, for all practical purposes.   For metals up to 1.5 mm thick, For metals thicker than 1.5 mm (i.e., ), .

These values of Ri were derived empirically (from experience) and have come to be accepted in general sheet metalwork. The bend allowance formula can now be deduced. The length of a complete 360o bend (that is, a circle) such as the ring shown in Figure 4.29 is


simply 2π multiplied by the effective radius, Ri. That is, total length required for the end circumference πDi 2π Ri. For any end angle θ which is less than 180o (straight shape), the bend allowance is given by: | |

 Example 4.1: If the ring shown in Figure 4.33 is to be made from a metal strip 2 mm thick, find the length of strip required if R = 15 mm. Solution: Since T = 2 mm which is greater than 1.5 mm; ⇒ ( )

 Example 4.2: The right angle bend in Figure 4.34 is to be made from metal plate 1.6 mm thick. Find the developed length if X = 44 mm, Y = 40 mm and R = 12 mm.

Figure 4.34: Right angle bend


Solution: The bending angle is 90O, that is, a quarter of 360O. Therefore the length of bending allowance is: | | , -

Since the metal is thicker than 1.5 mm, ⇒| | . / . /



 Example 4.3: The acute angle bend in Figure 4.35 is to be made from metal strip 1.8 mm thick. Find the length of the strip required given that C = 70 mm, D = 65 mm, R = 15 mm and θ = 60o.


Figure 4.35: Acute angle bend Solution: The developed length is given by: U + V + |BA| Note that to get the shape, the flat strip (which is a straight or 180 o object) must be bent through 180o – θ, where θ 60o. From trigonometry; .









Bend allowance, |
⇒| | (

( ) ( )

Since T is 1.8 mm thick which is greater than 1.5 mm and R is 15 mm,
) | ( | )


 Example 4.4: An obtuse angle bend similar to the one shown in Figure 4.36 is to be made from sheet metal 1.5 mm thick. Find the developed length if C = 35 mm, D = 42 mm, R = 12.5 mm and θ = 120o.

Figure 4.36: Obtuse angle bend

Solution: The developed length is given by: E + F + |BA|
̂ ̂

Therefore the length of bending allowance is:
| |

Since the metal is 1.5 mm thick and the bend radius is 12.5 mm,
⇒| | ( ( ) ) ( | | ) ( ) ( )


II. 1)

Bend Allowance Formula Based on K-Factor Radian Formula (When θ is in radians)

When the bend development is calculated in radians, the equation is straight-forward because the radian by definition is the actual arc length, S. ⁄ For a circle or 360o bend, Recall that and ⁄ the radian angle Accordingly, , and so on. With the aid of Figure 4.37, the end allowance formula for angle θ in radians is given as: | Where θ R t T K = = = = | ( ), ( )[ ( ) ] ( ), -

end angle (radians), inside bend radius neutral axis offset thickness of sheet metal k-factor = t/T | |

Figure 4.37: K-factor determination of bend allowance Again, by carefully comparing Figures 4.33 and 4.37 and the definition of kfactor [k = t/T], it should be obvious that:



Common/Standard Formula (When θ is in degrees)

It is more common in practice to develop a bend based on degrees instead of radians. The common or standard formula as it is called is just a translation of the radian formula. The conversion of radian angle to degrees is effected using the fact that . Consequently, 1 degree is equivalent to and every . To convert the radian into the radian

formula to work with degrees, one only needs to insert

formula. Again, using the terminologies of Figure 4.37, the bend allowance formula for angle in degrees is given as:








( ) ]













 Example 4.5: The bend angle [θ = 60o] in Figure 4.35 of Example 4.3 is equivalent to π/3 radian, R = 15 mm and T = 1.8 mm. If the bend allowance required for the bend is 32.92 mm; determine the neutral axis offset t, the effective bend radius Ri, and the k-factor involved. Solution: The radian formula for bend allowance is: | | ( ⇒ ⇒ ), . ( )[ /, ( ) ] , ( ), -


The effective bend radius Ri is related to t and k according to: ⇒

 Example 4.6: Consider Figure 4.36 of Example 4.4. The bend angle is 120o, R = 12.5 mm and T = 1.5 mm. Determine the bend allowance required using the standard formula, given that the neutral axis offset t = 0.75mm. Hence calculate k and Ri. Solution: The standard formula for bend allowance is:
| | ( ), ( ), ( ) , -








By definition, Also, the effective bend radius is given by:

4.6.3 Bend Deduction Sheet metal elongates a little when bent. In some situations (e.g. ring bending as shown in Figure 4.33), we are interested in the elongation due to bending. This extended length is deduced and deducted from the bend development. The concept of bend deduction is illustrated in Figure 4.38.


Figure 4.38: Bend deduction

To work out what the length of the flat piece of metal needs to be, we need to calculate the bend allowance or bend deduction that tells us how much we need to add or subtract to our leg lengths to get exactly what we want.

4.6.4 Software Solutions for Bend Allowance/Deduction The only truly effective way of working out the correct bend allowance is to reverse engineer it by taking a measured strip of material, bending it, and then measuring it to calculate the bend allowance. [Reverse engineering is used to connote the stealing or pirating of a competitor's technology by dismantling an existing product and reproducing its parts and construction to manufacture a replica]. These bend allowances can be measured for many materials and scenarios and then tabulated so that the table can be used by CAD (Computer-Aided Design/Drafting) programs to produce accurate sheet-metal work. Many CAD programs (such as Solidworks), however, also work out bend allowances automatically by using K-factor calculations based on the standard formula (Or using Y-factor in the case of the software Pro-E, where ). Figure 4.39 illustrates the terminologies involved.


Figure 4.39: Determination of bend allowance/deduction

The correct K-factor to be used in the CAD program can be calculated for any bend radius R as follows: | | , , ( )


| , *| {|

( |⁄ , |⁄ [ ( ) | + ] } |


Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Distinguish between plates and foils. Why is wire gauge required in sheet metalwork? With the aid of a sketch, explain what you understand by k-factor. What is the purpose of safety stops in modern snips and hand shears? Explain the term ‗spring ack‘.





An acute angle bend such as that shown in Figure 4.35 is to be made from metal strip 1.6 mm thick. Find the length of the strip required given that C 80 mm, D 55 mm, R 18 mm and θ 45 o. {Answer: L = 84.28 mm} Determine the developed length required to make an obtuse angle bend similar to the one shown in Figure 4.36 from sheet metal 2.0 mm thick. Take C 43 mm, D 60 mm, R 10.2 mm and θ 140 o. {Answer: L = 101.8 mm} Determine the neutral axis offset, t, giving that the bending allowance required for a bend is 35 mm when the bend angle is 50o, the bend radius is 15 mm and metal thickness is 1.4mm. What is the value of kfactor? {Answers: t = 0.425 mm; k = 0.30} If the end angle in Question 8 is π/4 radians, what would e the end radius if all other parameters remain unchanged? {Answer: R = 14.43 mm}

Projects: {Adapted from: Edwards, R. (1981) Metalwork Technology for African Schools and Colleges, London: Cassel Ltd.} 1. Figure 4.40a front and side elevations of the bottle-opener/screw driver shown in Figure 4.40c. The handle is also shown in part (b). The materials needed for construction are: 2.5 mm thick bright annealed mild steel plate for the opener/screw driver 6 mm thick plywood, plastic or aluminium for the handle. Outline the sheet metal work operations and tools involved, and hence fabricate the opener cum screw driver. 2. i. ii. iii. Figure 4.41(a, b) shows the layout of the side and front views of a serving spoon (ladle) shown in part (c). The materials needed are: 1 mm thick aluminium sheet for the bowl. 3 mm thick aluminium bar for the handle. Three aluminium countersunk head rivets, 3 mm diameter x 7 mm long.

i. ii.


Fabricate the article outlining all the steps, processes and tools required. 3. The developments of a scoop and its handle (c) are shown in Figure 4.42 (a, b). Tin plate 0.3 mm or 0.5 mm thick is required to make both the scoop and the handle. The handle is to be fixed to the scoop by soft soldering. Outline the tools and processes required, and hence, fabricate the object.

Fig. 4.40(a): Blade

Fig. 4.40(b): Handle


Fig. 4.40(c): The bottle-opener/screwdriver Figure 4.40: Making of a bottle-opener/Screwdriver

Fig. 4.41 (a): Bowl

Fig. 4.41 (b): Handle


Fig. 4.41 (c): The spoon Fig. 4.41: Making of a serving spoon or ladle


Fig. 4.42 (a): Development of the scoop


Fig. 4.42 (b): Handle

Fig. 4.42 (c): The scoop

Fig. 4.42: Making of a scoop



Adams, S.M. (2005). Bend Allowance Overview. Available online at: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor (2007), Sheet Metal Workers in Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 Edition. Available online at: Last Updated December 18, 2007; Retrieved May 24, 2008 Diegel, O. (2002). The Fine Art of Sheet Metal Bending. Available online at: Edwards, R. (1981). Metalwork Technology for African Schools and Colleges, London: Cassel Ltd. International Training Institute for the Sheet Metal and Air-Conditioning Industry, 601 N. Fairfax St., Suite 240, Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet: Khurmi, R.S. and Gupta, J.K. (2004). A Textbook of Workshop Technology (Manufacturing Processes). New Delhi: S.Chand &Co. Ltd. Ludwig, O.A.; McCarthy, W.J. and Repp, V.E. (1975). Metalwork Technology and Practice. Bloomington, IL: McKnight Publishing Company. Sharma, P.C. (2005): A Textbook of Production Technology (Manufacturing Processes). New Delhi: S.Chand &Co. Ltd. Sheet Metalworkers‘ International Association, 1750 New York Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20006. Internet: Walsh, R. A. (2001): Handbook of Machining and Metalworking Calculations, New York: McGraw-Hill (2008): Sheet Metalwork. Online free encyclopedia available at: Last Updated 10 May, 2008; Retrieved 24 May, 2008.





The science of measurement is defined as metrology. It comprises direct and indirect measurements.


Direct and indirect measurements

Direct measurements are linear measurements taken directly with rules (scale), micrometer, vernier scales, and measuring machines whilst indirect measurements are those which use indirect measuring tool to transfer or compare a measurement with a known standard. They are generally referred to as comparators and are of four main types: mechanical (dial indicator), electronic, optical, and air.


Direct measurements

Steel Rule, commonly used in direct measurement and are often graduated in an inch down to 1/16 in. Millimeter scales are also available. 5.2.1 Vernier scale This improves the accuracy of the scale by an order of magnitude. The scales are used on calipers and height gauges. Figure 5.1 shows the vernier caliper.

Figure 5.1: The Vernier Caliper (Courtesy: G.A.Thomas)

The vernier scale has two scales which are slightly different and can be attached to any scale such as a protractor, scale or micrometer for fine measurement. Figure 5.2 shows the fixed and vernier scales.

Figure 5.2: Fixed and vernier scale The fixed scale is marked in inches and 1/10th of and whilst the vernier scale of length 9/10th is divided into 10 parts i.e. One vernier divisions = 9/10th s. One vernier division = 1/10 × 9/10 = 9/100 One rule division =1/10 = 10/100

The difference between the main scale division and the vernier scale is 10/100 - 9/100 = 1/100 = 0.01 .Note that when the camper is closed, the zeros on the two scales coincides i.e. they are opposite each other.

Example: to take a reading Let us use the diagram below



0 1 2 3 4 5 6 78 9


If we read the iggest whole num er on the main scale efore ―O‖ on the vernier: 1 1.0. The reading on tenths efore the ‗0‘on the vernier scale is 9 0.9. On the vernier scale the number that coincides with the main scale is 3 = 0.03 Total reading = 1.93

Metric vernier: This is what is commonly used now. The main scale is graduated in millimeters and half millimeters. The length on the main scale is 12mm and this is divided into 25 parts i.e. 25 vernier divisions = 12mm One vernier division = 12/25mm = 0.48mm One rule division is 0.5mm Difference between main scale division and vernier scale is 0.5 – 0.48 = 0.02mm.

Example: to take a reading Let use the diagram below to take a reading



0 Vernier scale





2 5

We obtain the complete number of mm and ½mm before the zero on the vernier scale and this is 20.0 the mark that coincides with the main scale and the vernier is 12, this will be the number of 0.02mm on the vernier i.e. 12 × 0.02mm = 0.24 Total reading = 20.24mm

5.2.2 The Micrometer These are universal direct- measuring tools. They work on the principle of mechanical reduction of a fine- pitched screw thread, thereby reducing great


rotational motion to slight linear motion. One complete revolution or thimble is 0.5mm or 0.05cm which is equivalent to the pitch of a screw.

Figure 5.3: External micrometer screw gauge (Courtesy: B.J. Black)

A fraction of a turn is indicated on the thimble which is divided into fifty equal divisions. Each travel by the thimble therefore refers to one fiftieth of half a millimeter or 0.001cm. The sleeve reading gives the unit and the firm of two decimal males, whitest the thimble reading gives the third decimal place.

Example: What is the total reading on a micrometer screw gauge if the following readings were obtained? Sleeve reads 0.88cm Thimble reads 20 divisions.


Solution: Sleeve readings = 0.88cm Thimble readings = 20 × 0.0001 = 0.002cm Total readings = 0.882cm Precautions in the use of the micrometer The following precautions must be taken in the use of the micrometer screw gauge: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) The instrument should be handled with care always due to its precision. It should not be allowed to get in contact with harmful substances such as filings which may interfere with the readings. The instrument should not be allowed to get in touch with workbench or machine. The major parts of the instrument such as the spindle, anvil, and work piece must be wiped clean before use. The instrument must be held square to the work piece when measuring and no force should be exerted when obtaining the correct feel. The instrument should be stored in away safely in the container immediately after use. The instrument should not be set to a size and try to push over the work piece. The instrument should be checked periodically on its accuracy.

(vi) (vii) (viii)


Measuring Machines

These are highly sophisticated direct reading tools. These machines are less subject to linear errors. A high degree of accuracy is often obtained with these machines. Their operations are faster and quicker than any less sophisticated equipment. Their main disadvantage is the initial high cost.


5.3.1 Indirect Dial Indicators: This has a stylus probe that is connected through a precision gear to the dial pointer (Figure 5.4).

Figure 5.4: Typical mechanism of a dial indicator (Courtesy: R. A. Lindberg)


Electronic Comparators

A high degree of precisions measurement is provided by these comparators. The measuring stylus is coupled through a pressure sensitive annular, variable resistor, or capacitor to an electronic circuit. Small changes on stylus position are converted to electronic signals that register deflection on a calibrated meter various scales are available and can be selected either in inches, meter with the finer graduation usually 0.0003mm


Optical Comparators

These improve accuracy by magnification. A ray of light which is incident on a surface at some angle Ө to the normal of a plane (mirror) surface is reflected at the centre angle from the normal as shown below:


Figure 5.5: Reflection at a plane surface If the mirror is rotated through a small angle ΔӨ then the angle between the incident vary and the normal increases to    and the angle to the usual of the reflected ray also increases to    .

Figure 5.6: Reflection at a tilted plane surface

It can be seen from figure 5.6 that the angle between the incident and reflected rays has increased y 2ΔӨ i.e. twice the angle of rotation of the mirror. It should be observed that an image transmitted to a screen via a mirror has a magnified movement on the screen professional to the distance between the pivot of the mirror and the screen and twice the angle of rotation of the mirror. This is an optical lever had twice the magnifying power of a normal


pointer. Optical comparators are ideal for measuring complex outside dimensions as well as ting intricate grooves, radii, or steps. Direct measurement could also be made with these machines with accuracy of 0.003mm.


Air Gauges or Comparators

These utilize the effect of minute dimensional changes produced by metered air. It consists principally of plugs or rings that are calibrated by having them checked with a master or standard. A stream of compressed air escapes between the surface of the standard and the close fitting surfaces of the gauge. The reading produced by the differential in air pressure produces a reading which can be adjusted to zero. As mirror or less air escapes when the work piece is being checked, the float in a glass tube will be correspondingly higher or lower. They are comparatively easy to use for both inside and outside measurements. They are particularly suitable for the checking of long, small diameters which cannot be measured by any other method.


The Brook Level Comparator

This is a highly sensitive spirit level used for measuring long gauges e.g. lengthy bars etc. It should be observed that although excellent results are obtained the measurement is slow. The schematic arrangement is shown below:

Figure 5.7: Brooke’s level comparator

The platen is located on a massive base supported with three leveling screws. The upper face of the platen is a plane lapped surface whilst the lower face is a lapped annular ring allowing easy rotation on the base. A bracket which adjusts the level is attached to the column of the instrument. A scale which measures the bubble displacement is provided. The bubble is first brought approximately to the center of the scale by allowing the two ball feet attached to the level to rest on a surface parallel with the platen whilst adjusting the leveling screws on the base. A block gauge or a combination of a block gauge and length bar may be wrung to the platen. The standard (S) and gauge to be compared (G) are now wrung to the platen and the ball feel which are at approximately 20mm centers rest on the gauges forming a bridge (b). The end position of the bubble against the scale is noted, the level is then raised, the platen rotated through 1800, and a second reading taken. The displacement represents twice the difference in length between the gauges, thus Δh 1/2L bubble

Where Δh difference in length etween the gauges and L difference. The advantages of this comparator are:


The gauges are compared together then marking ten comparative equalization easier. About 20minutes is usually allowed per 25mm gauge length. The rotation of the platen provides twice the bubble displacement required and at the same time eliminates the need to bring the platen exactly to the horizontal plane. Slight errors in scale readings are usually halved in the final computation of length. The gauges are vertically mounted and any shortening under their own weight is the same for both gauges.


3. 4.

Differences as small as 0.00002mm can be detected and gauges up to 1m in length can be measured.




Machining and Cutting Tools

Machining is a manufacturing technology whereby useful products are made by material removal operations. Considering recent technological developments in manufacturing processes, the term ‗material removal’ and hence ‗machining‘ will be given a limited scope in this work. Many novel manufacturing methods based on material removal are now in use such as: electrical discharge machining (EDM), laser-beam machining (LBM), plasmaarc machining (PAM), electrochemical machining (ECM), electrochemical grinding (ECG), chemical machining (CHM) and ultrasonic machining (USM), etc. These nonconventional or nontraditional machining processes [as they are called] make use of non-mechanical energy for material removal. We shall not be concerned with them here. The term ―machining‖ is therefore construed to traditional machining which includes only those mechanical methods of material removal by use of metal-cutting tools and machine tools. Such processes are also sometimes differentiated from grinding, a term more widely used to denote material removal by use of abrasives such as aluminium oxide, silicon carbide, and diamond. The basic elements of machining involve therefore material removal by use of various cutting tools [with geometrically precise cutting edges] mounted on appropriate machine tools.


Cutting Tools and Machine Tools

In machining, we use a machine tool like lathe, shaper, planer, slotter, drilling, milling and grinding machines etc. and a cutting tool made of a much harder material than the material of the part to be machined i.e. the workpiece (WP). Material removal from the workpiece is achieved by the relative movement between the cutting tool and the workpiece. The cutting tool is given a sharp cutting edge and it is forced to penetrate inside the workpiece


surface to a small depth. The relative motion between the tool and workpiece results in a thin strip of material being sheared off from the workpiece reducing the thickness of the workpiece. This process has to be repeated several times before the entire surface of the workpiece can be covered and reduced in depth. The thin strip of the material sheared from the workpiece in form of shavings or swarf is called ‗chip‘. It must e understood that chips are produced by shearing action and not by cutting. Substantial amount of power is required for machining. The function of the machine tool is to provide this power and the required motion of workpiece relative to the tool. In some cases of machining, motion is given to the workpiece and tool remains stationary. In some other cases, the workpiece is stationary and the machine tool provides motion to the cutting tool. In yet other cases, motion is given both to tool as well as the workpiece. Cutting tools can be of single point cutting tools type or multipoint cutting tools type. It is a body having teeth or cutting edges on it. A single point cutting tool (such as turning, shaper, planner and boring tools) has only one cutting edge, whereas a multi-point cutting tool (such as milling cutter, drill, reamer and broach) has a number of teeth or cutting edges on its periphery. Figure 6.1 shows the basic geometry of single point cutting tool. Two examples of multipoint cutting tools are also shown in Figure 6.2.

Figure 6.1: Geometry of a single point cutting tool


Figure 6.2: Multipoint cutting tools; (a) Mill cutter and (b) Drill


Cutting Tool Materials

The optimum capability of a particular machine tool or even the machinist can only be realized if the right cutting tool material is selected. Although the rate of metal removal can be increased by increasing the depth of cut and the feed rate, the best approach is to increase the cutting speed. However, increasing the cutting speed leads to rising temperatures and the tool face becomes hotter and tends to become softer and weaker. That is, machining generates a lot of heat and the temperature of the cutting edge of the tool may reach 650–700°C. The tool must maintain its hardness even at such elevated temperatures. This property of retaining its hardness at elevated temperatures is called ‗red hardness‘ or ‗hot hardness‘. Cutting tools made of high carbon steel develop the property of red hardness due to addition of tungsten and molybdenum. These days, cutting tools are made of high speed steel, or tungsten carbide. Tools made of ceramic materials (like Al2O3, SiC), and polycrystalline diamonds are also used for special applications. The important qualities expected of a good cutting tool are: i. ii. iii. High hardness for easy penetration into the workpiece. Toughness and high mechanical resistance to bending and to compression so that it can withstand cutting forces. Resistance to abrasion, diffusion, spalling and plastic deformation.


iv. v.

Resistance to high temperatures which would otherwise diminish the aforementioned qualities. Good surface finish.

No tool material can have all these four properties; some properties can be had at the expense of others. Consequently, composite tool materials have been developed where the outer layer provides surface properties of high wear resistance and high hot strength and the core provides bulk properties of toughness, wear and high cold strength. The selection of a cutting tool material depends o a number of factors such as the type of operation to be carried out (whether roughing or finishing out); the material of the workpiece; and the stiffness of the machine tool and its power. Cutting tool materials fall under the following general catergories: high carbon steels, high speed steels, cast alloys (stellites), cemented carbides, sintered ceramics, cermets, diamond, cubic boron nitride, UCON, and SiAlONs.


High Carbon Steels:

This is the oldest type of steel for cutting and is steel in use for some cutting tools, although rarely. They are relatively inexpensive are shock resistant but do not have sufficient red hardness to be used for high speed machining. Plain carbon steels containing 0.8 to 1.4 per cent carbon when hardened and tempered [suitable heat treatment] can be used for cutting tools at cutting speed of 5m/min and cutting temperatures not beyond 200 – 250oC. This heat treatment raises the cold hardness of the carbon steel up to 65 on the Rockwell C scale [i.e RC = 65]. Figure 6.3 shows the hot hardness (Rockwell A scale) of various cutting tool materials. High carbon steels were used for tools such as chisels, taps, dies, scrapers, drills, broaches and reamers. Addition of alloying elements like chromium, molybdenum, tungsten and vanadium in small amounts ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 per cent together with manganese of the order of 0.6 per cent gives rise to high carbon low alloying steels that can withstand temperatures up to 300oC. Cr, Mo, W and V form


carbides to give better wear resistance and manganese confers hardenability. These alloys find application as drills, reamers and taps, especially for nonferrous alloys.

Figure 6.3: Hardness of various cutting-tool materials as a function of temperature (hot hardness). The wide range in each group of tool materials results from the variety of compositions and treatments available for that group [Source: Kalpakjian and Schmid].


High Speed Steels (HSS):

The discovery and introduction of high speed steel as cutting tool material brought about a considerable increase in cutting speeds. The speed was considered high at that time thereby giving HSS its name. Today, the same speeds are considered to be comparatively low (Figure 6.4). High speed steels are highly alloyed tool steels with differing amounts of alloying elements such


as tungsten, molybdenum, chromium, vanadium and cobalt. With suitable heat treatment procedures, these steels can be fully hardened, with little danger of distortion and cracking, to maintain their hardness, strength, and sharp cutting edge even at operating temperatures as high as 660 oC. There are two basic types of high speed steels, tungsten type (T series) and molybdenum type (M series). The T series contain 11 to 21% tungsten and varying amounts of chromium, vanadium, and cobalt as the other major alloying elements while the M series contain 3.25 to 10% molybdenum, with chromium, vanadium, tungsten, and cobalt as the other major alloying elements. The M series generally have higher abrasion resistance than the T series, distort less during heat treatment and are less expensive; hence the great majority of high speed steels produced (95% in the U.S.) are of this type. A general purpose high speed tool steel used in the manufacture of drills, reamers, taps, milling cutters and similar cutting tools contains 18% tungsten, 4% chromium, 1% vanadium, about 0.8% carbon and the rest iron; and is referred to as an 18-4-1 tool steel.

Figure 6.4: Historical tool improvement. Relative time required to machine with various cutting-tool materials, with indication of the year the tool materials were introduced. Note that, within one century, machining time has been reduced by two orders of magnitude. [Source: Kalpakjian and Schmid].


The addition of 8% cobalt to the above high speed steel increases its abrasion resistance and red hardness such that the steel can be used to cut at higher speeds and is then referred to as super-high speed steel (SHSS). To reduce costs, high speed steel tools are made of two parts; instead of using a solid piece of expensive HSS throughout, the cutting edge only is of HSS and this is butt-welded to a tough steel shank. High speed steels are also availa le as ‗tool bits‘ in round or square section already hardened and tempered (to impart toughness) so that all the operator has to do is grind the required shape on the end before using.


Stellite (Nonferrous Cast Alloys):

Stellites or non-ferrous cast alloys contain mainly cobalt, chromium and tungsten (no iron) with composition: 38 – 53% cobalt, 30 – 33% chromium, 10 – 20% tungsten and 1 – 3% carbon. 1 per cent carbon content gives a relatively soft and strong tool and 3 per cent carbon content gives a hard and more wear resistant grade. Stellite tools are cast and ground to any desired shape; they cannot e rolled or forged, hence the name ―cast alloys‖. Cast alloy tool performance is intermediate between those of HSS and carbide tools; and can withstand cutting temperatures in the range of 900 oC. They are not as tough as high speed steels and hence are less suitable for interrupted cutting than HSS. Stellite tools are mainly recommended for deep continuous roughing operations at relatively high feed rates and speeds; as much as twice those possible with HSS. They are more expensive than HSS and are used only in special applications.


Sintered or Cemented Carbides:

Cemented carbide tools are manufactured by powder metallurgy (P/M) techniques and constitute one of the most important advances in cutting tool technology. Because of their excellent properties such as high hardness over a wide range of temperatures, very high wear resistance, high stiffness (modulus of elasticity is nearly thrice that for steel), low thermal expansion and relatively high thermal conductivity; they are among the most important tool materials.


Cemented carbides are used for turning, milling, drilling, boring, etc. in the form of tips or inserts which are brazed or clamped to a tool shank. Cemented carbide tools are basically made of 70 – 90% carbides (which confers on the material its hardness and abrasion resistance) and 10 – 30% binding metal (which provides the toughness) pressed together and sintered. There are three general groups of cemented carbides in use: a) Straight tungsten carbide (WC) with cobalt as binder; used for cutting non-ferrous abrasive materials, cast irons, and nonmetallic materials. b) Titanium carbide (TiC) with nickel or molybdenum as the binding material. It is more wear resistant but is not as tough as WC. It is suitable for cutting hard materials such as steels and cast irons and for cutting at high speeds. c) Coated carbides comprising WC with cobalt binder as base and coated with carbides of Ti, tantalum (Ta) and niobium (Nb) which form a solid solution of WC – TiC – TaC – NbC. The coating is done using chemical vapour deposition (CVD); and titanium nitride (TiN) or even aluminium oxide (Al2O3) may be deposited. NB: The use of coated tools has reduced the cutting time by a factor of more than 100 since 1900 (Figure 6.4). The tool life of coated tools is 10 times higher than uncoated tools.


Sintered Ceramics (Oxides):

Ceramics or sintered oxides tools comprise basically aluminium oxide (Al2O3) with additions of MgO, NiO, Cr2O3, TiO and TiC, etc. to improve the grain structure, cutting properties and sintering. These materials are produced in the same manner as sintered carbides, that is, by P/M technique. Another ceramic tool material is silicon nitride which is particularly used for cast iron machining applications. Ceramic cutting materials have high abrasion resistance and red hardness even at temperatures as high as 1000oC but are susceptible to thermal shock. To reduce the danger of thermal shock, cutting fluids should not be


used. Ceramic cutting inserts are effective in very high speed, uninterrupted cutting operations such as finishing or super-finishing and can be used to cut cast irons and alloy steels. However, poor results are obtained if Al2O3 tool material is used to machine Al or Ti alloys because strong bonds tend to form between the chip and the tool.



Cermets are combinations (composites) of ceramics and metals, bonded together in the manner of P/M parts. Thus the cemented carbides (discussed earlier) are cermets. Cermets combine some of the high refractoriness of ceramics and toughness and thermal shock resistance of metals. The cermet of interest here is the usual combination of aluminium oxide plus metal additions (W, Mo, B, Ti, etc.) in an amount up to 10%. These additions reduce the brittleness to some extent, but they also reduce the wear resistance of the material.



Diamond is the hardest known material and by extension, the hardest cutting tool material. Its properties are extreme hardness, high abrasion resistance, very low coefficient of friction, low coefficient of thermal expansion and high thermal conductivity. Diamond is used as an abrasive charge in grinding and polishing operations as well as a cutting tool when good surface finish and dimensional accuracy are required particularly with non-ferrous alloys and abrasive nonmetallic materials. Diamond tools are suitable only for light, uninterrupted finishing cuts. Though the hardest cutting tool material, diamond is not used for machining ferrous and nickel alloys [because of its reactivity, namely, the diffusion of carbon atoms from diamond to the workpiece material] Diamonds are available either as naturally occurring or synthetic materials. The natural diamonds are, however of low grade. Synthetic polycrystalline diamond which is extremely tough (the random orientation of


diamond crystals prevents crack propagation) with hardness approaching that of natural (single crystal) diamond has been in use since the 1970s.


Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN):

Next to diamond, CBN is the hardest material currently available. Produced in the 1970s by high pressure, high temperature processing, CBN consists of atoms of nitrogen and boron and has the diamond cubic crystal structure. CBN has high hardness and high thermal conductivity. The tensile strength is up to 1000MPa compared to 300MPa for diamond. As a cutting tool material, CBN is used in the polycrystalline form. Because it is chemically inert, CBN is used as a substitute for diamond for machining steel. Other applications are: as a grinding wheel on HSS tools; for machining high temperature alloys, titanium, nimonic, stainless steel, stellites and chilled cast iron (C.I.).



This is a new cutting material developed by Union Carbide in the U.S.A; but it does not contain carbides. It is made of a refractory metal alloy whose composition is 50% columbium (niobium), 30% titanium, and 20% tungsten. This refractory metal alloy is cast, rolled into sheets and slit into blanks. Though the hardness is only 200 Brinell, it is difficult to machine. It is hardened by diffusing nitrogen into the surface at 1660 oC; this produces a hard surface but a relatively soft core. The blanks are used as clamped tools. UCON is used mostly for machining steel (not cast iron) at high speeds and large depths of cut but at low feeds. It is a competitor to carbides.



This is a relatively new cutting tool material and research is still going on this material. SiAlONs can be produced by milling together, for example, Si3N4, Al2O3 and yttria (Y); and the resulting powder is dried, pressed to shape and sintered at a temperature of about 1800oC. The basic formula for the SiAlONs is (Si,Al)3(O,N)4. Other metal atoms can be incorporated into the


structure giving (Si,M)(O,N)4; where M can be Mg+Al, Li+Al, and Y. This material has been found to be considerably tougher than ceramics, and thus can be successfully used for machining with interrupted cuts. Cutting speed can be 2 to 3 times those with carbides. At present, this tool material is used (in the form of tips) for machining aerospace alloys, Ni-based gas turbine blades, etc. at cutting speed in the range of 3.3 to 5 m/s.


Cutting Tool Geometry and Nomenclature

In order to cut efficiently, all cutting tools must possess certain angles and geometrical features. The basic geometry and terminologies associated with a single point cutting tool has been shown in Figure 6.1. A description of the angles and nomenclature of a single point cutting tool is given below and illustrated in Figure 6.5.

Figure 6.5: Elements of tool signature or nomenclature of a single point tool



Back rake angle

It is the angle between the face of the tool and a line parallel with base of the tool measured in a perpendicular plane through the side cutting edge. If the slope face is downward toward the nose, it is negative back rake angle and if it is upward toward nose, it is positive back rake angle. This angle helps in removing the chips away from the work piece.


Side rake angle

It is the angle by which the face of tool is inclined sideways. This angle of tool determines the thickness of the tool behind the cutting edge. It is provided on tool to provide clearance between workpiece and tool so as to prevent the rubbing of workpiece with end flake of tool. It is the angle between the surface the flank immediately below the point and the line down from the point perpendicular to the base.


End relief (or Clearance) angle

It is the angle that allows the tool to cut without rubbing on the workpiece. It is defined as the angle between the portion of the end flank immediately below the cutting edge and a line perpendicular to the base of the tool, measured at right angles to the flank. Sometime extra end clearance is also provided on the tool that is also known as end clearance angle. It is the secondary angle directly below the end relief angle


Side relief (or Clearance) angle

It is the angle that prevents the interference as the tool enters the material. It is the angle between the portion of the side flank immediately below the side edge and a line perpendicular to the base of the tool measured at right angles to the side. It is incorporated on the tool to provide relief between its flank and the work piece surface. Sometime extra side clearance is also provided on the tool that is also known as side clearance angle. It is the secondary angle directly below the side relief angle. A schematic illustration is given in Figure 6.6.


Figure 6.6: Illustration of tool nomenclature in two-dimensional or orthogonal cutting process [Source: Kalpakjian and Schmid]


End cutting edge angle

It is the angle between the end cutting edge and a line perpendicular to the shank of the tool. It provides clearance between tool cutting edge and work piece.


Side cutting edge angle

It is the angle between straight cutting edge on the side of tool and the side of the shank. It is also known as lead angle. It is responsible for turning the chip away from the finished surface.


Nose radius

It is the nose point connecting the side cutting edge and end cutting edge. It possesses small radius which is responsible for generating surface finish on the work-piece


Cutting Parameters

Cutting parameters comprise such concepts like cutting speed, feed and depth of cut. Figure 6.7 illustrates the concepts of cutting parameters in the case of a turning operation.

Figure 6.7: Terminologies associated with turning operation on a lathe [Source: Kalpakjian and Schmid]


Cutting Speed

Cutting speed means the linear speed at which cutting takes place. The relative speed between the cutting tool and workpiece is the cutting speed. If the tool is stationary, the speed at which the work material approaches the cutting edge of tool is the cutting speed. It is measured in metres per minute (m/min). The optimum cutting speed depends upon the tool material, the material to be cut and whether a cutting fluid is being used or not. The harder the tool material, the better it can resist wear at faster cutting speeds. The faster the cutting speed, the higher is the cutting temperature and the shorter the tool life. Recommended cutting speed for machining cast iron and mild steel with high speed tools is 35 metres per minute. However, if tungsten carbide tools are used, cutting speeds of 65–70 metres per minute may be used. For non-ferrous material, much higher cutting speeds are permissible. The cutting speed S (or V) of a workpiece of diameter d mm being turned at N rpm (revolutions per minute) is given by:

………………………………………………. 6.1


It is important to know the recommended value of cutting speed for a particular cutting tool and workpiece material combination. In addition to cutting speed, if the diameter of the workpiece (or the tool diameter) is known, the only unknown value is the spindle speed, N. It is a good workshop habit to always perform this calculation before carrying out any machine operation. In practice, the exact calculated spindle speed may not be available on the machine; in this case, the nearest lower speed should be selected.


Feed (Feed rate)

In order to cover a surface during machining, there must not only be speed but an additional movement known as feed to enable the tool pass over the surface of the workpiece. It may be defined as the relatively small movement per cycle of the cutting tool, relative to the workpiece in a direction which is usually perpendicular to the cutting speed direction. It is expressed in millimetres per revolution (mm/rev) or millimetres per stroke (mm/str.). It is a more complex parameter compared to cutting speed, since it is expressed differently for various operations. For example, in turning and drilling, the feed is the axial advance of the tool along or through the job during each revolution of the tool or job; for the shaper and planer, it is lateral offset between the tool and work for each stroke and for multipoint milling cutters, feed is the advance of the work or cutter between the cutting action of two successive teeth (expressed basically as mm/tooth).


Depth of cut

Depth of cut is the distance the tool is advanced into the work at a right angle to the work. It is the thickness of the layer of metal removed in one cut, or pass, measured in a direction perpendicular to the machined surface. The depth of cut is always perpendicular to the direction of feed motion.


Tool Life and Machinability

Retention of hardness at elevated temperatures and a long tool life are desirable characteristics in cutting tools. While cutting speed has been found


to be the most significant factor controlling tool life, depth of cut and feed rate are also important. In fact, cutting at recommended cutting speed results in improved tool life and performance. The plastic deformation and friction inherent in machining generate considerable heat, which raises the temperature of the tool and lowers its wear resistance. The problem is subtle, but significant. As the tool wears, it changes in both geometry and size. A dull cutting edge and change in geometry can result in increased cutting forces that in turn increase deflections in the workpiece and may create a chatter condition. The increased power consumption causes increased heat generation in the operation, which accelerates the wear rate. The change in the size of the tool changes the size of the workpiece. Again, the engineer has only indirect control over these variables. He can select slow speeds, which produce less heat and lower wear rates, but which decrease the production rates because the metal removal rate is decreased. Alternatively, the feed or depth of cut can be increased to maintain the metal removal rate while reducing the speed. Increasing either the feed or depth of cut directly increases the cutting forces. Therefore, while tool life may be gained, some precision may be lost due to increased deflection and chatter. Three main forms of tool wear are encountered in machining. In adhesive wear the tool and the chip weld together at local asperities, and wear occurs by the fracture of the welded junctions. Abrasive wear occurs as a result of hard particles on the underside of the chip abrading the tool face by mechanical action as the chip passes over the rake face. The hard particles can arise from hard constituents of either the workpiece or the tool, or highly strain-hardened fragments of a built-up edge. Finally, tool wear can occur in form of solid-state diffusion from the tool material to the workpiece at high temperatures given the intimate contact between the chip and the rake face of the tool.

Tool life may be considered as the total cutting time accumulated before tool failure occurs. However, it is difficult to give an exact and precise definition of tool life that is devoid of ambiguity. While one definit io n


considers the time taken for tool failure or complete destruction, another may consider time between regrinds, or time for a specific allowable wear land to occur on the tool flank. In general, when a tool can no longer give satisfactory cutting economically, its life has been expended. Hence, tool wear is related to tool life. Cutting speed is the most important cutting parameter influencing tool temperature, and hence, tool life. Taylor studied the effect of cutting speed on tool life and in 1907 arrived at the following empirical relationship: ………………………………………………….. 6.2a

Where V is the cutting speed in (m/min), T is the tool life i.e. the time in (min.) for the flank wear to reach a certain dimension, C is constant and n is an exponent which depends on the cutting conditions. Typical values of the exponent n are: high-speed steel, 0.1; cemented carbide, 0.2; ceramic tool, 0.4. The Taylor equation (6.2a) shows that tool life T decreases with increasing cutting speed V, and the relationship is parabolic. So, if V – T curves are plotted on logarithmic scales, straight lines will be obtained with n as the negative inverse slope and C is the intercept velocity at T = 1. Thus, C is the cutting speed for tool life of 1 min. Equation 6.2b shows the transformed straight line form of the Taylor equation. or ………. 6.2

While cutting speed V is the major variable affecting tool life T, it should be noted that depth of cut d and feed rate per revolution f also influence it. Thus, the Taylor equation is often extended to: …………………………………………….. 6.3

Machinability is another term that is difficult to define quantitatively because it depends on a large number of variables that are complex to estimate. It literally means the ability of a material to be machined. Factors involved in machining include: forces and power absorbed, tool wear and tool life, surface finish, dimensional accuracy, machining cost, properties of workpiece


materials, tool geometry, cutting parameters or conditions, etc. In general, a material has good machinability if the tool wear is low, the tool life is long, the cutting forces are low, the chips are well behaved and break away easily and the surface finish is acceptable.


Cutting Tool Maintenance

Maintenance of cutting tools involves all activities aimed at keeping them in good condition to realize the expected cutting operations without compromising tool life. Knowledge of tool regrinding is required. When this done by hand as is usually the case, it is known as off-hand grinding. An off-hand grinding machine is used with a workpiece (in this case the cutting tool) held by hand and applied to the grinding wheel. Because of this, its use requires stringent safety precautions. The off-hand grinding machine is basically an electric motor having a spindle at each end, each carrying a grinding wheel, also referred to as an abrasive wheel. This arrangement allows a coarse wheel to be mounted at one end and a fine wheel at the other. All rough grinding is carried out using the coarse wheel, leaving the finishing operations to be done on the fine wheel. These machines may be mounted on a bench, when they are often referred to as bench grinders or on a floor-mounted pedestal and referred to as pedestal grinders. The grinding wheel is adequately guarded to protect the operator in the event of the grinding wheel bursting, and the machine must never be run without these guards in position. Eye protection in the form of eye shields, goggles or safety spectacles must be worn by any person operating an offhand grinder. An adjustable work rest is fitted to the front and sometimes to the sides of the grinding wheel to support the cutting tool during grinding. The work rest is adjustable for angle, so that cutting tools rested on it can be ground at a specific angle. The work rest must be adjusted so that at all times the gap between it and the surfaces of the wheel is at a minimum, and it must be properly secured. This prevents the possibility of the workpiece, cutting tool or fingers becoming jammed between the wheel and the work rest.


Grinding should not be done for a long period without cooling the cutting tool. Frequent cooling helps to avoid overheating and the possibility of cracking. The wheels fitted to off-hand grinders are usually chosen for general use to cover a range of materials. These general-grade wheels will not grind cemented carbides, for which a green-grit silicon-carbide wheel is necessary. The floor space around the machine should be kept free of obstructions and slippery substances.


Cutting Fluids

The optimum cutting speed depends upon the tool material, the material to be cut and whether a cutting fluid is being used or not. The purpose of using cutting fluid is to remove heat from the cutting area and to lubricate the tool face so that the friction between chip and tool surface reduces. Air circulation is also essential so as to remove the heat by evaporation. Use of cutting fluid makes cutting process more efficient. Cutting fluids are usually mixtures of water and oils as those are fluids most directly associated with cooling and lubricating respectively. Water is a wonderful coolant owing to its high specific heat capacity. The use of cutting fluids can result in: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Cooling of the tool and workpiece by removal of the heat generated from the cutting zone. Decreased adhesion between chip and tool leading to reduced friction; Decreased wear and tear of cutting tool and hence increasing tool life; Easy washing away of the chips thus keeping the cutting region free. Keeping freshly machined surface bright by giving a protective coating against atmospheric oxygen and thus protects the finished surface from corrosion. The use of higher cutting speeds and feeds; Improved surface finish; Improved machinability and reduced power consumption; Improved control of dimensional accuracy.

vi. vii. viii. ix.


To achieve the above, the ideal cutting fluid should: i. ii. iii. iv. Not corrode the workpiece or machine; Have a low evaporation rate; Be stable and not foam or fume; Not cause irritation to the operator‘s skin or eyes.

6.7.1 Types of Cutting Fluid

Neat cutting oils These oils are neat in so much as they are not mixed with water for the cutting operation. They are usually a blend of a number of different types of mineral oil, together with additives for extreme-pressure applications. Neat cutting oils are used where severe cutting conditions exist, usually when slow speeds and feeds are used or with extremely tough and difficult-to-machine steels. These conditions require lubrication beyond that which can be achieved with soluble oils. In some cases soluble oil cannot be used, due to the risk of water mixing with the hydraulic fluid or the lubricating oil of the machine. A neat oil compatible with those of the machine hydraulic or lubricating system can be used without risk of contamination. Neat cutting oils do not have good cooling properties and it is therefore more difficult to maintain good dimensional accuracy. They are also responsible for dirty and hazardous work areas by seeping from the machine and dripping from workpieces and absorbing dust and grit from the atmosphere. Low-viscosity or thin oils tend to smoke or fume during the cutting operation, and under some conditions are a fire risk. The main advantages of neat cutting oils are their excellent lubricating property and good rust control. Some types do, however, stain non-ferrous metals.

Soluble oils Water is the cheapest cooling medium, but it is unsuitable by itself, mainly because it rusts ferrous metals. In soluble oils, or more correctly emulsions, the excellent cooling property of water is combined with the lubricating and protective qualities of mineral oil. Oil is, of course, not soluble in water, but with the aid of an agent known as an emulsifier it can be broken


down and dispersed as fine particles throughout the water to form an emulsion. Other ingredients are mixed with the oil to give better protection against corrosion, resistance to foaming and attack by bacteria, and prevention of skin irritations. Under severe cutting conditions where cutting forces are high, extreme-pressure (EP) additives are incorporated which do not break down under these extreme conditions but prevent the chip welding to the tool face. Emulsions must be correctly mixed; otherwise the result is a slimy mess. Having selected the correct ratio of oil to water, the required volume of water is measured into a clean tank or bucket and the appropriate measured volume of soluble oil is added gradually at the same time as the water is slowly agitated. This will result in a stable oil/water emulsion ready for immediate use. At dilutions between 1 in 20 and 1 in 25 (i.e. 1 part oil in 20 parts water) the emulsion is milky white and is used as a general-purpose cutting fluid for capstan and centre lathes, drilling, milling and sawing. At dilutions from 1 in 60 to 1 in 80 the emulsion has a translucent appearance, rather than an opaque milky look, and is used for grinding operations. For severe cutting operations, such as gear cutting or broaching and machining tough steels, fluids with EP additives are used at dilutions from 1 in 5 to 1 in 15. It can be adjudged from the above that when the main requirement is direct cooling, as in the case of grinding, the dilution is greater, i.e. 1 in 80. However, when lubrication is the main requirement, as with gear cutting; the dilution is less, i.e. 1 in 5. The advantages of soluble oils over neat cutting oils are their greater cooling capacity, lower cost, reduced smoke and elimination of fire hazard. Disadvantages of soluble oils compared with neat cutting oils are their poorer rust control and that the emulsion can separate, be affected by bacteria and become rancid.

Synthetic fluids Sometimes called chemical solutions, these fluids contain no oil but are a mixture of chemicals dissolved in water to give lubricating and anti-corrosion properties. They form a clear transparent solution with water, and are sometimes artificially coloured. They are very useful in grinding operations, where, being non-oily, they minimise clogging of the grinding wheel and are used at dilutions up to 1 in 80. As they are transparent, the operator can see the


work, which is also important during grinding operations. They are easily mixed with water and do not smoke during cutting. No slippery film is left on the work, machine or floor. They give excellent rust control and do not go rancid. At dilutions of between 1 in 20 and 1 in 30 they can be used for general machining.

Semi-synthetic fluids These are recently developed cutting fluids, sometimes referred to as chemical emulsions. Unlike synthetic fluids, these fluids do have a small amount of oil emulsified in water, as well as dissolved chemicals, but they are not true emulsions. When mixed with water they form extremely stable transparent fluids, with the oil in very small droplets. Like the synthetic types, they are often artificially coloured for easy recognition. They have the advantage over soluble oil of increased control of rust and rancidity and a greater application range. They are safer to use, will not smoke, and leave no slippery film on work, machine, or floor. Depending upon the application, the dilution varies between 1 in 20 and 1 in 100.

Vegetable oils This range of oils are based on specially refined vegetable oils and are used for light and medium duty turning, milling, honing, lapping and highspeed grinding operations on a wide range of materials. Being oil, it is a natural lubricant which contributes to a good tool life and improved surface finish of the machined workpiece. It is claimed to produce lower mist levels than the mineral cutting oils and does not stain yellow metals, e.g. brass. The product is non-toxic and is biodegradable making it environmentally friendly.

6.7.2 Cutting Fluids versus Workpiece Materials The following list of lubricants should be used as a guide only for the corresponding workpiece materials:  Aluminum and aluminum alloys: Kerosene, kerosene and lard oil, and soluble oil


 Brass and bronze: Dry. For deep holes; use kerosene (paraffin) and mineral oil, lard oil, and soluble oil  Magnesium and magnesium alloys: Mineral lard oil, kerosene, or dry  Copper: Mineral lard oil and kerosene, soluble oil, or dry  Monel metal: Mineral lard oil  Low-carbon steels: Mineral lard oil  Tough alloy steels: Sulfurized oil  Steel forgings: Sulfurized oil  Cast steel: Soluble oil  Wrought iron: Soluble oil  High-tensile steels: Soluble oil  Manganese steel: Dry  Cast iron: Mineral oil  Malleable iron: Soluble oil or dry  Stainless steel: Soluble oil  Titanium alloys: Soluble oil  Tool steel: Mineral lard oil  Abrasives, plastics: Dry  Fiber, asbestos, wood: Dry  Hard rubber: Dry

6.7.3 Application of Cutting Fluids Next to correct selection of the type of cutting fluid to be used in a given situation, is how to apply it correctly. Cutting fluids should be applied generously at low pressure to flood the work area. Flooding has the added advantage of washing away the chips produced. Fluid fed at high pressure is not recommended, since it breaks or atomizes into a fine spray or mist and fails to cool or lubricate the cutting zone. To cope with the large flow of fluid, the machines must have adequate splash guards, otherwise the operator tends to reduce the flow and the resulting dribble does little to improve cutting. Many methods have been used to direct the fluid into the cutting zone and from every possible direction. The shape of the nozzle is important but depends largely on the operation being carried out and on the shape of the workpiece. The nozzle may be a simple large-bore pipe or be flattened as a fan shape to provide a


longer stream. The main flow may be split into a number of streams directed in different directions – up, down or from the sides – or, by means of holes drilled in a length of pipe, create a cascade effect. In some cases, especially with grinding, where the wheel speed creates air currents which deflect the cutting fluid, deflector plates are fitted to the pipe outlet. Where the cutting tool is vertical, it can be surrounded by a pipe having a series of holes drilled into the bore and directed towards the cutting tool. Whatever the method used, the fundamental need is to deliver continuously an adequate amount of cutting fluid where it is required.

6.7.4 Safety in the Use of Cutting Fluids Cutting fluids can affect the health of those exposed to them in various ways: by contact with the skin, by contact with the eyes, if they are breathed in with air as small droplets or vapour or if they are swallowed. The possible effects of these can normally be avoided by good housekeeping and a high standard of personal hygiene. The following precautions, if observed, will reduce or eliminate the likely hazards.

 Working methods should be employed that avoid direct skin contact with      
oils, e.g. machine splash guards and correct handling procedures should be used. Adequate local exhaust ventilation should be provided for areas where vapour and mists are generated. Adequate protective clothing should be worn. Only disposa le ‗wipes‘ or clean rags should e used. Contaminated rags and tools should never be put into overall pockets. A barrier cream should be applied to the hands and exposed areas of the arms before starting work and on resuming work after a break. Hands should be thoroughly washed using suitable hand cleaners and warm water and dried using a clean towel before, as well as after, going to the toilet, before eating, and at the end of each shift. Conditioning cream, applied after washing, replaces fatty matter in the skin and helps prevent dryness.


 Contaminated clothing, especially undergarments, should be changed    
regularly and be thoroughly cleaned before re-use. Overalls should be cleaned frequently. Paraffin, petrol and similar solvents should not be used for skin-cleansing purposes. All cuts and scratches must receive prompt medical attention. You should seek prompt medical advice if you notice any skin abnormality

 Examples

Example 6.1: Find the cutting speed of a 50 mm diameter bar being turned with a spindle speed of 178 rev/min. Solution:

Example 6.2: Find the cutting speed of a 15 mm diameter drill running at 955 rev/min. Solution:

Example 6.3: At what spindle speed would a 200 mm diameter high-speed-steel milling cutter be run to machine a steel workpiece, if the cutting speed is 28 m/min? Solution:


Example 6.4: What spindle speed would be required to turn a 150 mm diameter cast iron component using cemented-tungsten-carbide tooling at a cutting speed is 160 m/min?


Example 6.5: A cylindrical job 100 mm diameter is to be turned at a cutting speed of 25 m/min, the feed being 1.5 mm/rev. if the length of the job is 150 mm find the time required for 1 cut.

Solution: Step 1: Find the N in rev/min of the workpiece;

Step 2: Find the number of revolutions to cut a length of 150 mm;

Step 3: Time for one cut



1. Which of the two materials, diamond or cubic boron nitride, is more suitable for machining steels? Why? 2. Ceramic and cermet cutting tools have certain advantages over carbide tools. Why, then, are carbide tools not replaced to a greater extent? 3. What are the effects of performing a cutting operation with: (i) a dull tool tip? (ii) A very sharp tip? 4. Explain whether or not it is desirable to have a high or low (i) n value and (ii) C value in the Taylor tool-life equation. 5. Describe the effects of cutting fluids on chip formation. Explain why and how they influence the cutting operation. 6. Under what conditions would you discourage the use of cutting fluids? Explain. 7. It has been noted that tool life can be almost infinite at low cutting speeds. Would you then recommend that all machining be done at low speeds? Explain. 8. The Taylor tool-life equation of a certain material was found to be 1190. Find the value of the exponent n for a cutting speed of 300 m/min if the tool life is 192 minutes.



ASM International (1999): ASM Handbook Volume 16 – Machining, Electronic Edition; Cleveland, Ohio: Materials Park Bruce J. Black (2004): Workshop Processes, Practices and Materials, Third Edition; Amsterdam: Elsevier Childs, T; Maekawa K; Obikawa, T and Yamane, Y (2000), Metal Machining: Theory and Applications; London: Arnold Dieter, G.E. and Bacon, D. (1988): Mechanical Metallurgy, SI Metric Edition; London: McGraw-Hill Book Co (UK) Gupta, H.N., Gupta, R.C. and Mittal, A. (2009): Manufacturing Processes, Second Edition; New Delhi: New Age International Publishers Kalpakjian, S and S.R. Schmid (2008): Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, Fifth Edition; Pearson Education Inc.: Upper Saddle River, NJ Khurmi, R.S. and Gupta, J.K. (2004): A Textbook of Workshop Technology (Manufacturing Processes), Sixth Edition; New Delhi: S. Chand & Co. Ltd Sharma, P.C. (2004): A Textbook of Production Technology (Manufacturing Processes), Fifth Edition; New Delhi: S. Chand & Co. Ltd Singh, R. (2006) Introduction to Basic Manufacturing Processes and Workshop Technology; New Delhi: New Age Inter. Pub. Timings, R (2008): Fabrication and Welding Engineering; Amsterdam: Elsevier Venkatesh, V.C. and Chandrasekaran, H (1987): Experimental Techniques in Metal Cutting; New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India Walsh, R. A. (2001): Handbook of Machining and Metalworking Calculations; New York: McGraw-Hill





Drilling is a machining process used extensively by which through or blind holes are originated or enlarged in a workpiece, WP. It involves making a hole in a piece of material by using a rotating tool called drill (Figure 7.1). A twist drill is the usual cutting tool and it is used in conjunction with machine tools known as drilling machines. A twist drill has two cutting edges; hence it is a multiple point cutting tool. The rotating cutting tool is fed along its axis of rotation into a stationary workpiece (Figure 7.2).

The axial feed rate f is usually very small when compared to the peripheral speed v. Drilling is considered a roughing operation and, therefore, the accuracy and surface finish in drilling are generally not of much concern. If high accuracy and good finish are required, drilling must be followed by some other operation such as reaming, boring, or grinding.


Common Types of Drills

Drills are available in a variety of types, and several of these types are illustrated in Fig. 7.3. Size ranges vary; some drills can be obtained as standard tools up to 90 mm (3 in.) in diameter, and as special-order tools in even larger

sizes. The type of shank (straight or taper), the proportionate dimensions of flutes and shanks, and the helix angle also vary widely. The most commonly used drill, the twist drill, will be used to illustrate the geometry and terminologies associated with drills.

Figure 7.3: Commonly used types of drills

7.2.1 Twist Drill A twist drill is shown duly labeled in Fig. 7.4. A standard twist drill is characterized by a geometry in which the normal rake and the velocity of the cutting edge are a function of their distance from the center of the drill. Referring to the terminology of twist drill shown in Figure 7.4, the helix angle of the twist drill is the equivalent of the rake angle of other cutting tools. The standard helix is 30°, which, together with a point angle of 118°, is suitable for drilling steel and cast iron, CI. Drills with a helix angle of 20°, known as slow-helix drills, are available with a point of 118° for cutting brass and bronze, and with a point of 90° for cutting plastics. Quick helix drills, with a helix angle of 40° and a point of 100°, are suitable for drilling softer materials such as aluminum alloys and copper. Twist drills usually have a taper shank, at the end which is fitted into the drilling machine having a tapered sleeve of matching taper. When the tapered sleeve rotates, the twist drill also rotates along with it due to the

friction between two tapered surfaces. Sometimes the shank is machined parallel, and then a special collet chuck is fitted in the drilling machine, in which the drill is held. The drill has two lips at the other end where the cutting takes place, when the drill rotates. The angle between the two cutting lips is usually 118°. The chips formed at the cutting edges are automatically guided upwards through the helical grooves cut into the body of the drill; these grooves are called flutes. This is necessary; otherwise, the chips will interfere with the metal cutting. For rotating the drill and to overcome the resistance in cutting, a torque is needed to rotate the drill. An axial force is also needed which keeps pushing the drill deeper and deeper into the hole being drilled. This is provided by the machine feed. Machine feed is the downward axial movement of the drill per revolution of drill.

Figure 7.4: Terminology of a standard point twist drill


The drill will not start cutting the metal, if its bottom touches the metal surface superficially. This is on account of the chisel edge which does not allow the cutting edges to come into the contact with metal and start cutting until the chisel edge penetrates the metal surface by about a mm or so. To facilitate the cutting action, a little depression is made by a punch at the centre of the hole to be drilled. Twist drills are made of solid high speed steel, hardened and ground to shape. Drills with tungsten carbide inserts are also available.

7.2.2 Selection of Drills The type of drill selected for a given application depends on:        Composition and hardness of the work metal Rigidity of the tooling setup Dimensions of the hole to be drilled Type of machine used to rotate the drill or the workpiece Whether the drill is used for originating or enlarging holes Tolerances on the hole to be drilled Whether related operations, such as countersinking, must be performed with drilling  Cost


Drilling Allied Operations

Drilling allied or alternative operations such as core drilling, center drilling, counter-boring, counter-sinking, spot facing, reaming, tapping, and other operations can also be performed on drilling machines as shown in Figure 7.5. Accordingly, the main and feed motions are the same as in drilling; that is, the drill rotates while it is fed into the stationary WP. In these processes, the tool shape and geometry depend upon the machining process to be performed. The same operations can be accomplished in some other machine by holding the tool stationary and rotating the work. The most general example is performing these processes on a center lathe, in which the tool (drill, counterbore, reamer, tap, and so on) is held in the tailstock and the work is held and rotated by a chuck.


Figure 7.5: Drilling and drilling allied operations

Some important operations closely associated with drilling i.e. drilling allied processes are as follows: 1. Core drilling: This is performed for the purpose of enlarging holes, as shown in Figure 7.5. Holes made in castings by use of cores, are rough and require a special kind of drill, called core drill to clean up the holes. This operation is called core drilling. Higher dimensional and form accuracy and improved surface quality can be obtained by this operation. It is usually an intermediate operation between drilling and reaming. Similar allowances should be considered for both reaming and core drilling. Core drills are of three or four-flutes; they have no web or chisel edge and consequently provide better guidance into the hole than ordinary twist drills. It is recommended to enlarge holes with core drills wherever possible, instead of drilling with a larger drill. This process is much more efficient than boring large diameter holes with a single drill. 2. Step drilling: More than one diameter can be ground on the drill body which saves an extra operation (Fig. 7.5). 3. Counter-boring and counter-sinking: Often a flat surface is needed around a hole to provide a good seating area for washer and nuts/head of a


bolt. The counter boring tool has a pilot, which ensures that the counterbore is concentric with the hole (Fig.7.5). Counter sinking provides a tapered entrance to the hole. A special counter sinking tool with a pilot is used as shown (Fig. 7.5). Counterboring and countersinking are used for machining cylindrical and tapered recesses respectively in previously drilled holes. Such recesses are used for embedding the heads of screws and bolts, when these heads must not extend over the surface. Closely related to counterboring is spot-facing, the purpose of which is to produce a flat seat for a bolt head or a nut in an otherwise uneven surface. Bolt heads and nuts must always sit on a surface that is smooth and square to the axis of the bolt hole so that the shank of the bolt does not become bent. The spot-facing cutter is similar to a counterbore cutter except that the cutter diameter is much larger relative to the diameter of the pilot that fits in the previously drilled hole. This is because the spot-facing cutter has to provide a seating large enough to clear the corners of the hexagon bolt or nut for which it is providing a seating.

4. Reaming: Reaming is an operation of sizing and improving the geometry and finish of a previously drilled hole (fig. 7.5). It is a hole-finishing process intended to true up the hole to obtain high dimensional and form accuracy. Although it is recommended to be performed after core drilling, it may be performed after drilling. Reamers may be hand or mechanical, cylindrical or taper, straight- or helical-fluted, and standard or adjustable.

5. Center drilling: This is a combined operation of drilling and countersinking. Center drills are used for making center holes in blanks and shaft (Fig. 7.5).

6. Deep-hole drilling: Where the length-to-diameter ratio of the hole is 10 or more, the work is rotated by a chuck and supported by a steady rest, while the drill is fed axially. The following special types of drills are used: Gun drills for drilling holes up to 25 mm in diameter. Half-round drills for


drilling holes over 25 mm in diameter. Trepanning drills for annular drilling of holes over 80 mm in diameter, leaving a core that enters the drill during operation.

7. Tapping: Tapping is also done on a drilling machine with a special flexible adapter for holding machine taps. Tapping means cutting internal threads in a hole. A machine tap set consists of two taps rough and finish. Both taps should be used in the same order. During tapping, the spindle r.p.m. is drastically reduced and a good lubricant used.


Types of Drilling Machines

Drilling can be done on a variety of machine tools, such as lathes, milling machines, and boring machines; since, the basic work and tool motions that are required for drilling [i.e. relative rotation between the workpiece and the tool, with relative longitudinal feeding] also occur in a number of other machining operations. This section will focus however, on machines that are designed, constructed, and used primarily for drilling.


Figure 7.6: Principal parts and movements of a single-spindle upright drill press

Drilling machines, called drill presses, consist of a base, a column that supports a powerhead, a spindle, and a worktable, as depicted in Fig. 7.6. On small machines, the base rests on a bench, but on larger machines, it rests on the floor. A column on a base carries a table for the workpiece and a spindle head. The table is raised or lowered manually, often by an elevating screw, and can be clamped to the column for rigidity. Some tables are round and can be swiveled. On vertical drill presses with round columns, the tables can generally be swung out from under the spindle so that the workpieces can be mounted on the base.

Among the kinds of drilling machines are: i. ii. iii. Hand drill – used for very light work. It is held with the left hand while the right hand turns the crank which causes the drill to turn. Portable electric drill – also handheld but in this case, an electric motor turns the drill. Hand-feed drill press – the simplest drill press which can be of the bench or floor type. The workpiece is clamped on a vise and placed on a table which can be moved up or down the column or pillar. The drill is fed manually hence hand-feed drill presses can e called ―sensitive‖ ecause you can ‗feel‘ the force acting on the drill in the feed handle. Figure 7.7 is a typical example. Back-geared upright drill press – much like the sensitive drill press except that it is larger and more powerful. It has gears for changing the speeds. In addition to feeding by hand as on the sensitive drill press, this machine has an automatic feed, i.e. it uses electric power to lower the drill. Gang drill – is a drilling machine in which two or more drill presses are ―ganged‖ together into one machine. It is used mainly in mass production situations. Multiple-spindle drill press – has a number of spindles fastened to the main spindle with universal joints. Each of these spindles holds a drill and all the drills run at once. It is also used in mass production drilling. Radial drill press – is used for large workpieces, such as machine frames, which cannot be secured well in the column-type [vertical] machines and cannot be moved easily to drill several holes. The radial drill has an arm which can be moved up and down the pillar, and be swung about the pillar axis so that the position of the drill can be changed easily. This is illustrated in fig. 7.8.






Figure 7.7: A typical sensitive drilling machine

Figure 7.8: Radial drilling machine



Tool Holding

Drills and similar tools with parallel shanks are held in a drill chuck, Fig. 7.9. Many different types of chuck are available, each being adjustable over its complete range, and give good gripping power. By rotating the outer sleeve, the jaws can be opened and closed. To ensure maximum grip, the chuck should be tightened using the correct size of chuck key. This prevents the drill from spinning during use and chewing up the drill shank. A hazard in the use of chucks is the possibility of leaving a chuck key in position. When the machine is then switched on, the chuck key can fly in any direction and cause serious injury. When you remove a drill from the chuck, always remember to remove the chuck key. Never leave it in the chuck for even the shortest time. A better measure is to use a safety chuck key (Fig. 7.10) which ensures that the central pin is spring-loaded and must be pushed to engage. When the force is released, the pin retracts and the key falls from the chuck.


Work Holding (Clamping)

Work is held on a drilling machine by clamping to the worktable, in a vice or, in the case of production work, in a jig. It is worth noting that work held in a jig will be accurately drilled more quickly than by the other methods, but large quantities of the workpiece must be required to justify the additional cost of the equipment. Standard equipment in any workshop is a vice and a collection of clamps, studs, bolts, nuts and packing. It should be stressed that work being drilled should never be held by hand. High forces are transmitted by a revolving drill, especially when the drill is breaking through the bottom surface, which can wrench the work from your hand. The resulting injuries can vary from a small cut to the loss of a finger. Never take a chance – always clamp securely. Small workpieces with parallel faces can be quite adequately held in a vice. The work is then positioned under the drill and the vice is clamped to the worktable. Larger work and sheet metal are best clamped direct on to the worktable, care of course being taken to avoid drilling into the worktable surface. When required, the work can be raised off the worktable surface by means of suitable packing or on parallels. Tee slots are provided in


the worktable surface into which are fitted tee bolts, or tee nuts in which studs are screwed, Fig. 7.11. Various styles and shapes of clamp are available, one of which is shown in Fig. 7.12. The central slot enables it to be adjusted to suit the workpiece. To provide sound clamping, the clamp should be reasonably level, and this is achieved by packing under the rear of the clamp to as near as possible the same height as the workpiece, Fig. 7.13. The clamping bolt should be placed close to the work, since the forces on the work and packing are inversely proportional to their distances from the bolt. For greatest clamping force on the work, distance A in Fig. 8.8 must be less than distance B.

Figure 7.11: Tee nut and tee bolt



Drilling Operations

Unless the workpiece is held in a drill jig, the position of holes on a workpiece must be marked out. When the position of a hole is determined, its centre is indicated by means of a centre dot, using a centre punch. This centre dot is used to line up the drill and as a means of starting the drill in the correct position. The workpiece is set on the worktable, carefully positioned under the drill, using the centre dot, and clamped in position as shown in Fig. 7.14. Two clamps are usually required, one at each side of the component.

Figure 7.14: Component clamped on drilling machine

When held in a vice, the workpiece should be positioned and the vice be tightened securely. The workpiece is then positioned under the drill as before and the vice is clamped to the worktable. In positioning the workpiece, take care to avoid drilling into the vice or worktable. If necessary, raise the workpiece on parallels, Fig. 7.14. Having carefully lined up and clamped the


workpiece, begin drilling, taking care that the drill is still central with your required position. Small-diameter drills will start in the correct position with the aid of the centre dot; large-diameter drills with a long chisel edge require other means to assist in starting. The best method is to use a smaller diameter drill on the centre dot, but stop before it cuts to its full diameter. The larger drill will start in its correct position guided by the 118 o dimple produced by the smaller drill. A properly sharpened drill run at the correct speed will produce a spiral type of chip from each cutting edge. As the hole becomes deeper, the chips tend to pack in the flutes and the drill may have to be removed from the hole periodically to clear the chips. Most trouble in drilling arises when the drill breaks through the far surface. The chisel edge of a drill centres and guides it through the workpiece, keeping the hole straight. When the chisel edge breaks through, it can no longer guide the drill and keep it central, and the drill will wobble and bounce in its own hole, an occurrence known as ‗chatter‘. When the complete drill point has almost broken through, there is a tendency for the drill to ‗snatch‘ or ‗gra ‘. This happens when the metal still to be cut is so thin that it is pushed aside rather than cut and the drill pulls itself through due to the helix angle – in the same way as a screw thread advances. To avoid these problems when breaking through, great care should be taken to avoid rapid feeding. Holes can be drilled to a particular depth by setting the depth stop on the machine. The workpiece is positioned as already described, and drilling is started until the drill is just cutting its full diameter. The machine is switched off and the stationary drill is brought down into contact with the workpiece. The depth stop is set to the required dimension by adjusting it to leave the required space above the spindlehead casting and it is then locked in position, Fig. 7.15. Where holes in two parts are required to line up with each other, a technique known as ‗spotting‘ is carried out. The top part is marked out and drilled as already described. The two parts are then carefully positioned and clamped together. The holes in the bottom part are then transferred by ‗spotting‘ through from the top part. Drilling of the bottom part can then


proceed in the knowledge that both sets of holes are identical, which may not be the case if both parts are marked out and drilled individually. When the two parts are to be screwed together, the bottom part requires to be tapped while the top part requires a clearance hole. The sequence is the same as for spotting except that, having positioned, clamped, and spotted with the clearance drill, the drill is changed to the tapping size. The hole is then drilled and tapped, Fig. 7.16.

7.7.1 Drilling Sheet Metal and Plastics The same problems already discussed in the case thin workpieces i.e. when the drill breaks through, also apply to drilling sheet metal. The problems are increased with thin sheet, since the chisel edge can break through before the drill is cutting its full diameter, due to the length of the drill point and the thinness of the material. In this case there is no guide at all – the drill will wander and produce a hole to some odd shape. Producing these odd-shaped holes is known as ‗lobing‘. The same pro lem arises with ‗snatching‘ or ‗gra ing‘ – the thinner metal is pushed aside and the drill screws itself through. A further problem associated with this is damage to the metal sheet. A drill pushed with too much force tends to distort the thin sheet initially, rather than cut, and the resulting series of bulges around the holes is unacceptable. These problems can be overcome by supporting the sheet on a piece of unwanted or waste metal plate. The support prevents distortion and the drill


point is guided until the hole is drilled through. There is no problem of breaking through, since the operation is the same as drilling a blind hole, Fig. 7.17.

Figure 7.17: Thin sheet clamped to waste material

Plastics materials are easily machined using high-speed-steel cutting tools, although some plastics containing abrasive fillers wear out tools very quickly and the use of diamond tools is essential. Thermosetting plastics can be drilled using standard high-speed-steel twist drills. The chips from thermoplastic materials tend to stick and pack the flutes and cause overheating, which can affect the composition of the material. To prevent this, slow-helix drills with wide highly polished flutes are available. Point thinning can also be carried out to reduce friction and heat at the centre of the drill point. A better finish on breakthrough can be obtained by sharpening the point angle at 90o. To avoid chipping on breakthrough when drilling the more brittle materials such as Perspex, the material should be held firmly against a solid backing such as a block of hardwood. Use of hardwood prevents damage to the drill point.

 Examples

Example 7.1: Calculate the time needed to drill a 10 mm diameter hole through a pole 50 mm thick. The cutting speed is to be 15 m/min and the feed 0.20 mm/rev.



Step 1: Find the N in rev/min of the drill;

Step 2: Find the number of revolutions to drill a depth of 50 mm;

Step 3: Time for drilling through the thickness of 50 mm


QUESTIONS 9. It will be noted that the helix angle for drills is different for different groups of workpiece materials. Why? 10. State the purpose of a counterboring, countersinking and spot facing.


ASM International (1999): ASM Handbook Volume 16 – Machining, Electronic Edition; Cleveland, Ohio: Materials Park Bruce J. Black (2004): Workshop Processes, Practices and Materials, Third Edition; Amsterdam: Elsevier Childs, T; Maekawa K; Obikawa, T and Yamane, Y (2000), Metal Machining: Theory and Applications; London: Arnold Sharma, P.C. (2004): A Textbook of Production Technology (Manufacturing Processes), Fifth Edition; New Delhi: S. Chand & Co. Ltd Singh, R. (2006) Introduction to Basic Manufacturing Processes and Workshop Technology; New Delhi: New Age Inter. Pub. Timings, R (2008): Fabrication and Welding Engineering; Amsterdam: Elsevier Youssef, H.A. and El-Hofy, H (2008): Machining Technology: Machine Tools and Operations, Boca Raton: CRC Press.





Turning is carried out on a lathe of some description, the type depending on the complexity of the work piece and the quantity required. All lathes are derived from the center lathe, so called since the majority of work in the past was done between centers, to ensure concentricity of diameters. This is no longer the case, as accurate methods of work holding are now available. Center lathes are made in a variety of sizes and are identified by the maximum size of work piece which can be machined. The most important capacity is the largest diameter which can be rotated over the bed of the machine, and this is known as the swing. A center lathe with a swing of 330 mm will accept this diameter of woke piece without it hitting the machine bed. It should be noted that this maximum diameter cannot be accepted over the whole length of the bed, since the cross slide is raised and will there fore reduce the swing. In the case of a 330 mm swing machine, the swing over the cross slide is 210 mm. The second important capacity is the maximum length of woke piece which can be held between the center of the machine. A center lathe with a swing of 330 mm may, for example, accommodate 630 mm between centers.


Centre-lathe Elements A typical center lathe showing the main machine element is in fig. 8.1.

Bed The lathe bed is the foundation of complete machine. It is made from cast iron, designed with thick section to ensure complete rigidity and freedom from vibration. On the top surface, two sets of guideways are provided, each set consisting of an inverted vee and a flat, fig. 8.2. The arrangement shown may vary on different machines. The outer guideways guide the slide, and the


inner guideways guide the tailstock and keep it in line with the machine spindle. The guideways are hardened and accurately ground.

Two style of bed are available: a straight bed, where the guideways are continuous over the length of the bed, and a gap bed where a section of the


guide ways under the spindle nose can be moved. Removal of this section increases the swing of the lathe, but only for a shot distance, fig. 8.3. For example, the 330 mm swing-lathe with a gap bed increases its swing to 480 mm for a length of 115 mm. The bed is securely bolted to a heavy-gauge steel cabinet containing electrical connections and a tool cupboard, and provides a full-length cuttingfluid and swarf tray.

Headstock The complete headstock consists of a box-shaped casting rigidly clamped to the guideways of the bed and contains the spindle, gears to provide a range of twelve spindle speed, and levers for speed selection. The drive is obtained from the main motor through vee belts and pulleys and a series of gears of the spindle. The speed range is from 40 to 2500 rev/min.

The spindle is supported at each end by precision taper- roller bearing and is bored through to accept bar material. The inside of spindle nose has a Morse taper to accept centers. The outside of the spindle nose is equipped with means of locating and securing the chuck, faceplate, or other workholding device. The method shown in fig. 8.4, known as a cam-lock, provide a quick, easy safe means of securing workholding equipment to the spindle nose.

The spindle nose has a taper which locates the workholding device, and on the outside diameter of the spindle nose are three cams which coincide with three holes in the face. The workholding device has three studs containing cut-outs into which the cams lock fig. 8.4 (a) and (c).


Figure 8.4 cam-lock spindle nose

To mount a workholding device, ensure that the locating surfaces of part are clean. Check that the index line on each cam lines up with the corresponding line on the spindle nose, fig. 8.4(A). Mount the workholding device on the spindle nose, ensuring that the scribed reference lines A and B on the spindle nose and the workholding device line up. These lines assist subsequent remounting. Lock each cam by turning clockwise, using the key provide. For correct locking conditions, each cam most tighten with its index line between the two vee mark on the spindle nose, fig. 8.4 (b); if this dose not happen, do not continue but inform your supervisor or instructor who can then carry out the necessary adjustment. Since each workholding device is adjusted to suit a particular spindle, it is not advisable to interchange spindlemounted equipment between lathes. Removal of equipment is carried out by rotating each cam anticlockwise until the index lines coincide and equipment is carried then pulling the equipment away from the spindle nose. The gearbox, fitted on the lower side of the headstock, provides the range of feeds to the saddle and cross slide through the feed shift, and the screw- cutting range through the leadscrew. By selecting the appropriate combination of lever position in accordance with a table on the machine, a wide range of feed rates and thread pitches can be obtained.


Tailstock The function of the tailstock is to hold a center when tuning between centers, or to act as a support at the end of long workpiece. Alternatively, the tailstock is used to hold drills and reamers when producing holes. The tailstock can be moved on its guideways along the length of the bed and lock in any position. The quill contains a Morse-taper bore to accommodate centers, chucks, drills, and reamers and is graduated on its outer top surface for use when drilling to depth. It can be fed in or out by means of the handwheel at the rear. Positive lock of the quill is carried out by means of a handle operating an eccentric pin.

Saddle The saddle rest on top o the bed and is guided by two guide ways which, for stability, are the two furthest apart. Accurate movement is thus maintained relative to the center line of the spindle and tailstock for the complete length of bed. The top surface contains the dovetail slide way into which the cross-slide is located and the cross- slide lead screw, complete with hand wheel and graduate dial, fig. 8.5.

Figure 8.5 Saddle Cross-slide

Mounted in the dovetail slideway on top surface of the cross-slide moves at right angle to the center line of the machine spindle. Adjustment for wear is provided by a tapered gib strip, which can be pushed further into the slide and slideway by the screw as wear takes place. Attached to the underside


of the cross-slide is the lead screw nut through which movement is transmitted from the leadscrew. Power feed is available to the cross-slide. The top surface contains a radial tee slot into which to tee bolt are fitted. The central spigot locates the slideway for the top slide, which can be rotated and clamped at any angle by means of the tee bolt. Graduations are provided for this purpose, fig. 8.6. On the lathe show, external dovetails are provided along each side of the cross-slide, for quick accurate attachment of rear-mount accessories.

Top slide The top slide shown in fig. 8.6 often referred to as the compound slide, fits on its slideway and can be adjusted for wear by means of a gib strip and adjusting screw. Movement is transmitted by the leadscrew through a nut on the slideway. A toolpost usually four- way hand-indexing, is located on the top surface and can be locked in the desired position by the locking handle. Movement of this slide is usually quite short, 92mm on the machine illustrated, and only hand feed is available. Used in conjunction with the swivel base, it is used to turn short tapers.

Figure 8.6 Cross slide and top slide


Apron The apron is attached to the underside of the saddle of the front of the machine and contains the gear for transmission of movement from the leadscrew and feed shaft. Sixteen feed rates from 0.03 to 1 mm per revolution are provided. On the front are from handles to engaged the leadscrew and feed shaft. Also mounted on the front is the handwheel for longitudinal traverse of the carriage along the bed, this movement being transmitted through gear to a rack fixed on the underside of the bed. The complete assembly of apron, saddle, and slides is known as the carriage. The spindle control on the apron is operated by lifting for spindle reverse, lowering for spindle forward, and mid position for stop.


Center- lathe controls The various control of a typical center lathe is show in fig. 8.7.

Before starting the machine, ensure that feed-engage lever (20) and the threadcutting lever (17) are in the disengaged position. Select the feed axis required, i.e. longitudinal travel of carriage or cross-slide, by means of the apron push-pull knob (19). Select the direction of feed by means of selector handle (7): Select the feed rate required by referring to the charts on the headstock and selecting the appropriate position of selector dial (3) and handles (4), (5), and (6). Select the spindle speed by means of selector handles (10) and (11). Switch on the main electrical supply at the mains isolator (2). Start the spindle by lifting the spindle-control lever (18) for reverse or lowering it for forward. The mid position is ‗stop‘. Start and stop the feed motion as required by means of the feed-engage lever (20). Do not attempt to change speeds and feeds when the spindle is running-always stop the machine first.


Stopping the machine The machine can be stopped by returning the spindle-control lever (18) to its central stop position. Alternatively, press the emergency-stop push button (8) or depress the full-length foot brake pedal (22).



Workpieces can be held in a centre lathe by a variety of methods depending on the shape and the operation being carried out. The most common method of holding work is in a chuck mounted on the end of the spindle. Several types of chuck are available, the most common being the three-jaw self-centring chuck, the four-jaw independent chuck, and the collet chuck.


Three-jaw self-centring scroll chuck This chuck, Fig. 8.8 is used to hold circular or hexagonal workpieces and is available in sizes from 100 mm to 600mm. it operates by means of a pinion engaging in a gear on the front of which is a scroll, all encased in the chuck body. The chuck jaws, which are numbered and must be inserted in the correct order, have teeth which engage in the scroll and are guided in a slot in the face of the chuck body. As the pinion is rotated by a chuck key, the scroll rotates, causing all three jaws to move simultaneously and automatically centre the work.

Figure 8.8: Three-jaw chuck

Two sets of jaws are usually supplied: those which grip externally while turning, facing, and boring, Fig. 8.9(a), and those which grip internally while the outside diameter of face is machined, Fig. 8.9(b).

Figure 8.9 (a) Outside, and (b) inside jaws


Four-jaw independent chuck The four-jaw independent chuck, Fig. 8.10, is used to hold, rectangular, and irregular shaped work which cannot be held in the three-jaw self-centring type. It is available in sizes from 150mm to 1060mm. as the name implies, each jaw is operated independently by means of a screw – the jaws do not move simultaneously.

Fig. 8.10 Four-jaw independent chuck

Although the jaws are numbered and must be replaced in the appropriate slot, they are reversible, due to the single-screw operation. Concentric rings are machined in the front face to aid setting up the work, and tee slots are sometimes provided on the front face for additional clamping or packing of awkward workpieces.

Collet chuck This type of chuck, fig. 8.11, fits on the spindle nose and is convenient for bar and the smaller-diameter workpieces. Having fewer moving parts than the moving-jaw types makes it more accurate. It is more compact and does not have the same overhang from the spindle nose, and work can be machined up to the front of the collet. All-round gripping of the component makes it ideal


for holding tube and thin-walled workpieces which tend to collapse in the three-or four-jaw chucks.

Fig. 8.11 Collet chuck

In the model shown in Fig. 8.12, each collet is produced with a number of blades and will accommodate slight size variation up to 3 mm.

Fig. 8.12 Multi-size collet

Chuck keys Accidents occur when chuck keys are left in the chuck and the machine is inadvertently switched on. No matter for how short a period, never leave the chuck key in the chuck. Safety chuck keys, Fig. 8.13, are now available which are spring-loaded and, if left in position, pop out and fall from the chuck.


Faceplate The faceplate, Fig. 8.14, is used for workpieces which cannot be easily held by any of the other methods. When fixed to the machine, the face is square to the machine spindle centre line. A number of slots are provided in the face for clamping purposes. Workpieces can be clamped to the faceplate surface but, where there is a risk of machining the faceplate, the workpiece must be raised from the surface on parallels before clamping. Positioning of the workpiece depends upon its shape and the accuracy required.

Fig. 8.13 Safety chuck key

Flat plates which require a number of holes are easily positioned by marking out the hole positions and using a centre drill in a drilling machine to centre each position. A centre in the tailstock is then used to locate the centre position and hold the workpiece against the faceplate while clamping is carried out, Fig. 8.14

Fig. 8.14 Locating workpiece on faceplate


Workpieces which already contain a hole which is to be enlarged, e.g. cored holes in a casting, can be marked out to produce a box in the correct position, the sides of which are the same length as the diameter of the required hole. Roughly positioned and lightly clamped, the workpiece can be set accurately using a scriber in a surface gauge resting on the cross-slide surface. The faceplate is rotated by hand and the workpiece is tapped until all of the scribed lines are the same height, indicating that the hole is on centre, Fig. 8.15. The workpiece is then securely clamped.

Fig. 8.15 Setting workpiece on a faceplate

Accurate positioning of holes in a plate can be done with the aid of toolmaker‘s uttons. These consist of a hardened and ground steel ush of known diameter with the ends ground square ad a flanged screw. The required hole-positions are marked out and a hole is drilled and tapped to suit the screw. The accuracy of the drilled and tapped hole is not important, as there is plenty of clearance between the screw and the bore for the button to be moved about. The button is then held on the work by the screw and is accurately positioned using a dial indicator on the button, Fig. 8.1(b). the workpiece is securely clamped and the button is removed. The hole is drilled and bored in the knowledge that it is in the correct position. This is repeated for the remaining holes.


Fig. 8.16 Using toolmaker’s buttons

Precautions for faceplate work: When the workpiece has been clamped, check each nut and screw to ensure it is tight. Turn the faceplate by hand and check that all bolts and clamps are clear of the bed, cross slide, or toolpost. To ensure this, avoid using excessively long clamping olts. Check for ‗out of alance‘ of the faceplate- a counterbalance may be required.

Centres Components having a number of diameters which are required to be concentric can be machined between centres. A centre is inserted in the spindle nose, using a reducing bush supplied for this purpose. This centre rotates with the spindle and workpiece and is referred to as a ‗live‘ centre. A centre inserted in the tailstock is fixed, does not rotate, and is referred to as a ‗dead‘ centre. Great care must e taken to prevent overheating of ‗dead‘ centres due to lack of lubrication or too high a pressure. Keep the centre well lubricated with grease, and do not overtighten the tailstock. In order to drive the workpice, a work-driver plate must be mounted on the spindle nose and the drive is completed by attaching a work carrier to the workpiece, Fig. 8.17.


Fig. 8.17 Workpiece between centres

When the size of workpiece requires greater pressure and where considera le time is required for the operation, ‗dead‘ centres will ‗ urn out‘, i.e. overheat and the point wear out. To overcome this, live rotating tailstock centres are available, the centres of which run in bearings which will withstand high pressures without overheating. Tailstock centres are often required for long work which is held in the chuck but requires support owing to its length.

Steadies If unsupported, long slender work may tend to be pushed aside by the forces of cutting. To overcome this, a two-point traveling steady is used which provides support to the workpiece opposite the tool as cutting is carried out along the length of the work, Fig. 8.18

Fig. 8.18 Two-point traveling steady


Fig. 8.19 Three-point fixed steady Work of a large diameter than can be accepted through the machine spindle and yet requiring work to be carried out at one end can be supported using a three-point fixed steady. This steady is clamped to the machine bed and the points are adjusted so that the workpiece is running true to the spindle centre line before the machining operation is carried out, Fig. 8.19.

Mandrel Work which has a finished bore and requires the outside to be turned concentric to it can be mounted on a mandrel. The mandrel is then put etween centres and the work is machined as already descri ed for ‗ etweencentres‘ work. A mandrel, Fig. 8.20, is a hardened and ground bar with centres in each end and a flat machined at one end to accept the work carrier. The diameter is tapered over its length, usually about 0.25mm for every 150mm length. When the work is pushed on, this slight taper is enough to hold and drive the work during the machining operation.

Fig. 8.20 Mandrel


The flat for the carrier is machined on the having the larger diameter, so that the carrier does not having to be removed to load and unload workpieces.


Centre-lather operations

Turning Accurate turning of plain diameters and faces can be simply carried out on a centre lathe. Wherever possible, diameters should be turned using the carriage movement, as the straightness of the bed guideways ensures parallelism of the workpiece and power feed can be used. Avoid using the top slide for parallel-diameters, since it is adjustable for angle and difficult to replace exactly on zero without the use of a dial indicator. It has also to be hand fed. When a number of diameters are to be turned on a workpiece, they should be produced at one setting without removing the workpiece from the chuck, in order to maintain concentricity between them. Accuracy is lost each time the workpiece is removed and put back in the chuck. Accurate sizes can be produced by measuring the workpiece when the final size is almost reached, then using the graduated dial on the handwheel to remove the required amount. Where only diameters are being turned and a square shoulder is required, a knife tool is used (Fig. 8.21A); which cuts in the direction shown. Where facing and turning are being carried out in the same operation; a turning and facing tool is used, Fig. 8.21B. The slight radius on the nose produces a better surface finish, but the radius will be reproduced at the shoulder. Where a relief or undercut at the shoulder is required, e.g. where a thread cannot be cut right up to the shoulder, an undercut tool is used. This tool is ground to the correct width, the face parallel to the work axis, and is fed in the direction shown, Fig. 8.21C. Work produced from bar can be cut to length in the lathe, an operation known as parting off‘. The face of the parting-off tool is ground at a slight angle, so that the workpiece is severed leanly from the bar. Fig. 8.21D


Fig. 8.21 Turning-tool applications

Fig. 8.22 Effect of tool set above and below centre

It is essential that all cutting tools used on a late be set on the centre of the workpiece. A tool set too high reduces the clearance and will rub, while one set too low reduces the rake angle, Fig. 8.22. Cutting tools can be set relative to a centre inserted in the tailstock and be raised or lowered using suitable thickness of packing, Fig. 8.23. A good stock of varying thickness of packing should be available which, when finished with, should always be retuned for future use.


Fig. 8.23 Setting tool on centre

Drilling Drilling is carried out on a lathe by holding the drill in a chuck mounting it directly in the quill of the tailstock, which contains a Morse taper for this purpose. As with all drilling operations, some guide is required to enable the drill to start to central, and a centre drill, Fig. 8.24, is commonly used.

Fig. 8.24 Centre drill Centre drills are available in various sizes, and their purpose is to produce centres in a workpiece for turning between centres. Due to its rigid design, a centre drill is convenient in providing a suitable guide to start the drill in the centre of the bar. When using a centre drill, great care must be taken to prevent breakage of the small point which, because of its size, does not have deep flutes to accommodate swarf. Feed in gently a short distance at a time, using the tailstock handwheel, winding the drill out frequently to remove swarf before it packs the flute and snaps off the point. Use high spindle speeds for the small point diameter. The centre drill should be fed in just deep enough to give the drill a start. Drilling is then carried out to the required depth, which can be measured by means of the graduations on the quill. Relieve the drill frequently, to prevent swarf packing the flutes.


Reaming Holes requiring a more accurate size and better surface finish than can be achieved with a drill can be finished by reaming. The hole is drilled about 0.4 mm smaller than required, followed by the reamer using a spindle speed approximately half that used for drilling. A reamer will follow the hole already drilled, and consequently any error in concentricity or alignment of the hole axis will not be corrected by the reamer. Where accurate concentricity and alignment are required, the hole should be drilled a few millimeters undersize, board to within 0.4mm of the required size, correcting any error, and finally reamed to achieve the finished size.

Boring As already stated, boring can be used to correct errors in concentricity and alignment of a previously drilled hole. The hole can be finished to size by boring without the use of a reamer, as would be the case when producing nonstandard diameters for which a reamer was not available. Boring is also used to produce a recess which may not be practical by drilling and reaming, Fig. 8.25.

Fig. 8.25 Boring tool A boring tool must be smaller than the bore it is producing, and this invariably results in a thin flexible tool. For this reason it is not usually possible to take deep cuts, and care must be taken to avoid vibration. In selecting a boring tool, choose the thickest one which will enter the hole, to ensure maximum rigidity. Ensure also that adequate secondary clearance is provided in relation to the size of bore being produced, as shown in fig. 8.4.


8.6 Taper turning The method used to turn a taper depends upon the angle of taper, its length, and the number of workpieces to be machined. Three methods are commonly used: with a form tool, with the top or compound slide, and with a taper-turning attachment.

Form tool Short tapers of any angle can be produced by grinding the required angle on the cutting tool, Fig. 8.26. The cutting tool is then fed into the work until the desired length of taper is produced. This method is normally used for short tapers such as chamfers, both internal and external. The long cutting edge required by the long tapers has a tendency to chatter, producing a bad surface finish.

Fig. 8.26 Angle form tool

Top or compound slide Taper turning can be carried out from the top slide by swivelling it to half the included angle required on the work, fig. 8.27. Graduations are provided on the base plate, but any accurate angle must be determined by trial and error. To do this, set the top slide by means of the graduations, take a trial cut, and measure the angle. Adjust if necessary, take a second cut, and remeasure. When the correct angle is obtained, ensure that the clamping nuts are securely tightened. Turning the angle is done by winding the top-slide handle by hand. The tool will feed at the angle to which the top slide is set. After the first cut, the


tool is returned to its starting position by rewinding the top slide. The feed for the second cut is achieved by moving the cross-slide. This method can be used for any angle, internal or external, but the length is restricted by the amount of travel available on the top slide.

Fig. 8.27 Top slide set at half include angle

Taper-turning attachment Taper-turning attachment can be fitted at the rear of the cross-slide and be used to turn included angles up 200 over a length of around 250mm, both internally and externally. A plan view of a typical taper-turning attachment is shown in Fig. 8.28. The guide bar, which swivels about its centre, is mounted on a base plate which carries the graduations. The base plate is attached to the connecting rod, which passes through a hole in the clamp bracket where it is held tightly by a clamping screw. The clamp bracket is clamped to the bed of the machine. Thus the guide bar, base plate, connecting rod, and clamp bracket are securely fixed to each other and to the machine bed. The guide block slides on the guide bar and is located in the sliding block by a spigot. This gives a solid location and at the same time allows the guide block to take up the angle of the guide bar. The sliding block is attached to the end of the cross-slide leadscrew and is guided in a bracket which is bolted to the rear face of the saddle. It can therefore be seen that, if the carriage is traversed along the bed and the guide bar remains stationary (i.e. clamped to the bed), the sliding block

can only push or pull the cross-slide leadscrew. For this movement to be transmitted to the cross slide and so to the cutting tool, a special leadscrew is required, Fig. 8.29. The front end of the leadscrew has a spline which slides up the inside of the handwheel spindle. When the sliding block pushes the leadscrew, the leadscrew moves back and, since it passes through the leadscrew nut which in turn is screwed to the cross-slide, the cross-slide and the cutting tool mounted on it will also move back, pushing the spline up the inside of the handwheel spindle.

Fig. 8.28 Taper-tuning attachment

By this method, a cut can be put on merely by rotating the handwheel, driving through the spline to the leadscrew and nut without interfering with the taper-turning attachment. To revert to a normal operating condition, the connecting rod is unclamped and the clamp bracket removed and, since the complete attachment moves with the carriage, the cross slide can be used in the normal way.


Fig. 8.29 Cross-slide leadscrew for taper-turning attachment



The thread now standardized in British industry is the ISO metric thread, ISO being the International Organization for Standardization. The ISO metric thread has a 600 truncated form, i.e. the thread does not come to a sharp point but has a flat crest. The root of the thread also has a small flat. A single-point tool sharpened as shown in Fig. 8.30 produces the thread angle and the flat at the root, the major diameter being produced at the turning stage. To cut an accurate thread requires a definite relationship between the rotation of the work in the spindle and the longitudinal movement of the carriage by means of the leadscrew. All modern centre lathe have a gearbox through which a wide range of pitches can be obtained by referring to a chart on the on the machine and turning a few knobs.

Fig. 8.30 Screw-cutting tool for metric thread

Fig. 8.31 Split nut for crew cutting

The longitudinal travel of the carriage is obtained from the leadscrew through a split nut housed in the apron and operated by a lever on the apron front, Fig. 8.31. By closing the split nut, the drive can be started at any position. The position of engagement of the split nut on the leadscrew for each cut is important in order that the tool will travel along the same path as the previous cut. To achieve this accuracy of engagement, a thread indicator dial is fitted at the end of the apron, Fig. 8.32. The dial is mounted on a spindle at the opposite end of which is a gear in mesh with the leadscrew. These gears are interchangeable, are stored on the spindle, and are selected by referring to a chart on the unit. They are arranged to give a multiple of the pitch required, relative to the 6mm pitch of the leadscrew. The chart shows the gear used for a particular pitch of thread and the numbers on the thread indicator dial at which the split nut may be engaged. To cope with the different diameters of gears, the unit pivots and is locked in position when the gear is in mesh. To avoid unnecessary wears, the unit is pivoted back out of mesh when not in use for screw-cutting.


Fig. 8.32 Thread indicator dial

Fig. 8.33 Screw-cutting gauge and positioning of tool Method Having turned the workpiece to the correct diameter, the following procedure should be followed. This procedure is for screw-cutting a righthand external metric thread on a machine having a metric leadscrew. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Carefully grind the tool to 600 with the aid of a screw-cutting gauge, Fig. 8.33, leaving a flat on the tool nose. Mount the tool in the toolpost on the centre of the workpiece. Set the tool relative to the axis of the workpiece, using the screwcutting gauge, Fig. 8.33. Calculate the required thread depth. Select the required pitch.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Select the correct gear on the thread indicator dial and mesh with the leadscrew. Engage a slow spindle speed. Start the machine. Wind in the cross-slide until the tool just touches the outside of the workpiece and move the carriage so that the tool is clear of the end of the workpiece. Stop the machine. Set the dial on the cross-slide to zero. Restart the machine. Wind the cross-slide to give a small cut of 0.05mm. Wait until the appropriate number on the thread indicator dial comes round to the mark and engage the split nut. Take a trial cut. When the end of the workpiece is reached, unwind the cross-slide to remove the tool from the work and disengage the split nut. This is done in one movement. At all times during screw-cutting, one hand should be resting on the cross-slide handwheel, the other on the split-nut lever. Stop the machine. Check the thread to make sure the correct pitch has been cut. Rewind the carriage to the starting point. Restart the machine. Rewind the cross-slide back to the original graduation and put on a further cut. Wait for the correct number on the thread indicator dial, engage the split nut, and repeat unit the final depth is reached.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

Depending upon the accuracy of thread required, final checking should be carried out by means of a gauge or by checking against a nut or the mating workpiece.

Internal threads are cut in exactly the same manner, except that the tool is similar to a boring tool ground to give a 600 thread form. Left-hand threads are produced in the same manner by reversing the rotation of the leadscrew and starting from the opposite end of the workpiece.

Imperial threads Imperial threads are designated not by their pitch but by the number of threads per inch (t.p.i.). The leadscrew of metric centre lather has a pitch of 6mm and, since the number of threads per inch cannot be arranged as a multiple of the leadscrew pitch, the split nut, once it is engaged, must never be disengaged during the thread-cutting operation. This also means that the thread indicator dial is of no use when cutting imperial threads on a metric lathe. The procedure when cutting imperial threads on a metric lathe is the same as before up to the point when the split nut is disengaged and a trial cut taken. 16. 17. 18. 19. When the end of the workpiece is reached, withdraw the tool and stop the machine but do not disengage the split nut. Reverse the spindle direction so that the carriage moves back to the starting point Stop the machine, put on a further cut, and restart the machine spindle in a forward direction. Repeat until the thread has been cut to size before disengaging the split nut.



1. For what kind of work and turning operations are the following used? (a) Face plates (b) three jaw chuck (c) driving plate (d) four jaw chuck. 2. What do you understand by the terms; Cutting Speed and Feed rate as applied to lathes and drilling machines? Calculate the number of revolutions per minute for turning a 30mm bar of mild steel at 25m per minute. 3. Explain the use of the following parts of the lathe: (a) tail stock (b) head stock (c) compound slide 4. Sketch a side view of the tail stock.

Formular on Cutting Speed Cutting Speed is chiefly dependent on the circumference of the bar or drill. ( ) Where d = diameter of the work in mm. π


Black, B. J., Workshop Process, Practices and Materials, Edward Arnold 1979


CHAPTER NINE SHAPING OPERATION [Engr. A.I. Ogbonna, B.Met, M.Met (Sheffield); MIM, MNMS] 9.1 Shaping

A shaping machine is used to produce plain flat surfaces, usually for small quantities or a single work piece. It is the one basic machine in which the cutting tool reciprocates, or moves backwards and forward. Since cutting takes place only on the forward stroke production work on plain flat surfaces is normally carried out on milling machines. However, setting up of the shaping machine and the workpiece is simple, and a number of operations can be carried out at one setting with one single point cutting tool swung at different angles. The capacity of a shaping machine is governed by the stroke of the reciprocating ram, the travel of the slide carrying the cutting tool, the area of the table top, and the maximum height between the table top and the cutting tool. Power to the reciprocating ram may be hydraulic or mechanical. 9.2 The shaping machine

The main elements of a typical mechanical shaping machine are shown in fig.9.1

Fig. 9.1 - Shaping machine

Column and base The column and base form the foundation of the complete machine. Both are made from cast iron, designed with thick section to ensure complete rigidity and freedom from vibration – since the cutting tool reciprocates, shock loads occur at the beginning of each cutting stroke. The area of the base beneath the table is machined to provide a flat surface for use in supporting the table when taking heavy cuts. The column is a hollow box section and carries the motor, gearbox, and drive system. At the top of the column is dovetail slideway in which the ram is guided. An adjustable jig strip is provided to take up wear in the slides. The front of the column carries guideways for vertical movement of the main slide.

Ram The ram, mounted on top of the column, is a hollow casting of heavy cross – section to resist shock loading. A dovetail slide guides the ram in a straight line and prevents it lifting when taking a cut. The pivot bracket, clamped to the underside of the ram by a lockbolt, transmits movements from the main drive. The lockbolt passes through a slot in the ram, which enables the ram position to be altered relative to the work without affecting the length of stroke.

Toolhead The tool head, fitted to the front of the ram, is graduated and may be swivelled to any angle up to about 600. The toolbox slide is carried on a dovetail slideway and is capable of vertical adjustment by a leadscrew through a bronze nut. The leadscrew carries a graduated dial. A toolbox fitted on the front of the toolbox slide can be swivelled to provide clearance for the cutting tool when cutting down a side face. The center of the toolbox is pivoted to prevent the cutting tool from dragging on the return stroke and carries the toolholder in which the cutting tool is mounted.


Main slide The main slide, guided on the column guideways, provides vertical movement to the table. Movement is transmitted by a horizontal shaft through bevel gears to a vertical leadscrew. The main slide carries the guideways for the cross slide, which provides movement in a horizontal plane. Movement for the cross slide is through a leadscrew and nut mounted in the main slide. Any vertical movement of the main slide requires an equal adjustment of the table support, especially when taking heavy cuts. It is usual to adjust the main slide within the range of the toolhead – any cuts can then be taken by adjusting the toolbox slide.

Cross –slide and table The cross-slide, mounted on the main slide, provides cross traverse to the table. Attached to the face of the cross slide is a circular center support, the outer end of which rests on the table support. The table is mounted on the center support and can be rotated about it up to 450 in each direction. A graduated scale on the front of the table facilitates angular setting. The table is held firmly in the desired position by three clamping bolts at the front. The top and side faces of the table are provided with tee slots to enable vices and workpieces to be clamped to the table surface. Automatic feed is provided to the cross-slide by means of a Pawl through a ratchet fitted at the end of the cross-traverse leadscrew. The pawl is located at the end of a link, the other end of which is adjustable in a slot across the face of a spindle driven through the main drive. Adjustment of the link in the slot allows the pawl to move one, two, three, or four slots in the ratchet, thus providing four rates of feed, fig. 9.2. The feed operates at the end of each return stroke of the ram. Feed can be disengaged by lifting the pawl clear of the ratchet. The direction of feed can be altered by turning the pawl through 1800. The cross-feed mechanism is protected from overload or overrun by means of a shear pin fitted in the ratchet arrangement.


Figure 9.2 Automatic feed to cross slide Main drive Power is supplied by an electric motor mounted at the rear of the column. The drive is transmitted to a gearbox on the side of the column by vee belts through a friction clutch operated by a single lever. The gearbox is connected to a large bull gear driven through helical gear teeth on its periphery. The bull gear carries the stroke-adjusting slide across its width. This slide is operated through bevel gears by a shaft which passes through the bull-wheel spindle to the side of the machine. The stroke-adjusting slide carries a pin on which a die is mounted and slides in a slot in the rocking bracket. The top end of the rocking bracket is attached by a pin, through the pivot bracket, which is clamped to the underside of the ram by a lockbolt. The bottom end of the rocking bracket slides on the bottom die, which is attached to a pin secured at the base of the column. The bottom end of the rocking bracket sliding on the bottom die compensates for the change in length of the rocking bracket as it moves across the center of the bull gear. As the bull gear rotates, the die on the stroke-adjusting slide moves in the slot in the rocking bracket, causing the rocking bracket and the ram attached to its top end to move backwards and forwards. The distance of the die from the center of the bull wheel determines the length of stroke. Details of the complete drive linkage are shown in fig. 9.3. A shaping machine cuts only on the forward stroke of the ram, result ing in an idle return stroke. The rocking bracket is therefore arranged so that the idle return stroke takes a shorter period of time than the forward cutting stroke. This quick -return feature is shown in fig 9.4. With the stroke -adjusting slide set at radius OA, the die sliding in the rocking bracket moves through ADB on


the forward cutting stroke. On the return or idle stroke, the die moves through a distance BCA which is considerably shorter, and therefore takes less time, than the forward cutting stroke. If the stroke-adjusting slide is set at radius O1A1, the length of stroke is shortened, although a similar ratio of forward cutting stroke to idle return stroke still exists.



The various controls of a typical shaping machine are shown in Fig. 9.5. The motor is started and stopped by push buttons (1) located at the side of the column. Drive to the ram is achieved by operating the clutch through a lever (2). The ran can e ‗inched‘ forward or ack y slight movement of the clutch lever as an aid to setting the correct length of stroke and position of the ram. Length of stroke is altered by rotation of a shaft (5) after releasing a knurled locknut. This adjustment should be done with the ram stationary. The


locknut is then retightened and, by ‗inching‘ the ram, the length of stroke is checked. This can be done in relation to a pointer on the ram. The correct position of the ram can e carried out y ‗inching‘ the ram to its full forward position, slackening the lockbolt (9), and pushing the ram by hand to the correct position. Retighten the lockbolt (9) securely before starting ram movement.

Fig. 9.5 Machine controls

The required speed is selected by operating levers (3 and 4). Lever (3) gives three speeds while lever (4) selects high or low, giving a total range of six speeds, in this case 11, 17, 27, 41, 65, and 101 strokes per minute. Vertical traverse is carried out through shaft (7), bearing in mind that the table support, where used, will also have to be adjusted accordingly. Cross traverse is carried out through shaft (8). Feed rate is adjusted by the link (6), and the correct direction is selected by rotating the feed pawl accordingly.


Shaping operations

Although work can be clamped directly to the table using the tee slots provided, the usual method of workholding is in a machine vice. A vice may have a plane base or a swivel base with a graduated scale to enable workpieces


to be swivelled at any required angle, as shown on the typical machine in fig 9.1. It is essential that the vice is securely clamped to the machine table using the correct size tee bolts – the cutting force on impact at the beginning of the cutting stroke is high, and an insecure vice can be pushed off the end of the table.

Setting the vice A machine vice must be set up correctly in relation to the machine movements. This is done by fixing a dial indicator to one part of the machine and checking across a parallel held in the vice. If the jaws require to be parallel to the movement of the ram, the dial indicator is attached to the ram and moved, by hand, across the parallel, fig. 9.6 (a). Jaws required to be parallel to the cross movement are checked by attaching the dial indicator to a fixed part of the machine and moving the parallel past the dial indicator, fig.9.6 (b).

Figure 9.6: Setting up the vice

A parallel is used in order to give the same condition as a clamped component. The surface is straight and undamaged, and lengths longer than the vice jaws can be used to give greater accuracy of setting. The vice is adjusted until a constant reading is obtained on the dial indicator, and the vice is then securely clamped down.


Machining sequence There are two essential requirements when machining any workpiece which has plain surfaces. Firstly the opposite faces must be parallel to each other and square to their adjacent faces, and secondly as many operations as possible should be carried out at a single setting. Bearing these in mind, consider the workpiece shown in fig. 9.7, which is to be machined on all surfaces. Set the vice with the jaws in line with the ram movement as previously described. Set the workpiece in the vice with datum face A on two parallels of height such that the workpiece is at least 25 mm above the surface of the vice jaws. Tighten the vice securely, at the same time striking the workpiece with a rawhide mallet to ensure that it is seated on the parallels. This can be checked by moving the ends of the parallels- when no movement is felt, the workpiece is properly seated.

Fig. 9.7: Work piece    

Machine face C to clean up, using a round-nose shaper tool as shown in stage 1 of fig 9.8. Release the workpiece and reset it in the vice with face C against the fixed jaw. Tighten the vice, ensuring that the workpiece is seated on the parallels. Machine face B to clean up, fig. 9.8 stage 2.

By placing face C against the fixed jaw, which is subject to less wear than the moving jaw, greater accuracy of squareness between faces B and C is achieved.

Figure 9.8: Machining sequence   

Release the workpiece and reset it in the vice with face B against the fixed jaw and face C seated on the parallels. Machine face A to achieve the 58 mm dimension, fig. 9.8 stage 3. Placing face B against the fixed jaw ensures squareness with face A, and seating the previously machined face C on parallels ensures parallelism of faces A and C. Release the workpiece and reset it with face A against the fixed jaw and face B seated on parallels, i.e. the workpiece is now located with its datum faces against the fixed jaw and on the parallels. Machine face D to the 60 mm dimension, fig. 9.8 stage 4.

If the correct height parallels were chosen at the first stage, the step can be machined to the 25 mm and 28 mm dimensions using a cranked tool without the need to reset the workpiece in the vice. At this same setting, the 450 undercut can be machined by swinging the tool slide at 450 and using a 5 mm wide tool.  Swivel the vice through 1800 so that jaws are in line with the table cross movement and reset the tool slide vertical. Set the workpiece in the vice with datum face A against the fixed jaw and datum face B seated on the parallels. The end of the workpiece is set to protrude beyond the edge of the vice jaws. Machine the end face to clean up. Machine the step to 20 mm and 40 mm dimensions. Set the tool slide at 450 and, using a 5 mm wide tool, produce the undercut. All these operations are done at the one setting, fig. 9.8 stage 5. Release the workpiece and reverse it so that the opposite end is overhanging the end of the vice jaws. Machine to the overall length of 80 mm, fig. 9.8 stage 6. The angle is now machined by setting the workpiece in the vice at 30 0 by means of a protractor set on the work table, fig. 9.8 stage 7. If the protractor does not reach the workpiece when set on the table, parallels can be built up and the protractor set on these.


CHAPTER TEN MILLING [C.C. Ugwuegbu, B.Eng., M.Sc.]

10. 1 Introduction Milling is a machining operation in which a workpart is fed past a rotating cylindrical tool with multiple cutting edges. The axis of rotation of the cutting tool is perpendicular to the direction of feed. This orientation between the tool axis and the feed direction is one feature that distinguishes milling from drilling. In drilling, the cutting tool is fed in a direction parallel to its axis of rotation. Milling operation is used to generate flat surfaces or curved profile and many other intricate shapes with great accuracy and having very good surface finish. The cutting tool in milling is called a milling cutter and the cutting edges are called teeth. Milling machines are of various types and sizes. However, the most versatile type, which is in common use in many workshops, is the knee-andcolumn milling machine, which is so called because the spindle is fixed in the column or main body of the machine and the table arrangement, mounted on a knee and capable of moving in the longitudinal, transverse and vertical directions. Knee-and-column machines are subdivided into the following models:    plain horizontal, with the spindle located horizontally; universal, which is similar to the plain horizontal but equipped with a swivelling table for use when cutting helical grooves; vertical, with the spindle located vertically.

Typical plain horizontal and vertical knee-and-column milling machines are shown in Figs 10.1 and 10.2.


10.2 Milling Machine Elements The main elements of a typical knee-and-column horizontal milling are shown in Fig. 10.3. The elements of a vertical machine are the same except that the spindle head is mounted at the top of the column, as shown in Fig. 10.4.

Column and base The column and base form the foundation of the complete machine. Both are made from cast iron, designed with thick sections to ensure complete rigidity and freedom from vibration. The base, upon which the column is mounted, is also the cutting-fluid reservoir and contains the pump to circulate the fluid to the cutting area.

Fig. 10.1 Horizontal milling machine

Fig. 10.2 Vertical milling machine


Fig. 10.3 Main machine elements of horizontal milling machine

Fig. 10.4 Top of column of vertical milling machine

The column houses the spindle and bearings, as well as the necessary gears, clutches, shafts, pumps and shifting mechanisms, for transmitting power from the electric motor to the spindle at the selected speed.

Knee The knee is a heavy casting which is mounted on and is guided by the front guide-ways on the column. It slides in vertical direction either manually or automatically and thus provides the vertical movement of the table. An

elevating screw enables this manual movement of the knee. The power feeding to the knee is also possible.

Saddle Saddle is a slide that is mounted on and guided by the guide-ways provided on top surface of the knee. It gives cross motion to the workpart either towards or away from the column. The feeding of the job may be either manual or power fed.

Table The table is mounted on top of the saddle. It is guided on the guideways provided on top of the saddle. The workpart can be mounted on the table with the help of some work holding device. The table provides a movement to the workpart in a direction perpendicular to the movement of the saddle. It has T slots on the top surface in which work holding device or directly workpart can be fixed.

Spindle The spindle is a shaft, mounted on bearings supported by the column, and is used in holding and driving the various cutting tools. It is driven by an electric motor through a train of gears, all mounted or housed within the column.

Arbor and Arbor Support The majority of cutters used on horizontal machines are held on an arbor which is located and held in the spindle (an extension of the spindle). Due to the length of the arbors used, support is required at the outer end to prevent deflection when cutting takes places. Support is provided by an arborsupport bracket, clamped to an overarm. Overarm An overarm is supported at the top of the column. This overarm supports the arbor. The arm is adjustable so that the support may be provided nearer to the cutter.

10.3 Controls [Adapted from Black, B. J. (2004)] The various controls of a typical horizontal milling machine are shown in Fig. 10.5. These are identical to those of vertical machine. Spindle speeds are selected through the levers (4), and the speed is indicated on the change dial (5). The speeds must not be changed while the machine is running. An 'inching' button (3) is situated below the gear-change panel and, if depressed, 'inches' the spindle and enables the gears to slide into place when a speed change is being carried out. Alongside the 'inching' button is the switch for controlling the cutting-fluid pump (1) and one for controlling the direction of the spindle rotation (2). The feed rates are selected by the lever (9) and are indicated on the feed-rate dial.

Fig. 10.5 Milling-machine controls The longitudinal table feed is engaged by lever (8), in the required direction (right for right feed, and left for left feed). To disengage the feed movement at any point within the traverse range, adjustable trip dogs (6) are used. Limit stops are incorporated to disengage all feed movements in the


extreme position, to prevent damage to the machine in the event of a trip dog being missed. To engage cross or vertical traverse, lever (12) is moved up or down. The feed can then be engaged by moving lever (11) in the required direction. With cross traverse selected, movement of lever (11) upwards produces infeed of the saddle, moving it downwards produces out-feed of the saddle. With vertical traverse selected, movement of lever (11) upwards produces upfeed to the knee, moving it downwards produces down-feed to the knee. Rapid traverse in any of the above feed directions is engaged by an upward pull of lever (10). Rapid traverse continues as long as upward pressure is applied. When released, the lever will drop into the disengaged position. Alternative hand feed is provided by means of a single crank handle (7), which is engaged by slight pressure towards the machine. Spring ejectors disengage the handle on completion of the operation, for safety purposes - i.e. the handle will not fly round when feed or rapid traverse is engaged. This single crank handle is interchangeable on table, saddle and knee movements. To start the feed motor, the black button (B) contained in the switch panel situated on the front of the knee is used. This is provided to facilitate setting up when feed movements are required without spindle rotation. The green button (G) starts the spindle and feed motors, while the mushroomheaded red button (R) provides the means of stopping the machine.


Milling Cutters

Milling cutters are cutting tools used in milling machines to remove material from a workpart. They are usually made of high-speed steel and are available in variety of shapes and types. Based on the type of operation they are used for, milling cutters are classified as:      plain milling cutters side milling cutters end mill cutters angle milling cutters slitting saws


 

form milling cutters T-slot cutters

They can also be classified according to the way they are mounted on the machine, as:    arbor cutters shank cutters face cutters

For convenience purpose, the first class of milling cutters will be treated in this book.

Plain milling cutter: This is a cylindrical milling cutter with teeth on the periphery only; as the name suggests, it is used for milling plain or flat surfaces. It is also known as a mill or slab cutter. The two main types of plain milling cutters are: plain milling helical cutter and plain straight teeth cutter. They are shown in Fig. 10.6(a) and (b).

Side milling cutter: This cutter is a disk-shaped cutter with teeth on the periphery and on both sides, Fig. 10.6(c). It is used for side milling and slot cutting, and may have plain, helical or staggered teeth.

Slitting saw cutter: Very thin disk-shaped cutter, Fig. 10.6(d). Its thickness varies from 0.5 to 5 mm. It is used for cutting deep slots and parting off materials into pieces.

Angular cutter: This is a disk-shaped cutter resembling a side milling cutter, except that its teeth are at angle to the axis of rotation. Angular cutters are classified as single angular cutters or double angular cutters, as shown in Fig. 10.6(e) and (f), respectively.


Form milling cutters: These cutters are designed to cut definite shapes. They can be classified according to their shape as convex or concave cutters [Fig. 10.6(g) and (h)], gear cutters, flute cutters and corner cutters.

End mill cutter: This is a cutter having its teeth on its end, and cutting edges on its periphery, Fig. 10.6(i). Its teeth are helical. It is used for light operations such as milling slots, profiling and facing narrow surfaces.

T-slot cutter: This cutter is designed for cutting T-shaped slots in machine table, Fig. 10.6(j).


Cutter Mounting

Milling cutters are either mounted on an arbor, in a special chuck, or directly on the spindle nose. However, it is important to note that the spindle is designed to hold and drive the milling cutter, irrespective of the three mounting options.

Fig. 10.6 Milling cutters: (a) Straight teeth plain milling cutter. (b) Plain helical milling cutter. (c) Side milling cutter. (d) Slitting saw. (e) Single angle cutter. (f) Double angle cutter. (g) Convex cutter. (h) Concave cutter. (i) End mill cutter. (j) T-slot cutter

Arbor mounting Arbor mounting is used for cutters that have a hole through the centre. It is of two types, namely: standard arbor mounting and stud arbor mounting.

Standard arbor: The standard arbor has a straight, cylindrical shape, with a standard milling taper on the driving end and a threaded portion on the opposite end to receive the arbor nut, Fig. 10.7. The taper end has a threaded hole which provides the means of holding the arbor in position on the machine spindle, through the drawbolt present in the spindle. The flange close to the taper end of the arbor contains two key slots to provide the drive from two keys on the spindle nose. A keyway is cut along the length of the arbor into which a key is fitted, to provide a drive and prevent the cutter from slipping when taking heavy cuts. To position the cutter along the length of the arbor, spacing collars are used. Towards the end, a larger bush is positioned. This has an outside diameter to suit the bearing of the arbor support and is known as the ‗running ush‘.

Fig. 10.7 Standard milling-machine arbor

To mount t he arbor, t he taper is insert ed in t he machine spindle, ensur ing t hat t he surfaces are free of all dirt and met al cutt ings. The fla nge key slot s are locat ed in t he spindle keys, and t he arbor is securely held by t he drawbolt . Spacing collars are slipped on t he arbor, again ensur ing t hat all faces are clean and free from dirt and met al cutt ings. The cutter is posit ioned and spacing collars are added, toget her wit h t he running bush, to make up t he

length of the arbor. The arbor nut is then screwed in position – hand-tight only. The arbor support is now positioned on the overarm so that it is central on the running bush and is then clamped in position. The arbor nut can now be tightened with the appropriate spanner. Never tighten the arbor nut without the arbor support in position, as the arbor can be bent.

Stub arbor: The diagram of a milling-machine stub arbor is shown in Fig. 10.8. It is used for mounting cutters, such as shell end mills, which that are used close to the spindle. This arbor is located, held, and driven in the spindle in the same way as a standard arbor. The cutter is located on a spigot or stub and is held in position by a large flanged screw. Two keys on the arbor provide the drive through key slots in the back face of the cutter.

Fig. 10.8 Milling-machine stub arbor

Special chuck mounting As shown in Fig. 10.9, special chuck mounting is used for milling cutters having screwed shanks. The chuck is located, held and driven in the machine spindle in the same way as the previously mentioned types. The milling cutter is mounted in the chuck by means of a collet inserted into the locking sleeve of the chuck body. The collet, which is split along the length of its front end has a short taper at the front, and is internally threaded at its rear end. The collet assembly is screwed into the chuck body until the flange almost meets the end face of the body.


The cutter is inserted and screwed into the collet until it locates on the centre inside the chuck body and becomes tight. The centre anchors the end of the cutter and ensures rigidity and true running. The cutter cannot push in or pull out during the cutting operation. Any tendency of the cutter to turn during cutting tightens the collet still further and increases its grip on the cutter shank.

Fig. 10.9 Milling chuck for screwed-shank cutters

Direct Mounting on the Spindle Large face mills are mounted directly on the spindle nose. To ensure correct location and concentricity, a centring arbor with the appropriate international taper is held in the spindle by the drawbar. The diameter on the end of the centring arbor locates the cutter, which is driven by the spindle keys through a key slot in the back face of the cutter. The cutter is held in position by four screws direct into the spindle nose, Fig. 10.10.

Fig. 10.10 Direct-mounted cutter



Work Holding

Work holding in milling can be accomplished by clamping the workpiece to the milling machine worktable, holding it in a vice, or attaching it to rotary or circular table.

Worktable: This is the most commonly used device for holding the workpiece. Milling machine worktables are provided with several T-slots, used either for clamping and locating the workpiece itself or for mounting various holding devices and attachments. These T-slots extend the length of the table and are parallel to its line of travel. During milling, care should be taken in order not to machine the table – if necessary; the workpiece should be raised on a pair of parallels.

Vice: The most versatile piece of equipment for holding workpieces. It must be positioned, to ensure accurate alignment with machine movements. Vices are of three types: plain vice, swivel vice, and universal vice. The diagram of the universal vice is shown in Fig. 10.11.

Fig. 10.11Universal vice

Rotary table: Used where part of the surface being machined is of a circular nature. The diagram of a rotary table is shown in Fig. 10.12.


Fig. 10.12 Rotary table

10.7  

Milling Operations Milling operations are classified into two basic types: peripheral milling operations face milling operations

Peripheral milling In this type milling, the axis of the cutting tool is parallel to the surface being machined, and the operation is performed by cutting edges on the outside periphery of the cutter, Fig. 10.13.

Fig.10.13 Peripheral milling

Peripheral milling is also known as plain milling. Several types of peripheral milling are shown in Fig. 10.14: (a) slab milling, the basic form of peripheral milling in which the cutter width extends beyond the workpiece on

both sides; (b) slotting, also called slot milling, in which the width of the cutter is less than the workpiece width, creating a slot in the work-when the cutter is very thin, this operation can be used to mill narrow slots or cut a workpart in two, called saw milling; (c) side milling, in which the cutter machines the side of the workpiece; (d) straddle milling, the same as side milling, only cutting takes place on both sides of the work; and form milling, in which the milling teeth have a special profile that determines the shape of the slot that is cut in the work.

Fig. 10.14 Peripheral milling: (a) Slab milling. (b) Slotting. (c) Side milling. (d) Straddle. (e) Form milling

Based on the direction of rotation of the milling cutter when in operation, peripheral can be classified as up milling and down milling.

Up milling: In up milling, also known as conventional milling, the direction of motion of the cutter teeth is opposite the feed direction when the teeth cut into the work. It is milling "against the feed", Fig. 10.14(a). The thickness of the milled chip increases uniformly at the top (end) of the cutter.

Down milling: In down milling, also known as climb milling, the direction of cutter motion is the same as the feed direction when the teeth cut the work. It is milling "with the feed", Fig. 10.14(b). The thickness of the chip decreases


uniformly from a minimum at the top (beginning) of the cut to zero at the bottom (end) of the cut.

Fig. 10.14 Two forms of peripheral milling operation with a 20-teeth cutter: (a) Up milling. (b) Down milling

Face milling In face milling, the axis of the cutter is perpendicular to the surface being milled, and machining is performed by cutting on both the end and outside periphery of the cutter (Fig. 10.15).

Fig. 10.15 Face milling

Face milling is a combination of up cut and down cut milling operation. The points discussed earlier about up and down milling operations in


peripheral milling, apply equally well to the face milling operation (Fig. 10.16).

Fig. 10.16 Down and up cut face milling

The position of the milling cutter with respect to the workpiece in face milling is of considerable significance. There are three possibilities: either the cutter may be symmetrically placed on the workpiece or it may be asymmetrically placed, offset slightly towards the entry side or it may be asymmetric, offset slightly towards the exit side. The three possibilities are shown in Fig. 10.17.

Fig. 10.17 Symmetrical vs. asymmetrical face milling



Cutting Speed and Feed

The cutting speed of a milling cutter is the speed with which the tip passes the work, measured in m/min or ft/min. Suppose the diameter of the cutter is D (in mm) and it is moving at N rpm. Then the distance travelled by the cutting edge in one revolution is:

Distance covered in N revolutions is therefore:

The above expression shows that the cutting speed is directly proportional to the diameter of the cutter.



1. With the aid of a sketch describe the difference between "up milling" and "down milling". 2. Make a sketch of a slab milling operation, side milling operation, and slot milling operation. 3. How are milling cutters classified? Explain with neat sketches the various types of cutters used on milling machine. 4. Describe the main features of the following milling machines: a. Plain b. Vertical c. Horizontal 5. What are the various cutter holding devices used on a milling machine?


Bawa, H. S., Manufacturing Processes – I: Mechanical Engineering Series, Vol.1, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2004. Bruce J. Black, Workshop Processes, Practices and Materials, 3rd ed., Elsevier, Oxford, 2004 Gupta, H. N., R. C. Gupta, and Arun Mittal, Manufacturing Processes, 2nd Ed.,New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers,New Delhi, 2009. Juneja, B. L., Nitin Seth, Fundamentals of Metal Cutting and Machine Tools, 2nd Ed., New Age International, New Delhi, 2003. Mikell P. Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials,Processes, and Systems, 4th ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2010.





So far, we have discussed material removal processes where cutting tools of known geometry are employed. In grinding, the tool consists of abrasive particles of irregular geometry. Grinding is the most widely used material-removal process for achieving high finish and workpiece accuracy. Types of grinding processes commonly used are denoted as surface grinding, cylindrical grinding, internal grinding, centreless grinding, thread grinding, and abrasive belt grinding. Although grinding has traditionally been associated with small rates of material removal and precision finishing operations, it can also be used for large-scale material removal. Abrasive machining is the term used to describe such processes. Surface finish is of secondary importance in these nonprecision grinding operations. Grinding machines used for these types of operations are called utility grinders. Examples of work done with utility grinders include removal of burns and other sharp edges, removal of flash and other imperfections from castings, preparation of joints for welding, smoothing welds, and off-hand grinding (i.e. sharpening) of cutting tools. Utility grinders include; bench grinder, pedestal grinder and portal grinders. Abrasive grains are used in a variety of other applications such as sandpaper, emery cloth, sanding disks, abrasive belts, etc. these are used to perform miscellaneous finishing (grinding) operations such as: i. ii. iii. Honing – used primarily for surface finish of the inside of holes Lapping – used as a finishing operations on flat or cylindrical surfaces Polishing – used to produce a smooth, lustrous surface finish.

Our focus in this section, however, shall be on surface grinding.


Surface Grinding

Surface grinding is an abrasive process used for producing smooth and accurate finish on flat surfaces. Surface grinding machines are designed to have a rectangular table that supports the workpiece, allowing it to be moved

back and forth, reciprocating beneath the grinding wheel. Shown in Fig. 11.1 is a typical surface grinding machine.


Elements of a Surface Grinding Machine

Fig. 13.2 shows the main elements of a surface grinding machine, which are explained below.

Base The base, a heavy metal casting box, gives rigidity to the machine and ensures that it is completely free from vibration. Hydraulic pump and fluid reservoir are housed at the bottom of the base. It has a vertical dovetail slideway at its rear that guides the column. On top of the base are two vee slideways that guide the saddle.

Fig. 11.1 Surface grinding machine


Column The column carries the wheelhead at its top. It also contains the motor and belt drive that give motion to the grinding wheel. The column and wheelhead are raised and lowered through a screw and nut from a handwheel on the front of the machine.

Saddle The saddle is fitted on top of the base in the two vee slideways. Its top surface carries a vee-and-flat slideway to guide the table at right angles to the saddle movement. The saddle provides a cross-traverse movement to the workpiece mounted on the table.

Wheelhead The wheelhead carries the wheel spindle, which is mounted in precision bearings. The complete grinding-wheel collect assembly is fitted on a taper on the end of the spindle.

Fig. 11.2 Main elements of a surface grinding machine


Table The table is used for clamping workpieces or workholding equipment. This is achieved through the series of tee slots present on the surface of the table. The table is guided by the vee-and-flat slideway on the saddle and can be manually operated with a handwheel.


Controls [Adapted from Black, B. J. (2004)]

Fig. 11.1 shows the controls of a typical surface grinding machine. Handwheel (1) raises and lowers the column. By lowering the column, a cut is put on by the wheel. Since the accuracy of the workpiece depends on how much metal is removed, the graduations on this handwheel represent very small increments of movement, in this case 0.0025 mm. Handwheel (2) provides cross movement of the saddle, graduations on this handwheel representing increments of 0.01 mm. Handwheel (4) is used to reciprocate the table by hand. Length of stroke and position of table reversal are controlled by trip dogs (6) striking the direction-reversing-valve lever (10). The table-speed control knob (11) can be adjusted to give infinitely variable speeds from 0.6 to 30 m/min. Lever (9) is used to select continuous cross feed or incremental feed at the end of each table stroke. Where continuous cross feed is selected, lever (5) controls the speed, which is infinitely variable from 0 to 5 m/min. The rate of incremental feed is controlled by lever (3) and is infinitely variable from 0.28 to 10 mm. The switch panel at the right side of the machine controls the motors for the hydraulic pump, wheel spindle, cutting fluid, etc. and carries the main isolator and a large mushroom-headed stop button (12).




Permanent-magnet chuck (Fig.11.3) is used mainly to hold workpieces having flat surfaces. Other methods of workholding such as vices and vee blocks (used to hold circular workpieces) are used when the shape or material (e.g. non-ferrous metals that are not magnetic) from which the workpiece is made does not allow direct holding on the permanent-magnet chuck.


Grinding Wheels

Grinding wheels are made in a wide variety of shapes to suit the immense range of work and special features of machine tools on which the wheels shall be put to use. Many common shapes are shown in Fig. 11.4.

Fig. 11.3 Permanent-magnet chuck

Wheels from (a) to (h) are disc wheels and grinding is done on the periphery of the wheel. Wheels (j) to (l) are mostly used on cup wheel grinders. Wheels (m), (n) and (p) are used for tool and cutters grinding. The thin wheel shown at (r) is used on abrasive cutters for slitting and parting off. Wheels used mainly for surface grinding are (a), (b), (c) and (k).


Fig. 11.4 Grinding wheel shapes


Classification of Grinding Wheels Classification of wheels is based on the following characteristics:

Abrasives Most grinding wheels are made of silicon carbide or aluminium oxide, both of which are artificial abrasives. Silicon carbide is greenish black in colour, very hard and brittle. Aluminium oxide is reddish brown in colour, slightly soft, and is tougher than silicon carbide and thus is better suited for grinding materials of relatively high tensile strength.

Abrasive grain size Abrasive grains are selected according to the mesh of a sieve through which they are sorted. The standard grain sizes, from the coarsest to the finest, are 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20, 24, 30, 36, 46, 54, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 150, 180, 220, 230, 240, 280, 320, 400, 500, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200. The sizes most widely used range from 10 to 120. A grinding wheel is designated coarse, medium, or fine according to the size of the individual abrasive grains making up the wheel.

Bond and grade Bond refers to the substance of which the matrix of the grinding wheel is made. The degree of hardness possessed by the bond is called the grade of the wheel and indicates the strength of the grip with which the abrasive grains are held in the bond.

The following bonds are generally employed in manufacture of grinding wheels: 1. Vitrified bond: It is denoted by letter V and about 80% of the wheels used in the industry are of this bond. 2. Silicate bond: It is denoted by letter S and silicate of soda (commonly known as water glass) is the main constituent of this bond. 3. Shellac bond: It is denoted by letter E and shellac (a naturally available material) is the main constituent of the bond. 4. Rubber bond: Here the abrasive in kneaded in rubber and the wheels are moulded from this material. It is denoted by letter R. 5. Resinoid bond: These wheels are made from bakelite and other resinous material. It is denoted by letter B.

The bond hardness or grade is usually represented by the letters of English alphabet. A represents very soft grade, while Z is very hard M and N represent medium grade hardness.


Structure Bond strength of a grinding wheel is not wholly dependent upon the grade of hardness but depends equally on the structure of the wheel, that is, the spacing of the grain or its density. The structure or spacing is measured in number of grains per cubic inch of wheel volume.

Marking Every grinding wheel is marked by the manufacturer with a stencil or small tag. The manufacturers have worked out a standard system of markings, shown in Fig. 13.5. For an example use a wheel marked A60L5VBE50. The A refers to the abrasive which is aluminium oxide. The 60 represents the grain size. The L shows the grade or degree of hardness, which is medium. The 5 refers to the structure of the wheel and the V refers to the bond type. BE refers to the manufacturer‘s own sym ol and is optional. The 50 refers to the speed ranges in m/s.


Surface Grinding Operations

Surface grinding is used to produce flat accurate surfaces. This can be done in many ways with a grinding wheel. Some possible configurations are illustrated in Fig. 11.6.


Calculating Wheel Size or Speed

Both cutting speeds in SFPM (surface feet per minute) and rotational speed in RPM (revolution per minute) must be known to determine the size of wheel to be used on a fixed-speed grinding machine. To determine the grinding wheel size, the following formula should be used:

Where SFPM = Cutting speed of wheel (in surface feet per minute) RPM = Revolutions per minute D = the calculated wheel diameter (in inches)


Fig.11.5 Standard symbols for marking a grinding wheel

To obtain the cutting speed in SFPM when the wheel diameter and RPM are given, use the same formula in a modified form:

To obtain the rotational speed in RPM when the wheel diameter and desired cutting speed are known use the formula in another modified form:


Fig. 11.6 Surface grinding operations/methods




What do you understand by grade, bond and structure of a grinding wheel?


Describe the surface grinding operations with disc as well as cup type wheel.


List four main elements of a surface grinding machine and explain each.


ASM International ASM Handbook Volume 16 – Machining, Electronic Edition; ASM International, Materials Park Cleveland, Ohio (1999) Bruce J. Black, Workshop Processes, Practices and Materials, 3rd ed., Elsevier, Oxford, 2004 Gupta, H. N., R. C. Gupta, and Arun Mittal, Manufacturing Processes, 2nd ed.,New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers,New Delhi, 2009.


CHAPTER TWELVE FASTENING AND JOINING TECHNIQUES (Basic Welding Technology) [Engr. A.I. Ogbonna, B.Met., M.Met. (Sheffield); MIM, MNMS]



Welding is a developing technology. New techniques are being devised all the time to meet the needs of new situations and to find solutions to problems which are daily being encountered in fabrication. The technology is formally based on well-established scientific concepts. An attempt has been made to present the basic principles and practice of welding in a logical and coordinated form. There are a large number of joining techniques available and the problem is sometimes how to select the best method of joining. Each method has its own attributes, and a number of factors must be evaluated if the final choice is to be sensible. The relative importance of such factors as strength, ease of manufacture, cost, corrosion-resistance, appearance, etc. will depend very much on the specific application. Joining technology is one out of a large number of viable alternatives for manufacturing a component, casting, forging, pressing, bending, extrusion and machining can all be used to produce both large and small components in a variety of metals.

12.1. Methods of Joining There are many methods of joining metals with the aim of producing more intricate shapes. Such methods include:


12.1.1 Mechanical Locking This is only possible with thin sheets and only with very ductile metals

Fig. 12.1: Mechanical Locking of thin ductile metals A large amount of deformation is needed to produce a secure joint and the strength of such joints is acceptable in applications such as the manufacture of sheet metal containers, cladding components etc.

12.1.2 Bolts, Screws, and Rivets These are used to produce a local connection between the parts being joined. Bolted joints are common and are easy to assemble provided the holes have been accurately drilled. Rivets are widely used in sheet work and they readily give a joint of good strength. The skin panels on an aircraft body contain many examples of the skilful use of rivets to provide joints which can with-stand high stress. For materials, which are difficult to weld such as Aluminium and the joining of dissimilar metals, self–pierced riveted joints, blind fixing and clinching are better alternatives. Clinched joints are typically half as strong as spot welds. There will be more discussions on this later in the text. Riveting produces permanent connections whereas bolting enables the joints to be dismantled for repair or modification. None of these techniques however, gives a leak-tight joint without the use of a sealant. There are four possible ways of achieving a leak – tight joint.

12.1.3 Soldering In soldering, a small gap between the sheets at the overlap is filled with a low melting lead-tin alloy known as a solder. Other solders include Sn-Zn,


Cd-Ag and Zn-Al, which may be used for soldering Aluminium. The filler does not join to the parent metal by fusion. If the surface has been cleaned with a flux, the solder wets the metal and produces an inter-metallic bond. The melting point of the solder ranges from 183 to 275 0C depending on composition and the joint is heated to the appropriate temperature by a soldering iron or a gas flame.

Fig.12.2: Lap joint for soldering, brazing or adhesive bonding

12.1.4 Brazing This is similar to soldering but uses fillers having higher melting points 4500C – 8000C. Brazed joints usually have better strength than soldered ones but the need to heat to higher temperatures can pose problems e.g. oxidation and decolouration of the metal surfaces. Various heating methods used include gas torch, furnace, molten flux bath, induction heating and resistance heating. When the solidus temperature of the filler metal is below 5000C, the process is termed soldering. When it is higher than 500 0C, it is referred to as brazing. The filler metal must wet the surfaces to be joined.

12.1.5 Adhesive Bonding This is a relatively new technique, which has gained wide acceptance. Like brazing and soldering, a small gap is used which in this case is filled with adhesive which forms a surface bond with the metal. The type of adhesive used depends on the particular requirements of the joint.

12.1.6 Welded Joint This is by far the most important joining method. Most welded joints are made by melting the parent metal/materials on each side of the joint line. Figure R.3 & shows the formation of a typical fusion welded joint.


Fig. 12.3: Formation of a fusion welded joint

The molten metal combines to form a liquid pool between the two components. If necessary, additional metal is added to build up the crosssection of the weld. When the pool solidifies, a continuous metallic bridge is produced which is able to carry the load and is leak proof. Welding can either be by fusion or by pressure.


Pressure (Solid Phase) welding

This is defined as joining metals by plastic deformation with no melting occurring. The joints may very often have better mechanical properties than fusion welded joint as it has a forged rather than a cast structure. Cold pressure welding is used to a limited extent to make welds between aluminium cables and connectors, but it is usually difficult to accommodate the amount of deformation required to weld commercial alloys.


Fig 12.4 Pressure Welding Classifications

Fig.12.5 Cold Pressure spot welding joint assembly

Optimum joint strength is obtained at a level known as the threshold deformation, the actual value of which depends on the metals being welded. In general, the softer the metal, the lower the deformation required to initiate welding at room temperature.


Table 12.1: Threshold deformation for welding Metal Lead Tin Aluminium Copper Iron Threshold Deformation (% reduction in thickness) 10 15 40 45 65

12.2.1 Hot Pressure Welding The bonding success rate is greater if the metals are heated during pressure welding operation. Raising the temperature reduces the value of the threshold deformation and a number of successful hot-pressure welding techniques have developed. The oldest is forge-welding which has been practiced by black-smiths since 1400BC. In this process, the wrought iron or steel bars which are to be joined are heated to about 13500C. At this temperature, the oxide layers are melted and when the components are hammered together, the molten oxides are squeezed out of the joint. Bonding then occurs at relatively low deformation levels. The flow stress (6) of the metal is lower at higher temperatures enabling metallurgical bonds to be formed at lower stress levels.


Weld formation in general

From the brief survey of welding, we are now in a position to define a weld and in particular to look at the definition given in British standard 499: part 1: 1995, ―welding, razing and thermal cutting glossary‖: ―A weld is a union between pieces of metal at faces rendered plastic or liquid by heat or pressure or both‖. Sufficient strength can be produced in a welded joint only by inter atomic bonding, and the prime function of the welding operation is therefore to provide metallic bonds between atoms at the inter faces of the joint.


For these links to be established, two conditions must be met 1. The surfaces must be in intimate contact 2. These surfaces must be metallurgically clean that is no grease, paint, moisture, oxide in the surface.

12.3.1 Types of welded Joint There are many types of welded joints and a closer investigation would reveal that both the welds and the joints can be categorised into groups. There are four asic types of joints: Butt, ‗T‘, corner and lap.

Fig12.6 Examples of welded joints

In the butt joint, the edges of the components are abutted and the load is transmitted along the common axis. This method is used to join length of pipes plates in ship‘s hull and flanges on ridge girders.


The ‗T‘ joint is the most common and is used for most fabrication. It can be made either with no penetration along the joint line or with bonding across the interface (i.e. butt – welded). The corner joint can be similarly butt – or fillet welded according to service requirements. Corner joints are commonly associated with box sections. The lap joint offers a versatile variant because it can be used in butt, ‗T‘ and corner joints. Lap joints are mainly used in sheet fa rication, and common items such as cars, washing machines, refrigerators etc contain many examples.


Typical Fusion welding Process

For each fusion – welding process, one must consider two aspects i.e. the provision of a suitable source of heat and the need to protect the weld pool against atmospheric contamination. This can be done by the use of an inert gas or use a gas which reacts in a controlled manner. Methods of protecting the weld Pool from contamination 1. 2. Blanket the weld pool with molten flux forming a slag layer which is impervious to the passage of gases Replace the air in the vicinity of the heat source by a gas which does not react or which reacts in a controlled manner.

Most fusion welding processes can therefore be classified into three main types: 1. Arc welding (current may be generated from AC or DC) 2. Gas welding 3. Resistance welding

12.4.1 Arc Welding Arc welding is a process in which an electric arc is produced between a metal electrode or wire carrying high – amperage current and the work piece. A small part of the base metal is brought up to the melting point. Also in the consumable electrode process, the electrode is melted and tiny globules pass through the arc.

Fig 12.7 Schematic representation of an arc

An electric arc is formed when an electric current passes between two electrodes separated by a short distance from each other. In arc welding, the electrode is the welding rod or wire while the other is the metal to be welded. The electrode and the plate are connected to the power supply unit. The arc is started by momentarily touching the electrode on to the plate and then withdrawing it to about 3 – 4mm from the plate.

Main Features: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) A welding arc is the passage of electricity across a gas between an electrode and the parent metal or workpiece. Heat is generated at the surfaces of the electrode and of the parent metal. Heating at the electrode can cause melting and the transfer of metal to the weld pool. Heating at the parent metal produces fusion of the joint faces. Heat input to the weld is a function of arc voltage, arc current and travel speed, reaching a temperature in excess of 7000 0C see fig 12.8. Arc length is related to arc voltage.


Fig. 12.8: Temperature distribution in a 500A in argon between a tungsten cathode and a water cooled Cu anode

Fig. 12.9 is the alternating current arc welding machine with an inbuilt transformer requiring little or no maintenance. The purpose of the transformer is to charge the high input voltage and low amperage current from the mains to a low voltage and high amperage. The output from the transformer is about 80 to 100 volts and thus there is little risk of shock to the operator.

Fig. 12.9: An alternating current arc welding machine


The voltage required to strike the arc exceeds the voltage required to maintain it, and an average striking voltage required to maintain it that is, working voltage is about 30 to 40V. Structurally, the arc can be divided into five regions (fig 12.10): (i) (ii) (iii) Cathode spot – This is an area from which electrons are emitted. Cathode drop zone – This is an area of high voltage gradient. Arc column – This is a bright visible part of the arc characterized by high temperatures, which are strongly dependent on current. Gas in this column is electrically neutral that is, number of electrons equal number of cations. Anode drop zone. This is an area of high potential gradient. Anode spot. This is the portion of the material within which electrons are absorbed.

(iv) (v)

12.4.2 Arc Types Arcs can be generated using a.c. or d.c. Consider the d.c. arcs, there arc two main modes (Fig 12.11). i. In the straight polarity, the electrode is negative for non-consumable electrode process, the tungsten electrode remains cooler if negative than if positive. And in this polarity referred to as direct current straight polarity (DCSP), 2/3 of the heat is generated at the work piece and 1/3 at the electrode. Note: arc is unstable in straight polarity mode.


Reverse Polarity: In this polarity (e.g. in MIG) electrode is now positive and the work piece is negative. The heat input is also reversed. This mode is referred to as direct current reverse polarity (DCRP) and finds use in overhead welding that is, minimizes the amount of weld pool formed.


Fig12.10 Arc appearance and structure

Fig 12.11 Electrode polarity with dc arcs


Arc welding Classifications

In this section, profiles of some of the commonly used fusion welding process are given. The aim is to illustrate those systems which have made a major contribution to the success of modern fabrication engineering.


12.5.1 Manual Metal Arc welding (MMA) Alternative names include stick electrode welding or shielded metal arc welding. Refer to fig 12.12

Type of operation: manual Heat source: arc Shielding: principally flux and some gas generated by flux Current range: 25 to 350 A Heat input: 0.5 to 11 KJ/s

Mode of Operation: The welder establishes an arc between the end of the electrode and the parent metal at the joint line. The arc melts the parent metal and the electrode to form a weld pool, which is protected by the molten flux layer generated by the flux covering of the electrode. The welder moves the electrode towards the weld pool to keep the arc gap at a constant length. The current is controlled by the power – supply unit. Electrodes are normally 460 mm long and when they have been welted to a length of about 50mm, the art is extinguished.

Fig12.12 Schematic diagram of MMA welding

The solidified slag or flux layer generated is removed from the surface and the weld is continued with a fresh electrode.

Typical Application: Fabrication of pressure vessels, Ships, Structural steel work, joints in pipe work and pipelines. Construction and repair of machine plants are a part of the many applications.

12.5.2 Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding This may also be referred to as Co 2 welding. The type of operation is manual but it can also be mechanized. Refer to fig 12.13 Heat Source – Arc Shielding – Gas which must not react with the metal being welded. Current range: 60 to 500A Heat input: 1 to 25 KJ/s Mode of operation: An arc is established between the end of the electrode and the parent metal at the joint line. The electrode is fed at a constant speed by a motor. The electrode feed rate determines the current. The arc length is controlled by the power supply unit and the welder is required to keep the nozzle at a fixed height above the weld pool (usually about 20mm). The arc area and the weld metal are protected by a gas, which is chosen to suit the metal being welded. Gases commonly used are argon, argon mixed with 5% oxygen or 20% CO2, as well as pure CO2. Typical Applications: medium gauge fabrication for earth moving equipment, plate, and box girders, sheet metal work for car bodies.

Fig.12.13. Schematic diagram of metal inert gas (MIG) welding

12.5.3 Submerged – Arc welding (SAW) Refer to fig 12.14. Type of operation – mechanized Heat source – Arc Shielding: granular flux Current range: 350 to 2000 A Heat input: 90 to 80 KJ/s

Mode of operation: An arc is maintained between the end of a bare wire electrode and the parent metal. The current is controlled by the power supply unit. As the electrode is melted, it is fed into the arc by a servo – controlled motor. This matches the electrode feed rate to the speed at which the electrode is melting, thus keeping the arc length constant. The arc operates under a layer of granular flux (hence the name submerged arc welding). Some of the flux will melt to provide a protective blanket over the weld pool. Unmelted flux is recovered and used.

Typical Applications: These include joints in thick plate in pressure vessels, bridges, ships, structural work, welded pipe

Advantages: Very high deposition rates and high penetration can be achieved.

Disadvantage: High dilution rate of the base metal.


Fig. 12.14 Schematic diagram of submerged – arc welding

12.5.4 Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding Refer to fig 12.15 Type of operation – manual Heat source – Arc Shielding – Inert gas Current range: 10 – 300 A Heat Input: 0.2 – 8 KJ/S Mode of Operation: An arc is established between the end of a tungsten electrode and the parent metal at the joint line. The electrode is not melting (hence non-consumable) and the welder keeps the arc gap constant. The current is controlled by the power supply unit. Filler metal, usually available in 1m lengths of wire, is added to the leading edge of the pool as the motten pool is shielded by an intergas required. Which replaces the air in the arc area. Argon is the most commonly used shielding gas. Typical Applications: These include high – quality welds in metals such as Aluminum, stainless steel, Nimonic alloys, copper in chemical plants, sheet work in aircraft engines and structures.


Fig 12.15 Schematic diagram of tungsten inert-gas (TIG) welding


Gas Welding

By burning a mixture of oxygen and a fuel gas at the outlet of an orifice in a tube or nozzle, it is possible to achieve quite high temperatures. Unfortunately, with most oxygen – fuel gas mixtures these temperatures are too low for welding except for low melting point metals such as lead, zinc, and tin. The one exception is provided by acetylene. When mixed with oxygen in the correct proportions, this gas burns with a flame temperature of about 3100oC, which is adequate for many welding applications. It is the cheapest welding process. Here oxygen and acetylene are combined to give heat i.e. C2 H2 + O2 2CO + H2 + 106Kcal…… 12.1

Acetylene is referred to as fuel gas and oxygen as a gas that supports combustion. Acetylenes gas is obtained by dropping lumps of calcium carbide in water, i.e. CaC2 + 2H20 Calcium carbide Ca(OH)2 + C2H2 ……12.2 Slaked lime Acetylene gas

By varying the proportion of oxygen and acetylene, one can obtain (a) Neutral (b) oxidizing and (c) reducing flames.

By far the most widely used is the neutral flame for ferrous and nonferrous metals. Slightly oxidizing flames are used for brass and nickel alloys while strongly oxidizing flames are used for brass. Reducing flames are used for aluminum and its alloys. The neutral flame (Fig 12.16) has the widest application

Fig12.16 Structure of the oxyacetylene flame The inner luminous core at the tip of the touch requires approximately a one-to –one mixture of 02 and C2H2 and is the result of the reaction indicated in the figure. This core is surrounded by an outer envelope flame which is faintly luminous and slightly bluish in colour. The oxygen required for this flame comes from the atmosphere. The maximum temperature 3300 – 35000C is obtained at the tip of the luminous core: When excess C2H2 is used, three zones will appear comprising: (i) Reducing flame: this is used for welding monel metals Nickel, Chromium alloys.



If excess oxygen is used, a flame similar to neutral flame is obtained except that the inner luminous flame is much shorter giving oxidizing flame.

For Steels using neutral flame, the filler rods contain 0.3 – 0.5% Si, 1.3 – 1.6 % Mn to de-oxidize the weld pool. Gas welding is highly portable and relatively cheap.

12.6.1 Fuel Gas Safety All fuel gases are potentially dangerous and should be handled with utmost care. However, safety hazards can be minimized by a review of the fuel gas safety properties. The first property is the inherent stability of the chemical bond in the fuel gas molecule. Acetylene with its triple bond is the most unstable of all fuel gases. It will decompose under H – CC – H Mechanical shock loading i.e. a dropped acetylene gas cyliner can explode.

Advantages of Gas welding 1. The gas flame is generally more easily controlled and is not as piercing as shielded arc welding. It is therefore used extensively for sheet – metal fabrication and repairs. The gas welding outfit is very for portable


Disadvantages 1. 2. The process is much slower than arc welding Harmful thermal effects are made worse by prolonged heat. The heat source spreads through a wide area of arc which may produce more distortion and a wider heat affected zone (HAZ). There are safety problems in handling gases.




Resistance (Spot) Welding

Resistance welding is based on the well – known principle that as a metal impedes the flow of electric current, heat is generated. The amount of heat generated is related to the magnitude of the electric current, the resistance of the current conducting path, and the time the current is allowed to flow. Of course the metal makes a much better path for the current than the arc in arc welding; therefore the current must be higher. The interface between the two surfaces of the work piece offers the greatest resistance to current flow and is therefore the area of greatest heat. The heat generated is directly proportional to the square of the current times the resistance, i.e. H Where, H I I R = = = = heat generated in watt hours time in hours current in amperes resistance in ohms I2 RT

Spot welding is one of the principle types of resistance welding. Others include Seam welding, High frequency welding. Flash welding, upset welding etc.

12.7.1 Spot Welding Basic spot welding consists of clamping two or more pieces of metal between two copper electrodes. Applying pressure then passing sufficient current through the metal to make the weld. Pressure, weld time and hold time are the fundamental variations in spot welding. The weld time is the period when the current flows i.e. in fractions of a second e.g. ¼ second. The hold time is basically a cooling period. It is the interval from the end of the current flow until the electrodes part.


Details of operation: Type of operation: Automatic Heat Source: Resistance heating at an interface Shielding: None required. Current range: 100 to 50,000 A

Mode of operation: The work which is usually in the form of a lap joint is gripped between two copper electrodes. A high current at low voltage flows through the parent metal between the electrodes. At the interface, heat is generated by the resistance offered to the current flow. A spot or slug of the metal is melted and bulges the interface. The current flows only for a short time (0.06 – 3 sec.). When the current is switched off, the weld solidifies under pressure.

Fig 12.17: Schematic diagram of resistance spot welding


Typical Application: Light fabrications from pressed sheet e.g. car bodies, air craft engines etc. Advantages: 1. 2. 3. Very short time cycle hence can be used for high production processes e.g. robotic production of car components. No filler metal required. Accurate location of joints since it is formed directly under electrode tip.


Process Regulation and control of Fusion welds

For fusion welded joints, there is the need to control the heat input / unit length of weld. Heat input (kJ/mm) Current (A) Arc Voltage (V) 60 Travel speed (mm/min) 1000

The success of the welding operation depends to a large extent on the heat input to the joint. As soon as heat is supplied to the area to be welded, either by arc or fuel gas, it will start to flow away into the metal on either side since this is at a lower temperature. To achieve melting therefore, the rate at which heat is being supplied to the joint must be greater than the rate at which it is flowing into the parent metal. To achieve fusion, heat must be supplied at a faster rate to a copper joint than to a steel joint. Summary: To summarize, the parameters involved in effective melting of the parent metal during welding are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Metal thickness and joint type. Thermal conductivity Temperature of the parent metal before welding Melting point Electrode angle and feed rate Heat input.

From the main factors governing heat input in arc welding, the main parameters are: 1. 2. 3. Arc current Arc voltage Travel speed Vd 4 Where, V weld velocity, d melted width, thermal conductivity

A measure of the efficiency of utilization of heat is given by

For high heat input welds where heat is efficiently utilized, Ø > 1 A low heat input rate allowing wasteful spread of heat will have Ø < 1. For the majority of situations Ø ⋍ 0.25 – 1 In oxyacetylene gas welding, the parameters are: 1. 2. 3. Fuel gas flow rate. Correct positioning of flame Travel speed.

Electrode Efficiency in Arc welding is given by:

Actually, it is reported as:

In general, the efficiency of MMA electrodes is between 75 – 100%. Losses are due to sputter, oxides and fumes An efficiency of greater than 100 is obtained in cases where iron powder is added to coating.


Effect of Dilution on Composition

The depth to which the parent metal has been fused is usually referred to as the penetration. This may be seen simply as melting into the plate

Fig. 12.18 Penetration in T joints

Since both voltage and current contribute to the heating effect in the arc, a change in either will have an effect in the penetration. An important aspect of penetration in arc welding is the effect it has on weld – metal composition. The molten pool is made up of a mixture of electrode and parent metal. The proportions will be determined to a large extent by the heat input. Dilution is expressed as the percentage of the melted parent metal in the weld and can be used to predict individual alloy content in the molten pool.

Fig. 12.19 Effect of dilution on composition


Note: shaded area = amount of melted parent metal. ( Where Cw Cf Cp D = Percentage of a given element in the weld = Percentage of this element in the filler or electrode = Percentage of this element in the parent metal = Percentage dilution ) , -

12.10 Electrode Coatings Many electrodes used in arc welding are coated with flux. The main reason for using a flux covering is to protect the molten metal from atmospheric contamination. At the same time, the flux fulfils a number of functions all of which contribute to the success of a welding operation. The flux melts in the arc along with the core wire. It covers the surface of the molten metal excluding oxygen and nitrogen. When it has solidified, the flux forms a slag which continues to protect the weld bead until it has cooled to room temperature. The slag must have good detachability. A large number of chemical compounds are used in formulating a flux.

Table 12.2: Fluxes Constituent TiO2 (Rutile) Mg Oxide Calcium fluoride Calcium Carbonate Cellulose Ferro-manganese Ferro-chrome Potassium Silicate Iron oxide Other silicates Ferro –silicon Primary function Slag former Fluxing agent Slag former Gas former Gas former Alloying Alloying Arc stabilizer Slag former Slag former De-oxidizer Secondary function Arc stabilizer Fluxing agent Arc stabilizer De-oxidizer Binder Arc stabilizer Fluxing agents -


Note: Binders are used to give the flux covering mechanical strength and to help it to adhere to the core wire. Fluxing agents are used to adjust surface tension and wetting characteristic particularly in soldering and brazing.

Operational characteristics of Electrodes for steels There are four main groups of electrodes used in MMA welding of steels. They are distinguished by the major constituents of the flux covering which determine their operating characteristics.


Acid coverings: These are composed mainly of oxides and silicates and have high oxygen content. They give smooth weld profiles and the slag is easy to detach. Although they give good ductility, the welds tend to be low in strength and for this reason, acid electrodes are not widely used. Cellulosic Covering: These have large quantities of organic material containing cellulose. Flour and wood pulp are common constituents. The organic compounds decompose in the arc to generate hydrogen, which replaces air in the arc column. The presence of hydrogen increases the voltage across the arc and makes it more penetrating. For a given current, the depth of penetration is 70% more than with other types. The surface profile is poor however but the mechanical properties are good. Rutile Coverings: These are based on titanium oxide. The compound has a good slag-forming characteristic and produces a stable, easy to use arc. Rutile electrodes are widely used. The deposits have a medium oxygen content hence the surface profiles are good and slag detachability is also good. Mechanical properties are adequate for most structural steels. Basic Covering: These contain mainly calcium compounds such as calcium fluoride and calcium carbonate. They are often referred to





as ―lime coated‖ electrodes and are used principally for the welding of high strength steels. The mechanical properties are very good and it is possible to produce weld deposits which match almost all commercially used carbon-manganese steels and low alloy steels. More fumes are however given off than with other types of electrodes.

12.10.1 Electrode Coding According to British Standard BS 639: 1976, the type of covering is indicated by the appropriate letter or letters as follows: A AR B C O R RR S Acid (iron oxide) Acid (rutile) Basic (Acid) Cellulosic Oxidizing Rutile (medium coated) Rutile (heavy coated) Other types

12.11 Edge Preparations Various types of edge preparations can be used and the choice of the most suitable is influenced by a number of factors. Some of them are:

(a) Type of process (b) Type of work (c) position of welding i.e. vertical, horizontal, flat, overhead etc. (d) access for arc and electrode (e) volume of deposited weld metal (f) dilution (g) cost of preparing edges and (h) shrinkage and distortion.


Typical edge preparations:


Fig 12.20 Typical edge preparations for butt joints

12.12 Welding of Carbon and low alloy steels Steels with carbon content up to 0.25% C (mild steels) are easy to weld and fabricate because they do not harden by heat treatment. This means that the weld and the heat affected zones (HAZ) do not have hardened zones even for fast cooling.

12.12.1 Structure of Welds There are three zones – unaffected parent metal, the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the fusion zone (FZ). The width of the heat affected zone will increase with heat input and with decreasing travel speed if input is constant. As the carbon content of a steel increases, it becomes more difficult to weld

because hardened, zones in the HAZ result in brittleness and possible cracking if the joint is under restraint. Cracking may appear as: 1. 2. 3. 4. Delayed cold cracking caused by the presence of hydrogen. high temperature cracking (hot cracking) solidification cracking lamellar cracking (or tearing)

Hot cracks usually appear down, the centre of a weld which is the last part to solidify while cold cracks occur in the HAZ. The factors which lead to cold cracking are: 1. 2. 3. 4. The composition of the steel being welded The presence of hydrogen The rate of cooling of the welded joint The degree of stress in the joint.

12.12.2 Composition of steel and carbon Equivalent (CE) In steels, the tendency to crack increases as the carbon and other alloying element increases. It is convenient to convert the varying amount of alloying elements in a given steel in terms of a simple carbon equivalent. This gives an indication of the tendency of the welded joint to crack during cooling. Several formulas have been developed to assist in evaluating the weldability of hardenable carbon and alloy steels. One such example is stated below:
( )

Steels having carbon equivalents of less than 0.35% using the above relationship will not normally require pre-heating before welding. Those having CE of 0.35 to 0.55% and above may result in solidification cracking after welding depending on the cooling rate. It should be noted that the carbon equivalent (CE) is only an approximate measure of weldability or susceptibility to weld cracking.


12.12.3 Heat Affected Zone This is the portion of the weld joint which has been subjected to peak temperatures high enough to produce solid-state microstructural changes but too low to cause any melting. In this zone, the thermal history of the parent metal has been altered.

Fig12.21: Butt-weld showing fusion zone and HAZ

12.13 Basic Welding Symbols The terms weld symbol and welding symbol have different meanings. A weld symbol indicates the required type of weld, and the basic weld symbols are shown in Fig. 12.21. The welding symbol includes the weld symbol and supplementary information. All welding symbols have a minimum of three basic parts: i. ii. iii. a reference line, an arrow, a feathered tail


Fig12.21: The Basic Weld Symbols

12.13.1 Weld Joints, Symbols and Joint Design Principles These are as shown in fig. 12.22. Note that the reference line is always horizontal on all drawings and that the arrow is always inclined to the reference line at one end. The angle of inclination of the arrow or whether it is pointing upwards or downwards has no significance. That means the reference line has two sides viz., the arrow side and the other side.


Fig.12.22 Essential elements of a basic welding symbol

The arrow points to a spot on the drawing where the welding is to be done. Many times it is difficult to put the arrow on the same side as the actual spot where the weld is to be made, so the two side of the reference line are made use of. Any welding instructions on the arrow side of the reference line are to be made on the same side of the part where the arrow points to. Any welding instructions on the other side of the reference line apply to the opposite side of the part. The arrow side is always under the reference line, no matter which way the arrow points. The other side is always on top of the reference line. Welds on both sides of a joint are shown by placing weld symbols on both sides of the reference line.

Fig. 12.23: Welding symbols with references in tails

When a specification, process, test or other reference is needed to clarify a welding symbol, the reference is placed in a tail on the welding symbol, as shown in Fig. 12.23. The letters CJP in the tail of the arrow are


used to indicate that a complete joint penetration weld is required. The type of weld or joint preparation may be optional. The tail may be omitted when no specification, process or other reference is required with a welding symbol. Including the basic three elements discussed above, a welding symbol may consist of the following 8 elements: (1) A reference line; (2) An arrow; ( 3) A tail; (4) Basic weld symbol, (5) Dimensions and other data; (6) Supplementary symbols; (7) Finish symbols; and (8) Specification, process, or other references. All these elements have standard locations with respect to each other, as shown in fig. 12.24.

Fig. 12.24 Standard locations of elements of a welding symbol


However, all elements mentioned above need not be used on a welding symbol unless required for clarity. Significance of the elements of a welding symbol is briefly described as follows.

12.13.2 Weld Symbols Fig. 12.21 shows the basic weld symbols used above, below, or on the reference line. Some weld symbols have no arrow or other side significance. However, supplementary symbols used in conjunction with these weld symbols may have such significance. For example, welding symbols for resistance spot and seam welding have no side significance, as shown in fig. 12.25.

Fig. 12.25: No arrow or other side significance

12.13.3 Weld Dimensions Dimensions of a weld are shown on the same side of the reference line as the weld symbol. The size of the weld is shown to the left of the weld symbol, and the length of the weld is placed on the right. If a length is not given, the weld symbol applies to that portion of the joint between abrupt changes in the direction of welding or between specified dimension lines. If a weld symbol is shown on both sides of the reference line, dimensions must be given for each weld even though both welds are identical. Examples of dimensioning for typical fillet welds are shown in fig. 12.26.

Fig. 12.26 Weld size and length on welding symbols


QUESTIONS 1a Define the term weld Sate the two conditions needed to achieve adequate bond between interfaces in a fusion weld. Briefly state two advantages of brazing over soldering b A direct current reverse polarity (DCRP) is drawing 140 amps and has a voltage of 40 V. If the electrode travel is at (i) the rod (electrode) (ii) the work piece; would you recommend this polarity in normal positional welding (not overhead). Give reasons With the aid of a suitable sketch, show the three zones in a typical fusion weld structure. State two factors affecting the width of an HAZ Parent metals are to be fabricated from the alloy composition listed below: A B C 3.0%C, 0.01%C, 0.45%C, 1.5%Mn, 18.4%Nim, 4.25%Mn 1.5% Si, 7.5%Co, 19.5%Cr, 15.5%Cr, 4.4%Mo, 0.60Si, 0.7%Mo 0.30%Tc 9.5%Ni


Calculate the carbon equipment of each and on that basis decide which composition is likely to contain a brittle phase in fast cooling. Assume if C. E > 0.5 a brittle phase will result What is this brittle phase called? 3 With the aid of clearly labeled sketch, outline the basic principles in the operation of a metal inert Gas welding (MIG). Give typical applications for such process. How is the weld pool protect from contamination. What is the current density in a 12.5mm diameter resistance (spot) welding carrying 24,000 amps? Briefly explain Electrode Efficiency in the welding. What do you understand by the term arc welding There are viable alternatives for component manufacture in addition to welding/joining technology. Name Four b What is the significance of polarity in arc welding. Explain how it can be used to advantage. Provide a labeled sketch of arc appearance and structure



Define the term ―weld‖ What type of bonding is found in a fusion weld zone?

d e

Outline two conditions that must be met to establish this bond What type of joining process would you recommend for the following, giving reasons (i) (iii) Sheet metal box (ii) robotic welding of car bodies

Skin panels of an aircraft body (v) Joints in dissimilar metals

(iv) thick plate pressure vessels


What do you understand by the term (i) Heat affected zone (HAZ) (ii) Efficiency of utilization of heat in a fusion weld.

A parent metal contains 0.35% C and the electrode is made of a material having 0.257%. If the amount of carbon in the weld pool is 0.26%C, calculate the percentage dilution. A direct current straight polarity (DCSP) welding machine is drawing 140 amps and has a voltage of 45V. If the electrode travel speed is 50mm/min, calculate the amount of heat generated at: (i) the rod (ii) the work piece


With the aid of a clearly labeled sketch, discuss the operational principles of an alternating current arc welding machine. Include in your answer, the role of the transformer as well as safety precautions during operation, Provide a labeled Sketch any of the structure of an oxyacetylene flame. What are the disadvantages of (i) excess oxygen (ii) excess acetylene in an oxy-acetylene gas flame. Oxygen cylinders are usually rounded at the bottom. Provide a brief explanation for this.


7 (a) (b)

What are the functions of binders and fluxes in electrode welding. Give two essential properties that a filler metal must possess if it is to be used for brazing.


List three advantages of spot welding over other welding processes. Give one advantage and one disadvantage of brazing over soldering.

(d) (e)

Provide a sketch (only) of an MMA welding process. Give one advantage of an MMA electrode with cellulosic covering. A DCRP (direct current reverse polarity) welding arc is drawing 140 amps and as a voltage of 40V. If the electrode travel speed is 50mm/min, calculate the amount of heat (i) The rod (i) the work piece


Define the term ―Weld‖ With the aid of a clearly labeled diagram, outline the basic principles in the operation of a submerged arc welding (SAW) process. Give typical applications for such a welding process How is the weld pool protected from contamination?

9 (a)

Name four constituents used in electrode coatings and state the primary and secondary functions of each What is the current density in a 12.5mm diameter resistance (spot) welding carrying 24,000 amps current.

( ).Define the term ―dilution‖ in weld deposits. A parent metal contains 0.25%C and the electrode is made of a material having about 0.15%C. If the amount of carbon in the weld pool is 0.20%C, calculate the percentage dilution.

Model Answers for Questions 1, 2 & 3: Q1 (a) Definition of a weld A union between pieces of metal at faces rendered plastic or liquid by heat or pressure or both. (1) (2) (i) (ii) The surfaces must be in intimate contact These surfaces must be metallurgic ally clean – i.e. no grease, paint, moisture or oxide Brazed joints usually have better strength They also have better creep properties




( ) (

( ) )

In reverse polarity, (DC R P);  1/3rd of heat is on work piece

2/3rd of heat on rod

This mode is not recommended for normal welding. Heat input is too small and normal welding will take longer times with attendant HAZ problems. (2)

Two factors affecting the width of a heat affected zone (HAZ) (i) (ii) Heat input Decreasing travel speed if heat input is constant

Tendency to crack will increase with increase in the carbon and other alloying elements

C. E. = %C + %Mn/6 + (% Cr + % Mo +% V)/5 + (%Ni + % Cu)/15 Composition A; C. E. = 3 +1.5/6 + (15.5 + 0.7)/5 = 3 + 0.25 + 3.24 = 6.49


Composition B; C. E Composition C;


0.01 + 4.40/5 + 18.4/15 = 2.12

C. E = 0.45 + 4.25/6+ 19.5/5+ 9.5/15 = 0.45+0.708+ 3.90 + 0.63 = 5.69

From the calculations, all three samples have C. E > 0.5 All three will contain a brittle phase if cooled quickly.The brittle phase is called Martensite


Operational Principles MIG is also called C02 welding. It can be operated manually or mechanized. Heat source is the arc. Shielding – gas ie Co2 or Argon mixed with 5% oxygen. Arc is established between the end of the electrode and the parent metal at the joint line. The electrode feed rate determines the current. Arc length is controlled by the power supply unit

Current range: Heat Input :

60 1

to to

500 A 25 KJ/S

Typical Applications : Medium gauge fabrication for Earth moving Equipment, box girders, sheet metal work for car bodies weld pool is protected by inert gas – C02, Argon etc hence the name Metal Inert Gas welding. ( )

Losses are normally due to sputter, oxides, fumes etc.

REFERENCES Carry, H. B; ―Modern welding Technology‖, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. Prentice – Hall 1979 Davies, A. C; ―The Science and practice of welding‖ 7th ed, NewYork; Cambridge, 1977 Harman. R C. (ed.) Handbook for Welding Design, London Pitman 1967 Houlderoft, P. T, Welding Process Technology, New York, Cambridge 1997 Metals Hand book, 8th ed. vol. 6 welding and Brazing metals Park, Ohio American Society for metals, 1993 Hicks, J. G. Welded Joint Design, 2nd edition, Abington 1997 Hicks, J. G. Welded Joint Design, 2nd edition, Abington 1997

1 2 3 4 5






Many materials are used in engineering for various functions, so it is important to be aware of the ways in which they are applied and of the properties, which make them suitable for such applications. Materials properties can be categorized into physical and mechanical properties. The value of physical properties usually can be determined without deforming or destroying the material. Mechanical properties however, indicate the reaction of a material to the application of forces. Consequently, these properties are determined by deformation or destruction tests. Heat treatment and cold or hot working of materials can alter the values of the physical and mechanical properties accordingly. Comparison of mechanical and physical properties of common plastics and metallic materials are shown in Table 13.1


Physical Properties Thermal conductivity

This is a measure of the ability of a material to conduct heat. The energy to be conducted is heat energy measured in joules and ‗Q‘ the rate at which it passes through the conductor will be in joules/sec or watts. The rate at which heat is conducted will depend upon the following factors: area, length, and the temperature difference at the ends of the conductor. In, fact the rate of conduction of heat in joules/sec is proportional to the area of the conductor, inversely proportional to its length and proportional to the difference in temperature between its ends. If these factors are to be equated to rate of conduction of heat they must be multiplied by a constant and therefore:



( ( )


( )


The constant ‗k‘ is the thermal conductivity in watts/metre-oC. If follows that for a higher value of ‗k‘ heat will e transferred along a given conductor at a greater rate. Values of ‗k‘ for some common engineering materials are shown in Table 13.1

Table 13.1: Comparison of mechanical and physical properties of common plastic and metallic materials

Electrical conductivity and resistivity The ability of a material to conduct electricity is its electrical conductivity. Resistivity on the other hand is a measure of the ability of a conductor to resist the passage of an electric current. Materials that allow electricity to pass through them very easily are termed electrical conductors. These include carbon and most of the metals, such as aluminum, copper, brass, and silver. Other materials that offer a high resistance to the flow of electricity and are bad electrical conductors, are known as insulators. These include non-metallic materials such as plastics, rubber, mica, ceramics, and glass.


The resistance of an electrical conductor is measured in ohms and depends on the nature of the material and its dimensions. The total resistance of a wire conductor is proportional to the length ‗ℓ‘ and inversely proportional to the area ‗a‘ of the wire and therefore:

Where, ℓ A = ρ

length of conductor (m) area of cross-section of conductor (m2) a constant known as the resistivity of the material in units of ohm metres


conductivity ‗ ‘.

This implies that the higher the value of ‗ ‘ the etter the conductivity of the material and the higher the value of ‗ρ‘ the greater its resistance. Thus for plastics, which are good resistors and poor conductors of electricity values of ‗ρ‘ are high and ‗ ‘ are low. Values of these factors for common engineering materials are shown in Table 13.1.

Example: What is the resistance of an electrical conductor 1mm diameter and 20 metres long whose resistivity is 2.5 x 10-8 ohm metres?


Density Different materials have different masses for equal volumes. The mass per unit volume is a measure of the density of a material and is given in units of kg/m3, i.e. the mass of a cubic metre of material is its density.

Density is of importance to the engineer when he compares the density of a material with its strength. Where weight is important the designer has to choose the material with the highest strength/weight ratio and this has led to the development of various materials for the aerospace industry where high strength coupled with low weight is extremely important. The densities of some common materials are shown in Table 13.1.

Melting Point The melting point of a material is the temperature at which it changes from the solid to the liquid state. This property may be an important consideration in certain material applications; for example, it is important to know the melting point of a solder if it is used on a joint which may be subjected to temperatures approaching the melting point of the solder. Again plastics must be used within the limits of their melting temperatures. Equipment such as furnaces, casting machines, and forging dies which are used in hot-working processes must be designed to withstand their high working temperatures. The melting points of some common material are shown in Table13.1

Coefficient of linear expansion This property is a measure of the amount by which the length of a material increases when the material is heated through a one – degree rise in temperature. Thus

Where ∆ℓ increase in length; coefficient of linear expansion; ℓo = original length; and ∆T = temperature rise.

Example: If the coefficient of linear expansion of copper is , what is the amount of expansion if 100mm long copper rod is heated through 200C? Solution: The amount of expansion, ∆ℓ 100x0.000017 x 20 = 0.034mm


Different metals expand or contract by different amounts for a given temperature change; for example, aluminum expands at a greater rate than cast iron. A typical application of advantage of this property is in the construction of a thermostat. The device makes use of two strips of different materials clamped together, the different expansion rates when heated causes the strip to bend and so make or break an electrical contact. On the other hand the disadvantages are many and have to be allowed for during design. For example, the clearance between the aluminum piston and the cast iron cylinder block in motor-vehicle engines will be less when the engine is hot than when it is cold.

Specific heat capacity The specific heat capacity ‗cp‘ of a material is the amount of heat energy (in joules) required to increase the temperature of unit mass (one kilogram) of the material by 10C. In general, the quantity of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a piece of material depends upon the type of material and its mass. If the mass of a material is m kilogram and the specific heat capacity is cp J/(kg0C), the amount of heat energy, Q joules, required to raise the temperature y ∆T 0C is given by:

A knowledge of this property becomes very important when dealing with heating or cooling operations. For example, after heat treatment operations liquids are used for cooling the metal specimen. Any such cooling liquid used must be able to absorb the heat energy from the metal, and this depends upon the type of liquid and it‘s mass. In metal-cutting operations, the coolant used must be of a type and delivered in sufficient volume to remove heat from the tool and cutting area without itself becoming too hot or the tool softening.


Mechanical Properties Strength

The strength of a material is its ability to withstand applied forces without failing or breaking. Strength is quoted as the force the material will withstand per unit area and is usually in units of mega-newtons per square metre or mega-pascal (MN/m2 or MPa). Loads may be applied in tension,

compression or shear, and the resistance of a material to these loads is a measure of its tensile strength, compressive strength, and shear strength.

Ductility This is the property of a material which allows it to be permanently deformed without rupture. A ductile material can be drawn out into a fine wire and has the ability or strength to allow this to be done without fracture. The value of % elongation of a tensile specimen after fracture is a measure of ductility and; % elongation = extension/original length x 100%.

Elasticity Elasticity is the property a material has which enables it to return to its original dimensions or shape after a deforming load has been removed. If the material is however loaded above its elastic limit or unit of proportionality of the load extension curve, the material will not return to its original dimensions, but would take on a permanent set. Elasticity is essential in materials used for manufacturing springs.

Hardness Hardness is the ability of a material to withstand or resist indentation, scratching, wear or machining. The easiest way to check whether a piece of steel is hard is to file it. In other words, hardness is also a measure of a material‘s a ility to cut other materials. Most machines designed to measure hardness do so by measuring the ability of a material to resist indentation by either a diamond or a hard steel ball under a standard load. Hard materials are required for cutting tools and for parts where wear must be kept to a minimum.

Brittleness This is the property some materials have of breaking easily with little or no deformation when given a sudden blow (shock load). This property is associated with hardness, since hard materials will often be brittle. Brittle


materials cannot be used in the working parts of power presses, which are subjected to sudden blows.

Toughness Toughness is the opposite of brittleness and is the ability of a material to withstand impact loads without fracturing. In other words a material is said to be tough if it is capable of absorbing a large amount of energy before it fractures. Again, a tough material will withstand repeated flexing or bending before it begins to crack or fracture. Tough materials must be used for making the working parts of power presses as they must withstand the repeated blows in pressing operations.

Malleability Malleability is the ability of a material to be deformed permanently into a different shape by compression without fracturing, either by rolling, forging or hammering. It is therefore an indication of the ability of the material to be rolled and hammered into thin sections. The material must be plastic but need not be as strong as a ductile material. Interesting comparisons in ductility and malleability may be made by considering materials, which exhibit these properties. Lead, tin, aluminum and gold are malleable; all may be rolled or hammered into very thin sheets but all are weak and are not ductile. Mild steel and copper are ductile and are strong enough to be stretched out into fine wires. Heat may be used to make a material more malleable.


Selection of Materials

Having defined the various properties of materials which are available to the engineer it is now pertinent to consider which of these properties are present in different materials and how they may be used to the best advantage. The comparison will however be brief at this stage as the composition and properties of different materials will be dealt with in more detail in the following section.


The least expensive materials available to the engineer is mild steel and perhaps the best method of material selection is to first consider this cheapest material for any given job and then ask whether it is suitable. The answer to this question will usually give a lead as to the material which could be used. Thus by reference to Table 13.1 it can be seen that steel, which has similar values of electrical and thermal conductivity to iron would not be used for a radiator where high efficiency of heat transfer is required. Copper would be a better material although it would be more expensive. It is interesting to note, however, that in domestic central heating systems, where high efficiency is not so necessary; radiators are made of mild steel pressings. Cost is the concern here. It is also evident from Table 13.1 that, although some metals are better conductors of heat and electricity than others, in general metals are good conductors and plastics are good insulators. Precisely, materials selection is based upon properties. The designer must decide the properties required of a material for a part under design and then weigh the properties of candidate materials. When selecting the materials from which to make a particular component, therefore, several requirements must always be studied and a compromise made in connection with the final choice. The necessary requirements may be classified broadly as: (i) service requirements, (ii) fabrication requirements, and (iii) economic requirements.


Ferrous Materials

In general, properties of ferrous materials are greatly influenced by their compositions and microstructures. Again, these properties may be modified by heat treatment. Iron in its pure form is rarely used in engineering. It is used to be made and used in the almost pure form as wrought iron, but it is generally too soft and weak, although very malleable, for use in modern engineering. Iron is instead used always as an alloy, usually with carbon as the alloying element and it is the quantity of carbon present which gives the alloy its properties. There are two alloys of iron and carbon, which are of major importance: steel and cast iron.


Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon containing less than 1.8% carbon together with varying small amounts of other elements such as manganese, sulphur, silicon, and phosphorus. Cast iron is an alloy of iron and carbon containing more than 2% carbon (between 2% and 4%). Up to 1.8% carbon exists in steel as a chemical compound of iron and carbon called iron carbide and it is this fact, which enables the properties of steel to be modified by heat treatment, while the carbon in gray cast iron exists in the form of flakes of pure graphite. This causes the materials to be weak in tension but easily machined although the graphite causes a dirty black dust to cover the machine and operator during machining.

13.4.1 Steel The two properties of steel which are of major importance to the engineer are: (i) The normal state properties of the steel which depend upon the carbon content; and (ii) The various properties of the steel obtained by subjecting the steel to different heat treatments. The three properties of plain carbon steels which are most important to the engineer are strength, ductility and hardness. It is found that as the carbon content increases the following changes take place. Strength The effect of carbon content upon the strength of steel is most striking that the strength of steel increases with increase in carbon content up to a maximum at 0.83% carbon and then begins to decrease thereafter. Ductility Ductility and malleability decrease as hardness increases with carbon content. So mild steel can be cold worked, bent and formed into various shapes in presses but for medium and high carbon steels any forming is usually by hot working. Hardness Increase in carbon content increases hardness. Consequently high carbon steel containing 1.2% carbon will be much harder than a 0.2% carbon


or low carbon steel or mild steel as it is known. The properties so far discussed are for steel in its normal state and the so called high carbon steel is still soft enough to be machined although the cutting speed must be kept low. The numerical values for these properties, showing the effect of carbon content, are shown in Table 13.2, and Fig. 13.1 shows graphically the effect of carbon content in steel on these three properties of strength, ductility and hardness.

Table 13.2: Effect of carbon content on properties of steel Category of Carbon steel Content Low carbon 0.2 0.4 Medium 0.6 carbon 0.8 High carbon 0.83 1.0 1.2 Tensile Strength (MN/m2) 463 620 740 865 925 910 870 % Elongation Hardness (Brinell) 30 90 20 125 12 160 5 195 1 200 1 230 1 265

Fig. 13.1: Effect of carbon content on strength, ductility, and hardness of normalized plain carbon steel

Cast Iron The properties of cast iron in its common gray form are: Tensile strength 250MN/m2; Ductility is negligible; Hardness 280BHN. Compared with the values for steel it can be seen that its strength is low, although the value given is for the tensile strength only. The compressive strength of cast iron is much higher, 690MN/m2 which indicates that where possible this material should be used to carry compressive loads, not tensile or bending. It also should not be subjected to impact loads as it is extremely brittle. Compared with the steel, cast iron has a low melting point and so can be more easily cast. There are many types of cast iron available covering a wide range of mechanical and physical properties. Cast iron is basically an alloy of iron and carbon, with carbon content between 2% and 4%. Gray cast irons contain carbon in the form of graphite flakes distributed throughout, which create a weak structure. Malleable irons are produced by annealing white-iron castings, free from graphite. Malleable irons are used in place of gray irons because of their increased tensile, impact, and fatigue strengths. Spheroidal graphite (S.G.), cast iron (also known as ‗ductile‘ or ‗nodular‘ iron) com ines the strength, toughness and ductility of steel with the ease of casting of gray cast iron. In S.G. iron, the graphite is present as spheroids or nodules, which are induced by adding magnesium before casting. Alloying elements in gray and ductile irons behave in the cast irons as they do in steel. The principal heat-treatments are also similar.


Heat Treatment of Plain Carbon Steel

The heat treatments which can be used to modify the properties of steel include the following processes: Annealing, Normalizing, Hardening, and Tempering. The metallurgical reasons for the changes taking place for each heat treatment process will be considered briefly at this stage. So it is pertinent at this point for the student in training to understand that there is more to heat treatment than the ‗get it red hot and drop it in a ucket of water‘ attitude.


Put in the simplest form, if steel containing enough carbon is heated above certain temperatures the form in which the carbon is contained in the steel changes. If cooled rapidly by quenching in water the changes do not have time to reverse themselves and the structure becomes supersaturated with carbon and the steel is hard. If cooled less rapidly by quenching in oil, a partial change occurs and the steel becomes very tough. On the other hand when hard steel is heated to the correct temperature and cooled very slowly in dry sand, or in the furnace, it will have ample time for the change made upon heating to reverse and the steel will become very soft or annealed. When a steel in an abnormal state, hard, tough or annealed, is heated to the correct temperature and cooled in still air (not draught) it will return to its normal condition for which its properties have been stated and is then said to be normalized. The carbon content determines the temperatures at which changes occur during the heat treatment of steel as can been seen from Fig. 13.2. The maximum temperature of 900 0C is for pure iron, 700 0C for 0. 83% C steel after which the temperature becomes constant, as the carbon content is further increased. These temperatures are called ‗critical temperatures‘ and a ove the critical temperature the desired changes take place, but below the critical temperature they do not take place. The steel is normally heated into a range 200C– 500C above the critical temperature to ensure that the desired change in structure has occurred before cooling the steel in the required manner necessary to give the properties desired. By referring to Fig. 13.2 the student can determine the correct temperature at which the treatments of plain carbon steel can be carried out. The heat treatment processes are summarized here as follows:

Annealing Annealing is heat treatment applied to steel to make it as soft as possible. The piece of steel is heated to the appropriate temperature (see Fig. 13.2), held for a period of time depending on the thickness of the steel and then cooled as slowly as possible by allowing it to cool in the furnace overnight.


Fully annealed steel is too soft to machine well, and should be normalized if it has to be machined.

Fig. 13.2: Chart to determine temperatures for the heat treatment of steel

Normalizing Steel is normalized to produce a uniform fine microstructure. The steel is heated to the temperature obtained in Fig. 13. 2 and allowed to cool in still air. This treatment is usually applied to annealed steel to make it easier to machine and to low carbon steels to enable further cold working to be carried out after they have become work hardened.

Hardening and Tempering This is the heat treatment given to steel with enough carbon content above about 0.4% to produce martensite in the structure and make it extremely strong and brittle. The steel is heated to the temperature found from Fig. 13.2

and quenched in water. The steel is not useful in the hard brittle form and so the hardness can be reduced and toughness increased by reheating and cooling. The hardness obtained depends on the temperature to which it is reheated. The process is term tempering and is caused by a breakdown of the hard martensite formed in the hardening process. Tempering may be divided into low temperature tempering (2000 – 3000C) and high temperature tempering (4500– 5500C). Whether a steel is given low or high temperature tempering depends on the type of work it is used and the effect of tempering temperature on hardness is shown graphically in Fig. 13.3. In general, the higher the temperature to which the hardened steel is reheated, the tougher the steel will be with a corresponding reduction in hardness and brittleness.

Fig. 13.3 Effect of tempering temperature on hardness

A component such as a scriber, which is requires to be hard and will not be subjected to shock loads, would be tempered by reheating to a lower temperature. The head of a hammer, which is requires to be tough to withstand shock loads, with no great degree of hardness, would be tempered by reheating to a higher temperature. Industrial tempering is carried out in correctly controlled furnaces, but it is a curious phenomenon that the colours caused by surface oxidation as steel is heated correspond fairly close to the temperature within the tempering range, as shown in Table 13.3.


Table 13.3 Tempering temperatures and oxide colours Temp.(oC) Oxide-film Colour 230 Pale straw 240 Dark straw 250 Brown 260 Brownish purple 270 Purple 280 300

Dark Blue purple

If after hardening, a steel is rubbed with emery cloth to give a bright surface and is then reheated, the bright surface will take on the oxide colourspale straw at the lower end, approximately 230 0C, through to blue as the temperature is increased to approximately 3000C. These colours cannot of course be relied upon to give accurate results, but they may be a useful aid in the workshop. More accurate results can be obtained by the use of thermal crayons. A crayon of an appropriate colour is selected for the desired temperature and is rubbed on the surface of the cold metal. The metal is then heated and the crayon deposit change to a different colour, in accordance with a colour chart provided, when the correct temperature is reached.


Applications of Ferrous Materials Low carbon steel

Mild steel containing 0.1 % carbon having a tensile strength of about 390 MN/m2 is commonly used in engineering. It is supplied in bar or rod form for presswork. In plate form it is available for fabricating into boilers and pressure vessels. Mild steel can be easily machined, pressed and welded. Slightly higher carbon content is used for structure steels with about 0.25% carbon and a tensile strength of 450 MN/m2. This material is supplied in the form of rolled steel sections for girders and joists. Low carbon steel cannot be effectively changed in its properties by heat treatment.

Medium carbon steel Steel containing 0.4-0.6%C has a tensile strength of 620-750MN/m2 and is used where higher strength is required. It cannot be fully hardened but can be toughened by heat treatment. A common application is for Allen screws and keys.

High carbon steel This material can be made extremely hard although it loses its hardness if reheated after hardening (tempering). It is used for cutting tools operating at low speeds such as chisels, files and punches. If fully hardened high carbon steel becomes very brittle it must be tempered back by an amount depending upon the application for which it is to be used.

Cast iron Cast irons have the advantage that they can be easily cast to shape and easily machined. Consequently, the main reason then for using cast iron is to waste as little materials as possible and only machine the functioning surfaces. The properties of the material are allowed for and ideally it should carry compressive load as far as possible and be massive enough to take the tensile and bending load where these are necessary. Cast iron then is found being used for machine beds, motor car cylinder blocks, large pump housings and large diesel engine blocks. It is also found applied to smaller light applications such as burners for gas cookers and other lightly loaded domestic applications although in many cases these parts are now fabricated from sheet by welding assembly methods.



13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8

Okorafor, O.E., Introduction to Engineering Materials: Their Nature and Applications, M.C. Computer, Nigeria, 2008. Okorafor, O.E., Foundry Technology, M.C. Computer, Nigeria, 2007. Higgins R.A., Engineering Metallurgy Part II, 2nd Edition, Hodder and Stoughton, 1980. C. R. Shotbolt, Technician Workshop Processes and Materials 1, Cassell, London, 197. Lindbery, R. A., Processes and Materials of Manufacture, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1977. Black, B. J., Workshop Process, Practices and Materials, Edward Arnold 1979. Budinski, K., Engineering Materials: Properties and Selection, Reston, Virgina, 1979. Kempster, M. H. A., Materials for Engineers, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1979.



13.1 13.2

Define the coefficient of linear expansion of a material. What would be the resistance of an electrical conductor 2 mm diameter and 30 m long whose resistivity is 1.6 x10 -8 ohm metres? (Answer: 0.153 ohms). Define thermal conductivity and state the units used. Plain-car on steel is an alloy of ……………….. with impurities present such as ……………………………………………. Name three types of cast iron. Why is it sometimes necessary to anneal a piece of steel, and how would the operation be carried out? Why is it sometimes desirable to temper a hardened steel, and how is it done? What is heat treatment and why is it carried out? What is a malleable material?

13.3 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 13.10

13.10 Describe a method used to harden steel containing 0.15% carbon. 13.14 (a) Name four physical properties of materials. (b) For each property state, the units in which it is measured and give an example of engineering application in which this property is important. 13.15 (a) Name five mechanical properties of materials. (b) For each property, state where appropriate, the units in which it is measured and give an example of an engineering application in which this property is important. 13.16 State the difference in composition between steel and cast iron and explain in simple terms the difference in structure and properties between these two materials. The mechanical properties of steel in its normal state depend upon the carbon content. Sketch a graph showing how these properties change with the carbon content and state one use for each of mild steel, medium carbon steel and high carbon steel.


13.18 Explain why the properties of cast iron require that there are certain conditions under which it should not be used.

13.19 Give examples of components for which cast iron is used and explain which of its mechanical properties make it suitable for this application.

13.20 (a) Name four heat-treatment processes to which steel may be submitted in order to change its mechanical properties (b) Draw a diagram to enable you to determine the temperature at which these heat- treatments should be carried out for steels of different carbon contents and explain how the following conditions would be obtained. (i) (ii) To make a piece of 1.2% carbon steel as hard as possible. To make a piece of 0.6% carbon steel as tough as possible.

(iii)To make a hardened piece of 0.9% carbon steel as soft as possible. (iv) To put a very soft piece of 0.2% carbon steel in the best condition for machining. 13.21 Fully hardened high carbon steels are usually too brittle for use as cutting tools. Name the process applied in this case to reduce the brittleness to a suitable level for tool. 13.22 Four fully hardened parts are to be treaded so that they can be used. State the temperature at which they would be treated and explain how this temperature can be gauged by eye. The parts are: (i) (ii) a scriber a cold chisel

(iii) a center punch (iv) a spring




Copper and Its Alloys

Copper belongs to the group of metals often referred to as noble due to its inertness in almost all environments. It is widely used for electrical purposes, radiators, refrigerators, heat exchangers, expansion pieces, condenser plates and tubes due to its high conductivity for electricity and heat; plumbing services, chemical and brewing plants as a result of its high corrosion resistance. The main grades of raw copper are covered by BS1035-40 and are classified as Cathode, ‗Electrolytic‘, ‗Fire-refined‘, ‗Deoxidised‘ and Oxygen free. It is only the highest grades that are used for the production of billets for subsequent production of high-grade cast alloys.

13.7.1 Composition of Copper A typical composition of copper is given in table 13.4 below:

Table 13.4: Typical composition of copper (wt. %) [after Rollason]

The high conductivity copper (HC) is produced electrolytically or fire-refined to a high degree of purity and melted under a controlled atmosphere. This Greece is used extensively for electrical purposes due to its purity.

The arsenic copper contains contain up to 0.5% arsenic and it increases its tensile strength at elevated temperatures (about 400 0c). This arsenic also reduces scale formation when heated. The tough pitch copper has some Oxygen‘s prevent and it is generally used for welding purposes and tube manufacture. It has been observed that copper without Oxygen is unsuitable for most applications. The deoxidized copper has the Oxygen removed by treating the liquid metal with phosphorus or any other deoxidizer is used for tube production and in places where welding is required. The amount of phosphorus used is usually small and enough to prevent the absorption of Oxygen as the copper is cast. The conductivity of copper is reduced when there is a rename solution of the deoxidizer. Oxygen-free copper is obtained in special conditions i.e. in non-oxidizing atmosphere. The copper is melted and cast in this special condition and no further deoxidation is carried out in the final product.

13.7.2 The Commercial Grades of Copper These include the furnace-refined and electrolytically refined metal. The oxygen free high conductivity copper is of highest purity and as mentioned earlier, it has at least 99.9% copper. It finds application where high electrical conductivities are required. Fire-refined copper grades can either tough pitch or deoxidized according to their subsequent application. The deoxidized grades usually contain amount of Oxygen which exist as copper (1) Oxide, Cu 2O. This is absorbed during the manufacturing process. The amount of Oxygen present is in the range of 0.04 – 0.05%. This gives a equivalent to 0.4 – 0.55% copper (1) Oxide. The Cu2O are broken doing into globules when copper is hot-worked. The globules have a negligible effect on electrical conductivity and most other properties. The presence of copper (1) Oxide is beneficial since most harmful impurities such as bismuth appears to collect as oxides associated with the copper (1) Oxide globules instead of occurring as brittle intercrystalline film as they would have done.


The Cu2O is detrimental processes such as welding and tube making since gassing of the metal due to the presence of hydrogen often occurs. The hydrogen present in copper exist interstitially and as a result it comes into contact with the globules of the copper 91) Oxide. This is reduced as follows:

Cu20 + H2 → 2CU + H20 ― (1) The equilibrium in equation (1) proceeds to the right according to the law of Mass Action since the concentration of hydrogen is high compared to that of copper (1) Oxide. Steam also reacts with the molten copper thus,

Cu20 + H2← H20 + 2Cu― (2) It can be seen that equation 2 occurs in the reverse direction. ie towards the left. At a certain time the two reactions (equation 1 and 2) will attain equilibrium, where we will have quantities of copper Oxide, hydrogen and steam dissolved in the copper.


Copper Based Alloys

The high cost of copper has necessitated the desire for cheaper materials to replace it (copper). These materials are copper based alloys which included brasses and bronzes. The bronzes are copper-rim alloys containing tin or aluminum, silicon or beryllium. The best known amongst these groups is the tin bronzes.

BRASSES: The brasses are made up of zinc and copper and this is the most important of the nonferrous engineering alloys. It has about 45% Zinc. For example 70-30 means 70% copper and 30% Zinc. Desired properties are obtained by the addition of small amount of substances such as lead, aluminum or tin. The main classifications are alpha, alpha-beta, leaded and tin brasses. They have high strength, Mach inability, Ductility and good corrosion resistances.


BRONZES: Bronzes are made up of copper and tin, however, there exist come bronzes that contain little or no tin. The main classifications are:


PHOSPHOR BRONZE, which contain mainly copper and tin alloys. It is deoxidized with phosphorus is left ranging from a trace to a maximum of 0.35%. This phosphorus increase the strength, hardness, toughness and corrosion resistance of the bronze.


ALUMINUM BRONZE: This is made up to 13.5% aluminum and a small amount of manganese and nickel. This bronze has good anti-frictional properties.


SILICON BROZE: it has about 4% silicon whilst the remainder is copper. The maniacal strength is similar to that of mild steel. It has excellent corrosion resistance to brine and non-oxidizing acids

Others are manganese and beryllium bronzes. The manganese bronze contains up to 3. 5% manganese when unfelt high strength to the bronze whilst the beryllium grade contains about 2 to 2.5% beryllium and this composition enables the bronze to respond to precipitation hardening


Aluminium and Its Alloys

Aluminum and its alloys develop a protective film in virtually all environments and this film prevents or retards corrosion. However, this film is not usually complete in its coverage as commonly observed in all coatings. Localized corrosion has been observed in aluminum exposed to sea coastal areas where salt- water deposits occur. This localized corrosion has been observed to occur at small breaks or defects in the protective film and often lead to the development of large pits. Pitting and crevice attacks are characteristic firms of corrosion in aluminum and its alloy. Crevice corrosion often occurs at laps, seams and generally shielded arrears due to the restriction of the access of oxygen and often lead to structural damages.


Sea coast environments also encourage stress corrosion cracking (SCC) amongst the heat – treatable high strength aluminum alloys. Exfoliation is another form of corrosion that is rarely encountered in these alloys. Exfoliation is the separation of layer in the sheets, plates, forging and extrusion when exposed to sea coastal areas. Residual stresses promote exfoliation by a wedging action. Galvanic corrosion also occurs in aluminum and its alloys due to the direct contact between the aluminum alloys and more noble metals resulting in structural damages especially in corrosive environments such as salts, acids and bases.

13.9.1 Control of Corrosion in Aluminium And Its Alloys Corrosion can be controlled in aluminum and its alloys by careful selection of materials. If the selection is based on strength, then the work hardenable alloys of 1100, 3000 or 5000 series will be used. These series are generally resistant to corrosion and almost none susceptible to stress corrosion cracking amongst the heat- treatable alloys.

Corrosion can be minimized in aluminum and its alloys by: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Cladding with a thin layer of almost pure aluminum, By tilting the aluminum alloy away from the noble metal and insulating the metals in the case of galvanic corrosion. Case hardening the aluminum and its alloys to introduce compressive residual stresses into the surface. By applying paints into the surface By anodizing to obtain relatively thick surface.


Protective Coating and Painting

13.10.1 Introduction For any coating process to be successful, the surface preparation of the substrate is very important. A clean surface is required otherwise the coating may peel off because of poor bonding. If the primer does not have a good

adherence or is not compatible with the top coat, early failure may occur. Poor coating performance is in most cases, due to poor application and surface preparation. Surface preparation involves surface roughening to obtain mechanical bonding (teeth) as well as removal of dirt, rust, mill scale, oil, greases, welding flux, crayon marks, wax, and other impurities. The presence of the above-mentioned defects (flaws) on the substrate will on application of a coating act as corrosion sites and the failure of the coating will occur at such sites. It is imperative that a clean surface is therefore essential. Various method are available for the surface preparation of substrates for coating, these include sandblasting (grit-blast), pickling, wire brushing, ultrasonic cleaning, flame cleaning, and solvent cleaning etc.. Contaminants are usually introduced during manufacture or in service. These include cutting oils, greases, waxes, tar, rust preventatives, dirt, heat-treatment scale, drawing, buffing compounds and corrosion products (scale). Not all contaminants can be removed by one cleaning methods, it is therefore important that a knowledge of each of the contaminants involved must be known. The surface preparation methods can broadly be classified as mechanical, alkaline, solvents, and acids. Coatings are often used in the protection of metallic products. These are usually relatively thin metallic or non- metallic linings which are deposited on the substrate (metallic product) to be protected against corrosion. The main function of the coating is to shut off the environment. There are number of ways in which the coatings could be applied to the substrate and these include electrode-deposition, chemical vapour deposition (CVD), spraying, cladding, dipping, and cementation. Various types of coating materials are available and the type selected and the thickness of coating applied depend upon the degree of protection required, the electrical resistance, resistance to water penetration, resistance to attack, mechanical strength and stability at the operation structure‘s temperature. Metal coatings are generally applied by the following; electro-deposition, flame spraying, cladding, hot dipping, and chemical vapour deposition. Inorganic coat ings are applied or for med by spra ying, diffus io n, or che mical conversio n. It should be obser ved t hat spraying is usually fo llo wed by baking i. e. fir ing at elevat ed t emperat ures.


The metal coatings show some degree of plasticity whilst the inorganic and organic coatings are generally brittle. If a poor coating is obtained, porosity often results which, accelerates localized corrosion of the base materials. We shall consider the various protective coating methods and their industrial relevancies.

13.10.2 Metal Coatings Electro- deposition (Electroplating): Electro- deposition also known technically as electroplating is the commonest of all the metal coating processes and it involves the formation of an adherent coat with an electric current. The metal to be electrode-plated is immersed in a solution of the metal to be plated and a current is passed between the part and the anode which is usually the metal to be plated on.

Figure 13.4: Typical electroplating arrangement

If copper is to be plated on to the cathode as shown in Figure 13.4 above, copper has a standard electrode of E0 = + 0.34V.

The copper will dissolve if the E0 is reduced to + 0.33V i.e. more negative supply of electrons.

The cathode attracts Cu2 from solution i.e. plating. It should be observed that solution (electrolyte) contains water as well so that H + ions also exist. H+ + e= ½ H2

If the pH of the electrolyte is allowed to fall too low H2 would tend to be deposited, as a result a buffer solution is generally required. H 2 cannot however be discharged not until all the copper from solution, therefore at the cathode – the reaction requiring least negative (highest) potential will take place. At the anode, reaction requiring the least positive potential (lowest) takes place e.g. electroplating a solution of chromic acid and H 2SO4(Cr+++) is provided by the chromic acid).

It should be noted that a very clean substrate is required before electroplating. The type of coating obtained i.e. the thickness, purity and size depends on a number of variables such as the temperature of the electrolyte, current density, time, composition of the bath and the substrate. The above variables can be adjusted to an optimum condition. The electroplate can be a single metal or a multi layers of several metals or even an alloy composition e.g. brass. An automobile bumper has an inner flash plate of copper (for good adhension), an intermediate layer of nickel (for corrosion protection), and a thin top layer of chromium (primarily for appearance). The following metals are plated on the largest tonnage basis in this order: zinc, nickel, tin and cadmium.

Flame Spraying: A metal wire is fed through a melting flame so that the metal, in finely divided liquid particles, is blown onto the surface to be protected. Gases such


as oxygen and acetylene or propane are commonly used for the melting flame. A porous coating often results which is not often protective under wet corrosive conditions. Porosity however, decreases with the melting point of the metal – zinc, tin, and lead are better from this stand point than steel or stainless steel. A good surface finish of the substrate is generally required in order to achieve good mechanical bond. Occasionally, paint is applied over the coated sprayed metal to fill the voids therefore provided for the paint by the porous metal and consequently, a good bond is obtained. Flame spraying is quite usefull in reactivating worn surfaces on parts such as shafting, High melting metals such as chrome and nickel may be deposited by plasma-jet spraying. Examples of flame- sprayed applications are car tanks, vessels of all types, bridges, ship hulls and superstructures, refrigerating equipment and many fabricated steel products.

Cladding: This involves a surface layer of sheet metal usually put on by rolling two sheets of metal together. A composite often results e.g. a nickel and a steel sheet hot- rolled together gives a composite of thickness of above 3.17mm of nickel and 25.4mm of steel. A good industrial example of cladding is high-strength aluminum skin alloys which are often cladded with commercial pure aluminium skin to provide the corrosion barrier because the alloy is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Quite often a thin layer of metal is spot-welded to the walls of a steel tank. Nickel, aluminium, copper, titanium, stainless steel and other materials are often used for cladding. The use of clad vessels has been increased due to the development of the very-low-carbon stainless steels (type, 304L). It should be noted that a stainless clad steel tank cannot be quench annealed. A higher alloy rod is necessary for welding clad parts to avoid dilution of the weld deposit and loss of corrosion resistance. An economic advantage is obtained by cladding in that the corrosion barrier or expensive materials is relatively thin and is backed up by inexpensive steel. A good example is a high pressure vessel with a 3.17mm


clad on 76.2mm of steel. Cost would have been high if the entire wall were to be of highly corrosion-resistant material.

Hot-dipping: In this, the metal to be protected is immersed in a solution of a low melting point metals. A good example is the coating of zinc on steel which is often known as galvanized steel. Apart from zinc other metals such as tin, lead and aluminium are also commonly used. Thicknesses greater than that obtained from electroplates are generally achieved because very thin dip coatings are difficult to produce. Coated parts are heat-treatable in order to achieve a stronger bond. This process is useful in the coating of intricate shapes.

Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD): The need for the production of hard, wear and corrosion resistant metals has led to the use of this process. The coating metal is left in the gaseous state which is vapourised in a high-vacuum chamber. The substrate is enclosed in the chamber and the vapour deposited on it. Subsequent anneal is usually required to promote bonding. Due to the high cost involved, the process is restricted to critical parts e.g. high strength parts for missiles and rockets.

Cementation (Diffusion Coating): A corrosion resistant material is allowed to diffuse into the surface of the article to e protected. The process is often referred to as ‗surface alloying‘. The parts to e coated are packed in a solid materials or exposed to a gaseous environments containing the metal that forms the coating, e.g. steel articles packed in zinc dust with some zinc oxide and heated at about 380 – 4500C becomes covered with a zinc-iron alloy layer, possessing protective properties (sheradising). In a similar manner, if steel articles are heated in aluminium powder, aluminium alloy is formed (calorizing) or chromium (chromizing).The surface is oxidized to form a protective layer of AL2O3 in the case of


calorizing. Calorizing and chromising are used mainly for resistance to hightemperature oxidation.

Chemical Conversion Coatings: These are coatings formed by the corroding material. Initially corrosion is very high but a point is reached where a protective corrosion product is formed on the surface and further corrosion is inhibited except this adherent surface coating is removed. Anodizing consists of anodic oxidation in an acid bath to build up an oxide layer. The best known example is anodized aluminium and the protective film is AL2O3. However, great improvement in corrosion resistance is not obtained, so anodized aluminium should not be used where untreated aluminium would show rapid attack. The surface layer is usually porous and provides a good adherence for paints. Anodized aluminium is used for many architectureal purposes (eg. Building wall panels) and others where pleasing appearance is of prime importance. The best known of the conversion coatings are those employing phosphoric and chromic acids. Phosphatizing is the act of protecting metallic materials by depositing a phosphate coating on them, is as old as history. Automobile bodies are the best known examples of phosphatizing. A good base is provided for the paint and time is also made available for rusting to occur if the coating is damaged. Several types of phosphate salts are used including iron phosphate, zinc-iron phosphate, and manganese-iron- phosphate. Phosphatizing is useful in the protection of steel. Chromatizing (exposure to chromic acid and dichromates) are used on zinc, cadmium, aluminium, copper, silver, manganese and alloys of these metals. The process consists of a simple chemical dip, spray, or brush treatment. The bath is an acid solution containing hexavalent compounds known as activators (catalysts). As with phosphatizing, chromatizing also furnishes a base for painting.

13.10.3 Non-metallic Coating These are coatings obtained from non-metallic materials and they are referred to as durable finishes. They can be classified into two broad groups


viz: organic and inorganic coatings. The organic coatings are derived from resins such as alkyds, vinyls and expoxies whilst the organic coatings are porcelain, enamels (glass) and various plasma-sprayed materials.

Organic Coating: Coating functions by excluding water and oxygen from the metal surface. A relatively thin barrier is formed between the substrate and the environment. Paints, varnishes, lacquers, greases, oils and pitch (bitumen) are examples of organic coatings. In selecting an organic coating, it is usually necessary to consider all the environmental conditions- anticipated exposure (whether indoor or outdoor, marine or tropical), corrosive ambients (as solvents, chemicals, vapour or salt spray), and mechanical abuse (such as impact, vibration, abrasion, bonding or elongation). A summary of some of the main type of organic coatings are given in Tables 13.5 and 13.6.

Table 13.5: Properties of organic coatings, thermosetting types
Coating type Acrylics Alkyds Alkydamine Continuous Service temp. (oC) 121 93 Weatherability Excellent Good Auto primer, can and drum coatings, appliance coatings, machinery subject to chemical attack. Chemical and solventresistant linings for tanks, pipes, and containers. Electrical coils for motors, generators, transformers. Wire-Insulation enamels for high temperatures. High temperature coating for furnace pipes, engine blocks insulative coating for electronics Adhesion to metals Excellent Abrasion Resistance Excellent Coat Low Typical application Washing machines, Refrigerators, etc.






Epoxy ester


Pigmented Excellent, clear,good



Intermediate to low



Very good Good radiation resistance

Good to excellent on rough surface Good










Varies with formulation

Fair to Excellent



Table 13.6: Properties of organic coatings, thermoplastic types
Coating type Maximum continuous Service temp. (oC) 82 Weatherability Adhesion to metals Abrasion resistance Coat Typical applications

Acrylic Cellulose Nitrate TFE Fluorocarbo n Chlorinated polyether

Excellent Good to Excellent Excellent




160 260

Good Excellent, primers usually required Good

Fair Excellent

Low High

Automobiles, Air-craft. Ornamental iron. Automobile lacquer Fast-dry finish for machines Chemical resistant coatings, low-friction and antistick coatings. Coatings for chemicalresistant equipment and parts such as pump housings and impellors, tanks. Specialty coatings for post forming and corrosion resistant magnetic-tape coating. Coatings for chemicalresistant equipment, beverage-can lining,, post formed metal. Parts, paper foil circuit boards, irrigation pipe metal siding.







Good to Excellent






Fair Good





Vinyl Fluoride





Interme diate to High

Inorganic Coatings: Porcelain enamels are the most common of the inorganic coatings, it is a mixture of alumina-borosilicate glass to which colouring oxides and other inorganic materials are added. The coating is produced by spreading the powder on the steel and heated up to about 2040C to fuse on the steel sheet. A tenacious enamel- to-steel bond is formed by the fusion process. Good varieties are available ranging from the smooth non-textured to the special textures. They have excellent resistance to environmental conditions of fading, mechanical damage, abrasion, and corrosion. They are used extensively on all major appliances, plumbing ware, domestic and commercial heating equipment, lighting fixtures and heat exchangers. Plasma-sprayed materials consist of borides, beryllides, carbides, and nitride. The carbides are particularly very wear-resistant in addition to their high hardness and good chemical stability. Carbides and nitrides may be plasma- sprayed on inconel, stainless steel, zirconium and graphite.


Priming: The primer is the first coat that is applied to the substrate and the application of the best coating will be of little value unless the proper primer is used first. Primers provide good adhesion between the surface and the top coat. Usually the primer is of different chemical type than the top coat. Primers are formulated to provide the most stable bond to the substrate, thereby smoothing out the surface for top coat applications, or to bring anticorrosive or inhibitive elements such as zinc chromate into contact with the metal. They also assist in providing some derived properties simultaneously with one top coat. Take for example a clear unfitted resin may adhere well to a surface but a filled version (having marginal adhesion) is necessary to give the surface a smoother profile.

13.10.4 Typical Coating Process Pipe Coating: This procedure is taken from British standards (BS) 4147 and 4164 for pipeline applications which we believe can also be applied to other structures (Table 13.7).

Table 13.7: Pipe Coating
Hot applied bitumen based coating for ferrous products to BS 4147 Suitable for application at the pipe mill or the site coating yard, or by line-traveling machine on a completed pipeline. Hot applied coal tar based coatings to BS Suitable for mill or field applications. 4164 Also as an alternative for coating field: welded joints in pre-coated pipe. Hot applied top coatings comprising Generally used for field application to fabric tapes impregnated with bitumen or welded joints in pre-coated pipe, or for coal tar relatively short length of pipe. Mastic coatings Can be used to give extra weight and mechanical strength. Thin film protectives based on coal tar or Generally unsuitable for aggressive bitumen environments. High grade epoxy or epoxy/coal tar Require special application techniques. paints Seamless plastic sheathing Mill applications only.


Sample Specification The following should be followed in any coating procedure: 1 Surface Preparation: Sand blast to a commercial blast finish, according to the steel structures painting council‘s specification SSPC-SP-6, commercial blast cleaning (add recommended blast profile, if given). Primer: within 4hrs after blasting, brush or spray (airless preferred) on 3 to 5 mils dry-film thickness off. Brand A ‗product name‘ aluminium polyamide epoxy primer. The dry-film thickness is to be measured by the brand B dry-film thickness gauge. Allow to dry at least 16 hrs, but not more than 5 days. 3 Intermediate Coat: Airless spray (only) 2 to 3 mils dry-film thickness of: rand A ‗product name‘ vinyl coating, grey colour. The dry-film thickness to be measured by the: Brand B dry-film thickness gauge. Allow to dry 2 hrs. Finish Coat: airless spray (only) 2 to 3 mils dry-film thickness of: rand A product name‘ vinyl coating, white. The dry-film thickness to be measured by the : Brand B dry-film thickness gauge. Application: (1) (2) 6 7 Do not apply paint at temperature under 500F. All surfaces to be painted shall be dry and free of dirt, rust, grease, and other contaminants.




Manufacturer’s Directions; All mixing, thinning and application shall e in accordance with the manufacturer‘s recommendations. Safety Precautions: (1) (2) (3) Follow manufacturer‘s safety recommendations. Keep all flammable materials a away from heat, sparks and open flames. Keep containers tightly closed and upright.


Clean Up; after completion of the work, remove all painting materials, tools, scaffold and ladders.

Some important points to know about the various coatings are given in Table 13.8.

Table 13.8: Notable points about various coatings
COATING Oil-based REMARKS Good Poor acid, alkali, solvent oxidation resistance. Slow drying embrittle and yellow with aging. Alkyd short- Inexpensive fast-drying, good Do not use over zinc rich primers. oil adhesion easy coating Fair acid, alkali, solvent resistance. Fair impact resistance. Long –oil Good durability, good weathering, Poor acid, alkali, solvent and flexible, easy coating. oxidation resistance Chlorinated Versatile rubber Coal tar Excellen resistance to water, sea Check touch-up and recoating water and soil immersion limits. Check flexibility and abrasion resistance. Dark colours only. Polyamide Good water, alkali resistance. Check coating limits Tough, good temperature resistance Amino Good water, acid, alkali solvent Skin sensitizer Check coating resistance. Hard and good limits. temperature resistance. Ketomine Urethane(2component aliphatic) Indefinite coating time, Wide range of chemical and solvent resistance. Good water, acid alkali, solvent resistance. Good abrasion resistance. Good glass and colour retention.Low temperature application. Good water, acid resistance. Tough, good recoatability, rapid drying low temperature (50F) application. Ketone fumed whilst drying. Check temperature resistance. Check solvent fumes. Expensive check re-coatability. ADVANTAGES Good rust penetration, substrate wetting


Zinc rich The best organic solvent resistance. primers (top- Good abrasion resistance. coated Temperature resistance to 10000F. inorganic)

Low temperature resistance (1500F) Poor aromatic ketone, solvent resistance, low percent solids. Mostly sprayed. Ketone fumes. Requires good surface preparation. Limited (untopcoated) to pH of 5 to 10; generally sprayed (conventional film thickness limited.




Nature of plastics

The development of plastics as we think of them today was started by the introduction of cellulose nitrate and celluloid developed from cellulose fibres and by the work of Dr. Baekeland, a Belgian scientist who introduced ‗ akelite‘. The raw materials from which plastics are manufactured are: animal and vegetable products, e.g. chemicals extracted from the waste products of animal slaughterhouses or milk, wood pulp (a major source of cellulose); gasproducing industry by–products; and petroleum industry by-products. Most plastics used today are man-made and are described as synthetic materials, i.e. they are made by a process of building up from simple chemical substances. Some plastics are soft and flexible, others hard and brittle, and many are strong and tough. Some have good thermal and electrical properties, while others are poor in these respects. Crystal-clear plastics are available, while others can be produced in an extremely wide range of colours. Most plastics can be easily shaped using heat or pressure or both. With a few exceptions, plastics are compounds of carbon with one or more of the five elements hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and fluorine. Carbon atoms have the exceptional ability to join up with other atoms to form very large molecules. Substances made up of these very large molecules are called polymers, and the process of joining the molecules together is known as polymerization. It is the way in which the molecules are arranged within the mass of the material which gives plastics their desired properties. Plastics made up of molecules arranged in long chain-like structures, which are separate from each other, soften when heated and become solid again when cooled. By further heating and cooling, the material can be made to take a different shape, and this process can be repeated again and again. Plastics having this property are called thermoplastics.


Some plastics, although they soften when heated the first time and can be shaped, become stiff and hard on further heating and cannot be softened again. During the heating process a chemical reaction takes place which crosslinks the long chain-like structures, thus joining them firmly and permanently together – a process known as curing. Plastics having this property are known as thermosetting plastics, or thermosets. In rubber the chains can have as many as 44,000 atoms in their length. In the case of rubbers which are easily stretched the long chains are folded up in a ‗concertina‘ form which is easily stretched out when stressed. The addition of 3 percent sulphur to rubbers locks these chains so that the folds will not open out easily. If a high percentage of sulphur is used then the chains are locked completely and the solid material is known as vulcanite.



Plastic chain molecules are produced by a process known as polymerization. This is most easily understood by considering a particular case–polyethylene–more often abbreviated to polythene. The ethylene molecule consists of two atoms of carbon and four of hydrogen which may be represented as shown in Fig. 14.1 . The weak double link can be broken to give the configuration shown in Fig. 14.2, i.e. ethylene molecules join with thousands of others to give a long chain of polythene molecules. The polythene is called a ‗polymer‘. The ethylene is called a ‗monomer‘ the configuration, i.e. the smallest repeated link of the chain, is called a mer, and the whole process is known as polymerization. Sometimes hydrogen atoms are replaced by other

Fig. 14.1 Ethylene molecule


Fig. 14.2 Polymerization of polyethylene

Fig. 14.3 Polymerization of polyvinylchloride

Single valency atoms or groups to give plastics of different properties, e.g a chlorine atom replaces one of the hydrogen atoms in ethylene to give vinyl chloride which is then polymerized to polyvinylchloride (PVC) (Fig. 14.3). Plastics can be made more flexible by the introduction of a plasticiser, which is a large molecule which gets between the chains without combining with them and serves to keep the chains apart.



Thermpoplastic materials can e grouped in ‗families‘ each of which has its own characteristics and the members of which also have different characteristics within the family. There are so many of them, and more are being developed for various industrial requirements that it is impossible in the space available to describe them all. Instead a brief description of the family characteristics is given with more detail about those the student is likely to meet in his engineering work.



These were the earliest of the thermoplastic materials. The first was cellulose nitrate or celluloid, which burned so fiercely it was almost explosive. Cellulosics have high electrical resistance and are used in the following less inflammable forms. (a) Cellulose acetate. This is a tough, rigid material, which can be obtained in sheet and film form but can also be moulded. Its electrical properties will be reduced by moisture absorption so it is used as sheet and film for packaging and as moulded parts where electrical resistance is not of prime importance. Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) has good resistance to solvent liquids and oils and is less affected by moisture. It is used for tool handles and solvent liquid containers.



Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

This is another widely used plastic having good strength and resistance to moisture and most chemicals. It will only burn if a flame is applied and goes out when the flame is removed. PVC also has good electrical resistance. It is available in pellets for moulding or in sheet and can be made in all colours. Uses include flooring, chemical plant, ducting and piping, cable insulation and hoses, electrical connectors and sheathing.



It is likely that one of the two thermoplastic families the student has met in everyday life is the polyolefin group (the other is the acrylic group). The three interesting members of this family are: (a) Low density polyethylene (polythene)

This material is available as granules, which can be moulded and extruded, or in sheet form. It has good electrical resistance and moisture resistance but is not so resistant to oil and petrol. Its uses include containers, and bottles, water tanks, wire insulation and water and chemical pipes. The sheet form is used for packaging and coverings in the building trade.

(b) High density polyethylene This is similar to polythene but is harder and more rigid. It has higher resistance to some of the liquids which attack polythene and has similar applications where these enhanced properties are required. A trade name is Alkadex.

(c) Polypropylene This is harder and more rigid than the other polyolefins and has the lowest density. It has a low coefficient of friction and is resistant to most chemicals and oils and has good electrical resistance. It can remain operational up to 120C and can be formed by moulding or obtained as sheet. The uses of this material are wide due to its operating temperature and include under-bonnet equipment for automobiles such as fans and belt pulleys, electrical connectors and linings and valves for chemical plant.



The acrylic material the student is most likely to have met and used is perspex. It has good electrical resistance and withstands impact well. It also has excellent optical properties including the unusual one of total internal reflection. If a light is shone into the edge of a piece of perspex it will not be seen until it strikes an obstruction moulded into the perspex. The obstruction will then be illuminated. A particular application is therefore for instrument dials in which only the marks are illuminated. Other applications are face guards and goggles, machine guards, lighting diffusers and advertising displays.



This group is made in five forms, each having different impact strength. Their main uses are for covers for switches, lighting fittings and boxes for domestic equipment and office machines. A particular polystrene which has wider use in the engineering industry is known as A.B.S. (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene). This is supplied in granule form for moulding or extrusion and some forms are available which can be metal plated. Applications include motor car instrument panels, radiator grilles, aircraft parts and chemical pipework.



Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)

This material has an exceptionally low coefficient of friction and so enjoys wide application as a bearing material. It is expensive and difficult to process but has good electrical properties and resistance to most chemicals. 7. Polycarbonates

These are tough transparent materials supplied in granule form for moulding. They remain serviceable up to 1400C and are resistant to water and oils but not to ammonia and some solvents. They have good electrical properties, high impact strength and a reasonably low coefficient of friction. They can be made optically clear, translucent or opaque in a range of colours. Applications include pump parts, safety hats, cable connectors, machine guards, lamp holders and, an interesting application requiring high impact strength, golf club heads. This is part of the range of thermoplastic materials. They all have their uses according to their own particular properties but it must be remembered that, by their nature, they all soften at fairly low temperatures and can be remoulded. 8. Nylon

The application of nylon to which most people are familiar with is the manufacture of fine filament to be woven into hosiery or used for monofilament fishing line. However, nylon in industry is supplied in the form of pellets or granules, which can be moulded into solid components having good impact and tensile strength, low coefficient of friction and a service temperature of 1000C. It is available in various grades and applications include bearing bushes, gears and moving parts in instruments and machinery, electrical parts and flexible tubing. 14.4 Thermosets

By their nature the thermosetting plastics are formed by a chemical reaction during processing either by the mixing of two components or by the application of heat to the ready mixed constituents. As with thermoplastics, thermosets can be grouped into families each having their own characteristics and uses.


Phenol-formaldehyde (Bakelite)

This was one of the earliest of the plastic materials to be discovered and is still probably the most used of the thermosetting plastic materials. They are supplied in granular form which can be moulded to the shape required and materials known as fillers are added to the plastic which, incorporated into the finished part, modify the properties to those required. Mineral fillers raise operating temperatures and give better electrical resistance, graphite fillers reduce the coefficient of friction and fibre type fillers raise the resistance to impact loads. Meter cases, automobile distributor housings and caps and other under-bonnet electrical units such as terminal blocks are made from reinforced phenol. Material laminated from layers of phenolic resin and paper are used for the manufacture of insulation board and printed circuit board while yet other laminates are used for gear wheels, automobile timing gears being a typical example. Phenol-formaldehydes are always dark in colour and for decorative work they have been superseded by materials called aminoplastics, including the melamine and urea formaldehydes. These are largely used domestic tablewear rather than for engineering uses.


Epoxy resins

The most familiar form of epoxy resins is as adhesive, of which araldite is a well-known example. They are supplied as a two part material, i.e. two viscous fluids, which, when mixed undergo the chemical reaction known as curing at room temperature and set to form a solid. Filler material can be added to give improved mechanical characteristics and they are resistant to oil, water, biological activity and most solvents. Apart from the adhesive application the epoxy resins can be cast into solids for encapsulating electrical components and made into laminated sheets for printed circuits.




These materials are supplied as pale amber coloured liquids to which a catalyst is added after which the chemical bonding, or curing, of the material to form a solid takes place at room temperature. They are mainly used as a binder for glass fibre and, more recently carbon fibre, for the production of strong lightweight laminated materials in the manufacture of vehicle body panels and boat hulls. They can be easily repaired if damaged and are of course corrosion proof. Vehicle body repair kits are made from polyester materials. Polyesters can also be cast into blocks and in this form are used for encapsulating electrical parts and embedding specimens of delicate material so that they can be sectioned for examination without becoming distorted.



Almost all plastic materials are based on atoms of carbon and are said to e ‗organic‘ in nature. Silicones are not of this nature and are ased on atoms of silicon and are stable at much higher temperatures than other types of plastic material. They can be used in engineering as a liquid, as an additive to rubber, as a fluid for encapsulation of electrical equipment. The application as a liquid is based on the stability of the liquid over a wide range of temperature, its viscosity remains remarkably constant and a drop of this liquid in the pivot bearing of an instrument effectively damps out vibrations at the pointer. When added to rubber the rubber retains its elastic properties over a temperature range of –800C to 2500C and this is important in aircraft applications where gaskets must equally operate on hot tropical airfields as well as at high altitude. These rubbers do not burn but if subjected to excessive temperature decompose to a glass–like substance which is still an electrical insulator. For this reason it is used as cable insulation in aircraft. Silicone resin is used in the form of a liquid varnish which can be applied to electrical equipment for insulation or for the impregnation of glass cloth for the production of laminates. These laminates can be used for structural purposes in the aero-space industry where their thermal stability is important.



Glass-fibre-reinforced plastics (GRP)

GRP is made up of a resin and layers of strong fibrous glass. The resin is polyester, and the galss-fibre reinforcing material is available in a variety of forms. Glass fibre is made by rapidly drawing and cooling molten glass into the form of continuous filaments, which are bundled together to form strands immediately after drawing. These strands are then made into chopped-strand mat or into yarn for weaving into glass cloth or into a rope-like form known as rovings which in turn can be woven to produce a thick coarse cloth known as woven rovings. Products are made in a simple mould which may be made of wood, plaster, or GRP itself. The mould surfaces must be accurately finished and well-polished, to ensure a smooth surface on the moulding. Alternate layers of activated resin, plus any colouring pigment required, and glass reinforcement are laid until the required thickness is reached. The moulding is then left to cure before being removed from the mould. The resins used should be worked with only in a well-ventilated area, as concentrations of vapour from the solvents used can be harmful. GRP is used to produce light durable tough constructions, any colour and any shape. It is used in the manufacture of boat hulls, canoes, lorry cabs, pipes, rocket missiles, car bodies, light fittings, roofing and building panels, doors, and parts for ships and aircraft, as well as many other products.


Properties and uses of plastics

Table 14.1 shows some properties and uses of plastic materials. On the other hand, Table 14.2 shows the general advantages and disadvantages of plastic materials.


Table 14.1: Some properties and uses of plastic materials [Note: The impact strength is compared with polycarbonate, which has been given a value of 100]

Table 14.2 General advantages and disadvantages of plastics
Advantages of plastics
Low density (900-2 200 kg m ) Good electrical and thermal insulation, owing to the lack of free electrons for transmission Resistance to chemical attack. Because they do not ionize to form electrochemical cells, they are resistant to most chemicals, salts and metals. They are also very resistant to solvents Good natural surface finish and appearance. They also have the distinct advantage of being easily coloured Ease of production by compression moulding with low heating costs

Disadvantages of plastics
Low modulus of elasticity Liability to creep at room temperature. High thermal expansion. Low maximum service temperature. High ‗notch sensitivity‘ i.e. they will easily break away from a sharp internal corner Relatively high water absorption. Environmental stress-cracking (usually indicated by lightening of surface colour)



Working in plastics

The ease with which plastics can be moulded and formed to shape is one of the major advantages of this range of materials. It is not always practicable to produce the required shape, often for economic reasons; for example, a small quantity would not justify the high cost of moulding equipment. Small-scale casting or forming techniques may have to be used. The moulding techniques used may not give the required accuracy. In this case a machining operation may have to be carried out. Sheet plastics material may require to be fabricated, in which case sheets can be joined by welding.

14.6.1 Forming The forming of thermoplastics can be conveniently carried out by applying heat, usually between 1200 C and 1700C, and bending to shape. Care must be taken not to overheat, as permanent damage to the material can result. Provided no permanent damage has been done, a shaped thermoplastic sheet will return to a flat sheet on the application of further heat. Simple bending is carried out by locally heating along the bend line, from both sides, until the material is pliable, using a strip heater. A strip heater can easily be constructed using a heating element inside a box structure, with the top made from a heat-resisting material. When the material is pliable, it can be located in a former and bent to the required angle. The material can be removed from the former when the temperature drops to about 600C. Formers can be simply made from any convenient material such as wood. Shapes other than simple bends can be carried out by heating the complete piece of material in an oven. To avoid marking the surface, the material can be placed on a piece of brown paper. The time in the oven depends on the type of material and its thickness, and time must be allowed for the material to reach an even temperature throughout. Acrylic sheet material is easily worked at 1700C, 3mm thickness requiring about 20 minutes and 6mm thickness about 30 minutes in the oven.


14.6.2 Machining of Plastics Machining of plastics is carried out when the number of workpieces to be produced is small and to purchase expensive moulding equipment would be uneconomic. Alternatively, where accuracy greater than can be obtained from the moulding technique is required or where features such as tapped holes cannot be included, machining is essential. Most plastics materials can be machined using metal-working tools and machines. Since plastics materials have a low thermal conductivity and a high coefficient of expansion, heat produced in cutting must be kept at an absolute minimum. To minimize this heat, it is advisable to use a cutting fluid and to grind all tools with larger clearance angles than are necessary when cutting metal. When machining plastics materials, take light cuts and use high cutting speeds with low feed rates The large range of plastics materials available makes it difficult to be specific, and the following is offered only as a general guide to the common machining techniques. 1. Turning: High-speed-steel cutting tools in a centre lathe can be used to turn plastics materials. Clearance angles should be increased to around 200. A rake angel of 00 can be used on the more brittle plastics, while a 150 rake used on softer plastics aids the flow of material over the tool face. Cutting edges must be kept sharp. Cutting speeds of 150m/min and higher are used, with feed rates between 0.1 and 0.25mm/rev. Drilling: Standard high-speed drills are satisfactory for use with plastics but must be cleared frequently to remove swarf. Slowhelix drills (200 helix) reduce the effect of swarf clogging in the flutes and, with a drill point of around 900, give a better finish on break-through with the softer plastics. All drills should have an increased point clearance of 150 to 200. In drilling thin plastics sheet, a point angle as great as 1500 is used on the larger diameter drills, so that the point is still in contact with the material when the drill starts cutting its full diameter. Alternatively, the sheet can be clamped to a piece of waste material as with thin sheet metal. Use cutting speeds of around 40m/min with a feed rate of 0.1mm/rev.




Milling: Milling plastics materials can be carried out using highspeed-steel cutters on a standard milling machine. The cutters should be kept sharp and in good condition. To avoid distortion, the less rigid plastics materials should be supported over their complete area, due to the high cutting forces acting. Cutting speeds and feed rates similar to those for turning can be used.


Reaming: Helical-flute reamers should always be used. The reamer must be sharp, otherwise the material tends to be pushed away rather than cut. Tapping and threading: Holes drilled or moulded in plastics materials can be tapped using high-speed-steel ground-thread taps. With softer plastics materials there is a tendency for the material to be pushed away rather than cut, and this may necessitate the use of special taps about 0.05mm to 0.13mm oversize. Threading can be carried out using single-point tools in a centre lathe with the same angles as for turning. High-speed-steel dies can also be used, but care must be taken to ensure that the thread is being cut and the material is not merely being pushed aside. Threads cut directly in plastic materials will not withstand high loads and will wear out if screw fasteners are removed and replaced several times. Where high strength and reliability are required, threaded inserts are used. These can be pushed into a predrilled hole, the action of screwing in a fastener causing the knurled outside diameter to bite into the plastics. Threaded insets may be headed or headless and are available from M2 to M8 thread sizes.



Sawing: In general with all soft materials, coarse-tooth hacksaw blades should be used to prevent clogging the teeth. With brittle materials such as acrylics (Perspex), it may be necessary to use a finer-tooth saw to avoid splintering the edges. Joining of plastics Solvent welding: Solvents can be used to soften thermoplastic materials, which, if placed together, will then completely fuse when the solvent evaporates. The main disadvantage of solvent welding is the

14.7 1.


risk of some of the solvent reaching surfaces other than those being joined and leaving a mark. The main uses of solvents are with polystyrene used in the manufacture of toys and model kits and with acrylics (Perspex) in the manufacture of display signs, ornaments, and models. Care must be taken when using solvents, as many are flammable and give off toxic vapours.


Heat sealing: This method of welding uses a heated metal strip or bar at a temperature of between 1800C and 2300C. The heated strip is applied under pressure to the surfaces to be welded. To prevent the plastics being sealed sticking to the heated bars, a material such as PTFE is placed between them and the bar. This method is used on nylon and with polyethylene sheet, e.g. in the manufacture of polyethylene bags.


Hot-gas welding: This is a welding process which consists of heating and softening the two surfaces to be joined and a filler rod, usually of the same material, until complete fusion takes place. It is a similar process to welding metal, except that a naked flame is not used as this would burn the plastics material. Instead a stream of hot gas is used, directed from a special welding torch. The heat source may be electric or gas, at a temperature around 2000 – 5000C.

Fig. 14.4: Butt-and fillet-weld preparation


The surfaces to be welded have to be prepared to accept the filler rod. For butt joints the edges are chamfered to an included angle of about 600. For fillet joints an angle of 450 is used, as shown in Fig. 14.1. The surfaces to be welded must be clean and free from grease. Filler rods are generally circular in section and for small work they are usually 3mm diameter. The surfaces to be joined should be clamped together. The hot air is then directed at the surfaces and the filler rod, which is pressed into the joint as the area becomes tacky. The downward pressure of the filler rod makes the weld, which fuses and solidifies as welding proceeds, Fig. 14.2. Depending on the thickness of the material, more than one weld run may be necessary. This method is used with good results to weld rigid PVC, polypropylene, and polyethylene (polythene) sheet to fabricate tanks, vessels, pipes for all types of fluids, and ducting.

Fig. 14.5 Hot gas welding

4. Friction welding: The temperature necessary for welding is produced in this process by rubbing the two parts together under pressure until they have softened enough for the weld to be made. The process may be carried out on a lathe or drilling machine, one part being held on a chuck and rotated at high speed, the other being held by hand, the two being pressed together by the drill or tailstock spindle. When they are felt to bind the fixed part is released so that they rotate together and the weld is formed. P.V.C., nylon, acrylics, and A.B.S. can all be friction welded.




Encapsulation is the term used when a component, or part of it, is completely enclosed in a plastics material. Encapsulation is carried out for the following reasons: (a) to prevent damage of delicate part by vibration in use (b) to exclude moisture from the parts (c) to exclude dust and foreign matter from the parts (d) to improve the insulation at a point where it has failed or may fail in operation. (e) to private damage by exertion of undue force or blows. The technique can be applied to very small part such as capacitors, coils or diodes either singly or in complete circuits and large units such as the field coil. The materials used in encapsulation are thermosetting plastics based on phenolic, epoxy, polyester, and silicone resins and compounds. These may be transparent or coloured, depending upon the application. The silicones are particularly suited to encapsulation, as they can be produced as fluids, gums, and resins and, with the addition of fillers, can be further modified to produce rubbers, greases, and compound. The silicones are unaffected by temperatures from –500C to + 2000C and in some instances as high as + 3000C. They provide excellent thermal and electrical insulation and are highly resistant to moisture and oxidation. The process of encapsulation can be carried out by one of four methods: moulding, potting, coating or casting.

1. Moulding: This method uses a moulding compound which may be in the form of powder or preformed pellets. The compound is forced into a heated mould in which the component has been placed, flows round the component, and cures due to the heat. This process is called transfer moulding and can be used to encapsulate transistors, integrated circuits, resistors, diodes, rectifiers,


and other electronic components. Usually resistors are encapsulated by this method in silicon moulding compound to give service at high temperatures.

2. Potting: This method is similar to casting except that the encapsulated component is not removed from the mould or pot after curing. The component is placed in the pot and the resin/ catalyst mixture is poured round it until the pot is full. The resin is allowed to cure and the process is complete. It is normal practice to pot transformers to provide a seal against moisture.

3. Coating: Some components, especially electric circuits, require to be coated to prevent moisture from collecting and so eliminate arcing or tracking. This can be done by spraying, brushing, or dipping, giving an even coat over the complete circuit and its components. The silicones are used for this type of encapsulation.

4. Casting: Thermosetting plastics cannot be hotformed because of their nature but if in the uncured state they are liquid they can be cast into a mould and cured in much the same way that molten metal is cast and left to cool. The difference is that the solidification of the plastic is due to the chemical reaction that takes place between the resin and the hardener with which it is mixed before pouring. An accelerator may also be added to speed up the curing process. Thermoplastic materials in powder or granule form can be cast by placing suitable quantities of the material in a mould and then heating the mould in an oven to a temperature at which the plastic fuses into a solid block in the mould. These castings are made more for decorative use than in engineering. It is quite easy to embed other materials in the casting to enhance the appearance. Casting is also used to encapsulate metallurgical specimens to provide a permanent record. The specimen is placed upside down in a mould, and a resin/catalyst mixture is poured round it until the specimen is completely


covered. The resin is then left to harden, or cure, the cure time depending on the amount of catalyst used and the surrounding temperature. When the resin has cured, the casting is removed from the mould. The specimen is then polished using progressive finer grades of wet-and-dry abrasive paper until all scratch marks are removed and the surface is highly polished. The metallurgical detail of the surface is shown up by etching with an acid solution prior to examination under a microscope.



14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7

Okorafor, O.E., Introduction to Engineering Materials: Their Nature and Applications, M.C. Computer, Nigeria, 2008. Higgins, R.A., Materials for the Engineering Technician, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1972. Kempster, M.H.A., Materials for Engineers, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1975. Lindberg, R.A., Processes and Materials of Manufacture, 2 nd Edition, Allyn and Bacon, Inc., Boston, 1977. Shotbolt, C.R., Technician Workshop Processes and Materials 1, Cassel, London, 1977. Black, B.J., Workshop Processes, Practices and Materials, ELBS/ Edward Arnold, 1979. The Use of Materials, Engineering Science Project, Schools Council/ Loughborough University of Technology, Macmillan Education Ltd.,1975.



14.1. There are two basic types of plastics. Name them and describe the main difference in their characteristics. 14.2. What is the most common application of cellulose acetate? 14.3. What is C. A. B and for what common purpose is it used? 14.4. Which of the polyolefins would be used for plastic guttering and drain pipes in the building industry and which for car heater fan? 14.5. A common polystyrene is A. B. S. Find two uses for it other than those given in this book. 14.6. An air operated piece of equipment working at low pressure is to incorporate plastic tubing. Which thermoplastics would be used to make the tubing? 14.7. What property has perspex, which makes it so suitable for use in instrument panels? 14.8. Name two engineering applications of nylon and list the characteristics of the material which make it suitable for these purposes. 14.9. Name the outstanding characteristics of P.T.F.E. and state two applications of this material in engineering. Why should it only be used in exceptional circumstances? 14.10. Why are polycarbonates used for such applications as safety hats? 14.11. Bakelite is a trade name for a common thermoset-what is its chemical name? State three uses in engineering of this material. 14.12. A damaged panel is to be repaired using a glass fibre mat impregnated with a plastic. Which plastic would be used and what is the purpose of the glass fibre? 14.13. Silicones have a fundamental difference to all other plastics in that they are not organic material. Upon what element are they based? 14.14. What is the simplest common method of producing a single bend in a piece of thermoplastic sheet? 14.15. Give three reasons for encapsulating electronic components, and state one method by which it can be done.

14.16. What is a synthetic material? 14.17. What is the major factor to be avoided when machining plastics materials? 14.18. Name a thermosetting plastics material and state a typical application. 14.19. Name three thermoplastic materials and state a typical application of each. 14.20. With few exceptions, plastics are compounds of ----------. 14.21. Describe the difference between casting and moulding plastics materials. 14.22. How can the weakness of tapped holes produced in some plastics materials be overcome? 14.23. Describe the method of joining sheet plastics materials by hot-gas welding. 14.24. State two other methods of joining sheet plastics material.





Wood is an engineering material derived from timber trees and is the oldest and still most widely used of structural materials. Its documented use in buildings and ships spans thousands of years. Today the world production is about the same as that of iron and steel: roughly 109 tonnes per year. Much of this is used structurally: for beams, joists, flooring or supports which will bear load. The engineering properties of interest in wood are the moduli, the yield or crushing strength, and the toughness. It is the material used for carpentry and joinery work; including pattern making in foundries.


Nature and Types of Wood

Wood is a natural material sourced from the stem or trunk of a tree. A tree with trunk of adequate girth is felled and the main stem is cleared of all branches. The resulting log is sawn and converted into different commercial sizes (known as plank, board, batten, scantlings etc.). All wood must be ‗‗seasoned‘‘ efore it is used. The o ject of seasoning is to remove sap from the wood and to stabilise its moisture content. If the excess moisture is not removed, the articles made of unseasoned wood will be subject to shrinkage and warping during service. Non removal of sap will attract termites and other bugs. A properly converted and seasoned wood of good quality suitable for use in industry is called timber. Timber or wood is of two types (i) soft wood, and (ii) hard wood. This classification is based on the species of tree from which the wood has been taken. Usually, the conifers or evergreen trees yield soft wood, while the wood extracted from deciduous trees is hard wood. Examples of soft wood are pine, cedar, deodar, cyprus etc. Examples of hard wood are iroko, obeche, teak, mahogany, etc. Soft wood is light in colour, light in weight, has a distinct resinous aroma and is easily worked.


The names hardwoods and softwoods can be confusing since some softwoods are actually harder than some hardwoods, and conversely some hardwoods are softer than some softwoods. For example, softwoods such as longleaf pine and Douglas-fir are typically harder than the hardwoods basswood and aspen. Botanically, hardwoods are Angiosperms; the seeds are enclosed in the ovary of the flower. Anatomically, hardwoods are porous; that is, they contain vessel elements. A vessel element is a wood cell with open ends; when vessel elements are set one above another, they form a continuous tube (vessel), which serves as a conduit for transporting water or sap in the tree. Typically, hardwoods are plants with broad leaves that, with few exceptions in the temperate region, lose their leaves in autumn or winter. Botanically, softwoods are Gymnosperms or conifers; the seeds are naked (not enclosed in the ovary of the flower). Anatomically, softwoods are nonporous and do not contain vessels. Softwoods are usually cone-bearing plants with needle- or scale-like evergreen leaves. Softwood lumber and plywood are used in construction for forms (benches), scaffolding, framing, sheathing, flooring, moulding, paneling, cabinets, poles and piles, and many other building components. Softwoods may also appear in the form of shingles, sashes, doors, and other millwork, in addition to some rough products such as timber and round posts. Hardwoods are used in construction for flooring, architectural woodwork, interior woodwork, and paneling. These items are usually available from lumberyards and building supply dealers. Most hardwood lumber and dimension stock are remanufactured into furniture, flooring, pallets, containers, dunnage, and blocking. Hardwood lumber and dimension stock are available directly from the manufacturer, through wholesalers and brokers, and from some retail yards. Another classification of wood is possible. If the trunk of a tree is cut, the cross-section consists of two types of wood. The heart or central section of wood appears darker and denser, while the wood surroundings the central portion appears lighter in colour. As most trees grow outwards, the wood in the central portion of the stem, which is known as ‗‗Heart wood‘‘ is more mature


and aged. The wood surrounding the heart wood is relatively new and less strong. This wood is called ‗‗Sapwood‘‘. Heart wood yields etter quality and stronger timber and should be used in preference to sapwood.

Timber Trees are also classified into exogenous and endogenous types according to manner of growth. Exogenous trees are also known as outward growing trees which produce timber for commercial use [conifers and deciduous trees belong here]. They grow outward and the additional growth which occurs each year takes place on the outside of the trunk just underneath its bark, while the innermost timber (heart wood) continues to mature. Each time the growth cycle is completed the tree gains one more growth ring or annual ring. In counting these rings, the age of a tree can be determined, as each ring represents one year of growth. Endogenous trees are also known as inward growing. They grow inwards i.e., every fresh layer of sapwood is added inside instead of outside. Cane, bamboo and coconut, and palms are examples of endogenous trees.


Composition and Properties of Wood

All wood is composed of cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, and minor amounts (5% to 10%) of extraneous materials contained in a cellular structure. In other words, wood is a natural composite of lignin (an amorphous polymer) stiffened with fibres of cellulose. Variations in the characteristics and volume of these components and differences in cellular structure make woods heavy or light, stiff or flexible, and hard or soft. The properties of a single species are relatively constant within limits; therefore, selection of wood by species alone may sometimes be adequate. However, to use wood to its best advantage and most effectively in engineering applications, specific characteristics or physical properties must be considered. What the early builder or craftsman learned by trial and error became the basis for deciding which species were appropriate for a given use in terms of their characteristics. Modern research on wood has substantiated that location and growth conditions do significantly affect wood properties.


Wood is as valuable an engineering material as ever, and in many cases, technological advances have made it even more useful. The inherent factors that keep wood in the forefront of raw materials are many and varied, but a chief attribute is its availability in many species, sizes, shapes, and conditions to suit almost every demand. Wood has a high ratio of strength to weight and a remarkable record for durability and performance as a structural material. Dry wood has good insulating properties against heat, sound, and electricity. It tends to absorb and dissipate vibrations under some conditions of use, and yet it is an incomparable material for such musical instruments as the violin. The grain patterns and colors of wood make it an esthetically pleasing material, and its appearance may be easily enhanced by stains, varnishes, lacquers, and other finishes. It is easily shaped with tools and fastened with adhesives, nails, screws, bolts, and dowels. Damaged wood is easily repaired, and wood structures are easily remodeled or altered. In addition, wood resists oxidation, acid, saltwater, and other corrosive agents, has high salvage value, has good shock resistance, can be treated with preservatives and fire retardants, and can be combined with almost any other material for both functional and esthetic uses. The strength of wood along its grains and across the grains is different. Wood exhibits its greatest strength in tension parallel to (i.e. along) the grain and it is very uncommon in practice for a specimen to be pulled in two lengthwise. The tensile strength of wood parallel to the grain depends upon the strength of the fibres and is affected not only by the nature and dimensions of the wood elements but also by their arrangement. It is greatest in straightgrained specimens with thick-walled fibres. Cross grain of any kind materially reduces the tensile strength of wood, since the tensile strength at right angles to the grain is only a small fraction of that parallel to the grain. Wood can also have several defects. Timber selected for use should be free from knots, shakes (i.e. cracks) and fungus and should be free from insect attacks.


15. 4 Basics of Woodworking Woodworking is all about the skill or craft of making items or parts out of wood. It embraces carpentry and joinery as well as pattern-making using wood. Woodworking tools are used to carry out woodworking processes. A broad classification of tools used in woodworking are measuring and marking tools, supporting and holding tools, cutting tools, striking tools and miscellaneous tools.

15.4 .1 Marking and Measuring Tools Measuring and marking are essential in order to make wooden components of the required size and to produce quality jobs. A number of marking and measuring instruments namely Rules, Try Square, Combination Set, Bevel Gauge, Marking Gauge, Mortise Gauge, Cutting Gauge, Spirit Level, Trammel and Compass are commonly used for this purpose. Some commonly used marking and measuring instruments are already discussed as in chapters 3 and 4 of this book. What follows is a description of a few marking tools considered unique to woodworking.

The Marking Gauge This tool is used for marking lines parallel to a true edge or side. This is necessary when wood is being planed to width and thickness. It is also used when marking out joints. The marking gauge is shown in Fig. 15.1a.

Figure 15.1: Marking and mortise gauges

The marking gauge is generally used along the grain, but it tends to tear and scratch when used across the grain of wood. The head or stock can be

adjusted and fixed to any desired position along the stem by means of the thumb screw. The face of the head is placed against the edge of the job after the stem has been set as required and the screw tightened. The spur or marking pin of the tool is depressed firmly to mark the required line on the job surface as the head traverses the job edge. Figure 15.2 illustrates the use of the marking gauge.

Figure 15.2: Using the marking gauge

The Mortise Gauge This is an improved form of marking gauge which carries two scribing pins (fixed pin and sliding pin) instead of one. In addition to the head set screw, it has another thumb screw on the stem used for regulating the distance between the fixed pin and the movable pin (Fig. 15.1b). This gauge is used for marking two parallel lines in a single operation on a job face. It is specifically used to mark sides of mortises and tenons and other similar joints requiring parallel lines.

15.4.2 Holding and Supporting Tools Sometimes it is necessary to support and hold a wooden board in a particular position while working on it. Various supporting and holding devices are employed for this purpose and some of them are discussed here.


Work Bench In general, every carpenter needs a good solid bench or table of rigid construction (usually made of hardwood) on which he can perform or carry out woodworking operations. Work bench should be equipped with a vice for holding the work and with slots and holes for keeping the common hand tools. One jaw of the vice is tightened to the table and is kept moveable for holding the articles. Work benches are built solidly with good heavy tops which provide a good working surface. The vice on the bench is equipped with an adjustable dog that is, a piece of wood or metal can be moved up and down in the outside jaw of the vice.

Bench Hook The bench hook (Fig. 15.3) is used to prevent the work from moving forward as it is planed. As shown, it is a wooden plank of size about 250 mm x 125 mm x 20 mm. Two wooden pieces of size 25 mm x 25 mm x 100 mm are fixed on both ends of the plank by means of screws.

Figure 15.3: Bench hook Bench Stop This is a mild steel plate which has teeth at one end. It is fixed on a corner of the work table and used to prevent the work from moving forward during planing operation.


Carpenter Vice Carpenter vice (Fig. 15.4) is very important tool in wood working shops for holding wooden jobs. There are several varieties of vices, each possessing its own particular merit.

Figure 15.4: Carpenter vice

Clamps or Cramps Clamps are commonly used in pairs in gluing up operations at the final assembly of wood joinery work. They provide the pressure required to hold joints together until they are secured due to the setting of glues. There are many varieties of clamp such as G-clamp (Fig. 15.5), adjustable bar clamp (Fig. 15.6), rack clamp, screw clamps, light duty parallel clamp, and double bar clamp which are useful for holding different sizes and shapes of wooden jobs. The G-clamp derives its name from the fact that when viewed from the side it forms the letter G (Fig. 15.5b). When two or more pieces of wood are to be held together for gluing, drilling or screwing, the G-clamp is often used. It is also used to hold firmly a piece of wood being worked on the bench top. Again, when parts of a structure are being assembled, the G clamp is sometimes used to hold them in position. G-clamps are made in several different sizes where the distance between the jaws when fully open gives the size.


Figure 15.5: G-clamp The swivel shoe on the end of the screw thread is made to swivel in order that it will always lie flat even when the surfaces being cramped are not parallel. It is always advisable to put waste wood between the jaws of the clamp and the work in order to prevent damage to the work. A drop of oil on the screw thread and on the swivel shoe helps to keep these parts moving freely. The main body or frame is made of either malleable cast iron or drop forged steel, and the screw is made of mild steel.

Figure 15.6: Adjustable bar clamp

The bar clamp may be of T-section (Fig. 15.6), which can easily afford greater rigidity under stress. The coarse adjustment jaw may be located in any position on the bar by means of a steel pin which fits into any of the holes


drilled at intervals along the bar. Considerable pressure can be applied by turning the screw with the handle for holding a wooden job.

Figure 15.7: Hand screw clamp

The hand screw clamp (Fig. 15.7) is useful when pressure is to be applied over a large area. It has two wooden jaws with two steel screws, one right hand threaded and the other has left hand threads. Common sizes of hand screw clamp have openings (maximum distance between the jaws) ranging from 150 to 350 mm.

15.4.3 Cutting Tools Various kinds of cutting tools such as different kinds of saws, planes, chisels, scraper, files and rasps, adze and axe; and boring tools such as brace and bits, bradawl, auger, and gimlet are used in the carpentry shop. We shall discuss a few important cutting tools next.

Saws Woodwork saws are wood cutting tools having handle and a thin steel blade with series of small sharp teeth along the edge (Fig. 15.8). They are utilized to cut wood to different sizes and shapes. They may be classified into three major types namely: Hand Saws (Rip, Cross-cut, Panel, Keyhole and, Pad saw), Snuff Saws (Tenon and Dovetail) and Frame Saws (Coping, Bow and Fret). A few important types of saws are shown in Fig. 15.9 with their descriptions.


Figure 15.8: Functional parts of a typical saw

Figure 15.9: Few important types of saws

The Rip Saw The rip saw (Fig. 15.9) is used for cutting along the grain of a piece of wood. The teeth are designed in size and shape to cut along the grain efficiently but not designed to cut across the grain. Depending upon whether a saw is designed to rip along or cut across, the shape of the teeth will also vary. In the case of a ripsaw, the teeth are shaped like chisels and are set alternately to the right and left. The length of a rip saw may be 600, 650 or 700 mm and may have 3 to 6 teeth per inch. [Note: 1 inch = 25.4 mm ≈ 25 mm]. Length here refers to the cutting blade – from heel to toe – the handle not inclusive. In general, the more teeth a saw has per linear inch, the finer or smaller will be the tooth and the finer it can cut. Conversely, the bigger the size of a tooth, the rougher the saw will cut. When cutting with the rip saw, start out at 30o. Once a cut has been established, the saw should be brought up to its correct cutting angle which is 60o to the wood [i.e. start at 30o, finish at 60o]. When cutting very thin wood, the finishing angle should be reduced to about 45o.

Cross-cut and Panel Saws Cross-cut saw (Fig. 15.9) is primarily designed for cutting across the grains of wood. They are not suitable for efficiently cutting along the grain of wood. The teeth are knife shaped and bent alternately to the right and left for making the saw to cut wider than the blade. The saw cut is called the kerf. Since the kerf is wider than the blade, the blade will not stick as the sawing is done. The length of the cross-cut saw is 500, 550, 600 or 650 mm. The teeth may be coarse (with only 4 to 6 teeth per inch) or fine (with ten or twelve teeth per inch). The cross-cut saw is used mainly for cutting boards to length. It is not generally used for cutting small pieces of wood or for joint cutting. The method of cutting is to start at 30o and shift to 45o for full cutting stroke. For finer cutting, a small type of cross-cut saw called the panel saw is used. It is similar to the cross-cut saw except that the blade is thinner and it has 10 to 12 teeth per inch, with blade length of about 500mm. The panel saw is


used for accurate work; mostly for cutting panels for door shutters. It is very useful for cutting across small section wood and for cutting plywood, hardboard and veneered boards. The small teeth are less liable to split the wood underneath the cut. The panel saw is sometimes used as an all-purpose saw i.e. for both ripping and cross-cutting.

Tenon or Back Saw The tenon saw (Fig. 15.9) has a parallel blade of width 60 to 100 mm and length 250 to 400 mm with 12 to 20 points or teeth per inch. The top of the blade is stiffened with a solid strip or rib of brass or steel which acts as a reinforcement so that the blade does not bend during operation; thereby making it easy for a straight cut to be made. Tenon saws are used for cutting wood of small section to length and for cutting joints. It is particularly suited for cutting tenons hence its name. It is also suitable for cutting wood across the grains as the teeth are shaped like those of the cross-cut saw. The tenon saw should be treated with care as the small teeth are easily damaged.

Dovetail Saw Dovetail saw is just a small tenon saw (Fig. 15.9) having 50 to 70 mm width of blade. The blade length is about 200 to 300 mm with about 14 teeth per inch. The blade is thinner than that of the tenon saw. The handle is round, to provide a delicate grip for fine cutting. This saw is used where absolutely finer and delicate cutting is required in woodwork such as forming dovetail joints in drawers and cutting shoulders on narrow rails.

Bow Saw This is used to quickly and economically cut a curved shape in wood. The saw is capable of cutting wood up to 25 mm thick without difficulty. The saw consists of a narrow blade held in tension in a rather elaborate wooden frame (Fig. 15.9). The frame has two arms which are free to pivot slightly on a middle cross bar. One end of the blade is fixed to the handle and the other end


to a knob by means of small steel pins which pass through the blade. At the other ends of the arms there is a cord which joins the two arms together. To tighten the blade, a wooden key is twisted. The handle and the knob may be turned in order to set the blade at any angle in relation to the frame. The blade must be straight when in use as it will not work properly if twisted. Bow saws have narrow blades about 3 to 12.5 mm and 200 to 350 mm long with about 10 teeth per inch. The blade is set in the saw to cut on the forward stroke, i.e. with the teeth pointing away from the handle. While in use, the bow saw is gripped with both hands by the handle.

Coping Saw The coping saw consists of a thin narrow blade held in a U-shaped metal frame as shown, Fig. 15.9. The frame has a handle at one end and a stud at the other. The special blade has a small cross pin at each end to fit the socket in the handle and the stud. The socket in the handle may be unscrewed for replacing a blade or for altering the position of the blade. When screwed up tight the blade is held firmly and in tension. The blades are 150 to 200 mm in length and have 14 teeth per inch. The blade is best set to the frame to cut on the return stroke when the handle is being pulled. The coping saw is used for making curved cuts on woods that are about 12 mm thick.

Compass or Turning Saw Compass saw carries a thin, narrow and flexible tapered blade (Fig. 15.9) of length 250 to 400 mm. With a blade resembling the beak of a swordfish, this type of saw is commonly used for making cutouts on the inside surface of a piece of work. A hole is first bored inside the portion which is to be cut out and the pointed compass saw is pushed into the hole to start the sawing operation. Its blade contains about 12 teeth per cm length [i.e. 30 teeth per inch]. Since the blade is quite flexible, the compass saw is widely used for cutting curves on outside or inside of wood. It is mostly used in pattern making.


Planes or Planers A plane is a special tool with a cutting blade for smoothing and removing wood as shavings. It is just like a chisel fixed in a wooden or steel body. The modern plane has been developed from the chisel. They can be classified as jack plane, smooth plane, jointer plane, trying plane, rabbet plane, circular plane and fore plane. Few important planes are discussed next. The jack plane (Fig. 15.10) is used for smoothing the surface of rough sawn wood, for planing an uneven surface straight and true, and for cutting away waste wood down to a finishing line. Jack planes are of two main types: wooden and steel jack planes. The wooden jack plane is made of red beech and is used frequently in school workshops and some skill is required to adjust it correctly. On the contrary, the steel jack plane is quickly adjusted to suit all planing needs. These planes have length ranging from 125 mm to 250 mm and blade width from 30 mm to 60 mm.

(a) Wooden Jack Plane

(b) Metal Jack Plane Figure 15.10: Jack Planes


The trying plane (Fig. 15.11) is simply a bigger sized jack plane whose blade is wider and much longer than that of the jack plane. The length ranges from 550 to 650 mm and blade width is 60 mm. It is used for finishing large surfaces.

Figure 15.11: Trying Plane

The smoothing plane (Fig. 15.12) is used for smoothing the wooden surfaces after the jack and trying planes have been applied. It has no handle. The front and back of the body is slightly curved so that it can be easily held in the hands during operation. As a fine utility tool, somewhat smaller than the jack plane, it very useful for planning end grain, chamfering, and other edge shaping of wooden part. This plane is also used for cleaning up after gluing and assembly.

Figure 15.12: Smoothing Plane


Spoke Shave Spoke shaves are used for planing curved surfaces. They may be made of either wood or metal (Fig. 15.13). The wooden spoke shave is light in weight and easy to use, but difficult to adjust. While in use, the adjustment also tends to become altered as the tangs of the cutter are only a push fit (see Chapter 20) in the stock. The metal spoke shave, on the other hand, is adjusted by means of screws, and the blade is held firmly in position, when set, by means of a locking cap.

Figure 15.13: Spoke shaves

Spoke shaves are either flat-faced or round-faced. The flat-faced spoke shave is used to work convex curves round the outside of a circle. The roundfaced spoke shave is used to work concave curves round the inside of a circle.

Chisels and Gouges Chisels are strong sharp edge cutting tools with a sharp bevel edge at one end. It is composed of such parts as the handle, tang, ferrule, shoulder or shank, and blade (Fig. 15.14). Chisels are generally made up of high carbon steel and are used to shape and fit parts as required when making joints. Two types of construction are employed in the making of chisels, namely tang and socket types. The tang chisel is made with a ranged or pointed end which pierces into the handle. The socket chisel reverses the process by having the handle fit into the socket collar on the blade.


Figure 15.14: Parts of a chisel

Gouges (Fig. 15.15) are simply curved chisels. It may be outside or inside ground. When ground outside, they are called firmer gouges while inside ground gouges are called scribing gouges. The scribing gouges are made long and thin and are known as paring gouges.

Figure 15.15: Gouges

Several varieties of chisels are available (Fig. 15.16), each having special characteristics which fit it for its special use. Examples include: firmer chisel, dovetail chisel, mortise chisel and socket chisel. We shall only discuss the firmer chisel here.

Firmer Chisel This tool is used mainly for cutting joints and also for cutting out any required shapes in wood and for paring. [NB: small chips produced by chisel operation are called parings]. Firmer chisel (Fig. 15.16) has a blade of rectangular section and is used for general bench work. The blade of the chisel is made of cast steel, hardened and tempered. The blade has a pointed tang which fits into the handle, with a shoulder to prevent it from going too far into the handle and splitting it as the chisel is struck with a mallet. The ferrule is short length of brass tube which fits tightly over the lower end of the handle, and helps to prevent its splitting by the tang. The tang is not hardened as to fit in the handle. The best chisel handles are made of boxwood, which is hard and close grained, though some other good handles are made of red beech or ash. Plastic handles are also available. The square edged firmer chisel is used for most bench work. When it is necessary to work with the chisel within an acute angle, for example, when cutting a dovetail joint, the beveled edge firmer chisel is preferable. The beveled edge chisel is not as strong as the square edged chisel. Therefore, it should not be used for heavy chopping; hence it is generally reserved for lighter work. Chisels are of different sizes, the size being the width of the blade. The smallest size is 3 mm wide. Large sizes of 25 to 38 mm are available.

Using the Chisel When using the chisel, great care must be taken to keep the hands, and indeed all parts of the body, behind the cutting edge of the chisel. This warning must be taken very seriously. Note also that a sharp chisel is safer to use than a


blunt one as the sharp chisel requires less pressure to cut. Chisels are used mainly for three woodworking operations: chopping, paring, and shaping. Chopping may be done across the grain of the wood as when cutting out a mortise. It may also be done along the grain of the wood, as when cutting an angle halving joint. When chopping, the chisel is held in one hand only, while the other hand used the mallet. The chisel must be firmly held and positioned with care. It should never be knocked sideways with the mallet, even if it becomes stuck in the wood, as this might break the fairly brittle blade of the chisel. Chopping along the grain of the wood is only possible if the wood has straight grain. The chisel follows the grain of the wood. Paring is used for removing comparatively small quantities of wood. When paring, the flat side of the chisel is always next to the wood. The mallet is not used for paring, but the handle of the chisel is sometimes struck with the palm of the hand. The chisel is held in both hands, one holding the blade in order to give complete control over the chisel. If it is necessary to shape a wood, the bevel of the chisel is often used next to the wood. It is then possible to lever on the bevel, either to prevent the chisel cutting too deeply, or to lift the wood out.


Figure 15.16: Types of chisels Files and Rasps Files and Rasps are used for sharpening or maintaining other woodworking tools and equipment. They are made of hardened tool steel which is tempered and they should never be dropped as they are very brittle to break. They are of various types depending upon their size, shape, cuts and degree of their coarseness. The cross section of files can be triangular, square, round, half-round or flat as shown in Fig. 15.17.

Figure 15.17: Cross-section of files

Files are used also to smooth the surface of wood, especially when it is difficult or unsatisfactory to smooth the wood in any other way. For example, when using second hand wood and nails are suspected of being present, a file could be used to smooth the surface as the file would not be damaged if it struck a nail. Expectedly, a file does not leave a perfect surface as the marks of the file teeth usually remain. It may be necessary therefore to follow filing with glasspaper (abrasive paper). The file tends to clog up with wood quite quickly and it will not then cut well. A clogged file should be cleaned with a file card which is made of short wire brush fixed to a block of wood. The file card is used along the cuts of the file to clean out the clogging wood. Files for woodwork are usually half-round; one side being flat and the other forming a segment of a circle. A rat-tail file is useful for very small curves because it is round and pointed. The rasp is a coarser file. So, if a lot of wood is to be removed, a rasp is used first and the finishing is done with a file. The large pointed teeth of the rasp tear the wood away quite quickly, but a very rough surface is left. Rasps are usually half-round in shape and are rougher on the surface than files. Files and rasps should never be used without handles; else, the tang can pierce the user‘s palm.

15.4.4 Boring Tools Boring is the cutting of holes in wood with a tool called a bit (Fig. 15.18). Technically speaking, holes of 6 mm size or larger are said to be bored while those of 6 mm size or smaller are said to be drilled. Boring is the first


step in making any kind of shaped opening or holes. Wood boring bits (tool blades) include: shell bit, auger bit, expanding bit, centre bit, countersink bit, reamer bit, screw driver bit and drill. These bits are used as cutting tools in the jaws of braces. Some boring hand tools such as the bradawl, auger and brace are discussed next.

Bradawl Bradawl, shown in Fig. 15.19, is used for making fine holes (up to 5mm diameter and 6 mm deep) in soft woods e.g. nail holes. There are two types – point ended and flat ended bradawls. The flat ended bradawl is used when there is need to enlarge a hole already made by a point ended bradawl.

Figure 15.18: Types of bits


Both hands are used to rotate the handle while simultaneously pressing downwards into the wood. The cutting edge of the blade of bradawl is flared out to give clearance to the body of the blade which is fixed to the handle by means of a square-tapered tang. A brass ferrule is fitted to prevent the tapered tang splitting the handle when being pushed into it. The blade of bradawl is shouldered to prevent its being forced further into the pear-shaped wooden handle.

Auger The auger (Fig. 15.19) is used to make holes in the wooden jobs up to 25 mm diameter and 150 mm thick. It possesses a screw point to center the tool at the point where hole is to be produced in the wooden part. Fluted body of the auger is to allow removal of wooden chips from wooden jobs using handle to apply pressure to rotate the auger for making the hole. The handle of the tool is held in both hands and rotation is clockwise.

Figure 15.19: Bradawl and Auger Braces The brace is a holding and turning tool for a bit used for boring holes. Two types of braces are used in woodworking, namely ratchet brace and


wheel brace or hand drill (Fig. 15.20). The brace and bit are required when boring holes of more than 6 mm diameter in wood. The ratchet brace has a strong ratchet built into the frame. This may be set to allow the bit to remain stationary either on the forward or return stroke as the brace is rotated. The ratchet is very useful when working in confined spaces that do not allow a full sweep of the brace. The metal parts of the brace are made of steel while the wooden handles are made of some suitable hardwood such as beech, or plastic material. The size of the brace is indicated by the length of the sweep, which is the diameter of the circle formed when turning the crank of the brace. The sweep may vary from 125 mm to 300 mm. The bits are held in the brace in a two-jaw chuck. When the chuck shell is screwed up, the two jaws are tightened firmly on to the square taper shank of the bit. On most braces the jaws are designed to hold only square taper shank bits and not paralleled shank drills. The jaws are held together by a small spring clip. They fit into a slot in the chuck which allows them to open and close but prevents them from turning around. When using the brace and bits, great care must be taken to ensure that holes are not bored in the bench. Great care should also be taken of the delicate cutting edges of the bits. The wheel brace (commonly called hand drill) consists of two bevel gear wheels and a wooden handle provided at the top. A crank is fitted at the centre of the larger wheel. In its operation, the handle is pressed downwards with one hand and the crank handle is rotated by the other hand. This causes the rotation of the larger gear wheel as well as the smaller gear wheel. In effect, the bit gripped in the jaws of the chuck also rotates and drills the required hole.


Figure 15.20: Braces

15.4.5 Striking Tools Mallets and various types of hammers are generally used as striking tools in carpentry and joinery. A hammer with its steel face delivers a sharp heavy blow, whereas a softer striking surface such as mallet will give a mild blow.

Hammers Warrington peen and claw hammers are generally used for woodwork. The sledge hammer is suited for metalwork. Hammers are mainly used for driving nails. Other uses include driving in wooden wedges or striking punches. One type of hammer is the Warrington cross-peen hammer (Fig. 15.21). This has a flat face on one side of the head which is used for most of the work. At the other side of the head is a wedge-shaped cross peen that is


used for tapping in small nails when these are held between the fingers and thumb. The head is forged from tool steel and is obtainable in various weights. The face of hammer is hardened, tempered and ground slightly convex. The center part of the head is not hardened as a precaution against breakage in use through its being to brittle. The handle is made of wood and is oval in crosssection to have a comfortable grip. The end of the handle fits into a hole in the head and is held in position by wooden or metal wedges which open out the grain, thus securely locking the two parts together. The Warrington hammer is used for knocking in nails, assembling joints and setting wooden plane blades.

Figure 15.21: Warrington cross-peen hammer

Another type is the claw hammer (Fig. 15.22) which has two curved claws on one end of its head; the claws are used to pull out nails. The other end is used for light striking work. A strong handle on claw hammer is always necessary for carrying out the task. The handle is generally made of wood. Metal handles with a rubber hand grip are also available.

Figure 15.22: Claw hammer


Mallets Mallets are wooden or rubber headed hammers. They are made of hard wood and may be round or rectangular in shape (Fig. 15.23).

Figure 15.23: Mallets

Mallets are used for striking the wooden handles of chisels when these are being used to make fairly heavy cuts in wood. A mallet should never be used to strike metal tools (e.g. tangs of files and rasps) as these would damage it. It is also used for knocking together or apart pieces of wood that are tightly joined. When used for the latter purpose, it is advisable to use a piece of waste wood under the mallet to protect the work. The handle of the mallet passes right through the head. As the handle is slightly tapered it becomes tighter with use. So, the hand cannot pull off from the head. The mallet moves through a circular arc during use; the point of rotation eing the operator‘s el ow. The striking faces of the mallet slope slightly towards the bottom to facilitate normal or direct distribution of pressure. That is, the striking faces are sloped in order that they will fall flat on the work.

15.4.6 Miscellaneous Tools and Materials Some other hand tools that are used in woodworking shop include screw driver, pincer and fasteners. There are a number of other materials used in carpentry shop besides timber. The main materials are dowels, nails, screws, adhesives or glues, paints and varnishes. Dowels are wooden pieces of special nails generally made out from bamboos or other similar wood by the carpenter himself. They are used for


fastening different wood structural components. Hole is initially drilled through the two pieces or parts to be joined together. After assembling the parts to be joined in proper position, the dowel is then driven through the parts.


Common Woodwork Joints

All wooden objects whether doors, windows, furniture, patterns, core boxes, handicrafts, toys, cots, etc., are all assembled with joints. The commonly used woodworking joints are shown in Fig. 15.24.


Woodworking Machines

Apart from woodworking hand tools already discussed, a number of power driven machines are employed in woodworking for a number of reasons, namely:  To reduce fatigue of carpenter;  Mass production work;  To save time and achieve high accuracy work. The general woodworking machines include woodworking lathe, circular saw, band saw and sanding machines, etc.

A typical woodworking lathe is shown in Fig. 15.25. It is used for turning wood. Long wooden cylindrical jobs are held and rotated between the two centers. The tool is then fed against the job and the round symmetrical shape on the jobs is produced. Scrapping tool and turning gauge are generally used as a turning tool on a woodworking lathe. The circular saw (Fig. 15.26a), also called table or bench saw is used to perform various operations such as ripping, cross-cutting, leveling, and grooving, etc. The work is held on the table and moved against the circular saw to perform the quick and automatic sawing operation and other operations on wood as mentioned above.


The band saw (Fig. 15.26b), is used to cut heavy logs to required lengths, cutting fine straight line and curved work. It consists of a heavy cast bed, which acts as a support for the whole machine, a column, two wheel pulleys, one at the top and other at the bottom, an endless saw blade band, a smooth steel table and guide assembly. It is manufactured in many sizes ranging from little bench saw to a larger band saw mill.

Figure 15.24: Woodwork joints


Figure 15.25: Woodworking (or wood turning) lathe

Figure 15.26: Circular saw and band saw

Sanding machines are used to produce smooth surface on wooden articles, by using a sand paper. Many types are available among which are: i. ii. iii. Belt sander: - which consists of an endless abrasive belt moving over a pair of drums. It is used for sanding or smoothing flat surfaces. Disc sander: - which consists of a motor driven flat disc to which is cemented an abrasive paper. It is used for sanding curved surfaces. Drum sander: - which consists of a horizontally revolving cylinder about 300 mm in diameter over which the abrasive material is fixed. It

is the largest in size among sanding machines, and is used for finishing both inside and outside curves.


Pattern Making

The first step in making a casting [see Chapter 19 – Foundry Technology] is that of making the pattern. A pattern is basically a replica of the exterior of the object (casting) which the foundryman wants to produce. The pattern maker is simply a carpenter who specializes in producing the replicas of metal castings. Patterns are constructed from wood, waxes, plastic or other materials. The skills required in pattern making are therefore basic carpentry skills except that the pattern maker must use special measuring rules. The pattern maker also produces core boxes and mould boxes (flasks), especially when these are based on wood. The pattern has the same shape as the casting, but each of its dimensions is made slightly larger than the desired casting dimension. This compensates for the dimensional changes which takes place in the mould when it is heated by the molten metal and in the solidifying casting when it cools from the melt. This shrink factor varies with the alloy and the mould material being used; and the pattern maker must be aware of this. The dimensional modifications that are incorporated into a pattern are called allowances, of which there are basically two: 1. Machining allowance: - This is also called finish allowance and is necessary when machined surfaces must be provided on casting. 2. Shrinkage allowance: - This is as a result of the solidification shrinkage of the metal/alloy as it cools in stages from the melt. First, there is shrinkage of the liquid (melt) as it cools from the superheated state to the melting point; second, there is liquid – solid shrinkage as the liquid turns to solid; and third, solid – solid contraction takes place as the solidified material cools to room temperature.

The pattern maker often incorporates these allowances into the pattern by using special shrink or contraction rules, which are slightly longer than


the standard rule by the desired shrinkage allowance.

For example, a

shrinkage rule for brass designates 1 foot at a length that is actually 1 foot inch. So, this rule should be used by the pattern maker for measuring and marking out the wood while producing a pattern for the brass casting. Again, the linear shrinkage of cast iron is about 10 mm per metre; so the shrinkage rule used to make the pattern for casting cast iron is 10 mm longer per metre than a standard rule. Patterns made to shrink rule dimensions yield propersized castings on cooling. Approximate shrinkages for some common casting metals are presented in Table 15.1.

Table 15.1: Shrinkage allowances of common casting metals Metal /Alloy Cast iron Steel Brass Aluminium Magnesium base alloy Shrinkage (mm/metre) 10 20 15 13 13

Patterns can be made as a single-piece or solid pattern, two-piece or split pattern or even multi-piece patterns (Fig. 15.27).

Figure 15.27: Single and two-piece patterns

For convenience, patterns are built up from a number of component parts, each one fitting together using locating pegs (dowel pins) and sockets (dowel holes). The simplest pattern is a two-part design. The dividing line

between the two parts is known as a parting line. Patterns normally have tapered sections known as draft which facilitates easy removal from the mould.

 Example: Given that a rip saw is 600 mm long and has 4 teeth per linear inch. Determine the number of teeth on the saw.

Solution: To find the number of teeth on the saw given the number of teeth per linear inch and the blade length in mm; the following steps should be taken:  Divide the blade length in mm by 25.4 mm and multiply the result by the number of teeth per linear inch [note, 1 in = 25.4 mm],  If the final answer is a fraction (decimal fraction), round it off to the nearest whole number since a fraction of a saw tooth does not exist in practice.

Sometimes it may be simplifying to divide the blade length by 25 since 1 inch ≈ 25 mm.



Ashby, M.F. and Jones, D.R.H. (1996): Engineering Materials 1: An Introduction to their Properties and Applications, Second Edition (2002 reprint), Oxford:Butter Worth-Heinemann Ashby, M.F. and Jones, D.R.H. (1998): Engineering Materials 2: An Introduction to Microstructures, Processing and Design Second Edition, Oxford: Butter Worth-Heinemann Johanson, Mark [ed.] (2005): Woodworking: The Complete Step-by-Step Guide to Skills, Techniques and Projects; New York: Barnes & Noble Khurmi, R.S. and Gupta, J.K. (2004): A Textbook of Workshop Technology (Manufacturing Processes), Sixth Edition; New Delhi: S. Chand & Co. Ltd Record, S. J. (2004): The Mechanical Properties of Wood, Published online by The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation @ Singh, R. (2006) Introduction to Basic Manufacturing Processes and Workshop Technology; New Delhi: New Age Inter. Pub. USDA Forest Service (1999): Wood Handbook: Wood as an Engineering Material; Madison: USDA Forest Service Fairham, William (2007): Woodwork Joints, Revised Edition. Published online by The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation @ Noyes, William (2007): Handwork in Wood. Published online by The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation @ Jack, George (2007): Wood-Carving, Design and Workmanship. Published online by The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation @






The automobile, motor car or simply car is a road vehicle, usually with four wheels and powered by an internal-combustion engine, designed to carry a small number of passengers. Motor vehicle is an omnibus term for cars, buses, trucks and other road vehicles powered by an engine. The discussion here shall be limited to the automobile only. Horse-drawn carriages or carts and chariots [the then armored cars] were the precursors of modern cars that are driven by internal combustion engines. Since the animal must go in front of the cart to be able to drag it along; it ecame an adage that ―You don’t put the cart before [in front of] the horse.‖ Fig. 16.1 is a typical cart/carriage that can e drawn by one or more draft animals. The imagination to have carts that could be self-propelled was referred to as the dream of ‗horseless carriages‘ or ‗carts without horses‘, and randed ‗impossi le‘. Today, that dream is a technological reality eyond every imagination of the doubters. A horseless cart is shown in Fig. 16.2. The original horseless carriage was introduced in 1893 by brothers Charles and Frank Duryea. It was America‘s first internal-combustion motor car, and it was followed y Henry Ford‘s first experimental car that same year.

Figure 16.1: A typical horse-drawn carriage [Source: Microsoft® Encarta® 2008]

Figure 16.2: Horseless Carriage [Source: Microsoft® Encarta® 2008]

16.1.1 From Carriages To Cars A German engineer, Karl Benz, is generally acknowledged as the inventor of the modern automobile. An automobile powered by a four-stroke cycle gasoline engine [also developed by him] was built in Mannheim, Germany by Karl Benz in 1885, and granted a patent in January of the following year under the auspices of his major company, Benz & Cie., which was founded in 1883. It was an integral design, without the adaptation of other existing components, and included several new technological elements to create a new concept. Many of his other inventions made the use of the internal combustion engine feasible for powering a vehicle. His first Motorwagen was built in 1885, and he was awarded the patent for its invention.


Basic Parts of the Automobile

Automobiles, as shown in Fig. 16.3, are powered and controlled by a complicated interrelationship between several systems. This diagram shows the parts of a car with a gas engine and manual transmission (the air filter and carburetor have been removed to show the parts beneath but usually appear in

the space above the intake manifold). A modern automobile comprises as many as 15, 000 separate parts which can be grouped conveniently into four basic assemblies, namely: (i) engine, (ii) drive train, (iii) chassis or support and control systems, and (iv) body. The term power train describes the combination of both the engine and the drive train. Each assembly can be grouped further into systems and subsystems e.g. brake system, ignition system, cooling system, fuel system, transmission system, exhaust system, steering and control systems, etc.

Figure 16.3: Automobile Systems [Adapted from Microsoft® Encarta® 2008]

The power plant includes the engine, fuel, electrical, exhaust, lubrication, and coolant systems. The power train includes the transmission and drive systems, including the clutch, differential, and drive shaft. Suspension, stabilizers, wheels, and tires are all part of the running gear, or support system. Steering and brake systems are the major components of the control system, by which the driver directs the car.


Automobiles are classified by size, style, number of doors, and intended use. The typical automobile, also called a car, auto, motorcar, and passenger car, has four wheels and can carry up to six people, including a driver. Larger vehicles designed to carry more passengers are called vans, minivans, omnibuses, or buses. Those used to carry cargo are called pickups or trucks, depending on their size and design. Minivans are van-style vehicles built on a passenger car frame that can usually carry up to eight passengers. Sport-utility vehicles, also known as SUVs, are more rugged than passenger cars and are designed for driving in mud or snow. The automobile is built around an engine. Various systems supply the engine with fuel, cool it during operation, lubricate its moving parts, and remove exhaust gases it creates. The engine produces mechanical power that is transmitted to the automo ile‘s wheels through a drive train, which includes a transmission, one or more drive shafts, a differential gear, and axles. Suspension systems, which include springs and shock absorbers, cushion the ride and help protect the vehicle from being damaged by bumps, heavy loads, and other stresses. Wheels and tires support the vehicle on the roadway and, when rotated by powered axles, propel the vehicle forward or backward. Steering and braking systems provide control over direction and speed. An electrical system starts and operates the engine, monitors and controls many aspects of the vehicle‘s operation, and powers such components as headlights and radios. Safety features such as bumpers, air bags, and seat belts help protect occupants in an accident.


Power Train

Gasoline internal-combustion engines power most automobiles, but some engines use diesel fuel, electricity, natural gas, solar energy, or fuels derived from methanol (wood alcohol) and ethanol (grain alcohol). Most gasoline engines work in the following way: Turning the ignition key operates a switch that sends electricity from a battery to a starter motor. The starter motor turns a disk known as a flywheel, which in turn causes the engine‘s crankshaft to revolve. The rotating crankshaft causes pistons, which


are solid cylinders that fit snugly inside the engine‘s hollow cylinders, to move up and down. Fuel-injection systems or, in older cars, a carburetor deliver fuel vapor from the gas tank to the engine cylinders. The pistons compress the vapor inside the cylinders. An electric current flows through a spark plug to ignite the vapor. The fuel mixture explodes, or combusts, creating hot expanding gases that push the pistons down the cylinders and cause the crankshaft to rotate. The crankshaft is now rotating via the up-and-down motion of the pistons, permitting the starter motor to disengage from the flywheel.

16.3.1 Engine An engine is a related group of parts assembled in a specific order so that it can convert the chemical potential energy of fuels into mechanical force and motion. Most engines are referred to as heat engines because they first convert the chemical energy of fuels into heat or thermal energy by combustion of the fuels. An internal combustion (I.C.) engine is one which burns air-fuel mixture within the cylinders and converts the expanding force of the combustion products [gases] into rotary force used to propel the vehicle. Unlike the I.C. engines, in external combustion engines, energy is released from the fuel in a separate furnace or chamber, and is transferred to the working agent (e.g. water/steam) across a separating wall. In this group are steam engines and steam turbines, where the working agent is steam. The most common form of engine in passenger vehicles is the internal combustion piston engine. The basic components of an internal-combustion engine are the engine block, cylinder head, cylinders, pistons, valves, crankshaft, and camshaft. The lower part of the engine, called the engine block, houses the cylinders, pistons, and crankshaft. The components of other engine systems bolt or attach to the engine block. The block is manufactured with internal passageways for lubricants and coolant. Engine blocks are made of cast iron or aluminum alloy and formed with a set of round cylinders. Figure 16.4 shows a typical fourstroke cycle petrol engine.


The upper part of the engine is the cylinder head. Bolted to the top of the block, it seals the tops of the cylinders. Pistons compress air and fuel against the cylinder head prior to ignition. The top of the piston forms the floor of the combustion chamber. A rod connects the bottom of the piston to the crankshaft. These components are shown in Fig. 16.5. Lubricated bearings ena le oth ends of the connecting rod to pivot, transferring the piston‘s vertical motion into the crankshaft‘s rotational force, or torque. The pistons‘ motion rotates the crankshaft at speeds ranging from about 600 to thousands of revolutions per minute (rpm), depending on how much fuel is delivered to the cylinders.

Figure 16.4: Cutaway of four-stroke cycle petrol engine (courtesy of Volvo Car Corporation)


Figure 16.5: Parts for a single-cylinder four-stroke engine

Fuel vapor enters and exhaust gases leave the combustion chamber through openings in the cylinder head controlled by valves. The typical engine valve is a metal shaft with a disk at one end fitted to block the opening. The other end of the shaft is mechanically linked to a camshaft, a round rod with odd-shaped lobes located inside the engine block or in the cylinder head. Inlet valves open to allow fuel to enter the combustion chambers. Outlet valves open to let exhaust gases out. A gear wheel, belt, or chain links the camshaft to the crankshaft. When the crankshaft forces the camshaft to turn, lobes on the camshaft cause valves to open and close at precise moments in the engine‘s cycle. When fuel vapor ignites, the intake and outlet valves close tightly to direct the force of the explosion downward on the piston.

16.3.2 Internal Combustion (I.C.) Piston Engine There are several types of I.C. engines: two and four cycle reciprocating piston engines, gas turbines, free piston and rotary combustion


engines. However, the most widely used passenger-car engine is the fourstroke cycle reciprocating piston engine, where a piston moves up and down in a cylinder. While there are other types of I.C. engines such as diesel engines, Wankel rotary engines, turbines, ceramic (or adiabatic) engines, etc., we shall confine our discussion to gasoline (petrol) engines only.

The major parts of a modern, multi-cylinder I.C. engine are: i. ii. The cylinder block or engine block which is the supporting structure for the engine. It forms the lower part of the engine. The cylinder head or upper part of the engine is bolted to the top of the cylinder block. It seals the top end of the cylinders and holds the valves. The valve train which is a series of parts used to open and close the intake and exhaust ports. This controls the fuel entry and exhaust gas exit from the combustion chamber. Valve movement is controlled by the camshaft. The camshaft opens the valve at the right time while the valve springs close the valves. The piston is a machined, round part that slides up and down in the cylinder. The piston rings seal the space between the block and the sides of the piston. The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. The crankshaft converts the up and down action of the piston into usable rotary motion. The combustion chamber is a cavity formed above the piston and below the cylinder head for containing the burning fuel. The timing belt turns the camshaft at one-half engine speed. The intake manifold delivers air and fuel to the cylinder head intake ports whilst the exhaust manifold carries exhaust gases away from the cylinder head exhaust ports.



v. vi. vii. viii. ix.


16.3.3 Operations and Functions Piston Engine In any I.C. engine the following functional requirements must be met: a. Fuel and air must be mixed and supplied to the engine in the correct proportion. b. The fuel and air must be compressed either before or after the mixing. c. The compressed mixture must be ignited and the resulting expansion of the combustion products used to drive the engine mechanism. d. The exhausted combustion products must be cleared from the engine when their expansion is complete, in order to make way for a fresh charge.

Figure 16.6: Basic operations of four-stroke cycle engine

Two methods used to achieve the above processes in a reciprocating I.C. engine are the four-stroke cycle (or Otto cycle), and the two-stroke cycle. The petrol engine, commonly used in motor-cars, gets its energy from an exploded mixture of air and petrol (gasoline) vapour, and operates on the four-stroke cycle. The four strokes [intake or suction stroke, compression stroke, expansion or power stroke, exhaust stroke] and basic operations of four-stroke cycle engine are illustrated in Fig 16.6.


 Suction (or Intake or Induction) Stroke [exhaust valve closed; inlet valve open]: As the piston moves down [from TDC towards BDC] the cylinder the inlet valve opens and a mixture of air and petrol is drawn/sucked into the cylinder. This happens because the momentum imparted to the flywheel during previous cycles or rotation by hand or by starter motor, causes the connecting rod to draw the piston downwards, setting up a partial vacuum which sucks in a new charge of combustible mixture from the carburettor.  Compression Stroke [both valves closed]: The piston returns, still driven by the momentum of the flywheel, and compresses the charge into the combustion head of the cylinder. The pressure rises to an amount (e.g. one-seventh of its volume) which depends on the compression ratio. At the top of the stroke the mixture is exploded by a spark which passes between the electrodes of a spark plug.  Expansion (or Power) Stroke [both valves closed]: The expanding gases force the piston down. A power stroke is now obtained i.e. the pressure of the gases drives the piston downwards and turns the crankshaft thus propelling the car against the external resistances and restoring to the flywheel the momentum lost during the idle strokes. Note that apart from the power stroke, the other three strokes are referred to as idle strokes. The pressure falls as the volume of the gases increases.  Exhaust Stroke [inlet valve close; exhaust valve open]: The piston returns, again driven by the momentum of the flywheel, and discharges the spent gases from the cylinder through the exhaust valve. The cycle, now completed, is then repeated and so on. In the four-stroke engine a power stroke is obtained in a cylinder once every four strokes [in one cycle], which corresponds to two round trips of the piston and two revolutions of the crankshaft. With an engine of say four cylinders, the power strokes in each cylinder are arranged to follow each other so that the engine works smoothly.


The basic systems required for operation of a gasoline-fueled piston engine and perform the above functions are: Cooling System – consisting of a radiator, water pump, fan, thermostat, water jackets and connecting hoses. The cooling system is needed to carry excess heat of combustion and friction away from the engine. The engine could be ruined in a matter of minutes without a cooling system. Lubrication System – consisting of an oil pump, oil pick-up, oil pan, and oil galleries (small passageways that direct oil to moving parts of the engine). The lubrication system circulates engine oil to high friction points in the engine. Without lubrication, friction could wear and ruin parts very quickly. Fuel System – supplies the right amount of fuel into the engine under different conditions. There are two basic types of automotive fuel system: carburetion, and fuel injection. A carburetor fuel system uses engine vacuum (suction) to pull fuel into the engine. A fuel pump is used to force fuel out of the fuel tank into the carburetor but the pump does not force fuel into the engine. The carburetor controls the fuel and air mixture ratio going into the engine. The fuel injection system can be divided into gasoline fuel injection and diesel fuel injection systems. In this system an electric fuel pump forces fuel into the fuel injector which, when energized by a computer or electronic control unit, opens and squirts fuel into the intake manifold. A diesel injection system forces fuel directly into the engine‘s com ustion chamber. The heat resulting from highly compressed air, not a spark plug, is then used to ignite and burn the fuel. Ignition System – consisting basically of a spark plug, plug wire, ignition coil, switching device, distributor and power source






(battery). An ignition system is needed on a gasoline engine to ignite the air-fuel mixture. The spark plug is like a match that provides the spark that ignites the air-fuel mixture. When the ignition coil fires and sends current through the spark plug wire, an electric arc (spark) forms at the tip of the spark plug. The ignition coil is used to step up battery voltage to over 30, 000 volts. This is enough voltage to make the electricity jump the spark plug gap. The ignition coil fires every time the switching device stops current flow from the battery. The switching device can be a set of contact points or a set of transistorized control unit that makes and breaks electrical current flow to the ignition coil. 5. Starting system – needed to turn the engine crankshaft until the engine can begin running on its own power. It uses battery voltage, the ignition switch, a high current relay (solenoid), and an electric motor to rotate the crankshaft. Charging System – consists of the alternator and voltage regulator. The charging system is needed to recharge the battery after starting system or other electrical system operation. The alternator produces the electricity to recharge the battery. The voltage regulator controls the electrical output from the alternator in the battery and ensures that about 14.5 volts are produced by current that flows back into the battery. Exhaust System – consists of the exhaust pipe, catalytic converter (for emission control), muffler and resonator (for noise control) and extension pipes and tail pipe. As the piston returns to its uppermost position on the exhaust stroke, it forces the burned air-fuel mixture, or exhaust gases, out of the engine through the exhaust system.




16.3.4 Engine Types and Power Engines become more powerful, and use more fuel, as the size and number of cylinders increase. Most modern vehicles have 4-, 6-, or 8-cylinder engines, but car engines have been designed with 1, 2, 3, 5, 12, and more cylinders. Diesel engines, common in large trucks or buses, are similar to gasoline internal-combustion engines, but they have a different ignition system. Diesel engines compress air inside the cylinders with greater force than a gasoline engine does, producing temperatures hot enough to ignite the diesel fuel on contact. Some cars have rotary engines, also known as Wankel engines, which have one or more elliptical chambers in which triangularshaped rotors, instead of pistons, rotate. Electric motors are also used to power automobiles. Electric power supplied by batteries runs the motor, which rotates a driveshaft, the shaft that transmits engine power to the axles. Automobiles that combine two or more types of engines are called hybrids. A typical hybrid is an electric motor with batteries that are recharged by a generator run by a small gas- or diesel-powered engine. These hybrids are known as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). By relying more on electricity and less on fuel combustion, HEVs have higher fuel efficiency and emit fewer pollutants. Several automakers have experimented with hybrids.


Fuel Supply

The fuel-injection system (Fig. 16.7) replaces the carburetor in most new vehicles to provide a more efficient fuel delivery system. Electronic sensors respond to varying engine speeds and driving conditions by changing the ratio of fuel to air. The sensors send a fine mist of fuel from the fuel supply through a fuel-injection nozzle into a combustion chamber, where it is mixed with air. The mixture of fuel and air triggers ignition.


Figure 16.7: Fuel-injection system

The internal-combustion engine is powered by the burning of a precise mixture of liquefied fuel and air in the cylinders‘ com ustion cham ers. Fuel is stored in a tank until it is needed, then pumped to a carburetor or, in newer cars, to a fuel-injection system. The carburetor controls the mixture of gas and air that travels to the engine. It mixes fuel with air at the head of a pipe, called the intake manifold, leading to the cylinders. A vacuum created by the downward strokes of pistons draws air through the carburetor and intake manifold. Inside the carburetor, the airflow transforms drops of fuel into a fine mist, or vapor. The intake manifold delivers the fuel vapor to the cylinders, where it is ignited. Fuel injectors spray carefully calibrated bursts of fuel mist into cylinders either at or near openings to the combustion chambers. Since the exact quantity of gas needed is injected into the cylinders, fuel injection is more precise, easier to adjust, and more consistent than a carburetor, delivering better efficiency, gas mileage, engine responsiveness, and pollution control. Fuel-injection systems vary widely, but most are operated or managed electronically.


High-performance automobiles are often fitted with air-compressing equipment that increases an engine‘s output. By increasing the air and fuel flow to the engine, these features produce greater horsepower. Superchargers are compressors powered by the crankshaft. Turbochargers are turbinepowered compressors run by pressurized exhaust gas.


Exhaust System

The exhaust system carries exhaust gases from the engine‘s combustion chamber to the atmosphere and reduces, or muffles, engine noise. Exhaust gases leave the engine in a pipe, traveling through a catalytic converter and a muffler before exiting through the tailpipe. Chemical reactions inside the catalytic converter change most of the hazardous hydrocarbons and carbon (II) oxide produced by the engine into water vapor and carbon (IV) oxide. The conventional muffler is an enclosed metal tube packed with sound-deadening material. Most conventional mufflers are round or ovalshaped with an inlet and outlet pipe at either end. Some contain partitions to help reduce engine noise. Car manufacturers are experimenting with an electronic muffler, which uses sensors to monitor the sound waves of the exhaust noise. The sound wave data are sent to a computer that controls speakers near the tailpipe. The system generates sound waves 180 degrees out of phase with the engine noise. The sound waves from the electronic muffler collide with the exhaust sound waves and they cancel each other out, leaving only low-level heat to emerge from the tailpipe.


Cooling and Heating System

Combustion inside an engine produces temperatures high enough to melt cast iron. A cooling system conducts this heat away from the engine‘s cylinders and radiates it into the air. In most automobiles, a liquid coolant circulates through the engine. A pump sends the coolant from the engine to a radiator, which transfers heat


from the coolant to the air. In early engines, the coolant was water. In most automobiles today, the coolant is a chemical solution called antifreeze that has a higher boiling point and lower freezing point than water, making it effective in temperature extremes. Some engines are air cooled, that is, they are designed so a flow of air can reach metal fins that conduct heat away from the cylinders. A second, smaller radiator is fitted to all modern cars. This unit uses engine heat to warm the interior of the passenger compartment and supply heat to the windshield defroster.



The engine creates torque, or turning force, to turn the wheels of a vehicle. The drivetrain includes the parts and assemblies that transmit torque from the engine to the driving wheels. Some vehicles transmit engine torque to the rear wheels only (rearwheel drive, RWD), others to the front wheel only (front-wheel drive, FWD), while others transmit to all four wheels (four-wheel drive, 4WD). The drivetrain includes: clutch, transmission or transaxle, driveline, differential and driving axles in a conventional (manual) rear-wheel drive automobile. A clutch is a mechanical coupling assembly that connects or disconnects the flow of engine torque into a manual transmission or transaxle. In FWD vehicle, the drivetrain transmits engine torque only to the front wheels. In 4WD vehicles, the drivetrain includes: front and rear differentials, front and rear driveshafts, and the transmission. Most 4WD vehicles have transaxle drivetrain (a transaxle combines the functions of the transmission and differential). The rotational force of the engine‘s crankshaft turns other shafts and gears that eventually cause the drive wheels to rotate. The various components that link the crankshaft to the drive wheels make up the drivetrain. The major parts of the drivetrain include the transmission, one or more driveshafts, differential gears, and axles.


16.7.1 Transmission and Transaxle These include sets of gears used to increase or decrease engine torque thus controlling the speed of the vehicle. They are also used to reverse the movement of the vehicle. To shift gears in manual transmission, the driver depresses the clutch pedal. This cuts the flow of torque from the engine to the transmission. He then moves a shift lever by hand to select and engage the required set of gears and finally releases the clutch pedal to engage the engine to the transmission and driving wheels. In automatic transmission or transaxle, the clutch is replaced by a torque converter which couples the engine torque to the transmission automatically using the action of flowing fluid (i.e. hydraulically). The driver does not have to depress a pedal to couple or uncouple engine torque to automatic transmission. He also does not have to upshift into higher forward gears for faster speeds as in manual transmission; as the accelerator is depressed and the engine speed increases, more torque is developed and transmitted through the torque converter to the automatic transmission mechanism and the driving wheels. The automatic transmission (Fig. 16.8) is one of the key components of a modern automobile. Located just behind the engine, the transmission changes the speed and power ratios between the engine and the driving wheels of a vehicle. The transmission, also known as the gearbox, transfers power from the engine to the driveshaft. As the engine‘s crankshaft rotates, com inations of transmission gears pass the energy along to a driveshaft. The driveshaft causes axles to rotate and turn the wheels. By using gears of different sizes, a transmission alters the rotational speed and torque of the engine passed along to the driveshaft. Higher gears permit the car to travel faster, while low gears provide more power for starting a car from a standstill and for climbing hills.


Figure 16.8: Automatic transmission system

The transmission usually is located just behind the engine, although some automobiles were designed with a transmission mounted on the rear axle. There are three basic transmission types: manual, automatic, and continuously variable. A manual transmission has a gearbox from which the driver selects specific gears depending on road speed and engine load. Gears are selected with a shift lever located on the floor next to the driver or on the steering column. The driver presses on the clutch to disengage the transmission from the engine to permit a change of gears. The clutch disk attaches to the transmission‘s input shaft. It presses against a circular plate attached to the engine‘s flywheel. When the driver presses down on the clutch pedal to shift gears, a mechanical lever called a clutch fork and a device called a throw-out bearing separate the two disks. Releasing the clutch pedal presses the two disks together, transferring torque from the engine to the transmission. An automatic transmission selects gears itself according to road conditions and the amount of load on the engine. Instead of a manual clutch,


automatic transmissions use a hydraulic torque converter to transfer engine power to the transmission. Instead of making distinct changes from one gear to the next, a continuously variable transmission uses belts and pulleys to smoothly slide the gear ratio up or down. Continuously variable transmissions appeared on machinery during the 19th century and on a few small-engine automobiles as early as 1900. The transmission keeps the engine running at its most efficient speed by more precisely matching the gear ratio to the situation.

16.7.2 Front- and Rear-Wheel Drive

Driveline A driveline transfers torque from a rear-wheel drive (RWD) transmission towards the driving wheels. It includes the driveshaft (propeller shaft) and the universal joints. The universal joints ensure smooth rides over bumpy roads.

Differential In a RWD or FWD vehicle, the driveline transfers torque to a separate differential unit mounted between the two driving wheels. The differential is a gear mechanism that transfers power from the driveshaft (propeller shaft) to the driving axles, Fig. 16.9.

Driving Axles From a differential, torque flows to the driving axles. The driving axles of a RWD passenger car are used to hold, align, and drive the rear wheels and support the weight of the vehicle. The gears of a differential allow a car's powered wheels to rotate at different speeds as the car turns around corners. The car's drive shaft rotates the crown wheel, which in turn rotates the half shafts leading to the wheels. When the car is traveling straight ahead, the planet pinions do not spin, so the crown wheel rotates both wheels at the same rate. When the car turns a corner,


however, the planet pinions spin in opposite directions, allowing one wheel to slip behind and forcing the other wheel to turn faster. Depending on the vehicle‘s design, engine power is transmitted y the transmission to the front wheels, the rear wheels, or to all four wheels. The wheels receiving power are called drive wheels: They propel the vehicle forward or backward. Most automobiles either are front-wheel or rear-wheel drive. In some vehicles, four-wheel drive is an option the driver selects for certain road conditions; others feature full-time, all-wheel drive (4WD).

Figure 16.9: Differential

The differential (Fig. 16.9) is a gear assembly in an axle that enables each powered wheel to turn at different speeds when the vehicle makes a turn. The driveshaft connects the transmission‘s output shaft to a differential gear in the axle. Universal joints at both ends of the driveshaft allow it to rotate as the axles move up and down over the road surface. In rear-wheel drive, the driveshaft runs under the car to a differential gear at the rear axle. In front-wheel drive, the differential is on the front axle and the connections to the transmission are much shorter. Four-wheel-drive vehicles have drive shafts and differentials for both axles.



Support Systems

Automobiles would deliver jolting rides, especially on unpaved roads, without a system of shock absorbers and other devices to protect the auto body and passenger compartment from severe bumps and bounces.

16.8.1 Chassis and Suspension System The chassis is the supporting structure of a vehicle. The power train, body, and all other parts are mounted on the chassis. Systems and parts associated with the chassis include: suspension, steering, brakes, tires and wheels. The chassis is supported by the suspension. The main parts of the suspension are the springs and shock absorbers. The ride and handling characteristics of an automobile depend upon the suspension. Up-and-down movements from rough roads are absorbed by the springs, the most common of which are coil and leaf springs. Shock absorbers limit springs as wheels encounter uneven surfaces. Direct, double-acting, hydraulic shock absorbers are in common use. The suspension system contains springs that move up and down to absorb bumps and vibrations. In one type of suspension system, a long tube, or strut, has a shock absorber built into its center section. Shock absorbers control, or dampen, the sudden loading and unloading of suspension springs to reduce wheel bounce and the shock transferred from the road wheels to the body. One shock absorber is installed at each wheel. Modern shock absorbers have a telescoping design and use oil, gas, and air, or a combination to absorb energy. Luxury sedans generally have a soft suspension for comfortable riding. Sports cars and sport-utility vehicles have firmer suspensions to improve cornering ability and control over rough terrain. Older automobiles were equipped with one-piece front axles attached to the frame with semielliptic leaf springs, much like the arrangement on horse-drawn buggies. Front wheels on modern cars roll independently of each other on half-shafts instead of on a common axle. Each wheel has its own axle and


suspension supports, so the shock of one wheel hitting a bump is not transferred across a common axle to the other wheel or the rest of the car. Many rear-axle suspensions for automobiles and heavier vehicles use rigid axles with coil or leaf springs. However, advanced passenger cars, luxury sedans, and sports cars feature independent rear-wheel suspension systems. Active suspensions are computer-controlled adjustments of the downward force of each wheel as the vehicle corners or rides over uneven terrain. Sensors, a pump, and hydraulic cylinders, all monitored and controlled by computer, enable the vehicle to lean into corners and compensate for the dips and dives that accompany emergency stops and rapid acceleration.

16.8.2 Wheels and Tires (Tyres) Wheels support the vehicle‘s weight and transfer torque to the tires from the drivetrain and braking systems. Automobile wheels generally are made of steel or aluminum. Aluminum wheels are lighter, more impact absorbent, and more expensive. Tires are the only contact the vehicle has with the road. They are made of rubber materials and are filled with air either with the use of a tube or tubeless. Pneumatic (air-filled) rubber tires fit on the outside rims of the wheels. Tires help smooth out the ride and provide the automo ile‘s only contact with the road, so traction and strength are primary requirements. Tire treads come in several varieties to match driving conditions.


Control Systems

A driver controls the automo ile‘s motion y keeping the wheels pointed in the desired direction, and by stopping or slowing the speed at which the wheels rotate. These controls are made possible by the steering and raking systems. In addition, the driver controls the vehicle‘s speed with the transmission and the gas pedal, which adjusts the amount of fuel fed to the engine.


16.9.1 Steering A steering system allows the vehicle to be turned to the right or left according as the driver turns the steering wheel; a shaft from the steering column turns a steering gear which moves tie rods that connect to the front wheels. Automobiles are steered by turning the front wheels, although a few automobile types have all-wheel steering. Most steering systems link the front wheels together by means of a tie-rod. The tie-rod insures that the turning of one wheel is matched by a corresponding turn in the other. When a driver turns the steering wheel, the mechanical action rotates a steering shaft inside the steering column. Depending on the steering mechanism, gears or other devices convert the rotating motion of the steering wheel into a horizontal force that turns the wheels. There are two basic types of steering systems on passenger cars: manual and power. Manual steering relies only on the force exerted by the driver to turn the wheels. Conventional electro-hydraulic assisted power steering uses hydraulic pressure, operated by the pressure or movement of a liquid, to augment that force, requiring less effort by the driver. Electric power steering uses an electric motor instead of hydraulic pressure.

16.9.2 Brakes Two types of brakes are used in the automobile: disc brakes and drum brakes. Most passenger vehicles have disc brakes at the front wheels and drum brakes at the rear wheels. Disc and drum brakes (Fig. 16.10) create friction to slow the wheels of a motor vehicle. When a driver presses on the brake pedal of a vehicle, brake lines filled with fluid transmit the force to the brakes. In a disc brake, the fluid pushes the brake pads in the caliper against the rotor, slowing the wheel. In a drum brake, the fluid pushes small pistons in the brake cylinder against the hinged brake shoes. The shoes pivot outward and press against a drum attached to the wheel to slow the wheel. Brakes enable the driver to slow or stop the moving vehicle. The first automobile brakes were much like those on horse-drawn wagons. By pulling a


lever, the driver pressed a block of wood, leather, or metal, known as the shoe, against the wheel rims. With sufficient pressure, friction between the wheel and the brake shoe caused the vehicle to slow down or stop. Another method was to use a lever to clamp a strap or brake shoes tightly around the driveshaft. A brake system with shoes that pressed against the inside of a drum fitted to the wheel, called drum brakes, appeared in 1903. Since the drum and wheel rotate together, friction applied by the shoes inside the drum slowed or stopped the wheel.

Figure 16.10: Disc and drum brakes

Cotton and leather shoe coverings, or linings, were replaced by asbestos after 1908, greatly extending the life of the brake mechanism. Hydraulically assisted braking was introduced in the 1920s. Disk brakes, in which friction pads clamp down on both sides of a disk attached to the axle, were in use by the 1950s. An antilock braking system (ABS) uses a computer, sensors, and a hydraulic pump to stop the automo ile‘s forward motion without locking the wheels and putting the vehicle into a skid. Introduced in the 1980s, ABS helps the driver maintain better control over the car during emergency stops and while braking on slippery surfaces.


Automobiles are also equipped with a hand-operated brake used for emergencies and to securely park the car, especially on uneven terrain. Pulling on a lever or pushing down on a foot pedal sets the brake.

16.10 Electrical System The automobile depends on electricity for fuel ignition, headlights, turn signals, horn, radio, windshield wipers, and other accessories. A battery and an alternator supply electricity. The battery stores electricity for starting the car. The alternator generates electric current while the engine is running, recharging the attery and powering the rest of the car‘s electrical needs. Early automotive electrical systems ran on 6 volts, but 12 volts became standard after World War II (1939-1945) to operate the growing number of electrical accessories. Eventually, 24- or 48-volt systems may become the standard as more computers and electronics are built into automobiles.

16.10.1 Ignition System The ignition system (Fig.16.11) delivers voltage to ignite the fuel in the automotive vehicle. When the ignition switch is turned on; low-voltage electric current flows from the battery to the coil, which converts the current to high-voltage. The current then flows to the distributor, which delivers it to each of the spark plugs. The spark plugs send an igniting spark to the fuel/air mixture in the combustion chambers.


Figure 16.11: Ignition system

The ignition system supplies high-voltage current to spark plugs to ignite fuel vapor in the cylinders. There are many variations, but all gasolineengine ignition systems draw electric current from the battery, significantly increase the current‘s voltage, and then deliver it to spark plugs that project into the combustion chambers. An electric arc between two electrodes at the bottom of the spark plug ignites the fuel vapor. In older vehicles, a distributor, which is an electrical switching device, routes high-voltage current to the spark plugs. The distri utor‘s housing contains a switch called the breaker points. A rotating shaft in the distributor causes the switch to open and close, interrupting the supply of low-voltage current to a transformer called a coil. The coil uses electromagnetic induction to convert interruptions of the 12-volt current into surges of 20,000 volts or more. This high-voltage current passes back to the distributor, which mechanically routes it through wires to spark plugs producing a spark that ignites the gas vapor in the cylinders. A condenser absorbs excess current and


protects the breaker points from damage by the high-voltage surge. The distributor and other devices control the timing of the spark-plug discharges. In modern ignition systems, the distributor, coil, points, and condenser have been replaced by solid-state electronics controlled by a computer. A computer controls the ignition system and adjusts it to provide maximum efficiency in a variety of driving conditions.

16.11 Body and Safety Features The body holds, carries, and protects passengers and cargo; exterior panels of the body form a protective shell and give the automobile its shape. Interior body parts provide comfort for the passengers and space for cargo. Manufacturers continue to build lighter vehicles with improved structural rigidity and ability to protect the driver and passengers during collisions. Bumpers evolved as rails or bars to protect the front and rear of the car‘s ody from damage in minor collisions. Over the years, umpers ecame stylish and, in some cases, not strong enough to survive minor collisions without expensive repairs. Eventually, government regulations required bumpers designed to withstand low-speed collisions with less damage. Some bumpers can withstand 4-km/h (2.5-mph) collisions with no damage, while others can withstand 8-km/h (5-mph) collisions with no damage. Modern vehicles feature crumple zones, portions of the automobile designed to absorb forces that otherwise would be transmitted to the passenger compartment. Passenger compartments on many vehicles also have reinforced roll bar structures in the roof, in case the vehicle overturns, and protective beams in the doors to help protect passengers from side impacts. Seat belt and upper-body restraints that relax to permit comfort but tighten automatically during an impact are now common. Some car models are equipped with shoulder-restraint belts that slide into position automatically when the car‘s doors close. An air bag is a high-speed inflation device hidden in the hub of the steering wheel or in the dash on the passenger‘s side. Some automo iles have


side-impact air bags, located in doors or seats. At impact, the bag inflates almost instantaneously. The inflated bag creates a cushion between the occupant and the vehicle‘s interior. Air ags first appeared in the mid-1970s, available as an optional accessory. Today they are installed on most new passenger cars. Air bags inflate with great force, which occasionally endangers a child or infant passenger. Some newer automobile models are equipped with switches to disable the passenger-side air bags when a child or infant is traveling in the passenger seat. Automakers continue to research ways to make air-bag systems less dangerous for frail and small passengers, yet effective in collisions.

16. 12 Automobiles and the Future a) Fuel and propulsion technologies Older automobiles were generally powered by a steam engine, which was fed by burning gasoline. Most automobiles in use today however are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by deflagrating gasoline (also known as petrol) or diesel. Both fuels are known to cause air pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming. Increasing costs of oil-based fuels, tightening environmental laws and restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions are propelling work on alternative power systems for automobiles. Efforts to improve or replace existing technologies include the development of hybrid vehicles, electric and hydrogen vehicles that do not release pollution into the air. Automobile propulsion technologies under development include gasoline/electric and plug-in hybrids, battery electric vehicles, hydrogen cars, biofuels, and various alternative fuels. Research into future alternative forms of power include the development of fuel cells, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Stirling engines, and even using the stored energy of compressed air or liquid nitrogen. New materials which may replace steel car bodies include duraluminum, fiberglass, carbon fiber, and carbon nanotubes. Telematics technology is allowing more and more people to share cars, on a pay-as-you-go basis,


through such schemes as City Car Club in the UK, Mobility in mainland Europe, and Zipcar in the US.

b) Driverless cars Fully autonomous vehicles, also known as robotic cars, or driverless cars, already exist in prototype, and are expected to be commercially available around 2020. Experts predict that, driverless electric vehicles—in conjunction with the increased use of virtual reality for work, travel, and pleasure—could reduce the world's 800,000,000 vehicles to a fraction of that number within a few decades. This would be possible if almost all private cars requiring drivers, which are not in use and parked 90% of the time, would be traded for public self-driving taxis that would be in near constant use. This would also allow for getting the appropriate vehicle for the particular need—a bus could come for a group of people, a limousine could come for a special night out, and a Segway could come for a short trip down the street for one person. Children could be chauffeured in supervised safety, DUIs (driving under the influence – alcohol and drugs) would no longer exist, and thousands of lives could be saved each year.

PART B: SIMPLE DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIRS 16.13 Introduction Your car or truck is likely to be the second biggest item in your budget, after your home. You probably need it to drive to work or even to do your work. If it's not running, you have a real problem. A car or truck today may contain 10,000 mechanical parts and 40 on-board computers, all vulnerable to dirt, grease, salt, rust, corrosion, friction, and shock. The car repair industry is undergoing drastic changes. The cost of professional auto-car is high and getting high all the time. Today, the average Nigerian car owner spends a lot of money yearly on maintenance and repair. There is good news? You can make your car run reliably and last for years and years—without spending a lot of money. Good sense and forethought can save you thousands of naira. How much you will spend depends on how much you


care about your car and whether you are willing to get a little grease under your fingernails to keep money in your pocket. Car owners who remain unaware of how their vehicle functions are at a serious disadvantage. They should be jeopardizing an investment of hundreds of thousands of naira plus their safety as well as that of their passengers. If an owner ignores regular oil changes, for example, the useful lifespan of a car can be reduced due to excessive engine wear. Not every car repair job of course, should be performed by the home mechanic (car owner). Some require special, costly equipment or expertise. Certain tasks are best left to professionals. Nevertheless, some of these complex repair jobs can still be inspected by the home mechanic to determine the exact nature of the problem so that when the car is brought to a professional auto-mechanic, the car owner will be able to discuss the repairs intelligently. There is great satisfaction and a big disadvantage in being able to tell a mechanic precisely, what is wrong and exactly what you expect him to do. It is one way to avoid unnecessary and often costly servicing performed.

16.14 Helpful Preventive Maintenance Tips The following tips for how to keep your automobile running without the need for major repairs were adapted from Keeping Your Car Going by the automotive writer Mary Jackson. Suppose you just bought a new car! How do you go about using it? This is how.

a) Begin to use it properly Long years of good service depend on properly breaking in your new vehicle. The key idea is to take it easy from the very first day. For the first 1,500 mi (2,400 km), moderate your speed. Keep engine speed under 4,500 revolutions per minute (rpm)—you can check this if you‘re lucky enough to have a tachometer. Equally important, vary your speed. Avoid driving at the same speed longer than five minutes, especially on highways. Finally, make sure that the first oil change happens exactly when the manufacturer recommends it.


b) Establishing a care regimen Cars are like people. The more sensibly you feed them, rest them, and exercise them, the longer they‘re likely to last. Just as you routinely take care of yourself, regular check-ups and adjustments are vital to your car‘s health. You need a trained technician to perform the preventive maintenance that will keep your car running smoothly. Ask your relatives, friends, coworkers, and insurance agent where they take their cars for servicing. Your car dealer probably has a service department. Keep looking until you find a technician or shop that you like and trust, and then stick with your choice. Even the est technicians can‘t protect your vehicle without your informed help. Read your owner‘s manual, and do what it tells you. Follow closely the schedule of preventive maintenance it recommends. No owner‘s manual? Contact the parts department of any dealership that sells your type of vehicle, and ask them to order a manual for you.

c) Checking under the hood Engine oil circulates like the blood in your body and is as vital to your vehicle's health as blood is to yours. Just as clogged arteries form a serious health problem, oil thickened by unburned deposits from the engine coats your engine‘s inner parts with goo, causing them to work harder and wear out faster. The nicest thing you can do for your vehicle—and nothing, I mean nothing, will help it last longer—is to have the engine oil changed every 5,000 miles (8,000 km). If you live in a cold climate, and your average trip is less than 5 miles (8 km), your vehicle works even harder, and 3,000 miles (4,800 km) is the right distance between oil changes. Keep track of how much oil your car uses by checking under the hood every second time you buy gasoline. If you notice a sudden change in oil levels or rate of oil consumption, have your vehicle inspected. The same rules apply to other fluids, such as engine coolant. Whenever you add any fluid, use the type recommended by your vehicle's manufacturer.


d) Avoiding engine stress Approximately 80 percent of all engine-wear takes place in the first 10 seconds after you turn the key in the ignition. That‘s ecause the oil needs time to reach and protect all parts of the engine. To lessen this heavy wear, let your vehicle idle for 30 seconds before driving off in the morning—or whenever you start it after it‘s een sitting for a few hours. Once you‘re on the road, accelerate slowly for the first few miles, until the engine and transmission have warmed up and their fluids are flowing freely. It‘s a good idea to avoid prolonged idling, because it concentrates stress in the engine. Buy the grade of gasoline recommended in your owner‘s manual. If your manufacturer suggests using higher-priced gasoline, do that. This grade of gasoline will help avoid knocking or pinging, a condition that causes excess vibrations and premature engine wear.

e) Roadwork for fitness Like people, vehicles need regular exercise. Every week or two, take your vehicle for a 20- to 30-minute highway cruise—not in stop-and-go traffic, but as high as the speed limit allows. Steady driving is the equivalent of an aerobic workout, and your car will love you for it. A highway workout burns off engine deposits and helps eliminate water that can eventually rust internal parts.

f) Keep it cool Your vehicle‘s engine produces a lot of heat. Engine overheating can cause serious and expensive damage. Engines that run too cold also suffer, because sludge accumulates quickly in an engine that never reaches ideal operating temperatures, and premature wear follows sludge. Watch your coolant temperature light or your temperature gauge for any signs of trouble. As with oil, be alert to changes in coolant consumption. Coolant can lose its protective qualities over time. When this loss occurs, acids build up that attack your engine and your expensive cooling


components. Unless your car has ―extended wear‖ coolant, have the coolant changed every two years. (Not sure which coolant you have? Ask your dealership).

g) Showing you care The owner‘s manual won't tell you to think of your car as a family member, but doing this helps. Keep in mind that vehicles do not live by gasoline alone. Follow the guidelines above, but also name your vehicle, acknowledge it when it does well, encourage it during difficult times, and listen to it. It has needs and preferences. Maybe it likes to go 5 mph (8 km/h) below the speed limit on long hauls; maybe it prefers one type of gasoline to another. Notice what kind of tires it performs best on. Get to know what it likes and dislikes, and accept its foibles as it ages. None of us work as well today as we did when we were teenagers. And finally, grieve when you eventually part with it, after many years of worry-free service.

16.15 Starting System Maintenance Basically the starting system operates as follows: when the key is turned to position, electrical current is sent to the starter solenoid and battery voltage is supplied directly to the starter motor. The starter motor then turns a flywheel mounted on the rear of the crankshaft that starts all engine parts in motion. The ignition system provides a spark to the spark plugs that ignites the air/fuel mixture from the carburetor. If all components are in good working condition, the engine should start right away. The neutral safety switch, as part of the starting system, allows the starting system to be operated only when the transmission gearshift lever is in the neutral position. This switch is also called a starting safety switch. The ignition switch has four positions: accessories, off, on and start. In some cars, the off position will also lock the steering wheel. The first three positions of the ignition switch will automatically stay in position when the key is turned there. The start position is like a momentary contact switch. It has to be held there to crank the engine. The starter solenoid connects the battery to the


starter motor by principles of magnetism. The starter motor (or starter) is a direct current motor that develops high torque for short periods of time. A starter may draw several hundred amperes of current when it is in operation. The wiring of the starter must be of good quality. The electrical wiring of a car is of different types and sizes and is designed for specific jobs. When you are changing the wires of your car, use the same as the original ones. If the new wire is longer, or of thinner gauge it will increase the resistance and affect the circuit [Recall that R ρ A, where l is length of wire/conductor and A is cross-sectional area which is a direct function of thickness or diameter].

16.16 Battery Maintenance The battery is the heart of the electrical system which connects the starting system and the ignition system. When your battery lets you down, it is due to (a) problems in the charging system, (b) old age, (c) bad connections, or (d) the battery is too small to do the job on your car. It is good practice to always check your connections to see if they are corroded. The battery should be kept clean at all times. This is to prevent power loss. Do not put any wire across the terminals as a wire is a superb conductor of electricity. Dust and dirt are also conductors of electricity. Without realizing it, you can have a fine, invisible conductor of electricity on a dirty battery that slowly leeds away your attery‘s power. It is not strong enough to create sparks, but the leakage is there. Clean off dirt. Another common power loss is through poor connections to the battery terminals. On the battery terminals is a buildup of whitish-green corrosion product. This is as a result of chemical action of the gases coming from the inside of the battery. Corrosion products constitute an insulator and prevent electricity from flowing. Make sure your connections are intact. If your battery terminals are bad replace them with good quality terminals. Clean the cable clamps, battery terminals and the top of the battery always. Periodically check the acid level in the battery and if the specific


gravity is low replace it. This is done with a hydrometer. A reading of 1.26 to 1.30 in each cell means the battery is healthy. The following equipment should be in your tool box for battery maintenance: pliers, cables, hydrometer, battery terminal puller, a battery condition tester, a wrench set screwdriver and voltmeter.

16.17 The Alternator Once the engine is started, the electrical current is generated by the alternator. Most of the car problems are electricity related; so one has to know about the function of the charging system. The charging system is made up of the battery, an alternator, a voltage regulator and the necessary switches and wiring. The voltage regulator is the brain of the charging system. It controls the amount of electricity produced by the alternator. It also prevents the alternator from delivering too much current to the battery, a condition that can burn all the electrical components. The purpose of the charging system is to keep the battery charged and to furnish the electrical accessories with enough current to operate properly when the engine is running. Other parts of the charging system include the ignition switch, an indicator lamp and the electrical wiring. The ignition switch controls the flow of electrical current by turning it on and off or on and start. The indicator lamp acts as a warning signal by lighting up when trouble develops in the charging system. The electrical wiring connects all the components in the charging system. The wiring of a car is of different types and gauges designed for specific jobs. Therefore, always replace old wires with new ones that are of the same type, length and gauge. If your alternator light comes on while you are driving on the highway, your alternator is not supplying current to the battery or the drive belt is broken. It is easy to check the drive belt, but for the alternator perform an alternator output test. Testing the alternator requires no major mechanical work. It is a matter of properly connecting a voltmeter to the electrical system of your car and taking voltage readings.


16.18 Changing Oil and Oil Filter There is probably nothing you can do on your car that can save you more naira per hour than a simple oil and oil filter change. You can extend the life of your car by changing the oil and oil filter regularly and by being sure that all grease fittings are properly lubricated. Here is what you need: oil filter and appropriate engine oil. The tools are jack, wooden block, oil drain pan, wrenching oil filter spanner and can opener. You can improve the running of your car by adding oil treatment, especially for small cars.

16.19 Cooling and Heating System The internal combustion engine which powers almost all cars works on the principle of burning inside. The burning of the air/fuel mixture in the engine creates a tremendous amount of heat – enough heat to melt an average 100 kg engine block in 20 minutes. The function of the cooling system is to keep the engine at a temperature where it performs best. Water cooling system is by far the most common. The components of the cooling system are the radiator, fan, water, pump, fan belt, thermostat, hoses and clamps. Every morning check your radiator to see if there is enough water in it. If not, top it. If your car is overheating add coolant to it regularly. If your cooling system passes visual inspection, the next step is to test it under pressure for leaks. Your safest and most efficient means of pressure testing the cooling system is to use a testing device such as pressure tester gauge.

16.20 The Carburetor Researches carried out on fuel combustion showed that 1 kg of petrol requires about 15 kg of air for efficient burning, i.e. complete combustion. We also know that oxygen is the component of air necessary for combustion, and it constitutes about 21% by volume of air. In effect, 15 kg of air contains about 3 kg of oxygen. The purpose of the carburetor is to maintain the correct mixture of petrol and air to the engine, and to ensure that complete mixing takes place. Figure 16.12 shows a typical automobile engine carburetor.


Figure 16.12: Basic automobile carburetor showing (A) venture, (B) throttle valve, (C) fuel capillary tube, (D) fuel reservoir, (E) main metering valve, (F) idle speed adjustment. (G) idle valve, and (H) choke.

The carburetor is a most important part of the fuel system. It is a simple device that has the job of automatically vaporizing a small quantity of fuel and mixing it with a large volume of air. When drawn into the engine, this highly combustible mixture is exploded by the spark plugs and power is developed to move the car. The carburetor has three basic parts: the tube, called the air horn, through which the air filter is drawn; a damper called a butterfly or throttle valve that can be opened or closed to regulate the passage of air through the air


horn; and a nozzle through which fuel is drawn into the air horn. The other parts are float chamber, needle valve, idling jets (primary and secondary), acceleration pump, mixture screw, idling mixture etc. Varying the throttle opening allows the regulated amounts of air/fuel mixture to e drawn into the engine‘s cylinder which causes variations in engine speed and power. The idle mixture screw is a simple valve that regulates the amount of fuel being mixed with air flowing through the carburetor at low engine speeds. The need for carburetor adjustment can be identified by the following symptoms: if the idle speed is adjusted too low, the engine will stall when the car is slowed to a stop or when the transmission is shifted into gear, when the idle speed is adjusted too high the engine will tend to run on after the ignition is switched off. An engine that is operating with the idle air/fuel mixture too lean may hesitate on acceleration and run roughly at idle speed. In some cars you have smell of petrol when engine is idling. The reasons may be as a result of leaking fuel from the float chamber to wrong level setting, ineffective needle valve or punctured float. The remedies include: check the line and unions and tighten or repair. Also check fuel level setting and condition of float and needle valve. Replace the parts if necessary. To adjust the carburetor the following are needed: wooden chocks, golf tees, air filter element, tachometer, screwdriver and spanners. In the past, petrol engines almost universally used a carburetor. However, the requirements for improved fuel economy have led to an increasing use of fuel injection nowadays.

16.21 Ignition System Maintenance This is separated into two circuits; the primary and secondary voltage circuits. The primary consists of the battery, ignition switch, the primary part of the ignition coil, the primary side of the distributor and finally the wires connecting each of these components to complete the electrical circuit. The secondary circuit includes the secondary side of the distributor, and the spark plugs. The primary circuit depends on the battery for voltage to function when


the car is being started. After that the ignition system depends on the charging system for its voltage source. The secondary circuit begins at the distributor (the device that sends an electric current to the spark plugs). This device has a plastic cap with a centre crown that holds the heavy secondary ignition coil wire. The centre tower is surrounded by as many towers as your engine has cylinders. Each of these will have a wire leading to a spark plug. The wires carry the high voltage that causes the desired arc at the spark plugs. When the ignition system is operating properly, the voltage it produces in the secondary circuit will be high enough so that the electric spark produced will jump the small gap between the spark plug electrodes, igniting the compressed air/fuel mixture in the cylinder. If your ignition system is not operating to your satisfaction try some servicing. The biggest hassle in timing a car is hooking the timing light lead to the No.1 cylinder. Usually you have to disconnect the spark plug wire from the plug and insert an adapter between the two components. Neon or Xenon timing light is typical example of power timing light for timing the ignition of engines.

16.22 Tachometer/Dwell Tachometer The tachometer is measuring device that indicates rotational (angular) speed in revolutions per minute (rpm). In motor vehicles, a tachometer measures the speed of the engine crankshaft as it rotates and displays the results on a gauge to inform the driver. The word tachometer is a combination of the Greek words tachos, meaning speed, and metria, meaning measure. Tachometers are useful for several reasons. The most important is to let the driver know when there is a sudden or unexpected loss of engine speed, which can indicate a serious problem and alert the driver to anticipate an engine failure. Knowing the engine rpm also allows the driver to operate the engine at peak output safely, without redlining the engine. (Redlining refers to the redline on the gauge, a line that indicates the limit of safe engine speed.) Engine speed is expressed as the revolutions per minute that the crankshaft is turning. The normal redline is usually around 5,500 to 6,000 rpm for most


production automotive engines, although some racing engines are designed to operate at twice that speed. To redline is to let an engine's speed meet or exceed the redline on the tachometer gauge. Exceeding the redline will cause moving internal engine parts like the crankshaft, valves and pistons to break or fail catastrophically. In the most extreme cases, the engine may explode. Automotive technicians use tachometers to help make precise engine adjustments, a procedure known as a tune-up. They make adjustments to the idling speed of the engine by using a tachometer. The tachometer is also an essential tool when performing the periodic emissions tests. Since all emissions-testing procedures are designed to measure the output of a vehicle‘s various exhaust gases at specific engine speeds, a tachometer is one of the tools that allow a technician to ensure that a vehicle is not excessively polluting the air. The dwell tachometer is a basic but very valuable instrument that can perform several important tests. The most common model is a hand-held instrument with several scales on one dial face and a multi-position switch or switches. With a good but inexpensive dwell tachometer, you can test for engine revolutions per minute (rpm), dwell angle and points condition. Dwell is the period during which the distributor points remain closed for an ignition cycle. The dwell meter electrically measures this period and registers the average for all cylinders in terms of the distributor cam rotation. You can find the specifications for dwell in your service manual. When checking for points‘ condition, you are actually measuring the a ility of the points to conduct primary voltage. On the face of the average dwell tachometer there will be at least three scales. One is engine rpm on a scale from zero to about 15. Each division represents engine rpm multiplied by 100. The second scale is engine dwell. Another function is points conditions. This is at the bottom of the meter. This scale will have at least two divisions – Good and Bad. With the ignition switch at the ON position and the meter switched to the points position, the scale will indicate whether or not the points are in satisfactory condition. Dwell and tach readings are taken while the engine is running, but points are checked while the engine is stopped.


16.23 Compression Testing A compression test reveals the condition of an engine. No engine is able to operate as it is designed to unless each and every cylinder is operating at peak efficiency – that is at specific compression. Specification for compression can be given in kg/m2. For example a particular engine may have a cranking compression pressure of 200 psi. It may be helpful to understand how these compression specifications are determined. When the piston reaches the bottom limit of its travel on the intake stroke [BDC – bottom dead centre], the intake valve closes and the piston begins upward travel, thus compressing the air/fuel mixture. When the piston reaches the top limit of its travel [TDC – top dead centre], the air/fuel mixture is compressed to its fullest. It is the amount of pressure at this point, measured in kg/m2 that is referred to as compression. An engine in good condition will have equal compression readings in all cylinders and the readings will be up to at least the minimum compression specified by the manufacturer. Unequal cylinder compression will cause the engine to run rough at all speeds. Low compression on all cylinders will cause the engine to lack power. To determine the condition of your engine a compression test should be taken. This test is performed at every time you service your car or when your engine is running poorly. What you need to perform this test are: materials [jumper wire and engine oil]; tools [wrench or pliers, compression tester, spark plug socket, spark plug wire pliers and pump type oil can].

16.24 Vacuum Testing In these days of increasing concern about better fuel efficiency and economy, a vacuum gauge is one of the most valuable instruments you can have installed on your engine. Properly used, it will tell you when you are obtaining the maximum efficiency from your engine and can also point out poor driving habits. You can easily determine the most efficient driving speed y watching the gauge‘s needle indicator. The engine is operating most efficiently when the gauge reaches its highest position. The lower the reading; the more fuel you are using. This, coupled with a continuous check of your


engine‘s operation, gives you a general idea of what is going on inside your engine and can help in avoiding future problems. Vacuum is measured in centimeters of Hg, with gauges marked in cm of vacuum. A vacuum gauge is a useful test instrument. There is a great deal to be learnt about the internal working of an engine by doing a vacuum test. With a vacuum gauge, you will e a le to tell the condition of the engine‘s intake and exhaust valves, piston rings, cylinder head gasket and carburetor air/fuel mixture. Here is what you will need: golf tee and vacuum gauge. It is imperative that you possess a vacuum gauge from auto supply stores for permanent installation in your car.

16.25 Car Servicing and Tune-up In Nigeria the car owner goes to the mechanic to change the plugs, drain the oil, change oil filter and contact set. A set of adjustments made to an engine to make it run better is known as tune-up. Spark plugs are the business end i.e. functional part of your car‘s ignition system. When they are worn out, your engine will misfire, be difficult to start; waste fuel and lack the performance that was designed into it. The spark plugs are the end of the secondary ignition system. As part of normal maintenance, spark plugs on conventional ignition systems should be removed, cleaned, re-gapped and reinstalled every 3200 to 4800 km to maintain proper performance. This interval varies according to driving habits and type of car. This is also true if you are driving an older car that burns some oil due to normal engine wear. Many car makers recommend spark plug replacement every 7500 km. if your car has an electronic ignition, expect to have somewhat longer spark plug life.

16.26 General Car Maintenance As this is just a chapter in a book, it is not practicable to cover every part of car maintenance. There are aspects not yet touched such as transmission system, brake (especially bleeding the brakes), ball joints, tire, steering and suspension (you hear someone complain these days that my car has jumped


suspension). All these and more are found in standard texts on car maintenance. Owning and driving a clean car can give you some psychological benefits. Plan a daily or weekly washing of your car. Also clean the inside of your car. Furthermore, clean also the engine of your car. Remove all accumulation of grease and oil. Note that degreasing products sold as engine or parts cleaners contain chemicals that may spoil the painted finish of your car. As a final note; when you own a car, drive carefully and take it easy on the gas pedal. Speed kills. A summary of some of the most common problems, possible causes and suggested remedies on general car maintenance is given next. A. Excessive Oil Consumption (Lubrication System Problem)
Possible Cause i. ii. iii. iv. v. Oil too light Worn or clogged rings Excessive piston and cylinder wear Worn valve guides Worn valve stems Remedy Change to heavier grade Install new rings Re-bore and install new pistons Replace valve guides Replace valves

B. Overheating (Cooling System Problem) Remedy Possible Cause i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. Coolant level low Drive belt loose Drive belt broken Thermostat stuck closed* Pressure cap inoperative Rust scale clogging radiator Rust scale clogging engine Leaking cylinder head gasket Add coolant; check for reason Adjust tension Replace drive belt Replace thermostat Replace pressure cap Clean, flush, install inhibitor Clean, flush, install inhibitor Replace impeller

*Overheating can occur if the thermostat is stuck in the open position.


C. No Fuel Delivery (Fuel System Problem)
Possible Cause i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. No petrol Tank vent clogged Fuel pump inoperative Fuel filter clogged Carburetor float valve stuck shut Idle speed too slow Fuel level too low or too high Choke set too lean or too rich Carburetor flooding Clogged air cleaner Remedy Fill tank Open vent Rebuild or replace fuel pump Clean or replace filter Loosen and clean valve Increase idle speed Adjust fuel level properly Adjust choke setting Check inlet needle valve and float Clean or replace air cleaner

D. No Spark at Plugs (Ignition System Problem) Possible Cause i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Breaker points dirty or burnt Breaker points not opening Defective condenser Discharged battery Faulty coil Defective rotor and/or distributor cap Defective ignition control unit Remedy Install new points Adjust point gap Replace condenser Charge battery Replace coil Replace cap and rotor Replace control unit

E. No Charge [DC Generator] (Charging System Problem) Possible Cause i. ii. iii. iv. v. Drive belt loose or broken Drive pulley slipping Commutator dirty or burned Brushes stuck or worn Regulator cut out inoperative Remedy Tighten belt or replace Install new key Clean or replace commutator Free brushes or replace Adjust or replace regulator


F. Starter Unable to Crank Engine (starting System Problem) Possible Cause
i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Dead battery Loose or dirty battery connections Defective starter switch or solenoid Defective starter Engine bearings too tight Piston to cylinder wall clearance too small

Charge or replace battery Clean and tighten connections Replace switch or solenoid Replace starter Install correct bearing Fit pistons correctly

G. Engine and Accessory Noise Identification The accurate diagnosis of engine noises requires a great deal of practice and experience. In many cases the noise may not be caused by the engine internal parts but by the accessory units such as the water pump, fan, generator, etc. Therefore do not proceed to dismantle the engine unless you are quite sure that the noise is from an internal source.


Noisy valve Train

Noisy valves may be identified by a regular or irregular sharp, clicking or tapping sound. Excessive tappet clearance causes a regular clicking sound the frequency of which increases with engine rpm. Intermittent clicking sound of varying intensity is caused by sticking valves, faulty lifters, etc.


Crankshaft Bearing and Flywheel Knocks

This results to a dull, heavy pound or thud especially noticeable during periods of heavy engine loading.


Connecting Rod Knock

This can be identified as a regular light metallic rap, more evident when the engine is floating (not accelerating) at speeds around 30 mph or about 48 km/h.



Piston Slap

Piston slap is caused by the piston tipping from side to side in the cylinder. The sound can range from a regular clicking to a hollow clatter depending on the severity of the wear.

v. speeds.

Loose Piston pins This condition will cause a sharp, double-knock especially at idle


Combustion Knocks

When the fuel charge is fired before the spark plug fires (i.e. preignition) or when a double-flame is produced that operates a violent burning of the fuel charge (detonation), a sharp metallic pinging sound known as combustion knock is created.



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Fetherston, David (2008): Automobile, In Microsoft® Student Encarta® 2008 [DVD]; Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation. Garrett, T.K., Newton, K and W. Steeds (2001): The Motor Vehicle, Thirteenth Edition; Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Heisler, Heinz (2002): Advanced Vehicle Technology, Second Edition; Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Jackson, Mary (2008): Keeping Your Car Going, In Microsoft® Student Encarta® 2008 [DVD], Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation. Molla, Tony (2008): Tachometer, In Microsoft® Student Encarta® 2008 [DVD], Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation. Pulkrabek, W. W. (2004): Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine, Second/International Edition; Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall Stone, R. and J. K. Ball (2004): Automotive Engineering Fundamentals; Warrendale, PA: SAE International Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. (2010): Automobile; Available online @ ""; Last updated 24th Dec. 2010 by 15:02; Retrieved 29th Dec. 2010 by 10:50


Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. (2010): History of the Automobile; Available online @ ""; Last Updated 24 Dec. 2010 at 22:39; Retrieved 29th Dec. 2010 by 11:10. Yamagata, Hiroshi (2005): The Science and Technology of Materials in Automotive Engines; Cambridge: Woodhead Pub. Ltd.




Basic Wiring and Cables

A system of electric conductors, components and operators for conveying electric power from one source to the point of use, is called electric wiring. A length of a conductor which is usually insulated is referred to as cable. For a piece of electrical equipment to work efficiently and effectively it must be correctly connected to an electrical circuit. So what is an electrical circuit? An electrical circuit has the following five components as shown in Fig. 17.1: a. A source of electrical energy (e.g. generator, transformer or battery) which supplies energy to the supply terminals of the circuit. This might be a battery giving a d.c. (direct current) supply or the mains supply which is a.c. (alternating current) A source of circuit protection. This might be a fuse or circuit breaker which will protect the circuit from overcurrent The circuit conductors or cables. These carry voltage and current to power the load or the consuming devices. A means to control the circuit. This might be a simple on/off switch but it might also be a dimmer or a thermostat And a load or consuming devices which convert the electrical energy into the desired form such as heat or light. This is something which needs electricity to make it work. It might be an electric lamp, an electrical appliance, an electric motor or an i-pod.

b. c. d. e.

In simple terms therefore, an electrical circuit is the whole path along which an electric current may flow. Figure 17.1 is a circuit comprising three wires; one connecting the neutral side of the supply to the apparatus, one connecting the apparatus to a switch, and one connecting the switch to the supply.


Figure 17.1: Component parts of an electric circuit

An electrical installation is made up of many different electrical circuits, lighting circuits, power circuits, single-phase domestic circuits and three-phase industrial or commercial circuits. Whatever the type of circuit; the circuit conductors are contained within cables or enclosures. Part 5 of the IEE Regulations stipulates that electrical equipment and materials must be chosen so that they are suitable for the installed conditions, taking into account temperature, the presence of water, corrosion, mechanical damage, vibration or exposure to solar radiation. Therefore, PVC insulated and sheathed cables are suitable for domestic installations but for a cable requiring mechanical protection and suitable for burying underground, a PVC/SWA [PVC insulated steel wire armour] cable would be preferable. MI [mineral insulated] cables are waterproof, heatproof and corrosion resistant with some mechanical protection. These qualities often make it the only cable choice for hazardous or high-temperature installations such as oil refineries, chemical works, boiler houses and petrol pump installations.



Most cables can be considered to be constructed in three parts: the conductor which must be of a suitable cross-section to carry the load current; the insulation, which has a colour or number code for identification; and the


outer sheath which may contain some means of providing protection from mechanical damage. The conductors of a cable are made of either copper or aluminium and may be stranded or solid. Solid conductors are only used in fixed wiring installations and may be shaped in larger cables. Stranded conductors are more flexible and conductor sizes from 4.0 to 25 mm2 contain seven strands. A 10 mm2 conductor, for example, has seven 1.35 mm diameter strands which collectively make up the 10 mm2 cross-sectional area of the cable. Conductors above 25 mm2 have more than seven strands, depending upon the size of the cable. Flexible cords have multiple strands of very fine wire, as fine as one strand of human hair. This gives the cable its very flexible quality.

17.2.2 Cable Selection The size of a cable to be used for an installation depends upon: a) The current rating of the cable under defined installation conditions, and b) The maximum permitted drop in voltage as defined by IEE Regulation 525 [17th Edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations, BS 7671: 2008]. The factors which influence the current rating are: 1) The design current – the cable must carry the full load current; 2) The type of cable – PVC, MICC, copper conductors or aluminium conductors; 3) The installed conductors – clipped to a surface or installed with other cables in a trunking; 4) The surrounding temperature – cable resistance increases as temperature increases; 5) The type of protection – for how long will the cable have to carry a fault current?


Regulation 525 states that the drop in voltage from the origin of an installation to any point in the installation must not exceed 2.5% of the main voltage when the conductors are carrying the full load current. Regulation 525 also stipulates that the drop in voltage from the supply terminals to the fixed current-using equipment must not exceed 3% for lighting circuits and 5% for other uses of the mains voltage. That is, a maximum of 6.9 V for lighting circuits and 11.5 V for other uses on a 230 V installation.

17.2.3 Colour Coding of Wires To distinguish wires from each other, the insulation is normally coloured. On single phase systems, the phase or live is coloured red, the neutral black and the earth green and yellow. With polyphase systems (where there is more than one phase supply terminal), yellow and blue are also used to denote phase wires. In certain types of wiring, the earth conductor (called the protective conductor) is above wire, or stands of wire, and this is not colour-coded except at the terminations. The red (phase) wire is the one which is broken by the switch; this ensures that the apparatus is electrically disconnected from the supply when the switch is on. These days there are installations with old and new colour coding and markings. Table 17.1 shows the different identification systems.

Table 17.1: Conductor colour identification Old colour Phase 1 of a.c. Phase 2 of a.c. Phase 3 of a.c. Neutral of a.c. Red Yellow Blue Black New colour Brown Black Grey Blue Marking L1 L2 L3 N

Note: Great care must be taken when working on installations containing old and new colours.


17.2.4 Colour Coding of Flexible Cables The above colours refer to fixed wiring with non-flexible conductors. In flexible cables the colours are brown, blue and green and yellow for the phase, neutral and protective (earth) conductors, respectively. The term ‗live‘ refers to both the phase and neutral conductors but does not include the neutral on a protective multiple earthing (PME) system.

17.3 Main Switches IEE Regulations require the provision of either a linked switch or a linked circuit breaker which is arranged to disconnect all live circuit conductors of each installation from the supply. Each installation that is to be metered on a different tariff must have separate main switch and distribution fuse-board or consumer unit to isolate the whole of that installation e.g. off peak heating and installation with separate tariffs for power and lighting.


Connections to Socket-Outlets and Plugs

The terminals in a socket must be connected as indicated in Fig. 17.2 where E represents the earthing, L the terminal for the phase conductor (live) and N the neutral. To avoid making mistakes in wiring socket-outlets, IEE regulations require that the sockets shall be marked as indicated.

Figure 17.2: Connections to a socket-outlet viewed from the front.


The plug that will fit into the socket must also be connected properly and all plugs and socket-outlets must conform to the appropriate standards. It is necessary ensure that a properly wired plug is used for all portable electrical equipment as follows: brown wire for live conductor; blue wire for neutral conductor; green/yellow wire for earth conductor (Fig. 17.3).

Figure 17.3: Correctly wired plug


Basic Electrical Symbols

Some basic electrical symbols that are necessary in a workshop or at home are shown: Fig. 17.4 (general circuit symbols); Fig. 17.5 (installation symbols) and Fig. 17.6 (electronic symbols).


Figure 17.4: Electrical circuit symbols


Figure 17.5: Electrical installation symbols


Figure 17.6: Electronic symbols




In an electrical circuit, resistors may be connected in series, in parallel or in various combinations of series and parallel connections. The different connections are found in standard textbooks [see references]. All materials have some resistance to the flow of an electric current, but in general, the term resistor describes a conductor specially chosen for its resistive properties. Resistors are the most commonly used electronic component and they are made in a variety of ways to suit the particular type of application. They are manufactured as either carbon composition or carbon film. In both cases the base resistive material is carbon and the general appearance is of a small cylinder with leads protruding from each end as shown in Fig. 17.7.

Figure 17.7: Carbon composition resistor

If subjected to overload, carbon resistors usually decrease in resistance since carbon has a negative temperature coefficient. When larger power rated resistors are required, a wire wound resistor should be chosen. This consists of a resistance wire of known value wound on a small ceramic cylinder which is encapsulated in a vitreous enamel coating as shown in Fig. 17.8.

Figure 17.8: Wire-wound resistors


Wire wound resistors are designed to run hot and have a power rating up to 20W. A variable resistor is one which can be varied continuously from very low value to the full rated resistance. This characteristic is required in tuning circuits to adjust the signal or voltage level for brightness, volume or tone. The most common type used in electronic work has a circular carbon track contacted by a metal wiper arm. The wiper arm can be adjusted by means of an adjusting shaft (rotary type) or by placing a screwdriver in a slot (preset type), as shown in Fig. 17.9.

Figure 17.9: Types of variable resistor

Variable resistors are also known as potentiometers because they can be used to adjust the potential difference (voltage) in a circuit. The variation in resistance can be either a logarithmic or a linear scale. The value of the resistor and the tolerance may be marked on the body of the component either by direct numerical indication or by using a standard colour code. The method used will depend upon the type, physical size and manufacturer‘s preference, but in general the larger components have values marked directly on the body and the smaller components use the standard resistor colour code.

Abbreviation Used in Electronics Where the numerical value of a component includes a decimal point, it is standard practice to include the prefix for the multiplication factor in place of the decimal point, to avoid accidental marks being mistaken for decimal points. The abbreviations in use with the corresponding multiplication factor are given in Table 17.2.


Table 17.2: Abbreviations used for resistors in electronics Abbreviation R k M Meaning (i.e. multiplication factor) ×1 × 1000 × 1,000 ,000

Therefore, a 4.7 kΩ resistor would be abbreviated to 4 k7, a 5.6 Ω resistor to 5R6 and a 6.8 MΩ resistor to 6 M8. Tolerances may be indicated by adding a letter at the end of the printed code. The abbreviation F means ±1%, G means ±2%, J means ±5%, K means ±10% and M means ±20%. Therefore a 4.7kΩ resistor with a tolerance of 2% would be abbreviated to 4k7G. A 5.6Ω resistor with a tolerance of 5% would be abbreviated to 5R6J. A 6.8MΩ resistor with a 10% tolerance would be abbreviated to 6 M8K. This is the British Standard BS 1852 code which is recommended for indicating the values of resistors on circuit diagrams and components when their physical size permits.

The Standard Colour Code Small resistors are marked with a series of coloured bands as shown in Table 17.3. These are read according to the standard colour code to determine the resistance. The bands are located on the component towards one end. If the resistor is turned so that this end is forwards the left, the bands are then read from left to right. Band (a) gives the first number of the component value, band (b) the second number and band (c) the number of zeros to be added after the first numbers. Band (d) indicates the resistor tolerance which is commonly gold or silver indicating a tolerance of 5% or 10% respectively. If the bands are not oriented towards one end, first indentify the tolerance band and turn the resistor so that this is towards the right before commencing to read the colour code as described.


The tolerance band indicates the maximum tolerance variation in the declared value of resistance. Thus a 100Ω resistor with a 5% tolerance will have a valve somewhere etween 95 and 105Ω since 5% of 100Ω is ±5Ω. Table 17.3: The resistor colour codes

 Example 17.1 A resistor is colour coded yellow, violet, red, gold. Determine the value of the resistor. Solution: From Table 17.3 we obtain the following: Band (a) – yellow has a value of 4, Band (b) – violet has a value of 7, Band (c) – red has a value of 2, Band (d) – gold indicates a tolerance of 5%. So, the value is 4700 ± 5% which can e written as 4.7 kΩ ±5% or 4 k7J.



A capacitor stores a small amount of electric charge; it can be thought of as a small rechargeable battery which can be quickly recharged. In electronics we are not only concerned with the amount of charge stored by the capacitor but in the way the value of the capacitor determines the performance of timers and oscillators by varying the time constant of a simple capacitor– resistor circuit. Figure 17.10 shows a capacitor in action. If a test circuit is assembled as shown and the changeover switch connected to d.c. the signal lamp will only illuminate for a very short pulse as the capacitor charges. The charged capacitor then blocks any further d.c. current flow. If the changeover switch is then connected to a.c. the lamp will illuminate at full brilliance because the capacitor will charge and discharge continuously at the supply frequency. Current is apparently flowing through the capacitor because electrons are moving to and fro in the wires joining the capacitor plates to the a.c. supply.

Figure 17.10: Test circuit showing capacitors in action

17.7.1 Types of Capacitor There are two broad categories of capacitor, the non-polarized and polarized type. The non-polarized type can be connected either way round, but polarized capacitors must be connected to the polarity indicated otherwise a short circuit and consequent destruction of the capacitor will result. There are many different types of capacitor, each one being distinguished by the type of dielectric used in its construction. Fig. 17.11 shows some of the capacitors used in electronics.


Figure 17.11: Capacitors and their symbols used in electronic circuits

When choosing a capacitor for a particular application, three factors must be considered: value, working voltage and leakage current. The working voltage of a capacitor is the maximum voltage that can be applied between the plates of the capacitor without breaking down the dielectric insulating material. This is a d.c. rating and, therefore, a capacitor with a 200 V rating must only be connected across a maximum of 200 V d.c. Since a.c. voltages are usually given as rms values, a 200 V a.c. supply would have a maximum value of about 283 V, which would damage the 200 V capacitor. When connecting a capacitor to the 230 V mains supply we must choose a working voltage of about 400 V because 230 V rms is approximately 325 V maximum. The ‗factor of safety‘ is small and, therefore, the working voltage of the capacitor must not be exceeded. An ideal capacitor which is isolated will remain charged forever, but in practice no dielectric insulating material is perfect, and the charge will slowly leak between the plates, gradually discharging the capacitor. The loss of charge by leakage through it should be very small for a practical capacitor. The unit of capacitance is the farad (symbol F). However, for practical purposes the farad is much too large and in electrical installation work and electronics we use fractions of a farad as follows:


Capacitance Value Codes Where the numerical value of the capacitor includes a decimal point, it is standard practice to use the prefix for the multiplication factor in place of the decimal point. This is the same practice as we used earlier for resistors. The abbreviation μ means microfarad, n means nanofarad and p means picofarad. Therefore, a 1.8 pF capacitor would be abbreviated to 1 p8, a 10 pF capacitor to 10 p, a 150 pF capacitor to 150 p or n15, a 2200 pF capacitor to 2n2 and a 10,000 pF capacitor to 10 n. Recall that 1000 pF =1nF = 0.001µF Capacitor Colour Code The actual value of a capacitor can be identified by using the colour codes given in Table 17.4 in the same way that the resistor colour code was applied to resistors. Table 4.5 Table 17.4: Colour code for plastic film capacitors (values in picofarads)


 Example 17.2: A plastic film capacitor is colour coded, from top to bottom, brown, black, yellow, black, red. Determine the value of the capacitor, its tolerance and working voltage.

Solution: From Table 17.3 we obtain the following: Band (a) – brown has a value 1. Band (b) – black has a value 0. Band (c) – yellow indicates multiply by 10,000. Band (d) – black indicates 20%. Band (e) – red indicates 250 V. The capacitor has a value of 100,000 pF or 0.1 μF with a tolerance of 20% and a maximum working voltage of 250 V.


Safe Electrical Installations

The provision of a safe electrical system is fundamental to the whole concept of using electricity in and around buildings safely. The electrical installation as a whole must be protected against overload and short circuit damage and the people using the installation must be protected against electric shock. An installation that meets the requirements of the IEE Wiring Regulations – Requirements for Electrical Installations, will be so protected. The method most universally used to provide for the safe use of electrical energy is protective equipotential bonding coupled with automatic disconnection of the supply by fuses or miniature circuit breakers (MCBs). The consumer‘s mains equipment is normally fixed close to the point at which the supply cable enters the building. To meet the requirements of the IEE Regulations it must provide: ● Protection against electric shock ● Protection against overcurrent ● Isolation and switching


Protection against electric shock, both basic protection and fault protection is provided by insulating and placing live parts out of reach in suitable enclosures, earthing and bonding metal work and providing fuses or circuit breakers so that the supply is automatically disconnected under fault conditions. To provide overcurrent protection it is necessary to provide a device which will disconnect the supply automatically before the overload current can cause a rise in temperature which would damage the installation. A fuse or MCB would meet this requirement.

Definitions An isolator is a mechanical device which is operated manually and is provided so that the whole of the installation, one circuit or one piece of equipment may be cut off from the live supply. In addition, a means of switching off for maintenance or emergency switching must be provided. A switch may provide the means of isolation, but an isolator differs from a switch in that it is intended to be opened when the circuit concerned is not carrying current. Its purpose is to ensure the safety of those working on the circuit by making dead those parts which are live in normal service. One device may provide both isolation and switching provided that the characteristics of the device meet the Regulations for both functions. The switching of electrically operated equipment in normal service is referred to as functional switching.

Earthing is the connection of the exposed conductive parts of an electrical installation to the main protective earthing terminal of the installation.

Bonding is the linking together of the exposed or extraneous metal parts of an electrical installation for the purpose of safety.

Protective Electrical Bonding to Earth The purpose of the bonding regulations is to keep all the exposed metalwork of an installation at the same earth potential as the met alwork of the


electrical installation, so that no currents can flow and cause an electric shock. For a current to flow there must be a difference of potential between two points, but if the points are joined together there can be no potential difference. This bonding or linking together of the exposed metal parts of an installation is known as protective equipotential bonding and gives protection against electric shock.

17. 9. Electrical Shock and Overload Protection Electric shock is normally caused either by touching a conductive part that is normally live, or by touching an exposed conductive part made live by a fault.

In general, protection against touching live parts is achieved by insulating live parts and called basic protection. Protection against touching something made live as a result of a fault, and called fault protection is achieved by protective equipotential bonding and automatic disconnection of the supply in the event of a fault occurring. Separated extra low-voltage supplies (SELV) provide protection against both basic and fault protection. The consumer‘s main switchgear must e readily accessi le to the consumer and be able to: ● isolate the complete installation from the supply ● protect against overcurrent ● cut off the current in the event of a serious fault occurring.

17. 10 Protection against Overcurrent Excessive current may flow in a circuit as a result of an overload or a short circuit. An overload or overcurrent is defined as a current which exceeds the rated value in an otherwise healthy circuit. A short circuit is an overcurrent resulting from a fault of negligible impedance between live conductors having a difference in potential under normal operating conditions. Overload currents usually occur in a circuit because it is abused by the consumer or because it has been badly designed or modified by the installer. Short circuits usually occur as a result of an accident which could not have been predicted before the event.

Key FactAn overload may result in currents of two or three times the rated current flowing in the circuit, while short circuit currents may be hundreds of times greater than the rated current. In both cases, the basic requirement for protection is that the circuit should be interrupted before the fault causes a temperature rise which might damage the insulation, terminations, joints or the surroundings of the conductors. If the device used for overload protection is also capable of breaking a prospective short circuit current safely, then one device may be used to give protection from both faults. Devices which offer protection from overcurrent are: ● Semi-enclosed fuses ● Cartridge fuses ● High breaking capacity fuses (HBC fuses) ● MCBs

Electrical Safety and Isolation Electrical supplies at voltages above extra low voltages (ELV) – that is, above 50V a.c. – can kill human beings and livestock and should therefore be treated with the greatest respect. As an electrician working on electrical installations and equipment, you should always make sure that the supply is first switched off. Every circuit must be provided with a means of isolation and you should isolate and lock off before work begins. In order to deter anyone from reconnecting the supply, a ‗Danger Electrician at Work‘ sign should be displayed on the isolation switch. Where a test instrument or voltage indicator such as that shown in Fig. 17.12 is used to prove conductors dead, the following procedure should be adopted so that the device itself is proved: 1 .Connect the test device to the supply which is to be isolated; this should indicate mains voltage. 2. Isolate the supply and observe that the test device now reads 0 V. 3. Connect the test device to another source of supply to ‗prove‘ that the device is still working correctly. 4. Lock off the supply and place warning notices. Only then should work commence on the ‗dead‘ supply.


The test device must incorporate fused test leads to comply with HSE Guidance

Figure 17.12: Typical voltage indicator.

Portable tools must be fed from a 110 V socket outlet unit (see Fig. 17.13a) incorporating splash-proof sockets and plugs with a keyway which prevents a tool from one voltage being connected to the socket outlet of a different voltage. Socket outlet and plugs are also colour-coded for voltage identification: 25 V violet, 50 V white, 110 V yellow, 230 V blue and 400 V red, as shown in Fig. 17.13b.

Figure 17.13: 110 volts distribution unit and cable connector suitable for construction site electrical supplies: (a) reduced-voltage distribution unit incorporating industrial sockets to BS 4343; (b) industrial plug and connector.


17.11 Electric Shock Electric shock occurs when a person becomes part of the electrical circuit, as shown in Fig. 17.14.

Figure 17.14: Touching live and earth or live and neutral makes a person part of the electrical circuit and can lead to an electric shock.

The level or intensity of the shock will depend upon many factors, such as age, fitness and the circumstances in which the shock is received. The lethal level is approximately 50 mA, above which muscles contract, the heart flutters and breathing stops. A shock above the 50 mA level is therefore fatal unless the person is quickly separated from the supply. Below 50 mA only an unpleasant tingling sensation may be experienced or you may be thrown across a room, roof or ladder, but the resulting fall may lead to serious injury. To prevent people receiving an electric shock accidentally, all circuits must contain protective devices. All exposed metal must be earthed; fuses and miniature circuit breakers (MCBs) are designed to trip under fault conditions and residual current devices (RCDs) are designed to trip below the fatal level as stated earlier.


Construction workers and particularly electricians do receive electric shocks, usually as a result of carelessness or unforeseen circumstances. When this happens it is necessary to act quickly to prevent the electric shock becoming fatal. Actions to be taken upon finding a workmate receiving an electric shock are as follows: ● ● Switch off the supply if possible. Alternatively, remove the person from the supply without touching him, e.g. push him off with a piece of wood, pull him off with a scarf, dry towel or coat. If breathing or heart has stopped, immediately call professional help and ask for the ambulance service. Only then should you apply resuscitation or cardiac massage until the patient recovers, or help arrives. Treat for shock. To reduce the risk of an electric shock at work we should: ● ● ● ● ● Avoid contact with live parts by insulating all live parts and placing them out of reach by using barriers or temporary barriers Check and inspect all cables and equipment for damage before using them. PAT [portable appliance tester] test all portable equipment. Use only low voltage or battery tools. Use a secure electrical isolation procedure before beginning work as described earlier in this chapter.

● ● ●

17.12 Electrical Hand Tools A craftsman earns his living by hiring out his skills or selling products made using his skills and expertise. He shapes his environment, mostly for the better, improving the living standards of himself and others. Tools extend the limited physical responses of the human body and therefore good quality, sharp tools are important to a craftsman. An electrician is no less a craftsman than a wood carver. Both must work with a high degree of skill and expertise and both must have sympathy and respect for the materials, which they use. Modern electrical installations using new materials are lasting longer than 50 years. Therefore they must be properly installed. Good design, good

workmanship by competent persons and the use of proper materials are essential if the installation is to comply with the relevant regulations, (IEE Regulation 134.1.1) and reliably and safely meet the requirements of the customer for over half a century. Safety First

Figure 17.15: The tools used for making electrical connections.

An electrician must develop a number of basic craft skills particular to his own trade, but he also requires some of the skills used in many other trades. An electrician‘s tool-kit will reflect both the specific and general nature of the work. The basic tools required by an electrician are those used in the stripping and connecting of conductors. These are pliers, side cutters, knife and an assortment of screwdrivers, as shown in Fig. 17.15. The tools required in addition to these basic implements will depend upon the type of installation work being undertaken. When wiring new houses or rewiring old ones, the additional tools required are those usually associated with a bricklayer and joiner. Examples are shown in Fig. 17.16. When working on industrial installations, installing conduit and trunking, the additional tools required by an electrician would more normally be those associated with a fitter or sheetmetal fabricator, and examples are shown in Fig. 17.17. Where special tools


are required, for example, those required to terminate mineral insulated (MI) cables or the bending and cutting tools for conduit and cable trays as shown in Fig. 17.18, they will often be provided by an employer but most hand tools are provided by the electrician himself. In general, good-quality tools last longer and stay sharper than those of inferior quality, but tools are very expensive to buy. A good set of tools can be assembled over the training period if the basic tools are bought first and the extended tool-kit acquired one tool at a time. Another name for an installation electrician is a journeyman electrician and, as the name implies, an electrician must be mobile and prepared to carry his tools from one job to another. Therefore, a good toolbox is an essential early investment, so that the right tools for the job can be easily transported. Tools should be cared for and maintained in good condition if they are to be used efficiently and remain serviceable. Screwdrivers should have a flat squared off end and wood chisels should be very sharp. Access to a grindstone will help an electrician to maintain his tools in first-class condition. Additionally, wood chisels will require sharpening on an oilstone to give them a very sharp edge.

Figure 17.16: Some additional tools required by an electrician engaged in house wiring


Figure 17.17: Some additional tools required by an electrician engaged in industrial installations

Figure 17.18: Some special tools required by an electrician engaged in industrial installations


17. 13 Electrical Power Tools Portable electrical tools can reduce much of the hard work for any tradesman and increase his productivity. Electrical tools should be maintained in a good condition and be appropriate for the purpose for which they are used. Many construction sites now insist on low voltage or battery tools being used which can further increase safety without any loss of productivity. Some useful electrical tools are shown in Fig. 17.19. Electric drills are probably used most frequently of all electrical tools. They may be used to drill metal or wood. Wire brushes are made which fit into the drill chuck for cleaning the metal. Variable-speed electric drills, which incorporate a vibrator, will also drill brick and concrete as easily as wood when fitted with a masonry drill bit. Hammer drills give between two and three thousand impacts per minute and are used for drilling concrete walls and floors. Cordless electric drills are also available which incorporate a rechargeable battery, usually in the handle. They offer the convenience of electric drilling when an electrical supply is not available or if an extension cable is impractical. Angle grinders are useful for cutting chases in brick or concrete. The discs are interchangeable. Silicon carbide discs are suitable for cutting slate, marble, tiles, brick and concrete, and aluminium oxide discs for cutting iron and steel such as conduit and trucking. Jigsaws can be fitted with wood or metal cutting blades. With a wood cutting blade fitted they are useful for cutting across floorboards and skirting boards or any other application where a padsaw would be used. With a metal cutting blade fi tted, they may be used to cut trunking. When a lot of trunking work is to be undertaken, an electric nibbler is a worthwhile investment. This nibbles out the sheet metal, is easily controllable and is one alternative to the jigsaw. All tools must be used safely and sensibly. Cutting tools should be sharpened and screwdrivers ground to a sharp square end on a grindstone.


Figure 17.19: Electrical hand tools

 Problems: 17.1 A resistor is colour coded green, blue, brown, silver. Determine the value of the resistor. 17.2 A resistor is colour coded blue, grey, green, gold. Determine the value of the resistor. 17.3 A resistor is colour coded orange, white, silver, silver. Determine the value of the resistor. 17.4 Determine the value, tolerance and working voltage of a polyester capacitor colour-coded, from top to bottom, yellow, violet, yellow, white, yellow.


17.5 A plastic film capacitor has the following coloured bands from its top down to the connecting leads: blue, grey, orange, black, brown. Determine the value, tolerance and voltage of this capacitor.

17.6 Produce a quick sketch of an electric circuit and name the five component parts.

17.7 State the purpose of earthing and earth protection. What do we do to achieve it and why do we do it?

17.8 Differentiate between basic protection and fault protection.



ABB SACE (2004): Electrical Installation Handbook, Volume 2 Electrical Devices, Second Edition; Bergamo: ABB SACE B. Scaddan (2003): Electric Wiring: Domestic, Twelfth Edition, Oxford: Newnes IEEE (1998): Guide for Maintenance, Operation & Safety of Industrial & Commercial Power Systems Linsley, Trevor (2008): Advanced Electrical Installation Work, Fifth Edition; Amsterdam: Elsevier/ Newnes Linsley, Trevor (2008): Basic Electrical Installation Work, Fifth Edition; Amsterdam: Elsevier/ Newnes Pansini, A. J. (2007): Electrical Distribution Engineering, Third Edition, Lilburn, GA: The Fairmont Press, Inc. Stokes, Geoffrey [ed.] (2003): Handbook of Electrical Installation Practice, Fourth Edition, Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd Watkins, A. J. and Kitcher, C (2006): Electrical Installation Calculations, Volume 1, Seventh Edition, Amsterdam: Elsevier/ Newnes Watkins, A. J. and Kitcher, C (2006): Electrical Installation Calculations Volume 2, Sixth Edition, Amsterdam: Elsevier/ Newnes Watkins, A. J. and Kitcher, C (2009): Electrical Installation Calculations: Basic, Eighth Edition; Amsterdam: Elsevier/ Newnes


CHAPTER EIGHTEEN CORROSION PROBLEM and remedies [Engr. U. Mark, B.Eng; M.Eng; MNSE, R.Engr (COREN)]



Engineering workshop practice or manufacturing processes deals with the principles and techniques of turning materials into useful products for the service of man. The tools and machines with which manufacturing processes are carried out are themselves made of materials. These materials to a great extent are metals and their alloys. Since corrosion is the major weakness of metals in particular, it will be necessary to give a brief treatment of the subject of corrosion in a workshop practice text such as this. Comprehensive treatments of the subject can be found in relevant texts.


The Problem of Corrosion

Most metals occur in nature as compounds or in the combined state as oxides, halides, carbonates, sulphides, etc. These compounds are called the ores of the metals. Energy is supplied to break the chemical bonds in the compounds and liberate, win or extract the metals. However, these metals exhibit a natural and spontaneous tendency to recombine with oxygen or other oxidizing chemical species as they get exposed to natural environment while in service. In effect, the interaction of metals with the environment leads to their reversion to the crude or combined state. This is the problem of corrosion. It is a major weakness of metals because their valence electrons are free to participate in chemical interactions. Corrosion abounds everywhere. Notable examples include the wellknown rusting of iron objects and roofing sheets. The tarnishing of a metal exposed to moist aerated environment and mechanical loss of metal by abrasion or wear are all corrosion problems. Figure 18.1 illustrates the wreckage that corrosion can cause. The economic, social or ecological consequences of major corrosion failures [e.g. bridges, buildings, ships, chemical plants] can be ruinous. In manufacturing, corrosion reduces plant


(equipment or tool) efficiency, increases running cost and affects product quality.


Economic Dimensions of the Problem

Corrosion is costly and wasteful. Corrosion wastes our material resources and to control or protect against corrosion, costs are also incurred. It is estimated that a developed country spends about 3 – 5% of its GNP on corrosion in terms of cost of protection and losses. It has been estimated that man produced 1766 million tonnes of iron and steel between 1890 and 1923. Out of this, corrosion took back 718 million tonnes. Even at present when the knowledge of corrosion control and protection has advanced, almost a tenth of all metal produced is still lost to corrosion. All we can do is to reduce the rate at which corrosion progresses (i.e. corrosion control), but total corrosion prevention is all but impossible.

Figure 18.1: Rusting of iron [Source: Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008]

The scientific explanation to this is that materials (elements, metals) are thermodynamically unstable in their free or uncombined state; and they must


combine to achieve chemical stability as the combined state gives the more satisfying octet or duplet structure. So, corrosion is inevitable and this agrees with Christ‘s warning, ―Do not store up … treasures on earth, where moth and rust destroy ...” [Mtt. 6:19, TNIV].


Definition and Types of Corrosion

Corrosion is the gradual or electrochemical attack on a metal by its environment such that the metal is converted into an oxide, a salt or some other compound. This attack which is destructive to the metal may be brought about by one or more corrosive media such as air, industrial atmospheres, coastal atmospheres, soil, acids, bases and salt solutions forming the physical environment of the metal. It may also take place at elevated temperatures in media which ordinarily are inert near or below room temperature. The above definition identifies two mechanisms of corrosion. A metal may be corroded as a result of (i) chemical reaction, and/or (ii) electrochemical reaction between the metal surface and the environment. This definition also indentifies two types of corrosion. The type of corrosion which occurs due to the chemical reaction between surface of the metal and gases or vapours is variously known as chemical corrosion, oxidation, tarnishing or dry corrosion. The gases responsible for this type of corrosion attack are oxygen, nitrogen, sulphor (iv) oxide [SO2], hydrogen sulphide [H2S], halogens and vapours at high temperatures. The type of corrosion that takes place as a result of electrochemical reactions of a metal with water or aqueous solutions of salts, acids or bases is known as electrochemical corrosion, electrolytic corrosion, aqueous corrosion or wet corrosion. By electrochemical reactions is meant those chemical reactions that involve electron flow or electricity. Aqueous solutions are capable of conducting electric current [because they contain ions] , and for that reason, they are called electrolytes. Many corrosion phenomena are essentially electrochemical in nature and involve the presence of an electrolyte in contact with metal.


The term ‗corrosion‘, in the strictest sense is applied to metals only. The degradation or deterioration of non-metallic materials such as polymers and ceramics due to reaction with some chemicals or interaction with some radiations is not included in corrosion. So, metals are said to corrode whereas non-metals are said to degrade. However, because today, engineering applications include a multitude of non-metallic materials, there is increasing tendency to broaden the definition of corrosion to include all materials. In this sense, corrosion now signifies the degradation of a material and loss of its function by exposure to the operational (service) environment.


Useful Aspects of Corrosion

The phenomenon of corrosion can be guided by man to useful ends. Sometimes, corrosion becomes useful and beneficial naturally. However, the useful aspects are insignificant when compared to its overwhelming adverse effects. Corrosion can be beneficial in the following ways: a) Corrosion products deposited adherently on the surfaces of metals like aluminium and chromium render them passive to further chemical or electrochemical attack by the environment. The corrosion product in such cases is usually an impervious film or layer of oxide. The oxides Al2O3 and Cr2O3 formed on the surface of aluminium and chromium objects respectively, are notable ceramic materials. They are neither porous to gases nor soluble in aqueous media. This is the secret behind the passivity of aluminium to acids and the corrosion resistance of chrome-plated articles and the stainless steels. b) The greenish product of corrosion found on copper roofs gives aesthetic appeal to the eyes. This colourful substance known as green patina also helps to protect the copper roof or object from further attack. c) The lead-acid battery and other electrochemical systems and cells depend on corrosion reactions to function. Corrosions reactions [reduction and oxidation or redox reactions] generate the electrons which flow in the external circuit as electric current, even as the cell


materials are consumed i.e. corroded. Electrolysis, electroplating/electro-deposition, and electro-winning of metals from solutions are just the other side of the corrosion coin. d) Chemical etching employed in metallography to expose metal surfaces for microscopic examination, is a corrosion process. The etching reagents (etchants) are dilute solutions of acids and alkalis used for attacking the grain boundaries of metals in preference to the grain matrix. Under a microscope, the grain structure of the metal becomes visible. Grain boundaries are known to be anodic [more reactive or corroding] to the rest of the grain [which becomes cathodic, less reactive or protected]. Also, different phases in an alloy are revealed because the reagents attack them at different rates. e) Electrolytic polishing (of for example, metallographic specimens) is based on anodic oxidation of the metal. Corrosion as we know is an oxidationprocess. f) Chemical machining (CHM), electrochemical machining (ECM) and electrochemical grinding (ECG) processes use controlled chemical attack of etchants or metal dissolution into electrolytic solutions to shape metals. These unconventional or non-traditional manufacturing processes of machining (material removal) cannot be possible without corrosion. [Refer to Chapter 6] 18.6 Corrosion Control

Corrosion control or corrosion protection derives from a sound knowledge of the factors that promote corrosion and the mechanism of attack. The corrosion of a metal depends on the following factors:



Chemical nature of the metal: whether or not it is reactive. How reactive (anodic) or cathodic (inert or noble) is it? What is its position in the electrochemical series? Environment or medium: that is, the active chemical species in the environment or medium.


iii. iv. v.

Metallurgical factors such as: internal structure, composition, distribution of second phases, voids, inclusions, and dissolved gases. Nature of engineering applications for which it is used. Stresses involved; relative motion, etc. Environmental factors such as concentration and pH, temperature, movement of corrodent, presence of electrochemical or galvanic couples or dissimilar metals, surface films and stresses imposed by the environment.

It is estimated that if well-established techniques of corrosion control and protection are applied, about a quarter (25%) of all corrosion problems could be averted or remedied. In simple terms, the aim of corrosion control or protection is to reduce corrosion rate by interfering with the rate of the anodic reaction or that of the cathode or both, or by altering the thermodynamic conditions at the interface such that corrosion no longer becomes possible. In theory, the ideal way to prevent reaction between a metal and its environment would be to use a non-corrodible metal (e.g., the most ‗no le‘ gold) in a noncorrosive environment such as a vacuum. In practice, however, this wishful thinking approach will never work. In effect, the problem of corrosion will persistently live with man on earth until he gets to the perfect world that Jesus recommended for our investment, namely; ―heaven, where moth and rust do not destroy, and where thieves do not break in and steal‖ (Matt. 6:20,21 TNIV). However, the methods used in controlling or combating corrosion fall under the following general headings: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Protection by design, fabrication and material selection; Modification of the corrosive environment; Modification of the properties of the metal (e.g. alloying); Application of inhibitors; Cathodic and anodic protection; Application of protective coatings.


18.6.1 Design, Fabrication and Material Selection Corrosion rate can be reduced by proper design, fabrication procedure and material selection to suit the environment and function. The following general rules should be followed:

 In the presence of an electrolyte, avoid dissimilar metals as one will become anodic to the other.  If dissimilar metals have to be used they must be as close to each other as possible in the electrochemical series or galvanic series.  The anodic metal should have large area and cathodic area should have small area, e.g. nuts, bolts, rivets, etc must have small area and be made of a metal that will act as the cathode.  Recesses, crevices or sharp corners should be avoided. Welded joints are therefore preferred over bolted or riveted joints particularly for outdoor applications.  If possible, areas at junctions should be coated so that electrolyte does not reach the junction. Insulating fittings may be used for this purpose.  Excessive localized stress concentration should be avoided. For example, cold worked regions and welded structures should be given stress-relief heat treatment to lower the stress.  Wall thickness in pipes, tanks, etc should be designed to make allowance for reduction in thickness to uniform corrosion or general attack corrosion.  Design should be such as to provide uniform temperature gradient. Variation of temperature in the same metal can constitute dissimilarity in the presence of an aqueous medium; thereby creating anodic and cathodic areas in the same metal [differential temperature cell].  The inside of equipment such as baffles, blades, valves, pumps, etc. should be designed so that no collection of liquid or sediments is possible, or design should incorporate means of keeping them clean. Else, a differential aeration cell or concentration cell will be set up.


Selection of the proper metal or alloy for a particular corrosive environment is important. From practical experience there are a number of environments to which specific metals or alloys are stable. Some examples are given in Table 18.1.

Table 18.1: Stable environments for some metals Metal/alloy Stainless steel Nickel & nickel alloys Monel Hastelloys Lead Aluminium Tin Titanium Tantalum Steel Recommended environment Nitric acid Caustic soda Hydrofluoric acid Hot HCl Dilute sulphuric acid Non-staining atmospheres Distilled water Hot strong oxidizing solutions Most environments except caustic and HF Concentrated sulphuric acid, etc.

18.6.2 Modification of the Environment and Inhibition The principle consists in either removal of harmful constituents or addition of certain substances which will neutralize the harmful constituents chemically. Corrosive environments can be modified in the following three ways:  By alteration of environment variables such as temperature, pressure, concentration or pH, velocity, etc.  By eliminating corrosive ingredients such as humidity (e.g. by airconditioning), oxygen (de-aeration), oxidizing agents and solid contaminants.  Introduction of inhibitors. An inhibitor is any substance which when added in small quantities to the environment decreases the corrosion rate. They are used in gaseous, liquid

as well as solid and semi-solid media and materials. These substances prevent or control the anodic or cathodic reactions and may be classified as anodic or cathodic inhibitors depending on their action. Inhibitors may belong to one of the following classes: i. ii. iii. iv. Filming inhibitors; of which there are anodic, cathodic, and mixed (anodic and cathodic) types. Absorption inhibitors. Vapour phase inhibitors. Organic or inorganic inhibitors.

Many inhibitors are oxidizing agents. Sodium phosphate, chromates, nitrites, hydroxide, silicate, carbonate and bicarbonate of sodium are common inorganic inhibitors. The commonly used organic inhibitors are amines, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, substituted urea and thiourea, mercaptans, sulphides and heavy metal soaps, etc. In automobile radiators, sodium benzoates act as effective inhibitors. Caution must be applied in the quantity of inhibitor used to protect an anode. Too small a quantity may not produce enough protective oxide and, if small uncovered areas of metal are left, they will be attacked by intensive corrosion resulting to pitting (formation of deep, narrow holes).

18.6.3 Modification of Metal Properties It is not always convenient or possible to modify an environment in order to reduce the effects of corrosion. For example, the presence of an inhibitor in a chemical plant or food processing equipment may contaminate the product. It is sometimes possible to modify the properties of a metal or select one with suitable properties. Alloying is the principal method available for improving the resistance of a metal to corrosive environments. For instance, stainless steel and brass have superior corrosion resistance to iron, copper, or zinc. It is possible to tailor-make alloys for use in a given situation.


18.6.4 Cathodic Protection In electrochemical corrosion, there is a flow of current from anode portion to cathode portion of a surface. The anode is corroded and at its expense the cathode is protected. This suggests that corrosion can be controlled by making the whole surface cathodic to an extraneous (external) surface which acts as anode. This is called cathodic protection and is achieved in two ways:  Sacrificial anode method: This is so called as the anodic metal is sacrificed or eaten away in place of the cathodic metal. An example is zinc coating on galvanized iron roofing sheets that is depleted in preference to the iron sheet in order to protect and elongate the service life of the sheets. [Jesus the Christ dying sacrificially to save man from eternal damnation is a classic example of sacrificial protection (1Pet. 3:18)]. Zinc and magnesium are commonly used sacrificial anodes in steel structures.  External voltage or impressed current method: This involves the use of a d.c. source to supply current or electrons to the metal or cathode the same way a corroding anode would have supplied electrons. This method is also used for protection of ferrous structures such as steam boilers, condensers, underground oil and water pipelines, and tanks. 18.6.5 Protective Coatings Protective coatings can be (i) metallic coatings, (ii) non-metallic coatings. The non-metallic coatings can be (a) organic and (b) inorganic. Metallic coatings can be applied in the following ways: hot dipping, electroplating or electrodepositing, metal spraying, metal cladding, cementation, and anodizing. Examples of non-metallic coatings are: paints, varnishes, lacquers, enamels, plastic coatings, chemical coatings, vitreous enamel coatings, and ceramic coatings. [Refer to Chapter 13, Part 2 for details on ‗protective coatings‘ .


REFERENCES FOR FURTHER STUDY Ahmad, Zaki (2006): Principles of Corrosion Engineering and Corrosion Control; Amsterdam: Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann Baeckmann, W. von, W. Schwenk, and W. Prinz (1997): Handbook of Cathodic Corrosion Protection: Theory and Practice of Electrochemical Protection Processes, Third Edition; Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company Bardal, Einar (2004): Corrosion and Protection; London: Springer Davis, J. R. [ed.] (2006): Corrosion of Weldments; Materials Park, Ohio: ASM International Féron, D [ed.] (2007): Corrosion Behaviour and Protection of Copper and Aluminium Alloys in Seawater; Cambrige, England: Woodhead Pub.Ltd & CRC Press LLC Kelly, R. G., J. R. Scully, D. W. Shoesmith and R. G. Buchheit (2003): Electrochemical Techniques in Corrosion Science and Engineering; New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. Perez, N (2004): Electrochemistry and Corrosion Science; New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers Plieth, Waldfried (2008): Electrochemistry for Materials Science; Amsterdam: Elsevier Revie, R. W. [ed.] (2000): Uhlig's Corrosion Handbook, Second Edition; New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Roberge, P. R. (2000): Handbook of Corrosion Engineering; New York: McGraw-Hill Schweitzer, P.A. (2006): Corrosion Engineering Handbook, Second Edition: Corrosion of Polymers and Elastomers; Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group Shreir. L. L., Jarman, R. A. and Burstein, G. T. [eds.] (2000): Corrosion, Volume 1 – Metal-Environment Reactions, Third Edition; Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Shreir. L. L., Jarman, R. A. and Burstein, G. T. [eds.] (2000): Corrosion, Volume 2 - Corrosion Control; Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Talbot, D and Talbot, J. (1998): Corrosion Science and Technology; Boca Raton: CRC Press





Casting is one of the earliest metal shaping methods known to human being. It generally means pouring molten metal into a refractory mould with a cavity of the shape to be made and allowing it to solidify in the mould. The casting takes the shape of the cavity in the mould. When solidified, the desired metal object is taken out from the refractory mould either by breaking the mould or taking the mould apart. The solidified object is called casting. The process is also called founding. Apart from those metallurgical materials which are shaped by methods involving powder metallurgy, metals and alloys are first melted and then cast into a mould of predetermined shape. In some cases the mould may be of a simple form giving an ingot which is consequently shaped plastically by forging, rolling or extrusion. Vast quantities of castings are produced, however, on which no further work is carried out other than cleaning and possibly light machining to accurate dimensions. These are the products of the typical foundry, and generally involve casting the molten metal into a sand mould of the desired shape. Other casting processes similar in principle to sand casting have been evolved in which closer control of dimensions is possible, so that a product is yielded which does not require any finishing operations even when close dimensional accuracy is required; shell moulding and investment casting are examples of such processes.


Advantages and Limitations

Casting process is extensively used in manufacturing because of its numerous advantages. Molten metal flows into any small section in the mould cavity and as such intricate shapes internal or external can be made with the casting process. Any metal be it ferrous or non-ferrous can be cast. Very simple and inexpensive tools are required for producing casting moulds. Consequently, it is an ideal method for trial production or small lot production.


In casting process, it is possible to place the amount of metal at exactly where it is required; thus making weight reduction in design achievable. Castings generally do not have directional properties as they are expected to cool uniformly from all sides. Because of metallurgical consideration, certain metals and alloys can only be processed by casting and not by any other forming process, e.g. rolling, forging, or extrusion. Casting of any size and weight, even up to 200 tonnes can be made. On the other hand, the dimensional accuracy and surface finish achieved by normal sand casting process would not be adequate for final application in many cases. Also the sand casting process is labour intensive to some extent and therefore many improvements are aimed at this such as machine moulding and foundry mechanization. It is often not easy to produce defect-free castings with some metals or alloys as a result of the moisture present in sand castings.

19.4 mould.

Sand Mould Making Procedure The following steps describe the procedure for making a typical sand

First a bottom board is placed either on the moulding platform or on the floor, making surface even. The drag moulding flask is kept upside down on the bottom board along with the drag part of the pattern at the centre of the flask on the board. There should be enough clearance between the pattern and the walls of the flask which should be of the order of 50 to 100mm. Dry facing sand is sprinkled over the board and pattern to provide a non-sticky layer. Freshly prepared moulding sand of requisite quality is now poured into the drag and on the pattern to a thickness of 30 to 50mm. Rest of the drag flask is completely filled with the backup sand and uniformly rammed to compact the sand. The ramming of sand should be done properly so as not to compact it too hard, which makes the escape of gases difficult, nor too loose so that mould would not have enough strength. After the ramming is over, the excess sand in the flask is completely scraped using a flat bar to the level of the flask edges.


Fig.19.1 Sand mould making procedure

Now, with a vent wire which is a wire of 1 to 2 mm diameter with a pointed end, vent holes are made in the drag to the full depth of the flask as well as to the pattern to facilitate the removal of gases during casting solidification. This completes the preparation of the drag. The finished drag flask is now rolled over to the bottom board exposing the pattern. Using a slick the edges of sand around the pattern is repaired and cope half of the pattern is placed over the drag pattern, aligning it with the help of dowel pins. The cope flask on top of the drag is located aligning again with the help of the pins. The dry parting sand is sprinkled all over the drag and on the pattern. A sprue pin for making the sprue passage is located at a small distance of about 50mm from the pattern. Also a riser pin, if required, is kept at an appropriate place and freshly prepared moulding sand similar to that of the drag along with the backing sand is sprinkled. The sand is thoroughly rammed, excess sand scraped and vent holes are made all over in the cope as in the drag. The sprue pin and the riser pin are carefully withdrawn from the flask. Later the pouring basin is cut near the top of the sprue. The cope is separated from the drag and any loose sand on the cope and drag interface of the drag is


blown off with the help of bellows. Now the cope and the drag pattern halves are withdrawn by using the draw spikes and rapping the pattern all around to slightly enlarge the mould cavity so that the mould walls are not spoiled by the withdrawing pattern. The runners and the gates are cut in the mould carefully without spoiling the mould. Any excess or loose sand found in the runners and mould cavity is blown away using the bellows. Now the facing sand in the form of a paste is applied all over the mould cavity and the runners which would give the finished casting a good surface finish. A dry sand core is prepared using a core box. After suitable baking, it is placed in the mould cavity as shown in Fig. 19.1. The cope is replaced on the drag taking care of the alignment of the two by means of the pins. The mould now, as shown in Fig 19.1, is ready for pouring. It should be noted here that cores are materials used for making cavities and hollow projections which cannot normally be produced by the pattern alone. Any complicated contour or cavity can be made by means of cores so that really intricate shapes can be easily obtained. These are generally made of sand and are even used in permanent moulds. In general, cores are surrounded on all sides by the molten metal and are therefore subjected to much more severe thermal and mechanical conditions and as a result, the core sand should be of higher strength than the moulding sand.



A pattern is a replica of the object to be made by the casting process, with some modifications. These modifications are: addition of pattern allowances; provision of core prints; and elimination of fine details on the surface or very small holes which cannot be obtained by casting and hence are to be obtained by further finishing processing. Pattern allowances make the dimensions of the pattern different from the final dimensions of the required casting. They are required for different reasons, and they include: shrinkage, machining or finish, shake, draft, and distortion allowances. Shrinkage allowance is provided to take care of solid shrinkage, which the reduction in volume caused, when metal cooks in which


is the solid state from the solidus temperature. Machining or finish allowance is added to the pattern for subsequent machining when a sand casting is functionally required to be of good finish or dimensionally accurate. Shake allowance is a reduction in the original pattern dimensions to account for the enlargement of the mould cavity resulting, from rapping of the pattern to enable its withdrawal from the sand mould. Vertical faces of the pattern are in continual contact with sand, and because this may damage the mould cavity at the time of withdrawing the pattern from the sand mould, the vertical faces of the pattern are always tapered from the parting line to reduce the chances of this happening; and this provision is called draft or taper allowance. Freshly solidified metal is weak and is likely to be distortion prone, especially long flat portions, V, U, or long and thin sections which are connected to thick sections. Instead of making extra metal provision for reducing the distortion, the shape of pattern is given a distortion of equal amount in the opposite direction of the likely distortion direction. It is noted that where coring is required, provision should be made to support the core inside the mould cavity by providing core prints where possible. Chaplets are also used to support cores inside the mould cavity when necessary.


Pattern materials

The usual pattern materials are wood, metal and plastics. Wood, however, is the most commonly used pattern material, because of its easy availability and the low weight. It is also cheap and can be easily shaped. Wood has the disadvantage that it suffers warpage and dimensional changes because it easily absorbs moisture. To contain the warpage problem it is required that wood for pattern making be properly seasoned and adequately kept. Pine, mahogany, teak, walnut and cedar are some woods commonly used for making patterns. The number of castings to be made from the pattern, the size of the casting, and the dimensional accuracy required determine the choice of pattern materials. When very large castings are to be produced, wood may be the only


practical pattern material. For large scale production metal patterns are recommended as moulding sand is highly abrasive. Metal patterns are extensively used for large scale casting production because of their durability, smooth surface finish and for closer dimensional tolerances. Cast iron, steel, brass and bronze, aluminium and white metal are used as pattern materials. However, aluminium and white metal are most commonly used, because of their light weight, easy to work, and are corrosion resistant. Comparative advantages and disadvantages of various pattern materials are shown in Table 19.1.

Table 19.1: Comparative characteristics of metallic pattern materials
Pattern metal Advantages Good machinability Aluminium alloys High corrosion resistance Low density Good surface finish Gray cast iron Good machinability High strength Good surface finish High strength Brass and bronze Good surface finish High corrosion resistance Lead alloys Corrosion prone High density High cost High cost Good machinability High density Low strength Corrosion prone High density Disadvantages Low strength High cost

Plastics are also used for making patterns because of their low weight, easier formability, smooth surfaces and durability. Since they do no absorb moisture, they are dimensionally stable and can be cleaned easily. The most commonly used plastics are cold setting epoxy resins with suitable fillers.


19.4.2 Types of Patterns Several types of patterns are used in foundries- removable or reusable patterns and disposable or expendable patterns. Depending on the casting requirements, complexity of the job, the number of castings required and the moulding procedure adopted, a removable pattern may conform to one of the following types: 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Solid or single-piece pattern Split pattern or two piece pattern Loose-piece pattern Gated pattern Match-plate pattern Cope and drag pattern Special patterns and devices (sweep pattern, follow-board pattern, master pattern and skeleton pattern).

Each of the pattern types has characteristic uses. Figure 19.2 shows seven types of pattern construction. The pattern to be made for a given part depends largely on the judgment and experience of the pattern-maker and is governed by the pattern cost and the number of castings to be made. Large castings are usually cast singly in a mould, since a multiple or gated pattern would only increase moulding and casting difficulties. For those having a uniform symmetrical section, there is a distinct saving in pattern cost if the sweep or skeleton type of pattern is used. Practically all high-production work on moulding machines uses the match-plate pattern. Aside from the fact that several castings may be moulded simultaneously with patterns of this type, there are also numerous savings effected by machine moulding. Although expensive to make, such patterns will last a long time under severe use.


Fig.19.2: Types of patterns. A, Solid pattern; B, Split pattern; C, Loosepiece pattern; D, Gated Pattern; E, Match plate; F, Follow board for wheel pattern; G, Sweep patterns: curved sweep for shaping large green-sand core, and straight sweep.



Moulding Materials

A large variety of moulding materials are used in foundries for producing moulds and cores. They include moulding sand, backing sand, reconditioned sand, facing sand, parting sand, and core sand. The choice of moulding materials is based on their processing properties. The properties that are generally required in moulding materials are:

Refractoriness: The ability of the moulding material to withstand the high temperatures of the molten metal so that it does not cause fusion or softening.

Green strength: The green sand (moulding sand containing moisture) should have enough strength so that the prepared mould retains its shape.

Dry strength: Sand around the mould cavity becomes dry when molten metal is poured into the mould as the moisture in the sand evaporates immediately due to the heat in the molten metal. At this point, the dry sand should retain the mould cavity and at the same time withstand the metallostatic pressures.

Hot strength: After the moisture has evaporated, the sand may be required to possess strength at some elevated temperature, above 1000C. Metallostatic pressure of the liquid metal bearing against the mould walls may cause mould enlargement, or if the metal is still flowing; erosion, cracks, or breakage may occur unless the sand prossesses adequate hot strength.

Permeability: Heat from the casting causes a green-sand mould to evolve a great deal of steam and other gases. The mould must be permeable, i.e., porous, to permit the gases to pass off, or the casting will contain gas holes.

Collapsibility: Is the property of a moulding sand that permits it to collapse easily during its knockout from the cooled casting. Heated sand which becomes hard and rocklike is difficult to remove from the casting and may cause the contracting metal to tear or crack.


The main ingredients of any moulding sand are: silica sand (SiO 2), clay as binder, and moisture to activate the clay and provide plasticity. Auxiliary moulding materials (additives) are also added to these to enhance the specific properties of moulding sands. The coal auxiliary moulding materials usually include, coal dust, black oil, powdered quartz (silica flour), charcoal dust, graphite, and others (for anti-penetration or anti-burning-on of metal); and starch, dextrin sawdust, asbestos and gypsum (for increased gas permeability and deform ability or collapsibility).


Moulding Sand Properties and Testing

The properties of moulding sand are dependent to a great extent on a number of variables. The important among them are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Sand grain shape and size Clay type and quantity Moisture content Method of preparing sand mould

Method of preparing moulding sand An important requirement for the preparation is thorough mixing of its various ingredients. This is essential to ensure uniform distribution of the various components in the entire bulk of the sand. Besides manual mixing, equipment called mullers are normally used in foundries to mix the sands. The moulding sand after it is prepared, should be properly tested to see that the requisite properties are achieved. There are standard tests to be used which are given in AFS: Foundry Sand Hand ook, American Foundrymen‘s Society, Des Plaines, 1963. The tests commonly conducted on moulding sands for acceptability include those for the following properties: 1. Moisture content 2. Clay content 3. Sand grain size 4. Permeability 5. Strength (measured in compression, shear and tension) 6. Mould hardness

Besides these, there are other tests to determine such properties as deformation, green tensile strength, hot strength, expansion, etc. The details of these testing methods can be found in the references cited at the end of this chapter.


Gating and Risering

Gating systems refer to all those elements which are connected with the flow of molten metal from the ladle to the mould cavity. The various elements that make up the gating system for a casting are shown in Fig. 19.3. These are:       pouring basin sprue sprue base well runner gate or ingate riser

Fig. 19.3 Typical gating system

Any gating system designed should aim at providing a defect free casting. This is achieved by making provisions for certain requirements while designing the gating system (Fig. 19.3). These are as follows:



The metal should flow smoothly into the mould without any turbulence. A turbulent metal flow tends to form dross in the mould. The mould should be completely filled in the shortest possible time without having to raise metal temperature or use higher metal heads. The metal entry into the mould cavity should be properly controlled in such a way that aspiration of the atmospheric air is prevented. Unwanted material such as slag, dross and other mould material should not be allowed to enter the mould cavity. Metal flow should be maintained in such a way that no gating or mould erosion takes place. The gating system should ensure that enough molten metal reaches the mould cavity. A proper thermal gradient should be maintained so that the casting is cooled without any shrinkage cavities or distortions. The gating system design should be economical and easy to produce and to remove after the solidification of the casting. In the fine analysis, the casting yield should be maximized.



7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

19.7.1 Elements of a Gating System Pouring basin acts as a reservoir from which molten metal moves smoothly into the sprue. The pouring basin is also able to stop the slag from entering the mould cavity by means of a skimmer or skim core. It holds back the slag and dirt which float on the top and only allow the clean liquid metal underneath them into the sprue. Sprue is a tapered channel through which the molten metal is brought into the parting plane where it enters the runners and gates to ultimately reach the mould cavity. The sprue is normally tapered downwards to avoid excessive momentum on the sand mould to eliminate turbulence in the liquid metal, erosion of the mould and the problem of air aspiration.


Sprue base well is a reservoir for metal at the bottom of the sprue to reduce the velocity of the molten metal by which mould erosion is reduced. The molten metal then changes direction and flows into the runners in a more uniform manner.

Runner is generally located in the horizontal plane (parting plane) and connects the sprue to the ingates, thus letting the metal enter the mould cavity. The runners are normally made trapezoidal in cross-section. For effective trapping of the slag, runners should flow full during pouring.

Gate or ingate is an opening through which the molten metal enters the mould cavity. The shape and the cross-section of the ingate or gate should be such that it can lead molten metal from the runner into the mould cavity without turbulence, and be readily knocked off without damaging the casting. Various types of gates are used in the casting design. The commonest among these include: top gate, bottom gate, parting gate and step gate. In top gating, the molten metal enters the mould cavity from the top. Though the mould fills very quickly, there is the tendency for mould erosion and turbulence in the mould cavity. It is thus prone to form dross and is not recommended for nonferrous materials and is suggested only for ferrous alloys and simple casting shapes which are essentially shallow in nature. Bottom gate enters the mould cavity from the bottom. It does not cause any mould erosion and is generally used for very deep moulds and heavy molten alloys. It takes a longer time for filling of the mould and also generates a very unfavourable temperature gradient. Parting gates are the most widely used gate in sand casting. They enter the mould at the parting plane when part of the casting is in the cope and part is in the drag. This type of gating tries to derive the best of both the top and bottom gates. Of all the gates, this is also the easiest and most economical in preparation. Step gates are used for heavy and large castings. The molten metal enters the mould cavity through a number of ingates which are arranged in vertical steps. The size of the ingates are usually decreased from bottom to top such that liquid


metal enters the mould cavity from the bottom-most gate (the largest) and then progressively moves to the top. This ensures a gradual filling of the mould without any mould erosion and produces a sound casting.



Most casting alloys shrink during solidification. As a result of this volumetric shrinkage during solidification, voids or cavities are likely to form in the casting, unless additional molten metal is fed into these portions which are termed as hot spots since they are the last areas to solidify. Hence a reservoir of molten metal is to be maintained from which the metal can flow readily into the casting as and when the need arises. These reservoirs are called risers (Fig. 19.3). Different materials have different solidification shrinkages and as a result the risering requirements vary for the materials. In gray cast iron, because of graphitization during solidification, there may be an increase in volume sometimes. This of course, depends on the degree of graphitization in gray cast iron which is dependent on the silicon content. In order to make them effective, the risers should be designed keeping the following in mind. 1. The metal in the riser should be the last to solidify 2. The riser volume should be sufficient for compensating the solidification shrinkage in the casting. In order to satisfy the above requirements, risers are made of large diameters. This however proves an expensive solution since the solidified metal in the riser is to be cut off from the main casting and is to be remelted for use. It is therefore very uneconomical to incorporate very large volume risers as this will lower the casting yield. In any case, a riser can be made more effective by employing some artificial means (insulators and exothermic compounds) to keep the top of the riser from freezing over so that the molten


metal beneath can be exposed to atmospheric pressure. In a casting, metallic chills may also be used to provide progressive or directional solidification or to avoid the shrinkage cavities, and eliminate the use of riser in certain cases.


Melting and Pouring

After moulding, melting is the major factor which controls the quality of the casting. There are a number of methods available for melting foundry alloys such as pit furnace, open hearth furnace, rotary furnace, cupola furnace, etc. The choice of a furnace, depends on the amount and the type of alloy being melted. For melting cast iron, cupola in its various forms is extensively used basically because of its lower initial cost and lower melting cost. Besides cast iron, foundries melt a large number of different metals and alloys. The melting requirements and characteristics required of furnaces greatly differ for different metals, since the heat required for melting various foundry materials differ. Most of the foundries operate on a batch basis. This means a number of sand moulds are prepared and kept ready for pouring before the molten metal is prepared. This process may take a few days to weeks depending upon the size and nature of the foundry plant. Thus it becomes necessary only to melt may be once a week or so. The main types of furnaces that are generally used in foundries are: open hearth, rotary, crucible and immersion heated. Based on the source of heating, they can be classified as: a. Electrical heating (arc, resistance, or induction) b. Fossil fuel fired (solid, oil, or gaseous fuel) As earlier stated, cupola has been the most widely used furnace for melting cast iron. This is because of the low cost involved in its operation. However, less control of the final quality, and the losses involved would call for some change in the choice. Hence for other materials melting with solid fuel, liquid and/or gas fuel and electric furnaces are increasingly being used in view of the better control of molten metal provided by them and lower melting losses. However, these are more expensive compared to the solid fuel


fired furnaces and therefore the higher cost is justified based on the better control of quality achieved in terms of the composition and temperature. For heavy steel castings, the open hearth type of furnaces with electric arc or oil fired would be generally suitable in view of the large heat required for melting. In any case, the electric furnaces in view of their high degree of temperature control and flexibility of operation have been widely used for melting small to medium sized castings in ferrous as well as non-ferrous alloys. In the electric furnaces, the resistance type heating is generally used for holding furnaces to maintain the molten metal at a certain temperature for non-ferrous alloys such as for die-casting. Arc furnaces are more suitable for ferrous materials and are larger in capacity. The molten metal from the furnace is tapped into the ladles at appropriate time intervals and then poured into the moulds. Depending on the amount of metal to be handled, there are different sizes of ladles. They may range from 50kg to 30 tonnes depending on the casting size. For gray cast iron since the slag can easily be separated, top pouring ladles would be suffice. But for steels, to separate the slag effectively, the metal is to be poured from the bottom with the help of the bottom pour ladle. The bottom pour ladle has an opening in the bottom that is fitted with a refractory nozzle. A stopper rod, suspended inside the ladle, pulls the stopper head up from its position thus allowing the molten alloy to flow from the ladle. As the metal in the ladle loses appreciable amount of heat to the surrounding atmosphere by radiation it is necessary to account for this drop in the temperature of the casting metal through superheating melt somewhat. In the large ladles in view of the lager heat content, there is relatively low drop in temperature while in the small ladles the drop is appreciable. Hence more speed in operation of the small ladles is desirable particularly in manual operation.


Casting Cleaning and Inspection

After the liquid metal has been poured into the mould, the casting is allowed to solidify and cool in the mould itself. The sand mould is to be


broken to remove the casting. But the sand mould has to be broken only after the casting has cooled sufficiently, since the metal at high temperatures is weak. The cooling time depends upon the casting section thickness, the total mass as well as the type of mould. Again, if the hot casting is exposed to the air prematurely, there is likely to be faster and uneven cooling which can induce thermal stresses and cause the casting to warp or crack. In essence, the moulding provides a uniform cooling medium for the casting while producing least amount of internal stresses. Ideally the moulds should be broken at a temperature below which no transformation can occur. For example, for ferrous alloys, the breaking should be done at a temperature below 7000C. If the castings are thin and fragile, they should be removed at a temperature as low as 4000C, whereas for the heavier castings, a little higher temperature of 5000C is suitable.



Fettling involves the entire process of cleaning castings, such as the removal of the cores, gates and risers, cleaning of the surface of the casting and chipping off all necessary projections on the surface. The dry sand cores are usually removed simply by knocking off with an iron bar, by means of a core vibrator, or by means of hydro-blasting. The method depends on the size, complexity and the core material used. In iron castings the gates and risers of the castings are removed by means of a sledge hammer, but steel castings are usually, trimmed by oxyacetylene cutting or sawing with a metal–cutting saw. This latter method is also invariably used to remove gates and risers from non-ferrous castings. Sometimes a nick is cast in the gate in order to facilitate its removal by hammering. In the case of large castings a pneumatic chisel is often used to remove small pieces of gates, fins and the projecting stems of chaplets. Sand still adhering to the casting is then removed. This is sometimes achieved by vibrating the castings in special fixtures or by sand-blasting or


shot-blasting. Non-ferrous castings can conveniently be treated by hydroblasting, whereby a high-velocity stream of water impinges upon the castings, washing away much of the sand. This process is not suitable for iron castings as they tend to rust Some castings can be cleaned economically by tumbling. The tumbling barrel consists of a cylindrical steel shell, closed at its ends by castiron heads and mounted on horizontal trunnions. Sufficient castings are charged to prevent breakage by excessive movement as the barrel rotates. In addition to cleaning the casting, this process also polishes the surface and removes fins and sharp edges, but it is obviously unsuitable for fragile castings. Grinding wheels may be employed to cut off gates and risers as well as for the removal of fins, parting-line impressions and other unwanted attachments. Such wheels are carried in either fixed or portable grinding machines, and usually run at peripheral speeds of between 25 and 50 m/s. The abrasives most commonly used are silicon carbide or aluminium oxide. These are bonded with shellac, resinoid, vulcanized rubber or vitrified bonding materials according to the combination of hardness and toughness required in the resulting wheel.



Visual inspection of castings will reveal many of the more common surface defects. Sometimes the defect will be obvious as soon as the casting is shaken out of the mould, but small defects may be discovered only after the casting has been cleaned. Visual inspection will also reveal incompletely chipped fins and chaplets, whilst hard spots, which in iron castings might lead to high machining costs, are often revealed by means of a simple file test. Internal cavities in a casting can be revealed by the use of X- rays, whilst surface cracks and fissures can often be detected by the magnetic dust method or by the use of dye penetrants. Supersonic testing is, however, becoming increasingly popular for detecting cavities and other discontinuities in castings. This method is based on the length of time it takes a highfrequency sound wave to travel from its source through a section of the casting


and back again to its source. If a flaw or cavity is present in the metal section the wave is reflected from the surface of the flaw or cavity, and thus returns in a shorter period of time. The wave is plotted and measured on an oscillograph, and by this method the location and approximate size of the defect can be determined. Pneumatic or hydraulic pressure tests can be employed to test those castings such as valves and cylinders, where pressure-tightness is a requirement. If the casting is liable to break into pieces, hydraulic testing is safer, since water undergoes a negligible reduction in volume under pressure. Small castings can be tested with air pressure whilst submerged under water, so that leaks are readily indicated by the formation of air bubbles.


Defects in Castings

In the melting and casting of metals many variable factors have to be considered in order to reduce the incidence of defects. In general, defects may arise from faults in technique which can be classified under the following headings: o o o o o o bad melting practice; bad pouring practice; poor moulding practice; poor pattern design; incorrect metal composition; moulding sand and cores of incorrect composition or poor condition; o bad placing of gates and risers. If a casting has been inadequately risered the effects of shrinkage may manifest themselves as internal porosity or cavities, or in the form of depressions in the surface of the casting.

Blow-holes, on the other hand, are due to the presence of gas in the original molten metal. As this solidifies gas is rejected from solution and forms gasfilled cavities in the casting. Under the microscope it is often possible to


distinguish between shrinkage cavities and small blow-holes by studying their shape and location. Whilst blow-holes are usually situated well below the surface of a casting what are called ‗ lows‘ often exist at or near to the surface. These subcutaneous cavities are formed by gases emanating from the mould itself and which have been unable to escape due to lack of permeability of the moulding sand or to poor venting. Gases causing these ‗ lows‘ may originate from moisture in the sand; from corrosion products on chills or other inserts; or from organic core binders.

Inclusions may be due to the presence of slag or oxide particles in the molten metal. They may also consist of sand particles washed from the surface of a mould which has been poorly made or in which inferior sand has been used. A clean melt can be obtained by proper attention to fluxing and skimming prior to casting, whilst faulty moulds can be avoided by better inspection and adequate sand control.

‘Cold Shorts’ result mainly from lack of fluidity of the molten metal. They appear as seam-like discontinuities which are formed when two metal streams meet inside the mould but have insufficient fluidity to allow them to break the oxide films which separate them. ‗Misruns‘ are also due to lack of fluidity in the metal, and refer to castings which are of incomplete impression, the molten metal not having penetrated to all recesses of the mould. Apart from bad pattern design in the form of very thin sections which chill the metal, such defects are due almost entirely to pouring metal which is too cold, and which therefore lacks fluidity.

A number of defects may arise from faults in mould construction or from poor-quality sand. If the sand has been loosely rammed, or if it does not contain sufficient binding material, sections of the mould may be eroded by the stream of molten metal, giving rise to rough lumps of excess metal on the casting. These are usually called ‗sca s‘. If coarse sand has een used in the


preparation of the mould surface molten metal may penetrate the spaces between the grains without detaching them. The obvious remedy is to use finer facing sand. Excessive fins on the casting are due to loosely fitting cores or to the cope and drag not fitting closely together at the parting line.

Hot Tears are cracks which are formed by contraction stresses in a casting, just as solidification is complete and whilst the metal is still relatively weak or ‗tender‘. Such cracks are typified y an irregular fractured surface which is heavily oxidised. They may be due to faulty design of the pattern. Hot tears may also be formed by cores which are too hard and which do not collapse easily enough under the pressure of the solidifying and contracting metal. Poor design of castings causing internal stresses to be set up during cooling may also lead to warping.



19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6

Okorafor O. E., Foundry Technology, M C computer, Nigeria, 2007. Heine, R. W. ,C. R. Loper Jr., and P. C. Rosenthal, Principles of Metal Casting, McGrew-Hill, New York, 1967. Little, R. L., Metal working Technology, Tate McGrew- Hill, New Delhi, 1977 Rao, P. N. M., Manufacturing Technology, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 1998. Higgins, R.A., Engineering Metallurgy Part II, 2nd Edition, ELBS and Hodder and Stoughton, 1974. Lindberg, R. A., Processes and Materials of Manufacture, 2nd Edition, Allys and Bacon, Inc., Boston, 1977.



19.1 List the main advantages of the casting process. 19.2 What are the major limitations of sand casting process and how are they overcome? 19.3 Briefly explain the procedure to be followed for making a sand mould. 19.4 What are the distinguishing features between a casting and a pattern? 19.5 Name the pattern allowances which can be incorporated in castings. 19.6 What are the materials that are generally used for preparing patterns? State their advantages and disadvantages 19.7 Name the various patterns that are normally encountered in foundry practice. 19.8 Which is the most widely used type of pattern? 19.9 Sketch an example showing the cope and the drag type pattern. 19.10 What properties are desirable of mounding sand from the stand point of sound castings? 19.11 State the essential ingredients of a moulding sand. 19.12 What is the role played by clay in a moulding sand? 19.13 Explain the desirable characteristics of any core in sand casting. 19.14 What are the various elements that comprise the gating system? 19.15 What are the objectives of gating systems in any casting? 19.16 Why should the sprue be tapered? 19.17 What are the various types of ingates that are normally used? 19.18 Why is a riser necessary in some castings? 19.19 State two functions served by chilling of a casting. 19.20 What are the ideal conditions for breaking the mould to remove the casting? 19.21 Define the term 'fettling'. 19.22 What are the methods available for the removal of gates and risers from castings? 19.23 How is the surface of a casting cleaned?


19.24 State at least four possible casting defects that may be caused by the improper gating system design. 19.25 Mention the causes and remedies of the following casting defects, blow holes, hot tears , mis-runs. 19.26 State any three common green sand casting defects and give their causes and remedies. 19.27 Explain how shrinkage cavities and pin-hole porosity are sometimes formed in a casting. 19.28 What defects can ultrasonic testing discover? 19.29 Visual inspection of castings will reveal which type of defects? 19.30 Name the various types of inspection tests that can be applied to reveal internal cavities in castings.





Quality, according to the definition adopted by the American Society for Quality is: ―The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that ears on its a ility to satisfy stated or implied needs‖. The quality of a product can be ascertained by inspecting it for certain quality variables and/or attributes. By variable we mean any characteristic of a product which can be measured and expressed in numerical values e.g., dimension or size (in millimeters), hardness (in hardness scale numbers), power rating (watts), etc. On the other hand, an attribute is a characteristic which cannot be measured directly and expressed numerically, but is either possessed or not possessed by the product. Examples are colour, surface finish, whether or not there buttons on a shirt or a particular number and size of holes are drilled in a component, etc. A very common type of attribute inspection is done by the GO and NO GO gauges. The result of a check for an attri ute can e expressed as ‗pass‘ or ‗fail‘, ‗correct‘ or ‗incorrect‘, ‗accepta le‘ or ‗unaccepta le‘ and ‗good‘ or ‗ ad‘.

Inspection is an aspect of quality control (QC) which merely separates the good and bad from a lot or batch. For example, inspection tells whether a part is within the acceptable size limits or not. Whereas QC brings production parameters under control for the purpose of ensuring and improving quality, inspection separates the good from the bad for meeting or failing quality requirements. Thus, QC enlarges the production pile while inspection enlarges the scrap pile. Inspection can involve measurement, tasting, touching, weighing, or testing of the product (sometimes the testing may be destructive). Where and when to inspect include:


i. ii. iii. iv. 20.2

At supplier‘s or producer‘s plant, At the consumer‘s plant upon receipt of goods from the supplier, Before shipment, At the points of customer contact. Measurement versus Quality/Inspection

The working efficiency and hence quality of every manufactured product depends on the accuracy to which various parts are made and by extension on the reliability and truth of the various measurements carried out in the course of manufacture. It is therefore necessary to understand the working principles of measuring instruments, how to use them and their limitations [Chapter 5]. The accuracy of every measurement is a function of a number of factors such as: i. The skill and attitudes of the person carrying out the measurement (carelessness and incompetence can render the best instrument useless); The type, quality, sensitivity and condition of the instrument used; The conditions under which measurements are made (temperature variations can cause expansion or contraction, for example).

ii. iii.

Keeping to the quality of each product requires that a defined size, shape and other characteristics as per the design specifications are met. For manufacturing a product to the specified size, the dimensions should be measured and checked during and after the manufacturing process. This involves measuring the size, smoothness and other features, in addition to their checking. These activities are called measurement and inspection respectively.


Sampling Inspection

Sampling is a very important tool of statistical quality control (SQC). It is costly, time-consuming and boring to carry out a 100% inspection of products. In 100% inspection, every part in a lot or batch is inspected or tested to ascertain whether or not it meets the quality requirements. In situations where the method of inspection is destructive testing, 100% inspection

becomes unthinkable. In sampling inspection, one or more units are taken from a lot of the product and tested. The sample(s) tested is (are) considered statistically to be representative of the entire lot. The lot is therefore accepted, inspected further or rejected depending on the outcome observed after inspecting the representative sample(s). Sampling inspection is necessary when the testing process destroys the products and when the cost of 100% inspection cannot be absorbed in the selling price of the product.

20.3.1 Acceptance Sampling This is a sampling method used to control the level of outgoing quality from an inspection point to ensure that, on the average, no more than some specified percent of defective items will pass. The procedure entails drawing a sample at random from a batch of parts or products in order to ascertain the quality level of the batch and to determine whether the batch should be accepted or rejected. The underlying principle is the statistical premise that the quality of a sample drawn at random (without bias) from a larger population will be indicative of the quality of that population. It is obvious that sampling inspection cannot guarantee 100% perfect product to the customer. It is employed only when the customer is willing to accept a few defective parts in order to secure lower cost. Depending on the quality protection or agreement, a lot may be accepted if it contains less than the number of defectives called the acceptance number. The lot is rejected if it contains more than a certain number of defectives, called the rejection number. A 100% inspection is then made for a rejected lot, and the defectives are replaced by non-defectives. If there is a sampling error, then there is always a probability or risk that a bad lot is accepted and a good lot is rejected. The first is called the consumer’s or customer’s risk and the second is called the producer’s or supplier’s risk. Small sample size (number of items actually tested from the whole lot) increases consumer‘s risk ut reduces inspection cost and time. Large sample size, on the other hand, increases cost of inspection, but decreases consumer‘s risk. The reverse is the case for producer‘s risk. In effect, any sampling inspection plan is a compromise between cost and risk.


Acceptance sampling can be applied when raw materials or parts brought from outside suppliers arrive at a plant. A lot/batch of items rejected, based on an unacceptable level of defects found in the sample, can (1) be returned to the supplier or (2) be 100% inspected to get rid of all defects with the cost of this screening usually billed to the supplier.


Sampling Plans

The alternatives to developing a sampling plan would be 100% inspection and 0% inspection. The costs associated with 100% are prohibitive, and the risks associated with 0% inspection are likewise large. Therefore, some sort of compromise is needed. A sampling plan is designed by applying the law of chance to such factors as lot or batch size (N), sample size (n), average outgoing quality (AOQ), producer‘s risk ( ), and consumer‘s risk (β) to determine the acceptance number (c) for the sample. Fortunately, sampling schemes known as the Dodge-Roming plans have been tabulated and published. The basis of the plan is that the inspection cost should be minimal. In D.R. plans; and β are taken as 5% and 10% respectively. If N (lot size) and other statistical parameters are known, n and c can be read directly from the tables. The three most commonly used sampling plans are discussed next.

20.4.1 Single Sampling Plan In this type of sampling plan, a single sample is taken at random from the lot and the lot is accepted or rejected on the basis of number of defectives in the sample. If num er of defectives is ≤ c, the acceptance num er, the lot is accepted. If number of defectives > c, the lot is rejected. In one form of the single sampling plan, if the number of defectives exceeds c, the rest of the lot is 100% inspected; so that defectives are replaced with good ones and the lot is accepted. The advantage of single sampling plan is quick decision; but there is the inherent probability of error in judging the entire lot from one sample. Another disadvantage is that single sampling plan requires large sample.


20.4.2 Double Sampling Plan In this case, a first sample is taken from the lot and checked; if the acceptance number is not exceeded, the lot is accepted. But if it is exceeded, a second sample is taken at random from the lot, and checked. If the acceptance number for the first and second samples combined is not exceeded, the lot is accepted; otherwise, it is rejected. There is a variation of double sampling in which two acceptance numbers, c1 and c2 are used; c2 being greater than c1. The larger acceptance number, c2, may be considered to be a rejection number. After taking and inspecting the initial sample, the number of defectives found is compared to the two acceptance numbers. If the number of defectives is less than c 1, the lot is accepted. If it exceeds the larger acceptance number, c2, the lot is rejected and subjected to 100% inspection. If, however, the number of defectives lies between c1 and c2, a second sample is taken; and if the total number of defectives found in the combined sample (n1+n2) exceeds c2, the lot is rejected and inspected 100 percent. But if the number of defectives found is less than c2, the lot is accepted. The advantages of double sampling lie in the possibility of reducing the total amount of inspection required, especially if the whole lot is accepted on the basis of first sample. It also accommodates smaller sample compared to single sampling.

20.4.3 Sequential Sampling Sequential sampling carries the idea and benefits of double sampling a step further. As before, there are both acceptance and rejection numbers. Samples are drawn at random as usual. But after each sample is inspected, the cumulative results are analyzed and a decision is taken to: (a) accept the lot, (b) reject the lot, or (c) delay decision, i.e. take and inspect another sample. Sequential sampling can take smaller sample sizes even as small as n = 1. This is with the understanding that even with such very small samples; a decision can be reached right away in some cases. In the more doubtful cases, where decision could not be reached with the first small sample, another small sample


is inspected and added to the first. The two samples cumulatively make a larger sample, and this provides more clues so that more borderline lots can either be accepted or rejected. This process continues until a decision is made. Sequential sampling is explained further using the data in Table 20.1 and Figure 20.1.

Table 20.1: Typical Sequential sampling Results Sample Number Sample Size(n) 20 20 20 20 20 20 40 60 80 100 Cumulative Sample Number Cumulative Acceptance Number 0 1 2 4 7 Cumulative Rejection Number 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5

a) First sample is taken:  If number of defectives is zero, (<1), the lot is passed or accepted  If the num er of defectives is ≥ 4, the lot is rejected  If the num er of defectives lies etween 0 and 4 (i.e., 0 ≤ c ≤ 4), another sample is taken for inspection. b) Second sample is taken:  If number of defectives in the cumulative sample is ≤ 1, the lot is accepted  If num er of defectives in the cumulative sample is ≥ 5, the lot is rejected  If number of defectives in the cumulative sample lies between 1 1nd 5, another sample is taken.  This is continued and at the sample number 5, the band of indecision disappears and acceptance or rejection of the lot can be finally decided. This is illustrated in Figure 20.1.


Example 20.1: If the sample size for Figure 20.1is 45, what will be (a) the acceptance number (maximum number of defectives for which the lot can still be accepted), (b) the rejection number (minimum number of defectives at and above which the lot is rejected).

Solution: (a) The equation of the acceptance line is ( ⇒ (b) The equation of the rejection line is ( ⇒ ) )


Example 20.2: At what sample size (n) and acceptance/rejection number (n¹) will the band of indecision (continue sampling band) disappear? Solution: (c) This question requires solving the equations of the acceptance line and the rejection line simultaneously. () ( ) ⇒ ⇒ ⇒

We can find n¹ by substituting 151.43 for n in equation (i) or equation (ii). ( )


Operating Characteristic (OC) Curve

The OC curve is a graph that describes how well an acceptance plan discriminates between good and bad lots. An OC curve pertains to a specific plan i.e. to a combination of n (sample size) and c (acceptance level). The purpose is to show the probability that the plan will accept lots of various quality levels. The shape (steepness) of an OC curve depends upon the values of n and c. by changing the parameters n and c of an OC curve, an appropriate curve can e chosen which involves minimum consumer‘s risk. In acceptance sampling, two parties are usually involved: the producer or supplier of the product and the consumer or purchaser of the product. In specifying or agreeing on a sampling plan, each party wants to avoid costly mistakes in accepting or rejecting a lot. The producer usually has the responsibility of replacing all defects in the rejected lot or of paying for a new lot to be shipped to the customer. The producer therefore wants to avoid the mistake of having a good lot rejected (producer’s risk). On the other hand, the


customer or consumer wants to avoid the mistake of accepting a bad lot because any defects discovered later in a lot that has already been accepted are usually the responsibility of the customer (consumer’s risk). The OC curve (Figure 20.2) shows the features of a particular sampling plan, including the risks of making a wrong decision. It was plotted using the data in Table 20.2. A good lot for this particular acceptance plan has less than or equal to 2% defectives. A bad lot has 7% or more defectives. The probability of rejecting a good lot is called a type I error; while the probability of accepting a bad lot is a type II error.

Figure 20.2: An Operating Characteristic (OC) Curve Showing Producer’s and Consumer’s Risks


Table 20.2: Data for the OC curve of Figure 20.1 Percent Defectives 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Probability of acceptance 100 99 95 85 70 50 25 10 5 3

To derive a sampling plan, the producer and consumer must define and agree on not only good lots and bad lots [through the AQL and LTPD] but they must also specify risk levels ( and β). The acceptable quality level (AQL) or good quality is the poorest level of quality that they are willing to accept. In other words, they wish to accept lots that have this or better quality level, but no lower. If an acceptable quality level is 20 defects in a lot of 1,000 items or parts, then AQL is 20/N = 20/1000 = 0.02 = 2% defectives. The lot tolerance percent defective (LTPD) or poor quality level is the quality level of a lot that is considered bad. It is expected that lots that have this or poorer level of quality should be rejected. If it is agreed that an unacceptable quality level is 70 defects in a lot of 1,000, then LTPD is 70/1000 = 0.07 = 7% defective. The lot having 5% defective level (equivalent to probability of acceptance of 50%) is called indifference quality level (IQL). It is a point on an OC curve where the producer‘s risk and the consumer‘s risk are equal; that is, the chances of accepting or rejecting a lot is ½ = 0.50 = 50%. If the percentage of defects is higher than IQL, the probability of rejection increases and if the percentage of defects is lower than IQL, the probability of acceptance of a lot increases.


Example 20.3: If a lot containing 2000 items 30 of which are defects is considered good (acceptable), determine the acceptable quality level (AQL) for the lot. Solution:

AQL is the percentage of defectives considered good or acceptable.

⇒  Example 20.4: If the lot tolerance percent defective (LTDP) is 4.25% and the lot size is 2000 items, determine the number of defectives. Solution: LTPD is the percentage of defectives considered bad or unacceptable.

⇒ ⇒

 Example 20.5: Determine the percentage of defectives corresponding to the indifference quality level (IQL) in Figure 20.2. If the lot size is 2000, how many defective items constitute the IQL? Solution: IQL corresponds to the point where the probability of acceptance is ½ or 50%. In Figure 20.2, this probability level corresponds to .



Limits and Tolerance

Engineering workpieces or components cannot be consistently produced to an exact size. There are always dimensional deviations. This is due to a number of reasons such as wear on cutting tools, errors in setting up, operator faults, temperature differences or variations in machine performance. Whatever the reason, allowance must be made for some error. The amount of error which can be tolerated – known as the tolerance – depends on the manufacturing method and on the functional requirements of the workpiece. For example, a workpiece finished by grinding can be consistently made to finer tolerances than one produced on a centre lathe. In a similar way, a workpiece required for agricultural equipment would not require the same fine tolerance required for a wrist-watch part. In fact it would be expensive and unreasonable to produce parts to a greater accuracy than was necessary for the part to function. Since making anything to an exact size is difficult, there is need to have a lower limit and an upper limit for the dimension. Establishing a tolerance for a dimension has the effect of creating these two extremes of size, or limits within which the dimension must be maintained.



The term interchangeability is normally employed for the mass production of identical items within the prescribed limits of sizes. A cursory observation will show that in order to maintain the sizes of the part within a close degree of accuracy, a lot of time is required. But even then there will be small unavoidable variations. If the variations are within certain limits, all parts of equivalent size will equally fit for use in machines and mechanisms. Therefore, certain variations are recognized and allowed in the sizes of mating parts to give the required fitting. This facilitates selection at random from a large number of parts for an assembly and results in a considerable saving in the cost of production. Limit system allows for the control of the sizes of finished parts, with due allowance for error, as long as the parts are interchangeable.


It may be noted that when an assembly is made of two parts, the part which enters into the other, is known as enveloped surface (or shaft for cylindrical part) and the other in which one enters is called enveloping surface (or hole for cylindrical part). In this definition it should be noted however that: (1) the term shaft refers not only to the diameter of a circular shaft, but it is also used to designate any external dimension of a part; and (2) the term hole refers not only to the diameter of a circular hole, but it is also used to designate any internal dimension of a part. This is illustrated in Figure 20.3.

Figure 20.3: Limits of sizes in a limit system


Terminology Used In Limit System

The following terms as used in limit system (or interchangeable system), are important for consideration. 1. Limits of sizes: These are the two extreme permissible sizes for a dimension of the part as shown in Fig. 20.3. The largest permissible size for a dimension of the part is called upper or high or maximum limit, whereas the smallest size of the part is known as lower or minimum limit. Basic size – the size to which the two limits of size are fixed. It is the size of a part as specified in the drawing as a matter of convenience.



The basic size is the same for both members of a fit and can be referred to as nominal size. 3. Actual size: It is the actual measured dimension of the part. The difference between the basic size and the actual size should not exceed a certain limit; otherwise it will interfere with the interchangeability of the mating parts. Allowance: It is the difference between the basic dimensions of the mating parts. The allowance may be positive or negative. When the shaft size is less than the hole size, then the allowance is positive and when the shaft size is greater than the hole size, then the allowance is negative. Tolerance: It is the difference between the upper limit and lower limit of a dimension, or the algebraic difference between the upper deviation and lower deviation. In other words, it is the maximum permissible variation in a dimension. It is the amount of error that can be allowed for imperfect workmanship. The tolerance may be unilateral or bilateral. When all the tolerance is allowed on one side of the nominal size, e.g. or , then it is said to be unilateral system of tolerance. In the first case the upper limit = nominal size = 20 and the lower limit = 20 – 0.004 = 19.996. In the second example, the upper limit = 20 + 0.003 = 20.003 and the lower limit = nominal size = 20. The unilateral system is mostly used in industries as it permits changing the tolerance value while still retaining the same allowance or type of fit.



Figure 20.4: Method of assigning tolerances


When the tolerance is allowed on both sides of the nominal size, e.g. , then it is said to be bilateral system of tolerance. In this case 20 + 0.002 or 20.002 is the upper limit and 20 – 0.002 or 19.998 is the lower limit. The method of assigning unilateral and bilateral tolerance is shown in Fig.20.4 (a) and (b) respectively. 6. Tolerance zone: It is the zone between the maximum and minimum limit size, as shown in Fig. 20.5.

Figure 20.5: Tolerance zone


Zero line: It is a straight line corresponding to the basic size. The deviations are measured from this line. The positive and negative deviations are shown above and below the zero line respectively. Upper deviation: It is the algebraic difference between the maximum size and the corresponding basic size. The upper deviation of a hole is represented by a symbol ES (Ecart Superior) and for a shaft, it is represented by es. Lower deviation: It is the algebraic difference between the minimum size and the corresponding basic size. The lower deviation of a hole is represented by a symbol EI (Ecart Inferior) and for a shaft, it is represented by ei. Actual deviation: It is the algebraic difference between an actual size and the corresponding basic size. Mean deviation: It is the arithmetical mean between the upper and lower deviations.



10. 11.



Fundamental deviation: It is one of the two deviations which are conventionally chosen to define the position of the tolerance zone in relation to zero line, as shown in Fig. 20.6

Figure 20.6: Fundamental deviation

20.8.1 Ways of Placing Limits The conventional methods of placing limits on engineering drawings are illustrated in Figure 20.7.


Types of Fit

The degree of tightness or looseness between the two mating parts is known as a fit of the parts. The nature of fit is characterized by the presence and size of clearance and interference.

Clearance is the amount by which the actual size of the shaft is less than the actual size of the mating hole in an assembly. In other words, the clearance is the difference between the sizes of the hole and the shaft before assembly. The difference must be positive.

Interference is the amount by which the actual size of a shaft is larger than the actual finished size of the mating hole in an assembly. In other words, the interference is the arithmetical difference between the sizes of the hole and the shaft, before assembly. The difference must be negative.


Figure 20.7: Ways of placing limits on drawings

Figure 20.8: Types of fit

1. Clearance fit: Clearance fit occurs when the shaft is smaller than the hole. It may be noted that in a clearance fit, the tolerance zone of the hole is entirely above the tolerance zone of the shaft. In a clearance fit, the difference

between the minimum size of the hole and the maximum size of the shaft is known as minimum clearance whereas the difference between the maximum size of the hole and minimum size of the shaft is called maximum clearance as shown in Fig. 20.8(a). Clearance fits may be slide fit, easy sliding fit, running fit, slack running fit and loose running fit.

2. Interference fit: Interference fit occurs when the shaft is larger than the hole. It may be noted that in an interference fit, the tolerance zone of the hole is entirely below the tolerance zone of the shaft. In an interference fit, the difference between the maximum size of the hole and the minimum size of the shaft is known as minimum interference, whereas the difference between the minimum size of the hole and the maximum size of the shaft is called maximum interference, as shown in Fig. 20.8(b). Interference fits may be shrink fit, heavy drive fit and light drive fit.

3. Transition fit: In this type of fit, the size limits for the mating parts are so selected that either a clearance or interference may occur depending upon the actual size of the mating parts, as shown in Fig. 20.8(c). When the hole is made to the upper limit and the shaft is made to the lower limit the result is a clearance fit. When the shaft is made to the upper limit an interference fit is obtained. It may be noted that in a transition fit, the tolerance zones of hole and shaft overlap. Transition fits may be force fit, tight fit and push fit.

20.10 Bases of Limit System The limit system is worked out on either of two bases. 1. Hole basis system: When the hole is kept as a constant member (i.e. when the lower deviation of the hole is zero) and different fits are obtained by varying the shaft size, as shown in Fig. 20.9(a), then the limit system is said to be on a hole basis. 2. Shaft basis system: When the shaft is kept as a constant member (i.e. when the upper deviation of the shaft is zero) and different fits are obtained by varying the hole size, as shown in Fig. 20.9(b), then the limit system is said to be on a shaft basis.


Figure 20.9: Bases of limit system

The hole basis and shaft basis system may also be shown with respect to the zero line as in Fig. 20.10.

Figure 20.10: Bases of limit system with respect to the zero line

It may be noted that from the manufacturing point of view, a hole basis system is always preferred. This is because the holes are usually produced and finished by standard tooling like drill, reamers, etc., whose size is not adjustable easily. On the other hand, the size of the shaft (which is to go into the hole) can be easily adjusted and is obtained by turning or grinding operations.

 Example 20.6: The limits shown on a drawing for a mating hole and shaft are: for the hole; and for the shaft. Find the type of fit that will exist between the hole and the shaft.


Solution:  The smallest hole is 30.000 + 0.000 = 30.000mm  The largest shaft is 30.000 – 0.006 = 29.994mm  The shaft is always smaller than the hole and a clearance fit will be obtained.  Example 20.7: The limits on a drawing for a mating hole and shaft are: for the hole; and for the shaft. Find the type of fit that will exist between the hole and the shaft. Solution:  The largest shaft is 40.000 + 0.018 = 40.018mm  The smallest hole is 40.000 + 0.000 = 40.000mm  This combination gives an interference fit.     The smallest shaft is 40.000 + 0.002 = 40.002mm The largest hole is 40.000 + 0.025 = 40.025mm This combination gives a clearance fit. Since we can have either interference or clearance, a transition fit will be obtained.

 Example 20.8: The limits on a drawing for a mating hole and shaft are: for the hole; and for the shaft. What type of fit will exist between the hole and the shaft? Solution:  The largest hole is 20.000 + 0.025 = 20.025mm  The smallest shaft is 20.000 + 0.043 = 20.043mm  The shaft is always larger than the hole and an interference fit will be obtained.


 Example 20.9: The limits shown on a drawing for a mating hole and shaft are: for the hole; and for the shaft. What type of fit will exist between the hole and the shaft? Solution:  The largest shaft is 12.00 – 0.03 = 11.97mm  The smallest hole is 12.00 + 0.00 = 12.00mm  This combination gives a clearance fit.     The smallest shaft is 12.00 – 0.05 = 11.95mm The largest hole is 12.00 + 0.01 = 12.01mm This combination also gives a clearance fit. Since the shaft is always smaller than the hole, a clearance fit will be obtained.



1. Define the term quality as it relates to manufacturing science and technology? 2. Differentiate between quality control and inspection. 3. Explain the terms: (i) variables, (ii) attributes. 4. Explain the terms: i. AQL ii. LTPD iii. IQL iv. Producer‘s risk v. Consumer‘s risk 5. Giving that a lot contains 2500 parts, determine the number of defectives corresponding to: i. AQL of 1.6% ii. LTPD of 7.2% iii. IQL [Answers: (i) 40, (ii) 180, (iii) 125] 6. Sketch the OC curve representing the data in question 5 assuming a producer‘s risk of 5% and a consumer‘s risk of 10%. 7. State the conditions needed for: (a) clearance fit; (b) interference fit, for a hole and shaft assembly. 8. Why are there always dimensional deviations in manufactured parts? 9. What would you do if in the course of inspection you discover a part whose dimensions deviate from the given limit system? 10. A shaft has the dimension 75±0.10mm. Determine the lower, upper limits and tolerance. 11. The following limits refer to mating holes and shafts. For each case state the type of fit. Show how you arrive at your answer. [all dimensions are in millimetres] a) for the hole; for the shaft. b) for the hole; for the shaft. c) for the hole; for the shaft. d) for the hole; for the shaft.



Black, B.J. (2004): Workshop Processes, Practices and Materials Third Edition; Amsterdam: Elsevier Heizer, J. and Render, B. (1999): Operations Management, Fifth/International Edition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Kerzner, H (2001). Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling, Seventh (Electronic) Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Khurmi, R.S and J.K. Gupta (2005): A Textbook of Machine Design, Fourteenth (S.I.) Edition; New Delhi: Eurasia Pub. House (PVT) Ltd. Sharma, P.C. (2005): A Textbook of Production Engineering. New Delhi: S.Chand &Co. Ltd. Singh, R. (2006) Introduction to Basic Manufacturing Processes and Workshop Technology; New Delhi: New Age Inter. Pub.



A Abrasive grain size, 250 Abrasive wear, 156 Abrasive wheel, 21, 158 Abrasives, 141, 163, 249, 493 Absorption inhibitors, 473 Acceptable quality level, 509, 510 Acceptance level, 507 Acceptance number, 502 – 506 Acceptance sampling, 502, 503, 507 Accident, 5 Acetylene gas, 271, 273, 277 Acrylics, 326,335, 343, 344, 345 Actual deviation, 514 Actual size, 513 – 515, 517 Adhesive bonding, 257 Adhesive wear , 156 Adhesives (or glues), 355, 379 Adze (or axe), 361 Air bending, 100, 101, 102 Air gauges (comparators)132, 137, 139 Allowance, 110 – 112, 114 Alternator, 398, 411, 421 Aluminium, 26, 43, 91 468, 472, 481, Aluminium sheets, 91, 93 Aluminosis, 9 Angiosperms, 353 Angle plates, 79 Annealing, 306, 307 Anode, 264, 265, 473,474, Apron, 193, 211 Aqueous corrosion, 467 Arbor, 229, 232, 234,235, 236 Arbor Support, ,229, 232, 234,235 Arc welding, 262,263, 264 290, 291, 292 Artificial respiration, 16, 30 Asset, 1, 5, 6 Attribute, 500 Auger , 361, 374, 375 Automobile, 322, 325, 335, 387, 388 Average outgoing quality, 503 B Bakelite, 250, 331, 337, 350 Band saw, 380, 381, 382 Bar folder, 99, 107 Barrier cream, 9, 164 Barriers, 6, 457 Basic protection, 452, 453

Basic size, 512, 513, 514 Battery, 390, 398 Bed, 187, 188 Bellows, 479 Belt sander, 65, 66, 382 Bench grinders , 158 Bench hook, 358 Bench shear, 95 Bench stop, 358 Bend allowance, 111, 112 Bend axis, 105, 106 Bend brake, 99 Bend deduction, 123, 124 Bend development, 112, 121, 123 Bend geometry, 115 Bend radius, 110, 112 – 115 Bending, 107, 113 Bevel gauge, 356 Bilateral system of tolerance, 514 Bits, 52, 147, 361, 374 Black iron sheet, 91 Blow-holes, 494, 495 Body clearance, 56 Bolts, 49, 61, 64, 94, 174, 179, 256 Bond , 250 Bonding, 257, 260, 262, 291, 319 Boring, 64, 142, 172, 173, 206, 373, Bottom board, 477, 478 Bottom dead centre, 427 Bottoming, 59, 70, 100, 101 Bow saw, 364, 365 Bow tie, 6 Box square, 76, 77, 87 Brace, 361, 374, 375, 376 Bradawl, 361, 374, 375 Brakes, 99, 407, 409, 410 Brasses, 317 Brazing , 257, 260, 280, 290 Brittleness, 149, 284, 301, 302, 309 Bronzes, 317, 318 Brook level comparator, 139 Burns, 15,16,17 Butt joint, 261, 283, 345 C Cable, 17, 258, 334, 336, 420, 437 CAD, 96, 124, 125 Calcium carbide, 271 CAM, 96


Camshaft , 391, 393, 394 Capacitor, 137, 346, 448 Car, 387 Carbon equivalent , 284 Carburetion, 397 Carburetor, 388, 391, 397, 399, 400 Carpenter vice, 359 Carpentry , 38, 41, 42, 352 Cast alloys (stellites), 144, 147 Cast iron, 78, 148, 303 – 306 Casting, 383, 476 Casting yield, 487, 489 Cathode, 264, 265, 315, 470, 474 Cathodic protection, 474 Cellulose, 279, 280, 331, 354 Cellulosics, 334 Cementation, 320, 324, 474 Cemented carbides, 144, 147 – 149, 159 Center drilling, 172, 174 Centre lathe , 20, 187 Centres, 200 Cermets, 144, 149 Channel bending, 103 Chaplets, 480, 492, 493 Chassis , 389, 407 Chatter, 58, 156, 182, 207 Chemical corrosion, 467 Chemical etching, 469 Chemical machining, 141, 469 Chemical vapour deposition,148, 320, 324 Chip, 39, 42, 53, 142, 156, 370, 375, Chisels, 40 – 43, 370 – 372, 379 Chopping, 370, 371 Chuck key, 179, 197, 198 CIM, 96 Circular saw, 63, 66, 380, 382 Cladding, 256, 319, 320, 323, 474 Clamps (or Cramps), 80, 359 Claw hammers, 45, 377 Clay, 485, 498 Cleaning, 320, 329, 491 – 493 Clearance, 13, 53, 56, 199, 204 Clearance angle, 57, 152, 342 Clearance fit, 516 – 519 CNC, 96, 97 Coarse wheel, 158 Coating, 279, 319, 474 Coining, 100, 102 Cold shorts, 495 Collapsibility, 484, 485 Collet chuck, 171, 194, 196, 197 Colour codes, 16, 27, 447, 450 Colour coding, 438, 439

Coloured bands, 446, 463 Combination set, 76, 87, 356 Combustion knocks, 432 Compass, 356 Compass saw, 365 Compression stroke, 395, 396 Compression/tension ratio, 114, 115 Concentration cell, 471 Conductor, 16, 296, 420 Conifers, 352 – 354 Connecting rod, 208, 209, 392, 431 Consumer‘s risk, 502, 503, 507 – 509 Contraction rules, 383 Cooling, 26 – 29, 422, 492 Cope , 478, 479 Coping saw, 365 Copper, 43, 93, 437, 468 Core box, 380, 383, 479 Core drilling, 172 – 173 Cores, 173, 479 Corner-joint, 262 Corrosion, 319, 465 Corrosion control, 319, 469 Counter sinking, 174 Counter-boring, 172, 173 Crankshaft, 390 – 396, Crosscut saw, 361, 363 Crucible furnace, 490 Cubic boron nitride, 150, 167 Cutting, 33, 95, Cutting fluids, 148, 159 – 164 Cutting gauge, 212, 356 Cutting speed, 96, 154, 242 Cutting tool geometry, 151 Cutting tool materials, 143, 144 Cutting tool nomenclature, 153 Cutting tools, 33, 361 D Datum, 72, 73, 75, 77, 84 Deciduous trees, 352, 354 Defectives, 502 – 505 Defects, 320, 355, 493, 494, 507 Deflector plates, 164 Density, 251, 298, 299 Depth of cut, 143, 155 – 157 Depth stop, 182 Dermatitis, 8, 9 Detonation, 432 Development, 92, 110, 111 Diagnosis, 30, 415, 431 Dial indicators, 137 Diamond , 141, 143, 149


Die, 59, 61, 97 Die grinder, 63, 69 Dieing, 61 Differential aeration cell, 471 Differential temperature cell, 471 Dimensional deviations, 511 Dipping, 320, 324, 347 Disc sander, 382 Dividers, 63, 74, 75, 84 Dodge-Roming plans, 503 Double die bending, 100, 104 Double sampling plan, 504 Dovetail saw, 364 Dowel holes, 384 Dowel pins, 384, 478 Dowels, 355, 379 Down (or climb) milling, 239 – 241 Draft, 385, 479, 480 Draft (or taper) allowance, 479, 480 Drag, 477 – 479 Drill, 53, 63, 143, 169 – 172 Drill chuck, 179, 461 Drill press, 58, 176, 177 Drilling., 169, 173 – 177, Drilling machines, 169, 172, 175 – 177 Drive train, 389, 390 Drum sander, 482 Dry corrosion, 467 Dry strength, 484 Ductility, 301 – 306 Dwell tachometer, 425, 426 E Earthing, 439, 452 Ecart inferior (EI), 514 Ecart superior (ES), 514 Edge bending (or flanging), 104 Effective radius, 115, 117 Elastic recovery (spring-back), 101 Elasticity, 112, 147, 301 Electric circuit, 347, 436, Electric drill, 64, 65, 177, 461 Electric shock, 16, 451, 453, 456 Electric wiring, 435, 464 Electrical conductivity, 297, 316 Electrical symbols, 440 Electrochemical corrosion, 467, 474 Electrochemical grinding, 141, 469 Electrochemical machining, 141, 469 Electrode, 262, 263, 265, 269, 321, 396 Electrode coatings, 279, 292 Electrode coding, 281 Electrode efficiency, 277, 290

Electrode polarity, 266 Electro-deposition, 320, 469 Electrolytic corrosion, 467 Electrolytic polishing, 469 Electronic comparators, 137 Electronic symbols, 440, 443 Electroplating, 321, 322, 469, 474 Electro-winning, 469 Emergency kick-bars, 20 Emulsions, 160 – 162 Encapsulation, 338, 346, 347 Endogenous trees, 354 Engine, 390 – 399 Enveloped surface , 512 Enveloping surface, 512 Epoxy resins, 337, 481 Evergreen , 352, 353 Exhaust manifold, 394 Exhaust stroke, 395, 396, 398 Exhaust ventilation, 164 Exogenous trees, 354 Expansion (or Power) stroke, 396 Eye-shields, 21 F Face milling, 238, 240, 241 Facescreens, 21 Faceplate, 189, 198 – 200 Face-shields, 21 Facing sand, 477, 479, 484, 496 Factories act, 3, 4, 12, 18, 32 Fastening, 107, 255, 380 Fault protection, 452, 453, 463 Feed (or feed rate), 143, 147, 155, 294, 342 Fettling, 492 File card, 373 Files, 33 – 38, 43, 70, 311, 361, 372, 373 Fillet, 262, 289, 344, 345 Filming inhibitors, 473 Fine wheel, 158 Fire extinguishers, 27, 28 Fire point , 24 Fire safety, 23 Fire triangle, 24 – 27 First aid, 6, 30, 31 First aider, 30, 31 Fit, 515 Fixed (Main) scale, 133, 134 Flame spraying, 320, 322, 323 Flanging, 104 Flash point , 24 Flask, 383, 477, 478 Fluidity, 495


Fluxes, 279, 291 Foil, 89 Folding, 92, 94, 95, 99, 106, 107 Form milling, 232, 233, 239 Form tool, 207 Foundry, 376, 377, 483, 485, 490 Four jaw independent chuck, 194, 196, 215 Four-stroke cycle, 388, 391 – 395 Friction welding, 345 Front-wheel drive, 402,406 Fuel injection, 397, 400, 424 Functional switching, 452 Fundamental deviation, 515 Fusion welding, 262, 266 Fusion zone , 283, 285 G Galvanized iron sheets, 91 Gang drill, 177 Gangways, 10 Gas welding, 262, 271, 273, 277, 344 Gates (or in-gates), 479, 487, 488, 492 - 498 Gating system, 486, 487, 498, 499 Gauge, 68, 89, 90, 212, 139, 428, 500 Gauge numbers, 89 Gimlet, 361 Glass fibre, 338, 339, 350 Glass paper, 38, 43 Goggles, 20, 158, 335 Gouges, 42, 368, 369 Grade, 34, 250, 348, 429 Grain flow, 105, 106, Grain flow direction Graphite , 304, 306, 327, 337, 485, Green patina, 468 Green strength, 484 Grinding, 141, 158, 244 Grinding wheel, 150, 158, 245 – 254 Guards (fixed, interlocking),14,18,19,336 Guillotine machine, 95 Gun drills, 174 Gymnosperms, 353 H Hacksaw, 38 – 40, 94, 343 Half-round drills, 174 Hammers, 11, 44 – 47, 94, 99, 377, 379 Hand Shears, 62, 95, 125 Hand tools, 10, 11, 33, 95, 457 Hard wood, 352, 379 Hardening, 104, 306, 308 – 311 Hardness, 112, 143, 301 Hazard, 1 – 8

Headstock, 189, 190, 193 Heart wood, 353, 354 Heat affected zone, 273, 283, 285 Heat input, 263, 265 Heat sealing, 344 Hems , 95, 106 – 108 Hermaphrodite calipers, 75 High carbon steels, 144, 304, 314 High speed steels , 144 – 147 Hole , 53, 57, 169, 373, 512 Hollowing (blocking), 45, 47, 94 Hollowing block, 109, 109 Hollowing hammer, 45, 47, 109 Horseless carriage, 387, 388 Hot dipping, 320, 374 Hot strength, 144, 484, 486 Hot Tears, 496, 499 Hot-gas welding, 344, 351 Housekeeping, 7, 10, 28, 164 I Ignition, 24 – 28, 399 Ignition switch, 398, 411, 419, 421, 424 Ignition temperature, 24, 26 Imperial threads, 214 Impressed current, 474 Incident, 5 – 7 Inclusions, 470, 495 Indifference quality level, 509, 510 Induction heating, 257 Inhibition, 472 Inorganic coatings, 320, 326, 327, 474 Inorganic inhibitors, 473 Inspection, 422, 491, 501 Insulation, 334, 340, 346, 438 Intake manifold, 389, 394, 397, 400 Intake stroke, 427 Interchangeability, 511, 513 Interference, 515 Interference fit, 517 Internal combustion (IC), 391, 422 Isolator, 193, 247, 452 Isolator switch, 19, 20, 452 J Jack plane, 366, 367 Jacks, 80 Jig, 179, 181 Jigsaw, 63, 66, 461 Joinery, 352, 356, 359, 377 Joining, 94, 255 Journeyman electrician, 459


K Kerf, 363 K-factor, 114, 116, 121 Knife, 37, 203, 458 L Lap joint, 257, 262, 275 Lapping, 162, 244 Leaf, 89, 407, 408 Lifting procedure, 12, 13 Lignin, 354, 478 Limit system, 511, 512, 517 Limits, 511 Limits of sizes, 511, 512 Linear expansion, 299, 313 Live centre , 200 Lobing, 183 Lot (or batch) size, 503 Lower deviation, 513, 514, 517 Lower limit, 511, 513, 514, 517 LTPD, 509, 510 Lubrication, 19, 60, 160, 161, 200, 397 M Machinability, 155 – 159, 481 Machine tools, 94, 96, 141, 169, 175 Machining, 141 Machining allowance , 383 Malleability, 302, 304 Mallets, 99, 377, 379 Mandrel, 202 Manual metal arc welding, 267 Marking dye, 81, 87 Marking-out (or scribing), 52, 72 – 78, Master pattern, 111, 482 Material selection, 303, 470, 471 Mean deviation, 514 Measurement, 56, 72, 111, 132, 501 Measuring equipment, 132 Mechanical locking, 256 Melting, 490, 491, 494 Melting point, 257, 262, 276, 299, 323 Metal coatings, 320, 321 Metal inert gas welding, 290, 295 Metalworking, 63, 89, 94, Micrometer, 94, 134 Milling,141, 216, 226 Milling cutters, 146, 155, 231 Mortise gauge, 356, 357 Mould, 339, 383 Mould boxes, 383 Moulding, 334, 335, 346, 476, 477 Moulding sand, 477 – 481, 484, 485, 494

Multipoint cutting tools, 142, 143

N Nail gun (Nailer), 68, 69 Near-miss, 6 Neat cutting oils, 160, 161 Neutral axis , 113 – 116 Neutral flame, 272, 273 Neutral safety switch, 419 Nickel itch, 9 Nominal size, 513, 514 Normalizing, 306, 308 Nose radius, 153 Notches, 98 Notching, 94, 95, 98 Nylon, 336, 344, 345 O Off-hand grinding, 158, 244 Oil filter, 422, 428 Open hearth furnace, 490 Operating characteristic curve, 507, 508 Optical comparators, 137, 139 Organic coatings, 321, 326, 474 Organic inhibitors, 473 Outer sheath, 437 Overarm, 229, 235 Overcurrent, 435, 453 Overcurrent protection, 452 Oxidation , 257, 325, 467, 469 Oxidizing flame, 272, 273 P Painting, 319, 325, 329 Paints, 65, 319, 325, 379, 474 Panel beaters, 93 Panel saw, 363, 364 Parallels, 79, 80, 181, 198, 224 Parent metal, 257, 263, 267, 279 Paring , 42, 371 Parings, 370 Parting line, 385, 480, 496 Parting sand, 478, 484 Passivity, 468 Pattern, 110, 383, 479 Pattern making, 42, 112, 352, 383, 480 Pedestal grinders, 158 Peripheral milling, 238, 240 Permanent-magnet chuck, 248 Permeability, 484, 485, 495 Personal protective equipment, 10 Piston, 300, 390 – 396


Piston slap, 432 Planes, 366 Plant (facility) layout, 92 Plasticity, 321, 485 Plastics , 331 Plate, 78, 89 Pliers, 11, 48 Polishing, 149, 244, 469 Polycarbonates, 336, 350 Polyesters, 338 Polyethylene, 332 – 336 Polymer, 331, 332 Polymerization, 331, 332 Polyolefins, 335, 350 Polypropylene, 335, 345 Polystyrenes, 335 Polytetrafluorethylene , 336 Polyvinyl chloride, 334 Poor quality level, 509 Potentiometers, 445 Potting, 346, 347 Pouring basin, 478, 486, 487 Powder metallurgy, 147, 476 Power (or Impact) wrench, 63 Power train, 389, 390, 407 Pre-ignition, 432 Press brakes, 99 Pressure welding, 258 - 260 Preventive maintenance, 416, 417 Primer, 319, 326 – 330 Priming, 328 Producer‘s risk, 502, 503, 507, 509 Production pile, 500 Pro-E, 124 Protective clothing, 9, 164 Protective coatings, 470, 474 Protective equipotential bonding, 451, 453 Punch press, 96 Punches, 62, 73, 94, 311 Punching, 63, 97 Q Quality. 500 – 509 Quality control, 500, 501 R Rake angle, 56, 57 Ram, 216, 217 Ramming, 477 Rasps, 361, 372, 379 Reamer, 57, 58, 206 Reaming , 57, 58, 169, 173, 174 Rear-wheel drive, 402, 405, 406

Red (or hot ) hardness , 143, 144, 147 Redlining, 425 Redox reactions, 468 Reducing flame, 271, 272 Refractoriness, 149, 484 Refractory, 150, 476, Rejection number, 502, 504, 506 Repairs , 273, 413 - 416 Resistance welding, 274 Resistivity, 297, 298 Resistors, 444 Reverse engineering, 124 Reverse polarity, 265, 290 Rip Saw, 363 Riser pin, 478 Risering, 486, 489 Risk, 2, 5, 508 Rivets, 94, 256 Rotary bending, 100, 105 Rotary furnace, 490 Rules, 132, 356,383 Runners, 479, 487,488 Rust, 73, 160, 162, 429, 467 Rusting, 325,465 S Sacrificial anode method, 474 Saddle, 190 – 192 Safety chuck key, 179, 197, 198 Safety colours , 22 Safety consciousness, 7 Safety devices, 18 Safety legislation, 1 – 3 Safety signs, 22, 23 Safety spectacles, 20,158 Safety, 1, 413, 452 Sample size, 502 – 507 Sampling, 501 – 503 Sampling plans, 503 Sand mould, 476 – 480 Sanding machines, 380 – 383 Sapwood, 354 Sawing, 161, 343 Saws, 38, 67, 361 Scald, 15 Scrap pile, 500 Scraper, 11, 38, 43 Screw-cutting, 210 – 213 Screw-cutting gauge, 212 Screwdriver, 51, 52 Screws, 256, 310 Scriber, 52, 73 Seams, 94, 107


Semi-synthetic fluids, 162 Sequential sampling, 504, 505 Shaft , 512 Shake allowance, 480 Shape development, 110, 112 Shaping, 33, 69, 216 Shaping machine, 216, 219 Shears, 62, 94 Sheet gauge, 89 Sheet metal, 89 – 91 Sheet metal workers, 93, 94 Sheet metalwork, 89 – 93 Shrink factor, 383 Shrinkage allowance, 383, 384, 479 SiAlONs, 144, 150 Side cutters, 458 Side milling, 231 – 234 Silica sand, 485 Silicones, 338, 346, 347, 350 Single point cutting tools, 142 Single sampling plan, 503 Sintered ceramics, 144, 148 Sizing techniques, 500 Slab milling, 238, 239 , 243 Slag, 262, 267, 279 Sledge hammer, 45, 377, 492 Slotting, 239 Smoothing plane, 367 Smothering, 26 – 29 Snips, 62, 91, 95 Soft wood, 352, 374 Solder, 94 Soldering, 94, 256, 257 Solidification shrinkage, 383, 489 Solid-state diffusion, 156 Solidworks, 124 Soluble oils, 160, 161 Solvent welding, 343 Spanner (or wrench), 11, 49, 50, 335 Spark plugs, 411, 412, 419, 423 – 428 Specific heat capacity, 159, 300 Spindle speed, 155, 165, 189, 193, 205 Spirit level, 76, 139, 356 Splash guards, 163, 164 Spoke shave, 368 Spot facing, 172, 186 Spot welding, 259, 274, 275 Spraying, 320, 322, 323, 347, 474 Sprue , 478, 486, 487 Sprue pin, 478 Sprue well, 486, 488 Stainless steel plate, 91 Starting safety switch , 419

Starvation , 26 Statistical quality control, 501 Steadies, 201 Steel, 91, 143, 283, 284, 304, 466 Steering, 389, 390, 409 Step drilling, 173 Stop switches, 19 Straddle milling, 239 Straight polarity, 265, 291 Strain hardening, 104 Strength, 91, 95, 99, 299, 300 Stretch-out, 98, 110 Stub arbor, 235 Submerged arc welding, 269, 292 Surface grinding, 244 Surface plates, 78, 81, 87 Surface tables, 78 Synthetic fluids, 161, 162 T Tachometer, 416, 424 – 426 Tailstock, 191, 198 Tang, 33, 34, 368 Taper turning, 207 Taper-tuning attachment, 209 Tapping, 59 – 61, 172, 175 Taps , 59, 146, 175 Tarnishing , 465, 467 Taylor equation, 157 Tempering, 43, 306, 308 – 311 Template , 111 Tenon saw, 364 Terneplate, 91 Thermal conductivity, 147 – 150, 276, 296 Thermoplastics, 331, 333, 336, 341, 350 Thermosets, 332, 336 Thread indicator dial, 211 – 214, Threading, 61, 343 Threat, 6 Three-jaw chuck, 195 Timber trees, 352, 354 Timing belt, 394 Tin snips, 91, 95 Tinplate, 91, 93 T-joint, 262, 381 Tolerance, 172, 445 – 448, 511 Tolerance zone, 514 – 517 Tool bits, 147 Tool holding, 179 Tool life, 148, 154 – 159 Toolhead , 217, 218 Tool-kit, 458, 459 Top (or compound) slide, 192, 207, 215


Top dead centre, 427 Toughness, 143, 144, 148,149, 302, 352 Trammels, 74, 75 Transition fit, 517, 519 Transmission, 193, 388 – 390, 402, 403 Trepanning drills, 175 Try square, 77, 83, 356 Trying plane, 366, 367 Tune-up, 426, 428 Tungsten inert gas welding, 270 Turning, 60, 142, 148, 153, 380 Twist drill, 53, 170 Type I error, 508 Type II error, 508 Tyres, 408 U UCON, 144, 150 Unilateral system of tolerance, 513 Unsafe act, 6, 11 Unsafe condition, 6 Up (or conventional) milling, 239 Upper deviation, 513, 514, 517 Upper limit, 511, 513, 514, 517, 521 V Vapour phase inhibitors, 473 Variable, 500 Varnishes, 326, 355, 379, 474 V-bending, 100, 103 Vee blocks, 81, 248 Vegetable oils, 162 Vernier scale, 132, 133, 134

Vice, 179, 181, 222, 237, 248, 359 W Warrington peen hammer, 45, 47, 377, 378 Wedges, 45, 80, 377, 378 Weld, 260 Weld dilution, 161, 162, 269, 277, 278 Weld dimensions, 289 Weld symbol, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289 Welding, 255 Welding symbol, 285, 287, 288, 289 Wet corrosion, 467 Wheels, 159, 248, 249, 250, 493 Wiping die bending (see flanging), 100, 104 Wire gauge, 89, 90, 125 Wood, 352 – 355 Woodwork joints, 380, 381, 386 Woodworking , 63, 356, Woodworking lathe, 380 Work holding (Clamping), 61, 80,179, 229, 237 Work piece (WP), 101, 102, 141, 169, 172 Work rest, 158 Workbench, 136 Workshop protractor, 77, 78 Z Zero line, 514, 515, 518


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