A mixture oxide of iron and chromium FeOCr2O3 is fused with sodium carbonate in the presence of air to form a yellow colourd compound (A). On acidification the compound (A) forms as orange colourd compound (B). Witch of the strongest oxidizing agent. 1.the compound (A) and (B) 2.write balanced comical equation for the each steps Ans.1. Compound (A) – Na2 Cr2 O7 (sodium chromate) Compound (A) – Na2 Cr2 O7 .2H2O (sodium dichromate) 2.

Q. The reduction of a metal oxide is easier if the metal formed is liquid state the temperature of reduction. Ans. The entropy is higher if the metal is in liquid state. The value of entropy change Of the reduction process is more on +ve side when the metal formed is in liquid state and the metal oxide being reduced is in solid state. Thus the value of ^G© become more negative side and the reduction become easier. Q. the reduction of cr203 with Al is thermodynamically feasible, yet is not does occur in the room temp. Ans. The reaction Cr2O3 + 2Al - Al2O3 +2Cr Is thermodynamically feasible certain amount of activation energy is essential. Therefore, such reactions, heating is required. Q. pine oil is used in forth flotation process. Ans. Pine oils enhanced non-mettability of the mineral particles and froth stabilizers (E.g. cresols, aniline) stabilized the froth. Q. transition metal acts as catalyst. Ans. Transition metal shows variable oxidation state, therefore, they can form intermediate products of different reactant molecules. Transition elements are capable to form

interstitial compound due to which they can absorb and activate the reacting molecules. Example:- v2o5 is used for the oxidation of so2 to so3 in contact process of hydrochloric acid

Q. chromium group element have the higher melting point in there respective series. Ans. The higher melting point of chromium group element are attributed in the involvement of greater higher number of electron from (n-1) d in addition to the Ns electron in the interatomic metallic bonding.

Q. transition metals formed coloured complex. Ans. The colour of compound of transition element depends upone the unpaired electron present in the d orbital of transition element. if d orbital are complete vacant as in se3+ and ti4+ or co complete filled as in cu2+ and zn2+, the compounds will be colourless, but if any unpaired electron is present in d- orbital, the compound will be coloured due to d-d transaction. The unpaired electron excite from one energy level to another energy level with in the same d- sub shell. For this purpose (d-d transaction) the energy is absorbed from visible region of radiation and reflected lights will decide the colour of the compound.

Q. account for the following information. 1.Among the halogens f2 is the strongest oxidising agent? Ans. Since the reduction potential of F is maximum.

2.Fluorine exhibits only -1 oxidation state whereas other halogen elements exhibit in positive oxidation state also. Ans. F has no vacant d – orbital.

3acidity of oxo acid of chlorine is HOCl<HOClO<HOClO2<HOClO3 Ans. In HOCl, oxidation state of Cl = +1 In HOClO, oxidation state of Cl = +3 In HOClO2, oxidation state of Cl = +5 In HOClO3, oxidation state of Cl = +7

Q. a trance lucent white waxy solid (A) on heating in an inert atmosphere is converted to its, allotropic form (B). Allotrope (A) on reaction with very dilute KOH liberates a highly poisonous gas (C) having rotten fish smell. With access of chlorine form (D) which hydrolyses to compound (E). Identify the compound (A) to (E) Ans. (A) White waxy solid - white phosphorus (B) Allotrope - red phosphorus (C) Poisonous gas - PH3 (phosphin) (D)PCl3 - phosphoric trichloride (E) H3PO3 - phosphorous acid Reactions:P4 + HI – PH4I

White phosphorus phosphonium iodine PH4I + PH3 + KOH – KI+H2O

Phosphene PH3 HCL + 3CL2 – PCL3


Chlorine PCL3 + 3HCL 3H2O

phosphoric trichloride – H3PO3


Q. Chlorine water has both oxidising and bleaching properties. Ans. Chlorine undergo from -1 to 0 or negative to positive oxidation state.

Q. H3PO2 and H3PO3 acts as good reducing agents while H3PO4 does not? Ans. In H3PO4, 4 have +5 oxidation states which is maximum while H3PO2 and H3PO3 have oxidation state +1 and +3 respectively.

Q. On addition of ozone gas to KI solution, violet vapours are obtained. Ans. Ozone oxidises moist potassium iodide to iodine Reaction:2KI I2(s) + O2 (g) + H2O 2KOH (aq)


Q. Give reasons for the following:(a) CN- ion is known but CP- is not known. Ans. N has higher electeronegativity, so it exists in nature. (b) NO2 demerises to form N2O4. Ans. NO2 is having odd electrons hence gets demerises. c)ICl is more reactive than I2.

Ans. I-Cl has little polar character than I2 so I-Cl is more reactive than I2.

Q. an element A exists as a yellow solid in standard state. It forms a volatile hydride foul smelling gas and is extensively used in quantitative analysis of salt. When treated with oxygen B forms an oxide C which is a colourless compound, pungent smelling gas. This gas when passed through acidified KMnO4 solution decolourises it. C gets oxidized D in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst. Identify A, B, C, D and also give the chemical equation. of C with acidified KMnO4 solution for conversion C to D. Ans. The element A is sulphur. The gas C is sulphur dioxide S(s) + O2 (g) SO2 (g) gas D is sulphur trioxide 2SO2 (g) +O2 2SO3 (g)



Sulphur dioxide behaves as a reducing agent, it converts iron (III) ions to iron (II) ions and decolourises acidified potassium permanganate (VII) solution. 5SO2 + + 2Mn2+ 2MnO-4 + 2H2O5SO42+4H+

A-element sulphur B-CS2, sulphur dioxide gas C- So3, sulphur trioxide gas

Q. A blackish brown compound A when fused with alkali metal hydroxide in presence of air, produces a dark green coloured compound B which on electrolytic oxidation in alkaline medium gives a dark purple coloured compound C. Identify A, B, and C and write the reactions involved. Ans. Blackish brown coloured solid A = MnO2 (Pyrolusite) Dark green coloured compound B = KMnO4 Dark purple coloured compound C = KMnO4 (potassium permanganate) Reaction:2MnO2 + + 2H2O A)(B) 2K2MnO4 + B)(C) 4KOH+ O2 – 2K2MnO4

+ 2KCL

Cl2 –


Q. What happens when an acidic solution of the green compound (B) is allowed to stand for same time? Give the equation involved. What is this type of reaction called? Ans. When the acidic solution of the green compound is allowed to stand for some times, its colour changes to dark purple to form KMNO4 2K2MnO4 + 4HCL 2KMnO4 + MnO2 + 2H2O + 4KCL Q. Give the reason for the following: Q. A transition metals have high enthalpies of atomization. Ans. since transition elements has metallic bonding due to presence of unpaired electrons.

Q. Among the lanthanoids, Ce (III) is easily of oxidised to Ce (IV). Ans. Ionization energy is low as electron is loosely bounded to nucleus.

Q. Fe3+|fe2+ redox couple has less positive electron potential than Mn3+|Mn2+ couple. Ans. since Mn is stable half filled state. Q. Copper (I) has d10 configuration, while copper II has d9 configuration, still copper (II) is more stable in aqueous solution than copper. Ans. Cu (II) is more stable since it has d10 configuration which is fully filled. Q. The second and third transition series elements have almost similar atomic radii. Ans. This is due to the intervention of the 4f orbital which must be filled before the 5d series of the element begin. Q. what is covalence of nitrogen in N2O5? Ans. the covalence of nitrogen in N2O5 =5

Since the structure of N2O5 is

Q. explains why both N and Bi do not form pentahelide while phosphorous does? Ans. nitrogen and bismuth do not formed pentahelide due to non - availability of the d- orbital in its valence shell.

Q. when conc. H2SO4 was added into an unknown salt is present in a test tube, a brown gas is evolved. This gas intensified when copper turning where also added into this test tube. On cooling, the gas (A) changed into a clourless gas (B). (a) Identify the gases A and B (b) Write the equation for the reaction involved. Ans. (a) nitrite when heated with conc. H2SO4 first comes colourless nitric acid which decomposes to give brown fumes Of nitrogen oxide NaNO3 + Conc.H2SO4 (aq) NaHSO4 (aq) + HNO3 (g) 4HNO3 2H2 (l) + O2 (g) +4NO2 (g) Brown nitrogen dioxide A is NO2 (g) B is HNO3 (g) (b) Brown fumes intensifies o addition of copper turning due to reaction of evolved nitric acid with copper Cu (s) + 4HNO3 (g) - Cu (NO3)2 (aq) +2H2O (l)+2NO2(g). Q. why does chlorine water lose its yellow coloured on standing? Ans. chlorine water on standing loses its yellow colour due to formation of HCL and HOCl Cl2 + H2O - 2HCl +O Q. what happened when Cl2 reacts with cold dilute solution of sodium hydroxide? Write equation only. Ans. with cold and dilute alkalies like NaOH chlorine produces a mixture of chlorine and hydro chlorine. 2NaOH + Cl2 NaCl + NaOCl +H2O (Cold & dilute) hypochlorite Q. writes down the equation for hydrolysis of XF4 and XeF6. Which of these two reactions is a redox reaction? Ans. Hydrolysis of XeF4 and XeF6 with water gives XeO3.

6XeF4 + 12 H2O 24HF + 3O2 XeF6 + 3H2O -






2XeO3 +




The electrolysis of XeF4 is a redox reaction while the hydrolysis of XeF6 is not a redox reaction. Explanation:The products of hydrolysis are XeOF4 . And XeO2F2 the oxidation states of all the element Remains the same as it was in the reacting stage. XeF6 XeF6 + + H2O 2H2O XeOF4 + XeO2F2 + where


Q. Give the electronic configuration of the following. Q. d-orbital of Ti in [Ti (H2O)6]3- in an octahedral crystal filed. Ans. electronic configuration of Ti in [Ti (H2O)6]3+ is Ti (d1) Two vacant d orbital are available for octahedral hybridization with 4s and 4p orbital. Q. Why does this complex is coloured? Explain on the basis of distribution of electron in the d-orbital. Ans. the coloured complex is purple. The coloured complex is due to the jumping of electron from lower level to higher level. When an electron from a lower energy of orbital is excited to the higher energy of level, the energy of excitations corresponds To the complementary colour of the light absorbed.

Q How does these the colour change on heating [Ti (H2O) 6]3+ ion? Ans. since the structural arrangement of complex changes on heating, so the colour of complex change. Q. Of the ions Ag+, Co2+ and Ti4+, which ones coloured in aqueous solutions. Ans. Ag+ (4d10 5s0) and Ti4+ have no unpaired electrons while CO2+ (3d7 4s0) has there unpaired electrons, so Ag2+ and Ti4+ ions are colour less and CO2+ ions are coloured in aqueous solutions. Q. If each one of the above ionic species is in turn place in a magnetic filed, how will it respond and why? Ans. CO2+ ions will get attracted in a magnetic filed while Ag+ and Ti4+ ions will get repelled in the magnetic field i.e., Co2+ ions are paramagnetic while Ag+ and Ti4+ ions arte diamagnetic in nature.

Q. (a) Account for the following observations: Q. In several chemical properties lithium resembles magnesium. Ans. Lithium resembles magnesium because both are diagonally opposite elements. They have same electropositive character, similar polarizing power and similar ionization energies.

Q. +1oxidation state of thallium (atomic no.81) is more stable than its+3 oxidation state. Ans. an Outer configuration of thallium is 6s26p1. Due to inert pair effect the 6s2 electrons are reluctant to participate in bond formation. Only 6p1 electron takes pare in bond formation. Hence H oxidation state of thallium is more stable the it’s +3 oxidation state.

Q. Boron chloride exists as a monomer while in the same group anhydrous s aluminum chloride exists as a dimmer. Ans. Due to the smaller size of boron (85 pm) and aluminum (143 pm) boron cannot accommodate four CI ions around it. Hence boron chloride exists as a monomer while anhydrous aluminum chloride exists as a dimmer. Q. Complete and balance the following chemical equations: 1 2 NH3 (g) XeF4 + + H2O (l) SbF5 - NH4 + (aq) + OH- (aq) - [XeF3] + [SbF6]-

Q. N2 is less reactive at room temperature. Ans. Dinitrogen is inert at room temperature because the highly bond enthalpy of N triple bond N. Q.H2S is less acidic than H2Te. Ans. due to decrease in bond (E-H) dissociation enthalpy down the group, acidic character increases.

Q. hydrogen fluoride has higher melting point that hydrogen chloride. Ans. Due to high electronegative fluorine, the bond pair of H molecules is largely attached towards F, and wide spared Hbonding exist in H-bonding exist in HF is higher than that of HCL. Q. On being slowly passed through water PH3 forms bubbles but NH3 dissolved. Why is it so? Ans. the N-H bond in NH3 is more polar than P-H bond in ph3. As a result NH3 easily dissolve in polar solvent like water whereas PH3 does not dissolve as shoe bubbles.

Q. nitrogen is fairly inert gas. Ans. Nitrogen exist as triply bonded diatomic gaseous molecules at ordinary temperature

Due to short inter nuclear distance (109pm), the bond strength is very high and the molecules can be broken by using enormous amount of energy. Also it is non polar. That is why nitrogen is fairly inert gas.

Q. identifiy the type of inter-molecular forces that exists between the following pair. 1. Na+ ion and water molecules Ans. Ion-dipole attraction. 2. Ag+ and I-ion. Ans. Ion induced dipole attraction. 3. Argon and argon. Ans. Dispersion force. 4. HF and H2O Ans. H - bonding.

Q. Mention the direct consequence of the following factors on the chemical behavior of the transition elements. A. they have incomplete filled d-orbital in the ground state or in one of the oxidised state of there atoms. B. they contribute more valance electrons per atom in the formation of metallic bond. Ans. a. vacant d-orbital can accept lone pair of electro is donated by other group (ligands) consequently. Transition elements formed a large number of complex compounds. b. due to the large number of valence electron per atom the metallic bonds in transition elements are quite strong. Due to the presence of strong metallic bonds the transition metals are hard, possess high density and high enthalpies of atomization.

Q. writes the uses of sulphuric acid?

Ans. Uses are:1. Petroleum refining. 2. Manufacture of pigments. 3. Detergent industry. 4. Metallurgical applications. 5. Storage batteries.

Q. given the appropriate reasons for each of the following observation:

Q. Sulphur vapours exhibits some paramagnetic behavior. Ans. At elevated temperature, a sulphur vapour exists, as S2 molecules which are paramagnetic like O2.

Q. Sillicon has no allotropic form analogous to graphite. Ans. this is due to reluctant of silicone to form p pai-p pai multiple bounds because of large size of silicon atom. Hence, silicon exists in diamond structure.

Q. of the noble gases only xenon in known to form real chemical compounds. Ans. Xe has relatively lower ionization energy among inert gases and thus the outermost shell electron of Xe excites to dsubshell and thereby showing unpaired electronic structure.

Q. Nitrogen shows only a little tendency for catenation, whereas phosphorous show a clear tendency for catenation. Ans. Nitrogen shows a little tendency for catenation, due to weakness of N-N single bond whereas the phosphorous shows a clear tendency for catenation, due to its ununexpectedly high bond energy.

Q. accounts the following: Q. Tendency to show -2 oxidation states diminishes from sulphur to polonium in group 16. Ans. as we move down the group from sulphur to polonium, the electeronegativity decreases.

Q. Boron forms electron deficient compound. Ans. boron has only three electrons in the outermost shell which it can share with other atom. Hence in these compounds, there are six electrons present around B-atom i.e., octet is not completed. Q. PbCl4 is less stable than SnCl4. Ans. this is because the stability of +4 oxidation state decreases down the group. Transition elements are those in which the last electron enters the d-orbital of penultimate shell. There general electronic configuration is [Noble gas](n1) d 1-10 ns 1-2 Inert transition elements are those in which the last electron enters the d-orbital of antepenultimate shell. There general outer configuration is 4f 1-14 5d 0-1 6s2 or 5f 1-14 6d 0-1 7s2.

Q. discuss the general trends in the following properties of the 3dd transition elements (21 – 29) Q. atomic size Ans. in 3d series, atomic radius decreased from 21si to 25Mn and then becomes constant for next five elements. This is due to combine effects of increasing effective nuclear and increase screening effects along the period.

Q. oxidation state Ans. 3d elements shows variable oxidation state due to the participation of 4s and 3d electrons in bonding because the energy of 4s and 3d subshell are almost equal. Two higher oxidation state increases with the increase in atomic numbers, reaches a maximum value in the middle and starts decreasing. Q. formation of coloured ions Ans. except Zn4-, d3 –transition metal ions possess one or more unpaired d electron which undergo-d transition to impart colour to them. Q. gives appropriate reason for each of the following observations: Q. only higher numbers of group 18 of the periodic table are expected to form compounds. Ans. this is because member like xenon and krypton have low ionization energy and also have vacant orbital in there valance shell for the promotion of electrons. Q. Fluorine is the stronger oxidising agent than chlorine, though fluorine has lower electron affinity than chlorine Ans. Fluorine has higher standard potation than chlorine, so it is more easily reduced and hence it is stronger oxidising agent than chlorine

Q. NO2 readily forms a dimmer, whereas ClO2 does not. Ans. NO2 has one unpaired electron in its molecular orbital which tends to get paired and thus dimerisation occur.

Q. how would you account for the following:

Q. The transition elements exhibit in high enthalpies of atomization. Ans. because if having large number of unpaired electrons in their atoms, they have stronger atomic interaction and has stronger bonding between atoms. Consequently, transition elements exhibit higher enthalpies of atomization. Q. The 4d and 5d series of the transition metals have more frequent metal-metal bonding in there compounds then do the 3d metals. Ans. the transition metals of 4d and 5d series having greater enthalpy of atomisation then the corresponding elements of 3d series. This indicates the metal of 4d and 5d series having more frequent metal-metal bonding in there compounds than do the 3d metals. Q. There is greater range of oxidation stats among the actinoides than that in the lanthanoids. Ans. lanthanoids mainly exhibit in +3 oxidation state. In addition, they show lower oxidation state of+2 and higher oxidation states of +4, Actinoides also exhibit +3 oxidation state. In addition they show a wide range of higher oxidation state from +4 to +7. This is due to comparable energies of 5f, 6d, and 7s orbital in actinoides

Q. of the ions Co2+, Sc2+, and Cr2+ which one will give coloured aqueous solution and how will each of them respond to magnetic field and why? Ans. Co2+: [Ar] 3d7 Sc2+: [Ar] 3d0 Cr2+: [Ar] 3d3 2+ and Cr3+ ion will more coloured ion in aqueous solution as Co they have unpaired electron in the 3d-subshell. Sc3+ has no unpaired electrons in 3d-subshell so in will form colourless ions. So Sc3+ will be repelled (diamagnetic) and Co2+ and Cr3+ ion will be attracted (paramagnetic) in a magnetic fields. Q. Explain giving reason each of the following:

Q. NF3 is an exothermic compound but NCl3 is an endothermic compound. Ans. bond strength of N-F bond is more than the bond strength of N-Cl bond.

Q. CCl4 is not hydrolysed with water but SiCl4is easily hydrolysed. Ans. carbon does not contain d-subshell where as silicon does contain. Therefore, silicon can accommodate lone pair electron donated by oxygen atom of water for co-ordinate bond formation. There unlike to SiCl4, CCl4 does not hydrolysed. Q. Nitrogen does not formed pentachloride but phosphorous formed. Ans. nitrogen does not possess d-subshell. Therefore it can accommodate one pair of electron donated by chlorine atoms, for co-ordinate bond formation. In phosphorous the state of affair is just opposite, as it does contain d-subshell. Q. SF6 is well known but SH6 is not known. Ans. SF6 is much more stable than SH6 as F is more electronegative than H. Q. BF3 is a weaker Lewis acid then BCl3. Ans. BF3 is smaller molecule than BCl3 therefore, is repels the lone pair of electron which BF3 accepted by behaving as a Lewis base. Q. nitrogen exists as a diatomic molecules, N2 where as phosphorous exist as a tetra atomic molecules, P4 Ans. There exists triple bond in two nitrogen atoms. Then it occurs as a diatomic molecule. Phosphorous does not exhibit

multiple bonding to the same extant as nitrogen. Therefore P4 exist in tetrahedral structure. Q. Explain the following observations. Q. Most of the known noble gas compounds are those of xenon. Ans. this is because of lower ionization energy of xenon and due to the presence of vacant d-orbital for the promotion of electron. Q. ClF3 exists but FCl3 does not. Ans. chlorine atom has vacant d-orbital and ca show a valency of +3 and so ClF3 is formed F atom has no d-orbital and can show only -1 oxidation state.

Q. among the hydrides of elements of group 16. Water shows unusual physical properties. Ans. H2O is a colourless liquid while the other hydrides of group 16 elements are colourless poisonous gases with unpleasant smell. The law volatile character of water is due to the association of water molecules through hydrogen bonding. This in turn, is due to low atomic size and high electeronegativity of oxygen. Q. Unlike phosphorous, nitrogen show little tendency for catenation. Ans. Nitrogen shows a little tendency towards catenation. It is due to the weakness of the N-N single bond. The tendency of phosphorous to show the catenation is due to its unexpectedly high bond energy.

Q. assigns appropriate reason for each of the following

observation Q. Anhydrous AlCl3 is used as a catalyst. Ans. The central Al in AlCl3 is electron deficient. Because it’s Lewis acid character, AlCl3 acts as a catalyst in frendlecraft’t alkylation’s and acylation of benzene and help in generating electrophile for attack on the ring. Q. Phosphinic acid behaves as a monophonic acid. Ans. Phosphinic acid H3PO2, has one P(OH) group and two hydrogen directly attached to phosphorous it has only one ionisable hydrogen and hence behaves as a monophonic acid. Q. SF6 is not easily hydrolysed whereas SF4 is readily hydrolysed. Ans. SF6 is inert due to the presence of satirically protected sulphur atom which does no allow thermodynamically favorable reaction like hydrolysis takes place. On the other hand, the less satirical hindrance SF4 goes hydrolysis. Q. no form of element silicon is comparable. Ans. the size of silicon atom is larger than that of carbon atoms so the bonding is not effective in silicon atoms. However this is present in carbon atoms in graphite of smaller size. So element silicon cannot give graphite like structure. But it reassembles diamond and very hard and poor conductor of electricity. Q. account for the following: Q. Ammonia is stronger base than phosphin. Ans. Ammonia is stronger base than phosphin: both possess a lone pair of electron on there central atoms. They donate this lone pair to some other species and thus behave as a Lewis base. Since atomic size of phosphorous is more than of nitrogen therefore, negative charge on phosphorous diffused. Hence ammonia is stronger base than phosphin.

Q. The tendency to exhibit the +2 oxidation state increase with increases atomic number in group 14. Ans. as we move down the group ‘ns’ pair of electron become more and more reluctant in bond formation. Electronic configuration of group 14 element is ns2 np2. thus only 2porbital electrons are left for bond formation. Therefore as we more down the group 14 tendency to exhibit ‘+2’ oxidation state increases. Q. HF is weaker acid then HI. Ans. ‘F’ is most electronegative element. Therefore, hydrogen bonding among HF molecules is very strong. Thus liberation proton becomes very difficult. In case of HI the states of fair is just opposite. Hence HF is weaker acid then HI. Q. how would you account the following: Q. The transition element exhibit higher enthalpy of atomisation. Ans. because of having large number of unpaired electrons in there atoms, they have stronger inter atomic interaction and hence stronger bonding between the atoms. Consequently, transition elements exhibits hi enthalpy of atomisation. Q. The 4d and 5d series of the transition metals have more frequent metal-metal bonding in there compounds then do the 3d metals. Ans. the transition metals of 4d and 5d series have greater enthalpy of atomisation then the corresponding elements of 3d series. Thus indicates that the metals of 4d and 5d series have more metal-metal bonding in there compounds then do the 3d metals. Q. There is a greater range of oxidation state among the actinoides than that in the lanthanoids. Ans. lanthanoids mainly exhibit +3 oxidation states. In addition, they show lower oxidation state of +2 and higher oxidation state of +4, Actinoides also exhibit +3 oxidation states. In addition, they show a wide rang higher oxidation state from +4 to +7. This is due to comparable energy of 5f, 6d

and 7s orbital in actinoides.

Q. how would you account for the following: Q. Cobale (II) is stable in aqueous solution but in presence of strong ligands it is easily oxidised. (Co = 27) Ans. cobalt (II) is stabilised because of higher crystal field splitting energy. Q. The transition element form interstitial compounds. Ans. transition metals form a large number of interstitial compounds because small atom of certain non metallic element (H, B, C, N etc.) gets trapped in voids of vacant space of lattice of the transition metals. As a result of fitting up of the interstitial spaces, such interstitial compounds are hard and rigid. Q. Silver halides find use in photography. Ans. under the action of light, decomposition of silver bromide takes place in traces where it is illuminated. The number of silver atoms formed a proportional to the quantity of light falling on the surface. Q. What is lanthanoids contraction? Mention its main consequence. Ans. the steady decrease in ionic radius from La3+ to Lu3+ is termed as lanthanoids contraction. Consequence of lanthanoids contraction: 1. Similar physical chemical properties among lanthanoids. 2. Zr and Hf exist together.

Q. assigns appropriate reason for each of the following:

Q. Aluminium is highly electropositive yet it is used as a

structural metal. Ans. aluminum reacts with oxygen to formed protective layer of Al2O3 which make it passive.

Q. White phosphorus is more reactive then red phosphorus Ans. white phosphorus consists of discrete P4 molecules in which phosphorus atom is tetrahedral bonded to other three phosphorus atoms. So white phosphorus is highly reactive toxic and spontaneous ignite in air. In red phosphorus, P4 molecules are linked in chain structure. So red phosphorus is much less reactive and non toxic.

Q. Hydrogen fluoride is much more reactive then HCl in aqueous solution. Ans. HF is much weaker acid then HCl in aqueous solution because high bond dissociation energy of HF and due to strong hydrogen bonding.

Q. sulphur in vapours state exhibits some paramagnetic behavior. Ans.. In vapor state, sulphur partly exists as S2 molecules and S2 molecules like O2 has two unpaired electron in the antibonding pai* orbital and hence exhibits paramagnetic behavior.

Q. gives the chemical reaction as an evidence for each of the following observation:

Q. Tin (II) is reducing agent whereas Pb (II) is not. Ans. Tin (II) is reducing agent whereas Pb (II) is not. 2Fe3 + Sn4+ Sn42F2+

Pb (II) does not reduce iron (III) into iron (II) state.

Q. +1 gallium undergo disproportionate reaction. Ans. GaX (X=Cl, Br, I) disproportionate in water as follows: 3GaX (s) - 2Ga(s) +Ga3+ (aq) +3X-(aq).

Q assigns an appropriate reason for each of the following statement. Q. Sif2-6 is known SiCl2-6 is not known. Ans. this is because A. the satiric repulsion are less in Sif2-6 due to the smaller size of F atom, and B. the interaction of the lone pair of electron on the F atom with Si are stronger then that of chlorine. Q. More metals fluorides are ionic in nature than metal chloride. Ans. because the highest electeronegativity, fluorine has tendency for forming ionic compound thus fluorides have the maximum ionic character. Q. Solid phosphorus pentachloride exhibit same ionic character. Ans. in crystal state PCl5 exists [PCl4] [PCl6]-, the ions have tetrahedral and octahedral structure respectively. So solid PCl5 exhibits some ionic character.

Q. All the bonds in PCl5 are not equivalent. Ans. As a result of sp3d hybridisation, there are two axial bonds and three equitorial bonds in PCl5 molecule. As the axial bond pairs suffer more repulsive interactions from the equitorial bond pairs, therefore, the axial bonds are slightly elongated and hence slightly weaker than the equitorial bonds.

Q. Sulphur in vapours state exhibits paramagnetism. Ans. In vapours state, sulphur partly exist as S2 molecule and S2 molecule like O2 has two unpaired electrons in the antibonding Pai* orbital and hence exhibits paramagnetism.

Q. Fluorine is the strongest oxidant among the halogen. Ans. because of the lower bond energy of F-F bond and higher hydration energy of F- ions, fluorine is the strongest oxidising agent amongst of the halogen.

Q. Among the noble gases, only xenon is known to form true chemical compound. Ans. Xenon has the lowest ionization energy among the noble gases expect radon which is however, radioactive.

Q. PbO2 is a strongest oxidising agent then SnO2. Ans. due to inert pair effect. The lower oxidation state gets more stabilised with the increase in atomic number in the same group of p-block element. Hence PbO2 is a strongest oxidising agent than SnO2.

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