H
Edite

IES.
Work.'

'

HOU£
Cor used t

APERHANGING,
shes, etc.

Tools npera Painting,
ipering a

White Embel

Room.

Boot
Cot

Lasting, an
oots

Re-W
Stitch

and Shoes

and

S)

Glass

^
__Ji

Sewing an g Riveted Boot
170

How
Co.

Engravings

writer

Book__

The SignThe Simpler V
ng a Signboard.
>

Form; Ticke

Woo
Co
Frenc
Off.
(

and Polishing.
Staining Wood. In and Spiriting g. Re-polishing bf Floors Stains.

and Reviving,

.tiara

stopping

ui

u«u.

Processes of Varnishing

Wood

Varnishes.

j.i^g,^ ^. Re-polishing Shop Fronts.

Dynamos and Electric Motors. With T42 Engravings and Diagrams Contents— Introduction. Siemens Dynamo. Gramme Dynamo. Manchester Dynamo. Simplex Dynamo. Calculating the Size and Amount of Wire for Small Dynamos. Ailments of Small Dynamo Electric Machines their Causes
:

and Cures.
Undertype

Small Electro-motors without Castings. How to Determine the Direction of Rotation of a Motor. How to Make a Shuttle-Armature Motor.
50- Watt

Dynamo.

Manchester Type 440- Watt Dynamo.

Cycle Building: and Repairing;. With

142 Engravings and Diagrams. Contents. Introductory, and Tools Used. How to Build a Front Driver. Building a Rear-driving Safety. Building Tandem Safeties. Building Frontdriver Tricycle. Building a Hand Tricycle. Brazing. to Make and Fit Gear Cases. Fittings and Accessories. Wheel Making. Tyres and Methods of Fixing them. Enamelling. Repairing.

How

All Ages for All Purposes. With 277 Engravings and Diagrams. Savage Ornament. Egyptian Ornament. Assyrian Ornament. Greek Ornament. Roman Ornament. Early Christian Ornament. Arabic Mediaeval Ornament. Ornament. Scandinavian Ornaments. Celtic and Renascence and Modern Ornaments. Chinese Ornament. Persian Ornament. Indian Ornament. Japanese Ornament. Mounting- and Framing Pictures. With 240 Engravings, etc. Contents. Making Picture Frames. Notes on Art Frames. Picture Frame Cramps. Making Oxford Frames. Gilding Picture Frames. Methods of Mounting Pictures. Making Photograph Frames. Frames covered with Plush and Cork. Hanging and Packing Pictures. Smiths' Work. With 211 Engravings and Diagrams. Conten ts.— Forges and Appliances. Hand Tools. Drawing Down and UpWelding and Punching. Conditions of Work Principles of Formasetting. tion. Bending and Ring Making. Miscellaneous Examples of Forged Work. Cranks, Model Work, and Die Forging. Home-made Forges. The Manipula-

Decorative Designs of
Contents.

:

tion of Steel at the Forge.

(Continued on next page.)

DAVID McKAY,

Publisher, 1022

Market

Street, Philadelphia.

HANDICRAFT SERIES

{continued).

Glass Working by Heat and Abrasion.

With 300 Engravings and Diagrams. Contents.—Appliances used in Glass Blowing. Manipulating Glass Tubing. Blowing Bulbs and Flasks. Jointing Tubes to Bulbs forming Thistle Funnels, Blowing and Etching Glass Fancy Articles Embossing and Gilding Flat etc. Surfaces. Utilising Broken Glass Apparatus Boring Holes in, and Riveting Glass. Hand-working of Telescope Specula. Turning, Chipping, and Grinding Glass. The Manufacture of Glass.
; ;

With i63 Engravings and Diagrams. Model Yachts. Rigging and Sailing Model Yachts. Model Boats. Building a Model Atlantic Liner. Vertical Engine for a Model Launch. Model Launch Engine with Reversing Gear. Making a Show Case for a Model Boat. Electric Bells, to Make and Fit Them. With 162 Engravings aad Diagrams. Contents. The Electr c Current and the Laws that Govern it. Current Conductors used in Electric-Bell Work. Wiring for Electric Bells. Elaborated Systems of Wiring; Burglar Alarms. Batteries for Electric Bells. The Construction of Electric Bells, Pushes, and Switches. Indicators for Electric-Bell
Contents.

Building Model Boats.

— Building

Making and

Fitting Simple

How

Systems.

Bamboo Work.

Contents. Bamboo Its Sources and Uses. How to Work Bamboo. Bamboo Tables. Bamboo Chairs and Seats. Bamboo Bedroom Furniture. Bamboo Hall Racks and Stands. Bamboo Music Racks. Bamboo Cabinets and Bookcases. Bambco Window Blinds. Miscellaneous Articles of Bamboo. Bamboo
:

With

177 Engravings and Diagrams.

Mail Cart.

With 108 Engravings and Diagrams. Contents. Skinning Birds. Stuffing and Mounting Birds. Skinning and Stuffing Mammals. Mounting Animals' Horned Heads Polishing and Mounting Horns. Skinning, Stuffing, and Casting Fish. Preserving, Cleaning, and Dyeing Skins. Preserving Insects, and Birds' Eggs. Cases for Mounting

Taxidermy.

:

Specimens.

Tailoring.
Contents.

— Tailors'

With

and Pressing.

180 Engravings and Diagrams. Requisites and Methods of Stitching. Simple Repairs Relining, Repocketing, and Recollaring. How to Cut and

Make

Trousers.

How to

and Reefer Jackets.

Cut and Make Vests. Cutting and Making Lounge Cutting and Making Morning and Frock Coats.
Comprising

Photographic Cameras and Accessories. Make Cameras, Dark: Slil.es, Shutters, and
Illustrations.

Stands.

How to With 160

Contents.

Cameras. Cameras.

Photographic Lenses and How to Test them. Modern Half-plate Hand and Pocket Cameras. Ferrotype Cameras. Stereoscopic Enlarging Cameras. Dark Slides. Cinematograph Management.

Optical Lanterns. Comprising The Construction and Management of Optical Lanterns and the Making of Slides. With 160
Illustrations.

Dissolving View lanterns. Contents. Single Lanterns. Illuminant for Optical Lanterns. Optical Lantern Accessories. Conducting a Limelight Lantern Exhibition. Experiments with Optical Lanterns. Painting Lantern
Slides. Photographic Lantern graph Management.
Slides.

Mechanical Lantern
Illustrations.

Slides.

Cinemato-

Engraving Metals.

Contents. Introduction and Terms used. Engravers' Tools and their Uses. Elementary Exercises in Engraving. Engraving Plate and Precious Metals. Engraving Monograms. Transfer Processes of Engraving Metals. Engraving Name Plates. Engraving Coffin Plates. Engraving Steel Plates. Chasing and Embossing Metals. Etching Metals.

With Numerous

With 189 Illustrations. Contents. Tools and Materials. Simple Baskets. Grocer's Square Baskets. Baskets. Oval Baskets. Flat Fruit Baskets. Wicker Elbow Chairs. Basket Bottle-casings. Doctors' and Chemists' Baskets. Fancy Basket Work. Sussex Trug Basket. Miscellaneous Basket Work. Index

Basket Work.

Round

DAVID McKAY, Publisher,

1022

Market

Street, Philadelphia.

Lettering. Miscellaneous Examples of Leather Work. Upholstering Footstools. Strap Cutting and Making. etc. Rounding. Folding Printed Sheets. Leather Contents. Tools and Materials. Upholstering Couches and Sofas. Floral Ornaments for Bent Iron Work. Horse Clothing. Contents. Stuffing. Ferrotype Photography. Index. Banjo and Mandoline Cases. Account Books. Riding and Whips.—Upholsterers' Materials. Sprinkling and Tree Marbling Book Covers. Photography. Upholstery. Children's Saddles or Pilches.HANDICRAFT SERIES Bookbinding. Knapsacks and Satchels. Fore Gear and Leader Harness. — Plates. Harness Making. Looping. and Tufting. Book — Bookbinders' Appliances. Newspaper Rack. With 125 Engravings and Diagrams. Index. etc. Bags. Ladies' Side Saddles. Pamphlets. The Camera and its Accessories. Mattress Making Fenderettes. Superior Set of Gig Harness. Stereoscopic Mounting and Finishing Prints. and other Accessories. Index. Hall Lanterns. Miscellaneous Upholstery. Intensification and Developing and Fixing Negatives. Index. The Studio and Darkroom. Photography. Backing. Upholstering an Easy Chair. Bits. Photograph Frames. Knee-caps and Miscellaneous Articles. Making Seat Cushions and Squabs. Fancy Upholstery. 1022 Market Street. Harness Makers' Tools. Qualities and Varieties of Leather. Saddle Cruppers. Webbing. Upholsterers' Tools and Appliances. Beat- and Sewing. etc. Harness Makers' Materials. Candlesticks. Screens. and Marbling Book Edges. — Flower Bowls. Grilles. Gilding. Saddlery. Breaking-down Tackle plates. Index. Plough Harness. Processes of Printing from Negatives. Panel for Gentleman's Saddle. — With 197 Engravings and Diagrams. ing {continued). Retouching Negatives. Copying and Enlarging. etc. Gentleman's Riding Saddle. Dyeing Leather Ornamentation. Simple Exercises in Bent Iron. Cart Collars. With 269 Engravings and Diagrams. Cutting Book Edges. and Repairing. Cart Harness. Photography. Furniture. Floor Lamps. With 99 Engravings and Diagrams. Portmanteaux and Travelling Trunks. Contents. Hair Brush and Collar Cases. Repairing Collars. Index. Footballs. Simple Contents. and Harness Furniture. Flashlight Reduction of Negatives. Exposure. Ledgers. Driving Harness and Saddlery. Sprinkling. Coloring. Cloth-bound Books. Including Elementary Art Metal Work. Index. Letter Cases and Writing Pads. and Cover Cutting. . Table Lamps. Springing. Cart Saddles. Philadelphia. With 70 Engravings and Diagrams. Van and Cab Harness. Re-lining Collars and Saddles. BreastHead Riding Bridles. With 152 Engravings and Diagrams. With 162 Engravings and Diagrams. — Working. Bending and Working Strip Iron. Portraiture and Picture Composition. DAVID McKAY. Miscellaneous Examples. Leather. Renovating and Repairing Upholstered Planning and Laying Carpets and Linoleum. Publisher. and Finishing Book Covers. Contents. Hat Cases. Stirrups. Marbling Book Papers. Suspended Lamps and Bent Iron Work. Gilding Book Edges. Contents. Covering Books. Exercises in Stitching. Contents. Spurs. — Other Volumes in Preparation.

WORK" HANDBOOKS \ LEATHER WORKING .

.

HAS LUCK ETC. ETC.'' PHILADELPHIA DAVID McKAY.LEATHER WORKING WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS AND DIAGRAMS EDITED BY PAUL EDITOR OF 1ST." AUTHOR OF " HANDY BOOKS FOR HANDICRAFTS. 1022 Publisher MARKET STREET 1901 . "WORK" AND "BUILDING WORLD.

TSfOtO .H 35 1 C .

a comprehensive digest of the informa- on Leather Working. Readers who may desire additional information respecting special details of in this the matters dealt with subjects. / i\ 1 —'— This Handbook contains. scattered over more than of twenty thousand columns journals it is Work — one of the weekly my fortune to edit — and supplies concise information on the details of the subjects on which it treats. of be arranged anew. tion in a form convenient for everyday use. N. In preparing of for publication in book form the mass relevant matter contained in the volumes of to Work. and these causes the contributions From many are so blended that the writings of individuals cannot be distinguished for acknowledgment. altered. P. Man. 1901. La Belle Sanvage. or instructions on kindred should address a question to Work. so that it may be answered in the^columns of that journal.Q 0- PREFACE. Handbook. London. HASLUCK. much had largely re-written. .

— Hat VI..— Strap Cutting and Making III. . . . — Dyeing Index Leather of XIIL— Miscellaneous Examples Leather Work 129 157 .CONTENTS. and Travelling Trunks . .49 . .— Letter Cases and Writing Pads IV..55 . . PAGE — Qualities and Varieties of Leather . — Banjo and Mandoline Cases VII. 9 II. I. . 90 100 —Knapsacks — Leather and Satchels . CHAP.. . VIIL— Portmanteaux IX.— Bags .112 116 125 XT. . • . 17 31 — Hair Brush and Collar Cases Cases .65 .— Footballs XII. . 40 V. . Ornamentation .. X.

. 35 56 37 oS 58 41 . .— Side Pockets 27. 57 . and Ring 12. .. .— Strap Cutting Appliance 21.— Gusset Pattern 72— Gusset Stiffening Pattern 73.. . .—Half Side of Hat Case 51 49.—Writing Pad Pockets 34. .— Skate Strap 7. 63. Letter Case 24. .— Card Pocket 28. .— Stamp Pocket 29.— Horse-shoe Collar Box 29 30 — . . .— Plate of Strap Cutting .. — Case . Collar Hide 2.— Patterns for Parts of Banjo Case with End .— Mandoline Piece 65.— Hinge Strap 45 46 46 Binding Corner of Case Corner of 66.—Another Gladstone Bag 77. 33.— Sewn Seam 50.—Pattern for Side of Bag 71.—Narrower Brief Bag 69.— Hollow Studs 9. .. FIG. . . —Forming .—Bag Lining and Pocket 75. 62 62 Case .—Dog Lead with Studs .—Folded Bit 17. . 31 52 33 53 35 54 Lid 55. .— Brief Bag 68. in Drawers Collar Box 39. . 4. Pattern for Wrist Strap 15.—Round Collar Box 41. . 42 43 44 Lid 40. Cutting PAGE up . ..—Wrist Strap 14.—Chain-end Fitting 13. .. . 38. 57 58 58 59 59 59 60 61 . .—Double End Brace 19.—Writing Pad Folded up. FIG. ..— Brief Bag Frame 70. .— Dog Lead 10..63 63 63 65 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 74 74 75 . . .—Bag Bottom Pattern 74.. 26. .— Bracket for Handle and Strap Strides 53 52. . .—Inner Hat Case 53 53.— Bit Complete 18.—Patterns for Parts of Banjo with Case .— Stitching Case 67. 15 19 19 19 21 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 Box 45.— Collar Box Drawer and ..75 . . .— Hat Case shown Diagrammatically 50 . .— Elevation of Mandoline Case 62.—Back of Letter Case 25.— Corner Seam 53 51.— Dog Lead with Swivel 11.—Gladstone Bag 76.— Strap Bit 6.—Hand-punch Riveter 8. .—Double End Brace joined at Back 20.— Stiffening for Bag Divi- — .— Bucket - .49 46. 23 29 Appliance 22.— Banjo Case with End Lid 58.—Writing Pad Pockets 35.—Writing Pad Open 31.— Base of Writing Pad 32. . .—Hair Brush Case 37.—Top of Mandoline Case 56.—Another Plate of Strap Cutting Appliance 23. 1. . 48 . . . ..— Garter Complete 5. sion . 51 47 —Hat Case Handle 51 48.—Corner Split and Butted 59. .. Hat ..— Mitred Corner 60.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.—Block for Making Collar 45 Box 42.—Mandoline in Case 61.— Back of Round shaped .— Rubbing Bone or Stick 73.—Blotting Pad 36. . — . Whole Lid .— Marking Garter —Garter Bits . 30. .. ..—Pattern for Wrist Strap Bit 16. —Bottom Case of 64..— Catch Strap 43. 24 24 24 23 54. of . . . . Mandoline . . End . PAGE 44. .—Bottom of Banjo Case Corner of Banjo Case 57.—Method 3.

— Back and Flap of Sat..— Trunk Division Board.— Piped Corner of Stif107 Eened Part 110. . Top. of 130.108 111. . 152.— Tennis Racket Case 88. 151 153 154 . Balls.— Body of Knapsack.. 142. 91— Studded Bottom Tennis Bag .- Knapsack .—Modeller 121. . .—Buckle Piece 112.113 118. 150.133. .146.— Rugby Football Associaof 125. .155 .108 chel 108 113. 136 137 138 139 •Humane Dog Muzzle .140.— Satchel or Cartridge Covering Ball 148. ! ! Suit ... 95. .Lea ther Working..— Imperial Trunk 96. .—Knapsack 100. .- dler's Purse . . Cricket 150 Bag . 106— Section of 103 Part 107— Strap End with Key105 hole Slit of 108.— Tennis Bag in HalfGladstone Style .— Tracer .— Folding .— Liner . Bag .- Patterns for Parts of Opera Glass Case Music Carrier Closed Music Carrier Open Music for Pattern Carrier Roller Hand Camera Case Front Flap.— Section Leather and Sheath 103. . FIG. 147 148 148 Sewing Sewing Cricket 149 Covering 147.131..Football Inflator 129.-Tab 85— Half of Bottom Stiffen82. 76 31— Chape Paper for Small Pattern 83. . . Case .— Football Pattern Set 119 out on Hide 127. .- •Cycle Valise Tat! of Cycle Leather for Pattern Covering of Workbox 146 em 139 143 143 144 Valise 145 . 106 Halves of of 109.— Ring and Holder Buckle of 102.— Brass Stud 104.136. 149.— Front of Satchel 109 114.— Segment 118 tion Football Case 126. . . . 99. .114 119..- 138.. 93 95 98 100 101 102 102 102 102 103 134.— D-ring 105— Stiffened Part of Knap. . . .— Tennis Bag in Gladstone Style 94...— Satchel Shoulder Strap 110 116.139.—:Making Lace-holes on 121 Football Case 122 128. 89. . 107 Section of Sewn Edges 151 of Ball Covering Holding Cricket Ball during Sewing Bottom Piece of Suit . . PAGE .145.— Another View of 115 Mm Idler 115 122.— Ground Punch 116 123. . etc. and Back of Camera Case Gusset and Flaps of Camera Case Dee and Buckle Chape. 120.— Part of Bag Handle 84.— Turn-clip 93.135.— Railway Trunk 97..113 117..—Leather Pocket 80. . 129 133 134 135 92. . .141. 143. ..— Association Football 117 124. PAGE .. .144. 86—Bottom ing of Brief 87. .— Short Strap of Satchel Ill .137.—Pocket Flap . .. 79.132. .—Part Back View . .— Tennis Bag Frame.—Case for Tennis Bat. Stiffened Luggage Label Another Luggage Label Cricket •Segment of Ball Cover In . .. 91 .. .Portsea Purse or Sad.— Gusset of Satchel 115.— Trunk 98. 151. . 101. FIG. .— Tennis Bag in Cricket Bag Style 90. Case Lid of Suit Case Section Side of .

such as the calf. goat. but it is not thought necessary to give space to their description here. deer. but recently the skins of crocodiles. alligators." and " Harness MakThey will be indicated sufficiently in later chapters as the need for their use arises. the skin. CHAPTER I. . sheep. as they have already been dealt with so fully and illustrated so clearly in companion volumes. In making this leather. is — . The skins most extensively used in leather manufacture are those of the ox. calf. its qualities and varie" ing.LEATHER WORKING. cow. deer. and serpents have been employed for making certain kinds of fancy leather. as the ox. some mention of tools must come first. seal. Particulars of the many varieties of leather may now be given. kid. Naturally. horse." ties. Pate nt Calf. namely 1. sheep. . goat. Skins of : . cow. etc. Kips— or the skins of the younger animals of the same class and 3. QUALITIES AND VARIETIES OF LEATHER. horse. This chapter will discuss leather. Hides— or the skins of the large and fullgrown animals. > as those of the smaller animals. having received its preliminary preparation. This handbook will describe how to make a large number of useful articles in leather. Commercial skins are classified in Watt's " Art Leather Manufacture " under three heads. pig. Boot Making and Mending. and hippopotamus 2. buffalo. and kips.

Waxed Calf. the leather is stoved and afterwards polished with powdered pumicestone. especially " females. stretching. drying. not being so soft. fleshing and skiving. blacking. The final coat has an addition of darker Prussian blue. French calf skins. . With few exceptions this is treated In some cases the in the same way as waxed calf. sizing. and drying. stretched upon a smooth board. etc.1 o Lea ther Working. and softest in wear. and the stuffing on the flesh side. Horse and other animal often dressed in a like manner. compo-ing. vegetable black. This will give some idea of the amount of handling a calf-skin goes through before it is converted to leather. whether pebble. making it a little is belly rounding now darker. Memcl Calf. the skin has to pass through a variety of processes. and not so much of either It is grained with a roller is needed as for wax calf. whitening. The stove heat varies from 120° to 180° F. sizing. very fine the latter. although those of English production are. and every particle of grease extracted from it with fuller' s-earth and water. and sometimes a little copal or amber varnish. the leather is finely oiled. . and Prussian blue. It should be well tanned. whole skin is treated but in a great many instances it is only the shoulders. the graining is finished. finishing." are the best. Busset Calf is used either dry or with a little oil dressing in the former case it is very pale.. long. The compo-ing is done on the grain side. It is then given four coats of varnish containing drying oil. and is then ready for use. stuffing. according to the sort of grain required. that are made into memel. the oil . namely soaking. — . etc. in some cases.— After depilation and tanning. are more suitable for stronger and heavier work than French. After oiling. graining. polishing. according to the leather under treat- ment. or perhaps the necks. As each coat is applied.

— be brought back to Glace or French its Kid faced leather. cleaning. and finishing. not tanning. Calf Kid is a most useful leather made by tawing. and gelatine form the leather. scudding. and most durable if kept well cleaned. Each season brings its varied and improved shades. The flesh side is a velvet pile. liming. and although the two former prevent decomposition of the gelatine. The calf skin is such a ready recipient of dyes. salt. seasoning. in tawing. and the factors. weak sulphuric acid. which forms a mordant when further dyeing is needed. by the action of tannic acid. dyeing. staking. and when first produced was considered the right side. and a warm bath of Sicily sumach and alum. drying. ii Its preparation is similar in some respects to that of other dry-dressed leathers. shaving. a very delicate and fine sursubjected to a process of tawing is . and it was so made up and advertised as "velvet calf. is briefly this the greatest component part of a skin. which generally forms the face. namely gelatine. it passes through a solution of borax. among other processes. egging. paring. is. alum and salt dressing. Ooze Calf is a very soft leather in wear. It has to pass through the following routine Soaking. Tan Calf has been produced to imitate Russia leather at less cost. It has a nice pebble grain. It is original state. formed into leather. and. two ingredients cannot return to their former state whereas. of which these two ingredients are the chief The acid arrests decomposition. that by manipulating with various mordants the expert leather dyer can produce some very delicate tints. each ingredient can tanning and tawing . The difference between : When tanned. drenching. unhairing. alum.Qualities and Varieties of Leather. fleshing. and there now is a greater quantity used for the best class of work than of real Russia." But the grain is the side now generally preferred.

is a beautifully grained and tanned goat-skin. such as a bran bath and a It is made a good deal from horse. and a much newer production. and forms a very soft material. like the two last-named. . but its character and uses are quite different. White Sheep is a tawed leather. fig bath. dyed on the grain side. Brown Levant Morocco is the same as morocco levant. and finished with a bright pebble grain.1 Lea ther Working. but possesses a smoother face. The better kinds are the Strasbourg moroccos. Levant. These leathers are tanned with sumach. except when bath dyed. Long-grain Morocco is. Cordovan stands easily first for durability. It is tanned and curried on the grain side. A cheaper and somewhat greasy kind is not nearly so good-looking or durable in wear as the dry-dressed morocco levant. which imparts to it great suppleness. in addition to the alum bath which it has previously received. and passes through some special processes. called " satinis a similar leather. Morocco. skin. — and even dog it. Glove Kid is made into leather by tawing in the same way as calf kid. Cordovan is made in many places other than its supposed place of origin Cordova. Among the many processes it undergoes is the application of paste composed of flour and yolks of eggs. which has a beautiful soft brightness. Skins are produced in imitation of moroccos of various hide/' colours. is An inferior leather. provided by leaves and twigs. and are made from sheep-skins. These are called roans. but has a long grain running across the skin. goat. and is then glazed and polished. It is dyed upon the grain side. which is rarely the case. except that it is made from younger and smaller skins. and is more finely grained. as " Cream Roans. made from the skin of goats. much like called "grain/' used a good deal for cheaper work. satin-hide being next.

when it had a longer grain like the leather now used for bags. Brown.Qualities and Varieties of Leather. but the dyeing is done on the grain side. Cowhide Patent. tough leather . . is obtained as a rule from Cape a fine. is used for covering fancy articles. This is treated somewhat as wax calf. The process of enamelling is the same as that for patent calf. 13 Cream Boan is made generally from good (medium weight) sheep-skins. In appearance it is much like brown persian. like all sheep-skin. Crup or Horse is taken generally from the butt of the horseskin. it is less durable. Brown Cowhide and makes a very is soft and waterproof leather. though. Skivers. Black Grain (Cow) Hide. It is now produced with a smaller grain than in former years. but is exceedingly durable. as the grain and a good quantity of flesh are taken off. except that it is extremely thin. but it is very slightly stuffed in cases where the natural colour is not needed and dyeing has to be resorted to. etc. It make dyed it grain. when resembles morocco. . though in this instance the enamelling is done upon the grain side after the grain has been printed or otherwise prepared. This is really bookbinders' skiver. It is practically the middle part of the skin that is dressed for this leather. This is the grain of sheepskin split by machinery (the flesh side being prepared for chamois or wash-leather). It expensive. Porpoise-hide is tanned and very greasily dressed. or enamel hide. soft. possibly hold. and as much stuffing is put in as it will — and — is made into leather by some of the preceding methods it is worked in the same way as black grain cowhide. It is now known more by the name Diamond hide. but is left with a smooth Brown Persian sheep. sumach tanned. and is similar in structure to morocco. is made from the hide of the cow. etc.

but not so good.. and subjected to the stringent juices of willow bark. very durable.e of waxed calf. the whole of the grain is cut away and oil is hammered into it. After a deal of working in this. — — — . basil wood. Its uses are the same as tho's. The skin of the kangaroo. this leather is as follows rinsed. and soft and cool to wear. It is a tanned leather. and fermented in a proper steep (for a week at least) after a hot-water washing it is then worked on the beam after soaking for forty-eight hours in a bath containing a fermented paste of rye flour it is rinsed for fifteen days. dressed brown. light in weight. To this substance the Russia leather owes its peculiarities. Pigskin generally is. . The red colour is supposed to be from sandalwood or : When . according to the shade given it. the bright browns lasting well. any excess of oil being removed afterwards. softest and prettiest leathers. and polishes more easily and better than calf. Brown Glace Kid. Buckskin. Kangaroo. Brown glace kid is an American production. then worked in the river. To prepare this leather for use. Bussia Leather is one of the best of brown leathers. and has been improved largely in recent years. when proIt is one of the perly tanned. fulled for a longer or shorter time according to the nature of the skin. A vast amount of working is necessary to give it suppleness Doe is similar. According to Andrew Ure the process of dressing It is freed from hair. gooG^ft* wears well and is waterproof. it is set to dry and curried with empyreumatic oil of the bark of birch tree.This and the two following are believed to be produced by chrome tanning. porous.14 Leather Working. If the oil passes through it stains the grain side. does not crack. and seems to vary much as regards retaining its colour in wear. etc. while the dull or subdued tints sometimes change under the influence of cream dressings.

"

Qualities and Varieties of Leather.
Calf.

15

Box
leather.

— The

grain side

is

the face of this

It is

somewhat

like firm

ooze

calf, only-

black, but resists moisture better. Many leathers are being made of this and a similar green calf, for instance ;. also iron calf or kid, which is much like calf kid, but, from being dressed to resemble kid, is very useful, and an extremely strong leather. Willow Calf is similar to box calf, but it is of a brown colour. It is made in good colours and retains them longer, perhaps, than any other sort of

1

F

\^

1

Lea thbr Working.

These are converted into welting by being They are used for the welts of hand-sewn boots and shoes. V^ It is now necessary to give a description of the different parts of a hide of leather. Fig. 1 gives a diagram of a hide, fully showing the various parts. a a are the best parts of the butt b b, top end The whole of above, c c, edge, or hitch pieces. combined, are commercially called butt ends, while with d d (the first cut) the whole would be a butt e e, part known as bellies f f, odd pieces, with others, are flanks, shanks, cheeks, and faces G g, shoulders ;abcd and G, folded at h h, are sides and
ders.

stuffed well with grease.

;

;

;

bends.

i7

CHAPTER

II.

STKAP CUTTING AND MAKING. In making a gross (144 pairs) of
\
in.

or |
:

in.

quired One not hollow-ground a punch (see p. 15 of " Harness Making"), with nipples from TVin. to | in. in diameter a pair or two of pliers a screw-crease or two (see p. 19 of " Harness Making ") and a marking board of dry mahogany or any hard wood ^ in. to 1 in. thick, about 3 ft. long by 9 in. wide. For the cutting board, use a piece of planed deal or pine free from knots mark from the end along one edge distances of 12^ in., 13^ in., 14^ in., and 15^ in. A hardwood measuring-off stick about 2 in. wide, 2 ft. long, and ^ in. thick should have the following lengths marked 12 in., 13 in., 14 in., and 15 in. An emery stick about 1 in. square, of any length, with emery paper glued round, a few wire
; ;

common garters wide, the following tools will be rehollow-ground knife one plain knife,

;

;

;

;

nails l£ in. long,

and some leather and buckles,

will

be wanted. Glue a leather shaving on the back of each knife blade to 2 in. from the point, as a protection for the fingers gripping the blade when cutting the leather, which should be from T j in. to
l

^

in.

thick.

Begin to make the garters by placing the leather on the cutting board, and with the hollow-ground knife cut an edge of the leather straight. Then cut An them out, using the thumbnail as a guide. easy way is to set a pair of compasses or points to the required width of the strap (bare § in.), to cut an edge of the leather straight, and to run the points down the leather, which can then be cut to the mark made. Do not cut any shorter than the
B

the ^-in. The top of the strap is not marked. Then point the lengths as in Fig.1 8 Lea ther Working. push the can on the gaspipe. In Fig. Of course. holding it firm. 3 two kinds are illustrated A makes a better job. marked to improve the appearance. 12^-in. Heat the point of the screwcrease in the gas or fire . length with the thumbnail. as in Fig. 2) and bending back the | in. putting the tongue in the hole A (Fig. cut down from the top with a pair of scissors two nicks about 1 in. a small gas stove will do as well. and tie them securely with band or wire. Hold the garter in the left hand. and put one edge of a Then bit just under the thumbnail. length. A small can containing water in which to dip the crease when too hot should be at hand. with a punch in the right hand make a hole through the bit. To mark the straps on the board. but The edges can be is more difficult to cut than b. . To buckle the garters. from the top. pressing down the |-in. 2 with the other knife. In heating by gas. The screw-crease. threaded through. Now punch a hole A (Fig. mount on the pipe a tin can about 1^ in. when being heated.. and the front of the strap. . mark on the cutting board. 2) for the tongue of the buckle in each strap about f in. and probably better. long on opposite sides of the can then bend up the tin. in diameter. when it is at the proper heat it will move easily along the strap. Lap the point of the bit from the back round the . The marking does not show up if not near the edge. use the screwcrease set to x 2 in. leaving a bright glossy mark if a little force is exerted. and always examine the leather to see that there will not be much waste. three or four straps can be punched at a time. rests on the bottom of the can. 4. bend the strips down. Then cut the bits. press the tongue of a buckle open and thread a strap through. and on the centre line . If the outside diameter of the gaspipe is \ in.

— Garter Bits. to \ in. 19 and thread it through the hole. Then fasten the measuring off board to the table with a couple of springs. — Marking in... Put the buckle on a nail in the table and pull the bit A (Fig. Then push the point of the longer garter through the bit marked b of the garters side . then those measur- Fiff. and measure the garters one at a time. putting together those measuring to 12^ in. \ in. leaving it about \ in. Garter. measuring to 15^ calling them 12s. Fig. say. 4) with the pliers. long. take a measured pile.— Garter Complete. in. those measuring to 14| in. then place two by side and see whether they are of equal widths. 4. ing to 13| 15s.Strap Cutting and Making. 14s. and those and For pairing. and whether one is. 13s. long.. longer than the other. 2. 3. Cut the bit. front. Fig.

then pick three 14s. By the first method. Leg straps are like garters. . the width of the bit on the shorter garter making the difference. but generally have a rather roller buckle. Make six holes in the 12s and 13s. doing a pair together at first. Then the point of the bit can be threaded through a hole punched on the centre line of the strap. long stronger leather is used. Three bands are tied across. to 36 in. The holes should just let the buckle tongues pass through. and it will be seen that the longer ones wrap round the shorter garters. . 4) of the other pull it through. Next punch the garters down the leg. . Packing may be done by the round way or the length way. wide. Thus the top garter of a pair is slightly the longer. Skate straps are generally % in. putting them at the back of the 12s. when the points of the two garters should come fair. long. are packed in dozens and in half or whole grosses. and can be made as above described. and seven in the 14s and 15s. the rule being half as many holes as the strap is inches long. then three 15s at the back of the 14s. place three of the 12s. from the top. until with practice two pairs can be done at once. Twist the straps round. wide. and from 18 in. the shorter garters being packed in the middle. Leather Working. but for a stronger job the buckle tongue hole should be about 1 in. and the straps are f in.20 (Fig. one at each The garters of the ends and one at the middle. For the length way. half a dozen garters are placed lengthwise one way and the other half dozen the other way. putting them at the back of the 13s. one at a time. to 21 in. They are either riveted or sewn. They can also be made with double buckles. Then tie the ends with band. on the table with the flesh side facing the worker then pack three 13s as before. and are 18 in. one part serving as the bit. .

and the other the other way. so that when they are fastened the rivets go through the back part as well as through the front. 5 to go round the strap and meet at the back then punch a hole in the centre of each end. broad. which are riveted on. and slip one on each strap to the buckle. holding the back part. are about 3 in.Strap Cutting and Making. to 21 in. and the two small garters b. long and from 2 in. They are from 12 in. the part A is set out with a zinc template. and tie. . The strap for these should be 6 in.— Skate Strap: In another form of skate strap (shown in Fig. is prepared as described. Then press the bits so that the knots are at the back. The strap . one strap being curved one way for one foot. to 20 in. a strap from 18 in. .— Strap Bit. 6. long. and the hole for the buckle tongue should be punched in the centre. 00 DQ Fig. and with twine thread through both holes. A rivet is put in just below the bit and goes through the portion which is lapped over or the pieces can be sewn by hand or machine. long. and hold the front part of the skate. pull the ends together. 5. iii Fig. 6). Sometimes this skate strap is curved a little. 21 Skate straps are also made with roller buckles. except that the bit is cut to Fig. to 3 in.

19. or leather handle. the small screw. fits in. A necessary tool for making dogleads is the hand punch. . Xote that the working part alone requires heating. S illustrates a number of hollow studs. 16 of the companion volume " Harness Making " . avoid heating the screw and thus making it useless. 7. and are threaded through a nickelplated. brass. p. 19. is required. the handpunch riveter. 37. of "Harness Making. etc. Parcel straps. and can be hammered into the leather without previously making holes for their reception for the latter reason they weaken the leather much less A screw-crease. . For riveting studs of different shape. obtain a few Fig.— Hand-punch Riveter.22 Leather Working. the top piece being countersunk so that the stud top a just Fig. 7. Dog-leads are handier for general use than are chains. long. p. 7) bored out exactly to fit the studs. and the tool is heated slightly on the working part when required for use. being much lighter and more easily carried in the pocket. Practise with the tool on scrap leather before using it on good work." is necessary for giving a gloss to the edges of the straps. Solid buttonhead rivets look extremely well. to 40 in. For hollow-studding the dog-leads. are made as described above. shown by Fig. as shown by than do hollow studs Fig. which is shown by Fig. for use with this a few nipples of different sizes should be obtained. 30 in. the width of the mark made by it is regulated by . of the top pieces A (Fig.

.Strap Cutting and Making. To make it. 9. or | in. Fig.— Dog: Lead. and then rivet or sew one end of the strap to . 10. The simplest kind of dog-lead will be described and this is illustrated by Fig. long and about \ in.— Dog Lead with Studs and Ring. — Dog Lead with Swivel. to 50 in. wide. Fig. Run the hot crease along the edges of the strap so as to make a bright mark . 11. rub over and over again until the Fig. first cut out a good leather strap from 36 in. 9. Loop. and use at once. dip the working part in water. but care must be taken that it is not so hot as to burn and stick in the leather a good plan is to heat the tool well. required gloss is obtained. the smaller will be the pressure required. The hotter the crease. 23 first.

8). 11 can be ornamented by any of the hollow brass studs shown by Fig. In Fig. martingale ring passed through a loop at the end and secured by a The lead is then given a more finished aprivet. loop it. Cut a \ on the other end of the strap. . marks apply also to the martingale ring and chain. to 18 in. it differs from the last one in having. 12 may be used. 11 . first with the punch make a number of holes at an equal distance apart. 8.24 Leather Working. A still better dog-lead is shown by Fig. creased or marked before riveting. 8) of these studs should fit tightly in the holes when the studs are in the holes. Instead of the martingale ring alone. this is 4^ in. the neck part being pressed outwards as in the section c (Fig. and is . The dog-lead shown at Fig. as the swivel G prevents it from twisting when the dog moves its head round. with the rivet punch (Fig. The lead is then complete. long. It is attached in the same manner as the plain ring. and rivet as shown. Put the other end of the strap for about 1 in. perhaps. 10 is shown a better kind of lead. the chain-end fitting illustrated by Fig. In putting in the studs. through the swivel G. cut a strap 12 in. and for use is buckled through the ring of the dog's collar. D illustrates a stud having a rounded instead of a conical top. look the neater when new. a l£-in. Either brass or nickel-plated swivels will be suitable the latter. The necks b (Fig. buckle strap long. 7) clinch their necks fast into the leather. . pearance. and rivet it on to form the handle. and These rethus require more frequent cleaning. punch a few holes as shown. instead of a leather handle. In making this dog-lead. and rivet on a together with the buckle. end fitting. . form a handle. This simple lead is now complete. proceed as before as far as the handle in the event of the leather not being long enough to allow of this. or 1^-in. but are more quickly tarnished than brass.

— Bit Complete.— Wrist Strap. 25 A Fig.—Pattern for Wrist Strap. 17. J Fisr.— Chain-end Fitting. 15.— Folded Bit. Fig. Fig. 16. 14. Fig. Fig. .Strap Cutting and Making. 13.— Pattern for Wrist Strap Bit. 12.

as required. then put the buckle tongue through the hole d (Fig. The bifurcated rivets. Cut a piece of leather \ in. long. punch seven holes down the fastening A nickel-plated buckle part of the wrist strap. and place it on a piece of thin. then carry the end round again and buckle up. 15) . so that the jointed part is at the centre (Fig. and on the centre line. Cut the ends of the band close to the leather to Fig. brassed. to cut out the slit a (Fig. japanned. thread a piece of band through the two holes and tie it or sew the end. passing the point through the bit. 17). 14). 14). The advantage of this wrist strap is that no buckle presses against the skin. Put this bit on the end c (Fig. or enamelled looks the neatest. Full instructions for doing this are given by the makers when sending out the rivets. To finish. and are inserted and clinched with the aid of a hammer. stained. punch a small hole at each end of the slit. Next. place the pattern on the leather. wide and 2 in. 16. First with a sharp knife cut a cardboard pattern to Fig. 14) and pull until tight enough. used in fastening the different parts together. pliable leather. or rivet with a bifurcated nickeled rivet. In fixing. . which may be of any colour required. bring the end B through the buckle and over the jointed part of the bit and sew down. A though brown. or coppered. and cut out just inside the pencil marks. and cut out the piece between with the knife. 13. place the strap on the wrist . 13) with a screw-crease. 13). can be obtained nickel-plated. 14. and bend the leather over. strap for strengthening the wrist is shown in Fig. put the point through the slit A (Fig.26 Leather Working. looks neatest. with awl or punch make a small hole (Fig. near each end. The strap will be neater when finished if it is marked all round the edges (see Fig. Mark carefully round the pattern with a lead pencil.

Stitch along the cross line with single thread. . The back piece is about 3 in. and then put the web in as far as the stitches. . go through cut the cross-piece about 1 in. If the braces are to have cross straps in front (see Fig. long and stitch it together in the centre . Turn in 1 in. Having pricked the leather all round. long. 18) to fasten on two buttons. and tack down.. crease. long. and finish all the straps. stitch a loop near leaving space below for the cross strap to buckle. When doubled.Strap Cutting and Making. in the absence of brace-end punches. to 6 in. and the hind piece to the button. 27 To make a pair of braces. and round it at the top. and round off the point. and taper it towrds the bottom. and another to which the front buckle fastens. leaving it full opposite the intended buttonhole . the wide part in the strap end. cut the pattern of the front strap to go to the buckle. first cut the web to a length of from 18 in. The front strap should be from 5 in. and slit the holes up for about 1 in. cut the front buckle piece to the same shape at the bottom as the back piece. and cut them close round the stitches punch the strap and a hole in the buckle-piece and in the backpiece about \ in. Leave both pieces of the same width as the web in one end. and. Cut the back piece to shape from the points of the cross line. to 22 in. the single end brace is now . from the point. stitch it in along the marks. . wide and 9 in. trim the basil pieces. or a little larger than. . at the top and cut a hole for the buckle shave the point. and have back pieces from the cross line upwards. put a piece in the buckle of the same width all along and about the l\ in. and stitch in the buckles with a loop close up to them. ready. Have a piece of thin basil leather of the same size as. and mark a cross line as far as the webbing is to come taper the other end of the strap. but narrow it towards the top to the width of the buckle. long.

join at the back (Fig.. 18. Cut in a 1-in. wide. shave the point. letting it be a bit full opposite the hole. or this part may be made first and stitched in place while making the buckle part. and taper to a point. . Turn down the narrow end for about 1 in. . to hold them in their place bend a piece of leather. and cut it neatly into the shape of an egg. and put the holes as directed brace end. : 9.— Double End Brace. dee or ring the back straps about | in. pointed at the top to cover the joint. and narrow at the bottom where the bend is so as to take stitch it into the ring. and insert a stitch or two in the other Rub and \ Fig.— Double End Brace Joined at Back. with double thread narrow the other part a little. Others. crease it. and then put them in the open space left at the bottom of the buckle-piece .28 Lea ther Working. . Fig. 19). in the two ends of the cross strap. and narrow them gradually towards one end and round off the other. not too thick. . on. besides being double in front. and stitch to the dee previously stitched Finish by punching holes for the buckles. Put both ends of the web together so as to cross.

wide. long by \\ in. A hole is bored and countersunk at each end 20). long by 4\ in.Stxap Cutting and Making. and round off the top edges as shown. 21). belts. wide and l£ in. for a small screw. with a slot about I in. 71 Fig. 29 In concluding this chapter the construction of a leather strap cutting appliance may be described. To make the Fig. thick. Another piece of sheet iron d ^ . first obtain a block Fig. 20) about 10 in. of beech or any other hard wood. long then bore the smaller part of the hole for the shank so that the block may lie flat on the table and the threaded part of the bolt come through A. . Bore a hole about f in. etc.. of any thickness and length and up to 3 in. appliances. long in the centre to fit the bolt b (Fig. — Plate - wide and m thick. o of Strap Cutting Appliance. This will cut leather straps. deep in the block from the underside to receive the head of a bolt \ in. will be required. 6 in. by 2 in. (a. 20. A sheet-iron plate (Fig. 21. — Strap Cutting Appliance.

are made in one edge as shown in Figs. —Another Plate of Strap Catting Appliance. width of the strap required to be cut between the edge of the plate c and a selected slit as e (Fig. . Then pull the leather through with the right hand. otherwise packing must be placed between the plates c and D. A nut and washer should be put on the sheet-iron plate d for tightening up. and fasten to the block with a screw at each end. Then put the piece of sheet iron d on the bolt. wide. put it on the bolt. \ in. deep. 20). For cutting the straps. Then take a piece of leather and press the edge against the knife until the cut end. 20). as shown in Fig. 22. long required to go on the bolt thread. ness. and fix firmly in the wood block. get a sharp knife. long by 2 in. comes through to the other side of the iron. The leather should come through easily. with a slot 3 in. will be Six slits (Fig. and the apparatus is ready for cutting straps not thicker than the plate c (Fig. 20). leaving exactly the Fig-. and wide enough for a knife blade to go through. f. put the blade through the slit e (Fig. keeping the edge of the leather firmly against the sheetiron plate c with the left hand. apart. \ in. first take the sheet iron plate c (Fig. or saw- kerfs. 20. 20). Screw the block to the table. 6 in.$o Lea ther Working* wide and of any thickand \ in. 20 and 22. To put the parts together. 20).

which have much in common. After cutting the pattern for the back (Fig. 24 to 28..— Letter Case. by 4 in.3i CHAPTER III. and which. rounding the corners at E and G to suit A and c . when closed. This chapter will making letter cases be devoted to instructions on and writing pads. and cut the same to it then fold again. is 8 in. round the corner at A and fold the pattern in the centre. . as shown is the accurate cutting of patterns in Figs. Set out the patterns to the dimensions on thin cardboard or stout paper. . Fisr. bringing a and b to c and d this enables the worker to cut all corners to the same shape. . The first point to consider in making the leather letter case illustrated by Fig. measures 6 in. 25 and 28) can be cut in a similar way. and cut them out. bringing a to b. 23. would suit a case which. 24). LETTER CASES AND WRITING PADS. the pattern being kept true and square. 23 these. when open. The side pockets (Figs. by 6 in.

The most durable and suitable leather for making the case would be pigskin of medium substance. 26 these holes can be used as guides in fixing the card and stamp pockets. with a small quantity of grease on a rag rub them to a finish. a firm piece being selected for the back. clearly leather by a metal weight then with a blunt awl mark the leather to the patterns. After dyeing the edges. endeavourThese should next be ing to keep clean edges. 26. Fig. 24). Prick the four holes in Fig. Figs. 26 to form stamp pockets. 28. and with a shoemaker's knife or a pair of sharp scissors carefully cut the leather to the lines traced. to Fig. and to mark the of Fig.32 (Fig. 26) to suit B and D (Fig. and four similar holes in Fig. 24. and J and l (Fig. 24). the pattern should be kept in position on the . and this can best be done by using a sponge bound to a stick with string.— Back of Letter disc. 28) must now be secured position of the stitching a line should be edge made about \ in. 24). dyed to a shade similar to the leather. 28 being stitched on Fig. 25 in the position shown. The stamp pockets (Fig. from the outer This can be done best by running . In cutting out. On Fig. 27 to form a pocket for cards. 25 and 26 are stitched on the back (Fig. Leather Working. 25 is stitched Fig. .

— Patterns for Side Pockets. and mark two lines inside for stitching. 26. Divide the pattern into three parts. 26. Fig. p 28— Stamp Pocket Pattern. £ smear it on the back of the leather from o to P about then stick the piece to in. 2o. bringing the points o and p on to the holes marked on Fig. 26.Letter Cases and Writing Pads. Fig?. the paper pattern on the leather and pricking through with an awl. Fig. 25 and 26 to C . A piece of linen or twill lining should be pasted at the back of Figs. ft-* iz Fig. Take a small quantity of glue on the finger and Fisr. around the edges from o to p (see Fig. 25 and 26.— Card Pocket Pattern. 23). 33 race compasses set to \ in. The holes are made by placing . from the outer edge Fig. 27. 27 to Fig. 26. Proceed in exactly the same way with the fixing of Fig.

Next mark the back of the case for the stitching. Then and fasten off strongly at the corners of all pockets where marked with x (Fig. from the outer edge with compasses. notebook If the leather keeping a diary or used is pigskin or cowhide. and it becomes soiled. 25) . strengthen the stitching and prevent it breaking must. and this Pad Folded Up. 25 about \ in. and then. Aft'er the patterns shown by Figs. the best way to cleanse it is by wiping with a weak solution of oxalic acid. running the stitch line all round the back of Fig. 26. from the edge. bringing the points J and l over the points b and d (Fig. . trim them with a sharp knife and dye and polish as before. If the outer edges overlap after the case is stitched. when dry. A piece of narrow elastic can now be stitched across the case in the centre at the points M and n (Fig. from f to h. Then glue around the back of Fig. be done before stitching. and stick it on Fig. 27 and 28 have been stitched to Figs. 24). . polishing with a soft rag. 24. Do the same with Fig. making a line about \ in.34 Lea ther Working. bringing the points E and G over the points A and c. of course. this will be useful for in position. 23). 24. 25 and 26 all the stitching must be carefully tied and fastened off strongly.

leaving 1 in. Thomas's. thread. by 6 in. eraser. at the sides to turn over on to the board. notepaper. scissors. or vertical-feed sewing machine. leaving 1 in.. pare Fig-. Then glue the 1-in. about twelve stitches to the inch being suitable. margins of leather to the board. 35 The stitching can be done on a light Singer's.Letter Cases and Writing Pads. the edges at a. 30. using a No. 29 and 30 has spaces for envelopes. the centre forms a blotting pad.* of leather to turn over at the top and bottom.. and d mark the leather as shown Then cut a piece of 1^-lb. all round. address book or diary. by 14 in. should be cut and fixed at the bends at A E and e d (Fig. stamps.. of leather between the boards and 1 in. First cut a piece of leather 28 in.— Writing Pad Open. It is advisable to set and try the stitch on a waste piece of leather. This will form the groundwork for the pad. and . e. and when open as shown in Fig. The writing pad illustrated by Figs. 31) to strengthen them. pen. The stitch set should not be small. Cut two pieces of strawboard 12 in. Pieces of twill lining. by 2^ in. and glue at A and d. pencil. 18 Pearsall's silk or a 60 in. strawboard 12 in. and with thin glue fix as shown at E.. 30. by 12 in. and knife. and (Fig. by Q\ in. postcards. Now cut a piece of leather 16 in.. 31). \\\ in.

and. by A . mark 1 in. mark it as shown in Fig.. Next turn the edge of the leather to the lining and board fold the leather to form gussets for the pockets. and 14§ in. Glue together pieces of strawboard or soft wood to form a mould for the paper pocket. from the edge at b. next at 8^ in. *l\ in. leaving \ in. piece of twill lining should be pasted at the back within | in. with the face of the leather upwards. .36 Lea tiier Working.. of the edge. 32 then cut pieces of cartridge paper and fix them as shown at x. A .. of leather to turn over on to the board. from the edge. and cut the top of the leather the same shape as the paper. 13| in. 9| in.

Care should be . by 6 cover with linen. except where marked at A. and glue them to the bottoms.—Writing Pad Pockets. 31). 33... 37 in. The piece of linen should next be cut Fig. and fix on a piece of leather 12^ in. 11 in. strawboard 12 in. turn the two ears inside. should be glued and fixed at A (Fig. but not the bottoms. by 8 1 in. of leather is left to form the bend (see Fig. 2 in.Letter Cases and Writing Pads. which should be turned over and stuck on the board. Cut the bottoms of the pockets as shown at p (Fig. 33. The pieces of leather with card and stamp.—Writing Pad Packets. should be sewn as shown in Fig. leaving about \ in. The ends and centre of the pockets should then be stitched. 33). of leather all round. by 2 in. 32. and glued at each bend at ae and ed in Fig. with the stamp and postcard pockets stitched on. Fig. 32).. 31. across the bend and to the part that is to form the blotting pad. envelope and pockets for papers. Next cut a piece of \-Vo. The paper and envelope pockets.

by 2f in. margin of leather at each side and | in. Next cut a piece of board or thin cartridge paper about 9 in. by 2 in. Cut pieces of paper 2^ in. leaving \ in. Glue these margins and turn over to form loops.'\ . by 1 in. by 3 in. and fasten in the same way for the diary. and glue and fix it on a piece of leather 9| in. by 1^ in.. at the ends.. .. and remove from the t To '-2.3« Lea ther Working. and leather 3| in. and also at the edges. back this with linen. taken to fix the leather well in the bends and round each side.. Next cut a piece of cartridge paper with linen at the back 4 in.

Next glue the foundation all over at the back and fix it firmly. the edge where the leather is turned over being on top. . with a small quantity of dye. Fig. black the edges of the leather where it may be snowing white.Letter Cases and Writing Pads. The leather most suitable to work would be a paste grain skiver. coat it lightly with leather varnish. so as to form a flat surface under the pad. to turn over all round. Glue the parts that overlap and fix them a3 shown. If a polished leather has been used. by 3 in. Fix the three other corners in the same manner. by 3 in. pasted a piece of white watered paper.. by 12 in. 39 strawboard 12 in. Take a piece of wood about 3 in. thick. place it at the corner of the foundation for shown at the top left-hand corner in then lay one of the pieces to form the corners on top of the wood at the distance given. To make the of A piece and on it is four corners as stiff shown in Fig. turning \ in. leaving \ in. the wood acting as a mould for the corners. and. 30. Pare the edges of the leather and stick it on the paper. 35. square and \ in. Fig. as shown in the pad as 35. This will form the foundation for the blotting pad. cut four pieces of paper 4 in. This should be applied with a fine hair brush or sponge. If leather has been used the appearance can be improved if some fancy lines on the edges of the pockets and the fronts and back of the pad are made with a crease that has been slightly heated. of the leather over on one side. and cut away the parts that pucker. now is cut. and four pieces of leather 4£ in. Next take a small brush.

requisite. or the guard of a shoemaker's forepart or waist-iron will do. and.40 CHAPTER A IV. take a brush. The brushes can be bought either singly or in pairs. lay it back downwards on a sheet of paper. When they are faced together Round the portion at prick another hole at h. and mark it all round with a pencil this will give the form a b d c in the diagram (Fig. or the one at e can be left till after the case is made. as e f g (Fig. wider. Measure their circumference. and the case made accordingly. A strap containing a few holes can be stitched on f. from H. 36). if the case is for a pair. without the buckle and straps. This is for the side and to form the lid. mark with this iron round the remainder. so as to get a good ellipse. — With regard to the making there are only three pieces needed. bah run an iron (after damping the edge a little) to give it a finish. hold it firmly. The pattern must be folded across B c (Fig. Whatever kind of case is to be made. Then take the thickness of the brush or of the two. whatever the length. . and costs but very little. and after deducting the length of B d H (Fig. hair to hair. passing f. two pieces should be cut to this pattern. and two holes pricked to indicate where the halves end. 36) to get the half . 36) from the side piece efg. longer and about 5 in. roughly cut out. This may be a narrow. This can be doubled and quartered after it is 36). HAIR BRUSH AND COLLAR CASES. gentleman's hair brush case is a very useful It is easy to cut and make. grooved iron. cut the pattern about 1 in. and these are described below. and a strap and buckle to match in a corresponding place on e.

if desired. asBDCH.Hair Brush and Collar Cases. as morocco. or where a fancy case is wanted. the pieces may be cut out in cardboard and then lined up with any thin leather. or any that . as Persian skiver. as pieces from jockey tops. and the edge of one of the ellipses may be placed against the end of the side at e and stitched. etc. and then the other side can be treated in a like manner. This may be some fancy . Fi£. The brush case may be made of almost anything is stiff and not too stout. similar pieces are then cut out of whatever material is used for the outside. . with brown or any coloured paper. 41 The leather may be lined.— Hair Brush Case. beyond the half at the back . etc. H being about 1 in. bookbinder's skivers. roans. 36.

. these are thus fitted. Tapers to this can be made by untwisting the ends after taking off the length When . If done nicely by skiving the edge very thin and taking small V pieces out all round previous to pasting. and scraping each strand until it is tapered then. wanted. leather. The threads may be of either white or yellow flax or hemp. If it be Figf. This. 37. and should be made wet and twisted. this is must be skived all round for a little more than and then pasted and turned over the edge of the cardboard on to the other leather. larger all round than going to be. stitched use bookbinder's glue instead of paste. all that is necessary is to proceed as above. about f in. when the whole are in this condition. the tapers only being waxed to receive the bristles or needles or they can be made from stout carpet thread of any colour.— Horse-shoe Collar Box. wax and . if not very thin in embossed the case itself. the edge will not need stitching.42 Leather Working. is this distance.

curved and to more play to the drawer. should be about 6 in. and put on the bristles or needles. to form piece of paper with a . on each side of c. The drawer can be used for handkerchiefs or ties. as give a little A f. 37. Draw A . The curves a d and e b can then be drawn. for a goodsized box. 37). 4 in. and for razor and tooth-brush also. 38). long. A line is now drawn across the bottom as e f the lid— that is to say. if a partition is made along the side.Hair Brush and Collar Cases. rji3 Drawers in Collar Box. a line as a b (Fig. 37) this. — Forming . &0 Fig. 33. The form for the pattern is not difficult to obtain if the instructions given below are followed. in diameter. if a straight edge is put along this line and then cut round to the other parts of the pattern (except that (Fig. horseshoe collar-box with drawer is shown by Fig. 43 twist them. First describe a circle as A b c d (Fig. touching the bottom of the circle at c mark the points a and b 2 in. according to the method of stitching to be adopted. piece can be taken away to save stuff. thus forming the horseshoe. Two of these patterns can be cut.

it is best to draw two per. in Fig. These are to form the portions shown in A. ortoCDJ h. longer). it must be \ in.44 Lea ther Working. F Box Drawer and Lid. The pattern for it will. b. As regards the drawer. These should be carried up as high as possible. as it gives more room to the drawer. be this height. the by the curved line former for preference. of any part of the outside circle. and c. to 3^ in. either tocoiH. 38) two sides will be needed and a top for the lid. The piece for the sides of the drawer must be the u . each at right angles with c. as G I and h k. for which there will be only one piece needed. past a and b. the top of the lid forming the other end at d. E Fijr. When a strap has been made as long as the distance from d to e. and as long as the distance from A. and they should be joined together either k or the straight line ilk. 59. say within about f in. There must then be cut two sides and an end the length of i K. past D and E to b (Fig. The height of the box should be from 3 in. the pattern for the lid is produced. the whole of the outside is complete. — Collar pendicular lines. of course. 39.

Hair Brush and Collar
;

Cases.

45

exact width of the inside of the box it is therefore best to leave this portion until the box is made. The lid being larger than the outside of the box, and the drawer having to go inside, the side of the drawer at A and b will not, of course, fit the lid at the dotted lines shown on top. It is not necessary, as a few stitches at e and f and along the bottom at D will hold it. As regards the manufacture or the material used, these are explained in connection with the hair-brush case already described in this chapter.

Fig-.

41.— Block for
Collar Box.

Making
Fig.

40.— Round

Collar Box.

The strap which is to fasten either side may be put on merely from lid to box, just long enough to buckle, or it may be in one piece, as shown by the handle in Fig. 37, with holes in each end for the buckle to go through, and then secured in each of
the places marked at H and 1 (Fig. 37), so as to form it into a handle, as J. In making the drawer, it is as well to put the grain side of the leather inside and to cover the outside with nice paper the inside of the box should also be covered in a like manner to keep the collars
;

can, if desired, be made of wood. be needed, as the side of the box when the drawer is in forms this. At a and c (Fig. 37)
clean.

The drawer

No

lid will

46

Lea ther Working.

on the outside of the drawer are two elastic loops to hold the collars in their place while the drawer is being inserted. Fig. 40 illustrates a round^moulded collar case 6$ in. in diameter by 3^ in. high it is covered and lined with leather. To make it, begin by cutting a circular wood block (Fig. 41) 6| in. in diameter and 3| in. deep, the surface of which should be smooth with rounded corners. Cut a strip of moulding paper about 22 in. by 4^ in. and cut also two circular pieces Glue the two ends of the long 65 in. in diameter. strip on reverse sides for about 1^ in. from the ends, and then wind it tightly round the block, bringing the glued edges over each other and joining them to form the band of the case. Next place the band so
;

Hair Brush and Collar Cases.

47

piece of glasspaper bound on wood, round off all the sharp corners, and roughen the surfaces so that the material will adhere better. The moulded part should now be cut. With a pair of compasses mark round the band about 1 in. from the top, and to this line with a sharp-pointed knife cut through to the block. The shallow part is for the lid and the other part for the case. The leather or other material to be used for the case should next be cut as follows One piece for the top of the lid 7^ in. in diameter, one piece \ in. longer than the circumference and 2\ in. wide, and one piece of the same length but 3 in. wide. If leather is used, pare or thin all the edges, and also the back and front of the ends of the long pieces to ensure a neat finish. The circular piece (7j in. in diameter) should be fixed to the top of the lid with thin glue, leaving about \ in. of leather overlapping the edge to be turned over on to the band. Glue the strip 2^ in. wide and fix the edge to the edge of the lid, neatly overlapping the two ends about \ in. The I5 in. of material left should be turned inside

the

lid.

The piece 3i in. wide should be fixed, like the lid, on the band of the case, leaving \ in. of material to turn over to the bottom and top inside the case. Next cut a piece the exact size of the bottom, pare The its edge, and fix it on the outside of the case. fastening should be fixed before lining the case, and
a piece should be stitched at the back to form a hinge. First glue a piece of linen on some brown paper and cut two pieces to the dimensions given in Then cut pieces of leather large Figs. 42 and 43. enough to cover these, turning the leather over \ in. at each end and on the left side, and lastly £ in. on the right side, this making a neat finish. An oblong catch or purse fastening about 1 in. by I in. wide should be used. The hasp part of the catch should be fixed to Fig. 42, and the catch

should be fixed to the body of the case so that the falls in easily when the lid is closed. Pare the edge of the strip at the ends and glue the whole and fix it inside the case. If a polished leather has been used. stir . and one Fiff. directly opposite the catch in front.— Sack of Round Collar Box. 3 oz. of material over the edge. place 2| oz. and secured at the bottom with another row of stitching about 1 in. with one row at the top edge of the lid. For leather varnish. this forming a ridge to keep the lid in position. bringing the edge where the material is turned over about \ in. The case should be lined. 43 should be fixed at the Lack of the case (Fig. wider than the depth. The piece of leather shown by Fig. hasp below this. above the top of the box. and leave for twelve hours. strip of the same length as the circumference of the case inside and \ in. of powdered resin spirit and . Cover the strip of board and turn about \ in. over to the back of the board. allow to settle. cut two cir- cular pieces of strawboard to inside. The clear part should be used. greater in diameter than the board. Cut the material for the circular pieces about \ in. Next fix the two circular pieces in the lid and bottom of the case. strain through canvas. turning \ in. For fit this. above this. 44). of shellac in 1 pt. and again | in. 44. glue the same and fix on the board. lightly coat with leather varnish. of methylated occasionally until dissolved.48 Lea ther Working. Keep it corked up in a dry place.

when they are going to be used for hat cases. as it has to be backed by stout millboards. Fig. V. Basil hat cases cannot be of solid leather. 45. basil is so thin that D . they are specially dressed. rather. Fig-. This is the most general shape. .. as well. Solid leather hat cases are made of good stout shoulders and first cuts. or. The diagrams given are for a bucket hat case. and it will take collars and ties. the portions of a butt that take these names for other purposes though.49 CHAPTER HAT CASES. — Bucket-shaped Hat Case. 45 gives a back view of the hat case closed. etc.

VZ\ in. and the top may be flat or curved (as abc. Fig - . . of course. to taste. 46). 45). with as little waste as possible. and is The sides of the case can be cut so that the seam comes under this strap. which is to hold the hat. and is 25 in. cut oval (as a c b d. For a curved top the dimensions of the . 47. The bottom must be 8^ in. \\ in. —Hat Case shown Diagrammatically. Fig. and the dimensions 15iin. E to f and 7 in. c to D 8f in. not round. : A strap E. 45). . from f to G. is to go.. The shape will be as Fig. The case must be oval. . patterns are as follows Top. . A to B 19^ in. Cut out the shape of all the pieces first in paper then cut the leather to them. There will have to be two pieces cut to this pattern.. 46. with portion taken away to show how and where the inner case. while Fig. long from and goes past f and c. and 9^ in. from d to E (Fig. to lock on the front. Directions for lining will be given.. 46). Fig. back and front. wide. 46 shows the front open. is sewn at e (Fig.5° Lea ther Working. by 13^ in. but this is done.

letting the stitches make up (q >aj j£ g ~^|P:B o) Fia:. 10^ in. and fit the bottom in. 48.Hat Cases. 48. The millboard should just nicely fit in the case. the ends being of any shape and width desired. Line this with red glazed lining. at A c. 50).— Sewn Seam. Then turn upside down.— Half Side of Hat Case. Take the two sides (Fig. 1| in. 47) to 3 in. Then shave off an angular all round the flesh side of the bottom. 49. of which should be left at top and bottom to turn over. long. 20| in. Three strips about needed for loops K L (Fig. and fasten them together at a c and b d. Fig. this will give the wall. and another piece to fit round the side. For the handle cut two pieces as Fig. as shown by the line at c. cut four straight or slightly curved strips. as A on b (Fig. but if made. which should be just seamed together. the width of it must be taken off the sides at . 49) . Glue these together at the side. and stitch it all round. 45) and b (Fig. or side of the case. Now cut a piece of light millboard to fit the bottom inside. 47. and a corresponding piece from the inside of the bottom of the pieces. are for it. c f d (Fig. A band for I and J (Fig. A Fig. 46). 45. be as the curved piece from line at a (Fig. by 2 in. 45) may be cut as G h. by 1 in. To form g h in Fig. and should be skived and allowed to lap to make a smooth seam. wide in the centre. —Hat-case Handle. only narrower this band is not necessary. 5 1 from a to c and b to d. Glue a piece of lining on . 1 in. twice the size of Fig. 47). 47.

leaving 1 in. Next damp the inside of the case. but it may be prepared and finished off without. This is for a fixed handle . After it is stitched and shaped. letting one come from a to b.52 Leather Working. Now put the board rim between the two. and the top can be lined with quilted satin. narrow straps which are to go across to stay the handle atop. or instead of using rivets all may be stitched down. is not so thick. 48). bringing the two edges to the bottom. and the edge of the lining and edge of the rim must be flush with each other. Cover it with the lining. and glue it down. and place two other pieces of the same material between them. While the lining is drying. lay it on the bottom of the side lining. letting it stand a good inch above the case. and put a brass-headed rivet in each. punch a hole in each end at m and N (Fig. and put it in its place in the case it will stand up about \ in. Notch it all round about \ in. for a loose one. and then stitch right through the lot. and also skiving a litle off the edges at e f. apart. skiving or tapering them off at ends to nothing. wide all round over this. above the case. 2 in. The lid is made in the same way. as shown by h h h h. as h h h h (Fig. 45). wide and curved to fit outside the top of the lining and inside the edge of the case. only the lining of the rim G H (Fig. slightly glue it and the outside of the lining. be put on. Before the lining is inserted the handle must . Do the 45). Sometimes the top edge of the case is bound with a narrow strip of thin leather. to the bottom board. as the others can be trimmed to it after it has been stitched all round. take the two pieces (Fig. over all round. Then glue a strip 2 in. 46). put them together. take a strip of the board. letting half be on the bottom and half on the side. and the other from c to D. same with two short. To make the handle. m and n will not want . Only the top piece need be cut out to the shape desired.

but should be made to take a hat of any size. and must be a good deal wider. and is therefore worth the extra trouble. and the piece that is left can be cut across the centre to form the two half -rims. 46). The inner case (Fig. at least. opposite to l (Fig. and from the centre cut a piece out. by 13^ in. The lock is put on the front. 52. and covered with the lining. o and p must then be well secured at each end to prevent m and N slipping through or pieces of brass. 51. 51. k and l may also be of brass. 8^ in. shape of these small leather or brass brackets is shown at Fig. .Hat Cases. Inner Hat Case. as A b. . raised in the centre just to admit of the thin part of the handle passing backwards and forwards. by 7^ in. — Bracket for Handle and Strap Strides. Fig 1 . 12| in. The . and its catch is riveted to the ends of the strap. . between K and L. and the strap. Take a piece of cardboard. this piece will form the bottom at Fig. 52) is very simple. The lid does not come right off . forms a loose sort of hinge. 53 punching. This is cut from cardboard. if desired but leather is more in keeping with the character of the case. may be used.

c d (Fig. as explained above. it can be gradually cut down from these points at each side to a width of 6-| in. The top of the sides may be covered with quilted satin. covered on one side. . so that it may be stitched along the top of c d at G and h. may now be covered outside. and the width of the inner case will have to be 1\ in.54 Leather Working. Only 1 in. . 52). with an old-fashioned garter-fastener in the centre. apart). puffed a little with wadding. and a piece put over the bottom for a finish. can be put in the spaces between the inner and outer cases shown at I and J (Fig. A piece of ^-in. The bottom piece. and about f in. The length of cd can now be ascertained by measuring round the piece which is to be the bottom. so that when in the case collars. The quilted satin is only just secured on each side. inner case to fit inside the outer one. can be left to form the seam. etc. and finished off on the under side with lining. after it is seamed up. as shown at I J. must be put across from K to L (Fig. 46) to hold the inner case containing the hat in its place. and just stood in the case A and b should be trimmed at the sides to allow the . This will be at a b but. which should be turned over to the outside. This must be done so as to leave A and b quite free to be lifted up. which can be done by folding a piece of the lining and stitching it to the satin underneath f and the opposite side (letting a and b be \ in. top and bottom. elastic.. The lining should be turned round the top and over at the bottom. for the inside lining of the leather case. This should be left on towards the centre. The inside of this inner case may be covered with the lining. wider. 46).

53 and 54 as to enable them to be cut from a strip of leather with the least possible waste an important consideration in cutting up leather. such as. specially to order. A banjo case. and then cut the other parts. a margin all round . only a few hints will be needed as to the method of making it. leaving. As a good illustration of the shapes and their positions given in the diagrams. of course. in Fig. the better will be the fit and the — cheaper the case. in fact. placing them together in a like manner. Suppose the work is done from measurements. It will be seen that in giving the patterns for the various parts of two different shaped cases. and cut the bottom pattern to it. or made of common or unsuitable leather. they are so placed together in Figs. Take the exact length of the banjo. as it often undergoes a lot of rough usage it fits so close to the instrument it is designed to protect. unless made . it forms a covering only. that. can scarcely be made too well. BANJO AND MANDOLINE CASES. it would not be possible to buy at any shop. or a case for any similar instrument. the width of rim including brackets. strong. First measure the banjo.55 CHAPTER VI. 53. the smaller all parts can be got. It will now be seen how much stuff will be required. as there shown. This chapter will therefore explain how to make a good. and is not really a protection. and the width of the key- . height of highest portion as it lies upon a flat surface. as A. solid leather case. if badly made. The height of the banjo must be ascertained to determine the thickness of the case . or lay it on a sheet of paper.

The handle J can be cut to any shape desired. or they need only be cut the length of p to Q. This completes all the outer pieces for the case shown . etc. The stitches in nearly the whole of these cases are made as shown in Fig. but \ in. and can easily be cut from the spare corner shown.56 Leather Working. as the circumference is larger. describe a circle to it take from a portion of this circumference the width of the keyboard. Cut B the width of the measurement previously alluded to as the height. And the same rule will apply to F for the rim of the lid.. where these two (c and d) may join . and this rule will again apply to G and h for the lid . as only a very small hole is needed. longer. The small box for strings.. . and cut out this. board. then draw two lines the length of the handle. for the lid. . The whole of the inside of the banjo case may be covered with any coloured baize or flannel. Letting the rim measure be the diameter. past N and q. asMN. but it will be longer. . and can be done either with harness-makers' needles or with a thread as used by shoemakers the latter is the stronger. and making the M and n meet the line l. the edges of which should be turned in so that it is just a shade smaller than the above patterns. and a piece joined on the end (at each corner) as I. may be made from stout cardboard. to L. b would therefore be this length less the distance between m and n. : in Fig. allow \ in. the bottom pattern . This lining should be glued into its place after the case is made. then cut another to it. 56. all round. This is not at all difficult. This clone. the length of these can be ascertained by drawing the length of the banjo as o l. the circumference would be about 36 in. The length of the two sides can be obtained by measuring from P. 55. and the length can be found as follows Suppose the width of rim to be 12 in. and covered with the lining .

Banjo and Mandoline

Cases.

57

58

Lea ther Working.

without. The piece taken out between a b (Fig. 55) is to receive the finger when the box is being

opened.

The handle may be stitched on or fastened by two copper rivets at c and d. Two straps and buckles, one at e and another at f, will hold on the lid, which may be fastened with lock and key, clasp, or another strap and buckle. The banjo case shown in Fig. 57, of which Fig. 54 gives the parts in section, is a very handy shape, and is a little cheaper to cut. In this case the top and bottom are the same size and shape, as shown by a and b. The pattern should be obtained in the same way as before, but it will

Banjo and Mandoline

Cases.

59

at e and I the more economical the cutting, c and d should be cut long enough to form the whole of the sides and the end, as each shown here will come from b to c (Fig. 57). g, in Fig. 54, is for the rim of the lid, and is cut about 2 in. or 3 in. longer than the lid this end is left on one side, to be stitched to the case at d (Fig. 57), and forms a good hinge. h, in Fig. 54, is the handle, and should be attached to the case as shown above. The remaining pieces will be needed for buckle-straps and loops.
,

wFig. 58. Corner and Split

Butted.

Banjo Case with End Lid.

Where the leather is required to be turned to an angle, as at e (Fig. 57), a piece must be taken out of the leather about halfway through on the wrong and when one is required as at f, give one side they can then be straight cut halfway through tapped down on an angular piece of wood. Another very good way of making the seams at the corners is to take the top and bottom, or all the sides, and draw a line all round with a pair of com passes about y«y in. in from the edge, and from this put the point in at this line make holes all round
; ;

;

care being taken to line it firmly. as a and B. as cannot be done afterwards without undoing the Fi£. stitches. as shown by A in Fig. with bound and turned-in edges. and that when the two are put together to form a corner. . Lea ther Working. and while A is butted against B. 59. This makes a very solid corner. For the above the leather is cut and enough stuff allowed to admit of an angular piece being taken off all the corners. it must be up first. the method to be adopted will now be explained when leather is used will be self-suggestive.6o line. 58. lined it In putting this banjo case together. It will now be seen that B is the other piece of leather. Looking at a case of this shape it might be . etc. and bring it out at the edge of the leather about two-thirds of the way through. box covered with Strings. The method of making a mandoline case in American cloth. 60. to show how it is put into the case and the way the case is made. — Mandoline in Case. which should be placed inside the banjo prior to putting it in the case. the awl is put in at A and pushed through till it comes out at b. should be kept in a small baize.. 60 at A is given a portion of the body of the mandoline standing out of the case. so that the portions which are to be stitched can be laid together as in Fig. In Fig.

it will need to be 32^ in. 61). long from A to B (Fig. long . This is cut in the same way as for the lid. and parallel with A c. From H to I the distance will be about 5^ in. The point J. The next is for the bottom. and another drawn from b to G that is about a quarter of the length. which should be 3f in. long. where the curve ends. at right angles to a c. The method of cutting the pattern will depend on the size and exact construction of the mandoline but by way of example the sizes in inches of various parts at different points of a case for an ordinary mandoline are given. as A (Fig. 1. long. 6| in. draw c D . from c. long. B. Take a piece of paper. and indicates the edge — of the rim of the lid. from e to f. A line is drawn from A to c. The line k l should be about 2 in. one side being at the bottom. whereas it is laid in on its side. as shown by the dotted lines b. the left-hand top corner of which must be a right angle. 61 thought that the mandoline is put in so that the strings come next to the lid. as it has to go round the curves. and 3^ in.Banjo and Mandoline Cases. These dimensions will require slightly modifying for instruments of other shapes and sizes. from c to d. from A . From this point draw the curve g h e j. 24| in. only. Fig. Mark a point at c along the top 24^ in. is about 4 in. and e f parallel to c d at a distance of about one-fifth of the distance from A to Make f e 8^ in. 61. —Elevation of Mandoline Case. on the line c d. The next pattern is the top of the lid. 62).

To each of these patterns cut pieces of stout strawboard one to each piece excepting Fig. while the handle should be cut as shown in Fig. Two from a to b 3j in.— Top of Mandoline Case. or any material or colour preferred. 64. not more. 61. long. These. apart. 61). Fig. 62). .— Bottom of Mandoline Case. and this may be stuck on with — — Fig. and the lid (Fig.. put a mark on the outside of each piece so that they may not get mixed. in order to test their correctness. the other of e f (Fig. pieces the same width as a c k l (Fig. as Fig. and e f The end piece is next cut this should be 3| in. and lay them with their widest sides together. when the whole are cut. Paste the lining on to these and let it dry . Take one side. done with baize. If everything is satisfactory. c d must be 6f in. 61.. (Fig. 63). 63. are required. bookbinders' paste. and the mandoline should be tried to see if it fits before finishing the making of the case. by 3 in. to which two pieces must be cut. so that they are about \ in. may be temporarily fastened together in their proper places by strips of gummed paper. 62. striped union. as shown in Fig. 62). and the whole of the patterns are cut. one the length of c d.62 Lea ther Working. This can be It is best to line the insides first. 62 at G.

The lid and one side may be covered at the same time. and trimmed off at the edges. Fig. as on the lid. wide.— Binding Corner of Case. and if the lining and the outer covering are pasted well together. — Stitching Piece. d. if the edges and corners are to be bound. 66). must be damped and folded down the centre. 60). Corner of Case. When done in this way. 63 serve the inside of each piece the same. as will be exIf they are only to be stitched plained later. where the lid and side are joined together. stitched through are 1. and h. 65. through (a very nice. Fig. doing these one at a time . which is much better than having a movable lid. at c. 66. g. the corner seams should be made as Fig. then pare the edges of the lining off to the edge of the board. n. as A (Fig. put the awl in at b. 65 at A. 60). J.—Mandoline Case End Fig. about I in. Fig. and bring it out at c. and turned over on to the lining. 64. Fig. . Lay this on the corners. pasted. letting B and c be the stitch. grain side out. 66. Now the outside is covered in the same way with American cloth. so that it catches all the edges in the stitching. m. 65. Fig. which is set right through to catch This would also mean the edges of everything. and also the three edges of the body at f. the American cloth is left on \ in. The corners that will have to be (Fig. k. they form a good solid hinge for the lid. except in the first instance. all round. 64. e (Fig.Banjo and Mandoline Cases. neat way). and If the lining and covering has been done with a raw edge. a long strip of basil or persian. stitching or felling all the other edges down. l.

to put the plectrums in.. as a little box could be fitted here to carry string. near each edge. 60). letting the lock be on the case. The handle . and the awl put in at one edge of the binding and brought out at the other. On the back. It must be lapped over the edges c. and the holes made with a fiat. The case may be fastened with a spring or ordinary lock. If the case is made of American leather cloth. under the lid. or two narrow straps. or the steel strings will be — — injured. or a fancy stamped roan. apart. g. as for instance at F and H. with tapers made as has been explained and fastened on to harness-makers' needles. . the stitches need not be very short say three to the inch and the thread may be made from stout carpet thread. and the hasp on the lid as m. 61). etc. inside at o (Fig. some little distance apart. This will need to be only \ in. as n (Fig. as patent seal. but it may be wider if desired. 60). This can be made use of. . on the lid. etc. 62) with leather or brass slides. h. as it will help to keep the body and lid in shape and thus make it more durable. instead of using American cloth. e (Fig. there will be a space at the back of the neck or handle of the mandoline.64 Lea ther Working. diamond-shaped awl. about \ in. d. may be affixed to take a small pocket-book and just above the same place. See that the case is quite dry before the mandoline is put into it. wide. but the stitching must catch both edges. use thin leather. well fastened at each end with a stitch here and there. a narrow strip may be stitched on.is put on at h and 1 (Fig. If it is wished to make a better or prettier cover. and also f. It is best to put these on so that there is no join at the corners. Another long strip will then be needed for the binding of the plain edges.

or between these can be obtained to order. but the bags chosen are representative. always easier to reduce than to enlarge a pattern. bags i in. and It being 10 in.. to 5i in. sizes of brief bags is kept in stock are 10 in. the difference in length be- Fig-. This by no means exhausts the subject. long the width of the bottoms varies from 3i in. In width and depth brief bags differ considerably. VII. it should not be difficult to make a bag of any other shape after thoroughly examining it. The two most useful sizes for brief bags are undoubtedly 12-in.. and tennis. lady's hand. above. E . but any size under. Like Gladstone bags and some other kinds. and 16 in. Gladstone. excess over these measures is allowed.. to lOf in.— Brief Bag.65 CHAPTER BAGS. following the instructions given. and in the other 7$ in. the difference in depth being in proportion the sides of the smallest size measure anything between 7 in. 12 in. 67. and 14-in. 14 in. tween any two consecutive generally 2 in. This chapter will deal with the methods of making leather bags of five chief kinds— brief.. The sizes usually .. and.. and in 14-in. In those 12 in.

Fig.— Brief Bag. 69. in proportion to the may be reduced as desired. and with a rule measure it carefully between the corners A A and b b. and the length of the bottom should always . owing to this part closing into the other half. 70) and d d (Fig. 71) is the same. 67 is shows a bag well proportioned . when finished. and the difference must be allowed for in cutting out the leather. 69. and not so deep. A bag is always measured at the frame. and lay it perfectly flat on the bench.66 Lea ther Working. and Fig-. by 5 in. 68. and will measure 12 in.— Narrower Brief Bag-. Fig. In both bags the distance between G G (Fig. and more convenient generally slightly too article will length. the dimensions given in this be the largest. Fig. by 10 in. 12-in. The dimensions in the diagrams are given for a bag. The way to cut out the patterns for either of these bags is to open the frame as in Fig. 68 much narrower at the bottom. to have a bag small. The frame will be found to be slightly less at B b.Frame.

"the hinge 8 in. and 5j in.— Gusset Stiffen- ing Pattern. Gusset Pattern. of the frame making this difference. Get a sheet of thin brown paper. Therefore cut the gusset 8| in. more than this. 71). and fold it in the middle. f f. Next measure the frame from A to B for the gusset (Fig. Then. from d to D. All seams are allowed for.Bags. lay the leather on the bench. 70. Mark it correctly the exact depth and half the distances between G G and h h. The pattern in Fig. from E to E. This F r.— Pattern ensures both sides of the pattern taking the same curve at the swelled part. The pattern for the bottom will measure 13J in. g h are made. when the seams d f and . at the bottom.R hi I3T-for Side of Bag-. 72. The depth of the gusset will be 10 in. Fig-. and should measure along the top llf in. 70 is for the sides. all ends will be level. 10 in. by 5^ in. and cut through the double paper. Fig. and at the bottom 13| in. To cut out the bag. be 67 1 in. only. ... The distance will be found to be but if closed it will be quite 8^ in.

and stitching with a good waxed thread made of four-cord No. what is left. Begin sewing the bag by taking one of the sides and one gusset. and. grain side down. placing a welt piece between the edges. Place them face to face. Cut out the sides first. so that d and g and f and h meet respectively. then the bottom the welt pieces may be cut from the thinnest part of . and see that the patterns are placed on it so that the grain marks will all run in the same direction when the bag is made up.68 Leather Working. as they are more exposed than any other part. Take the gussets next. 9 patent o . they should be taken from the best part of the leather.

74. In cutting out the gusset stiffenings. Use good paste. as shown in Fig. wide for covering the largest half. For covering the frame. Any kind of lining— roan. is given when describing how to make a Gladstone bag (see pp. and the edges of the covering must be brought to that side of the frame which will be out of sight when the bag is finished. the distance from a to c when they are in position as shown by dotted lines (Fig. a teaspoonful of treacle added to \ lb. and in cutting it out of the same patterns used for the outside will do. wide for the other half. A piece of material like the lining is put on to the back. 68. and get the stiffenings into position quickly. and finish at each end in the form of the letter The edges thus produced are pasted down V inside . of glue will be found effectual. and fix the key-plate and handle-plates in position before pasting the covering to the under side of frame. pocket side opposite the lock. 71) must be rather more than the distance from A to c on the frame (Fig. this makes a good opening to the pocket. or linen twill may be chosen. If the glue should show signs of setting too rapidly. The frame in this case will be covered all over. long by 2j in. and rub it well down with the rubbing bone before the glue sets. as shown in Fig. When the lining is finished. cut the lining as shown by dotted lines K k. 73 to 83). and glue to the . cut large enough to receive the stitching. cut a strip 20 in. place it inside the bag. besides much other useful information. hot glue. skiver. and another strip 19 in. A pocket must be formed on one of the sides. take a nice thin piece of hide (persian works better). 69). Use a large brush. To do this.Bags. The method of making the handle and fixing the plates to the frame. long by 4 in. and the pocket is formed by stitching the three sides and above the opening for the same. 69 stiffening fits firmly every part within the seams.

and fix on a tab when sewing b side. with mounts to correspond. In buying a frame it will be advisable to get a few pins with it for riveting the parts together. as well as the material. to serve as a guide in selecting a skin of Take care not to buy too small a suitable size. good skiver. For a single bag. The largest pieces for the bag should be cut out first. and making leather cloth. or russia bags are usually lined This may be either persian or a with leather. skin. which must be made in framing this part this allows the bag to close easily.. There is also quite a variety of frames used. Morocco. in and there is a much greater For instance. either a or b. and from the best part of the skin. See that all seams meet before starting to and use black flax in making threads for this At x (Fig. The sizes of pieces required for a 10-in. and prepare to sew the bag to the frame. part. pressed grains. 17 in. from the plain japanned to the elaborate nickel or gilt. take patterns of all the parts. and causes no strain to the hinges. square pattern bag are as follow One piece. roan. by 10 in. Start at one of the corners. either of which may be obtained in fancy colours. or one which would leave a lot of surplus on hand. Trim off anyexcess of lining here. morocco. for making stitch. besides many special kinds of fancy leathers and other materials. The frames. ladies' bags are very different from those used brief bags. forming one side. and pocket on the other : . as before mentioned. made in russia. 68) a fulness of the gusset is shown. to open it by. a small persian would perhaps be the most economical to buy. then lay them in order on a large sheet of paper. roan. ladies' bags are variety of each. bottom and round the top of the bag. bottom. If an old bag is at hand the same size and style as the one it is desired to make.7° Leather Working. .

The lines on the flap are creased with a tool. stitching . place a narrow welt piece between them. Narrow strips of leather of the same kind as that used for the bag are stitched on each side of this to prevent the cloth being seen beneath each end of the flap. The shape of and 1-in. referred to in previous chapters. and ensures the stitching taking a good hold of the bottom edge. 71 which completes this side is cut 6 in. each. side. heated and worked along in a straight line. these two pieces is almost triangular. and good black elastic. In seaming the body and ends of the bag together. wide by 5 in. The counterpart of this fastener or stud is riveted on to the pocket. long. only at the bottom. The flap is made up quite separately from the bag. long. <?n that when the bag is turned the welt will show. is stitched to one end of each. to be riveted to the frame. wide by 3 in. and the parts are stitched together. The lower corners of this are sligntly rounded. leaving the 5^ in. and a piece of American cloth is cut the same size for the back and to provide the casing for the springs to slide in. All the — — may be done by any domestic sewing machine. and the flap The by 10 in. by 2 in. 5^ in. wide. on each 6^-in. at the top. A piece of American cloth is generally used for that side of the bag covered by the flap and pocket. side. wide. the other end of the leather being rounded and the fastener riveted on to it. and the 1-in. piece is laid One 2-in. | in. by 6-in.Bags. These must be cut 1 in. The spring pieces are cut \ in. as the material is in no case very heavy. part for seaming to the bottom of the bag. and must be stitched to the cloth before the side seams are made. on each side. flexible portions forming the gussets 6^ in. Four pieces for the stiffened portion of the ends must be cut 6 in. The flap must be neatly bound with thin leather cut f in. which provides a good surplus for the underside.

but in three pieces only one piece is cut the full width of the bag. and extends from the frame on one side to the other. or the pins will bend. used for riveting on. and complete it by working alternately on each side of these. a pair of small wire cutters such as are used by watchmakers.fix the four corners first. stiffen the bottom and sides as directed. but an excellent substitute will be found in a small iron foot (such as is used in boot repairing) supported by a suitable stand. Two plates of metal are sold with each frame in fact. and fresh ones will have to be put in .72 Leather Working. Having fixed the four corners so that the seams on each side meet perfectly. Do not leave too much metal for burring down. pass the pins through the holes near the hinges and rivet them . These are made exactly the same shape as the frame itself. To rivet the frame to the bag. hammer. they include a fine round awl for piercing the leather in passing through the pins. The lining is also riveted in at the same time. also avoid cutting them too short to form a head. and also to receive the burr formed in riveting the pins. and a In the bag trade special irons are 1-oz. The ends or gussets are each in one piece.. and on the same side of the frame as the pull-piece to the lock catch. form a part of it to hide the cut edges at the top of the bag. the flap being put in with the rest. The " toe " of the iron foot is placed under each pin- When — — . the bag has been turned. then through the holes near the lock and catch. This lining is not cut the same as the outside leather. For riveting the parts together a few tools are essential. The leather of the flap should also be stiffened with good brown paper before being made up. but these are not very expensive . The elastic springs should also be stitched at the top of the flap to prevent pulling away in use. and put four nickel clamps or nails in the four corners of the bottom.

and increasing as the ends are neared. wet it. in nearly every instance. The usual length is 10 in. then place the hands on the roll and keep working it until it is quite firm then lay on one side to dry. The first of these is caused. lay the cord evenly along one end. machine sewn. and the bag held in a horizontal position whilst being riveted. It is very essential. Cut two pieces of leather. in making . Be careful to get the first few turns tight. Cut a piece of paper. Stout cord covered with brown paper is used as a filling. each 10 in. and secure them in their places by passing through a pin and riveting its end. commencing at the middle. Of Gladstone bags the most convenient size for ordinary use is the 22 in. perfectly level table or bench is the best for rolling it on. Handles for ladies' bags are always made much longer than for other bags. one. which soon becomes rotten. This will hold a coat or a pair of trousers folded once over with an 18-in. wide. Paste the leather covering over this. to carry. The tapering ends are made by peeling off a portion of the paper. 10 in. Two in its manufacture. is liable which a Gladstone bag are (1) a broken frame and (2) unstitching of the seams. so that the edges meet evenly on each side . Much larger sizes prove very cumbersome A . owing to the dye used of the chief evils to . then stitch and trim them. Pare the ends before placing them in the fittings attached to the frame. and chiefly with very thin thread black bags are sewn with a thread of that colour. or 20-in. by 1 in.Bags. 73 head. . bag two folds generally have to be made. by careless usage the second may be due to common thread being used in joining the Nearly all kinds of bags are parts together. and begin to roll the cord within the paper. to permit of their being carried on the arm.

. but the cheap material requires more care and skill in its Another Gladstone Bag. manipulation moreover. Cheap leather should not be used. Very . it will not last a quarter the time that one made of good leather will. Fig. 75. a bag.74 L EA THER WOR KING. — Gladstone Bag". for not only do the frame and fittings cost the same. to use a good waxed thread for the seams to ensure the work being permanent.

22-in. 75 .Bags.. Bone or Fig. shoes. and. for Six nails to protect the stiffening the bands. Strawboard in three different weights will be A Fig. .melled cowhide there is not this risk. two or three different sized awls in handles . 78. a pennyworth each of No. and black flax twill lining will also be necessary. 77 for rubbing down the stiffenings. e. 1 and No. 77. frame with strap loops . has a lock at each end of frame. buckles for outside straps half dozen f-in. ena. per lb. about four 16-oz. few brown bags are waterproof be so sodden with wet that after being out in a drenching rain. . 75 shows a Gladstone bag with full fittings. A few simple tools will be required a clamp to hold the work for sewing (the worker can make these . — Rubbing Stick. brown bag will it takes a long time to get dry. for Bag required it costs Id. causing an unsightly appearance. c. Fig. buckles for inside straps a ball each and 3 yds. handle plates . boards for stiffening the sides and cutting patterns. of " Harness Making ) . as explained in Chapter I. these fittings costs 2s. etc. . A . 6d. a and sometimes. . One 2-lb. b. when used with care. yellow. oi of brown. bottom 2 1-in. — Stiffening Division. 76 shows the interior this bag of a bag with the necessary straps. d. — . . a indicates lock and plate . 4 harness needles a clicker's knife and a bone the same shape as Fig. and the stiffening curls or comes away in With places. board for the bottom. it will preserve its glossiness for years. and has no slides. and two 8-oz. . slides . Fig. .

must also be cut. a piece of hard. 79. 78 if a frame with single lock and slides is used. Fig.— Leather Pocket. 82. Fig.— Buckle Chape. lay the closed frame on it. straight-grained wood. Paste this on to the straw-board. by 9 in. 80). In cutting these smaller patterns. strawboards. 5— can be bought at any large ironmonger's. and cut evenly round the edge of paper. Cut this out with a large pair of scissors. 81. and one for the flap (Fig. a No. A gluepot of suitable size for the brush say. but every particle of paint must be washed out. 79). The glue brush should be quite 2 in.— Pocket Flap. Fig. For the division — ^ZF Fig. A pattern for the pocket (Fig. and if fancy buckle chapes (Fig. Fig. 80. Take one of the 16-oz. 80. 83 is a pattern for the middle piece in the handle. it is a good plan to cut one first by folding a piece of thin paper mark and cut (Fig. The pattern for the bottom must be 21| in. Fig. the first thing to do is to get out the patterns. in diameter at the band. pocket-flap pattern folded) it so that when it is opened both sides of the pattern are alike. pattern for the sides. In making the Gladstone bag. In beginning to cut out the bag. and shape it as in Fig. and mark evenly round and along the wire at the bottom. answers the purpose nearly as well. A paint brush If this latter thoroughly cleaned will do. . cannot be obtained.7 Leather Working. take the side . and the pattern for the sides is ready. 81) are used. 79. filed to shape. a pattern of these should be cut. 4 or No.

and choose an awl of suitable size. tie the threads over the edge.Bags. Fig. clear to each one and sufficient to cover the frame. Join together into one length by paring the ends with a knife and making a short lap with glue or paste.— Folding Paper for Small Pattern. and sew the other side-piece and band to- A gether the same. lay it on the leather. and as long as they can be got. placing one end of the band level with it and running the welt between the two. lay them face to face. for welts. one by 6| in. Do this. Sew round until the opposite bottom corner is reached.— Tab. 84. or they will be sure to show when made up. wide and the other by 5^ in. The bottom (21^ in. Make a few four-cord threads of brown hemp. This will give 4 in. 82. Cut quite close to the pattern. fasten in a pair of the smaller needles. There will probably be a little to trim off the bands to bring the ends level. Use the thinnest part of the hide Fig-. . of Bag Handle. 77 pattern. 84. Fig. See that there are no flaws or blemishes under the pattern. Use a sharp knife. and if a level board large enough is not handy.— Part Fig. by 9 in. Fig. The bands will need to be 45 in. Fig. 82. 84. 83. and start sewing from one bottom corner of the side-piece. Take one of the bands and one side-piece. S3. long. guiding the knife with the finger pressed against it and the edge of the pattern. lay one of the strawboards under the leather and cut out on that. and see that both sides can be got out with the grain running in the same direction. pattern for the tab by whose means the bag is pulled open is shown by Fig.) may be cut last. widv. cutting strips for this purpose \ in.

If enamelled hide is being used. for the larger. . The bag. wide (Fig. from the seam this should leave on one \\ in. and with the other hand forcing -the leather • Fig. must now be turned. working both down until they are quite clear. to cover the small part of the frame. and serve it the same. Cut quite \ in. and cut two pieces 21 in. and press with the hand quite close to the seams all round them this will give it a more natural shape to receive the stiffenings. and try them in before gluing. Continue sewing until the place started from is reached. from the edge. running a welt in as before. and mark each end 4 in.— Half of Bottom Stiffening. and the bag will be turned. run the welt only to the bottom for f in. off each corner to allow them to fit close up to the seams. Now take the 2-lb. sewing this to the end of the band until the mark already mentioned is reached. Next take the bottom and commence sewing from one corner of this and the bottom of the sidepiece. The proper method is to bend up the stiffening-piece in the centre. and the weather is cold. 85). and finally press down the . Hammer the corners down from the inside. Continue along the end of the bottom. treating opposite sides and ends exactly alike. Proceed with the other two corners in a similar way. .. then the other end. being inside outwards. Do this by placing the left hand in one corner. long by 4| in. put one end in first. board. until it begins to fold over then take the other corner of that end. and then take up the end of the other band at the mark 4 in. downwards . warm the leather gently and carefully before turning.78 Leather Working. and 2\ in. 85.

so that no part is left untouched. remembering that these also must fit very tightly. it must be done after the bag has been framed. using strips from the 8-oz. long by 1 in. smaller all round than the leather. Cut off the lower corners the same as the bottom stiffenings. place it inside. when dry. it preparing the glue. . 83.Bags. right for use. bands is purely a matter of fancy some like a bag to set out square. wide cut to shape as in Fig. the ends of this having been previously passed . When break this. Try them in before gluing. Stand it on one side for an hour or so for the glue and makes a solid fied that it is a to set properly. whilst others prefer to strap it up close when nearly or quite empty. long by \ in. while waiting for this. wide and the same thickness. will be found to be about . Use the glue quite hot. cut out the stiffenings for the sides and make the handle. it is a good plan to up and soak in cold water for twelve hours when melted down. The stiffenings for the sides will need to be \ in. 79 this stretches the leather to its full length. and. or there will be blisters where the glue does not adhere to the leather. To make the handle. boards 3| in. There should be a space of \ in. take a piece of good strap leather 10 in. and glue in the other half. wide. see that it is not too stiff. pare the edges away until it is perfectly round and slightly tapering towards each end. rub well all over with the rubbing-bone. or perhaps more if the leather is very stout or the seams are too great a distance from the edges. The stiffening of the . between these from end to end. and. It is then divided and glued top and bottom to Fig. 83. glue one piece. When satisgood fit. centre . and get them into position as quickly as possible. Glue together a lot of odd pieces about 6^ in. If it is decided to stiffen these. Use the bone freely all over. bottom to the bag.

86. through the handle rings and turned back to form a chape. fix in the and sew on two leather loops for straps (Fig. Take the lock-plate first. . and turn them down quite close on to the frame. as this often proves difficult when made up. so that it will fit closely between the under A part of the iron band and the lock.8o Lea ther Working. 86) then proceed to fit in the frame. Trim and dye the edges. bottom the stiffenings are firmly set. Allow the leather to cover the thin iron band and reach half-way down the other part joined nails. and cover with a piece of cowhide long enough to go through the two rings and along the underside. then stitch it. This will leave a good margin inside when sewn through. to it at right angles. and another hole the same size cut underneath. rubbing them afterwards with a piece of cloth to produce a polish. The strap loops are fitted next . placing the widest band over the largest half of the frame. Put a few stitches through close to the rings. pass the claws through. — Bottom of G-laclsi one Bag - . and with a fine-pointed knife puncture the leather exactly over these. It is a good plan to put the plates through the rings before gluing together. and if slides . hole large enough for the key-barrel of the lock must be cut and passed over it. continuing this right through to the edge. Then take the handle and fix it. Oblong slots are punched across the iron band of the frame to allow the flexible claws on the fittings to pass through. When Fig-.

and are fitted to the frames by small nuts. missing those places where the tie-pieces in the frame are in the way. by 6 in. 8i have been bought. The method of sewing in the frame is different to sewing the seams. 1 pull out the full length.Bags. then make another hole in advance of that at a distance equal to the intended length of the stitch. but below it has the appearance of a cable. bring up the needle. This gives an ordinarylooking stitch on the top. each pair should be bent inwards. Continue until all the frame is sewn. using beeswax tor tnese instead of shoemakers' wax. 3 and so on. and the bottom is made in two pieces 22 in. pass the screws through. It is now ready for sewing. 2. 84) must be sewn on where the lock-catch is fixed to the frame. For the sides and bands it is cut the same size as the leather. and fix a large needle to one half. make a third hole. More expensive frames have solid fittings these have screws cast on them. This leaves enough stuff to make a strong fold when sewing it with the division board along the centre . push the awl through. A tab of leather by which to pull the bag open when in use (Fig. Cut them in halves. Commence at one end of the frame. and make a few five-cord threads. The lining must now be cut out. F . and pass down through No. Bring the needle up from the bottom through No. . and pass down through No. In bending down the claws. each. 2 hole then up through No. and down No. . round holes being punched to . The shoes should be fixed last then cut two slits in the narrow band for the lock-catch to pass through. . the leather must be cut away the same size and shape as the slots in the frame before being fixed. and is called back-stitching. and a piece of leather or similar material laid on anything solid to protect the plated parts whilst being gently hammered down. Take the ball of black flax. 4.

When this is finished. which should be put in free from creases and should firmly adhere to the stiffenings. with a f-in. the same shape as dotted lines in Fig. and makes the work of sewing Begin to sew in the lining at one it in much easier. A piece of thin strawboard. machines which are quite powerful enough to sew through this binding and also the pocket and flap. and one round the . wide. it should be used. where one is ready to hand and capable of doing the work. and of some fancy coloured material. 79. and 82 show how to cut the pocket and flaps. The covering for the division board deeper than the board. is Leather Working. using a long needle and . 80) for the flap.82 of the bottom. then sew a chape (Fig. 81). flap. Glue the other lining piece over the back. The lining also may be sewn by a machine. trim off any inequalities. and another piece (Fig. lay it on one side and paste in the linings. Strips for binding should be \ in. For these as well as the bindings a thin roan or good skiver must be bought. on each side. and. and the pocket flap and strapchapes are sewn on before gluing on the other side. Pasting well up under the frame enables the lining to fold neatly over. and stitch them round . Glue these to the leather and a piece of lining over cut fully \\ in. cut the leather sufficiently large to fold over Fix the pocket and flap in the centre of the division board. and paste on There are many domestic sewing the binding. One side is glued on first. using the single needle and thread (yellow is best for this purpose) as in sewing round the frame. and also wears much better than some other colours. and carried beyond the bottom of the board to strengthen it. Figs. corner near the bottom. or and form a binding. buckle and a loop. Paste a binding along the top of the pocket. them that for the flap is the full size of the leather. 80. A bright scarlet looks well. 79. must be cut for stiffening the pocket.

and in the other side of bag sew in four straps. Sew two straps 5 in. wide or a strip of thinner leather | in. as illustrated. the stitches lying hidden welting. These are sewn Fig. Fig. which may be made of a waterproof material. A leather handle is fixed on. place the bottom of the division board between the linings at the bottom. This may be either a flat strip about \ in. in the complete. the edges being bound with leather to give greater strength. When the lining has been stitched in all round. fold all surplus stuff inside. leaving rather more than an inch at each end flat for sewing on to the case. and run them together with hidden stitches. The bag is . Pass it through the next hole. and run the thread under the fold again. wide into the two corners of the frame to buckle to the chape pieces. wide. two of which should have buckles. and a leather binding stitched along it through the seam. and rounded by stitching the two edges together. 87. running the thread under the fold and bringing it through one of the holes previously made in sewing in the frame. The making of any of these is not difficult. — Tennis now Racket Case. or of brown canvas or japanned duck. The front piece is cut square across at the broad a end. check or twill. .Bags. It is proposed to give designs and instructions for making four or five different kinds of tennis bags. 83 black thread. 87 is an illustration of an ordinary tennis racket case. long by f in.

from the end on . for the flap. and for the edges \ in. back. 88. leather binding must also be sewn round that part of the flap which opens. by 6 in. and flap. Fig.— Case for Tennis Racket. Each of the two gusset pieces is cut 10 in. . for the back. 88 shows a tennis bag without any frame. mark off 10 in. similar to a school satchel. The gussets must be bound along one this will form the top of the of the narrow ends . wider. each side. and the other two pieces the gussets. etc. from the top edge one buckle in — . wide. for the bottom. three buckles with chapes and loops must be sewn on the front piece about 6 in. but much larger it is . Take a piece of waterproof goods 30 in. This forms the top and flap of the bag. gussets. and bind it with a thin strip of leather.84 Leather Working. Cut the binding for the flap and across the top of the front \ in. by 36 in. for the front. cut in three pieces. 6 in. and when dry sew on the binding with a beeswax thread made of fine yellow hemp or flax. and 6 in. Balls. Before sewing the parts together. one large piece forming the front. for the top this will leave 4 in. round off two corners. Mark one end of the large piece 10 in. It will be found that these waterproof cases preserve to some extent the tension of the strings and help to check the frame from warping. another 10 in. Paste the flap and front piece at the edges to the back piece. -^^w^- Fig.

wide. and. These bags. This will leave about 3^ in. will last for many years.Bags. 89 . which have the advantage of being very light to carry and inexpensive to make. as these can be more easily got at. long by 1 in. turning the bag after wards as in making a Gladstone bag. as shown in the diagram. as described later. or it can be fastened with rivets. made throughout in cowhide. whilst some have. such a bag. leather gussets . H — the middle and another 3 in. about 7 in. the most lasting. or fitted with pockets. Tennis Bag in Cricket Bag style. long. The lining may be a plain one. may also be made by sewing the gussets in and running a welt between the edges. the most expensive. are made throughout in . in addition. These bags are made in various styles. of course. The exterior of a very popular form of tennis bag is shown by Fig. To make the handle. This is not such a strong way. and necessitates putting in a lining to hide the rough edges of the seams. place a piece of stout cord or rounded leather between them. some of brown waterproof canvas or carpet throughout. take two pieces of leather 14 in. at each end to be sewn on to the bag. from each edge and the straps to meet them may also be sewn on before the bag is made up or left till the last. others with leather bottoms only. and stitch them together far enough to form the handle proper.

. by 6 in. but in a tennis bag seldom exceeds 6^ in. The bag when closed resembles an ordinary cricketing bag. but is not so long. rennis Bag Frame. 10 in. by 12| in. long. the width of the bottom in a bag used for cricket varies from 5 it in. in both cases. The frame of an ordinary full size cricketing bag measures 37 in. for the small half. The gussets will be 10 in. 90 is an illustration of the frame used for this kind of bag. Lea ther Working. For this obtain a piece of leather 29£ in. wide. again. and is on the same principle as the The lock-plate and ordinary brief-bag frame. and 6 in. by \\\ in. for each side. There is no difference whatever in the method of making these. for the bottom. handle-rings and plates are shown in position. in the case of solid fittings. marked off as follows 2j in. Fig. deep. take the entire length of the frame. and 29^ in. In measuring for the length of a bag. for covering the large half of frame and \\ in. Then. It is assumed that the bag is 10 in... long. by screwing on small nuts. by 29| in. to 10 in. If the bag is to be made with only the bottom of leather. the ' : pieces for the sides will measure 29£ in. and are attached to the frame when covered by turning over the metal claws fixed to them on the underside of the frame. whereas that of a tennis bag is only 29 in. respectively. and at the same time decide what depth it shall be. or.. and the choice of material must be left to individual taste and resource.86 cowhide. 29 in. by 6 in.

of Fig. long by 5£ in. a round hole for the key-barrel. Place the frame inside the bag. the claws attached to them being opened and turned down on to the stiffening inside. See that these seams exactly meet when the frame is closed. and rubbed well down all over it so that it will hold fast and there are no parts separated. and secure it in position for sewing by a stitch or two at each end near the gusset seams.— Turnclip. In place of the outside straps a very strong and simple fastener is shown in Fig. long by l\ in. should be not less than 8 in. 92. Eight of these must be fixed in. and these also assist in keeping the millboard in its place. 89. The method of making the handle is described on p. as shown in Fig. and as these are sewn on the inside of the bag it must be turned. These buckle pieces must now be stitched on. wide. 79. This is fixed .Bags. Special studs are used as a protection to the bottom. The two outside straps and . Begin sewing from one end on the right about 1 in. and continue to the left-hand end of frame the same distance round the bend then sew in the other half of the frame in the same manner. round the bend. mark and punch Fig. A name-plate should also be fixed on. stitching a tab of leather for pulling the bag open on the opposite side to the one shown in Fig. 91. wide must be glued and placed in the bottom within the seams. 92. 91. and of good leather. 87 Run a welt of thin leather round in sewing the seams. and in order to make it very finn a piece of stout millboard 29 in. fix on the lock-plate and handle-plates.— Studded Bottom Tennis Bag-.

and large enough to completely envelop the contents. 93. bend the tops of the gussets inside about 1 in. The bag is now ready for lining. . and sew the lining gussets over and over to these. rackets. and holds them in any desired position. boots.. Buttons are sewn on the lower parts. When the lining is finished. in order to protect the clothing from becoming soiled or damp through getting in close contact with them. Then run the thread inside the fold of the lining when stitching the remainder to the frame. fold inside all surplus stuff. be carried in the same a good plan to make these pockets of some waterproof material. to the frame in a similar manner to the other fitUnder the plate which lies along the top of the frame is a spring which acts on the bar. connecting the two sides of the clip. is the best for this. When Fig. bringing the needle to the outside. and making a short stitch in returning it articles of clothing are to it is bag. etc. place it inside the bag. and if cut the same size as the outside of the bag. —Tennis Bag in Gladstone style.88 Lea ther Working. and button-holes are cut in the flaps of the pockets. It will be noticed that pockets are made on the linings to hold the balls. either plain or fancy-striped. A will allow plenty of stuff for strong seams and turning in for stitching to the frame and tops of gussets. or loops of elastic may be fixed to the latter. tings. good linen.

94. and in ordering the frame it must be specified that it is required for a bag of this description. and making due allowance for the increased dimensions in cutting out the bag. can be either riveted or sewn on. 94. Fig. . one side of the bag instead of being placed proportionately in the middle. In this case a special frame must be made. with straps and pockets. etc. The straps to hold tennis bat.. 89 through the frame. Fig. the only difference being in the depth of The lining is fitted the frame and the interior.Bags. A tennis bag made on the half-Gladstone prinThe frame is fixed to ciple is shown by Fig.— Tennis Bag in Half-Gladstone style. It will be an easy matter for anyone to make a cricketing bag from these instructions by getting a suitable frame. 93 is a tennis bag made on the Gladstone principle.

\ lb. 8d. and all necessary fittings must be purchased. Fig. . 1 lb. 93. 6d. PORTMANTEAUX AND TRAVELLING TRUNKS. about The handles c may be bought ready-made for Is. 6d. and in this chapter full instructions will be given for making two of the most popular and useful kinds. 4d. two or three awls. a pair of battens.9o CHAPTER Portmanteaux but not VIII.. 2^d. each a packet of No. 95. of f-in. 4d. 6d. roundheaded. . also called a "folding" trunk. . to 2s. . 6d. 5d. copper rivets with washers. p. and a basil. . Frames. about Is. are expensive things to purchase difficult to make. costs 2s. The other requirements will be a frame. a glue-pot . This leather will cost about 3s. 7 in. iron band for strengthening the lid. \ lb. — . Good japanned canvas. will be required for a 30-in. material. by 54 in. . of large. . ditto. . and one 1-in. 96. 3d. 3 yds. the 9d. strawboards 30 in. who will cut them to the necessary size. from 6d. per lb. each. a lock. is a sketch of a "Railway" trunk. lOd. . 95 illustrates an " Imperial " trunk. about 4d. 8d. " Imperial " of the dimensions given in Fig. Fig. and lock cover a. . wide. each leather. and also that for the straps and chapes. of 1-in. two pairs of brass handle loops. flat-headed copper rivets and washers mixed. brass roller buckles. of striped lining (best. and has a flanged lid keep out the wet. . and ^-in. 4 yds. black or brown. Procure also two. 6d. per yard and 2 yds. had better be bought of a saddler. per yard) a welting belly for binding the edges. 6d. strap-guides bb. but if it is decided to make these. two 1^-in. ball each of hemp and wax. . according to quality . 2 harness needles. . and brush and a . to Is. which is of to the same shape as a box. of good glue.

— Imperial Trunk. See tnat the ends are perfectly square. so cut a board 30 in. leaving a little surplus from the edges of all the patterns. by 29^ in. each. and "score" the board. by 3 in. place the stiffenings on it. all round. and the bottom lines will be true = . Next cut the canvas. Next cut the boards for the ends 16 in. . for the body of the trunk. so that when it is bent to form the bottom the front and back rise freely to the proper shape. and score it 3 in. Lay this japanned side down. " Scoring " is cutting the board half-way through its substance. from one end to the other. 91 size Begin by cutting the stiffenings to the required :— 16 -f 16 + \h\ 47^ in. Do not be too sparing in — cutting. then mark each side the distance mentioned lay a long straight-edged rule across. Fig.Portmanteaux axd Travelling Trunks. The flange pieces for the ends of the lid are cut separate from this and measure 16 in. by 22 in. and mark them round. The flange of the lid is to be 3 in. each. from each narrow side. The bottom corners are slightly rounded. 95. by 15j in.

To make a pattern for the handles. wide. fold a piece . but do not disturb any portion until the glue is well set. Fold and hammer this down before pasting it so that it will set better. and 16 in. long. trunk. Glue the canvas and stiffening of the lid together. taking care that the glue is put on to that side of the board which has been scored. Having cut out the canvas. the under part being rather wider than the top there will then be no fear of missing any part in the stitching process. then the stiffening board. Patterns for the handles. wide for the front. long. long by 2 in. and finally the flange ends. scored lines to canvas then treat the trunk ends. full width. 97 shows a finished handle ready for fixing to the T . 2\ in. where the brass handle loops will cover. Use hot glue. it is 11 in. so. the lock cover. and lh in. Paste these on first. The brass loops are \ in. Glue the inner surface of the canvas first. the handle slides and becomes full when in use. or it w ill not bend properly. and bind the edge of each with a strip of basil 1 in. by cutting the spaces 1 in. l£ in. work the brush rapidly. That part of the lid which forms the front of the flange must have a basil leather lining pasted along the inside. and be smart in uniting the parts together. Place the board in position on the canvas and rub it well all over until the two adhere together in every part. of the lid in the same manner. and strap-guides should be cut out of stout paper. the next thing will be to glue it to the stiffening. . in the centre. and will lie level on the trunk ends when released. leaving the canvas perfectly even with the board. long by the same width for each flange end. Weights should be placed on any parts which show a tendency to rise. Cut the lining 30 in. The flange ends are treated in the same way. Fig. and a binding of the same leather along the edge. The edges may then be trimmed with a sharp knife. wide.92 Leather Working.

can be worked out from these instructions. from the folded edge. Fashion the shape of the handle by marking a curved line between this and the point. take two pieces of leather 11 in. A pattern for the lock . from the edge. Double the paper so that the line is at fop and bottom prick it through f in. by 6 in. from the edge where the spaces for the metal loops are shown. by 2j in.— Railway Trunk.. To cut out the handle. cover. 93 paper 11 in. lay the pattern on each. at the fold in the centre. as shown by dotted lines. by 2 in. 98 without the loop spaces removed. and | in. using an . then fix a bottom piece to each with two nails (one at each end) and stitch them together. The pattern will then be similar to Fig. With a pair of compasses mark them handles.. 4 in. and cut out with a pair of sharp scissors. but do not remove the loop These two pieces form the tops of the spaces. long and mark it l| in. and mark it round and cut out. Shave the edges with a spokeshave.For tma ntea ux of ' Tra vrl l ixg Tr unks. Fig. 96. round \ in.. and one for the strap-guides. 7 in. rounding them at that part where they are gripped. Next cut out the spaces for the loops.

leading 16 in. lay them in in. Lay the heads of the rivets on a solid iron and burr the points well on to the metal loops. and coarsely stitched over in the same manner as the lid. and slide this within the leather lining on the front. or the binding will not hide them. from the top . . Put the frame into the top of the body . This holds the other edge of the lining piece. this is brought to the required shape. Bend these at right angles. and level with the top all round. The flange ends and front may now be stitched. Do not make the stitches too deep. From the binding. and should be held in position by being coarsely stitched over the position about 4 is edges. The ends are placed just within the edges of the other part. The end pieces should lie jus. it must be inside. Cut sufficient strips to go round each end of the trunk by paring the ends of each strip and lapping . Hold the chisel erect and drive it through with a mallet. By bending down the back part of the lid. ordinary carpenter's chisel 1 in. then slide each into one of the flange ends. make holes through the canvas. long. place the brass loops over so that each one touches the points nearest the middle of the handle. mark each piece \\ in. The outside bindings should next be cut these are taken from the welting belly. of band at each end. see that there the same space at each of their ends. which is a piece of ox-hide specially dressed for this class of work.t inside the other part. To rivet the handles on the trunk ends. . and pass up the rivets from the inside. about four stitches to the inch. Prepare the body of the trunk in a similar manner. It is fixed by stitching a strip of basil leather round the frame and over the edge of the body. wide. Cut off a piece of iron band 62 in.94 Lea ther Working. The basil will set better if slightly wetted first. for the second row of stitching. Sew the binding first with a three-cord thread.

A narrow strip Ti Fig. large so that the hasp. mark it on each side about TV in. Washers are placed on the rivets on the inside before they are burred over. and lock. The buckle chapes for the short straps on the lid are stitched on. Cut four pieces of the iron band 18i in. The lock plate at the bottom is riveted down close to the canvas. the position of by the four rows of rivets (three in which is denoted each row) shown by Fig. Begin by binding the body of the trunk first. The lock is first let in by cutting away the material so that the plate rests on the canvas. and should be folded over the edge so that an equal portion of it is on each side. which round-headed rivets being used for these. the required length about 12 ft. the rivets being passed through from the inside of the trunk and burred over on to the plate. 95. of stout leather is placed under the plate at the top is riveted to the lid. . The binding must cover all the stitching previously made in basting the parts together. and a 1-in. it is necessary to affix strips of iron band. vide a means for easily shifting the trunk. Proceed next to fix the buckle chapes. then the lid. buckle and strap sewn on for holding down the lock cover. them about 95 may be made. but the case of the lock passes through. may enter it freely. from the edge with a pair of compasses.Portmanteaux and Travelling Trunks. strap-guides. \ in.— Trunk Handle. For the stitching. To strengthen the lid. Battens d d are fixed to the bottom with nails or Small rollers let into these battens proscrews. 97. Guides b b for long straps are now fixed. Use a little glue for sticking the — strips together.

enough to lap a little way on to the other parts. then stand the trunk on one end. the better the quality of the lining the less chance has the glue to show through it. Glue and fix the part of the lining which was left. wide. and stitch on the straps. . Fix it on to the lid so that half is left clear for stitching to the body. and see that all the stripes are in one The end pieces should be cut large direction. then secure the hinge-piece to the body of the trunk by nails at intervals along it. and continue as far as can be reached. covered by it. after which the lock cover may be stitched on. rivet the hasp. and bend them at right angles 2f in. Rivet the bent ends to the back of the lid with ^-in. 30 in. fix two pieces of web to stay the lid when open. Cut the lining to the sizes required. Pull open the lid a little. so that in sewing the lid on the stitches are long. Before fixing these. long by 2 in.96 Leather Working. passing them through the hingepiece from the outside. Turn The lid the trunk over and sew from the other end until the stitching meets. from one end. so that they may strengthen the back of the lid. as they will be less cumbrous to manage in two parts. and fix them by twelve round-headed rivets as shown. also three holes in the other parts to receive the rivets. Drive in at least a dozen nails. Leave a part of the back lining in the body not glued down. it will be necessary to stitch the hingepiece to the back of the lid. Line both the lid and the body before connecting them. and body are now ready for joining together. Lay the iron strips inside the lid. Place the lid on evenly. Punch a hole in each of these ends. Thin the glue for this work . Place the lid on the body to find the exact places for the hasp and the short straps. and the trunk will be finished. Mark these distinctly. flat-headed rivets. commence stitching the hinge-piece from one end. This must be of good pliable leather.

by ^'V in. 26| in. and 11^ in. leather for the handle. The end pieces are cut 12 in. T% in. basil and welting belly as before mentioned. to allow a more gradual bend. Cut out the stiffening for the top first.. trim the edges. 96. two long straps and guides.Portmanteaux and Travelling Trunks. a piece of f-in. the sizes of iron used for these are For the body. a few rivets of each kind. buckles. about 6 in. There is rather more "corner" taken off these end pieces than in the case of the "Imperial" trunk. these being known as the body frame and the top frame. 93) different in design. 27 in. The dimensions shown are the proportions of an ordinary 27-in. . from each end. square. bind these edges with basil. 1 yd. 2 yds. the stiffening for the body and top must be scored three or four times across. run it within the lining on the front. G . for the body. cut off a strip of iron band 50 in. The frame for this can now be put in (square iron) and the edges bound according to previous instructions. and two stiffening boards as before. then for the body. by 6 in. Although the is 97 " Railway " trunk (Fig. one lock. a strip of good leather. in order that it may cover the top frame in addition to the iron band. one pair of handle-plates. In the best quality. and for the top. Paste this inside. and fix in the end pieces to the body by stitching the edges over and over. : — : — . h in. the largest size conveniently carried by one handle. wide. by 23^ in. 27 in... Glue the canvas and stiffening together. by 2 in. two 1^-in. The material required for a 27-in. the foregoing instructions will apply generally to the method of making it. for the top. by 5| in. for the hinge-piece. A pair of frames is required for a portmanteau of this shape. lock flap and strap to fasten it. p. portmanteau of this shape would be Canvas. Cut the basil lining for the top of this portmanteau 3 in. which is placed near the lock. long. by 24 in. lining..

which the other work is Fig.98 Lea ther Wor king. using good glue for this. except the division board is made and put in when all completed.. Stiffen the flap with stout paper. by 6 in. from the second. Glue a piece of stout brown paper. or by inserting a loop as shown. The edges. 98. by 6 in. to the pocket. are trimmed. held down by a piece of elastic and button. by 5^ in. each side. and a narrow binding cut from the same . A pattern must be cut for the flap. apart. and the third f in. and stitch round. Cut out the pocket (Fig. The first and second rows should be \\ in. leaving 2 in. and turn the top edge of the pocket in a little to bind and . bend these. The buckle chapes on each side of the pocket must next be sewn on. round the top corners a little. Cut a piece of board 26^ in. then the other side of the board is lined. and pass them along the lining of the two ends. All the other work is carried out as described for the " Imperial " trunk (Fig. each side pliable for the gussets. Line both with a piece of coloured cloth. 7 in. by 11^ in. and glue lining on to one side. leaving 11^ in. One row of stitching to secure the lining should have been previously made. and the third line marked for stitching in the frame. 98). 95). and flap from a piece of thin roan the pocket will measure 11 in. fix them on the lined side The flap may be of the board. and turn the edge under all round.. — Trunk Division Board.. and the flap *J\ in. Fold and crease these. except the bottom. strengthen it.

The lining should extend below the bottom of the board. passing the thread between the two frames and through the hinge-piece outside L. . and it is by this that it is secured to the portmanteau.ofC. 99 coloured roan is pasted on and stitched round.Portmanteaux and Travelling Trunks. Fold the raw edges inside and stitch them at intervals along the bottom.

and 3j in. of course any other suitable size can be similarly made. thick but by increasing or diminishing the dimensions given. 9 in. 90. Select a . in purchasing which it is as well to state what the material is for. as a thin stuff is requisite with both The waterproof material keeps sides unglazed. directions about to be given are for making a knapsack measuring 11 in. and prevents any food carried from getting dry. KNAPSACKS AND SATCHELS. wide. The outside covering of the knapsack shown by Fig.IOO CHAPTER The IX. — Knapsack. rain from the contents of the knapsack. 99 is of rubber-proofed cotton cloth. . Fig-. high.

and buckles for them will have to be bought. 100). ioi light-coloured material in preference to a dark one. For a temporary knapsack. Fig.Knapsacks and Satchels. white. piping leather 1 in. Two pieces measuring 27 in. c. c. The following are the sizes of the pieces rea. of thin. wide straps will have to be cut out of strap leather. and this renders it water- A Body proof for some time. to use rubber waterproof. 100). by | in. can be used. the edges being held by tacks. quired b. because the sun's heat is reflected by the former and absorbed by the latter. Fig. on a flat table. 100). The necessary leather will be 45 in. Two pieces . Fig. however. (p and s. twilled calico. For lining. by l£ in. : measuring 7 in. quite possible on a summer-day's tramp. obtainable at any draper's. of Knapsack- It is better. and then rubbed over with a lump warm flatof beeswax till it gets yellowish. One piece measuring (a b and c d. Two . (Fig. 101). d. some common. glazed. Two pieces measuring 12^ in. (e and f. and food is never improved by subjection to an invited temperature of 80° or 90°. 4 in. it has been sug- gested that calico or holland can be waterproofed by being stretched. by 1^ in. by 1 in. iron passed over the unwaxed side then causes the wax to saturate the stuff.

f. 2. The binding . diameter. like shirt studs. 103. but the rest of the stitching is done by hand. (g and H. pieces measuring 4 in. Four buckles will be wanted for the f-in. can be sewn on by machine. 8 in.— Brass Stud. 104) of £-in. wide. 101. One piece measuring 3 in. 100). From the waterproof cloth and the lining cut One piece out pieces of the following dimensions : — . 102. Fig. . Pieces c will have to be reduced in width to § in. straps two brass studs (Fig. by f in. 104. Fig.— D-ring. at one end for half their length. 103).— Ring and Holder. of grey about | in. 102).102 Leather Working. Six pieces of cane will be needed. but stronger and a ring If in. some sewing-thread and needles. Fig. round brass or galvanised iron. and some twist and a piercing-awl for sewing through the leather portions. by f in.— Section of Buckle Leather and Sheath. diameter (Fig. flattened for about one-third of its circumference. (s. binding-tape £ in. long and Get also 4 yds. Fig. uTm > 2? Fig. Fig.

making the line I in. but the whole must be kept flat. (outline of Fig. by 4|-in.in. thick cut out two pieces. round * y Section of Fig. — . — Fig. the knapsack. From some cardboard i in. (outline of Fig. lines (not shown in Fig. 105. Stiffened Part. . Fig. by \2\ in. 106. One piece measuring 12^ in. from the edge then draw a similar line j\ in. a7 F in. lining side. three sides and a margin of 2| in. The card must be central.. 105) are to act as guides for the seaming. Draw a straight line with lead pencil round the edges that have the |-in. for stiffening the ends of Paste them between the 12^ in. by 3^ in. margin. pieces (t. by 9| in. so that there is a margin of f in. These further in that is.— Stiffened Part of Knapsack. by 4-|.Knapsacks and Satchels. and should be marked on the . each 9 in. The lining is pasted to the waterproof cloth and is left to dry flat under pressure. 105). 105). 100). to the fourth side. from the edge. Where the stuffs overlap the card they can be pasted together. 103 measuring 36 in. Two pieces measuring 12^ in.

at one end Figs. Fig. and the calico to be sewn on. pieces with twist and the awl. 100 teacup inverted can be used to guide a pencil in marking the part-circle on the lining a pair of scissors will then cut it out true. besides securing the leather to the 12-in. eight rows of are made. piece of stuff. the other is into six pockets that receive the ends of the To form the pockets. and at c d. A 105. 100 shows where the leather goes. and the seamed edges are shown by the dotted lines in Fig. These pieces are sewn to the outside of the stuff. apart. lining. 14 in. and further secure the leather to the stuff. also sews the 12-in.Ib4 Leather Working. stitches . 100). 23 in. from the round-cornered end. across the width of the leather strip and near its free long edge . piece to it. the stitches being T\ in. At some places binding is not necessary. a b (Fig. before beginning to sew it to the stuff. The parts goes are indicated in Figs. . The lined side of the 12-in. and the holes through the leather should be made first. and to ensure the correct Next the binding has it where position it is best to draw two pencil lines across at A b. by 9-in. 100. Fig. three stitches in each row. from the edge. Round off the corners of the parts shown in and 105 where indicated. Only one long edge made 8-in. only. is stitched . are to be sewn on the 12-in. The leather and straps now have to be sewn on. The seam. by 36-in. The awlholes should be made for these in the leather at the same time as those for the edge seams. and shows the arrangement the of the stiffening card. waterproof covering. the stitches pass through. by 36-in. The two pieces 12^ in. by \\ in. 100 and 105 by a dotted line outside the outlines. by canes. The seams are to be not quite J in. 106 is an enlarged section of part of Fig. from the round-cornered end.

Fig. by 36-in. so that their outer edges are If in. by f-in. long and barely \ in. but a short piece of steel or brass tubing with the edges at one end ground sharp will make an efficient substitute. piece and their centres are 11 in. or there will not be room for the strap ends to go in so insert one of these to keep it at the right distance whilst sewing it on. Put two or three stitches in the skived overlapping ends to hold them together. and with the same stitches sew on a sheath (s. from either end of each. as shown at e and f (Fig. . It must not be wrapped tightly. The ends of this hole and the holes for the buckle 12-in. wide. make a hole shaped like an elongated 0. long. 1| in. . 102) for the ends of the straps that are to pass through the buckles.Knapsacks and Satchels. | in. 100). and. Put the buckles on with their tongues through these holes. 107. and the edge opposite the rounded corners of the 12-in.— Strap End with Keyhole Slit. 102. piece. For making the buckle straps skive or bevel the ends of the 7-in. by 9-in. The sheath is simply the piece of leather. from the end that has square corners. 36-in. as shown in Fig. and bend the skived ends back. tongues will have to be made by punching out a circular piece with a cutting punch that takes it out clean. pieces of leather. wrapped once round the middle of the looped strap. piece goes along the line A b. 105 piece goes against the unlined side of the by 9-irt. The punch can be bought cheaply. 1 VJ Fig'. from the edges of the 12-in. Then sew the looped straps to the outside of the stuff. wide and 3 in. f in.

near the end. by f-in. a b (Fig. Punch eight buckle-holes in the f-in. This ring is held to the knapsack by a leather holder made by doubling the 4-in. One hole of each pair should be \ in. 100). 100. 107) for the studs to go in. In the 1-in. Fig. for into these they buckle.wide part make keyhole slits (Fig. and the other hole Z\ in. from the 36-in. . To the round-cornered end of the 12-in.106 Leather Working. by l|-in. by 36-in. piece. piece. as in the case of the 7-in. spacing them equally. of the leather are stitched. ring.— Part Back View of Knapsack. at g and h (Fig. pieces. the two 4-in. edge. pieces They are placed If in. and so keep the flap of the knapsack down. stitched to the middle of the 12-in. part of the tapering pieces. piece. by f-in. 101. from the extremity of the leather. The studs passed through these two holes keep the end of the strap wrapped round the lf-in. and 108). 108. 100). and so forming a loop for the flat part of the ring to The holder is rest in (see Figs. e and f. from it. by l^-in. on the outside.

When both pieces have been piped. 109. 105 enlarged. Fig. piece (Fig. Fig-. portion between the two notches is to be sewn along the 4^-in. a margin of \ in. The other parts of the piping leather the two 9|-in. from each end so that the folded piping can be bent at right angles there more easily (Fig. 100). with the piping sewn to it . by 12-in. no piping between A and J (Fig. Cut a notch 9^ in. piece and the two 12^-in. apart. 105. 110. The relative positions of the 36-in. with in. 109 shows a corner of Fig. from the edges. 109). 105). at either corner.Knapsacks and Satchels. they are to be sewn to the 36-in. by 4-|-in. side of Fig. io- Cut the piping leather into two pieces and fold each lengthwise along its centre. the side to which the piping The is sewn is the waterproofing. Take one of the stiffened pieces (Fig. and the 3^-in. ends are sewn to the two 9-in. pieces — — ^ . — Piped Corner of Stiffened Part. occupying its middle part and leaving — Fig - . stitches must be f\ in.— Satchel or Cartridge Ba°r. by 12-in. not the lining. 105) and to it sew the piping leather in the following manner The edges of the leather are to be close to the edges of the stuff. sides of the stiffened pieces. and along the guideThere is lines already made g in. a second seam along the second guide-line from the first.

111. 100. the bag must be turned inside out and four fastening-off stitchings made at the corners A. and J (Fig. by 4^-in.— Back and Flap of Satchel. lining outwards. pieces. 113. b. are shown by Figs. parts of the 12i-in. 100 (whose ends go into the buckles. to prevent tearing. 100 and 105. Fig. 105. of the unstiffened Fio-. When finished.io8 Lea ther Working. and must be made whilst the pieces are on the other side of Fig. due allowance being made for the facts that Fig. J k d b take the place k c A The seams must be continuous all round the three sides. where these points are sewn to Fig. --Front of Satchel. J. p or s. in The ends must be inserted Tapes may be sewn to the ends of the canes their pockets. is fitted with a hook-andeye attachment to make putting on and taking off . Fig. e and f). where J k c a in one have to coincide with the same letters in the other. 100 is drawn to half the scale of Fig. of J held together.— Buckle Piece. 105 and its fellow-piece. 112. and that FL>. 100). Sometimes one of the straps.

and loops. 110. or of canvas bound with leather. 1| in.. and polish the edges with a greasy rag then punch the holes shown in Figs.. This chapter will conclude with a description of how to make a cartridge bag or satchel. 114. colour the edges of the pieces just mentioned with dye to match the leather. Ill) is made similarly. may then be sewn on the gusset or band (Fig. should be made of brown middling. by ^ in. The buckle is still wanted for adjustment. pigskin. The buckle piece (Fig. 1^ in. part. Next cut a piece of leather. starting from l (Fig. 109 easier than when a buckle has to be undone. After this Fig. which may then be fixed in position. or solid leather. The straps (Figs. begin by cutting patterns in paper or cardboard to the dimensions shown in Figs. 114) as shown. by f in. 115 and 116). Such a bag is shown by Fig. or any other leather of the same substance and quality. Two pieces of leather.— Gusset of Satchel. Ill). 115) on the one side round to M on the other side. buckle piece (Fig. In that case the strap p or s is cut in two about the middle of the f-in. and a brass wire hook is made and fastened to one end and a brass wire eye to the other. 115 and 116. which shows the front. . Ill to 116. from the end and punch or cut a hole in the centre of the fold for the tongue of the buckle. 113. 115) and bend the leather 2 in. has been cut to pattern. Take the shoulder strap (Fig. and afterwards sewn as in Fig. To make it. The bag can be made in cowhide.Knapsacks and Satchels. and stitch the two ends together to form a loop slide this along the strap to the buckle and sew through the two thicknesses of strap.

and pricked with a pricking iron if hand work is employed. the two edges of the welting and the edge of the gusset together. 112). from the edge from H to I (Fig. along each side. The front (Fig.— Satchel Shoulder Strap. the stitching | o o o o o i Fig-.no Lea ther The short strap I For king. The whole should now be welted together from point E to d (Fig. The back should be folded and marked at f (Fig. 116) flap (see Fig. 114). 113). 113. Tack the parts (Fig. 115. should be sewn on the being commenced \ in. having it on top when stitching. 112). from the edge. 114) and d (Fig. . 113) to B (Fig. and bring the two centres F and G together and tack them strongly. and 114 should have strong twill lining fixed over the back of each piece. similarly mark Fig. the face of the leather being brought outside and the welting being forced out and rubbed with the handle of a hammer to give it the shape shown at x (Fig. also i (Fig. a strip of leather £ in. The piece should next be turned inside out. a piece of leather f in. wide being pasted on and marked for stitching if this is to be done by machine. 114) should now be welted on the back. 113). 113). 113) should now be bound with soft leather from J to k. this being pasted about 1 in. 112. wide being folded over and oversewn or tacked about \ in. The parts shown by Figs. work on the gusset. 114) and e (Fig. and in doing this. 114 at G. Also tack together in a similar way h (Fig. 113). 113) to point A (Fig. strongly together and bring D (Fig. keeping (Fig. The gusset or band (Fig. from the edge and continued for 1^ in. Next fix the front on the back. joining f 110).

a coarse thread being used. 112. binding should be about f in. overlapping at this point by about \ in. 115) through the loop at x (Fig. Run the point of the long strap (Fig. 110). 110. Next fold the flap and fasten the short strap to the buckle in front. L2 Fig. wash it with a weak solution of oxalic acid. and e (Fig. 113) to c (Fig. 113) and K to E should then be turned inward and fastened with six stitches from the inside to the back of Fig. Next oversew or whip the whole together from c (Fig. and tack them. . This should be done with an awl and needle. passing it round the band or gusset and through the loop on the opposite side. The back should next be bound all round with leather from a point under the strap between N and The o. leaving about 6 in. The strap should be long enough to pass over the shoulder and buckle.Knapsacks and Satchels. 112). wide. If brown leather has been employed and has become soiled in handling. The parts from D to J (Fig. of spare strapping. 112) to b.— Short Strap of Satchel. hi 112).

Fig. 120 from above. and sandpaper. one fine and the other blunt. file. showing the ends pointed for working into corners and points The ends of 'the tool. A tang is filed at one end for inserting in the handle. panels. the ends being shaped similar to the thumb. . such as book-covers. and may be Box is generof the same material. 117) can be made by inserting two pieces of steel knitting-needle in a wooden handle. wood. or steel. shown by Fig. but any hard wood of They are easily close and even grain is suitable. The modellers (Figs. the other end being drilled and slotted The slot must be to receive the wheel and pin. 118) is a tool with wheels of different thicknesses. namely. The tracer (Fig. and filing them to points as shown. LEATHER ORNAMENTATION. The edges must be perfectly flat and square. iron. making them slightly round. blotters. boxes. The points should be finished on an oilstone. with fine effect.112 CHAPTER The method this chapter X. made with a chisel or knife. of leather ornamentation described in can be applied to a variety of articles. a hole being drilled in the centre for the pin. The tools required are few and can be easily made. ally used for the purpose. The liner (Fig. and may be filed up from hard brass. 119 and 120) are the shape of the tools used in clay-modelling. 119. of scrolls. fingerplates for doors. 121 is a view of Fig. so that they do not scratch. The shanks to carry the wheels may be of either of the metals mentioned above. etc.. just large enough to take the wheel without allowing it to wobble.

— Tracer. " Decorative Designs of All for All Purposes. Fig. It is about 4 in. The design has now to be obtained. a sponge and water for damping the leather some bran or fine sawdust and ryeflour for filling the raised parts a of slate or marble.Leather Ornamentation. can be used. long. cutting off the head and the other or working end to a long blunt point. flat —Liner. A light hammer completes the list of tools. 117. . 122) may be formed Fig. . : The following materials are required A slab about 1 in. The above tools are all larger at one end than the other. The leather must be thin calf or basil without flaws. the larger end as broad as the middle of the tool the other end is slightly smaller. ruler. sandpapered. thick. long. The grounding-punch (Fig. 118. with compasses and pencil carefully Ages mark off and draw a number of squares over the H . as shown. to work on perhaps hard wood would do as well if the surface were planed smooth. and made nonabsorbent with a coat or two of varnish a bag of sand or sawdust on which to place the marble or wood slab to deaden the noise when grounding drawing pins for fixing the design . All are about 6 in. The com- panion handbook. — . so that the end found most suitable to the line. filing from a large French nail. . For transferring the design. and compasses. as seen from above." is invaluable to those who wish to draw their own designs. pencil. paper. is . or work in hand. 113 are round. and.

Place the leather on the slab. Then draw a rectangle the full size of the paper pattern. T mixing equal parts of fine sawdust or bran and rye- . to guide the tools ferred. the depressions thus made being filled (just filled and no more) with a paste made by the liner. The leather. should be cut \ in. Fi . say from % in. and with the sponge and clean water damp it carefully and If the leather is w^etter at one equally all over. 119.— Modeller. Leather Working. using the modellers. using considerable pressure.—Modeller. . a fair enlarged or reduced copy can be made. This gives the finished article a good appearance. and divide it into an equal number of squares. or the pattern will not be transThe ruler should be used. larger all round than this to allow of skiving and turning over the edge. according to size. There are now a number of fixed points. and with the tracer go over all the lines. Any parts to be raised will now be pressed up from behind. if for a bookcover. Remove the pattern and go over the lines with w ell pressing it. The paper pattern must now be pinned to the leather. along straight lines.H original. and by noting where the lines of the design cross the squares. spot than another a stain will show it must be kept damp throughout the working. The pattern should be of such a size that a margin will be left all round. Fig. to f in. 120.

making the impressions sharp and clear. Over these place paper to prevent them sticking where not needed. taking the hammer and punch. and let the leather dry. 121. 122. or . and the raised parts carefully modelled to shape with the Fig-. proceed to stipple Fig - . dot in the ground. Much depends on the evenness The work is now finished and of the ground. The leather is now turned right side up. Then go over the lines again with the liner until they are clear and sharp. place the slab on the sand-bag.— Grounding-punch. ready for mounting. 115 flour with water. and. modellers while the paste is still workable. — Another View of Modeller.Leather Ornamentation. When quite dry.

First of all. 5 cases pieces . 124). but good. FOOTBALLS. and bladders are made from vulcanised sheet rubber of good quality. serviceable cases may be made from leather prepared in the usual way. The case always should be made of leather. or cover. The shapes most used are the Association (Fig. and many of the cheaper ones are not worth the labour of making up. Much of this leather is manufactured specially for football makers. and the bladder. from quite a variety of leathers. — As80ciation Football. especially cowhide.n6 CHAPTER XI. Whole hides vary slightly in size. and cut on the average from twelve to thirteen No. it is necessary to decide what kind of leather will be required. . 123) and the Rugby (Fig. The cases are made — 123. Footballs are composed of two parts the case.

. . 26 in. 20 in. . No. In cutting from small pieces there is more waste than in cutting from a hide. the dimensions of their Rugby match balls being 30| in. 22 in. 6.or . The case for an ordinary match ball.— Rugby Football. No. and some leather much per square foot.Footballs. of leather . For an eight-segment case reduce the width of pattern proportionately. The standard sizes of footballs are as follow: Association: No. 30 in. and so with the nine. 5. Association cases are mostly made in seven or eight pieces. contains two square feet . but it must not be understood that a case could be cut out of a piece of leather that size. but some have nine or ten segments. circumference. either Rugby or Association. where they prefer a slightly larger ball. as they are all the same size when made up. 24 in. Other sizes are seldom made except for use in Australia. by 26 in. No. although there is no advantage to be gained in the greater numbers. Fig. 3. 4. and an ordinary match Rugby measures 29| in. 2. . 124. . 1. by 25 in. No. 28 in. The easiest to begin upon will be a seven-segment case the others can be worked out by anyone. No. in various sizes 117 may be cutters will cut any required size at so bought.

n8 Leather Working. . and draw on it a straight line 13 in. as shown in Fig. drawing-pins or fine nails to the table before marking to prevent it shifting. long by 3| in. In buying the leather. . lay it on a large sheet of paper and mark round the pattern seven times on it this will show how much leather will be required. see that the pieces when cut will run in the same direction of the hide as shown in Fig. then mark one edge of each 2j in. from the centre on each side. 5 Association case. For a No. Select two segments and place them face to face. as shown in the diagram. When the pattern has been cut out. dividers are much too small for this purpose. mark and cut off each end. Having cut out the case. from the centre this will leave 4| in. than outside end pieces. make a pattern 13 in. Fix the cardboard with a few Fig-. which shows a hide with pattern laid on. hold this in one hand and the string a given distance from it. for the mouth. across the middle. 125. and draw segments of a circle through the four Ordinary compasses or points thus obtained. — Segment of Association Football Case. See that the marks on each are exactly opposite . and how it should be cut. Take a piece of stout cardboard. One of the easiest is to tie a piece of fine string to a blacklead pencil. ten-segment case. and are also stronger. These look much neater. . long bisect this by a line at right angles. made in seven segments. On this line mark off \\ in. and draw a line from point to point. 126. if inserted ends are to be put in. but there are several methods by which it can be done. 125.

a ball of fine brown hemp. Before beginning to sew the segments together.Footballs. A knife. ready for sewing. a No. one another. 3 punch. The method of forming a wax-end is as follows Take the ball of hemp and push the end out from . are all that will be necessary. five and six shillings. it will be necessary to make the threads (wax-ends). Inmay be bought at prices according to pattern and size. this costs being 9 in. 126. Fiff. Fig. and the usual clamp to hold work whilst must be cut Mark them as in Fig. The case is now 127. its size These may have four strands. small piece to line each of these this will strengthen . — Football Pattern Set out on Hide. flators being sewn. packet of harness needles. The few tools necessary for making footballs are not expensive. between by 1^ in. for lace-holes 119 A them. a few sewing awls. and can be bought at any leatherseller's. wax. 128 shows the most useful kind .

and with the right hand rub it in a downward direction. which should not make a hole larger than necessary. . This is done by holding the hemp firmly between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand. will. and twist needle round a few times to secure it. The hemp runs out more will freely this stand perfectly still. Leather Working. Fix a needle to the other point in the same way select an awl of suitable size. Stand at a distance of 3 ft. . Begin by stitching on the linings for lace-holes. Four strands will make a good strong thread carefully examine the points to see that they taper properly and have no lumps. placed a little distance above one another. Then take the end with the right hand and give it a jerk the fibres will break. and all being ready. . Rub the wax up and down quickly a few times. take a needle. A hook or strong nail must be fixed in some convenient place. from the hook and begin to make a thread by holding the end just formed in the left hand pass the hemp round the hook and bring it down with the right hand. then repeat with the other point rub wax up and down and it is ready for use. . . Place the segment within the mouth way. and the ends of the strands formed in this way. and the ball . which will cause the twisted strand to loosen.120 the centre. give a smooth tapering point. leaving a few inches hanging down lay this over the thigh of the right leg. and break off as before. when twisted together. and all is now ready for sewing. . which should be large enough to take the sewing all round the mark. Give an additional coat of wax to the points. pass the point of thread through the eye. This lining may be held in place either by being pasted or tacked with two or three small nails. turn point of thread back. then lay one point over the right thigh and roll it with the hand down the leg a few times until it is well twisted. begin by breaking the end of the hemp to a fine tapering point.

as shown in Fig. leaving only the last seam. drive the awl through at one of the points of the pattern marked on it. Take two segments and place them grain upon grain. and commence sewing at one end. Make another hole with the awl. . Sew all the segments together. taking care that the edges of each are perfectly true. The case is now ready for seaming. Place these in the mouth of the clamp. . 121 of the clamp. and with a needle in each hand pull through the threads simultaneously until they lie on each side of the leather and form a stitch top and bottom. unsewn. It is assumed that the case is to have inserted ends. Fig-. where the lace-holes are.Footballs. and as near the edges as may be without weakening the strong seam pull both threads in at the same time and with equal tension this will give. This will give a thread of equal length on each side. 127. Sew round until the place started from is reached. pass up the bottom needle as before into the right hand. pass the needle up through the hole. Be careful to drive the awl straight through. so the ends must be cut off the seven segments. then cut off and sew the other segment to match. Be careful to fasten the threads at the ends of each seam by tying them in a firm knot. —Marking Lace-holes on Football Case. Punch seven holes in each of the two lined segments for the lace-holes. 127. when finished. and draw the thread through until the middle is reached. a ball of good shape if the leather has been properly cut. send the top needle through to the bottom. or when the case is .

prepare to sew in the end pieces. to form the ends place the case. in diameter.— Football Inflator.12 2 Lea ther Wor king. Make holes with the awl round the edges before sewing. between the knees. Take two circular pieces of leather. across. Damp the seams well with a wet sponge and push the foot inside the case. turned and inflated the seams will gape open. . The best substitute for a proper iron for this purpose is a small iron foot. such as is used The smallest for repairing children's boots on. and should be fixed in an iron stand or the usual wooden leg sold for that Fig. taking care that it is always solid where the hammer blows fall. \\ in. The hole at each end of the case should be not more than \\ in. The seams must now be lightly hammered down. 128. or the grain broken. so as better to guide the worker when sewing the may be When all . Too much force must not be used with the hammer purpose. The last seam should have about two stitches at each end just sufficient to hold them together while the end pieces are being sewn in. the seams have been treated in this way. one end uppermost. size will be large enough.

By pulling further apart the half of the open seam which is outside it will be found that the inner. drive one end of the case down until it rests upon the other.Footballs. and gradually work down towards the laceholes. draw the tube through hole in tongue-piece. will in when sewn hammer down the two The case is now ready for turning. This is stitched on to one of the sides of the opening by half a dozen stitches near the middle hole. as a great strain is on this seam. Cut a piece of leather 4^ in. and is used as a protecton to the bladder. 123 end pieces seams. the leather is stout. and this will bring the unsewn part in the right position for commencing About 1^ in. draw the tube . and the ball is ready for inflating. Put the nozzle of inflator into the bladder. . or it will not shape properly when blown out. The inserted end piece must rest about half-way along the seam just sewn. The case is the right side out. be necessary to shift it a little. and so on until the seam is finished. may be sewn. and pare the edges all round to form the tongue-piece. Begin sewing this from the top. Lightly hammer the seam while sewing. iron foot inside and hammer the seam Place the then push out the case again to its natural shape and drive down the other end. finishing at the mark showing space to be Fasten the threads left for insertion of bladder. This will give it the appearance of a large bowl or the half of a huge cocoanut shell. well. lay the tongue evenly inside the mouth. and when sufficient air has been pumped in. most one can be got at. then it will to sew it. especially if . but not so equal as before. This be found rather an awkward job. A hole should be cut in the middle of tongue-piece to allow the pipe attached to the bladder to pass through it. Now insert the bladder. by 3 in. but this last seam must be sewn inside like all the others to do this.

taking great care there is no escape of air. off nozzle. fold tube over. draw the mouth together with a good lace.124 Leather Working. and tie down firmly with wax-end. and it only requires some care in calculating for the pattern. hold tightly with thumb and finger. and the ball is finished. . If the instructions have been carefully followed. a ball. Push the tube under the side which is not attached to the tongue. The process is the same. perfect in shape and equal to the roughest wear it may have to endure. will have been produced. it will be an easy matter to make a ball of any other shape and size. With the knowledge already gained.

thus allowing it to take up the dye quicker and more evenly. therefore only weak liquors should be employed. Broadly speaking. after tanning. especially tan colours. and tanning and dyeing become one operation.125 CHAPTER DYEING XII. the leather is either tanned with gall extract. Black colours are produced on leather with salts of iron and galls. but this treatment tends to harden the leather and render it harsh.. This method is used for applying coal-tar dyes. of — . The leather by this means is largely impregnated with the colour. Light-coloured leathers. In the first method. or it is revolved with the liquor in a closed cylinder. For an iron black. As the skins are often greasy. This gives a superficial colouring only. In the second method. the tanned leather is soaked for a short time in the liquid dye contained in a vat. it may be necessary to dip them in a dilute solution of ammonia or washing soda. and by brushing. such as naphthylamine black. the under side of the leather not being coloured. or by means of aniline blacks. the preliminary treatment of the leather consists in soaking it in warm water to open the pores and soften the leather. etc. indulines. it may be steeped for a short time in a bath made of 2 lb. are as a rule produced without dyeing . etc. a solution of the dye is applied to the surface of the leather whilst spread on a board. sloelines. or. LEATHER. If the colour is to be applied by dipping. there are two methods of leather dyeing by dipping. the tannin liquors are made from materials which yield the required tints. especially in patches.

of water. In order to counteract the effect of this. but have a more or less pronounced violet shade. The amount of dye to be used is best found by experiment on leather . especially from a slightly acid solution. say. 1 lb. Sulphuric acid. all that is required being a solution of the dye in water. two classes. and. of logwood chips to 8 gal. or naphthol yellow. and if too much tannin is present the . in the proportion of. Leather has the greatest affinity for the " basic " dyes. galls and 1 lb. The same blacks may be applied to leather by brushing. till the black has fully developed. it is possible to obtain on leather blacks that are nearly free from violet tint. such as aniline yellow or orange. The aniline dyes may be divided into "acid" dyes and "basic" dyes. must not be used. Other aniline dyes may be applied to leather by dipping or brushing. of the liquid. which is best done after soaking the leather in water for a short time then sponge it with the dye solution. it is usual to add a yellow dye. to 8 gal. This should be rendered slightly alkaline with carbonate of soda or ammonia before use. may be taken for 10 gal. as their staining powers vary. another coat may be applied. and they are readily taken up by of water.126 Leather Working. Aniline blacks soluble in water are not deadblack colours. To get a good black it may be necessary to give several coats. The blacks mentioned are known as " acid " dyes. dye required varies. after partial drying. steep it in a solution of ferrous sulphate (green vitriol). as it causes the leather to rot it is better to add a little The amount of acetic acid or bisulphate of soda. one-tenth of the black employed. 1 lb. however. By using the two dyes combined. to 2 lb. powdered leather. but as a rule. scraps. After steeping in the gall bath. but two coats should suffice if a stronger solution is used. these colours being fixed by the excess of tannin in the hides as tannin-lakes. .

For dyeing leather black by brushing. Aniline orange. Naphthol blue-black. or with a solution of quercitron or sumach. . tions. The following is a list of some of the aniline dyes suitable for dyeing leather it is not. water soluble. violet. Acid dyes are more suitable for dyeing by immersion than the basic ones. Chrysoidine. Sloelines. Nigrosine . Alkali blue. Fast yellow. however. Magenta. Basic dyes are not so suitable for dyeing by immersion unless the excess of tannin is previously removed from the leather by soaking in water.Dyeing Leather. Naphthol green. Hofmann Methyl violet. Alkalies must not be used for this purpose. after which it is brushed or dipped in a solution of sulphate of iron or nitrate of iron. but strong solutions may be applied with a sponge. Malachite green. and again treated once or twice with the logwood solution. the leather is stretched and brushed with a strong decoction of logwood. 127 leather takes too much colour and becomes overstained or it may dye too deeply in patches thus basic dyes are best employed in rather dilute solu. Naphthylamine black. Acid browns. If the black is not fully developed by this treatment the leather is again treated with logwood. Acid green. Compound colours may be made by mixing two dyes . Acid Dyes. It is then allowed to dry partially. and will be taken quite readily. Basic Dyes. Another reason for the use of weak solutions is that basic dyes give a bronze colour if the solution is too strong. . Phosphine. as they injure the colour of the dye. a complete list. unless afterwards neutralised by dilute acid. Bismarck brown.

orange. is a fugitive colour. anatto. alum-tanned or tanned with pale tan liquors. or by the use of A solusaffron. of water. As a finish they may be rubbed with a solution made with curd or Castile dull polish may be obtained by using a soap. Leather aniline dyes. Adding a little sulphate of copper modifies the colour. and \ oz. A purple dye is obtained from \ lb. polishing rag and a little French chalk. of white vinegar. fustic. one of the aniline blacks The to the logwood solution. 16 oz. The various shades of yellow. and then adding a solution of \ oz.. are also obtained by using solutions of aniline dyes. After dyeing. of water. strong soap A . 1 oz. The leather intended for dyeing in bright colours should be as nearly white as possible. of Brazil wood. solution of shellac in borax is often used to fix the black dye. and Brazil wood. leather is usually treated with oil during the drying to prevent it getting hard and stiff . stretching them and working them about from time to time to prevent wrinkling and is rub off. however. intensify the black. that is. of Brazil wood (in shavings) with 16 oz. ing \ lb. of scarlet berries. red. tan. In some cases oils and yolk of eggs arc employed to aid in softening the leather. etc. This is brushed on the of alum in 4 oz. or stiffening. of sulphate or chloride of zinc. leather. as that on the surface tends to A stained a red colour with one of the by first treating it with cochineal extract and tin salts (chloride of tin) . it is also To may be added worked about for the same purpose.128 Leather Working. the leathers are usually finished by smoothing with a " slicker/' and drying very slowly. tion of picric acid gives a very pale yellow colour aniline yellow and phosphine are now largely used A red dye may be made by heatfor yellow stains. the latter. Leather that has been tanned. will be most suitable for the purpose.

knot the ends so that the mouth is closed on pulling the string. apart all round the mouth between the stitches and the top. 129. 129) is commonly called a saddler's purse. — Portsea Purse or Saddler's Purse. stitching all round the bottom of the turned-down piece. Then turn the bag Fig-. Cut them from 8 in. about the mouth. put the three edges together and tack them. of miscellaneous articles in leather will have their construction described in this chapter. to 6^ in. of the same width as the bag . or other light leather of any colour. and either backstitch or double-hand them with a fine awl and needles. centre piece to reach to within 2 in. inside out and turn in \ in. The Portsea purse (Fig. to 9 in. Punch holes | in. wide have a . MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES OF LEATHER WORK. such as wash-leather or basil. I . with linen thread of any colour. Cut the back part 5^ in. and may be made easily. of the top. Cash bags may be made of soft leather. light calf.129 CHAPTER A number XIII. The material may be hogskin. long and from 4^ in. and run a string in and out from each end through these holes so that the string crosses in the holes .

For the gusset. round it at one end for the bottom. A small button. cut the front piece 3| in. and stitch all round to the opposite side. wet them. let it be quite square and straight at the top. put these together and tack them. and round it at the top. Having marked the stitches on the front part. and round it at one end to the same shape as the back part . wide. Cut the centre piece to the same shape. prick along the mark put in the centre piece of the purse from the point of the straight end between the two folds of the gusset right up to the leather at the bend.130 long. and mark it along the bent edge with the screw-crease and pliable hogskin . taking care that with every stitch the centre piece is caught up. and stitch along the marks made all round. may be put through the front piece. leaving . Cut square with the top of the centre piece on both sides. with a hole opposite in the overlap to fasten it down . Leather Working. them. and turn the gusset so all round the centre piece. line of the front piece. and tack the edge of the gusset right opposite on the back and all round. Tack the front piece to the other side of the . stitch double with beeswaxed linen thread where the front part begins. long. Then glasspaper the edges. and stitch the gusset and back together all the way. If the pocket is made with a gusset that is. and rub with a rag so as to polish the sides straight Turn down the back part a little above the and give the bend a few light taps with a hammer. then round the top. cut a thin piece of soft and it must be long enough to go round the stitched part of the purse and 1^ in. but this is not really necessary. There are now three pieces . . Double it down all along the middle. a piece let in to open it to increase the capacity a button will be required to keep it — — closed. such as a small front stud.

. Cut them out correctly. . The body is made of two pieces marked a. and either cut it with a fine-pointed knife round the edge of the pattern.MlSCELLANEO US EXA MPL ES. Put the purse on a flat surface and weight it to keep it flat leave it so till the gusset dries. overlap. and put in the button. which. This is owing to the trumpery material these cases are made of. and both kinds are made up in the same manner. which are joined together on each side where the strap goes round. b shows the pattern for the top. This may be cut in one length and carried right round. or sheet zinc. Fig. Other purses may be made on the principles just described. lay the patterns on the leather. turn down. . 1 3 I gusset and stitch it round then damp the gusset and draw a piece of string tightly against the middle of the gusset between the back and centre pieces also draw it between the centre and the front piece to pull in the gusset. will keep in good shape and sound condition for many years. of fine gauge. the details of construction being soon mastered and its cost will be but trifling. or mark the shape first with a round point and cut out after the pattern is removed. if well-made. and it will then stand and keep its form. or made in two pieces and joined even with the seams on the body. Brown and patent leathers look and wear well. Trim and rub the edges. Make tracings of the three patterns on suitable paper and paste these to thin cardboard. 130 gives the three necessary patterns for cutting out an opera-glass case. It frequently happens even when a good price is paid for a pair of opera glasses that the case sold with them soon shows signs of becoming dilapidated. c is the bottom pattern. There is no difficulty in making it. — — . . well. The instructions given here are for making a case in solid leather. A strip of leather \ in. and the slip-shod style of putting them together. wide is joined to this and forms the flange.

and one edge only on the flange pieces. long by | in. Mark all parts for the stitching £ in. colour the size with a little lampblack or similar pigment. leather is used. A number of holes will have to be made in the — . See that the inside edge is well taken hold of by each stitch.. straps. the four edges of the body. Colour and rub up the edges of straps and loops. The edging must be applied hot with a sponge. The flange pieces for the body are laid inside and fixed to the broadest part of each body half. but in a slanting direction from the mark along the surface towards the extreme edge at the bottom. long by f in. and then through the other part in a corresponding manner. long by | in. Those edges to be sewn must be finished after the stitching is done. Secure these in position with a few small nails and stitch them straight through. and also the top and bottom pieces. The buckle chape should be middle of one half which fix this to stitched on to the form the body before the side seams are closed it is so much easier to on to the flat surface. For colouring the edges of brown leather use a " 1 oz. not straight through as in the case of stitching on the flange. is . the awl must be driven.132 Lea ther Working. Having sewn these on. In doing this. bringing the awl out at . and the four loops to keep the sling-strap in position round the case must be cut If in. wide. and that a uniform portion of the flange is in sight. The sling-strap should be 6 ft. of water solution added to it produces a more brilliant polish. If black. is enough to very weak solution of " size and a few drops of oxalic acid in ^ pt. from the edges— that is one edge of each flange piece. or patent. The strap to hold down the lid is 3 in. and the polish produced by rubbing with a moderately coarse cloth. the sides arc now ready for closing together.

Place these evenly across the seams. so that an equal proportion of loop is on either side. 133 the opposite mark. and stitch them on. leaving sufficient " slack " to allow the sling-strap to be drawn through. This is put inside the lower made — — . Stitch the bottom in next. Two small pieces of leather to form hinges must also be attached to the body. In this manner one edge is to butt close against the other. The guide loops for the sling-strap must be stitched on next. and the stitching securely holds them together.Miscellaneous Examples.

field. 131 below. 131. which possesses the advantage of holding the folded music without any perceptible crease. Leather Working. such as is illustrated by Fig. place the glasses on a sheet of paper and take the outside measurement at each end. Cases for any size of glasses opera.. Fig. 131) so generally used. To get the size of the top and bottom leather. 132 shows the lid raised and the front flap dropped ready for receiving the sheets of music as well as for withWith this drop flap it is easier to drawing them. Fig. and make some allowance over this measurement for the thickness of leather. .134 sling-strap. especially if the instructions about to be given are followed with care. In making a music carrier. The dimensions given will be found suitable for all ordinary sheet music measuring 14 in. Then take the length of the glasses. — Music Carrier Closed. The shape is of the ordinary round bottom pattern (Fig. by 10 in. first turning the screw to — — bring the glasses to the shortest focus. and passing it through the four guide loops. etc. great skill is not required. insert and remove the music than would be possible if this portion were united to the ends in the same manner as the back. or marine may be made from these instructions.

used. 3^ in. the lid flap. long by 5| in. 135 the case when made up being 15 in. Lay the cloth or leather. the top of lid. to I in. allow \ in. so that the edges when folded over the board neatly butt together. the bottom and back.Miscellaneous Examples. but it is the least durable. face downwards on a level table and proceed to line out the various parts as in Fig. The corners of this surplus must be removed as shown. there is no necessity to keep precisely to these dimensions. but is not so easy to work. A piece of thin millboard is next . Whatever material is used it is essential that it should be cut in one piece. If in. 133 . and 2| in. beyond when cutting to provide the necessary surplus for folding over the edges. Common bookbinders' cloth is the cheapest and the least troublesome to use. 133) shows how the various parts are divided. deep. The diagram (Fig. Dull-grained American duck wears better. from the commonest bookbinders' cloth to the expensive French moroccos and scented Russia leather. being the drop flap. Of course. —Music Carrier Open. as the case may be. 132. but they will be found to be very suitable for the purpose. 9 in. Many kinds of material are — Fig. allowing a sufficient margin beyond the four edges for turning over at least half an inch.

in. —Pattern for Music Carrier. . Lea ther Working. space are scored.136 cut 15 off. 133. cut about half-way through with a pointed knife travelling This permits the board along a straight edge. but proves does not quite reach the make a good lap over the turned-in surplus. 134). the two corners are taken that is. space) scored on the other side. The two lines on each side of the lf-in. so that it extreme edges. The pasted edges are next brought over the boa'rd and rolled. then the board must be turned over and the line for the drop flap (3^-in.. lines scored — ml* -v- -16- Fig. The rounded ends sufficient to . next applied to the and the millboard surface then lay the board in position on is double scored the cloth and press the two firmly together by using the roller (Fig. is Good bookbinders' paste inside of the material. by 16^ and the cross in. The inside lining is cut rather less than the size of the millboard. being folded into divisions without separating the parts.

and it will give a neater appearance if the . When leather handles are used it is a much stronger method to insert the ends through openings made in the top of the case. The lock and catch are fixed by three pins being riveted through each. A leather camera case must be of simple shape. and there is little else to add to its cost except the lining and a few buckles and dees. thoroughly waterproof.—Hand Roller handle and lock are fixed before the inside lining at this part is pasted down. Place one of these ends in position and fix with an escutcheon pin at the extreme point forming the back. or rings. 136).Miscellaneous Examples. of a smooth interior. good deal or mahogany board. 134. The patterns may be cut from thin cardboard or brown paper. For a ^-plate camera case as illustrated by Fig. and metal handles with bosses and clamps may be bought and easily fixed. and it should not be heavier than is consistent with durability. Fig. 131 and 132 are usually cut from a piece of \-m. cut the widest pattern first (see Fig. and back of case. The leather for a camera case is not a very expensive item. and covered to correspond. . and again just below the drop flap then at intervals insert small gimp pins and fix in the other end to match. top. This forms the outside flap. i37 seen in Figs. 135. and then stitch or rivet them . strong. so that it does not scratch the camera.

137). from this. long by 7 in.138 Leather Working. giving the size of top and leaving 11 in.— Camera Case. Fig-. Next cut a pattern 36 in. One line is drawi. The four corners must be rounded oft' and lines drawn across the pattern. and draw two lines across the pattern. wide for the gusset (see Fig. using a square for this purpose. and a total length of 21| in. 135. The width throughout is 8j in. from the end with large rounded corners this gives the size of the flap and another — . for the depth of case. drawn 7 in. one line is . across 3| in. Round the corners well at one end and slightly at the other.

The pattern for the front is a simple rectangle 11 in. J Flap. for the bottom. ISC EL L A NEO US EXA MPL ES. Black enamelled or brown cowhide is the best v Fig. 139 from each end and two more 11 in. from these. leather for this purpose. long by 8{ in. This leaves a space of 8 in. and a camera case this size will take about 3| square feet. 136. 1 I . two of the corners being slightly rounded. as this part forms the top of the case as well as the flap. wide and long enough to reach ^ in. Some pieces of leather for binding the flaps will be wanted these must be thin and pliable. In Fig. and — Front Back of Camera Case. wide. 136 the binding starts at a and is continued round to b. beyond the marks showing the parts to form the flaps. Top. and cut into strips I in.M 3 in.

on the front piece. wide. velvet. Lay the patterns on the leather and see which is the best and most economical way of cutting out the parts. one 1-in. See that these are far enough from the edge to give room for the bindThe chape with buckle and loop must be sewn ing. wide. 138. two |-in. A hole at x must be cut in these for the buckle. begin cutting out. and the shortest narrow strap is sewn on one flap nearer the end and a chape with buckle and loop-piece in on the other. Cut evenly round the patterns with a sharp knife. buckle. loop pieces. and holding the pattern down firmly with the other hand. long and 2 in. running the second finger of the hand holding the knife along the edge of the pattern as a guide. wide for the gusset flaps. or even thin leather. In order that there may be nothing rough inside when the bag is finished. green baize. long by f in. and The the other narrow strap sewn on the front flar> . cloth. good handle. from each end will be about the right distance for these. Chapes for the dees to be fixed to the case must be 3^ in. This may be either plush. long by 1^ in. and short straps must be sewn on before lining the case. About \\ in. With the patterns and materials ready. wide for the outside flap. Then cut out the lining.140 Leather Working. The long straps can be sewn on the dees after the bag is made up. as these are subjected to the hardest wear. A strap 7 in. cut to the shape of Fig. and another 5^ in. using the stoutest parts for the front and back. the dee chapes. one piece to each pattern. will be all that is required except the lining. Put the straight part of the dees into their chapes and tack them on to the gussets with two or three small nails to keep them in p'osition whilst being sewn. and two 1-in. but only 3 in. buckles. dees or rings. buckle pieces. long by f in. Those for the buckles are cut the same shape. and two \-m. in about the middle of it.

except the flaps. l£d. Before sewing the sides together. Shave the edges even with a spokeshave.or five-cord thread of No. pieces of cardboard cut to the size of the various parts. and if a saddler's pricking iron can be obtained these lines may be stamped with it and a perfectly even stitch obtained. place the patterns on the leather and make ink marks on the brown edges of the latter where the lines run across the patterns this will serve as a guide in fitting the parts together. All the unbound edges must be marked \ in. and are made with teeth ranging from six to the inch to sixteen to the inch. 141 sewing thread should be a four. this will cause them to go round more evenly and help the paste to unite them to the leather and lining. by 1\ in. fold them over and tap them down with a hammer. The leather should now be placed bottom upwards and the lining joined to it by a thin streak of glue or paste round the edges. . and the stitches should be six or eight to the inch. and from three or four teeth to twenty in number. Stitch the front piece and one edge of the gusset first. it will be found rather difficult to sew these side scams in the clamp. pressing them well together. is made. Before applying the paste to these. If the case is a stiffened one. For sewing these seams use a four -cord hemp thread. and then fix on and sew the back part to the other gusset edge. but if a box 10 in. may be glued between the leather and lining. Trim the lining off level with the leather and paste on the bindings. from the edge with a pair of compasses to give the lines for straight stitching. These pricking irons cost. If a stiffened case is required. A three-cord thread of fine closing flax is stout enough for sewing the bindings. the case can be tacked on to this and held between the knees whilst being sewn. a tooth. by 6^ in. 22 hemp. new. rub on .Miscellaneous Examples.

k. piece with a blue lead for the slits. s. front piece 6 in. b. the front. wide. some dye. Similar slits are cut in the front piece at h. a nose-piece. and in the strappiece slits are cut at x. and t. so that there will be no difficulty in making a muzzle for any head. On referring to Fig. To make a No. There is no necessity to mark one at the other end. In the muzzle or cage-piece.. and G. and shall also give perfect freedom in breathing and not hinder the dog from lapping water. m. and are only suitable for the dog with an average-shaped head. p. trim off the sharp edges and rub them up with a rough cloth. — — — . The sizes given below correspond to those articles. c. the muzzle will be found to consist of four pieces of narrow leather. then at 2 in.. The muzzles sold in shops are generally made to standard sizes. e. It only remains to sew the long straps on to the dees and the case is completed. as this enters the buckle chape. Make the nose-piece 11 in. 3^ in. cage-piece 22 in. o. f. namely. Fold the strap exactly in the middle and mark the edge opposite these.. there are only two slits at l and N. and J. each barely f in. The nose-piece runs from a round the nose and under the buckle at the other end. and polish them with a soft cloth.. the cage proper. and has seven slits pierced through it sideways at A. e. from one end.. q. marking first at I in. first sponging on some warm-coloured size diluted. 139. The regulations for dog muzzles specify the use of a cage muzzle which shall prevent any possibility of the animal biting.142 Leather Working. and 4f in. 1. and strapMark one edge of the nosepiece 20 in. long. so that the spaces on each side are uniform. but the method of altering the various parts will be pointed out. and the strap and buckle-piece. d. 2 size muzzle which fits a small fox-terrier dog cut four strips of leather.

and pass one end of the cagepiece through fold it to get the slit over the middle.. 8 in. and drive the nail through to keep it in position. leaving 3| in. take the front piece. 143 Use a sharp. Put a washer over the nail. Fig. for the forehead.piece has two slits only.. narrow chisel or a penknife for dividing the leather. For fitting the muzzle together.. In marking the slits in the Fig. cut off.. the first \\ in. from one end. start in. The strap-piece crosses underneath the throat at x. mark the edge and cut the at 2^ 4 in.- Dee and Buckle Chape. hammer. 138. The cage. these distances being measured from one end only. and be careful to cut it clean through the middle. open the slit 1. Having cut the slits.. — Humane Dog Muzzle.Miscellaneous Examples. and the other 4^ in. slits. 139. take the front piece and cut a slit | in. 7 in. make a hole with a small awl. strap-piece 1 to 6. A gauge. is very useful in firmly holding the leather edgeways for this operation.. . from each end and one 25 in. using a lead piece as a support. from the buckle end and and 10^ in. made by nailing some odd pieces of leather on a board. and rivet with a small .

and K. and the strap-piece is passed successively through J. A . If possible. riveted to the other end. The cage-piece is next passed through the nose-~ piece at B and G (Fig. 8 size are as follow. No. See that all the parts correspond before nailing and riveting. 6. n. or No. 139).144 Leather Working. The lengths of the various parts for muzzles numbered in lists as No. d. Then take the other end. and T. continue the cage-strip from G through E. wide. and pass it through R. Cycle Valise. try the muzzle on the dog to ensure the various spaces being well apportioned. On small muzzles it is usual to cut a strap 4 in. l. and c. h. the spaces being in proportion to the one illustrated here . a. 4. four or five holes in it for adjusting to the size of chape with double buckle is the dog's neck. f. x. long by \ in. e. With the front of the muzzle towards the worker. and rivet or stitch it to that end of Punch the strap-piece which slides through J.

Another plan is to cut out a pattern of the small half from the dimensions given in Fig. Leather or waterproof canvas will answer well for the purpose. and mark it by running a lead pencil round the inside of the frame. US be shorter. These muzzles have the appearance of being very complicated. rainproof. without being too large or cumbersome. it will be an easy matter to make them. 141. however. frames. 140. 139) is extremely short. will not be all in one piece. but where this is not the case the necessary alterations can be made before cutting out the material. 141. The sizes given will be suitable for nearly all Fig". by following the instructions. and as commodious as the frame of the machine will permit. place a sheet of strawboard on one side of the cycle frame. A cycle valise should be light. and. and the cross at the throat is close to n.Miscellaneous Examples. | yd. For a dog with a long thin head the opposite treatment is necessary. by making the valise as shown by Fig. the patterns may be reversed and j . strong. . the gusset. This would be most economical if two carriers are to be made. but must be cut from the surplus and joined. To get the correct size of valise. and as the material is suitable for cutting either crosswise or lengthwise. Half a yard of material will be required to make the valise . must be bought. it will have sufficient capacity.— Pattern for Cycle Valise. but. If it is desired to have the gusset without a join. and the other two parts longer the distance H to J (Fig.

and they are stitched on the carrier close to this To make the sides very firm. The straps for the flap are cut 6 in. and. the ends pared down and spliced together with good paste Bind the flap first. A lady's workbox can be covered with leather way. them with pieces of cardboard the gusset should . and again over the top from each side openin the following . then the top of the small half which is to go under The parts it. and b the large half with flap. In Fig. — Pattern for Leather Covering of Workbox are then pasted together and bound with leather. 112. The buckle is sewn into one end of these. measure from the front opening at the lock to the hinge line. For the lid or top.146 L EA THER IVO R K 1 NG. wide by 40 in. a denotes the small half. wide. 141. and those for fastening to the frame 10 in. about 12 ft. will be wanted. stiffen stitching. The gusset is cut 3 in. by | in. or the parts will not be in pairs. Strips of soft hide bellies must be cut 1 in. patterns a or b distinctly. in cutting the material. be kept flexible. Fig. long by f in. see that the letters are uppermost. wide. and each end of the gusset-piece. long. Be careful to mark the there will be less waste.

M ing. 142. The corners. which is much stronger and neater than butt joints. so . ISCEL LA NEO US EXA MPL ES. I 47 The inner row of dotted lines in Fig. allow for lapping over. Make a brown paper pattern and put this on first. 142 shows the plan of top of lid the outer row shows where it turns over the lower edge the part beyond this is brought to the under part of frame resting on the other half of the box. They must be pared down. as shown in Fig. r . . to see if it is correct.

145. both leather and wood. so that the lid is quite detached from tne lower half of the workbox. thus the top of the lid first. the turned Do — F. Fig. and. lastly. the work in sections.148 to Lea ther Working.g. The metal hinges should be removed. and press them together. . 144. in order to get the glue to adhere properly. then the four sides. — Another Lug-gage Label. — Segment of Cricket Ball Covering. edges at the bottom. Luggage labels can easily be made from leather. the veneer will have to be well sand-papered. If the box is veneered.

when the required name and address. boards (plain postcards are just the thing) are cut m - to size to slip in the label.Miscellaneous Examples. 149 which should be stiff rather than soft and oily. wide by f in. and place them together. or A strap about 3 in. etc. long. as shown. Fig. is put through the slit. — Sewing Cricket Ball Covering. with the flesh sides touching sew them together . Thin cardto the parcel.. Fig. To make one of the shape illustrated by Fig. cut two pieces of leather about 4 in. about TV to \ in. and round them off on the top edges. have been written on. Cut the slit d on the three edges. through both. 144 shows another label. the only difference . 143. by 2| in. With the back of a knife-blade and straightedge. long. to be fastened I in. mark and cut out the pieces a and b. 146.

being that the front part has a larger space for a address. Bind the cork ball round and round with twine until it is of the desired The finished ball size minus the leather cover. when they are dry. 147.Halves of Covering. bone. A cricket ball that will withstand a lot of hard wear may be made from some old corks and some leather. . should be 2| in. —Sewing. shown by Fig. and allowing \ in. gether. 145 must be cut. all round for the seam. Cut the corks square and glue them tofull Fig.i5o Lea ther Working. The edges of the label can be made gloss}' and smooth simply by rubbing with a piece of hard wood.on Cricket Ball. in diameter. the edges of the leather being wetted. and. or other hard substance. each being half the circumference long and a quarter the circumference wide. The leather used for the covering must be Four pieces to the shape strong but not thick. trim them to an approximately spherical shape.

. cut the edges Another off close. 149. The two halves of the cover are made separately. The actual inside of the leather should be made the outside. —Holding Cricket Ball during Sewing. and then put two pieces together and hold them in the jaws of a vice between two pieces of wood shaped to correspond with the leather (see Fig-. cork ball and the edges sewn together. method. and Fig. 146). 151 Soften the leather by soaking it in water for a short time. and then hammer well to shape. One way of doing this is to use a straight awl. The sewing is commenced with a waxed thread having a harness-maker's needle on each end holes for the needles to pass through are made with a fine stabbing awl. when opened the seams are hammered flat. more difficult but producing a stronger .— Section of Sewn Edges of Ball Covering. 148. Then the covers are placed over" the twine-and- Fig.ATISC EL LA NEC US EXA MPLES.

of stitching and less. g. and is made from stout sides. A board about 4 in. strength. and d wide from the dotted line. etc. and then thicknesses of leather. the centre of which must measure within the dotted lines 20 in. f.152 job. it is smooth-grained and polished. to 18 in. of stitching. first cut a pattern of stiff paper to the dimensions given below. wide. . while if the pattern were cut in separate pieces there would be 13 ft. seams have come undone. by is The of the four side-pieces A. Cowhide can be used. have the seam stitch through the four bent over. 149. long is fixed to the bench or table with a bent screw. and \\ in. Or the top and bottom sides may measure 4^ in. the foot pressure is released. which is kept in place partly under and partly within the hole by foot pressure exerted on a strap or string passing over the outer end of the board as illustrated. is Each 4 in. To alter the position of the ball. taking care not to cut the stitches. . b. but will want a better backing. c. small butts. Fig. and H must be only 2 in. 151) for the lid can be cut in the same way. When making the suit case. 150 shows the bottom. a slightly bent awl. The ball may be held whilst sewing by the appliance shown by Fig. leather for a suit case should be such as used for straps of portmanteaus. The latter method is illustrated by Figs. but the four pieces e. is to use Lea ther Working. Having trimmed the seam with a sharp knife. high will need only 2 ft. respectively. Then a case 6 in. etc. or the 13 in. it will shrink and become tighter. The above instructions will be of help also in repairing cricket balls whose . the latter figure being Pull the a section of the doubled-over leather. wide and from 12 in. In the board is a hole not quite so large as the diameter of the ball. 147 and 148. stitches up tight as the leather dries. flatten the seam by hammering. The pattern (Fig.

side (again to the dotted line) for the four sides of the lid. in proportion to the substance of the material and its backing. J 1 . side and top and bottom. bottom 6 is to 153 in. and one of the sides (Fig. and they will want cover. and the lid (say) 1^ in. if the lid in such an instance the overlap the case centre of the lid will need to be larger. This will be better if done after the case The pieces must be well fitted for each is sewn. 150) is Cut off one used as pattern for the four sides. but the first system is best and neatest. For the backing and lining.Miscellaneous Examples.. patterns are cut for the two centres.

This can be done to all four sides of the top and bottom pieces. and the three sides of the four endpieces. and g. d. Thus J. each seam finishing firm and well at the top and bottom. then c. Then fit the ten pieces of backing. and fit it so that the rough edge of the linen sticks on each end and Putting in b first. E. while the bottom part at n would hang loose with the four long sides b. covering one side of each piece with lining material and leaving a Fio-. and a harness-maker's needle used with a diamond awl.154 Lea ther Wor king . c. k (Fig. f. The sewing can be done with about six or seven strands of yellow flax. Only the top of each need be turned over. which may be pasteboard or stout cardboard. and these four sides can be glued in first by applying a coat to the back and on the rough ends of the lining that hang over. Cut a small angular piece off all sides.—Lid of Suit Case. 150) would have three smooth sides. glue the side which it is to be stuck. made into a thread as for shoe-making . or round up the edges with fine sandpaper. or the thread may be made in the same way. As each is to fixed (bookbinder's paste will do). margin all round to turn over to the other side. and h. 151. as A. . m. but thin leatherboard or wood pulpboard would be lightest. it will be seen that each seam has a piece of this lining at the bottom.

stopping. at least. 1^ in. as shown at R. of the material used for the outside can be either covered with thin brown Persian or left as it is. and additional strength is also given all round the edge of the bottom. and then stitching to the two together. The bottom can now be stuck in. letting \ in. take care not to bring it quite to the edge.Miscellaneous Examples. but in applying the glue. inside the bottom of the case. as it were. within \ in. This can be secured on the front of the bottom of the case by two copper rivets. or. better still. be. to strengthen it 155 to keep the case square. say. The handle can be made by cutting two pieces shape and skiving them at the edge about half their thickness. 152). or while fixing it in the and help Also when a and d sides will be smeared. It can be stitched all round to the top edge of the case. 46-in. this piece is dispensed with. If it is wanted thicker in the of leather to middle. This keeps the lid firmly in its place. are glued in. o being the bottom of the case and p the side. and prevents any wet getting in while the case is carried. projecting above. buy. In the latter case it will be well to sandpaper and A finish off the edge with a little brown cream. This piece forms a sort of flange all round the front and two ends. and 1 in. A Fig-. If the lid is made to overlap. . and either the top can be stitched as a finish or a copper rivet may be put through here and there. all four corners are neat. as shown by Q (Fig.— Section of Suit Case Side. strip of firm leather. wide. 152. paste a long oval piece down the centre before putting the two flesh sides together.

To finish the box. Each must be secured to the case by two small copper rivets. inserting the lock. so that 1 in. some play. and put the strip along the back. Then close the case. cut a strip of leather 2 in. take the case. or one handle can be put at each end. or make from a piece of strip brass. fitting the hasp portion of the lock in position and riveting in its place. and will lie flat while not in use. This will then have so that it crosses the handle. and then repeat for fastening to the case. 8 in. and lift sufficiently for the hand to go under. long. wide and 1 ft. lid off. lock is easily added by cutting a portion of the front of the case away. and each before fastening must have the handle put under. two square sockets for the handle. and secure the piece to it by a row of small copper rivets or a row of stitching. put the lid on the case.156 Leather Working. . of the width lies on the lid and the other inch on the Mark it right along on each side. and A riveting it it on.

INDEX.
Acid Dyes
for Leather, 127 Alligator Skins, 9 American Cloth, Mandoline

Brown Glace Kid,
Persian, 13

14 12

Leather, Cleaning. Ill

Levant Morocco,

Case in, 60—64 Aniline Dyes for Leather, 126 Association Footballs, 117 Bags, 65—69 Brief, 65—70 Cartridge, 109—111
,

Brush Case,
,

40
49

Lining. 41

Bucket-shaped Hat Case,
Buckle, 18 Chape, 140
Strap, 105

,

,

,

,

,

,

Cash, 129 Cricketing, 89 Frames, Riveting, 72 Gladstone, 73—83 Tennis, 89 Half Gladstone Tennis, 89
Ladies', 70

Buckles, Roller, 21

Buckling Garters, Buckskin, 14
Butt, Foreign, 15 Calf Kid, 11

18

,

Leather, Box, 15
,

,

Tennis, 84—89
,

Memel,

10

Ball, Cricket, 150
,

,

Covering, 150

,

,

,

Holding on Bench,
,

151

,

,

Sewing, 151
,'

Ooze, 11 Patent, 9 Russet, 10 Tan, 11

Band

for Hat Case, Cutting, 51 Banjo Case, 55—60 Bottom, 56

Waxed,

10

,

Willow, 15
Case, 137

Camera

Handle,

58
I

Carrier, Music, 134

Lining, 56 Pattern, Cutting, 55 Basic Dyes for Leather, 127 Basil Leather, 15 Belly Leather, Foreign, 15 Bifurcated Rivets, 26

Cartridge Bag, 109—111 Case Banjo, 55 60 Brush, 40

,

,

Camera,

137

,

Field-glass. 134 Football, 117

Binding Corner
Case, 63

of

Mandoline
I

Hair Brush, 40
Hat, 49
,
I

Black Dyes, Aniline, 126 Grain Hide, 13 Blackening Leather, 127 Block for Making Collar Box,
46

Letter, 31—35

|

, , ,

Mandoline, 60—64
Opera-glass, 131
Suit, 152

Blotting Pad, 39 Board. Cutting, 17 Bone, Rubbing, 75 Bookbinders' Skiver, 13 Box (see also Case)

-,
,

Horseshoe Collar,

43

Round

—46

Tennis. 83—89 Cash Bags, 129 Catch Strap for Collar Box, 47 Cleaning Brown Leather, 111 Pigskin and Cowhide, 34 Collar Box, Cutting Leather for,
47
,

Collar. 46—48

Box-calf Leather, 15 Braces, 27 Brief Bag. Cutting Out. 67
,
,

Drawer. 44 Horseshoe, 43
Lid, 45

,

Lining, 43

Gussets for, 67 Lining, 69

,

Round,

46

,
,

Narrow, 66
Sewing, 68
13

Cordovan, 12 Covering Mandoline Case, 63

Brown Cowhide,

Workbox, 146 Cowhide and Black Grain,

13

158
Cowhide, Brown,
, ,

Leather Workixg.
13

Glace Kid,
,

11

Cleaning, 34 Patent, 13

Brown,

14 73

13 Crease, Screw, 22 Cricket Bag, 89 Ball, 150
,

Cream Roan,

Gladstone Bag, 73—83 with Broken Frame, Handle, 79
Patterns, 76

with
Sew-

Seams

Un-

,

Covering, 150 Holding, whilst

ing, 151
,

stitched, 73
,

Sewing, 151

Crocodile Skins, 9 Crup or Horse Leather, 13 Cutting Band for Hat Case, 51
-,

Tools for Making, 75 - Tennis Bag, 89 Glossing Strap Edges, 22 Glove Kid, 12

Grounding Punch,

113

Gusset Pattern for Brief Bag,
67 Stiffenings, Brief Bag, 68 Hair Brush Case, 40 Lining, 41
,

Board

for, 17 47

Leather for Collar Box.

Hat Cases,
Straps, 17—30
,

50

Appliance

for, 29, 30

Cycle Valise, 145

Half-Gladstone Tennis Bag, 89 Hand Punch for Dog Leads, 22
Riveter, 22 Roller, 136

Dee and Buckle Chape,
Dee-ring, 102

140

13 Dipping Leather for Dyeing, 125 Division Board, Trunk, 98 Dog Leads, 22 Fixing Studs in, 24 Hollow-studding, 22 Simple, 23
, ,
,

Diamond Hide,

— -

Handle, Banjo Case, Gladstone Bag,
,
,

58
76,

79

,

,

,

Case, 52 Ladies* Bag, 73 Mandoline Case, 64 Suit Case, 155

Hat

with Studs and Ring,
24

,

Tennis Bag, Trunk, 93
,

85

Hat Case,
Swivel, 24
,

49 Basil, 49

Muzzle, 142 Double-end Brace, 27 Drawer, Collar Box, 44
D-ring, 102

,

,

Dyeing Leather, 125—128

,

Bucket-shaped, 49 Cutting Band for, 51 Leather for, 50 Handle, 52 Inner, 53
Lid, 52

Dves, Acid, 127 -, Aniline, 126
,

Basic, 127
Stick, 17

Emery

Lining, 51 Hide, Black Grain, 13 Cutting up, 16
, ,

Patent Calf Leather, 10 Envelope. Pocket in Writing Pad, 37 Field glass Cases. 134

Enamelling

Enamel,

13

Folding Trunk, 90
Football, 116 Association, 117 Cases, 117
,
,

Different Parts of, 16 Porpoise, 13 Hides, 9 Hinge Strap for Collar Box, 47 Hollow Studs, 22 Hollow-studding Dog Leads, 22 Horse or Crup Leather, 13 Horseshoe Collar Box, 43
, ,

Lace Holes

in, 119

Imperial Trunk, 90
Inflating Football Bladder, 123 Inflators, Football, 119

,

,

,

,

Inflating, 123 Inflator for, 119 Seaming, 121, 122 Rugbv, 117
67

Kangaroo Leather,
Kid,
,
,

14

Brown

Glace, 14

Frames, Brief Bag,

for Ladies' Bags, 70

Tennis Bags,

86

,

Calf, 11 Glace, 11 Glove, 12

French Kid
,
,

Glace) Garters, Buckling, 18
{see

Kips, 9

Making,

17

Packing, 20
Pairing, 19 Tools for Making, 17

,

,

Knapsack, 100—109 Brass Stud, 102 Buckle Straps, 105 Piping Leather, 107 Ring and Holder, 102

I.XDEX.
Labels, Luggage, 148 Lace Holes in Football Case,

159

119

Ladies' Bags, 70
,

Handles
9—16

for, 73

Leather,

Qualities

and Varie-

ties of,

Porpoise Hide, 13 Portmanteaux, 90 Portsea Purse, 129 Punch for Dog Leads, 22 Grounding, for Ornamenting Leather, 113
,

Leg Straps, 20 L ttei Case, 31 —35
,

Riveter, Hand, 22 Punching Hole in Strap,

18

Pigskin, 32 Stamp Pockets, 32 Stitching, 35
12

Purse, Portsea, 129
,

Saddler's, 129

Levant Morocco, Brown,
Leather, 12
112

Racket Cases {see Tennis) Railway Trunk, 90
Ring, D., 102 Riveter, Hand-punch, 22

Liner for Ornamenting Leather,

Riveting Frame to Ladies' Bag,
56
i

Lining Banjo Case,

72

Brief Bag, 69 Collar Box, 48 Gladstone Bag, 82 Hair Brush Case, 41 Hat Case, 51 Mandoline Case, 62

Rivets, Bifurcated, 26
i

Roans, 12 Cream, 13 Roller Buckles,
,

21

,

Hand,

136

Writing Pad, 36 Lock, Hat Case, 53 Suit Case, 156 Luggage Labels, 148 Mandoline Case in
,

Collar Box, 46 Rubbing Bone or Stick, 75 Rugby Footballs, 117

Round

Russet

Calf, 10

B
American

*-.sia

Leather, 14
1?9

.Saddler's Purse,

Cloth, 60—64
,

Covering, 63

Handle, 64
Lining, 62 Pattern, Cutting, Stitching, 64 Marine Glass Cases, 134 Measuring-off Stick, 17
,
,

61

Satchels, 109—111 Seams for Footbal^ 121, 122 Hat Case, 51 Serpent Skins, 9 Sewing Brief Bag, 68 Cricket Ball Cover. 151

Memel
59

Calf, 10

Mitred Corner for Banjo Case,
Modellers
for

Ornamenting

Gladstone Bag, 81 Hat Case, 51 Letter Case, 35 Mandoline Case, 64 Skate Straps, 20, 21 Skins, 9
, ,
,

Leather, 112 Morocco Leather, 12 Long Grain, 12
,

Alligator, 9

Commercial,
Crocodile, 9
Pig, 14

b

Music Carrier,
Ooze
Calf, 11

134

,

Muzzle, Dog, 142
Opera-glass Case, 131 Ornamentation of Leather, 112—
115

Serpent, 9 Skiver, Bookbinders', 13
,
-.

Brown,

13

Staining Leather, 128 Stamp Pockets of Letter Case,
32 Stick,

Packing Garters,
Pad, Blotting, 39
,

20

Rubbing.

75

Writing 35—39
,

Lining, 36 Pairing Garters, 19 Parcel Straps, 22
,

Stiffening for Gladstone Bag, 78 Stitching (see Sewing)

Patent

Calf, 9

Persian, Brown, 13 Pigskin, 14 Cleaning, 34 Letter Case, 32
,

Strap Buckle, 18 Crease, 22 Cutting Appliance. 29, 30 and Making, 17—30 Edges, Glossing, 22
,

Leg, 20

,

Marking,
Parcel, 22

18
in, 18

Piping Leather for Knapsacks
107

,

Pocket for Gladstone Bae, 76 Flap for Gladstone Bag, 76 Pockets in Writing Pad, 36—37

,
,

Punching Hole
Satchel. 109 Skate. 20. 21 Wrist, 26

,

,

98 Folding. 12 Tawed Leathers. 90 Hollow. 15 Wood Block for making Collar Gladstone. 89 Half-Gladstone. 11 11. 112 Studding Tennis Bag. Tools. 87 Studs. Brass. 12 Tennis Bag. Dog Lead. 24 . Printed by Cassell & Company. 22 Suit Case. Wrist Strap. 86 . Leather. Tracer. 26 Writing Pad. 146 Bit. 17 75 Lining.i6o Lea ther Working. 90 Railway. 36 Pockets. . 85 Studding. 152 Lock. 84—89 Frame. 9 for Making Garters. 26 with Handle. . La Belle Sauvage. . 152—156 Handle. 87 Racket Case. Willow Calf. 46 Covering. Box. 83 . 15 White Sheep Leather. Turn-clip. 35—39 . in Dog Lead. 155 Leather. Cycle. 48 Welting. 156 Swivels. Tan Calf. E. Limited. . Trunk Division Board. 145 Varnish for Leather. 89 Workbox. 102 Fixing. . 77 . 90 .G. 24 Tab for Gladstone Bag. Handle. 88 Valise. 36 Gladstone Bags. 93 Imperial.

FUEL AND STEAM. TABLES AND QUESTIONS ON POWER. ALARMS. AND AN EXPLANATION OF DYNAMOS. ITS GENERATION.ENGINEER'S HANDY-BOOK CONTAINING FACTS. ." "Roper's Hand-Book of the Locomotive." " Roper's Hand-Book of Modern Steam-Fire Engines. REVISED AND GREATLY ENLARGED BY EDWIN R. ANNUNCIATORS." etc. MOTORS. FIFTEENTH EDITION. HEAT. AND CLAYTON W.. THE STEAM-BOILER AND ACCESSORIES. M. PIKE. S. TRANSMISSION AND MEASUREMENT." "Use and Abuse of the Steam-Boiler. MATERIALS. Etc. Ex-President of the Electrical Section of the Franklin Institute... TOGETHER WITH A DISCUSSION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL EXPEEIMENTS IN ELECTRICITY. B." "Roper's Hand-Book of Land and Marine Engines. DAVID McKAY. BATTERIES. BELLS. 1022 PHILADELPHIA Market Street." "Questions and Answers for Engineers. TELI PHONES. AND ALSO RULES FOR CALCULATING SIZES OF WIRES. STEAM-ENGINES AND THEIR PARTS THE STEAM-ENGINE INDICATOR. KELLER. BY STEPHEN ROPER. E. AUTHOR OF Engineer. GAS AND GASOLINE ENGINES. THEIR PROPERTIES AND STRENGTH: ." "Young Engineer's Own Book. FORMULA. SWITCHBOARDS. " Roper's Catechism of High-Pressure or Non-Condensing Steam-Engines.

Roper's Instructions and Suggestions for Engineers 2. 2.00 • and Firemen. Pa. Philadelphia. J022 Market Street. Publisher.50 Young Engineers' Own Book.. Steam Engineers and PRICE. 3..DEC 7 1904 ROPERS Practical Hand -Books For Engineers and Firemen. Roper's Hand-Book of the Locomotive. NEW REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION.50 Roper's Care and Management Steam Boiler. $3.00 Roper's Questions and Answers for Steam Engineers and Electricians.50 DAVID MCKAY. 2. 2.00 Roper's Use and Abuse of the Steam Boiler. HANDY-BOOK FOR STEAM ENGINEERS AND Ropers Catechism ians.. .50 2. of the 3.00 2.50. for ELECTRICIANS. Electric- PRICE. Roper's Hand-Book of Modern Steam Fire Engines. Roper's . $2.00 Roper's Hand-Book of Land and Marine Engines.

Edited HASLUCK. . Index. Geometrical Construction Plane Figures. Projection. Practical Gasfitting. With 226 Illustrations. Examples of Practical Pattern Drawing. Colouring Drawings. DAVID McKAY. Other New Volumes in Preparation. Contents. Contents How Coal Gas is Made. — Practical Graining and Marbling. and Mechanical Aids. Graining Grounds and Graining Colors.00 each. Marbling: Introduction. Walnut Graining. Staircase with Winders at Top and Bottom. Gas Supply from Gas Holder to Meter. Tinning. Drawing Boards. — Draughtsmen's Work. Contents. Contents. Cloth. Staircase with Winders at Bottom. Re-tinning and Galvanising. With 79 illustrations. Gas Fittings in Workshops and Theatres. Gas Fires and Cooking Stoves. Paper and Mounting. Back Lining Drawings. Gas Burners. Drawing Straight Lines. Winding Staircases. Imitating Inlaid Woods. New Series of Practical Volumes. Draughtsmen's Instruments. crown the Text. Important N. Tools. Staircase over an Oblique Plan. Ready Shortly : Practical Plumbing Work. Geometrical Construction and Development of Solid Figures. Scale Drawings and Maps. Laying the Gas Pipe in the House. Geometrical Staircases. Soldering and Brazing. Index. Drawing Circular Lines. 8vo. Introduction Explanation of Terms. Index. Practical Contents. Practical Metal Plate Work. — With 120 Illustrations. Examples of Practical Metal Plate Work. Index. 60 pages. Elliptical Curves. Planning. Materials used in Metal Plate Work. and Setting Out. Simple Form of Staircase String Stair Measuring. Graining: Introduction. Staircase with Half-space of Winders. Furniture Graining Imitating Woods by Staining. Incandescent Lights. Fancy Wood Graining. Philadelphia. With numerous Illustrations in 1 by PAUL Each book contains about $1. 1022 Market Street. Two-flight Staircase. Tools and Appliances used in Metal Plate Work. Practical Staircase Joinery. Gas Meters. and Materials. Ships' Staircases. 215 illustrations. postpaid. Oak Graining in Spirit and Water Colours. Making a Drawing. Coal Gas from the Retort to the Gas Holder. Tools.TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION. Open String Staircase with Bull nose Step. Oak Graining in Oil. Maple Graining Mahogany and Pitch-pine Graining. Index. Pollard Oak and Knotted Oak Graining. Gas Fittings for Festival Illuminations. Staircase with Open or Cut Strings. Publisher. Cut String Staircase with Brackets. With — Housed — : : of With 247 Illustrations. Imitating Varieties — of Marble.