yk*Hvufopf bk&m;apwDtxGwfrsm;

&ef0if; (awmifwHcg;)
24 rwfv 2009

yk*Hbk&m;awG&JŒ xdyfqHk;rSm rlvu bm¶SdcJhovJ? xD;vm; txGwfvm;/
txufapwDu b,fvdkyHkpHrsm; ¶êdcJhrvJvdk@ odcsifwJhol awmfawmfyJ rsm;vdrfhr,f?

uGef;awmif&JŒ

'Dae@ yk*Hudkbk&m;zl;yJ jzpfjzpf/ avhvma&;yJ jzpfjzpf/ a&muf=ur,fqdk&if yxrOD;qHk;owdjyKrd=urSmu
yk*Hbk&m;trsm;pkudk jyKjyifxm;+yD;+yD qdkwmygyJ? t&ifwkef;u a&mufzl;+yD;om;qdk&if ydk+yD;
owdxm;rd=uayvdrfhr,f?

1955 ckESpfu yk*H±SKcif;
yk*Hudka&mufwdkif; a&mufwdkif; a&S;a[mif;yk*HacwfxJ jyefa&mufoGm;ovdkvdk aEG;axG; vGrf;qGwf&wJh
cHpm;csufrsdK;udk yk*HcspfjrwfEdk;olwdkif; cHpm;=uzl;ayr,f? t&ifESpfu yk*Hudk wacgufxyfa&mufawmh
*lbk&m;awG tm;vHk;vdkvdkyJ txufqHk;rSm yHkpHqifwlwJh apwD ao;ao; ¶Snf¶SnfawG jznfhwnfxm;wmudk
awG@&ygw,f? wcsdKŒapwDawGudkvJ txGwfawG jznfhxm;w,f? tjrifqef;whJ ykHpHopfawG jzpfaevkd@
t&ifwkef;u pJGrufcJh&wJh a&S;a[mif;yk*H&_cif;eJ@ uGmjcm;aew,fvdk@ cHpm;rdw,f? t&ifwkef;u &if;ESD;aewJh
bk&m;apwDawGudkvJ rrSwfrdawmhyg? 'Dwcg vGrf;&yHku wrsdK;jzpfaew,f? &ifxJuyk*Hudk wcg
xyfvGrf;&jyefw,f? wjcm; a&S;a[mif; tvkyftaqmifawGeJ@ eH&Haq;a&;yef;csDawG usefao;w,fvdk@
ajz&w,f?
'Dae@yk*HrSm bk&m;apwDawGeJ@ a&S;a[mif; taqmuftOD;aygif; ESpfaxmifausmf usef¶Sdaeao;ayrJh
vHk;0xyfwlxyfrSs wlwJh taqmuftOD;eJ@ bk&m;awG r¶Sdyg? ESpfawG=umvmawmh ta=umif; trsdK;rsdK;a=umifh
uGef;awmifayguf/ r[maAm"dyHkpH uGef;awmifayguf/ xlygayguf/ apwDayguf *lbk&m;awG&JΠtxufydkif;
txGwfawG ysufpD;ukefw,f? tjrifhqHk;tykdif;taeeJ@ uGef;awmiftxdyJ usefwm rsm;w,f?
aESmif;acwfawGrSm yk*Hbk&m;awGudkjyKjyif=u&if;eJ@ rlvvuf&mawG ysufpD;ukefwmvJ renf;yg?
rjyKjyifcifu rlvvuf&m b,favmufusef+yD; b,fvdkyHpk HrsdK;¶SdcJhrvJqdkwm/ 'Dae@rSm b,folrS wyftyf
rajymEdkif=uawmhyg? 'Dawmh teD;pyfqHk; trSef&¶SdEdkifzdk@ okawoe jyK=u&ygr,f? t&ifwkef;uvJ
'DvdkvkyfcJh=uwma=umifh tckvJ 'DvdkyJ vkyfr,f qdkwmrsKd;/ aumif;atmifjyifwmyJ zsufwmrS r[kwfwmvdk@
pdwfxJrSm¶Sdae&if/ a¶S;a[mif; taqmuftOD;awG jyifwJh yk*~dKvfrsm; =uyf=uyf pOf;pm;oifh=uygw,f?
aemifjyif&efcufwJhtrsdK;vdk@ pmqdk&SdwJhtwdkif; rjyKjyifcifuwnf;u avhvm=uzdk@/ wdkifyif=uzdk@/ ynm¶SifawG&JŒ
tjrifawGeJ@ nSdE_dif;=uzdk@vdkygvdrfhr,f?

'DuaeŒ yk*H±SKcif;
r=umao;cifurS w+ydKifeufxnf;vdkyJ topf xyfxnfhwmawGuawmh qdkcJhwJh xdyfydkif;u
apwDti,fawGygyJ? t&ifwkef;uwnf;u vkyfEdkif&JŒom;eJ@ rvkyfcJhwmuawmh/ tpdwftydkif;awGudk
ajymif;vJjyifqif (alteration) / jzKwfypf (obliteration)/yHkpHrwlwJh topfawG xyfjznfhxnfh (addition)
pwmawG
rvkyfbl;qdkwJh/
wcsdefu
a&S;a[mif;ausmufpmXme/
a&S;a[mif;okawoeXmeudk
OD;pD;tkyfcsKyfolawGeJ@ orkdif;okawoD ynm&SifawG&JΠtifrwefrS av;pm;p&m cH,lcsufeJ@ &nf&G,fcsufa=umifh
jzpfayr,f?
vHk;vHk; +yKdusoGm;vdk@yJ jzpfjzpf/ w0ufwysuf taumif; usefaeao;wmudk +zdKcs+yD; topf
xyfwnfwmyJ jzpfjzpf/ tcktcsdefrSm jrifawG@ae=u&wJh yk*Hbk&m;awG&JΠtxGwfapwDawG/ txl;ojzifh
uGef;awmifayguf*lbk&m;awGrSm &SdcJhzl;wJh rlv yHkpHawGeJ@ tawmfyJ jcm;em;vdrfhr,f vdk@ xifygw,f?
uGef;awmifayguf *lbk&m;awG&JŒ uGef;awmifxdyfydkif;rSm pGefukyfawG ygavh&Sdw,f? tJ'D pGefukyfawG&JŒ
tay:rSm enf;enf;odrfoGm;wJh tydkif;&Sd+yD; txufrmS apwD/ xdyfqHk;rSm txGwf wyfygw,f? jrif;uyg
*lajymuf}uD;/ xD;vdkrif;vdk/ plVmr%d/ w&kwfajy; pwJh *lbk&m;}uD;awGrSm uGef;awmif txufapwD
+ydKusoGm;vdk@ rae@wae@utxd a&S;a[mif;yHkpHtwdkif; &SdaecJhao;w,f?

ousrked*lbk&m;/ acsmufzv (147§118)
'Dae@jrifawG@=u&wJh
yHkpHrjzpfao;cifu
anmifOD;
acsmufzvt&yf
ousrkedbk&m;/
a&$qHawmfapwD}uD; tem;u avmurkedajryHkom bk&m; ESpfqlrSm uGef;awmiftxufapwD&JΠrlvvuf&m
enf;enf; usefaeao;vdk@ rlv &SdcJhwJh yHkpHudk rSef;qEdkifayr,f? 'Dae@awG@jrif=u&wJ@ tmeENm/ oAŠnK
a*:awmfyv†if/ a&$*l}uD;bk&m;awGu txGwfapwDawGuawmh aESmif;acwfrSm topfwnfxm;awGjzpfr,f?
tif;0acwf ukef;abmifacwfeJ@ tr&yl&acwfawGrSm tjyiftqifrsm;cJhwma=umifh tJ'Dacwfvuf&mawGudk
yk*Hbk&m;awGrSm ae&mtESH@awG@Edkifw,f? b,facwfuvuf&mvdk@ ajymEdkifwJh taxmuftxm;awG &Sdygw,f?

ÿuf}uD;tif;*lajymuf}uD; *lbk&m;/ ÿuf}uD;tif; (298§197-u)
r[maAm"dyHkpH uGef;awmif aygufxm;wJh r[maAm"dbk&m;/ 0uf}uD;tif; *lajymuf}uD;bk&m;awGrSm
rlvtxGwfu Ak'<*,m r[maAm"d apwD}uD;&JΠtxGwfrsdK; jzpfEdkifw,f? usefppfom;rif;}uD;

vufxufuwnf;u Ak'<*,mudk ynm¶SifawG apv$wf+yD; omoedu taqmuftOD;awGudk
jyifqifapw,fvdk@ trSwftom;awG &Sdw,f? yk*HrSm awG@EdkifwJh r[maAm"dyHkpH uGef;awmifayguf bk&m;awGudk
txGwfapwD tygt0if Ak'<*,mu rl&if; apwD yHkpH twdkif; twk,l+yD; wnfxm;wm jzpfEkdifygw,f?

qy'ykxdk; (187§145)
anmifOD;jrdKŒt0ifu qy'apwDudk=unfh&if yk*aH 'orSm ae&m tESH@tjym; awG@EdkifwJh }uD;}uD;
i,fi,f oD[dkVfyHkpH xlygawG&JΠtxGwfawGudk rSef;qEdkifr,f? yk*Ha'o&JΠawmifbufqHk;avmufrSm &Sd+yD;
yk*Hacwfu pnfpem vdk@ ac:cJhyHk&wJh apwem}uD;ykxdk;u oD[dkVfyHkpH xlyg jzpfw,f?
xlygayguf *lbk&m;awG&JΠtxGwfapwDawGuawmh ykxdk;om;rsm;/ ty,f&wem yHkpHrsm;udk =unfhyg?
xdyfqHk;rSm rlvu bm¶SdcJhovJ qdkwmudk rSef;qzdk@ ykxdk;om;rsm;*lbk&m; eH&HrSm uyfxm;wJh
apwDyHkti,fawGudk =unfhEdkifw,f?
Al;vnfoD;bk&m;}uD;vJ rlvu xlygayguf apwD}uD; jzpfEdkifwJh taxmuftxm;awG &SdcJhzl;w,f?
eENrnm/ ukef;awmf}uD;bk&m; pwJh *lbk&m;awGrmS awmh uGef;awmifrygbJ apwD}uD;awG aygufxm;w,f?
jrif;jy*lbk&m;uawmh wqlwnf;om awG@EdkifwJhyHkpHyg? a¶$pnf;cHk/ r*FvmapwD/ "rR&mZdu/ a&$qHawmf pwJh
ajraygufapwD}uD;awG&J@ ykHpHrsdK; jzpfayr,fh atmufydkif;u *lbk&m;}uD;yg? rlvvuf&m apwD}uD;awGu
apwDtxGwfawGavmufyJ ysufpD;+yD; taumif;twdkif; usef¶Sdaeao;w,f? aESmif;acwfawGrSm wnf=uwJh
ajrpdkufapwDawG&JΠpHerlemawG jzpf=uw,f? 'gayrJh yk*Hacwfu apwD}uD;awGrSm txGwfyJ &SdcJh+yD;/ xD;eJ@
wjcm; xdyfydkif;u t*Fg&yfawG rygao;bl; qdkwJh taxmuftxm;awG &Sdygw,f?

uërf;awmifeJŒ txëwfapwDygwJh
ay:awmfrl =umzl;yHkbk&m;/ yk*H
rlvu uGef;awmifayguf*lbk&m;awGeJ@ xlygayguf*lbk&m;awG&JΠapwDtxGwf ykHpH twdtusudk
yk*HjywdkufrSm&SdwJh Xmyem=umzl;apwD ESpfqlrSm =unfhEdkifygw,f? plVmr%d*lbk&m;}uD;&JΠeH&Hwae&mrSm
"rR&mZdu apwD}uD;&JΠyHkawmfudk a&;qJG ylaZmfxm;wmudk awG@Ekdifw,f? a&;qGJolu tJ'DtcsdefrSm rysufrpD;
&Sdaeao;wJh "rR&mZdu rlvyHkawmfudk =unfh+yD; a&;qJGwm jzpfvdk@/ apwD}uD;&JŒyHkawmfudk txGwfygrusef
awG@Ekdifygw,f?
v$rf;bk&m;§ESpfxyfbk&m;awGudk avhvm&wma=umifh/ yk*Hbk&m;awG&JŒ txufqHk;rSm rlvu
bm¶SdcJhovJqdkwm odEdkifygw,f? v$rf;bk&m;§ESpfxyfbk&m; qdkwm rlvuwnf;u apwDwqludk t+yD;tpD;
tjynfhtpHk wnfygw,f? +yD;awmhrS rlvapwDudkiHk+yD; apwD wql xyftkyfvdk@ wnfygw,f? yk*HrSm v$rf;bk&m;
okH;qJhav;ql &Sdygw,f? tjyifu apwD ysufpD;oGm;wJhtcg/ twGif;rlvapwD ay:vmwmudk emrnfay;xm;wJh
pudk;yJay:awmfrl/ e*g;&kH ay:awmf rlapwDrsdK;awGyg? tjyifu apwDudk tukeftpif v$mcsxm;wm &Sdovdk/
wnfaqmufykH avhvmEdkif zdk@wcsdKŒw0ufyJ vSyfjyxm;wmawGvJ &Sdygw,f?

blrdz\rkj'm Ak'</
*E<ukÉd txufu uërf;axmif/ txëwfapwDeJŒ t&HapwDrsm;
ajryHk (tkwfcëuf) bk&m;/ yk*H
yk*Hbk&m; eH&Haq;a&;yef;csDawGrSm *lbk&m;eJ@apwDawG txGwfwyfyHkudk awG@Edkifygao;w,f?
eENrnmbk&m;rSm¶SdwJh eH&Haq;a&; yef;csDwckrSm apwDt*Fg&yfawG jywfjywfom;om; usef&Sdaeygao;w,f?
trsm;tjym; awG@Edkifao;wJh ajryHkbk&m; tkwfcGub
f k&m;awGrSmvJ txGwfeJ@apwDt*Fg&yfawG tjynfhtpHk
awG@Edkifygw,f?

txGwftopfawë rjznfhcifu ewfavSmifausmif; (1600§908) eJŒ iuíJem;awmif; (1603§911)
yk*HrSm wckxJ&SdwJh [dENLewfausmif;jzpfwJh ewfavSmifausmif; txGwfuvJ tck topf
xyfjznfhxm;ovdk rlvwkef;u tJ'DykHrsdK; &SdcJhygrvm;vdk@ pOf;pm;rdp&mygyJ? yk*HacwfOD;ydkif; vuf&m
jrif;uygapwD/ bl;bk&m;/ avmueENm wdk@eJ@ acwfjydKif r[kwfbJ a¶S;ydkusEdkifw,fvdk@ ,Hk=unf&+yD;
oa&acwW&mu ysLacwfvuf&m abmabm}uD;bk&m; yHkpHrsdK;vdkyJ/ yHkpH awmfawmf&kd;pif;ao;wJh
bk&m;wqluawmh iuíJem;awmif; jzpfygw,f? 'Dae@rSmawmh iuíJem;awmif; apwDudk txGwfapwDyg t+yD;
xnfhvdk@ wnfvdkufyg+yD?

'DuaeŒ ewfavSmifausmif; eJŒ iuíJem;awmif;
xl;jcm;csuft*Fg&yfjzpfwJh/ pOfhtpdrf;a&mifokwf tkwfcsyfawG pDxm;wmudk az:xm;ao;wmu vGJ&if
apwDtopfeJ@rjcm;yg? rlvtxGwfapwDu tckxyfxnfhxm;wJhykHpHrsdK; &SdcJhvdrfhr,fvdk@ twyfajymp&m
taxmuftxm;r&Edkifyg?
yk*Hw0kdufrSm
t&ifuwnf;u
tJ'DyHkpHrsdK;
wqlxJom&Sdawmh
avhvmcsifwJholawGtwGuf tjrifqef;wJh yHkpHtopfudkom awG@Edkif=uawmhwmygyJ?
xkxnf tifrwef}uD;wJh "rR&H}uD;bk&m;uawmh ESpfawG=um&SnfcJhwJh wdkifatmif txufapwDeJ@
txGwfyJ ysufpD;ygw,f? Paul Strachan a&;wJh Pagan˜ Art and Architecture of old Burma
pmtkyfrSm 1855 ckESpfwkef;u Colesworthy Grant qJGxm;wJh "rR&H}uD;bk&m;&JΠyHkwckudk xifxif&Sm;&Sm;
awG@&w,f? tJ'DyHkrSm awG@&wmu wpdwfwydkif; usefao;wJh uGef;awmiftxufu txGwfyg?
xl;jcm;wmuawmh/ tJ'DyHkrSm uGef;awmiftxufu txGwfapwD rygbJ txGwfi,fi,f wckom
awG@&w,f? aemufydkif;acwfrSmrS &dkufxm;wJh "mwfyHkawGrSmawmh rawG@Edkifawmhyg? +ydKusoGm;cJhyg+yD?

ukvm;usrif; ac: e&ol aumif;r_ "rR&H}uD;*lbk&m; (771§365)
vëefcJŒwJŒ tESpf 50 wkef;ujrifuëif;
bk&m;wnfaewkef;rSm tuGyft!Syf jyif;xefwma=umifh aphpyfaocsmvGefvGef;vdk@ r+yD;Edkifbl;vdk@
zwfzl;ygw,f? aumif;r_&Sif e&olrif; eef;uswJhtcsdefrSm t+yD;rowfEdkifawmhbJ/ qufrvkyfjzpfwma=umifh
xkxnfeJ@rvdkufzufatmif ao;i,fwJh txGwfom &SdcJhwmvJ jzpfEdkifw,f? 'Dae@ jrif=u&wJh twdkif;ygyJ?
xkxnf }uD;rm;+yD; jrifhrm;wma=umifhyJvm;/ 'grSr[kwf &mZ0ifrSm emrnf rajymifajrmufwJhtjyif zcif
tavmif;pnfolrif;}uD; eJ@ tudk rif;&Sifapm udk owfcJhvdk@ xD;eef;&cJh+yD;rS ‘ukvm;usrif;’vdk@ emrnf
wGifcJhjyefwhJ e&olrif;&JΠaumif;r_udk rjyifqifcsifwJh qENa=umifhvm;/ bma=umifhvJrod/ jyKjyifr,fh ukodkvf&Sif
r&Sdao;bJ tckacwfrSm vkyfavhvkyfx &SdwJh uGef;awmif&JΠtxufqHk;rSm yHkpH qifwl apwD ao;ao;
¶Snf¶SnfrsdK; xyfxnfhwm rawG@&yg? xl;xl;jcm;jcm; uHaumif; axmufrvdk@ a&S;a[mif; vuf&m twdkif;
usefaew,f? *lbk&m;}uD;awGxJrSm 'D"rR&H}uD;bk&m; wqlyJ uif;vGwfcGifh &aeygao;w,f?
bk&m;apwDa[mif;awGudk jyifwdkif; aumif;w,fvdk@ rqdkcsifyg? jyifvdkufawmhrS a&S;vuf&m ysufoGm;&if
tpm;xdk;vdk@&wmrsdK; r[kwfawmh tifrwef ESarsmp&m aumif;ayw,f? yk*Hbk&m;awGrSm awG@avh&SdwJh
usdefpmawGrSm rlvukodkvf&SifawGu olwdk@&JΠaumif;r_awGudk jyKjyifolawGtwGuf qdk&if ukodkvf
xyfwlxyfrSs &ygapqdk+yD; qkawmif;ay;xm;ao;wmyJvdk@ apm'u wufEdkifygw,f? trsm; ,Hk=unf=uwJh
bk&m;a[mif;awGudk jyKjyif&if &Edkifw,fqdkwJh ukodkvfta=umif;udk 'Dae&mrSm xnfhoGif;+yD; raqG;aEG;yg?
trsm;pku ta[mif;udk z,f+yD; topfeJ@vJwm[m bk&m; =unfndK oy`m,fp&m ydkjzpfw,fvdk@
,Hk=unf+yD;/ omoem t"Gef@¶Snfzdk@ jyKvkyfwJh udpPyJvdk@ rSwf,l=uayr,f? a¶S;vuf&mawG b,favmuf
ysufoGm;+yDvJqdkwm owdrxm;awmhbJ/ acwftqufquf jyKjyifaygif; rsm;cJhvdk@ ysufaygif; rsm;cJhvS+yD?
tjrifqef;wJh yHkpHopfawGjzpfaevdk@ yk*Hacwfvuf&mawGyg qdk+yD; *k%f,lEdkifyghrvm; awG;rdw,f?
vlxka':trm&JŒ tESpf *0 jynfh arG;ae@ txdrf;trSwftjzpf xkwfa0wJh ‘yk*HvufopfESifh
tjcm;pmwrf;rsm;’ pmtkyfrSm q&m}uD; a'gufwmoef;xGef;u yk*Hvufopf pmwrf;udk a&;w,f? yk*Hu

a&S;a[mif;vuf&mawGudk acwftqufqufu zsufqD;cJholrsm;eJ@ ysufpD;&wmawG twGuf wm0ef¶SdwJholrsm;
pm&if;udk jyKpkwifjyygw,f? xl;jcm;wm awG@&wmuawmh tJ'Dpm&if;xJrSm ordkif;aumfr¶Sif&JŒ emrnfyg
ygaewmyg? ordkif;aumfr¶Sif &JŒ t}uHay; !$ef=um;csuft& bk&m;awGudk jyKjyifumrS ydk+yD;
ysufpD;oGm;wmrsdK;awG &Sdw,fvdk@ qdkcsifyHk &ygw,f?
tJ'Dpmwrf;rSm q&m}uD; a'gufwmoef;xGef;u 'Dvdk a&;+yD; axmufjyxm;ygw,f?
“raysmufqHk;atmifxdef; conservation wm&,f/ quf+yD;r+ydKysufatmifumuG,f preservation wm&,f/
rl&if;yHkpHrysufjyefwnfaqmuf restoration wm&,f/ a¶S;yk*HtwGuf 'DoHk;ckudk jzpfatmif aqmif¶Guf=uzdk@yJ
¶Sdygw,f?”
us,fjyef@wJhtjrifeJ@ =unfhr,fqdk&if/ a¶S;a[mif;ypPnf;qdkwm wefzdk; rjzwfEdkifwJh bdk;bGm;
tpOftquf&JŒ tarGtESpfyg? tck vuf&Sd wnf&SdqJ wdkif;jynf wjynfxJeJ@om oufqdkif¶Hk rubJ/
vlom;wdk@tjzpfeJ@ vlom;wdk@&JΠ,Ofaus;r_ordkif;eJ@yg oufqdkifw,f vdk@ qdkEdkifygw,f? igwdk@ wdkif;jynfxJrSm
&SdwmyJ igwdk@ydkifw,f/ igwdk@ jyifcsifovdk jyifr,f/ zsufcsifovdk zsufr,f qdk&ifawmh/ r=umao;cifurS
wur mvHk; 0dkif;+yD; awmif;yef=u/ wm;jrpfae=uwJh =um;xJu AHk;cGJ zsufqD;cHvdkuf&wJh tmz*efepPwefu
Ak'< qif;wkawmf}uD;awG&JΠtjzpfrsdK;udk owd&=uapcsifygw,f?
bdk;bGm;tarGtESpfudk cspfjrwfEkd;wwf=uygap?

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