(a&SŒrsufESmzHk;

)
a=umuf±GHŒjcif;rS vGwfuif;a&;
atmifqef;pk=unf
(a&SŒrsufESmzHk;twGif; pmrsufESm)
“ppfom;r[kwfayr,fh EdkifiHtwGuf trsKd;rsKd;tepfemcH/ trsKd;rsKd;pGef‹pm;vkyf=uwJh vlawGvnf; &SdwmyJ?
tJh'ga=umifh ppfom;rS ppfom;qdkwJh pdwf"mwfudk ajymif;=u&r,f? igwdk‹[m vufeufudkifawG
jzpf=uaomfvnf; rw&m;rvkyf/ EdkifiH&JΠ&efolawGr[kwf/ EkdifiH&JΠrdwfaqGawGjzpfw,fqdkwmudk
oabmayguf&r,f?” (atmifqef;)
“atmifqef;pk=unfonf trSefw&m;udk ajymqdkaeI‚if;/ jrefrmESifh urBmh tajccHt,ltrsm;udk
a&mifjyef[yfaeI‚if;/ olrtm; E_wfqdwfatmif rðyvkyfEdkifyg?” (Am;pvAf[mAJvf)
“atmifqef;pk=unfonf trsKd;om;,Ofaus;r_tarGtESpf. taumif;qHk; t*FgvuQ%mrsm;[k olru
,lqxm;onfrsm;udk *±kðyvmap&ef óud;pm;I olrudk,fwkdifvnf; ,if;t*FgvuQ%m&yfrsm;ESifh xyfwlxyfr#
jzpfap&ef óud;yrf;tm;xkwfonf?” (EdkbJvfaumfrwDOuUX/ 1991)
(tzGifhpmrsufESm)

a=umuf±GHŒjcif;rS vGwfuif;a&;
(tzGifhpmrsufESm)
atmifqef;pk=unf
a=umuf±GHŒjcif;rS vGwfuif;a&;
ESifh
tjcm;pmwrf;rsm;
a'gufwmatmifcif wnf;jzwfonf?
La Haule Books

(xkwfa0olrsm;. pmrsufESm)
ra=umufr±GHŒESifh
vGwfvyfrSefuefpGm
a&;om;ajymqdkydkifcGifh&aprnfh
EdkifiHa&;pepfukd
awmifhwaeol
jrefrmwdkif;&if;om;taygif;tm;
&nf!$ef;ygonf?
This collection copyright © Aung San Suu Kyi, 1993
The moral right of the author has been asserted.
ISBN 0 86120 049 7

This first edition of
Freedom from Fear and Other Writings
in the Burmese language
first published in 1993 by
La Haule Books
West Lodge
La Haule
Jersey
Channel Islands
United Kingdom
The Buddhist symbol on the title and spine
is the abhayamudra, the "gesture of fearlessness"

Printed in England by Biddles Ltd., Guildford

(rmwdum)
rmwdum
pma&;ol. trSm
1
pwnf;. trSm
2
Am;pvAf[mAJvf. pum;OD;
5
a':oef;at;a&;om;aom ‘pk’ESifh rdwfqufjcif;
aemfa0;EkdifiH EdkbJvfaumfrwDOuUX rdef‹cGef;

7
43

tydkif; - u
1984 ckESpf – 1993 ckESpftwGif; a&;om;aom
pmwrf;rsm;ESifh taxGaxGrdef‹cGef;rsm;
1?
2?
3?
4?
5?
6?
7?
8?
9?
10?
11?
12?
13?

atmifqef;
54
'Drdkua&pD&SmyHkawmf
97
a=umuf±GHŒjcif;rS vGwfuif;a&;
113
‘Adkvf’. t"dy`m,ftppftrSef
120
&nfrSef;csufrsm;
127
awmfvSefa&;. tv,fA[dkwGif 132
ukvor*~ vl‹tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifodk‹ tdwfzGifhay;pm
jynfolvlxku vGwfvyfa&;udk vdkcsifonf
141
EdkbJvfqk&Sifudk,fpm;ajymaom rdef‹cGef;
145
EdkbJvfaumfrwDodk‹ ay;pm
151
vl‹tcGifhta&;Oya'tzJG‹rSay;aom qktwGufrdef‹cGef;
pydeftdkvHypfrdef‹cGef;
155
ppfrSefaomvHkòcH&modk‹
159

tydkif; - c

138

153

1988 ckESpf =o*kwfvrS 1989 ckESpf Zlvkdifvtxd
ajym=um;cJhaom rdef‹cGef;ESifh owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGrsm;
14?
15?
16?
17?
18?
19?
20?
21?
22?
23?
24?

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187
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'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;nDnGwfa&;
203
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212
wyfrawmf[m b,fol‹twGufvJ
219
e0wESifh &ifqkdifaqG;aEG;a&;
227
owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGtrSwf-6
235
jynfolvkdcsifwm atmifqef;vrf;pOf
253
rdef‹cGef;aumufEkwfcsufrsm;
266

172
182

pma&;ol. trSm
pma&;jcif;/ rdef‹cGef;ajymjcif;/ pum;ajymjcif; paom vkyf&yfrsm;. t"du&nf&G,fcsufwckum;
vltcsif;csif; em;vnfr_wdk;yGm;ap&ef jzpfonf[k usr ,lqygonf? jrefrmhvlr_a&;/ EdkifiHa&;ESifh
'Drdkua&pDta&;wdk‹udk urBmu ydkrdkI od&Sdem;vnfap&ef &nf&G,fI Tpmtkyfyg aqmif;yg;rsm;udk
a&;om;cJhjcif; jzpfygonf?
EdkifiHwEkdifiHudk
trSefwu,ftusKd;ðyEkdifrnfh
pD;yGm;a&;/
EkdifiHa&;/
vkyfief;pOfrsm;
taumiftxnfaz:Edkif&ef jynfoljynfom;taygif;wGif yGifhvif;jywfom;pGm oHk;oyfa0zefydkifcGifhESifh
todtjrif/ tawG;tac:rsm;udk vGwfvyfpGm aqG;aEG;zvS,fydkifcGifhrsm; &Sd&rnf[kvnf; usr ,Hk=unfygonf?
1988-89 ckESpfrsm;twGif; usrajym=um;cJhaom rdef‹cGef;rsm;ESifh owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGrsm;. OD;wnfcsufonf
'Drkdua&pDoabmw&m;rsm;ESifh 'Drkdua&pDpepfudk wnfaxmifvdkolwdk‹. tawG;tac:/ tjrifwdk‹udk
trsm;jynfol a0zefoHk;oyfEdkifiHa&;yif jzpfygonf?
aqmif;yg;rsm;/ rdef‹cGef;rsm;/ owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGrsm;udk pkaygif;I pmtkyfxkwfa0vdkufjcif;jzifh
jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;ESifh 'Drkdua&pDa&;rsm;udk em;vnfoHk;oyfvdkolrsm;twGuf taxmuftuljzpfEkdifrnf[k
ar#mfvifhygonf?
Tpmtkyfudk xkwfa0Ekdif&ef tm;ay;ulnDcJholwdk‹tm; aus;Zl;wifvsuf&Sdygonf? rsm;jym;vSaom
tvkyfwm0efrsm;=um;rS apwemjynfh0pGmjzifh t"dubmomjyefoltjzpf‚if;/ pmwnf;jzwfoltjzpf‚if;
aqmif&GufcJhonfh a'gufwmatmifcif(vef'ef) udk txl;aus;Zl;wif&Sda=umif; azmfjytyfygonf?
atmifqef;pk=unf
pmwnf;. trSm
(1)
vGefcJhaom &SpfESpfcef‹ 1985 ckESpfu jzpfonf? ESif;xlxyfpGmusaeonfh xdkESpf aqmif;&moDwae‹wGif
a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh yxrqHk;t}udrf usaemf awG‹qHkcJh&onf? xkdpOfu t*FvefwGif &efukefwuUodkvfrS

vkyfazmfudkifzufa[mif; orkdif;q&m-q&mrrsm; a&muf&Sdaecdkufjzpfojzifh atmufpzdk‹'fwuUodkvfwGif wae‹
pka0;=uonf?
xdkae‹Yyif a':atmifqef;pk=unfwdk‹ ZeD;armifESHu olwdk‹tdrfwGif vBuf&nfyJG jyifqifxm;ojzifh
usaemfwdk‹ orkdif;tkyfpk oGm;=uonf? usaemfESifh usaemfhZeD;tygt0if tm;vHk; {nhfonf &Spfa,muf &Sd.?
a':pkudk,fwkdif vkyfxm;aom udwfrek f‹rsm; pm;aomufI waysmfwyg; &SdvSonf? usaemfonf a':pk.cifyGef;
a'gufwmrdkufu,ftJ&pfESifhom
pum;ajym&onfursm;+yD;
a':pkrSmrl
trsKd;orD;0kdif;wGif
vufrvnfEdkifatmif {nfhcH&if; pum;vufqHk usaeonfu rsm;.?
a':pkwdk‹tdrfrSm tawmfav;us,f0ef;onf[k qdkEkdifaomfvnf; ukvm;xdkifrsm;/ pm;yJGrsm;ESifh
pmtkyfpifrsm;uvJGI usaemf bmr# rawG‹rd? vifr,m;ESpfa,mufpvHk; ±dk;±dk;ukyfukyfESifh pmayvdkufpm;olrsm;
jzpfonf[lIom usaemfhpdwfxJY rSwfcsufcsrdonf?
(2)
xdkae‹ awG‹qHk+yD;aemufydkif; usaemfESifh a':pkwdk‹ZeD;armifESH vHk;0 tquftoG,f r&Sdoavmuf
jzpfoGm;onf? 1988 ckESpfa&mufrS jrefrmjynf 'Drkdua&pDta&;awmfyHkwGif a':pk aZmufcsI
vkyfudkifaeonfrsm;udk owif;pmrsm;wGif zwf&onf? vlóuHrsm;ESifh ygvmaom AGD'D,dktacGrsm;wGifvnf;
a':pkudk awG‹&onf?
usaemfonf
rqvacwfudk
pufqkyf±GH&Sm+yD;
rqv'%fudkvnf;
rcHEkdifonfhtqHk;
EkdifiHjcm;xGufvmcJholjzpfonf? a':pkrSmrl vGwfvyfae&mrS trdEkdifiHodk‹jyef&if; rdrd. ,Hk=unfcsuftwdkif;
'Drkdua&pDxGef;um;a&;twGuf wkdufyJG0if ±kef;uefaeoljzpfonf?
a':pkudk ±kd;om;ajzmifhrwf odrfarG‹aom tdrf&SifrwOD;tjzpfom od&Sdxm;cJhojzifh a&&SnfwkdufyJGwGif
cHEkdif&nf&Sdyghrvm;[k tpwGif usaemf oHo,jzpfrdonf? odk‹aomf a':pk OD;aqmifonfh 'Drkdua&pDwdkufyJG
tcsdef=umvmonfESifhtr# xdkoHo,pdwfwdk‹ vGifhpifuG,faysmufukefawmhonf?
(3)
a':pk t*Fvdyfbmomjzifha&;om;I cifyGef;onf a'gufwmrdkufu,ftJ&pf wnf;jzwfxkwfa0aom
"Freedom From Fear" pmtkyfudk 1991 ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif zwfvdkuf&onf? xdkpmtkyfudk
jrefrmbmom jyefqkdxkwfa0oifhonf[k usaemf awG;rdonf? xdkpmtkyfudk wu,fwrf; jrefrmjyef&mwGif
usaemf t"dutcef;rS yg0ifvm&rnf[k xdkpOfu rxifrSwfcJhyg? usaemf aemufqHk; jrefrmjyefqdk
a&;om;xkwfa0cJhonfh tawG‹tóuHrSm 1971 ckESpfu jzpfonf? ESpfaygif; 20 ausmfcef‹
jrefrmjyefxkwfa0onfh tavhtx jywfvyfaecJhojzifh tpwGif a':pkpmtkyfudk jrefrmjyef&ef r0Hhr&J
jzpfrdaomfvnf; jrefrmwkdif;&if;om;wkdif; zwf±_oifhonfhpmtkyf[k ,Hk=unfonfhtwGuf twwfEdkifqHk;
tm;xkwfjyefqdkcJh&onf?
txl;ojzifh
jrefrmpmzwfy&dowftwGuf
&nfpl;xm;onfhtavsmuf
t*FvdyfpmtkyfESifhrwlbJ wrlxl;jcm;aerSm trSefjzpfonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk
jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;zcif[k
vlwkdif;vdkvdk
i,fpOfuwnf;u
od&Sdxm;cJh=uaomfvnf;
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tawG;tac:t,ltqrsm;udk
av;av;eufeuf
em;vnfoabmaygufrdol tvGefenf;yg;vdrfhrnfxifonf? xdkvlenf;pkxJwGif a':pk txif&Sm;qHk;jzpfrnfrSm
ajym&efrvdk[k ,Hk=unfonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. tawG;tac:t,ltqrsm;ay:wGif tajccHI rdrdudk,fydkif
,Hk=unfcsufrsm;udk wnfaqmufxm;aom a':pk. tawG;tac:udk jrefrmwkdif;&if;om;wkdif; od&Sdem;vnf
oabmayguf&ef vdktyfonf?
jrefrmEkdifiHwGif 1962 ckESpfrS 1988 ckESpftxd jynfolvlxk ,Hk=unftm;xm;avmufonfh
EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsKd; ay:ayguf&ef tcGifhtvrf; r&SdcJhyg? 1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHk

ay:aygufvmonfhtcgwGifrS
udk,fusKd;pGef‹I
wkdif;jynftwGuf
tepfemcHvkyf=urnfh
i,f&G,faomacgif;aqmifrsm; ay:aygufvmjcif;jzpfonf? xdktxJwGif a':pkonf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;.
EkdifiHa&;tarGudk qufcHrnfholtjzpf‚if;/ +idrf;csrf;aomenf;jzifh wkdif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;udk
&,lEkdifrnfholtjzpf‚if;/ wyfrawmfom;wdk‹u ±dkaoav;pm;&oltjzpf‚if;/ trsm;jynfol. ,Hk=unfudk;pm;r_
&,lxm;oltjzpf‚if;/ trsKd;om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;udk vkyfaqmifEkdifrnfholtjzpf‚if; ay:xGufvmygonf?
(4)
uG,fvGefol orkdif;ynm&Sif Adkvfrª;b&Sif a&;om;I 1950 ckESpfu yxrqHk;t}udrf
yHkESdyfxkwfa0cJhonfh “jrefrmEdkifiHawmforkdif;” pmtkyfwGif jrefrmha&S;a[mif;orkdif;ynm&Sif}uD; ygarmuQ *sD/
tdyfcsf/ vkpf u “Armr[kwfaom EkdifiHom;rsm;tay: uG,fvGefol atmifqef; xm;&Sdaom
oabmxm;rsm;udk usaemf rsm;pGmav;pm;rdyg.? jrefrmEdkifiH pnf;vHk;a&;udk "m;jzifhr[kwfbJ
EdkifiHhacgif;aqmifyDopGm av;av;eufeuf t"dy`m,f&Sd&Sd óud;yrf;&mwGif ‘usefppfom;’ vGefonfrSpI
atmifqef;onf yxrqHk;aom Armjzpfonf[k usaemf ,lqygonf”[k ‚if;. trSmpmwGif
rSwfwrf;wifxm;onf?
a':pkonf zcifvkyfol. ajc&mtwkdif; vkdufEkdifrnf[k usaemf ,Hk=unf.? odk‹aomf jrefrmEkdifiHY
'Drkdua&pDxGef;um;&ef a':pkwOD;wnf; tepfemcHóud;yrf;I &rnfr[kwf/ vlwkdif;u rdrdwkd‹.
udk,fusKd;oufoufudkom =unfhraebJ/ trsKd;om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDta&;wdk‹twGuf
wwfEkdifoI
wm0efodod
ulnDrSom
jrefrmEdkifiHwGif
'Drdkua&pDxGef;um;I
ppfrSefaom
wkdif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;udk &&SdEkdifrnfjzpfonf?
pmtkyfyg toHk;tE_ef;rsm;udk ae‹pOfoHk; jrefrmpum;ESifh teD;pyfqHk;jzpfap&ef &nf&G,fxm;ojzifh
Oyrm “u|efr-u|efawmf” [laom pmvHk;aygif;udk roHk;bJ “usr-usaemf” jzifh tpm;xdk; oHk;pJGxm;onf?
rl&if; jrefrmpum;wGif rdrdudk,frdrd “ig”[lI &nf!$ef;aomfvnf; tm%m&Sifbk&ifrsm;acwfwGif “u|ef”
[laom a0g[m& acwfpm;vmcJhI “ig” [laom rlvtoHk;tE_ef;rSm bk&m;pmrsm;wGifom usefaeawmhrnf
jzpfonf?
pmtkyfjzpfajrmufa&;twGuf tzufzufrS ulnD=uonfh vef'efòrd‹rS t&SifOwW&/ OD;pdefausmfv_difESifh
tjcm; jrefrmjyefqkdulnDolrsm;tm; txl;v_dufvSJpGm aus;Zl;wif&Sdygonf? jrefrmjyefqdk&mY wpHkw&m
c|wf,Gif;r_&Sdrnfqdkv#if usaemfhwGifom wm0ef&Sdygonf?
a'gufwmatmifcif
vef'ef
7-9-93
Am;pvAf [mAJvf. pum;OD;
Am;pvAf[mAJvf (Vaclav Havel) onf txl;±dkav;pm;jcif;cH&aom jyZmwfESifh pma&;q&mjzpf+yD; ,cktcgwGif
csuf (Czech) EkdifiH. orwjzpfonf? csmwm-77 [k xif&Sm;aom vl‹tcGifhta&;v_yf&Sm;r_udk 1977 ckESpfY
pwifwnfaxmif&mwGifvnf; yg0ifcJhonf? Tv_yf&Sm;r_a=umifh csufudkpvdkAm;uD;,m; (Czechoslovakia) wGif
'Drdkua&pDudk usifhoHk;vmEkdifjcif; jzpf.? wygwDtm%m&SifpepfatmufwGif ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm axmifcscH&jcif;/
aetdrfwGif tus,fcsKyfjzifh zrf;qD;cH&jcif; ponfh tawG‹tóuHrsm; &SdcJholjzpfojzifh Am;pvAf [mAJvfonf
atmifqef;pk=unftay:wGif txl; pmemaxmufxm;/ ±dkaoav;pm;ol jzpfonf? olrudk 1991 ckESpfY
EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qkay;&ef tqkdðyolrsm;xJwGif ‚if;yg0ifonf?

* * *
a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf
EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qkudk
&&SdcJh+yDjzpfonf?
vGwfvyfr_ESifh
vl‹*k%foduQmtwGuf tm%m&Sifpepftm; qef‹usifonfh olr. wkdufyJGudk ,cktcg tjynfjynfqkdif&mu
todtrSwfðyvdkufjcif;yifjzpfonf? olronf TqkESifh tvGefyif xdkufwefolwOD;jzpfonf? olronf
&Sif;vif;jywfom;cdkifrmpGm ajymqdkoljzpfonf? olrtm; E_wfqdwfoGm;ap&ef &nf±G,fI EkdifiHjcm;odk‹ t+rJwrf;
oGm;a&mufaexkdifyg&ef qJGaqmifurf;vSrf;vmonfudk olru vufrcHbJ jiif;y,fxm;ygonf? tus,fcsKyf
uscHae&onfhb0wGif opPmw&m;udk apmifhxdef;vsuf&Sdonf? tm%mrJholwdk‹. pGrf;tm;udk olru
tvGefxif&Sm;pGm Oyrmjyaeygonf? EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qktwGuf olrtm; tqdkðycJh&onfudk usaemf
av;eufpGm *k%f,lrdonfhtavsmuf olrtm; a&G;cs,fvdkufonfudk aumif;csD;=obmay;=uolrsm;wGif
usaemftygt0if jzpfonf?
jrefrmjynfY 'Drdkua&pDESifh vl‹tcGifhta&;&&Sd&ef OD;wnfaom wkdufyJGwGif b0udk ðryfESHxm;jcif;jzifh
a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf olr. wkdif;jynfY w&m;r#wr_&Sd&eftwGufomru rdrdwdk‹. yef;wkdifudk
rdrdwdk‹udk,fwkdif vGwfvyfpGm a&G;cs,fvdkol tm;vHk;twGufyg &J&ifhpGm ajymqkdaejcif;jzpfygonf?
urBmwcGifvHk;wGif vGwfvyfr_&&Sda&;twGuf óud;yrf;tm;xkwf&ef vdktyfaeor# umvywfvHk;
a':atmifqef;pk=unf.
xkwfazmfajymqdkcsufuJhodk‹aom
ajymqdkr_rsm;onf
tjcm;olrsm;udkyg
v_H‹aqmfodrf;oGif;vmvdrfhrnf jzpfygonf? vGwfvyfa&; awmifhwonfh [pfaºuG;oHonf Oa&mytv,fydkif;rS
xGufay:vmonfjzpfap/ ±k&Sm;rSjzpfap/ tmz&durSjzpfap/ odk‹r[kwf tm&SrSjzpfap woHwnf;xGufaeygonf?
‚if;rSm vlom;tm;vHk;udk vl‹*k%foduQmESifhtnD qufqHyg&efESifh vlom;tm;vHk;wGif ar#mfvifhcsuf&Sd&ef
vdktyfonf[laom [pfaºuG;oHyifjzpfygonf? a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf trSefw&m;udk ajymqdkaeI‚if;/
olr. pum;rsm;onf jrefrmESifh urBmhtajccHt,ltqudk a&mifjyef[yfaeI‚if;/ olrtm; E_wfqdwfatmif
rðyvkyfEkdifyg? “vlom;. oaE<yg *k%foduQm/ vlom;ESifh cJGcGmIr&aom nDr#aom tcGifhta&;rsm;udk
todtrSwfðyonfh t,ltq/ vlwkdif;wGif trSm;trSef a0zefydkif;jcm;Ekdifaom todOm%fESifh
qifjcifwHkw&m;&Sdonfudk vufcHxm;aom t,ltq/ vlvlcsif; nDtudkarmifESrozG,f arwWmxm;&ef
t}uHðyaom t,ltq ponfh tawG;tac:t,ltqwdk‹onf rdrdwdk‹. wefzdk;xm;r_rsm;ESifh rnfuJhodk‹
qef‹usifbufjzpfEdkifrnfudk jrefrmEdkifiHol EkdifiHom;rsm;taeESifh em;rvnfEdkifatmif jzpf&ayonf”[k
a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk,fwkdif
a&;om;xm;ygonf?
&J&ifhowWd&Sdaom
TtrsKd;orD;tm;
EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk csD;jr‡ifhjcif;onf w&m;r#wr_udk óud;pm;&SmazGae=uol usaemfwdk‹tm;vHk;twGuf olru
ajymqdkaeonfudk &Sif;vif;pGm jyovdkufjcif;yif jzpfygonf?
a':oef;at;a&;om;aom ‘pk’ESifh rdwfqufjcif;
a':oef;at; ynmawmfoiftjzpf t*FvefEkdifiHY a&muf&SdaepOf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh awG‹qHkcJhonf? xdk‹aemuf
olronf a':cif=unf. rdwfaqGjzpfvm+yD; atmifqef;pk=unfESifh b0wavsmufvHk;wGif cspfcif&if;ESD;oljzpfonf?
a':oef;at;udk xdkacwfu tqdkawmf ‘bdvyfjyefoef;’ [k vlodrsm;cJh.? q&mrtjzpf‚if;/
wm0efxrf;aqmif+yD;aomtcgwGif urBmhukvor*~Y yxrqHk; tr_xrf;aom jrefrmtrsKd;orD; jzpfvmonf?
ukvor*~wGif ESpfaygif; (25) ESpf=um tr_xrf;+yD;aemuff t+idrf;pm;,lum ,cktcg =op}wD;,m;EkdifiHY
aexdkifvsuf&Sdonf?

* * *

p=wmpfabmufòrd‹ (Strasbourg) Y (12) EkdifiHyg0ifaom Oa&myygvDrefonf 1991 ckESpf Zlvkdifv
(19) &ufae‹wGif wnf+idrfoduQm&Sdaom txl;pnf;a0;yJGusif;yum jrefrmEkdifiHrS a':atmifqef;pk=unftm;
vGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:r_twGuf 1991 ckESpf qmcga&mh (Sakharov) qkudk csD;jr‡ifhvdkufygonf? ,cifESpfrsm;u
awmiftmz&durS e,fqifref'Jvm; (Nelson Nandela)/ qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpkrS temwdkvDrmcsefudk
(Anatoly Marchenko) ESifh csufudkqvdkAufuD;,m;EdkifiHrS tvufZENm;'kAfcsuf (Alexander Dubcek)
wdk‹tm; tvm;wl *k%fðycJhygonf? ygvDrefOuUXjzpfol bm±Gifc&uf(pf)ydk (Baron Crespo) u
cef‹nm;x,f0gaom pydefbmompum;ESifh ¹rGuf=um;vdu
k faom a=unmcsufudk usrwdk‹ em;=uyfrsm;xJrS
bmomjyefu t*Fvdyfpum;ESifh jyefajymvdkufonfrSm ‘usaemfwdk‹onf Tqkudk &J&ifhaom tm&SolwOD;tm;
csD;jr‡ifhvdkufygonf?
TtrsKd;orD;.
trnfonf
vGwfvyfjcif;ESifh
'Drdkua&pDtwGuf
t=urf;rzufaomenf;ESifh wdkufyJG0ifjcif;wdk‹ESifh xyfwlxyfr#yif jzpfygonf’? rdef‹cGef;t+yD;Y OuUX}uD;onf
tcrf;tem; pifjrifhay:Y zcifESifhtwl xkdifaeaom uifrf (a':atmifqef;pk=unf. om;i,f armifxdefvif;)
tm; qkvufrSwfudk tyfESif;vdkufjcif;jzifh wdkawmif;aomfvnf; pdwfv_yf&Sm;zG,ftwdjzpfaom tcrf;tem;udk
ed*Hk;csKyfvdkufygonf? rdwfaqGoli,fcsif;rsm;u ‘pk’ [lI ac:avh&Sdaom olronfum; Tqkudk
ukd,fwdkifvma&muf vufrcHEkdif&Smyg? olonf jrefrmppftpdk;&. tusOf;uscHwOD;taeESifh &efukefòrd‹Y
txdef;odrf;cHb0 ‘oHk;’ ESpfajrmuf oufwrf;udk pwif&ifqkdifvsuf &Sdygonf?
Tzrf;qD;csKyfaESmifjcif;ESifh T*k%fðycsD;jr‡if;jcif;wdk‹udk jzpfay:vmapcJhaom pk. b0vrf;a=umif;udk
pOf;pm;oHk;oyf&if; usrudk,fudkusr (Tae&mwGif "gwfyHkrsm; xnfhygonf)
("gwfyHkatmufrSpmom;rsm;)
tay: - rdcifudk,fpm; om;i,fuifrf (xdefvif;)u vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac:r_qkdif&m qmcga&mhqkudk 1991 ckESpf
Zlvkdifv 10 &ufae‹wGif vufcH&,lpOf
atmuf - ,ck axmif'%fuscHae&aom OD;=unfarmifESifhtwl 1989 ckESpfY awG‹&pOf
+Adwdo#0ef}uD;csKyf twWvD. trSwf (10) a'gif;eif;vrf; vef'efòrd‹aetdrfwGif 1947 ckESpf ZEM0g&DY awG‹qHkpOf
(0JrS ,m) OD;bab/ rpPwmuvDref‹twWvD/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ OD;wifxGwf/ avmh'fyDopfavm&ifh
(a':oef;at;aqmif;yg; tquf)
ar;cGef;trsKd;rsKd; xkwfaerdygonf? ‘'gawG[m b,fvdkub,fvdk jzpfay:cJhwmygvdrfh/ 'Dvdktajctaeqdk;awG/
zdpD;csKyfcs,fr_awGudk cHEkdifpGrf;ay;wJh }uHŒcdkifwJhpdwf"mwf&JŒ t&if;tjrpf[m bmygvdrfh/ b,fursm;
xGufay:vmygvdrfh/
b,favmuf
=umOD;r,frodatmif
qufvufxdef;odrf;cHae&OD;rSmeJ‹
jrefrmhEkdifiHa&;ZmwfuGif;xJ olr pGrf;aqmifcJhor#udk ppftpdk;&u wrifwum wdkufzsufaewmawGudk olr
b,fvdkrsm; jrifygvdrfh?’ olronf xdkZmwfuGif;xJodk‹ 1988 ckESpfY EdkifiHa&;ygwDw&yf wnfaxmifpOfu
0ifa&mufcJhygonf? olrtm; zrf;qD;vdkuf+yD; (10) vcef‹t=umwGif usif;ycJhaom 1990 ckESpf a±G;aumufyJGY
xdkygwDu tjywftowf tEdkif&cJhygonf?
usr. txiftjrift&/ pk. tEkdifrcH t±_H;ray;pdwf"mwfESifh trsm;ESifhrwl wrlxl;aom
oabmobm0wdk‹. ckdif+rJaom Zpfjrpfonf arhaysmufI r&Edkifaom olr. zcif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;.
owd&wrf;wzG,f&m t&nftcsif;rsm;ESifh olr. xl;jcm;aomrdcif a':cif=unf. ðypkysKd;axmifr_wdk‹yif
jzpfygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. b0Zmwfvrf;onf jrefrmhordkif;. wpdwfwydkif;jzpfI trsm;uod+yD;/
rSwfwrf;wif+yD;
jzpfygonf?
(aemufqHk;rSwfwrf;w&yfudk
ol‹orD;udk,fwkdif
ðypkcJhygonf?)
+Adwdo#vufatmufcH
jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif;odk‹
*syefwyfrawmfESifhtwl
a&SŒOD;rS
csDwufrnfh
&JabmfoHk;usdyfacgif;aqmiftjzpf *syefwdk‹xHrS ppfynmoif=um;cJhyHk/ *syefwdk‹vufatmufcHtjzpf aecJh&aom

twkta,mifvGwfvyfa&;umv aemufydkif;Y jrefrmjynfudk jyefvnfodrf;ydkuf&ef 0ifa&mufvmaom
r[mrdwfwyfrsm;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&GufcJhyHk/ aemufqHk; ppf+yD;acwfY vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;awmif;qdkcsufudk
+Adwdo#wdk‹ vdkufavsm&onftxd tywfwukwf óud;yrf;v_yf&Sm;cJhyHk ponfwdk‹udk pma&;q&mtrsm;u
tao;pdwf a&;om;wifjy+yD; jzpfygonf? a':cif=unf. twˆKy`wWdudkrl aphaphiSiS rSwfwrf;wifxm;jcif; r&Sdyg?
AdkvfcsKyfESifhywfoufI usr owd&aeaom tcsuftcsKdŒrSm txl;atmufarhvGrf;qGwfzG,f
jzpfygonf? jrefrmEkdifiH vGwfvyfa&;udpPrsm;udk twWvD (Attlee) tpdk;&ESifh aqG;aEG;&ef udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹udk
acgif;aqmifum AdkvfcsKyfa&mufvmaom 1947 ckESpf ZEM0g&DvrSm t*FvefEkdifiHY tqdk;qHk;aqmif;umv.
&moD'%fudk tvl;tvJcHae&csdef jzpfygonf? vef'efòrd‹v,fY ESif;pdkifESif;cJrsm;onf &Sif;vif;I
rxm;Edkifavmufatmif xlxyfpGmyHkae+yD; udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹ wnf;cdk&m a':csuf(pf)wm[dkw,f
(Dorchester
Hotel)
oGm;vrf;udkyif
ydwfqdk‹vkrwwf
jzpfaeygonf?
ppf+yD;pacwf
òcd;+cHpGmaexkdifa&;pepfonf tm;vHk;tay: oufa&mufr_&Sdojzifh jrefrmrsm;vnf; tjcm;vef'efwGif aexkdifol
vltrsm;enf;wl ae‹pOf em&Daygif;rsm;pGm v#yfppf"mwftm; jzwfawmufcH&onfh'kuQudk aumif;aumif;}uD;
&ifqkdifae=u&ygonf? [dkw,fcef;rsm;wGif rD;aoG;rD;/ xif;rD;wdk‹ESifh [kef;[kef;awmufaeaom rD;vif;zdk}uD;rsm;
r&Sdyg? ao;i,faom "mwfrD;vif;zdkuav;rsm;om &Sdygonf? tae&txdkif& roufomvSaom
tcsdefjzpfaomfvnf;/ ar#mfvifhjcif;ESifh pdwf"mwfwufºuGjcif;wdk‹ jrifhrm;aecsdefvnf; jzpfygonf?
AdkvfcsKyfonf vef'ef&Sd jrefrmrsm;tm;vHk;ESifh awG‹qHkEkdif&ef *±kwpdkuf pDpOfcJh.? vef'ef&Sd
jrefrmrsm;qdkonfrSm ynmoifaeolrsm;/ tvkyfvkyfudkif aexdkifaeolrsm;/ c&D;oGm;&if;vm&if; c%wðzwf
&yfem;aeolrsm;ESifh usruJhodk‹ cyf=um=um tvnftywfa&mufaeaom {nfhonfrsm; jzpf=uygonf?
pdk[dk&yfuGuf (Soho) &Sd jrefrmxrif;qkdifwqkdifwGif AdkvfcsKyftm; *k%fðyonfh {nfhcHyJGusif;y=uygonf?
tawmftwef jynfh=uyfaeaom {nfhy&dowfudk E_wfcGef;qufpum; ajym+yD;aemuf AdkvfcsKyfu
usrwdk‹wOD;csif;ESifh cifrif&if;ESD;pGm pum;ajymygonf? AdkvfcsKyf. &eH‹oif;aom *k%fowif;rsm; usrwdk‹xH
a&mufcJhonfrSm twef=umyg+yD? vltrsm; todtrSwfðy&aom ol. t&Sdeft0g/ awmufajymifvSaom ol.
wnf=unfajzmifhrwfr_/ twdkuftcHrsm;tm; udkifwG,f&mY vdrRmyg;eyfyHk/ *syefacwftwGif;u *syefrsm;ESifh
ppf+yD;cgeD;ESifh ppf+yD;acwfY t*Fvdyfrsm;tygt0if/ olESifh qufqHvkyfudkif&olrsm;ESifh tqifhtjrifhqHk;
tm%mydkifrsm;.
av;pm;jcif;udk
&,lEkdifyHk/
olvdkvm;onfh
vGwfvyfa&;aqG;aEG;yJGrsm;tm;
taumiftxnfazmfEkdifonfh tqifhwdkifatmif jrefrmEkdifiHudk o,faqmifvmcJhaom ol. v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;
ponfh udpPtaygif;udk tm;vHk; odESifh=u+yD; jzpfygonf? TtrsKd;om;ol&Jaumif;}uD;onf usrwdk‹
wOD;csif;pD. euf±_dif;aom ±dkaoav;pm;r_ukd &&Sd+yD; jzpfygonf? ol. ±dk;om;I [efyefrygaom cifrifr_onf
usrwdk‹. toJESvHk;rsm;udkyg odrf;óuH;vdkufygawmhonf?
AdkvfcsKyfESifh udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹0ifrsm; tvkyfwm0efrS tm;vyfaom naersm;wGif usrudk
AdkvfcsKyfwdk‹wnf;cdkaeaom
[dkw,f{nfhaqmifY
xrif;pm;&ef
zdwfac:avh&Sdygonf?
xrif;
pm;aomuf+yD;aomtcg "mwfrD;vif;zdk cyfrSdefrSdefav;udk 0dkif;&Hum ppfrjzpfrDu ta=umif;rsm;/ *syefrsm;xHrS
ppfynmoif=um;pOfu ta=umif;rsm;/ tem*wftwGuf ar#mfvifhcsufxm;Edkifaom ypPKy`efumv
ta=umif;rsm; ponfwdk‹udk aqG;aEG;=uygonf? ppftwGif; jrefrmjynfta=umif;ESifh ppf+yD;pumvY
+Adwdo#tpdk;&u AdkvfcsKyf. awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk vufcHvmap&ef v_yf&Sm;±kef;uefcJh&yHk ta=umif;wdk‹udkum;
rsm;pGm ajymavhajymxr&Sdyg? tzJG‹wzJG‹vHk;twGuf udk,fa&mpdwfyg oufomap&ef tyef;ajzcsdefyif
jzpfygonf?
ppftwGif;umvwGif usru e,l;a'vD&Sd tdENd,jynfvHk;qkdif&m toHv$ifhXmeY
tvkyfvkyfaecJhygonf? xdkXmerS bmompum
("gwfyHkrsm;)
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh a':cif=unf 1942 ckESpfwGif xdrf;jrm;vufxyfpOfu

tay:
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifhrdom;pk?
a&SŒwef;wGif xdkifaeolrSm
atmifqef;pk=unf
atmuf
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u
pkpkudk ayG‹csDxm;pOf
(a':oef;at;aqmif;yg;tquf)
trsKd;rsKd;jzifh *syefrsm; odrf;ydkufxm;aom tm&Se,fajrrsm;odk‹ toHv$ifhygonf? xdk‹aemuf qefz&efppPudk
(San Francisco) odk‹oGm;I ,ck AGDtdkat (VOA) ac: xdkpOfu tar&duefjynfaxmifpk
ppfjyef=um;a&;±Hk;Y tvm;wltvkyfrsKd; vkyfygonf? jrefrmjynfrSa&mufvmaom rdwfaqGrsm;ESifh
rawG‹&onfrSm ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm =um+yDjzpfI uJGuGmae=u&pOftwGif; jzpfa=umif;&,fwJhukefpifatmif
ajym&eftcsdefyif ravmufEkdifyg?
xdk"mwfrD;vif;zdk rSdefrSdefav;udk 0dkif;&Hae=uonfh vlpkxJ yg0ifolrsm;rSm AdkvfcsKyfESifh ol. udk,f&Hawmf/
ukd,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹0iftcsKdŒ/ bDbDpDY tvkyfvkyfaeaom jrefrmwOD;ESifh &Hzef&Hcg usruJhodk‹aom {nfhonfrsm;
jzpf=uygonf? &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifwOD;jzpf+yD;/ *syefacwfumvtwGif;u trnfcHt& vGwfvyfaom
jrefrmEdkifiH. ppfoHrª;tjzpf wdkusKdwGif wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhaom Adkvfp}uFmvnf; xdkvlpkxJwGif yg0ifonf?
pum;tenf;i,fpJaomtcsdefrsm;Y olu *syefwGif aepOfu wwfcJhaom tvGrf;taqG;oDcsif;rsm;qdk+yD;/
usrwdk‹u jrefrmoDcsif;rsm; qkd=uygonf? AdkvfcsKyfu ol. rdom;pk/ ZeD;ESifh om;orD; oHk;a,mufta=umif;/
ti,fqHk;rSm rdef;uav;jzpfa=umif;wdk‹udk ajymavh&Sd+yD;/ ‚if;wdk‹twGuf vufaqmifrsm; 0,fay;yg[k usrudk
ajymygonf? odk‹ESifh udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹ tvkyfudpPrsm; +yD;pD;I vef'efrS jyefoGm;aomtcg ol. rdom;pk0if
wOD;csif;pDtwGuf usr 0,fay;vkdufaom vufaqmifrsm; AdkvfcsKyfESifh twlygoGm;ygonf? pktwGuf
t±kyf}uD;wck 0,fay;vdkufygonf? ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm=umaomtcg xdkt±kyf}uD;udk pku rysufrpD; aumif;rGefpGm
xdef;odrf;xm;vsuf&Sdao;onfudk awG‹&I usr auseyftHhtm;oifh&ygonf?
udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹ rjyefrD &uftenf;i,ftvdkwGif rdrdwdk‹ +yD;pD;vkyfaqmifEkdifcJhaom udpPt00ESifh
ywfoufI bDbDpDjrefrmydkif; tpDtpOfrS toHv$ifh&ef pmwrf;wapmifudk AdkvfcsKyf jyifqifxm;ygonf?
toHv$ifhrnfhae‹wGif usrwdk‹u AdkvfcsKyfESifh ol. udk,f&Hawmfwdk‹tm; bDbDpD pm;aomufqkdifYqHk+yD;
ae‹vnfpm twlpm;&efjzpfygonf? xdkae‹vnfpmpm;yJGrSm aysmf&$iftm;&zG,fr[kwfcJhyg? xrif;pm; pm;yJGonf
qdwf+idrfae+yD; AdkvfcsKyf. rsufESmrSm +cdrf;awmhrnfhrdk;uJhodk‹ tHk‹r_dif;ae.? bDbDpDjrefrmydkif;tpDtpOf
Xmerª;jzpfol (t*FvdyftrsKd;om;wOD;) u t*Fvdyfvdk bmomjyefxm;aom AdkvfcsKyfrdef‹cGef;.
tpdwftydkif;tcsKdŒudk jzwfawmufjyifqifcJh+yD;/ rl&if; jrefrmpmwrf;udkvnf; tvm;wl jyifqif&rnf[k
t=uyfudkifaeygonf? bDbDpDrS xkwfv$ifhaom rdef‹cGef;rsm;yg EdkifiHa&;ta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifh ywfoufI
xm;&Sdaom
pnf;rsOf;uef‹owfcsufrsm;ESifh
udkufnD&efjzpfonf[k
&Sif;vif;jyygonf?
Ttjzwftawmufrsm;udk vufcHvkduf&rnfavm/ toHv$ifhtpDtpOfudkyJ zsufodrf;vdkuf&rnfavmESifh
AdkvfcsKyfrSm pdwf'dG[jzpfae.? AdkvfcsKyf. rdom;pktwGuf vufaqmifrsm; ,lvmaom usru
pm;aomufcef;odk‹ tenf;i,f ta&mufaemufusygonf? usra&mufoGm;+yD;aemufydkif; wjznf;jznf;
wif;rmr_ESifh pdwfrcsrf;ajrŒr_rsm; avsmhyg;oGm;um ae‹vnfpmpm;yJG pwifygawmhonf? xdk‹aemuf AdkvfcsKyfu
jrefrmEkdifiHol EkdifiHom;rsm;xH toHv$ifhtpD&ifcH&ef xGufoGm;ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; óudwiftoday;jcif;

r&SdbJESifh ol. pmwrf;udk rðyvkyfoifh[k ol ,lqaom wnf;jzwfr_rsm; ðyvkyfjcif;a=umifh rnfr#
rauseyfrESpfòrd‹jzpf&a=umif;udk &Si;f &Sif;vif;vif;}uD; odomapcJh.? Tonfum; AdkvfcsKyf. toGifwyHk?
udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹. tvkyfvnf; +yD;qHk;I jyefcsdefvnf; eD;vmav+yD? AdkvfcsKyftm;
{nfhcH=unfh±_cJhaom t*Fvdyfrsm;ESifh vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;twGuf {nfhcHyJG}uD; usif;yygonf? {nfhy&dowfvnf;
tawmfrsm;ygonf? +Adwdo#ygvDreftrwfrsm;/ udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹. tvkyfudpPt00 tqifajyacsmarG‹ap&ef
wm0ef,lcJhaom tqifhjrifht&m&Sd}uD;rsm;/ owif;pmt,f'Dwmrsm;/ owif;axmufrsm;/ pma&;q&mrsm;/
jrefrmjynfESifh jrefrmjynf. tem*wfwGif pdwf0ifpm;=uolrsm;ESifh vma&mufEdkifaom jrefrmrSefor#wdk‹
toD;oD;yg0if=uygonf? {nfhcHyJGrwdkifrDnu AdkvfcsKyfu usrudk {nfhcHyJGY oDcsif;qdk&ef ajymygonf? usru
vkyf±dk;vkyfpOf [kwfrnfrxif[kajymum jiif;cJh.? {nfhcHyJGae‹Y *syefrsm; 0ifvmonftxd jrefrmjynfwGif
tkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&Sdtjzpf tr_xrf;cJhaom t*FvdyfrdwfaqGa[mif;wa,mufxH usr tvnfoGm;cJh.? ol.
tdrf&Sd&mt&yfrS vef'efodk‹ tjyefc&D;rSm aES;auG;vSI usrESifhtwl ygvmaom rdwfaqGrsm; {nfhcHyJG
ta&mufaemufusrnfpdk;um
&ifwrr
jzpfae.?
{nfhcHyJGrrDvdkufu
AdkvfcsKyfwdk‹ESifh
aemufqHk;awG‹&rnfhtcGifhta&; vGwfoGm;rnfxifum usrwdk‹ ylyefae=ujcif;jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf;
uref;uwef; t0wftpm;vJ+yD; a&mufoGm;aomtcg AdkvfcsKyfu apmifhaeygonf? tcsrf;ajy rkef‹tenf;i,f
pm;aomuf+yD;aemuf AdkvfcsKyfu usrudk pifjrifhay:wifxm;aom pEN,m;&Sd&modk‹ ac:oGm;+yD;/
‘jrefrmtrsKd;orD;av;wa,mufu oDcsif;qdk{nfhcHygrnf’ [k y&dowftm; a=unmvdkufygonf? usrvnf;
oDcsif;qdk&ygawmhonf? xdknu qdkcJhaom oDcsif;rsm;rSm t*FvdyfoDcsif;wyk'f/ jyifopfoDcsif;wyk'fESifh
jrefrmoDcsif;wyk'fwdk‹jzpfygonf? ,ck jyefvnfawG;=unfhaomtcg aemufqHk;wyk'fudkom qdkcJhoifhonf[k
usr xifrdygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; xdkoDcsif;udk jrefrmrsm;uom em;vnfESpfouf=urnf jzpfygonf?
xdkoDcsif;rSm usrwdk‹tm;vHk; od=uaom v_difxdwfacgifwif. ‘pdefjcL;=umanmif’ abmv,fjzpfygonf?
y&dowfu ,Ofaus;pGm =obmay;=uygonf? xdk‹aemuf AdkvfcsKyfu usrudk pifjrifhay:rS qif;&ef vmac:+yD;
usr. tqdkudk ol rnfr#oabmusESpfoufa=umif; ajymygonf? ("gwfyHkvmonf)
tay:
atmifqef;OD;/
a':cif=unf/
atmifqef;vif;ESifh
pkpk (xkdifaeol)
1948 ckESpf
atmuf
pkpk ajcmufESpforD;t&G,f
1951 ckESpf
(aqmif;yg;tquf)
udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹
txl;av,mOfESifh
vef'efòrd‹ajrmufydkif;&Sd
ppfzufqdkif&mavqdyfrS
xGufcGmoGm;csdefY wwdkif;jynfvHk; ESif;pdkifESif;cJrsm;ESifh zHk;v$rf;xm;qJyif jzpfygonf? E_wfquf&ef tqifhjrifh
t*Fvdyft&m&Sdrsm; tzJG‹}uD;wzJG‹ a&mufaeygonf? usrwdk‹ jrefrmtcsKdŒvnf; udk,fpm;vS,frsm;/
tjcm;olrsm;ESifhtwl [kef;[kef;awmufaeonfh rD;vif;zdk}uD;. tyl&SdefESifh aEG;aeaom {nfhóudcef;r}uD;Y
oGm;a&mufpka0;aeygonf? usrwdk‹tm;vHk; 0dkif;xkdifpum;ajym=uygonf? c%=umaomtcg AdkvfcsKyfu
t*Fvdyfrsm;t=um;rS xvm+yD; usrwdk‹ESifh pum;ajymygonf? usrudk òyH;+yD; ‘usaemfwdk‹ESifh Armjynfudk

vdkufcJhygvm;’ [k ajymygonf? xdk‹aemuf usrwd‹k taygif;tazmfwpk ESif;cJrsm;t=um;&yf+yD;
udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹ av,mOf&Sd&modk‹av#mufI xGufcmG oGm;aeonfudk ai;ar#mf=unfh&if; vufrsm;a0S‹&rf;
E_wfquf=uygonf? aqmif;ae‹uav;. vGrf;zG,fhtoGifESifh rdwfaqGrsm;ESifh cJGcGm&jcif;/ txl;ojzifh
AdkvfcsKyfESifh cJGcGm&jcif;wdk‹a=umifh usrwdk‹wawG 0rf;enf;woo jzpfae=uygonf? AdkvfcsKyfcrsm
wdkawmif;vSaom b0oufwrf;av;r#om usefawmhonfudkum; usrwkd‹ rnfuJhodk‹r# rrSef;qrdcJh=uyg?
*syefacwfESifh ppf'%fwdk‹a=umifh ysufpD;,k,
d Gif;aeaom wkdif;jynfudk jyefvnfxlaxmifI
jrefrmjynfwGif acwfopfxGef;aprnf [lonfh AdkvfcsKyf o,faqmifoGm;aom ar#mfrSef;csufrsm;rSm
EdkifiHa&;òydifbufwOD;. ya,m*a=umifh xdkESpfwGifyif òyduJGcJh&ygawmhonf? bk&ifcH. tvkyftr_aqmiftzJG‹
tpnf;ta0;usif;yaepOf tcef;twGif;odk‹ vlowform;rsm; twif;0ifa&mufvmum ppfaoewfrsm;jzifh
tv,fwGifxkdifaeaom AdkvfcsKyfudk OD;pGmypfcwf+yD; tjcm;yk*~Kdvf &SpfOD;udkyg vkyf}uHowfjzwfoGm;ygonf?
ESpfpOfESpfwkdif; wEkdifiHvHk; owdw&,lusKH;r&jzpf&aom tmZmenfae‹/ 19 Zlvdkif 1947 ckESpf jzpfygonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. usef&pfol ZeD; a':cif=unfonf rdrdtwGufomru wrsKd;om;vHk;twGufyg
a=uuJGzG,f&m Ttjzpfqdk;}uD;aemufydkif;Y olrb0udk jyefvnfysKd;axmif&ygawmhonf? jrefrmjynf
vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;aemuf rdcifESifh uav;apmifha&Smufa&;Xme/ xdk‹aemuf vlr_0efxrf;Xmewdk‹.
t}uD;tuJtjzpf
wm0efxrf;aqmif.?
rtm;rvyf
tvkyfwm0efrsm;txJ
epfðryfaepOfyif
uH=urRm.'%fudk aemufwzefcH&jyef.? 'kwd,om;jzpfol atmifqef;vif;crsm &efukeaf etdrf+cH0if;twGif;&Sd
a&uefabmif±dk;ay: upm;aepOf vdrfhusum a&epfaoqHk;oGm;&Smonf? atmifqef;vif;onf ‘pk’
txl;cspfjrwfEdk; tm;udk;aomtudkjzpfI pktzdk‹ xdktjzpfqdk;}uD;a=umifh pdwfwkefv_yfxdcdkufcJh&r_onf
tawmfESifh aysmufuG,foGm;jcif; r&SdEkdifcJhyg? ‘pk’onf olr. tudkudk rnfonfhtcgr# rarhEkdifouJhodk‹ olr.
zcifudkvnf; rnfonfhtcgr# rarhEkdifcJhyg? zcif. b0Zmwfa=umif;/ pmayta&;tom;/
wkdif;oljynfom;rsm;tm; aqmf=ocsufrsm;ESifh (32) ESpfwm oufwrf;twGif; jzpfajrmufcJhaom tHh=ozG,f&m
pGrf;aqmifcsufrsm;udk avhvmjcif;rSm ‘pk’twGuf tqufrjywfEdkifaom pJGvrf;csufw&yfjzpfygonf?
a':cif=unfonf om;orD;rsm;tm; i,fpOfuyif olwdk‹. zcifay;cJhaom tarGtESpfudk
t+rJowd&aeap&ef óud;yrf;cJh.? AdkvfcsKyf. &Jabmf&Jzufrsm;ESifh olxlaxmifcJhaom wyfrawmfrS
tzJG‹0ifrsm;u AdkvfcsKyf. rdom;pktay: xm;&Sdaom oHa,mZOfrSm ysufuGufoGm;jcif; r&SdcJhyg? xdk‹a=umifh ‘pk’
u
wyfrawmfom;rsm;vufay:
}uD;jyif;vmcJhonf[k
yuwd&Sd&if;twkdif;
ajymEkdifygonf?
t&nftcsif;ºuG,f0/ tawG‹tóuHrsm;jym;/ &mxl;&mcHjrifhrm;aom jrefrmvl}uD;vlaumif; trsm;tjym;
a':cif=unfESifh &if;ESD;cifrifpGm qufqHjcif;onfvnf; om;orD;rsm;tay: =oZmoufa&mufr_&SdcJh.?
ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm EdkifiHawmf0efxrf;wOD;tjzpf ajymifajrmufpGm wm0efxrf;&GufcJhaom w&m;ol}uD;csKyf
OD;jrifhodef;qdkv#if woufwm &if;ESD;cifrifaom rdwfaqGaumif;wOD;jzpfygonf? ±dkaoav;pm;r_/ =unf!dkr_/
cspfcifr_ paom t&Sdeft0grsm;u olESifh olr. rdom;pkwdk‹tay: v$rf;òcHxm;ygonf?
a':cif=unfonf rdrd. om;orD;rsm;tm; jrefrmhvlr_a&;ESifh udk,fusifhoDv. wefzdk;udk
tav;xm;+yD;/ Ak'<bmomw&m;udk ,Hk=unfudkif;±_dif;&ef oGefoifqHk;rcJh.? usr. tjrift& 0wfpm;/
oGm;vm/ aexdkifr_t&yf&yfESifh pyfvsOf;I vltrsm;jrifuGif;wGif‚if;/ tdrfwGif;todkif;t0dkif;wGif‚if;/ ‘pk’ onf
jrefrmh,Ofaus;r_t& pHwifavmufygonf? Oyrmwck ay;&rnfqdkv#if rdrdxuf wESpf/ w&uf/
wreuf}uD;olrSefor#udk
udk,ftrlt,m/
E_wt
f rlt,mt&
±dkaoav;pm;or_jyjcif;jzpfaom
vl}uD;rsm;a&SŒrS jzwfoef;oGm;aomtcg cg;nGwfjcif;/ vl}uD;rsm;xHyg;wGif usKHŒusKHŒ,Hk‹,Hk‹ aexkdifjcif;/
,Ofaus;av;pm;aom toHaetoHxm;ESifh pum;vHk;rsm;udk a&G;cs,foHk;jcif;/ ponfwdk‹rSm ‘pk’ twGuf
t±dk;pJGaeaom trltusifhrsm;jzpfygonf? TuJhodk‹ xif&Sm;vSaom jrefrmqefr_wdk‹a=umifh ‘pk’ udk
jrefrmrsm;u cspfjrwfEkd;=u+yD; EkdifiH&yfjcm;wGif ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm aexkdifaomfvnf; ‘pk’ . jrefrmyDor_rSm
arS;rSdef,drf;,dkifoGm;onf[lI r&SdcJhyg? jrefrmEdkifiHvlxk}uD;tm; pJGaqmifI ‚if;wdk‹. twufºuGqHk;/

tlv_dufonf;v_duf axmufcHr_udk ‘pk’ &,lEkdifjcif;. t"duta=umif;&if; wcsufrSm olr. jrefrmyDor_yif
jzpfygonf?
1960 ckESpfwGif OD;Ektpdk;&onf a':cif=unftm; tdENd,EkdifiHqkdif&m jrefrmoHtrwf}uD;tjzpf
cef‹tyfvdkufygonf? xdk&mxl;ae&mwGif 1962 ck OD;ae0if;u ppftm%modrf;ydkuf+yD; aemufydkif;Yyif
a':cif=unf qufvufwm0efxrf;aqmifEkdifjcif;onf olrtm; ±dkaoav;pm;r_twdkif;twm rnfr#
}uD;rm;a=umif;udk jyoygonf? tvkyfoufwrf;+yD;qHk;I t+idrf;pm;,laomtcg a':cif=unfonf
tif;vsm;uefabmif&Sd rdrdtdrfY jyefvnfaexdkifygonf? tif;vsm;uefabmifwavsmufwGif jrefrmEkdifiHa&;ESifh
pD;yGm;a&;avmurS
txifu&yk*~Kdvftrsm;tjym;
aexkdif=uygonf?
,ck
‘pk’
vnf;
xdktif;vsm;uefaetdrfwGifyif tus,fcsKyfb0ESifh txdef;odrf;cHae&ygonf?
e,l;a'vDòrd‹odk‹ rdcifESifhtwl a&mufvmpOfu ‘pk’ onf uspfqH+rD; wkwfwkwf&Snf&Snf}uD;rsm;ESifh
(15) ESpft&G,f uav;rav;jzpfygonf? a,±_ESifhar&D uGefbifhausmif; (Convent of Jesus and Mary)
ESifh av'D&S,f&D&rfaumvdyf (Lady Shri Ram College) wdk‹Y qufvufynmoifygonf? olr.
tdENd,rdwfaqGtodkif;t0dkif;rSm us,fjyef‹vmygonf? r[wWr*ENDESifh *s0g[mvmae±l;wdk‹. wdkif;jynfudk
pl;prf;avhvm em;vnfEkdif&ef ‘pk’ tzkd‹ tcGifhaumif;jzpfygonf? ‘pk’ . zcifvnf; Twdkif;jynfudk
a&mufzl;+yD; ae±l;ESifh awG‹qHkaqG;aEG;um &if;ESD;cifrifaom em;vnfr_ &&SdcJhygonf? ‘pk’ . rdcif
oHtrwftjzpf cef‹tyfjcif;cH&csdefwGif ae±l;u 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifqJjzpfygonf?
‘pk’ A[kokw tawG‹tóuH us,fjyef‹ap&ef olr.rdcif pDpOfay;aom udpPrsm;teuf
*syefyef;tvSjyifenf;/ tEkynmoifjcif;ESifh jrif;pD;oifjcif;wdk‹ yg0ifygonf? tdENd,EkdifiH orRw}uD;.
udk,f&HawmfwyfzJG‹avhusifh&m jrif;pD;uGif;Y tdENd,t&m&Sd}uD;rsm;. om;orD;rsm;/ EkdifiHwum oHtrwfrsm;.
om;orD;rsm;ESifh yef'pfae±l;. ajr;/ tif'D&m*END. om;jzpfol qefa*s;wdk‹ESifh ‘pk’ awG‹qHkavh&Sdygonf? eHygwf
(24) tuUbmvrf; (24 Akbar Road) &Sd aetdrfwGif pEN,m; qufoif&ygonf? xdkoHtrwfaetdrfonf
}uD;rm;I tvGefcef‹nm;wifhw,faom yef;O,sOfysK;d xm;onfh +cH0if;us,f}uD;twGif; wnf&Sdygonf?
tqifhtjrifhqHk;
tdENd,t&m&Sd}uD;rsm;twGuf
owfrSwfxm;aom
tdrfrsKd;jzpf+yD;
tpdk;&u
+Adwdo#vufxufuuJhodk‹yif
vSyaumif;rGefpGm
xdef;odrf;xm;ygonf?
a':cif=unfudk
txl;av;pm;aomtm;jzifh xdkaetdrfudk ay;xm;jcif;jzpfygonf?
‘pk’ txl;ESpfoufrufarmaom 0goemrSm pmzwfjcif;yif? olr. pmtkyfpmayjrwfEdk;r_udk
tm;ay;cJhaom OD;tkef;udk ‘pk’ tpOf cspfcifaus;Zl;wifpGm owd&avh&Sdygonf? owif;pmq&mwOD;
jzpfcJhaom OD;tkef;onf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh tu|rf;0ifcJholwOD;jzpf+yD; ppf+yD;acwfY vef'efwGif
zqyvtzJG‹csKyf udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹ wm0efxrf;aqmifygonf? aemifwGif armfpudkòrd‹awmfodk‹
jrefrmEkdifiHqkdif&m oHtrwf}uD;tjzpf cef‹tyfjcif;cH&ygonf? olonf ‘pk’ tm; zwfoifh ("gwfyHkvmonf)
("gwfyHk)
tay:
yef'pfae±l;ESifh a':cif=unf
atmuf
a':cif=unfESifh pk a'vDòrd‹wGif
(aqmif;yg;tquf)
zwfxdkufonfh jrefrmESifh t*Fvdyfpmtkyf pm&Sif;&Snf}uD;rsm; ay;olrsm;teuf wOD;tygt0ifjzpfygonf? ‘pk’
. todynm tawG;tac:ydkif; zHG‹òzd;wdk;wufr_udk ydkIowdðyrd+yD; pdwf0ifpm;cJholrSm tvGefemrnf}uD;cJhaom

&efukefwuUodkvf tdk;a0r*~Zif;. wcsdefu t,f'DwmjzpfcJh+yD; ‘pk’ . zcifESifhtwl wuUodkvfwGif&SdcJhaom
OD;!dkjryif jzpfygonf? aemufydkif;wGif OD;!dkjrudk pme,fZif;orm;wOD;ESifh tvGefemrnf&aom
pmtkyfrsm;pGmudk a&;om;onfh pma&;q&mwOD;tjzpf vlodrsm;vmygonf? olu wjcm;olrsm;xufyifydk+yD;
‘pk’ zwf&ef t*FvdyfESifh jrefrmpmtkyfaygif;rsm;pGmudk vrf;n$efay;cJhygonf? OD;!dkjr vufaqmifay;cJhaom
tvGeftzdk;wefonfh [m;Auf*EW0if pmtkyfwJG wpHkvHk; (Harvard Classics) udk tvGefwefzdk;xm;+yD;
r=umc% zwfcJha=umif;vnf; ‘pk’ u ,ckxd owd&aeygonf? Tpmtkyfrsm;u ‘pk’ udk pmayavmuwHcg;
zGifhay;cJhygonf? ‘pk’ . pmzwf0goemrSm tdENd,ra&mufrDuyif tjrpfwG,f+yD;jzpfygonf?
(Mehrauli)
&yfuGufwGif
e,l;a'vDòrd‹
qifajczHk;tpGeftzsm;&Sd
ara&mfvD
*±kwpdkufxdef;odrf;xm;Ekdifjcif; r&SdonfrSm =um+yDjzpfI ysufpD;,dk,Gif;aeonfh tmaomu0d[m&
trnfwGifaom Ak'<bmomXmewck&Sdygonf? xdkXme jyefvnf&SifoefvmEkdifap&ef a'vD&Sd Ak'<bmom0ifrsm;
txl;ojzifh Ak'<bmomudk;uG,faom EkdifiHrsm;rS oHtrwfrsm;. tultnDudk a':cif=unf &,lcJhygonf?
Tvkyfaqmifr_a=umifh
a'vD&Sd
Ak'<bmom0ifrsm;ESifh
tdENd,EkdifiH
tjcm;a'orsm;rS
Ak'<bmom0iftcsKdŒtwGuf jyefvnftouf0ifvm+yDjzpfaom tmaomu0d[m&onf ESpfpOfusa&mufaom
Ak'<bmomyJGawmf}uD;rsm; usif;y&m/ bk&m;0wfðy&m urRÏmef; bm0empD;jzef;&mXme jzpfvmygonf?
trsKd;om;a&;udpPrsm;qdkif&m/
udk,fa&;udk,fwmudpPrsm;qkdif&m
tcrf;tem;
}uD;i,ftrsm;tjym;wdk‹wGif ‘pk’ yg0ifulnDcJh.? a':cif=unfonf jrefrm/ xdkif;/ uarBm'D;,m; EkdifiHom;
Ak'<omoembkef;awmf}uD;rsm;tm; rSefrSefyifhzdwf qGrf;uyfw&m;emavh&Sd.? ‘pk’ . tudkvnf;
ausmif;ydwf&ufrsm;twGif; t*FvefrS a&mufvmaomtcg TudpPrsm;wGif yg0ifaqmif&Gufygonf? tarESifh
orD;udk jrefrmrsm; cspfcifav;pm;onfhtwdkif; a':cif=unf. vkyfazmfudkifzuf oHwrefrsm;ESifh yef'pfae±l;rS
tpcsDI tdENd,tpdk;&tzJG‹0iftaygif;wdk‹uvnf; cspfcifav;pm;=uygonf? tdENd,wGif &&SdcJhaom
tawG‹tóuHrsm;onf ‘pk’ twGuf tifrwef ta&;yg pdwftm;xufoefzG,f&mjzpfcJhygonf? ,ckwdkif olr
tdENd,EdkifiHtay: xm;&SdaomarwWmESifh oHa,mZOfwdk‹rSm ckdifrmvsuf&Sdygonf?
xdktcsdefu a'vD&Sd +Adwdo#r[mrif;}uD;rSm qmayg(vf)*dk;bl(of)(Sir Paul Gore-Booth)
aemiftcg avm('f)*dk;bl(of)/ (Lord Gore-Booth) jzpfygonf? ,cif jrefrmEkdifiHwGif oHtrwftjzpf
wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhpOfu olESifh ol. ZeD; yuf}wD&Sm (Patricia) wdk‹onf a':cif=unfESifh
aumif;pGmodu|rf;cJh.? xdkcifrif&if;ESD;r_rSm tdENd,Y jyefvnfqef;opf&Sifoefvmygonf? odk‹ESifh ‘pk’
atmufpzdk‹'fwuUodkvfodk‹ ynmoif&ef oGm;aomtcg ayg(vf)ESifh yuf}wD&Smwdk‹u rdbudk,fpm;
=unfh±_apmifha&Smuf&ef wm0ef,lcJh.? ‘pk’ onf olwdk‹. rdom;pk0ifwOD;uJhodk‹/ olwdk‹ om;ESpfa,mufESifh
orD;ESpfa,mufwdk‹. nDtr&if;csmwOD;uJhodk‹ jzpfvmygonf? xdkrdom;pktdrfwGifyif ‚if;wkd‹.
rdwfaqGrsm;tjyif
‚if;wdk‹zdwf=um;{nfhcHaom
EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh
tpdk;&t&m&Sdrsm;udk
‘pk’
odu|rf;cGifh&cJhygonf? xdkyk*~Kdvfrsm;. toGiftjyif/ trltusifh/ tajymtqdkESifh xl;jcm;aom
"avhp±dkufuav;rsm;udk ‘pk’ pdwf0ifpm;pGm avhvmcJh.? xdkyk*~Kdvfrsm;rSm olr 0if&awmhvkqJjzpfonfh
us,f0ef;vSaom urBmavmurS yk*~Kdvfrsm;yif r[kwfygvm;?
aEG&moDausmif;ydwf&ufrsm;twGif; ‘pk’ onf rdcif&Sd&m e,l;a'vDodk‹ jyefavh&Sd.? odk‹aomf
wESpfwGif usrESifh tJ(vf)*sD;,m;(pf)òrd‹ (Algiers) wGif vmaeygonf? usronf e,l;a'vD
ukvor*~jyef=um;a&;XmerS t,f(vf)*sD;&D;,m;EkdifiH (Algeria) . òrd‹awmfodk‹ ajymif;a±$Œum
tvm;wlXmewckzGifh&ef wm0efay;jcif; cH&ygonf? t,f(vf)*sD;&D;,m;onf 1962 ckESpfwGif csm;(vf)'D*dk;(vf)
(Charles de Gaulle) tpdk;&ESifh atAD,efpmcsKyf (Treaty of Evian) udk vufrSwfxkd;+yD;
vGwfvyfa&;&cJhonfrSm r=umao;yg? jyifopfxHrS vGwv
f yfa&;&&ef &SpfESpf=um ±kef;uefr_aemufydkif;
wjznf;jznf; emvefxlqJEdkifiHjzpfygonf? xdk‹a=umifh t,f(vf)*sD;,m;(pf)òrd‹wGif ae&mxkdifcif;
tvGef&Sm;yg;aejcif;/ ysufpD;,kd,Gif;aeaom &yfuGufa'orsm; aygrsm;aejcif;/ tajctaeaumif;rGefaom

[dkw,frsm;enf;yg;aejcif;ESifh 0efaqmifr_vkyfief;rsm; vGefpGmrS uef‹owfxm;jcif;wdk‹rSm tHh=ozG,f&mr[kwfyg?
zGifhvSpfpoH±Hk;rsm;/
ukvor*~±Hk;rsm;ESifh
0ifa&mufvmqJ
pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;omru
tJ(vf)*sD;&D;,ef;vlrsKd;rsm;uyg tdrfae&mrsm;ESifh vkyfief;cGifae&mrsm;&&Sd&ef oJoJrJrJ vHk;yrf;&SmazGae&ygonf?
tJ(vf)*sD;&D;,m;wGif =umjrifhpGm tajccsaexdkifcJhaom jyifopfvlrsKd;ajrmufjrm;pGmrSm Twkdif;jynfrS
xGufcGmoGm;=u+yD;jzpfaomfvnf; tjcm;vlopfrsm;rSm 0ifvmrpJjzpfygonf? xdkolrsm;rSm ppfr_xrf;rnfhtpm;/
y&[dwvkyfief;trsKd;rsKd;wdk‹wGif 0ifa&mufwm0efxrf;aqmif&ef a±G;cs,faom jyifopftrsKd;om;vli,frsm;/
ausmif;q&m/ q&mrrsm;/ axmufyHha&; pDrHudef;tvkyform;rsm;ESifh tvnftywfoufoufvmolrsm;
jzpf=uygonf?
‘pk’ a&mufvmcsdefrSm [Gm&DblrD'D,ef (Houari Boumedienne) u tmrufbifbJvm;
(Ahmed Ben Bella) tm; pHerlemxm;avmufatmif ("gwfyHkvmonf)
("gwfyHk)
tay:
pkESifh a':oef;at;
t,fvf*sD;&D;,m;
a&muf&SdaepOf
atmuf
yef;csDq&m *sJ&,fu,fvD
a&;qJGxm;aom a':oef;at;.
yHkwlqDaq;yef;csDum;
(aqmif;yg;tquf)
aoG;xGufoH,dkr_uif;rJhaom tm%modrf;yJGðyvkyfum ðzwfcst+yD; &uftenf;i,ftwGif; jzpfygonf?
zdwf=um;cH&aom {nfhcHyJGrsm;pGmodk‹ oGm;&rnfxuf ‘pk’ u tJ(vf)*sD;&D;,ef;vlrsKd;rsm;ESifh awG‹qHkum
‚if;wdk‹wdkif;jynftwGif; jzpfysufaeor#udk avhvm&ef ydkrdkI pdwfxufoefygonf? ‘pk’ rSm zwf±_usufrSwf&ef
pmtkyfwaowWmvnf; ygvmygonf? ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm vGwfvyfa&;±kef;uefr'_ %fudk cHcJh&olrsm;tm;
ulnDaxmufyHh&ef pDrHudef;rsm;udk uGyfuJaeaom tzJG‹tpnf;wckESifh usrwdk‹ qufoG,fygonf?
pDrHudef;w&yf. wm0efcHjzpfol vli,fwOD; vma&mufI ‚if;wdk‹vkyfief;ta=umif; &Sif;jyygonf?
vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyJGwGif
usqHk;cJhaom
&Jabmfrsm;.
usef&pfolZeD;rsm;twGuf
aetdrfrsm;
aqmufvkyfae=u&m tJ(vf)*sD;&D;,ef;vlrsKd;rsm;omru EdkifiHwumrS vli,frsm;yg 0ifa&mufulnD&ef
zdwfac:óudqdka=umif; ajymygonf? ‘pk’ vnf; xdkaqmufvkyfa&;pcef;wGif &ufowWywftawmf=um
oGm;a&mufaexdkifum
vkyftm;ay;cJhygonf?
tvkyfoGefoif}uD;=uyfolrSm
±k&Sm;vlrsKd;jzpf+yD;
vkyfazmfukdifzufrsm;rSm tJ(vf)*sD;&D;,m;/ jyifopf/ vufAEGef/ a[mfvefESifh *smreD paom wkdif;jynfrsm;rS
vli,frsm;jzpfygonf? tpm;taomufESifh ae&mxdkifcif; ay;aomfvnf; vkyfcray;yg?
‘pk’ . rdwfaqGrsm;onf olrtm; umAD;vD; (Kabyle) awmifwef;rsm;odk‹ vufxyfr*FvmyJGwyJG
wufa&muf=unfh±_&ef
ac:oGm;zl;onf?
usrwdk‹ESpfOD;twl
q[m&oJuEWm&tpyf&Sd
òrd‹av;wòrd‹wdkifatmifvnf; c&D;&SnfxGufcJhygonf? aEG&moDtyl&Sdef jyif;xefvGef;vSojzifh xdkxufvGefI
roGm;EkdifcJhyg? aemuf tvnftywfc&D;w&yftaeESifh a&mracwfu aqmufvkyfwnfcJhaom
òrd‹ysuf}uD;&Sd&modk‹ oGm;cJh.? xdkòrd‹ysufwGif;&Sd v[mjyifZmwf±Hk}uD;. ausmufjym;cif;xm;aom
wvif;jyifay:wGif bifbJvm;. opPmcHrsm;u ‘bifbJvm; touf&Snfygap’ [k pmvHk;}uD;rsm;ESifh

a&;xm;ygonf? ‘pk’ armfa&mfudkodk‹ c&D;wacgufxGufcJh+yD; pydefEdkifiH awmifbufurf;ajcudkvnf;
ajccsrdonfqdkoavmufawmh a&mufcJhygonf? xdk‹aemuf jyefvnfpmzwf+yD; ausmif;ydwf&uftqHk;wGif
ausauseyfeyf}uD;ESifh atmufpzdk‹'fodk‹ jyefoGm;EkdifcJhygonf?
bJG‹&+yD;aemuf ‘pk’ onf vydkif;r# pmoifydk‹csjcif;ESifh ordkif;q&m [,l;wifum (Hugh Tinker)
ESifhtwl okawoevkyfjcif; ponfwdk‹udk aqmif±Guf+yD;aomtcg e,l;a,muf&Sd usrESifh vmIaeygonf?
tJ(vf)*sD;,m;wGif
av;ESpfr#
wm0efxrf;aqmif+yD;aemufydkif;
usr
ukvor*~XmecsKyfodk‹
jyefa&mufaeygonf? rdom;pkrdwfaqGwOD;jzpfol z&ifhxa&*g (Frank Trager) u ‚if;tjynfjynfqkdifa&;&m
ygarmuQtjzpf aqmif±Gufaeaom e,l;a,mufwuUodkvfY ‘pk’ bJG‹vGefoifwef;wuf&ef pDpOfygonf?
ygarmuQxa&*gonf tar&duef axmufyHha&;tpDtpOfwckjzifh jrefrmjynfwGif ESpftwef=um aecJhzl;ygonf?
olonf ta&SŒawmiftm&SESifh ta&SŒzsm;EkdifiHrsm;wGif us,fjyef‹pGm c&D;vSnfhvnfzl;um/ xdka'orsm;.
udpPt00wdk‹wGif pdwf0ifpm;olwOD;jzpfygonf? ola&;aom bm;rm;/ ya'o&mZfEdkifiHrS orwEkdifiHodk‹
trnfcHpmtkyfxGufcJhonfrSmvnf; r=umao;yg? olonf ‘pk’ . wdk;wufr_udk *±kwpdkufavhvmygonf?
usrwdk‹ae&m òrd‹v,f ref[wfwif (Midtown Manhatten) rS e,l;a,mufwuUodkvfodk‹
oGm;&aombwfpfum;c&D;rSm tawmf&Snf+yD; um;rl;wwfaom ‘pk’ twGuf yifyef;cufcJygonf?
bwfpfum;rSwfwdkifrS yef;+cHwckudkjzwf+yD;/ 0g&Sifwef&ifjyif (Washington Square) odk‹ oifwef;wuf&ef
‘pk’ oGm;&aomvrf;Y usufpm;avh&Sdaom vl=urf;rsm;. tEW&m,fuvnf; &Sdygao;onf? ukvor*~±Hk;odk‹
usrwdk‹aetdrfrS ajcmufrdepfavmufom vrf;av#muf&ygonf? odk‹jzifh avmavmq,f ‘pk’ ukvor*~wGif
tvkyf0if+yD; aemufrS pmqufoif&ef pdwful;ay:ygonf? tvkyfav#mufv$mrsm;/ axmufcHpmrsm;/
awG‹qHkar;jref;jcif;rsm;ESifh jzpf±dk;jzpfpOf =uef‹=umr_ESifh tcuftcJrsm;udk ausmfvGef+yD;aomtcg ‘pk’
ukvor*~0efxrf;wOD; jzpfoGm;ygawmhonf? oHk;ESpf=umr# ‘pk’ ukvor*~wGif tvkyfvkyf+yD;
aemufqHk;ESpfESpfwGif tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh bwf*sufðypka&;qkdif&m t}uHay;aumfrwDudk taxmuftulðy&aom
ukvor*~±Hk;tzJG‹wGif
wm0efxrf;aqmifygonf?
aumfrwD0ifrsm;onf
rdrdwdk‹EkdifiHrsm;.
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tjzpf cef‹tyfxm;&jcif; r[kwfbJ/ b¾ma&;qkdif&mudpPrsm;wGif u|rf;usifolrsm;tjzpf
cef‹tyfjcif;cH&olrsm;jzpfygonf? ukvor*~ESifh t&HtzJG‹tpnf;rsm; tm;vHk;tjyif urBmhusef;rma&;tzJG‹/
pm;eyf&duQmESifh v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;tzJG‹rsm;uJhodk‹aom txl;at*sifpDrsm;. pDrHudef;tpDtpOfrsm;ESifh
bwf*sufrsm;udk xdkaumfrwDu avhvmrSwfcsufcsjyifqif+yD; oabmwlnDr_&&ef wifjy&ygonf?
tvkyfrsm;cufcJaomfvnf;
ukvor*~vkyfief;rsm;.
ukefusp&dwfudk
tao;pdwfpDppf&jcif;ESifh
xufjrufxl;c|efaom tzJG‹0ifrsm;wdk‹a=umifh pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;vSygonf? xdktzJG‹0ifrsm;ESifh ‘pk’
aumif;pGm odu|rf;vmygonf?
ukvor*~0efxrf;rsm;onf
naeydkif;ESifh
owif;ywfukefydkif;
tm;vyfcsdefrsm;Y
y&[dwvkyfief;rsm;wGif vkyftm;ay;avh&Sd=uygonf? ref[wfwif&Sd usrwdk‹aetdrfrS bwfpfum;ESifhoGm;v#if
q,frdepfcef‹oma0;aom bJ(vf)A,l; (Belleview) qdkonfrSm e,l;a,mufaq;±Hk}uD;wck.
tpdwftydkif;jzpfygonf? òrd‹}uD;&Sd tqif;&JqHk;/ ukr&aom a&m*gpJGuyfaeolrsm;ESifh cdkudk;&mrJhrsm;twGuf
jzpfygonf? b0udk &ifrqkdifEkdifawmhbJ udk,fpdwfESpfjzmòydvJvkrwwf jzpfaeolrsm;udk xdkaq;±Hkodk‹
ac:vmavh&Sdygonf? vlrrmrsm;tm; pmzwfjyay;&ef/ tazmfðy&ef tpDtpOfrsm;wGif yg0if&ef trsKd;orD;/
trsKd;om;rsm; t+rJ ("gwfyHkvmonf)
("gwfyHk)
pk &efukefaetdrfodk‹ jyefvnfa&muf&Sdaeonfh ESpfrsm;wGif ±dkuful;xm;onf?
(aqmif;yg;tquf)

tvdk&Sdaeygonf? xdktpDtpOfwGif ‘pk’ yg0ifI tywfpOf em&Daygif;rsm;pGm vkyftm;ay;ygonf? Tum; olr
rdcif. y&[dwvkyfief; tpOftvmt& aqmif±Gufjcif;jzpfygonf?
xdktcsdefu jrefrmEkdifiHrS OD;oef‹onf ukvor*~twGif;a&;rª;csKyf jzpfygonf? ['fpifjrpfudk
vSrf;Ijrif&aom ol.tdrf}uD;onf &D;Am;a';(vf) (Riverdale) t&yfwGif&Sd+yD; usrwdk‹aetdrfrS um;ESifh
wem&Dcef‹ oGm;&ygonf? OD;oef‹tdrfY wnfcif;usif;yaom we*FaEGae‹ xrif;pm;yJGrsm;rSm usrwdk‹tzdk‹
tvGefpdwf±$ifvef;zG,f&m jzpfygonf? tjcm; jrefrmrdwfaqGrsm;vnf; vm=u+yD; usrwdk‹tóuduf
jrefrmtpm;tpmrsm; au|;arG;avh&Sdygonf? OD;oef‹. ajr;wOD;OD;. arG;ae‹uJhodk‹aom txl;ae‹rsm;wGif
jrefrmrsm;tjyif EkdifiHwumrS ukvor*~ t+rJwef;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udkyg zdwf=um;{nfhcHygonf?
tpm;tpmrSmrl
tpOft+rJ
taumif;qHk;jrefrmxrif;[if;rsm;
jzpfygonf?
OD;oef‹rdom;pku
aEG;axG;ysLiSmum {nfh0wfausvSygonf? usrwdk‹url {nfhonfawG odyfrrsm;aom xrif;pm;yJGrsm;udk ydkrdkI
ESpfoufaomfvnf;/ xdktcgrsm;Yyifv#if vlr_a&;/ EkdifiHa&;/ urBmhtajctae/ OD;oef‹udkifwG,fae&aom
jy\emrsm;
ponfwdk‹udk pdwfygvufyg 0dkif;0ef;aqG;aEG;Ekdifjcif;r&Sdyg? OD;oef‹. tdrf&SiftaeESifh
aqmif±Guf&aom wm0eft00a=umifh xdkuJhodk‹ pum;0dkif;aqG;aEG;yJGrsm; rjzpfEkdifcJh[k xifygonf?
jrefrmEdkifiHrS ukvor*~ t+rJwef;udk,fpm;vS,fjzpfol OD;pdk;wif. zdwf=um;{nfhcHyHkrsm;rSmrl
tenf;i,fuGmjcm;ygonf?
olvnf;
&D;Am;a';(vf)Yyif
OD;oef‹.
a*[mavmuf
}uD;us,fcrf;em;jcif;r&Sdaom tdrfwvHk;Y aeygonf? taxGaxGnDvmcH}uD; usif;ycsdefjzpfaom
pufwifbmv 'kwd,tywfrS 'DZifbmvv,fcef‹twGi;f qdkv#if OD;pdk;wifonf tvkyfudpPrsm;/
jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹ESifh
tjcm;udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹rsm;udk
{nfhcHau|;arG;&jcif;jzifh
rtm;rvyfjzpfaeavh&Sdygonf? tjcm;tcsdefrsm;wGifrl e,l;a,muf&Sd jrefrmrsm;udk ol. tdrfodk‹
Ak'<bmomyJGawmf tcgor,rsm;Y zdwfac:avh&Sdygonf? usrwdk‹onf ol. ZeD;ESifh om;orD;rsm;udk
cifrifESpfoufygonf? OD;pdk;wifonf oabmxm;}uD;oljzpfonfhtavsmuf jrefrmrsm;udk odk;rsm;/
qdwfrsm;[lI cJGjcm;+yD; rqufqHyg? qdwfrsm;qdkonfrSm OD;ae0if;vufatmuf jrefrmEdkifiH. tajctaeudk
a0zefolwdk‹jzpf+yD;/ omreftm;jzifh oH±Hk;t&m&Sdrsm;. yxm;jcif;udk cH&wwfygonf? OD;pdk;wiftdrfYum;
tajctwifaqG;aEG;jiif;ckefEkdifygonf? wcgw&H tjiif;tckefrSm jyif;xefaomfvnf; trsm;tm;jzifh
aAGr,lwrf;/ cifrifaom oabmaqmifygonf?
wcsdefwGif ukvor*~taxGaxGnDvmcH usif;yqJtcsdeftwGif; usrESifh ‘pk’ udk OD;pdk;wiftdrfodk‹
xrif;pm;zdwfygonf? jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹0iftcsKdŒu usrwdk‹ESifhawG‹vdka=umif; ajymygonf?
OD;pdk;wifonf tpOf,Ofaus;azmfa±GolwOD; jzpfaomfvnf; Tzdwf=um;yHkrSmrl xl;jcm;aeojzifh ‘wckckawmh
wckckyJ’ [k usr xifrdygonf? ol. &D;Am;a';(vf)aetdrfodk‹ usrwdk‹ ae‹v,favmuf a&mufoGm;ygonf?
yef;rsm;/ &GufvSyifrsm;/ teufESifh a±$a&mifjc,f jrefrm,Gef;xnfrsm;ESifh jynfhaeaom av;axmifhyHk
{nfhcef;}uD;twGif;&Sd qdkzmrsm;ESifh ukvm;xdkifrsm;udk tcef;ab;udkuyfI a±$Œxm;+yD;/ aumfzDyef;uefwif
pm;yJG}uD;rsm;udk xdkifckHrsm;a&SŒwGif pDxm;.? qdkzmrsm;ESifh ukvm;xkdifrsm;ay:wGif taxGaxGnDvmcHwuf&ef
a&mufaeaom jrefrmoHtrwf}uD;rsm; woDwwef;}uD; xdkifae=u.? usrwdk‹ESifh rawG‹zl;ao;aom
olrsm;tm; rdwfqufay;+yD; ‘pk’ udk tcef;wzufpGef;Y vl}uD;ESpfa,muft=um;wGif xkdifapygonf? usrudkrl
udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹udk OD;aqmifol Adkvfrª;}uD;armifvGif&Sd&mESifh ra0;vSaom vlESpfOD;t=um;Y xdkifapygonf?
OD;pdk;wif. ZeD;u opfoD;azsmf&nfrsm; vdkufIurf;jcif;/ tmvl;a=umf paom oGm;&nfpmrsm;udk
pm;yJGrsm;ay:csjcif; ponfh 0wW&m;rsm; +yD;pD;onfESifh txl;{nfhonfawmfrsm;ESifh xdkufwefatmif
csufðywfxm;aom xrif;yJGudk t+yD;owfpDrH&ef uyfvsuftcef;xJodk‹ xGufoGm;ygonf? tm;vHk; tv†my/
ov†my pum;rsm; ajym=uygonf? OD;pdk;wifonf ,Ofaus;pGm òyH;aeaomfvnf; tae&cufaeyHk&ygonf?
a&muf&Sdaeaom vlpkvla0;u ‘pk’ tay:wGif pD&ifcsufwrsKd;rsKd;cs&ef pdkif;jyif;aeonfrSm xif&Sm;ygonf?
b,fvdkpD&ifcsufrsKd; csrnfudkawmh usr rawG;Ekdifjzpfaeygonf? udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹t}uD;tuJu

OD;aqmifwdkufcdkufygawmhonf?
‘pk’
rnfuJhodk‹
ukvor*~Y
tvkyfvkyfaeygoenf;/
rnfonfhEdkifiHul;vufrSwf udkifaqmifxm;ygoenf;/ olrrdcifonf oHtrwf}uD; r[kwfawmhojzifh ‘pk’
taeESifh oHwrefrsm;qdkif&m EdkifiHul;vufrSwf jyeftyf&rnf jzpfygonf? ,ckxd jyefrtyf&ao;qdkonfrSm
rSefygovm;? oHwrefrsm;qkdif&m EdkifiHul;vufrSwfudk qufvufudkifxm;jcif;rSm Oya'ESifhrnDa=umif; olr
odrnfjzpfygonf? tvGefrS enf;vrf;rusaom udpPjzpfojzifh tjrefqHk;jyifqif&ef vdkygonf?
wpkwa0;vHk;u
OD;vGifajymor#udk
rsufESmvdkrsufESm&
atmufusKdŒaomtoGifjzifh
axmufcHoHrsm;ðyum ‘pk’ udk 0kdif;=unfhae=uygawmhonf? ‘pk’ u taerysuf wnf+idrfpGm&Sdaejcif;rSm
usrtwGuf tawmfpdwfoufom&mjzpfapygonf? olru Áa¹EN&Sd&Sd avat;at;ESifh jyefajzygonf?
EdkifiHul;vufrSwftopf&&ef vef'ef&Sd jrefrmoH±Hk;Y olr av#mufxm;onfrSm tcsdeftawmf=umoGm;+yD
jzpfaomfvnf; ,ckwdkif tajzr&ao;a=umif;/ rnfuJhodk‹aom ta=umif;a=umifh Tr# xl;xl;jcm;jcm;
=uef‹=umae&onfudk rajymEkdifa=umif;/ e,l;a,mufodk‹ olr ynmoif&ef vmcJh&mY &Sdvufp
EkdifiHul;vufrSwfudkyif udkifaqmifcJh&a=umif;/ pm;0wfaexdkifa&;twGuf tvkyf&Sm&ef vdkaeonfhtcsdefY
uHtm;avsmfpGm ukvor*~Y tvkyf&&SdcJha=umif;/ jrefrmEdkifiHom;jzpfa=umif; taxmuftxm;jy&ef
EkdifiHul;vufrSwfrSm vdktyfcsufjzpfa=umif;/ vaygif;rsm;pGmuyif av#mufxm;cJhaom EdkifiHul;vufrSwfudk
vef'efoH±Hk;rS ydk‹ay;&ef apmifhaevsufyifjzpfa=umif;/ EkdifiHul;vufrSwf topfa&mufonfESifh ta[mif;udk
0rf;ompGmjyeftyfrnfjzpfa=umif;/ EdkifiHjcm;Y tvkyfvkyfudkifEkdif&ef EkdifiHul;vufrSwf (oHwrefqdkif&myJjzpfap/
±dk;±dk;yJjzpfap) wrsKd;rsKd; vkdtyfonfudk tcef;wGif;&Sd OD;av;tm;vHk; em;vnf=urnf[k olr ,lqa=umif;/ ‘pk’
u ,Ofaus;odrfarG‹aom toHaetoHxm;ESifh wdusaumif;rGefaom jrefrmpum;vHk;rsm;udkoHk;I
ajymoGm;ygonf?
vef'efrS
jrefrmoHtrwfu
xum
‘pk’
taeESifh
EdkifiHul;vufrSwftopf&&ef
av#mufxm;cJhonfrSm vaygif;rsm;pGm &Sd+yDjzpfa=umif;udk twnfðyum xHk;pHtwdkif; av#mufv$mudk
&efukefodk‹ydk‹xm;a=umif; ajymygawmhonf? tb,fha=umifh vaygif;rsm;pGm =um+yDjzpfaomfvnf;
ta=umif;rjyefao;onfudk ol rod&a=umif;vnf; ajymygonf? trSeftm;jzifh jrefrmjynfY Todk‹enf;wl
aESmifhaES;=uef‹=umr_rsm;udk
jzpfay:apaom
±_yfaxG;ayGvDvSonfh
AsL±dku&uf,EW&m;ESifh
tvkyftudkifryDjyifr_rsm;ta=umif;udk tcef;wGif;&Sd usrwdk‹tm;vHk; od&Sd+yD;jzpfygonf? xdktcgrS
tjcm;oHtrwfrsm;uvnf;
‘pk’
taeESifh
rdrdvyk fcJhyHkrSvJGI
tjcm;a&G;cs,f&mvrf;r&SdcJh[k
oabmwl=uygawmhonf? udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹t}uD;tuJ. rsufESmxm;um; rwifrusjzpfvm.?
awmif;yefouJhodk‹aom
avoHESifh
tputajctaeudk
vHk;aphywfaph
em;rvnfcJha=umif;/
&efukefjyefa&mufaomtcg
EkdifiHul;vufrSwf±Hk;u
vkyfp&m&Sdonfrsm;udk
vsifjrefpGmvkyf&ef
oludk,fwkdifn$ef=um;vdkufrnfjzpfa=umif; ajymygonf? Tyk*~Kdvf}uD;rsm;rSm ‘pk’ xuf touftm;jzifh
}uD;=uolrsm;jzpf=uaomfvnf; aumif;aomt&nftcsi;f tm;jzifh }uD;olrsm;r[kwf[k usr xifrdygonf?
usrvnf; csufaumif;,lum ‘EdkifiHul;vufrSwfawG vHk;vHk;rvdkawmhwJhae‹ jrefjrefa&mufygapvdk‹ usrwdk‹
ar#mfvifh&rSmyJ’ [k ajymvdkufygonf? xdk‹aemuf usrwdk‹ ae‹v,fpmpm;=uygonf?
t+rJwrf;udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹xJwGif jrefrmjynftajctaersm;udk usrwkd‹ yGifhyGifhvif;vif;
aqG;aEG;I&aom rdwfaqGwOD; yg0ifygonf? xdkrdwfaqGum; “pk. a0zefcsufrsm; odyf&JvGef;onf[k
,lqaomtcgrsm;Y ‘pk’ u ,Hk=unfcsuft& owWd&Sd±Hkru/ tquftEG,ft&vnf; owWd&Sdwmudk;”[k
aemufajymifavh&Sd.? olr qdkvdkonfrmS ‘pk’ onf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh a':cif=unfwdk‹. orD;jzpfojzifh
awmfawmfESifh ESdrfvdk‹&rnfr[kwf/ usrtxifrSmawmh ‘pk’ onf aoG;om;t&xuf pdwf"mwft& olr
rdbESpfyg;. orD; yDoygayonf?
ukvor*~±Hk;Y oHk;ESpf=um wm0efxrf;aqmif+yD;aemuf ‘pk’ onf qufvufwm0efrxrf;awmhbJ
om;orD;rsm;ESifh odkufodkuf0ef;0ef;&Sdrnfh tdrfaxmifonfb0udk a&G;cs,f&ef qHk;jzwfvdkufygonf? odk‹ESifh

b0opfw&yf pygawmhonf? TtcsdefrSpaom jzpfpOfrsm;rSm trsm;od+yD;jzpfygonf? cifyGef;jzpfol
rdkufu,ftJ&pfonf ESpftawmf=umuyif [dr0EWmEdkifiHav;jzpfaom blwefY bk&ifhom;orD;rsm;.
pmjyq&mtjzpf‚if;/ tpdk;&bmomjyefXme t}uD;tuJtjzpf‚if; wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhygonf? ‘pk’ vnf;
blwefY wESpfcef‹ aecJhygonf? blwefonf ukvor*~tzJG‹wGif;odk‹ r=umao;rDurS 0ifcJhojzifh ‘pk’ onf
csufcsif;yif blwefEkdifiHjcm;a&;±Hk;Y ukvor*~udpPrsm;qkdif&m t}uHay;t&m&Sdtjzpf tvkyf&ygonf? ‘pk’ wdk‹
ZeD;armifESHonf om;OD; tvufZENm;tm; rsufESmjrif&ef t*Fvefodk‹ jyefvmygonf? rdkufu,fum;
vef'efwuUodkvfY
yg&*lbJG‹oifwef;
pwif+yD;/
rsm;r=umrD
atmufpzdk‹'fY
ynm&SiftvkyfcGifxJ0ifvdkufygonf? 'kwd,om; uifrfudk 1977 ckESpfwGif zGm;jrifygonf? ‘pk’ vnf;
uav;rsm;tm; ðypkysKd;axmifjcif;/ &efukef&Sd rdcifxH tvnftywfoGm;jcif;wdk‹jzifh at;aq;pGm aecJhygonf?
rdom;pkudk
=unfh±_xdef;odrf;&if;
‘pk’
pmayrsm;
pIa&;om;ygonf?
pmzwf0goemoefonfhtavsmuf olronf t*FvdyfESifh jyifopfbmompmtkyf tajrmuftjrm;
pkaqmif;xm;ygonf? rdkufu,f. wdAufpmaya&;&m okawoersm;ESifhqdkifaom pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;vnf;
wae‹xufwae‹ rsm;jym;vmygonf? odk‹ESifh olwdk‹. atmufpzdk‹'faetdrfrSm pmtkyfrsm;ESifh jynfhv#Haeygonf?
uav;rsm;vnf; pmzwf0goemygolrsm;tjzpf }uD;jyif;vmygonf? ‘pk’ onf olr zcif. txky`wWda&;&ef
pwifpOf;pm;ygonf? *syefbmompum;udk ZJG}uD;pGmjzifh pl;pl;pdkufpdkufoifygawmhonf? jrefrmjynfta=umif;
a&;xm;aom t*FvdyfESifh jrefrmpmtkyfrsm;/ *syefjynfta=umif; a&;xm;aom t*FvdyfESifh *syefpmtkyfrsm;
wjznf;jznf; pkaqmif;rdvmonf? zcif txky`wWdpmtkyfðypk&ef okawoepwifygonf? vef'ef&Sd
ta&SŒwdkif;ESifh tmz&duqdkif&mausmif;Y yg&*lbJG‹,l&efvnf; pwifpDpOfygonf? xdktcsdefu olr.
vkyfudkifv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;onf vHk‹v}uD;jcif;ESifh oEMdÏmefcdkifjcif;udk jyoonf[k qdk&ayrnf?
1985 ckESpfwGif *syefESifhqufpyfaom olr zcif. b0tpdwftydkif;ESifhywfoufI okawoeðy&ef
wdkusKdwuUodkvfu urf;vSrf;aom ynmoifqkukd ‘pk’ vufcHvdkufygonf? *syef-jrefrm
tpnf;t±Hk;0ifrsm;udk awG‹qHkum/ ‚if;wdk‹rSwqifh olrzcifESifh odu|rf;cJhaom touf&SifqJ&Sdaeonfh
*syefrsm;ESifh tquftoG,fðycJhygonf? awG‹qHkolwkdif;u olrtm; xdkpOfu tjzpftysufrsm;ta=umif;
wckr[kwfwck ajymjy=uygonf? *syefrsm;ta=umif; A[kokwwdk;yGm;vm+yD; tquftoG,f ("gwfyHkrsm;
vmonf)
("gwfyHk)
pk vufxyfxdrf;jrm;aomae‹/ ZEM0g&Dv 1 &ufae‹ 1972 ckESpf
tay: - blwefEkdifiH awmifay:c&D; 1971 ckESpf
atmuf – cifyGef; rdkufu,ftJ&pfESifhtwl/ armfvòrdifòrd‹wGif 1973 ckESpf
om;OD; tvufZENm;
(jrifhqef;atmif)
ESifhtwl
1973
(aqmif;yg;tquf)
rsm;vnf; us,fjyef‹vmygonf? xdktcsdefY rdkufu,fonf tdENd,jynfajrmufydkif; qif;rvm;òrd‹&Sd tdENd,EkdifiH
tqifhjrifhpmayavhvma&;XmeY
okawoeynm&SifwOD;tjzpf
a&muf&Sdaeygonf?
om;}uD;u
atmufpzdk‹'fwGif ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm;tjzpf aecJh+yD;/ om;i,fu ‘pk’ ESifh wdkusKdòrd‹odk‹ ygvmygonf? 1986

ckESpfwGif usrudk wdkusKdwuUodkvf tjynfjynfqdkif&m &dyfomY olwdk‹ESifhtwl vmae&ef ‘pk’ u
zdwfac:ygonf? usrvnf; oHk;vcef‹oGm;aejzpfygonf? *syefrsm;ESifh‚if;/ bmom&yftrsKd;rsKd;avhvm&ef
*syefynmoifqkrsm; &&Sdxm;aom EdkifiHwumrS ynm&Sifrsm;ESifh‚if; ‘pk’ cifcifrifrif &if;&if;ESD;ESD;&Sdygonf?
*syefY jzpfajrmufr_tawmf&Sdonf[k ‘pk’ ,lqygonf? aemufESpfESpfwGif qif;rvm;&Sd rdkufu,fxHodk‹ ‘pk’/
om;i,fESifh t*FvefrS om;}uD;yg a&mufvmum rdom;pktm;vHk; jyefqHk=uygonf? rdkufu,f
tvkyfvkyfaeaomXmeY ‘pk’ vnf; okawoeynm&Siftjzpf cef‹tyfjcif;cH&ygonf? 1987 ckESpfwGif usr
tdENd,Y &Sdonfjzpf&m okawoe&Sd olwdk‹wkdufcef;Y wvcef‹ aysmfaysmfyg;yg; oGm;vnfEkdifcJhygonf?
Xmewnf&Sd&m taqmuftOD;}uD;onf vGwfvyfa&;r&rD tcsdefumvu +Adwdo#bk&ifcHcsKyfrsm;ESifh ‚if;wdk‹.
±Hk;tzJG‹rsm; aEG&moDwGifaexkdif&mtdrfawmfjzpfygonf?
xdkESpfwGifyif a':cif=unfonf rsufaphrSwdrfukd cJGpdwfuko&eftwGuf vef'efodk‹a&mufvmygonf?
cJGpdwfr_rsm; atmifatmifjrifjrif&Sdojzifh aq;ukor_a=umifh roufrom&Sd&aomfvnf; a':cif=unftwGuf
pdwf&$ifvef;csrf;ajrŒzG,ftcsdefjzpfygonf? ‘pk’ onf qif;rvm;rS olr. tvkyfudk &yfxm;cJhum rdcifudk
ðypk&ef a&mufvmygonf? tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGif aexkdiftvkyfvkyfaeom olrtudkvnf; q,f&ufcef‹
tvnfa&mufvmygonf? usrvnf; vef'efY &Sdonfhtavsmuf a':cif=unfudk ae‹wkdif;vdkvdkyif
awG‹jzpfygonf? tjcm;rdwfaqGa[mif;rsm;/ rdwfaqGopfrsm;vnf; vmIowif;ar;=uum &,f&,farmarm
a&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpfrsm;ta=umif;
ajymvdkuf=uESifh
&$ifvef;csrf;ajrŒzG,fjzpfygonf?
a':cif=unf
wnf;aeaomwdkufcef;onf opfoD;rsm;/ yef;rsm;ESifh jrefqefpGm a&m*gaysmufuif;usef;rmap&ef
qkawmif;ydk‹oaom
u'frsm;ESifh
jynfhaeygonf?
‘pk’
onf
tdrfaxmifrðyrDu‚if;/
tdrfaxmifðy+yD;aomtcgY‚if; jrefrmjynf&Sd rdcifxH rSefrSeftvnfoGm;cJhygonf? a':cif=unfonf
om;ajr;rsm; }uD;jyif;vmonfudk jrifcJh&+yD; rsuaf phrcJGrDESpfwGif rdrd.&efukeftdrfY uav;rsm;.
&Sifðyr*FvmyJGudk udk,fwkdif}uD;=uyf+yD; usif;ycJhygonf? vef'efwGif ESpfESpf=umae+yD;aemuf a':cif=unfonf
rsufpdrsm; tawmf tajctaeaumif;vm+yDjzpfI jrefrmjynfokd‹ &$ifvef;pGmjyefoGm;ygonf? vef'efudk
tvnfa&mufpOfu rnfr#pdwfcsrf;ajrŒcJha=umif;/ ("gwfyHkvmygonf)
tay: - pk/ om;i,f uifrf (xdefvif;)ESifh rdcif}uD;wdk‹ tmZmenfae‹tcrf;tem; wufa&mufpOf 1986 ckESpf
atmuf – om;rsm;udk 1987 ckESpfwGif &SifðypOfu (0JrS,m) uifrf (&SifawZ)/ OD;yO…if;/
a&$=uuf,ufq&mawmf-ysHvGef/ OD;yO…if;/ tvufZENm; (&Sifynm)
(aqmif;yg;tquf)
‚if;wdk‹ESifh awG‹qHkcJh&onfudkvnf; yDwdjzpf&a=umif; pojzifh rdwfaqGtrsm;tjym;udk pma&;today;ygonf?
odk‹aomf &efukefjyefa&mufIrS q,fvrjynfhrD aemufESpf 1988 rwfvukefydkif;wGif jyif;xefaom
avjzwfjcif;'%fudk cH&ygonf? pk/ rdkufu,fESifh om;ESpfa,mufonf tdENd,rS atmufpzdk‹'fodk‹ 1987
pufwifbmvtwGif; jyefa&mufvmcJh=u+yD; wuUodkvfynm&Sifrsm;avmuwGif jyefvnfaeom;usptcsdefY
a':cif=unf avjzwfa=umif;owif; a&mufvmygonf? ‘pk’ vnf; csufcsif;yif &onfhav,mOfjzifh rdciftm;
ðypk&ef &efukefodk‹ vdkufoGm;ygonf?
1988 ckESpf jrefrmjynftwGif; tjzpftysufrsm;udk trsm;od+yD;jzpfygonf? ESpfOD;ydkif;u
qENjyausmif;om;rsm; aoewfypfcwfjcif; cH=u&pOfupI jy\emrsm;/ ay:aygufrnfhtvm;tvmrsm;
&SdcJhygonf? aemifwGif qENjyyJGrsm; ydkrdk}uD;xGm;vmum t=urf;zufr_rsm;vnf; jzpfay:vmavonf? ‘8-888’ ae‹onf jynfolaygif;ajrmufjrm;pGm csDwufqENjy=u+yD; 'Drdkua&pDawmif;qdkaomae‹ jzpfygonf?
TqENjycsDwufyJGrsm;udk
ESdrfeif;&ef
tpdk;&wyfrsm;u
ypfcwfowfjzwfcJhI
usqHk;'%f&m&olrsm;ta&twGufrSm aemifwESpf=umwGif yDuif;òrd‹ wD,Htmrif&ifjyifY aoa=uysufpD;rnfh

w±kwfjynfolOD;a&xuf rsm;pGmydkrdkygonf? ‘pk’ acgif;a&SmifaeI rjzpfawmhyg? Tvufopf
t=urf;zuftm%m&Sifpepfudk wkdufzsuf&ef jynfolvlxkudk acgif;aqmifay;Edkifrnfh olr.zcifum;
r&Sdawmh+yD? tazhorD;yDopGm olr yg0ifv_yf&Sm;&ayawmhrnf?
‘pk’ onf wnfaxmif+yD;p trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf. taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;taejzifh
jrefrmEdkifiHw0Srf; pnf;±Hk;a&;qif;ygonf? Tpnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;rsm;. &nf&G,fcsufrSm tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;rsm;
zGifhvSpf&efomru OD;ae0if;. zdESdyfcsKyfcs,faom ppftm%m&Sifpepf (aemufykdif;wGifawmh t&yfom;ta&òcH
ppftpdk;&) vufatmufwGif ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm aecJh&I pJGuyfaeaom a=umuf&GHŒpdwfrsm;rS
jrefrmEkdifiHolEkdifiHom;rsm; ±kef;xGufvGwfajrmufEkdifapjcif;iSm vrf;jyE_d;aqmf&efjzpfygonf?
‘pk’ u t*Fvdyfa&m/ jrefrmyg bmompum;ESpfrsKd;vHk;wGif Ekdifeif;u|rf;usifygonf?
jrefrmbmompum;udk toHk;ðyum olr.zcifuJhodk‹yif jrefrmjynfolvlxk. &ifxJtawG;xJodk‹a&mufatmif
pGrf;aqmifygonf? olr. tawG;tjrifrsm;ESifh aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;udk urBmodk‹wifjy&eftwGuf
t*Fvdyfbmompum;udk oHk;ygonf? xdkif;r_dif;zG,f&mb0Y ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm epfðryfaecJh+yD; r=umcifurS
qENjy&ef Edk;=um;vmcJh=uaom jrefrmjynfolvlxkudk v_H‹aqmfpnf;±Hk;ay;&ef jrefrmbmompum;onf
ta&;tygqHk;jzpfygonf? Todk‹ jynfolvlxkudk v_H‹aqmfpnf;±Hk;&eftwGuf ‘pk’ onf udk,fpdwfESpfyg;vHk;
tvGefyifyef;pGm tm;xkwf&onfhtjyif ra&rwGufEdkifavmufatmif tEW&m,frsKd;pHkESifh pGef‹pm;r_rsm;udkvnf;
óuHawG‹&ygonf? txl;ojzifh ppftpdk;&u xkwfjyefxm;aom trdef‹t& vl av;OD;xufydkI pka0;jcif;onf
Oya'ESifhqef‹usif+yD; ppfwyfu tiftm;oHk;um vlpkcJGcGifh&Sdygonf?
wcgwGif ppftpdk;&. trdef‹xkwfjyefxm;csufESifhtnD[k xifygonf? =unf;wyfrS Adkvf}uD;wOD;u
‘pk’ ESifh olr. pnf;±Hk;a&;tzJG‹0ifwdk‹udk a&SŒqufoGm;v#if ypfcwfrnf[k +cdrf;ajcmuf+yD; aoewfrsm;jzifhcsdefum
vrf;c&D;udk ydwfqdk‹ygonf? ‘pk’ u tvGefwnf+idrfpGmjzifh olr.tazmfrsm;udk ab;odk‹z,fI apmifhae&efrSm+yD;
olru vrf;udk wOD;wnf;om qufIoGm;ygonf? olru vdktyfv#if toufwacsmif;udkompGef‹&efESifh
,if;rSmvnf; olr. toufomjzpfap&rnf[k ,wdjywfqHk;jzwfcJhjcif;jzpfygonf? Tvkyf&yfonf
tvGef&J&ifh+yD; atmifjrifr_vnf; &cJhygonf? ta=umif;rSm xdkaemufqHk;tcsdefydkif;uav;rSmyif ab;rS
Adkvfrª;wa,mufu =um;0ifI ypfcwfrnfudk wm;qD;cJhygonf? wcgw&H ‘pk’ u olrrdcif a':cif=unf.
pnf;urf;pepfuspGm oGefoifxdef;a=umif; vrf;n$efr_atmufwGif olr }uD;jyif;vmcJh&yHkrsm;udk ajymjywwf+yD;
Todk‹aom yJhjyifoGefoifr_rsm;a=umifhyifv#if b0wGifawG‹óuH&aom rxifrSwfonfh tcuftcJ/ 'kuQrsm;udk
ausmfv$m;atmifjrifEkdifjcif;jzpfygonf? qdkcJh+yD;aom tjzpftysufrsm;rSmvnf; TuJhodk‹aom tcuftcJ
t=uyftwnf;rsm;pGmxJrS wckomjzpfygonf?
Ttjzpftysufta=umif;udk =um;&/ zwf&onfhtcg usrtaeESifh a':cif=unfudk wzefjyefvnf
owd&apygonf? tcgaygif;rsm;pGm olrvnf; vuf±Hk;&nf/ jzwfxdk;Om%fESifh qHk;jzwfcsuf/ xdk;xGif;Om%f/
rdrdtvdkodk‹ygatmif qJGaqmifpnf;±Hk;wwfr_ESifh vltrsm;ESifh ajyjypfatmif qufqHwwfr_wdk‹udk toHk;csum
tusOf;t=uyfxJrS vGwfatmif qdk;0g;aom ab;tEW&m,frS z,f&Sm;Ekdifatmif }uHaqmifEkdifcJhygonf?
a':cif=unfu usrwdk‹udk olr awG‹óuHcJh&aom tjzpftysufrsm;pGmudk ajymjywwf+yD; ‘pk’ vnf;
Ttjzpftysuftm;vHk;udk
odxm;+yD;jzpfygonf?
a':cif=unfonf
tvkyfwm0efrS
t+idrf;pm;,l+yD;aemufrSmyif trsm;ESifhqufqH&mY tvGefodkodyfjcif;/ rSefuefpGmqHk;jzwfjcif;wdk‹ &SdcJhygonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;rSmrl trsm;od+yD;jzpfonfhtwkdif; vuf±Hk;&nfa&m/ ESvHk;&nfyg jynfh0&atmif
woufwmvHk; óud;yrf;cJhygonf?
‘pk’ . oabmobm0ESifh }uHŒcdkifaompdwf"mwfwdk‹. Zpfjrpfudk avhvmpl;prf;&mwGif usr.
&nf&G,fcsufrSm Oyrmtm;jzifh ajr}uD;udk trSDðyum tvGefxl;qef;&Sm;yg;aom tzl;tyGifhuav;wck
jzpfay:vm&ouJhodk‹yif rdbESpfOD;udk t&if;cH+yD; Txl;jcm;ajymifajrmufaom &ifaoG;wOD;jzpfxGef;vm&yHkudk
qufoG,f=unfh&efjzpfygonf?

‘pk’ ESifh udk,fusifhw&m;ajzmifhrwfjcif;/ wnfhrwfaom &nf&G,fcsufyef;wdkif&Sdjcif;/ ravsmhaom
ZJGvHk‹vESifh pl;pl;pdkufpkduf &nfrSef;csufukda&mufatmif }uHaqmifwwfjcif; paom t&nftaoG;rsm;onf
tcuftcJESifh &ifqkdif&aomtcgrsm;wGif pdwf"mwfusavhr&Sdjcif;/ b,ft&mudkrqdk taumif;bufrS
=unfhwwfjcif;/ olwyg;. qkdvdk&if;udk em;vnfwwfjcif;/ zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ESifh &efrlr_rsm;ESifh awG‹óuH&aomtcg
Áa¹ENrysufjcif;/ oEdMXmefcdkifjcif; ponfwdk‹ESifhvnf; twlwJGvsuf&Sdaeygonf? olr atmufpzdk‹'fwGif
ynmoif=um;cJhaomESpfrsm;/ tdrfaxmif&Sifrb0ESihf olr. om;ESpfa,mufudk ðypkysKd;axmif&r_/
tiftm;csdeJ‹olrsm;ESifh ouf}uD;&G,ftdkrsm;tay: *±kpdkufapmifha&Smufwwfr_/ olr. us,fjyef‹aom
oli,fcsif;rdwfaqGtodkif;t0dki;f / ydkrdkwdk;yGm;vmaom olr. pdwf0ifpm;r_rsm;/ olr. tqdkt&
olrcifyGef;onfudk
pHerlemðyI
tm;ustwk,l+yD;
ynmxl;c|efatmif
avhvmvdkufpm;r_/
aemufydkif;ESpfrsm;wGif &&SdcJhaom tawG‹tóuHrsm;tm;vHk;wdk‹udk pkaygif;vdkufaomtcgwGif &v'frSm
&ifhusufr_/
vdkufavsmnDaxGqufqHwwfr_/
tvGefta&;ygaom
pdefac:r_rsm;udk
vdkvm;pGm
udkifwG,fEkdifpGrf;&Sdvmr_wdk‹yif jzpfygonf? twdkajym&v#if ‘pk’ onf tzdESdyfcHae&aom jynfolw&yfvHk;.
ar#mfvifh&m/ tm;xm;&m jzpfvmygonf?
,ckvuf&SdtajctaewGif olrtwGuf tcsdefonf &yfwef‹vsuf &SdaeouJhodk‹ xif&aomfvnf;
olr. t&nftaoG;rsm; ydkrdkpl;&Sawmufajymifvmr_udkrl rwm;qD;Edkifyg? olrudk zdESdyfcsKyfcs,f&aom
vlwpkudk,fwkdifuyif olrudk txifr}uD;bJ raeEdkif=u[k ,lqygonf? jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;tay:
v$rf;òcHvsuf&Sdonfh “a=umuf±GHŒjcif; qdkaom r_dif;xk}uD;” udk òzdcJGypf&ef olr. óud;yrf;csufrsm;rSm
tvGefrGefjrwfvSaom &nfrSef;csufw&yfjzpf+yD;/ T&nfrSef;csuf atmifjrifatmif wkdufyJG0if&eftwGuf
olrwGif um,pGrf;&nf/ Om%pGrf;tm;/ jzLpifaom udk,fusifhw&m;wdk‹ESifhvnf; jynfhpHk+yD;jzpfygonf?
ta&;awmfyHkatmifygap?
* * *
pkESifh
olr.
rdom;pkwdk‹ta=umif;udk
txufygtwdkif;
usra&;cJhonfrSm
tcsdeftawmf=umoGm;+yDjzpfygonf?
TtcsdeftwGif; usrwdk‹. jrefrmjynfolrsm; rnfodk‹aomtajctaersm; óuHawG‹ae=u&ygovJ?
‘pk’ wa,mufa&m b,frSmvJ? jrefrmjynfol/ jynfom;rsm; aumif;pm;a&;twGuf óud;yrf;aeonf[k
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v$rf;rdk;xm;qJjzpfygonf? wyfrawmf axmufvSrf;tzJG‹0ifrsm;uvnf; xHk;pHtwkdif; ae&mtESH‹&Sdaeygonf?
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w&m;r#wr_r&Sdjcif;ESifh
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vlwkdif;todyifjzpfygonf? rnfonfha0zefr_udkrS cGifhrðy/ vufcH=uyg? vGwfvyfpGmajymqdkcGifhqdkonfrSmvnf;
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e0w u ‚if;wdk‹. uef‹owfcsKyfcs,fr_aygif;rsm;pGmxJrS tenf;i,fudk tav#mhay;oa,mif
[efjyaomfvnf; ‚if;wdk‹tay:wGif vlxku ,Hk=unfvmatmif rvkyfEkdifyg? xkdif;/ w±kwfESifh jrefrmwdk‹
arSmifcdkul;jcif;vkyfief;ukd w&m;0ifcGifhðy+yD; vrf;rsm; zGifhay;vdkufjcif;onfvnf; qif;&Jom;rsm;. b0rsm;udk
rnfodk‹r# racsmifvnfapyg? ppftpdk;&u w±kwf/ xdkif;EkdifiHwdk‹ESifh ydkrdkcifrif;&if;ESD;pGm qufqHjcif;jzifh

ppfvufeufrsm; 0,f,lEkdif&efESifh zufpyfpDrHudef;vkyfief;rsm; vkyfudkifEkdif&ef }uHaqmifcsufrsm;rSmvnf;
jrefrmjynfoljynfom;taygif;wdk‹. tem*wftwGuf &ifav;zG,fjzpfonfhtjyif jrefrmEkdifiHtwGuf
qif;&JwGif; ydkIeufapygonf? EkdifiHtwGif;rS obm0o,HZmwrsm;udk rwefwq aps;rsm;avsmhIa&mif;+yD;
&onfhaiGjzifh
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e0w u olwdk‹ajymor#udk acgif;ndwfrnfholrsm;[k ,lq&aom EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;rS
udk,fpm;vS,ftcsKdŒudk
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usif;yaeygonf?
olwdk‹u
“ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepfudk t&if;cHaom tajccHOya'w&yfudk a&;qJG&ef” óud;yrf;aeonf[k ajymygonf?
olwdk‹a&G;cs,fac:,lxm;aom “[kwfuJh” [kom ajzrnf[k ,lq&onfh ygwDudk,fpm;vS,frsm;xJrSyif
tcsKdŒu aemiftem*wfwGifvnf; ppfwyfu ,ckvdkyif EdkifiHa&;wGif OD;pD;OD;aqmifðyaom tcef;u¾rS
yg0ifEdkif&ef tqdkðyonfudk uef‹uGufcJh=uygonf? pl;prf;avhvmolrsm;u TtrsKd;om;nDvmcHudk
vuf&Sdtm%m&Sifrsm;taeESifh
tm%mudk
tcsdet
f uef‹towfr&Sd
qkyfudkifxm;Ekdifatmif
tuGufqifxm;aom vkyf&yfwckomjzpfonf[k owfrSwf=uygonf?
e0w tpdk;&onf ‚if;wdk‹. vl‹tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufusL;vGefaom vkyf&yfrsm;twGuf uJh&JŒ±_wfcsr_
trsKd;rsKd;cH&ygonf? ukvor*~ taxGaxGnDvmcHu 1991 ESifh 1992 ckESpfrsm;wGif xkdodk‹aom
a0zefuef‹uGufonfh qHk;jzwfcsufpmwrf;rsm; xkwfjyefcJhygonf? 1992 ckESpfwGif xkwfjyefaom
a=unmcsufwGif ukvor*~ taxGaxGnDvmcHu owfowfrSwfrSwf trnfESifhwuG xkwfazmfum
a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifhtwl
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EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;tm;
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vl‹tcGifhta&;aumfr&SiftzJG‹u
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txif&Sm;qHk;acgif;aqmifjzpfaom a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk e0w u qufIzrf;qD;xm;jcif;udkvnf;
±_wfcscJhygonf? Taumfr&Sifu jrefrmjynftwGif;Y qufvufjzpfyGm;aeaom ydkIqdk;0g;vmonfh
vl‹tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufusL;vGefr_rsm;/ Oyrm &Gmrsm;udk &GmvHk;u|wf t"rRajymif;a&$Œapjcif;/ jynfolrsm;udk
twif;t=uyf ppfwyftwGuf ay:wmrsm;tjzpf ckdif;apum tpmrau|;bJxm;jcif;/ ppfa=umif;ta&SŒrS
rdkif;&Sif;&mwGif
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vl‹tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_rsm;udk
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txl;udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹rsm;tm; ESpf}udrfapv$wfcJhygonf?
e0w tpdk;&onf tjynfjynfqdkif&m tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;. wav;wpm;qufqHr_udk qHk;±_H;cJh+yD;
,ckrSom ðyjyifxm;aom toGifwrsKd;tm; urBmhEkdifirH sm;udk wifjy&ef óud;pm;aeygonf? tcsnf;ESD;ygwnf;?
a,muFsm;/ rdef;r/ uav;rsm;ygrusef bkef;awmf}uD;rsm; tm;vHk;wdk‹rSm +idrf;csrf;pGm 'Drdkua&pDvGwfvyfcGifhESifh
vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;udk awmif;qdkcJh=uolrsm;jzpf+yD; xdkjrefrmjynfolvlxktaygif;tm; &uf&ufpufpuf
owfjzwfjcif;ukd rnfonfhtcgrS arhEkdif=urnfr[kwfyg? ,ckwkdif jyif;xef=urf;wrf;&ufpufaom enf;rsKd;pHkjzifh
twdkuftcHrSefor#udk ESdrfeif;acsr_ef;ae&mwGif txl;ojzifh vlrqefaom n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_rsm;
toHk;ðyae=uonfudk
vl‹tcGifhta&;tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;ESifh
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pHkprf;od&SdcJh=u+yD;
±_wfcsuef‹uGufcJh=uygonf? e0w . todomtxif&Sm;qHk;aom tjypfwckrSm 1990 jynfhESpf arvwGif
usif;ycJhaom a&G;aumufyJGwGif tjywftowftEdkif&cJhonfh ‘pk’ wnfaxmifcJh+yD; EkdifiHa&;ajryHkay:udk
wifcJhaom trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfxHodk‹ tm%mvJ$ajymif;a&;udpPudk ra&&ma0;uGmvSonfh
tem*wfqDodk‹ a&$Œqdkif;xm;jcif;yifjzpfygonf?

urBmhEkdifiHrsm;tv,fwGif e0w ppftpdk;&. *k%foduQmrSm usqif;cJh&oI ‘pk’ rSmrl ol.
EdkifiHwGif;Yomru wurBmvHk;.tjrifwGif *k%f&SdefjrifhwufausmfaZmvsuf&Sdaeygawmhonf? olrudk
tus,fcsKyfESifhzrf;qD;xm;+yD; vljrifuGif;rS z,f&Sm;xm;onfh=um;uyif olr. trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyfu
1990 arva&G;aumufyJGwGif v$wfawmfae&mtrsm;qHk; tEkdif&cJhygonf? urBmhae&mtESH‹tjym;u olrudk
*k%fxl;rsm;/ qkrsm; tajrmuftjrm; tyfESif;cJhygonf? xkdtxJrS tjrifhrm;qHk; qkwckrSm olr.
t=urf;rzufaom 'Drkdua&pD/ +idrf;csrf;a&;/ vGwfvyfa&;ESifh olr. jynfaxmifpkom;rsm;twGuf
vl‹tcGifhta&;&&Sdatmif &yfwnfcsuf/ óud;yrf;csufrsm;twGuf 1991 ckESpfwGif *k%fðycsD;jr‡ifhjcif;cHcJh&aom
EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qkyif jzpfygonf? EdkbJvfaumfrwD. obmywdu qkay;yJGwGif rdef‹=um;cJhaom rdef‹cGef;wGif
“olronf ,cktcgY jrefrmEdkifiHwGifomru useftm&SwcGifESifh tjcm;aom urBmhae&mtESH‹tjym;wkd‹wGif
ay:aygufaeaom t=urf;zufr_wdk‹udk qef‹usifwdkufzsufa&;ESifh vGwfvyfaom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;
jzpfay:vma&;wdk‹twGuf v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;. txdef;trSwfoauFwwckyifjzpfygonf” [k ajymoGm;ygonf?
1993 ck ESpfOD;ydkif;u awmiftmz&durS c&pf,mefbkef;awmf}uD; bda&Smhwl;wl;ESifh
wdbufbkef;awmf}uD;
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a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk v$wfay;&ef txl;wdkufwGef;cJhygonf? odk‹aomf t&mrxifcJhygay? xdktzJG‹u
owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGwck ðyvkyfcJhygonf? e0w ESifh urBmw0Srf;odk‹ toHv$ifhcJhygonf? olwdk‹u
“a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf
urBmw0Srf;wGif
vGwfvyfjcif;.
txdrf;trSwfoauFwjzpf+yD;
jrefrmjynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;udkvnf; pdwf"mwfwufºuGatmif v_H‹aqmfEdkifqJyifjzpfygonf? olrudk
vGwfvyfcGifh jyefay;&ef oifhygonf” [k ajymcJhygonf?
tif;vsm;uefab;rS olr. aetdrftwGif; wOD;wnf; tcsdef=um&SnfpGm csKyfaESmifr_cHae&onfrSm
,ckqdkv#if ig;ESpfwmumvtwGif; 0ifa&mufvm+yDjzpfaom ‘pk’ ta=umif;udk usr awG;aerdygonf?
Todk‹aom
qdk;0g;vSonfh
tajctaersKd;udk
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olr taumiftxnfazmf }uHaqmifvsuf&Sdonfh &nfrSef;csufrSm txl;rGefjrwfvS+yD; rvJGraoG
rkcsatmifjrif&vdrfhrnf[laom rnfodk‹r# ,kdifESJ‹zsufqD;ypfI r&Edkifonfh ckdifrmaom,Hk=unfcsufwck olrwGif
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pl;&Sxufjrufaom pdwfpGrf;tm;ESifh todOm%f/ tvdrRmrsm;vnf; jynfhpHk+yD;jzpfygonf? pnf;pepfvnf;us+yD;
olr.b0udk ynmA[kokw&SmazGjcif;ESifh Ak'<bmomw&m;awmfrsm;udk avhvmusifh}uHjcif;tm;jzifh
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t+rJpOf;pm;aevdrfhrnf[k usr xifygonf?
olru trsKd;om;jyefvnfpnf;vHk;nDnGwfr_ &&Sda&;ESifh +idrf;csrf;pGm twlwuG yl;aygif;+yD;
oabmxm;uJGvJGr_rsm;udk ajz&Sif;Ekdifa&;twGuf t"dy`m,f&Sdaom aphpyfaqG;aEG;yJGrsm; ay:aygufvmEdkifatmif
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‘pk’ onf usrwdk‹. jrifuGif;rsm;rS aysmufaeaomfvnf; usrwdk‹. tawG;rsm;xJrS rnfonfhtcgrS
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jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;a&m/
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jrefrmwkdif;&if;om;rsm;yg tm;vHk;u ‘pk’ udk owd&ae+yD;/ ‘pk’ ta=umif;udk awG;awmvsuf&Sdae=uygonf?
urBmuvnf; ‘pk’ vGwfajrmufvmrnfhae‹udkvnf; apmifhar#mfvsuf/ jrefrmjynfolvlxkudk zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rS

vGwfajrmufatmif vrf;jyac:aqmif&rnfh olr. uH=urRmudk olr jznfhqnf;cGifh&awmhrnfh xdktcsdeftcgudk
apmifh=unfhae=uygonf? ‘pk’ onf jynfolvlxkESifhtwl &Sdaeygonf? ‘pk’ onf jynfolvlxkbufrSom
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aemfa0;EkdifiH EdkbJvfaumfrwDOuUX rdef‹cGef;
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csD;jr‡ifhyJGtcrf;tem;Y aemfa0;EkdifiH EdkbJvfaumfrwDOuUX ygarmuQ z&efppfpD*smpwuf (Francis Sejersted)
ajym=um;aomrdef‹cGef;

* * *
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atmifqef;pk=unfwGifvnf; vGwfvyfaomtawG;tac:rsm;&Sd+yD; ,if;wdk‹onf olr.EdkifiHa&;0g'
jzpfvmygawmhonf? t"durl&if;rSm olr.zcifY olr jrifawG‹&aom “euf±_dif;vSaom ±dk;om;r_” yif
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vlom;onf
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Tt,ltqtay:wGif
tjrifhqHk;ar#mfrSef;csuf
pdwful;tjrifESifh
wnf+idrfaomvufawG‹0g'wdk‹udk
xl;jcm;pGmaygif;pyfxm;aom vrf;pOfw&yfudk olru csrSwfwnfaxmifxm;ygonf? olrtzdk‹ TonfrSm
oDtdk&Dt,ltqr#om r[kwfyg? Todk‹aom t,ltqudk vufawG‹EdkifiHa&;Y usifhoHk;Ekdifonfudk
jyo&mwGif olronf rsm;pGmtaxmuftulðyol jzpfaeygonf?
+idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh aphpyfjzefajza&;rl0g'udk vufawG‹taumiftxnfazmf&mwGif vHk;0r&Sdrjzpfaom
vdktyfcsufw&yfrSm a=umuf±GHŒjcif;uif;rJhr_yif jzpfygonf?Ttcsufudk atmifqef;pk=unf odem;vnfygonf?
olr.pmwrf;wckwGif
tm%ma=umifhr[kwfbJ
a=umuf±GHŒr_a=umifhom
vlom;wkdif;
azmufjyef=ujcif;jzpfonf[k pwifa&;om;azmfjyxm;ygonf? olr. wdkif;jynfrS tm%m&Sifpepftm;
&nf&G,fI a0zefxm;jcif;yifjzpfygonf? ‚if;wdk‹u OD;aqmifvrf;jyðy&rnfjzpfaom jynfolvlxkudk ‚if;wkd‹u
a=umuf&GHŒaeojzifh ‚if;wdk‹udk,f‚if;wdk‹ azmufjyefapcJhjcif;yifjzpfygonf? Tonfa=umifh ‚if;wdk‹onf
raumif;r_oHo&m vnfae=u&ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; olr.tawG;tac:wGif a=umuf&GHŒr_uif;rJh&ef
E_d;aqmfcsufonf OD;pGmyxrtaejzifh trsm;ESifhoufqdkifaom E_d;aqmfcsufjzpfygonf? usaemfwdk‹tm;vHk;
a=umuf&GHŒjcif;uif;rJh=u&ef awmif;qdkjcif;jzpfygonf? olrudk,fwkdifvnf; a=umuf&GHŒr_uif;rJha=umif;udk
vufawG‹jycJhygonf? olronf aoewfrsm;jzifh csdefxm;onfudk wudk,fwnf; qef‹usifcJholjzpfygonf?
Todk‹aomowWdudk rnfonfht&mu cHEkdifygrnfenf;? olrtm; rypf&ef aemufqHk;trdef‹ay;vdkufol Adkvfrª;.
pdwfxJwGif rnfodk‹&Sdygoenf;? olr.owWdudk av;pm;Ivnf; jzpfEkdifonf/ =urf;wrf;aom tiftm;jzifh
rnfonfht&mudkr# atmifjrifEkdifrnfr[kwfonfudk ,if;Adkvfrª; oabmaygufoGm;Ivnf; jzpfEkdifygonf?
t=urf;zufr_. tqdk;0g;qHk;aom&efolonf t=urf;zufr_yifjzpfI ,if;udkwkdufzsuf&mwGif
a=umuf&GHŒr_uif;rJhjcif;onf txufjrufqHk; vufeufjzpfygonf? olr. tm;uszG,f&m &JpGrf;owWda=umifh
atmifqef;pk=unfonf *ENDESifh zcifjzpfol atmifqef;uJhodk‹ tmedoif}uD;rm;aom oauFw

trSwftom;tjzpfodk‹ a&muf&Sdvmjcif;jzpfygonf? atmifqef;onf ‚if;.óud;yrf;r_rsm; r+yD;jywfao;rD
aoewfypfcH&jcif;jzpfygonf? Todk‹vkyfaqmifjcif;jzifh atmifqef;tm; jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;rS z,f&Sm;Ekdifrnf[k
vkyf}uHowfjzwf&efpDpOfolrsm;u ,lqcJhygv#if rSm;,Gif;aom,lqcsufomjzpfygonf? atmifqef;onf
vGwfvyfaom jrefrmjynftwGuf pnf;vHk;nDnGwfr_. oauFwjzpfvm+yD; vGwfvyfaomvl‹tzJG‹tpnf;udk
wnfaqmufEkdif&ef ,ck wkdufyJG0ifóud;yrf;aeolrsm;tm; pdwf"mwfwufºuGaponfh yk*~Kdvfvnf;
jzpfvmygawmhonf? Todk‹ pHerlemxm;p&m/ pdwf"mwfwufp&mtjyif jynfolvlxkpdwfESvHk;wGif
atmifqef;&,lxm;onfhae&ma=umifh ‚if;aoqHk;+yD; ESpfaygif; (40) ausmft=umwGif atmifqef;pk=unfonf
EkdifiHa&;pwifvkyfudkif&ef vdktyfaomtajccHudk &&SdEkdifcJhygonf? olronf zcif.tarGtESpfudk qufcHcJh+yD;
,cktcg olrudk,fwkdifyif jrefrmjynfwGifomrubJ tm&SwdkufwcGifvHk;ESifh tjcm;urBmhae&m tESH‹tjym;wGif
t=urf;zufr_udk awmfvSefI vGwfvyfaom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf; wnfaxmif&ef óud;yrf;csuf.
oauFwjzpfaeygonf?
atmifqef;pk=unf. &JpGrf;owWdESifh jrifhrm;aom ar#mfrSef;csufwdk‹onf usaemfwdk‹wGif&Sdaom
taumif;qHk;pGrf;&nfudk ay:xGufvmaprnf[k usaemfwdk‹uJhodk‹aom omrefyk*~Kdvfwdk‹u cHpm;=u&onf[k
usaemf,Hk=unfygonf? tem*wfwGif ,Hk=unfr_&Sdaeao;&eftwGuf olruJhodk‹aomyk*~KdvfrsKd;udk usaemfwdk‹
vdktyfonf[k cHpm;rdygonf? ,if;tcsufonf olr óud;yrf;r_. pGrf;tm;}uD;aom oauFww&yfjzpf+yD;
olrudk rw&m;vkyfwkdif; usaemfwdk‹ESvHk;om;wGif tjrwfwEdk; apmifha&Smufxdef;odrf;xm;onfht&mudk
csKd;azmufcH&ouJhodk‹yif cHpm;=u&ygonf? aetdrfwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHae&ol TtrsKd;orD;onf
ar#mfvifhcsufa&mifjcnfjzpfygonf? olr xdkae&mY&Sdaejcif;jzifh aumif;r_ukodkvf. tiftm;udk usaemfwdk‹ ydkI
,Hk=unfudk;pm;vm=uygonf?
atmifqef;pk=unfudk 1945 ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;ygonf? olr.zcif vkyf}uHowfjzwfcH&pOfu olronf
(2) ESpforD;jzpfygonf? zcifudk rSwfrdEdkifaomt&G,fr[kwfyg? rdcifjzpfolrSm oHwrefjzpfojzifh
atmifqef;pk=unfonf i,fpOfumvu‚if;/ aemufydkif;umvrsm;wGif‚if; EdkifiHjcm;Y aexdkifcJhygonf? 1967
ckESpfwGif olronf atmufpzdk‹'fwuUodkvf pdef‹[l‹pfaumvdyfrS EdkifiHa&;ynm/ '\eduaA'/ abm*aA'
bmom&yfrsm;jzifh bJG‹&cJhygonf? 1969 ckESpfrSpI e,l;a,mufòrd‹ ukvor*~XmecsKyfwGif (2) ESpfr#
tvkyfvkyfygonf? 1972 ckESpfwGif olronf wdbufa&;&m +Adwdo#ynm&Sifjzpfol rdkufu,ftJ&pfESifh
vufxyfygonf? blwefEkdifiHwGif acwWaexdkif+yD;aemuf atmufpzdk‹'fwGif 1975 ckESpfavmufY
jyefvnfaexdkifygonf?
olronf
uav;i,f (2)
a,muf&Sdaom
tdrf&Sifrwm0eftjyif
ynma&;bufwGifvnf; qufvufóud;pm;+yD; jrefrmhorkdif;ESifh pmayukd t"duxm;avhvmygonf? olronf
*syefjynf usKdwdkwuUodkvfESifh tdENd,EkdifiH tqifhjrifhokawoeXmewdk‹wGif {nhfonfawmfynm&Siftjzpf
avhvmcJhygonf? 1988 ckESpf jrefrmjynfodk‹ jyefvmaomtcgwGif vef'efwuUodkvf ta&SŒwdkif;ESifh
tmz&duavhvma&;XmewGif avhvmjcif;udk &yfem;vdkuf&ygonf? Todk‹aom jyifytjzpftysufrsm;u
1988 ckESpfY olr pwifrnfh tcef;u¾udk &nfn$ef;cJhjcif;r&Sdyg? odk‹aomf olronf aumif;pGm tqifoifh
jyifqifxm;+yD;olyif jzpfygonf?
jrefrmjynfoljynfom;wdk‹. uH=urRmESifhywfoufI tpOfojzifh olr &ifav;aecJh&aom
om"ursm;&Sdygonf? olronf wae‹wGif jrefrmjynfodk‹ jyef&zG,f&m&Sdonf/ ,if;odk‹aomtcgwGif
cifyGef;onf. axmufcHtm;ay;r_vdka=umif; olru ajymcJhonfudk olr.cifyGef;u ajymcJhzl;ygonf? olr
avhvmqnf;yl;aom
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jrefrmEdkifiH.
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t"duxm;avhvmonfudk awG‹&ygonf? zcifESifh jrefrmhorkdif;wGif zcifjzpfol yg0ifcJhaom tcef;u¾udk
avhvmjcif;tm;jzifh olr. EkdifiHa&;wm0ef,lr_ESifh zcif. t±dkuft&m qufcH&rnf[laom oabmudkvnf;
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'kwd,urBmppftwGif; atmifqef;onf *syef&Sd ppfpcef;wckwGif ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfudk
wnfaxmifjcif;yif
jzpfygonf?
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atmifqef;wdk‹tzJG‹vnf; twlvdkufygvmcJhygonf? odk‹aomf r=umrDwGif ‚if;wdk‹onf +Adwdo#udkvdkeDtpdk;&udk
wdkufcdkufae&mu *syefudk awmfvSefykefuef+yD; r[mrdwfrsm; jrefrmjynfudk jyefvnfodrf;ydkuf&mwGif
tultnDay;=uygonf? ppf+yD;onfhtcgwGif ‚if;uOD;aqmifI +Adwdo#wdk‹ESifh aphpyfaqG;aEG;EkdifcJhojzifh
aemufqHk; vGwfvyfa&;&&Sdygonf? vGwfvyfaom jrefrmEkdifiHb0odk‹ a&muf&SdvmaomjzpfpOfudk
avhvm&efESifh EkdifiHa&;udkxdef;uGyfxm;onfh tjrifhqHk;ar#mfrSef;csufrsm;udk em;vnfoabmayguf&ef
ta&;w}uD;vdktyfaeonf[k atmifqef;pk=unfu cHpm;aeyHk&ygonf? tdENd,ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHwdk‹.
udkvdkeDacwftawG‹tóuHudk E_dif;,SOfxm;onfh ajymifajrmufaom pmwrf;wapmifwGif jrefrmjynf,Ofaus;r_
±dk;&mtarGtESpf. xl;jcm;aom vuQ%m&yfrsm;udk olru a&;om;azmfjyxm;ygonf?
orkdif;onf
ta&;}uD;.?
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rnfonfh±dk;&mtpOftvmwGif
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rdrdbmomqHk;jzwfjcif;tm;jzifh rdrdrnfoljzpfonfudk qHk;jzwf&ma&mufonf? atmifqef;pk=unfonf
trsKd;om;,Ofaus;r_ ±dk;&mtarGtESpf. taumif;qHk;t*FgvuQ%mrsm;[k olru ,lqaomt&mrsm;udk
*±kðyvmap&ef óud;pm;I olrudk,fwkdifvnf; ,if;t*FgvuQ%m&yfrsm;ESifh xyfwlxyfr#jzpfap&ef
óud;yrf;tm;xkwfygonf?
Todk‹
av;eufaomtodynmjzifh
rdrd.tcef;u¾udk
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oabmaygufjcif;onf EkdifiHa&;óud;yrf;r_wGif tvGef}uD;rm;aom tiftm;yifjzpfygonf?
xl;jcm;onf[kqdkEkdifaomfvnf; 1988 ckESpfY atmifqef;pk=unf jrefrmjynfodk‹jyefoGm;&onfh
ta=umif;rSm EkdifiHa&;tajctaea=umifh r[kwfbJ rdciftdk}uD; aexdkifraumif;jzpfaeaoma=umifhyif
jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; EdkifiHa&;rkefwkdif; pwifwdkufcwfae+yDjzpfygonf? qENjyyJGrsm;/ &JESifh&ifqkdif
xdyfwdkufawG‹r_rsm; jzpfyGm;cJh+yD; vlaygif; (200) cef‹ aoqHk;cJh&+yD;jzpfygonf? aeraumif;ol
rdcif}uD;tm;ðypkaepOf r+idrfroufjzpfr_rsm; qufvufjzpfyGm;ygonf? ,if;odk‹aom tajctaewGif
“'kwd,ajrmuf trsKd;om;vGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;r_” [k olrudk,fwkdifac:qdkaom wdkufyJGwGif wufwufºuGºuG
yg0if&ef qHk;jzwfvdkufjcif;yifjzpfygonf?
jrefrmjynfwGif ppfwyfu 1962 ckESpfY tm%modrf;,lygonf? 1988 ckESpfwGifjzpfyGm;aom
qlylr_rsm;rSm ydkrdkwdk;yGm;vmaom zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk wefjyefjcif;yif jzpfygonf? xdkESpf aEG&moDtajctae
ra&&mao;onfhtcsdefwGif
atmifqef;pk=unfonf
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tdwfzGifhay;pm
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oduQm&Sdaomyk*~Kdvfrsm;yg0ifonfh twdkifyifcHaumfrwDudk zJG‹pnf;cef‹tyf&ef wifjycJhygonf? xdkpmwGif
pnf;urf;pepf&Sd=u&efESifh
tiftm;oHk;r_udk
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vdktyfa=umif;
tav;xm;Iazmfjy+yD; EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;udk v$wfay;&ef awmif;qdkxm;ygonf?
&uftenf;i,f=umaomtcgwGif &efukefòrd‹ a&$wd*HkapwDa&SŒwGif axmif/ aomif;csDwufa&mufaom
vlxkpnf;a0;yJGY olr rdef‹cGef;ajymqdkI vl‹tcGifhta&;/ 'Drkdua&pDESifh t=urf;rzufa&;tay:wGif rlwnfaom
EkdifiHa&;tpDtpOfw&yfudk
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ydwfyifwm;jrpfvdkuf+yD; ppftkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'udk usifhoHk;I tr_ppfjcif;r&SdbJ tjypf'%fay;ygawmhonf?
EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;udkrl ydwfyifwm;jrpfjcif;r&Sdyg? (tpnf;ta0;rsm;rvkyf&ef ydwfyifxm;+yD;jzpfI
ydwfyif&efrvdkawmh[k
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atmifqef;pk=unfESifh tjcm; twdkuftcHtcsKdŒu trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyf (tift,f'D) udk
wnfaxmifvdkufygonf? olronf EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGif tm;oGefcGefpdkuf qufvufyg0ifum

tpnf;ta0;rsm; ydwfyifxm;onfudk‚if;/ ppfwyfu +cdrf;ajcmufonfudk‚if; vGefqefI vlaygif;rsm;pGm
wufa&mufaom EkdifiHa&;pnf;a0;yJGrsm;udk wjynfvHk;wGif usif;yEkdifcJhygonf? olr EkdifiHa&;
pnf;±Hk;a&;qif;&mwGif xl;jcm;xif&Sm;aom vuQ%mw&yfrSm tpOftvmt& wOD;ESifhwOD; rwnfh=uaom
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;tm;vHk;udk qJGaqmifEkdifjcif;yifjzpfygonf?
olr.*k%foduQma=umifh ppftpdk;&onf tawmf=umwGef‹qdkif;aecJh+yD;rS 1989 ckESpf ZlvdkifvrSmyif
olrtm; aetdrfwGif xdef;odrf;vdkufjcif;jzpfayonf? 1990 ckESpf arvwGifusif;yaom a&G;aumufyJGwGif
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyf t}uD;tus,ftEdkif&&Sd+yD; v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,fOD;a& (80) &mcdkifE_ef;ausmf
tEkdif&&SdoGm;ygonf?
TonfrSm
atmifqef;pk=unf.
atmifyJGyifjzpfonf[k
vlwkdif;u
oabmwl=uygonf?
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qef‹usifzuf&v'fwrsKd; xGufvmrnf[k ar#mfvifhxm;yHk&ygonf? ‚if;wdk‹ tm%mqufvuf&,l&eftwGuf
w&m;Oya't& vkyfydkifcGifhay;rnfh a&G;aumufyJG&v'fudk ar#mfvifh=u[efwlygonf? Todk‹aom tpdk;&rsKd;.
t=uyftwnf;rSm rdrd.vdrfvnfajymqdkcsufwGif rdrdyg jyefydwfrdaejcif;yifjzpfygonf? rnfodk‹yifjzpfap e0w
onf a&G;aumufyJG&v'fudk vufcH&efjiif;qefvdkufygonf? a&G;aumufyJGudk zsufodrf;vdkuf&onfh
oabmyifjzpfygonf? odk‹aomf e0w url w&m;0ifonfhoabm ydkrdkenf;yg;aomfvnf;
qufvuftkyfcsKyfaeygonf? w&m;0ifr_r&Sdjcif;a=umifhyif ydkI&ufpuf=urf;wrf;pGm vkyfaqmifae=u&ygonf?
vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm; t}uD;tus,f qufvufazmufzsufaeonfudk tifrepfwD (Amnesty)
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vHkòcHa&;oabmudk at;jraomt&dyfESifh wJGzufxm;=uygonf?
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xdkxuf rif;.t&dyfrSm ydkIyifom at;jrayonf?
odk‹aomf tat;jrqHk;rSm Ak'<jrwfpGmbk&m;.
t&dyfyif jzpfayonf?”

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tpdk;&udk &&Sd&ef&nf&G,fI jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹u 'Drkdua&pDwkdufyJG0ifae=ujcif;yif jzpfygonf?
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Tt}udrfonf yxrt}udrf r[kwfyg? [pfwvm. wckaom tusOf;pcef;wGif zsm;emaeol umvf;AGef
atmfpDtufpuD (Carl Von Ossietzky) onfvnf; 1936 ckESpfu rvma&mufEkdifcJhyg?
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odk‹aomfvnf; +idrf;csrf;a&;qk&Sifudk,fwkdif a&mufrvmEkdifonfrSm Tt}udrfonf aemufqHk;jzpfcsifrS
jzpfrnf[laom tvm;tvmudkvnf; usaemfwdk‹ od&Sdxm;&rnfjzpfygonf? usaemfwdk‹aexdkif&m
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TonfrSm usaemfwdk‹tm;vHk; wOD;pDðyvkyf&rnfh udpPjzpfaomfvnf; tm%m&mxl;tqifh&Sdolrsm; usifhoHk;&ef
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(wrsufESmpm a':pk"gwfyHkvmonf)
(wrsufESmvHk;wGif wyf&rnfhacgif;pOf}uD;)

tydkif;-u

1984 ckESpf – 1993 ckESpftwGif;
a&;om;aom
pmwrf;rsm;ESifh taxGaxGrdef‹cGef;rsm;
(aemufxyfwrsufESm aqmif;yg;)
atmifqef;

t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh 1991 ckESpfwGif yHkESdyfxkwfa0aom pmtkyfrS pmrsufESm 3-37 udk jrefrmjyefonf?

* * *

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ta=umif;t&mESpf&yfESifhywfoufIomv#if usrwdk‹rdom;pkESifh azazhtm; aumif;pGmodu|rf;cJholrsm;xHrS
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* * *
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OD;av;awmfolonf
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&SifrðyrD pma&;pmzwfwwf&ef vdkrnf[k axmufjyvdkufygonf?

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ay:aygufvmygonf? 1906 ckESpfwGif wnfaxmifaom Ak'<bmom uvsm%,k0toif; (0dkiftrfbDat)
onf EdkifiHa&;&mrsm;udk pwifudkifwG,faom tzJG‹tpnf;jzpf+yD; &efukefwuUodkvfoydwfudk atmifjrifpGm
pnf;±Hk;v_H‹aqmfcJhygonf?
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t0wftpm;
ydkoDywfoD0wfqifaom atmifqef;onf tHr0if*Gifrus jzpfae.? xdk‹tjyif ol‹xufodrfarG‹yg;eyfaom
ausmif;aezufrsm;. a0zefaemufajymifr_udkvnf; *±krpdkufa=umif; apmpD;pGmay:vGifapcJh.? atmifqef;
wuUodkvfa&mufp yxrESpfywfwGif ausmif;om;or*~rS pum;&nfvkyJGw&yf usif;yygonf?
xdkpum;&nfvkyJGt+yD;Y atmifqef;onf y&dowft=um;rSxum ol‹tudkatmifoef; wifoGif;aom
“bkef;awmf}uD;rsm; EkdifiHa&;rvkyfoifh” [lonfh tqdkudk axmufcHvdkufygonf? TonfrSm
rdom;pkaoG;pnf;a&; oabmaqmifonfh tðytrlr[kwfyg? ,Hk=unfcsuft& vkyfaqmifvdkufjcif;jzpfygonf?
atmifqef;
t*Fvdyfpum;ajym&mwGif
toHxGuf
trSm;rSm;t,Gif;,Gif;
udk‹,dk‹um;&m;
acsmarG‹ajyjypfjcif;r&Sdaoma=umifh ol‹pum;rsm;rSm em;rvnfEdkifoavmufyif jzpf.? y&dowfu
ajymifavSmifoa&mfatmf[pf=uojzifh tudkjzpfol tawmfyif tae&cufoGm;.? atmifqef;url
a=umuf&GHŒI toHaysmufoGm;jcif;r&Sd/ uJh&JŒoHrsm;/ jrefrmpum;ESifhom ajym&ef ±dkif;±dkif;pdkif;pdkif;

atmf[pfoHrsm;udk vspfvsL±_um tqifhtwef;rrDaom ol‹t*Fvdyfpum;udk ygVdtoHk;tE_ef;rsm;jzifh
jznfhpGufI olajymvdk&mtm;vHk;udk +yD;qHk;atmif qufvufajymqkdoGm;ygonf?
xdkyxrpum;&nfvkyJG tjzpftysufonf aemiftwGuf tpOftvmw&yf csrSwfay;vdkufouJhodk‹
jzpfoGm;ygonf? y&dowfu uJh&Jα_wfcsaeonfh=um;uyif olajymvdk&mudk t*Fvdyfpum;ESifhajymjcif;/
okefokefr_efr_ef aewwfjcif;wdk‹a=umifh olonf tla=umifa=umifEkdifaom t±l;wa,muf[lIyif emrnf&cJh.?
odk‹aomf atmifqef;onf ta0zefcH&rnfudk a=umuf±GHŒ+yD; olvkyfudkif&ef qHk;jzwfxm;aomudpPrsm;udk
rvkyfbJaernfh vlrsKd;r[kwfyg? acwfòydifurBmwGif t*Fvdyfpum; ta&;ygyHkudk od&Sdem;vnfojzifh
t*Fvdyfpum;udk ydkifydkifEkdifEkdifoHk;pJGEkdif&ef ol óud;pm;.? t*Fvdyfpmtkyfrsm;udk oJ}uD;rJ}uD;zwfjcif;/
tjcm;olrsm; ajymyHkqdkyHkudk em;axmifavhvmjcif;/ t*Fvdyfpmoifausmif;wGif ynmqnf;yl;cJhol
rdwfaqG&if;wOD;xHrS tultnD,ljcif; ponfwdk‹jzifh bkef;}uD;ausmif;xGuf tnmom;wOD;twGuf
xl;jcm;avmufaom t*Fvdyfpum;usifvnfr_udk ol &&Sdvm.?
xdkyxrpum;&nfvkyJGwGif atmifqef; axmufcHcJhaomtqdkrSm ol. a&&Snf,Hk=unfcsufw&yftm;
azmfxkwfcJhjcif;jzpfonfudk owdrloifhygonf? xdk,Hk=unfcsufrSm oHCmawmfrsm; EdkifiHa&;wGif
0ifa&mufvkyfudkifjcif; rðyoifha=umif;yifjzpfygonf? ruG,fvGefrDwESpfausmfcef‹u ajym=um;cJhaom
a&$wd*HkapwDawmf tv,fypP,HnDvmcHrdef‹cGef;Y “bmoma&;ESifh EdkifiHa&;udk a&mpyfygrl bmoma&;.
oabmw&m;udk qef‹usif&ma&mufay.” [k ajymcJh.? &[efoHCmrsm;tm; “t&Sifbk&m;wdk‹u
omoemawmfa&mif xGef;ajymifatmif tm;xkwfawmfrl=uyg – urBmolurBmom;wdk‹ arwWmw&m;yGm;rsm;I
orpdwWESifh nD&if;tudk armif&if;ESruJhodk‹ aeEkdif=uygvdrfhrnf -- TuJhodk‹ aqmif&Gufr_onf
omoemzufuom=unfhI
jrifhrwfonfr[kwfyg/
wynfhawmfwdk‹.
EdkifiHESifh
vlrsKd;twGuf
tjrifhjrwfqHk;aom EkdifiHa&;udk aqmif&Guf&mwGif a&mufygonfbk&m;” pojzifh av#mufxm;cJhygonf?
trsm;u EkdifiHowW0g yuwdtjzpfjzifhjrif=uaom atmifqef;rSm pifppfwGif bmoma&;Y
av;eufpGm woufvHk;pdwf0ifpm;olyif jzpfygonf? a&eHacsmif;Y ausmif;wufaepOf zcifuG,fvGefoGm;ojzifh
0rf;enf;a=uuJGum &[ef;abmif0if&efyif pdwful;cJhygonf? wuUodkvfa&mufptcsdefuvnf; tDwvDvlrsKd;
Ak'<bmombkef;awmf}uD; OD;avmueENudk =unf!dkav;pm;vSojzifh q&mawmfESifh twlvdkuf+yD;
omoemðyvkyfief;rsm; aqmif&Guf&ef rdcifxH tcGifhawmif;zl;.? tcGifhum; r&cJhay? odk‹aomf
avmukwW&mudpPrsm;udk atmifqef; qufvufI *±kwpdkuftav;xm;ygonf? EdkifiHa&;avmuxJodk‹
ajcpHkypf0if+yD;aemufydkif;Yyif olEiS fh t&if;ESD;qHk;rdwfaqGwOD;tm; ol. “opPmw&m;ESifh vHk;0tjypfuif;pifr_
&SmyHkawmfb0c&D;”
ta=umif;ESifh
um,uH/
0pDuH/
raemuHt&
±dk;ajzmifhEkdif&ef
owdðyóud;yrf;aea=umif;wdk‹udk
pma&;I
&Sif;jyzl;ygonf?
acwfvli,f
pdwfydkif;qdkif&m
todw&m;acgif;yg;aeonfudk
pdk;&drfrda=umif;/
avmu'%fv_dif;rsm;udk
}uHŒ}uHŒcdkif
&ifqkdifwGef;vSefEkdifpGrf;r&Sdygu xdktodw&m;rsm; vHk;0uG,faysmuf+yD; pdwf"mwfAv rJGjymusaomtjzpfodk‹
a&muf&SdoGm;rnfudk pdk;&drfylyefrda=umif; pojzifhvnf; a&;om;xm;ygonf?
ausmif;om;EkdifiHa&;ESifh ocifrsm;
udkatmifqef; ausmif;om;EkdifiHa&;wGif yg0ifr_rSm tpY cyfajz;ajz; rSefrSefomjzpfaomfvnf; 1935
ckESpfaemufydkif;Y t&Sdeft[kef jrifhrm;vm.? xdktcsdefwGif olonf udkEk/ udkvSaz (aemif AdkvfvuFsm)/
udkodef;az/
udkausmf+idrf;/
udk&m&SpfuJhodk‹aom
yk*~Kdvfrsm;ESifhtwl
pwifvkyfudkifae+yD;
jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_wGif xif&Sm;vmrnfh xdkvli,frsm;ESifh atmifqef;wdk‹ vufwJGum
ausmif;om;rsm;
tawmfyif*±kðy&rnfh
EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pkwpkjzpfvmatmif
pnf;±Hk;ygonf?
udkatmifqef;wdk‹vlpkonf tm%mydkiftvdkawmf&drsm; v$rf;rdk;xm;aom wuUodkvfausmif;om;or*~udk
xdk;xGif;0ifa&mufEkdif&ef óud;yrf;jcif;jzifh pwifv_yf&mS ;.? yxrwGif atmifjrifr_odyfr&SdcJhay? ‚if;wdk‹txJrS

udkausmf+idrf;ESifh udkodef;azwdk‹om or*~tr_aqmifrsm;tjzpf ta&G;cs,fcH&onf? odk‹aomf aemufydkif;wGif
xufoefaom
trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"mwfESifh
ZGJvHk‹vwkd‹.
tusKd;tjrwfrsm;
xGef;um;vm.?
wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;.
pdwfaepdwfxm;vnf;
ajymif;vm.?
v_yf&Sm;wufºuGaom
jynfcspfpdwfv$rf;rdk;vm.? 1935-36 pmoifESpftwGif; ausmif;om;or*~tr_aqmif a&G;aumufyJGwGif
t"duae&mtm;vHk; trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"mwf xufoefaomvli,frsm;u &&SdoGm;=u.? udkatmifqef;onf
tr_aqmiftzJG‹0ifwOD;tjzpf ta&G;cH&+yD; or*~ r*~Zif;. t,f'Dwmvnf; jzpfvmygonf?
or*~ r*~Zif; “tdk;a0” wGif “i&JacG;}uD; vGwaf e+yD” [laom aqmif;yg;udk xnfhoGif;cJhjcif;onf
us,fjyef‹pGm xda&mufr_&SdcJhonfh 1936 ckESpf wuUodkvfausmif;om;oydwfudk oG,f0dkufaomenf;jzifh
v_H‹aqmfay;jcif;yif jzpfygonf? Taqmif;yg;onf wuUodkvft&m&SdwOD;tm; ykyfcwfwdkufcdkuf
a&;om;xm;jcif;jzpfonf[k tm%mydkifrsm;u ,lqum aqmif;yg;&Siftrnfudk azmfxkwf&ef
t,f'Dwmudkatmifqef;tm; awmif;qdkvmawmh.? udkatmifqef;uvnf; ,if;uJhodk‹ azmfxkwfjcif;onf
owif;pmq&musifh0wfESifh udkufnDrnfr[kwf[kqdkum jiif;qefvdkuf.? tm%mydkifrsm;u ,ckuJhodk‹
jiif;qefr_udk tcGifhaumif;,l+yD; udkatmifqef;tm; ausmif;rSxkwfy,fvdkufawmh.? r=umao;rDuyif
udkEkonfvnf;
ausmif;tkyf}uD;tm;
ypfypfcgcg
a0zefr_jzifh
ausmif;xkwfcHcJh&aoma=umifh
ausmif;om;rsm;xJwGif rauseyfr_/ a'goxGufr_ ydkIrsm;jym;vmavonf? odk‹jzifh oydwfarSmuf&ef
qHk;jzwf=uygawmhonf? wuUodkvfpmar;yJGrsm;ppfcsdef jzpfav&m TqHk;jzwfcsufrSm txl;av;eufonfh
udpPw&yfjzpfygonf? oydwfowif;rSm csufcsif;yif [dkav;wausmfjzpfoGm;avonf? owif;pmrsm;ESifhwuG
wEdkifiHvHk;u oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;udk =uifempGm axmufcH=uygonf? TuJhodk‹ trsm;axmufcHr_ukd
&,lEkdifjcif;/ av;pm;avmufatmif pDrHuGyfuJEkdifjcif;/ pnf;urf;&Sdjcif; ponfwdk‹a=umifh ausmif;om;rsm;.
vkyf&nfudkif&nfESifh ausmif;om;tiftm;. wefcdk;tmedoifudk vl}uD;ydkif; EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;
todtrSwfðyvm=u&onf? tpdk;&taejzifhvnf; oydwfarSmufolrsm;. rauseyfcsufrsm;udk av;eufpGm
rpOf;pm;I rjzpfawmhyg? aemufqHk;Y Edkifvlrif;xufðywwfaom ausmif;tkyf}uD;rSm t+idrf;pm;,lvkduf&.?
wuUodkvftufOya'wGif
ausmif;om;rsm;xnfhoGif;vdkaom
jyifqifcsufrsm;udk
avhvm&ef
aumfrwDw&yfudkvnf; zJG‹pnf;vdkuf&+yD; ta&;rygvSaom awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udkrl vdkufavsmvdkufavonf?
vli,ftrsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;. EdkifiHa&;zHG‹òzd;wdk;wufr_wGif ta&;}uD;onfh rSwfwdkifwwdkifjzpfaom 1936
ckESpfoydwfa=umifh udkatmifqef;onfvnf; ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifwOD;tjzpf vlodrsm;vmygonf?
ol‹*k%foduQmvnf; t&SdefrSefrSefjrifhrm;vm+yD; &efukefwuUodkvfausmif;om;or*~ESifh oydwfarSmuf+yD;aemuf
wnfaxmifcJhaom
jrefrmEdkifiHvHk;qkdif&m
ausmif;om;or*~wdk‹.
tr_aqmiftzJG‹rsm;wGifvnf;
wqifhxufwqifh ydkrdkta&;ygaom tr_aqmifae&mrsm;wGif wm0efxrf;aqmif&.? 1938 ckESpfwGif
or*~ESpf&yfpvHk;. OuUXjzpfvmygonf? xdktcsdefY udkatmifqef; wuUodkvfrS 0dZ…mbJG‹&+yD;I
Oya'0dZ…mwef;wGif wufa&mufae.? xdkuJhodk‹ Oya'wef;qufwufaejcif;rSm wuUodkvfwGif
qufvufaexdkif v_yf&Sm;EkdifcGifh&&Sd&ef[laom ta=umif;vnf; yg0ifygonf? ajzmifhrwfwnf=unfjcif;/
ZJGvHk‹v}uD;jcif;/ tvkyfvkyfEdkifpGrf;&Sdjcif; ponfwdk‹a=umifh udkatmifqef;taejzifh av;pm;jcif;cH&aomfvnf;
tjcm;ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;uJhodk‹ ,Ofaus;odrfarG‹I qufqHa&;ajyjypfjcif;r&Sdaom vl‹*GpmwOD;yif
jzpfygonf? okefokefr_efr_efaewwfjcif;/ royf&yfjcif;/ pdwfrygv#if olwyg; tae&=uyfavmufatmif
wHk%Sdbma0aewwfjcif;/ pdwfygjyefawmhvnf; olwyg; rcHEkdifavmufatmif pum;azmifzJG‹jcif;ESifh tjcm;
axmifhrusKd;aom trltusifhwdk‹a=umifh udkatmifqef; r=umc%ta0zefcH&ygonf? oludk,fwkdifvnf;
“&Hzef&Hcg vl‹,Ofaus;rsm;ESifh tom;ruscJhacs/ rsufaphaemuf jrifjyif;uyfvmonf? xdktcg
vl‹,Ofaus;rsm;ESifh ig vl±dkif;[k ZmwdcJGypfcsifonfh ("gwfyHkvmonf)
("gwfyHk)

atmifqef;
jrefrmEdkifiHvHk;qkdif&m ausmif;om;or*~OuUX 1937
(aqmif;yg;tquf)
pdwfrsm;&Sdvmonf” [k a&;om;cJhzl;.? odk‹aomf vl±dkif;rsm;udk atmifqef;jrifyHkrSm pdwful;,Ofqef.?
±dk;ajzmifhwnf=unf/
usef;rmoefpGrf;+yD;/
vGwfvyfcsrf;ompGmaexkdifolrsm;[k
olu
tr$ef;wifxm;jcif;yifjzpfygonf?
1938 ckESpfwGif udkatmifqef;onf 1930 ckESpf ukvm;-Armt"du±k%f;rSjrpfzsm;cHaom
'dk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk;xJodk‹ 0ifa&mufv_yf&Sm;Ekdif&ef wuUodkvfrS xGufvdkufygonf? xdktpnf;t±Hk;onf
trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"mwfjyif;jyI EkysKdwufºuGonfh tajccHvuQ%m&Sd+yD; tpnf;t±Hk;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf
ouf}uD;EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifhrwl
wrlxl;jcm;=uygonf?
rsKd;cspfta&;awmfyHkY
b0udkjr‡KyfESH&ef
tmoDojyif;xefaeaom
acwfopfynmwwfvli,frsm;u
xdkouf}uD;EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;onf
&Joifhonfavmufr&J/
jrefrmqefoifhonfavmufrqef/
tajccHrS
ajymif;vJGr_rsm;vkyf&ef
qEN&Sdoifhonfavmufr&Sd/
i,f&G,foifhoavmufvnf;
ri,f&G,f[k
,lq=uygonf?
'dk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk;0ifrsm;udk vlwkdif;u óuduf=uonfawmhr[kwfyg? tcsKd‹u olwdk‹udk uavuacs
jy\em&Smaeaom vlrdkufvlqdk;av;rsm;[lI txifao;+yD;/ trnfa&SŒwGif ‘ocif’ wyfI ac:a0:jcif;udk
}uD;us,fonf/
rvkyfoifhrvkyfxdkuf[k
a0zef=uygonf?
+Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;orm;rsm;udk
vufatmufcHjzpfaeaom Armwdk‹u ‘ocif’ [k ac:avhac:x&Sd&m/ Armrsm;onf u|efrsKd;r[kwf
udk,fhudkudk,f tkyfpdk;Edkifonfh arG;&mygtcGifhta&;&Sdolrsm;jzpfa=umif;udk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; &J&Jwif;wif;
az:jyonfhtaeESifh tpnf;t±Hk;0ifrsm;u ‘ocif’ bJG‹udk oHk;pJGjcif; jzpfygonf?
twGif;oabmxm;
rwdkufqkdifr_rsm;a=umifh
'dk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk;
ESpfjcrf;uJGoGm;ygonf?
ociftrsm;pkyg0ifonfhtydkif;udk
acgif;aqmifolrSm
jrefrmhpmayESifh
EdkifiHa&;avmuwGif
txifu&yk*~Kdvf}uD;jzpf+yD; rlvu tpnf;t±Hk;. em,ujzpfaom q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;jzpfygonf?
udkatmifqef;vnf; ocifudk,fawmfr_dif; OD;aqmifonfh 'dk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk;0ifwOD; jzpfvmygonf?
‘r_dif;ocif’ rsm;teuf udkEk/ udkvSazESifh udkodef;azwdk‹tjyif ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm; r[kwfcJhaomfvnf;
jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;wGif xif&Sm;ta&;ygvmrnfh ocifoef;xGef;ESifh ocifpdk;wdk‹vnf; yg0ifygonf? r=umrD
ocifatmifqef;onf 'dk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk; taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; jzpfvm+yD;aemuf tpnf;t±Hk;.
a=unmpmwrf;udk pD&ifa&;om;cJhygonf?
1938-1939 ckESpfrsm;wGif ‘1300 jynfh ta&;awmfyHk’ [k trnfwGifrnfh ta&;tcif;rsm;
jzpfay:cJhygonf? a&eHajrtvkyform;rsm; csDwufyJG/ awmifolv,form;rsm; csDwufyJG/ &J.
eHygwfwkwf'%fjzifh Adkvfatmifausmf usqHk;cJh&aom ausmif;om;qENjyyJG/ xdkjzpf&yfa=umifh ay:ayguf&aom
EkdifiHt0Srf; ausmif;om;oydwfrsm;/ Armwdk‹ESifh tdENd,tEG,f rlqvifrsm;t=um; jzpfyGm;cJhaom t"du±k%f;/
tvkyform;rsm;oydwf/ &J. vufcsufjzifh tmZmenf (17) OD; usqHk;cJhaom rEWav;qENjyyJG/
a'gufwmbarmftpdk;&
ðywfusoGm;jcif;
ponfwdk‹
woDwwef;}uD;
jzpfay:cJhygonf?
Tta&;tcif;rsm;a=umifh
EdkifiHtwGif;
róuHpzl;
r+idrfrouf
qlqlyGufyGufjzpfvm+yD;
trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; t&Sdeft[kefjyif;xefvmonf? odk‹aomf Tr#pdwfv_yf&Sm;zG,fjzpf&yfrsm;
t=um;uyif jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;. uyf}uD;ESpfyg;jzpfaom *dk%f;*%0g'ESifh remvdkrkef;wD;a&;0g'wdk‹. qdk;0g;aom
t&Sdef=oZmrsm; v$rf;rdk;vm.? tkyfpkwtkyfpk/ vlwOD;csif;wdk‹taeESifh rdrdwdk‹omv#if txda&mufqHk;/
rsKd;cspfpdwftxufoefqHk;/ tawmfqHk;[lI *k%fwk/ *k%fòydifvkyfvdkaom pdwf±l;rsm;0ifum/ tjyeftvSef
pGyfpJGykwfcwfr_rsm;/ cg;oD;r_rsm; ysHŒESH‹vmavonf?

*dk%f;*%pdwfESifh
remvdk0efwdkpdwfrsm;rS
uif;&Sif;onf[ktrsm;u
owfrSwfxm;aom
vlenf;pkav;wGif ocifatmifqef; yg0if.? olonf vuf0J0g'rsm;zufodk‹,drf;I 1939 ckESpfwGif
ay:aygufvmaom
tcsKdŒu
rmhufqf0g'
avhvma&;tkyfpk[lI‚if;/
tcsKdŒu
yxrOD;qHk;
jrefrmuGefjrLepfuvyfpnf;[lIvnf;‚if;/ ac:a0:onfh tkyfpkudkwnfaxmifcJholwOD;jzpf+yD;/ xdktkyfpk.
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;tjzpf
wm0efxrf;aqmifcJh.?
odk‹aomf
ocifatmifqef;onf
uGefjrLepf0g'udkaomf‚if;/ tjcm;wif;=uyfaom 0g'rsm;udkaomf‚if;/ rqifrjcif tpGef;a&muftjrifjzifh
,Hk=unfvufcHjcif; r&SdcJhyg? us,f0ef;axGjym;aom qdk&S,fvpfoDtkd&D t,ltqtrsKd;rsKd;teuf ol‹tm;
qJGaqmifEkdifaom oabmw&m;rsm; tawmftwef&SdcJhygonf? odk‹aomf ol. t"du&nfrSef;csufrSm
ol‹wkdif;jynftwGuf vGwfvyfa&;ESifh pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&; pGrf;aqmifay;Edkifrnfh tawG;tac:rsm;/
enf;AsL[mrsm;udk avhvmoHk;pJG&efomjzpfygonf?
1939 ckESpf Oa&mywkdufwGif 'kwd,urBmppfrD; pwifavmifu|rf;+yD; rsm;r=umrD ‘udkvdkeD0g'tcuf/
vGwfvyfa&;tcsuf’ [kjrifum ‘xGuf&yf*dk%f;}uD;’ wnfaxmifEkdif&ef ocifatmifqef; ulnDay;cJhygonf?
a'gufwmbarmf. qif;&Jom;ygwD/ 'dk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk;/ ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh yk*~vduEdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;
pkaygif;zJG‹pnf;vdkufaom xdk ‘xGuf&yf*k%f;}uD;’ onf ocifatmifqef;. wDxGifr_jzpfonf[k ocifEku
owfrSwfcJh.? ‘xGuf&yf*dk%f;}uD;’ . jynfolvlxu
k dk wdkufwGef;aqmf=ocsufrSm ppf+yD;onfESifh
vGwfvyfa&;ay;&ef oabmwlaom uwd&rSomv#if +Adwdo#ppfa&;óud;yrf;csufrsm;udk ulnDyHhydk;&rnf?
+Adwdo#tpdk;&taeESifh xdkuJhodk‹ uwda=unmcsufrðyygu ppfa&;óud;yrf;csufrsm;udk tifwkduftm;wdkuf
qef‹usif&rnf? wHk‹jyefonfhtaeESifh +Adwdo#tpdk;&onf trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;aeol trsm;tjym;udk
zrf;qD;vdkufygonf? 1940 ckESpf ukefqHk;csdefY ocifacgif;aqmif tajrmuftjrm;ESifh a'gufwmbarmfwdk‹rSm
axmifxJa&mufae=uay+yD?
ocifatmifqef;udk
zrf;qD;&ef
0&ef;trdef‹xkwfcJhaomfvnf;
tcsdefrDowday;csuf&ojzifh olonf ajc&mazsmufum wdrf;a&SmifoGm;EkdifcJhonf?
*syefESifh r[mrdwfzJG‹jcif;
ocifatmifqef;onf vufeufudkifwdkufyJGqifEJ$&ef vdktyfaumif;vdktyfrnf[k ,lqcJhonfrSm
umvtwef=umuyif jzpfygonf? uav;b0u wdkufcdkufawmfvSef&ef pdwful;,OftdyfrufcJhaomfvnf;
vGwfvyfa&;udk tajccHOya'abmiftwGif;rS EkdifiHa&;enf;jzifh &,lEkdifrnfh tvm;tvmudk tpOfwpdkuf
y,fxm;cJholr[kwfyg? wuUodkvfausmif;om;b0u tpdk;&0efxrf; (xdkpOfu tkdifpDtuf/ bDpDtuf)
pmar;yJGajzqdkum ‚if;wdk‹. ynm&SifyDopGm EkdifiHa&;vkyfudkifr_ESifh rsKd;cspfpdwfxufoefr_wdk‹a=umifh
oludk,fwkdifav;pm;aom tdENd,EkdifiHa&;orm;tcsKdŒ. erlemtwdkif; vkyfudkif&efudkvnf; ocifatmifqef;
pOf;pm;cJhzl;.? trsm;od ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifwOD; jzpfvm+yD;aemufydkif;Y &efukefwuUodkvf
t*FvdyfpmygarmuQtm; ay;ydk‹aom pmwapmifwGif olonf ‘+idrf;csrf;aom awmfvSefa&;orm;’ om
jzpfonf[k a&;om;cJha=umif; =um;od&ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; ta&;tcif;rsm;.
'Da&v_dif;onf ol‹tm; oabmxm;ajymif;vJapcJhonf? 1940 ckESpfu ol. awG;ac:yHkudk atmufygtwdkif;
&Sif;jyxm;ygonf?
“usaemfwOD;csif;taeESifhum;
usaemfwdk‹.
ta&;awmfyHktwGuf
urBmh0g'jzef‹r_ESifh
urBmhtultnDvdkonfrSm rSefaomfvnf; t"duvkyfief;rSm jynfwGif;wGifom&Sdonf? t"duvkyfief;rSm
trsKd;om;a&;wkdufyJGtwGuf jynfolvlxkudk pnf;±Hk;&efjzpfonf[k ,lqcJhonf? usaemfhrSmvnf;
t=urf;rsOf;tpDtpOfwck&SdcJhonf? ‚if;tpDtpOfrSm +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒpepfudk wjynfvHk;wGif qef‹usif&ef/
Tv_yf&Sm;r_udk urBmhtajctae ArmhtajctaeESifhtnD wqwqwdk;csJŒ&ef/ òrd‹aetvkyform;

awmaetvkyform;wdk‹.
a'otvdkufoydwfrsm;rSpI
taxGaxGoydwfrsm;/
tcGeftcay;a&;oydwfrsm;txd wdk;csJŒqifEJ$&ef/ wufºuGvmaom 0g'jzef‹csdr_rsm;jzpfonfh vlxkqENjyyJGrsm;
csDwufyJGrsm;rSpI jynfolwdk‹. tm%mzDqefa&;wdkufyJGtxd qufvufqifEJ$&ef/ pD;yGm;a&;t&wGifvnf;
+Adwdo#ukefypPnf;rsm;udk oydwfarSmuf&mrSpI vlxkESifhcsDI tcGefray;a&;wdkufyJGtxd qifEJ$&ef
ppfzuftkyfcsKyfa&;zufESifh ykvdyfzufuif;pcef;rsm; qufoG,fa&;vrf;a=umif;rsm;udk ajymufusm;enf;ESifh
0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufI
ArmjynftwGif;
+Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfr_pepfudk
vHk;0oGufcsmyg'vdkufonftxd
wdkufyJGqifEJ$&ef/ xdktcg urBmjzpfay:wdk;wufr_ESifh wòydifeuf aemufqHk;ydwf tm%modrf;yJGudk qifEJ$&ef
tpDtpOfyifjzpfonf? +Adwdo#tpdk;&. vufeufudkifwyfrsm;/ txl;ojzifh +Adwdo#vlrsKd;r[kwfaom
wyfrsm;onf usaemfwdk‹zufodk‹ ul;ajymif;vm=uvdrfhrnf[kvnf; usaemfwGufcJhonf? TtpDtpOfwGif
*syefrsm; 0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufr_udkvnf; rSef;qcJhonf? odk‹aomf Tae&mwGif usaemfrSm &Sif;vif;aomtjrif
r&SdcJhay?
xdktcgu
usaemfwdk‹txJrS
rnfolr#
&Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;r&SdcJh?
odk‹aomf
,ckjzpfysuf+yD;oGm;onfhtcgwGifum; vltcsKdŒtaeESifh usefvlrsm;xufydkI odjrifcJh[ef [efaqmifaumif;
aqmif=urnf?)”
txufygt}uHtpnfrsm;rSm ol. “}uD;rm;aomtpDtpOf” omjzpfa=umif; ocifatmifqef;
0efcHcJhygonf? ol. &Jabmf&Jbufrsm;wGif xdkpDrHudef;udk axmufcHol rrsm;vSyg? xdkuJhodk‹raxmufcHjcif;rSm
ocifatmifqef;tjrift& “usaemfwdk‹rSm "e&Sifaygufp Zmwd&Sdolrsm;jzpf&m pOf;pm;p&m ajymqdk&mwGif
&J&ifhoavmuf/ jywfom;aom aqmif&Gufcsufudkvkyf&mY wGef‹qkwfavh&Sd=uavonf? jynfolvlxkudk
E_d;qG&rnfhvkyfief; =um&SnfcufcJrnfudkvnf; pdwfr&Snf=uay? usaemfwdk‹trsm;pkrSm vlxkwdkufyJGta=umif;
ajyma[m=uaomfvnf; vlxkwdkufyJG tusKd;tmedoifukd oabmrayguf=u” ponfwdk‹a=umifhyif
jzpfygonf? odk‹aomf ocifatmifqef;onf trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm; ajymufusm;wkdufyJG qifEJ$Ekdif&ef
vufeufrsm;&Sd&efvdkonf [laom xifjrifcsufudk tcdkiftrmqufvufqyk fudkifxm;ygonf? aemufqHk;wGif
‚if;wdk‹teufrS wOD;OD; jrefrmjynfjyifyodk‹oGm;+yD; tultnD/ taxmuftyHhESifh vufeufrsm;&Sm&ef
qHk;jzwfvdkufygonf? “xdktcgu usaemfwOD;wnf;om ajratmufY aeae&aoma=umifh xdkodk‹oGm;&ef
usaemfhudka&G;cs,fcJh=uavonf” [k ocifatmifqef; rSwfwrf;wifcJhygonf?
1940 ckESpf =o*kwfvwGif ocifatmifqef;ESifh ocifvSòrdif (aemiftcg Adkvf&efatmif[kxif&Sm;ol)
wdk‹ jrefrmjynfrS [kdifvDtrnf&Sd oabFmESifhxGufcGmcJh&m w±kwfEkdifiH trGdKifòrd‹&Sd ‘tjynfjynfqkdif&ma'o’
jzpfaom ulvefpkodk‹ a&mufoGm;=uygonf? xdkae&mY olwdk‹ESpfOD; vtenf;i,fr# aomifwifae+yD;
w±kwfuGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh qufoG,f&ef óud;pm;csufrsm;vnf; atmifjrifjcif;r&SdcJhyg? w±kwfuGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh
tquftoG,frvkyfEkdifcJhaomfvnf;
*syefudk,fpm;vS,fwOD;
olwdk‹tm;
csOf;uyf+yD;
*syefwyfrawmft&m&SdwOD;jzpfol Adkvfrª;}uD;plZluDautD*sDESifhawG‹&ef wdkusKdokd‹ av,mOfESifh ydk‹vdkufygonf?
xdkAdkvfrª;}uD;onf aemiftcgY ‘jrefrmjynf vGwfvyfa&;udk ulnD&efESifh w±kwfjrefrmvrf;r}uD;udk ydwfqdk‹&ef’
&nf&G,fcsufrsm;ESifh
wnfaxmifaom
rDemrDuDuef
v#KdŒ0Suftoif;.
acgif;aqmiftjzpf
xif&Sm;rnfholjzpfygonf?
jrefrmEkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh *syefwdk‹t=um; tquftoG,f&Sdjcif;rSm topftqef;r[kwfacs?
a'gufwmbarmfae&mY
0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfvmaom
OD;apmonf
*syefaxmufyHhr_a=umifh
csrf;omºuG,f0vmol[lI emrnfxGufcJhygonf? a'gufwmbarmfudk,fwkdifvnf; ‘xGuf&yf*kd%f;’ twGuf
*syefwdk‹xHrS
tultnD&SmcJhygonf?
a'gufwmbarmf.
tpdk;&twGif;
0ef}uD;wOD;jzpfcJhaom
0g&ifhEkdifiHa&;orm;}uD; a'gufwmodrf;armifurl *syefodk‹ tvnftywfoGm;a&mufcJh+yD; *syef-Arm
cspf=unfa&;toif;udk a&SŒaqmifwnfaxmifcJhygonf? 1940 ckESpfv,fwGif Adkvfrª;}uD;plZluD; jrefrmjynfokd‹
tvnfa&mufpOfu a'gufwmodrf;armifESifh awG‹cJh.? TawG‹qHkqufoG,fr_rSwqifh *syefrsm;u
trdGKifa&muf
ocifESpfOD;tm;
&SmazGawG‹&SdEkdifcJhjcif;
jzpfygonf?
‘xGuf&yf*dk%f;’0ifrsm;teuf

*syeftultnDvufcHoifh/ rcHoifhESifhywfoufI pdwfoabmxm;uJGjym;r_rsm; &SdaecJhygonf? uGefjrLepfrsm;
(‚if;wdk‹teuf txif&Sm;qHk;rSm ocifpdk;/ ocifA[def;/ ocifoef;xGef;ESifh ocifodef;az) u txl;ojzifh
zufqpf*syefESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;udk qef‹usif=uonf? ocifatmifqef;uawmh tultnDudk
&onfhae&mrS,l+yD; tajctaersm; rnfuJhodk‹ ajymif;vJjzpfay:vmrnfudk apmifh=unfhoifhonf[k
vufawG‹tusKd;jzpfrnfh enf;vrf;tjrif t,ltqudk pJGudkifcJh.? odk‹aomf ol.pum;twkdif;qdk&v#if olonf
*syefwdk‹ESifhyl;aygif;jcif;a=umifh aemifjzpfay:vmrnfh tusKd;qufrsm;udk taotcsm &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;
wGufqcJhyHkray:?
wkdusKdwGif ocifatmifqef;ESifh Adkvfrª;}uD;plZluD;wdk‹ESpfOD; em;vnfr_,lEkdifcJh=u.? odk‹aomf
ESpfOD;ESpfzufvHk;wGif xdefcsefxm;aom oabmrawG‹r_av;rsm; &SdcJhyHk&ygonf? Adkvfrª;}uD;plZluD;onf
ocifatmifqef;.
ajzmifhrwfwnf=unfr_ESifh
rsKd;cspfpdwfwdk‹udk
av;pm;aomfvnf;
‘ol.
EkdifiHa&;tawG;tac:rsm; r&ifhusufvSao;’ [k xifjrif.? Ta0zefcsufonf xdkpOfu taetxm;t&
"rR"dVmefrus[k rqdkEkdifyg? ocifatmifqef; udk,fwkdifa&;cJhonfrSm olESifh ol‹&Jabmf&Jbufwdk‹ *syefrsm;tm;
jrefrmEkdifiHudk 0ifa&mufodrf;ydkuf&ef zdwfac:ouJhodk‹ jzpf&onfrSm “zufqpfpepfudk vdkvm;Ir[kwf/
usaemfwdk‹. vlyg;r0r_a=umifh "e&Sifaygufp pdk;&drfr_a=umifhwkd‹om jzpfavonf?” olonf
*syefjynfokd‹toGm;Y pdk;&drfa=umifh=updwfrsm; jzpfay:cJhonf? a&mufoGm;aomtcg olpdk;&drfcJhoavmuf
rqdk;vSojzifh pdwfoufom&m&aomfvnf; pdwfrcszG,f/ rESpfoufzG,f udpPav;rsm; usefvsuf&Sdaeygonf?
*syefvlrsKd;wdk‹. rsKd;cspfpdwf/ oef‹jyef‹pGmaexkdifyHkESifh udk,fhtvdkudk,frvdkuf/ òcd;òcd;+cH+cH aeEkdifaom
t&nftcsif;wdk‹udk ocifatmifqef; av;pm;aomfvnf; ‚if;wdk‹. ppf0g'Dqefaom oabmxm;tcsKdŒ.
±dkif;pdkif;=urf;ºukwfr_udk ol rESpfòrd‹onfhtjyif *syefrsm; trsKd;orD;wdk‹tay:qufqHyHkrSm ol‹tjrifwGif
tHh=oxdwfvef‹zG,f&m jzpfae.?
1941 ckESpf azazmf0g&DvwGif ocifatmifqef;onf w±kwfoabFmom;toGifjzifh jrefrmjynfokd‹
jyefa&mufvmavonf? olrSwqifh *syefwdk‹urf;vSrf;vdkufonfh oabmwlnDcsuft&/ awmfvSefykefuef&ef
vufeufrsm;ESifh aiGa=u;axmufyHhrnf[k jrefrmwdk‹u em;vnfcJh.? xdk‹jyif vufa&G;pifvli,fwpkudk
ppfoifwef;ay;rnf? xdkvli,frsm;udk jrefrmEkdifiHrS cdk;xkwfoGm;&efvdkayrnf? ocifatmifqef; jrefrmjynfY
=umjrifhpGmraeyg? *syefodk‹ ocifvSazESifh tjcm;vli,foHk;OD;wdk‹ESifhtwl jyefoGm;ygonf? xdktkyfpkrSm
‘&JabmfoHk;usdyf’ . a&SŒajy;wyfOD; jzpfygonf? aemif ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf. r¾dKifozG,fjzpfvmrnfh
T&JabmfoHk;usdyf0if yk*~Kdvfrsm;udk a&G;cs,f&mY tvG,fwul vdkufygEkdifr_ESifh ocifygwDtwGif;&Sd
*dk%f;*%toD;oD;u
auseyfvufcHEkdifr_wdk‹tay:
rlwnfcJhojzifh
tusOf;uscHae&aom
trsKd;om;a&;acgif;aqmifrsm; rygjzpfonfhtjyif aemif tcsif;csif;t=um; pdwf0rf;uJGaprnfh rsKd;aphudk
ysKd;vdkufouJhodk‹vnf; jzpfoGm;ygonf?
&JabmfoHk;usdyfonf [dkifeefu|ef;Y yifyef;}uD;pGm ppfynmoif,l&ygonf? ‚if;wdk‹teuf
ocifatmifqef;/ ocifvSaz (AdkvfvuFsm)/ ocifatmifoef; (Adkvfp}uFm) ESifh ocifxGef;tkyfwdk‹udk
ppfXmeOD;pD;uGyfuJa&;ESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;wdk‹udk txl;avhvm&ef a&G;cs,fvdkufygonf? ocifygwD tkyfpkwpkudk
udk,fpm;ðyaom
ocifxGef;tkyftm;
EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifwifajr‡mufvdkuf.?
odk‹aomfvnf;
ocifatmifqef;onf &JabmfoHk;usdyf. acgif;aqmiftjzpf xifxif&Sm;&Sm; ay:xGufvmonf?
ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf zJG‹aomtcgYvnf; wyfrawmf. òydifzufr&Sdacgif;aqmifjzpfvmavonf?
ocifatmifqef;onf
udk,fcE<mn‡uf+yD;
tm;aumif;oefrmvSjcif;r&Sdaomfvnf;
wdkufa&;cdkufa&;u|rf;usifum
owWd&SdI
tyifyef;cHEdkifaom
ppfom;wOD;jzpfvm.?
ol‹tm;
vlr_qufqHa&;nHhzsif;onf[k
pGyfpJGcsufrsm;&SdcJhaomfvnf;
&Jabmfrsm;
udk,fyifyef;/
pdwfyifyef;jzpfaecsdefrsm;wGif pdwf"mwfjyefvnfwufºuGvmap&ef tm;ay;jcif;/ ti,fqHk;&Jabmfrsm;udk
txl;*±kpdkufjcif;/ ppfoifwef;om;b0. u&duxrsm;a=umifh‚if;/ *syefrsm;a=umifh‚if;/ emusnf;pdwfrsm;

qlyGufvmcsdefwGif pdwfvdkufrmefygrvkyf&ef t}uHay;wkdufwGef;jcif;/ ponfwdk‹udk ol pGrf;aqmifEkdifcJhonf?
vli,fppfoifwef;om;rsm;onf
*syefenf;jyq&mtcsKdŒudk
av;pm;cspfcif=uaomfvnf;/
*syefpdwfaeoabmxm;tcsKdŒudkrl rsm;pGmrESpfòrd‹&um;/ 1941 ckESpfukefydkif; jrefrmjynfwGif;odk‹ rcsDwufrDuyif
ArmESifh *syefwdk‹t=um; uawmufuqjzpfr_rsm; pwifay:aygufcJhonf? ("gwfyHkvmonf)
("gwfyHk)
tay: - Adkvfvufsm/ Adkvfp}uFm/ Adkvfatmifqef; 1941 ckESpf *syefjynf
atmuf – AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh &JabmfoHk;usdyftzJG‹0iftcsKdŒ 1943
(aqmif;yg;tquf)
[dkifeefoifwef;ausmif;qif;rsm;/
xdkif;EkdifiHae
jrefrmrsm;ESifh
rDemrDtzJG‹0ifrsm;yg0ifaom
ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfukd 1941 ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif befaumufòrd‹Y w&m;0ifzJG‹pnf;vdkuf.?
plZluD;onf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;&mxl;jzifh wyfrawmft}uD;tuJjzpfvm+yD; atmifqef;onf AdkvfcsKyf&mxl;ESifh
ppfOD;pD;csKyfjzpfvmygonf? tysHoifp wyfrawmftzJG‹0ifrsm;onf opPma&aomuf+yD; t&m&Sdrsm;u
ol&Jaumif;qefaom ygVdtrnfrsm;udk cH,l=uygonf? plZluD;onf Adkvfrdk;óud;jzpfvm+yD;/ atmifqef;onf
AdkvfawZjzpfvmonf? rdrdwdk‹trnfopfrsm;ESifh xif&Sm;vmrnfh &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifrsm;teuf AdkvfvuFsm/
Adkvfp}uFm/ AdkvfaZ,s/ Adkvfae0if;/ Adkvf&efEkdif/ AdkvfausmfaZm ponfwdk‹ yg0ifygonf? ‘AdkvfcsKyfawZ’ url
ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifESifh ocifacgif;aqmiftjzpf wkdif;jynfuodcJhaom atmifqef;trnfudkom
jyefvnfoHk;pJGum ‘AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;’ [lI jynfolwdk‹ tjrwfwEdk;xm;aom tmZmenfol&Jaumif;tjzpf
xifay:vmygonf?
ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf *syefrsm;ESifh &ifabmifwef;I jrefrmjynfwGif;odk‹ csDwufvmjcif;onf
jrefrmrsm;twGuf *k%f,lzG,f/ aysmf&$ifzG,fjzpfygonf? usqif;aeaom rdrdwdk‹. trsKd;om;*k%foduQmudk
jyefvnfjr‡ifhwifay;vdkufouJhodk‹ jzpfoGm;ygonf? odk‹aomf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh ol. &Jabmf&JbuftcsKdŒu
a&SŒwGifjy\emrsm;&Sdrnfudk
odESifh=u+yD?
befaumufrSm
&SdaepOfuyif
jrefrmjynfwGif;odk‹
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EdkifiHtwGif;&Sd
trsKd;om;a&;acgif;aqmifrsm;.
pDrHvkyfaqmifcsufjzifh
vGwfvyfa&;a=unm+yD;EkdifiHY &ifqkdif&rnfh tajctaeudk pDpOf&ef óud;pm;cJha=umif; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;
rSwfwrf;wifcJh.? xdkuJhodk‹raqmif&GufEkdifygu jynfolvlxkudk pnf;±Hk;v_H‹aqmfum ajratmufawmfvSefa&;
pwifxm;jcif;jzifh usL;ausmf0ifa&mufvmolrsm; ajcukyfr&Edkifatmif tajctaezefwD;&ef jzpf.? odk‹aomf
jrefrmEkdifiHrSm uarmufurjzpfae+yD; EkdifiHa&;orm;trsm;pkvnf; axmifoGif;tusOf;cscHb0 a&mufae=u&m
tpDtpOfESpfckvHk; vufawG‹usus taumiftxnfazmf&ef rjzpfEkdifyg? *syefrsm;vnf; jrefrmjynfudk
0ifa&mufodrf;ydkufvdkufygonf?
*syefacwfum;
txiftjrif}uD;cJhor#
òyduJG&+yD;
raocsra&&mr_rsm;ESifh
'kuQaygif;pHkjzpfaeaomumvjzpfygonf? +Adwdo#wdk‹xHrS vGwfvyfa&;&rnf[k ar#mfrSef;cJholrsm;onf
tm&Swdkufom;csif;. zaemifhatmufom a&muf&a=umif; odvmaomtcg ta=uuJG}uD; a=uuJGcJh&.?
trsm;u vGwfvyfa&;ay;rnfh u,fwif&Sifrsm;tjzpf óudqdkcJhaom edyGefppfom;rsm;onf vlóudufrrsm;aom
+Adwdo#wdk‹xufyif qdk;0g;onfudk awG‹&awmh.? wae‹wjcm; pufqkyfzG,f&mjzpf&yfrsm; wkd;yGm;vmav
("mwfyHkvmonf)
("gwfyHk)
atmifqef;ESifh ocifvSòrdif (Adkvf&efatmif) wdk‹ 1940 ckESpfwGif *syefjynfodk‹
a&muf&SdoGm;cJh+yD;aemuf 1941 ckESpf azazmf0g&DvwGif atmifqef;tm;

jrefrmEkdifiHodk‹ v#KdŒ0SufpGm jyefvnfac:aqmifvmcJhol rdqk±kpl*D;ESifh
4-3-42 Y twlawG‹&pOf/ &efukef
(aqmif;yg;tquf)
onf? ‘uifaytd’ (ppfykvdyf) [laom trnfonf a=umufrufzG,f&ma0g[m&jzpfvmonf? vlrsm;
tpterusef
aysmufoGm;jcif;/
tESdyfpuftn‡if;qJcH&jcif;/
ac|;wyfqJGcH&jcif;
ponfwdk‹rSm
edpP"l0udpPr#omjzpfaom avmu}uD;wGifaewwfatmif ae=u&avonf? xdk‹tjyif r[mrdwfavwyf/
*syefavwyfwdk‹. AHk;}uJ'%f/ ppfwGif;&duQm&Sm;yg;r_'%f/ axmufvSrf;a&;owif;ay;rsm;'%f/ pdwf"mwfESifh
,Ofaus;r_t& zDvmqef‹usifaeolrsm;t=um; jzpfyGm;aom yÉdyuQrsm;/ bmompum;rwlolwdk‹t=um;
jzpfwwfaom txiftjrifvJGr_rsm; ponfjzifh 'kuQtaygif;udkvnf; xyfavmif;cH&ygao;onf?
jrefrmjynfa&muf
*syefrsm;teuf
w&m;r#wa&;/
vlom;csif;pmema&;
pdwf"mwfrsm;t&
usifh}uHaexkdifolrsm; &Sd=uaomfvnf;/ ‚if;wdk‹. aumif;rGefaomaqmif&Gufcsufrsm;onf ppf0g'Drsm;.
vlrsKd;cJGjcm;a&;pepfa=umifh tcsnf;tESD;jzpf&ygonf?
rdrdwkd‹uwdopPm wnf=unfEkdif&ef jrefrmEkdifiHudk vGwfvyfa&;ay;oifhonf[k ,Hk=unfaom
rDemrDuDuef tzJG‹0ifrsm;onf jzpfay:vmaomtajctaersm;a=umifh pdwfrcsrf;ajrŒ[efwlygonf? 1942
ckESpf/ &efukefòrd‹udk *syefwyfrsm;odrf;+yD;onfESifh Adkvfr;dk óud;onf A[dktpdk;&wnfaxmifum ocifxGef;tkyfudk
OD;pD;OD;aqmifcef‹vdkufygonf?
xdktpdk;&
=um=umrcHyg?
*syefwyfrsm;
wdkif;jynfudk
qufvufodrf;ydkufonfESifhtr# *syefppftkyfcsKyfa&; us,fus,fjyef‹jyef‹v$rf;rdk;vmum jrefrmEkdifiHudk
ppf±_H;e,fajrwckuJhodk‹ udkifwG,fvmavonf? ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf. taetxm;onfvnf;
ra&r&mESifh tm;uszG,f&mvHk;0r&Sday? wyfrawmfonf csDwufvm&mvrf;wav#muf pdwftm;xufoefpGm
0ifvmolrsm;ESifh azmif;yGae.? xdkppfom;opfrsm;udk xda&mufonfh wdkuf&nfckduf&nf&Sdaom
wyfrsm;jzpfvmap&ef pepfwus/ pnf;urf;&Sd&Sd avhusifhay;&ayOD;rnf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;um; rdrdwyfrsm;udk
trdef‹ay;tkyfcsKyfydkifcGifhr&Sd? olonf Adkvfrdk;óud;. vufaxmuft&m&Sdrsm;teuf tqifhjrifhqHk;r#omjzpf.?
Adkvfrdk;óud;udk,fwkdifvnf; jrefrmjynf. tem*wfta&;rsm;wGif olESifh ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfwdk‹
rnfonfhtcef;u¾u
yg0if&rnf[laom
udpPESifhywfoufI
ppftkyfcsKyfa&;qkdif&mrsm;ESifh
jy\emwufaeyHk&.? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh ol. &Jabmf&Jbufrsm;url ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfonf
jrefrmt&m&Sdrsm;vufatmufwGifom &Sdoifhonf[k ,lq=uonf? xdkudpPESifhywfoufI AdkvfvuFsmu ol/
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh
tjcm;&JabmfoHk;usdyf0iftcsKdŒ
Adkvfrdk;óud;ESifh&ifqkdifcJhpOfu
Zmwfqefqef
tjzpftysufta=umif;udk
a&;om;cJhzl;.?
&ifqkdifr_.
&v'fum;
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk
ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf.
aoemywdcsKyftjzpf‚if;/
AdkvfvuFsmudk
ppfOD;pD;tjzpf‚if;
cef‹tyfvdkufjcif;jzpfygonf? ("mwfyHkvmonf)
("gwfyHk)
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;
ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf 1942 ckESpf
(aqmif;yg;tquf)
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf
ol.taetxm;ESifhywfoufI‚if;/
jrefrmEkdifiHtajctaeESifh
ywfoufI‚if;/ pdwful;,Of+yD; xifa,mifxifrSm;rjzpfcJhyg? vGwfvyfa&;±kef;uefr_um; qHk;cef;wkdif&ef
rsm;pGmvdkao;onfukd olodem;vnfonfhtavsmuf wyfrawmf awmifhwif;ckdifrm&efESifh pnf;urf;&Sd&efudk
tm±HkpdkufcJh.? Armhwyfrawmfudk ygwDEkdifiHa&;rS uif;uif;&Sif;&Sif;ae&efESifh t&yfom;tkyfcsKyfa&;zufwGif

0ifa&mufpGufzufjcif; rðy&efudkvnf; olóud;yrf;cJh.? odk‹aomfvnf; EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;udk A[dkr¾dKifðyum
zJG‹pnf;cJhaom wyfrawmftaeESifh EkdifiHa&;ESifh uif;uif;&Sif;&Sif; aeEdkifzdk‹&efrSm tcsdefrsm;pGmrS
aESmif;oGm;+yDjzpfa=umif; ol {uefod&SdcJhrnfjzpfonf?
1942
ckESpf
ZlvkdifvwGif
Adkvfrdk;óud;
jrefrmjynfrS
xGufcGmoGm;ygonf?
ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfukd ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmftjzpf jyefvnfzJG‹pnf;vdkuf+yD; atmifqef;onf
Adkvfrª;}uD;&mxl;ESifh ppfaoemywdjzpfvmygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; topfzJG‹pnf;vdkufaom wyfrawmf.
tqifhqifhY *syef‘t}uHay;t&m&Sd’rsm; wJGcef‹tyfxm;+yD; jrefrmt&m&Sdrsm;. vufawG‹tm%mrsm;udk
wif;usyfpGm
uef‹owfcsKyfcs,fxm;ygonf?
=o*kwfvwGif
*syefwyfrsm;.
aoemywdcsKyf
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;tD'gonf
jrefrmhtkyfcsKyfa&;udk
w&m;0iftwnfðyvdkufum
a'gufwmbarmftm;
EkdifiHawmft}uD;tuJtjzpf
cef‹tyfvdkufygonf?
tay:,Htm;jzifh
jrefrmtpdk;&tm%monf
jrefrmjynfoljynfom;wdk‹vufodk‹ ul;ajymif;oGm;onf[k jrifEkdifaomfvnf; pifppfrSmawmh *syeftkyfcsKyfa&;
ajcukyf&oGm;jcif;yifjzpfygonf?
zufqpfawmfvSefa&;
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh
ol.
&Jabmf&Jbufrsm;onf
ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfESifh
csDwufvm&mwGif yifyef;qif;&J'%f tawmf}uD;yif cHcJh&.? trsm;tjym;onf iSufzsm;a&m*gpJGuyfI‚if;/
ajcukefvufyef;jzpfI‚if; aq;±Hkwuf&=u.? AdkvfcsKyfESifhtaygif;azmftcsKdŒvnf; &efukefaq;±Hk}uD;odk‹
a&mufvmavonf? xdkaq;±Hkudk rdrdwdk‹tvkyfwm0eftay: txl;opPmxm;aom q&m0ef/ q&mrwpku
tcuftcJrsm;pGm=um;rS
pDrHzGifhvSpfxm;jcif;jzpfygonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf
rsufESmxm;
wnfvGef;wif;vGef;+yD; ta&mw0if raewwfol[lI trsm;u odae=uygonf? xdk‹tjyif
ol&Jaumif;wOD;tjzpf
wae‹wjcm;
emrnfxGufvmae&m
olemðyq&mri,frsm;onf
ol‹tem;uyf&rnfudkyif a=umuf±GHŒae=uygonf? odk‹aomf q&mr}uD;jzpfol rcif=unfudk,fwkdif AdkvfcsKyftm;
ðypk&ygonf? rcif=unfonf pJGrufzG,f&m±kyf&nfESifh cspfpzG,ftrlt,m&Sd+yD; rdrd. olemðyvkyfief;udk
apwemjynfh0pGmjzifh txl;wm0efodod aqmif&Gufjcif;a=umifh vlemrsm;ESifh vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;u
av;pm;cspfcif=uygonf? q&mr rcif=unfonf AdkvfcsKyfudk ðypk&mY wif;oifhonfhae&mwGif
wif;aomfvnf;/ ,k,=unfompGm pdwf&SnfpGm qufqHygonf? tvGefa=umufrufzG,faumif;ygonf[laom
ppfaoemywd}uD;vnf; tpJG}uD;pJGoGm;ygawmhonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf &SufwwfI‚if;/ ol.
b0&nfrSef;csuftay:
wm0efodpdwfjyif;xefI‚if;
trsKd;orD;rsm;ESifh
cyfcGmcGmaecJh.?
tusifhoDvESifhywfoufI wif;wif;=uyf=uyf awG;ac:olwOD;jzpf&um; wdkusKdòrd‹Y plZluD;u trsKd;orD;
tvdk&Sdygu pDpOfay;rnf[k urf;vSrf;aomfvnf; AdkvfcsKyf tHh=owkefv_yfoGm;ygonf? plZluD;taeESifh
*syef,Ofaus;r_t& {nfh0wfausap&ef ajymcJhyHk&ygonf? odk‹aomf AdkvfcsKyfuawmh ol‹tm; ‘tusifhpm&dwW
ysufjym;,kwfnHhoGm;atmif óud;pm;aeava&mhvm;’ [k oHo,pdwf0ifcJh.? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf
ol‹pdwfudkol aumif;pGmodonfhtjyif yGifhvif;jywfom;pGm vkyfwwfolvnf; jzpfygonf? odk‹jzifh
&Snf&Snfa0;a0; vlysKdvSnfhjcif;rsKd; rvkyfaebJ/ 1942 ckESpf pufwifbmv 6 &ufae‹wGif q&mr rcif=unfESifh
vufxyfxdrf;jrm;vdkufygonf?
“a':cif=unfonf atmifqef;udk vufxyf&mY vlyk*~KdvfwOD;udkom vufxyfvdkufonfr[kwf/
uHta=umif;w&m;w&yfudkyg vufxyfvdkufjcif;jzpfonf” [k tajym&SdcJhygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;uvnf;
ol. b0=uifazmftaeESifh &SdtyfaomowWdESifh aEG;axG;aom arwWmwdk‹udk ydkifqkdifEkdif±Hkomru
oluG,fvGefoGm;+yD;aemuf ol. pHwifxm;r_rsm;udk *k%foa&&Sd&Sd/ }uHŒ}uHŒckdifckdif xdef;odrf;oGm;rnfh
trsKd;orD;wOD;udk vufxyfvdkufjcif; jzpfygonf? AdkvfcsKyfwdk‹. tdrfaxmifa&;um; om,matmifjrifygonf?

olwdk‹av;pm;jrwfEdk;vSaom vli,fAdkvfcsKyf tdrfaxmifðyoGm;ojzifh ueOD;wGif pdwfrcsrf;omjzpfcJhaom
&Jabmfrsm;vnf; vsifjrefpGmyif oabmwlauseyfvmavonf? tdrfaxmifonfjzpfvm+yD;aemuf
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. El;nHhaysmhajymif;aom toGifvuQ%mrsm; ydkrdkawmufajymifvmonf? olonf
cifyGef;onfwOD;taeESifh‚if;/
zcifwOD;taeESifh‚if;
=uifem,k,wwf.?
ol.
cufcJ/
tEW&m,frsm;aomb0udk twl&ifqkdif&ef pGrf;&nf/ em;vnfr_wdk‹ESifhjynfhpHkaom b0=uifazmf ol.tem;Y
&Sdaejcif;onf ta&;}uD;aomvkyfief;rsm; aqmif&Guf&mY ol‹udk tm;jynfhaponf[k ,HkrSm;oHo,&SdzG,f
r[kwfacs?
1943 ckESpf rwfvwGif atmifqef;tm; AdkvfcsKyftqifhodk‹ wkd;jr‡ifhcef‹tyfvdkuf+yD;
*syefbk&ifrif;jrwfxHrS
bJG‹wHqdyf&,l&ef
*syefodk‹zdwf=um;ygonf?
wdkusKdodk‹oGm;aomtzJG‹udk
a'gufwmbarmfOD;aqmif+yD; xdktzJG‹wGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tjyif a'gufwmodrf;armifESifh ocifjrwdk‹
yg0ifygonf? ZEM0g&DvtwGif;u *syef0ef}uD;csKyfwdk*sKdonf jrefrmEkdifiH r=umrD vGwfvyfa&;&awmhrnf[k
a=unmxm;+yD;jzpfygonf?
jrefrmtzJG‹
jyefvmaomtcg
oabmwlnDcsufpmwrf;wapmif
o,f,lvmcJhygonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;.
cyfjywfjywf
pum;toHk;tE_ef;t&
pmwrf;ygta=umif;t&mrsm;rSm “jrefrmEkdifiHonf 1943 ckESpf =o*kwfv (1) &ufae‹wGif
vGwfvyfa&;&rnfjzpf+yD; u|Ekfyfwdk‹awG pmcsKyftcsKŒd udk csKyfqdk&ef pojzifh” jzpfygonf? pmwrf;udk
tvGeftrif; ta&;xm;jcif;r&SdcJhyg? tpDtpOftwdkif; =o*kwfv (1) &ufae‹wGif jrefrmjynfudk vGwfvyfaom
tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkifEkdifiHtjzpf‚if;/ “r[mta&SŒtm&S omwlnDr# }uD;yGm;a&;e,fajr” .
wef;wlnDwltzJG‹0ifEkdifiHtjzpf‚if; a=unmvdkufygonf? a'gufwmbarmftm; t"dywd[laombJG‹ESifh
EkdifiHacgif;aqmif 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf cef‹tyfvdkuf+yD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;um; ppf0ef}uD;jzpfvmygonf?
jrefrmhtrsKd;om;wyfrawmf[k trnfopfajymif;xm;aom Armhwyfrawmf xda&mufr_r&Sdap&ef *syefwdk‹
enf;y&d,m,frsKd;pHk oHk;pJGygawmhonf? yxrwGif wyfrsm;udk EdkifiHt0Srf;jzef‹}uJxm;onf? xdk‹aemuf
ae&mtcsKdŒwGif pkòyHxm;jyefonf? ppf0ef}uD;XmeESifh wyfrsm;t=um; qufoG,fa&;cufcJap&ef jzpfygonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;um; rwkefrv_yf? *syefawG t}uHay;or#udk oabmwlvdkufum ol‹xifjrifcsufrsm;udk
vlodray;bJ ol‹tpDtpOfEiS fhol qufvkyfoGm;ygonf?
wdkusKdrS jyefa&mufvmcsdefavmufwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf AdkvfvuFsm/ AdkvfaZ,s/
Adkvfae0if;ESifh AdkvfausmfaZmwkd‹tygt0if ol. t&m&SdtcsKdŒudkac:I awmfvSefa&;pwif&ef tcsdefudk
wdkifyifaqG;aEG;ygonf? t&m&Sdrsm;u tajctae ydkrdkpdwfcs&onftxd apmifhqkdif;&ef t}uHay;ygonf? wzef
ocifoef;xGef;ESifhwkdifyif&m ‚if;uvnf; awmfvSefa&;p&ef tcsdefrwefao;[k wifjyojzifh AdkvfcsKyfvnf;
pdwfygvufygr&SdvSaomfvnf; apmifhqkdif;&ef oabmwlvdkufygonf? tjcm;uGefjrLepfrsm;/ txl;ojzifh
ocifpdk;ESifh ocifodef;azwdk‹onf +Adwdo#wdk‹ qkwfcGmoGm;ojzifh olwdk‹ axmifrSvGwfonfh tcsdefrwdkifcifuyif
*syefawmfvSefa&;w&m;a[mcJh.? *syefwyfrsm;csDwufvmonfESifh olwdk‹ESpfOD; awmcdkoGm;ygonf?
ocifodef;azonf AdkvfcsKyfatmiffqef;ESifh Adkvfae0if;wdk‹udk a&$bdkY c%awG‹+yD; +Adwdo#wyfrsm;ESifh
tquftoG,f&a&; óud;yrf;&ef tdENd,odk‹ xGufcGmoGm;ygonf? 1943 ckESpf Ekd0ifbmva&mufcsdefwGif
awmfvSefa&;tpDtpOfrsm; tawmfyif c&D;a&mufae+yDjzpf&um;/ jrefrmEkdifiH awmawmifrsm;xJwGif
ajymufusm;wyfrsm;zJG‹pnf;&ef óud;pm;aeaom Adkvfrª; pD*&if; ac: +Adwdo#wyfrawmft&m&Sdonf/
‘ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmfrS atmifqef;qdkolonf tcgtcGifhóuHvmv#if ol.wyfrsm;ESifh *syefudk
jyefwdkuf&efpDpOfaeonf’ [k tdENd,odk‹ owif;ydk‹cJhygonf? avmavmq,fwGifrl awmfvSefa&;tpDtpOfrsm;
+yD;pD;onftxd
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf
*syefwdk‹.
oHo,pdwfrsm;
aysmufuG,foGm;ap&ef
tm;xkwf&ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; olonf vuf&SdvGwfvyfa&;onf twkta,mifr#omjzpfa=umif;/
ppfrSefaom vGwfvyfa&;&&Sd&ef ±kef;uef&rnfjzpfa=umif;udk ol. rdef‹cGef;rsm;wGif jynfolwdk‹tm; today;cJh.?

1942 ckESpfukefydkif;wGif u&ifrsm;ESifh ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmftwGif;rS wm0efrJholwdk‹t=um;
ay:aygufcJhaom yÉdyuQwdk‹rSpI aoG;xGufoH,dkr_ESifh vlrsKd;a&;t"du±k%f;rsm; jzpfyGm;vmonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf
jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd
wdkif;&if;om;rsm;t=um;
qufqHa&;aumif;rGefr_udk
txl;tav;ay;cJh.? xdkuJhodk‹ qufqHa&;aumif;rSomv#if EkdifiHpnf;vHk;nDnGwfrnfjzpfa=umif; ol
aumif;pGmoabmaygufcJh.? plZluD;twGuf ocifatmifqef;a&;qJGcJhaom ‘jrefrmEkdifiH pDrHudef;’ wGif
‘,QKtcgY
+Adwdo#ya,m*a=umifh
vlrsm;pkjzpfaom
Armwdk‹ESifh
&ckdif/
&Srf;
paom
awmifay:wkdif;&if;om;rsm;t=um;wGif
wnf&Sdaeaom
uGm[csufrsm;
usOf;ajrmif;oGm;ap+yD;
tm;vHk;wef;wlnDr#&Sdaom EkdifiHxlaxmif&ef’ vdktyfa=umif;udk tav;teufazmfjycJhygonf? u&if-Arm
t"du±k%f;onf ol‹tm; rsm;pGm a'gre\ jzpfapygonf? 1943 ckESpfaemufydkif;wGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;/
ocifoef;xGef;ESifh AdkvfvuFsmwdk‹onf TvlrsKd;pkESpfpkt=um; +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh em;vnfr_&&Sdap&ef tyef;w}uD;
aqmif&GufcJhygonf? ‚if;wdk‹. pkaygif;óud;yrf;r_rS oD;yGifhvmaomtusKd;um; u&ifacgif;aqmifrsm;
jrefrmacgif;aqmifwdk‹tm;
,Hk=unfpdwfcsvmjcif;ESifh
jrefrmhwyfrawmftwGif;
u&ifwyf&if;wck
zJG‹pnf;vdkufjcif;jzpfygonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; tapmwvsif udkifwG,f&efvdkaeaom aemufudpPw&yfrSm uGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh
jynfol‹ta&;awmfyHkygwDtwGif;rS qdk&S,fvpfrsm;t=um; wae‹wjcm;}uD;xGm;aeaom tmCmwrsm;yif
jzpfygonf? uGefjrLepfacgif;aqmifrsm;rSm *syefacwfwav#mufvHk; awmcdkaecJhaom ocifpdk;/ opfawmESifh
v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;0ef}uD;jzpfaeaom ocifoef;xGef;ESifh ocifA[def;wdk‹ jzpf=uygonf? OD;ausmf+idrf;ESifh
OD;baqGwdk‹onfum; xif&Sm;aom qdk&S,fvpfacgif;aqmifESpfOD; jzpfygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf
ESpfzufacgif;aqmifrsm;t=um;
ajyvnfap&ef
txl;óud;yrf;cJhygonf?
aphpyfjzefajza&;udk
tjrefqHk;aqmif&Guf&ef vkdtyfaejcif;rSm EkdifiHa&;oabmxm;uJGvJGr_rsm;onf wyfrawmfxJodk‹ pdrfh0ifaeum
&Jabmfrsm;. nDnGwfa&;ESifh awmfvSefa&;. atmifjrifa&;wdk‹udk +cdrf;ajcmufaeI jzpfygonf? xdk‹tjyif
ocifpdk;onf zufqpfqef‹usifa&; pnf;±Hk;aqmf=o&mwGif wyfrawmfudk xdcdkufepfemapaom
0g'jzef‹csda&;ðyvkyfaeojzifh wyftwGif; rauseyfr_rsm; jzpf±Hkomru AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;vnf;
a'goxGuf&ygonf? vaygif;rsm;pGm oabmxm;csif; zvS,f+yD;aemuf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf ocifpdk;/
ocifoef;xGef;/ ocifA[def;wdk‹ESifh 1944 ckESpf =o*kwfvwGif &uftenf;i,f=um v#KdŒ0Sufpnf;a0;ygonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. zufqpfqef‹usifa&;tzJG‹ wnfaxmif&eftqdkukd aqG;aEG;=u+yD; tzJG‹.
a=unmpmwrf;ESifh pkaygif;aqmif&Guf&rnfh pDrHudef;w&yfudk oabmwltwnfðyvkyfygonf? rsm;r=umrD
uGefjrLepfacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh jynfol‹ta&;awmfyyHk gwDacgif;aqmifrsm; twlpnf;a0;&ef pDpOfvdkuf+yD;/
xdktpnf;ta0;Y AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf “zufqpf"g;jyrsm;udk wkdufxkwf=uavmh” acgif;pOfyg
a=unmpmwrf;udk zwfum awmfvSefa&;udk w&m;0if taumiftxnfazmfvdkufygonf? tzJG‹Y ocifpdk;onf
EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifjzpf+yD;
ocifoef;xGef;onf
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;wm0efESifh
r[mrdwfrsm;ESifhqufoG,fa&; wm0efwdk‹udk ,lum AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf ppfa&;acgif;aqmifjzpfygonf?
xdktcsdefY vli,fwyfrawmft&m&SdtcsKdŒonf pwifv_yf&Sm;&ef aZm}uD;um ocifacgif;aqmiftcsKdŒESifh
wyfrawmf tqifhjrifht&m&SdtcsKdŒwdk‹udkom wkdifyifavh&Sdaom AdkvfcsKyf. qdwfqdwfaer_a=umifh
rcsifhr&Jjzpfae=uygonf? ‚if;wdk‹onf awmfvSefa&;w&yfudk rdrdwdk‹zmom pwif&ef }uHpnf=uygonf?
TudpPudk AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; odoGm;aomtcg ‚if;wdk‹tm; zufqpfqef‹usifa&;tzJG‹. v_yf&Sm;r_xJY
wdusaom tcef;u¾rsm; pDpOfay;jcif;jzifh tajctaeudk ajyvnfapcJhygonf?
twGif;tiftm;pkrsm;. nDnGwfr_&,l+yD;aemuf awmfvSefa&;tpDtpOf t+yD;owfEkdif&ef
r[mrdwfwyfrsm;ESifh rnfuJhodk‹aom oabmwlnDr_rsm; &Ekdifrnfudkom od&Sd&ef vdkygawmhonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh taygif;tazmfrsm;onf jynfytultnD &onfjzpfap/ r&onfjzpfap *syefudk
awmfvSef&ef qHk;jzwfcsufcs+yD;jzpfaomfvnf; atmifjrifr_rsm; ydkIydkI &aeaom r[mrdwfwyfrsm;ESifh

yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;jzifh vufawG‹tusKd;tjrwfrsm; &&SdEdkifrnfjzpfa=umif; xif&Sm;vmygonf? trSefrSm
EdkifiHt0Srf; jrefrmwyfrsm; *syefwdk‹udk pwifawmfvSefaom 1945 ckESpf rwfv 27 &ufae‹a&mufonfhwkdif
+Adwdo#wdk‹ESifh &Sif;vif;aomoabmwlnDcsuf r&&Sdao;ay? xdkae‹rwdkifrD (10) &uftvdku
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf &efukefòrd‹Y ppfa&;jytcrf;tem;w&yfwGif yg0if+yD;aemuf ol. wyfrsm;ESifhtwl
ppfavhusifhcef;qif;&ef[k ta=umif;jyum òrd‹awmfrS xGufcGmcJhygonf? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;pvif;. wyfr (14) onf
{&m0wDjrpfudk rEWav;ajrmufydkif;rS jzwful;ae+yD;/ ocifoef;xGef;onf +Adwdo#wyfrawmft&m&SdwOD;ESifhqHk&ef
awmifilodk‹xGufcGmoGm;ay+yD?
rsm;r=umrD
awmfvSefa&;a&pD;a=umif;um;
w[kefwnf;pD;qif;vmayawmhonf?
arv
(15)
&ufae‹wGif
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf
vufaxmuft&m&SdwOD;ESifhtwl pvif;ESifhawG‹qHk&ef ‚if;. XmecsKyfodk‹ a&mufoGm;.? awG‹qHk&mwGif
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf rdrdudk,frdrd jrefrmEdkifiH ,m,Dtpdk;&. udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf rdwfquf+yD;/
r[mrdwfppfOD;pD;wOD;tjzpf todtrSwfðy&ef &J&Jwif;wif; awmif;qdkvdkufygonf? +Adwdo#AdkvfcsKyf}uD;xHrS
vdkufavsmr_trsm;qHk; &&SdEkdif&ef wzufuóud;pm;vsuf wzufuvnf; vufawG‹usus awG;jrifwwfa=umif;/
yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufvdka=umif;/ rdrdESifhqufqHolrsm; pdwfacG‹&avmufatmif ±dk;om;ajzmifhrwfa=umif;wdk‹udk
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; jyocJh&m pvif;. ESpfoufoabmusr_ESifh av;pm;r_wdk‹udk &&SdcJh.? pvif;. pum;t&
“olESifhywfoufI usaemf rSwfrSwf&&}uD; owdðyr_onfuawmh/ ol. ±dk;om;ajzmifhrwfr_jzpfygonf? olonf
tmoGufv#moGuf tóudufvdkuf tmrcHcsufay;jcif;rsKd;r&Sd? vG,fvG,fESifh uwdray;? odk‹aomf
wckckvkyfygrnf[k oabmwlcJhv#ifawmh pum;wnfrnfhol[k usaemf jrifygonf?”
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;pvif;wdk‹ awG‹qHk+yD;aemuf/ jrefrmwyfrsm;ESifh +Adwdo#wyfrsm;
yl;wJGI *syefwdk‹udk wdkufav&m *syefwyfrsm; tvsiftjref òyduJGoGm;ygonf? ZGefv (15) &ufae‹wGif
&efukefòrd‹ atmifyJGppfcsDtcrf;tem;rsm; usif;y&mY +Adwdo#tifykdif,mwyfrsm;/ r[mrdwfwyfrsm;ESifhtwl
jrefrmhwyfrawmfuvnf;
yg0ifcJhygonf?
*syefawmfvSefa&;um;
+yD;qHk;oGm;ayonf?
trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;aeaom
jrefrmrsm;onf
wlnDaom&nfrSef;csufatmifjrifap&ef
0g'a&;&m
rwdkufqdkifr_rsm;ESifh yk*~Kdvfa&;qefaom oabmxm;rsm;udk ab;z,fcJhaom *k%f,lzG,ftaumif;qHk;
tcsdefumvjzpfygonf? 1945 ckESpf =o*kwfvwGif us,fjyef‹aom vlr_a&;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;udk
udk,fpm;ðyaom yk*~Kdvfrsm;ESifh tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;yg0ifEkdif&ef zufqpfqef‹usifa&;tzJG‹udk wkd;csJŒzJG‹pnf;+yD;
‘zufqpfqef‹usifa&;/ jynfol‹vGwfajrmufa&;tzJG‹csKyf’ (zqyv) [lI trnfopfay;vdkufygonf?
+Adwdo#ESifh aphpyfaqG;aEG;jcif;?
*syefwdk‹udk r[mrdwfrsm;ESifhaygif;I wdkufcdkuf&ef zufqpfqef‹usifa&;tzJG‹. urf;vSrf;csufudk
+Adwdo#wdk‹ vufcHcJhjcif;rSm/ ta&SŒawmiftm&S r[mrdwfwyfrsm;. ppfOD;pD;csKyf avmh'farmifhbufwif.
EdkifiHa&;yg;eyf tar#mftjrif&Sdr_wdk‹a=umifh jzpfygonf? 1942 ckESpf jrefrmEkdifiHrS +Adwdo#odk‹ qkwfcGm+yD;aemuf
tdENd,wGif
ta0;a&muftpdk;&±Hk;pdkufcJhygonf?
xdktpdk;&udk
v$rf;rdk;aeaom
t&m&Sdrsm;onf
trsKd;om;a&;pdwf jyif;xefaom vli,frsm;u ‚if;wdk‹. =oZmudk pdefac:jcif;ESifh ‚if;wdk‹. tkyfcsKyfa&;
0±kef;okef;um;jzpfap&ef v_yf&Sm;cJhonfudk cHcJh&olrsm; jzpfayonf? Tt&m&Sdrsm;onf zqyvESifh
yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_rSefor#ukd vHk;0qef‹usifI +Adwdo#wdk‹ jrefrmEkdifiHudk jyefvnfodrf;ydkuf+yD;p
ppftkyfcsKyfa&;umvtwGif;
zqyvudk
rw&m;oif;
a=unmum/
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk
EkdifiHawmfopPmazmuftjzpf zrf;qD;&ef vdkvm;=uygonf? ydkrdkI t"dXmefuspGm ±_jrifEdkifaom
taetxm;wGif &Sdaeaom armifhbufwifurl jrefrmEkdifiHudpPrsm;udk +idrf;csrf;pGm ajz&Sif;Ekdif&mwGif/
jrefrmvlxk}uD;u rdrdwdk‹vGwfajrmufa&;udk aqmifusOf;ay;cJhol[lI todtrSwfðyxm;aom yk*~Kdvf.
yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_udk &,l&ef vdktyfrnfudk em;vnfonf? vlxk. pdwfaeoabmxm;ESifh uif;uGmaeaom

ppftkyfcsKyfa&;acgif;aqmif t&yfom;t&m&Sd.ae&mwGif vsifjrefpGmyif 0g&ifhwyfrawmft&m&SdwOD;jzpfol
AdkvfcsKyf&efpftm; cef‹tyfvdkufygonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; ajz&Sif;&aom vwfwavmjy\emw&yfrSm ArmhrsKd;cspfwyfrawmf[k
trnfajymif;xm;aom jrefrmhwyfrawmf. tem*wfta&; jzpfygonf? wyfrsm;udk au|;arG;a&;ESifh
vufeufwyfqifay;a&;vkyfief;rsm;onf vGefpGmrS cufcJae.? r[mrdwfwdk‹ ppfatmifyJGcH+yD;aemuf
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf
armifhbufwifESifh
awG‹qHkaqG;aEG;I
ArmhrsKd;cspfwyfrawmf0ifrsm;onf
rdrdwdk‹qENtavsmuf
+Adwdo#vufatmuf&Sd
jrefrmhwyfrawmfxJodk‹
0ifvdku
0ifEkdifap&ef
oabmwlvdkufygonf? ToabmwlnDcsuf. tao;pdwftcsufrsm;udk 1945 ckESpf pufwifbmvwGif
r[mrdwfppfOD;pD;XmeESifh
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;/
AdkvfvuFsm/
ocifoef;xGef;wdk‹yg0ifaom
jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹wdk‹ uENDtpnf;ta0;Y qHk;jzwfcJh=uonf? uENDodk‹toGm; udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG‹0iftcsKdŒ
umvuwWm;òrd‹wGif acwWc%&yfpOf ocifodef;azESifhawG‹qHk+yD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. tem*wfta&;udk
aqG;aEG;=u.? oabmxm;tjrifwckt& vmrnfhEdkifiHa&;wkdufyJGwGif AdkvfcsKyfyg0if&ef vdktyfonf?
“olonfom trsKd;om;a&;tiftm;pktaygif;udk nDnGwfaom wyfOD;w&yfjzpfvmap&ef pGrf;aqmif+yD;
acgif;aqmifr_ay;Ekdifrnfh wOD;wnf;aom yk*~Kdvfjzpfonf?” ocifodef;azrSty tjcm;uGefjrLepfrsm;
wifjyaom tjcm;tjrifwckt& AdkvfcsKyfonf EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifwOD;&Sdoifhaom t&nftcsif;aygif;pHkr&Sd/
vlr_qufqHa&;nHhzsif;ae+yD;
EkdifiHa&;enf;y&d,m,fru|rf;usif/
xdk‹a=umifh
EkdifiHa&;pGef‹v$wf+yD;
wyfrawmfxJwGifom
aeoifhonf?
“aemufqHk;wkdufyJG}uD;”
wGif
tiftm;pktm;vHk;.
pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;&&Sdap&ef
jrefrmEkdifiH
vdktyfaeaom
trsKd;om;acgif;aqmifonf
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;omv#if jzpfa=umif;udk ckdifckdifrmrm ,Hk=unfaom AdkvfvuFsmu uGefjrLepfwdk‹
t}uHay;csufudk t"dy`m,fzGifhyHk&mY “EkdifiHa&;e,fy,fudk olwdk‹om v$rf;rd;k xm;vdkI AdkvfcsKyfudk
ab;z,fxm;+yD;/
olwdk‹tvdk&SdaomtcgrS
AdkvfcsKyftaeESifh
oG,f0kdufaomenf;rsm;ESifh
taxmuftulay;&efjzpfonf?” AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf ESpfzufoabmxm;rsm;udk em;axmif+yD;
udk,fydkifqHk;jzwfcsuf csvdkufonf? wyfrawmfrSxu
G fI EkdifiHa&;a&SŒwef;rS vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyJGudk
tpGrf;ukefqifEJ$awmhrnf?
1945 ckESpfESifh 1947 ckESpfrsm;twGif; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf tiftm;}uD;aom
acgif;aqmifwOD;tjzpf‚if;/
vlxk.
,Hk=unfr_ESifh
arwWmudk&&Sdaom
vkyf&nfudkif&nf&Sd
EdkifiHa&;orm;wOD;taeESifh‚if;/ xifay:vm.? ‚if;tm; ppfwyftwGif;om aeapvdkaomolwdk‹.
a0zefcsufrsm;rSm cdkifvHkr_r&Sda=umif;udk twdtvif;jyEdkifcJh.? 1945 ckESpf arvwGif +Adwdo#tpdk;&onf
puULjzLpDrHudef;jzifh jrefrmEkdifiH tem*wftay:xm;aom ‚if;wdk‹. tajccHrl0g'udk a=unmvdkufygonf?
xdkpDrHudef;t&
bk&ifcHonf
EkdifiHudk
oHk;ESp=f umwkduf±dkuftkyfcsKyf+yD;
umvtm;avsmfpGm
a&G;aumufyJGrsm;usif;yjcif;/ jrefrmaumifpDESifh Oya'ðytzJG‹wdk‹wnfaxmifjcif;wdk‹udk aqmif&GufoGm;rnf?
Ttcsufrsm;onf
1935
ckESpf
jrefrmEdkifiHtufOya'yg
tcsuftvufrsm;xuf
omvGefwdk;wufjcif;oabmudk raqmifyg? aumifpDESifh Oya'ðytzJG‹ jyefvnfwnfaxmif+yD;rS a&SŒwqifhwdk;I
jrefrmEkdifiHudk 'dkrDeD,eftqifh&aprnfh tajccHzJG‹pnf;yHkOya'udk ygwDaygif;pHku a&;qJG&efjzpfygonf? odk‹aomf
awmifwef;ESifh
e,fpyfa'orsm;onf
jynfrESifhaygif;pnf;vdka=umif;
wdwdusus
razmfjyv#if
oD;jcm;a'orsm;udk TpDrHudef;YrxnfhbJ xm;rnfjzpfygonf?
puULjzLpDrHudef;yg tcsuftvufrsm; vHk;0vufcHEkdifzG,f r&Sda=umif;udk ppftkyfcsKyfa&;r+yD;qHk;rDuyif
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh
ocifoef;xGef;wdk‹onf
jrefrmjynfudk
jyefvmrnfjzpfaom
bk&ifcH
qm&uf*sDeJvfa':refqrpftm;
&Sif;vif;pGmtoday;+yD;jzpfygonf?
zqyv
acgif;aqmifrsm;onf
‚if;wdk‹ygwDom EdkifiHudk udk,fpm;ðyaoma=umifh/ ‚if;wdk‹onfom ppftkyfcsKyfa&;udk tpm;xdk;&ef
,m,DtrsKd;om;tpdk;&w&yf zJG‹cGifh&Sdoifha=umif; wifjycJhygonf? a':refqrpfonf pdwfapwemaumif;

r&Sdolr[kwfyg? odk‹aomf ol‹tm; 0dkif;&Haeaom 0efxrf;t&m&Sdrsm;enf;wl ppf+yD;acwf jrefrmEdkifiH.
±_yfaxG;ayGvD tajymif;tvJjrefvSaom EkdifiHa&;Owkudk em;rvnfEdkifacs? zqyvtzJG‹csKyfonf
jrefrmjynfoltrsm;pk. axmufcHr_&&Sdxm;onf[laom tcsufudk a':refqrpf ,Hk=unfvufcH&ef
tcuftcJawG‹ae+yD; xdktcsdefY jrefrmEdkifiHwGif ta&;ygqHk;yk*~Kdvfonf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;jzpfa=umif;udk ol
rjrifIrjzpfaomfvnf; xdktcsufudkvnf; vufcH&ef 0efav;ae.? xdk‹tjyif ppfwGif;umvwavsmuf rdrd.
tpdk;&tay: opPmapmifhcJhaom 0g&ifh jrefrmEkdifiHa&;orm;}uD;rsm;udk csD;jr‡ifhvdkaom tHhzG,f&mr[kwfonfh
qENonf ol.em;vnfr_udk csKdŒ,Gif;apygonf? 0g&ifhEdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;. u¾ acwfopfjrefrmEkdifiHY
r&Sdawmh+yD[laomtcsufudk olrjrifEkdifIaomf‚if;/ rjrifvdkIaomf‚if; jzpfEdkifygonf? +Adwdo#tifydkif,m
òydysufjcif;udk vufrcHEkdif[laom csmcsD. {u&mZf pdwf"mwfjyif;jyonfh cH,lcsufonf jrefrmEdkifiHukd
taxmuftulrðycJhyg? csmcsDtm; 0ef}uD;csKyfae&mYqufcHol twWvDuvnf; jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif;&Sd
t,ltq/ oabmxm;toG,foG,fudk tuJjzwf&ef tcuftcJawG‹ae&m wdusaomrl0g'w&yf csrSwf&ef
aES;auG;cJh.?
1945 ckESpf atmufwdkbmvwGif a':refqrpf &efukefodk‹ jyefvnfa&muf&Sdvmaomtcg
t&yfom;tpdk;& jyefvnfzJG‹pnf;vdkufjcif;jzifh jrefrmEkdifiH vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyJG +yD;qHk;+yDjzpfa=umif;udk
tav;teufjyovdkufygonf? odk‹aomf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh zqyvwdk‹. oabmxm;um; xkduJhodk‹
r[kwfyg? ‚ifwdk‹vdkvm;aom vGwfvyfa&;udk ‚if;wdk‹awmif;qdkcsufrsm;ESifhtnD +Adwdo#tpdk;&u
ay;&efysufuGufygu/ vufeufudkifwdkufyJG xyfrHqifEJ$&rnfh tvm;tvmudk ‚if;wdk‹ ry,fcsxm;yg?
yxrOD;qHk;wkdufyJGum; bk&ifcHaumifpDzJG‹pnf;a&;udpPESifhywfoufygonf? zqyvonf &mxl;ae&m (11)
ae&mteuf (7) ae&mwGif ‚if;wdk‹trnf wifoGif;aomyk*~Kdvfrsm;udk cef‹tyf&ef twif;t=uyfawmif;qdk.?
xdk‹tjyif bk&ifcHaumifpDudk ‚if;wdk‹ rlvu awmif;qdkcJhaom ,m,DtrsKd;om;tpdk;&yHkpHjzpfaprnfh
tjcm;vdktyfcsufrsm;udkyg wJGIawmif;qdkvkdufygonf? ar#mfvifhxm;onfhtwkdif; +Adwdo#tpdk;&onf
awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk jiif;y,fvdkufygonf? xdk‹aemuf a':refqrpfonf aumifpDESifh Oya'tzJG‹0ifrsm;tjzpf
tv,ftvwfvrf;pOform;rsm;[k rdrd,Hk=unfolwdk‹udk cef‹tyfvdkufygonf? odk‹aomf xdkyk*~Kdvfrsm;teuf
uyfyg;&yfyg; rif;ajr‡mifrsm;/ trsKd;om;a&;opPmazmuf udk,fusKd;&Smorm;rsm;[k jrefrmtrsm;u
,lqxm;oltcsKdŒvnf; yg0ifaeygonf? 1946 ckESpf ZEM0g&DvwGif trsm;oabmwl wnDwnGwfwnf;
axmufcHr_jzifh
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk
zqyvOuUX
wifajr‡mufvdkufygonf?
uENDoabmwlnDr_&Sdxm;ygaomfvnf;
jrefrmhwyfrawmftwGif;
0ifa&muftr_xrf;jcif;r&Sdaom
ArmhrsKd;cspfwyfrawmfom; trsm;tjym; usefaeygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf ppfr_xrf;a[mif;rsm;ESifh
topf0ifvmolrsm;udkaygif;um
ol‹jynfol‹&JabmftzJG‹udk
wnfaxmifvdkufygonf?
jynfol‹&JabmftzJG‹wyfom;rsm;onf ,leDazmif;0wfqifum yGifhyGifhvif;vif;yif ppfavhusifha&;rsm;
ðyvkyfygonf?
jynfol‹&JabmftzJG‹onf
w&m;0iftm;jzifh
jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;vkyfief;rsm;
aqmif&Gufaeaom vlr_a&;tzJG‹tpnf;w&yfom jzpfaomfvnf; zqyv. vuf±Hk;wyfjzpfvmEkdifaom
tajccHt&nftcsif;rsm;
&Sdaeaoma=umifh
tpdk;&twGuf
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umuD0wfpHk 0wfqifxm;olrsm;u aoewfjzifh ypfcwfojzifh OD;apmrsufaphwGif '%f&m&cJhygonf?
OD;apmonf TudpPwGif OD;atmifqef;. jynfol‹&JabmfwyfzJG‹0ifrsm;Y wm0ef&Sdonf[k ,lqum
uvJhpm;acsjcif;jzpfonf[k tcsKdŒu cef‹rSef;=uygonf? odk‹aomf EkdifiHawmfvkyf}uHr_ESifh ywfoufI
ppfaq;awG‹&Sdcsufrsm;t&
tvkyftr_aqmifaumifpDwckvHk;tm;
okwfoifacsr_ef;&ef
n$ef=um;cJhjcif;jzpfygonf? OD;atmifqef;ESifh vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;udk &Sif;vif;okwfoifvdkufjcif;jzifh olom
jrefrmEkdifiHtpdk;&acgif;aqmif jzpfvmrnf[laom xl;qef;onfh ,Hk=unfcsufjzifh vkyf}uHr_}uD;udk OD;apm
pDpOfcJh[efwlygonf? OD;apmtay: &mZ0wfjypfr_rsm; usL;vGef&ef tm;ay;ulnDr_twGuf tjypf&Sda=umif;
pD&ifqHk;jzwf+yD; ao'%fcsrSwfvdkufygonf?

OD;atmifqef; uG,fvGeftedpPa&mufoGm;aomfvnf; ol. b0udkay;I óud;yrf;cJh&aom
vGwfvyfa&;udkom
jrefrmEkdifiH
&&SdcJhygonf?
touf&SifusefcJhaom
zqyv0ifrsm;teuf
tqifhjrifhqHk;jzpfaom OD;Ekonf aphpyfaqG;aEG;a&;rsm;udk qHk;cef;wkdif qufvufaqmif&GufoGm;+yD; 1948 ckESpf
ZEM0g&Dv (4) &ufae‹wGif vGwfvyfaom jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmfudk arG;zGm;cJhygonf?
ed*Hk;
acwfopfjrefrmEkdifiHorkdif; okawoDwOD;jzpfol tar&duefynm&Sif z&ifh/tif/xa&*g a&;om;cJhaom
atmufygpum;aumufEkwfcsufudk Tae&mY azmfjyu oifhawmfrnfxifygonf?
r[mvlom;wOD;. vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;taejzifhom jzpf&yfpOfudk wifjyjcif;onf orkdif;udk
vJGrSm;pGm
jrifjcif;jzpfygonf?
TpmtkyfwGifvnf;
xdkuJhodk‹wifjyjcif;rsKd;
twkdif;twmwcktxd yg0ifcJhygv#if xdktwdkif;twmtxd vJGrSm;aomtjrif &SdcJhonf[k
qdkEkdifygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; xdkpOfu jrefrmjynftajctaet& ocifrsm;
EkdifiHa&;&mxl;ae&m &&SdcJhcsdefrSpI vGwfvyfa&;t±k%fwufcsdefjzpfaom 1948 ckESpf
ZEM0g&Dvwdkif (12) ESpfumvtwGif; pGrf;aqmifEdkifr_rsm;udk jzpf&yfpOftvHk;pHktay:
v$rf;òcHcJhaom atmifqef;. acgif;aqmifr_±_axmifhrS pDppfjcif;um; rSefuefoifhavsmfonf[k
xifrdygonf?
tjcm;wzufrS=unfhv#ifvnf;
txufazmfjyyg
oabmw&m;um;
rSefuefygonf?
jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_
aemufcHum;udk
tajcðyIom
OD;atmifqef;.
b0udk
avhvmEdkifrnfjzpfygonf? xdkuJhodk‹ csOf;uyfenf;onf ol. udk,fa&;udk,fwmtydkif;udk vspfv#L±_&m
a&mufEkdifygonf? odk‹aomf ol‹touf (20) ausmfausmf ausmif;om;EkdifiHa&;avmuxJ 0ifcJhpOfupI
ol.b0ESifh vGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;r_onf cJGjcm;I r&avmufatmif a&maxG;qufEG,faeonfhtjyif
OD;atmifqef;um; ol. tZÆwWoEWefESifh uGmjcm;aom A[d'<toGifudk vlxka&SŒarSmuf bef;jyolrsKd;
r[kwfcJhyg? ol. ±kyfyHkv$mwckvHk;udk òcHI=unfhygu jrifhrm;aom&nfrSef;csuf/ ckdifrmjywfom;aom
pdwf"mwfwdk‹jzifh ol.EkdifiH vGwfvyfa&;&ap&ef acgif;aqmifr_ay;cJhaom oduQmorm"d}uD;rm;onfh
vli,fwOD;udk jrif&ayrnf? ol. EkdifiHa&;twdkut
f cHrsm;ESifh ol. EkdifiHudk tkyfcsKyfaeaom
EkdifiHjcm;om;rsm;udk wdkufcdkufcJhojzifh ol‹tm; opPmazmuf[k jrifcJholwdk‹u OD;atmifqef;onf
xifay:ausmf=um;r_vdkvm;ojzifh
t=uifemuif;onf/
qifjcifwHkw&m;acgif;yg;onf/
ESpfzufc|efvkyfwwfonf[k pGyfpJGcJh=u.? xdkuJhodk‹aom pGyfpJGcsufrsm;udk ol. vkyfaqmifcsufrSwfwrf;tay:
tajcðyI tuJjzwfEkdifygonf? tjcm;olrsm; ydkrdkIaumif;rGefaom acgif;aqmifr_ay;Ekdifonf[k ol
,Hk=unfoI aemufvdkufae&mrS wm0efudk apwemjynfh0pGm xrf;aqmifcJhygonf? olwOD;wnf;om
wkdif;jynfudk nDnGwfr_ay;um vGwfvyfa&;yef;wdkifodk‹a&muf&ef acgif;aqmifr_ay;Ekdifrnfjzpfa=umif;
xif&Sm;vmaomtcgrS olonf A[dkr¾dKifae&mudk ,lcJhygonf? ausmif;om;b0uyif ol. &if;ESD;aom
EkdifiHa&;vkyfazmfudkifzufjzpfcJhol OD;ausmf+idrf;u rnfolurS AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tm; acgif;aqmifae&mudk
ay;cJhonfr[kwfbJ/ ol. vkyf&nfudkif&nf ºuG,f0r_a=umifh acgif;aqmifae&mudk &&SdcJhjcif;jzpfa=umif;
ajymqdkcJhygonf? OD;atmifqef;onf okefr_efjcif;ESifh pdwfv_yf&Sm;ojzifh aygufuJGjcif;rsm; &SdcJhaomfvnf;
vGwfvyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_tusKd;iSm pkaygif;qHk;jzwfcsufrsm; cs&mwGif ol. yk*~Kdvfa&;&mcHpm;csufrsm;ESifh
tvdkqENwdk‹udk rnfaomtcgr# tom;ray;cJhacs? vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyJGtqifhqifhY olonf &if;ESD;aom
EkdifiHa&;vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;ESifh
wkdifyifaqmif&GufI
w&m;rSefa0zefcsufrsm;udk
vufcHum

toifhawmfqHk;jzpfrnfxifygu wm0efrsm;udk vJ$ajymif;cJGa0ay;ygonf? odk‹aomf udk,fusKd;&Smorm;rsm;/
wm0efrJhvkyf&yfrsm;ESifh vGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;r_udk xdyg;Ekdifrnfh tvkyfysufuGufr_rsm;udk onf;rcHyg? olonf
w&m;r#wr_ESifh 'Drkdua&pD0g'wdk‹udk ,Hk=unfvufcHum ol. ukd,fydkifqHk;jzwfcsuft&vkyfygu ydkrdkI
aumif;rGefrnfjzpfaom tcsdeftcgrsm;Yyif vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;. tvdkus aqmif&GufcJhonfvnf; &SdcJh.?
tr_aqmifaumifpDacgif;aqmiftaeESifh ol.tjrifudk tjcm;olrsm; vufcHap&ef tay:pD;ESifh aqmif&GufcJhjcif;
r&SdcJhyg? tm;vHk;u vGwfvyf/ yGifhvif;/ jynfhpHkpGm aqG;aEG;+yD;rS qHk;jzwfcsufcs=uygonf? oludk,fwkdif
yGifhvif;pGm 0efcHcJhonfhtwkdif; olonf trSm;t,Gif;uif;olr[kwfyg? odk‹aomf ol. pdwf&nfOm%f&nfum;
tpOfojzifh }uD;xGm;wkd;wufEkdifpGrf;&SdcJhygonf?
OD;atmifqef;onf tpGef;a&muf w,loeform;rsm;ukd pJGaqmifEkdifpGrf;xuf rdrdwdk‹
,Hk=unfav;pm;aom acgif;aqmifatmufwGif pdwf+idrf;at; udk,fcsrf;ompGmjzifh rdrdwdk‹b0udk ESifvdkaom
omrefjynfolwdk‹udk pJGaqmifEkdifpGrf;&SdcJhygonf? jynfolwdk‹onf ‚if;wdk‹ar#mfrSef;xm;aom acgif;aqmifaumif;
t&nftaoG;rsm; OD;atmifqef;Y &Sdonf[k jrifcJh.? olum; udk,fusKd;xuf EkdifiHhtusKd;udk OD;pm;ay;cJhonf?
ol. tm%mtxGwftxdyfa&mufaeonfh tcsdefwGifyif qif;qif;&J&J [efyefr&Sd aexdkifcJhonf?
acgif;aqmifwdk‹. txl;tcGifhta&;rsm;udk rrufarmbJ acgif;aqmifr_wm0efrsm;udk vufcHcJhonf? xdk‹tjyif
olonf
EkdifiHa&;yg;eyfvdrRmr_ESifh
EkdifiHtkyfcsKyfa&;
u|rf;usifr_pGrf;tm;}uD;aomfvnf;
ol.
twGif;oabmxm;. euf±_dif;vSaom ±dk;om;r_um; rnfaomtcgr# wdrfaumoGm;jcif; r&SdcJhyg? jrefrmEkdifiH
jynfolvlxktwGuf OD;atmifqef;onf rdrdwdk‹ vdkvm;awmifhwaecsdefwGif EdkifiH. *k%foduQmudk qnf&ef
ay:aygufvmcJholjzpfygonf? ol. b0onf jynfolwdk‹ pdwftm;wufºuG twk,lzG,f&mjzpfouJhodk‹ ol‹tm;
owd&vGrf;qGwfjcif;onf
jynfolwdk‹.
EkdifiHa&;todpdwfudk
vrf;rvJGap&ef
xdef;uGyfr_tjzpf
wnf&Sdvsufaeygonf?
(atmufazmfjyyg aqmif;yg;udk aemufpmrsufESmtopfwGif xnfh&ygrnf?)
2
'Drdkua&pD&SmyHkawmf
1991 ckESpf t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh xkwfa0aom pmtkyfrS pmrsufESm 167-179 udk jrefrmjyefonf?
* * *
1
jrefrmEkdifiHwGif 'Drkdua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_udk qef‹usif=uolrsm;u ,if;v_yf&Sm;r_udk ysufjym;ap&eftvdk‹iSm
wkdif;jynftwGuf rnfonfht&mu taumif;qHk;jzpfonfudk jynfolvlxktaejzifh od&SdEkdifpGrf; r&Sd[lI‚if;/
'Drdkua&pDtajccHoabmw&m;wdk‹onf jrefrmrqef[lI‚if; ajymqdkae=uygonf? wwd,urBmrS
tpdk;&wdk‹onf tm%m&Sifpepfudk rSefuefa=umif; jyqdkI qufvufwnf+rJap&ef óud;yrf;&mwGif
oabmxm;jynfh0aom 'Drkdua&pDrloabmwdk‹onf EkdifiHjcm;ESifhomqkdifonf[lI y,fcs=uonfrSm
topftqef;r[kwfyg?
wkdif;&if;om;,Ofaus;r_/
"avhxHk;wrf;pOfvm
pHowfrSwfcsufrsm;ESifh
rnfonfht&mu udkufnDonf/ rudkufnDonfudk/ ‚if;wdk‹onfomv#if w&m;0ifqHk;jzwfydkifcGifh&Sdonf[k
oG,f0dkufaomenf;jzifh ajymqdkae=ujcif;jzpfygonf? tpdk;&. tm%mudk pkpnf;ckdifrmatmif ðyvkyf&ef
&nf&G,fonfh Todk‹aom vkyf±dk;vkyfpOf 0g'jzef‹r_rsm;udk EkdifiHa&;ody`Hynm&Sifrsm;/ Oya'ynmausmfrsm;ESifh

vlr_a&;ynm&Sifrsm;u cJGjcm;pdwfjzm/ avhvmqef;ppfI rrSefuefa=umif; oufaojycJh+yD; jzpfygonf?
odk‹aomfvnf; jyifyurBm. EkdifiHa&;/ todOm%f wkd;wufr_wdk‹ESifh ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm uJGuGmcJh&aom
jrefrmjynfYrl jynfolvlxkudk EkdifiHa&;wm0efay;&ef roifhavsmf[lI‚if;/ 'Drdkua&pDESifh roifhavsmf[lI‚if;/
ajymqdkvmcJhaom ,Hkwrf;pum;ESpf&yfudk acszsuf&mwGif/ jynfolwdk‹onf rdrdukd,fudkom rdrd
tm;udk;=u&ygonf? 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_ jrefrmwjynfvHk;odk‹ jyef‹ESH‹oGm;onfESifhwòydifeuf 'Drdkua&pD[laom
pum;vHk;.
t"dy`m,f/
orkdif;a=umif;ESihf
vufawG‹oabmw&m;wkd‹udk
tjyif;txef
pdwf0ifpm;vm=uygonf?
tjrifusOf;ajrmif;aom
tm%m&SifpepfatmufwGif
t"dy`m,fwdrfI
tESpfom&uif;rJhaom
w&m;ao0g'udk
ESpfaygif;
(25)
ESpfausmf
tm[m&tjzpf
cGef‹au|;jcif;cH=u&aomfvnf; jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹. EkdifiHa&;Edk;=um;r_onf‚if;/ pdwful;pdwfoef;wdk‹onf‚if;
wHk;roGm;yg? jynfolwdk‹. pDppfa0zef ESD;aESmvdkpdwf/ jiif;ckefaqG;aEG;vdkpdwf/ rwnf;jzwfaom
owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk od&SdvdkpdwfESifh ,xmblwuspGm cJGjcrf;pdwfjzm avhvmvdkpdwf ponfh
pdwf"mwfwdk‹onf
wHk;roGm;bJ
ydkIyif
xufjrufvmonf[k
rSwfxif&ygonf?
'Drdkua&pDpepfESifhywfoufaom tawG‹tóuH[lI jynfolwdk‹wGif r&Sdoavmufyif jzpfaomfvnf;
,Ofaus;aomvl‹tzJG‹tpnf;wGif 'Drdkua&pD&Sdxdkufonf[k ‚if;wdk‹. vufawG‹b0ay;todOm%ft&
,Hk=unfvm=uygonf?
xkd‹tjyif
acwfopfEkdifiHa&;
t,ltqpepfrsm;ESifhqkdifaom
*Eˆ0ifoDtdk&Doabmw&m;wkd‹udk pdwfyg0ifpm;pGm avhvmvdkpdwfrsm; xufoefvmonfomrubJ
'Drkdua&pDoabmtm;
vlr_pepfw&yftaejzifh
awG;awmqifjcifr_rsm;
EkdifiHtESH‹tjym;wGif
ay:xGufvmygonf?
jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,frsm;om
yg0ifaom
tpdk;&pepf/
vl‹tcGifhta&;/
w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&; ponfh tajccHt,ltqrsm;udkvnf; rdrdwdk‹tvdktavsmuf teuft"dy`m,fazmfI
aqG;aEG;vm=uygonf? 'Drdkua&pDpnf;rsOf;rsm;/ tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;u tmrcHrnfh vGwfvyfr_ESifh cHpm;cGifhrsm;udk
pdwftm;xufoefpGm qifjcifawG;awmvm=uygonf? wnf+rJaom 'Drkdua&pDpepfudk xdef;odrf;&ef
wm0ef,lrnfhyk*~Kdvfwdk‹. 0wW&m;onfvnf; tawG;e,fcsJŒap&ef v_H‹aqmfay;aom ta=umif;t&myif
jzpfygonf? qdk;oGrf;aomtpdk;&. '%fudk qkd;0g;pGmcHcJh&aom jynfolvlxkonf aumif;rGefaom
tpdk;&ESifhqkdifaom oDtdk&Dt,ltqrsm;udk txl;tm±HkpdkufaeonfrSm obm0yifjzpfygonf?
"avhxHk;wrf;pOfvmt&
oGefoifqHk;ronfh
tcef;u¾rS
yg0ifaom
Ak'<bmom
&[ef;oHCmawmfwdk‹uvnf; Ak'<0ifpmayrsm;udk udk;um;I umva'ora&G; ajymif;vJjcif;r&SdEkdifaom
wefzdk;xm;r_rsm;udk &Sif;vif;jyoum trsm;jynfol. ar#mfvifhcsufrsm;udk xkwfazmfajymqdk&mY
OD;aqmifvrf;jyvkyf=uygonf?
odk‹aomfvnf;
a&S;xHk;pOfvm
ynmA[kokwudk
rsufarSmufacwfvdktyfcsufrsm;ESifh qDavsmf&avatmif owd&SdpGm óud;yrf;&mY txl;oD;oef‹
todkif;t0dkif;wGifom r[kwfbJ òrd‹aeynmwwfESifh aps;onfuav;rsm;rSpI aus;vufa'ou
wufºuGaom tzGm;tdkrsm;txd jrefrmhvl‹tzJG‹tpnf;w&yfvHk;wGif óud;pm;tm;xkwfaejcif;yif jzpfygonf?
jrefrmjynfwGif obm0 o,HZmwypPnf;rsm;ESifh vltiftm;&Sdygvsuf ta&SŒawmiftm&SwGif
pGrf;&nft&SdqHk;ESifh wkd;wufr_tjrefqHk; EkdifiHwEkdifiH jzpfvm&rnf[laom tapmydkif;u xm;&SdcJhonfh
uwdtwdkif; aqmif&GufEdkifjcif; r&SdcJhonfrSm tb,fa=umifhenf;? tjynfjynfqkdif&m ynm&Sifrsm;u ordkif;/
,Ofaus;r_/
EdkifiHa&;ESifh
pD;yGm;a&;ta=umif;tcsufrsm;udk
aocsmpGm
cJGjcrf;pdwfjzmavhvmI
tao;pdwftajzrsm;udk ay;xm;+yD;jzpfygonf? jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹url ,if;odk‹aom ("gwfyHkvmygonf?)
tay:
oDv&Sifrsm;ESifhtwl
atmuf

bk&m;0wfðyaepOf
(aqmif;yg;tquf)
acwfrDynm&yfqkdif&m
tcsuftvufrsm;udk
r&Edkifaoma=umifh
wkdif;jynf
qkwf,kwfysufpD;
,kd,Gif;&jcif;ta=umif;. t"dutcsufukd &SmazGavhvm&mwGif Ak'<bk&m;. qHk;r=o0g'rsm;udkom
tm;udk;tm;xm;ðy=u&m ta=umif;t&if;av;ckudk awG‹&ayonf? “aysmufv#if r&Sm/ ysufwm rjyif/
qifjcif roHk;/ tðzef; a[mh&rf;/ vl‹aygufyef;ukd/ a&SŒwef;rSmwif/ Tav;tif-rSefyifysufpD;a=umif;?”
(t*FkwW& edum, pwkwˆ edygu ygVdawmf?)
rsufarSmufacwftajctaet&
t"dy`m,fzGifhqdk&rnfqkdygu
ppftm%m&Sifpepfa=umifh
aysmufqHk;oGm;&aom 'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&;rsm;udk jyefvnf&&Sd&eftwGuf óud;yrf;r_ tvHktavmufr&Sdjcif;/
udk,fusifhw&m;ESifh EkdifiHa&;qkdif&m wefzdk;xm;r_rsm; ,kd,Gif;ysufpD;vmonfudk tjyif;txef
óud;pm;[ef‹wm;r_ rðyvkyfjcif;/ pD;yGm;a&;udk qdk;0g;pGm }uD;=uyfuGyfuJjcif;ESifh wkdif;jynfudk
ynmtar#mftjrifvnf;r&Sd/ orm"dvnf; r&Sdaomolwdk‹u tkyfcsKyfjcif; ponfhta=umif;rsm;yif jzpfygonf?
1962 ckESpfrSpI jrefrmEdkifiH ,dk,Gif;ysufpD;vm&onfh t"duta=umif;&if;rsm;udk &SmazG&mwGif
tu|rf;usifqHk;aom ynm&Sifu aemufqHk;ay: acwfrDtaumif;qHk; okawoeenf;pepfrsm;udk oHk;I
aocsmjynfhpHkatmif
avhvmxm;csufonfyifv#if
xdkxufydkI
rSefuefwdusjywfom;pGm
azmfjyEkdifrnfr[kwfyg?
wygwDqdk&S,fvpf
tm%m&SifpepfatmufwGif
csrSwfaom
tpdk;&vrf;pOfrsm;onf
wu,fhvdktyfcsufrsm;ESifh qDavsmfjcif;r&SdI jrefrmjynfY pD;yGm;a&;ESifh tkyfcsKyfa&; raocsm ra&&mr_rsm;
jzpfay:vmojzifh ae‹pOfb0&yfwnfa&;twGuf vmbfay;vmbf,lr_ESifh pnf;urf;Oya'wdrf;a&Smifr_rsm;udk
rvJGraoG usL;vGefvm=u&ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; ESpaf ygif;=umjrifhpGm udk,fusifhw&m;ysufjym;r_ESifh
pD;yGm;a&;usqif;r_rsm; jzpfyGm;aeonfh=um;rS jynfolvlxkESifh acgif;aqmifydkif;wdk‹ yl;aygif;I rludk tajccH+yD;
óud;pm;vkyfudkifygu pD;yGm;a&;ESifh vHkòcHa&;wdk‹udk atmifjrifpGm &Edkifrnf[laom pdwful;tjrifonf
jrefrmjynfwGif &Sifoefvsuf usef&Sdaeygonf? 1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_onf ,if;pdwful;tjrifudk
taumiftxnfazmfEkdifrnfh
ar#mfvifhcsufudk
ay:aygufapygonf?
tajccHtusqHk;ESifh
csufcsif;vkyfaqmif&rnfhtqifhwGif
oabmxm;jynfh0aom
'Drkdua&pDpepf[lonfrSm
tzJG‹tpnf;w&yftaejzifhqdkygu
w&m;r#wI
vGwfvyfaom
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od&SdEkdifpGrf;&Sd+yD; olwyg;udk odap&eftwGufvnf; ulnDEdkifaom tvm;tvm&Sdygonf? xdk‹a=umifh
vl‹touf.wefzdk;onf tqHk;tpr&Sdyg? jA[RmbHkrSusvmaom tyfwacsmif;ESifh urBmajr}uD;ay:wGif
pdkufxm;aom
tyfwacsmif;wdk‹
xdawG‹=uonfrSm
vljzpf&onfxuf
vG,fulygonf[kyif
qdk=uonfr[kwfygavm?
odk‹aomfvnf; tm%m&Siftpdk;&wdk‹onf vlom;udk EkdifiHawmf. tzdk;weftpdwftydkif;tjzpf
todtrSwfrðy=ubJ EdkifiHolEdkifio
H m;[lonfrSm xifovdk udkifwG,fI &aom/ rnfolrnf0grSef; rodaom/
todOm%fr&Sdaom/ tultnDuif;rJhaom vlxk}uD;omjzpfonf[k ,lq=uygonf? jynfolwdk‹tm;
wkdif;jynf. toufaoG;cJ[k rSwf,lrnfhtpm; ta=umif;tm;avsmfpGm a&muf&Sdaeaom ta&;rygolrsm;[k
,lqxm;ouJhodk‹yif jzpfygonf? rdrd. wkdif;jynfudk cspfcifjrwfEkd;pGm apmifha&Smufjcif;jzpfaom
jynfcspfpdwftm; tm%m&Sifwdk‹. rw&m;r_rsm;udk aoG;±l;aoG;wef; zHk;uG,f&mwGif toHk;ðyjcif;jzifh
wefzdk;usqif;apygonf? tm%m&Sifwdk‹onf ‚if;wdk‹. usOf;ajrmif;aom udk,fydkiftusKd;pD;yGm;ay:wGif
rlwnfI jynfcspfpdwfudk t"dy`m,fazmf=uygonf? tpdk;&. t,l0g'ukd apm'urwufbJ
vufcH,Hk=unf&rnfqdkonfrSm
jynfh0aomAk'<bmom
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taemufwkdif;wGif }uD;pdk;cJhaom wif;=uyfonfh c&pf,mefa&S;a[mif;bmoma&; oabmw&m;wdk‹ESifh
ydkrdkudkufnDaeouJhodk‹ jzpfygonf?
“,HkrSm;oifhonfudk ,HkrSm;&m. æ xyfcgwvJajymoH=um;±HkESifh æ [kwf+yDrSef+yD[k r,HkavESifh/
tpOftqufu
=um;zl;±HkESifh/
owif;pum;
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r,HkavESifh/
rdrdudk,fwkdif
raumif;aomt&mjzpfonf/ rSm;,Gif;onf[k od&Sdaomtcg pGef‹v$wfI/ rdrdudk,fwkdif aumif;aomt&mudk
od&SdvmaomtcgwGifrS vufcHygav” (t*FkwW& edum,f okwWefydÉuwfawmfvm/ auorkwWdokwf)
vlom;. oaE<yg*k%foduQmESifh vlom;ESifh cJGcGmIr&aom nDr#aom tcGifhta&;rsm;udk
todtrSwfðyxm;onfh t,ltq/ vlwkdif;wGif trSm;trSefudk a0zefydkif;jcm;Edkifaom todOm%fESifh
qifjcifwHkw&m;&Sdonfudk vufcHxm;aom t,ltq/ vltcsif;csif; nDtudkarmifESrozG,f arwWmxm;&Sd&ef
t}uHðyxm;aom t,ltq ponfh tawG;tac: t,ltqwdk‹onf rdrdwdk‹. wefzdk;xm;r_rsm;ESifh rnfuJhodk‹
qef‹usifbufjzpfEkdifrnfudk jrefrmEdkifiHol EkdifiHom;rsm;taejzifh em;rvnfEdkifatmif jzpfae&ygonf?
urBmhvl‹tcGifhta&; a=unmpmwrf;. pmydk'f (30) wdk‹wGif yg&Sdaom tcGifhta&;rsm;udk
ukodkvfw&m;ESifhnDonf/ aumif;rGefonf[k roHk;oyfygu rnfuJhodk‹ oHk;oyf&rnfudk jrefrmjynfolwdk‹tzdk‹
pOf;pm;&cufvSygonf? jrefrmEdkifiHonf 1948 ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif ,if;a=unmpmwrf;udk twnfðy&ef
axmufcHrJay;cJhaom EdkifiHwEdkifiHjzpfaeonfhtav#muf Ta=unmpmwrf;udk jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹u
jrefrmEdkifiHwGif a&;qJGcJhjcif;r[kwfojzifh y,fcs&rnfqdkjcif;rSm rvHkavmufaom ta=umif;jycsuf[k
tenf;qHk; ajymqdkEkdifygonf? t,ltq/ tawG;tac:/ ,Hk=unfcsufrsm;onf pwifay:ayguf&m
ae&ma'o. yx0DESifh ,Ofaus;r_qkdif&m e,ferdwfjyifywGif w&m;r0if[k jiif;qdkaeygu Ak'<bmomonf
tdENd,jynfajrmufydkif;Yom xGef;um;Ekdifrnfjzpf+yD; c&pf,mefbmomonf ta&SŒtv,fydkif;a'o&Sd
usOf;ajrmif;aome,fajrav;Yom‚if;/
tpPvrfbmomonfvnf;
tma&;AD;,m;a'oYom‚if;
xGef;um;Ekdif=urnf jzpfygonf? 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHrsm;rS EdkifiHolEkdifiHom;rsm; &&Sdaom tcGifhta&;rsm;

cHpm;ydkifcGifhrsm;udk jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹ rcHpm;xdkuf[laom pum;onf apmfum;&ma&mufygonf?
wcsdefwnf;wGif
jrefrmEkdifiHtpdk;&url
'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHtpdk;&rsm;xuf
ydkrdkI
tcGifhta&;rsm;
cHpm;ydkifcGifh&Sdonf[k
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,kwWdwefygovm;[k
ar;p&m
jzpfygonf?
Todk‹
a&SŒaemufpum;rnDr_udk rSefuefa=umif; jyqdkEdkifjcif;r&Sdaomfvnf; &Sif;vif;azmfjyEdkifygonf? tpdk;&ESifh
jynfolvlxkt=um; uGm[r_ tifrwefrS }uD;rm;aeojzifh ,if;uJhodk‹ oD;jcm;cJGI pHowfrSwfum
qHk;jzwf&jcif;jzpfonf[k qdk&rnfjzpfygonf? TuJhodk‹ }uD;rm;aom uGm[r_&Sdaeav&m tpdk;&onfomv#if
EdkifiHwEkdifiHvHk;. wefzdk;xm;r_rsm;udk òcHiHkudk,fpm;ðyEkdifonf[laom 0g'tay:Yyif oHo,jzpf&ygonf?
usKd;a=umif;qifjcifr_rcdkifvHkjcif;/ a&SŒaemuf pum;rnDjcif;/ jynfolvlxkESifh uif;uGmjcif;wdk‹onf
tm%m&Sifpepf. =ueftifvuQ%mrsm;yif jzpfygonf? tm%m&Siftpdk;&wdk‹onf vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac:r_ESifh
t,ltqopfrsm;udk ydwfyifwm;jrpf&ef rem;rae óud;pm;tm;xkwfI ‚if;wdk‹om rSefuefonf[k
xyfcgwvJvJ wif;rmpGm ajymqdkaejcif;a=umifh ‚if;wdk‹Y todOm%f A[kokw rwdk;wufbJ &yfwef‹oGm;&+yD;
jynfolvlxkwdk‹onfvnf; ‚if;wdk‹enf;wl todOm%f A[kokw &yfwef‹oGm;+yD[k ,lq=uygonf?
+cdrf;ajcmufr_ESifh 0g'jzef‹r_udk zdESdyfcsKyfcs,f&mwGif wufnDvufnD toHk;ðyaeI ae&mwumwGif a=umuf±GHŒr_/
ouFmruif;jzpfr_rsm; ay:aygufae&m jynfolvlxkonf cHpm;csufudk zHk;uG,fI qdwfqdwfaewwfvmygonf?
wcsdefwnf;rSmyif ‚if;wdk‹tm; “xrif;pm;onfh puf±kyf” tqifhrS rdrdwdk‹tcGifhta&;rsm;udk jynfh0pGm
cHpm;ydkifcGifh&SdI acgif;axmifvmEkdifum vGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:ajymqdkEkdifaom vlom;tqifhodk‹
wkd;jr‡ifhay;rnfhpepfudk awmifhwonfh qENrsm;rSmvnf; tpOfwpdkuf }uD;xGm;vsuf&Sdygonf? jrefrmjynf.
'Drdkua&pDwkdufyJGonf ueOD;uyif tEW&m,frsm;vSygonf? rdrdwdk‹ydkifqdkifor#udk jzpfonfhenf;jzifh
qufvufudkifxm;rnf[k oEMdÏmefcsxm;aom tcGifhxl;cHvlenf;pk. vufwGif;Y =um&SnfpGm wnf&SdcJhaom
tcGifhta&;ESifh tm%mudk rSefuefw&m;r#wpGm cJGa0&ef óud;pm;aomv_yf&Sm;r_onf umv=um&SnfI
cufcJEdkifygonf? ar#mfvifhpdwfESifh taumif;bufrScsnf; jrifvdkpdwfwdk‹udk csKyfwnf;I r&aomfvnf;
ajymif;vJr_udk qef‹usifolwdk‹onf &ufpuf,kwfrmpGm vkyfzG,f&m&Sdonf[k wifóudowdðyrd=uygonf? Tr#
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,faomtpdk;&u
'Drdkua&pD
wu,fay;rnfvm;[k
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r=umc%
ar;cGef;xkwf=uygonf? tajzonfum; tjcm;aom vlr_a&;ESifh EkdifiHa&;qkdif&m tcGifhta&;/ w&m;r#wa&;/
vGwfvyfa&;rsm;uJhodk‹yif 'Drkdua&pDudk ay;onf[lI r&Sdwwf/ pGrf;&nfowWd}uHŒcdkifr_/ tepfemcHr_wdk‹jzifh &if;I
&,l&rnfjzpfygonf?
awmfvSefa&;qdkonfrSm
tpdk;&vrf;pOfrsm;
odk‹r[kwf
vlr_a&;vspfv#L±_r_rsm;a=umifh
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E_d;qGwdkufwGef;aom pdwf"mwfudk a,bk,stm;jzifh a&mifjyef[yfjcif;yif jzpfygonf? Todk‹aom
ajymif;vJr_rsm;udk
t=urf;rzufbJ
xdxda&mufa&muf
taumiftxnfazmfEdkif&ef
'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹tpnf;rsm;ESifh vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;wGif enf;vrf;rsm;ay;xm;ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf;
wif;=uyfaom vrf;pOfrsm;rS aoGzDr_rSefor#udk cGifhrðyaom tm%m&Sifpepfonf ajymif;vJr_udk &GHrkef;ygonf?
oabmxm;uJGvJGydkifcGifhudk‚if;/ oabmxm;uJGvJGr_udk +idrf;csrf;pGm ajz&Sif;&rnfh wm0efudk‚if; 'Drdkua&pDu
todtrSwfðyxm;ygonf? tm%m&Siftpdk;&wdk‹url ‚if;wdk‹. 0g'oabmw&m;ESifh vkyf&yfrsm;tm;
a0zefonfudk wdkufyJG0if&ef pdefac:aejcif;jzpfonf[k ,lq=uygonf? twdkuftcHvkyfjcif;rSm
xdyfwdkuf&ifqdkifawG‹r_udk vdkvm;jcif;omjzpfonf[k jrifI &ifqkdifawG‹r_udk t=urf;zufaom yÉdyuQ[k
t"dy`m,fzGifhqdkxm;=uygonf?
ppfrSefaom
aqG;aEG;r_jzifh
ajz&Sif;Ekdif&ef
OD;wnfI
t"duoabmxm;uJGvJGcsufrsm;udk yGifhvif;pGm tjyeftvSefaphpyfjcif;onf &ifqkdifawG‹r_yif jzpfonf[laom
oabmudk csKyfcs,fvdkpdwf &Sdolwdk‹u em;rvnfEdkif=uyg? twif;t"rR vkyfckdif;onfhpepftay:wGif
wnfaqmufxm;aom tm%m[lonfrSm rvHkòcH/ rcdkif+rJaoma=umifh oabmwm;uJGvJGoltm;vHk;udk
acsr_ef;&efvdktyfaomtjzpfodk‹
a&muf&SdoGm;&ygonf?
jynfh0aom
'Drdkua&pDabmiftwGif;Yrl

qef‹usifuef‹uGufr_/
oabmxm;uJGvJGr_
ponfwdk‹onf
tajymif;tvJrvdkvm;aom
0g'/
a&S;a[mif;t,ltq ponfwdk‹ESifh tusKd;&SdpGm ,SOfwJGI &SifoefEkdifygonf? TuJhodk‹ twl&SifoefEkdif&ef
Oya'/ pnf;urf;±dkaoav;pm;r_ESifh yk*~vdutcGifhta&; av;pm;r_wdk‹udk r#watmifvkyfay;&onfh
vdktyfcsufudk a,bk,stm;jzifh todtrSwfðy&rnfjzpfygonf?
“+idrf0yfydjym;a&;” [laom pum;udk zdESdyfcsKyfcs,f&mwGif qifajcay;onfhtaejzifh r=umc%
tvJGoHk;pm;vkyf=uojzifh
tm%m&Sifpepf}uD;pdk;aom
EkdifiHrsm;wGif
Tpum;vHk;toHk;tE_ef;udk
r,HkouFmjzpfvm=uygonf? xif&Sm;aom jrefrmpma&;q&m}uD;wOD;onf vGefcJhaom ESpftenf;i,fcef‹u
“+idrf0yfydjym;a&;”
ESifhywfoufaom
aqmif;yg;wyk'fa&;om;cJhygonf?
pum;wvHk;csif;
cJGjcrf;pdwfjzm=unfhaomtcgwGif +idrfae&rnf/ 0yfwGm;ae&rnf/ ydap&rnf/ jym;ap&rnf[k t"dy`m,f&ojzifh
Edk;=um;wufºuGwdk;wufaom EkdifiHom;wdk‹ ay:aygufvmjcif;udk [ef‹wm;onfh rvdkvm;tyfaom
tajctaejzpfvmaprnf[k rSwfcsufcscJhygonf? “Oya'” [lonf w&m;r#wr_ESifh xyfwlxyfr#jzpf+yD;/
w&m;r#wr_&Sdjcif;a=umifh jynfoljynfom;rsm; ausauseyfeyfESifh +idrfoufae=uaom “+idrf0yfydjym;r_”
rsKd;omv#if rGefjrwfygonf? Oya'udk tpdk;&. zdESdyfcsKyfcs,faom ud&d,mtjzpf toHk;ðyjcif;onf
tm%m&Sifpepf. trsm;od =ueftifvuQ%mw&yfyif jzpfygonf? Oya'vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;twkdif; jzpfap&ef
tmrcHay;rnfh trsm;oabmwl a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufxm;onfh Oya'ðyv$wfawmfESifh oD;jcm;vGwfvyfaom
w&m;pD&ifa&;r¾dKif r&Sdygu tm%mydkifwdk‹onf ‚if;wdk‹xifovdk xkwfjyefxm;I vufcHEkdifavmufaom
w&m;r#wr_ pHowfrSwfcsuftm;vHk;ESifh ajymifajymif}uD; qef‹usifonfh trdef‹rsm;udk “Oya'” oabmjzifh
usifhoHk;Edkifygonf? wkdif;EkdifiH wEkdifiHwGif tm%m&Sdolrsm; tqifajyap&ef Oya'opfrsm;udk jyXmef;Ekdifygu‚if;/
Oya'a[mif;rsm;udk ajymif;vJEdkifygu‚if;/ EkdifiHolEkdifiHom;rsm; vHkòcHr_&&SdEkdifrnfr[kwfyg? Ttcsufudk
a&S;xHk;wrf;tpOftvmt&
todtrSwfðyxm;jcif;jzpfa=umif;udk
ty&d[med,
w&m;rsm;u
xif&Sm;apygonf? ‚if;w&m;wyg;t& tnDtnGwf ynwfxm;aom Oya'rsm;udk tvG,fwuly,fzsufjcif;/
tnDtnGwf ynwfxm;jcif;r&Sdaom Oya'rsm;udk tvG,fwul jyXmef;jcif;wdk‹rS a&SmifusOf&rnf jzpfygonf?
Ak'<bmomt,ltqwGif Oya'onf w&m;"rRtay:wGif tajccHygonf? tumtuG,fuif;rJhaom/
jynfolvlxktay:wGif =urf;wrf;cufxefwif;rmaom pnf;rsOf;rsm; jyXmef;Ekdifaom tm%mtay:wGif
tajccHjcif;r[kwfyg? pepfwck. w&m;r#wr_udk rSefuefpGmwkdif;wm&mwGif tiftm;tenf;qHk;jzpfolwdk‹tm;
umuG,f&ef rnfr#tmrcHxm;onfudk =unfhI wkdif;wm&rnfjzpfygonf?
w&m;r#wr_r&Sdaom ae&ma'owGif pdwfcs&aom+idrf;csrf;r_vnf; r&SdEkdifyg? tm%m&SifpepfESifh
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk aemufqHk; rcHEdkifawmhonfhtqHk;wGif tm;udk;p&m[lI olykefx&efom
&Sdawmhonfhtjzpftxd
a&mufrvmap&eftwGuf
vl‹tcGifhta&;udk
w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;r_jzifh
umuG,fxm;&rnf[k
urBmhvl‹tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;u
todtrSwfðyxm;ygonf?
+idrf;csrf;a&;[lonfrSm twdkuftcHtm;vHk; E_wfqdwfaejcif;jzpfonf[lI‚if;/ vHkòcHa&;[lonfrSm rdrdwkd‹
tm%mwnf+rJa&;udk
aocsmatmif
ðyvkyfjcif;jzpfonf[lI‚if;/
t"dy`m,faumuf,laom
oabmxm;usOf;ajrmif;olwdk‹uomv#if vl‹tcGifhta&;onf +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vHkòcHa&;wdk‹. vdktyfaom
tajccHjzpfonf[laom tcsufudk jiif;qdk=urnfjzpfygonf? jrefrmwdk‹onf +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh vHkòcHa&;oabmudk
at;jraomt&dyfESifh wJGzufxm;=uygonf?
opfyif.t&dyfonf at;jrayonf
xdkxuf rdb.t&dyfonf ydk at;jr.
xdkxuf q&morm;.t&dyfonf ydkIyif at;jr.
xdkxuf rif;.t&dyfrSm ydkIyifom at;jrayonf?
odk‹aomf tat;jrqHk;rSm Ak'<jrwfpGmbk&m;. t&dyfyif jzpfayonf?

xdk‹a=umifh
jynfolvlxkudk
+idrf;csr;f a&;ESifh
vHkòcHa&;[lonfh
at;jraom
t&dyftm0goay;Ekdif&eftwGuf
tkyfcsKyfolwdk‹onf
Ak'<&Sifawmf.
tqHk;tr=o0g'rsm;udk
vdkufem&rnfjzpfygonf?
,if;=o0g'rsm;xJwGif
opPm&Sdjcif;/
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w&m;"rR
apmifhpnf;jcif;wdk‹onf t"dujzpfygonf? Todk‹aom t&nftcsif;rsm;ay:wGif tajcðyaom tpdk;&udk
&&Sd&ef&nf&G,fI jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹u 'Drkdua&pDwkdufyJG0ifae=ujcif;yif jzpfygonf?
awmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGif vwfwavm ta&;}uD;onfh ta&;ay:EkdifiHa&;udpPrsm;onf
pdwf"mwfa&;&m t"du&nfrSef;csufrsm;udk zHk;tkyfomG ;zG,f&m odk‹r[kwf ysufjy,foGm;zG,f&m&Sdaom
tEW&m,fESifh t+rJwrf; óuHawG‹ae&ygonf? pdwf"mwfa&;&m &nfrSef;csufrsm;udk yxr OD;pm;ay;&rnf/
rysufpD;atmifvkyf&rnf[k ckdifrmpGm wdkufwGef;ae&onfrSm pdwful;,Of0g'udkom xkwfazmfaejcif; r[kwfbJ
wd&p>mefO,smOf0wˆKxJrS tjzpfrsKd;ay:aygufrvmEkdifatmif tumtuG,fay;&ef vdktyfaoma=umifh
jzpfygonf? (+Adwdo#pma&;q&m}uD; a*smhtdk0Jvf a&;om;aom) wd&p>mefO,smOf0wˆKwGif pepfopfudk
wnfaxmifolwdk‹onf
tpyxrwGif
pdwftm;xufoefpGm
wufwufºuGºuG
ðyjyifa&;rsm;
ðyvkyf=uaomfvnf; aemufydkif;wGifrl ‚if;wdk‹ tpm;xkd;vdkufaom pepfa[mif;. rESpfòrd‹zG,f&m
tusifhp±dkufrsm;udk
vufcHusifhoHk;vm=uygonf?
jrefrmjynfom;wdk‹onf
tpkd;&pepfudkom
ajymif;vJvdkonfr[kwfbJ EdkifiHa&;wefzdk;xm;r_rsm;udkyg ajymif;vJvdkygonf?
“tpdk;&.
tajccHtkyfjrpfonf
tºuGi;f rJhtm%mjzpfonf”
[laom
t,ltqudk
t,Hkt=unf&Sdjcif;onf
EkdifiHa&;tm%m.
t&if;cHtiftm;jzpfonf[laom
t,ltqjzifh
tpm;xdk;rSomv#if tm%m&Sifpepf. pdwfrcsrf;ajrŒp&m tarGtESpfrsm;udk z,f&Sm;Ekdifrnfjzpfygonf?
wkdif;jynf. uH=urRmudk tqHk;tjzwfay;Ekdifaom jynfolwdk‹. tcGifhta&;ESifh pGrf;&nfrsm;tay:wGif
t,Hkt=unf&Sdjcif;/ tpkd;&ESifh jynfolt=um; tjyeftvSef,Hk=unfjcif;/ vGwfvyfr_ESifh vl‹tcGifhta&;
oabmw&m;rl0g'rsm;tay:wGif t,Hkt=unf&Sdjcif; ponfwdk‹ vdktyfygonf? Ak'<bmomt,ltqrsm;t&
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* * *
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wufºuGoef‹pifaponfh
pHerlemxm;tyfoltjzpf cspfcifjrwfEkd;ae=ujcif;yif jzpfygonf? r[wWr*ENDESifhywfoufI *s0g[vmae±l;
oHk;oGm;aompum;rsm;udk atmifqef;ta=umif; ajym&mwGifvnf; oHk;Ekdifygonf? “‚if;. qHk;r=o0g'rsm;.
tESpfom&onf a=umuf±HGŒjcif;uif;rJhjcif;ESifh trSefw&m;yifjzpfI Tpdwf"mwfrsm;jzifh v_yf&Sm;vkyfudkifum
vlxk. om,m0ajyma&;udk t+rJwrf; OD;wnfjcif;yif jzpfygonf?”
t=urf;rzufa&;vrf;pOfudk a&SŒaqmifjzef‹csDol acgif;aqmif}uD;jzpfaom *ENDESifh trsKd;om;ppfwyfudk
wnfaxmifcJhaom atmifqef;onf yifudk,fobm0t& uGmjcm;vSygonf? odk‹aomf umva'ora&G;
tm%m&Sifpepfrsm;rS ay:xGufvmaom pdefac:r_rsm;onf qifwl±dk;rSm;&SdouJhodk‹ xdkpdefac:r_udk
òydifqkdiftHwk&ef xGufay:vmolrsm;. t&nftaoG;rsm;onfvnf; wlnDavh&Sdygonf? *END.
t}uD;rm;qHk;aom atmifjrifr_w&yfrSm tdENd,jynfojl ynfom;rsm;wGif owWdpdwfoGif;ay;jcif;jzpfonf[k
,lqaom ae±l;onf EkdifiHa&;wGif acwfopftjrif&Sdoljzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; ESpfq,f&mpk
vGwfvyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_vdktyfcsufrsm;udk
tuJjzwfaomtcgwGif
a&S;a[mif;tdENd,jynf.
'\etawG;tac:rsm;txd jyefvnf&SmazGum a&;om;wifjyxm;onfum; “vlwOD; odk‹r[kwf
wkdif;jynfwjynftzdk‹ }uD;us,ftjrifhjrwfqHk;aom yg&rDonf tb, ac: a=umuf±HGŒr_r&Sdjcif;jzpf.?
um,owWdomr[kwf pdwfxJrSmyif a=umuf±HGŒr_uif;jcif;jzpfygonf?”
a=umuf±HGŒpdwfr&Sdjcif;onf yg&rDjzpfzG,f&m&Sdaomfvnf; xdkxufydkI tzdk;wefzG,f&m&Sdaom
owWdrsm; óud;yrf;tm;xkwfjcif;jzifh &&Sdvmaom owWd/ a=umufpdwfudk vdkufavsm&onfhtjzpfudk
ra&mufatmif
ðypkysKd;axmifavhusifhI
&&Sdvmaom
owWd/
t=uyfudkifzdESdyfaeonfh=um;rS
wnf=unfodrfarG‹pGm &nfwnfEkdifjcif;/ =urf;wrf;cufxefpGm tqufrjywf zdESdyfaeonfh=um;xJrSm
xyfcgwvJ wnf=unfodrfarG‹r_udk xdef;odrf;jcif;jzifh &&SdaomowWd ponfwdk‹yif jzpfygonf?
tajccHvl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;r&Sd[k jiif;y,fxm;aompepfatmufwGif a=umuf±HGŒpdwfom ae‹pOfESifhtr#
v$rf;rdk;aeygonf? axmifusrnfudk a=umuf±HGŒjcif;/ n‡if;yef;ESdyfpufrnfudk a=umuf±HGŒjcif;/ ao&rnfudk
a=umuf±HGŒjcif;/ rdwfaqGrdom;pk/ OpPmypPnf; odk‹r[kwf toufarG;0rf;ausmif;vkyfief;rsm; qHk;±H_;rnfudk
a=umuf±HGŒjcif;/ qif;&Jrnfudk a=umuf±HGŒjcif;/ txD;usefjzpfrnfudk a=umuf±HGŒjcif;/ ysufpD;qHk;±_H;rnfudk
a=umuf±HGŒjcif; ponfwdk‹yif jzpfygonf? arG;&myg vl‹*k%foduQmESifh rdrdudk,frdrd av;pm;r_wdk‹udk
rqHk;±_H;&avatmif
xdef;odrf;umuG,f&mwGif
taxmuftuljzpfapaom
owWdjyonfh
ae‹pOfvkyf&yfuav;rsm;udk tcsnf;ESD;yifjzpfonf/ odk‹r[kwf t&mra&mufaom vkyf&yfjzpfonf/
t&rf;uma&mvkyfonf/ rdkufrJjcif;jzpfonf ponfjzifh jypfwif±_wfcsum rdrduyif b0ay;todOm%f
odk‹r[kwf ynmOm%f&SdouJhodk‹ [efaqmifjcif;onf wdwfwcdk;tEW&m,fay;onfh tqkd;0g;qHk;aom
a=umuf±HGŒr_rsKd;yif jzpfygonf? tiftm;onf trSefw&m;jzpfonf[laom rljzifh zdESdyftkyfcsKyfaom
pepfatmuf. yHkoGif;jcif;udk cH&olrsm;tzdk‹ tiftm;ukefcrf;apaom a=umuf±HGŒr_tqdyfaiG‹rS
vGwfu|wfatmif ±kef;xGuf&efrSm rvG,fulvSyg? odk‹aomfvnf; a=umuf±HGŒr_onf ,Ofaus;aomvlom;.
obm0r[kwfaoma=umifh tzdESdyfqHk;aom tpdk;&,EW&m;atmufYyif owWdonf xyfcgwvJvJ
xºuGvmygonf?
txdef;tcsKyfr&Sdaom tm%mudk &ifqkdif&mwGif owWd&Sdr_ESifh cHEkdif&nf&Sdr_wdk‹tm; t+rJwrf;
&Sifoefaeapaom
a&aomufjrpfrSm
udk,fusifhw&m;qkdif&m
oabmw&m;rsm;udk
txGwftjrwfxm;onfhtay:wGif ckdifrmpGm,Hk=unfjcif;jzpf+yD; rnfr#yif ±_H;edrfhr_/ qkwf,kwfr_rsm; &Sdapumrl
vlom;onf aemufqHk;wGif ±kyfydkif;ESifh pdwfydkif;qkdif&m wkd;wufr_ESpfckpvHk;udk &&Sd&rnf[laom
orkdif;oabmudk ,Hk=unfjcif;yifjzpfygonf? rdrdudk,frdrd wkd;wufaumif;rGefatmif óud;pm;jcif;/ rdrdukd,frdrd

raumif;r_rS vGwfajrmufatmif óud;yrf;jcif; paom pGrf;&nfwdk‹onf vlom;wdk‹udk wd&p>mef±dkif;rsm;ESifh
txift&Sm;uJGjym;apaom t"dutcsufyifjzpfygonf? vl‹wm0ef0wW&m;. rlvt&if;tjrpfrSm
vHk;0tjypfuif;pifjcif;[laom oabmw&m;udk em;vnfI tjypfuif;pifvdkaompdwfqEN/ tjypfuif;pif&ef
enf;vrf;&SmEkdifaom todOm%fESifh ,if;enf;vrf;twkdif; vkdufemvdkaompdwf"mwf/ ,if;enf;vrf;udk
tqHk;wkdif
rvdkufemEkdifonfhwkdifatmif
udk,fydkifc|wf,Gif;csuftuef‹towfESifh
ywf0ef;usiftwm;tqD;rsm;udk ausmfvGef&efvdktyfaom twkdif;twmtxd tenf;qHk; a&muf&Sdatmif
óud;pm;vdkjcif;wdk‹yif jzpfygonf? qifjcifwHkw&m;&SdI ,Ofaus;aomvlom;wdk‹ESifh avsmfuefoifhjrwfaom
vl‹avmuudk vlom;wdk‹ pdwful;ar#mfjrif=uonfhtwGuf a=umuf±HGŒr_ESifh csKdŒwJhr_rS uif;vGwfaom
vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;rsm; wnfaxmif&ef ra=umufr±HGŒ/ tepfemcHvkyf0Hh=ujcif;yif jzpfygonf? opPmw&m;/
*±k%mw&m;ESifh w&m;r#wr_wdk‹udk +iD;aiG‹zG,f&m tawG;tac:a[mif;}uD;rsm;[kqdkum ypfy,fI r&yg?
&ufpufaom tm%mpufukd wGef;vSef&mwGif Tw&m;rsm;onfomv#if tumtuG,fay;aevsuf
&Sdwwfygonf?
4
“Adkvf” . t"dy`m,ftppftrSef
t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh 1991 ckESpfY xkwfa0aom pmtkyfrS pmrsufESm 186-191 udk jrefrmjyefonf?

* * *
Adkvf[laom a0g[m&rSm tpdk;&±Hk;toHk;tE_ef;wGif =unf;wyfrS Adkvf odk‹r[kwf “vufzfwifheifh” udk
qdkvdkjcif; jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; trsm;oHk;pum;wGif ppft&m&Sdrsm;/ trdef‹ay;olrsm;/ acgif;aqmifrsm;udk
“Adkvf” [k ac:avh&Sdygonf? wdkif;jynf vGwfvyfa&;&awmhrnf[laom ar#mfvifhcsufjzifh wufºuGaeaom
xGef;opfp ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf 1942 ckESpfwGif jrefrmhajray:ajccsvmonfESifh ‚if;wyfrSt&m&Sdrsm;udk
&mxl;ra&G; “Adkvf” [k ac:a0:cJh=uygonf? vltrsm; pdwf"mwft&Sdefjrifhrm;I ab;tEW&m,fxlajymaom
ppfwGif;umvwGif
vlpGrf;aumif;rsm;
aps;aumif;av&m
“Adkvf”
wkdif;udk
pJGrufzG,f&m
pdwful;,OfyHkjyifqefqef roJuGJaom tawG;jzifh ±_jrif=uygonf? ‚if;wdk‹teuf a&SŒqHk;rS xifay:aeolrSm
atmifqef;jzpfygonf?
touf
(27)
ESpfyif
rjynfhao;bJ
pdwf"mwftvGefjyif;xef+yD;
ajzmifhrwfwnf=unfojzifh rsKd;cspfvli,f ppfaoemywdtoGifaqmifae&m ‚if;ESifhywfoufI oDcsif;/
uAsmrsm; a&pyf&mY pdwful;uGef‹jrL;vm=uygonf?

igwdk‹jrefrmjynfr,f
rdbwdkif;uuG,f
Adkvfatmifqef;vdk tmZmenftppfawG
arG;=u&r,f –
&mZ0iftwˆKywWdvnf; &Sd&r,f
armfuGef;vnf; xdk;avmufwJh
jrifhjrwfwJh Adkvfatmifqef;&,f
TuJhodk‹ csD;ajr‡mufjcif;a=umifh ydkI touftm;jzifh‚if;/ tawG‹tóuHtm;jzifh‚if; ydkrdkolrsm;yifv#if
,pfrl;oGm;Ekdifaomfvnf; atmifqef;rSmrl rdrd. udk,fydkifpHowfrSwfcsufrsm;a=umifh wnf=unfckdif+rJ
tjrif("gwfyHkvmonf)

("gwfyHk)
ykodrfY pnf;±Hk;a&;qif;aepOf
(aqmif;yg;tquf vmonf)
&Sif;vif;jyefom;pGmjzifh vHk;0pdwfxm;rSefatmif xdef;odrf;cJhygonf? xkdpOfu usif;yavh&Sdaom
tcrf;tem;wckwGif atmifqef;tm; urBmhorkdif;wGif xif&Sm;rnf[k csD;rGrf;aom=obmpmudk
zwf=um;aomtcg urBmhorkdif;wGifrqdkESifh/ Armhorkdif;Yyif ae&mr&ao;yg[k atmifqef;u ºuGwfqyfqyf
rSwfcsufcsoGm;cJhygonf? awmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_wav#mufwGif ppfwyfudk OD;aqmifcJhonfhaemufydkif;wGif
jyefvnfwnfaxmifvdkufaom +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifh aphpyfaqG;aEG;cJh+yD; bk&ifcH. tkyfcsKyfa&;aumifpDwGif
'kOuUXtjzpf cef‹tyfjcif;cH&aomtcgYyif atmifqef;u “usKyfwdk‹ tck rp&ao;/ rvkyf&ao;bl;? 'ga=umifh
csD;rGrf;p&m&Sdvnf; tckcsD;rGrf;rcHcsifao;bl;” [k ajymaewkef;yif jzpfygonf? xdkpOftcsdefu ‚if;onf
trsKd;om;vlpGrf;aumif;tjzpfodk‹ a&muf&Sdae+yDjzpf+yD; EkdifiHw0Srf;vHk;wGif “AdkvfcsKyf” [k od&Sd=uum
jrefrmjynfoljynfom;wdk‹. acgif;aqmiftjzpf todtrSwfðycHae&olyif jzpfygonf?
“AdkvfcsKyf” [lonfrSm 'kAdkvfcsKyf}uD;atmufwGif&Sdaom tqifhyifjzpfaomfvnf; atmifqef;u
&,lvdkufaomtcg ,if;&mxl;tqifhonfvnf; jrefrmjynfwGif twkr&Sd/ xl;jcm;ta&;ygaom
t"dy`m,foufa&mufr_&Sdvmygonf? AdkvfcsKyf[lonfrSm wyfrawmf. zcif/ tiftm;}uD;aom
udk,fusKd;r=unfhaom acgif;aqmifr_/ a0g[m&t"dy`m,ft& “Adkvfrsm;udk tkyfcsKyfol” [k oabm&ygonf?
“Adkvf” ygVdpmvHk; “Av” (cGeftm;) rS vmjcif;jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; csD;usL;xdkufaom cGeftm;ESifh
rvdkvm;tyfaomtiftm;udk cJGjcm;&onfrSm rvG,fulvSyg? “um,” ðyvkyfjcif;ESifh “Av” wdk‹
aygif;pyfvdkufygu AvuUm, t=urf;zufjcif;jzpfvmygonf? wenf;qdk&aomf vufcHEkdifavmufaom
tuef‹towf twkdif;twmxufausmfvGefI cGeftm;udk toHk;ðyaomtcg zsufqD;jcif;tjzpfodk‹
a&muf&Sdvmygonf? TtEW&m,fudk udk,fusifhw&m;jzifh xdef;csKyfjcif; rðyygu EdkifiHa&; odk‹r[kwf
vlr_a&;tajymif;tvJrsm;a=umifh 0±kef;okef;um; jzpfaeaom tcsdeftcgY t}uD;rm;qHk;aom
tEW&m,fjzpfvmEkdifrnfrSm txl;ajymp&mrvdkyg? Todk‹aom tcsdefumvwGif atmifqef;onf
jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;r_wdkufyJGudk OD;pD;OD;udkifvkyfcJh&onf? Ak'<bmombkef;awmf}uD;ausmif;xGufjzpfojzifh
‚if;onf pdwfESifh pdwf"mwfwdk‹. pGrf;tm;ESifhqkdifaom oabmw&m;ukd i,fpOfuyif od&SdrnfjzpfI Avig;yg;
(Áa¹ENig;yg; odk‹r[kwf pdwfudk xdef;odrf;Ekdifaomw&m;rsm;) udkvnf; avhvmqnf;yl;cJhrnfjzpfygonf?
‚if;wdk‹rSm o'<g/ 0d&d,/ owd/ orm"dESifh ynmwdk‹jzpfygonf? avmuDtvdkt& Avig;wefjzpfaom um,/
Om%/ abm*/ rdwW/ pm&dwWAvwdk‹onf avmukwW&mtusKd;aqmifAvrsm;xuf edrfhus+yD; *k%foduQm&SdpGm
tusKd;ay;rnfhtiftm;rsm;jzpfvmEdkif&ef
‚if;wdk‹udk
pdwfESifh
pdwf"mwfðypkysKd;axmifjcif;jzifh
xdef;odrf;xm;&rnfjzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; cGeftm;. aumif;usKd;/ qdk;usKd;udk todOm%fynmt&
em;vnfoabmaygufonfhtcsufonf atmifqef;udk rv$rf;rdk;yg? wm0ef&Sdaom ppftzJG‹tpnf;wckESifh
aygif;pyf&rnfh ay:xGef;p ppfwyf. ppfaoemywdtjzpf‚if;/ rwnf+idrfaom yk*~dKvfaygif;rsm;pGm yg0ifaeonfh
trsKd;om;v_yf&Sm;r_.
acgif;aqmiftjzpf‚if;
pnf;urf;jzifh
rxdef;xm;aom
tiftm;.
vufawG‹tEW&m,frsm;udk ‚if;u aumif;pGmod&Sdxm;olyifjzpfygonf?
atmifqef;onf ‚if;wnfaxmifxm;aom wyfrawmfudk pnf;urf;}uD;I *k%fusufoa&&Sdaom
tzJG‹tpnf;tjzpf &nfrSef;xm;ygonf? tepfemcHjcif;/ udk,fhpnf;udk,fxdef;jcif;/ azmufjyefr_uif;jcif; paom
ausmufom;yuwdcdkifrmonfh
jrifhjrwfaom*k%ft*Fgrsm;jzifh
wnfaqmufxm;aomwyfrawmf/
udk,fydkiftusKd;tjrwfrar#mfudk;bJ wkdif;jynfwm0efxrf;aqmif&ef rdrd.cGeftm;udk vHk;0ay;vªxm;aom
wyfrawmfomjzpf&rnf[k atmifqef;u ,lqygonf? vufeuftiftm;udk zdESdyfcsKyfcs,f&m

ypPnf;ud&d,mtjzpf
xifrSwfaprnfh
oabmxm;rsm;/
&yfwnfcsufrsm;udk
a&SmifusOfyg&ef
ppfonfawmfrsm;tm;
atmifqef;u
wdkufwGef;qHk;rcJhygonf?
tm;}uD;olu
tm;enf;oludk
tEdkifusifhvdkaom
vl‹obm0udkaxmufjyI
rw&m;ðyusifhaom
tm;}uD;olwdk‹tm;
ra=umufr±HGŒqef‹usif&efESifh tm;enf;olwdk‹tay:wGif ajzmifhrSefw&m;r#wpGm ðyusifh&ef atmifqef;u
wdkufwGef;cJhygonf? “'Dwyfrawmf[m 'DEkdifiH/ 'DvlrsKd;twGuf/ 'DvlrsKd;awG&JŒ udk;uG,f&m/ vJavsmif;&m/
qnf;uyf&mqdkwJh taersKd;jzpf&r,f? 'Dvdkr[kwfbJ 'Dwyfrawmf[m EkdifiHolEkdifiHom;awG&JΠpdwfxJrSm
atmhESvHk;emp&mjzpfr,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if 'Dwyfrawmfudk wnfaxmifxm;wJh &nf&G,fcsuf[m tvum;yJjzpfr,f”
[kvnf;
owday;cJh.
(31-1-44)?
wkdif;jynfu
udk;uG,fqnf;uyfxdkufaom
xl;c|efonfhwyfrawmfjzpfvmap&ef tqufrjywf óud;yrf;tm;xkwfae&rnfjzpfygonf? odk‹aomf
xl;c|efojzifh acgif;aqmifr_ay;&ef txl;tcGifhta&;&Sdaom vufa&G;pifvlwpkjzpfvm&rnf r[kwfyg?
jrefrmhwyfrawmfonf vlwOD;wa,muftwGuf/ wzJG‹/ vlwpk/ wygwDtwGuf wnfaxmifxm;jcif;r[kwfbJ
wjynfvHk;twGuf wnfaxmifxm;jcif;jzpfonf[k atmifqef;u &Sif;vif;jywfom;pGm ajymqdkxm;ygonf?
‚if;wdk‹Yomv#if jynfcspfpdwf&SdEkdifonf[laom t,ltqudk cH,lxm;=uonfh ppfr_xrf;rsm;.
ao;odrfarS;rSdefaom tjrifudkvnf; atmifqef;u y,fcsygonf? “wjcm; ppfom;r[kwfayrJh EdkifiHtwGuf
trsKd;rsKd;tepfemcH/ trsKd;rsKd;pGef‹pm;vkyfwJh vlawGvnf; &SdwmyJ? tJh'ga=umifh ppfom;rS ppfom;qdkwJh
pdwf"mwfoabmxm;udk ajymif;=u&r,f” (13-3-44)?
atmifqef;u ppfom;rsm;udk wif;rmjyif;xefpmG owday;qHk;rae&onfhtcsufrSm wyfrawmfudk
ESdrfvdkaoma=umifhr[kwfbJ “igwdk‹[m vufeufudkifvlawGjzpf=uaomfvnf; rw&m;rvkyf/ EkdifiH&JŒ
&efolawGr[kwf/ EkdifiH&JŒ rdwfaqGawGjzpfw,fqdkwm tm;vHk;oabmaygufatmif ajymjyjcif;yJ” [k
udk,fwdkifrdef‹=um;cJhygonf (13-3-44)? wkdif;jynf. *k%foduQm[lonfrSm jynfolwdk‹. *k%foduQmjzpfonf/
jynfolwdk‹. *k%foduQmonf ‚if;ESifh ‚if;ppfom;rsm;. *k%foduQmESifh cJGjcm;Ir&[k atmifqef;u
,Hk=unfxm;ygonf?
olvdkvm;aom
pHjyvufeufukdifwyfzJG‹qdkonfrSm
ppfr_xrf;wkdif;.
tðytrltusifhwdk‹onf 18 &mpk eef;wGif;pmqdkawmf vuf0JokEN& (1723-99) a&;om;zJG‹qdkxm;aom
eENdaoeysKdŒyg oabmw&m;jzifh jynfh0aernfjzpfaom wyfzJG‹yifjzpf&ayrnf?
ppfenf;AsL[m/ b,fvdkomvnf;
pJGudkifvufeuf/ b,fvdkxufvnf;
jynfol‹ESvHk;/ rodrf;óuH;v#if
jynfol‹cGeftm;/ rudk;pm;v#if
"g;oGm;vnfaºuG/ vSHvnf;acGtHh?
(vuf0JokEN&/ eENdaoeysKdŒrS)
vGwfvyfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_ tjrifhrm;qHk;tqifhodk‹ a&muf&SdvmonfESifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf
jynfol‹pdwfESvHk;udk odrf;óuH;I/ jynfol‹tiftm;udk udk;pm;a=umif; ydkI odomxif&Sm;vmygonf?
“vlwOD;wa,mufonf rnfr#avmuf pGrf;yum;&Sdapumrl vlxk. tm;ay;,kdif;yif;r_r&SdbJvsuf
&mZ0ifwGifavmufaom vkyfief;rsKd;udk jzpfajrmufatmif raqmif&GufEkdif” [k ,Hk=unfonfhtavsmuf
vGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;r_wGif jynfolwdk‹udk ‚if;aemufrS +rJ+rHpGm }uHŒ}uHŒckdifckdif &yfwnf=uyg&ef yef=um;cJhygonf?
ppfrSefaom tm;ay;axmufcHr_udk twif;t"rRenf;jzifh r&,lEkdifa=umif; ‚if;u od&Sdxm;ygonf?
r[kwfrrSefaom uwdrsm;ay;I‚if;/ ajr‡mufyifhajymqdI
k ‚if;/ axmufcHr_&,laomenf;udk ‚if;u roHk;yg?
ppfa=umifh t}uD;tus,fysufpD;ae&onfh ajray:wGif vGwfvyfaom udk,fxludk,fx wdkif;EkdifiHudk
wnDwnGwfwnf; 0dkif;0ef;wnfaxmif&ef ‚if;ESifh jynfolvlxkt=um; tjyeftvSef,Hk=unfr_ESifh
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azmufzsuf&ma&mufygonf?
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usif;yaom a&G;aumufyJGwGif zufqpfqef‹usifa&; jynfol‹vGwfajrmufa&; (zqyv) tzJG‹rS
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taqmifta,mifrsm;udk
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av;av;eufeuf cH,lxm;ygonf? acgif;aqmifr_[lonfrSm ao&rnf odk‹r[kwf uJh&JŒ±_wfcsrnfudk
a=umuf±HGŒjcif;r&SdbJ rdrdrSefonf[k ,lqaomudpPukd owWd&Sd&Sdjzifh vkyfudkif&Jojzifh vlxku
,Hk=unfpGmay;tyfxm;aom t&mjzpfonf[k atmifqef;u jrifygonf? wkdif;jynftay:wGif xm;&Sd&rnfh
‚if;.
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od&Sd=uygonf? tiftm;qdkonfrSm w&m;r#wrSefuefaom OD;wnfcsuftwGuf toHk;ðyrSomv#if
wefzdk;&Sdonf[k ,Hk=unfaom EkdifiHhacgif;aqmif ppfonfwOD;tzdk‹ *k%foduQmr&SdbJ tkyfcsKyfjcif;onf
ESpfvdkzG,f&mr[kwfyg?
jynfol‹vlpGrf;aumif;[lonf jynfol. ar#mfrSef;awmifhwcsufudk udk,fpm;ðyygonf? vufawG‹b0&Sd
acgif;aqmifrsm;rSmrl jynfolwdk‹. ar#mfrSef;csufrsm;tm; taumiftxnfazmfay;Ekdifrnfh twkdif;twmudkom
a&mifjyef[yfae=uygonf?
óuHcJvSaom
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ar#mfrSef;awmifhwcsufESifh
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tifwdkuftm;wdkuf tpGrf;ukefvkyfaqmif=u+yD; tcsif;csif; nDnGwf=uygonf? ,if;tcsdeftcgudk
owd&aejcif;jzifh oduQmrJhI atmifjrifr_ajcmufcrf;aom umvrsm;wGif tm;arG;/ *k%f,lEkdifygonf?
atmifqef;acgif;aqmifaom
wdkawmif;vSonfh
umvtwGif;Y
jrefrmjynfoljynfom;wdk‹onf
‚if;wdk‹udk,f‚if;wdk‹ xdkufxdkufwefwef ,Hk=unftm;udk;cGifh&=uolrsm;wGif&Sdaom ar#mfvifhcsufrsm;/
vkyfcsifudkifcsifaom tiftm;rsm;jzifh jynfhòzd;ae=uygonf? ‚if;wkd‹. AdkvfcsKyfu ‚if;wdk‹udk pnf;urf;ESifh
vHk‹v0d&d,r&Sd[lI ol‹0oDtwdkif; wHk;wHk;wdwd jypfwif}udrf;armif; qlylonfhtcgYyif ‚if;wdk‹onf
pdwfysufjcif;r&Sd=ubJ AdkvfcsKyfonf rdrd. csKdŒ,Gif;csufrsm;udk rdrdudk,fwkdif jyifqif&ef qEN&SdouJhodk‹
‚if;wdk‹udkvnf; ‚if;wdk‹. csKdŒ,Gif;csufrsm;udk jyifapvdkonf[k taotcsmod&Sdxm;=uojzifh ydkIyif
óud;pm;csifpdwf aygufvm=uygonf?
“b0[lonfrSm trSefw&m;ESifh tjypfuif;pifr_udk &SmazGaom rGefjrwfonfh c&D;pOf” [k
atmifqef;u ,lqxm;ygonf? Todk‹ &SmyHkawmfzGifh&mwGif olESifhtwl wkdif;jynfudkyg o,faqmifoGm;&ef
óud;pm;cJhygonf? vufawG‹rusavmufatmif jrifhrm;onf[k qdk&avmufaom &nfrSef;csufrsm;udk
taumiftxnfazmf&mY tHh=ozG,f&matmifjrifr_rsm;onf jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;. t&nftcsif;udk‚if;/
ajymonfhtwkdif;
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xda&mufaomtajccHjzpfEkdifa=umif; jyocJhaom atmifqef;. pGrf;&nfudk‚if; *k%fðy&ma&mufygonf?
atmifqef;onf
ppfonfawmfwOD;jzpfonfhtavsmuf
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taotcsmwdkufoljzpfygonf? odk‹aomf wdkufyJG+yD;aomtcgwGif a=umuf±HGŒjcif;r&SdbJ vufeufudk

ab;z,fum +idrf;csrf;a&;vrf;udk vdkufcJholjzpfygonf? ‚if;. vufxJodk‹ EkdifiHa&;tm%m
a&muf&SdvmaomtcgwGifvnf; “usKyfu arwWmESifh opPmudk a&SŒxm;+yD; tkyfcsKyfr,f” [k [efrvkyfbJ
±dk;om;pGmajymEkdifolyifjzpfygonf? ‚if;tm; axmufcHolrsm;u ‚if;onf rdrdwdk‹. touf/ rdrdwdk‹.
csrf;omr_ESifh rdrdwdk‹. ,Hk=unfr_wdk‹udk rqifrjcif tusKd;rJhatmif vkyfrnfr[kwf[k pdwfcsEkdif=uygonf? ol.
pum;twkdif; qdk&v#if atmifqef;onf wkdif;jynfudk “t&rf;rJh ajAmif;qefatmif” vkyfrnfh
“EkdifiHa&;pwef‹rif;om;” r[kwfyg? jynfolvlxku ‚if;. acgif;aqmifr_udk ,Hk=unfrnfqdkygu wESpftwGif;
vGwfvyfa&;udk twwfEkdifqHk; +idrf;csrf;pGm&,lrnf[k &J&J}uD; tmrcHcJhygonf? “usKyf[m usKyfuwdudk
rzsufcJhbl;qdkwm cifAsm;wdk‹ odw,fr[kwfvm;”? Tpum;udk 1948 ckESpf ZEM0g&D (4) &ufae‹wGif
jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkdifiHtm; vGwfvyfaom orwEkdifiH[k ra=unmrD (11) vwdwdtvdku
ajymcJhjcif;jzpfonf?
wkdif;jynfvGwfvyfa&;&aomtcgwGif atmifqef; uG,fvGefoGm;+yDjzpfygonf? olwyg;tm;
qifjcifwHkw&m;udk vufcHI pdwfaumif;apwemaumif; tppftrSefudk wHk‹jyefwwfaom todOm%f&Sdonf[k
,lqonfh tajccHoabmxm;&Sdol atmifqef;onf tm%m&&Sda&;udk udk,fusifhw&m;xufydkI
*±kðy=uaom EkdifiHa&;òydifzufwdk‹. opPmw&m;uif;rJhjcif;. '%fudk cHoGm;&ygonf? jrefrmjynftwGuf
‚if;xm;&Sdaom
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taumiftxnfazmf&mwGif
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vkyf}uHowfjzwfcH&rnfr[kwf[k ajymolrsm;&Sd=uygonf? odk‹aomf olom xdkuJhodk‹ udk,fusKd;iJholjzpfcJhygu
“acgif;aqmifonf EkdifiH.tiftm;jzpfonf” [laomxHk;udk toufoGif;ay;vdkufaom AdkvfwumhAdkvf
jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;u ‘igwdk‹ AdkvfcsKyf’ [k owfrSwfxm;aom Adkvfatmifqef;jzpfawmhrnf r[kwfyg?
5
&nfrSef;csufrsm;
“jynfol‹ ol&Jaumif;trsKd;orD; &nfrSef;csufrsm; &Sif;jyjcif;” [laom acgif;pOfjzifh atmifqef;pk=unfESifh c&ifomyg
(Karan Thapar) wdk‹. awG‹qHkar;jref;cef;udk atmufygtwdkif; 1988 ckESpf =o*kwfv 19 &ufae‹xkwf
“onfwdkif;rfpf” (The Times) owif;pmwGif azmfjyxm;ygonf?

* * *
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&efukefeJ‹ jrefrmEkdifiH&JŒ vuf&SdtajctaeawGu tawmfuav; ±_wfaxG;aeygw,f? wkdif;jynf&JŒ
tajctaeudk b,fvdk&Sdw,fvdk‹ qdkEdkifrvJ?
tajctaeuawmh cef‹rSef;EkdifwJhtwdkif; awmfawmf}uD;udk wif;rmaeygw,f? tpdk;&,EW&m;[m
wkdif;jynfae&mtrsm;tjym;rSm &yfwef‹oGm;oavmufjzpfaeyg+yD? 'gayrJh 'DtcuftcJudk
ausmfv$m;bdk‹ jynfolawGu vkyfp&m&SdwmawG vkyfae=uygw,f? qENjyyJGawGudk pepfwus
usif;yaeygw,f? &yfuGufvHkòcHa&;udkvnf; t&yfom;uif;apmifhtzJG‹awGu wm0ef,laeygw,f?
pnf;urf;pepf&Sd=ubdk‹twGufvnf; jynfolawGu a&SŒwef;u v_yf&Sm;ae=uygw,f?
r=umcif &ufydkif;awGrSm cifAsm;[m tckjzpfaewJh jynfol‹v_yf&Sm;r_rSm t"duacgif;aqmiftjzpfeJ‹
ay:xGufvmygw,f? bmtwGuf wdkufaewmygvJ? cifAsm;&JΠ&nfrSef;csufawGudk b,fvdkazmfjyrvJ?

ajz?

'Drdkua&pD&bdk‹ jrefrmjynfrSm óud;yrf;ae=uwJh jynfoltrsm;xJrSm usrwa,mufvnf; ygygw,f?
aemufxyf taotaysmuf t=urf;zufr_awG r&SdawmhbJ jynfolawG 'Drkdua&pD&atmif usr
ulnDbdk‹ &nf&G,fygw,f?

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“'kwd,ajrmuf
jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;
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vkyfzdk‹vdka=umif;
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jynfolvlxkudk vl‹tcGifhta&;tjynfht0 cHpm;cGifhray;wJh EkdifiHa&;pepf[m jynfh0wJhvGwfvyfa&;&JŒ
tjrifhqHk;ar#mfrSef;csufeJ‹ qef‹usifaeygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ tckvdk jrefrmjynfolvlxku
'Drkdua&pDawmif;qdkaewm[m olwdk‹&JŒ 'kw,
d t}udrfvGwfvyfa&; óud;yrf;r_jzpfw,fvdk‹
usrajymwm jzpfygw,f?

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ygwDpHka&G;aumufyJGudpPeJ‹ywfouf+yD; vlxkqENaumuf,lyJGvkyfr,f/ rvkyfzl;qdkwm qHk;jzwfzdk‹
pufwifbmv 12 &ufae‹ 1988 rSm txl;ygwDnDvmcHusif;yr,fvdk‹ orwarmifarmifu
urf;vSrf;xm;wmudk cifAsm; b,fvdkjyef=um;rvJ?
vGefcJhwJhvu yxrqHk; p+yD; tqdkðypOfwkef;u tm%m&ygwDuom vlxkqENaumuf,lyJGvkyfzdk‹
oabmwlcJh&if jynfolvlxku aus;Zl;wifpGmeJ‹ vufcHvdkufrSmjzpfygw,f? 'gayrJh tckawmh
tJ'DudpP[m ta&;rygawmhygbl;? “odyfaemufus+yD; odyfeJaew,f” qdkwJh pum;vdkjzpfaeyg+yD?
jynfolawGu
qENjy+yD;awmh
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vdkcsifw,fqdkwmudk
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oHo,&Sdp&mrvdkatmif jyo+yD;yg+yD? tJ'Dawmh vlxkqENaumuf,lyJGqdkwm vHk;0 tydkjzpfaerSmygyJ/
rvdkawmhygbl;?
tJ'Dvdkqdk&if jynfolvlxkudk vuf&Sdtpdk;& ðywfusoGm;wJhtxd qufvufawmif;qdkzdk‹u cifAsm;u
qdkvdkygovm;?
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olwdk‹vdkvm;wJh EdkifiHa&;pepfudk r&rjcif; qufvufawmif;qdkae=urSmygyJ?
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jrefrmjynfrSm Oya'pnf;urf;r&Sd/ xdef;csKyfr,fhtm%mydkifvnf; r&SdbJeJ‹ rif;rJhtajctae
a&mufoGm;rSmudk cifAsm; pdwfrylbl;vm;?
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pwifcJhayrJh tckawmh wae‹xufwae‹ pepfwus pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk; jzpfvmyg+yD? jynfolvlxk[m
tck &yfuGufvHkòcHa&;tpDtpOfawG vkyfaeygw,f? pepfwus oydwfawGarSmufzdk‹/ qENjy=uzdk‹vnf;
pDpOfaeygw,f? 'Dawmh pdk;&drfr_awG ydkaep&m rvdkygbl;?
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ppfwyfqDu tultnD&zdk‹ usr rar#mfvifhygbl;? =o*kwfv 25 &ufae‹u usr ajymoGm;wmu
wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfolt=um;rSm oabmuJGvJGr_ r&Sdoifhbl;qdkwmygyJ? wyfrawmf[m jynfolvlxku
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,Hk=unfygw,f?

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tu,fI 'Dtpdk;&usqif;oGm;&if ol‹ae&mrSm b,folu ,lrSmvJ? b,fvdktul;tajymif;
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jynfolu ,Hk=unfwJh =um;jzwf,m,Dtpdk;&[m wkdif;jynfudk wnf+idrfatmif jyefvkyfEkdifrSmjzpf+yD;
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tJ'Dtul;tajymif;umvrSm cifAsm; b,fae&mu yg0ifzdk‹ &SdygovJ?
usrtaeeJ‹
txl;oD;oef‹ae&mu
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b,fvdkjzpfvmrvJqdkwmudk
apmifh=unfh+yD;awmh +idrf;csrf;pGm tul;tajymif; vkyfEkdifatmif usr b,fvdktwwfEkdifqHk;
tultnDay;&r,fqdkwmyJ &Sdygw,f?

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uJ tem*wfudk =unfh&atmif/ tif;/ wu,fawmh tem*wfqdkwmuvnf; odyfa0;awmhr,f
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jrefrmjynfrSmuvnf;
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taumif;qHk;uawmh 'Drdkua&pDpepfudk xdef;odrf;zdk‹twGuf &nfpl;t"dXmefðyxm;wJh/ pGrf;&nf&Sd+yD;
±dk;om;ajzmifhrwfwJhyk*~KdvfawG OD;aqmifwJhygwDawGudk jrifcsifygw,f?

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cifAsm;ua&m ygwDxlaxmifrSmvm;?
a&Smif&Sm;vdk‹ &r,fqkd&ifawmh rxlaxmifcsifygbl;?

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EdkifiHa&;avmurSm aZmufcs+yD;vkyfzdk‹ pdwful;ygovm;? vkyfr,fqdk&if EkdifiHa&;orm;wOD;tjzpfeJ‹
cifAsm;&JŒ yifudk,ft&nftaoG;eJ‹ u|rf;usifr_udka&m b,fvdkoHk;oyfygrvJ?
EkdifiHa&;xJrSm epfrGef;ae&r,fh b0rsKd;[m usrtwGuf rufzG,f&mr[kwfygbl;? tck
avmavmq,frSm
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usr[m
aygif;pnf;nDnGwfatmif
vkyfay;wJh
tiftm;wcktaeeJ‹om yg0ifaewmjzpfygw,f?

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tJ'Dvdkqdk&if
cifAsm;
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jyefvm&atmif b,fvdkvkyfrvJ? 'grSr[kwf b,fvdkajymjyrvJ?
jynfolawGudk
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tckxufxd jyocGifhr&ao;wJh vkyfEkdifudkifEkdifwJh vlawG trsm;}uD;ay:vmrSmyg?
'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmEdkifiHtaeeJ‹ jyifyurBmeJ‹ b,fvdkqufoG,fa&;rsKd;udk usifhoHk;rSmygvJ?

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jrefrmEkdifiH[m
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qufqH&rSmjzpfygw,f?

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6
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t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh 1991 ckESpfwGif xkwfa0aompmtkyfrS pmrsufESm 209-213 udk jrefrmjyefonf?

* * *
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tcef;u¾udk usr ajymvdkygonf? ausmif;om;trsm;pkonf &J&ifhI jzwfxkd;Om%f&Sd±Hkwifruao;bJ
oabmxm;}uD;+yD; t,ltqopfrsm;udkvnf; cH,lwwfa=umif; awG‹&Sd&ygonf? ‚if;wdk‹. tzJG‹tpnf;ESifh
‚if;wdk‹.
aZmufcsvkyfr_wdk‹onf
tHh=ozG,f&m
pdwf"mwfwufºuGp&myif
jzpfygonf?
Tvli,fuav;rsm;onf
tcsdefusa&mufvmaomtcgwGif
wkdif;jynfwm0efxrf;aqmif=urnf[k
awG;rdaomtcg rsm;pGm tm;wufrdygonf? jrefrmEdkifiH. tem*wfta&; pdwfat;&+yD[lIom usr
cHpm;rdygawmhonf?

ukvor*~vl‹tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifodk‹ tdwfzGifhay;pm
t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh 1991 ckESpfwGif xkwfa0aom pmtkyfrS pmrsufESm 222-224 udk jrefrmjyefonf?

* * *
1?
urBmhvl‹tcGifhta&; a=unmpmwrf;wGif azmfjyyg&Sdaom vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;udk Oya't&
tumtuG,fay;rnfh +idrf;csrf;wnf+idrf wdk;wufaom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;jzpfay:&ef tmrcHrnfh vlr_a&;ESifh
EkdifiHa&;tajymif;tvJrsm;udk
ay:aygufap&efrmS
jrefrmjynfY
'Drkdua&pDtpdk;&wnfaxmif&ef
vkyfaqmifaeaom trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf (NLD) ESifh tjcm;tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;. t"duOD;wnfcsufyif
jzpfygonf?
2?
vGwfvyfyGifhvif;pGm
tjyeftvSef
aqG;aEG;+yD;aemuf
w&m;Oya't&
a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufxm;aom v$wfawmfrS jyXmef;xm;aom Oya'pnf;rsO;f rsm;udk w&m;r#wajzmifhrwfpGm
taumiftxnfazmfjcif;[k t"dy`m,f&aom “w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;” ESifh jynfolvlxk. axmufcHr_udk
r&&Sdaom
tpdk;&u
xifovdk
pdwfóudufxkwfjyefxm;onfh
a=unmcsufrsm;udkom
taumiftxnfazmfjcif;jzpfaom “+idrf0yfydjym;a&;” [lonfwdk‹udk jrefrmEkdifiH 'Drkdua&pDta&;wGif
vkyfudkifaqmif&Gufaeolrsm;u uJGjym;jcm;em;pGm odomapvdkygonf?
3?
vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;udk ,Hk=unfjrwfEkd;olrsm;onf +idrf0yfydjym;a&;oabmudk y,fcsonfr[kwfyg?
odk‹aomf
Oya'qdkonfrSm
“}uD;rm;aomtkyfpk.
vdktifqEN”
om
jzpfraeap&ef‚if;/
pnf;urf;&Sdr_qdkonfrSmvnf; “ae&mwumY a=umuf&GHŒae&onfudk a&mifjyef[yfjcif;” r[kwfonfudk‚if;
taotcsmtmrcH&ef vdkvm;=uygonf? jrefrmjynfoljynfom;trsm;pkonf "rRESifh tb, ac:
udk,fusifhw&m;aumif;rGefr_ESifh a=umuf&GHŒjcif; uif;rJhr_wdk‹udk xdef;odrf;rnfhtpdk;&udk jrefrmjynfwGif
vdkvm;=uygonf?
4?
w&m;r#wr_udk xda&mufpGm usifhoHk;Ekdif&eftwGufESifh ,if;odk‹usifhoHk;onfh jzpfpOfw&yfvHk;wdk‹udk
vlwkdif;u
qef;ppfavhvm&ef
tvdk‹iSm
Oya't&
tmrcHcsufay;EkdifrSomv#if
vl‹tcGifhta&;vdkvm;csufrsm;udk
Oya'av;pm;r_ESifh
o[Zmwjzpfatmif
ðyvkyf&rnf[laomtqdkonfvnf; w&m;0ifrnfjzpfygonf? vGwfvyfr_/ w&m;r#wr_ESifh +idrf;csrf;a&;wdk‹.
tajccHtjzpf vdktyfa=umif; ukvor*~ todtrSwfðyxm;aom tcGifhta&;rsm; qHk;±_H;ysufpD;&onfudk
wGef;vSefaeolrsm;tm;
jrefqefpGm
ta&;,lESdrfeif;Edkif&ef
&nf&G,fI
jyXmef;xm;aom
trdef‹a=unmcsufrsm;onf tpdk;&trdef‹r#omjzpf+yD; w&m;aom Oya'tqifhodk‹ jr‡ifhwif&efvdktyfaom
oDv/ pGrf;tm;ESifh Oya'qkdif&m vkyfydkifcGifhrsm;. axmufcHr_r&Sd[k qdk&rnfjzpfonf?
5?
w&m;aomOya'tm;vHk;udk axmufcH&efESifh ±dkaoav;pm;&efrSm trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfu
tpOfwpdkufvdkufemcJhaom
vrf;pOfjzpfygonf?
wcsdefwnf;rSmyif ckdifrmaom/ +idrf;csrf;aom/
wkdif;jynfwnfaxmifvdkolrsm;onf vl‹*k%foduQmESifh trSefw&m;. tajccHrsm;udk wkdufckdufonfh
ta&;,lvkyfaqmifr_rsm;udk
wGef;vSef&ef
wm0ef&Sdonf[k
jynfoltrsm;pkESifhtwl
trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfu od&Sdem;vnfxm;ygonf?
6?
jrefrmEkdifiHwGif ,ae‹zrf;qD;cHxm;&onfh rsm;jym;vSaom EkdifiHa&;tusOf;orm;rsm;onf
&mZ0wfrr_ sm;
usL;vGefonfqdkI
pJGcsufwifxm;ygonf?
trSefpifppfrSm
‚if;wdk‹onf

urBmhvl‹tcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;tydk'f 19/ 20 ESifh 21 wdk‹udk axmufcHumuG,f&ef
óud;yrf;tm;xkwf=ujcif;a=umifh ta&;,lcHae&jcif;jzpfygonf? xdk‹tjyif tydk'f 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11 ESifh 12
wdk‹ESifh qef‹usifI ‚if;wdk‹tm; udkifwG,fqufqHaeygonf?
7?
EkdifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;tcuftcJrsm;a=umifh twd'kuQa&mufae=u&onfh jynfoljynfom;wdk‹tm;
xyfrHIom 'kuQay;Ekdifaom yÉdyuQrsKd; &ifqkdifawG‹r_rsKd;ukd trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfESifh ‚if;tm;
axmufcHa=umif; &Sif;vif;pGmjyaeaom jynfolwdk‹u rvdkvm;=uyg? trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfonf 1988
ckESpfwGif pwifay:aygufvmonfrSpI aqG;aEG;aphpyfn‡dE_dif;jcif;jzifh em;vnfr_&,laom 'Drkdua&pDtpOftvm
rl oabmw&m;udk ckdif+rJpGm vufcHusifhoHk;cJhygonf?
8?
“vlom;wdk‹tm; ‚if;wdk‹. tcGifhta&;udk ray;bJ jiif;qdkaejcif;onf vlr_a&;/ EdkifiHa&;
rjidrfoufr_jzpfay:ap&ef
vrf;cif;ay;vdkufjcif;jzpfonf”
[laom
azmfjycsuf
cdkifvHkonfudk
'Drkdua&pDtpdk;&pepfodk‹ apmapmpD;pD; +idrf;csrf;pGm ul;ajymif;vdkolrsm;u vufcHtodtrSwfðy=uygonf?
xdk‹a=umifhvnf; vlr_a&;ESifh EkdifiHa&;r+idrfroufr_rsm;udk a&Smif&mS ;rnfh tajctaersm; ay:aygufvm&ef
OD;wnfI ‚if;wdk‹u óud;yrf;ae=ujcif;jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; vlrsm;pk. pdwfqENudk ±dkaoav;pm;&ef
tm%mydkifwdk‹u jiif;qefaeojzifh ,if;odk‹ óudf;yrf;tm;xkwfr_rsm;onf [ef‹wm;jcif; cHae&ygonf?
9?
jrefrmEdkifiHwGif vl‹tcGifhta&;jr‡ifhwifvdkolrsm; (txl;ojzifh EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;) taejzifh
‚if;wdk‹tay:wGif‚if;/ ‚if;wdk‹.rdom;pk odk‹r[kwf taygif;toif;tay:Y‚if; &efwHk‹jyefr_rsm; ðyvkyfvmrnfh
ab;tEW&m,fudk ra=umufr&GHŒ&bJ ‚if;wkd‹. t,ltqrsm;udk yGifhvif;pGm xkwfazmfEkdifaprnfh
tajctaersm;udk ukvor*~ vl‹tcGifhta&;aumfr&Siftaejzifh awmif;qdk&ef jzpfEkdifvdrfhrnf[k
ar#mfvifhygonf?
10?
vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;udk tmrcHrnfh EkdifiHa&;pepf&&Sd&ef óud;yrf;±kef;uef&mY atmifjrifr_&&ef ‚if;wdk‹.
udk,fydkifowWd/ ZJG/ vHk‹vESifh cHEkdif&nfpGrf;tm;rsm;udkom tm;udk;&rnfudk em;vnfoabmayguf=uaomfvnf;
jrefrmjynfoljynfom;wdk‹onf ‚if;wdk‹. w&m;r#waom OD;wnfcsufudk ukvor*~aumfr&Sifu
axmufcHrnf[k ar#mfvifhygonf?

8
jynfolvlxku vGwfvyfa&;udk vdkcsifonf
atmifqef;pk=unfonf ‚if;.aetdrfY txdef;odrf;rcH&rD 19 &uftvdkjzpfaom Zlvkdifv 1 &ufae‹ 1989 ckESpfY
at;&Sm;0dcf (AsiaWeek) rS a'grepfazgvf'g (Dominic Faulder) ESifh atmufygtwdkif; tar;tajz
vkyfxm;ygonf?

ar;?
ajz?

* * *
vuf&Sdtajctaeudk b,fvdk&Sdw,fvdk‹ qdkEkdifrvJ?
usru t"duypfrSwfjzpfaewm xif&Sm;ygw,f? 'Dvdkjzpfaewmvnf; tawmfav;=umyg+yD? 'gayrJh
tckawmh ajAmifvkyfvm+yDaygh? usrwdk‹udk jynfolawGu taxmufcHqHk;rdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹udk OD;wnf+yD;

wkdufcdkufae=uwmygyJ? usrwdk‹ +idrf+idrfav;xkdif+yD; apmifh=unfhae±HkeJ‹ ta&G;cH&rSm aocsmw,fvdk‹
wcsKdŒu xif=uygw,f? 'gayrJh tJ'Davmuf rvG,fygbl;? usrwdk‹rSm&SdwJh tajccH
EkdifiHa&;vkyfydkifcGifhawG[m wae‹+yD;wae‹ ydk+yD; qHk;±_H;ae&ygw,f? e0wtzJG‹ (EkdifiHawmf+idrf0yfydjym;r_
wnfaqmufa&;tzJG‹) [m usrwdk‹ wkdifxm;wJh rw&m;r_awG/ wzufowfusr_awG tm;vHk;udk
vHk;0*±krpdkufygbl;? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ b,fvdktrSefwu,fjzpfysufaew,fqdkwmudk usrwdk‹u
ajymae&wmyg?
ar;?
ajz?

a&G;aumufyJGpnf;rsOf;opfudk avhvm+yD;+yDvm;?
[kwfuJh/ usr aoaocsmcsm zwf=unfh+yD;yg+yD? t}uHOm%fawG wyHkwacgif; 0dkif;ay;xm;wmawGudk
eJeJav;awmif *±kpdkufwmr[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹uvnf; t}uHawGtrsm;}uD; ay;xm;ayr,fh
tm;vHk;udk vspfv#L±_xm;wm awG‹&ygw,f? tm%mvJ$ajymif;a&;eJ‹qdkifwJh txl;pnf;rsOf;awG
xnfhoGif;ay;bdk‹ usrwdk‹ ajymxm;wmawGudk vHk;vHk; razmfjyxm;ygbl;?

ar;?
ajz?

a&G;aumufyJGusif;yjzpfw,fqdk&if a&G;aumufyJG+yD;&if bmjzpfr,fxifygovJ?
usrwdk‹vnf; rodygbl;? 'gu jy\emygyJ? b,folyJ ta&G;cH&/ cH& tm%mtvJ$tajymif;rvkyfcif
yxrqHk; zJG‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'a&;qJG+yD; twnfðy&rSmjzpfygw,f? zGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk
b,fvdktwnfðy&r,fqdkwmudkvnf; ajymao;wmr[kwfygbl;? vlxkqENaumuf,lyJGvkyf+yD;awmh
twnfðy&rSmvnf; jzpfEkdifygw,f? 'Denf;uawmh ESpfeJ‹r[kwf&ifawmif veJ‹csD+yD; =umEkdifygw,f?
'ga=umifhrdk‹ tm%mvJ$ajymif;a&;qkdif&m pnf;rsOf;awG[m odyfta&;}uD;ygw,f? tm%mudk
b,fvdkvJ$ajymif;ay;r,fqdkwmudk usrwdk‹ rodrjcif; e0w u 'Drdkua&pDenf;vrf;t&
a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufxm;wJh tpdk;&udk zJG‹pnf;ay;r,fvdk‹qdkwmudk usrwdk‹ ,Hk=unfvdk‹
rjzpfao;ygbl;?

ar;?

'gayrJh
twdkuftcHawGtaeeJ‹uvnf;
zJG‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'rl=urf;tay:rSm
oabmwlcsufr&Edkifao;bJ jzpfaew,fr[kwfvm;?
ygwD (200) ausmf&Sdaeawmh vlwkdif;vufcHEkdifavmufwJh zJG‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk a&;qJGzdk‹qdkwmu
vG,fwJhudpP r[kwfygbl;? 'gtpm; e0w ua&m aqG;aEG;yJGawG rpEkdifbl;vm;? 'g[m
EkdifiHa&;jy\emawGudk EkdifiHa&;enf;eJ‹&Sif;wJh enf;vrf;jzpfygw,f? olwdk‹ raqG;aEG;Edkifao;wmu
OD;ae0if;u trdef‹ray;ao;vdk‹bJ jzpfr,fvdk‹ usr xifrdygw,f? e0w u b,foleJ‹aqG;aEG;wmudkrS
OD;ae0if; =um;csifr,f r[kwfygbl;? tJ'Dawmh e0w u olwdk‹udk wdkufaewJhygwDawGeJ‹
pum;rajymEkdifbl;/ rwdkufwJhygwDeJ‹yJ ajymr,fvdk‹ qdkvmjyefygw,f? tJ'gudk tpuawmh
bma=umifhrajym=uovJ? 'g[m qifajcoufoufygyJ? usrwdk‹u “e0w [m 'D[mawG
[dk[mawG rvkyfbl;? aus;Zl;ðyI vkyfzdk‹óud;pm;yg” vdk‹ ajym&ifawmif oem;p&maumif;vSwJh e0w
crsmrSm bmrS vkyfydkifcGifh&Sdwm r[kwfygbl;?

ajz?

ar;?
ajz?

oem;p&maumif;wJh e0wwJhvm;?
[kwfygw,f/ oem;p&maumif;wJh e0w ygyJ? b,ftzJG‹tpnf;yJjzpfjzpf tm%m&SifwOD;&JŒ =oZmcH
vHk;0jzpfae&if oem;p&mvdk‹ ajymEkdifygw,f? olckdif;wJhtwkdif; vkyf=uwmygyJ? OD;ae0if;u
tm%mudk óud;udkifaeor#awmh vGwfvyf+yD; w&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyJGqdkwmvnf; &SdEkdifr,f
rxifygbl;?

ar;?
ajz?

tm%mydkifawGu cifAsm;bufudk OD;wnfwdkufcdkufvmr,fvdk‹ xifovm;?
olwdk‹óud;pm;r,fxifygw,f? usrta=umif; r[kwfwmawG/ t"dy`m,fr&SdwmawG 0g'jzef‹zdk‹ olwdk‹
t+rJwrf; óud;pm;ae=uwmygyJ? usrrSm tdrfaxmifav;quf/ oHk;quf/ ESpfquf&Sdw,f
pojzifhayghav? aemufawmh usr[m uGefjrLepfvdk‹vnf; ajym=uw,f? wcsKdŒtodkif;t0dkif;rSmawmh
usru pDtkdifat vdk‹ qdkygw,f? usru Ak'<&Sifawmfudk apmfum;aeygw,fvdk‹ xif&Sm;ausmf=um;wJh
bkef;awmf}uD;awGu rdef‹qdkatmifvnf; olwdk‹ óud;pm;aewmygyJ? usr EkdifiHjcm;om;eJ‹
vufxyfxm;w,fvdk‹awmh olwdk‹ ajymEkdifygw,f? 'gudkvnf; usru &Sif;&Sif; 0efcHxm;wmygyJ?
zHk;uG,fzdk‹ óud;pm;aewmrSr[kwfbJ?

ar;?
ajz?

cifAsm;ajymwmudk jynfolvlxk em;axmifatmif vkyf&wm cufovm;?
rcufygbl;? jynfolvlxku vGwfvyfa&;udk vdkcsifwmyg? jy\emuawmh vlawG[m
a=umuf&GHŒxdwfvef‹wwfwJh tusifhawG pJGaeygw,f? ZGefv (19) &ufae‹ 1989 ckESpfu
EkdifiHjcm;"gwfyHkq&mwOD;[m usrudk "gwfyHk±dkufaewkef; taESmuft,SufcH&wJhtcgrSm olu
jyefajymawmh usreJ‹twl&SdwJh vlwcsKdŒ[m awmfawmf tHhtm;oifhoGm;=uygw,f? “tJ'Dvdk
vkyfwm[m vGwfvyfwJh vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;u vmwJhvlawGtzdk‹ yHkrSefyJjzpfw,f” qdkwmudk usru
&Sif;jy&ygw,f? a=umuf&GHŒw,fqdkwmuvnf; wjcm;tðytrlawGvdk tavhtxyJ jzpfygw,f?
a=umufa=umuf&GHŒ&GHŒeJ‹ aexdkifvm=uwm =umvm&if a=umufwwfvmwmygyJ? 'ga=umifhrdk‹ usrudk
vlawGu odyfowWdaumif;w,fvdk‹ ajym=uwm xifygw,f? usru a=umufvef‹ae&wJhtusifh
r&cJhvdk‹om jzpfrSmyg?

ar;?

cifAsm;[m EkdifiHa&;ðyjyifr_udk pD;yGm;a&;zHG‹òzd;r_xuf ydk+yD; OD;pm;ay;xm;ygvm;? e0w owfrSwfxm;wJh
a&G;aumufyJGrvkyfcif &Sd&r,fh tajctaeawGxJrSm ±kyfydkif;qkdif&m ºuG,f0r_[mvnf; wcktygt0if
jzpfw,fav?
usrajymwmu 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyJGuae vlawG tm±Hkajymif;oGm;atmif pD;yGm;a&;ðyjyifr_qdkwmrsKd;eJ‹
rqG,foifhbl;qdkwJhtcsufygyJ? EkdifiHa&;pepfudk usrwdk‹ rajymif;bl;qdk&if pD;yGm;a&;rSmvnf;
wdk;wufzHG‹òzd;rSm r[kwfygbl;? tajccHvl‹tcGifhta&;udk tmrcHcsuf ray;EkdifwJh tpdk;&[m
pD;yGm;a&;&m tcGifhta&;awGudk tmrrcHEdkifrSmuawmh aocsmygw,f?

ajz?

ar;?
ajz?

trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf tm%m&vm&if cifAsm; bmvkyfrvJ?
tpdk;&tzJG‹xJrSm usryg0ifvm&r,fvdk‹ xifygw,f? 'guvnf; usrvkyf&r,fh udpPwck
jzpfaeygw,f? aemufwufr,fh tpdk;&awmh oufomr,fr[kwfbl;vdk‹ usr ajymEkdifygw,f?
ESpfaygif; 26 ESpf/ 27 ESpfavmuf wdww
f qdwf 'kuQcHvmcJh=u&wJh jynfolawG[m
&ifzGifh=uawmhrSmygyJ?
vlwkdif;udk
auseyfr_ay;Edkifavmufatmif
jrefqefwJh
ðyjyifa&;vkyfief;awGudkvnf; b,ftpdk;&urS vkyfEkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? jynfolawGuawmh
aemufwufvmr,fh tpdk;&udk aumif;aumif;}uD; uoduatmufjzpfatmif vkyf=uawmhrSmygyJ?

9
EdkbJvfqk&Sifudk,fpm;ajymaomrdef‹cGef;
atmifqef;pk=unfudk 1991 ckESpf EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk csD;jr‡ifhaomtcgwGif rvma&mufEkdifojzifh olrudk,fpm;
om;}uD;jzpfol armifjrifhqef;atmif (Alexander Aris – tvufZENm;tJ&pf) u atmufygrdef‹cGef;udk
zwf=um;ygonf?

* * *
bk&ifrif;jrwf/ rdzk&m;}uD;/ tpdk;&tzJG‹0ifrsm;/ oHwrefrsm;ESifh trsKd;orD;/ trsKd;om;rsm;cifAsm;?
qkrsm;xJwGif
t}uD;tus,fqHk;aom
TEdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qkudk
usaemfhrdcif
a':atmifqef;pk=unfudk,fpm;
vufcH&ef
vl}uD;rif;rsm;a&SŒarSmufwGif
usaemf
,ae‹
a&muf&Sdaejcif;jzpfygonf? usaemfhrdcifonf tajctaeta=umif;rsm;a=umifh udk,fwkdifrvma&mufEkdifojzifh
olrtaejzifh xkwfazmfajymqdkrnfh cHpm;csuf[k usaemf ,Hk=unf,lqaom cHpm;r_rsm;udk azmfjyEkdif&ef usaemf
tpGrf;ukefóud;pm;ygrnf?
yxrOD;pGm olronf EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qkudk olrtaejzifhr[kwfbJ jrefrmjynfoljynfom;
tm;vHk;udk,fpm; vufcHa=umif;ajymqdkI pwifvdrfhrnf[k usaemf od&Sdem;vnfygonf? Tqkonf olrESifh
roufqkdifbJ usaemf ,ck pum;ajymaepOfYyif jrefrmjynf 'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;twGuf ‚if;wdk‹.
udk,fusKd;aumif;pm;r_/ udk,fydkifvGwfvyfr_ESifh toufwdk‹udk qufvuftepfemcHae=uaom trsKd;om;/
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odk‹aomfvnf; olr. om;taeESifh usaemf jznfhpGufajymvdkonfrSm olrudk,fwkdif pdwfa&mudk,fyg
jr‡KyfESHvkyfudkifjcif;/ udk,fwkdiftepfemcHjcif; ponfwdk‹a=umifh olronf jrefrmjynfoljynfom; tm;vHk;.
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csKdŒwJhEGrf;yg;ae=ujcif;/ tusOf;axmifxJwGif t±dkuftESufcH/ tESdyfpufcHae=u&jcif;/ jrefrmjynf.
ar#mfvifhcsufrsm;jzpfaom vli,fvl&G,frsm; ‚if;wdk‹xGuaf jy;&mawmxJY iSufzsm;rd+yD; 'kuQa&mufae=ujcif;/
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ajymtyfygonf? TuJhodk‹ tvGefa0;vHaom wkdif;jynfwGif rdrdwdk‹. 'kuQa0'em cHpm;ae&r_rsm;udk
em;pdkuf*±kðyaeaoma=umifh jrefrmjynfolwdk‹taejzifh ,ae‹ tenf;i,f acgif;armhEkdifrnf jzpfygonf?
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usaemf ,Hk=unfrdygonf? ,ae‹ atmfpvdkòrd‹wGif ðyvkyfaom Ttcrf;tem;udk wurBmvHk;wGif
usif;yaeaom urBmhvl‹tcGifhta&;ae‹Y usif;y&onfrSmvnf; ta=umif;&Sdygonf?

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orkdif;0ifqHk;jzwfcsufw&yf csrSwfum Tqk. ta&;ygyHkESifhywfoufaom taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;csKyf
yJ&pf'DuJGv,m; (Perez de Cueller) . xkwfjyefcsufudk óudqdk=u+yD; usaemfhrdcif vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf
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tvGef
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wudk,fwnf;uif;uGmI txD;usefaecJhaom &efukef tpdk;&xHrSom wckwnf;aom oabmxm;uJGvJGoHudk
=um;&ygonf? aemufususef&pf+yD; tm;enf;aeaom toHyifjzpf.?
("gwfyHkvmonf)
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rdcifudk,fpm; EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk vufcH&if; aus;Zl;wifpum;ajym=um;aepOf
(aqmif;yg;tqufvmonf)
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}uD;yGm;wdk;wufcJhaom jrefrma&$0gajronfvnf; pD;yGm;a&;wGif urBmhtqif;&JqHk; EkdifiHwEkdifiHb0odk‹
a&muf&SdoGm;&ygonf? =oZmtm%mudk xda&mufap&ef +cdrf;ajcmufr_/ a=umuf&GHŒr_/ zdESdyfr_/ rkef;wD;r_wdk‹udk
toHk;ðycJhaom tjcm;tm%m&Sifpepfrsm;. uH=urRmuJhodk‹ aemufqHk;wGif ‚if;wdk‹. uH=urRmvnf;
jzpfay:vmvdrfhrnfudk &efukef&Sd tm%mydkifwdk‹. twGif;pdwfxJY od&Sd=u&rnf jzpfygonf? vuf&Sd
jrefrmh'Drdkua&pDóud;yrf;r_wkdufyJG 1988 ckESpfu/ vrf;rrsm;ay:Y aygufuJGxGufay:vmjcif;onf ta&SŒOa&my/
tm&SESifh tmz&duwdk‹wGif ay:aygufvmrnfh tjynfjynfqdkif&m 'Drdkua&pD 'Da&v_dif;}uD;. yxrqHk;aom
v_yf&Sm;r_w&yfyif jzpfygonf? ,ae‹ 1991 ckESpfwGif jrefrmEkdifiHonf zdESdyfcsKyfcs,faom/ acgif;rmaom
EdkifiHawmf +idrf0yfydjym;r_ wnfaqmufa&;tzJG‹ vufatmufwGif qufvuf 'kuQcHae&ojzifh jrefrmEkdifiHonf
odomxif&Sm;aeygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; tjcm;EkdifiHrsm;wGif 'Drkdua&pDatmifyJGcHoGm;aom om"uonf
jrefrmjynfolwdk‹twGuf ta&;}uD;aom owif;yg;csufyifjzpfygonf? tm%m&Sifpepf pD;yGm;a&;onf vHk;0
pGrf;aqmifEkdifjcif; r&SdonfhtwGuf vuf&Sdtpdk;&onfvnf; usqHk;&rnf[laom ta=umif;=um;csuf
jzpfygonf? ,cktcgwGif jrifhwufaeaom aiGa=u;azmif;yGr_/ tvJGvJGtrSm;rSm;jzpfaeaom pD;yGm;a&;ESifh
wefzdk;r&Sdaom usyfaiGwdk‹ESifh &ifqdkifae&aom jrefrmtpdk;&onf rdrdwdk‹ ðyvkyfcJhonfhtwkdif;
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odk‹aomfvnf;
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qka=unmpOf EdkbJvfaumfrwDu azmfjyxm;onfhtwkdif; vl‹tajccH*±k%mw&m;t& yef=um;xm;onfudk
tm%m&tpdk;&u *±kðyrdaumif; ðyrdygvdrfhrnf? zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fI a=umuf&GHŒxdwfvef‹atmif ðyvkyfaeaom
vuf&Sdvrf;pOfrsm;onf
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csKd;azmufaejcif;jzpfonf[k ,lqum &GHrkef;aeolrsm;vnf; ppftpdk;&tzJG‹wGif yg&Sda=umif; usaemfodygonf?
TonfrSm tcsnf;ESD; udk,fvdk&mudk,fqJG+yD; awG;ac:jcif;r[kwfbJ usaemfhrdcifudk,fwkdif tm%mydkiftqifh&Sd
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rdom;pkrsm;om t"dutm;jzifh aexdkifaom rJqENe,fajrrsm;wGif olr. ygwD tEdkif&&SdonfrSmvnf;
Ttcsufudk xif&Sm;pGm om"ujyjcif;yif jzpfygonf? tm%mydkifrsm;xJrS ,if;odk‹ r#wvdkaom/

oifhjrwfvdkaom yk*~Kdvfrsm;u jrefrmjynf. tvdktyfqHk;aom tcsdefumvY ‚if;wdk‹. cHpm;csufrsm;udk
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usaemfhrdcifom ,ae‹ vGwfvyfaeygu vl}uD;rif;rsm;udk aus;Zl;wif&Sda=umif; ajymqdk&if;
zdESdyfolESifh zdESdyfcHae&olwdk‹onf ‚if;wdk‹. vufeufrsm;udk pGef‹ypfI twlwuG yl;aygif;um
+idrf;csrf;a&;pdwf"mwfESifh *±k%mw&m;wdk‹tay:wGif tajccHaom wkdif;jynfudk wnfaqmufapEkdif&eftwGufyg
qkawmif;ay;yg&ef vl}uD;rif;wdk‹tm; yef=um;rnf[k usaemf odygonf?
usaemfhrdciftm; 'Drkdua&pDtajymif;tvJrsm;udk +idrf;csrf;aomenf;vrf;jzifh &,lvdkaom
EkdifiHa&;twdkuftcH[k r=umc% xkwfazmfajymqdk a&;om;=uaomfvnf; olr óud;pm;&SmazGaeonfrSm
tajccHtm;jzifh pdwf"mwfa&;&m ajymif;vJr_jzpfonfudk usaemfwdk‹ owd&oifhygonf? “tppfrSefqHk;aom
awmfvSefa&;onf pdwf"mwfawmfvSefa&;jzpf+yD;” ,if;odk‹ óud;yrf;tm;xkwf&mwGif “vdktyfaom
pdwf"mwfa&;&m t"du&nfrSef;csufrsm;” ESifh ywfoufIvnf; olr. a&;om;xm;csufrsm; &Sdygonf? ,if;
pdwf"mwfawmfvSefa&;
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tjypfuif;pifvdkaom pdwfqEN/ tjypfuif;pif&ef enf;vrf;&SmEdkifaom todOm%fESifh ,if;enf;vrf;rsm;udk
vdkufemvdkaompdwf"mwf/ ,if;enf;vrf;udk tqHk;wkdif rvdkufEkdifonfhwkdifatmif rdrd. c|wf,Gif;csuf
tuef‹towfudk ausmfvGef&ef vdktyfaomtwkdif;twmtxd tenf;qHk; a&muf&Sdatmif óud;pm;vdkjcif;wdk‹
jzpfygonf”?
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olr.,Hk=unfr_ESifh qufpyf,l&mwGif “owW0gtaygif;wdk‹teuf vlom;ppfppfomv#if tqifhtjrifhqHk;
tajctaejzpfaom bk&m;tjzpfudk &&SdEkdifojzifh vlom;tm; tvGefwefzdk;xm;onfh jrefrmh±dk;&m
,Ofaus;r_tajccHjzpfaom Ak'<0g't& vlwkdif;onf rdrdqENt& óud;yrf;tm;xkwfjcif;jzifh opPmw&m;udk
odEkdifpGrf;&Sd+yD; olwyg;udk odap&eftwGufvnf; ulnDEkdifaom tvm;tvm&Sdonf” [k a&;om;xm;ygonf?
aemufqHk;wGif
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jynfolwdk‹u
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±kef;uefr_}uD;yif jzpfygonf? TonfrSm rdrdwdk‹. pdwf"mwfonf rdrd. obm0c|wf,Gif;csufrsm;tm;
ausmfvGefEdkifa=umif;udk
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tqufrjywf
óud;yrf;tm;xkwfaer_.
tpdwftydkif;wckyif jzpfygonf”[k a&;om;xm;ygonf?
aemfa0;wGif rdciftwGuf usaemfESifh usaemfhnDwdk‹ qkxl;}uD;udk vufcH=u&onfrSm Tt}udrfonf
'kwd,t}udrfyif jzpfygonf? ,refESpfuvnf; odka&mhzf&mzfwdk (Thorolf Rafto) vl‹tcGifhta&;qkudk
vufcH&ef bm*if (Bergen) odk‹ usaemfwdk‹ oGm;a&mufcJhygonf? ,ckESpftcrf;tem;. y%mryif
jzpfygonf? ,cktcg usaemfwdk‹wGif aemfa0;jynfolrsm;twGuf txl;cHpm;csufrsm; &Sdae=u+yD jzpfygonf?
r=umrDtwGif; usaemfwdk‹rdcifonfvnf; TcHpm;csufudk r#a0cHpm;Ekdif+yD; usaemfrSwqifh odk‹r[kwfbJ
rdrdudk,fwkdif wkduf±dkuf pum;ajymEkdifvdrfhrnf[k usaemf ar#mfvifhygonf? TtawmtwGif; olrESifh
jrefrmjynfoljynfom;wdk‹tm;
Todk‹
}uD;rm;xl;jcm;pGm
axmufcHjcif;onf
urBmhtpGefqHk;
qef‹usifbufae&mrsm;wGif aexdkifae=uaom jynfolESpf&yftm; ydkrdkeD;uyfatmif pkaygif;ay;&mus+yD;
,ckuJhodk‹ jzpfay:vmaom qufoG,fr_rS ajrmufjrm;pGmaom tusKd;qufrsm; ay:xGufvmrnf[k usaemf
,Hk=unfygonf?
vl}uD;rif;tm;vHk;udk usaemfhtaejzifh pdwfxJESvHk;xJrS aus;Zl;wif&Sda=umif; ajymvdkygonf?
,ae‹rSpI emusnf;csufrsm;/ tmCmwrsm; pwif ys,fajymufI jrefrmjynf +idrf;csrf;a&;&&Sd&mwGif 1991
EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qkonf orkdif;wGifrnfh ajcwvSrf;jzpfap&ef usaemfwdk‹ qkawmif;&/ ar#mfvifh&rnf

jzpfygonf? twdwf. oifcef;pmrsm;udk arhavsmhrnf r[kwfaomfvnf; tem*wf ar#mfvifhcsuftwGuf
usaemfwdk‹ ,ae‹ tcrf;tem; qif,ifusif;yjcif;yif jzpfygonf?

10
EdkbJvfaumfrwDodk‹ay;pm
56/ wuUodkvf&dyfomvrf;
&efukef
14 ar 1992
ygarmuQ vGef'Dpwuf&Sifh
1991 ckESpftwGuf EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk usrudk ay;tyf&efqHk;jzwfvdkufa=umif; usr yxr
=um;od&aomtcgwGif csufcsif;jzpfay:vmaom cHpm;csufrsm;rSm av;eufaom ed0gwpdwfESifh
txl;aus;Zl;wifpdwfwdk‹yif
jzpfygonf?
jrefrmEkdifiHwGif
'Drkdua&pD&&Sd&ef
óud;yrf;tm;xkwfwdkufyJG0ifae=uolrsm;. tepfemcHr_ESifh qif;&J'kuQcHr_rsm;a=umifhom usrudk Todk‹
*k%fðyjcif;jzpfonfudk usr od&Sd&ojzifh ed0gww&m; yGm;rsm;&jcif;jzpfygonf? Todk‹ óud;yrf;tm;xkwf
wkdufyJG0ifae=uonfudk vl}uD;rif;rsm;u todtrSwfðyjcif;jzifh 'Drkdua&pDwkdufyJGudk tvGeftzdk;wefvSaom
taxmuftulay;vdkufonfhtwGuf aus;Zl;wifpdwf ay:aygufvm&jcif; jzpfygonf?
usrwdk‹. pkaygif;óud;yrf;r_wGif yg0ifolrsm;tm;vHk;udk,fpm; Tqk}uD;udk vufcH&,la=umif;
usrom;}uD; tvufZENm; (jrifhqef;atmif) u ajym=um;cJhonfrSm usr. cHpm;csufudk wdwdusus
azmfjyjcif;yifjzpfygonf? usrwdk‹ jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;. ta&;udk *±kðya=umif; jyoonfhtwGuf usr
v_dufv_dufvJSvSJ aus;Zl;wifa=umif; ajymvdkygonf?
usr&&Sdaom qkaiGrsm;jzifh jrefrmjynfynma&;ESifh usef;rma&;b¾mxdef;tzJG‹ wnfaxmif&efvnf;
usrcifyGef; rdkufu,ftJ&pftm; ajym=um;xm;ygonf? usrudk,fwkdif ,if;b¾mxdef;tzJG‹udk tjynfht0
}uD;=uyfEkdifrnfh tcsdefumvrwdkifrjcif; Tb¾mxdef;vkyfief;ESifhqkdifaom Oya'a&;&mudpP&yftm;vHk;udk
usr cifyGef;tm; usrudk,fpm; aqmif&GufydkifcGifh ay;xm;ygonf?
usrtaeESifh
ajym&rnfqdkygu
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cspfcif&if;ESD;pGm aEG;axG;aom arwWmpdwfjzifh ajymoGm;onfudk =um;odvdkuf&onfhtwGufvnf; usr rsm;pGm
ESpfouf=unfEl;rdygonf? qkay;yJGtcrf;tem;udk =unfEl;zG,f&m/ rarhEkdifzG,f&m jzpf&yftaejzifh/ txl;ojzifh
wufa&muf=uaom
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ðyvkyfay;&ef/
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=um;&aomtcgwGifvnf; usr pdwfv_yf&Sm;&onftxd =unfEl;rdygonf?
aemfa0;EkdifiH&Sd
awmifapmufawmif=um;twGif;rS
yifv,fajrmifrsm;ta=umif;udk
usr
uav;b0wGif zwf±_&pOfuwnf;rSpI aemfa0;EkdifiHonf usrpdwftm±Hkudk txl;pJGaqmifcJhygonf?
usrudk,fwkdif wae‹wGif vma&mufI EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;a[majymyJGudk ðyvkyfEkdifrnfhtcsdeftcgudk
pdwftm;xufoefpGm apmifhar#mfaeygonf?
atmifqef;pk=unf

11
tjynfjynfqkdif&m vl‹tcGifhta&; Oya'tzJG‹rS ay;aom
qktwGufrdef‹cGef;
tjynfjynfqdkif&m vl‹tcGifhta&;Oya'tzJG‹rS csD;jr‡ifhaomqkudk vufcH&mwGif a':atmifqef;pk=unfa&;om;I
olrudk,fpm; om;}uD; tvufZENm; (jrifhqef;atmif) u 1992 arv 14 &ufae‹wGif 0g&Sifwefòrd‹awmfY
zwf=um;aom rdef‹cGef;jzpfygonf?

* * *
tjynfjynfqdkif&m vl‹tcGifhta&;Oya'tzJG‹rS ESppf OfcsD;jr‡ifhaom vl‹tcGifhta&;qkudk orw
yufx&D±_d-tvf0if (Patricio Aylwin) ESifhtwl wcsdefwcgxJ vufcH&,l&onfudk rsm;pGm*k%f,lrdygonf?
Tqkonf ,cktcgY jrefrmEkdifiHwGif tvGefta&;}uD;vSaom udpP&yfrsm;udk tm±Hkpl;pdkufvmap&ef
rD;armif;xdk;ouJhodk‹
jzpf&ygonf?
csDvDEkdifiH
orw}uD;onf
trSefw&m;ESifh
jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;w&m;wdk‹t=um;
ckdif+rJaom
qufpyfr_&SdaeyHkudk
wae‹wjcm;
vltrsm;
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acgif;aqmifwOD;yifjzpfygonf?
vSnfhjzm;r_/ rw&m;r_/ vl‹*k%foduQmudk rav;pm;r_wdk‹rS jzpfay:vmaom a=umuf&HGŒr_ESifh
oHo,jzpfr_wdk‹onf vl‹tcGifhta&;azmufzsufr_a=umifh uJGtufae&aom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;tay:Y
avmif;&dyfxdk;vsuf&Sdygonf? Todk‹aom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;wGif jzpfay:aeaom emusnf;csuf'%f&mrsm;udk
aysmufuif;atmif uko&mwGif jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;onf t"duyifjzpfygonf? Todk‹ðyvkyfEkdif&ef
wjynfvHk;. csrf;ajrŒom,ma&;udk yk*~vduESifh tkyfpkwdk‹. usOf;ajrmif;aom tusKd;pD;yGm;wdk‹xuf a&SŒwef;rS
xm;vdkaom jzLpifaomapwem &Sd&rnfjzpfygonf? wOD;ESifhwOD; ydkI tjyeftvSef ,Hk=unfpdwfcs&aom
tajctaevnf; &Sd&ef vdktyfygonf?
cg;oD;vSaom
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tcsdef=umjrifhpGm
jzpfyGm;+yD;aemuf
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jyefvnf,Hk=unfpdwfcsvmEkdifatmif jyefvnfðyvkyf&mwGif pdwfoabmuJGvJGr_ESifh aomu'kuQtaygif;udk
ay:aygufapaom tðytrlrsm;/ pdwfoabmxm;rsm;/ cHpm;csufrsm;udk "rR"dXmefusus trSefudk trSeftwdkif;
oHk;oyfqifjcif&ygvdrfhrnf? trSefw&m;udk &ifqkdif&aomtvkyfrSm rvG,fulvSyg? owWd&Sd&ef vdktyfygonf?
oef‹pifaomapwemESifh ±dk;ajzmifhaompdwfxm;rsm; arG;jrLjcif;tm;jzifh aemufqHk;wGif rvdkrkef;wD;r_ESifh
vdrfvnfr_wdk‹rS jzpfay:vmaom aysmufcJvSaomtusK;d qufrsm;udk atmifjrifpGm ausmfv$m;Ekdifrnf[k
,Hk=unfaom o'<gpdwfudkvnf; arG;&efvdkygonf?
trSefw&m;udk OD;wnfIvkyfudkif&ef vdktyfa=umif; vufcHvdkufjcif;onf ac|;odyfjcif;r#omjzpfaom
tay:,Ha=umoufouf
vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udk
ausmfvGefI
udk,fpdwfESvHk;yg
nDnGwfpGmjzifh
bHkjy\emrsm;udk ajz&Sif;Ekdifaprnfh ppfrSefaom jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;vrf;udk yGifhapEkdifygonf?
jrefrmEkdifiHwGif jynfoljynfom;rsm;onf EdkifiHa&;vkyfief;pOft&yf&yfwGif jynfh0pGm yg0ifqifEJ$ydkifcGifh
&Sd r&Sd/ vGwfvyfI w&m;r#waom a&G;aumufyJGrSwqifh jyocJhaom vlxkqENudk wu,fav;pm;r_ &Sd/ r&Sd?
w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;udk jr‡ifhwifjcif;jzifh‚if;/ vGwfvyfaomw&m;pD&ifa&; r¾Kdifwnfaxmifjcif;jzifh‚if;/
vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;udk xda&mufpGm tumtuG,af y;jcif; &Sd/ r&Sd ponfwdk‹udk urBmu ,ae‹
apmifh=unfhavhvmaeygonf?
trsKd;om;jyefvnfoifhjrwf aygif;pnf;nDnGwfoGm;aomtcgY jrefrmEkdifiHolEkdifiHom;wdk‹onf
vdkvm;tyfaom
tajymif;tvJrsm;udk
taumiftxnfazmfEdkifvdrfhrnf[k
usr
tpOft+rJ

,Hk=unfxm;ygonf? umv=um&SnfpGm cHpm;cJh=u&aom udk,fydkiftusKd;pD;yGm;udk cdkif+rJatmif umuG,f&ef
enf;y&d,m,frsm;xufydkI trSefw&m;ESifh em;vnfr_&&Sda&;udk wefzdk;xm;jcif;jzifh vdkvm;tyfaom
tajymif;tvJrsm; vsifjrefpGm jzpfajrmufEkdifvdrfhrnf[k usr ar#mfvifhygonf?
vl‹tcGifhta&; odk‹r[kwf 'Drdkua&pDta&;ESifh oufqkdifaom qkcsD;jr‡ifhjcif;cH&onf[k
od&Sd&onfhtcgwdkif;Y csufcsif;qdkovdkyif usr. tawG;rsm;onf rdrdwdk‹,Hk=unfcsufrsm;twGuf trsKd;rsKd;
tepfemcH=u/ pGef‹v$wfcJhaom &J&ifhwnf=unfvSonfh vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;xHodk‹ a&muf&SdoGm;wwfygonf?
rdrdwdk‹EdkifiH. uH=urRmudk rdrdwdk‹ qHk;jzwfydkifcGifh&&Sda&;twGuf óud;yrf;aeaom jynfolvlxkudkvnf;
tpOfrjywf
owd&vsuf&Sdygonf?
,ae‹
csD;jr‡ifhaomqkudk
jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;ESifh
vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;udk,fpm; aus;Zl;wifpGm vufcHygonf?
usr.
wkdif;jynfESifh
usrudk
TuJhodk‹
*k%fðyvkdufaom
tjynfjynfqkdif&m
vl‹tcGifhta&;Oya'tzJG‹. aqmif&Gufcsufrsm;udk vGefpGm av;pm;csD;rGrf;rdyga=umif; ajym=um;&if;
ed*Hk;csKyfvdkufygonf?
atmifqef;pk=unf
&efukef 12 arv 1992
12
pydeftdkvHypfrdef‹cGef;
atmufwGifazmfjyygpmpkonf 1992 ckESpf ZGefv 13 &ufae‹wGif pydefEkdifiHY tdkvHypfrD;±_; a&mufvmonfudk
óudqdkaomrdef‹cGef;jzpfygonf? ,Hk=unfcsufa=umifh jrefrmEkdifiHwGif txdef;odrf;cHae&ol 1991 ckESpf urBmh+idrf;csrf;a&;
EdkbJvfqk&Sif atmifqef;pk=unfu a&;om;I olrudk,fpm; om;}uD;jzpfol armifjrifhqef;atmif (tvufZENm;tJ&pf)
u tifyl&dtmpfY zwf=um;ygonf?

* * *
bmpDvdkemodk‹ ukef;wwef a&wwef ,laqmifvmcJh&aom tdkvHyD,mrS TrD;awmufrD;v#Honf
ppf&yfqkdif;aom
tvHozG,fjzpfygonf?
urBmt&yf&yfrS
trsKd;om;/
trsKd;orD;rsm;pk±Hk;um
+idrf;csrf;cspf=unfpGmjzifh wlnDaom0goemudk vdkufpm;avhusifhEkdif=uap&ef wdkufcdkufr_/ &efðyr_tzHkzHk
&yfqkdif;vdkufjcif;udk &nfn$ef;ygonf? tdkvHypftm;upm;yJGonf vlom;wdk‹ xl;c|efajymifajrmufa&;twGuf
óud;yrf;±kef;uefaom toGiftjyifw&yfudk azmfjyygonf? Todk‹aom óud;yrf;r_onf csrf;omokcESifh
qufEG,faeonf[k a&S;a[mif; *&dvlrsKd;rsm;u ±_jrifcJhonfhtav#muf ,ae‹tcrf;tem;onf
acwfaygif;rsm;pGmrSpI ,Ofaus;aom vlom;rsm; qGwfcl;&ef &SmazGcJhaom qk}uD;rsm;jzpfonfh +idrf;csrf;ESifh
csrf;omokcudk &nfpl;I usif;yonf[k qdkEdkifygonf?
um,pGrf;tm;udk Om%ESifh pdwWpGrf;tm;rsm;enf;wl vdrRmpGmynmOm%fjzifh ysKd;axmifjcif;udk
tav;ay;aom a&S;*&dwkdif;&if;om;wdk‹. trGefjrwfqHk; pHowfrSwfcsufonf tdkvHypfxHk;pH"avh. ZpfjrpfY
wnf&Sdygonf? um,/ Om%ESifh pdwWAvoHk;oG,f oifhjrwfnDnmpGm v_yf&Sm;ygu vlom;. pGrf;aqmifEkdifr_
abmife,ferdwfrsm; csJŒxGifEdkifa=umif;udk pHcsdefa[mif;rsm; tzefwvJvJusKd;I pHcsdefopfrsm; wifEkdifjcif;jzifh
oufaojyEkdifygonf?
ydkrdkoefpGrf;+yD; pGrf;&nfomaom tm;upm;orm;rsm; arG;xkwf&mwGif
acwfopfody`HynmudkrDS;aom ydkrdkaumif;rGefonfh avhusifhenf;rsm;ESifh usef;rma&;xdef;odrf;enf;rsm;.

tcef;u¾ t"duusonfrSm rSefygonf? odk‹aomf aemufqHk;Y tEkdifrcH t±_H;ray;pdwf"mwfonfom
tdkvHypfol&Jaumif;udk atmifyJGo&zlaqmif;ay;Ekdifygonf?
yef;wkdifodk‹a&mufcgeD;wGif tpGrf;ukef tm;oGefI t}udwfte,f vHk;yrf;&I emusifvmonfudk
avsmhyg;oGm;atmif rnfuJhodk‹ avhusifhygoenf;[k a&$wHqdyf& tajy;orm;wOD; tar;cH&zl;ygonf? ‚if;.
tajzum;emusifr_onf
rnfonfhtcgwGifrS
ravsmhoGm;cJhyg?
emusifvsuf
qufvuftm;pdkufoGm;Ekdif&efudkom
avhusifhxm;&ygonf?
b0ZmwfcHkay:rSmuJhodk‹yif
tm;upm;uGif;Yvnf; vlom;wdk‹onf rdrdwdk‹. pGrf;aqmifEdkifr_pHcsdefudk wdk;jr‡ifhvdkygu cHEdkif&nfarG;um rdrd.
tm;enf;csufrsm;udk ausmfvGef&ef rdrdudk,fwkdif jyefvnfvHk;yrf;&ygonf?
tusKd;tjrwfESifh
ausmfv$m;r_udk
ar#mfrSef;um
vlom;onf
tqrwef}uD;rm;aom
tcuftcJtwm;tqD;rsm;udk tHwk&ef óud;yrf;tm;xkwf=u&ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; tusKd;tjrwfudk
rpOf;pm;bJ pdefac:r_udk twwfEkdifqHk;/ taumif;qHk; &ifqkdifrnf[laom pdwf"mwfuomv#if
yuwdjynfhpHkaom atmifjrifr_udk &apEkdifygonf? ppfrSefaom tm;upm;pdwf"mwfudk uav;wOD;u
jyocJhygonf? rdrdxuf rsm;pGm}uD;olrsm;ESifh twlajy;yJG0ifcJh+yD; pdwfrav#mhbJ ,SOfòydifcJh&m tm;vHk;.aemufrS
yef;wkdifodk‹ a&mufaomtcgY atmifyJGcHaomavoHjzifh “usaemf aemufqHk;uEkdifw,f” [k
a=unmvdkufygonf? pdwftm;xufoefpGm ajy;cJhaom òydifyJGY ±_H;edrfhjcif; r&SdEkdifyg?
ppfjzpfyGm;cJhaomEkdifiHrsm;
jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;twGuf
acwfopftdkvHypfudk
wnfaxmifcJhjcif;jzpfygonf? urBmhtxl;c|efqHk; tm;upm;orm;rsm; t}udwfte,f òydifqkdif=uaomfvnf;
oduQm&SdI rdwfjzpfaqGjzpf pdwf"mwfv$rf;rdk;aom òydifyJGwGif yg0ifqifEJ$=uaomtcgY e,ferdwfowfrSwfcsuf/
ta&SŒ/ taemuf/ vlrsKd;ESifh Zmwdqkdif&m jcm;em;r_rsm; r&Sdawmha=umif; jyojcif;jzifh +idrf;csrf;aom EkdifiHwum
o[Zmw&&Sda&;udk tm;ay;Ekdifvdrfhrnf[laom ar#mfvifhcsuf qufvuf&Sifoefaernfjzpfygonf?
odk‹aomfvnf; usrwdk‹ urBmonf ,ckwkdif b,m/ avmb/ a'go/ arm[ wnf;[laom
wHwkdif;}uD;rsm;jzifh ydkif;jcm;xm;jcif; cHae&ygonf? vlom;wdk‹onf rdrdwdk‹udk xdcdkufysufpD;apI rdrdwdk‹
qufvuf&Sifoefa&;twGufyif tEW&m,fðyrnfh tiftm;rsm;udk wGef;vSefwdkufcdkufjcif;r&SdbJ tcsif;csif;
òydifqkdifwdkufcdkufaeaoma=umifh urBmay:wGif 'kuQyifv,fa0aeygonf? usOf;ajrmif;I t&mra&mufaom
pdwf"mwfrsm;udk z,f&Sm;I +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;wdk‹udk toufoGif;ay;rnfh pdwf"mwfrsm;
TurBmY ay:aygufvm&efrSm vGefpGmvdktyfaeygonf?
("gwfyHkvmonf)
tdkvHypfrD;±_; pydefEdkifiHodk‹ a&muf&Sdvmonfudk óudqdkaom atmifqef;pk=unf.
rdef‹cGef;tm; om;}uD; tvufZENm; (jrifhqef;atmif) u
1992 ckESpf ZGefv 13 &ufae‹Y zwf=um;aepOf
(aqmif;yg;tqufjyefvmonf)
arG;&myg t&nftaoG;rsm;udk txl;c|efqHk;tqifhwkdif zHG‹òzd;apEdkifrnfh b0rsKd;twGuf
pdwftcs&qHk;aom tajccHtkwfjrpfrSm +idrf;csrf;a&;yif jzpfygonf? zdESdyfr_a=umifh ydjym;pdwf+idrfaejcif;/
wzufowf w,loeftawG;tac:rsm; ydkufzufxm;onfh acgif;aqmifydkif;Y ya,m*a=umifh rv_yfr&Sm;
+idrfoufaeonfh pdwftajctae[lonfh o±kyfysuftwkta,mif +idrf;csrf;a&;rsKd;udk qdkvdkonfr[kwfyg?
w&m;r#wr_/ *±k%mpdwf/ nDnmoifhjrwfr_/ yk*~vdu vGwfvyfr_/ trsm;jynfol xdef;odrf;tyfaom
pnf;rsOf;rsm;twdkif; &Sdoifh&Sdxdkufaom nDr#r_/ rdrdEkdifiHtay: xm;tyfaom wm0efodpdwfESifh
tjynfjynfqkdif&m todtjrifem;vnfr_rsm;udk r#watmifjrifatmif ðyvkyfr_ ponfwdk‹tay:wGif
tajccHaom +idrf;csrf;a&;rsKd;udk qdkvdkygonf?

tdkvHypfrD;±_;wdkifonf trGefjrwfqHk;aom pHxm;csufESifh &nfrSef;csufrsm; jyefvnfqef;opfr_ESifh
pdwf"mwfjyefvnfoef‹pifjrifhrm;apr_wdk‹. oauFwjzpfygonf? aemufwv=umaomtcgwGif ESpfaygif;
ESpfaxmifausmfu vlom;wdk‹. óud;yrf;tm;xkwfr_udk *k%fðyonfhtaejzifh pwifusif;ycJhaom
tm;upm;yJGawmf}uD;udk Tae&mY acwfopftoGifjzifh usi;f yygawmhrnf? 1992 ckESpf tdkvHypfyJGawmf}uD;Y
EkdifiHwumtm;upm;pdwf"mwfrsm;ESifh tjynfjynfqkdif&m em;vnfr_pdwf"mwfrsm; tjrifhqHk;tqifhodk‹
a&mufEkdifygap[k qkrGefaumif;ydk‹ovdkufygonf? wcsdefwnf;wGif +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh csrf;omokc&&Sda&;[laom
ydkrdkus,fjyef‹onfh ±kef;uefr_}uD;Yvnf; urBmolurBmom;tm;vHk; atmifyJGo&zlaqmif;Ekdif=uygap[lonfh
tvGefwefzdk;xm;&ygaom ar#mfvifhcsufudk azmfjyvdkuf&ygonf?
atmifqef;pk=unf
&efukef
8-6-1992
13
ppfrSefaom vHkòcH&modk‹
tXrajrmuf ‘*|dKufpf yDtmpf’ txdrf;trSwfa[majymyJGwGif atmifqef;pk=unf udk,fpm; a'gufwmrdkufu,ftJ&pfu
1993 ckESpf ar 19 &ufae‹ atmufpzdk‹'fwuUodkvfY zwf=um;aompmwrf;?

* * *
1993 ckESpf ‘*|Kdufpf yDtmpf’ txdrf;trSwfa[majymyJGY a[majym&ef ta=umif;=um;vmaomtcg
usr rsm;pGm*k%f,lrdygonf? ‘rpPfyDtmpf’ . vlr_a&;vkyfief;rsm;ta=umif;udk =um;odcJh&onfh
twdwfumvrsm;/ txl;ojzifh usrtm; =uifemr_/ ulnDapmifha&Smufr_ ponfwdk‹udk oGefoifjyoay;cJhonfh
cspfcif&if;ESD;&aom ‘av'Dyufx&pf&Sm *dk;bGwfof’ ESifh ‚if;.cifyGef; uG,fvGefol ‘aygvf’ wdk‹xHrS
=um;od&onfh twdwfumvrsm;udk jyefvnfowd&rdojzifh aEG;axG;aom arwWm"gwfudk cHpm;rdygonf?
Ta[majymyJGudk ‘tJvDZbuf bk&ifraqmif’ u urux ðyvkyfI usif;yrnf[k od&ojzifhvnf;
usrtaeESifh txl;ESpfouf =unfEl;rdygonf? Tae&mYyif usronf ESD;aESmzvS,fyJGrsm;/ a[majymyJGrsm;udk
wufa&mufI tusKd;jzpfxGef;aom tcsdefumvrsm;udk jzwfoef;cJh&+yD;/ urBmt&yf&yfrS yk*~Kdvfrsm;ESifhvnf;
awG‹qHkcJh&ygonf? atmufpzdk‹'fwuUodkvf. aygif;oif;qufqHr_/ wnf+idrfat;jrr_ESifh awG;ac:ajrmfjrifr_wdk‹udk
awG‹óuHcJh&onfh
,if;tcsdefumvrsm;udk
usr
jyefvnfowd&rdygonf?
xkd‹a=umifh
‘'kuQonfavhvma&;tpDtpOf’ ESifh ‘*|KdufpfyDtmpf txdrf;trSwf ESpfvnfa[majymyJGaumfrwD’ wdk‹tm;
usrudk zdwfac:onfhtwGufwifomrubJ/ ‚if;wdk‹. zdwf=um;r_a=umifh ESpfouf=unfEl;zG,f&m
twdwfumvrsm;udk jyefvnfowd&rdonfhtwGufyg aus;Zl;wifrdygonf?
‘*|KdufpfyDtmpf’ onf tcsdef&Sdor#/ pGrf;&nf&Sdor# 'kuQonfrsm;twGuf aqmif&GufcJhojzifh
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awG;rdygonf? 'kuQonfjy\emESifhywfoufI y&dowfrsm;taeESifh aumif;pGmod&Sd+yD; jzpfaernf[k
xifygonf? usrtaeESifh Tta=umif;t&mESifhoufqkdifaom aemufqHk;wdk;wufjzpfxGef;r_rsm;udk
tenf;i,fr#xuf ydkI od&SdEkdifaom tajctaewGif r&Sdojzifh Tta=umif;t&mudk udkifwG,f&ef
wGef‹qkwfrdygonf?

odk‹aomfvnf; usr qufI pOf;pm;rdonfrSm refugee [laom toHk;tE_ef;udk
jrefrmjyefvdkufaomtcg ‘'kuQonf’ wenf;tm;jzifh ‘'kuQcHpm;ae&ol’ [k t"dy`m,faygufygonf?
Toabmtwkdif;om qdkygu 'kuQonfb0udk usrwkd‹tm;vHk; rvJGraoG od&Sd&rnfjzpfygonf?
b0&yfwnfr_. tESpfom&wefzdk;udkay;aom/ vHkòcHr_ESifh udk,fpdwfESpfjzmcsrf;omr_wdk‹udk csKd;zJhzsufqD;onfh
tiftm;pkrsm;. ab;&efrS uif;a0;vHkòcHa&;udk &SmazGae=uaom 'kuQonfrsm;yif jzpf=uygonf?
zsufqD;rnfhtiftm;pkrsm;udk od&SdrSomv#if rnfodk‹rnfyHk tumtuG,f,l&rnf[laom tajzudk
awG‹Ekdifrnfjzpfygonf? urBmwcGifvHk;udk wkefv_yfajcmufjcm; pdwfxdckdufoGm;aponfh vlodrsm;vSaom
twd'kuQqdk;}uD;rsm;onf tao;tr$m;udpPuav;rsm;uyif pwifavh&Sd=uygonf? xdkudpPuav;rsm;onf
ae‹pOfESifhtr# óuHawG‹&onfh avmuD'kuQrsm;xJwGif tusKH;0ifaom/ csKyfxdef;xm;Ekdifonfh udk,fa&;udk,fwm
pdwfqif;&Jr_uav;rsm;ESifh rjcm;em;vSyg? vlom;. zefwD;r_a=umifh jzpfay:&aom ab;'kuQqdk;}uD;rsm;onf
(acgr'¾m&DyHkjyifyg) e*g;rif;. tpG,frsm;rS aygufzGm;vmaom ppfonfrsm;uJhodk‹ wr[kwfjcif;
tifwkduftm;wkduf xGufay:vmcJhjcif; r[kwfyg? yHkjyifxJYyifv#if e*g;pG,frsm;udk vlom;wOD;u &atmif,lI
yuwd±dk;om;tjypfrJhonf[k rqdkEkdifaom &nf&G,fcsufESifh yx0Dajr}uD;ay:wGif pdkufysKd;xm;cJhjcif;jzpfygonf?
obm0ta=umif;oufoufa=umifh ay:aygufvm&jcif;r[kwfaom 'kuQqdk;}uD;rsm;onf jzpf±dk;jzpfpOf[k
trsm;u owfrSwfxm;=uaom vlom;wdk‹. csKdŒ,Gif;csufwdk‹Y jrpfzsm;cHygonf?
TcsKdŒ,Gif;csufwdk‹onf ae&mwumwGif &Sd&efvdktyfygoavm/ ae&mwkdif;wGif&Sdonf[k qdkI
a&m*gydk;r$m;rsm;udk rwm;qD;bJ xm;ygu tumtuG,fr&SdolESifh tm;enf;olwdk‹om 'kuQa&muf=u&rnfudk
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vlom;taeESifh aomuuif;a0; vHkòcHa&;udk vdkcsifawmifhw=uonfrSm vHk;0 oabmusvSygonf?
tv#Hy,fºuG,f0aom ±kyf0wˆKypPnf;rsm;jzifh rdrdudk,frdrd ywf0kdif;I tm;jznfhxm;jcif;jzifh vHkòcHr_&&Sdrnf
r[kwfonfrSm cdkifrmaom oufaoom"ursm;&Sdygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; vlaygif;rsm;pGmwdk‹onf
±kyf0wˆKypPnf;rsm; pkpnf;EkdifrSomv#if vHkòcHr_udk tmrcHay;Ekdifrnfhtvm; ðyrlae=uonfrSm 0rf;enf;p&myif
jzpfygonf? urBmhvHkòcHa&;udk ,ae‹ t}uD;tus,f tEW&m,fðyaeonfrSm tqif;&JqHk;EdkifiHrsm;.
pD;yGm;a&;csKdŒwJhr_
r[kwfyg?
vl‹avmu.
trsKd;rsKd;aom
ZmwdpdwfESifh
vdkvm;csufwdk‹udk

aphpyfzsefajzay;Ekdifaom oabmw&m;ESifh usifhpOfrsm;udk *±krpdkufbJ/ ESdyfuGufzsufqD;xm;aom
ae&ma'orsm;wGif jyif;xefpGmjzpfay:aeonfh bmoma&;/ vlrsKd;a&;ESifh EdkifiHa&;oabmxm; uJGvJGr_rsm;u
tEW&m,fðyaejcif;yif jzpfygonf? v$rf;rdk;}uD;pdk;ae=uaom yk*~Kdvfrsm;ESifh tkyfpkrsm;u ‚if;wdk‹ pdwful;,Of&m
tkyfpktusKd;pD;yGm;xuf ydkIvkyfaqmif&ef jiif;qefae=uI vlr_ab;'kuQqdk;}uD;rsm; jzpfay:vm&ygonf?
iwfrGwfacgif;yg;r_udk umuG,fonfh taumif;qHk;enf;rSm wm0efodwwfaom tpdk;&&Sd&efyif jzpfonf[k
xif&Sm;aom
zHG‹òzd;r_qkdif&m
abm*aA'ynm&SifwOD;u
qdkzl;ygonf?
ulnDaxmufyHhr_udk
xda&mufatmifjrifjcif;r&Sdatmif ðyvkyfaeaom tajctaersm;u ajymif;vJ&ef róud;pm;bJ
ulnDaxmufyHhaejcif;onf EkdifiHa&;t&‚if;/ pD;yGm;a&;t&‚if; rSefuefaomvkyf&yf[k rajymEkdifoavmufyif
jzpfygonf? ±kyf0wˆKypPnf;rsm;ESifh twwfynmrsm; rnfr#yif ay;urf;apumrl vlom;. wm0efrJhr_/ csKdŒ,Gif;r_/
raumif;r_ ponfwdk‹rS ay:aygufvm&aom qdk;oGrf;onfh tusKd;qufrsm;udk ausmfv$m;z,f&Sm;Ekdifrnf
r[kwfyg?
tedrfhqHk;jzpfaom w&m;r#wr_ESifh onf;cHcGifhv$wfr_wdk‹udk xdef;odrf;xm;onfh wefzkd;xm;r_pepfrS
vJGacsmfoGm;aom vrf;pOfrsm;a=umifh wkd;wufonfh EkdifiHrsm;a&m zHG‹òzd;pEkdifiHrsm;yg 'kuQa&muf=u&ygonf?
qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpka[mif; vsifjrefpGm òyduJGI vlrsKd;a&;udk t"duOD;pm;ay;=uonfh EdkifiHtrsm;tjym;
yg0ifaom wkdif;EkdifiHopfrsm; ay:xGufvmjcif;onf ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm tm%m&SifpepfESifh tkyfcsKyfjcif;jzifh
wlnDr_ESifh emcHr_udk &EkdifzG,f&m&Sdaomfvnf; a&&Snfat;csrf;om,mr_ odk‹r[kwf wnf+idrfr_udkrl r&Edkifa=umif;
jyo&ma&mufygonf? “tm%m&SifacwfvGefpepf” udk tawmfav; atmifjrifpGm usifhoHk;cJhaom
,l*dkpvm;AD;,m;
EdkifiHwGifvnf;
±kyfydkif;qdkif&m
tusKd;cHpm;r_rsm;onf
orkdif;tawG‹tóuHrS
arG;xkwfvdkufaom pdwfydkif;qkdif&m rESpfòrd‹zG,f cHpm;csufrsm;ukd yaysmufatmif rðyvkyfEkdifojzifh ,cktcgwGif
‘abmfvuef’ a'oY tqdk;0g;qHk;aom bmoma&;/ vlrsKd;a&; t=urf;zufr_rsm;ESifh óuHawG‹ae&jcif;yif
jzpfygonf?
+idrf;csrf;r_/
wnf+idrfr_ESifh
pnf;vHk;nDnGwfr_wdk‹udk
a&$aiGypPnf;rsm;ay;I‚if;/
twif;t"rRðyvkyfI‚if; &&SdEkdifrnf r[kwfyg? olwyg;. t,ltqESifh tcGifhta&;wdk‹udk ±dkaoav;pm;I
vl‹vdktyfcsufudk pmemod&SdEkdif&ef ðypkysKd;axmifay;jcif;jzifhom +idrf;csrf;wnf+idrfr_ESifh pnf;vHk;nDnGwfr_udk
&Ekdifrnfjzpfygonf? ckdifrmaom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;ay:aygufa&;wGif uJGjym;r_ESifh t,ltq rwlr_wdk‹u
wm;qD;aejcif;r[kwfbJ/ aysmhaysmif;r_r&Sdjcif;/ tjrifusOf;ajrmif;jcif;/ ±kyfydkif;qdkif&mudkom OD;pm;ay;jcif;/
ponfwdk‹uom ,if;vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;. &Sifoefwkd;wufr_udk [ef‹wm;aejcif;jzpfygonf? olwyg;u
vlom;wOD;uJhodk‹
ðyrlqufqHyg&ef
awmif;qdkvmonfudk
ysufjy,fatmif
ðyvkyf&mwGif
rdrdESifhuJGjym;onf[laom tcsufwcsufudkom vHkavmufaom ta=umif;jycsuf[k cH,lonftxd
pdwfoabmxm;rsm; rma=umcGifh &vmaomtcgrl acwfopf,Ofaus;r_wdk‹. tqifwefqmwdk‹onfvnf;
xdwfvef‹p&m t&Sdeft[kefjzifh a=urGysufpD;&ayawmhonf?
urBmay:wGif tEW&m,ftrsm;qHk; &ifqkdifae&aom a'orsm;Y onf;cHcGifhv$wfr_/ =uifemoem;r_ESifh
vHkòcHr_
ponfwdk‹
uG,faysmuf+yD;
pm;oHk;ukefypPnf;rsm;
tvGefyifavsmhenf;oGm;aomfvnf;
ppfvufeufypPnf;rsm;rSmrl aygrsm;aeqJjzpfygonf? TonfrSm wefzdk;xm;r_pepfwckvHk; uajymif;ujyef
jzpfoGm;jcif;yif jzpfygonf? vlu zefwD;vdkufaom trkef;yGm;r_/ aoG;xGufoH,dkr_ESifh vlr_pD;yGm;a&;
upOfhuvsm;jzpfr_rsm;rS vGwfajrmufEkdifrnfh wckwnf;aomenf;vrf;rSm oufqkdifoltm;vHk; pka0; aqG;aEG;
aphpyf nd‡E_dif;I +idrf;csrf;aomenf;jzifh tajz&Sm&efyifjzpfa=umif;/ od&Sd em;vnf oabmayguf
vmaomtcsdeftcgYrl qifjcifwHkw&m;udk jyefvnfusifhoHk;&ef rvG,fulawmhaom tajctaeodk‹
a&muf&Sdae+yD; jzpfygawmhonf? rw&m;r_udk w&m;0ifatmif jyXmef;I Oya'udk ysuf&,fðyum
vlr_pD;yGm;a&;ESifh EkdifiHa&;rnDr#r_wdk‹udk oufqdk;&Snfaponfh pepfrsm;u yHkoGif;ay;vdkufolwdk‹onf
*dk%f;*%tkyfpk tusKd;xuf w&m;r#wa&;ESifh trsm; om,m0ajyma&;udk ydkI OD;pm;ay;aom r#wonfh

oabmwlnDcsuf[laom t,ltqudk jrefqefpGm nd‡Ed_if;vufcHjcif; rðyEkdif=uyg? odk‹r[kwf – vHk;0
vufrcHEkdif=uyg?
ppfat;acwfwGif &ufpufaom tpdk;&rsm;ESifh vufeufudkiftkyfpkwdk‹. rw&m;r_rsm;udk
obm0w&m;a&;&m ta=umif;rsm;a=umifh cGifhv$wfxm;cJh=uygonf? xdk‹a=umifh ay:xGufvmaom
&v'frsm;rSm auseyfzG,f&mr&Sdyg? ,cktcgwGif w&m;r#wr_ESifh vl‹tcGifhta&;udk t"duxm;
tav;ay;vmaomfvnf; EdkifiHa&;ESifh pD;yGm;a&; (txl;ojzifh pD;yGm;a&;) tjrwf&r_udkom
xdyfwef;wifvdkonfh yk*~Kdvfrsm; &SdaeqJyif jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; umv=um&SnfpGm
ºuG,f0csrf;omvmcJhaom vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;wGifvnf; vlr_a&;a&m*g}uD;rsm; pJGuyfae=uI tem*wftwGuf
&ifav;ae=u&ygonf? csrf;omp EkdifiHrsm;uvnf; ‚if;wdk‹. OpPm"etawmfrsm;rsm;udk vufeufESifh
ppfwyftwGuf toHk;ðyae=uyHk &ygonf? xdk‹a=umifh ydkI csrf;omºuG,f0jcif;ESifh ydkI
+idrf;csrf;om,mjcif;wdk‹onf tajccH obm0tm;jzifh tquftoG,f r&SdonfrSm &Sif;vSygonf?
vl‹avmuwckvHk; om,m=unfEl;a&;twGuf csrf;omºuG,f0r_ESifh +idrf;csrf;r_ ESpfckpvHk; vdktyfygonf?
csrf;omºuG,f0r_u udk,fqif;&Jjcif;udk pdwfoufomapI +idrf;csrf;r_u pdwfwnf+idrf at;csrf;jcif;udk
jzpfay:apygonf? TESpfcsufudk tnDtr# OD;pm;ay;aom vrf;pOfrsm;onfomv#if udk,fpdwfcsrf;omr_udk
cHpm;Ekdifrnfh avmuudk jzpfay:apEkdifygonf? pD;yGm;a&;wdk;wufatmif óud;yrf;&mwGif tjrifusOf;ajrmif;r_ESifh
vlrqefr_wdk‹udk tvG,fwul jzpfay:apaom avmbtEW&m,fudk owd&Sd=u&ef vdktyfygonf? rdrd.
aysmf&$ifr_udk jr‡ifhwifonfhtaeESifh olwyg;. aysmf&$ifr_udk vufcHóudqdkaom pdwfoabmxm;}uD;r_udk
jynfolrsm;ESifh wkdif;EkdifiHrsm;u ðypkysKd;axmifay;Ekdifygu rajz&Sif;Ekdif[k xif&aom jy\emwdk‹onf
cufcJvSawmhrnf r[kwfyg?
±kyfydkif;qkdif&m taxmuftulrSefor# qHk;±_H;cJh&olwdk‹wGif tm;udk;tm;xm;ðyp&m[lI rdrdwdk‹.
,Ofaus;r_ESifh
pdwfydkif;qkdif&m
wefzdk;xm;r_"avhom
usefawmha=umif;udk
'kuQonfrsm;ESifh
qufqHvkyfudkifolrsm; todqHk;jzpfygonf? bdk;bGm;pOfquf ,Hk=unfvufcHvmcJh=uaom o'<gw&m;/
*±k%mw&m;wdk‹rS aygufzGm;vmaom a0iSay;urf;vdkpdwfrsm;a=umifh/ tdk;rJhtdrfrJhjzpfae&ol qif;&Jom;uyif
rdrd. &SdpkrJhpk &duQmav;udk tv#Hy,fºuG,f0oluJhodk‹ olwyg;tm; =unfEl;pGm ay;urf;jcif;rsm;vnf; &Sdygonf?
wzef udk,fusKd;udkom t"duxm;onfh obm0udk =umjrifhpGm arG;jrLtm;ay;I ay:aygufvmaom tbdZÆm
Asmyg' pdwfrsm;. v_H‹aqmfr_a=umifh 'kuQonftcsif;csif;xHrSyif cdk;0Sufvk,uf=uonfrsm;yif &Sdygonf?
pifppfrSmrl urBmh'kuQonftrsm;pkonf vlrqefr_ESifh ynmOm%fuif;rJhr_a=umifh jzpfay:vm&aom
rcHomawmhonfh tajctaersm;rS uif;vGwf&m vHkòcH&mudk &Smae=uolrsm;jzpfygonf?
arwWmw&m;/
qifjcifwHkw&m;ESifh
w&m;r#wr_}uD;pdk;aom
vl‹tzJG‹tpnf;udk
pdwful;,Ofar#mfrSef;cJh=uonfrSm vl‹,Ofaus;r_oufwrf;wav#mufvHk;yif jzpfygonf? Tar#mfvifhcsufonf
pdwful;,Oftdyfruf jzpf&rnfavm/ 'kuQrsm;ajrmif Tvl‹abmifudk t+rJwrf; taumif;bufrSjrifaom
‘umvfayghyg;’ u tarSmifonf ,cifuwnf;u &SdaecJhaomfvnf; tvif;a&mif ay:aygufvmonfrSm
r=umao;[k qdkygonf? ay:xGef;pjzpfaom tvif;a&mifudk w,kw, =unfh±_apmifha&Smuf&rnf jzpfygonf?
tao;i,fqHk;aom tvif;a&mifudkyif urBmwcGifvHk;&Sd tarSmifxku uG,faysmufatmif rvkyfEkdifyg?
tarSmif[lonfrSm vHk;0uif;rJhjcif;oabmudk aqmifygonf? tarSmif[lonfrSm tvif;a&mifr&Sdjcif;om
jzpfygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; ao;i,faom tvif;a&mifonf us,fjyef‹pGm 0dkif;&Hxm;aom tarSmifxkudk
ròzdcGif;Ekdifyg? Ttvif;a&mifav; ydkrdk xGef;vif;awmufyvmEkdif&eftwGuf tm;aumif;&ef vdktyfygonf?
Ttvif;a&mifudk cspfjrwfEdk;vmEkdif&eftwGuf 'kuQa0'em[k oabmrxm;bJ aumif;r_r*Fvmtjzpf
ESvHk;oGif;I usifhom;&atmif=unfhzdk‹ vdktyfygonf? urBmay:wGif rSDwif;aexkdifol tm;vHk;tm; vHkòcHr_
tvHktavmufay;Ekdifaom ydkrdkxGef;vif;onfh urBmavmuudk usrwdk‹ tvGefyif vdktyfvsuf&Sdygonf?

(a':atmifqef;pk=unf "gwfyHkvmygonf?)
(pmrsufESmwckvHk; wif&rnfacgif;pOf)

tydkif;-c
1988 =o*kwfvrS 1989 Zlvkdifvtxd
ajym=um;cJhaom
rdef‹cGef;ESifh owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGrsm;
14
a&$wd*kHapwDawmf taemufrkcf vlxkpnf;a0;yJG
&efukefòrd‹Y =o*kwfv 26 &uf 1988 ckESpfwGif ajym=um;onf?

* * *
&[ef;&Sifvl jynfolvlxktaygif;wdk‹/ tck vlxktpnf;ta0;yJG}uD;[m jynfolvlxk&JŒ qENudk
wurBmvHk;uodap&ef xkwfazmfjyovdkufwmygyJ? tJh'Dawmh 'Dvlxk tpnf;ta0;yJG}uD;rSm jynfolvlxk[m
pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ nDnDnGwfnGwf quf+yD; vkyfoGm;=uyg&ap? tck 'Dtpnf;ta0;yJG}uD; wem&DeD;yg;
aemufuswmudkvnf; usr awmif;yefygw,f? 'DudkvmwJhtcgrSm vrf; tifrwef ydwfaewma=umifhrdk‹vdk‹
ra&mufvmEdkifcJhjcif;jzpfygw,f?
'Duae‹ usif;ywJh tpnf;ta0;}uD;uawmh jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;[m ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepfudk
&csifaewJhqEN jyif;jyaewma=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usif;y&wJh tpnf;ta0;}uD;jzpfygw,f? tck tpnf;ta0;yJG}uD;
jzpfEkdifwJhtajctaeudk
b,folawGup+yD;
OD;aqmifwmvJqdkawmh
Armjynfu
ausmif;ol/
ausmif;om;taygif;
jzpfygw,f?
'Dausmif;olausmif;om;taygif;&JŒ
OD;aqmifr_a=umifh
'Dausmif;olausmif;om;taygif;[m
touftaocH+yD;
OD;aqmifay;wma=umifhrdk‹
usrwdk‹
'Dvdktpnf;ta0;}uD;vkyfEkdifwJh tajctaea&mufcJhygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ toufaysmufoGm;wJh
ausmif;olausmif;om;tm;vHk;udk wrdepfcef‹ *k%fðy+yD;aemuf tr#a0wJhtaeeJ‹ tm;vHk; wdwfwdwfqdwfqdwf
+idrf+idrf wrdepfcef‹ aeapcsifygw,f?
tcrf;tem;rª;. toH (usqHk;oGm;aom ausmif;om;rsm;udk tav;ðyaomtm;jzifh wrdepf
+idrfoufyg&ef arwWm&yfcHygonf cifAsm;)
tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if tm;vHk; 'DrSma&mufaewJh vlxky&dowf}uD;[m 'Drdkua&pDpepfudk ar#mfrSef;+yD;awmh
'DrSma&mufaew,fvdk‹ xifygw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'Drdkua&pDyef;wdkifudk a&mufzdk‹&mrSm vlxktm;vHk;u
pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk;/ nDnDnGwfnGwf/ pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ csDwufrSyJ a&mufEdkifrSmyg?

("gwfyHkrsm; vmygonf)
tay: - armifaomfu (OD;baomf-uG,fvGef)/ atmifqef;pk=unfESifh cifoDwmxGef;
=o*kwfv 24 &uf 1988 ckESpfY &efukefaq;±Hk}uD;a&SŒwGif rdef‹cGef;ajym=um;pOf
atmuf - 1988 ckESpf =o*kwfv 26 &uf a&$wd*HkapwDawmfY rdef‹cGef;ajym=um;pOf
(rdef‹cGef;tqufvmygonf)
'DudpPrSm usr tcef;u¾udkvnf; eJeJ&Sif;jyyg&ap? bmjzpfvdk‹vJqdkawmh vltaygif;u
usrta=umif; odyf+yD;awmh rod=uygbl;? rod=uwJhtcgusawmh odcsifwJhqENawGvnf; &Sdygw,f? 'guvnf;
rSefwJhtwdkif;ygyJ? odawmhvnf; odxdkufygw,f? tJh'Dawmh wcsKdŒuvnf; ajym=uw,f? usr[m EdkifiHjcm;rSm
aew,f? EkdifiHjcm;om;eJ‹ tdrfaxmifusaew,f? ArmjynfEkdifiHa&;ta=umif; bmodovJvdk‹ ajym=uygw,f?
yxr usr 'Duaep+yD;awmh jynfolvlxkeJ‹ yGifhyGifhvif;vif; qufqHyg&ap? usr EkdifiHjcm;rSm
aecJhw,fqdkwmvnf; rSefygw,f? EdkifiHjcm;om;eJ‹ tdrfaxmifusw,fqdkwmvnf; rSefygw,f? 'gayr,fh
'gav;twGufa=umifheJ‹ usr wkdif;jynftay:rSmxm;wJh arwWm[m b,fvdkeJ‹rS usqif;roGm;Ekdifygbl;?
aemufwck ajymcsifwmuawmh usr[m ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;ta=umif; bmrS em;rvnfbl;wJh?
wu,fawmh em;vnfvGef;vdk‹ cufaewmyJ? ArmEdkifiHa&; b,favmuf±_yfaxG;w,f/ 'D±_yfaxG;r_'%fudk azaz
b,favmufcHcJh&w,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ rdom;pk todqHk;ygyJ? azaz[m pdwfyef;udk,fyef;eJ‹ 'DEkdifiHa&;udk
vkyfaqmifvmwm[m
bmtusKd;pnf;pdrfrS
rcHpm;cJh&ygbl;?
'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹vnf;
vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;wJhtcgusvdk‹&Sd&if xyf+yD;awmh tm%mvkwJh EdkifiHa&;rsKd;udk qufrvkyfbl;qdkwm azaz
twdtvif; ajymoGm;ygw,f?
'Dvdk ajymoGm;wmrsKd;a=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrvnf; EkdifiHa&;avmueJ‹ a0;a0;uif;uif; aecsifygw,f?
tJh'Dvdk a0;a0;uif;uif; aecsifcJhvsufom;eJ‹ tckrS 'Dta&;tcif;rSm yg0ifaeovJvdk‹ ar;p&m&Sdygw,f?
tJh'D[muawmh 'Dta&;tcif;[m wwdkif;jynfvHk;eJ‹qdkifwJh ta&;tcif;jzpfaeygw,f? usrrSmvnf;
azazh&JŒorD;vkyf+yD;awmh acgif;a&Smif+yD;awmh aevdk‹rjzpfawmhbl;? 'Dta&;tcif;[m wu,fawmh
'kwd,vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyJG}uD;vdk‹ ac:&ifvnf; jzpfygw,f? 'Drdkua&pDvGwfvyfa&;udk wrsKd;om;vHk;
vdkcsifwJhqEN jyif;jyvGef;vdk‹ jzpfay:vmwJh wdkufyJG}uD; jzpfygw,f?
'Drdkua&pDeJ‹ywfouf&if azazajymcJhwJh tcsufuav;wckudk usr zwfjycsifygw,f?
'Dtcsufuawmh “usaemfwdk‹[m 'Drdkua&pD0g'udo
k m acwfpm;atmifvkyf&r,f? tJh'D 0g'rsKd;t&om
vGwfvyfwJh ArmEkdifiH xlaxmifEkdifatmif óud;pm;&r,f? 'grsKd;rvkyfEkdif&if usaemfwdk‹jrefrmjynfu
vlawGvnf; epfemr,f? usaemfwdk‹jynfudkvnf; urBmu =unfhaevdk‹ r&wJhwae‹ *syefeJ‹ *smr%D 0dkif;+yD;
tESdrfcH&ovdk tESdrfcH&r,fqdkwmudk owd&Sd=u&r,f? 'Drdkua&pD0g'uom vGwfvyfa&;eJ‹ qDavsmfw,f? 'D
0g'om +idrf;csrf;a&;udk tm;ay;w,f” tJh'g[m azazajymcJhwJh pum;awGyg?
("gwfyHkvmygonf)
1988 ckESpf =o*kwfv 26 &ufae‹ a&$wd*HkapwDawmfY rdef‹cGef;ajym=um;pOf
(rdef‹cGef;tqufvmygonf)
'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usr[m usr&JŒtaz tpOftvmtwdkif; 'Drdkua&pD vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyJGudk
0ifvdk‹EJ$cJh&ygw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'Drkdua&pD&zdk‹&ef jynfolvlxktm;vHk; pnf;vHk;nDnGwzf dk‹ vdkygw,f? nDnGwf&if
bmrqdk jzpfEkdifygw,f? rnDnGwf&if bmrS rwwfEkdifbl;?

jynfolvlxk[m nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ‹ r&SdEkdifvkd‹&Sd&if b,f0g'yJjzpfjzpf wkdif;jynfudk tusKd;ray;Ekdifbl;?
tJh'D[mudk tm;vHk;pJGrSwfxm;zdk‹ vdkygw,f? pnf;urf;r&Sdvdk‹&Sd&ifvnf; b,f0g'rS ratmifEkdifygbl;? tJh'Dawmh
usrwdk‹ wkdif;oljynfom;awG[m nDnGwfzdk‹/ pnf;urf;&Sdzdk‹ t+rJvdkygw,f?
'DnDnGwfzdk‹ta=umif;awG
ajymaewkef;rSm
usrwdk‹
wckyJajymcsifygw,f?
,ck
usrajymoGm;wJhpum;awGxJrSm wcsKdŒuvnf; oabmusr,fhpum;vnf; ygr,f/ rusr,fh pum;awGvnf;
ygr,f? 'gayr,fh usrtaeeJ‹uawmh jynfolvlxkudk rSefrSefuefuefajymoifhw,fvdk‹ ,Hk=unfw,f?
usrpdwfxJrSm&Sdovdk rSefrSefuefuef ajymoGm;rSmyJ? óuduf&ifvnf; axmufcH=uyg/ róuduf&ifvnf;
usrpdwfxJrSm rSefwJhtwdkif;vkyfwmyJ? róudufwmawmh b,fvdkrS rwwfEkdifbl;? usr wckajymcsifwm[m
tcktcsdefrSm wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfolvlxkt=um;xJrSm pdwf0rf;uJGae=uygw,f? 'Dpdwf0rf;uJGr_}uD;[m
aemifwkdif;jynftwGuf tEW&m,ftrsKd;rsKd; jzpfEdkifygw,f? Armhwyfrawmfqdkwm usrtaz ðypkysKd;axmifcJhwJh
wyfrawmfyg?
azaz ðypkysKd;axmifcJhwJh wyfrawmfqdkwm pum;t&om r[kwfygbl;? tppftrSefygyJ?
azazudk,fwkdif ca&aphwGif;us atmufajcuaep+yD;awmh 'Dwyfrawmfudk b,fvdkxlaxmif&r,fqdkwm
ol‹vufa&;eJ‹ a&;xm;wJh pm&Gufpmwrf;awGvnf; &Sdygw,f? azazu wyfrawmftwGuf
bm&nfrSef;csufawG &SdcJhovJ? tJh'D &nfrSef;csufwckavmuf usr zwfjyyg&ap?
“'Dwyfrawmf[m 'DEdkifiH/ 'DvlrsKd;twGuf/ 'DvlrsKd;awG udk;uG,f&m/ vJavsmif;&m/ qnf;uyf&mqdkwJh
taersKd;
jzpf&r,f?
'Dvdkr[kwfbJ
wyfrawmfu
EkdifiHol/
EkdifiHom;awG&JŒ
pdwfxJrSm
atmhESvHk;emp&mjzpfr,fqdk&if 'Dwyfrawmfudk wnfaxmifxm;wJh &nf&G,fcsufawG[m tvum;
jzpfoGm;awmhrSmyJ?”
usr rSefrSefyJ ajymyg&ap? usr[m wyfrawmftay:rSm tifrwef oHa,mZOf}uD;ygw,f?
azazwnfaxmifcJhwJh
wyfrawmfvnf;jzpfw,f?
usrwdk‹qdkwmvnf;
i,fi,fuwnf;u
&JabmfawGvufxJrSm
}uD;vmwmygyJ?
jynfolvlxk}uD;uvnf;
azazhtay:rSm
tifrwef
arwWm&Sdw,fqdkwm usr odygw,f? 'DarwWmawGtwGufvnf; usr tifrwef aus;Zl;wifygw,f?
azazðypkysKd;axmifcJhwJh wyfrawmfeJ‹ azazhtay:rSm tifrwefarwWm&SdwJh vlxk}uD;xJrSm yÉdyuQ
rjzpfapcsifygbl;? wyfrawmfom;awGudkvnf; usr 'DuaeyJ arwWm&yfcHyg&ap? vlxktm;udk;EkdifwJh
wyfrawmf}uD;jzpfygap?
wkdif;jynf&JŒ
*k%foduQmudk
xdef;odrf;EdkifwJh
wyfrawmf}uD;jzpfygap?
jynfolvlxkuvnf;
jzpf+yD;cJhwJh[mawGudk
óud;pm;cGifhv$wf+yD;awmh
wyfrawmftay:rSm
arwWmrysufygapeJ‹vdk‹ awmif;yefyg&ap? usrwdk‹tm;vHk;[m nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ‹ qufvufoGm;rSom
wnfwHhckdif+rJwJh
jynfaxmifpkyef;wkdif}uD;udk
a&mufEdkifrSmyg?
tck
ra&mufao;ygbl;?
'Drdkua&pDyef;wdkifudkawmif ra&mufao;ygbl;? ra&mufcifu uJGuJGjym;jym; r&SdygeJ‹? tm;vHk;
wnDwnGwfwnf; 'Drdkua&pDyef;wdkifudk OD;wnf+yD;awmh csDwufoGm;=uyg? tJh'Dvdk csDwufoGm;wJhae&mrSm
+idrf;csrf;wJhenf;vrf;udk oHk;apcsifygw,f? vlrsKd;wrsKd;[m EdkifiHol/ EdkifiHom;taygif;wdk‹[m pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹/
+idrf;csrf;wJhenf;awGeJ‹ udk,fvdkwJhqENawGudk jznfhpGrf;Ekdifw,fqdkwm tifrwef*k%foduQmeJ‹jynfhpHkwJh
tðytrljzpfygw,f?
'Dv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;udk OD;aqmifcJhwJh ausmif;om;awGeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ usr ajymp&mav;awG&Sdygw,f?
ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m tifrwefrS awmfygw,f? olwdk‹&JŒ vuf±Hk;&nfudkvnf; jy+yD;yg+yD/ tckvnf;
quf+yD;awmh olwdk‹&JŒ ESvHk;&nfudk jyr,fqdkwm usr ,Hk=unfygw,f?
'Dausmif;om;rsm;udkvnf; tcsif;csif; nDnn
D GwfnGwfeJ‹ quf+yD; vufwJGoGm;zdk‹ usr
arwWm&yfcHcsifygw,f?
tckqdk&if
ausmif;om;awGxJrSmvnf;
tzJG‹tpnf;awG
&Sd=uygw,f?
'DtzJG‹tpnf;awG[m tm;vHk;pk±Hk;+yD;awmh wnDwnGwfwnf; jzpfoGm;apcsifygw,f? tJh'D[mtwGufvnf;

ausmif;om;nDvmcHwck ac:r,fvdk‹ usr =um;aeygw,f? 'DnDvmcH}uD; jzpfay:wJhtcgus&if
ausmif;om;awGtm;vHk; wpkwpnf;wnf;jzpfoGm;ygapvdk‹ usr qkawmif;vdkufygw,f?
ausmif;om;av;awGu usrudk ar;=uw,f? usr&JŒaemufrSm b,fEkdifiHa&;orm;rsm; &SdaeovJ/
'DEkdifiHa&;orm;awG[m usrudk óud;qJG+yD;awmh olwdk‹udk eif;oGm;rSm pdk;&drfw,fvdk‹ ajym=uygw,f? tJ'Dvdk
yGifhyGifhvif;vif;ajymwm usr tifrwef0rf;omw,f? ausmif;om;vli,frsm; tifrwef yGifhvif;w,f?
oG,f0dkufwJh pum;awG rajymwwfbl;? usruvnf; rSefwJhtwdkif;yJ jyef+yD;awmh ajymvdkufygw,f?
usraemufrSm b,fEkdifiHa&;orm;rS r&Sdygbl;? usr tckvkyfaewJh vkyfief;[mawmh jynfolvlxkvdkcsifwJh
'Drdkua&pDjzpfajrmufa&; vkyfief;ygyJ? 'Drdkua&pD jzpfajrmufa&;twGufudk 0dkif;+yD;awmh ulnDcsifygw,fqdkwJh
EdkifiHa&;orm;a[mif;}uD;awG &Sdygw,f? tJh'D EdkifiHa&;orm;a[mif;}uD;awGudk usruawmh &Sif;&Sif;yJ
ajymxm;ygw,f? 'DvdkulnDvdk‹ aemif EkdifiHa&;tjrwfxkwfr,fqdk&if usr vHk;vHk;raxmufcHbl;qdkwm
tckuwnf;u usr ajymxm;ygw,f?
jynfolvlxka&SŒrSm usr jyef+yD;awmh ajymygr,f? 'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;twGuf 0dkif;0ef;ulnDwJh
EdkifiHa&;orm;}uD;awG[m aemifEdkifiHa&;tjrwfxkwfzdk‹ óud;yrf;&if usrudk,fwkdif wuf+yD;awmh 'Dvl}uD;awGudk
±_wfcsay;yghr,f?
aemufwckuawmh usrwdk‹wdkif;jynfrSm vl}uD;eJ‹vli,f =um;xJrSm uGJuGmr_awG &Sdygw,f?
tJh'DuJGuGmr_awGudkvnf; ajz&Sif;zdk‹vdkygw,f? vli,fawGu vli,fawG/ vl}uD;awGu vl}uD;awG qdkwJh
pdwfxm;awG jzpfaeygw,f? jynfolvlxk&JŒ tiftm;[m wae‹xufwae‹ }uD;vmyg+yD? 'Dvdk}uD;vmvdk‹vnf;
ydk+yD;awmh pnf;eJ‹urf;eJ‹ xdef;zdk‹vdkygw,f? pnf;r&SdwJh tiftm;/ trSefw&m;eJ‹ rudkufnDwJh tiftm;qdkwm
b,fawmhrS aumif;usKd; ray;Ekdifygbl;?
trsm;twGufyg tEW&m,fjzpfEkdifygw,f? tJh'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ trSefw&m;eJ‹ udkufnDwJh pGrf;tm;udkyJ
quf+yD;awmh oHk;=uyg? trSefw&m;eJ‹ rudkufnDwJh pGrf;tm;udk roHk;ygeJ‹? tckvlxkbufuae
tm;}uD;aewJhtcsdefrSm tm;i,fwJh tpkt0dkif;udkvnf; EdkifhxufpD;eif; rvkyf=uygeJ‹? 'Dvdk
EkdifhxufpD;eif;vkyfwm[m tusifhraumif;ygbl;? jynfolvlxk&JΠ*k%foduQmudkvnf; usqif;apygvdrfhr,f?
jynfolvlxkbufuae+yD;awmh cGifhv$wfEkdifwJh oabmxm;&Sdw,fqdkwmudk uGufuGufuGif;uGif; xifay:ygap?
tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹[m tm;vHk; jynfolvlxktaygif;u bmudk vdkvm;aeovJqdkwm pOf;pm;vdkufvdk‹&Sd&if
t"dutcsufuawmh ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepfudk vdkvm;ae=uygw,f? wygwDpepfudk ðzwfcscsif=uygw,f?
aemuf tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if orw a'gufwmarmifarmif[m vlxkqENcH,lyJGusif;yzdk‹/ rusif;yzdk‹
nDvmcHac:r,fvdk‹ qdkygw,f? usrtaeeJ‹ ajym&&ifawmh 'DvlxkqENcH,lyJG[m rvdkawmhygbl;?
wwdkif;jynfvHk;&JΠqEN[m uGufuGufuGif;uGif; ay:aeyg+yD? tm;vHk;[m ygvDref 'Drdkua&pDpepfudkyJ
vdkvm;aew,fqdkwm tifrwefrS ay:vGifaeyg+yD? 'Dpepfudk tjrefqHk;jzpfay:vmEkdifzdk‹ vkyfay;zdk‹[m ,ck
tm%mydkiftpdk;&awG&JΠwm0efjzpfygw,f?
yef;wdkifudk
ra&mufao;bl;qdkwm
rarh=uyge‹J ?
'Drkdua&pD&wJh
tcgusvdk‹&Sd&if
b,fvdkjynfaxmifpk}uD;udk wnfwHhckdif+rJatmif b,fvdkvkyf&r,fqdkwmudk pOf;pm;xm;=uygOD;? wkdif;jynf&JŒ
tem*wfudk a&SŒ±_=uyg? wkdif;jynf&JŒ tem*wfudk rawG;vdk‹&Sd&if tckvufiif; jzpfay:vmwJh
ðyjyifajymif;vJr_awGuvnf; udk,fhwkdif;jynfudk tusKd;ay;EkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? tJh'Dawmh azazajymcJhovdk
usrwdk‹ EdkifiHol/ EkdifiHom;rsm;[m pnf;urf;±dkaozdk‹/ nDnGwfzdk‹qdkwmudk b,fESpfcgyJajymajym ajymvdk‹udk
rukefEdkifatmif ajym&r,fhudpP}uD;wck jzpfaeygw,f?
tck usrwdk‹[m vlxkqENcH,lyJG}udD; rvdkawmhygbl;? ygwDpHk 'Drkdua&pDpepfudkyJ vdkvm;ygw,f?
'D[mudk jrefjrefjzpfatmif vkyfay;=uyg? 'D[m jzpfay:vmatmifvdk‹ w&m;r#wwJh/ oef‹&Sif;wJh
a&G;aumufyJGudkvnf; jrefjrefqefqef jzpfEkdifatmif vkyfay;=uyg? 'D oef‹&Sif;wJh/ w&m;r#wwJh
a&G;aumufyJGawG
jzpfEkdifzdk‹
tajctaeudkvnf;
zefwD;ay;zdk‹vdkygw,f?
tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if

jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;[m vuf&Sdtpdk;&tay:rSm t,Hkt=unf tifrwefrS ysufaew,f? tJh'Dawmh[m
oef‹&Sif;pif=u,fwJh/ w&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyJG jzpfay:vmzdk‹ta&;udk tu,fIrsm; b,fvdkjzpfatmif
vkyf&rvJ/ vkyfay;zdk‹&m aumif;ygw,f?
t"du&nf&G,fcsufuawmh 'Dtpdk;&vnf; r[kwfbl;/ =um;jzwftpdk;&vnf; r[kwfbl;/
aemuftpdk;&vnf; r[kwfbl;? jynfaxmifpk}uD; wnfwHhckdif+rJ om,m0ajyma&;twGuf vkyfay;EkdifwJh
tpdk;&ygyJ? 'Dt"duudpPtay:rSm rsufajcrjywfygapeJ‹? wkdif;jynf&JŒ tem*wfta&;udk rarhygeJ‹?
arhoGm;vdk‹&Sd&if tck&&SdwJh atmifjrifr_[m aemifus qHk;±_H;r_ jzpfoGm;Ekdifygw,f? tck usrwdk‹
b,ftajctaerSm a&mufae+yDvJ/ yef;wdkifudk uGufuGufuGif;uGif; jrifaeyg+yD? jrifaewJh yef;wdkifudk tm;vHk;
vufwJG+yD;awmh csDwufoGm;=uygpdk‹/ pdwf0rf;ruJG=uygeJ‹? ausmif;om;av;awGbufu txl; pdwf0rf;ruJGzdk‹
vdkygw,f? ausmif;om;av;awGudk pdwf0rf;uJGatmifvnf; xdk;qGray;=uygeJ‹? ausmif;om;av;awG[m
wkdif;jynf&JΠtem*wf acgif;aqmifay;r,fh vli,fav;awG jzpf=uygw,f? 'Dausmif;om;av;awG&JΠpdwf"mwf
usatmifvkyfvdkufr,fqdk&if aemif wkdif;jynf nDnGwfa&;twGufvnf; xdyg;oGm;ygvdrfhr,f?
nDnGwfa&;ta=umif; ajymaewJhtcsdefrSm jynfaxmifpkta=umif; c%avmuf ajymvdkufyg&ap?
vlrsKd;pkawGtm;vHk;[m nDnGwfzdk‹ vdkygw,f? tck vlrsm;pk/ vlrsm;pkuawmh jrefrmvlrsKd;awG jzpfygw,f?
vlrsm;pk jrefrmawG[m vlenf;pkawGjzpfwJh wkdif;&if;om;awGeJ‹ pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk;jzpfzdk‹ tvGefóud;pm;zdk‹
vdkygw,f? ukd,fu tm;&SdaewJhvl/ udk,fu tm;rsm;aewJhvlrdk‹vdk‹ ydk+yD;awmh óud;pm;zdk‹vdkygw,f?
tm;rsm;aewJhvlqdkwm tm;enf;aewJhvludk tpOft+rJav#mh+yD;awmh n‡may;zdk‹vdkygw,f? tJh'Dae&mrSm
'DwygwDpepfudk axmufcHaewJhvlawGeJ‹ ywfoufvdk‹vnf; usr wckajymyg&ap? ygwD0ifaygif;
tajrmuftjrm;
'DygwDtay:rSm
t,Hkt=unfr&Sdawmhbl;qdkwm
usr
odygw,f?
t,Hkt=unfr&Sdawmhvdk‹&Sd&ifvnf; 'DygwDu xGufvdkuf=uyg? ygwD0ifu'fjym;awGvnf; jyeftyfvdkuf=uyg?
'gayr,hfvnf; olwdk‹&JŒ t,Hkt=unft& ygwD0iftaeeJ‹ quf+yD; xrf;aqmifaewJh vlawGudkvnf;
tEW&m,frðy=uygeJ‹? 'Drdkua&pDqdkwm rm;rm;rwfrwf udk,fh,Hk=unfcsufudk,f&SdEkdifwJh pepfrsKd; jzpfygw,f?
olwdk‹u quf+yD;,Hk=unfr,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if tEW&m,frðy=uygeJ‹? udk,fhbmom udk,fvdkcsifwJh yef;wdkifudkom
nDnDnGwfnGwfwufyg? udk,fu tm;}uD;aevdk‹ tm;enf;wJhvludk jyef+yD; uvJhpm;acswJhudpPrsKd;
rjzpfay:ygapeJ‹? tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹rSef;xm;wJh tcsdefxuf trsm;}uD; tcsdefvGefoGm;yg+yD? tJh'Dawmh usr
pOf;pm;xm;wmxuf eJeJ ydk+yD;awmh twdkcsKH;+yD;awmh ajym&r,fh tajctaersKd; jzpfaeyg+yD? 'Dtpnf;ta0;yJGudk
aemufqHk; usr ajymcsifwmuawmh usrwdk‹vlxk[m nDnGwfzdk‹ vdkygw,f/ pnf;urf;&Sdzdk‹ vdkygw,f?
trSefw&m;eJ‹ udkufnDwJhpGrf;tm;udk quf+yD;oHk;oGm;zdk‹ vdkygw,f? tJh'Dvdk oHk;oGm;rSom usrwdk‹vdkwJh
yef;wdkifudk a&mufEdkifygw,f? tJh'Dawmh usr tEl;tnGwf jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;udk awmif;yefyg&ap?
jynfolvlxktm;vHk; nDnGwf=uygap? pnf;urf;&Sdygap? trSefw&m;eJ‹udkufnDwJh vlrsKd;w&yfjzpfygap?
jynfolvlxktm;vHk;
ab;b,mtjzmjzmrS
a0;uGm=uygap?
aemufqHk;taeeJ‹
usrwdk‹&JŒ
aºuG;a=umfoHuawmh
* qENcH,lyJG rvdkr&Sd
* wygwDpepf zsufodrf;ypf
* ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepf wnfaqmuf=u
* w&m;r#waoma&G;aumufyJG tjrefqHk; usif;yay; qdkwJh aºuG;a=umfoHygyJ?

tcrf;tem;rª;
jynfolvlxk}uD;cifAsm;/ tck a':atmifqef;pk=unf tqdkðycsuftay:rSm usaemfwdk‹
vlxktpnf;ta0;yJG}uD; tqHk;tjzwfudk cH,lzdk‹ jzpfygw,f?
tqdkðycsuf (1)
jrefrmEkdifiHw0Srf;vHk;&Sd ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;ESifhwuG vlxkvlwef;pm;aygif;pHkyg0ifI tzrf;cH
aoG;ajruscH+yD; wygwDpepf zsufodrf;a&;eJ‹ ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepf wnfaqmufa&;wdk‹udk wcJeuf
qENðycJh=u+yDjzpfI xdkudpPtwGuf vlxkqENcH,lyJG usif;yðyvkyfay;&ef rvdktyfawmh+yDjzpfa=umif;
a':atmifqef;pk=unf&JŒ tqdkðycsufudk vlxk}uD;u axmufcHygovm;cifAsm;?
(axmufcHygw,f) 3
tqdkðycsuf (2)
jrefrmEkdifiHw0Srf;vHk;&Sd ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;ESifhwuG &[ef;&Sifvljynfoltaygif;rS wcJeuf
qENjycJh=u+yD;jzpfaoma=umifh
wygwDpepfudk
zsufodrf;+yD;awmh
ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepfjzifh
tpm;xkd;wnfaqmuf=u&efom&Sda=umif;
a':atmifqef;pk=unfu
tqdkðycJhygw,f?
'Dtqdkudk
axmufcHygovm;cifAsm;?
(axmufcHygw,f) 3
tqdkðycsuf (3)
jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;tm; udk,fpm;ðy&aom jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,f tppftrSefrsm;udk vGwfvyfpGm
a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufEkdif&ef w&m;r#w oef‹&Si;f aom taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG}uD;udk tjrefqHk;
usif;yEkdifa&;twGuf =um;jzwftpdk;& zJG‹pnf;ay;&eftqdkukd a':atmifqef;pk=unfu tqdkðyygw,f?
jynfolvlxk}uD;u axmufcHygovm;cifAsm;?
(axmufcHygw,f) 3
usaemf tck 'Dtpnf;ta0;yJG}uD;&JŒ aºuG;a=umfoHudk wdkifay;yghr,f?
* qENcH,lyJG tvdkr&Sd/ tvdkr&Sd
* wygwDpepf zsufodrf;ypf
* ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepf wnfaqmufay;
* w&m;r#waom a&G;aumufyJG tjrefqHk; usif;yay;
* =um;jzwftpdk;& zJG‹pnf;ay; [laom aºuG;a=umforH sm;udk tcrf;tem;rª; OD;xGef;a0rSwkdifay;I
vlxky&dowf}uD;u wcJeuf aºuG;a=umfI eHeuf 11 em&D 30 rdepftcsdefwGif tpnf;ta0;}uD;udk
atmifjrifpGm ±kyfodrf;vdkufygonf?
15
'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;ESifh jynfolrsm;. tcef;u¾
68 }udrfajrmuf trsKd;om;ae‹txdrf;trSwf =o0g'cH,lyJGY trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyf taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;
a':atmifqef;pk=unf a[majymrdef‹=um;csuf 3-12-88

* * *
ckvdk (68) }udrfajrmuf trsKd;om;ae‹tcrf;tem;udk zdwfac:wmudk aus;Zl;wifygw,f?
trsKd;om;ae‹eJ‹ywfoufvdk‹awmh tcrf;tem;rª;u ajymoGm;wJhtwkdif; trsKd;om;ae‹qdkwm 1920
ckESpfwkef;u ausmif;om;oydwf}uD; pcJhwJhae‹jzpfygw,f? ausmif;om;oydwfudk a&$wd*Hkbk&m;rSm
paeaxmifhuae+yD;awmh wefaqmifrkef;vqkwf (10) &ufae‹rSm oydwfpzkd‹ oabmwlvdkuf=uw,f?
tJh'Dawmh wefaqmifrkef;vqkwf (10) &ufae‹[m trsKd;om;ae‹qdk+yD;awmh owfrSwfvdkufygw,f?
trsKd;om;ae‹eJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ xkwfvdkufwJh a=unmcsuf[m tck usrwdk‹ jyefzwf=unfhvdkufwJhtcgusawmh
cktcsdeftcgeJ‹ tifrwefrS oifhavsmfaeygw,f? tJh'ga=umifh usr 'gudk eJeJav; zwfjycsifygw,f? 'gu
oydwfarSmufaumifpD. 1920 jynfh 'DZifbmv 8 &ufae‹pJGjzifh wkdif;jynfodk‹ xkwfjyefonfh a=unmcsufwJh?
“wkdif;oljynfom;rsm;odk‹ &efukefaumvdyfESifh ,k'\efaumvdyf&Sd usaemfwdk‹ ausmif;om;tm;vHk;wdk‹onf tqHk;Y
b,fvdkjzpfrnfudk aocsmrod&ao;aom udpPwckudk pwifðyvkyf=uygonf? odk‹&mwGif usaemfwdk‹onf
w&m;enf;vrf;rSefuefa=umif;udk aumif;rGefckdif+rJpGm od&Sd&ygonf? usaemfwdk‹onf wwdkif;wjynfvHk;
u|efwGif;u rnfonfhtcgrS rvGwfruif;Ekdifv#if AsL±dku&ufwdk‹onf ody`Hausmif;Oya'udk xkacszsufqD;&ef
t}uH&Sdygonf? usaemfwdk‹ wkdif;jynfom;wdk‹. pdwftm;xufoefaom tultnDtm;jzifh vli,frsm;wdk‹u
ckcHòzdzsufjcif;rSwyg; tjcm;aomenf;jzifh wkdif;jynfudk u,fq,fzdk‹&ef enf;vrf;r&Sd[k ,Hk=unfygonf?
usaemfwdk‹onf jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd vltrsm;wdk‹. ynmtqDtESpfESifhjynfhpHkaom ausmif;om;rsm;jzpfrnfudk
&nfoefI ulnDapmifr&ef awmif;yefajym=um;ygonf? usaemf
("gwfyHkrsm; vmygonf?)
1989 ckESpfwGif pnf;±Hk;a&;qif;aepOf
(rdef‹cGef;tqufvmygonf)
wdk‹pdwfxJ pJG+rJpGm ,Hk=unfaom Tvkyfief;}uD;onf wkdif;jynfY vdktyfaom tcsuf}uD;wckudk
xkwfazmfajymqdkjcif;yif rnfygonf? Tum; tjcm;r[kwf? trsKd;om;ody`Hausmif;}uD;aywnf;?
xdkausmif;}uD;rS jrefrmEdkifiH. om;orD;rsm;ESifh oifhavsmfaom ynm&yfrsm;udk &Ekdifayonf? tdENd,EkdifiHY
trsKd;om;ausmif;awG tvdktavsmuf ay:aygufvm=uay&m jrefrmEdkifiHuvnf; aemufrus&atmif
jrefrmwdk‹onf EkdifiHom;ppfI cspfcJhygv#if b,feHa&mtcgr# rwnfaxmifEkdifbJ &Sdvdrfhrnfr[kwfyg?
pdwfygvufygvkyfv#if rkcsjzpfygvdrfhrnf?”
'Dwkef;uawmh ajymwmuawmh 'DwuUodkvfudpPeJ‹ywfouf+yD;awmh ajymwmyJ? 'gayrJh
ajymoGm;wJhtoHk;tE_ef;awGu tck 'Drdkua&pDwkdufyJGtwGuf oHk;r,fqdk&ifvnf; tifrwef oifhavsmfygw,f?
'D[m aemifb,fvdkjzpfr,f rodayr,fhvnf; udk,fwwfEkdifor# rSefuefa=umif;udk aumif;rGefpGm/ cdkif+rJpGm
od&SdI vkyfygonfqdkwm/ tck 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyJGvnf; 'Dtwkdif;yJ? aemif b,fvdkjzpfr,fqdkwmvnf; rodbl;?
aemifb,fvdkjzpfr,fqdkwm rodbJeJ‹ 'DwkdufyJG0if&jcif;[m rSefuefw,f/ oifhavsmfw,fqdkwm ,Hk=unfvdk‹
tm;vHk;0ifcJh=uwmyJ? 'ga=umifh 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ 'Drdkua&pD&rSmvm;/ taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG
vkyfrSmvm;vdk‹ ar;&ifvnf; usr 'Dtwdkif;yJ ajymw,f? jzpfrSm/ rjzpfrSmudk rpOf;pm;aeygeJ‹/ udk,f
rSefwmuefwmudkvkyfwm vkyfvdkufyg? 'D aemuftusK;d qufawG[m ol‹zmomol jzpfvmygvdrfhr,f? tJh'DrSm
udk,fh&JŒwm0efuawmh rSefwJhudpPudkvkyfzdk‹yJ? 'D 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_xJrSm tm;vHk;0ifvm+yDqdkuwnf;u
usrwdk‹ atmifyJGcHEdkifw,fqdkwJh ar#mfvifhcsuf&Sdvdk‹om 0ifvmwmyJ? Oyrmtm;jzifhqdkvdk‹&Sd&if òydifyJGwck
0ifòydifwJhvl[m Ekdifr,fxifvdk‹ òydifwmyJ? xDxdk;wJhvlqdkwmvnf; xDaygufEkdifwJhudef; &Sdw,fxifvdk‹
xdk;vdkufwmyJ? b,folurSawmh rEdkifbl;xifvdk‹&Sd&if 0ifòydifrSmr[kwfbl;? rjzpfEkdifbl;qdkvdk‹&Sd&if

óud;pm;+yD;vkyfrSmr[kwfbl;? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹ 'Drdkua&pD[m atmifjrifEkdifvm;vdk‹ar;&if usruawmh
rSefrSefuefuefyJ atmifjrifEdkifw,fvdk‹ jyefajz&rSmyJ? atmifjrifEdkifw,fxifvdk‹om 'DwkdufyJGrSm ygaewmyJ?
'Dtwdkif;yJ
ausmif;om;vli,ftm;vHk;[mvnf;
'Drkdua&pDwkdufyJGxJ
0ifaewJhtcgus&if
atmifjrifEkdifr,fqdkwJh pdwfawGxm;+yD;awmh qufvuf+yD; vkyfoGm;apcsifygw,f? usrwdk‹ quf+yD;awmh
tifrwefrS ±kef;uefzdk‹&Sdygao;w,f? óud;pm;zdk‹ &Sdygao;w,f? quf+yD;awmh ±kef;uefóud;pm;&r,fqdkwm[m
tckvydkif;udk ajymwmr[kwfygbl;? ESpfydkif;eJ‹udk quf+yD;awmh ±kef;uefóud;pm;oGm;&rSmyg? 'Da&G;aumufyJGjzpfvdk‹
a&G;aumufyJG0ifòydifvdk‹ 'Drdkua&pDbufu tEkdif&&ifawmifrS 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;[m r+yD;ao;ygbl;?
±kef;uefoGm;&r,fh
tcsdef[m
rukefao;ygbl;?
quf+yD;awmh
±kef;uefoGm;&rSmygyJ?
tJh'Dausmif;om;vli,frsm;qdkvdk‹&Sd&if touf (20) 0ef;usif&Sd=urSmaygh? touf (20) 0ef;usif&SdwJh
vlrsm;[m ArmawG&JŒ oufwrf;qdk&if tck 60 avmuf&Sdr,f? usrwdk‹ 'Drkdua&pDpepfatmufrSm
usef;rma&;awGbmawG aumif;oGm;vdk‹ (70) avmuftxd &SdoGm;r,fqdkygawmh/ 'Dvdkqdk&if aemiftESpf (50)
avmufudk quf+yD;awmh ±kef;uefoGm;&r,f? 'Drkdua&pDqdkwm woufvHk;xdef;odrf;oGm;rS &Sifoefr,fhudpPyg?
vlwa,muf&JŒ usef;rma&;vdkaygh? i,fi,fwkef;u udk,fhtaztaru aumif;aumif;au|;arG;xm;vdk‹/
aumif;aumif;=unfhxm;vdk‹
usef;usef;rmrm&Sdayr,fh
udk,fu
touf}uD;vmwJhtcgusawmh
jzpfovdkaer,f/
jzpfovdkpm;r,fqdk&if
usef;rma&;u
csKdŒwJhoGm;rSmyJ?
tJh'Dawmh
'Drdkua&pDpepf&Sifoefa&;qdkwm woufvHk;vkyfoGm;&rSmyJ? vlwkdif;vlwkdif;[m udk,fhwoufwmrSm
udk,fhwkdif;jynftusKd;
aqmif&GufoGm;r,fqdkwJh
pdwf"gwfeJ‹vkyfoGm;r,fqdk&if
usrwdk‹wkdif;jynfrSm
bmrSqkwf,kwfEkdifp&mta=umif; r&Sdygbl;? 'Dvdk 'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;twGuf vufwJGvkyfaewJhvlrSefor#udk
usrwdk‹u vufwJG+yD;awmh ac:oGm;csifygw,f? vufwJGw,fqdkwmvnf; rwJGcsif/ wJGcsif wJGenf;rsKd;udk
ajymwmr[kwfygbl;? udk,faygif;pdwfcGmr[kwfygbl;? pdwfwloabmwlvufwJG+yD; csDwufoGm;wJhenf;rsKd;udk
usrwdk‹ ajymvdkygw,f? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹ 'Dae‹uaep+yD;awmh 'Dae‹[m trsKd;om;ae‹jzpfw,f/
trsKdom;ae‹rSm trsKd;om;a&;twGuf tm;vHk;uae aqmif&GufoGm;ygr,fqdkwJh qHk;jzwfcsufudk
csapcsifygw,f? trsKd;om;a&;qdkwm wkdif;jynf&JŒaumif;usKd;/ jynfaxmifpk}uD; wnfwHhckdif+rJa&;/
jynfaxmifpkom;tm;vHk;&JŒ
trsm;pk}uD;&JŒ
aumif;usKd;
vkyf&r,fhudpPjzpfygw,f?
tJh'Dawmh
'DvdktrsKd;om;a&;udk
vkyfwJhtcgusvdk‹&Sd&if
'Dyk*~KdvfpJGwdk‹/
qENpJGwdk‹
r&Sdzdk‹qdkwm
usrwdk‹&JŒ
tajccHpnf;rsOf;Oya'xJrSmvnf; ygygw,f? tJh'Dawmh yk*~KdvfpJGawG rxm;=uygeJ‹/ 'g aumif;wJh
tpOftvmawG r[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹ qufoGm;&r,fh c&D;rSm tifrwefrS apwemoef‹oef‹/ pdwfoef‹oef‹eJ‹
vkyfoGm;apcsifygw,f? tJh'Dawmh vlwkdif;udk usrajymw,f? jrifhjrifh}uHyg? tjrifhqHk;}uHyg? óud;pm;&if
bk&m;jzpfEkdifw,fvdk‹ usrwdk‹ qdk±dk;&Sdyga&mvm;? bmhvdk‹ r}uHEkdif&rSmvJ? óud;pm;&if ±kd;±kd;omrefvl/
jrwfpGmbk&m;qdkwmvnf; omrefvlygyJ? jrwfpGmbk&m;awmifrS 'Dvdk bk&m;jzpfatmif usifh}uHEkdif&if
vlawG[m jrifhjrifh}uHEdkifygw,f? udk,f[m woufvHk; trSefw&m;t& vkyfoGm;r,fqdkwJhudpP[m
rjzpfEkdifwJhudpP r[kwfygbl;? jzpfEkdifwJhudpPyg? wcsKdŒu xifw,f? vlyJuGm/ trSm;awmh&SdrSmyg? ykxkZOfyJ?
'gawGudk usrawmh vufrcHbl;? ykxkZOfvlom;rdk‹vdk‹udk óud;pm;+yD;awmh trSefw&m;eJ‹ ae&r,f? owW0gawGrS
r[kwfbJ? wd&p>mefawGawmifrS trSm;/ trSefukd odygw,f/ [kwfvm;? opPm&SdwJhae&mrSmqdk&if
acG;vdkwd&p>mefudk vlawGu rvdkufEkdifbl;? acG;[m vlxufydk+yD; opPm&Sdw,fqdkwm vlwkdif;odw,f? acG;vdk
wd&p>mefwaumifawmif opPm&SdEkdifw,fqdk&if vlrsm;[m bmjzpfvdk‹ opPmr&SdEdkif&rSmvJ? opPmrJhwm
vlawGyJ? vlawGxJrSmqdk&if opPmw&m;[m tifrwefeJw,fvdk‹ ajymvdk‹&Sd&if rSefvnf;rSefw,f/
opPmw&m;[m pOf;pm;=unfh&if opPmqdkwJhpum;[m pum;vHk;u tifrwefvSovdk t"dy`m,fvnf;
tifrwefvSw,f? tJh'Dvdk opPm&Sd&SdeJ‹ tm;vHk;u vkyfoGm;rS usrwdk‹wdkif;jynf wdk;wufvmrSmyg? 'Dvdk
wdkif;jynfwdk;wufrS aemifvmaemufom;rsm;[m *k%foduQm&Sd&SdeJ‹ urBmhtv,frSm &yfwnfEkdifr,f?
tJh'Dawmh 'D[mudk ar#mfudk;+yD;awmh 'Dae‹up+yD;awmh 'Dae‹ (68) }udrfajrmuf trsKd;om;ae‹up+yD;awmh

usrwdk‹tm;vHk;[m trsKd;om;a&;twGuf udk,fwwfEdkifor# aqmif&GufoGm;=ur,fvdk‹ oEMdÏmefcs=uygvdk‹
usr arwWm&yfcHcsifygw,f? 'Drkdua&pD&&Sda&;twGuf vkyfaewJhvlrSefor#udk usrwdk‹u vufwJG+yD;
ac:oGm;csifygw,f?
16
owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJG trSwf – 3
&efukefòrd‹Y 26-3-1989 ckESpfwGif ajym=um;onf?

* * *
'Dowif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJvkyf&wJh
ta=umif;uawmh
tckwavm
vkyfom;jynfol‹ae‹pOfeJ‹
jrefrmhtoHrSm a=unmaewJh owif;awGeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹yJ jzpfygw,f? wevFmae‹u vSnf;wef;/
urm&GwfrSmjzpfwJh udpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ vkyfom;jynfol‹ae‹pOfeJ‹ jrefrmhtoHu owif;t&qdkvdk‹&Sd&if
uav;rsm;u oGm;+yD;awmh qlylatmifvdk‹ wcsKdŒEdkifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awGu vkyfaqmifw,fvdk‹
qdkwJhoabmrsKd;eJ‹ a&;vdkufygw,f? aemuf+yD;awmhvnf; usrwdk‹&JŒ tzJG‹csKyfemrnfudk odyf+yD;
xifxif&Sm;&Sm;}uD; a&;xm;w,f/ apmif;+yD;awmh tift,f'Duae+yD;awmh v_H‹aqmfvdk‹ uav;rsm;u
oGm;+yD;awmh qlylw,fvdk‹/ 'DoabmrsKd;eJ‹ a&;oGm;wmudk jrif&ygw,f?
'geJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ usr b,fvdkjrifvJqdkawmh tJh'Dae‹utjzpftysufudk usr wcsdefvHk; odygw,f?
pjzpfuwnf;u usr 'Duae=um;aew,f? uav;awG [dkrSmeJeJqlqlylyljzpfw,fqdkwmeJ‹ usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfu
+idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf; +yD;oGm;atmifvdk‹ vdkuf+yD;awmh vkyfwmyJ? uav;awGudk usrwdk‹udk,fwkdifvnf;
vdkufxdef;w,f? vli,ftcsif;csif;vnf; vdkufxdef;w,f? aemuf+yD;awmh +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf;eJ‹ vlpkcJGzdk‹qdkwm
tJh'DrSmvm+yD;awmh
wm0ef,lwJhwyfrawmft&m&Sdudk
trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfxJu
wm0ef&SdwJhyk*~Kdvfrsm;u oGm;a&muf+yD;awmh at;at;csrf;csrf; jzpfa&;twGuf aqG;aEG;cJhw,f?
tJh'Dvkdvkyfwmudk wm0ef&SdwJh wyfrawmfyk*~Kdvfrsm;u od&Sdvsufom;eJ‹ bmjzpfvdk‹ vkyfom;jynfol‹ae‹pOfeJ‹
jrefrmhtoHuae+yD;awmh v_H‹aqmfw,fqdkwJh oabmeJ‹ a&;vJqdkwm trsm;}uD;ar;p&mudk jzpfaeygw,f?
wyfrawmfu wm0ef&SdwJhyk*~KdvfeJ‹ usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfu wm0ef&SdwJh yk*~Kdvfuae oGm;+yD;awmh
+idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf;eJ‹ vlpkcJGa&;twGuf óud;pm;wm[m trsm;todyJ? tJh'Dawmh wrifoufouf
usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfudk tjypf&SmcsifwJhoabm[m tifrwefudk xif&Sm;aeygw,f? 'gwifruao;bl;?
rae‹ujzpfwJh udpPawGrSmvnf; xdkenf;‚if;ygyJ?
rae‹ujzpfwJhudpP[m usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf0if;xJrSm ausmif;om;vli,frsm; tpnf;ta0;vkyfaew,f?
tpnf;ta0;vkyfaewkef;rSm jyifyuvli,frsm; vma&muf+yD; qENjyzdk‹ &nf&G,fw,fqdkwJh owif;=um;w,f?
=um;wmeJ‹ usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;uvnf; *dwf0udk ydwfxm;w,f? usrwdk‹tdrfuvnf; *dwf0udk ydwfxm;w,f?
'gayr,fhvnf; 0kef;/ 0kef; qdk+yD;awmh vlpkvla0;a&mufvmw,f? tjyifu vli,fcsnf;yJ/ vlpdrf;awGcsnf;yJ?
'Dvdkjzpfvnf;jzpfa&m wyfuvnf; w0kef;0kef;eJ‹ a&mufvmwmyJ?
wyfom;rsm;u 0g;&if;wkwfrsm;udk oHql;óud;rsm;ywf+yD;awmh udkifxm;w,f? tJh'gvnf;
trsm;}uD;ar;p&myJ?
jynfolvlxkudk
0g;&if;wkwf
oHql;óud;ywf+yD;awmh
ESdrfeif;csifwJhpdwfawG
bmjzpfvdk‹&Sd&ovJqdkwmukd usrwdk‹ ar;p&mar;cGef;wck jzpfaeygw,f?
owif;pmxJrSm
b,fvdka&;vdkufovJqdkawmh
'D(44)wuUodkvf&dyfomvrf;
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyf±Hk;a&SŒrSm
jzpfw,f?
aemuf+yD;awmhvnf;
a':atmifqef;pk=unf
tdrf0if;xJajy;w,fvdk‹ ajymygw,f? trSeftm;jzifhawmh 'Dem;rSm&SdwJhtdrf0if;awG tm;vHk;txJudk

0ifajy;=uwmcsnf;yJ? usrwdk‹ tdrf0if;txJwif 0ifajy;wmr[kwfygbl;? [dkbuftdrfxJvnf; 0ifajy;ygw,f?
tzJG‹csKyfxJvnf; 0ifEkdifwJhvlawGu 0ifzdk‹ óud;pm;=uygw,f? 'gudk usrwdk‹tdrfwtdrfxJudkyJ uGuf+yD;awmh
0ifajy;w,fqdkwm b,fvdkt"dy`m,feJ‹/ b,fvdk&nf&G,fcsufeJ‹ ajymwmvJ? usrwdk‹vnf; trsm;}uD;
ar;p&mjzpfygw,f?
usr&JΠtdrf0if;xJrSm ausmif;om;vli,frsm; tpnf;ta0;vkyfaew,fqdkwm rSefw,f?
ausmif;om;rsm;[m usr&JŒtdrf0if;xJ 0ifajy;vmw,fqdkwmvnf; rSefw,f? 'gvnf; usrwdk‹ 0efcHygw,f?
'gayr,fh usrwdk‹tdrf0if;xJwif r[kwfbl;? tjcm;tdrf0if;xJawGvnf; 0ifajy;w,f?
usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfu vl}uD;rsm;u xGuf+yD;awmh ajyajyvnfvnfjzpfatmif óud;pm;w,f? 'gudkvnf;
wyfrawmfu t&m&SdawGu odwmyJ? odayr,fhvnf; bmrS todtrSwfrðybl;? 'gudk bmrSrajymbJeJ‹ 'D
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xyfwyfw,f? wckwyfvdk‹r& wckajymif;wyf/ wckwyfvdk‹r& wckajymif;wyfw,f?
'D[m wa,muf yHkpHwrsKd; vkyfovdkrsKd;jzpfaew,f? usrwdk‹usawmh 2§88 qdk+yD;awmh
trsKd;rsKd;[ef‹wm;aew,f? tckusawmh ±kef;&if;qefcwfrjzpfbl;/ jypfr_rusL;vGefvdk‹&Sd&if 2§88 qdkwm
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ta&;,lr,fqdkwmawmh 2§88 udk tvGJoHk;pm;vkyfwmygvdk‹ usrwdk‹udk,fwkdif ajymcJhwmyg? tJh'Dawmh
tckowif;pmrSmajymwmudk usrwdk‹ axmufcHygw,f? 'gayr,fhvnf; ajymwJhtwdkif;yJ vkyf=uygvdk‹ usru
arwWm&yfcHcsifygw,f? wyfrawmfusawmhwrsKd;/ jynfolvlxkusawmh wrsKd;qdk+yD;awmh/ w&m;Oya'udk
oHk;w,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfol=um;rSm pdwf0rf;uJGrSmaygh? 'Dawmh b,folu pdwf0rf;uJGatmif
vkyfaewmvJ? usrwdk‹ r[kwfygbl;? wyfrawmfxJrSm at;at;csrf;csrf; csDwufw,fqdk&if csDwufygap?
qlylaomif;usef;r_ rjzpfbl;qdk&if usrwdk‹ bmrSrajymvdkygbl;? usrwdk‹tzJG‹tpnf;awGuvnf; 'Dtwkdif;yJ
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'gudk usrwdk‹ vufcHygw,f? wa,mufwrsKd;pDxm;vdk‹awmh b,fjzpfrvJ?
armifzkef;armfae‹eJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ wywftwGif;rSm awmfawmfrsm;rsm; zrf;qD;r_awG &Sdygw,f?
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ausmif;om;vli,frsm;xkwfa0wJh
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yvlysHaewmyJ? wa,mufudk ig;&Gufq,f&Gufavmuf a0vdkufwmyJ? óudufwJhvl a0uGmqdk+yD; a0oGm;wmyJ?
'Dawmh 'Duav;awGvufxJrSm 'Dpm&GufawG trsm;}uD;&Sdwmaygh? &Sd±HkeJ‹ zrf;&ovm;? tjypfeJ‹ tjypfay;yHk

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r0w u ac:ppfw,f/ ESdyfpufygw,f? yg;pyfxJudk rsufESmokwfyk0gawG oGwfxnfh+yD;awmh
wabmifpm&GufawG jzef‹a0w,fqdkwmudk twif;0efcHcdkif;ygw,f? bmtaxmuftxm;rS r&SdbJeJ‹
0efcHcdkif;ygw,f?
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jynfol=um;rSm pdwf0rf;ruJGapcsifbl;qdkvdk‹&Sd&if bmjzpfvdk‹ 'DvdkudpPawG vkyfaeovJ? rEWav;wkdif;
ykodrf;}uD;òrd‹rSmqdk&ifvnf; wyfrawmfom;rsm;u usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfqdkif;bkwfudk zsufqD;eif;acscJhygw,f?
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awmifolv,form;rsm;udpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹
EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;u
qlylapcsifwJhqENeJ‹
wrifoufouf &r,f&Sm+yD; ajymaew,fqdkwJhoabmrsK;d owif;pmxJrSm ygygw,f? 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹
usrwdk‹ azazmf0g&Dvuwnf;u usrwdk‹ OuUX OD;wifOD;u e0w udk ta&;qdkcJhygw,f?
awmifolv,form;rsm; b,fvdk'kuQa&mufae=ua=umif;/ aemuf+yD;awmh yifv,fydkifeufrsm; a&mif;vdkufwJh
ta=umif;a=umifh a&tvkyform;rsm; b,fvdk'kuQa&mufaew,fqdkwJh ta=umif;rsm;udk pma&;cJhygw,f?
owif;a=unmcsufwckvnf; xkwfcJhygw,f? tJh'DvdkyJ usrwdk‹ vkyfcJhygw,f? bmrS 'ghxufydk+yD;awmh
rv_H‹aqmfcJhygbl;? owif;pmxJrSma&;ovdk usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfu ajymwmr[kwfygbl;? owif;pmxJrSm
EdkifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;0if awmifolv,form;rsm;uom ajymw,fvdk‹ qdkygw,f? r[kwfygbl;?
±dk;±dk;tzJG‹tpnf;xJudk r0if&JwJh awmifolv,form;rsm;u xyfcgxyfcg 'DudpPudk ajymaewmyg?
usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfxJudkvnf; awmifolv,form; trsm;pk}uD;vnf; r0if&Jygbl;? 0ifvdk‹&Sd&if zrf;r,f/
qD;r,fqdk+yD;awmh
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trsm;}uD;&Sdaewma=umifh
r0if&J=u&Smygbl;?
tJh'Dawmh
usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfxJu awmifolv,form;rsm;u ajymw,fqdkwm vHk;vHk;r[kwfygbl;? tzJG‹csKyftjyifbufu
awmifolv,form;rsm;u
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ta&;r,lwmawmifrS aumif;ao;w,f? ydk+yD;awmh jynfolvlxk tHkºuGrSmyJqdk+yD; usrwdk‹ aoG;xkd;ay;rSmaygh?
jynfolvlxk 'kuQa&mufaewmudk rjrifcsifvdk‹ e0w udk wifjyygw,f? 'DvdkyJ 'kuQa&mufaeygw,f? 'DvdkyJ
jy\emawG jzpfaeygw,f? =unfh+yD;awmh vkyfay;ygqdk+yD;awmh usrwdk‹ wifjyygw,f?
jynfolvlxkodatmifvdk‹ 'Dvdkawmifolv,form;rsm; 'kuQa&mufaew,fqdkwm/ usrwdk‹
ajymygw,f? 'Dvdkajym&jcif;rSm usrwdk‹jynfolvlxk[m udk,fh&JŒtcGifhta&;awGudk udk,fumuG,f&r,fqdkwm
usrwdk‹ ,Hk=unfvdk‹ajymcJhwmyJ? tzJG‹csKyftaeeJ‹ n$ef=um;csufwckxkwfxm;ygw,f? awmifolv,form;rsm;
'kuQa&mufaevdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfu wwfEkdifor# ulnD&r,f? 'g[m vlr_a&;t&yJ? 'g EkdifiHa&;y&d,m,f
r[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹ EdkifiHa&;y&d,m,fqdkwmudk t,Hkt=unfr&Sdbl;qdkwm usr ajym+yD;om;yJ? usr vHk;vHk;
t,Hkt=unfr&Sdbl;?
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'kuQa&mufaewmudk usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfu ulnDcsifvdk‹ vkyfwJhudpPyJ jzpfygw,f?
usr òcH+yD;awmh ajym&r,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if ckwavmrSm usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyfeJ‹ 'Drdkua&pDvdkvm;wJh
tzJG‹tpnf;rsm;udk oufouftjypf&Smaew,fqdkwm usr jrif&ygw,f? oufoufwdkufcdkufvmw,f?
usrwdk‹u qlylr_jzpfatmifvdk‹ v_H‹aqmfaew,fqdk+yD;awmh xyfwvJvJajymaeygw,f? 'Dvdkajymaewm[m
b,fvdk&nf&G,fcsufeJ‹ ajymaeovJqdkwm usr trsm;}uD;pOf;pm;&ygw,f?
rae‹ujzpfwJh
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vufn‡Kd;xdk;wmvm;qdkwm usrwdk‹ ar;p&mjzpfvmygw,f? wyfrawmfae‹twGuf pdk;&drfvdk‹vm;?

wyfrawmfae‹twGuf pdk;&drfw,fqdk&if usrwdk‹eJ‹ aqG;aEG;Ekdifygw,f? wyfrawmfae‹ ysufpD;&mysufpD;a=umif;
b,fvdkrvkyfapcsifbl;qdkwm
ajymyg?
usrwdk‹
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usrwdk‹taeeJ‹
ausmif;om;vli,frsm;udk trsm;}uD;xdef;ygw,f? usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyfvli,frsm;udk wyfrawmfae‹rSm
pDwef;vrf;av#mufwmwdk‹/ qENjywmwdk‹ rvkyf&bl;qdkwm usrwdk‹ ajym+yD;om;yg? 'Dwyfrawmfae‹udk
wyfrawmfae‹taeeJ‹ vufrcHbl;qdk&if b,folrSroGm;=ueJ‹? b,folrS xGufr=unfh=ueJ‹? tJh'Dvdkenf;eJ‹
oydwfarSmuf&if arSmuf=uaygh? usrwdk‹ ajym+yD;om;yg? usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ rwfv (27) &ufae‹udk
awmfvSefa&;ae‹taeeJ‹ vufcHw,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ ajym+yD;om;yg? 'g jynfolvlxk&JŒ awmfvSefa&;ae‹yg?
1945 ckESpfwkef;u jrefrmEkdifiH[m jynfolvlxku tm;vHk;ºuGvm+yD;awmh zufqpf0g'udk rvdkcsifvdk‹
awmfvSefa&;udk pwifcJhwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f?
usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyftaeeJ‹awmh (27) &uf rwfv[m awmfvSefa&;ae‹vdk‹ vufcHygw,f?
awmfvSefa&;ae‹taeeJ‹vnf; azazu todtrSwfðycJhw,f? usrvnf; awmfvSefa&;ae‹taeeJ‹yJ
quf+yD;awmh todtrSwfðyygw,f? usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyfuvnf; 'Dtwkdif;yJ? jynfolvlxkuvnf;
jynfolvlxkudk ESdyfpufwJhzufqpf0g'udk awmfvSefwJhae‹tjzpf todtrSwfðyygw,f?
usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ tm;vHk;udk ajyajyvnfvnf jzpfapcsifw,f? +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf; jzpfapcsifw,f? e0w
eJ‹ nd‡E_dif;wkdifyif&rvm;? nd‡E_dif;wdkifyifr,f? wyfrawmfeJ‹ aqG;aEG;&rvm;/ aqG;aEG;r,f? tqifoifhyJqdkwm
usr xyfwvJvJ ajymygw,f? 'DvdkajymaewJhtxJu bmrS aqG;aEG;wkdifyifr_r&SdbJeJ‹ tzJG‹csKyfudk oufouf
vufn‡dK;xdk;vmwmuawmh usrwdk‹udk jynfolvlxku axmufcHwmudk r±_pdrfhvdk‹vm;qdk+yD;awmh usrwdk‹
ar;&awmhrSmjzpfygw,f? 'DtcsdefrSm usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfudk wdkufcdkufw,fqdkwm[m
jynfolvlxk&JŒ 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_udkvnf; wdkufcdkufwmeJ‹ twlwlygyJ? wu,fyJ ppfrSefwJh/ w&m;r#wwJh
a&G;aumufyJGawG jzpfapcsifw,f qdkvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh 'Dvdkrawmfrw&m; wkdufcdkufr_awGudk &yfwef;u
&yfzdk‹vdkr,fvdk‹ usr xifygw,f? 'g usrtaeeJ‹ ajymcsifwmuawmh 'gygyJ? ar;p&m&Sdvdk‹ &Sd&if ar;=uyg?
17
wdkif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;
jrpf}uD;em;òrd‹Y 28-4-1989 ae‹wGif ajym=um;onf?

* * *
wem&Davmuf apma&mufzdk‹yg? cyfcsKduxGufwm
aemufuswm awmif;yefygw,f?
pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;xGufwJhtcg wcgwav usrwdk‹ tpDtpOftwdkif;rjzpfygbl;? vrf;rSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&ifvnf;
wcgwav tcuftcJav;awG awG‹wwfygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ 'Dvdk aemufus&jcif;jzpfygw,f?
jrpf}uD;em;udk rvmcifwkef;uqdk&if =um;&wmawmh jrpf}uD;em;rSm 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_&JΠtajctae
odyfraumif;bl;vdk‹ ajym=uygw,f? jynfolvlxku odyf+yD; wufwufºuGºuG r&Sd=ubl;vdk‹ qdkygw,f?
tJh'Dawmh usru enf;enf;tm;i,frdygw,f? 'gayrJh tckvmwJhtcgusawmhvnf; jynfolvlxku
ydk+yD;wufºuGw,fqdkwmjrif&vdk‹ trsm;}uD;yJ tm;&SdoGm;ygw,f? *k%fvnf; *k%fðyygw,f?
ucsifjynfe,frSm&SdwJh awmifwef;om; vlrsKd;pkrsm;[m owWd&Sdw,fqdkwm usrwdk‹tm;vHk;yJ tpu
odxm;+yD;jzpfygw,f?
'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹
'DvdkowWd&Sd&SdeJ‹
quf+yD;awmh
trsKd;om;a&;twGuf
vkyfoGm;r,fqdkwmvnf; usrwdk‹ ,Hk=unfygw,f? i,fi,fuwnf;u usrwdk‹ em;vnfwmuawmh

awmifwef;om;rsm;[m tifrwefrS owWd&Sdw,f/ tifrwefrS ±dk;om;ajzmifhrwfw,f/ vkyf&nfudkif&nf
&Sdw,fvdk‹ em;vnfcJhygw,f?
tck 'Drdkua&pD v_yf&Sm;r_xJrSmvnf; 'Dtwdkif;yJ ±kd;±dk;om;om;/ ajzmifhajzmifhrwfrwf/ owdW&Sd&SdeJ‹
quf+yD;awmh vkyfoGm;=ur,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹vdkcsifwJh tcGifhta&;rsm;udk tjrefqHk;&EdkifrSmyg?
tcktcsdefrSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if wkdif;&if;om;vlrsm;pk trsm;pk}uD;[m awmfawmfrSyJ yifyifyef;yef;/ qif;qif;&J&J
ae=u&ygw,f?
'Dvdktajctaeuae+yD;awmh wdk;wuf+yD; csrf;omwJh jynfaxmifpk}uD;wck xlaxmifzdk‹qdkwm
tm;vHk;&JŒ wm0efjzpfygw,f? wcgwavusvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹udk wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm;u ar;ygw,f?
'Drdkua&pDtpdk;& &vdk‹&Sd&if usaemfwdk‹vlrsK;d pkawGtwGuf bmvkyfay;rSmvJ/ jynfaxmifpktwGuf
bmvkyfay;rSmvJ qdk+yD;awmh ar;ygw,f? usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf taeeJ‹uawmh
a=unmxm;+yD;om;jzpfygw,f? 'Drdkua&pD&vdk‹&Sd&if ppfrSefwJh 'Drdkua&pDjynfaxmifpk}uD; xlaxmifa&;twGuf
wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pktm;vHk;eJ‹ wkdifyifn‡dE_dif;+yD;awmh usrwdk‹[m tajccHpnf;rsOf;Oya'[m jynfaxmifpk
wnfwHhckdif+rJa&;twGufvnf; vkyf&r,f/ wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm;&JΠarG;&mygtcGifhta&;rsm;udkvnf;
todtrSwfðy&r,f? vlwkdif;vlwdkif; vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm; cHpm;ydkifcGifhvnf; OD;wnf&r,fqdkwmvnf; usrwdk‹
a=unmxm;+yD;om;jzpfygw,f? 'gayr,fhvnf; 'Drdkua&pD jynfaxmifpkxlaxmifzdk‹qdkwm[m usrwdk‹
tzJG‹csKyfwckwnf;&JŒ wm0efvnf; r[kwfygbl;? wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pktm;vHk;&JŒ wm0efjzpfygw,f?
'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_ atmifjrifzdk‹qdkwm[m vlwkdif;vlwkdif;&JŒ wm0efjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usr c%c%
ajym&ygw,f? 'Drdkua&pD&zdk‹qdk&if usaemfwdk‹udk bmtcGifhta&;awG ay;rvJvdk‹ ar;r,fhtpm;
'Drkdua&pD&zdk‹twGuf usaemfwdk‹ b,fvdk0dkif;0ef;ulnD&rvJqdkwm tcktcsdefrSm ar;&r,fhar;cGef;jzpfygw,f?
'Dar;cGef;udk ar;+yD;awmh rSefuefwJh tajzudk &SmEkdifr,fqdkrS udk,fvdkcsifwJh 'Drkdua&pDudk &r,f/
'Drdkua&pD&w,fqdkrS vlwkdif;vlwkdif;&JΠtcGifhta&;udk tmrcHr,fh pepfwckudk xlaxmifEkdifr,f? 'Dvdk
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auseyfr_&Ekdifr,fh jynfaxmifpkyHko¾mefudk usrwdk‹ azmfxkwf&rSmjzpfygw,f? 'Dvdk jynfaxmifpkyHko¾mef
azmfxkwfzdk‹qdkwm[m wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pktm;vHk;u oabmxm;}uD;}uD; xm;&r,f/ tjrifus,fus,f
&Sd&r,f?
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jynfaxmifpktusKd;twGufqdkwJh pdwf"mwfawGeJ‹ vkyfzdk‹vdkygw,f? usrwdk‹ vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;wJhacwfrSm
'Dwkdif;jynf rwdk;wufwm[m nDnGwfr_ r&Sdvdk‹bJ? usrwdk‹rSm&SdwJh EkdifiHolEkdifiHom;rsm;[m udk,fhtusKd;xuf
wkdif;jynftusKd;udk a&SŒrxm;vdk‹ usrwdk‹ wkd;wufr_ r&SdcJhbl;vdk‹ xifygw,f?
wygwD
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pdk;rdk;oGm;&w,fqdkwmvnf;
jynfolvlxk[m
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usrwdk‹EkdifiHudk 'Drdkua&pDpepft& tm;vHk; pdwfcsrf;oma&;twGuf xlaxmifapcsifw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if
EkdifiHolEdkifiHom;tm;vHk;[m udk,fhrSm&SdwJh EdkifiHa&;wm0efawGudk xrf;aqmifzdk‹ vdkygw,f?

("gwfyHkrsm;vmygonf?)
tay:
ucsifwkdif;&if;om;
0wfpHkwrsKd;udk
0wfqifxm;pOf
atmuf
yifvHkY 1989 ckESpfwGif
pnf;±Hk;a&;qif;cJhpOfu
tay: - ucsifwkdif;&if;om;rsm;ESifhtwl
atmuf - u&ifacgif;aqmifwOD;ESifhtwl
EkdifiHa&;qdkwm vlwkdif;vlwdkif;eJ‹qdkifwJh udpPyg? EdkifiHwEkdifiH wdk;wufzdk‹/ wnfwHhckdif+rJzdk‹qdkwm
tm;vHk;0dkif;+yD; óud;pm;zdk‹vdkygw,f? vlwkdif;vlwkdif;[m wkdif;jynftay:rSm ppfrSefwJh apwemxm;&ygvdrfhr,f?
udk,fhtzJG‹tpnf;tusKd;udkyJ vkyfaer,f/ udk,fhtodkif;t0kdif;tusKd;yJ vkyfaer,f qdkvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh
ppfrSefwJhapwemvdk‹ rac:Edkifygbl;?
usrwdk‹EdkifiH (26) ESpftwGif;rSm usqif;cJh&wm[m wkdif;jynfudk ppfrSefwJh apwemeJ‹ rtkyfcsKyfvdk‹bJ?
wkdif;jynfudk ppfrSefwJhapwemeJ‹ tkyfcsKyfcJhw,fqdk&if 'DEkdifiH[m trsm;}uD; wdk;wufEdkifygw,f? ucsifjynfe,f
wckwnf;rSmyifv#if o,HZmwypPnf; b,favmufaygrsm;w,fqdkwm od+yD;om;yg? wEdkifiHvHk;udk òcH+yD;awmh
=unfhvdkufr,fqdk&if usrwdk‹EdkifiH[m tifrwefrS csrf;omygw,f? 'Davmufcsrf;omvsufeJ‹ jynfolvlxk[m
qif;&Jae&w,f/ pdk;&drfae&w,f/ a=umifh=uae&w,fqdkwmawmh rrSefuefwJh tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfa=umifhyJ?
pD;yGm;a&;atmifjrifr_qdkwm rSefuefwJhtkyfcsKyfa&;pepf&SdrS jzpfrSmyg? 'DtcsdefrSm pD;yGm;a&;ukd OD;rwnfbJeJ‹
EdkifiHa&;udk OD;wnfzdk‹vdkygw,f?
EkdifiHa&;atmifjrifr_awG&rS pD;yGm;a&;bufudk wcgjyef+yD;awmh usrwdk‹ udk,fvdkcsifwJh ðyjyifr_awG
vkyf&rSmjzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh jynfolawGtaeeJ‹ tcktcsdefrSm ppfrSefwJh 'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;twGuf
0dkif;0ef;ulnD=uygvdk‹ usr arwWm&yfcHcsifygw,f? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pktm;vHk;[m vufwJG+yD;awmh
wnDwnGwfwnf;eJ‹/ owWd&Sd&SdeJ‹ udk,fh&JŒwkdif;jynfaumif;usKd;twGuf rSefreS fuefuef vkyfoGm;r,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if
vlwkdif;vlwkdif;[m ydk+yD;awmh csrf;om+yD; wdk;wufwJh jynfaxmifpk}uD;rSm aeEkdifrSmjzpfygw,f?
'DvdkOD;wnfcsufeJ‹ 0dkif;+yD;awmh óud;pm;oGm;=uygvdk‹ usr arwWm&yfcH&if;eJ‹ ed*Hk;csKyfygw,f?

18

'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm; nDnGwfa&;
Trdef‹cGef;udk 1989 ckESpfwGif &efukefòrd‹Y ajym=um;onf[k ,lq&aomfvnf; ajym=um;onfh ae‹&ufESifh
ae&mudk pmwnf;taejzifh odEkdifpGrf; r&Sdyg?
* * *

usrudk 'Drkdua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;&JŒ udk,fpm;vS,fvdk‹ owfrSwfvdkufwJhtcgusawmh 'gudk
*k%f,lygw,fvdk‹ ajym&rvm;vdk‹ usr pOf;pm;ygw,f? 'gayrJh wu,fpOf;pm;vdkufwJhtcgusawmh 'g
usrtwGuf *k%f,lp&mr[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹ a&G;xkwfvdkufwJhtiftm;pkrsm;twGuf *k%f,lp&mvdk‹ usr
jrifygw,f? bmjzpfvdk‹vnf;qdkawmh usrudk a&G;xkwfvdkufwJhtiftm;pkrsm;[m nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ‹
udk,fhtzJG‹tpnf;twGuf&,fvdk‹ rpOf;pm;bJeJ‹ 'Drkdua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_atmifjrifa&;twGuf ydk+yD;awmh
aumif;zdk‹twGuf
vlwa,mufudk
udk,fpm;vS,fa&G;vdkufr,fqdk+yD;awmh
vkyfEkdifwJhtajctae
a&mufvmwm[m tifrwefrS *k%f,lp&myJvdk‹ usr jrifygw,f? usr&,fvdk‹r[kwfygbl;/ b,fol‹udkyJjzpfjzpf
'Dvdktiftm;pk}uD;rsm;[m udk,fpm;vS,fwa,muftaeeJ‹ a&G;xkwfvdkufEkdifw,fqdkwm[m tifrwefrS
aumif;wJhvuQ%myg? 'gudkvnf; vlwkdif;uae+yD;awmh todtrSwfðyw,fqdkwm[m AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif&JŒ
rdef‹cGef;xJrSmudk ygoGm;ygw,f? usreJ‹ tckvdk aqG;aEG;&r,f/ wkdifyif&r,fqdkvkd‹&Sd&if &Spfq,feJ‹ wa,muf
jzpfaewmayghvdk‹
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifu
ajymoGm;ygw,f?
'g[m
nDnGwfr_&JŒtiftm;udk
todtrSwfðyoGm;wmygyJ? 'Dnd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;r_qdkwm[m usrwdk‹tm;vHk; vdkvm;aeygw,f? ckewkef;u
OD;wifarmif0if;ajymoGm;wJh 'DudpPxJrSm 1962 ckEpS fwkef;uvnf; ausmif;om;rsm;[m ppftm%m&Sifrsm;eJ‹
nd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;ydkifcGifhawmif;cJhw,f? nd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;jcif;tm;jzifh ajyvnfr_udk &SmcJhw,f? 'gayrJh r&cJhygbl;?
Aid to Civil Power vnf; roHk;bJeJ‹? Aid to Civil Power qkdwmvnf; usru
'Dvdkt*Fvdyfpum;ajymcsifvdk‹ r[kwfygbl;? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif ajymcJhwJh toHk;tE_ef;twdkif; usr
oHk;vdkuf&wmjzpfygw,f? Aid to Civil Power t&vnf; rvkyfbJeJ‹ ausmif;om;rsm;udk ESdrfeif;vdkufwm
OD;ae0if;&JŒvufxufrSm pcJhygw,f? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹ ("gwfyHkrsm;vmygonf)
tay: - 0ef}uD;csKyfa[mif;OD;Ek/ AdkvfcsKyfa[mif; OD;wifOD;wdk‹ESifhtwl 13 pufwifbm 1988
atmuf – vkyfazmfudkifzuf ausmif;om;rsm;ESifhtwl 1989 ckESpfY awG‹&pOf
(tquf jyefvmygonf)
bmudk =unfh&rvJ? b,fvdkpOf;pm;&rvJ? tcktcsdefrSmvnf; usr xyfwvJvJajymaeovdkyJ OD;ae0if;&JŒ
trdef‹tm%mt& usrwdk‹ wkdif;jynfudk qufvuf+yD;awmh tkyfcsKyfaeygw,f? 'gudk usrwdk‹
a&Smifvdk‹rjzpfygbl;? usrwdk‹ 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;tm;vHk;wdk‹[m 'gudk rsufESmcsif;qdkif&ygvdrfhr,f?
1962 ckESpfu ausmif;om;vli,frsm;udk owfjzwfcJhw,f? 'Drdkua&pDtaqmuftODjzpfcJhwJh
ausmif;om;or*~udkvnf; òzdcJGcJhw,f? tJ'Dvdk òzdcJGcJhwm/ owfjzwfcJhwm[m OD;ae0if;&JŒ trdef‹t&yJ?
OD;ae0if;&JŒ trdef‹t&/ OD;ae0if;&JŒ oabmxm;t& nd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;r_qdkwmvnf; rjzpfcJhbl;? OD;ae0if;&JŒ
oabmxm;t&/ OD;ae0if;&JŒ trdef‹t& Aid to Civil Power qdkwmudkvnf; oHk;cGifhr&bJeJ‹
ausmif;om;vli,frsm;udkvnf; owfjzwfcJhw,f? tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&ifvnf; (2) &ufavmufuae+yD;awmh
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif[m Aid to Civil Power t& vkyfwm[m “u|ef” oabmxm;a&mufw,f
qkdovdkyJ ajymcJhygw,f? 'DvdkajymcJhwJhtjyif nd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;zdk‹qdkwmvnf; rjzpfbl;qdkwJh oabmxm;udkvnf;
ajymcJhygw,f? 'Dawmh 'g[m b,fol‹oabmxm;awGvJ? usrtaeeJ‹awmh OD;ae0if; oabmxm;awGvdk‹
jrifygw,f? usr 'Dvdkajym&wJhta=umif;[m orkdif;[m usrwdk‹EkdifiHrSm (62) ESpfuae p+yD;awmh tckxd
jzpfcJh&wJh 'kuQaygif;rsm;pGm[m OD;ae0if;&JŒ tjypfrsm;omjzpfw,fvdk‹ qHk;jzwfcsufcsrvm;qdkwm
tckuwnf;u usr ajymEdkifygw,f? 'gudk usr AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifa&m/ OD;ae0if;a&m odatmifvdk‹ 'Duae‹
ajymoGm;csifygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmiftaeeJ‹ OD;ae0if;udk b,favmufyJ umuG,fay;ay;/ umuG,fvdk‹
r&ygbl;? orkdif;u qHk;jzwfcsufcsrSmyg? tck oHk;aewJh enf;vrf;rsm;[m OD;ae0if;&JΠenf;vrf;rsm;jzpfygw,f?
'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrtaeeJ‹ OD;ae0if;&JŒ trdef‹tm%m[m qufvuf+yD;awmh &Sifoefaew,fvdk‹ ajym&wmyg?
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmiftaeeJ‹ OD;ae0if;&JŒ trdef‹tm%m[m qufvuf&Sifoefjcif; r&Sdygbl;qdkwm jycsifvkd‹&Sd&if

'Denf;'Dvrf;awGawmh quf+yD;awmh oHk;vdk‹rjzpfygbl;? nd‡E_dif;aqG;aEG;jcif;udk vufrcHwm[m OD;ae0if;&JŒ
enf;awGyg? jynfolvlxkudk vufeufenf;eJ‹ ESdrfeif;wm[m OD;ae0if;&JŒ enf;awGyg? “ppfwyfqdkwm
rdk;ay:axmif+yD;awmh rypfbl;? wnfhwnfhypfr,f” vdk‹ ajymoGm;wm[mvnf; OD;ae0if;yJ jzpfygw,f?
'ga=umifh
usrwdk‹
'DtcsdefrSm
trsm;}uD;yJ
owdxm;&r,f?
OD;ae0if;&JŒ
avoHudk
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifuwqifh v$ifhaejyef+yD? 'Dvdkv$ifhaewJhtcsdefrSm usrwdk‹ twdwfu jzpf&yfawGudk
jyefpOf;pm;+yD;awmh 'Drkdua&pDtiftm;pkawG[m tifrwefrS owdxm;&r,f? pOf;pm;qifjcif&r,fhtcsdefrSm
a&mufaew,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ odzdk‹vdkygw,f? aemufwcg tidkufrdvdk‹awmh rjzpfygbl;? usrwdk‹tm;vHk;[m
tEW&m,f&Sdw,fqdkwm em;vnf&r,f? 'DtEW&m,f[m b,fuvmw,fqdkwm usrwdk‹tm;vHk;vnf;
od&r,f? todtrSwfðy&rSmjzpfygw,f? tcktcsdefrSmqdk&if usrwdk‹ 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;awG[m
wae‹xufwae‹ ydk+yD;awmh xkd;ESufcsufawG cHae&ygw,f?
apmapmu obmywd}uD; OD;wifOD; ajymoGm;wJhtwkdif; usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyfxJu acgif;aqmifrsm;udk
zrf;yHkqD;yHk[m w&m;Oya'eJ‹ rnDnGwfbl;? 'Dhtjyifvnf; OD;wifarmif0if; ajymoGm;wJhtwdkif;yJ/ t&ifwkef;u
ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfwJh a'gufwmarmifarmifausmfwdk‹/ OD;vSa&$wdk‹udkvnf; zrf;qD;xm;ygw,f?
zrf;qD;xm;yHkawGuvnf; wckrS w&m;Oya'eJ‹ rudkufnDygbl;? w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;qdkwm 'DEdkifiHrSm
vHk;vHk;r&Sdygbl;? e0w tpdk;&taeeJ‹ wm0ef}uD; (4) &yfxJrSm w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&; ygayr,fhvnf;
w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;twGuf vHk;vHk;rxrf;aqmifcJhbl;qdkwmawmh tifrwefrS xif&Sm;ygw,f? 'Dvdk
w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&; r&SdwJh EkdifiHrSm jynfolvlxkudk umuG,fzdk‹wm0ef[m usrwdk‹ 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkawGrSm
&Sdygw,f?
'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;[m
jynfolvlxkudk
tumtuG,fay;&r,f/
tajccHvl‹tcGifhta&;awGomru jynfolvlxk 'kuQqif;&Ja&mufrSm/ xdrSm/ emrSmtwGuf usrwdk‹ tifrwefrS
pdk;&drfygw,f? 'D[mawGtwGuf tumtuG,fawG ay;&r,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹[m rw&m;wJh
trdef‹tm%mudk zDqef&r,fvdk‹ ajymaewmyJ? qlylr_vdkcsifvdk‹ r[kwfygbl;? qlylr_qdkwm[m usrwdk‹twGuf
vdkvm;oifhwJhudpPvnf; r[kwfbl;? jynfolvlxktwGuf tusKd;jzpfr,fhudpPvnf; r[kwfbl;? 'gayrJh
'DtcsdefrSm rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%mudk/ w&m;Oya'udk csKd;azmufaewJh trdef‹tm%mawGudk usrwdk‹
rwGef;vSef rzDqef&ifawmh jynfolvlxk aemufxyf 'kuQa&mufvdrfhr,fqdkwJh todtjrifawGeJ‹ usrwdk‹
'Dtm%mawGudk zDqefae&wmjzpfygw,f? 'gha=umifh 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;[m nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ‹
quf+yD;awmh zDqefoGm;zdk‹ tifrwefrS ta&;}uD;ygw,f? urBmhorkdif;rSm tajccHvl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;&JŒ
&Jabmf}uD;wa,mufjzpfwJh rmwifvlomuif; u wcgwkef;u ajymoGm;ygw,f? olwdk‹rSm
tdyfrufwck&Sdw,fwJh? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹tm;vHk;rSmvnf; tdyfrufwck&Sd&r,f? b,fvdktdyfrufvJ? 'Drdkua&pD
tajccHvl‹tcGifhta&;awG jrefrmEkdifiHrSm xGef;um;a&;twGufyJ? 'gayrJh tdyfrufrufaevdk‹ r+yD;bl;?
'Dtdyfrufudk usrwdk‹ taumiftxnfazmfEkdif&r,f? 'Dtdyfrufudk taumiftxnfazmfEkdifzdk‹[m
usrwdk‹tm;vHk;&JŒ wm0efjzpfygw,f? tm;vHk;&JŒ wm0efrdk‹vdk‹ tm;vHk;uae+yD;awmh nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ‹
xrf;aqmif&r,f? 'DudpPtwGuf usr yxrOD;qHk; 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_xJ yg0ifvmuwnf;u
aqmf=ocJhygw,f? nDnGwf=uyg/ nDnGwf=uyg? tJh'Dtcsdefwkef;u ta&;tcif;umvtwGif;wkef;u qdkvdk‹&Sd&if
ygwDzJG‹pnf;a&;twGuf usrudk ajymwJh/ ar;jref;cJhwJhvlawG &Sdygw,f? usr ajymcJhygw,f?
nDnGwfr_òyduJGrSmpdk;vdk‹ ygwDawGawmh raxmifhoifhbl;xifw,fvdk‹ ajymcJhygw,f? tJh'Dwkef;u 'g[m usrwdk‹
jrefrmhEkdifiHa&;ordkif;udk jyef+yD;awmh =unfhvdkufvdk‹&Sd&if xif&Sm;ygw,f? ygwDrsm;axmifvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹[m
pdwf0rf;uJGwwfw,f? 'g usrwdk‹wkdif;jynf&JŒ tm;enf;csufyJ? nDnGwfr_bufrSm odyf+yD;awmh tm;roefbl;?
nDnGwfr_rSm tm;roefvdk‹/ nDnGwfr_òyduJGrSm pdk;&drfvGef;vdk‹ usr[m ygwDtzJG‹tpnf;rsm; raxmifcsifbl;?
'gayrJhvnf; (18) &ufae‹ pufwifbmaemufydkif;usawmh EkdifiHa&;t& v_yf&Sm;ydkifcGifh twkdif;twmwcktxd
&Sdatmifvdk‹qdk+yD;awmh
ygwDtzJG‹tpnf;rsm;
w&m;0ifrSwfyHkwif+yD;awmh
'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;
v_yf&Sm;vmcJh&ygw,f? 'Dvdk ygwDrsm;axmif+yD;awmh v_yf&Sm;cJh&ayr,fhvnf; trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_}uD;wck

jzpfw,fqdkwmvnf; tm;vHk;od+yD;om;yJ? trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"mwfeJ‹omvkyfzdk‹ ta&;}uD;ygw,f? usrwdk‹&JŒ
ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m wufwufºuGºuG/ owWd&Sd&SdeJ‹ 1988 u EkdifiH&JŒ tpOftvmtwdkif; v_yf&Sm;r_xJrSm
yg0ifcJhw,f? 'Dvdkyg0ifcJhwJh ausmif;om;rsm;a&SŒa&;twGuf usrwdk‹[m ±kef;uef&r,f? 'Dvdkyg0ifcJhwJh
ausmif;om;rsm;[m
aemifjyef+yD;awmh
ynmudk
at;at;aq;aq;eJ‹
qufvufoif+yD;awmh
ynmjynfhpHkwJhtcgusawmh wkdif;jynftusKd;udk xrf;aqmifvmEkdifr,fh tajctaea&mufoGm;atmifvdk‹
usrwdk‹tm;vHk; ulnDay;&r,f? vli,frsm; a&SŒwufEkdifzdk‹twGuf vlvwfrsm;/ vl}uD;rsm;uae+yD;awmh a&SŒu
vrf;cif;ay;&rSmjzpfygw,f? tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if 'Drdkua&pDvrf;udk usrwdk‹tm;vHk; 0dkif;+yD;cif;aeygw,f? 'Dvdk
tm;vHk;0dkif;+yD;awmh cif;aewJhae&mrSm wa,muftay:wa,muf apwem&Sd&Sd/ wa,muftay:wa,muf
em;vnfr_&Sd&SdeJ‹ ulnDoGm;r,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if vrf;}uD;[m jrefjrefqefqef +yD;oGm;rSmyg? 'Dvrf;}uD;cif;w,fqdkwm
EdkifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm; at;at;csrf;csrf;/ omom,m,m/ ºuGºuG&G&GeJ‹ av#mufoGm;zdk‹ r[kwfygbl;?
jynfolvlxk at;at;csrf;csrf;/ omom,m,m/ *k%foduQm&Sd&SdeJ‹ av#mufoGm;zdk‹jzpfygw,f? usrwdk‹[m
vrf;cif;orm;rsm;qdkwJh pdwf"mwfxm;zdk‹ vdkygw,f? jrefrmjynfw0Srf;vHk;rSm av#muf+yD;awmh
=unfhvdkufvdk‹qdkvdk‹&Sd&if vrf;tvkyform;rsm;[m tyifyef;qHk;yJqdkwm tm;vHk; jrifygvdrfhr,f?
tkwfawGudkvnf; cJG&w,f/ aeylusJusJ}uD;xJrSm 'Dtw
k fawGudk cif;&w,f? uwW&mqDylyleJ‹ tvkyfvkyf&w,f?
tckacwfawmh uwW&mqDu enf;enf;eJ‹ oGm;vdk‹ tvkyfawmh enf;enf;oufomwmayghav? 'gayrJh
'DtvkyfawG[m r+yD;jywfao;ygbl;? tJhawmh usrwdk‹[mvnf; 'Dtwkdif;ygyJ? tifrwefrS yifyef;EGrf;e,fwJh
tvkyfawGudk vkyf&r,f? aeylusJusJ}uD;xJrSm aeylcH&r,f? 'D rawmfrw&m;whJ w&m;Oya'tkwfawGudk
qef‹usifwJhtaeeJ‹ usrwdk‹uae cJGypf&r,f? 'DtkwfawGudk cJGypf+yD;awmh jynfolvlxkeif;EkdifwJh
tajctaejzpfatmifvdk‹ usrwdk‹ vrf;udk acsmarmatmifvkyfoGm;&r,f? 'DvdkacsmarmatmifvkyfoGm;rS
usrwdk‹&JŒ tdyfrufudk taumiftxnfazmfEkdifygr,f? tdyfrufomrufwJh vlqdkwm tifrwefrS
tm;enf;wJhvlyg?
'gayrJh
udk,fhtdyfrufudk
taumiftxnfazmfEkdifwJh
vlqdkwm[m
wu,fhtm*ol&Jaumif;}uD;yJ? tdyfrufwckudk ruf+yD;awmh taumiftxnfazmfzdk‹qdkwm[m usrwdk‹&JŒ tck
wm0ef}uD;w&yf jzpfvmygw,f? usrwdk‹rSm wm0ef}uD; 1/ 2/ 3/ 4 awG &Sdzdk‹rvdkygbl;? wm0ef}uD;w&yf &Sdzdk‹om
vdktyfygw,f? 'Drdkua&pDatmifjrifa&;twGufyJ?
usrwdk‹[m usrwkd‹&JŒ vlr_a&;t&yJvm;? bma=umifhvJawmh rodbl;? usrwdk‹&JŒEkdifiHrSm
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jynfolvlxkudk tumtuG,fay;&r,f? bmjzpfvkd‹ 'D EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awG zJG‹xm;ao;vJ? jynfolvlxkeJ‹
tm%mydkifrsm;=um;xJrSm tcktcHwck&Sdzdk‹ zJG‹xm;wmaygh? tpwkef;u bmjzpfvkd‹ 'DEkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awG
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nd‡E_dif;zdk‹/ wkdifyifzdk‹qdkwm rvG,fwma=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ 'DEkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awGeJ‹awmh aqG;aEG;oifhw,f/
nd‡E_dif;oifhw,f/ wkdifyifoifhw,fqdkwm tm;vHk;uvnf; odrSmjzpfygw,f? 'gwifruao;bl;? 'D (200)
ausmfuae+yD;awmh wajz;ajz;aqG;aEG;zdk‹/ wkdifyifzdk‹/ nd‡E_dif;zdk‹ vG,fatmifqdk+yD;awmh usrwdk‹uae+yD;awmh
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jynfolvlxkeJ‹ nd‡E_dif;jcif;/ wkdifyifjcif;/ aqG;aEG;jcif; rvdkvm;wJh taetxm;awGudk usrwdk‹ ajymif;vJ&r,f?
vlxkeJ‹ raqG;aEG;csifbl;/ rwkdifyifcsifbl;/ rnd‡E_dif;csifbl;qdkwm vlxkudk todtrSwfrðywmbJ? jynfolvlxkudk
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ar;vdk‹&Sd&if usr [kwfygw,fvdk‹yJ ajymygw,f? 'g[m usrtwGuf emusifp&mr[kwfygbl;? 'g[m
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jynfaxmifpk}uD;wckudk xlaxmifoGm;apcsifw,f? 'Dtwdkif;yJ usr vkyfoGm;csifygw,f? 'ga=umifh
'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkawGudk usr uwday;Ekdifygw,f? azaz&JΠpdwf"mwftay:awmh usr b,fawmhrS
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qufvuf+yD;awmh csDwufoGm;=uygvdk‹ usr awmif;yef&if;eJ‹ ed*Hk;csKyfygw,f?

19

Zlvkdif ckepf&ufae‹
zqyv tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;Y 7-7-89 ae‹wGif ajym=um;onfh rdef‹cGef;

* * *

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'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹tcsif;csif; 'Denf;udk ydk+yD;awmh oHk;oifhygw,f? tcsif;csif; nd‡E_dif;&r,f/ aqG;aEG;&r,f/
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wkdifyifw,fqdkwm pum;&nfvkyJGr[kwfygbl;? t±_H;tEkdif&SmwJhyJGr[kwfygbl;? jynfolvlxktwGuf
taumif;qHk; tajz&SmwJhyJG jzpfygw,f? 'gudk usrwdk‹tm;vHk; OD;wnf&r,f? ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m
vGwfvyfa&;r&cifuwnf;u EdkifiHa&;rSm yg0ifcJhw,f/ ygvnf; yg0ifoifhygw,f? usrwdk‹tm;vHk;rSm
wm0ef&Sdygw,f? ausmif;om;rsm;[m EkdifiHa&;wm0efrsm;vnf; &Sdw,f? ynma&;wm0efvnf; &Sdw,f?
ynma&;wm0efqdkawmh ausmif;om;rsm;[m ynm&Smzdk‹yJ? 'gayrJh wefzdk;&SdwJhynmqdkwm bmvJ?
usrtjrifawmh wefzdk;&SdwJhynmqdkwm trsm;aumif;usKd;twGuf oHk;EdkifwJh ynmomjzpf&r,f?
trsm;aumif;usKd;twGuf
roHk;EkdifwJh
ynm[m
wefzdk;r&SdEkdifbl;?
'ga=umifh
usrwdk‹

ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m trsm;aumif;usKd;twGuf oHk;EkdifwJh ynmrsKd;udk &Sm&r,f? 'Dvdk&SmwJhae&mrSm
ynmrmefwufzdk‹ r[kwfygbl;? ausmif;om;or*~ òzdcJGa&;udpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ reufwkef;u tcrf;tem;rSm
yg0ifcJhwhJ t&ifwkef;u ausmif;om;a[mif; OD;wifarmif0if;[m ajymoGm;ygw,f? tJh'Dtcsdeftcgwkef;u
tjyifrSm wyfawGu&Sdw,f/ wyfrawmfom;rsm;[m &Sdw,f/ twGif;rSm ausmif;om;rsm;[m &Sdw,f/ tJovdk
wyfrawmfom;rsm;u ausmif;om;rsm;udk aoewfawGeJ‹ csdefxm;wJhtcgusawmh ausmif;om;rsm;[m
a'gojzpf+yD;awmh atmfvdkuf=uw,fwJh? rif;wdk‹ oHk;a,mufaygif;vdk‹rS (7) wef;atmif&JŒvm;vdk‹
ajymvdkuf=uw,fwJh? (=obmoHrsm;) usreJ‹ em;vnfr_vJG+yDvdk‹ xifygw,f? usr rajymoifhbl;vdk‹ ajymrvdk‹/
'Dvdk[m rajymoifhygbl;? 'Dvdk (ajymwm[m) ynmrmefygw,fvdk‹ usr xifygw,f? &Jabmfrsm;/
wyfrawmfom;[mvnf; usrwdk‹&JŒ EkdifiHol/ EkdifiHom;tcsif;csif;yJ? 'DvdkwyfrawmfxJudk 0ifoGm;&wJh
wyfrawmfom;rsm;[m b,fvkdtajctaeu vmvJqdkwm usrwdk‹ jyef+yD;awmh pOf;pm;&r,f?
awmfawmfrsm;rsm;[m qif;&JEGrf;yg;wJh rdom;pkxJu vmwmyg? usrwdk‹wkdif;jynf qif;&Jaevdk‹ tJh'Dvdk
qif;&JEGrf;yg;wJh rdom;pkawG &SdaewmyJ? tJh'Dvdk rdom;pkxJu vlawG[m wyfrawmfxJudk 0if=uw,f?
wyfrawmfxJrSm wm0efxrf;aqmif=uw,f? tJ'Dawmh ynmqdkwmeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ wcgxJ ajymoGm;r,f?
'Dwyfrawmfom;rsm;[m [kwfw,f/ oHk;a,mufaygif;vdk‹ (7) wef;atmifcsifrSvnf; atmifr,f? 'gayrJh
'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹
usrwdk‹[m
ESdrfzdk‹rvdkygbl;?
ta&;tcif;wkef;u
jynfolvlxkatmfoGm;wJh
aºuG;a=umfoHwck&Sdw,f? AdkvfcsKyfay;wJh ppfynm/ ausmif;om;jynfol owfzdk‹ r[kwfbl;wJh? tJ'Dawmh
wyfrawmfom;rsm;udk ppfynmay;xm;w,f? ppfynmqdkwm bmvJ? jynfolvlxkudk umuG,fzdk‹/
jynfolvlxktusKd; xrf;aqmifwJhynmyJ? tJh'Dvdk jynfolvlxktusKd; xrf;aqmifwJh ynmr&Sdvdk‹om
wyfrawmfom;rsm;udk ynmr&Sdbl;vdk‹ usrwdk‹ ajym&rSmyJ? (7) wef;ratmifvdk‹ r[kwfbl;/
q,fwef;ratmifvdk‹ r[kwfbl;? wuUodkvfra&mufvdk‹ r[kwfbl;? rSefrSefuefuef jynfolvlxktusKd;
xrf;aqmifzdk‹ ay;xm;wJhynmukd tvJGoHk;pm; vkyfvdk‹omjzpfw,f? 'Dawmh ynmqdkwm[m
wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;om ydkifqkdifwmr[kwfygbl;? wyfrawmfom;rsm;vnf; ydkifqdkifEkdifw,f? rSefuefwJh
ppfynmudk ydkifqdkifEdkifw,f? 'gayrJh usrwdk‹ (26) ESpftwGif;rSm ausmif;om;awGudkvnf; rSefuefwJh
awG;ac:wwfwJhynmukd ray;xm;bl;? wyfrawmfom;awGudkvnf; rSefuefwJhppfynmudk ray;xm;bl;?
tJh'Dvdk ray;wmvnf; OD;ae0if;yJ? w&m;cHudkawmh usrwdk‹tm;vHk; od&r,f? rsufESmcsif;qkdif&r,f? 'DvdkvlrsKd;
aemif 'Dwkdif;jynfrSm ray:vmatmif usrwdk‹ vkyf&r,f? OD;ae0if; bmjzpfvdk‹ 'Dwkdif;jynfudk
b,favmuf=um=um tkyfpdk;oGm;vJ? usrwdk‹tm;vHk;a=umifhyJ? jynfolvlxku bmjzpfvdk‹ vlwa,muf&JŒ
=oZmtm%m/ rSefrSefrvkyfEkdifwJh vlwa,muf&JΠ=oZmtm%m/ wefzdk;&SdwJh ynmudk em;rvnfwJh
vlwa,muf&JΠ=oZmtm%mudk 'Dwkdif;jynfay:rSm 'Davmuf=um=um v$rf;rdk;cGifhay;oGm;ovJ? 'g
usrwdk‹tm;vHk;rSm wm0ef&Sdygw,f? tck 'DrSm&SdwJh ausmif;om;vli,frsm;uawmh wm0eftuif;vGwfqHk;yJ?
bmjzpfvdk‹vnf;qdkawmh tckawmifrS (26) ESpft&G,fr&SdwJh vli,fawG trsm;}uD;ygyJ? i,fi,fav;awGrdk‹vdk‹
rvkkyfEkdifbl;vdk‹ ajymEdkifygw,f? 'gayrJhvnf; tm;vHk;uawmh wm0ef&SdwmyJ? b,fvdkrS usrwdk‹[m
'Dwm0efatmufu ±kef;uef+yD;awmh xGufvdk‹rjzpfygbl;? EdkifiHwEkdifiH&JŒ uH=urRmudk zefwD;wm[m EkdifiHol/
EkdifiHom;taygif;jzpfw,f? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹tm;vHk;[m wm0ef&SdcJh+yD? t&ifwkef;u tjzpftysufawGtwGuf
wm0ef&SdcJh+yD? rSm;wJhEkdifiHa&;vrf;pOfawG/ rSm;wJhynma&;vrf;pOfawGeJ‹ usrwdk‹wdkif;jynf[m E$JcJh&+yD?
aemifusvdk‹&Sd&if rSefuefwJh EkdifiHa&;vrf;pOfeJ‹ rSefuefwJh ynma&;vrf;pOfawGom 'Dwkdif;jynfrSm &Sdzdk‹vdkygw,f?
'Dawmh usrwdk‹&JŒ ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m tcktcsdefrSm ausmif;awGydwfaew,f? ynma&;eJ‹
uif;uGmaew,fqdkwm ausmif;ynma&;eJ‹ uif;uGmaew,f? avmuxJrSm ynm&Smae&w,f?
avmu}uD;xJrSm
ynm&SmaewJhtcg
EkdifiHa&;todkif;t0dkif;xJrSm
ynm&SmwJhtcgrSmvnf;
wefzdk;&SdwJhynm&Smzdk‹ vdkygw,f? trsm;tusKd;twGufqdkwJh ynm &Sm=uygw,f? trsm;tusKd;twGufqdkwJh
ynm[m ausmif;wcgrS raezl;wJh vlawmifrS &SmEdkifygw,f? 'DvdkynmawG usrwdk‹EkdifiHol/ EkdifiHom;awGrSm

tm;vHk;&Sdvdk‹&Sd&if 'Dwkdif;jynfu EdkifiHa&;pepfuvnf; rSefuefr,f? vlr_a&;pepfuvnf; rSefuefr,f?
vlr_a&;pepf/ EkdifiHa&;pepf/ ynma&;pepf/ pD;yGm;a&;pepfqdkwm tm;vHk; qufEG,faeygw,f? 'gvnf;
tm;vHk;od+yD;om;yJ? 'Dawmh rSefuefwJhynm &Sma&;qdkwm rSefuefwJh EkdifiHa&;vkyfa&;vnf; jzpfygw,f?
wcgxJeJ‹ ausmif;om;rsm;[m EdkifiHa&;a&m/ ynma&;a&m atmifatmifjrifjrif vkyfoGm;Ekdifygw,f?
'DtcsdefrSm ausmif;rsm;ydwfaewmawmifrS atmifatmifjrifjrif vkyfoGm;Edkifygw,f?
tckqdkvdk‹&Sd&if ckESpf Zlvdkifv (7 Zlvdkif) owd&wJhtcgrSm tifrwefrS 0rf;enf;w,f?
wdk‹&JŒwdkif;jynfrSm tifrwefrS ±dkif;±dkif;pdkif;pdkif; ðyrloGm;=uw,f? ,Ofaus;wJh wkdif;jynfwckrSm rjzpfoifh/
rjzpfxdkufwJh jzpf&yfawG[m jzpfoGm;=uw,f? ,Ofaus;wJhwkdif;jynfwck jyef+yD;awmhjzpfatmif usrwdk‹
óud;pm;&r,f? 'Dvdk,Ofaus;wJh wkdif;jynfwckjzpfzdk‹qdkwmuvnf; ausmif;om;vli,frsm;&JŒ vufxJrSm
&Sdygw,f? apmapmu 0d"l&OD;cspfarmif ajymoGm;wJhtwkdif;yJ tem*wfqdkwmuvnf; vli,fawG&JΠvufxJrSm
trsm;qHk;yJ&Sdygw,f?
'Dtem*wfudk
csDwufoGm;wJhtcsdefrSm
rSefrSefuefuef
csDwufoGm;=uyg?
usrwdk‹wdkif;jynf&JŒ a&SŒa&;udk t+rJyJ=unfhyg? 'ga=umifh usrwdk‹ wrifoufouf wyfrawmfom;rsm;&JŒ
ynma&;udk xnfh+yD;awmh ajymwmyg? wyfrawmfe‹J jynfol tpOft+rJuGJaevdk‹awmh rjzpfygbl;?
'Dwyfrawmfom;rsm;[m tifrwefrS qif;&JwJh todkif;t0dkif;rsm;u vmw,fqdkwm usrwdk‹ owdxm;&r,f?
'ga=umifhrdk‹vkd‹
usrwdk‹rSm
=uifempdwfawG
&Sd&r,f?
'Dwyfrawmfom;rsm;[m
usrwdk‹
wuUodkvfausmif;om;awGvkd ynmoif&wJh tcGifhta&;awG r&SdcJhbl;? wyfrawmfxJrSm OD;ae0if;wdk‹vkd
yk*~KdvfrsKd;ay;vdkufwJh ppfynmawG/ rrSefruefwJh ppfynmawGom &SdcJhw,f? 'Dawmh 'DvdkrrSefruefwJh
ppfynmawGtpm; rSefuefwJhtrsKd;om;a&;pdwf"mwfawG usrwdk‹ jyef+yD;awmh oGif;ay;&r,f? 'g tm;vHk;rSm
wm0ef&Sdygw,f? EdkifiHwEdkifiH[m tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkifEkdifiHjzpfzdk‹/ wnfwHhckdif+rJ/ *k%foduQm&SdwJhwyfrawmf
&Sdzdk‹ vdkygw,f? tcktcsdefrSmawmh txl;ojzifh pdwf0rf;uJGaewmuawmh ausmif;om;awGeJ‹
wyfrawmf=um;xJrSmyJ? bmjzpfvdk‹vnf;qdkawmh wyfrawmfvufxJrSm tcH&qHk;u ausmif;om;awGyJ?
'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ ausmif;om;awG&JŒ pdwfxJrSm tifrwefrS emusnf;ae=uw,f? c%c%yJ usrudk ajymygw,f?
ppfqdkvdk‹ a&awmifppfraomufzl;vdk‹ usrudk ajymygw,f? a& ppfraomufvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh ydk;0if±HkyJ&Sdw,f?
tJ'Dawmh usrwdk‹ 'DvdkpdwfawG xm;vdk‹rjzpfbl;? ausmif;om;rsm;[m ynmoifwJhvlawGyJ? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹
ydk+yD;awmh oabmxm;}uD;&r,f? ydk}uD;awmh tjrifus,f&r,f? oabmxm;}uD;}uD; tjrifus,fus,feJ‹
cGifhv$wfEkdifwJh pdwf"mwfawG &Sd&r,f? ynmr&SdwJhvleJ‹ ±kef;aevdk‹/ ebrf;owfaevdk‹vnf; roifhawmfygbl;?
'Dawmh udk,feJ‹ wef;wlnDwljzpfatmif ynmay;+yD;rS ebrf;owfwmrS ebrf;owf&usKd; eyfygw,f? 'ga=umifh
óud;pm;=uyg?
ppfynmrsm; jyef+yD;awmh oifay;Ekdif&r,f/ ppfynmqdkwm jynfol‹twGuf/ jynfol‹udk umuG,fzdk‹/
jynfoludkowfzdk‹ r[kwfbl;qdkwm usrwdk‹ jyef+yD;awmh oifay;&r,f?
tcktcsdefrSm usrwdk‹ owdxm;&ygvdrfhr,f? rae‹wae‹wkef;u AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifajymoGm;wJh
rdef‹cGef;xJrSm jynfolvlxkukd +cdrf;ajcmufwJh t&dyfta,mifawG ygw,fvdk‹ usr jrifygw,f? 'Dvdk
+cdfrf;ajcmufwJh t&dyfta,mifqdkwm usr vHk;vkHk;rESpfoufygbl;? 'Dvdk tm%mudk udkif+yD;awmh/ vufeufudk
udkif+yD;awmh jynfolvlxkudk +cdrf;ajcmufw,fqdkwm tifrwefrS roifhawmfygbl;? enf;trsKd;rsKd;eJ‹
r[kwfrrSefuefwmawG ajym+yD;awmh 'Drdkua&pDa&;udk xdk;ESufaew,f? 'gawGu qdk;vS+yD? ckusawmh
tm%mpufoHk;r,fqdk+yD;awmh +cdrf;ajcmufvmwJhtcgusawmh tifrwefrS vGefaeyg+yD? usrwdk‹EkdifiHrSm
tm%mpuf quf+yD;awmh oHk;oGm;r,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh b,fvdkrS tzwfq,fEkdifrSm r[kwfbl;?
jynfolvlxkuvnf; b,fawmhrS cGifhv$wfEkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? tm%mpufoHk;wJh tavhtx}uD;udkawmh
usrwdk‹ 'Duae+yD;awmh &yfqkdif;&awmhr,f? e0w taeeJ‹ EkdifiHtay:rSm apwem&Sd&if/ e0w taeeJ‹
OD;ae0if;&JŒ trdef‹tm%mudk vGefqef&JwJh owWd&Sd&if tm%mpufqdkwJh pum;vHk;ukd vHk;vHk; quf+yD;awmh
roHk;ygeJ‹awmh? jynfolvlxkeJ‹ 'Drdkua&pDvdkvm;wJh tiftm;pkawGeJ‹ nd‡E_dif;/ aqG;aEG;/ wdkifyif&JwJh owWdudkom

arG;jrLyg? tJh'grS wu,fhowWdyg? aoewf}uD;&Sdvdk‹ ypf&Jw,fqdkwm[m owWdr[kwfygbl;? bmrS vufxJrSm
r&SdbJeJ‹ trSefw&m;t& tajz&SmcsifwJh owWdrsKd;om usrwdk‹ vkdcsifygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹
ausmif;om;vli,frsm;/ 'Drkdua&pDvdkvm;wJh tiftm;pkrsm;uvnf; twdwfujzpf&yfrsm;udk pOf;pm;+yD;awmh
rSefrSefuefuefvkyfzdk‹ oEMdÏmefcs=uyg? usr 'g xyfwvJvJajymaewJhudpPyg? rSefrSefuefuefvkyf&if usrwdk‹
wae‹r[kwfwae‹ atmifjrif&r,f? jynfolvlxk&JŒ rSefuefwJhtiftm;/ nDnGwfr_tiftm;udk b,folrS
a&&SnfvGefqefEkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? e0w vnf; vGefqefEkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? wyfrawmfvnf; vGefqefEkdifrSm
r[kwfbl;?
e0wwdk‹/
wyfrawmfwdk‹qdkwmuvnf;
jynfolvlxku
au|;arG;xm;wJh
tzJG‹tpnf;awGjzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh jynfolvlxktay:rSm tifrwefrS aus;Zl;&Sdygw,f? aus;Zl;&Sifudk
aus;Zl;rodwwfvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh 'kuQa&mufp+rJyJ? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹&JŒ ausmif;om;vli,frsm;taeeJ‹
pdwf"mwfrusygeJ‹? +cdrf;ajcmufwma=umifh ra=umufygeJ‹? 'gayrJh owWdqdkwmawmh &Sdyg? usrudk
q&mawmf}uD;wyg;uae+yD;awmh rdef‹vdkufovdkayghav? t&ifwkef;u azazhudkvnf; rdef‹cJhygw,fqdk+yD; usrudk
xyf+yD;awmh rdef‹vdkufygw,f? ajcmufwkdif;vnf; ra=umufygeJ‹/ ra=umufbJvnf; raeygeJ‹ayghav?
ajcmufwkdif;vnf;
ra=umufygeJ‹/
ra=umufbJvnf;
raeygeJ‹qdkwm[m
owdxm;&r,f?
tumtuG,f,l&r,f?
'Dvdk+cdrf;ajcmufaew,fqkdwm
em;vnf&r,f?
b,fvdkoabmeJ‹
+cdrf;ajcmufaeovJqdkwm usrwdk‹ em;vnf&r,f? usrwdk‹&JŒ taumif;qHk;tumtuG,fuawmh
nDnGwfr_tiftm;yJ/ pnf;urf;yJ? usrwdk‹ nDnDnGwfnGwf pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ vkyfoGm;r,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹udk
&ef&Smzdk‹ tifrwefrS cJ,Of;ygvdrfhr,f? tckvdk ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m pnf;urf;&Sd&Sd wnDwnGwf
tcrf;tem;}uD; usif;yoGm;Ekdifw,fqdkwm[m tifrwefrS tm;wufp&mjzpfygw,f? reufwkef;uvnf;
ygwDaygif;rsm;pGm[m
(7)
&ufae‹
Zlvkdifv
tcrf;tem;rsm;udkvnf;
usif;yoGm;ygw,f?
'DvdknDnGwfr_tiftm;[m wae‹xufwae‹ wufvmw,fqdkwm jrifawG‹&ygw,f? 'DvdkwufvmwJh
nDnGwfr_tiftm;eJ‹yJ usrwdk‹ atmifyef;udk qifEkdifygw,f? udk,fvdkcsifwJhyef;wdkifudk a&mufoGm;rSmyg?
wajz;ajz; r[kwfbJeJ‹ ydk+yD;awmh jrefjrefqefqef a&mufa&;twGuf usrwdk‹ ydk+yD;awmh óud;pm;&r,f?
'Dhaemuf wv/ ESpfvtwGif;rSm qdkvdk‹&Sd&if tcrf;tem;trsKd;rsKd; usif;y&r,fqdkwm usr
ajymcJhygw,f? 'DudpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifuae+yD;awmh (7) &ufae‹ Zlvkdifv/ (19) &ufae‹
Zlvdkifvqdk+yD;awmh }udrf;armif;aew,fvdk‹ ajymoGm;ygw,f? usr }udrf;armif;aewm r[kwfygbl;?
owday;aewmyg/ jynfolvlxkudk? 'Dtcrf;tem;awG&Sdw,f? 'Dtjzpftysuftm;vHk;[m usrwdk‹EkdifiHrSm
EdkifiHa&;jy\emrsm;udk vufeufenf;eJ‹ ajz&Sif;cJhvdk‹jzpfw,f? aemifxyf+yD;awmh vufeufenf;eJ‹
EkdifiHa&;jy\emrsm; rajz&Sif;Ekdifatmifvdk‹ usrwdk‹ óud;yrf;oGm;&r,f? pnf;urf;&Sd&Sd/ at;at;csrf;csrf;eJ‹
óud;yrf;oGm;&r,f? 'gyJ usr xyfwvJvJ ajymoGm;wmyg? usr pyDumraumif;vdk‹ atmfrdvdk‹
}udrf;armif;aew,fxifovm;awmh rodygbl;? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹ jynfolvlxku 'gudk pdwfxJrSmxm;yg? aemif
'Dwkdif;jynfrSm EkdifiHa&;jy\emrsm;udk vufeufenf;eJ‹ rajz&Sif;a&;/ rajz&Sif;Ekdifatmifvdk‹ usrwdk‹
óud;pm;&r,f? quf+yD; óud;pm;oGm;&rSmyJ? 'D ESpfv/ oHk;v&JŒ jy\emrsm;udk usrwdk‹ atmifatmifjrifjrif
ausmfv$m;Ekdifvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh 'Drdkua&pDudk jrefjrefqefqef &Ekdifw,fvdk‹ usr ,Hk=unfygw,f? t&ifht&ifwkef;u
ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m
wkdif;jynf&JŒtusKd;udk
xrf;aqmifcJhovdk
tckacwf
ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[mvnf; quf+yD;awmh wdkif;jynf&JŒtusKd;udk xrf;aqmifoGm;Ekdifr,fvdk‹ usr
,Hk=unfygw,f?
'D,Hk=unfcsuftwdkif;yJ
tm;vHk;
nDnDnGwfnGwf/
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20

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21

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0rf;enf;p&mudpPjzpfygw,f? 'Dvdk a&SŒwef;rSm usrwdk‹ wyfrawmfom;rsm; usqHk;aewmvnf; =umyg+yD?
jynfwGif;ppf}uD;a=umifh 'DvkdyJ usqHk;ae=u&ygw,f? 'DjynfwGif;ppf}uD; +idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf (26) ESpftwGif;
OD;ae0if; bmvkyfcJhovJ? bmrSrvkyfcJhygbl;?

22

owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJG trSwf – 6
Towif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGudk 1989 ckESpfwGif a':atmifqef;pk=unf. aetdrfY usif;yonf[k ,lq&aomfvnf;
usif;yonfhae‹&ufudk pmwnf;taeESifh odEkdifpGrf;r&Sdyg?
* * *
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ydk+yD;awmh tqifajyvdrfhr,fvdk‹ xifygw,f? tck e0w[m qdkvdk‹&Sd&if =umoyaw;ae‹wkef;u

owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGwck
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'DudpPav;awGudkawmh usr ajz&Sif;csifygw,f? b,fbufu tjypf&Sdw,f/ b,fbufu tjypfr&Sdbl;qdkwm
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usrudk wdkufcdkufw,fvdk‹ jrifygw,f? 'g[m yk*~Kv
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ajymoGm;ygw,f? 'D[mudk csefxm;+yD;awmh usr[m wyfrawmfòyduJGa&;twGuf vkyfaew,fqdkwm
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usr pnf;±Hk;a&;c&D;xGufwm[m atmufwdkbmv 1988 ckESpfujzpfygw,f? wkdif; (4) wkdif;eJ‹
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usr wdkufcdkufwJhvl&Sdvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹twGif;xJu vlawGyJ? usrwdk‹tzJG‹twGif;u ae&mtwGuf/
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vlig;a,mufxuf ydkygw,fqdk+yD;awmh usrwdk‹&JŒ pnf;±Hk;a&;wm0efcHrsm;udk ta&;,lcJhw,f? 'g[m (20)
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vlxk[m oufomr,f? c%c% ajymvsufeJ‹ EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;rsm; (200) ausmfw,f/
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wkdif;oljynfom;vlrsm; pdwfqif;&JapwJh udpPrSefor#[m tjypfyJ? 'gyJ usrajymr,f? bmyJjzpfjzpf
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aoewfazmufaewm[m jynfolvlxkudk +cdrf;ajcmufaewmyJ? jynfolvlxkudk +cdrf;ajcmufaewmudk
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ajymcsifygw,f?

23

jynfolvdkcsifwm atmifqef;vrf;pOf
1989 ck ZlvkdifwGif ajym=um;aom tmZmenfae‹ tóudrdef‹cGef;

* * *

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tcGifhta&;awGudk csKyfcs,fwJhvlrsm;uom qlylatmif v_H‹aqmfjcif;jzpfygw,f? tmZmenfae‹usvdk‹&Sd&if
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bmrS qlylzdk‹ r[kwfbl;/ v_H‹aqmfzdk‹ r[kwfbl;/ aºuG;a=umfzdk‹ r[kwfygbl;? usrwdk‹ vkyfp&m&Sdwmudk
tmZmenfukef;usrS vkyfrSmyg? *g&0ðyr,f/ tav;ðyr,f/ wkdifwnfcsifvnf; wkdifwnfEdkifygw,f?
'Dawmh tmZmenfae‹rSm jynfolvlxktm;vHk;[m wnDwnGwfwnf;eJ‹ atmifqef;vrf;pOfudk
axmufcHw,fqdkwm jy=uyg? 'g[m tifrwefrS ta&;}uD;ygw,f? e0weJ‹ wyfrawmftaeeJ‹ azazhudk
wyfrawmf&JŒ zcif}uD;/ zcif}uD; ajym+yD;awmh azazh&JŒ n$ef=um;csufrsm;t& vdkufem=uygvdk‹ usr ajym&rSmyJ?
yg;pyfuawmh zcif}uD;/ zcif}uD; ajymae+yD;awmh vufuawmh wjcm;vkyfckdif;wm vkyfaevdk‹ rjzpfygbl;? 'gudk
usrwdk‹ jynfolvlxktm;vHk; oabmaygufapcsifygw,f?
tck e0w vkyfyHkvkyfenf;awGuawmh atmifqef;vrf;pOfeJ‹ rudkufnDygbl;? azaz[m nd‡E_dif;/
aqG;aEG;/ wkdifyifzdk‹ tifrwefrS vdkvm;cJhygw,f? +Adwdo#e,fcsJŒtpdk;&udkvnf; nd‡E_dif;yg/ aqG;aEG;ygqdk+yD;
ajymcJhygw,f? bk&ifcH a':refprpf[m ppf+yD;cgp jyefvmwJhtcgwkef;u 'Dvdknd‡E_dif;/ aqG;aEG;/ wdkifyifjcif;udk
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tJ'Dwkef;u bk&ifcH[mvnf; e0w usrwdk‹udk wdkufcdkufovdk azazhudkvnf; wdkufcdkufcJhw,f?
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+cdrf;ajcmufcJhw,f? tck e0w u b,fhES,fh e,fcsJŒtpdk;&&JŒ yHko¾meftwdkif; xyfaewmvJ?
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jyef+yD;awmh qifjcifygawmh? atmifqef;vrf;pOfuae+yD;awmh jynfolvlxkeJ‹ vufwJG+yD;awmh
csDwufoGm;rvm;? rSm;aewJh ae0if; rqv vrf;pOfeJ‹yJ quf+yD;awmh oGm;rvm;?
tckqdkvdk‹&Sdvdk‹&Sd&if AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;&JŒ rdef‹cGef;aumufEkwfcsufrsm;qdk+yD;awmh owif;pmxJrSm
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tpdk;&t&mxrf;/
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azaz[m w&m;ojzifh vkyfapcsifwJhqENawG trsm;}uD;&Sdw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'DvdkrS jywfjywfom;om;
raqmif&Guf0Hh=u&ifvnf; aqmif&Guf0HhwJhvlawGudk ae&mz,fay;=uapcsifw,f? 'Dtwdkif;yJ usr ajym&rSmyJ?
w&m;r#r#wweJ‹ jynfol‹&JŒtusKd;udk jywfjywfom;om; raqmif&Guf0Hh&J&if aqmif&Guf0HhwJhvlawGudk
ae&mjrefjrefz,fay;yg? 'grSyJ at;rSmyJ? tpdk;&tr_xrf;/ t&mxrf;qdkwm trSefpifppfawmh udk,fh0wW&m;udk
ausyGefatmif xrf;aqmifzdk‹yJ?

AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif ajymoGm;ygw,f? wyfrawmf[mvnf; 0efxrf;awGyJwJh? tJhawmh
0efxrf;rsm;[m udk,fh&JŒ 0wW&m;udk ausyGefatmif xrf;yg? wyfrawmf&JŒwm0ef[m jynfolvlxkudk
umuG,fzdk‹/ apmifha&Smufzdk‹ jzpfygw,f? jynfolvlxkudk ypfowfzdk‹ r[kwfygbl;qdkwm 'Duae‹ usrwdk‹
ajym&rSmyJ?
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igwdk‹aeapcsifovdk raevdk‹&Sdvdk‹&Sd&if ypfowfr,fqdkwJh oabmxm;a&mufygw,f? 'gudk usr eJeJrS
vufrcHEkdifygbl;?
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aezdk‹ jzpfygw,f? rae‹uqdkvdk‹&Sd&ifvnf; ygygw,f? vkyfom;jynfol‹ae‹pOfxJrSm azazh&JŒ
rdef‹cGef;aumufEkwfcsufwck/ EkdifiHa&;tm%mudk w&m;aomenf;rsm;xJu rnfonfhenf;ESifhrqdk w&m;twdkif;
vkyf=uygwJh? w&m;aomenf;rsm;wJh? usrwdk‹ w&m;aomenf;eJ‹ vkyfaewmyJ? usrwdk‹ ajym+yD;+yD? tJh'D[mudk
e0w &JŒ owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGrSmawmif ygygw,f? usrwdk‹[m rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mawGudk
zDqefaewmyg? w&m;aomenf;eJ‹ EkdifiHa&;tm%mudkawmifrS usrwdk‹[m &atmifvkyfaewm r[kwfygbl;?
w&m;aomenf;eJ‹ EkdifiHa&;jy\emrsm;udk ajz&Sif;zdk‹ óud;pm;aewmjzpfygw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'DvdkvkyfwJhvlawGudk
“w&m;Oya'eJ‹ avsmfnDpGm usaemfwdk‹u tpGrf;ukefumuG,fay;rnfwJh”? b,frSmvJ w&m;Oya'eJ‹
avsmfnDpGm usrwdk‹udk umuG,fay;aewm? usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf0ifawGeJ‹ jynfolvlxkudk rw&m;wJhenf;awGeJ‹
zrf;qD;aew,f? rw&m;wJhenf;awGeJ‹ zrf;qD;ae±Hkwifru usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf&JŒ twGif;a&;rª;jzpfwJh
OD;0if;wifqdkvdk‹&Sd&if w&m;Oya't& tmrcH ay;&r,fqdkwJh tr_rSmawmifrS w&m;Oya'udk azmufcsKd;+yD;awmh
tmrcH ray;bl;? 'Dawmh usrwdk‹udk rw&m;wJhenf;awGeJ‹ tkyfpdk;aevdk‹/ w&m;wJhenf;awGeJ‹ umuG,fr_
ray;aevdk‹ usrwdk‹[m rw&m;wJh trdef‹tm%mudk zDqefae&wmyJ? 'Dvdk rw&m;wJhtrdef‹tm%mawGudk
zDqefwJhae&mrSm usrwdk‹[m at;at;csrf;csrf;/ pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ vkyfoGm;r,fqdkwmvnf; xyfwvJvJ
ajymygw,f? 'Dvdk xyfwvJvJajymaewJhtxJu oabmraygufwmawmh raygufcsifvdk‹bJvdk‹ usr
xifygw,f?
wyfrawmfeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹vnf;
wyfrawmfom;rsm;[m
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wkduf&w,fqdkwmudk c%c% ajymygw,f? a&SŒwef;rSm yifyifyef;yef;wdkuf&w,f? aemufwef;rSm
vHkòcHa&;vkyf&w,f? vHkòcHa&;twGuf usrwdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfu wm0ef,lay;ygw,f?
wyfrawmfom;rsm; at;at;aq;aq; aeyg? 'Dvdk jynfolvlxktpnf;ta0;awG vkyfwJhtcgusvdk‹&Sd&if
pnf;urf;xdef;odrf;a&;/ vHkòcHa&;twGuf usrwdk‹ wm0efcH&Jw,f? wyfrawmfom;awGudk bmrS
'kuQray;csifygbl;? at;at;aq;aq; wyfwef;vsm;xJrSm 0if=uyg?
tJh'Dvkdaer,fqdk&if wyfrawmfom;awGvnf; oufomw,f/ usrwdk‹ jynfolvlxkvnf;
oufomw,f/ wyfrawmftwGufvnf; trsm;}uD;*k%foduQm&Sdygw,f? wyfrawmfqdkwm rvkyfoifh/
rvkyfxdkufwJhudpPawG vkyfaevdk‹&Sd&if *k%foduQm trsm;}uD;yJ usygw,f? 'Dvkd *k%foduQmusapwJhudpPawGudk
quf+yD;awmh rvkyfygeJ‹? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifeJ‹ e0w taeeJ‹ wu,fyJ wyfrawmfom;awGtay:rSm
apwem&Sdw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if wyfrawmfom;awG zwfzwfarmaeatmifvkd‹ wòrd‹vHk;udk vSnfhvnf+yD;awmh
jynfolvlxkudk r+cdrf;ajcmufckdif;ygeJ‹?
tmZmenfae‹udpPeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹vnf; usrwdk‹&JŒ jynfolvlxk[m vufeufudkifwyfrsm;
r&Sdbl;qdkvdk‹&Sd&if tm;vHk; at;at;csrf;csrf;/ pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ‹ jzpfap&r,fvdk‹ usr tmrcH&Jygw,f?
vufeufudkifwyfrsm;&SdrSom v_yfv_yf&Sm;&Sm;jzpfwmyg? 'Dawmh usr 'Duae+yD;awmh usreJ‹ raqG;aEG;/
rnd‡E_dif;/ rwdkifyifcsifwJh e0wudk 'Duae‹yJ ajym&rSmyJ? tmZmenfae‹rSm pnf;urf;&Sd&Sd/
at;at;csrf;csrf;jzpfzdk‹twGuf vufeufudkifwyfrsm; rcsxm;ygeJ‹? a0;a0;uae+yD;awmh ae=uyg?

aemufwckvnf; usr ajymcsifygw,f? 'D e0w tpdk;&vufxufrSm ydk+yD;awmh tmZmenfae‹udk *k%f&Sd&SdeJ‹
vkyfoGm;r,fvdk‹ ajymygw,f?
tmZmenfae‹eJ‹ywfouf+yD; usr pOf;pm;ygw,f? orw}uD; ref;0if;armif vufxufwkef;u
jynfaxmifpktpdk;&vufxufwkef;uayghav/
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qdkvdk‹&Sd&if
tmZmenfae‹udk orw}uD; OD;0if;armifudk,fwkdif wufa&mufygw,f? aemufydkif; rqvtpdk;& wuf+yD;awmh
wajz;/ wajz; orwuae 0ef}uD;csKyf/ 0ef}uD;csKyfuae aemufqHk;usawmh 0ef}uD;wa,mufyJ
tmZmenfae‹tcrf;tem;udk wufygw,f? 'g[m bmoabmvJvdk‹ usrwdk‹ ar;&rSmyJ? wae‹eJ‹wae‹
tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;awG&JŒ u¾udk arS;rSdefzdk‹ wrifoufoufvkyfwmvm;? 'DvdkvkyfcsifwJh
pdwfawGuawmh OD;ae0if;&JŒ pdwfawGyJvdk‹ usr xifygw,f? 'Dawmh wu,fyJ atmifqef;vrf;pOfudk
vkyfcsifw,f? wu,fyJ wyfrawmf&JŒ zcif[m AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;yg qdkwmudk em;vnfw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if
bmjzpfvdk‹ tmZmenfae‹rSm wyfrawmfu =unf;/ a&/ av (OD;pD;csKyf) awGu tav;rðyovJ? usr
ar;&rSmyJ? wyfrawmf&JŒ zcifyJ? wyfrawmfuvm+yD;awmh tav;ðy&rSmaygh?
tJhawmh wu,fyJ zcifqdkwm em;vnfw,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if =unf;/ a&/ av OD;pD;csKyfrsm;
tm;vHk;wuf+yD;awmh tmZmenfae‹rSm tav;ðyyg? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifudk,fwkdifvnf; wuf+yD;awmh
tav;ðyyg? tJh'D[mudk =unfh/ jynfolvlxk 'gudk avhvm=uyg? tmZmenfae‹us&if b,folawG
oGm;+yD;awmh
tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;awGudk
tav;ðyovJ?
b,favmuf
tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;awGudk av;pm;ovJqdkwm jynfolvlxk oHk;oyf=unfh=uyg? tJh'DawmhrS
odygvdrfhr,f? usrwdk‹taeeJ‹awmh tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;udk av;pm;aomtm;jzifh csDwuf+yD;awmh
tav;ðyrSmyJ? 'gudkvnf; usr[m e0weJ‹ nd‡E_dif;/ aqG;aEG;/ wkdifyif+yD;awmh vkyfcsifygw,f? 'gayrJh tcktxd
rnd‡E_dif;bl;/ raqG;aEG;bl;/ rwkdifyifbl;qdk+yD;awmh bl;}uD;yJ jiif;aewmyJ?
tcktcsdefrSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹ EkdifiHrSm jy\emawG trsm;}uD;&SdwJhtxJrSm qefjy\em[m
tifrwefrS }uD;ygw,f? 'Djy\emeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ usrwdk‹ EdkifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awGuyJ vkyfvkd‹
qefaps;}uD;ovdkvdk/ qefr&Sdovdkvdk ajymaeygw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'D[mudkawmh usrwdk‹ ajymcsifygw,f?
tpdk;&&JŒ vufxJrSm qefawG&Sdygw,f? wu,fyJ qefjy\emudk ajyvnfapcsifvdk‹&Sd&if tpdk;&[m
vkyfEkdifygw,f? e0w u vkyfvdkufyg? e0w vufxJrSm&SdwJh qefawGudk jzef‹jzL;vdkufr,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if
'Dwkdif;jynfrSm qefjy\emrwufygbl;? qefjy\emudk wu,fyJ ajz&Sif;csif&if e0wrSm ajz&Sif;EdkifwJh
pGrf;tif&Sdw,f? rajz&Sif;csifvdk‹om rajz&Sif;wmyJ? usrwdk‹ EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awGeJ‹ bmrS rqkdifbl;?
'DEdkifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awGtxJrSm qef0,f+yD;awmh odkavSmifEkdifwJh taetxm;&Sdwm/ ydkufqH&Sdwm wpn
wckyJ &Sdygw,f? 'Dawmh qefawG 0,f+yD;awmh odkavSmif+yD;awmh qefaps;wufatmifvkyfwJh tzJG‹tpnf;
EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;[m b,f[mvJvdk‹ &Smvdkufvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh wpn wckyJ awG‹rSmyJ? tJh'Dawmh e0wtaeeJ‹
'Dvkdqefaps;}uD;atmifvkyfwJh tzJG‹tpnf;awGudk rauseyfvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh wpnudk ta&;,loifhw,fvdk‹ usr
xifygw,f?
tck ar;cGef;av;awG wufvmygw,f? wufvmwJh ar;cGef;xJrSm AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifuae+yD;awmh
ol‹&JŒrdef‹cGef;rSm usr[m wcgwkef;u (2) ESpfavmuf=umrS a&G;aumufyJGrsm;jzpfEkdifw,fvdk‹ ajymoGm;w,fvdk‹
qdkygw,f? usr tJh'Dwkef;u ajymcJhwm rSefygw,f? usr 0efcHygw,f? usr b,fawmhrS vdrfrajymygbl;?
[kwfw,f? tJh'Dwkef;u u|HajymcJhw,f? wu,f ygwDrsm; awmifhawmifhwif;wif; jzpfatmifvdk‹
axmifzdk‹qdkwm tenf;qHk; (2) ESpfavmuf vdkr,f/ 'gvnf; rSefwJhtwdkif;yJ? tcktcsdefrSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyfaum/ wjcm;EkdifiHa&;tzJG‹tpnf;awGaum zJG‹pnf;wJhae&mrSm yDjyifoifhoavmuf
ryDjyifao;bl;? tcsdefurS r&Sdao;bJ? 'gayrJhvnf; 'DavmufawmifrS jynfolvlxk 'kuQa&mufaewJh
tcgusvdk‹&Sd&if ydk+yD;awmh jrefjrefqefqef a&G;aumufyJGawG vkyfoifhw,fvdk‹ usrwkd‹ xifygw,f? 'Dvdk
a&G;aumufyJGawG jrefjrefqefqefvkyfrS jynfolvlxk oufomrSmyJ? tJ'Dawmh usr tJ'Dwkef;u (2)

ESpf=umatmif apmifh&w,fvdk‹ ajymcJh&if usr rSm;ygw,f? usr 0efcHw,f? tcktcsdefrSmawmh usr
jrifwmuawmh tjrefqHk; a&G;aumufyJGawG vkyfay;zdk‹ vdkygw,f? 'Dawmh usrbufu rSm;vdk‹&Sd&if usr 0efcHzdk‹
0efrav;ygbl;? 0efcHyghr,f? e0wbufuvnf; trSm;t,Gif;awG&Sdvdk‹&Sd&if 0efcHygvdk‹ usru
awmif;yefcsifygw,f?
'gayrJh bmyJajymajym a&G;aumufyJGawGjzpfwJh tcsdefusvdk‹&Sd&ifawmh usr ajymwJhtcsdefuae (2)
ESpfavmufeD;yg;awmh jzpfoGm;yg+yD? tJh'Dawmh odyfvnf; usr rSm;w,fvdk‹awmh rqdkEdkifbl;aygh? usrwdk‹
EdkifiHa&;vkyfwJhae&mrSm rrSm;wJhvlqdkwm r&Sdygbl;? ta&;}uD;wmu rSm;vdk‹&Sd&if 0efcH&r,f? jyef+yD;awmh
jyif&r,f? tckjy\emu e0w u ae+yD;awmh trSm;qdkwm[m b,fawmhrS r&Sdbl;vdk‹qdk+yD;awmh
xm;aewmyJ? b,fawmhrS rSm;w,f&,fvdk‹ r0efcb
H l;? vl}uD;wa,muftaeeJ‹/ txl;ojzifh vufeuf/
tm%mudk udkifxm;wJh vl}uD;rsm;taeeJ‹ usKyfwdk‹awmh rSm;w,fAsmvdk‹ 0efcHvdkuf&if b,favmuf
*k%foduQm&SdovJ? jynfolvlxk[m b,favmuf av;pm;oGm;rvJ? 'gawGudk rpOf;pm;=ubl;?
tcktcsdefusawmh 'Dvdk usKyfwdk‹rSm;w,fvdk‹ r0efcHbJeJ‹ usKyfwdk‹vufxJrSm aoewf&Sdw,fcsnf;yJ
ajymaewmyJ? 'g tifrwefrS roifhawmfwJh udpPawGyg?
'gvnf; ckeudpPa=umifh ar;wmyJeJ‹ wlw,f? c%av;aemf? “tmZmenfae‹ csDwuftav;ðy&m
tift,f'D trnfryg0ifI jynfolrsm; odk‹avm/ odk‹avm jzpfaeonfudk &Sif;vif;ay;&ef” wJh? usrwdk‹u
q,fa,mufxJeJ‹awmh rcsDwufygbl;? q,fa,mufxJeJ‹ usrwdk‹acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;udk tav;ðywm[m
apmfum;&ma&mufw,fvdk‹ xifvdk‹ q,fa,mufxJeJ‹ usrwdk‹ rcsDwufygbl;?
“uif;vGwfcGifhrSwfyHkwifwJh tift,f'Doabmxm;udk &Sif;vif;ay;yg” wJh? usrwdk‹oabm
apmapmu ajymcJh+yD;yg+yD? 1962 ckESpf w&m;Oya't& yHkESdyfxkwfa0cGifhOya't&qdk&if usrwdk‹tm;vHk;[m
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oHo,&Sdvdk‹&Sd&ifvnf;
'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&;t& usrwdk‹udk wifjyyg? usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ &Sif;jyyghr,f? aemifvmaemufom;rsm;
aumif;usKd;twGuf tck&SdaewJh tckacwfjrefrmEkdifiHol/ EkdifiHom;rsm;[m owWd&Sd&Sd rSefrSefuefuefeJ‹
'Drdkua&pDyef;wdkifa&mufwJhtxd quf+yD;awmh csDwufoGm;=uEkdifygapvdk‹ usr qkawmif;arwWmydk‹&if;eJ‹
ed*Hk;csKyfygw,f?

24

rdef‹cGef;aumufEkwfcsufrsm;
trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfrS xkwfa0aom rdef‹cGef;aumufEkwfcsufrsm;pmtkyfrS xkwfEkwfazmfjyonf?

* * *
usrwdk‹[m usrwdk‹&JŒEdkifiHxJrSm tusOf;om;jzpfae&w,fqdkwm urBmu odapcsifw,f? (20-7-89)
usr 'Duae‹up+yD;awmh jynfolvlxkeJ‹ yGifhyGifhvif;vif; qufqHyg&ap? usr EkdifiHjcm;rSm
aecJhw,fqdkwmvnf; rSefygw,f? EkdifiHjcm;om;eJ‹ tdrfaxmifusw,fqdkwmvnf; rSefygw,f? 'gayrJh

'gav;twGufeJ‹ usr wkdif;jynftay:rSmxm;wJh arwWm[m
(a&$wd*HkapwDtaemufbufrkcf vlxktpnf;ta0;yJG}uD; 26-8-88)

b,fvdkrS

usqif;roGm;Ekdifygbl;?

EkdifiHa&;avmueJ‹ a0;a0;uif;uif; aecJhcsifygw,f? tJh'Dvdk a0;a0;uif;uif; aecsifcJhvsufom;eJ‹ tckrS
bmjzpfvdk‹ 'Dta&;tcif;rSm 0ifygaeovJvdk‹ ar;p&m&Sdygw,f? tJh'D[muawmh 'Dta&;tcif;[m
wwdkif;jynfvHk;eJ‹qdkifwJh ta&;tcif;jzpfaeygw,f? usrrSmvnf; azazh&JŒorD; vkyfae+yD;awmh
acgif;a&Smif+yD;awmh aevdk‹rjzpfawmhbl;? 'Dta&;tcif;}uD;[m wu,fawmh 'kwd,vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyJG}uD;vdk‹
ac:&ifvnf; jzpfygw,f? (a&$wd*Hktaemufbufrkcf vlxktpnf;ta0;yJG}uD; 26-8-88)
usr[m usrtaz&JŒ tpOftvmtwdkif; 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyJGudk 0ifvdk‹EJ$cJh&ygw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'Drkdua&pD&zdk‹&ef
jynfolvlxktm;vHk;
pnf;vHk;nDnGwfzdk‹vdkygw,f?
nDnGwf&if
bmrqdkjzpfEkdifygw,f?
(a&$wd*HkapwDtaemufbufrkcf vlxktpnf;ta0;yJG}uD; 26-8-88)
v_yf&Sm;r_}uD;udk OD;aqmifcJhwJh ausmif;om;awGeJ‹ywfoufvdk‹ usr ajymp&mav;awG&Sdygw,f?
ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m tifrwefrS awmfygw,f? olwdk‹&JŒ vuf±kef;&nfudkvnf; jy+yD;yg+yD? tckvnf;
quf+yD;awmh olwdk‹&JŒ ESvHk;&nfudk jyr,fqdkwm usr ,Hk=unfygw,f? (a&$wd*HkapwDtaemufbufrkcf
vlxktpnf;ta0;yJG}uD; 26-8-88)
tpdk;&qdkwm jynfolvlxkqENeJ‹udkufnDr,fh wkdif;jynftusKd;udk aqmif&Gufzdk‹ tcsdefuef‹owf apckdif;xm;wJh
opPmt&SdqHk; jynfol‹0efxrf;yJjzpf&r,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ ewfarmufòrd‹ 1-11-88)
tzJG‹csKyf&nf&G,fcsufudkuvnf; a&G;aumufyJG0ifa&muf,SOfòydifzdk‹ oufoufrSr[kwfbJ? 18 &uf
pufwifbmv
ppftm%modrf;+yD;wJhaemufydkif;rSm
jyef‹}uJoGm;wJh
'Drkdua&pDtiftm;awGudk
wpkw±kef;wnf;jzpfatmif pkpnf;+yD;/ tJh'Dpkpnf;xm;wJh tiftm;awGudk pepfwusjzpfatmif aygif;+yD;awmh
vGwfvyf+yD; w&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyJGawG usif;yEkdifr,fhf tajctaersKd;udk zefwD;ay;zdk‹ygyJ? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/
yk*Hòrd‹ 2-11-88)
jrefrmrif;awGxJrSm usefppfom;eJ‹ bk&ifhaemif[m odyfcsD;usL;zdk‹aumif;w,f? olwdk‹ESpfa,mufpvHk;[m
usefppfom;qdk&if taemf&xm/ bk&ifhaemifqdk&if wyifa&$xD;udk ykefuefjcm;em;EkdifwJh t&nftcsif;&Sdw,f?
'gayrJh usefppfom;a&m/ bk&ifhaemifyg opPm&Sd=uygw,f? vlawmfwa,muf/ t&nftcsif;&SdwJh
vlwa,muf[m opPm&Sdzdk‹ odyfta&;}uD;w,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ yk*Hòrd‹ 2-11-88)
ppf±_H;+yD;p *syefbk&ifajymcJhwJh pum;wck&Sdygw,f? usKyfwdk‹[m rcHEdkifwJhudpPawGudk cHEkdif&nf&Sdatmif
vkyf&r,f? rjzpfEkdifwJhudpPawGudk jzpfEkdifatmifvkyfEdkifwJh t&nftcsif;&Sd&r,fwJh? tJh'DvdkyJ usrwdk‹
jynfolvlxkuvnf; 'kuQqif;&JcH+yD; ZJG&Sd&Sd/ owWd&Sd&SdeJ‹ rjzpfrae óud;pm;vkyfaqmif=ur,fqdk&if bmrS
ratmifjrifEkdifp&mr&Sdygbl;? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ ausmufyef;awmif; 2-11-88)
tqdk;qHk;tpdk;&qdkwm jynfolvlxk &GH&Smrkef;wD;wJhtpdk;&/ 'Dxuf eJeJaumif;wmu jynfolvlxku
a=umufwJhtpdk;&/ 'Dxufydk+yD; aumif;wmuawmh jynfolvlxku csD;rGrf;wJhtpdk;&/ taumif;qHk;uawmh
jynfolvlxku &SdrSef;awmif rodwJhtpdk;&wJh? usrwdk‹ tdrfwtdrfrSmqdkvdk‹&Sd&if tarvdkaygh? tar&SdrSef;awmif

owdrxm;rdbl;? pm;csdefwef pm;&r,f? 0wfcsdefwef 0wf&r,f? tm;vHk; tqifoifhyJ? tJh'Dvdk jzpfae&r,f?
em;vnfxm;&r,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ jrif;+cH 3-11-88)
("gwfyHkrsm;vmygonf)
tay: - rdwˆDvmòrd‹e,fwGif pnf;±Hk;a&;qif;aepOf
atmuf – uav;rsm;cspfwJh tefwDpk

'Drkdua&pDpepfrSm trwfvkyfcsifolawG[m tyifyef; tqif;&J cHEdkif&r,f? tpGrf;ukef tvkyfvkyf&r,f?
udk,fusKd;riJhbJ trsm;tusKd;udk yDyDjyifjyif ausausyeG fyGef xrf;aqmifEkdif&r,f? (jrawmifausmif;wdkuf/
rEWav; 6-11-88)
EdkifiHa&;todtjrifqdkwm vlr_a&;todtjrifyJjzpfygw,f? udk,f[m tdrfeD;em;csif;wa,muf yDovdk‹&Sd&if
wajz;ajz;eJ‹ vlr_a&;uae p+yD;awmh EdkifiHa&;orm;aumif;wa,muf yDoaerSmyJvdk‹ usr jrifygw,f?
(ajrmufOuUvmyòrd‹e,f 10-12-88)
'Drdkua&pDpepfqdkwm vlwkdif; wa,mufeJ‹wa,muf av;pm;wJhpepfygyJ? (ajrmufOuUvmyòrd‹e,f 10-1288)
trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyfudk xlaxmifcJhwm[m jynfolvlxk vdkcsifwJh 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_
atmifjrifa&;twGuf xlaxmifcJhwmyJjzpfw,f? jynfolvlxkeJ‹ usrwdk‹ wpnf;w±Hk;xJ rvkyfEdkifvdk‹&Sd&if
usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyf}uD;[m zsufzdk‹yJ &Sdawmhw,f? tJ'Dawmh tzJG‹0ifrsm;[m jynfolvlxk&JŒ oabmxm;udk
em;vnf&r,f? jynfolvlxk&JŒ oabmtwdkif; vkyf&r,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ oxHkòrd‹ 14-12-88)
vl‹tcGifhta&;qdkwm vlwkdif;vlwkdif; ydkifqdkifcGifh&Sdw,f? udk,fwifr[kwfbl;? udk,fh&efolrsm;yifv#if
vl‹tcGifhta&;&Sd&r,f? tJh'Dawmh wae‹ usrwdk‹&JŒ 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_}uD; atmifjrifoGm;wJhtcgus&if
±_H;wJhvlawG[m
olwdk‹tcGifhta&;awGudk
jynfhjynfh00
cHpm;Ekdif&r,f?
'g[m
usrwdk‹&JŒ
'Drdkua&pDwm0efjzpfw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ oxHkòrd‹ 14-12-88)
rufvHk;ay;+yD;awmh pnf;±Hk;r_rsKd;udk usr rvdkcsifbl;? igwdk‹tpdk;&wuf&if 'gawG vkyfay;r,fqdkwJh
pnf;±Hk;r_rsKd;awmh rvkyf=uygeJ‹? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ oxHkòrd‹ 14-12-88)
'Drdkua&pDpepf xlaxmifwJhtcgus&if ausmif;wdkif;/ ausmif;wkdif;rSm udk,fhwkdif;jynfrSm&SdwJh bmomxJu
tenf;qHk; bmomESpf&yfudk vlwkdif;vlwdkif; oifr,f? ArmeJ‹ &Srf;jzpfjzpf/ ArmeJ‹ u&ifjzpfjzpf/ ArmeJ‹ rGefjzpfjzpf
oifoifhw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ usKdufxdkòrd‹ 14-12-88)
rGef/ Arm/ u&if/ ucsif/ &Srf; ponfjzifh cJGjcm;+yD;awmh rawG;ygeJ‹? igwdk‹tm;vHk;[m
jynfaxmifpkwkdif;&if;om;rsm;jzpfw,f qdk+yD;awmh pdwfxJrSm xm;+yD; twlwlvkyfoGm;apcsifw,f?
'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHwck jzpfoGm;w,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;tm;vHk;&JŒ tcGifhta&;rsm;udk usrwdk‹
jynfhjynfhpHkpHk ay;csifw,f? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;&JŒ bmoma&;/ ,Ofaus;r_ ponfjzifh usrwdk‹

tm;ay;csifw,f? bmjzpfvdk‹vnf;qdkawmh trsm; tawG;tac:/ trsm; ,Ofaus;r_awGeJ‹
wnfaqmufxm;wJh EkdifiH}uD;[m b,folawG&JŒ tawG;tac:eJ‹ b,folawG&JŒ ,Ofaus;r_eJ‹ wnfaqmufcJhwJh
EdkifiH}uD;xuf trsm;}uD; ckdifcHhvmayr,f/ trsm;}uD;vnf; wdk;wufEkdifr,f/ trsm;}uD;vnf; usrwdk‹twGuf
tzdk;wefEkdifr,fvdk‹ ,Hk=unfygw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ usKdufxdkòrd‹ 14-12-88)
wcsKdŒu ck 'DrSmwrsKd;ajym/ [dkrSmwrsKd;ajym/ 'DrSm 'D[mvkyfr,fajym/ ck 'DrSm [dk[mvkyfr,fajym/ pdwfawGu
ajymif;vdkuf/ tajymawGu ajymif;vdkuf/ 'gawGudk olwdk‹u 'g EkdifiHa&;yJvdk‹ ajymw,f? usruawmh 'g
EdkifiHa&;yJvdk‹ em;rvnfbl;? 'g uvdrfuuspfvkyfwmyJvdk‹ em;vnfw,f? 'DvdkEkdifiHa&;awGudk usrwdk‹
vufcHvdk‹ rjzpfbl;? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ aygifòrd‹ 14-12-88)
EdkifiHa&;y&d,m,fqdkwm
wu,f
aocsm=unfhvdkufawmh
uvdrfuuspfvkyfwmcsnf;yJ?
'D
EkdifiHa&;y&d,m,fqdkwmvnf; txifr}uD;ygeJ‹? y&d,m,fqdkwm pum;vHk;udk usr róudufbl;? udk,fhudk
xdyg;vm&ifvnf; cHEkdif&nf&Sd&r,f? rSefrSefuefuefyJ vkyfyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ aygifòrd‹ 14-12-88)
aemuf wdkif;jynfaumif;usKd;twGufqdk&if ckuaep+yD;awmh usrwdk‹vufcHr,fh acgif;aqmifrsm;[m
pum;wnf&r,f? pum;rSef&r,f? trsm;oabmudk vdkufem&r,f? tJh'Dvdk acgif;aqmifrsKd;om usrwdk‹
vdkcsifygw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ aygifòrd‹ 14-12-88)
ArmvlrsKd;rsm;[m vlrsm;pk}uD;jzpfaevdk‹ wdkif;&if;om;rsm;udk av;pm;yg? wkdif;&if;om;rsm;&JŒ ,Ofaus;r_udk
av;pm;yg? pdwf0ifpm;=uyg? avhvm=uyg? tJh'Dvdk wa,mufeJ‹wa,muf&JŒ ,Ofaus;r_/
wa,mufeJ‹wa,muf&JŒ
,Hk=unfcsufrsm;udk
avhvmem;vnfrS
usrwdk‹tcsif;csif;
wu,fh
oabmxm;wlawGtjzpfeJ‹ &EdkifrSmyg? (rGeftrsKd;om; 'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ armfvòrdifòrd‹)
wkdif;jynfwjynfudk tkyfcsKyfwJh acgif;aqmif[m jynfolvlxk&JŒ axmufcHr_eJ‹ tkyfcsKyfwmyJjzpf&r,f?
vufeuftm;udk;eJ‹ tkyfcsKyfw,fqdkwm rjzpfoifhbl;qdkwm arG;uwnf;u usrudk oifxm;wJh/ odcJhwJh
oifcef;pmygyJ? (òrd‹e,ftzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ atmufvrf;r}uD;/ armfvòrdifòrd‹)
rSefuefwJh EkdifiHa&;pepfrSm usrwd‹k vdkcsifwJh acgif;aqmifawGudk usrwdk‹u azmfxkwf&r,f? vdkcsifwJhyHk
oGif;&r,f? udk,fvdkcsifwJhyHk udk,froGif;vdk‹&Sd&if acgif;aqmifvkyfwJholrsm;u wkdif;jynfudk olwdk‹vdkcsifwJhyHk
olwdk‹ oGif;oGm;vdrfhr,f? t"dy`m,fu bmjzpfrvJqdkawmh tm%m&Sifpepf}uD; jzpfoGm;rSmyJ?
(òrd‹e,ftzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ atmufvrf;r}uD;/ armfvòrdifòrd‹)
'D
jrefrmjynf}uD;[m
bmjzpfvkd‹
'DavmufawmifrS
ESpfq,fhajcmufESpfvHk;vHk;
wygwDtm%m&SifpepfatmufrSm aecJh&vJ? bmjzpfvdk‹ 'Dvdkqif;&J'kuQawGudk cHcJh&ovJqdkwm usr
pOf;pm;w,f? wcgjyef+yD;awmh pOf;pm;vdk‹&Sd&if jynfolvlxk}uD;u tcsif;csif; rnDvdk‹yJ? (rGeftrsKd;om;
'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf/ oHjzLZ&yf 16-12-88)
tpdk;&[m rw&m;ojzifhvkyfovm;/ r[kwfrrSefwJhudpPawGudk vkyfovm;? udk,frvkyfbJeJ‹ olrsm;awGudk
vkyf&ifvnf; rcH&bl;? udk,fh&efoludkyif rw&m;vkyfvdk‹&Sd&if rcH&bl;? 'Dae‹ udk,fh&efoludkvkyfw,f/ aemufae‹
udk,fhudkvkyf&if vkyfvdrfhr,f? (rGeftrsKd;om; 'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyf/ oHjzLZ&yf 16-12-88)

rw&m;ojzifh vkyfwJholawGudk rkef;zdk‹qdkwm uav;av;awGudk oifxm;&r,f? rw&m;wJhudpPrSefor#udk
uef‹uGuf&r,f? rw&m;wJhudpPrSefor#udk igwdk‹ toufay;+yD;awmh ckcHr,fqdkwJh pdwfawGudk
uav;vli,fawGxJrSm
oGif;xm;yg?
usrwdk‹udk,fwkdifuvnf;
'DvdkpdwfawGarG;yg?
(rGeftrsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG‹csKyf/ oHjzLZ&yf 16-12-88)
'Drkdua&pDtyif}uD;[m &Sifoefvdk‹&Sd&if 'DtyGifhawG toD;awG[m usrwdk‹ vlvwfykdif;/ vl}uD;ydkif;awGu
cHpm;csifrS cHpm;&r,f? 'gayrJh vli,fydkif;eJ‹ uav;av;awG }uD;vmvdk‹&Sd&if toD;tyGifhawG
cHpm;Ekdif&r,fqdk&if usrwdk‹ auseyfygw,f? (urm0uf 16-12-88)
vlwa,muf[m arG;vm+yD;awmh udk,fhtwGuf udk,fvkyf+yD;awmh udk,fyJpm;+yD;awmh aooGm;+yDqdk&if
bmvkyfawmhrSmvJ? vljzpf&usKd;reyfbl;? tJh'Dawmh wudk,faumif; r}uH=uygeJ‹? trsm;twGuf vkyf=uyg?
trsm;tusKd;aqmifwJhvlrsm;[m vlomaooGm;r,f? b,fawmhrS emrnfraobl;? (urm0uf 16-12-88)
vli,fawG&JŒb0udk om,mygap? vli,frsm;&JŒb0 om,mrS usrwdk‹&JŒ wdkif;jynf[m wdk;wufEdkifrSmyg?
vli,frsm;&J‹b0 om,matmif zefwD;ray;Ekdif&if aemufacwftqufquf usrwdk‹vlrsKd;rsm; om,mr_
&EkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? (vl‹abmifopf'Drkdu&ufwpfygwD/ rk'Hkòrd‹ 16-12-88)
t&if vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyJGwkef;uqdkvdk‹&Sd&if vlrsKd;jcm;wa,mufudk wdkufcJh&wm? vlrsKd;jcm;udk
wkduf&wmxuf udk,fhtcsif;csif; jyef+yD;wdkuf&wmu tifrwefrS pdwfnpfp&maumif;w,f? rjzpfoifh
rjzpfxkdufwJh udpP}uD;yJ? (urmau; 17-12-88)
wkdif;jynfwjynfrSm tpdk;&,f/ wyfrawmf&,f/ jynfolvlxk&,f waygif;wpnf;wnf; rjzpfEkdifvdk‹&Sd&if
b,fenf;eJ‹rS
wdk;wufr_r&SdEkdifygbl;?
jynfolvlxkudkvnf;
ESdyfpufn‡if;yrf;r,f/
wyfrawmfeJ‹
jynfolvlxk=um;rSmvnf; pdwf0rf;uJGatmifvkyfr,fqdk&if 'Dwkdif;jynftay:rSm apwem enf;enf;rS r&Sdbl;vdk‹
usrwdk‹ owfrSwf&rSmyJ? (urmau; 17-12-88)
jynfolvlxkeJ‹ wyfrawmf=um;rSmvnf; pdwf0rf;uJGatmifvkyfaew,f? 'Dvdk pdwf0rf;uJGatmif vkyfaewm[m
jynfolvlxku vkyfaewmr[kwfbl;? usrwdk‹ EkdifiHa&;vkyfwJholawGuvnf; vkyfaewmr[kwfbl;?
wyfrawmfudk udk,fusKd;twGuf oHk;csifwJholrsm;u vkyfaewmyJjzpfw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'DvdkpepfrsKd;udk
usrwdk‹tm;vHk;uae+yD;awmh twdkuftcHvkyf&r,f? (urmau; 17-12-88)
'Drkdua&pDpepfatmufrSm qdkvdk‹&Sd&if trsm;pk&JŒ oabmwlnDcsuft& tenf;pku vkyf&w,fqdkayr,fh
tenf;pkudk
trsm;pku
twdkuftcHvkyfw,f/
ESdyfpufw,f/
n‡Of;yrf;w,f/
trsKd;rsKd;
taESmifht,Sufay;w,fqdkwm vHk;vHk;r&Sd&bl;? (urmau; 17-12-88)
EkdifiHa&;orm;trsKd;rsKd;&Sdw,f? wcsKdŒuawmh wkdif;jynftusKd;twGuf vkyfcsifwJh EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;&Sdygw,f?
wcsKdŒuawmh rdrdtusKd;twGuf vkyfcsifwJh EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;&Sdygw,f? wcsKdŒuawmh EkdifiHa&;oufouf
vkyfpm;csifwJh EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;&Sdygw,f? EdkifiHa&;vkyfpm;wm tusifhjzpfae+yD;awmh EdkifiHa&;yJ
vkyfpm;awmhr,fqdkwJh EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;vnf;&Sdygw,f? 'D EkdifiHa&;orm;trsKd;rsKd;xJrSm wdkif;jynftusKd;udk
aqmifEkdifr,fh EkdifiHa&;orm;rsKd;udk a&G;apcsifygw,f? tJh'Dvkd EkdifiHa&;orm;rsKd;[m Avig;wefeJ‹ jynfhpHk&ygr,f?
(trsKd;om;+idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDygwD/ acsmif;qHk 17-12-88)

acgif;aqmifwa,muf&JŒ
t&nftcsif;udk
cef‹rSef;csifvdk‹&Sd&if
t&ifwkef;u
'Dacgif;aqmif[m
b,fvdkvkyfcJhovJ? wu,fyJ o,fydk;cJhovm;? wkdif;jynfuyJ 'Dacgif;aqmifudk o,fydk;cJhwmvm;?
'Dacgif;aqmifu wkdif;jynfudk o,fydk;cJhwmvm;qdkwm[m trsm;}uD;pOf;pm;zdk‹ vdkygw,f? (acsmif;qHk 17-1288)
trSefudkvkyf&wm trSm;udkvkyf&wmxuf tifrwefrSudk cufygw,f? 'gayrJhvnf; aemufqHk;usawmh
trSefvkyfwJholuom atmifjrif&rSmyg? trSefw&m;vkyfwJholawGuom ±_H;&ifvnf; Ekdif&r,f/ Ekdif&ifvnf;
Ekdif&r,fqdkwm ajymvdk‹&ygw,f? trSefw&m;t& rvkyfwJholawGuawmh ±_H;&ifvnf; ±_H;&r,f/ Ekdif&ifvnf;
±_H;&r,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ rtlyif 14-1-89)
usrwdk‹ 1988 u usqHk;oGm;wJh ausmif;om;av;awGqdk&if toufomaysmufoGm;w,f/ olwdk‹udk
qHk;±_H;w,fvdk‹ rqdkEdkifygbl;? olwdk‹[m atmifjrifjcif;yJ? tJh'D[mudk pdwfxJrSm pJGxm;=uyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ rtlyif
14-1-89)
'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&;vdkcsifw,fqdkwm b,fol‹udkrS wdkufcdkufcsifvdk‹ r[kwfbl;? b,fol‹udkrS pJGðzwfcsifvdk‹
r[kwfbl;? jynfolvlxktrsm;}uD;[m pdk;&drfa=umifh=ur_uif;a0;pGmeJ‹ udk,fhtoufarG;0rf;ausmif;udk
vGwfvGwfvyfvyf v_yf&Sm;Ekdifatmifvdk‹qdkwJh pdwfrsKd;eJ‹ 'Drkdua&pDtwGuf wdkufae=uwmyJ? tm;vHk;u
'DtcGifhta&;vdkcsif&if tm;vHk;u 0if+yD;awmh v_yf&Sm;&rSmyJ? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ rtlyif 14-1-89)
usrwdk‹acwfrSm usrwdk‹ ukodkvfuHa=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ 'Dwkdif;jynf jynfolvlxkudk ta=umufw&m;uae+yD;awmh
vGwfajrmufatmif vkyfay;EkdifwJhtcGifhta&;awG &vmw,f? 'DtcGifhta&;udk vufv$wfqHk;±_H;rcHygeJ‹?
'Dvdkjynfaxmifpktopf wnfaxmifzdk‹ tcGifhta&;awGudk vufv$wfvdkuf&if usrwdk‹[m orkdif;ay;wm0ef
rausyGefolawGtjzpf orkdif;rSm tifrwefrS tjypfwifp&mjzpfrSmyJ? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ rtlyif 14-1-89)
usrwdk‹u jynfolvlxkudk tm;udk;w,f? jynfolvlxkuvnf; udk,fhudkudk,f tm;udk;=uyg? udk,fhudkudk,f
txifrao;=uygeJ‹? vlxk&JŒ tiftm;qdkwm tifrwefrS }uD;ygw,f? vlxk&JŒ tiftm;qdkwmudk rav;pm;bJ
raeEkdifygbl;? usrwdk‹uvnf; av;pm;w,f? aemifvnf; tpdk;&tqufqufu av;pm;oifhw,f?
jynfolvlxkudk av;pm;wJh tpdk;&rsKd;udk usrwdk‹u jzpfapcsifygw,f? 'grS wkdif;jynfrSmvnf; tusKd;jzpfapr,f?
jynfolvlxkvnf; pdwfcsrf;omvmr,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ rtlyif 14-1-89)
'DtcsdefrSm owWd&Sd&SdeJ‹ vkyfvdkufvdk‹&Sd&if aemifus&if usrwdk‹[m ra=umuf=u&wJhacwfudk
a&mufoGm;Edkifygw,f? 'DtcsdefrSm a=umuf+yD;awmh vkyfoifhoavmuf rvkyfcJhvdk‹&Sd&if aemuf quf+yD;awmh
a=umufae&wJhpepfudk &Sifoefatmif vkyfay;ovdk jzpfoGm;ygr,f? vlwa,muftaeeJ‹vnf; trsm;}uD;
*k%foduQmusygw,f? tJh'Dawmh tm;vHk;u rSefwmvkyf&vdk‹&Sd&if a=umufaevnf; vkyf&rSmyg?
(jrwfarwWmoabFm/ a&$'*Fg;aus;&Gm 14-1-89)
'Drkdua&pDvdkcsifwJhvlrsm;[m rkef;wJhpdwfeJ‹ wdkufaewmr[kwfbl;? arwWmpdwfeJ‹ wdkufaewmyJ?
jynfolvlxktay: arwWm&Sdvdk‹/ wkdif;jynftay: arwWm&Sdvdk‹/ jynfolvlxkcHae&wm/ wkdif;jynfcHae&wm/
jynfaxmifpk}uD; epfemaewmudk r=unfh&ufvdk‹ arwWmpdwfeJ‹ 'Drkdua&pDwkdufyJGudk 0ifaewmjzpfw,f?
(jrwfarwWmoabFm/ a&$'*Fg;aus;&Gm 14-1-89)

usrwdk‹ tck 'Drkdua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_txJrSm yg0ifvmwm[m tm%mvdkcsifvdk‹ yg0ifvmwmr[kwfbl;?
wm0efudk xrf;aqmifcsifvdk‹ yg0ifvm=uwmyJ? usrwdk‹ tzJG‹csKyftwGufa&m/ v_yf&Sm;r_txJrSm yg0ifae=uwJh
jynfolvlxktwGufa&m/ t"dupum;vHk;[m tm%mr[kwfygbl;? wm0efyg? jynfaxmifpkeJ‹
jynfolvlxktay:rSm&SdwJh wm0eft& 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_xJrSm tm;vHk;yg0ifae=uwmyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ usKHrai; 15-189)
usrwdk‹[m rSefuefwJhenf;eJ‹ vdkcsifwmudk vkyfEkdifwJh t&nftcsif;awG &Sdatmifvdk‹ udk,fhudkudk,f
ðypkysKd;axmif&r,f? wjcm;vlawGudkvnf; 'Dvdkt&nftcsif;awG&Sdatmif ðypkysKd;axmifay;&r,f? 'Dvdkqdk&if
usrwdk‹[m tqifhjrifhwJhEkdifiHa&; vkyfEkdifr,f? tqifhjrifhwJhEdkifiHa&;vkyfEdkifrS tqifhtwef;jrifhwJh
EkdifiHwckjzpfvmr,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ usKHrai; 15-1-89)
wcsKdŒu 'Drkdua&pDqdkwm tm;vHk;u Adkvfcsnf;yJvdk‹xifw,f? wu,fawmh 'Drkdua&pDqdkwm
tm;vHk;wef;wl&nfwlvdk‹
ajymwmr[kwfbl;?
tm;vHk;[m
wef;wlnDwltcGifhta&;&Sdw,fvdk‹
ajymwmyJjzpfw,f? tm;vHk;rSm&SdwJh wef;wlnDwl tcGifhta&;eJ‹ trsm;tusKd;aqmifr,fh olawGudk
a&G;xkwfydkifcGifhqdkwm &Sdw,f? 'gudk ajymwmyJ? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ usKHrai; 15-1-89)
&yfuGufnDvmcHawG vkyfwJhtcg tusifhpm&dwWaumif;wJhvludk a&G;cs,fyg? ynmtajrmftjrif&SdwJhvludk
a&G;cs,fyg? tusifhpm&dwWeJ‹ t&nftcsif; ESpfck=um;rSm a&G;&r,fqdk&ifawmh usruawmh yGifhyGifhvif;vif;
ajym&&if tusifhpm&dwWaumif;wJhvludk a&G;=uyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ usKHrai; 15-1-89)
tpdk;&[m jynfolvlxk qif;&JaewJhtcgrSm Zdrfe‹J aezdk‹ rpOf;pm;oifhbl;? aemufwufr,fh tpdk;&[m
tifrwefrS ±kef;uef&r,fh tpdk;&yg? tJh'Dawmh aemufwufr,fhtpdk;&xJrSm 0dkif;0ef;+yD; ulnDyg0ifvdkwJh
olrsm;[m ae&mvdkcsifvdk‹r[kwfbJ/ tm%mvdkcsifvdk‹r[kwfbJ/ csrf;omcsifvdk‹r[kwfbJ/ jynfol‹tusKd;zdk‹
tepfemcHvdkwJhvlrsKd; jzpfzdk‹vdkygw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ usKHrai; 15-1-89)
olrsm; rSm;vdk‹/ olrsm; r[kwfwmvkyfvdk‹ udk,fvnf; vkdufvkyf&r,fqdk&if udk,fvnf; olwdk‹eJ‹twl
wef;wljzpfoGm;rSmyJ? uav;u idkvdk‹ vl}uD;uyg vdkuf+yD; ajcaqmifhidkvdk‹&Sd&if vl}uD;om oduQmusrSmaygh?
uav;uawmh uav;rdk‹vdk‹ idkw,fqdk+yD; ab;uae cGifhv$wf=u&rSmaygh? vlrsm;awG *k%foduQmr&Sdvdk‹ udk,fu
*k%foduQmr&SdwJhtvkyfudk vkyf&r,fqdkwm rjzpfap&bl;? rjzpfoifhbl;? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹
pnf;±Hk;a&;vkyfwJhtcg b,fol‹udkrS ykwfcwfwm/ rrSefuefwJhenf;eJ‹ wdkufcdkufwm rvkyf=uygeJ‹? rlawGudkyJ
wkdufcdkuf=u&yghr,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ usKHrai; 15-1-89)
'Drdkua&pDwdkufyJG0ifwJhtcgrSm yxrOD;qHk; usrwdk‹vdkcsifwmu vGwfvyfpGmawG;awmydkifcGifhyJ? vludkom
csKyfxm;Ekdifr,f? pdwfudkawmh rcsKyfxm;Ekdifbl;? 'Dvdk rcsKyfxm;EkdifwJhpdwfa=umifh 'DavmufawmifrS 26
ESpfvHk;vHk; vGwfvyfpGm awG;awmydkifcGifhr&SdwJhtxJu jynfolvlxk[m 'Drkdua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;xJudk owWd&Sd&SdeJ‹
0ifcJh+yD/ pcJh+yD? 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;udk qHk;cef;wkdifatmif/ atmifjrifatmif vkyfoGm;&r,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ vyGwWm
15-1-89)
azazu ajymcJhw,f? vkyf&Jwm owWdr[kwfbl;? cH&Jwm[m owWdwJh? cH&Jw,fqdkwmvnf;
trSefw&m;twGuf cH&Jwmudk ajymwm/ rrSefuefwJhudpPtwGuf cH&Jwm owWdr[kwfbl;? 'g[m vlrdkuf&JŒ

xHk;yJ? usrwdk‹[m vlrdkufawGr[kwfbl;? tifrwefrS ynmtajrmftjrif&SdwJh vlxkqdkwm usr jzpfapcsifw,f?
'Dvdk tajrmftjrif&SdwJh jynfolvlxkurS acwfopf jrefrmEkdifiHawmf}uD;udk wnfaxmifEkdifrSmyg? (tzJG‹csKyf/
vyGwWm 15-1-89)
udk,fhwkdif;jynftwGuf toufudkay;&w,fqdkwm tifrwefrS =unfEl;p&maumif;w,f? tifrwefrS
oifhawmfw,f? bmjzpfvdk‹vnf;qdkawmh vlwkdif;vlwkdif;[m rdrd&JŒwdkif;jynfudk tm;vHk;xufydk+yD;awmh
cspf&r,f? rdrd&JΠudk,fxufydk+yD; cspf&r,f? rdrd&JΠrdom;pkxufydk+yD; cspf&r,f? rdrd&JΠrdbrsm;xufvnf;
ydk+yD;cspf&r,f? bmjzpfvdk‹vnf;qdkawmh 'Dwkdif;jynfu 'Drdom;pk/ 'Drdbtm;vHk;udk arG;xkwfvdkufwJh wkdif;jynfyJ?
tm;vHk;&JŒ
aus;Zl;&SifyJjzpfw,f?
jynfolvlxktm;vHk;&JŒ
aus;Zl;&SifjzpfwJh
EkdifiHudk
t+rJyJ
txGwftjrwfxm;&r,f? 'DEkdifiHtwGufqdk&if bmyJpGef‹&/ pGef‹&
pGef‹EkdifwJh owWd&Sd&r,f?
vlwdkif;vlwkdif;twGuf tpGef‹EdkifqHk;/ wefzdk;t&SdqHk;t&muawmh rdrd&JŒ toufyJ? tJh'Dawmh
udk,fh&JŒwefzdk;t&SdqHk; toufudk pGef‹v$wfoGm;wJh 'Drdkua&pD&JabmfawGudk axmufxm;aomtm;jzifh
usrwdk‹[m 'Drdkua&pDatmifjrifwJhtxd csDwufoGm;&r,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ vyGwWm 15-1-89)
'Dacwfu 'Drkdua&pDtkwfjrpfcswJh acwfyJ? tkwfjrpfcs+yD;awmhrS tay:u taqmuftOD}uD;udk
wnfaqmuf&rSm? usrwdk‹[m tkwfjrpfcswJh vlawGqdkawmh yifyifyef;yef;eJ‹ vkyf+yD;awmh
wu,fhtESpfom&udk cHpm;oGm;&csifrS cHpm;oGm;&r,f? udpPr&Sdygbl;? aemifvmaemufom;awG/ jynfaxmifpk
jrefrmEkdifiHolEkdifiHom;rsm;[m usrwdk‹ cscJhwJh tkwfjrpfay:rSm 'Drdkua&pDEkdifiH}uD;udk wnfwnfwHhwHh
wnfaxmif+yD; 'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&;awGudk cHpm;oGm;&r,fqdk&if usrwdk‹twGuf trsm;}uD;
*k%f,lp&mjzpfygw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ vyGwWm 15-1-89)
ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m b,fvdkyJ zdESdyfr_awG&Sd&Sd/ b,fvdkyJ olrsm;awG b,fvdkvkyfvkyf/ b,fvdkyJ
olrsm;awG npfywfnpfywf/ wddk‹wawGuawmh oef‹oef‹&Sif;&Sif; pifpif=u,f=u,feJ‹ wkdif;jynftusKd;aqmifwJh
vli,fawGjzpfatmifaer,f?
aemifwacwfusvdk‹&Sd&ifvnf;
wkdif;jynftusKd;
quf+yD;aqmifr,fh
vl}uD;awGjzpfatmif aer,fqdkwJh &nf&G,fcsufawG xm;=uyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ vyGwWm 15-1-89)
'Dwkdif;jynf/ 'Dajr}uD;[m tifrwefrS csrf;omw,f? jynfolvlxk[m tifrwefrS qif;&Jaew,f? 'g
rjzpfoifhwJh udpPyJ? 'Dwkdif;jynf/ 'Dajr}uD;[m 'DavmufawmifrS csr;f omae&if rSefrSefuefuef vrf;eJ‹
jynfolvlxktwGuf tusKd;aqmifoGm;r,fh tpdk;&rsm;[m jynfolvlxkudkvnf; csrf;omatmif
vkyfay;Ekdif&r,f? (vGwfvyfa&;ausmufwkdifa&SŒ/ bDwGwfaus;&Gm 15-1-89)
a0\EW&m[mqdk&if tvGefw&mrS jrifhjrwfwJh tavmif;awmfrif;w&m;jzpfayr,fhvnf; jynfolvlxkudk
qef‹usif+yD;
qifjzLawmfudk
vªvdkufwJhtcg
jynfESif'%fcH&w,f?
jynfolvlxk&JŒ
qENudk
rvdkufavsmwJhrif;qdkwm
rif;usifhw&m;q,fyg;eJ‹vnf;
rudkufnDbl;?
jynfolvlxkuvnf;
vufrcHbl;qdkwm usrwdk‹ Ak'<bmomw&m;t&vnf; vufcHcJhw,f? c&pf,mefw&m;rSmvnf;
rif;aumif;rif;jrwfrsm;[m *±k%meJ‹ arwWmeJ‹ qufqH&r,fqdkwm ygygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹
b,fbmomyJjzpfjzpf/ bmomra&G;/ vlrsKd;ra&G; rif;aumif;rSef&if jynfolvlxkudk rqef‹usifoifhygbl;?
(tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ ajrmif;jr 16-1-89)
trsm;jynfol pdwf'kuQa&mufaewJh wdkif;jynfrSm pdwfcsrf;omwJhvlqdkwm tifrwefrS &Sufp&maumif;w,f?
'DavmufawmifrS udk,fhab;uvltrsm; qif;&J'kuQa&mufaevsufom;eJ‹ udk,fu pdwfcsrf;csrf;omomeJ‹

aeEkdifw,fqdkwm udk,fhrSm vl‹ESvHk;om;r&Sdvdk‹bJvdk‹ owfrSwf&ygr,f? udk,fwa,mufxJ/ udk,fhrdom;pk/
udk,fhtodkif;t0dkif;yJ pdwfcsrf;om&if awmf+yDvdk‹qdkwJh olrsm;[m vlrqefygbl;? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ 0g;c,fr 16-189)
usr[m wyfrawmfeJ‹ jynfolvlxk=um;rSm vHk;vHk; pdwf0rf;ruJGapcsifbl;? tcktcsdefrSm wyfrawmf[m
azazjzpfapcsifwJh jynfoludk umuG,fr,fh/ jynfoludk apmifha&Smufr,fh/ EkdifiH&JΠ*k%foduQmudk xdef;odrf;r,fh
wyfrawmf}uD;&,fvdk‹ jzpfapcsifw,f? rjzpfwmudkawmh usr 0rf;enf;w,f? 'Dvdk wyfrawmf}uD;yJ
jyef+yD;awmh jzpfoGm;apcsifw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ 0g;c,fr 16-1-89)
azaz t+rJyJrSmcJhw,f? uav;awGudk bmudkrS ra=umufapeJ‹? olwdk‹a=umufzdk‹&m ESpfckyJ&Sdw,f?
rw&m;wJhudpPudkvkyfzdk‹ a=umuf&r,f? rrSefwJhudpPudkvkyfzdk‹ a=umuf&r,f? avmurSm a=umufzdk‹qdkwm
'DESpfckyJ &Sdygw,fwJh? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹&JŒ rdbjynfolrsm;udkvnf; tJh'DvdkyJ em;vnfapcsifygw,f?
(vl‹abmifopf'Drkdu&ufwpfygwD±Hk;/ 0g;c,fr 16-1-89)
usrwdk‹vlrsKd;awGudk opPm&SdwJh vlrsKd; jzpfapcsifw,f? wa,mufeJ‹wa,muf wdkufcdkufwJh ae&mrSmawmifrS
jrifhjrifhjrwfjrwf wdkufcdkufwJhenf;rsm;eJ‹ wdkufcdkufEdkifygw,f? &efolqdkwm jrifhjrwfwJh&efoleJ‹ ,kwfrmwJh&efol
ESpfrsKd;&Sdygw,f? jrifhjrwfwJh &efolqdkwm ,kwfrmwJh rdwfaqGxuf trsm;}uD;ydk+yD;awmh wefzdk;&Sdygw,f?
'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹[m &efoljzpfaewJh olawGtay:rSmvnf; jrifhjrwfwJh pdwfxm;&Sd&r,f?
(vl‹abmifopf'Drkdu&ufwpfygwD±Hk;/ ykodrf 17-1-89)
aemif wkdif;jynfacgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfr,fh vli,frsm;[m tckuaep+yD;awmh udk,frSm;ovm;/ rSefovm;qdkwm
oHk;oyf&JwJh owWdvnf;&Sd&r,f? rSm;wJhtcg udk,fhudkudk,f jyef+yD;awmh ðyjyifEdkifwJh t&nftcsif;vnf; &Sd&r,f?
'Dvdk usrwdk‹wdkif;jynfrS vli,frsm;[m udk,fhudkudk,f rSm;vdk‹&Sd&if oHk;oyfEkdifr,f/ 0efcHEkdifr,f/ rrSm;atmif
ðyjyifEkdifr,fqdk&if ESpfq,fhajcmufESpftwGif;u ysufpD;cJhwJhudpPrSefor#udk usrwdk‹ jyef+yD;awmh jyifoGm;EkdifrSm
jzpfygw,f? (vl‹abmifopf'Drkdu&ufwpfygwD±Hk;/ ykodrf 17-1-89)
tck 'Drkdua&pDvdkcsifwJh pdwfqENrsm;[m jrpf}uD;ozG,fyJ pD;qif;aeygw,f? 'Djrpfa&awGudk b,folrS
wm;EkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk‹tzJG‹csKyf[m 'Djrpfa&awGudk rSefwJhuefwJh vrf;uae+yD;awmh
oGm;Ekdifatmifvdk‹/ jrpfa&awG[m v#H+yD;awmh tEW&m,frjzpfEkdifatmifqdkwJh wm0efawG&Sdygw,f?
jynfolvlxk&JŒ tifrwefrS wufºuGwJh pdwfqENawGudk xdef;xdef;odrf;odrf;vkyzf dk‹ vdkygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹
'Dv_yf&Sm;r_xJrSm nDnGwfr_eJ‹ xyfwlta&;}uD;wmuawmh pnf;urf;&Sdr_yJvdk‹ usrwdk‹ twefwef
ajymaewmjzpfygw,f? (taemufòrd‹e,f±Hk;/ ykodrf 17-1-89)
tckwkdufyJG[m
jrefrmEkdifiHol
EkdifiHom;tcsif;csif;
wkdufyJGoabmrsKd;jzpfvdk‹
tifrwefrS
&ifemp&maumif;ygw,f? 'gayrJhvnf; 'Drdkua&pDtwGuf v_yf&Sm;w,fqdkwm trSefw&m;udk
atmifjrifapcsifvdk‹/ trsm;tusKd;twGuf jzpfapcsifvk‹d v_yf&Sm;wmyJ? udk,fusKd;tjrwfxGufcsifvdk‹vnf;
r[kwfbl;? b,fol‹udkrSvnf; rqHk;±_H; repfemapcsifbl;? tJh'Dawmh trSefw&m;udk atmifjrifapcsifwJh
pdwfapwemoef‹oef‹eJ‹ usrwdk‹tm;vHk; qufvkyfoGm;zdk‹ vdkygw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ acsmif;0 18-1-89)
jrefrmEkdifiHvdk qif;&JwJhEdkifiHrSm csrf;omae&wm tifrwef &Sufzdk‹aumif;ygw,f? usrwdk‹
EdkifiHolEdkifiHom;awG[m r&SufoifhwJhae&mrSm &Sufae=uygw,f? awmifolv,form; aus;vufvlxku

xrif;ESpfeyfudk tEkdifEkdifpm;ae&wJhcsdefrSm wcsKdŒu ig;eyf/ ajcmufeyfpm;aewm &Sufp&myg? wu,f
tusifhpm&dwWaumif;+yD; pdwfoabmxm; jrifhjrwfwJhvlrsm;taeeJ‹awmh jrefrmEdkifiHrSm rdrdcsrf;omzdk‹
óud;pm;&wm[m &Sufp&m b,favmufaumif;rvJvdk‹ awG;xif=urSmyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ [oFmw 24-1-89)
ae&mvdkcsifw,fqdkwm udk,fhwa,mufxJtwGufyg? ae&may;csifw,fqdkwm trsm;tusKd;twGufyg?
tJh'Dawmh ae&mrvdkcsif=uygeJ‹? ae&may;csif=uyg? t&nftcsif;&Sd+yD; tusifhpm&dwWaumif;wJholawGudk
ae&may;=uyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ [oFmw 24-1-89)
rdbawGu 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_xJrSmygwJh vli,fawGudk [ef‹wm;ae=uw,fqdkwm od&ygw,f?
r[ef‹wm;=uygeJ‹? udk,fa=umufvdk‹ udk,fhom;orD;awGyg a=umufzdk‹ oifay;w,fqdk&if odyf+yD;qdk;wmaygh?
(tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ [dkyHk; 12-2-89)
acgracwfu pygwmEkdifiHrSm ajymavh&Sdw,f? ppfwdkufoGm;zdk‹ 'dkif;udkif+yD; xGufoGm;wJhtcg tdrfuae
tarawG/ trawGu t+rJyJrSmvdkufw,f? 'dkif;udkif+yD;awmh jyefvm&ifvm/ 'dkif;ay:tdyf+yD;awmh jyefvm&ifvm/
ao+yD;awmh jyefvm&ifvm/ 'grSr[kwf ppfudkEkdif+yD;awmh jyefvm&ifvm/ ppf±_H;+yD;awmh jyefrvmygeJ‹qdkwJh
t"dy`m,feJ‹ ajymwmyJ? usrwdk‹tm;vHk;[m 'Dvdkpdwfxm;rsKd; &Sd&r,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ [dkyHk; 12-2-89)
usrwdk‹[m aemif 'Drdkua&pDjynfaxmifpkopf xlaxmifa&;twGufudk yifvHknDvmcHvdk wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;
tm;vHk;yg0ifwJh nDvmcH}uD;wck ac:zdk‹vdktyfw,fvdk‹ xifygw,f? 'D nDvmcHuae+yD;awmh
jynfaxmifpkwnfwHhcdkif+rJa&;twGuf
wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm;&JŒ
&oifh&xkdufwJh
tcGifhta&;rsm;/
udk,fydkifjyÏmef;csufrsm; pwJhudpPawGudk aoaocsmcsm aqG;aEG;+yD;awmh tm;vHk;&JŒ oabmwlnDcsuft&
taumif;qHk;tajzudk &Smr,fqdkwJh &nf&G,fcsuf&Sdygw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ yifvHk 12-2-89)
jrefrmEkdifiHrSm ESpfaygif;av;q,fausmf vufeufudkifenf;eJ‹ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;udk &SmcJhygw,f? 'gayrJh
ckxufxd r&ao;ygbl;? 'ga=umifhrdk‹vdk‹ usrwdk‹taeeJ‹ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;&zdk‹qdkwm EdkifiHa&;enf;eJ‹
&Sm&r,fvdk‹ ,Hk=unfygw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ yifvHk 12-2-89)
usrwdk‹[m tEkdif,lcsif&if tEkdif,lEkdifwJhpdwfawG arG;&ygr,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ awmif}uD; 13-2-89)
q,fh&Spf&uf
pufwifbmrSm
ppftpdk;&uae+yD;awmh
tm%mt&yf&yfudk
odrf;+yD;wJhaemuf
wkdufyJGyHkpHajymif;&r,fvdk‹ ,Hk=unfvdk‹ trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyf zJG‹cJhwm jzpfygw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ awmif}uD;
13-2-89)
b,fpepfrsKd;rqdk atmifjrifzdk‹qdkwm acgif;aqmifaumif;vnf; &Sd&r,f? aemufvdkufaumif;vnf; &Sd&r,f?
tJh'Dawmh aemufvdkufaumif;wa,muf&JΠt&nftcsif;[m bmvJqdk&if ta&;t}uD;qHk;uawmh
acgif;aqmifaumif;rsm; azmfxkwfEkdifwJh t&nftcsif; &Sd&r,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ awmif}uD; 13-2-89)
vlwa,muf&JŒwefzdk;udk 'Dvl&JŒtoufudk =unfh+yD;awmh rqHk;jzwfEkdifygbl;? 'ga=umifh usrwdk‹[m
vlwkdif;vlwkdif;&JŒ wefzdk;udk rSefrSefuefuef a0zef+yD;awmh ay;oifhay;xkdufwJh ae&mudkay;=uyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/
awmif}uD; 13-2-89)

'DtzJG‹csKyf}uD; zsufodrf;ay;rS trsKd;om;a&;jzpfwJh 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_}uD; atmifjrifr,fqdkvdk‹&Sd&if usrwdk‹
zsufodrf;ay;zdk‹ tqifoifhygyJ? 'DtzJG‹csKyfu a&SŒu aeay;rS/ umuG,fay;rS 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;[m
atmifjrifr,fqdk&ifvnf; usrwdk‹ a&SŒuae+yD; umuG,fay;yghr,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ awmif}uD; 13-2-89)
ausmif;om;or*~qdkwm EkdifiHa&;ygwD t&Sdeft0geJ‹vnf; uif;a0;&r,f? ygwD=oZmeJ‹vnf; uif;a0;&r,f?
ausmif;om;or*~wck xlaxmifay;+yD;awmh EdkifiHa&;rvkyf&bl;qdkwm ppfrSefwJhor*~wck jzpfrSmr[kwfbl;?
ausmif;om;or*~qdkwm 'Drdkua&pD&rS/ ausmif;awGtm;vHk;zGifhrS ausmif;om;tm;vHk;&JΠoabmwlnDqENt&
wifajr‡mufxm;wJh or*~rS jzpfEkdifrSmyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ awmif}uD; 13-2-89)
atmifqef;vrf;pOfqdkwm EdkifiHtwGuf taumif;qHk;vrf;pOfyJ? vrf;pOfwck&,fvdk‹r[kwfbl;? EkdifiHhtwGuf
taumif;qHk;vrf;pOf? 'Dvrf;pOf[m usrwdk‹ wcsdefvHk; tajz&Smae&r,f? 'DESpftwGuf aumif;wJhvrf;pOf[m
aemufESpftwGuf aumif;wJhvrf;pOf jzpfcsifrSjzpfr,f? aemufESpftwGuf aumif;wJhvrf;pOf[m aemif
q,fESpf=um&if aumif;wJhvrf;pOfvnf; jzpfcsifvnf;jzpfr,f? 'gayrJh 'Dvrf;pOfawGtm;vHk;rSm wlnDwJh
oabmwck&Sdw,f? vrf;pOfwdkif;/ vrf;pOfwkdif;[m EdkifiHtusKd;twGuf/ trsm;jynfoltusKd;twGuf
OD;wnf+yD;awmh cif;vdkufwJhvrf;pOf[m atmifqef;vrf;pOfyJ? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ awmif}uD; 13-2-89)
jynfolvlxku apmifh=unfhr,fvdk‹ajym&if usru ar;csifygw,f? bmudk apmifh=unfhrSmvJ? olrsm;awG
vkyfoGm;+yD;awmh 'Drdkua&pD&wJhtxd apmifh=unfhrSmvm;? usrwdk‹ apmifhvdk‹rjzpfygbl;? tJh'Dawmh tm;vHk;
0dkif;0ef;+yD;awmh vkyf=uyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ atmifyef; 15-2-89)
'Dwkdif;jynfrSm awmifolv,form; aus;vufjynfolvlxk[m wkdif;jynf&JΠtrsm;pk}uD;yJjzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh
aus;vufjynfolawG[m udk,fhudkudk,f txifrao;=uygeJ‹? tm;vHk;u 'Drkdua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_xJ yg0ifv_yf&Sm;zdk‹
vdkygw,f? usrwdk‹uvnf; aus;vufvlxk}uD;udk tm;udk;ae&wmyg? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ z,fcHk 16-2-89)
qdkif;bkwfwifw,fqkdwm bHk&efoludk jyzdk‹yJjzpfw,f? 'g igwkd‹&JŒae&mvdk‹ tm;vHk;u wpkwpnf;wnf;eJ‹
bHk&efoludk jyvdkufwJhtaeeJ‹ qdkif;bkwfwifwmjzpfw,f? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ z,fcHk 16-2-89)
jynfaxmifpkwck
xlaxmifzdk‹qdkwm
ArmawG&JŒ
jynfaxmifpkwkdif;&if;om;rsm;tm;vHk; wa,mufay:wa,muf
(arGawmf"mwfqifapwD/ rdk;+AJ 16-2-89)

uwdtay:rSm
opPm&Sdr_tay:rSm

rwnfygbl;?
rlwnfygw,f?

jrefrmEkdifiHrSm
'Drkdua&pD&&Sdzdk‹qdkwm
jynfrrSmyJ
'Drkdua&pD&vdk‹rjzpfbl;?
jynfe,fwcsKdŒrSmyJ
'Drdkua&pD&±HkeJ‹vnf; rjzpfbl;? jrefrmEkdifiHw0Srf;vHk;rSm 'Drdkua&pD&rS 'Drdkua&pDEkdifiHwck xlaxmifEkdifrSmyg?
(arGawmf"mwfqifapwD/ rdk;+AJ 16-2-89)
ausmif;om;vli,frsm; e,fpyfa&mufoGm;&wJhudpP/ vufeufudkif+yD; 'Dpepfudk wdkufcdkufcsifw,fqdkwJh
udpPrsm;[m vuf&Sdtpdk;&&JΠwm0efjzpfygw,f? t&ifESpfujzpfcJhwJh vufeufudkif+yD; jynfolvlxkudk
'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_udk ESdrfeif;cJhwJhudpPrsm;&JŒ tusKd;qufyJ? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ z±l;qdk; 17-2-89)
EkdifiHa&;tvkyf vkyfwJhtcgrSm jynfolvlxkeJ‹ usrwd‹k [m wwfEkdifor# yGifhyGifhvif;vif; qufqHcsifygw,f?
(tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ wyfukef; 19-2-89)

a&G;aumufyJGrSm vGwfvyfzdk‹/ w&m;r#wzdk‹qdk&mrSm jynfolvlxku vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;&zdk‹ vdkygw,f?
vGwfvyfpGm ajymqdkydkifcGifh/ vGwfvyfpGm pnf;±Hk;ydkifcGifh/ vGwfvyfpGm pk±Hk;ydkifcGifh/ vGwfvyfpGm
a&;om;ydkifcGifhqdkwJh tcGifhta&;awG &zdk‹vdkygw,f? 'DvdktcGifhta&;awG r&bJeJ‹ vGwfvyf+yD;awmh
w&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyJGawG vkyfay;r,fqdkwm enf;enf;rS t"dy`m,fr&Sdygbl;? (tzJG‹csKyf±Hk;/ wyfukef; 192-89)
("gwfyHkvmygonf)
txdef;odrf;cHae&pOf 1992 ckESpf arvY om;rsm;ESifh jyefvnfawG‹qHkpOf
(aemufausmzHk; twGif;bufpm&Gufwjcrf;wGif xnfhoGif;&rnfh pmom;jzpfygonf)
atmifqef;pk=unfudk AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. wOD;wnf;aomorD;tjzpf jrefrmEdkifiHolEkdifiHom;wkdif; od&Sd=u.?
1990 ckESpf a&G;aumufyJGY tjywftowf tEkdif&&SdcJhaom trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG‹csKyfudk
OD;pD;wnfaxmifcJholjzpfonf? 1991 ckESpfwGif EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qkudk &&SdcJholjzpf+yD; urBmay:wGif
emrnftausmf=um;qHk;/ vlodtrsm;qHk; EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;vnf;jzpfonf? olr. a&;om;csufrsm;ESifh
a[majymcsufrsm;udk jrefrmbmomjzifh xkwfoifhonfrSm =um+yDjzpfaomfvnf; ta=umif;trsKd;rsKd;a=umifh
=uef‹=umcJh&onf?
xdk‹a=umifh
atmifqef;pk=unf.
vufa&G;pifpmwrf;rsm;ESifh
rdef‹cGef;rsm;udk
jrefrmbmomjzifh yxrqHk;t}udrf pkpnf;wifjyxm;jcif;jzpfygonf? 1991 ckESpf pma&;ol
EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk &&SdcsdefwGif xkwfa0cJh+yD; bmomaygif;rsm;pGmodk‹ jyefqdkcJhaom rl&if;t*Fvdyfpmtkyfudk
tajccHI jrefrmjyefqdkxm;onf? odk‹aomfvnf; ,ckpmtkyfudkrl jrefrmpmzwfy&dowftwGuf t"du&nfpl;I
ðypkxm;onfhtwGuf rl&if;pmtkyfyg aqmif;yg;tcsKdŒudk csefvSyfcJh+yD; aemufydkif;wGif a&;om;cJhaom pmwrf;ESifh
rdef‹cGef;tcsKdŒudk xyfrHjznfhpGufxm;onf? pma&;olonf vGwf&uf rcef‹rSef;Edkifonfh txdef;odrf;cHb0rS
&nfn$ef;csufESifh trSmpmudk a&;om;xm;ygonf? Tpmtkyfonf ae&mtESH‹tjym;rS jrefrm
pmzwfy&dowftwGuf txl;wvnf pdwf0ifpm;zG,fjzpfrnf[k xkwfa0olu ,Hk=unfonf?

rsufESmzHk;yef;csD OD;ay:odrf;
(Tae&mwGif pmtkyfwtkyfvHk; tqkHk;owfygonf)

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