Cell Breathing Techniques for Load Balancing in Wireless LANs

A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by BALAMURUGAN R DILIPKUMAR N SANTHOSHKUMAR S SHANMUGANATHAN S (62206104004) (62206104014) (62206104042) (62206104047)

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING



ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600 025 BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report ―CELL BREATHING TECHNIQUES FOR LOAD BALACINING IN WIRELESS LANs” is the bonafide work of ―R.BALAMURUGAN, N.DILIPKUMAR, S.SANTHOSHKUMAR, S.SHANMUGANATHAN ‖who carried out the project work under my supervision.

SIGNATURE Mr. P. Sudhakar Phd. Assistant Professor HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT Department of Computer Science and Engineering V. S. B. Eggineering College Karur-639111

SIGNATURE Mr. P. Krishnamoorhty M.Tech.

LECTURER Department of Computer Science and Engineering V. S.B. Engineering College Karur-639111

Submitted for University Project viva-voce examination conducted on 12 April 2010.

Internal Examiner

External Examiner


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are over helmed in all humbleness and gratefulness to acknowledge our depth to all those who have helped us to put these ideas, well above the level of simplicity and into something concrete. We feel happy to thank Dr. MAHENDRA GOWDA Phd, Principal who has given an official permission to undergo this Project. We also express our profound gratitude to Mr. P. SUDHAKAR Phd, Head of the Department,and also our guide for guiding and correcting various documents of ours with attention and care. We are very thankful to our guides Mrs.MAMTA BHATTARAI M.Tech. for their valuable help. They were always there to show us the right track when we needed their help. With the help of their valuable suggestions, guidance and encouragement, we were able to perform this project work. It is imperative on my part to express my deep and sincere thanks to my class in charge Mr. KRISHNAMOORTHY M.Tech., who made me comfortable with his kind assistance guidance. Above all, We thank god for the innumerable and unaccountable blessings he has showered upon us through this Endeavour. Last but not the least, we would like to thank our parents, brothers, and our friends who stood with us and helped to finish this Project successfully.












10 10 10 11



17 17 18 19



21 21 22 23 24




6 7


29 34























e.11 standard. however. These schemes commonly require proprietary software or hardware at the user side for controlling the user-AP association. which is conceptually similar to cell breathing in cellular networks.. To alleviate such imbalance of load. We develop a set of polynomial time algorithms that find the optimal beacon power settings which minimize the load of the most congested AP. In this project we present a new load balancing technique by controlling the size of WLAN cells (i.SYNOPSIS Maximizing network throughput while providing fairness is one of the key challenges in wireless LANs (WLANs). AP's coverage range). The proposed scheme does not require any modification to the users neither the IEEE 802. We also consider the problem of network-wide min-max load balance. Recent studies on operational WLANs. This goal is typically achieved when the load of access points (APs) is balanced. It only requires the ability of dynamically changing the transmission power of the AP beacon messages. several load balancing schemes have been proposed. have shown that AP load is often substantially uneven. 6 .

1 ORGANIZATION PROFILE NiMiS is an emerging provider of IT development solutions. flexibility and specialist knowledge 7 . The ability of NiMis to anticipate future technological requirements and capabilities is vital to the success of their business and that of their clients. servicing customers nationwide. They give their clients a real commercial advantage by the professionalism. to implementation and integration. to solution development. Data Warehousing and Decision Support. Internet/Intranet and e-Commerce solutions. communicate and support customers as the pace of change accelerates and demands grow. Electronic Document Management. Transparent software development process and interaction with the customer are taken utmost care at NiMiS. NiMiS software development services cover the complete project life cycle. Information Security. from requirement assessment and task definition. followed by support and maintenance. NiMiS expertise covers the following areas:      Enterprise Application Integration. NiMiS also ensures quality control at all stages of development process. NiMiS business lines include:      Tailor-made software solutions development Outsourcing software development Business solutions deployment and integration IT Consulting and Training IT Infrastructure building / maintenance and related services including technical support to both customers and IT companies. Excellent quality of NiMiS software development is guaranteed by their team of professionals with certified skills and experienced project managers. The ability to integrate software with existing systems by expanding information systems infrastructure is an important advantage of NiMiS as a turn-key solution provider. The objective of NiMiS is to work.1.

Such load imbalance among aps is undesirable as it hampers the network from fully utilizing its capacity and providing fair services to users. a WLAN cell is defined as a region in which the AP beacon signal has the strongest RSSI. if it is impossible to reduce the load of any AP without increasing the load of other aps with equal or higher load. We present an optimal algorithm that finds deterministic min-max load balancing solutions.11 wireless lans (wlans) have shown that traffic load is often unevenly distributed among the access points (aps). In this project. Informally.2 PROJECT OVERVIEW Recent studies on operational IEEE 802. In wlans. As users are. Our approach is practical since it does not require either user assistance or standard modification 8 . In this paper. some aps tend to suffer from heavy load. Our approach is conceptually similar to cell breathing in cellular networks. while being oblivious to the load of aps. we present a novel load balancing scheme that reduces the load of congested aps by forcing the users near the boundaries of congested cells to move to neighboring less congested cells. We achieve this via cell size dimensioning by controlling the transmission power of the AP beacon messages. a user scans all available channels and associates itself with an AP that has the strongest received signal strength indicator (RSSI). by default.1. not evenly distributed. a WLAN is called min-max load balanced. typically. while their adjacent aps may carry only light load.

At any iteration m. Algorithm Description: The algorithm iteratively finds a minmax priority-load-balanced state that yields the optimal load vector ~Y. m. must dominate the optimal state. 9 . The routine needs to satisfy two requirements: Requirement 1. m 2 ½1::jAj . Requirement 2.Algorithm / Technique used: Min-Max Algorithm. we call a routine to calculate a network state that minimizes the priority load of the mth coordinate of the load vector. The initial state of each iteration. The calculated network state at the mth iteration should not affect (increase) the load of the APs that their load have already been determined by the previous iterations.

2 SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION Operating System Front End Coding Language Database : .1 HARDWARE CONFIGURATION Processor Clock Speed RAM Hard disk Capacity Floppy disk Capacity Keyboard Mouse : Pentium IV : 2 GHz : 512 MB : 80 GB : 1.C#.2.44 MB : 101 Keys : Optical Mouse 2. 10 . :-Sql 2000. SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT 2. :-Visual Studio Dot Net 2005. : .Windows Xp Professional.

The first is the Common Language Runtime (CLR).NET Framework that enables programs to be portable. the . If you are new to programming.NET Framework class library. also called mixed-language programming.NET Framework class library. you will use the . Features Of C#. C# programs are automatically portable to all .2. supports mixed-language programming. there are still features that it lacks.NET runtime system is supported. This library gives your program access to the runtime environment. if you want to perform I/O. your programs can run anywhere that the .NET Framework defines two very important entities. distributed software systems. such as displaying something on the screen.net While Java has successfully addressed many of the issues surrounding portability in the Internet environment. program portability. Although it is explained in detail later in this book. The second entity is the .Net The . and provides for security. As it relates to C#. for now a brief definition will suffice: a class is an object-oriented construct that helps organize programs. Along with other benefits.NET environments. One is cross-language interoperability. and a common programming model for the Windows platform. the Common Language Runtime is the part of the . This is the ability for the code produced by one language to work easily with the code produced by another. Since C# automatically uses the . Cross-language interoperability is needed for the creation of large. component-based applications.3 SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT Microsoft . It is also desirable for 11 . This is the system that manages the execution of your program.NET Framework class library. As long as your program restricts itself to the features defined by the . For example. It enables differing computer languages to work together and provides for security.NET library to do it.NET Framework defines an environment that supports the development and execution of highly distributed. then the term class may be new.

because the most valuable component is one that can be used by the widest variety of computer languages. he was free to focus on specific improvements and innovations. Furthermore. To answer these and other needs. in the greatest number of operating environments. at the time of C#‘s creation. C++. If you know C or C++. then you will feel at home with C#. in the 1980s he was the original author of the highly successful and influential Turbo Pascal. C#‘s chief architect was Anders Hejlsberg. Java and Windows are not closely coupled. whose streamlined implementation set the standard for all future compilers. The grandfather of C# is C. The family tree for C# is shown in Figure 1-1. For example. C# builds upon and improves the object model defined by C++. well-understood foundation. Although Java programs can be executed in a Windows environment (assuming that the Java Virtual Machine has been installed). Another feature lacking in Java is full integration with the Windows platform. Since Windows is the mostly widely used operating system in the world.programming software components. 12 . and Java. C# offered an easy migration path from these languages. Microsoft developed C#.NET strategy. This is not by accident. nearly all professional programmers knew C. and its operators. C++. Since it was neither necessary nor desirable for Hejlsberg to start from scratch. lack of direct support for Windows is a drawback to Java. It was first released in its alpha version in the middle of 2000. and/or Java. C# derives its syntax. C# is directly related to C. By building C# upon a solid. with several notable accomplishments to his credit. C# was created at Microsoft late in the 1990s and was part of Microsoft‘s overall . From C. These are three of the most widely used—and most widely liked—programming languages in the world. Hejlsberg is one of the world‘s leading language experts. many of its keywords.

and events. C# is not descended from Java. However. Java is also descended from C and C++. C# includes features that directly support the constituents of components. though.Figure 1-1: The C# family tree C# and Java have a bit more complicated relationship. sharing a common ancestry. The good news. but some of its most important relate to its built-in support for software components. C# has been characterized as being a component-oriented language because it contains integral support for the writing of software components. methods. then many of the things you learn about C# will carry over. However. In fact. if in the future you need to learn Java. Instead. C# is designed to produce portable code. It too shares the C/C++ syntax and object model. C# and Java are more like cousins. C#‘s ability to work in a mixed-language environment is perhaps its most important component-oriented feature. C# contains many innovative features that we will examine at length throughout the course of this book. such as properties. Like Java. As explained. 13 . For example. then many C# concepts will be familiar. but differing in many important ways. is that if you know Java. Conversely.

and range of the language. The second is version 2. As a side-effect.1. The first was version 1. the addition of generics has caused the Collections library to be greatly expanded.The Evolution of C# Following the original 1. reusable code. which this book covers. which was a minor upgrade that did not add significantly to the language. Along with many small improvements. power. 14 . but it also greatly expands C#‘s expressive power by enabling the creation of typesafe. They are listed here:               Generics Nullable types Iterators Partial class definitions Anonymous methods The :: operator static classes Covariance and contravariance Fixed-size buffers Friend assemblies extern aliases Method group conversions Accessor access control New #pragma directives Of these new features. C# has undergone two revisions.0 is a major release. C# 2.0 release. Version 2. and the most direct impact on programmers. is generics. Not only does it add an entirely new syntax element to the language.0.0 includes 14 major additions to the language. It adds many new features and fundamentally expands the scope. the one that has the most effect on the language.

All the SQL statements are submitted to the Transact-SQL. The version of SQL used by SQL SERVER 2005 is called Transact – SQL. they further enhance an already rich and powerful language. and data manipulation programs. data entry programs such as those used for order entry.Throughout the course of this book each of the new features added by C# 2. It receives requests from the clients for data and returns the result of the processed query. The abbreviation is Structure Query Language. In fact.0 is described in detail. Microsoft sql server SQL SERVER 2005 is a Relational Database Management System. the need for data access by computer programs did not go away. most database access still was (and is) programmatic. in the form of regularly scheduled reports and statistical analyses. The following is a list of relational database that support SQL:  SQL SERVER  MS – Access  Sybase  Oracle  Ingress  Informix 15 . It is the product of Microsoft. such as those used to reconcile accounts and generate work orders. which on receiving them passes the result and displays it for the user. SQL solved the ad hoc needs of users. It supports the client/server architecture. SQL is a declarative language where you just say store this or modify this without saying how to do. SQL is the language used to query the database. As you will see.

Features of SQL  SQL is used to query the database to get results  Used to inserts new data  Used to modify the data  Extremely flexible query language  Over the years its functional capabilities can be extended 16 .

Most of these works determine only the association of newly arrived users. These metrics typically take into account such factors as the number of users currently associated with an AP.3. In Velayos et al. they require certain support from the client side. provided a mathematical foundation for distributed frequency allocation and user association for efficient resource sharing. introduced a distributed load balancing architecture were the AP load is defined as the aggregated downlink and uplink traffic through the AP. SYSTEM STUDY 3. e. In Kumar and coworkers proposed association selection algorithms which are based on the concept of proportional fairness to balance between throughput and fairness.1 EXISTING SYSTEM Several studies have proposed a variety of association metrics instead of using the RSSI as the sole criterion. and the bandwidth that a new user can get if it is associated with an AP. Recently. In a strong relation between fairness and load balancing is shown. In contrast. the mean RSSI of users currently associated with an AP. Tsai et al. While the existing load balancing schemes achieved considerable improvement in terms of throughput and fairness. proposed to associate a user with an AP that can provide a minimal bandwidth required by the user.. 17 . considered a no cooperative multihoming approach and showed that under appropriate pricing. in which Tsai and Lien proposed to reassociate users when the total load exceeds a certain threshold or the bandwidth allocated to users‘ drops below a certain threshold. the system throughput is maximized. in Shakkottai et al.g. is an exception. Balachandran et al. the proposed scheme does not require any proprietary client support. In Kauffmann et al.

18 . we solve a variant of this min-max problem.2 PROPOSED SYSTEM We address the problem of min-max load balancing. and the approximation ratio of any prefix-sum approximation algorithm is at least (logn). whose optimal solution can be calculated in polynomial time for both knowledge models. In it is proved that there exists no algorithm that guarantees any coordinate wise approximation ratio. This is a strong NP-hard problem. Here.3. the AP load is defined as an ordered pair of the aggregated load contributions of its associated users and a unique AP priority. In this paper. where n is the number of APs. termed min-max priority load balancing.

So the users will not be facing any crisis in the running system.3. This type of study determines if a project can and should be done.3 FEASIBILITY STUDY Feasibility is a determination of whether or not a project worth doing. 19 . The process followed in making this determination is called a feasibility analysis. Thus the Centralized network Management System is found to be operationally feasible. The feasibility is made according to the three key considerations:     Operational feasibility Technical feasibility Economic feasibility Behavioral feasibility OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY The purpose of Operational Feasibility study is to determine whether the new system will be used if it is developed and implemented or will there be resistance from the users that will take the possible application benefits. It is advisable to conduct discussions regarding the analysis and design of the project before starting it. The users of the system are fully aware of the internal working of the system. There was no difficulty in implementing. When developing a system. Unexpected technical problems and timing problems can occur when poor problem definition is obtained. the system as the ‗Centralized network Management System‘ is so effective and user-friendly. it is necessary to evaluate the feasibility of project at the earliest possible time.

The technical needs of system may vary considerably. the procedure is to determine the benefits and savings that are expected from the proposed system and compare them with cost. Response time under certain conditions Ability to process a certain volume of transaction at a stipulated speed. The overall project cost is also normal as compared with other system development. Most commonly known as cost/benefit analysis. in the proposed system the benefits and savings are found to be more when compared to the overall cost that is to be incurred. Hence it is accepted. but include    The facility to produce outputs in a given time. 20 . Here. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY Economic analysis is the most frequently technique for evaluating the effectiveness of a proposed system. the main purpose is the security level that is tent. As the proposed system is being developed in VB. So. BEHAVIORAL FEASIBILITY Behavioral Feasibility is a determination of whether proposed system is secured or not. Also the implementation and maintenance of the system doesn‘t take much of the cost. The changes needed in the existing system are some security and communication problem where it is overcome with the proposed system.TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY This is concerned with specifying equipment and software that will successfully satisfy the user requirements.net the company is not forced to invest more on resources.

It is a process of converting user-originated inputs to a computer-based format. Input data are collected and organized into a group of similar data. appropriate input media are selected for processing.4. Input design is the part of the overall system design. Source documents initiate a processing cycle as soon as they are entered into the system through the keyboard. In input data design.To ensure that the input is acceptable and understood by the user. The input forms are developed in a user-friendly way so that a layman also can easily understand everything. we design source document that capture the data and then select the media used to enter them into the computer.1 INPUT DESIGN The input design is the link that ties the information system into the world of its users. 2. Once identified. 21 . SYSTEM DESIGN 4. Menus are provided to users and different icons are designed so the proposed system design looks decorative. The goal of designing input data is to make entry easy. Objectives of Input Design: 1.To achieve the highest possible level of accuracy. logical and free form errors. A source should be logical and easy to understand.

Arrange the presentation of information in an acceptable form. While designing an output. 22 .1. Depending on the user the system would generate appropriate output. Determine what information to present 2. Decide how to distribute the output to intended users.2 OUTPUT DESIGN Output forms are also designed in a specific manner as per the user requirement. Decide whether to display. Results are formatted to enhance clarity. the system analyst must accomplish the following. 1. 4. 3. print or speak information and select the output medium. The output forms are designed in such a way that the entire user required data is presented.

     Control redundancy Easy to use Data independence Accuracy and integrity Performance For achieving the above criteria. The management of data involves both the definition of structure for the manipulation of information.4.3 DATABASE DESIGN Database design is required to manage large bodies of information. System crashes or due to attempt at unauthorized access. 23 . we have to make use of various features available with DBMS such forcing integrity constrains. In addition the data base system must provide for the safety of the information handled despite. For developing an efficient data base we have to fulfill certain condition such as .

A circle stands for process that converts data into information. A square defines a source or destination of system data. Most data flow modeling methods use four kinds of symbols. Circles in DFD represent processes. Data Flow Diagrams do not supply detailed description of the modules but graphically describes a system‘s data and how the data interact with the system. Unlike detailed flow chart. An open-ended box represents a data store. These symbols are used to represent four kinds of system components such as Processes. which represent system components. Data flow diagrams are made up of a number symbols. It is a pipeline through which information is flown like the rectangle in the flowchart.4. Data Flow is represented by a thin line in the DFD and each data store has a unique name and rectangle represents external entities. data stores.4 DATAFLOW DIAGRAM The data flow diagram (DFD) is one of the most important tools used by system analysts. data at rest or a temporary repository of data. data flows and external entities. An arrow identifies the data flow in motion. 24 .

Basic dfd notation Source or Destination of data : Process that transforms data flow : To represent data storage : To represent Data flow : 25 .

Data Flow Diagram Server 1 Server 2 Server 3 Load 1 Load 2 Load 3 Cell Breathing Server Client Request 26 .

So Rapid Application model was used to develop the system. the user felt comfortable with the newly developed system. Hence developing a system without the user‘s feedback will lead to discard of the system. But as the system evolved and after a series of interactions and demonstrations. The system went through the following stages:  The software request is evaluated  Product requirements are collected  Design specification for the prototype is prepared  Prototype software is developed. They need to get trained to use the newly proposed system. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT The ultimate aim of the proposed system is to provide service to the customers. tested and refined  Prototype is given to the user. A rough interface of the system is given to the users for their feedback and suggestions.5. Then the modifications are done. who tested the system any gave suggestions for further refinement 27 .

The process during the development of the software using the RAD model is Requirement Gathering Abbreviated Representation Prototype Generation Testing and Refinement Cell Breathing Techniques for Load Balancing 28 .

SYSTEM TESTING Testing Methodologies Testing is a process used to help identify the correctness. There are many approaches to software testing. 2. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it". The data collected through testing can also provide an indication of the software's reliability and quality.6. Testing objectives include 1. 3. but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation. A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding an as yet undiscovered error. Testing should systematically uncover different classes of errors in a minimum amount of time and with a minimum amount of effort. The quality of the application can and normally does vary widely from system to system but some of the common quality attributes include reliability. maintainability and usability. where the "questions" are things the tester tries to do with the product. testing cannot show the absence of defect -. But. A secondary benefit of testing is that it demonstrates that the software appears to be working as stated in the specifications. not merely a matter of creating and following rote procedure. 29 . Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error. portability. completeness and quality of developed computer software. A successful test is one that uncovers an as yet undiscovered error. stability. and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester.it can only show that software defects are present.

and 5. 2. Guarantee that all independent paths within a module have been exercised at least once. Tests are based on coverage of code statements. performance errors. 3. Generally cookie contains personalized user data or information that is used to communicate between different web pages. 30 . initialization and termination errors. Also known as Glass box Testing.White box testing is a test case design method that uses the control structure of the procedural design to derive test cases. The communication between web browser and web server is stateless. errors in data structures or external database access. Cookies are nothing but the user‘s identity and used to track where the user navigated throughout the web site pages. incorrect or missing functions. Exercise internal data structures to ensure their validity. Website Cookie Testing Cookie is small information stored in text file on user‘s hard drive by web server. This type of testing attempts to find errors in the following categories: 1. branches. 4. conditions. Internal software and code working should be known for this type of testing.Exercise all logical decisions on their true and false sides. This information is later used by web browser to retrieve information from that machine. 2. Execute all loops at their boundaries and within their operational bounds. White box testing – This testing is based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application‘s code. It is not an alternative to white box testing. paths. interface errors. 3. and 4. Test cases can be derived that 1.Black box testing Black box testing attempts to derive sets of inputs that will fully exercise all the functional requirements of a system.

Navigate through the site. Access the web pages and check the behavior of the pages. Name of the cookie or expiry date of the cookie and see the site functionality. 7) Corrupt the cookies: Corrupting cookie is easy.Test cases: 1) As a Cookie privacy policy make sure from your design documents that no personal or sensitive data is stored in the cookie. 3) Make sure that there is no overuse of cookies on your site under test. Manually edit the cookie in notepad and change the parameters to some vague values. You know where cookies are stored. Then try to access the web site under test. your sites major functionality will not work by disabling the cookies. 2) If you have no option than saving sensitive data in cookie make sure data stored in cookie is stored in encrypted format. 4) Disable the cookies from your browser settings: If you are using cookies on your site. Try to access major functionality of web site. This should not happen in case of your web site cookies. There should not be any page crash due to disabling the cookies 5) Accepts/Reject some cookies: The best way to check web site functionality is. For executing this test case you can set browser options to prompt whenever cookie is being written to disk. If you are writing 10 cookies in your web application then randomly accept some cookies say accept 5 and reject 5 cookies. 6) Delete cookie: Allow site to write the cookies and then close all browsers and manually delete all cookies for web site under test. See if pages are getting crashed or data is getting corrupted. Like alter the cookie content. 31 . not to accept all cookies. Overuse of cookies will annoy users if browser is prompting for cookies more often and this could result in loss of site traffic and eventually loss of business. See if appropriate messages are displayed to user like ―For smooth functioning of this site make sure that cookies are enabled on your browser‖. On this prompt window you can either accept or reject cookie. In some cases corrupted cookies allow to read the data inside it for any other domain.

Action tracking or purchase tracking pixel is placed on the action web page and when any action or purchase occurs by user the cookie written on disk get deleted to avoid multiple action logging from same cookie. Change this parameter to different value say if previous user ID is 100 then make it 101 and press enter.Each of these assets is threatened by one or more of the following unacceptable events:  Interruption  Disclosure  Removal  Destruction  Security Issues 32 . You can test your web application on Major used browsers like Internet explorer (Various versions). The proper access message should be displayed to user and user should not be able to see other users account. Netscape.com may be deleted by same domain but by different page under that domain. Mozilla Firefox.8 ) Checking the deletion of cookies from your web application page: Some times cookie written by domain say rediff. 10) If your web application is using cookies to maintain the logging state of any user then log in to your web application using some username and password. In many cases you can see the logged in user ID parameter directly in browser address bar. This is the general case if you are testing some ‗action tracking‘ web portal. 9) Cookie Testing on Multiple browsers: This is the important case to check if your web application page is writing the cookies properly on different browsers as intended and site works properly using these cookies. Security Technologies & Policies A computer-base system is a combination of many assets or resources designed to perform some function or to provide some services. Opera etc.

File protection The various files and database tables are also highly secured in this system.The term security can be divided into four related issues  Security  Integrity  Privacy  Confidentiality  Authentication In the system brief log on procedure for the customer was provided in order to enter and accessthe system.which will facilitate encryption and decryption of files.the data encryption standards engine is attached to all files and database tables associated with the system. Backup of the system are also taken as a preventive measure. These attributes are stored in a table that cannot be easily trapped by unauthorized persons. The necessity for securing the files and the table evolves because some persons who were not given authorization for access may hacker files and corrupt the tables with wrong data which will response tremendous hazards to the operations of the system. This process is done in order to identify the valid user. 33 . So in order to avoid these things.

They are education and training. The process of putting the developed system in actual use is called system implementation.  Training of the staff in the changeover phase  Evaluation of the changeover method 34 . The implementation stage involves following tasks. it can cause chaos and confusion.7. The most crucial stage is achieving a new successful system and giving confidence on the new system for the user that it will work efficiently and effectively. The new system may be totally new. replacing an existing manual or automated system or it may be a major modification to an existing system. The system personnel check the feasibility of the system. SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION Implementation is the stage of the project where the theoretical design is turned into a working system. investigation of the current system and its constraints on implementation.  Careful planning  Investigation of system and constraints  Design of methods to achieve the changeover. Proper implementation is essential to provide a reliable system to meet the organization requirements. It involves careful planning. If the implementation is not carefully planned and controlled. system testing and changeover. At this stage the main work load and the major impact on the existing system shifts to the user department. Implementation includes all those activities that take place to convert from the old system to the new one. The system implementation has three main aspects. The system can be implemented only after thorough testing is done and it is found to be working according to the specifications.

to the satisfaction of the intended users and the operation of the system. the user must know that for viewing the result.Implementation Procedures Implementation of software refers to the final installation of the package in its real environment.  The active user must be aware of the benefits of using the system  Their confidence in the software built up  Proper guidance is impaired to the user so that he is comfortable in using the application Before going ahead and viewing the system. Education information can make training more interesting and more understandable. In the initial stage they doubt about the software but we have to ensure that the resistance does not build up as one has to make sure that. It brings life to formal training by explaining the background to the resources for them. the actual processes will not take place. If the server object is not running on the server. As system becomes more complex. User Manual To achieve the objectives and benefits expected from the proposed system it is essential for the people who will be involved to be confident of their role in the new system. Education involves creating the right atmosphere and motivating user staff. the need for education and training is more and more important. 35 . Education is complementary to training. the server program should be running in the server. The people are not sure that the software is meant to make their job easier.

screen design. type of errors while entering the data.Training on the Application Software After providing the necessary basic training on the computer awareness. This training may be different across different user groups and across different levels of hierarchy. the users will have to be trained on the new application software. type of help on the screen. the corresponding validation check at each entry and the ways to correct the data entered. 36 . This will give the underlying philosophy of the use of the new system such as the screen flow.

after a product is released for use. the system can be adapted to cope up with these changes. Adaptive Maintenance The second activity that contributes to a definition of maintenance occurs because of the rapid change that is encountered in every aspect of computing. System maintenance is an important aspect in the software development life cycle. So only thru proper system maintenance procedures. 37 . far more than ―finding mistakes‖. Software product enhancements may involve providing new functional capabilities. technical and other environmental changes. Corrective Maintenance The first maintenance activity occurs because it is unreasonable to assume that software testing will uncover all latent errors in a large software system.SYSTEM MAINTENANCE The maintenance phase of the software cycle is the time in which software performs useful work. errors will occur and be reported to the developer. There may be social. We may define maintenance by describing four activities that are undertaken. During the use of any large program. The need for system maintenance is to make adaptable to the changes in the system environment. Therefore Adaptive maintenance termed as an activity that modifies software to properly interfere with a changing environment is both necessary and commonplace. After a system is successfully implemented. The process that includes the diagnosis and correction of one or more errors is called Corrective Maintenance. upgrading the performance characteristics of the system. improving user displays and mode of interaction.8. which affect a system which is being implemented. it should be maintained in a proper manner. Software maintenance is of course.

38 . As the software is used. recommendations for new capabilities. To satisfy requests in this category. This activity accounts for the majority of all efforts expended on software maintenance. Perceptive maintenance is performed. this activity is characterized by reverse engineering and re-engineering techniques. Often called preventive maintenance. modifications to existing functions. and general enhancement are received from users. or to provide a better basis for future enhancements.Perceptive Maintenance The third activity that may be applied to a definition of maintenance occurs when a software package is successful. Preventive Maintenance The fourth maintenance activity occurs when software is changed to improve future maintainability or reliability.

is seen separately and it is completely object model based approach. the developed system should provide room for improvement and enhancement. In order to become an effective system.9. The architecture is very object oriented. 39 . This project can be further enhanced based on the future trends and strategies. in future the system can be enhanced according to requirements. The database has been completely encapsulated inside the data access layer. data access layer. and the business layer.FUTURE DEVELOPMENT The growth of any organization leads to enhancements.

can be developed and it can be integrated. There is a hope that this software will be utilized to its maximum and will do a good job in long run. is bound to satisfy all of the requirements. adjusted for changes in machines and operating system technology and enhanced to meet now user needs.10. all without regard to overall architecture. 40 . The system is much flexible and extensible and hence further enhancements. This project has been created using the best design and coding technique known. The ubiquitous nature of change underlies all software work. In the proposed system. With the existing one very easily. It is expected to leave up to the objective for which it is designed. if needed. we must develop mechanism for evaluating. This system has been well developed and when implemented. Painstaking efforts have been taken to make the software impeccable and upgradeable. controlling and making modification. Therefore. Care has been taken to provide this user friendly system so that not only the experienced and professional agents use the system but will prove useful for the new agents also.CONCLUSION This software provides a user – friendly approach towards the system. It can be migrated to new platforms. The efficiency of the application lies in the hands of the end – users. it is sure that it must reduce the man power and the time duration.


42 .

43 .

using System. using System.Net.ShowDialog() == DialogResult.Collections. LBSReceive.Net. This is Server code. //if (fd. using System.Forms. using System. using System. using System. namespace LBServerCode { public partial class CelBreathingServer : Form { DBase db = new DBase(). EventArgs e) { // if (FTServerCode.Text. Calcutta. //FolderBrowserDialog fd = new FolderBrowserDialog().Data.Sockets. i++) // { // System. string path.SelectedPath.in. // } 44 . public CelBreathingServer() { InitializeComponent().Process.receivedPath. ClientPath.SOURCE CODE using System. } private void button1_Click(object sender. //That code is running to transfer small file to client to server.Drawing.com).OK) //{ // ClientPath = fd.Generic.xm. // for (int i = 1. i <= 3.12. using System.Diagnostics.receivedPath = "". using System. India (Email: sumanbiswas@aol.Net.ComponentModel.IO.Windows.Start(ClientPath + "//Client " + i + "//bin//Debug//Client " + i).Length > 0) backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerAsync(). using System.Website: sumanbiswas. //That code is written by Suman Biswas. by using and after doing modification any one //can able to make a large file transfer application in C#.

EventArgs e) { //label5.receivedPath. label3.Value = LBSReceive.curMsg.StartupPath). return random. EventArgs e) { FolderBrowserDialog fd = new FolderBrowserDialog(). max). lblserver1. lblserver3. DoWorkEventArgs e) { obj.loadst1.Show("Please select file receiving path").loadst1.ToString().Text = LBSReceive.GetParent(Application. } private int RandomNumber(int min.Text = LBSReceive.Text = LBSReceive. progressBar1.ShowDialog() == DialogResult.ToString(). lblserver2. progressBar3. } private void button2_Click(object sender. EventArgs e) { path = Directory.loadst3.OK) { LBSReceive.Text = LBSReceive. private void backgroundWorker1_DoWork(object sender. if (fd. } private void timer1_Tick(object sender. } } private void Form1_Load(object sender.//} // else // MessageBox.SelectedPath. private void timer2_Tick(object sender.loadst3.ToString(). EventArgs e) { 45 .Text = LBSReceive.Value = LBSReceive.StartServer().receivedPath = fd. } LBSReceive obj = new LBSReceive(). progressBar2.loadst2. } int a = 0.Next(min.loadst2. int max) { Random random = new Random().Value = LBSReceive.ToString().

db. // a1. db.ToString().dr. db.conclose(). db. db.reader("Select Count(Msg) from Engine1").command("delete FROM Engine2 where Id in ( SELECT TOP 2 Id FROM Engine2)"). } } public void LoadStatus() { db. LoadStatus().ToInt32(db. db.dr.GetValue(0)).dr. LBSReceive.conclose().loadst1 = Convert. LoadStatus().conclose().command("delete From Engine1").loadst2 = Convert.command("delete FROM Engine1 where Id in ( SELECT TOP 2 Id FROM Engine1)").loadst3 > 50) { db.ToInt32(db. if (LBSReceive.ToInt32(db. db. db.conclose().GetValue(0)).reader("Select Count(Msg) from Engine3").dr.loadst3 = Convert.Text = returnValue.reader("Select Count(Msg) from Engine2").dr.Read().command("delete FROM Engine3 where Id in ( SELECT TOP 2 Id FROM Engine3)"). db. db. } else if (returnValue == 3) { db. 20). LBSReceive.conclose(). LBSReceive.GetValue(0)).Read().conclose().Read().dr. LoadStatus(). db. if (returnValue == 1) { db. } else if (returnValue == 2) { db. 46 .loadst1 > 80 && LBSReceive. db.conclose().int returnValue = RandomNumber(1.

ipEnd = new IPEndPoint(IpAddr.IP). 5655). SocketType. } } private void button2_Click_1(object sender. for (int i = 1.GetHostEntry(Environment.loadst2 > 50) { db. IPAddress IpAddr = ipEntry. public LBSReceive() { LoadStatus().Start(ClientPath + "//Client " + i + "//bin//Debug//Client " + i).InterNetwork.NET SOCKET .SelectedPath.MachineName). i <= 3. db. IPHostEntry ipEntry = Dns.SERVER class LBSReceive { DBase db = new DBase(). i++) { System.loadst1 > 50) { db. ProtocolType.exe").AddressList[0]. db. Socket sock.Process.loadst3 > 80 && LBSReceive.Diagnostics.Process. 47 . } private void button3_Click(object sender. EventArgs e) { FolderBrowserDialog fd = new FolderBrowserDialog().Stream.} else if (LBSReceive.conclose(). } } } } //FILE TRANSFER USING C#. sock = new Socket(AddressFamily.conclose().Start(path + "/Cell Breathing.command("delete From Engine2"). IPEndPoint ipEnd.Diagnostics. } else if (LBSReceive.command("delete From Engine3"). if (fd.ShowDialog() == DialogResult.loadst3 > 50 && LBSReceive.OK) { ClientPath = fd. EventArgs e) { System.

public static string curMsg = "Stopped". Socket clientSock = sock. //LoadStatus().".ToString().. s = "M2". 1). } public static string receivedPath.Listen(100). s = "M1". sock.GetString(clientData.ASCII.ReceiveBufferSize.sock. string s = Encoding.Accept().". curMsg = "Running. string a=clientSock.. } 48 .. public static int loadst1 = 0. //int b = a-1024..Receive(clientData). } else if (s == "2") { s = ""... public static int loadst2 = 0. if (s == "1") { s = "". int receivedBytesLen = clientSock. public void StartServer() { try { curMsg = "Starting. } else if (s == "3") { s = "".Bind(ipEnd). public static int loadst3 = 0. byte[] clientData = new byte[1024]. 0. s = "M3".

APPENDIX Class Diagram: Cell Breathing Server 49 .13.

Client Mobiles: 50 .

Use case Diagram: Client Cell Breathing Server Server 1 Cell Breathing Server LBS Server 2 Server 3 51 .

Sequence Diagram: Client Cell Breathing Server Server1 Server2 Server3 Client Request Connect to Connect to Connect to 52 .

BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Cell Breathing Techniques for Load Balancing in Wireless LANs.Yigal Bejerano. TATA McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.org/wiki/C-sharp  www.com 53 . Herbert Schildt Software Engineering – A practitioner’s approach . IEEE.microsoft.14. Galgotia Publication. Awad. Ellis M.NET Programming Course Kit . Member.csharphelp. Publisher: DreamTech Press . Comdex .com  en. Member.wikipedia. Edition 1997 Web Sites  www. and Seung-Jae Han. Edition: Aug 2007 Vikas Gupta & Kogent Solutions Inc.com  www. Professional C# 2005.com  msdn. Herbert Schildt C#:Beginner’s Guide. IEEE. Christian Nagelet al C#:The Complete Reference. Fourth Edition:1997 System Analysis and Design.c-sharpcorner.w3schools.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful