Scilab Code for Digital Communication, by Simon Haykin 1

Created by Prof. R. Senthilkumar Institute of Road and Transport Technology rsenthil signalprocess@in.com Cross-Checked by Prof. Saravanan Vijayakumaran, IIT Bombay sarva@ee.iitb.ac.in 23 August 2010

by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT, http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Text Book Companion and Scilab codes written in it can be downlaoded from the website www.scilab.in

1 Funded

Book Details
Authors: Simon Haykins Title: Digital Communication Publisher: Willey India Edition: Wiley India Edition Year: Reprint 2010 Place: Delhi ISBN: 9788126508242

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Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the above book. Prb Problem (Unsolved problem) Exa Example (Solved example) Tab Table ARC Additionally Required Code (Scilab Code that is not part of the above book but required to solve a particular Example) AE Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular Example of the above book) CF Code for Figure(Scilab code that is used for plotting the respective figure of the above book ) For example, Prb 4.56 means Problem 4.56 of the above book. Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

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Contents
List of Scilab Codes 1 Introduction 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance 3 Detection and Estimation 4 Sampling Process 5 Waveform Coding Techniques 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission 7 Digital Modulation Techniques 8 Error-Control Coding 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation 4 2 5 14 27 31 39 59 87 94

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List of Scilab Codes
CF 1.2 Exa 2.1 Exa 2.2 Exa 2.3 Exa 2.4 Exa 2.5 Exa 2.6 Exa 2.7 Exa 3.1 Exa 3.2 Exa 3.3 Exa 3.4 Exa 3.6 CF 3.29 Exa 4.1 Exa 4.3 Exa 5.1 Exa 5.2 Digital Representation of Analog signal . . . . . . . . Entropy of Binary Memoryless source . . . . . . . . . Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Binary Symmetric Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel . . Significance of the Channel Coding theorem . . . . . . Orthonormal basis for given set of signals . . . . . . . M ARY Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for RF pulse . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal . . . . . . . Linear Predictor of Order one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm . . Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse . . Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect . . . . . . . . Average Transmitted Power for PCM . . . . . . . . . Comparision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 5.3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM . . . . . . Exa 5.5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier . . . . . . . CF 6.1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format . . . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.2 Duobinary Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 5 5 7 8 9 10 10 14 16 19 20 22 24 27 28 31 31 32 34 36 36 39 40 40 42 44

Exa 6.3 CF 6.4 CF 6.6b CF 6.7b CF 6.9 CF 6.15

Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder . . . Power Spectra of different binary data formats . . . . (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine . . . . . . . . . Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter . . . Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 7.1 QPSK Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques . Exa 7.2 MSK waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK . . . . . . . Tab 7.3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal . . . . . . . CF 7.4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK . . . . . . . CF 7.6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform . . Tab 7.6 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals . . . . . . Tab 7.7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals . . . . . . CF 7.29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse . . . . . . Exa 8.1 Repetition Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.2 Hamming Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.3 Hamming Codes Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.4 Encoder for the (7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code . . . . . . Exa 8.5 Syndrome calculator for the(7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code Exa 8.6 Reed-Solomon Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.7 Convolutional Encoding - Time domain approach . . . Exa 8.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach Exa 8.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.1 PN sequence generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.2 Maximum length sequence property . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.3 Processing gain, PN sequence length, Jamming margin in dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.4Example9.5 Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK . . . . Slow and Fig 9.4Figure9.6 Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK . . . . . . . . Direct ARC 1 Alaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARC 2 auto correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

47 48 49 51 53 55 59 61 63 68 70 72 74 74 76 77 78 80 82 87 87 88 89 90 90 91 92 93 94 95 97 100 100 103 106

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xor . invmulaw . Hamming Encode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sinc new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 108 108 110 110 111 111 112 112 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCM Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . uniform pcm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCM Encoding . . . . . . . .ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 Convolutional Coding Hamming Distance . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . Example3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Figure1. . . . . . .13a . . . Example3. . . . Figure1. . . . . . Example3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . .6 . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Example2. . . . Figure5. . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Figure6. . . . . . . .4 . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . .6 6. . . Example2. . . .3 3. . . . .3 6. . . . . . . .29 . . . .2 2. . .3 . . . . . . . .2 2.9 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3. . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . .15 . . . . . . . . .7 . . . . .4 Figure6. Example3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example3. . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 6 11 13 16 17 19 21 23 26 28 30 33 37 38 41 43 45 50 52 54 56 58 Example4. .2b . . . . . .1 . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . Figure5. . . . .2 5. . . . . . . Figure3. . . .1b . . . .1c Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . Example4. . . . . . . . . .7 6. 7 . . . . . . . . Example2. . . . . . .6 4.1b Figure6. . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . .1a Figure6. . . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . .13b .2a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . Figure7. . . .1a .6b .3 9. .5 7. Figure9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . Figure7. . . . .3 7. Figure7. . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . . .14 9. . . . .12 7. . . . . . . . . Figure9. .11 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6a .2 Figure7. .12 . Figure10. . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 7. . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 7.4 . . . . . . .1b . . . . Figure7.41a Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . .30 . . .41b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7.2a . . . . . . . . .29 . . . . . . . . . . .1c . . . .13 7. . . Example7. . . . . . . . .1 Figure7. . . . . 61 64 65 66 69 70 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 86 98 99 103 104 105 Example9. . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 7. . . . . .5 Example7. . . . . . . . . . . .6 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2b . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 . . . . . . . . . .31 . . . . . . .12 . . . . . . . . Example9. . . . . . . . . Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . .9 7. . . . . . . . . . . .4 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . Figure7.

a .1 .0.0 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -1 .0 .1 .0 . -0.0 .0 .1] // figure a = gca () .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -3. clc .0 . sqrt (2) .5 .0 . 2 : Analog t o D i g i t a l C o n v e r s i o n clear .3] plot (t .Chapter 1 Introduction Scilab code CF 1. -9) xlabel ( ’ Time ’ ) 21 ylabel ( ’ 2 .1 . dig_data = [0 .2 .2 . data_bounds =[ -2 .0 .5 .1 . close . a .0 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .2 Digital Representation of Analog signal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Analog s i g n a l // F i g u r e 1 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .0 . t = -1:0. -2 .01:1. a . .0 .1 .sqrt (2) .0 . x ) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .0 . x = 2* sin (( %pi /2) * t ) .

1: Figure1. plot2d2 ([1: length ( dig_data ) ] .5) title ( ’ D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n ’ ) 3 .0. data_bounds = [0 . dig_data .5]. a .2a 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Voltage ’) title ( ’ Analog Waveform ’ ) // figure a = gca () .Figure 1.21 .

Figure 1.2: Figure1.2b 4 .

1 Entropy of Binary Memoryless source 1 // C a p t i o n : Ent ropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e 2 // Example 2 . 8 H_Po = zeros (1 . 5 close .Po ( i ) ) * log2 (1 .Po ( i ) * log2 ( Po ( i ) ) -(1 . 6 clc . 7 Po = 0:0. 11 end 12 // p l o t 13 plot2d ( Po .01:1. 9 for i = 2: length ( Po ) -1 10 H_Po ( i ) = .2 Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source 5 .0. length ( Po ) ) .1) Scilab code Exa 2.Chapter 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance Scilab code Exa 2. H_Po ) 14 xlabel ( ’ Symbol P r o b a b i l i t y .Po ( i )).5 . Po ’ ) 15 ylabel ( ’H( Po ) ’ ) 16 title ( ’ Entropy f u n c t i o n H( Po ) ’ ) 17 plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . 1 : Entropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e 3 // p a g e 18 4 clear .

1: Example2.1 6 .Figure 2.

H_Ruo ) // S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f d i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s source P_sigma = [ P0 * P0 . 1 A l p h a b e t P a r t i c u l a r s o f Second−o r d e r Extension o f a D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ S e q u e n c e o f Symbols o f r u o 2 : ’ ) disp ( ’ S0 ∗ S0 S0 ∗ S1 S0 ∗ S2 S1 ∗ S0 S1 ∗ S1 S1 ∗ S2 S2 ∗ S0 S2 ∗ S1 S2 ∗ S2 ’ ) disp ( P_sigma . clc . H_Ruo_Square . disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . P0 * P2 . i = 0 . P2 * P1 . . end disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S2 H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) . ’ P r o b a b i l i t y p ( s i g m a ) . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S0 P1 = 1/4. P2 * P0 . disp ( ’ Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . 1 . 8 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ ’) H_Ruo_Square =0. P1 * P1 . for i = 1: length ( P_sigma ) H_Ruo_Square = H_Ruo_Square + P_sigma ( i ) * log2 (1/ P_sigma ( i ) ) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // c a p t i o n : S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source // Example 2 . P1 * P2 . . ’H( R u o S q u a r e )= ’ ) disp ( ’H( R u o S q u a r e ) = 2∗H( Ruo ) ’ ) 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 7 . P1 * P0 . P0 = 1/4. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S1 P2 = 1/2. . . P2 * P2 ]. 2 : Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e // p a g e 19 clear . P0 * P1 .

((L . 3 : Huffman E n c o d i n g : C a l c u l a t i o n o f // ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ // ( b ) E ntropy ’H’ clear . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g // Example 2 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 3.2.L ) ^2. H_Ruo . Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Entropy . P0 = 0. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 1 ’ L2 = 2. disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . A v e r a g e l e n g t h . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0. ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2.Average length.L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 ’ L0 = 2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0.2.4.Scilab code Exa 2. Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : Entropy .4 Entropy. ’ A v e r a g e code − word l e n g t h L e x c e e d s t h e e n t r o p y H( Ruo ) by o n l y ’ ) sigma_1 = P0 *( L0 .L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0. ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) disp ( ’ p e r c e n t ’ .L . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g 8 . Average length. A v e r a g e l e n g t h . ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 .H_Ruo ) / H_Ruo ) *100 . disp ( sigma_1 .1.3 Entropy.1. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0. clc . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 0 ’ L1 = 2. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 3.L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 . H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) .

// p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 0 ’ L2 = 3.L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . 4 : I l l u s t r a t i n g n o n u n i q u e s s o f t h e Huffman E n c o d i n g // C a l c u l a t i o n o f ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ ( b ) Entr opy ’H’ clear .4. ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t= ’ ) 9 .2.p . 4 clc .4.L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 . ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n 7 pe = 1 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 4.L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 . 6 p = 0. P0 = 0.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // Example2 . ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0. disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . H_Ruo . ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) sigma_2 = P0 *( L0 . 5 : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 3 clear . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 ’ L1 = 2. 5 close .2. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 ’ L0 = 1. disp ( sigma_2 .L ) ^2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0. // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r r e c e p t i o n ( i .1.5 Binary Symmetric Channel 1 // C a p t i o n : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 2 // Example2 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 4.1. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0.L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 . e ) transition probility 8 disp (p .L . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 . clc . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0.

clc .7 Significance of the Channel Coding theorem // C a p t i o n : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Channel Coding t h e o r e m // Example2 . elseif ( i == length ( p ) ) C ( i ) =0. 1 0 V a r i a t i o n o f c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y o f a binary symmetric channel with t r a n s i t i o n probility p ’) Scilab code Exa 2.9 10 disp ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y ’ ) disp ( pe .5) xlabel ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n P r o b i l i t y .p ( i ) ) * log2 ((1 . p ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Channel C a p a c i t y .p ( i ) ) ) . C ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 .01:0.5. 7 : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c h a n n e l c o d i n g theorem 3 // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r o f R e p e t i t i o n Code 1 2 10 .6 Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Channel C a p a c i t y o f a B i n a r y Symmetric Channel // Example2 . 6 : Channel C a p a c i t y o f B i n a r y Symmetri Channel clear . close . for i =1: length ( p ) if ( i ~=1) C ( i ) = 1+ p ( i ) * log2 ( p ( i ) ) +(1 .C . p = 0:0. elseif ( i ==1) C ( i ) =1. ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t= ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. end end plot2d (p .

6 11 .2: Example2.Figure 2.

15 a . 16 plot2d (r .p ) ^3+(42/2) * p ^5*(1 .pe .4 clear . // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/3 10 pe_5 = 10* p ^3*(1 . r =1/n ’ .0. 6 close . ’ A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r .1/5 . pe_5 .0.1/7]. // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/5 11 pe_7 = ((7*6*5) /(1*2*3) ) * p ^4*(1 .p ) ^2+7* p ^6*(1 . 3 A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r f o r R e p e t i t i o n Code ’ ) 23 disp ( ’ ’) 24 disp (r . 14 a = gca () . // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/7 12 r = [1 .1/3 . 8 pe_1 = p . pe_3 .p ) + p ^7. pe_7 ]. pe . ’ Code Rate .01]. Pe ’ ) 19 title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 .p ) + p ^5. // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r code r a t e r = 1 9 pe_3 = 3* p ^2*(1 . 1 2 I l l u s t r a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e channel coding theorem ’ ) 20 legend ( ’ R e p e t i t i o n c o d e s ’ ) 21 xgrid (1) 22 disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . data_bounds =[0 .p ) + p ^3. r ’ ) 18 ylabel ( ’ A v e r a g e P r o b a b i l i t y o f e r r o r .p ) ^2+5* p ^4*(1 . Pe ’ ) 25 disp ( ’ ’) 12 . 13 pe = [ pe_1 . 5 clc .1 .5) 17 xlabel ( ’ Code r a t e . 7 p =10^ -2.

7 13 .Figure 2.3: Example2.

0].01: T . t4 = 0:0.01:2* T /3. s3t = [0 . length ( t3 ) -2) . length ( t6 ) -2) .0].0].0]. length ( t5 ) -2) . t2 = 0:0. ones (1 . length ( t2 ) -2) . t5 = 0:0.01: T .01:2* T /3. s4t = [0 .01: T /3. phi2t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 .0].Chapter 3 Detection and Estimation Scilab code Exa 3. length ( t4 ) -2) . ones (1 .01: T . close . length ( t1 ) -2) . ones (1 . ones (1 .1 Orthonormal basis for given set of signals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : O r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r g i v e n s e t o f s i g n a l s // Example3 . length ( t7 ) -2) . s2t = [0 . T = 1. t1 = 0:0. s1t = [0 .0]. // 14 . 1 : F i n d i n g o r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r t h e g i v e n signals // u s i n g Gram−Schmidt o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e clear . clc . t3 = T /3:0. t6 = T /3:0. ones (1 .01: T /3.0]. t7 = 2* T /3:0. phi3t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . phi1t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . ones (1 . ones (1 .

2 . plot2d2 ( t1 . s1t . phi1t . plot2d2 ( t2 . data_bounds = [0 . a .1 . s3t .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 3 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .1) a = gca () . data_bounds = [0 .3) a = gca () .0. a .2) a = gca () .2 .1 . plot2d2 ( t3 .1 .2].1) a = gca () .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .2].0.2) 15 . data_bounds = [0 .0. plot2d2 ( t5 . plot2d2 ( t4 .4) a = gca () . s4t .2 . data_bounds = [0 . 4 ( a ) S e t o f s i g n a l s t o be orthonormalized ’) subplot (4 . s2t .0.5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .4].2 .2].0.1 . a . 4 ( b ) The r e s u l t i n g s e t o f o r t h o n o r m a l functions ’) subplot (3 .23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . a .1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 4 ( t ) ’ ) // figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .2].2 .1 . data_bounds = [0 . a .

1a 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 a = gca () .0.1: Example3.2 . phi2t . data_bounds = [0 . a . data_bounds = [0 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 3 ( t ) ’ ) 16 . plot2d2 ( t7 .4]. plot2d2 ( t6 .2 .0.1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .Figure 3. a .3) a = gca () . phi3t .4].

2: Example3.Figure 3.1b 17 .

8 ( c ) . // Symbol d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s // Four m e s s a g e p o i n t s Si1 = [( -3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .0] . a =1. -10) xlabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .2 M ARY Signaling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n :M −ARY S i g n a l i n g // Example3 . data_bounds = [ -2 .(1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) ].( -1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) . clc . p o i n t | ( −3/2) a s q r t (T) | ( − 1 / 2 ) a s q r t ( T) | ( 3 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) | ( 1 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ T r a n s m i t t e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . D e c i s i o n i n t e r v a l s f o r received dibits ’) disp ( ’ R e c e i v e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ 20 21 22 23 24 25 01 01 ’) 26 disp ( ’ I n t e r v a l on p h i 1 ( t ) | x1 < −a . s q r t ( 18 . 8 ( a ) S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n ’ ) xgrid (1) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .5] plot2d ( Si1 . a = gca () .0 . 8 ( b ) . close .0 .[0 . s q r t (T) |− a .5. // a m p l i t u d e =1 T =1.Scilab code Exa 3.(3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .0. 2 : M −ARY SIGNALING // S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n and R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d i b i t s clear . o f meg . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s m i t t e d dibits ’) disp ( ’ Loc . a . -0.2 .

01: T . 3 : MATCHED FILTER FOR RF PULSE clear .2 T)<x1 <0| 0<x1<a . // c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y i n Hz T =1. 19 . clc . s q r t (T) | a .Figure 3. close .3 Matched Filter output for RF pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r RF p u l s e // Example3 . t1 = 0:0. s q r t (T)<x1 ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3.3: Example3. fc =4.

a . phiot = convol ( phit . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . hopt = phit . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . a .1 .4 Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r N o i s e − l i k e signal 2 // Example3 . data_bounds = [0 . a . 1 3 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. phiot ) .9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 phit = sqrt (2/ T ) * cos (2* %pi * fc * t1 ) .01:2* T . phit ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -1. subplot (2 . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . plot2d ( t2 . t2 = 0:0. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d ( t1 . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1]. data_bounds = [0 . 1 3 ( a ) RF p u l s e i n p u t ’ ) subplot (2 . -1. a .1].1) a = gca () . phiot = phiot / max ( phiot ) . 4 : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r n o i s e l i k e 1 20 .1 .1 .1 . hopt ) .2) a = gca () .

3 21 .4: Example3.Figure 3.

1 . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . plot2d ([1: length ( phit ) ] . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . data_bounds = [0 . hopt ) . clc .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 input clear . 1 6 ( a ) N o i s e L i k e i n p u t s i g n a l ’ ) subplot (2 . a . -1. a .6 Linear Predictor of Order one 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 22 . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . a . ’ u n i f o r m ’ ) .1]. subplot (2 .10 . data_bounds = [0 . phit ) .2) a = gca () . -1. a .1) a = gca () . phit =0. phi0t = phi0t / max ( phi0t ) . hopt = phit . plot2d ([1: length ( phi0t ) ] .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . close .1* rand (1 . phi0t ) . a .1]. 1 6 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3.1 . phi0t = convol ( phit . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .

Figure 3.4 23 .5: Example3.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 // C a p t i o n : L i n e a r P r e d i c t o r o f Order one // Example3 . order = 18. h01 = Rxx (3) / Rxx (2) . disp ( sigma_E . noise = rand (1 . x_n = x + noise . for k =1:1010 for i = 1: N .buffer * w . ’ P r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e ’ ) disp ( sigma_X .01:1. desired ( i ) = x_n ( i ) .^2) / length ( x ) ) .01*( sum ( x . // Rxx ( 2 ) = Rxx ( 0 ) .29 Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f LMS ADAPTIVE FILTER // For n o i s e c a n c e l l a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n clear .1) . ’ P r e d i c t o r i n p u t v a r i a n c e ’ ) if ( sigma_X > sigma_E ) disp ( ’ The p r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e i s l e s s t h a n the variance of the p r e d i c t o r input ’ ) end Scilab code CF 3. Rxx ( 3 ) = Rxx ( 1 ) sigma_E = Rxx (2) .6 1 0.order -1 buffer = ref_noise ( i : i + order -1) . 6 : LINEAR PREDICTION : P r e d i c t o r o f Order One clear . w = zeros ( order . close . Rxx = [0. 24 . clc . length ( x ) ) . close . t =0:0. sigma_X = Rxx (2) . clc . x = sin (2* %pi *5* t ) . N = length ( x ) .6]. mu = 0. ref_noise = noise * rand (10) .h01 * Rxx (3) .

19 w = w +( buffer * mu * desired ( i ) ) ’. x_n .5) 30 title ( ’ S i g n a l+n o i s e ’ ) 31 subplot (4 .2) 27 title ( ’ random n o i s e ’ ) 28 subplot (4 .3) 29 plot2d (t .2) 26 plot2d (t .1 . x ) 24 title ( ’ O r i g n a l I n p u t S i g n a l ’ ) 25 subplot (4 .1 . noise .1) 23 plot2d (t . 20 end 21 end 22 subplot (4 .4) 32 plot ( desired ) 33 title ( ’ n o i s e removed s i g n a l ’ ) 25 .1 .1 .

Figure 3.6: Figure3.29

26

Chapter 4 Sampling Process
Scilab code Exa 4.1 Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

// C a p t i o n : Bound on A l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r Time− s h i f t e d sinc pulse // Example4 . 1 : Maximum bound on a l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r sinc pulse clc ; close ; t = -1.5:0.01:2.5; g = 2* sinc_new (2* t -1) ; disp ( max ( g ) , ’ A l i a s i n g e r r o r c a n n o t e x c e e d max | g ( t ) | ’ ) f = -1:0.01:1; G = [0 ,0 ,0 ,0 , ones (1 , length ( f ) ) ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0]; f1 = -1.04:0.01:1.04; subplot (2 ,1 ,1) a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -3 , -1;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d (t , g ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ g( t ) ’) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( a ) S i n c p u l s e g ( t ) ’ ) subplot (2 ,1 ,2) 27

Figure 4.1: Example4.1
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -2 ,0;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d2 ( f1 , G ) xlabel ( ’ f ’) ylabel ( ’ G( f ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( b ) A m p l i t u d e s p e c t r u m |G( f ) | ’ ) Scilab code Exa 4.3 Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect

1

// C a p t i o n : E q u a l i z e r t o c o m p e n s a t e A p e r t u r e e f f e c t 28

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 // Example4 . 5 ∗ T Ts ) ) .6.E .8. a . T_Ts = 0. 1 6 N o r m a l i z e d e q u a l i z a t i o n ( t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r a p e r t u r e e f f e c t ) p l o t t e d v e r s u s T/ Ts ’ ) 29 . 3 : E q u a l i z e r t o Compensate f o r a p e r t u r e effect clc . end a = gca () . E (1) =1.8 .2].01:0. data_bounds = [0 . 5 ( T/ Ts ) ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . //E = 1 / ( s i n c n e w ( 0 . close .0.0. plot2d ( T_Ts . for i = 2: length ( T_Ts ) E ( i ) = (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) /( sin (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) ) .5) xlabel ( ’ Duty c y c l e T/ Ts ’ ) ylabel ( ’ 1/ s i n c ( 0 .1.01:0.

2: Example4.3 30 .Figure 4.

0 0 0 0 1 2 2 Scilab code Exa 5. M = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r ’ ) . 1 : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power o f PCM 3 // Page 187 4 clear . disp ( P ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e 10ˆ −6 // E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f s i g n a l i n g 7 // E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r 2 // The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : 0 .Chapter 5 Waveform Coding Techniques Scilab code Exa 5. 5 clc .1 Average Transmitted Power for PCM 1 // C a p t i o n : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power f o r PCM 2 // Example5 .2 Comaprision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) 31 . disp ( ’ The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : ’ ) P = ( k ^2) *( sigma_N ) *(( M ^2) -1) /12. 6 sigma_N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e ’ ) . 7 k = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 s i g n a l i n g ’ ).

// f o r M r y PCM s y s t e m . Rb_B . a . data_bounds = [ -30 .10]. // i d e a l s y s t e m a c c o r d i n g t o Shannon ’ s c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y t h e o r e m // p l o t a = gca () . clc . 9 Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h t h e −a i d e a l ssytem ’ ) legend ([ ’ I d e a l System ’ . 2 : Comparison o f M r y PCM s y s t e m −a // Channel C a p a c i t y t h e o r e m clear .5) poly1 = a . Rb/B . xlabel ( ’ I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/NoB . plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . d e c i b e l s P_NoB = 10^( P_NoB_dB /10) .40 . // bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s e c /Hz C_B = log2 (1+ P_NoB ) . b i t s p e r s e c o n d per hertz ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 5 . line_style = 4.3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM 1 2 3 4 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n N o i s e R a t i o o f PCM // Example5 . 3 : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n n o i s e r a t i o // Channel Bandwidth B clear . 32 .5) plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . poly1 . children (1) . // I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/ NoB . poly1 . children (1) . k =7. ’PCM ’ ]) Scilab code Exa 5. thickness =2. P_NoB_dB = [ -20:30].0.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h i d e a l s y s t e m −a ( Channel C a p a c i t y Theorem ) // Example5 . d e c i b e l s ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y . −a Rb_B = log2 (1+(12/ k ^2) * P_NoB ) . C_B . close .

Figure 5.1: Example5.2 33 .

34 . ’ Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : ’ ) 12 // R e s u l t 1 i f n = 8 bits 13 // E n t e r no . 8 23 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 24 // C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 i f 25 number o f b i t s i n c r e a s e d by 1 // c o r r e s p o n d i n g o u t p u t s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n PCM i n c r e a s e d by 6 dB . 9 disp (B . ’ Channel w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 10 SNRo = 6* n . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 8 14 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 15 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 32000. a0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : ’ ). 11 disp ( SNRo . 6 n = input ( ’ E n t e r no . clc .5 clc . 8 17 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 18 // R e s u l t 2 i f n = 9 b i t s 19 // E n t e r no .7. 16 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 0 . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 9 20 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 21 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 3 6 0 0 0 . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : ’ ) 7 W = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 8 B = n*W.5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 // Example 5 : D e l t a M o d u l a t i o n − t o a v o i d s l o p e overload distortion //maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o f o r s i n u s o i d a l modulation // p a g e 207 clear .2. 22 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 6 . Scilab code Exa 5.

7 f0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f

sinusoidal signal

i n Hz : ’ ) ;
8 fs = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s

per s e c o n d s : ’ );
9 Ts = 1/ fs ; // S a m p l i n g i n t e r v a l 10 delta = 2* %pi * f0 * a0 * Ts ; // S t e p 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

s i z e to avoid s l o p e

overload Pmax = ( a0 ^2) /2; //maximum p e r m i s s i b l e o u t p u t power sigma_Q = ( delta ^2) /3; // Q u a n t i z a t i o n e r r o r o r n o i s e variance W = f0 ; //Maximum m e s s a g e bandwidth N = W * Ts * sigma_Q ; // A v e r a g e o u t p u t n o i s e power SNRo = Pmax / N ; // Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e ratio SNRo_dB = 10* log10 ( SNRo ) ; disp ( SNRo_dB , ’ Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r Delta Modualtion : ’ ) // R e s u l t 1 f o r f s = 8 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :8000 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : −5.1717849 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// R e s u l t 2 f o r f s = 1 6 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 27 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :16000 28 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : 3 . 8 5 9 1 1 5 29 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
24 25 26

35

// C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 , i f the sampling frequency 31 // i s d o u b l e d t h e s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n c r e a s e d by 9 dB
30

Scilab code CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

15

// C a p t i o n : u−Law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( a ) Mulaw companding N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g mulaw c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f mu clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t mu = [0 ,5 ,255]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f mu for i = 1: length ( mu ) [ Cx (i ,:) , Xmax ( i ) ] = mulaw (x , mu ( i ) ) ; end plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) , Cx (1 ,:) ,2) plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) , Cx (2 ,:) ,4) plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) , Cx (3 ,:) ,6) xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : u−Law companding ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) ; legend ([ ’ u =0 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=5 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=255 ’ ]) Scilab code CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// C a p t i o n : A−law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( b )A−law companding , N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g A−law c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f A clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t A = [1 ,2 ,87.56]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f A for i = 1: length ( A ) 36

Figure 5.2: Figure5.13a

37

6) 14 xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : A−Law companding ’ . Cx (2 . 15 legend ([ ’A =1 ’ ] .[ ’A=2 ’ ] . A ( i ) ) .[ ’A= 8 7 . 10 end 11 plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) . 5 6 ’ ]) 38 . Cx (1 .2) 12 plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) .:) .Figure 5.:) .:) .13b 9 [ Cx (i . Cx (3 . ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ .3: Figure5. Xmax ( i ) ] = Alaw (x . ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) .:) .4) 13 plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) .

1 : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 Carrier // Page 251 clear . // minimum t r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth o f T1 system // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m ’B ’ alpha = 1.Chapter 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission Scilab code Exa 6. clc .1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 c a r r i e r // Example6 . ’ T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m i n Hz : ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l :0. B = 2* Bo .alpha ) .f1 .647∗10ˆ −6 // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m 39 . disp (B . // c o s i n e r o l l − o f f f a c t o r f1 = Bo *(1 . Tb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l : ’) Bo = 1/(2* Tb ) .

total_duration = L * L . L * L1 2]. poly1 .L +1: i * L ] . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. L = length ( x ) . poly1 = a . clc .1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format 1 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o p o l a r f o r m a t 40 . children (1) . poly1 . thickness =3. for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0].i n Hz : 1 5 4 5 5 9 5 . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ U n i p o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. children (1) . thickness =3. children (1) . binary_one ) .1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o u n i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . children (1) . L1 = length ( binary_zero ) . 1 ( a ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 1 ] . binary_one = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. U n i p o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . binary_zero ) . close . data_bounds =[0 -2. poly1 = a . a . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () .L +1: i * L ] . else plot ([ i *L . 1 Scilab code CF 6.

1: Figure6.1a 41 .Figure 6.

poly1 = a . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. poly1 . else plot ([ i *L . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . children (1) .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // F i g u r e 6 . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . close . P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . clc . L * L1 2]. data_bounds =[0 -2. thickness =3.L +1: i * L ] . children (1) . binary_negative ) . thickness =3. end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. total_duration = L * L1 . L = length ( x ) . children (1) . binary_positive ) . 1 ( b ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 2 ] . poly1 . B i P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . a . close .L +1: i * L ] . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. 1 ( c ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 3 ] .1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o b i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . 42 . poly1 = a . children (1) .

2: Figure6.1b 43 .Figure 6.

1 . binary_positive ) . 2 : P r e c o d e d D u o b i n a r y c o d e r and d e c o d e r 3 // Page 256 4 clc .1 . thickness =3. poly1 . elseif (( x ( i ) ==1) &( x (i -1) ~=1) ) plot ([ i *L . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0].7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 clc . children (1) . x = [0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. children (1) .0]. binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. L = length ( x ) . children (1) . // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : p r e c o d e r input 44 . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) .L +1: i * L ] . data_bounds =[0 -2. poly1 = a . poly1 = a . children (1) . binary_zero ) . L * L1 2].0 . binary_negative ) . 5 b = [0 . children (1) . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . a . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L .0 . poly1 .L +1: i * L ] . poly1 = a .1 . total_duration = L * L1 . thickness =3.2 Duobinary Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : D u o b i n a r y E n c o d i n g 2 // Example6 . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. children (1) . thickness =3. else plot ([ i *L . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ B i P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code Exa 6.L +1: i * L ] . poly1 .

Figure 6.1c 45 .3: Figure6.

disp (a . if ( a ( k ) ==1) a_volts ( k ) =1. a_volts = a_volts ’. ’ D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y d e c o d e r o u t p u t by a p p l y i n g d e c i s i o n rule for k =1: length ( c ) if ( abs ( c ( k ) ) >1) b_r ( k ) = 0. for k =2: length ( a ) c ( k ) = a_volts (k -1) + a_volts ( k ) . else b_r ( k ) = 1. ’ R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t d e t e c t o r oupupt : ’ ) // R e s u l t // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : // 46 . end for k =2: length ( b ) a ( k ) = xor ( a (k -1) . ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s c (1) = 1+ a_volts (1) . end end a = a ’.b ( k ) ) .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 a (1) = xor (1 . end c = c ’. b (1) ) . disp ( b_r . ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : ’ ) disp ( a_volts . else a_volts ( k ) = -1. if ( a (1) ==1) a_volts (1) = 1. disp (c . end end b_r = b_r ’.

// i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : precoder input y (1) = 1. − // // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // // 2 . end y_delay = y (1: $ -1) . − 2.0 . 0. 0. 1. ’ Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : ’ ) disp ( y_delay . ’ D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : ’ ) for k = 1: length ( y_delay ) z ( k ) = y ( k +1) .1 . 1. 0. 0. // // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : // // 1 . − 1. 0. // // R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t // // 0 . : 0.1 . 47 . for k =2: length ( x ) +1 y ( k ) = xor ( x (k -1) .0 .1]. 4 clc . 1. 1. x = [0 .42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 // 1 . Scilab code Exa 6. − 1. y_delay = y_delay ’. 1.y_delay ( k ) . 0.3 Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : G e n e r a t i o n o f b i p o l a r o u t p u t f o r d u o b i n a r y coder // Example6 .1 . d e t e c t o r oupupt : 1. 1. − 1.1 . − 2. 3 : O p e r a t i o n o f C i r c u i t i n f i g u r e 6 . 2.0 . 1 3 // f o r g e n e r a t i n g b i p o l a r f o r m a t // p a g e 256 and p a g e 257 // R e f e r T a b l e 6 . end z = z ’. 1. 0. 0.y (k -1) ) . disp (y . y = y ’. 0.0 .

NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t // [ 3 ] . 0. fb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . NRZ P o l a r Format [ 2 ] . NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t [ 4 ] . 1.4 Power Spectra of different binary data formats 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f d i f f e r e n t b i n a r y d a t a formats // F i g u r e 6 . // D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : // 1. 0. 0. 1. 0. − 1. M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t // Page 241 close . for i = 1: length ( f ) Sxxf_NRZ_P ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . 1. // [ 1 ] . 0. Sxxf_NRZ_BP ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) *(( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . // d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // 0. 1. 4 : Power S p e c t a l D e n s i t i e s o f // D i f f e r e n t L i n e Coding T e c h n i q u e s // [ 1 ] . volts 0. − 1. 1. 1. 0. − 1. 1. if ( i ==1) Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) +( a ^2) /4. ’ d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n : ’) // R e s u l t // Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : // 1. else 48 . 1.21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 disp (z . 0. : 0. 0. 0. 1. 0. 1. 0. 0. NRZ P o l a r f o r m a t a = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : ’ ) . Scilab code CF 6. // b i t d u r a t i o n f = 0:1/(100* Tb ) :2/ Tb . 0. clc . Tb = 1/ fb .

Sxxf_NRZ_P ) poly1 = a . plot2d (f . 6 ( b ) : I d e a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference 3 // SINC p u l s e 1 2 49 . children (1) . thickness = 2. ’NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ . children (1) . end // P l o t t i n g a = gca () .2) poly1 = a .20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . ’NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ . poly1 . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) .6b (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI // C a p t i o n : I d e a l s o l u t i o n f o r z e r o I S I // F i g u r e 6 . plot2d (f . thickness = 2. ’ M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t ’ ]) . children (1) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) . thickness = 2. xlabel ( ’ f ∗Tb−−−−−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Sxx ( f )−−−−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f D i f f e r e n t L i n e Codinig Techniques ’ ) xgrid (1) legend ([ ’NRZ P o l a r Format ’ . end Sxxf_Manch ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) *( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) . children (1) . Sxxf_Manch . poly1 . poly1 . plot2d (f . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .5) poly1 = a . plot2d (f . thickness = 2. Sxxf_NRZ_BP .9) poly1 = a . // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : 1 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. children (1) . Sxxf_NRZ_UP . poly1 . children (1) .

4 50 .4: Figure6.Figure 6.

p (j . ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . i ) = num / den . plot (t . Alpha =0. else num = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) * cos (2* %pi * Alpha * Bo * t ( i ) ) . title ( ’ SINC P u l s e f o r z e r o I S I ’ ) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6.01. i ) = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) . for j =1:3 for i =1: length ( t ) if (( j ==3) &(( t ( i ) ==0. x ) xlabel ( ’ t−−−−−−> ’ ) .7b (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : P r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n : R a i s e d C o s i n e // F i g u r e 6 . Bo = rb /2. t = -3:1/100:3. clc . t = -3:1/100:3. Bo = rb /2. Tb =1/ rb .5) |( t ( i ) == -0.5) ) ) p (j . x = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ) . // I n t i a l i z e d t o z e r o x = t / Tb .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // p a g e 249 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . den = 1 -16*( Alpha ^2) *( Bo ^2) *( t ( i ) ^2) +0. 7 ( b ) : P r a c t i c a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference // R a i s e d C o s i n e Spectrum // p a g e 250 close . 51 .

5: Figure6.Figure 6.6 52 .

32 po1y2 . foreground =2. 30 plot2d (t .9 Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f d u o b i n a r y c o n v e r s i o n filter // F i g u r e 6 . p (2 . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . 9 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y Conversion f i l t e r // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e // Page 254 clear . 34 xlabel ( ’ t /Tb−−−−−−> ’ ) . 26 plot2d (t . // B i t d u r a t i o n 53 . p (3 .:) ) 27 plot2d (t . line_style = 3.21 end 22 end 23 Alpha = Alpha +0. Tb =1/ rb .5 ’ .:) ) 28 poly1 = a .5. ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0. 35 ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . children (1) . 29 poly1 . close . foreground =4. children (1) . 24 end 25 a = gca () . p (1 . children (1) . children (1) . 33 poly2 . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =1 ’ ]) 38 xgrid (1) 39 // R e s u l t 40 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. 36 title ( ’ RAISED COSINE SPECTRUM − P r a c t i c a l 37 Solution for ISI ’) legend ([ ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0 ’ . clc .:) ) 31 poly2 = a .

6: Figure6.7 54 .Figure 6.

2) poly1 = a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d (f . plot2d (f . children (1) .1) a = gca () . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* cos ( %pi * f . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . 1 5 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f M o d i f i e d duobinary conversion f i l t e r 3 // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e 4 // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e 1 55 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 Scilab code CF 6. thickness = 2. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . Phase_Response = -( %pi * f .15 Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f m o d i f i e d d u o b i n a r y conversion f i l t e r 2 // F i g u r e 6 . a . poly1 .1 .* Tb ) . poly1 . Phase_Response . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .* Tb ) ) . children (1) . subplot (2 .11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 f = . Amplitude_Response . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . a .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. children (1) . thickness = 2. children (1) .2) a = gca () .1 .5) poly1 = a . a . a . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) subplot (2 .

9 56 .Figure 6.7: Figure6.

Amplitude_Response = abs (2* sin (2* %pi * f .5) poly1 = a .* Tb ) ) . a .rb /2:1/100: rb /2.1 . Amplitude_Response . children (1) .2) poly1 = a .1) a = gca () . subplot (2 . poly1 . a . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) subplot (2 .5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 // p a g e 259 clear .* Tb ) . Tb =1/ rb . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . poly1 . close . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . plot2d (f . Phase_Response = -(2* %pi * f . clc . thickness = 2. rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . Phase_Response . thickness = 2. a . children (1) .2) a = gca () . plot2d (f . children (1) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . // B i t d u r a t i o n f = . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 57 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .

15 58 .8: Figure6.Figure 6.

S = []. s2 (i .0 .1 . close .sin (2* %pi *2* t ) * sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . Input_Sequence =[0 .Chapter 7 Digital Modulation Techniques Scilab code Exa 7. end S1 =[].1 .1 QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques // Example7 . i = 1: M .001:1.0 .:) = cos (2* %pi *2* t ) * cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . clc .0 .1 .1 .2]. for i = 1: M s1 (i .:) = .:) ].1 .0]. m = [3 . 1 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear . t = 0:0. M =4. S2 = [ S2 s2 ( m ( i ) . end 59 . S2 = []. for i =1: length ( m ) S1 = [ S1 s1 ( m ( i ) .:) ].

a . d a t a b o u n d s = [ − 1 . −2) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 2 ) ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . l o g 2 (M) ) . 23 figure 24 subplot (3 . // a . −9) // x l a b e l ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 1 ) ) .1 . ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) // f i g u r e .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // y l a b e l ( ’ Quadrature ’ ) . // a . −5) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 4 ) ) . 1 ] . −4) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 3 ) ) . // a . // a n n o t = d e c 2 b i n ( [ 0 : l e n g t h ( y ) −1] . 1 .3) a = gca () . plot ( S ) title ( ’QPSK waveform ’ ) //− s i n ( ( 2 ∗ i −1) ∗ %pi / 4 ) ∗ %i . − 1 . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) // d i s p ( annot .1) 25 a = gca () . imag ( y ( 3 ) ) . imag ( y ( 2 ) ) . x l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . // a =g c a ( ) . a .2) a = gca () . 60 . imag ( y ( 4 ) ) . 26 a . imag ( y ( 1 ) ) . y l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . 27 plot ( S1 ) 28 title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Odd−numbered b i t s 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 of input sequence ’) subplot (3 . // d i s p ( y . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .22 S = S1 + S2 . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Even−numbered b i t s o f input sequence ’) subplot (3 .

’ message p o in t 4 ( d i b i t 11) ’ ] .1: Example7.Figure 7. ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ .1 54 55 // t i t l e ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) // l e g e n d ( [ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ .1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques 2 // F i g u r e 7 . FSK and PSk Waveforms 1 61 . 1 3 // D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s 4 //To P l o t t h e ASK. 5 ) Scilab code CF 7. ’ m e s s a g e p o i nt 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ .

6 clc . end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f PSK Waveform Xpsk = []. for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) 62 . x2 ]. end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f FSK Waveform Xfsk = []. x2 = sin (2* %pi *(2* f ) * t ) . // G e n e r a t i o n o f ASK Waveform Xask = []. I = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a ’ ) . x ]. x = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . Xask ]. 7 close . x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . x2 = . elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [ zeros (1 .sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . length ( x ) ) . Xask ]. zeros (1 . x1 ].5 clear . length ( x ) ) ]. elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . elseif (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . t = 0:1/512:1. for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . 8 f = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y i n Hz ’ 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 ). x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . for n = 1: length ( I ) if (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [x .

x1 ]. 0 . x2 ]. 1 . 1 .01: Tb . 0 . 1 .Tb :0. M =2. 43 elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) 44 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . 2 s i g n a l s p a c e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f MSK clear clc .42 Xpsk = [ Xpsk .2 MSK waveforms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // Example7 . t1 = . x ) 49 xtitle ( ’ Analog C a r r i e r S i g n a l 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 f o r D i g i t a l Modulation ’) xgrid figure plot ( Xask ) xtitle ( ’ A m p l i t u d e S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xfsk ) xtitle ( ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xpsk ) xtitle ( ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid // Example // E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y 2 // E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a [ 0 . 63 . 0 . close . 1 ] Scilab code Exa 7. Tb =1. 2 : S e q u e n c e and Waveforms f o r MSK s i g n a l // T a b l e 7 . 45 end 46 end 47 figure 48 plot (t .

1a 64 .Figure 7.2: Figure7.

Figure 7.3: Figure7.1b 65 .

1c 66 .4: Figure7.Figure 7.

S2 = [ S2 s2 (1) * phi2 ].10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 t2 = 0:0.* sin (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t2 ) .01:2* Tb . y = [ s1 (1) . s1 (2) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . end for i = M : -1:1 S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ]. S2 = [].sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].%pi /2].%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. s2 ( i ) = . S2 = [ S2 s2 (2) * phi2 ]. %pi ].1 . disp (y . S = []. for i = 1: M s1 ( i ) = cos ( teta_0 ( i ) ) .sin ( . s2 (1) .0 .1 .1 . s2 (2) ]. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .0]. s2 (1) . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) figure subplot (3 . S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. phi1 = cos (2* %pi * t1 ) . teta_0 = [0 .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. teta_tb = [ %pi /2 . s1 (2) . phi2 = sin (2* %pi * t2 ) . t = 0:0. S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .* cos (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t1 ) . S1 = [].%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. end Input_Sequence =[1 .0 .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .sin ( . s2 (2) .01:1. 67 . s1 (1) .sin ( . .0 .sin ( teta_tb ( i ) ) .sin ( . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .1) a = gca () .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ].

close . a .2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // F i g u r e 7 . 2 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK system clear clc . M =2. data_bounds = [ -2 . -5) xlabel ( ’ 68 . log2 ( M ) ) .42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 a . a . y = cos (2* %pi +( i -1) * %pi ) .2]. imag ( y (1) ) .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2) a = gca () . a . -9) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . annot = dec2bin ([ length ( y ) -1: -1:0] . -2. a = gca () .2 . imag ( y (2) ) .1 . disp (y . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . a . a . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .3) a = gca () . plot ( S1 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . i = 1: M . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . plot ( S ) title ( ’ O b t a i n e d by a d d i n g s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t )+s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) on a b i t −by−b i t b a s i s ’ ) Scilab code CF 7. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .

2 69 .Figure 7.5: Example7.

’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] .2 In−Phase ’ ) . title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ .6: Figure7.5) Scilab code Tab 7.Figure 7. 20 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ).3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal 1 21 22 // C a p t i o n : I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK s i g n a l 70 .

disp ( bk_not .0 . dk ( i ) = xor (( dk_1 ( i ) & bk ( i ) ) . // i n i t i a l v a l u e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l encoded sequence dk_1_not (1) =0& bk_not (1) . dk (1) = xor ( dk_1 (1) . end for i =1: length ( dk ) if ( dk ( i ) ==1) dk_radians ( i ) =0.0 . 3 I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e G e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK Signal ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( bk . dk_1_not (1) ) // f i r s t b i t o f dpsk encoder for i =2: length ( bk ) dk_1 ( i ) = dk (i -1) .1]. end end dk_1 (1) = 1& bk (1) .1 . // i n p u t d i g i t a l s e q u e n c e for i = 1: length ( bk ) if ( bk ( i ) ==1) bk_not ( i ) =~1. elseif ( dk ( i ) ==0) dk_radians ( i ) = %pi . dk_1_not ( i ) = ~ dk (i -1) .0 . ’ ( b k n o t ) ’ ) dk = dk ’. else bk_not ( i ) = 1. 71 29 30 31 32 .( dk_1_not ( i ) & bk_not ( i ) )). ’ ( bk ) ’ ) bk_not = bk_not ’.1 .0 .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 // T a b l e 7 . 3 G e n e r a t i o n o f D i f f e r e n t i a l Phase s h i f t keying s i g n a l clc . bk = [1 . end end disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 .

2]. ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . close . 20 title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BFSK ’ ) 21 legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ . -2. M =2. y = [1 . a = gca () . log2 ( M ) ) . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure .0. -9) plot2d ( y (2 .0 . ’ T r a n s m i t t e d p h a s e i n r a d i a n s ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7. ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] . a . -5) xlabel ( ’ In−Phase ’ ) .2) . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .5) 72 . a .y (1 .1) . disp ( dk_radians . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . annot = dec2bin ([ M -1: -1:0] . data_bounds = [ -2 .4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK // F i g u r e 7 .1) .33 34 35 36 disp ( dk .2 . 4 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK system clear clc .1]. disp (y . ’ D i f f e r e n t i a l l y e n c o d e d s e q u e n c e ( dk ) ’ ) dk_radians = dk_radians ’.2) . plot2d ( y (1 . 19 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ).y (2 .

Figure 7.4 73 .7: Figure 7.

title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ . -9) xlabel ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . -1. a = gca () . a . disp (y .6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l s p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK waveform // F i g u r e 7 . imag ( y (2) ) . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 4 ( d i b i t 1 1 ) ’ ] .1]. ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ .Scilab code CF 7. close . imag ( y (4) ) . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot .1 . imag ( y (1) ) . annot = dec2bin ([0: M -1] . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . log2 ( M ) ) . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) . ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) figure . data_bounds = [ -1 . a .6 Bndwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals 23 24 74 . 6 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear clc . ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ . i = 1: M . y = cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . imag ( y (3) ) .sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) * %i .5) Scilab code Tab 7. -2) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . M =4. -5) plot2d ( real ( y (4) ) . -4) plot2d ( real ( y (3) ) .

6 75 .Figure 7.8: Figure7.

4 ./2.16 .64].8 . 4 clc . 5 close . M = [2 . ’M’ ) disp ( ’ 10 11 ’) 12 disp ( Ruo . // Ruo = Ruo ’ . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s /Hz //M = M’ .64].1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // T a b l e 7 .16 . disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code Tab 7.32 . clc .32 .7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals 1 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK s i g n a l s −a 2 // T a b l e 7 . //M r y −a 7 Ruo = 2* log2 ( M ) . close .4 . 7 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a 3 clear . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s / Hz disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 .8 . 6 M = [2 . 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a signals ’) 11 disp ( ’ 8 9 10 76 . //M r y −a Ruo = log2 ( M ) . 6 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals clear ./ M . 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp (M .

9: Figure7. ’M’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( Ruo .12 ’) 12 disp (M .Figure 7.29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals 77 . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7.

end a = gca () .30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals. 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f QPSK and MSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . else SB_FSK ( i ) = (8* Eb *( cos ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) ) /(( %pi ^2) *(((4*( Tb ^2) *( f ( i ) ^2) ) -1) ^2) ) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f BPSK and BFSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . SB_FSK /(2* Eb ) ) plot ( f * Tb . children (1) . // B i t d u r a t i o n for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==(1/(2* Tb ) ) ) SB_FSK ( i ) = Eb /(2* Tb ) . SB_PSK /(2* Eb ) ) poly1 = a . plot ( f * Tb . ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. poly1 . 2 9 : Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f BPSK // and BFSK clc . end SB_PSK ( i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . Tb = 1/ rb . f = 0:1/100:8/ rb . 3 0 : Comparison o f QPSK and MSK Power 78 . foreground = 6. xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’PSK Vs FSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . children (1) . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) .

10: Figure7.29 79 .Figure 7.

Tb = 1/ rb . // b i t d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==0.31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power s p e c t r a o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // F i g u r e 7 .5) SB_MSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * f ( i ) . end a = gca () . SB_QPSK /(4* Eb ) ) . end SB_QPSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * sinc_new ((2* Tb * f ( i ) ) ) ^2. poly1 . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : ’ ) . children (1) . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’QPSK Vs MSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ Minimum S h i f t Keying ’ . // c l c .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Spectrums // c l e a r . foreground = 3. ’QPSK ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. children (1) . plot ( f * Tb . 3 1 Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a 80 . plot ( f * Tb . // c l o s e . SB_MSK /(4* Eb ) ) . poly1 = a . f = 0:1/(100* rb ) :(4/ rb ) . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : ’ ) . else SB_MSK ( i ) = (32* Eb /( %pi ^2) ) *( cos (2* %pi * Tb * f ( i ) ) /((4* Tb * f ( i ) ) ^2 -1) ) ^2.

30 81 .11: Figure7.Figure 7.

8].4 . // B i t d u r a t i o n M = [2 . i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb * log2 ( M ( j ) ) ) ^2) * log2 ( M ( j ) ) . SB_PSK (2 . for i = 1: length ( h ) 82 . ’M=4 ’ .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . Tb = 1/ rb . 4 1 // Matched F i l t e r Output clear . f = 0:1/100: rb . clc .:) /(2* Eb ) . SB_PSK (1 . 8 ’ ) −a legend ([ ’M=2 ’ . h = abs ( convol (g .5) xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a o f M r y s i g n a l s f o r M = 2 . g = 2* ones (1 . SB_PSK (3 . 4 .:) /(2* Eb ) . plot2d ( f * Tb . for j = 1: length ( M ) for i = 1: length ( f ) SB_PSK (j .41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t o f r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e // F i g u r e 7 . ’M=8 ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7.:) /(2* Eb ) ) plot2d ( f * Tb . t = 0: T . g ) ) . end end a = gca () .2) plot2d ( f * Tb . T =4. a =2. T +1) .

31 83 .Figure 7.12: Figure7.

4].5) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ g ( t )−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ R e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e d u r a t i o n T = 4 .12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 if ( h ( i ) <0.6) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) title ( ’ Output o f f i l t e r matched t o r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e g( t ) ’) 84 . a .h . plot2d (t .g . a =2 ’ ) figure plot2d ( t1 .0. data_bounds = [0 .01) h ( i ) =0. end end h = h-T. figure a = gca () .6 . t1 = 0: length ( h ) -1.

13: Figure7.Figure 7.41a 85 .

Figure 7.14: Figure7.41b 86 .

2 : Hamming c o d e s 3 clear . // c o d e word disp (G . ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x ’ ) . // one b i t m = 1. // b l o c k o f i d e n t i c a l ’ n ’ b i t s k =1. clc .n . disp (H . // I d e n t i t y m a t r i x P = ones (1 .k ) .k ) . // m e s s a g e b i t s l e n g t h 87 . n =5. 1 : R e p e t i t i o n Codes clear . // b i t v a l u e = 1 I = eye (n -k . ’ c o d e word f o r b i n a r y one i n p u t ’ ) .1 Repetition Codes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : R e p e t i t i o n Codes // Example8 . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x x = m . ’ p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x ’ ) . Scilab code Exa 8. // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x H = [ I P ’]. // p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x G = [ P 1].2 Hamming Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes 2 // Example8 . 5 k = 4.Chapter 8 Error-Control Coding Scilab code Exa 8. 4 clc .* G .n . disp (x .

1.3 Hamming Codes Revisited 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes R e v i s i t e d // Example8 . D = poly (0 . 3 : ( 7 . 0 . k ) .1 . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x disp (G . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) . ’ c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x P ’ ) G = [ P I ]. // Number o f p a r i t y b i t s I = eye (k . 4 ) Hamming Code R e v i s i t e d // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 .1 . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x disp (P .0 .1 .0 .0 .1 . g * D .1 18 // 19 C = m * G .1 . 88 .1. // b l o c k l e n g t h m = n .0.1 .1 .1]. ’G ’ ) G (3 .D) .0 .1 . G = coeff ( G ) .0 .1 .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 n = 7.1 . ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x G ’ ) H = [ eye (k -1 .0 .1.2) .1 .1 .0 .0 . G (3 .0 . 4 ) Hamming c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. clc . ’ p a r i t y c h e c h k m a t r i x H ’ ) // m e s s a g e b i t s m = [0 . ’ i d e n t i t y m a t r i x I k ’ ) P =[1 .0 .:) + G (1 . // p a r i t y c h e c k m a t r i x disp (H .:) = modulo ( G (3 .0 .0. g * D ^3].1.:) = G (3 .0 .0 . g * D ^2. disp (r . q ] = pdiv (m . p = coeff ( r ) .:) .:) .0 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p .0.0 . g ) .1 . 20 C = modulo (C . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) G = [ g . ’ Code words o f ( 7 .k -1) P ’]. 21 disp (C .0.1. 0 . disp (G . ’D ’ ) .k .0 .1.0 .0. // i d e n t i t y m a t r i x disp (I .2) . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r .

disp (H .:) + H (3 . 0 . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r . D = poly (0 . H_num = numer ( H_D ) .:) = H (1 .:) . H (1 . ’ G e n e r a t o r M a t r i x G = ’ ) h = 1+ D ^ -1+ D ^ -2+ D ^ -4. disp (G . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p . H_D = [ D ^4* h . ’ P a r t i y Check m a t r i x H = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8.:) = modulo ( H (1 .:) .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 .2) . p = coeff ( r ) .:) + G (2 .18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 G (4 .:) + G (4 .:) = G (1 .2) .:) . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 . H (1 .:) . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) disp ( ’ T a b l e 8 . ’D ’ ) . G (4 . H = coeff ( H_num ) . 7 f o r Me ss age S e q u e n c e ( 1 0 0 1 ) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( ’ S h i f t Contents ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) 16 disp ( ’ 1 17 disp ( ’ 2 Input Register 1 0 89 1 1 0 ’) 0 1 1 ’) .D) . g ) . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 . 3 C o n t e n t s o f t h e S h i f t R e g i s t e r i n t h e E n c o d e r o f f i g 8 .:) = modulo ( G (4 . disp (r . D ^5* h . D ^6* h ]. g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3.4 Encoder for the (7. 0 . 4 ) C y c l i c hamming code // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 . 4 : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 . q ] = pdiv (m .

1 . g ) . disp ( r1 . D = poly (0 .5 Syndrome calculator for the(7. ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form f o r e r r o r e d codeword ’ ) disp ( S2 . 0 . S1 = modulo ( S1 . 1 . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r e d c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. disp ( r2 . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) [ r2 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l C1 = 0+ D + D ^2+ D ^3+0+0+ D ^6. 1 ] clc . 6 : Reed−Solomon Codes 3 // S i n g l e −e r r o r −c o r r e c t i n g RS c o d e w i t h a 2− b i t b y t e 4 clc . 5 : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 0 .2) . S2 = coeff ( r2 ) . S2 = modulo ( S2 .2) .6 Reed-Solomon Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Reed−Solomon Codes 2 // Example8 . q2 ] = pdiv ( C2 . //m i t symbol −b 90 . g ) . // m i d d l e b i t i s e r r o r [ r1 . ’D ’ ) . 0 . // e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d C2 = 0+ D + D ^2+0+0+0+ D ^6.4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r f o r t h e ( 7 .18 19 20 disp ( ’ 3 disp ( ’ 4 disp ( ’ ’) 0 1 1 1 1 ’) 0 1 1 ’) Scilab code Exa 8. 5 m =2. 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 . S1 = coeff ( r1 ) . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp ( S1 . q1 ] = pdiv ( C1 . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. 1 .

1 .2) . ’ n ’ ) disp (p . ’ I t can c o r r e c t any e r r o r u p t o = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8.6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 k = 1^2. 1 ] // x = // ! 1 1 ! 91 .2) . // number o f m e s s a g e b i t s t =1. // s i n g l e b i t e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n n = 2^ m -1. 0 .:) =[ x1 (N . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .7 Convolutional Encoding . // p a r i t y b i t s l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e r = k / n . x1 = modulo ( x1 . 7 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n // Time Domain Approach close .i +1) ].i +1) . m ) ) . // c o d e r a t e disp (n . m ) ) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .k . 0 . 0 . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . // c o d e word l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e p = n . end x = string ( x ) disp ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .Time domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g − Time domain approach // Example8 . g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . x2 (N . x2 = modulo ( x2 . 1 . ’ n−k ’ ) disp (r . ’ Code r a t e : r = k / n = ’ ) disp (2* t . N = length ( x1 ) . clc .

1. 1. 1. disp ( modulo ( x1 . // // bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1.2) . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 1 g2D = 1+ D ^2. // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 2 mD = 1+0+0+ D ^3+ D ^4. ’ bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. ’D ’ ) . 0. 92 . // bottom o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x1 = coeff ( x1D ) .2) . 1. g1D = 1+ D + D ^2. // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e p o l y n o m i a l representation x1D = g1D * mD . 1. ’ t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) disp ( modulo ( x2 . 0. // t o p o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x2D = g2D * mD . 1. D = poly (0 . x2 = coeff ( x2D ) . 0. 1. 1.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g T r a n s f o r m domain approach // Example8 .25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code Exa 8. 8 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e − T r a n s f o r m domain approach clc . 1.

’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’) // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // 0. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n gama_1 = 2* log2 ( p ) +2*(1 .pe .Scilab code Exa 8. // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one correct recption gamma_3 = 2* log2 ( pe ) +1.7027499 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // − 8. // number o f b i t s pe = 0.8822126 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t r e c p t i o n // − 3. r = 1/2. // c o d e r a t e n =2. ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’ ) disp ( gamma_2 . // t r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y p = 1 . 1 1 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e f o r b i n a r y symmetric channel clc .r ) . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t recption ’) disp ( gamma_3 . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r correct reception gamma_2 = log2 ( pe * p ) +1.04.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Fano m e t r i c f o r b i n a r y s y m m e t r i c c h a n n e l using c o n v o l u t i o n a l code // Example8 .2877124 93 . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no correct reception disp ( gama_1 .

94 .17 .19]. x3 =0. 1 and F i g u r e 9 . x2 = x1 .9 . x1 = x0 .11 . ’ x= ’ ) end m = [7 . N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) for i =1: N x3 = x2 . disp (x .13 . x1 = 0.8 . 1 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e generator // Program t o g e n e r a t e Maximum Length Pseudo N o i s e Sequence // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 clc .10 .1 PN sequence generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : PN s e q u e n c e g e n e r a t i o n // Example9 . x0 = xor ( x1 . ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ].Chapter 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation Scilab code Exa 9. x3 ) .12 . x2 =0. // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r x0 = 1. disp (i .

// x= 1. 2 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 3 // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 4 // P r o p e r i t e s o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 5 clc . 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 6. 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 5. // x= 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 2. 0.22 N = 2^ m -1. 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 4. // x= 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 7. 1. 95 . // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 3. 1. 1. 1. 0. 0. // x= 1.2 Maximum length sequence property 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 1 // C a p t i o n : Maximum l e n g t h s e q u e n c e p r o p e r t y 2 // Example9 . 1 Range o f PN S e q u e n c e l e n g t h s ’ ) 24 disp ( ’ 25 26 27 28 29 ’) disp ( ’ Length o f s h i f t r e g i s t e r (m) ’ ) disp ( m ) disp ( ’PN s e q u e n c e Length (N) ’ ) disp ( N ) disp ( ’ ’) // RESULTEnter t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l 7 // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 1. 2 and F i g u r e 9 . // x= 1. 1. Scilab code Exa 9. 1. 23 disp ( ’ T a b l e 9 . // x= 0. 0. // x= 0. 0. 8 x1 = 0. 6 // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r 7 x0 = 1.

x1 = x0 . one_count = one_count +1.9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 x2 =0. disp (i . x0 = xor ( x1 . ’ x= ’ ) C ( i ) = x3 . x3 =0. // figure a = gca () . x3 ) . zero_count = 0. ’ Output S e q u e n c e ’ ) // r e f e r e q u a t i o n 9 . ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. t = 1:2* length ( C_level ) . ’ Number o f 1 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( zero_count . end end disp (C . 4 disp ( C_level . for i =1: N x3 = x2 . zero_count = zero_count +1. ’ Output S e q u e n c e l e v e l s ’ ) // r e f e r equation 9.5 if ( zero_count < one_count ) disp ( one_count . if ( C ( i ) ==1) C_level ( i ) =1. x2 = x1 . 96 . ’ Number o f 0 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( ’ P r o p e r t y 1 ( B a l a n c e p r o p e r t y ) i s s a t i s i f i e d ’ ) end Rc_tuo = corr ( C_level . elseif ( C ( i ) ==0) C_level ( i ) = -1. disp (x . N ) . N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) one_count = 0.

// P r o c e s s i n g g a i n disp ( PG . Tb = 4. ’ The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : ’ ) N = PG . //PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h m = log2 ( N +1) . close .[ C_level . 51 a . //PN c h i p d u r a t i o n PG = Tb / Tc . // f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h disp (N . 50 a . Jamming margin in dB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n .length ( Rc_tuo ) +1: -1 .095*10^ -3. Rc_tuo ] .[ 53 Rc_tuo ( $ : -1:2) .5) xlabel ( ’ tuo ’ ) 54 ylabel ( ’ Rc ( t u o ) ’ ) 55 title ( ’ A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 9. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .0: length ( Rc_tuo ) -1] . C_level ]) 45 xlabel ( ’ t ’) 46 title ( ’ Waveform o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e [ 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1] ’) 47 // 48 figure 49 a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : ’ ) disp (m . PN sequence length. Jamming m a r g i n i n dB // Example9 .43 a . clc . 3 : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n and Jamming Margin clear .3 Processing gain. ’ The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : ’ ) 97 . PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 52 plot2d ([ . 44 plot2d (t . // I n f o r m a t i o n b i t d u r a t i o n Tc = 1*10^ -6.

Figure 9.2a 98 .1: Example9.

Figure 9.2b 99 .2: Example9.

1 2 2 5 3 9 Scilab code Exa 9. // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e k = 3. 20 // The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : 1 2 .4Example9. // Jamming Margin 16 disp (10* log10 ( J_P ) .14 Eb_No = 10. ’ Number o f MFSK t o n e s M ’ ) = disp (N .4Figure9. // Number o f MFSK t o n e s N = 2^ M -1.6 Direct Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK 1 // C a p t i o n : D i r e c t S e q u e n c e S p r e a d C o h e r e n t BPSK 100 . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = 3 . // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = 1 5 . // number o f b i t s p e r symbol M = 2^ K . clc . ’ l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = ’ ) disp (2^ k . ’ T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = ’ ) // R e s u l t // number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = 2 . // Energy t o n o i s e d e n s i t y r a t i o 15 J_P = PG / Eb_No . K =2. // Number o f MFSK t o n e s M = 4 . 4 and Example9 . ’ number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = ’ ) disp (M . // T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = 8 . close . 21 // Jamming Margin i n dB : 2 6 . 19 // The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : 4 0 9 5 . 5 : P a r a m e t e r s o f FH/MFSK signal // Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y Hopping clear . ’ Jamming Margin i n dB : ’ ) 17 // R e s u l t 18 // The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : 4095.5 Slow and Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y h o p p i n g : FH/MFSK // Example9 . Scilab code Fig 9. ’ P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = ’ ) disp (k . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop disp (K .

5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ Data b ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .1 . a .1 . a .1 .0 .20 . -2.1 . ct_polar .1 .1 .1 .1 . a .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 // F i g u r e 9 . close . bt . -1 . -2. N = 7.2) a = gca () . a .0 .1 . bt = [1* ones (1 .1 . mt = bt .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 101 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 . -1 . N ) ]. clc .1 .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d2 (t .0 .0 . -1 . Carrier = 2* sin ( wt *2* %pi ) . a . ct = [0 .* ct_polar . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . -1 .0 .1 .1].01:1. plot2d2 (t .1 .1) a = gca () . -1 . data_bounds = [0 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .20 . ct_polar = [ -1 . for i = 1: length ( mt ) st = [ st mt ( i ) * Carrier ]. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . data_bounds = [0 .1 .2]. wt = 0:0. end // figure subplot (3 . N ) -1* ones (1 .2].1]. st = []. 4 : G e n e r a t i o n o f w a v e f o r m s i n DS/BPSK spread spectrum t r a n s m i t t e r clear . t = 0:13. a .

data_bounds = [0 . a . data_bounds = [0 .20 .20 . -2. a . data_bounds = [0 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a .3) a = gca () . plot2d2 (t .1 . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -2.2) a = gca () . -2.1 . a .20 . a .2].2].35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 title ( ’ S p r e a d i n g c o d e c ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . mt .3) a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d2 (t . mt . plot ( Carrier ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ C a r r i e r S i g n a l ’ ) subplot (3 . data_bounds = [0 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . a .2].2]. a . a . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .1 . 102 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 . -2. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .20 . a .1) a = gca () .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) // figure subplot (3 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .

Figure 9. Xmax ] = Alaw (x . A ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n //A−law : A−law n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n 103 .6a 67 68 plot ( st ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 69 title ( ’DS/BPSK s i g n a l s ( t ) ’ ) 70 // Scilab code ARC 1 Alaw 1 2 3 function [ Cx .3: Figure9.

4: Figure9.Figure 9.6b Figure9.6b 104 .

12 105 .Figure 9.5: Figure10.

end N = 2* L -1. h = zeros (1 . end for n = 1: N for k = 1: N if ( n >= k ) 106 . // n o r m a l i z a t i o n o f o u t p u t v e c t o r Cx = Cx ’. elseif ( x ( i ) / Xmax > 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = (1+ log ( A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) ) ) . endfunction Scilab code ARC 2 auto correlation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 function [ Rxx ] = auto_correlation ( x ) // A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f a g i v e n I n p u t S e q u e n c e // F i n d i n g o u t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l u s i n g autocorrelation technique L = length ( x ) . N ) . end end Cx = Cx / Xmax . L ) .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // x = i n p u t v e c t o r //Cx = A−law c o m p r e s s o r o u t p u t //Xmax = maximum o f i n p u t v e c t o r x Xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) .i +1) = x ( i ) . for i = 1: length ( x ) if ( x ( i ) / Xmax < = 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) . for i = 1: L h (L . Rxx = zeros (1 . for i = L +1: N h ( i ) = 0./(1+ log ( A ) ) . end for i = L +1: N x ( i ) = 0./(1+ log ( A ) ) .

m ) ) . 1 .:) =[ x1 (N . 0 . 1 ] // x = 107 . x2 = modulo ( x2 . N = length ( x1 ) . n ] = max ( Rxx ) disp ( ’ P e r i o d o f t h e g i v e n s i g n a l u s i n g Auto C o r r e l a t i o n Sequence ’ ) n endfunction Scilab code ARC 3 Convolutional Coding 1 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n 2 // Time Domain Approach 3 close . 4 clc . m ) ) . x1 = modulo ( x1 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 5 g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) 6 g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 .2) . 22 end 23 end 24 end 25 disp ( ’ Auto C o r r e l a t i o n R e s u l t i s ’ ) 26 Rxx 27 disp ( ’ C e n t e r V a l u e i s t h e Maximum o f a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n 28 29 30 31 result ’) [m . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . end x = string ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .21 Rxx ( n ) = Rxx ( n ) + x (n .i +1) ]. 0 . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . 1 . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 .2) .i +1) .k +1) * h ( k ) . 0 . x2 (N .

1 . 0 . Scilab code ARC 5 Hamming Encode 108 . 0 . clc . end disp ( Hamming_Distance . 1 . code2 ( i ) ) . 1 ] // Hamming D i s t a n c e 4. 0 . // G e t t i n g Code Words code1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word ’ ) . 0 . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . close . for i = 1: length ( code1 ) Hamming_Distance = Hamming_Distance + xor ( code1 ( i ) . 1 . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . 1 . Hamming_Distance = 0. code2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word ’ ) . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word [ 1 . 0 .22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code ARC 4 Hamming Distance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Weight and Hamming D i s t a n c e //H( 7 . 1 . ’ Hamming D i s t a n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word [ 0 .

xor ( m2 ( i ) . disp ( ” ”). end C = [ b m ]. close . disp ( ’ ’) for i = 1:2^4 disp ( i ) disp ( m (i . b0 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . m2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . m1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . m1 ( i ) ) ) . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . end disp ( ’ ’) // d i s p (m b C) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word 109 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Hamming E n c o d i n g //H( 7 . xor ( m1 ( i ) . b (i . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . m3 ( i ) ) ) . // G e n e r a t i n g P a r i t y b i t s for i = 1:(2^4) b2 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . // G e t t i n g M es sag e Word m3 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . clc . ’ Mes sa ge Word ’ ) disp ( b (i .:) . xor ( m3 ( i ) .:) = [ m3 ( i ) m2 ( i ) m1 ( i ) m0 ( i ) ]. ’ P a r i t y B i t s ’ ) disp ( C (i .:) .:) . b1 ( i ) = xor ( m1 ( i ) . ’ CodeWord ’ ) disp ( ” ”). m0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) .:) = [ b2 ( i ) b1 ( i ) b0 ( i ) ]. m (i . m2 ( i ) ) ) .

0 .0 . function x = invmulaw (y . end end end disp ( c ) 110 .0 .1 .0 .0 .0 . en_code ) // E n c o d i n g : C o n v e r t i n g Q u a n t i z e d d e c i m a l s a m p l e values in to binary // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s // e n c o d e = n o r m a l i z e d i n p u t s e q u e n c e n = log2 ( L ) .1 .0 .1 .0 .0 .[0 . .0 . en_code ( i ) = en_code ( i ) -2^ j .1 . mu ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n // invmulaw : i n v e r s e mulaw n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n // x = o u t p u t v e c t o r // y = i n p u t v e c t o r ( u s i n g mulaw n o n l i n e a r comression ) 6 x = (((1+ mu ) . word .0 .1 .0 .1].0 .1 .1 .1 .1 35 // E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .0 .1 .0 . for i = 1: length ( x ) for j = n : -1:0 if ( fix ( en_code ( i ) /(2^ j ) ) ==1) c (i .0 .1 .1 . .1 .1 .j ) ) =1.0 .1 .1 .^( abs ( y ) ) -1) .0 Scilab code ARC 5 invmulaw 1 2 3 4 5 . c = zeros ( length ( x ) .1 .1].1 36 // E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e [0 .0 .L .1 .n ) .0 .1 .1 .( n .0 .0 .0 .1].1 34 // E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .1 .0 .0 .1 .0 .0 .1 .1 .0 .1 ./ mu ) 7 endfunction Scilab code ARC 6 PCM Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 function [ c ] = PCM_Encoding (x .1 .1].

plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . s c e ) // T h i s program i s a s a m p l e program f o r P u l s e Code Modulation t r a n s m i s s i o n // s t e p 1 : The g i v e n a n a l o g s i g n a l c o n v e r t e d i n t o quantized sample value // s t e p 2 : Then t h e q u a n t i z e d s a m p l e v a l u e c o n v e r t e d into binary value clc . t = 0:0. close . 3 x ( i ) = 1.5) . x = sin (2* %pi * t ) . // S t e p 1 [ SQNR . L = 16.Scilab code ARC 7 PCM Transmission 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n :PCM T r a n s m i s s i o n ( i n c l u d e s f u n c t i o n s : u n i f o r m p c m . a . en_code ) . PCM encoding . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . xq . L ) . 5 y ( i ) = 1. ’ Q u a n t i z e d S i g n a l ’ ]) Scilab code ARC 8 sinc new 1 function [ y ]= sinc_new ( x ) 2 i = find ( x ==0) .001:1. title ( ’ Q u a n t i z a t i o n o f Sampled a n a l o g s i g n a l ’ ) legend ([ ’ Analog s i g n a l ’ ./( %pi * x ) . 6 endfunction 111 . // S t e p 2 c = PCM_Encoding (x . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . a = gca () . xq . s c e . // From LS : don ’ t n e e d t h i s i s /0 warning i s o f f 4 y = sin ( %pi * x ) .L . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x ) . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . a .

endfunction Scilab code ARC 10 xor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 function [ value ] = xor (A . end xq = xq * xmax . length ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) ) .Scilab code ARC 9 uniform pcm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 function [ SQNR . B ) if ( A == B ) value = 0. en_code = xq . end endfunction 112 . xq = x / xmax . else value = 1. q ( i ) . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . L ) // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . q = d *[0: L -1]. xq . d = 2/ L . length ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) ) . q = q -(( L -1) /2) * d . en_code ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) = (i -1) .* ones (1 .. SQNR = 20* log10 ( norm ( x ) / norm (x .xq ) ) .* ones (1 . for i = 1: L xq ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) =..

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