Scilab Code for Digital Communication, by Simon Haykin 1

Created by Prof. R. Senthilkumar Institute of Road and Transport Technology rsenthil signalprocess@in.com Cross-Checked by Prof. Saravanan Vijayakumaran, IIT Bombay sarva@ee.iitb.ac.in 23 August 2010

by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT, http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Text Book Companion and Scilab codes written in it can be downlaoded from the website www.scilab.in

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Book Details
Authors: Simon Haykins Title: Digital Communication Publisher: Willey India Edition: Wiley India Edition Year: Reprint 2010 Place: Delhi ISBN: 9788126508242

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Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the above book. Prb Problem (Unsolved problem) Exa Example (Solved example) Tab Table ARC Additionally Required Code (Scilab Code that is not part of the above book but required to solve a particular Example) AE Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular Example of the above book) CF Code for Figure(Scilab code that is used for plotting the respective figure of the above book ) For example, Prb 4.56 means Problem 4.56 of the above book. Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

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Contents
List of Scilab Codes 1 Introduction 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance 3 Detection and Estimation 4 Sampling Process 5 Waveform Coding Techniques 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission 7 Digital Modulation Techniques 8 Error-Control Coding 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation 4 2 5 14 27 31 39 59 87 94

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List of Scilab Codes
CF 1.2 Exa 2.1 Exa 2.2 Exa 2.3 Exa 2.4 Exa 2.5 Exa 2.6 Exa 2.7 Exa 3.1 Exa 3.2 Exa 3.3 Exa 3.4 Exa 3.6 CF 3.29 Exa 4.1 Exa 4.3 Exa 5.1 Exa 5.2 Digital Representation of Analog signal . . . . . . . . Entropy of Binary Memoryless source . . . . . . . . . Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Binary Symmetric Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel . . Significance of the Channel Coding theorem . . . . . . Orthonormal basis for given set of signals . . . . . . . M ARY Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for RF pulse . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal . . . . . . . Linear Predictor of Order one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm . . Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse . . Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect . . . . . . . . Average Transmitted Power for PCM . . . . . . . . . Comparision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 5.3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM . . . . . . Exa 5.5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier . . . . . . . CF 6.1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format . . . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.2 Duobinary Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 5 5 7 8 9 10 10 14 16 19 20 22 24 27 28 31 31 32 34 36 36 39 40 40 42 44

Exa 6.3 CF 6.4 CF 6.6b CF 6.7b CF 6.9 CF 6.15

Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder . . . Power Spectra of different binary data formats . . . . (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine . . . . . . . . . Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter . . . Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 7.1 QPSK Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques . Exa 7.2 MSK waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK . . . . . . . Tab 7.3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal . . . . . . . CF 7.4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK . . . . . . . CF 7.6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform . . Tab 7.6 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals . . . . . . Tab 7.7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals . . . . . . CF 7.29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse . . . . . . Exa 8.1 Repetition Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.2 Hamming Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.3 Hamming Codes Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.4 Encoder for the (7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code . . . . . . Exa 8.5 Syndrome calculator for the(7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code Exa 8.6 Reed-Solomon Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.7 Convolutional Encoding - Time domain approach . . . Exa 8.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach Exa 8.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.1 PN sequence generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.2 Maximum length sequence property . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.3 Processing gain, PN sequence length, Jamming margin in dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.4Example9.5 Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK . . . . Slow and Fig 9.4Figure9.6 Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK . . . . . . . . Direct ARC 1 Alaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARC 2 auto correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

47 48 49 51 53 55 59 61 63 68 70 72 74 74 76 77 78 80 82 87 87 88 89 90 90 91 92 93 94 95 97 100 100 103 106

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hamming Encode . . . . . sinc new . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 108 108 110 110 111 111 112 112 6 . . . PCM Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCM Transmission . . . . .ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 Convolutional Coding Hamming Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . uniform pcm . . . . . xor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . invmulaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . .2a . . . . . . .13a . . . .1 2. . . .1c Figure6. . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 . Example3. . . . . . . . Example3. . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . .6 6. . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . . . . .13b . . . . .2b . 3 4 6 11 13 16 17 19 21 23 26 28 30 33 37 38 41 43 45 50 52 54 56 58 Example4. . . . . . . . . .2 5. . .1b . . . . . . . . . . . Example4. Example3. . . . . . . . . . . . .29 . . . . .8 Figure1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . . .1a Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Figure6. . . . . . . . .4 . . . . . .7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . .5 3. Figure6. . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Figure6. . . . . . . . .1b Figure6. .1 3. . . Example2. . . . . . . . . . Figure3. . . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . Example3.3 3. . .2 6. Example3. . . . . . . . . . 7 .1 . . .2 2. . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 4. . . . .1a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure5. . . . . . Figure5. . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure1. . . . . . .15 . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Figure6. . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . Example2. . . . . . . . .

. . . . .12 . .1 9. .6 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 7.2 9. . . . . . . . Figure9. . . . . Figure10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example7. . .3 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 7. . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 7. . . .6a . . . . . . .1a .11 7. . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . .12 . . . . . .2 . . . . .5 7. . . . . 61 64 65 66 69 70 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 86 98 99 103 104 105 Example9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7.31 . . . . .1b . . . Figure7.14 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6b .1c . .30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41a Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 7. . . . . . 1 .5 Example7. . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7.41b . . . .3 9.29 . . .6 .4 9. . . . Figure9. .2b . . Figure7. . . . . . Figure7. . . .2a . . . . . . . .4 .1 7. . .

-9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .2 Digital Representation of Analog signal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Analog s i g n a l // F i g u r e 1 . .0 .0 . a .1 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .2 .2 . t = -1:0. -2 . dig_data = [0 .0 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . close . -9) xlabel ( ’ Time ’ ) 21 ylabel ( ’ 2 .0 .5 .0 .1 .0 .3] plot (t .0 . sqrt (2) . a . x = 2* sin (( %pi /2) * t ) .5 . a .0 .1 . -3.0 .0 .1] // figure a = gca () .01:1. -1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .0 . x ) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .1 .0.Chapter 1 Introduction Scilab code CF 1. data_bounds =[ -2 . clc .sqrt (2) .0 .0 . 2 : Analog t o D i g i t a l C o n v e r s i o n clear . -0.1 .

2a 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Voltage ’) title ( ’ Analog Waveform ’ ) // figure a = gca () .Figure 1. dig_data .0. data_bounds = [0 . a . plot2d2 ([1: length ( dig_data ) ] .5) title ( ’ D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n ’ ) 3 .5].1: Figure1.21 .

2b 4 .2: Figure1.Figure 1.

1) Scilab code Exa 2. 9 for i = 2: length ( Po ) -1 10 H_Po ( i ) = .2 Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source 5 . H_Po ) 14 xlabel ( ’ Symbol P r o b a b i l i t y . 1 : Entropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e 3 // p a g e 18 4 clear . Po ’ ) 15 ylabel ( ’H( Po ) ’ ) 16 title ( ’ Entropy f u n c t i o n H( Po ) ’ ) 17 plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .01:1.5 . length ( Po ) ) .Po ( i ) ) * log2 (1 .Po ( i ) * log2 ( Po ( i ) ) -(1 . 7 Po = 0:0. 6 clc .Chapter 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance Scilab code Exa 2.1 Entropy of Binary Memoryless source 1 // C a p t i o n : Ent ropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e 2 // Example 2 . 11 end 12 // p l o t 13 plot2d ( Po . 5 close .Po ( i )). 8 H_Po = zeros (1 .0.

Figure 2.1: Example2.1 6 .

P2 * P1 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // c a p t i o n : S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source // Example 2 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S2 H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) . P2 * P2 ]. 1 . . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S0 P1 = 1/4. P0 * P1 . 1 A l p h a b e t P a r t i c u l a r s o f Second−o r d e r Extension o f a D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ S e q u e n c e o f Symbols o f r u o 2 : ’ ) disp ( ’ S0 ∗ S0 S0 ∗ S1 S0 ∗ S2 S1 ∗ S0 S1 ∗ S1 S1 ∗ S2 S2 ∗ S0 S2 ∗ S1 S2 ∗ S2 ’ ) disp ( P_sigma . 8 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ ’) H_Ruo_Square =0. P1 * P2 . . P1 * P1 . P1 * P0 . 2 : Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e // p a g e 19 clear . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S1 P2 = 1/2. disp ( ’ Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . P0 * P2 . clc . P0 = 1/4. end disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . H_Ruo_Square . . disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . i = 0 . for i = 1: length ( P_sigma ) H_Ruo_Square = H_Ruo_Square + P_sigma ( i ) * log2 (1/ P_sigma ( i ) ) . H_Ruo ) // S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f d i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s source P_sigma = [ P0 * P0 . ’H( R u o S q u a r e )= ’ ) disp ( ’H( R u o S q u a r e ) = 2∗H( Ruo ) ’ ) 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 7 . P2 * P0 . . ’ P r o b a b i l i t y p ( s i g m a ) .

’ A v e r a g e code − word l e n g t h L e x c e e d s t h e e n t r o p y H( Ruo ) by o n l y ’ ) sigma_1 = P0 *( L0 .4 Entropy. ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2.L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 . A v e r a g e l e n g t h .1. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0. Average length. H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 ’ L0 = 2.L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 .Average length.H_Ruo ) / H_Ruo ) *100 . Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Entropy . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g 8 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 3. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0.L ) ^2. disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g // Example 2 .((L .L . 3 : Huffman E n c o d i n g : C a l c u l a t i o n o f // ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ // ( b ) E ntropy ’H’ clear . Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : Entropy .Scilab code Exa 2. ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .2. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 1 ’ L2 = 2.2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0.L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 . disp ( sigma_1 .1. clc . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 0 ’ L1 = 2. H_Ruo .4. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 3. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0.L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 .3 Entropy. ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) disp ( ’ p e r c e n t ’ . P0 = 0. A v e r a g e l e n g t h .

L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 . disp ( sigma_2 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 4. H_Ruo . 5 close . disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n 7 pe = 1 . H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) .4.L ) ^2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0. 5 : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 3 clear . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0.4.p .2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0. ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) sigma_2 = P0 *( L0 . P0 = 0.1. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 ’ L1 = 2. 6 p = 0. 4 : I l l u s t r a t i n g n o n u n i q u e s s o f t h e Huffman E n c o d i n g // C a l c u l a t i o n o f ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ ( b ) Entr opy ’H’ clear . // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r r e c e p t i o n ( i .1.L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 .L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 .2.5 Binary Symmetric Channel 1 // C a p t i o n : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 2 // Example2 . ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t= ’ ) 9 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 0 ’ L2 = 3. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 ’ L0 = 1. 4 clc .L .L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . clc . ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. e ) transition probility 8 disp (p .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // Example2 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 4. ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 .

1 0 V a r i a t i o n o f c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y o f a binary symmetric channel with t r a n s i t i o n probility p ’) Scilab code Exa 2.01:0. end end plot2d (p . 7 : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c h a n n e l c o d i n g theorem 3 // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r o f R e p e t i t i o n Code 1 2 10 .9 10 disp ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y ’ ) disp ( pe . ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t= ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. elseif ( i == length ( p ) ) C ( i ) =0. elseif ( i ==1) C ( i ) =1. clc . close .5) xlabel ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n P r o b i l i t y .p ( i ) ) ) . for i =1: length ( p ) if ( i ~=1) C ( i ) = 1+ p ( i ) * log2 ( p ( i ) ) +(1 .7 Significance of the Channel Coding theorem // C a p t i o n : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Channel Coding t h e o r e m // Example2 . p ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Channel C a p a c i t y . p = 0:0.p ( i ) ) * log2 ((1 .5. C ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 .C . 6 : Channel C a p a c i t y o f B i n a r y Symmetri Channel clear .6 Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Channel C a p a c i t y o f a B i n a r y Symmetric Channel // Example2 .

Figure 2.6 11 .2: Example2.

1/5 . 13 pe = [ pe_1 .p ) ^2+5* p ^4*(1 . 8 pe_1 = p . pe_5 . 16 plot2d (r . 6 close . 15 a .p ) + p ^7. 1 2 I l l u s t r a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e channel coding theorem ’ ) 20 legend ( ’ R e p e t i t i o n c o d e s ’ ) 21 xgrid (1) 22 disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 .1/7]. pe_3 . r =1/n ’ . // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/5 11 pe_7 = ((7*6*5) /(1*2*3) ) * p ^4*(1 .4 clear . data_bounds =[0 . pe_7 ]. 7 p =10^ -2. 5 clc .0. // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/3 10 pe_5 = 10* p ^3*(1 . r ’ ) 18 ylabel ( ’ A v e r a g e P r o b a b i l i t y o f e r r o r .p ) + p ^3.pe .0. ’ A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r .1/3 . Pe ’ ) 19 title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 . // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r code r a t e r = 1 9 pe_3 = 3* p ^2*(1 .01]. Pe ’ ) 25 disp ( ’ ’) 12 .p ) ^3+(42/2) * p ^5*(1 .p ) ^2+7* p ^6*(1 .1 . 3 A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r f o r R e p e t i t i o n Code ’ ) 23 disp ( ’ ’) 24 disp (r . pe .5) 17 xlabel ( ’ Code r a t e . // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/7 12 r = [1 . 14 a = gca () .p ) + p ^5. ’ Code Rate .

3: Example2.7 13 .Figure 2.

close . t5 = 0:0.01: T /3. t3 = T /3:0.01:2* T /3. length ( t4 ) -2) .01: T . length ( t2 ) -2) . t2 = 0:0. 1 : F i n d i n g o r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r t h e g i v e n signals // u s i n g Gram−Schmidt o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e clear .0]. ones (1 . t1 = 0:0.01: T .01: T /3. T = 1.01:2* T /3.0]. phi3t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . length ( t3 ) -2) .0]. ones (1 .01: T . clc .1 Orthonormal basis for given set of signals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : O r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r g i v e n s e t o f s i g n a l s // Example3 . phi2t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . t4 = 0:0. ones (1 . s3t = [0 .0]. length ( t5 ) -2) . t7 = 2* T /3:0. length ( t6 ) -2) . length ( t7 ) -2) . phi1t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 .0]. ones (1 . s2t = [0 . t6 = T /3:0. s4t = [0 . // 14 .0]. ones (1 . ones (1 . ones (1 .Chapter 3 Detection and Estimation Scilab code Exa 3. s1t = [0 .0]. length ( t1 ) -2) .

phi1t . a . s1t .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 3 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .1 . a . a .2 .2 .2) 15 .23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . plot2d2 ( t5 . data_bounds = [0 . 4 ( a ) S e t o f s i g n a l s t o be orthonormalized ’) subplot (4 . s3t .1 .2) a = gca () .4) a = gca () .2].5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 4 ( t ) ’ ) // figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1 . data_bounds = [0 .1 .0.5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .0. data_bounds = [0 .2]. a .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 . 4 ( b ) The r e s u l t i n g s e t o f o r t h o n o r m a l functions ’) subplot (3 .1) a = gca () .2 . s2t . plot2d2 ( t2 .1 .3) a = gca () . s4t .1) a = gca () .0.1 .0.5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 . plot2d2 ( t1 .2]. data_bounds = [0 .2].4]. plot2d2 ( t3 .0.2 .2 . data_bounds = [0 . plot2d2 ( t4 . a .

phi2t .2 . plot2d2 ( t6 .3) a = gca () .4]. plot2d2 ( t7 . phi3t .1 . a .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 3 ( t ) ’ ) 16 .0.Figure 3. data_bounds = [0 .1: Example3.0.4]. data_bounds = [0 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .2 . a .1a 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 a = gca () .

1b 17 .2: Example3.Figure 3.

// Symbol d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s // Four m e s s a g e p o i n t s Si1 = [( -3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) . // a m p l i t u d e =1 T =1.( -1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .2 M ARY Signaling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n :M −ARY S i g n a l i n g // Example3 . -10) xlabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .0 . 8 ( b ) . o f meg . -0. 2 : M −ARY SIGNALING // S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n and R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d i b i t s clear . a = gca () . clc .5] plot2d ( Si1 .Scilab code Exa 3.[0 .0 .5.2 . 8 ( a ) S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n ’ ) xgrid (1) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . 8 ( c ) . s q r t ( 18 . s q r t (T) |− a .(3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .0. close .(1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) ]. a . D e c i s i o n i n t e r v a l s f o r received dibits ’) disp ( ’ R e c e i v e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ 20 21 22 23 24 25 01 01 ’) 26 disp ( ’ I n t e r v a l on p h i 1 ( t ) | x1 < −a .0] . data_bounds = [ -2 . p o i n t | ( −3/2) a s q r t (T) | ( − 1 / 2 ) a s q r t ( T) | ( 3 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) | ( 1 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ T r a n s m i t t e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . a =1. R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s m i t t e d dibits ’) disp ( ’ Loc .

close . s q r t (T) | a .2 T)<x1 <0| 0<x1<a . 19 . fc =4. s q r t (T)<x1 ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3.3 Matched Filter output for RF pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r RF p u l s e // Example3 . // c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y i n Hz T =1. t1 = 0:0. 3 : MATCHED FILTER FOR RF PULSE clear .Figure 3. clc .01: T .3: Example3.

x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1]. data_bounds = [0 . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . plot2d ( t1 . a . a . hopt ) .1 . subplot (2 . a . phiot = convol ( phit . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .1].1) a = gca () . data_bounds = [0 . hopt = phit .1 . -1.2) a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .4 Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r N o i s e − l i k e signal 2 // Example3 . 1 3 ( a ) RF p u l s e i n p u t ’ ) subplot (2 . phiot ) . a . a .01:2* T . plot2d ( t2 . phit ) . 1 3 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. t2 = 0:0. -1. 4 : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r n o i s e l i k e 1 20 . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . phiot = phiot / max ( phiot ) .9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 phit = sqrt (2/ T ) * cos (2* %pi * fc * t1 ) .

4: Example3.3 21 .Figure 3.

1 .10 . -1. ’ u n i f o r m ’ ) . a .2) a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .6 Linear Predictor of Order one 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 22 .1* rand (1 . 1 6 ( a ) N o i s e L i k e i n p u t s i g n a l ’ ) subplot (2 . data_bounds = [0 . phit ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . 1 6 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3.1 . -1.1 . a .1) a = gca () . subplot (2 .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 input clear . hopt ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d ([1: length ( phit ) ] . phi0t ) .1]. data_bounds = [0 . close . clc . plot2d ([1: length ( phi0t ) ] . a .1]. xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . a . phit =0. xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . phi0t = phi0t / max ( phi0t ) . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . phi0t = convol ( phit . hopt = phit .

Figure 3.4 23 .5: Example3.

01*( sum ( x .01:1. close .h01 * Rxx (3) .order -1 buffer = ref_noise ( i : i + order -1) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 // C a p t i o n : L i n e a r P r e d i c t o r o f Order one // Example3 . 24 . for k =1:1010 for i = 1: N . h01 = Rxx (3) / Rxx (2) . w = zeros ( order .^2) / length ( x ) ) . clc .6 1 0. clc .29 Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f LMS ADAPTIVE FILTER // For n o i s e c a n c e l l a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n clear . desired ( i ) = x_n ( i ) . Rxx ( 3 ) = Rxx ( 1 ) sigma_E = Rxx (2) . order = 18. ’ P r e d i c t o r i n p u t v a r i a n c e ’ ) if ( sigma_X > sigma_E ) disp ( ’ The p r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e i s l e s s t h a n the variance of the p r e d i c t o r input ’ ) end Scilab code CF 3. length ( x ) ) . ref_noise = noise * rand (10) . Rxx = [0. disp ( sigma_E . sigma_X = Rxx (2) . x = sin (2* %pi *5* t ) . mu = 0.1) . 6 : LINEAR PREDICTION : P r e d i c t o r o f Order One clear .6]. N = length ( x ) . close . noise = rand (1 . t =0:0. // Rxx ( 2 ) = Rxx ( 0 ) .buffer * w . ’ P r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e ’ ) disp ( sigma_X . x_n = x + noise .

1 . noise .5) 30 title ( ’ S i g n a l+n o i s e ’ ) 31 subplot (4 .2) 27 title ( ’ random n o i s e ’ ) 28 subplot (4 .4) 32 plot ( desired ) 33 title ( ’ n o i s e removed s i g n a l ’ ) 25 .1) 23 plot2d (t .2) 26 plot2d (t . x ) 24 title ( ’ O r i g n a l I n p u t S i g n a l ’ ) 25 subplot (4 . 20 end 21 end 22 subplot (4 . x_n .1 .1 .1 .3) 29 plot2d (t .19 w = w +( buffer * mu * desired ( i ) ) ’.

Figure 3.6: Figure3.29

26

Chapter 4 Sampling Process
Scilab code Exa 4.1 Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

// C a p t i o n : Bound on A l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r Time− s h i f t e d sinc pulse // Example4 . 1 : Maximum bound on a l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r sinc pulse clc ; close ; t = -1.5:0.01:2.5; g = 2* sinc_new (2* t -1) ; disp ( max ( g ) , ’ A l i a s i n g e r r o r c a n n o t e x c e e d max | g ( t ) | ’ ) f = -1:0.01:1; G = [0 ,0 ,0 ,0 , ones (1 , length ( f ) ) ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0]; f1 = -1.04:0.01:1.04; subplot (2 ,1 ,1) a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -3 , -1;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d (t , g ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ g( t ) ’) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( a ) S i n c p u l s e g ( t ) ’ ) subplot (2 ,1 ,2) 27

Figure 4.1: Example4.1
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -2 ,0;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d2 ( f1 , G ) xlabel ( ’ f ’) ylabel ( ’ G( f ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( b ) A m p l i t u d e s p e c t r u m |G( f ) | ’ ) Scilab code Exa 4.3 Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect

1

// C a p t i o n : E q u a l i z e r t o c o m p e n s a t e A p e r t u r e e f f e c t 28

//E = 1 / ( s i n c n e w ( 0 . 1 6 N o r m a l i z e d e q u a l i z a t i o n ( t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r a p e r t u r e e f f e c t ) p l o t t e d v e r s u s T/ Ts ’ ) 29 .0.2]. 3 : E q u a l i z e r t o Compensate f o r a p e r t u r e effect clc .E .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 // Example4 .8 . end a = gca () .1. for i = 2: length ( T_Ts ) E ( i ) = (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) /( sin (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) ) .01:0. T_Ts = 0.01:0.5) xlabel ( ’ Duty c y c l e T/ Ts ’ ) ylabel ( ’ 1/ s i n c ( 0 .0. data_bounds = [0 .8. plot2d ( T_Ts . 5 ( T/ Ts ) ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . E (1) =1. 5 ∗ T Ts ) ) .6. a . close .

Figure 4.2: Example4.3 30 .

M = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r ’ ) . disp ( ’ The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : ’ ) P = ( k ^2) *( sigma_N ) *(( M ^2) -1) /12. 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 Scilab code Exa 5.Chapter 5 Waveform Coding Techniques Scilab code Exa 5. 1 : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power o f PCM 3 // Page 187 4 clear . 6 sigma_N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e ’ ) . 7 k = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 s i g n a l i n g ’ ).1 Average Transmitted Power for PCM 1 // C a p t i o n : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power f o r PCM 2 // Example5 . 5 clc .2 Comaprision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) 31 . disp ( P ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e 10ˆ −6 // E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f s i g n a l i n g 7 // E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r 2 // The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : 0 .

// i d e a l s y s t e m a c c o r d i n g t o Shannon ’ s c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y t h e o r e m // p l o t a = gca () .3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM 1 2 3 4 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n N o i s e R a t i o o f PCM // Example5 . thickness =2. 32 .40 . d e c i b e l s P_NoB = 10^( P_NoB_dB /10) . // bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s e c /Hz C_B = log2 (1+ P_NoB ) . xlabel ( ’ I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/NoB . Rb_B . a . b i t s p e r s e c o n d per hertz ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 5 . k =7. plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . // I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/ NoB . −a Rb_B = log2 (1+(12/ k ^2) * P_NoB ) .0. data_bounds = [ -30 . poly1 . poly1 . line_style = 4. ’PCM ’ ]) Scilab code Exa 5.10]. P_NoB_dB = [ -20:30]. Rb/B . 3 : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n n o i s e r a t i o // Channel Bandwidth B clear . d e c i b e l s ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h i d e a l s y s t e m −a ( Channel C a p a c i t y Theorem ) // Example5 . C_B . clc . children (1) . // f o r M r y PCM s y s t e m .5) poly1 = a . 2 : Comparison o f M r y PCM s y s t e m −a // Channel C a p a c i t y t h e o r e m clear .5) plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . close . 9 Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h t h e −a i d e a l ssytem ’ ) legend ([ ’ I d e a l System ’ . children (1) .

2 33 .Figure 5.1: Example5.

16 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 0 . 8 17 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 18 // R e s u l t 2 i f n = 9 b i t s 19 // E n t e r no . a0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : ’ ). 9 disp (B . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : ’ ) 7 W = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 8 B = n*W. 11 disp ( SNRo . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 8 14 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 15 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 32000. 6 n = input ( ’ E n t e r no . 34 .2.5 clc .5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 // Example 5 : D e l t a M o d u l a t i o n − t o a v o i d s l o p e overload distortion //maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o f o r s i n u s o i d a l modulation // p a g e 207 clear . ’ Channel w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 10 SNRo = 6* n . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 9 20 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 21 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 3 6 0 0 0 . 22 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 6 . Scilab code Exa 5. clc . 8 23 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 24 // C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 i f 25 number o f b i t s i n c r e a s e d by 1 // c o r r e s p o n d i n g o u t p u t s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n PCM i n c r e a s e d by 6 dB . ’ Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : ’ ) 12 // R e s u l t 1 i f n = 8 bits 13 // E n t e r no .7.

7 f0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f

sinusoidal signal

i n Hz : ’ ) ;
8 fs = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s

per s e c o n d s : ’ );
9 Ts = 1/ fs ; // S a m p l i n g i n t e r v a l 10 delta = 2* %pi * f0 * a0 * Ts ; // S t e p 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

s i z e to avoid s l o p e

overload Pmax = ( a0 ^2) /2; //maximum p e r m i s s i b l e o u t p u t power sigma_Q = ( delta ^2) /3; // Q u a n t i z a t i o n e r r o r o r n o i s e variance W = f0 ; //Maximum m e s s a g e bandwidth N = W * Ts * sigma_Q ; // A v e r a g e o u t p u t n o i s e power SNRo = Pmax / N ; // Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e ratio SNRo_dB = 10* log10 ( SNRo ) ; disp ( SNRo_dB , ’ Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r Delta Modualtion : ’ ) // R e s u l t 1 f o r f s = 8 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :8000 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : −5.1717849 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// R e s u l t 2 f o r f s = 1 6 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 27 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :16000 28 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : 3 . 8 5 9 1 1 5 29 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
24 25 26

35

// C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 , i f the sampling frequency 31 // i s d o u b l e d t h e s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n c r e a s e d by 9 dB
30

Scilab code CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

15

// C a p t i o n : u−Law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( a ) Mulaw companding N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g mulaw c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f mu clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t mu = [0 ,5 ,255]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f mu for i = 1: length ( mu ) [ Cx (i ,:) , Xmax ( i ) ] = mulaw (x , mu ( i ) ) ; end plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) , Cx (1 ,:) ,2) plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) , Cx (2 ,:) ,4) plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) , Cx (3 ,:) ,6) xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : u−Law companding ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) ; legend ([ ’ u =0 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=5 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=255 ’ ]) Scilab code CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// C a p t i o n : A−law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( b )A−law companding , N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g A−law c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f A clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t A = [1 ,2 ,87.56]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f A for i = 1: length ( A ) 36

Figure 5.2: Figure5.13a

37

2) 12 plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) . A ( i ) ) .4) 13 plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) .13b 9 [ Cx (i . Xmax ( i ) ] = Alaw (x .6) 14 xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : A−Law companding ’ .:) . 5 6 ’ ]) 38 . Cx (2 .:) . 15 legend ([ ’A =1 ’ ] . 10 end 11 plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) . ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ . ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) .[ ’A= 8 7 .:) .[ ’A=2 ’ ] . Cx (1 . Cx (3 .:) .3: Figure5.Figure 5.

Chapter 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission Scilab code Exa 6. ’ T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m i n Hz : ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l :0. // minimum t r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth o f T1 system // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m ’B ’ alpha = 1. B = 2* Bo .alpha ) .647∗10ˆ −6 // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m 39 .1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 c a r r i e r // Example6 . 1 : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 Carrier // Page 251 clear . // c o s i n e r o l l − o f f f a c t o r f1 = Bo *(1 .f1 . Tb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l : ’) Bo = 1/(2* Tb ) . clc . disp (B .

L +1: i * L ] .i n Hz : 1 5 4 5 5 9 5 . poly1 . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. children (1) . data_bounds =[0 -2.1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o u n i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . a . else plot ([ i *L . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]. poly1 = a . L * L1 2]. thickness =3. poly1 . clc .1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format 1 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o p o l a r f o r m a t 40 . U n i p o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . children (1) . 1 Scilab code CF 6. binary_one = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. close . 1 ( a ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 1 ] . L = length ( x ) . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . poly1 = a . L1 = length ( binary_zero ) . binary_zero ) . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ U n i p o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. thickness =3. binary_one ) .L +1: i * L ] . children (1) . children (1) . total_duration = L * L .

Figure 6.1a 41 .1: Figure6.

children (1) . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . L = length ( x ) . poly1 . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. a . clc . thickness =3. binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. binary_negative ) .L +1: i * L ] . B i P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . children (1) . close . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // F i g u r e 6 . 42 . binary_positive ) . children (1) . else plot ([ i *L . L * L1 2]. children (1) . data_bounds =[0 -2. 1 ( c ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 3 ] . total_duration = L * L1 . poly1 = a . P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6.L +1: i * L ] . 1 ( b ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 2 ] . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. poly1 = a . thickness =3. poly1 .1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o b i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . close . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) .

Figure 6.2: Figure6.1b 43 .

end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ B i P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code Exa 6. thickness =3. binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0].1 . thickness =3. x = [0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. poly1 .0 . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . children (1) . binary_positive ) . children (1) . // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : p r e c o d e r input 44 .L +1: i * L ] .L +1: i * L ] . children (1) . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. thickness =3. 5 b = [0 . 2 : P r e c o d e d D u o b i n a r y c o d e r and d e c o d e r 3 // Page 256 4 clc .L +1: i * L ] . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . children (1) . poly1 . binary_zero ) . L = length ( x ) .1 . L * L1 2]. children (1) .0 . binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. a . poly1 . poly1 = a .1 .2 Duobinary Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : D u o b i n a r y E n c o d i n g 2 // Example6 . else plot ([ i *L . children (1) .7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 clc . total_duration = L * L1 . elseif (( x ( i ) ==1) &( x (i -1) ~=1) ) plot ([ i *L . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . poly1 = a . poly1 = a . data_bounds =[0 -2. binary_negative ) .0].

Figure 6.1c 45 .3: Figure6.

else b_r ( k ) = 1. for k =2: length ( a ) c ( k ) = a_volts (k -1) + a_volts ( k ) . disp (c . if ( a (1) ==1) a_volts (1) = 1.6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 a (1) = xor (1 . if ( a ( k ) ==1) a_volts ( k ) =1. end end a = a ’. disp ( b_r . b (1) ) . a_volts = a_volts ’. ’ D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y d e c o d e r o u t p u t by a p p l y i n g d e c i s i o n rule for k =1: length ( c ) if ( abs ( c ( k ) ) >1) b_r ( k ) = 0. ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : ’ ) disp ( a_volts . disp (a . end end b_r = b_r ’. end c = c ’. end for k =2: length ( b ) a ( k ) = xor ( a (k -1) .b ( k ) ) . else a_volts ( k ) = -1. ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s c (1) = 1+ a_volts (1) . ’ R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t d e t e c t o r oupupt : ’ ) // R e s u l t // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : // 46 .

0. ’ Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : ’ ) disp ( y_delay . // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : precoder input y (1) = 1. 47 . 0. Scilab code Exa 6. 0.1 . ’ D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : ’ ) for k = 1: length ( y_delay ) z ( k ) = y ( k +1) . disp (y . x = [0 . y_delay = y_delay ’. 0.0 . : 0. d e t e c t o r oupupt : 1.3 Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : G e n e r a t i o n o f b i p o l a r o u t p u t f o r d u o b i n a r y coder // Example6 .y (k -1) ) . end y_delay = y (1: $ -1) . 1.0 . − 1. 0. 1.1]. − // // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // // 2 . 1. − 2. 0. 2. − 2.1 . y = y ’. 0.1 . 4 clc . − 1.42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 // 1 . for k =2: length ( x ) +1 y ( k ) = xor ( x (k -1) . 1.y_delay ( k ) . − 1.0 .1 . 3 : O p e r a t i o n o f C i r c u i t i n f i g u r e 6 .0 . 1 3 // f o r g e n e r a t i n g b i p o l a r f o r m a t // p a g e 256 and p a g e 257 // R e f e r T a b l e 6 . 1. // // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : // // 1 . 1. 1. end z = z ’. 0. 0. // // R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t // // 0 .

1. 0.21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 disp (z . // b i t d u r a t i o n f = 0:1/(100* Tb ) :2/ Tb . 0. 4 : Power S p e c t a l D e n s i t i e s o f // D i f f e r e n t L i n e Coding T e c h n i q u e s // [ 1 ] . Tb = 1/ fb . 0. 0. 0. 1. 0. : 0. 1. ’ d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n : ’) // R e s u l t // Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : // 1. 0. 0. 0. NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t // [ 3 ] . fb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . 0. − 1. for i = 1: length ( f ) Sxxf_NRZ_P ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . NRZ P o l a r f o r m a t a = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : ’ ) . Scilab code CF 6. NRZ P o l a r Format [ 2 ] . 1. 0. 1. 1. 1. NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t [ 4 ] . 1. 1. 1. // [ 1 ] . 0. − 1. M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t // Page 241 close . Sxxf_NRZ_BP ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) *(( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . // d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // 0. volts 0. 0. clc . if ( i ==1) Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) +( a ^2) /4. // D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : // 1. else 48 .4 Power Spectra of different binary data formats 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f d i f f e r e n t b i n a r y d a t a formats // F i g u r e 6 . − 1.

children (1) . children (1) . poly1 .2) poly1 = a . ’NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ . plot2d (f . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . plot2d (f . ’NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ .9) poly1 = a . children (1) . Sxxf_Manch . poly1 . poly1 . thickness = 2. end // P l o t t i n g a = gca () . 6 ( b ) : I d e a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference 3 // SINC p u l s e 1 2 49 . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) . Sxxf_NRZ_BP .5) poly1 = a . children (1) . children (1) . thickness = 2. // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : 1 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. thickness = 2. ’ M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t ’ ]) . children (1) . end Sxxf_Manch ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) *( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) . Sxxf_NRZ_P ) poly1 = a .6b (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI // C a p t i o n : I d e a l s o l u t i o n f o r z e r o I S I // F i g u r e 6 . Sxxf_NRZ_UP . plot2d (f . poly1 . thickness = 2. children (1) . xlabel ( ’ f ∗Tb−−−−−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Sxx ( f )−−−−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f D i f f e r e n t L i n e Codinig Techniques ’ ) xgrid (1) legend ([ ’NRZ P o l a r Format ’ .20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . plot2d (f . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .

4 50 .Figure 6.4: Figure6.

den = 1 -16*( Alpha ^2) *( Bo ^2) *( t ( i ) ^2) +0. title ( ’ SINC P u l s e f o r z e r o I S I ’ ) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. Tb =1/ rb . x ) xlabel ( ’ t−−−−−−> ’ ) . i ) = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) . for j =1:3 for i =1: length ( t ) if (( j ==3) &(( t ( i ) ==0.7b (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : P r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n : R a i s e d C o s i n e // F i g u r e 6 . t = -3:1/100:3.4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // p a g e 249 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . else num = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) * cos (2* %pi * Alpha * Bo * t ( i ) ) . 51 . 7 ( b ) : P r a c t i c a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference // R a i s e d C o s i n e Spectrum // p a g e 250 close . // I n t i a l i z e d t o z e r o x = t / Tb . plot (t . clc .01. Bo = rb /2. Bo = rb /2. Alpha =0. rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . p (j .5) ) ) p (j . i ) = num / den . t = -3:1/100:3.5) |( t ( i ) == -0. x = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ) .

Figure 6.5: Figure6.6 52 .

9 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y Conversion f i l t e r // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e // Page 254 clear . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =1 ’ ]) 38 xgrid (1) 39 // R e s u l t 40 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. children (1) .5. 33 poly2 .5 ’ . 24 end 25 a = gca () . children (1) . p (2 . 30 plot2d (t . 26 plot2d (t . p (3 .:) ) 28 poly1 = a . children (1) . clc . line_style = 3. 35 ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) .:) ) 31 poly2 = a . close .21 end 22 end 23 Alpha = Alpha +0. Tb =1/ rb . foreground =2. 29 poly1 . p (1 . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0. 32 po1y2 . foreground =4. children (1) . 36 title ( ’ RAISED COSINE SPECTRUM − P r a c t i c a l 37 Solution for ISI ’) legend ([ ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0 ’ . // B i t d u r a t i o n 53 . 34 xlabel ( ’ t /Tb−−−−−−> ’ ) .:) ) 27 plot2d (t .9 Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f d u o b i n a r y c o n v e r s i o n filter // F i g u r e 6 . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) .

7 54 .Figure 6.6: Figure6.

* Tb ) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .1) a = gca () .1 . children (1) . children (1) .11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 f = . a .15 Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f m o d i f i e d d u o b i n a r y conversion f i l t e r 2 // F i g u r e 6 . children (1) . thickness = 2. children (1) .2) a = gca () . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . thickness = 2. poly1 . plot2d (f . poly1 .* Tb ) ) .5) poly1 = a . plot2d (f . 1 5 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f M o d i f i e d duobinary conversion f i l t e r 3 // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e 4 // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e 1 55 . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* cos ( %pi * f .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . Amplitude_Response . Phase_Response = -( %pi * f . Phase_Response . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) subplot (2 . a . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . subplot (2 .2) poly1 = a .1 . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 Scilab code CF 6.

7: Figure6.9 56 .Figure 6.

children (1) . a . a . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) .2) a = gca () .2) poly1 = a .* Tb ) . // B i t d u r a t i o n f = . plot2d (f . Phase_Response . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d (f .1) a = gca () . subplot (2 . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* sin (2* %pi * f . children (1) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . clc . poly1 . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .* Tb ) ) . thickness = 2. a .1 . children (1) .5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 // p a g e 259 clear .1 . children (1) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . Amplitude_Response . Tb =1/ rb . Phase_Response = -(2* %pi * f .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. close .5) poly1 = a . thickness = 2. // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 57 . a . poly1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) subplot (2 .

8: Figure6.Figure 6.15 58 .

1 .0].:) = cos (2* %pi *2* t ) * cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . 1 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear .0 .2].:) = .sin (2* %pi *2* t ) * sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . t = 0:0. M =4. S = []. clc . end 59 .1 QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques // Example7 . S2 = [ S2 s2 ( m ( i ) .:) ].0 . m = [3 . i = 1: M .Chapter 7 Digital Modulation Techniques Scilab code Exa 7. end S1 =[].0 .1 .1 .1 . Input_Sequence =[0 . for i =1: length ( m ) S1 = [ S1 s1 ( m ( i ) . for i = 1: M s1 (i .001:1.1 .:) ]. s2 (i . close . S2 = [].

27 plot ( S1 ) 28 title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Odd−numbered b i t s 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 of input sequence ’) subplot (3 . − 1 . x l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . // a =g c a ( ) . // a n n o t = d e c 2 b i n ( [ 0 : l e n g t h ( y ) −1] . ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) // f i g u r e . d a t a b o u n d s = [ − 1 . // y l a b e l ( ’ Quadrature ’ ) . 1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . imag ( y ( 4 ) ) . // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 1 ) ) . 60 . 26 a . y l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Even−numbered b i t s o f input sequence ’) subplot (3 . −2) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 2 ) ) . 1 ] . l o g 2 (M) ) . // a . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) // d i s p ( annot . imag ( y ( 1 ) ) .1 . // d i s p ( y .2) a = gca () .22 S = S1 + S2 . // a . −9) // x l a b e l ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . imag ( y ( 3 ) ) . imag ( y ( 2 ) ) . // a . 23 figure 24 subplot (3 . plot ( S ) title ( ’QPSK waveform ’ ) //− s i n ( ( 2 ∗ i −1) ∗ %pi / 4 ) ∗ %i . a . a . −4) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 3 ) ) .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .3) a = gca () . −5) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 4 ) ) .1) 25 a = gca () .

Figure 7. 1 3 // D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s 4 //To P l o t t h e ASK. 5 ) Scilab code CF 7. ’ m e s s a g e p o i nt 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ . FSK and PSk Waveforms 1 61 .1: Example7. ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ . ’ message p o in t 4 ( d i b i t 11) ’ ] .1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques 2 // F i g u r e 7 .1 54 55 // t i t l e ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) // l e g e n d ( [ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ .

t = 0:1/512:1. x ]. elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask .5 clear . x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . 7 close . for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . x2 = sin (2* %pi *(2* f ) * t ) . // G e n e r a t i o n o f ASK Waveform Xask = []. end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f PSK Waveform Xpsk = []. x = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . Xask ]. end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f FSK Waveform Xfsk = []. x2 ]. Xask ]. length ( x ) ) . elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . zeros (1 . for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) 62 . x2 = . 8 f = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y i n Hz ’ 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 ).sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . I = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a ’ ) . x1 ]. x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [ zeros (1 . 6 clc . length ( x ) ) ]. elseif (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . for n = 1: length ( I ) if (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [x .

0 . 2 s i g n a l s p a c e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f MSK clear clc . 1 ] Scilab code Exa 7. 2 : S e q u e n c e and Waveforms f o r MSK s i g n a l // T a b l e 7 . 43 elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) 44 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . 1 .42 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . 63 . 0 . Tb =1. x ) 49 xtitle ( ’ Analog C a r r i e r S i g n a l 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 f o r D i g i t a l Modulation ’) xgrid figure plot ( Xask ) xtitle ( ’ A m p l i t u d e S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xfsk ) xtitle ( ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xpsk ) xtitle ( ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid // Example // E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y 2 // E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a [ 0 . close . 0 . t1 = . x2 ]. 1 .01: Tb . x1 ]. 45 end 46 end 47 figure 48 plot (t .Tb :0. M =2. 1 .2 MSK waveforms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // Example7 .

1a 64 .2: Figure7.Figure 7.

3: Figure7.Figure 7.1b 65 .

Figure 7.4: Figure7.1c 66 .

end for i = M : -1:1 S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ]. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .* sin (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t2 ) . s2 ( i ) = .1) a = gca () .1 . S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. y = [ s1 (1) .0 . phi1 = cos (2* %pi * t1 ) .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].sin ( . S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 t2 = 0:0.1 .sin ( .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].%pi /2]. teta_tb = [ %pi /2 . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . %pi ].01:1. s2 (2) . s1 (1) . for i = 1: M s1 ( i ) = cos ( teta_0 ( i ) ) . phi2 = sin (2* %pi * t2 ) . 67 . S2 = []. S2 = [ S2 s2 (2) * phi2 ]. S = []. s2 (1) . teta_0 = [0 . s1 (2) .sin ( . S2 = [ S2 s2 (1) * phi2 ].0]. s2 (1) . s2 (2) ]. end Input_Sequence =[1 .01:2* Tb . t = 0:0.sin ( teta_tb ( i ) ) .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) figure subplot (3 . s1 (2) . S1 = [].0 .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ].* cos (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t1 ) .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. disp (y . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .sin ( .0 .1 .

’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . annot = dec2bin ([ length ( y ) -1: -1:0] . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . i = 1: M . plot ( S1 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . -9) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) .2]. ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure .42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a = gca () . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .2) a = gca () . imag ( y (2) ) . disp (y . 2 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK system clear clc . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . -2. a . plot ( S ) title ( ’ O b t a i n e d by a d d i n g s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t )+s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) on a b i t −by−b i t b a s i s ’ ) Scilab code CF 7. imag ( y (1) ) . a . a .1 . y = cos (2* %pi +( i -1) * %pi ) . data_bounds = [ -2 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) . -5) xlabel ( ’ 68 . a . M =2. close .3) a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . log2 ( M ) ) .2 .2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // F i g u r e 7 .

2 69 .5: Example7.Figure 7.

3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal 1 21 22 // C a p t i o n : I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK s i g n a l 70 . title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ . 20 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ).2 In−Phase ’ ) . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] .5) Scilab code Tab 7.6: Figure7.Figure 7.

0 . end end disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . elseif ( dk ( i ) ==0) dk_radians ( i ) = %pi . 3 I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e G e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK Signal ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( bk . dk (1) = xor ( dk_1 (1) . // i n i t i a l v a l u e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l encoded sequence dk_1_not (1) =0& bk_not (1) .0 . disp ( bk_not . 3 G e n e r a t i o n o f D i f f e r e n t i a l Phase s h i f t keying s i g n a l clc .1 .0 . ’ ( bk ) ’ ) bk_not = bk_not ’. bk = [1 . else bk_not ( i ) = 1.0 .1].( dk_1_not ( i ) & bk_not ( i ) )). end end dk_1 (1) = 1& bk (1) . end for i =1: length ( dk ) if ( dk ( i ) ==1) dk_radians ( i ) =0. 71 29 30 31 32 . dk_1_not (1) ) // f i r s t b i t o f dpsk encoder for i =2: length ( bk ) dk_1 ( i ) = dk (i -1) . dk_1_not ( i ) = ~ dk (i -1) .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 // T a b l e 7 .1 . // i n p u t d i g i t a l s e q u e n c e for i = 1: length ( bk ) if ( bk ( i ) ==1) bk_not ( i ) =~1. dk ( i ) = xor (( dk_1 ( i ) & bk ( i ) ) . ’ ( b k n o t ) ’ ) dk = dk ’.

4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK // F i g u r e 7 . ’ T r a n s m i t t e d p h a s e i n r a d i a n s ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7.0. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . data_bounds = [ -2 . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] . disp ( dk_radians .1]. a .1) . M =2. a .33 34 35 36 disp ( dk .1) . a .2) . 19 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ).2]. ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . y = [1 .2 . 4 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK system clear clc . a = gca () . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . close . ’ D i f f e r e n t i a l l y e n c o d e d s e q u e n c e ( dk ) ’ ) dk_radians = dk_radians ’. -9) plot2d ( y (2 . disp (y . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure . 20 title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BFSK ’ ) 21 legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ .y (2 .0 . plot2d ( y (1 .5) 72 . -2.y (1 . annot = dec2bin ([ M -1: -1:0] .2) . -5) xlabel ( ’ In−Phase ’ ) . log2 ( M ) ) .

Figure 7.4 73 .7: Figure 7.

annot = dec2bin ([0: M -1] . imag ( y (3) ) . imag ( y (1) ) .sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) * %i . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ . M =4. ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) figure .1]. log2 ( M ) ) .1 . -1. -2) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ . ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). i = 1: M . a = gca () .6 Bndwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals 23 24 74 . y = cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . -9) xlabel ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . disp (y . -4) plot2d ( real ( y (3) ) . a .6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l s p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK waveform // F i g u r e 7 .5) Scilab code Tab 7. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . imag ( y (2) ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 4 ( d i b i t 1 1 ) ’ ] . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) .Scilab code CF 7. a . -5) plot2d ( real ( y (4) ) . a . data_bounds = [ -1 . close . ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ . imag ( y (4) ) . 6 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear clc .

6 75 .8: Figure7.Figure 7.

16 . 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a signals ’) 11 disp ( ’ 8 9 10 76 . 4 clc .7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals 1 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK s i g n a l s −a 2 // T a b l e 7 . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code Tab 7. //M r y −a 7 Ruo = 2* log2 ( M ) ./2.8 . 5 close .64]. //M r y −a Ruo = log2 ( M ) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // T a b l e 7 .8 .4 . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s / Hz disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . // Ruo = Ruo ’ . clc .16 .4 . 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp (M ./ M . close . ’M’ ) disp ( ’ 10 11 ’) 12 disp ( Ruo .32 . disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s /Hz //M = M’ . M = [2 . 7 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a 3 clear .32 . 6 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals clear .64]. 6 M = [2 .

9: Figure7.Figure 7. ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7. ’M’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( Ruo .12 ’) 12 disp (M .29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals 77 .

3 0 : Comparison o f QPSK and MSK Power 78 . f = 0:1/100:8/ rb . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’PSK Vs FSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ . poly1 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f BPSK and BFSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . Tb = 1/ rb . plot ( f * Tb . else SB_FSK ( i ) = (8* Eb *( cos ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) ) /(( %pi ^2) *(((4*( Tb ^2) *( f ( i ) ^2) ) -1) ^2) ) . // B i t d u r a t i o n for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==(1/(2* Tb ) ) ) SB_FSK ( i ) = Eb /(2* Tb ) . children (1) . SB_PSK /(2* Eb ) ) poly1 = a . 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f QPSK and MSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. end a = gca () . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) .30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals. foreground = 6. children (1) . end SB_PSK ( i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . 2 9 : Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f BPSK // and BFSK clc . SB_FSK /(2* Eb ) ) plot ( f * Tb .

Figure 7.29 79 .10: Figure7.

5) SB_MSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * f ( i ) . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : ’ ) . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’QPSK Vs MSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ Minimum S h i f t Keying ’ . end a = gca () . poly1 = a . foreground = 3. f = 0:1/(100* rb ) :(4/ rb ) .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Spectrums // c l e a r . // c l o s e . children (1) . 3 1 Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a 80 . SB_MSK /(4* Eb ) ) . poly1 . plot ( f * Tb . else SB_MSK ( i ) = (32* Eb /( %pi ^2) ) *( cos (2* %pi * Tb * f ( i ) ) /((4* Tb * f ( i ) ) ^2 -1) ) ^2.31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power s p e c t r a o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // F i g u r e 7 . end SB_QPSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * sinc_new ((2* Tb * f ( i ) ) ) ^2. Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : ’ ) . Tb = 1/ rb . // b i t d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==0. children (1) . ’QPSK ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. plot ( f * Tb . // c l c . SB_QPSK /(4* Eb ) ) .

11: Figure7.Figure 7.30 81 .

T +1) . Tb = 1/ rb . plot2d ( f * Tb .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . g ) ) .41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t o f r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e // F i g u r e 7 . 8 ’ ) −a legend ([ ’M=2 ’ .:) /(2* Eb ) ) plot2d ( f * Tb .2) plot2d ( f * Tb . a =2. end end a = gca () . SB_PSK (1 . for i = 1: length ( h ) 82 . SB_PSK (2 .:) /(2* Eb ) .5) xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a o f M r y s i g n a l s f o r M = 2 .:) /(2* Eb ) . g = 2* ones (1 . ’M=8 ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb * log2 ( M ( j ) ) ) ^2) * log2 ( M ( j ) ) . 4 . t = 0: T . clc . SB_PSK (3 . h = abs ( convol (g . f = 0:1/100: rb . for j = 1: length ( M ) for i = 1: length ( f ) SB_PSK (j .8]. Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . // B i t d u r a t i o n M = [2 . ’M=4 ’ . 4 1 // Matched F i l t e r Output clear .4 . T =4.

Figure 7.31 83 .12: Figure7.

g .6) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) title ( ’ Output o f f i l t e r matched t o r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e g( t ) ’) 84 .h . end end h = h-T. t1 = 0: length ( h ) -1.12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 if ( h ( i ) <0. figure a = gca () .01) h ( i ) =0. a .5) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ g ( t )−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ R e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e d u r a t i o n T = 4 . plot2d (t .6 . a =2 ’ ) figure plot2d ( t1 .4]. data_bounds = [0 .0.

Figure 7.13: Figure7.41a 85 .

41b 86 .Figure 7.14: Figure7.

disp (H . // b i t v a l u e = 1 I = eye (n -k .n .n . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x x = m . 1 : R e p e t i t i o n Codes clear . // I d e n t i t y m a t r i x P = ones (1 . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x H = [ I P ’]. 4 clc . 5 k = 4. ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x ’ ) . ’ c o d e word f o r b i n a r y one i n p u t ’ ) . clc . // one b i t m = 1. disp (x .2 Hamming Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes 2 // Example8 .k ) .* G . n =5.Chapter 8 Error-Control Coding Scilab code Exa 8. // b l o c k o f i d e n t i c a l ’ n ’ b i t s k =1. // p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x G = [ P 1]. // c o d e word disp (G . Scilab code Exa 8. 2 : Hamming c o d e s 3 clear . // m e s s a g e b i t s l e n g t h 87 .1 Repetition Codes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : R e p e t i t i o n Codes // Example8 .k ) . ’ p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x ’ ) .

clc . 20 C = modulo (C . ’ p a r i t y c h e c h k m a t r i x H ’ ) // m e s s a g e b i t s m = [0 .0 .0 . g * D ^3].0. g ) .1.1].:) .0 . G (3 . // i d e n t i t y m a t r i x disp (I .1.1 . ’G ’ ) G (3 . ’D ’ ) . 0 .1.0 .1 .2) . g * D . disp (r .k . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r . 4 ) Hamming Code R e v i s i t e d // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 .1 . p = coeff ( r ) . // Number o f p a r i t y b i t s I = eye (k .1 .0 .0.0 .1 . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 .1 . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3.0 . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) G = [ g .2) . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x disp (P . 21 disp (C . ’ i d e n t i t y m a t r i x I k ’ ) P =[1 .0 .0 . 0 . 4 ) Hamming c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. q ] = pdiv (m .1 .:) = G (3 .1 18 // 19 C = m * G . ’ c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x P ’ ) G = [ P I ]. 3 : ( 7 .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 n = 7.1.0 .0.k -1) P ’].:) . k ) .1 .:) = modulo ( G (3 .0.1 .3 Hamming Codes Revisited 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes R e v i s i t e d // Example8 .0 . ’ Code words o f ( 7 .1 .1.0 .D) .0 . 88 . D = poly (0 .:) + G (1 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) .0 .0.1 . G = coeff ( G ) . // b l o c k l e n g t h m = n .1 . // p a r i t y c h e c k m a t r i x disp (H .0 . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x disp (G .1. disp (G .1 . ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x G ’ ) H = [ eye (k -1 .0 . g * D ^2.0 .

disp (r . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. 4 ) C y c l i c hamming code // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 .:) = modulo ( G (4 .D) .:) = H (1 .:) .2) . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) disp ( ’ T a b l e 8 . H_num = numer ( H_D ) . H (1 .2) .:) . disp (G . H (1 . ’ G e n e r a t o r M a t r i x G = ’ ) h = 1+ D ^ -1+ D ^ -2+ D ^ -4. G (4 . 4 : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 . D ^5* h . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) . D = poly (0 .:) . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r .:) . 0 . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 .:) = G (1 . H = coeff ( H_num ) . disp (H . ’D ’ ) . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 .4 Encoder for the (7. D ^6* h ]. p = coeff ( r ) . H_D = [ D ^4* h . q ] = pdiv (m .18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 G (4 . g ) . 3 C o n t e n t s o f t h e S h i f t R e g i s t e r i n t h e E n c o d e r o f f i g 8 .:) = modulo ( H (1 . 0 .:) + H (3 .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 .:) + G (4 . ’ P a r t i y Check m a t r i x H = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8.:) + G (2 . 7 f o r Me ss age S e q u e n c e ( 1 0 0 1 ) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( ’ S h i f t Contents ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) 16 disp ( ’ 1 17 disp ( ’ 2 Input Register 1 0 89 1 1 0 ’) 0 1 1 ’) .

g ) . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 .2) . //m i t symbol −b 90 . 1 ] clc .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r f o r t h e ( 7 . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. S1 = modulo ( S1 . disp ( r2 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp ( S1 . 1 . 5 : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 0 . ’D ’ ) . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l C1 = 0+ D + D ^2+ D ^3+0+0+ D ^6. 6 : Reed−Solomon Codes 3 // S i n g l e −e r r o r −c o r r e c t i n g RS c o d e w i t h a 2− b i t b y t e 4 clc . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) [ r2 . 1 . 0 . D = poly (0 .2) . 1 . 5 m =2.5 Syndrome calculator for the(7. 0 . // e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d C2 = 0+ D + D ^2+0+0+0+ D ^6. disp ( r1 . g ) . S1 = coeff ( r1 ) . q2 ] = pdiv ( C2 .6 Reed-Solomon Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Reed−Solomon Codes 2 // Example8 . q1 ] = pdiv ( C1 . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r e d c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8.18 19 20 disp ( ’ 3 disp ( ’ 4 disp ( ’ ’) 0 1 1 1 1 ’) 0 1 1 ’) Scilab code Exa 8. ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form f o r e r r o r e d codeword ’ ) disp ( S2 . S2 = modulo ( S2 . S2 = coeff ( r2 ) . // m i d d l e b i t i s e r r o r [ r1 .

:) =[ x1 (N . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . // number o f m e s s a g e b i t s t =1. 0 . ’ n−k ’ ) disp (r . x2 (N . x2 = modulo ( x2 .Time domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g − Time domain approach // Example8 . ’ n ’ ) disp (p .i +1) . m ) ) . // c o d e r a t e disp (n . 1 . // p a r i t y b i t s l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e r = k / n . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . 1 ] // x = // ! 1 1 ! 91 .2) . x1 = modulo ( x1 . 0 . m ) ) .k .7 Convolutional Encoding . g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . 1 . ’ I t can c o r r e c t any e r r o r u p t o = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 k = 1^2. // c o d e word l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e p = n . clc .i +1) ]. end x = string ( x ) disp ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 7 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n // Time Domain Approach close . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 0 .2) . ’ Code r a t e : r = k / n = ’ ) disp (2* t . N = length ( x1 ) . // s i n g l e b i t e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n n = 2^ m -1.

1. ’ t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) disp ( modulo ( x2 . 92 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 1 g2D = 1+ D ^2. 1. 1. 1. // // bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. ’D ’ ) . g1D = 1+ D + D ^2.25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code Exa 8. disp ( modulo ( x1 .8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g T r a n s f o r m domain approach // Example8 . 1.2) . ’ bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. // bottom o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x1 = coeff ( x1D ) . 0. 1. 0. // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e p o l y n o m i a l representation x1D = g1D * mD . 1. 0.2) . // t o p o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x2D = g2D * mD . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 2 mD = 1+0+0+ D ^3+ D ^4. 1. 8 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e − T r a n s f o r m domain approach clc . x2 = coeff ( x2D ) . D = poly (0 . 1.

Scilab code Exa 8. ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’) // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // 0. ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t recption ’) disp ( gamma_3 . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’ ) disp ( gamma_2 . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no correct reception disp ( gama_1 .11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Fano m e t r i c f o r b i n a r y s y m m e t r i c c h a n n e l using c o n v o l u t i o n a l code // Example8 . // c o d e r a t e n =2. // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r correct reception gamma_2 = log2 ( pe * p ) +1. 1 1 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e f o r b i n a r y symmetric channel clc .7027499 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // − 8. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n gama_1 = 2* log2 ( p ) +2*(1 .pe .8822126 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t r e c p t i o n // − 3. // t r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y p = 1 . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one correct recption gamma_3 = 2* log2 ( pe ) +1.r ) .2877124 93 . // number o f b i t s pe = 0.04. r = 1/2.

x1 = 0.9 . 1 and F i g u r e 9 .10 .19]. x1 = x0 . 1 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e generator // Program t o g e n e r a t e Maximum Length Pseudo N o i s e Sequence // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 clc . N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) for i =1: N x3 = x2 .Chapter 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation Scilab code Exa 9. x3 =0.8 . disp (i . x0 = xor ( x1 . x2 = x1 . x2 =0. // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r x0 = 1.11 .12 .13 . disp (x .1 PN sequence generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : PN s e q u e n c e g e n e r a t i o n // Example9 . x3 ) . ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. 94 . ’ x= ’ ) end m = [7 .17 .

// x= 0. 0. // x= 0.2 Maximum length sequence property 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 1 // C a p t i o n : Maximum l e n g t h s e q u e n c e p r o p e r t y 2 // Example9 . 6 // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r 7 x0 = 1. 1. Scilab code Exa 9. // x= 1. 2 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 3 // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 4 // P r o p e r i t e s o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 5 clc . 1.22 N = 2^ m -1. 0. 0. 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 7. 23 disp ( ’ T a b l e 9 . 2 and F i g u r e 9 . 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 4. 1 Range o f PN S e q u e n c e l e n g t h s ’ ) 24 disp ( ’ 25 26 27 28 29 ’) disp ( ’ Length o f s h i f t r e g i s t e r (m) ’ ) disp ( m ) disp ( ’PN s e q u e n c e Length (N) ’ ) disp ( N ) disp ( ’ ’) // RESULTEnter t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l 7 // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 1. 0. 0. 1. 1. 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 6. 8 x1 = 0. // x= 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 2. 95 . // x= 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 5. // x= 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 3. 0. 1. // x= 1.

’ Number o f 1 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( zero_count . 4 disp ( C_level . elseif ( C ( i ) ==0) C_level ( i ) = -1. disp (x . end end disp (C . ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. disp (i . 96 . t = 1:2* length ( C_level ) . zero_count = 0. x3 ) . if ( C ( i ) ==1) C_level ( i ) =1. ’ x= ’ ) C ( i ) = x3 . N ) . x1 = x0 .9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 x2 =0. x0 = xor ( x1 . ’ Number o f 0 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( ’ P r o p e r t y 1 ( B a l a n c e p r o p e r t y ) i s s a t i s i f i e d ’ ) end Rc_tuo = corr ( C_level .5 if ( zero_count < one_count ) disp ( one_count . ’ Output S e q u e n c e ’ ) // r e f e r e q u a t i o n 9 . x3 =0. N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) one_count = 0. // figure a = gca () . one_count = one_count +1. ’ Output S e q u e n c e l e v e l s ’ ) // r e f e r equation 9. x2 = x1 . zero_count = zero_count +1. for i =1: N x3 = x2 .

//PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h m = log2 ( N +1) . 50 a .43 a . 51 a . Jamming margin in dB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n .[ C_level . //PN c h i p d u r a t i o n PG = Tb / Tc .095*10^ -3. 3 : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n and Jamming Margin clear . close . PN sequence length.[ 53 Rc_tuo ( $ : -1:2) .length ( Rc_tuo ) +1: -1 . clc . ’ The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : ’ ) 97 . 44 plot2d (t .0: length ( Rc_tuo ) -1] . ’ The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : ’ ) disp (m . Tb = 4.5) xlabel ( ’ tuo ’ ) 54 ylabel ( ’ Rc ( t u o ) ’ ) 55 title ( ’ A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 9. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h . C_level ]) 45 xlabel ( ’ t ’) 46 title ( ’ Waveform o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e [ 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1] ’) 47 // 48 figure 49 a = gca () . ’ The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : ’ ) N = PG . // f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h disp (N . Rc_tuo ] .3 Processing gain. // P r o c e s s i n g g a i n disp ( PG . // I n f o r m a t i o n b i t d u r a t i o n Tc = 1*10^ -6. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 52 plot2d ([ . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . Jamming m a r g i n i n dB // Example9 .

2a 98 .1: Example9.Figure 9.

Figure 9.2: Example9.2b 99 .

// P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e k = 3. // Number o f MFSK t o n e s N = 2^ M -1. 21 // Jamming Margin i n dB : 2 6 . ’ T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = ’ ) // R e s u l t // number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = 2 . clc . // Number o f MFSK t o n e s M = 4 . ’ P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = ’ ) disp (k . // number o f b i t s p e r symbol M = 2^ K . 1 2 2 5 3 9 Scilab code Exa 9. // Jamming Margin 16 disp (10* log10 ( J_P ) . 19 // The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : 4 0 9 5 . // Energy t o n o i s e d e n s i t y r a t i o 15 J_P = PG / Eb_No . // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = 1 5 . close . // T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = 8 .5 Slow and Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y h o p p i n g : FH/MFSK // Example9 . 20 // The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : 1 2 . ’ Jamming Margin i n dB : ’ ) 17 // R e s u l t 18 // The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : 4095. // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop disp (K . K =2.4Figure9. // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = 3 . Scilab code Fig 9. 5 : P a r a m e t e r s o f FH/MFSK signal // Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y Hopping clear . ’ number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = ’ ) disp (M . 4 and Example9 .4Example9. ’ l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = ’ ) disp (2^ k . ’ Number o f MFSK t o n e s M ’ ) = disp (N .14 Eb_No = 10.6 Direct Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK 1 // C a p t i o n : D i r e c t S e q u e n c e S p r e a d C o h e r e n t BPSK 100 .

x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . bt = [1* ones (1 . plot2d2 (t .1 . bt . a . -1 .0 . N = 7.20 .1 . close . 4 : G e n e r a t i o n o f w a v e f o r m s i n DS/BPSK spread spectrum t r a n s m i t t e r clear . plot2d2 (t .1 .1 .2].1) a = gca () .1 .1 .1 .1 . end // figure subplot (3 . -2.1 .1 .1].5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 101 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 . -1 . a .1 .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 // F i g u r e 9 .0 .0 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .* ct_polar .0 .2) a = gca () .20 . st = []. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . wt = 0:0. data_bounds = [0 . ct_polar . a . ct = [0 . N ) ].5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ Data b ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . -1 .1]. a . data_bounds = [0 . clc .1 . a . -1 .01:1. a .1 . -2.2]. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . N ) -1* ones (1 . -1 . for i = 1: length ( mt ) st = [ st mt ( i ) * Carrier ]. ct_polar = [ -1 . mt = bt .1 . Carrier = 2* sin ( wt *2* %pi ) . t = 0:13.0 .1 .

y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . data_bounds = [0 .20 .2) a = gca () .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) // figure subplot (3 .2]. mt . a . -2. a .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .2]. a .3) a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1) a = gca () . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . a . plot2d2 (t . plot2d2 (t .2]. plot ( Carrier ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ C a r r i e r S i g n a l ’ ) subplot (3 .1 . a .20 . a . -2.1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . data_bounds = [0 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -2. a .20 . a .1 . a .35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 title ( ’ S p r e a d i n g c o d e c ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .20 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . data_bounds = [0 . mt . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a .3) a = gca () . -2. data_bounds = [0 . 102 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 . a .2].

Figure 9.3: Figure9. A ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n //A−law : A−law n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n 103 .6a 67 68 plot ( st ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 69 title ( ’DS/BPSK s i g n a l s ( t ) ’ ) 70 // Scilab code ARC 1 Alaw 1 2 3 function [ Cx . Xmax ] = Alaw (x .

4: Figure9.6b 104 .6b Figure9.Figure 9.

5: Figure10.Figure 9.12 105 .

L ) ./(1+ log ( A ) ) . for i = 1: L h (L . end for n = 1: N for k = 1: N if ( n >= k ) 106 . elseif ( x ( i ) / Xmax > 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = (1+ log ( A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) ) ) . end end Cx = Cx / Xmax . // n o r m a l i z a t i o n o f o u t p u t v e c t o r Cx = Cx ’.i +1) = x ( i ) . h = zeros (1 . Rxx = zeros (1 . N ) . for i = L +1: N h ( i ) = 0. end for i = L +1: N x ( i ) = 0.4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // x = i n p u t v e c t o r //Cx = A−law c o m p r e s s o r o u t p u t //Xmax = maximum o f i n p u t v e c t o r x Xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . end N = 2* L -1./(1+ log ( A ) ) . endfunction Scilab code ARC 2 auto correlation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 function [ Rxx ] = auto_correlation ( x ) // A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f a g i v e n I n p u t S e q u e n c e // F i n d i n g o u t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l u s i n g autocorrelation technique L = length ( x ) . for i = 1: length ( x ) if ( x ( i ) / Xmax < = 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) .

22 end 23 end 24 end 25 disp ( ’ Auto C o r r e l a t i o n R e s u l t i s ’ ) 26 Rxx 27 disp ( ’ C e n t e r V a l u e i s t h e Maximum o f a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n 28 29 30 31 result ’) [m . 4 clc . n ] = max ( Rxx ) disp ( ’ P e r i o d o f t h e g i v e n s i g n a l u s i n g Auto C o r r e l a t i o n Sequence ’ ) n endfunction Scilab code ARC 3 Convolutional Coding 1 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n 2 // Time Domain Approach 3 close .2) . N = length ( x1 ) . m ) ) . x2 = modulo ( x2 .21 Rxx ( n ) = Rxx ( n ) + x (n . 0 . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . 5 g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) 6 g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 .i +1) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . end x = string ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .k +1) * h ( k ) . 1 .:) =[ x1 (N . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 0 .2) . 1 ] // x = 107 . x1 = modulo ( x1 . 1 . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . 0 . m ) ) . x2 (N .i +1) ].

1 . 0 . 1 . for i = 1: length ( code1 ) Hamming_Distance = Hamming_Distance + xor ( code1 ( i ) . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . 1 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word [ 1 . // G e t t i n g Code Words code1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word ’ ) . 1 . end disp ( Hamming_Distance . 0 . 0 . clc .22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code ARC 4 Hamming Distance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Weight and Hamming D i s t a n c e //H( 7 . ’ Hamming D i s t a n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word [ 0 . code2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word ’ ) . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . 1 . 0 . Scilab code ARC 5 Hamming Encode 108 . code2 ( i ) ) . close . 1 ] // Hamming D i s t a n c e 4. 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . 0 . Hamming_Distance = 0.

clc . // G e n e r a t i n g P a r i t y b i t s for i = 1:(2^4) b2 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . b (i . b1 ( i ) = xor ( m1 ( i ) .:) . m2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . m (i . m3 ( i ) ) ) . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 .:) = [ b2 ( i ) b1 ( i ) b0 ( i ) ]. end disp ( ’ ’) // d i s p (m b C) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word 109 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 .:) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Hamming E n c o d i n g //H( 7 . end C = [ b m ]. b0 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . close . // G e t t i n g M es sag e Word m3 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . ’ CodeWord ’ ) disp ( ” ”).:) = [ m3 ( i ) m2 ( i ) m1 ( i ) m0 ( i ) ]. m1 ( i ) ) ) . m1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . disp ( ” ”). m0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . m2 ( i ) ) ) . disp ( ’ ’) for i = 1:2^4 disp ( i ) disp ( m (i .:) . ’ Mes sa ge Word ’ ) disp ( b (i . ’ P a r i t y B i t s ’ ) disp ( C (i . xor ( m3 ( i ) . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . xor ( m2 ( i ) . xor ( m1 ( i ) .

n ) .1 .1 .0 .0 .0 .L .1 .1 .1 .1 . word .0 .0 ./ mu ) 7 endfunction Scilab code ARC 6 PCM Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 function [ c ] = PCM_Encoding (x .0 .1 .1 .1 .0 .0 . end end end disp ( c ) 110 .1 .1]. .1].0 Scilab code ARC 5 invmulaw 1 2 3 4 5 .1].1 .0 .0 .0 . en_code ) // E n c o d i n g : C o n v e r t i n g Q u a n t i z e d d e c i m a l s a m p l e values in to binary // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s // e n c o d e = n o r m a l i z e d i n p u t s e q u e n c e n = log2 ( L ) . mu ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n // invmulaw : i n v e r s e mulaw n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n // x = o u t p u t v e c t o r // y = i n p u t v e c t o r ( u s i n g mulaw n o n l i n e a r comression ) 6 x = (((1+ mu ) . c = zeros ( length ( x ) .0 .0 .1 34 // E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .1 .1 35 // E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .1 36 // E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e [0 .1 .1 .0 . function x = invmulaw (y .0 .1 .0 . for i = 1: length ( x ) for j = n : -1:0 if ( fix ( en_code ( i ) /(2^ j ) ) ==1) c (i .0 .0 . .1 .1 .0 .j ) ) =1.[0 . en_code ( i ) = en_code ( i ) -2^ j .1 .0 .0 .1 .1 .1].0 .1 .1 .0 .1 .1 .0 .0 .0 .^( abs ( y ) ) -1) .0 .1 .( n .

L = 16.Scilab code ARC 7 PCM Transmission 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n :PCM T r a n s m i s s i o n ( i n c l u d e s f u n c t i o n s : u n i f o r m p c m . L ) . en_code ) . close . t = 0:0. plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . PCM encoding . xq . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . s c e . // From LS : don ’ t n e e d t h i s i s /0 warning i s o f f 4 y = sin ( %pi * x ) .5) . xq . x = sin (2* %pi * t ) . // S t e p 1 [ SQNR . x ) . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . s c e ) // T h i s program i s a s a m p l e program f o r P u l s e Code Modulation t r a n s m i s s i o n // s t e p 1 : The g i v e n a n a l o g s i g n a l c o n v e r t e d i n t o quantized sample value // s t e p 2 : Then t h e q u a n t i z e d s a m p l e v a l u e c o n v e r t e d into binary value clc . a ./( %pi * x ) . a = gca () . ’ Q u a n t i z e d S i g n a l ’ ]) Scilab code ARC 8 sinc new 1 function [ y ]= sinc_new ( x ) 2 i = find ( x ==0) . // S t e p 2 c = PCM_Encoding (x . 5 y ( i ) = 1. en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . title ( ’ Q u a n t i z a t i o n o f Sampled a n a l o g s i g n a l ’ ) legend ([ ’ Analog s i g n a l ’ . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 3 x ( i ) = 1.L . a .001:1. 6 endfunction 111 .

xq ) ) . L ) // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . length ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) ) . SQNR = 20* log10 ( norm ( x ) / norm (x . else value = 1. d = 2/ L . xq = x / xmax . q = q -(( L -1) /2) * d .. en_code = xq .* ones (1 .. B ) if ( A == B ) value = 0. q ( i ) . endfunction Scilab code ARC 10 xor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 function [ value ] = xor (A .* ones (1 . end endfunction 112 .Scilab code ARC 9 uniform pcm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 function [ SQNR . en_code ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) = (i -1) . xq . length ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) ) . q = d *[0: L -1]. for i = 1: L xq ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) =. end xq = xq * xmax .

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