Scilab Code for Digital Communication, by Simon Haykin 1

Created by Prof. R. Senthilkumar Institute of Road and Transport Technology rsenthil signalprocess@in.com Cross-Checked by Prof. Saravanan Vijayakumaran, IIT Bombay sarva@ee.iitb.ac.in 23 August 2010

by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT, http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Text Book Companion and Scilab codes written in it can be downlaoded from the website www.scilab.in

1 Funded

Book Details
Authors: Simon Haykins Title: Digital Communication Publisher: Willey India Edition: Wiley India Edition Year: Reprint 2010 Place: Delhi ISBN: 9788126508242

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Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the above book. Prb Problem (Unsolved problem) Exa Example (Solved example) Tab Table ARC Additionally Required Code (Scilab Code that is not part of the above book but required to solve a particular Example) AE Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular Example of the above book) CF Code for Figure(Scilab code that is used for plotting the respective figure of the above book ) For example, Prb 4.56 means Problem 4.56 of the above book. Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

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Contents
List of Scilab Codes 1 Introduction 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance 3 Detection and Estimation 4 Sampling Process 5 Waveform Coding Techniques 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission 7 Digital Modulation Techniques 8 Error-Control Coding 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation 4 2 5 14 27 31 39 59 87 94

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List of Scilab Codes
CF 1.2 Exa 2.1 Exa 2.2 Exa 2.3 Exa 2.4 Exa 2.5 Exa 2.6 Exa 2.7 Exa 3.1 Exa 3.2 Exa 3.3 Exa 3.4 Exa 3.6 CF 3.29 Exa 4.1 Exa 4.3 Exa 5.1 Exa 5.2 Digital Representation of Analog signal . . . . . . . . Entropy of Binary Memoryless source . . . . . . . . . Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Binary Symmetric Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel . . Significance of the Channel Coding theorem . . . . . . Orthonormal basis for given set of signals . . . . . . . M ARY Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for RF pulse . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal . . . . . . . Linear Predictor of Order one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm . . Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse . . Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect . . . . . . . . Average Transmitted Power for PCM . . . . . . . . . Comparision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 5.3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM . . . . . . Exa 5.5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier . . . . . . . CF 6.1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format . . . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.2 Duobinary Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 5 5 7 8 9 10 10 14 16 19 20 22 24 27 28 31 31 32 34 36 36 39 40 40 42 44

Exa 6.3 CF 6.4 CF 6.6b CF 6.7b CF 6.9 CF 6.15

Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder . . . Power Spectra of different binary data formats . . . . (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine . . . . . . . . . Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter . . . Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 7.1 QPSK Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques . Exa 7.2 MSK waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK . . . . . . . Tab 7.3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal . . . . . . . CF 7.4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK . . . . . . . CF 7.6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform . . Tab 7.6 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals . . . . . . Tab 7.7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals . . . . . . CF 7.29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse . . . . . . Exa 8.1 Repetition Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.2 Hamming Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.3 Hamming Codes Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.4 Encoder for the (7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code . . . . . . Exa 8.5 Syndrome calculator for the(7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code Exa 8.6 Reed-Solomon Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.7 Convolutional Encoding - Time domain approach . . . Exa 8.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach Exa 8.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.1 PN sequence generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.2 Maximum length sequence property . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.3 Processing gain, PN sequence length, Jamming margin in dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.4Example9.5 Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK . . . . Slow and Fig 9.4Figure9.6 Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK . . . . . . . . Direct ARC 1 Alaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARC 2 auto correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

47 48 49 51 53 55 59 61 63 68 70 72 74 74 76 77 78 80 82 87 87 88 89 90 90 91 92 93 94 95 97 100 100 103 106

. . . . . . . . . . . . . invmulaw . . . . . . . . . . . . .ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 Convolutional Coding Hamming Distance . . . PCM Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . uniform pcm . . . . . . . . xor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hamming Encode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCM Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 108 108 110 110 111 111 112 112 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sinc new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.3 3. . . Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. Example3. . . . . .1c Figure6. .29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . . . .2b . . . . . . . . . Figure3. . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . .6 6. . . . . Example2. . . . . . Example3.1 5. . . . . . Example2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure1. . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . .4 . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . .1b . . . . . . . . . Figure5.2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . .2 . . . . Example4. . . . . . . . . . . Example3. . . . 3 4 6 11 13 16 17 19 21 23 26 28 30 33 37 38 41 43 45 50 52 54 56 58 Example4. Example3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .13b . . . . . . Example2. . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1a Figure6. . .1 4. . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . . . .8 Figure1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1a . . . . . . . .4 3. . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .2a . .3 . . . . . . . . . . .2 5.2 2. . . . . . . . Example3. . . .13a . . . . . . . . . . .15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Figure6.4 6. . . . .1 . Example5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1b Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . .3 6. . . . . . Figure5. . . . . . . . . .6 . . . . .7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . .9 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . .6 Figure6. . .2 2. . . . .7 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .1b . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41a Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . .41b . .1a . Figure7. . . . . . . . . .6 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 7. . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 64 65 66 69 70 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 86 98 99 103 104 105 Example9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 . . . . . . . . . . . . .6b . Figure7. .31 . .13 7. . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 .3 9. . . . . . . .3 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure9. . . .2 7. . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . . .2a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 7.5 7. .7. . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. .2 . .9 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure9. . . . . . . . .10 7. . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . .12 . . . . . . Figure 7. . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Figure7. . . . . . . Figure10. . .11 7. . . . Example9. . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . Example7. . . . . . . . .4 9. .30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . .5 Example7. .12 7. .1c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Figure7. . . . . .6a . . . . .

0.0 . -2 .Chapter 1 Introduction Scilab code CF 1.0 . x ) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .5 .1 .0 . a .0 .sqrt (2) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2 Digital Representation of Analog signal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Analog s i g n a l // F i g u r e 1 . -9) xlabel ( ’ Time ’ ) 21 ylabel ( ’ 2 .0 .2 .5 . -1 .0 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . data_bounds =[ -2 .1 . a .0 . -3. t = -1:0.1] // figure a = gca () .1 .1 .0 .1 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .0 . 2 : Analog t o D i g i t a l C o n v e r s i o n clear .0 . close . x = 2* sin (( %pi /2) * t ) . sqrt (2) .01:1. clc .0 .2 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . . -0. a .3] plot (t .0 .0 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . dig_data = [0 .1 .

a . plot2d2 ([1: length ( dig_data ) ] . dig_data .Figure 1. data_bounds = [0 .5].2a 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Voltage ’) title ( ’ Analog Waveform ’ ) // figure a = gca () .1: Figure1.0.5) title ( ’ D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n ’ ) 3 .21 .

2b 4 .2: Figure1.Figure 1.

1 : Entropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e 3 // p a g e 18 4 clear .Po ( i ) ) * log2 (1 .5 .Po ( i )). 9 for i = 2: length ( Po ) -1 10 H_Po ( i ) = .2 Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source 5 . Po ’ ) 15 ylabel ( ’H( Po ) ’ ) 16 title ( ’ Entropy f u n c t i o n H( Po ) ’ ) 17 plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .Chapter 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance Scilab code Exa 2. H_Po ) 14 xlabel ( ’ Symbol P r o b a b i l i t y . 6 clc . 8 H_Po = zeros (1 .01:1. length ( Po ) ) .Po ( i ) * log2 ( Po ( i ) ) -(1 .0. 11 end 12 // p l o t 13 plot2d ( Po . 5 close .1) Scilab code Exa 2.1 Entropy of Binary Memoryless source 1 // C a p t i o n : Ent ropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e 2 // Example 2 . 7 Po = 0:0.

1: Example2.Figure 2.1 6 .

8 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ ’) H_Ruo_Square =0. P1 * P2 . 1 A l p h a b e t P a r t i c u l a r s o f Second−o r d e r Extension o f a D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ S e q u e n c e o f Symbols o f r u o 2 : ’ ) disp ( ’ S0 ∗ S0 S0 ∗ S1 S0 ∗ S2 S1 ∗ S0 S1 ∗ S1 S1 ∗ S2 S2 ∗ S0 S2 ∗ S1 S2 ∗ S2 ’ ) disp ( P_sigma . i = 0 . P1 * P1 . disp ( ’ Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . end disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S1 P2 = 1/2. . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S0 P1 = 1/4. P2 * P1 . P0 * P1 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // c a p t i o n : S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source // Example 2 . H_Ruo_Square . P2 * P2 ]. 2 : Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e // p a g e 19 clear . for i = 1: length ( P_sigma ) H_Ruo_Square = H_Ruo_Square + P_sigma ( i ) * log2 (1/ P_sigma ( i ) ) . ’ P r o b a b i l i t y p ( s i g m a ) . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S2 H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) . clc . 1 . . P0 = 1/4. H_Ruo ) // S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f d i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s source P_sigma = [ P0 * P0 . disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . P1 * P0 . P0 * P2 . . ’H( R u o S q u a r e )= ’ ) disp ( ’H( R u o S q u a r e ) = 2∗H( Ruo ) ’ ) 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 7 . P2 * P0 .

disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 3.2.L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 ’ L0 = 2.1. Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Entropy . H_Ruo . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g 8 . P0 = 0.L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. 3 : Huffman E n c o d i n g : C a l c u l a t i o n o f // ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ // ( b ) E ntropy ’H’ clear . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0. ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) disp ( ’ p e r c e n t ’ . Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : Entropy . A v e r a g e l e n g t h . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 3. V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g // Example 2 . ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . disp ( sigma_1 .L ) ^2.L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 .L . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0.2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 1 ’ L2 = 2.((L .Scilab code Exa 2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0.4. ’ A v e r a g e code − word l e n g t h L e x c e e d s t h e e n t r o p y H( Ruo ) by o n l y ’ ) sigma_1 = P0 *( L0 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 0 ’ L1 = 2.H_Ruo ) / H_Ruo ) *100 .1. Average length.Average length. A v e r a g e l e n g t h .4 Entropy. clc .3 Entropy.L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 . H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) .

1. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0.4. H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 4. P0 = 0.4. 5 : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 3 clear . disp ( sigma_2 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 ’ L0 = 1. clc . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0.2. ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 ’ L1 = 2. ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .L . ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t= ’ ) 9 . H_Ruo .5 Binary Symmetric Channel 1 // C a p t i o n : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 2 // Example2 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 .L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 .1. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 0 ’ L2 = 3. e ) transition probility 8 disp (p . 4 : I l l u s t r a t i n g n o n u n i q u e s s o f t h e Huffman E n c o d i n g // C a l c u l a t i o n o f ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ ( b ) Entr opy ’H’ clear .L ) ^2. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n 7 pe = 1 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 4.L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 .L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // Example2 .2. 5 close .p .L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 . disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r r e c e p t i o n ( i . 4 clc . ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) sigma_2 = P0 *( L0 . 6 p = 0.

6 : Channel C a p a c i t y o f B i n a r y Symmetri Channel clear . 1 0 V a r i a t i o n o f c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y o f a binary symmetric channel with t r a n s i t i o n probility p ’) Scilab code Exa 2. close .5. C ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 . end end plot2d (p .01:0. p ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Channel C a p a c i t y .p ( i ) ) ) .6 Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Channel C a p a c i t y o f a B i n a r y Symmetric Channel // Example2 . clc . elseif ( i ==1) C ( i ) =1. for i =1: length ( p ) if ( i ~=1) C ( i ) = 1+ p ( i ) * log2 ( p ( i ) ) +(1 .p ( i ) ) * log2 ((1 . p = 0:0. elseif ( i == length ( p ) ) C ( i ) =0.7 Significance of the Channel Coding theorem // C a p t i o n : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Channel Coding t h e o r e m // Example2 . ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t= ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. 7 : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c h a n n e l c o d i n g theorem 3 // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r o f R e p e t i t i o n Code 1 2 10 .5) xlabel ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n P r o b i l i t y .9 10 disp ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y ’ ) disp ( pe .C .

2: Example2.6 11 .Figure 2.

’ Code Rate . ’ A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r . 16 plot2d (r .p ) + p ^7. // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/5 11 pe_7 = ((7*6*5) /(1*2*3) ) * p ^4*(1 . 1 2 I l l u s t r a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e channel coding theorem ’ ) 20 legend ( ’ R e p e t i t i o n c o d e s ’ ) 21 xgrid (1) 22 disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 .0. Pe ’ ) 19 title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 . 6 close . // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/3 10 pe_5 = 10* p ^3*(1 .1/7]. // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/7 12 r = [1 .p ) ^2+5* p ^4*(1 . pe_5 .p ) ^2+7* p ^6*(1 .1/5 .4 clear .01]. data_bounds =[0 .0. 15 a . 5 clc . pe_7 ]. 7 p =10^ -2. // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r code r a t e r = 1 9 pe_3 = 3* p ^2*(1 . Pe ’ ) 25 disp ( ’ ’) 12 .p ) + p ^5. r ’ ) 18 ylabel ( ’ A v e r a g e P r o b a b i l i t y o f e r r o r . 13 pe = [ pe_1 . pe . 14 a = gca () .p ) + p ^3.1 . 8 pe_1 = p . 3 A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r f o r R e p e t i t i o n Code ’ ) 23 disp ( ’ ’) 24 disp (r . pe_3 .1/3 .pe .5) 17 xlabel ( ’ Code r a t e . r =1/n ’ .p ) ^3+(42/2) * p ^5*(1 .

3: Example2.Figure 2.7 13 .

s2t = [0 . phi3t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . s1t = [0 .0].0]. ones (1 . close .01: T /3. t5 = 0:0. 1 : F i n d i n g o r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r t h e g i v e n signals // u s i n g Gram−Schmidt o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e clear . ones (1 . t7 = 2* T /3:0.01: T .01: T .01: T .0]. length ( t6 ) -2) . ones (1 . length ( t3 ) -2) . s3t = [0 .01:2* T /3. ones (1 . length ( t5 ) -2) .0].01:2* T /3. t1 = 0:0. ones (1 .0]. // 14 . T = 1. length ( t7 ) -2) . phi2t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . t4 = 0:0. length ( t2 ) -2) . t2 = 0:0. ones (1 .01: T /3. phi1t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 .Chapter 3 Detection and Estimation Scilab code Exa 3. t3 = T /3:0. clc . t6 = T /3:0.0].1 Orthonormal basis for given set of signals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : O r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r g i v e n s e t o f s i g n a l s // Example3 . ones (1 . s4t = [0 . length ( t1 ) -2) . length ( t4 ) -2) .0].

2].2 . plot2d2 ( t4 . a .2].5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 4 ( t ) ’ ) // figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1 . a .1 .0. a . data_bounds = [0 .2]. a . plot2d2 ( t2 . data_bounds = [0 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .1 .2 .1 .2 . s3t .4) a = gca () .0.2) a = gca () .2) 15 . data_bounds = [0 .1 . s1t .1) a = gca () . 4 ( b ) The r e s u l t i n g s e t o f o r t h o n o r m a l functions ’) subplot (3 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . phi1t .2 .3) a = gca () . s4t .0. plot2d2 ( t1 . 4 ( a ) S e t o f s i g n a l s t o be orthonormalized ’) subplot (4 . plot2d2 ( t3 .0.5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 3 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .4]. data_bounds = [0 . s2t . a .1) a = gca () .2 . plot2d2 ( t5 .2].0. data_bounds = [0 .23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .

Figure 3.4]. phi2t .3) a = gca () . data_bounds = [0 .1: Example3. a .0.0. plot2d2 ( t7 .1a 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 a = gca () .1 . plot2d2 ( t6 .2 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .4]. a . data_bounds = [0 . phi3t .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 3 ( t ) ’ ) 16 .2 .

2: Example3.1b 17 .Figure 3.

data_bounds = [ -2 . close . 8 ( a ) S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n ’ ) xgrid (1) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . o f meg .5.(1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) ]. a = gca () . clc . // Symbol d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s // Four m e s s a g e p o i n t s Si1 = [( -3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .(3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .0] .Scilab code Exa 3.2 M ARY Signaling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n :M −ARY S i g n a l i n g // Example3 .( -1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .[0 . D e c i s i o n i n t e r v a l s f o r received dibits ’) disp ( ’ R e c e i v e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ 20 21 22 23 24 25 01 01 ’) 26 disp ( ’ I n t e r v a l on p h i 1 ( t ) | x1 < −a . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s m i t t e d dibits ’) disp ( ’ Loc .0 . p o i n t | ( −3/2) a s q r t (T) | ( − 1 / 2 ) a s q r t ( T) | ( 3 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) | ( 1 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ T r a n s m i t t e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . 8 ( c ) .5] plot2d ( Si1 . -0. a . -10) xlabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . a =1. // a m p l i t u d e =1 T =1. s q r t ( 18 .0.2 . 8 ( b ) . s q r t (T) |− a . 2 : M −ARY SIGNALING // S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n and R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d i b i t s clear .0 .

s q r t (T) | a . clc .2 T)<x1 <0| 0<x1<a . // c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y i n Hz T =1. 3 : MATCHED FILTER FOR RF PULSE clear .Figure 3. t1 = 0:0. 19 . s q r t (T)<x1 ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3.3 Matched Filter output for RF pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r RF p u l s e // Example3 .3: Example3. fc =4.01: T . close .

1].1 . 4 : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r n o i s e l i k e 1 20 .01:2* T . phiot = convol ( phit . a .1 .1) a = gca () . -1.9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 phit = sqrt (2/ T ) * cos (2* %pi * fc * t1 ) . plot2d ( t2 . hopt = phit . a . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . a .1 .4 Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r N o i s e − l i k e signal 2 // Example3 . plot2d ( t1 . a . subplot (2 . hopt ) .1 . 1 3 ( a ) RF p u l s e i n p u t ’ ) subplot (2 . a . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . 1 3 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -1. data_bounds = [0 . data_bounds = [0 . phit ) .1]. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a .2) a = gca () . t2 = 0:0. phiot ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . phiot = phiot / max ( phiot ) .

Figure 3.4: Example3.3 21 .

clc .1]. plot2d ([1: length ( phit ) ] . phi0t ) . phit =0.10 . subplot (2 .6 Linear Predictor of Order one 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 22 . plot2d ([1: length ( phi0t ) ] . data_bounds = [0 . phi0t = phi0t / max ( phi0t ) .2) a = gca () . hopt = phit . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . a . ’ u n i f o r m ’ ) . phit ) . a . -1. a .1) a = gca () . data_bounds = [0 . phi0t = convol ( phit . 1 6 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. hopt ) . close . -1. a .1* rand (1 .1 .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 input clear . a .1].1 . 1 6 ( a ) N o i s e L i k e i n p u t s i g n a l ’ ) subplot (2 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .

5: Example3.4 23 .Figure 3.

01*( sum ( x . desired ( i ) = x_n ( i ) . 24 . ref_noise = noise * rand (10) .01:1. ’ P r e d i c t o r i n p u t v a r i a n c e ’ ) if ( sigma_X > sigma_E ) disp ( ’ The p r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e i s l e s s t h a n the variance of the p r e d i c t o r input ’ ) end Scilab code CF 3. N = length ( x ) .6 1 0. // Rxx ( 2 ) = Rxx ( 0 ) . length ( x ) ) . disp ( sigma_E . t =0:0. x = sin (2* %pi *5* t ) .^2) / length ( x ) ) . close . for k =1:1010 for i = 1: N . order = 18. clc .1) . close . clc .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 // C a p t i o n : L i n e a r P r e d i c t o r o f Order one // Example3 .h01 * Rxx (3) .29 Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f LMS ADAPTIVE FILTER // For n o i s e c a n c e l l a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n clear . noise = rand (1 . ’ P r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e ’ ) disp ( sigma_X .order -1 buffer = ref_noise ( i : i + order -1) . w = zeros ( order . mu = 0. 6 : LINEAR PREDICTION : P r e d i c t o r o f Order One clear . Rxx = [0. x_n = x + noise . Rxx ( 3 ) = Rxx ( 1 ) sigma_E = Rxx (2) . sigma_X = Rxx (2) .buffer * w . h01 = Rxx (3) / Rxx (2) .6].

19 w = w +( buffer * mu * desired ( i ) ) ’. noise .1) 23 plot2d (t .2) 27 title ( ’ random n o i s e ’ ) 28 subplot (4 .1 .1 . 20 end 21 end 22 subplot (4 .3) 29 plot2d (t . x_n . x ) 24 title ( ’ O r i g n a l I n p u t S i g n a l ’ ) 25 subplot (4 .1 .2) 26 plot2d (t .5) 30 title ( ’ S i g n a l+n o i s e ’ ) 31 subplot (4 .4) 32 plot ( desired ) 33 title ( ’ n o i s e removed s i g n a l ’ ) 25 .1 .

Figure 3.6: Figure3.29

26

Chapter 4 Sampling Process
Scilab code Exa 4.1 Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

// C a p t i o n : Bound on A l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r Time− s h i f t e d sinc pulse // Example4 . 1 : Maximum bound on a l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r sinc pulse clc ; close ; t = -1.5:0.01:2.5; g = 2* sinc_new (2* t -1) ; disp ( max ( g ) , ’ A l i a s i n g e r r o r c a n n o t e x c e e d max | g ( t ) | ’ ) f = -1:0.01:1; G = [0 ,0 ,0 ,0 , ones (1 , length ( f ) ) ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0]; f1 = -1.04:0.01:1.04; subplot (2 ,1 ,1) a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -3 , -1;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d (t , g ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ g( t ) ’) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( a ) S i n c p u l s e g ( t ) ’ ) subplot (2 ,1 ,2) 27

Figure 4.1: Example4.1
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -2 ,0;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d2 ( f1 , G ) xlabel ( ’ f ’) ylabel ( ’ G( f ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( b ) A m p l i t u d e s p e c t r u m |G( f ) | ’ ) Scilab code Exa 4.3 Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect

1

// C a p t i o n : E q u a l i z e r t o c o m p e n s a t e A p e r t u r e e f f e c t 28

8 . 5 ( T/ Ts ) ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 .01:0. 1 6 N o r m a l i z e d e q u a l i z a t i o n ( t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r a p e r t u r e e f f e c t ) p l o t t e d v e r s u s T/ Ts ’ ) 29 .0. 3 : E q u a l i z e r t o Compensate f o r a p e r t u r e effect clc . //E = 1 / ( s i n c n e w ( 0 .8. 5 ∗ T Ts ) ) . end a = gca () . close .6. data_bounds = [0 .5) xlabel ( ’ Duty c y c l e T/ Ts ’ ) ylabel ( ’ 1/ s i n c ( 0 . plot2d ( T_Ts .2]. for i = 2: length ( T_Ts ) E ( i ) = (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) /( sin (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) ) .01:0.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 // Example4 . a .0. T_Ts = 0.1.E . E (1) =1.

Figure 4.3 30 .2: Example4.

disp ( ’ The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : ’ ) P = ( k ^2) *( sigma_N ) *(( M ^2) -1) /12. M = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r ’ ) .Chapter 5 Waveform Coding Techniques Scilab code Exa 5. disp ( P ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e 10ˆ −6 // E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f s i g n a l i n g 7 // E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r 2 // The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : 0 . 7 k = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 s i g n a l i n g ’ ). 6 sigma_N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e ’ ) .1 Average Transmitted Power for PCM 1 // C a p t i o n : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power f o r PCM 2 // Example5 . 1 : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power o f PCM 3 // Page 187 4 clear . 5 clc .2 Comaprision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) 31 . 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 Scilab code Exa 5.

P_NoB_dB = [ -20:30]. d e c i b e l s P_NoB = 10^( P_NoB_dB /10) . // I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/ NoB . 2 : Comparison o f M r y PCM s y s t e m −a // Channel C a p a c i t y t h e o r e m clear . 9 Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h t h e −a i d e a l ssytem ’ ) legend ([ ’ I d e a l System ’ . poly1 . Rb_B . thickness =2. // f o r M r y PCM s y s t e m . children (1) . a . data_bounds = [ -30 . b i t s p e r s e c o n d per hertz ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 5 . children (1) . // bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s e c /Hz C_B = log2 (1+ P_NoB ) .3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM 1 2 3 4 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n N o i s e R a t i o o f PCM // Example5 . k =7. plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . line_style = 4.40 . // i d e a l s y s t e m a c c o r d i n g t o Shannon ’ s c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y t h e o r e m // p l o t a = gca () . ’PCM ’ ]) Scilab code Exa 5.5) poly1 = a . Rb/B .10]. C_B . poly1 . 32 . close . d e c i b e l s ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y . 3 : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n n o i s e r a t i o // Channel Bandwidth B clear . xlabel ( ’ I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/NoB .5) plot2d ( P_NoB_dB .0.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h i d e a l s y s t e m −a ( Channel C a p a c i t y Theorem ) // Example5 . −a Rb_B = log2 (1+(12/ k ^2) * P_NoB ) . clc .

Figure 5.1: Example5.2 33 .

9 disp (B . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 8 14 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 15 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 32000. 6 n = input ( ’ E n t e r no .2.7. 16 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 0 . a0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : ’ ). 8 23 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 24 // C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 i f 25 number o f b i t s i n c r e a s e d by 1 // c o r r e s p o n d i n g o u t p u t s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n PCM i n c r e a s e d by 6 dB . Scilab code Exa 5. o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 9 20 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 21 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 3 6 0 0 0 . clc . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : ’ ) 7 W = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 8 B = n*W.5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 // Example 5 : D e l t a M o d u l a t i o n − t o a v o i d s l o p e overload distortion //maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o f o r s i n u s o i d a l modulation // p a g e 207 clear . 34 . 22 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 6 .5 clc . ’ Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : ’ ) 12 // R e s u l t 1 i f n = 8 bits 13 // E n t e r no . 8 17 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 18 // R e s u l t 2 i f n = 9 b i t s 19 // E n t e r no . 11 disp ( SNRo . ’ Channel w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 10 SNRo = 6* n .

7 f0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f

sinusoidal signal

i n Hz : ’ ) ;
8 fs = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s

per s e c o n d s : ’ );
9 Ts = 1/ fs ; // S a m p l i n g i n t e r v a l 10 delta = 2* %pi * f0 * a0 * Ts ; // S t e p 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

s i z e to avoid s l o p e

overload Pmax = ( a0 ^2) /2; //maximum p e r m i s s i b l e o u t p u t power sigma_Q = ( delta ^2) /3; // Q u a n t i z a t i o n e r r o r o r n o i s e variance W = f0 ; //Maximum m e s s a g e bandwidth N = W * Ts * sigma_Q ; // A v e r a g e o u t p u t n o i s e power SNRo = Pmax / N ; // Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e ratio SNRo_dB = 10* log10 ( SNRo ) ; disp ( SNRo_dB , ’ Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r Delta Modualtion : ’ ) // R e s u l t 1 f o r f s = 8 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :8000 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : −5.1717849 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// R e s u l t 2 f o r f s = 1 6 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 27 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :16000 28 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : 3 . 8 5 9 1 1 5 29 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
24 25 26

35

// C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 , i f the sampling frequency 31 // i s d o u b l e d t h e s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n c r e a s e d by 9 dB
30

Scilab code CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

15

// C a p t i o n : u−Law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( a ) Mulaw companding N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g mulaw c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f mu clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t mu = [0 ,5 ,255]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f mu for i = 1: length ( mu ) [ Cx (i ,:) , Xmax ( i ) ] = mulaw (x , mu ( i ) ) ; end plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) , Cx (1 ,:) ,2) plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) , Cx (2 ,:) ,4) plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) , Cx (3 ,:) ,6) xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : u−Law companding ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) ; legend ([ ’ u =0 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=5 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=255 ’ ]) Scilab code CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// C a p t i o n : A−law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( b )A−law companding , N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g A−law c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f A clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t A = [1 ,2 ,87.56]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f A for i = 1: length ( A ) 36

Figure 5.2: Figure5.13a

37

13b 9 [ Cx (i . 15 legend ([ ’A =1 ’ ] .:) . Cx (2 .[ ’A=2 ’ ] .4) 13 plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) .[ ’A= 8 7 . Cx (1 .6) 14 xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : A−Law companding ’ . ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) . Cx (3 .:) . A ( i ) ) .2) 12 plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) .:) .3: Figure5. ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ .Figure 5. Xmax ( i ) ] = Alaw (x .:) . 10 end 11 plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) . 5 6 ’ ]) 38 .

Chapter 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission Scilab code Exa 6. B = 2* Bo .647∗10ˆ −6 // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m 39 . disp (B . 1 : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 Carrier // Page 251 clear . Tb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l : ’) Bo = 1/(2* Tb ) . ’ T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m i n Hz : ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l :0.1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 c a r r i e r // Example6 . clc . // minimum t r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth o f T1 system // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m ’B ’ alpha = 1.f1 . // c o s i n e r o l l − o f f f a c t o r f1 = Bo *(1 .alpha ) .

children (1) . binary_one = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. L = length ( x ) .i n Hz : 1 5 4 5 5 9 5 .1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o u n i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . data_bounds =[0 -2. a . 1 ( a ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 1 ] . L1 = length ( binary_zero ) . poly1 = a .L +1: i * L ] . poly1 . binary_zero ) . children (1) . children (1) . poly1 . 1 Scilab code CF 6. else plot ([ i *L .1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format 1 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o p o l a r f o r m a t 40 . thickness =3. binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]. // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . clc . binary_one ) . L * L1 2]. poly1 = a .L +1: i * L ] . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ U n i p o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. U n i p o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . thickness =3. close . children (1) . total_duration = L * L . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L .

1: Figure6.1a 41 .Figure 6.

L * L1 2].L +1: i * L ] . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . total_duration = L * L1 . poly1 . children (1) . children (1) .1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o b i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . children (1) . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. binary_positive ) . thickness =3. a .L +1: i * L ] . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . else plot ([ i *L . 1 ( b ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 2 ] . P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. binary_negative ) . close . 1 ( c ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 3 ] .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // F i g u r e 6 . 42 . poly1 = a . B i P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . data_bounds =[0 -2. binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. clc . children (1) . L = length ( x ) . poly1 = a . poly1 . thickness =3. close .

2: Figure6.Figure 6.1b 43 .

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 clc . elseif (( x ( i ) ==1) &( x (i -1) ~=1) ) plot ([ i *L . binary_zero ) . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) .1 . poly1 . binary_negative ) . poly1 = a . children (1) . children (1) . else plot ([ i *L . children (1) .1 . poly1 . children (1) .1 . binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. thickness =3. 2 : P r e c o d e d D u o b i n a r y c o d e r and d e c o d e r 3 // Page 256 4 clc . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . children (1) .0]. data_bounds =[0 -2. // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : p r e c o d e r input 44 . 5 b = [0 . poly1 = a . total_duration = L * L1 . thickness =3. x = [0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1].0 .2 Duobinary Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : D u o b i n a r y E n c o d i n g 2 // Example6 . poly1 .0 . children (1) .L +1: i * L ] . thickness =3. L = length ( x ) . poly1 = a . binary_positive ) . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ B i P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code Exa 6. L * L1 2].L +1: i * L ] . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]. a .L +1: i * L ] .

3: Figure6.Figure 6.1c 45 .

disp (c . else b_r ( k ) = 1. if ( a (1) ==1) a_volts (1) = 1. a_volts = a_volts ’. if ( a ( k ) ==1) a_volts ( k ) =1.b ( k ) ) . disp ( b_r .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 a (1) = xor (1 . end for k =2: length ( b ) a ( k ) = xor ( a (k -1) . b (1) ) . end end b_r = b_r ’. for k =2: length ( a ) c ( k ) = a_volts (k -1) + a_volts ( k ) . else a_volts ( k ) = -1. end end a = a ’. ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s c (1) = 1+ a_volts (1) . ’ D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y d e c o d e r o u t p u t by a p p l y i n g d e c i s i o n rule for k =1: length ( c ) if ( abs ( c ( k ) ) >1) b_r ( k ) = 0. ’ R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t d e t e c t o r oupupt : ’ ) // R e s u l t // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : // 46 . ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : ’ ) disp ( a_volts . disp (a . end c = c ’.

3 Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : G e n e r a t i o n o f b i p o l a r o u t p u t f o r d u o b i n a r y coder // Example6 .42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 // 1 . 1. − 1. 1. 0.y_delay ( k ) . − 1.1 . 1. 1 3 // f o r g e n e r a t i n g b i p o l a r f o r m a t // p a g e 256 and p a g e 257 // R e f e r T a b l e 6 . − 1. 1. // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : precoder input y (1) = 1. 0. ’ D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : ’ ) for k = 1: length ( y_delay ) z ( k ) = y ( k +1) . y_delay = y_delay ’. disp (y .1 .1 . 1. 47 .0 . 1. − 2. y = y ’. 0. d e t e c t o r oupupt : 1. − 2. 4 clc . − // // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // // 2 . : 0. 2. ’ Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : ’ ) disp ( y_delay .1 .0 .y (k -1) ) . 0. 1. end z = z ’. 3 : O p e r a t i o n o f C i r c u i t i n f i g u r e 6 . 0. for k =2: length ( x ) +1 y ( k ) = xor ( x (k -1) .0 . end y_delay = y (1: $ -1) . 0. Scilab code Exa 6. // // R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t // // 0 . // // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : // // 1 .1]. 0. 0.0 . 0. x = [0 .

1. volts 0. 0. 0. NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t [ 4 ] . Scilab code CF 6. 0. 1.4 Power Spectra of different binary data formats 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f d i f f e r e n t b i n a r y d a t a formats // F i g u r e 6 . 0. 0. 1. M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t // Page 241 close . Tb = 1/ fb . 1. 0. ’ d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n : ’) // R e s u l t // Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : // 1. // b i t d u r a t i o n f = 0:1/(100* Tb ) :2/ Tb . NRZ P o l a r f o r m a t a = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : ’ ) . NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t // [ 3 ] . 0. 0. 0. : 0.21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 disp (z . for i = 1: length ( f ) Sxxf_NRZ_P ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . clc . Sxxf_NRZ_BP ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) *(( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . 1. else 48 . NRZ P o l a r Format [ 2 ] . 1. 1. 0. − 1. 0. // d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // 0. − 1. 0. 4 : Power S p e c t a l D e n s i t i e s o f // D i f f e r e n t L i n e Coding T e c h n i q u e s // [ 1 ] . 1. // D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : // 1. fb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . 1. // [ 1 ] . 1. if ( i ==1) Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) +( a ^2) /4. − 1. 0.

children (1) .5) poly1 = a . plot2d (f . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . ’NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ . Sxxf_NRZ_UP . poly1 . // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : 1 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. plot2d (f . children (1) . ’NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ . Sxxf_NRZ_BP . children (1) . children (1) .2) poly1 = a . thickness = 2.6b (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI // C a p t i o n : I d e a l s o l u t i o n f o r z e r o I S I // F i g u r e 6 . thickness = 2. Sxxf_NRZ_P ) poly1 = a . thickness = 2.20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . thickness = 2. end // P l o t t i n g a = gca () . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . poly1 .9) poly1 = a . Sxxf_Manch . children (1) . xlabel ( ’ f ∗Tb−−−−−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Sxx ( f )−−−−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f D i f f e r e n t L i n e Codinig Techniques ’ ) xgrid (1) legend ([ ’NRZ P o l a r Format ’ . plot2d (f . ’ M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t ’ ]) . poly1 . children (1) . 6 ( b ) : I d e a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference 3 // SINC p u l s e 1 2 49 . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . plot2d (f . poly1 . children (1) . end Sxxf_Manch ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) *( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) . children (1) .

4 50 .4: Figure6.Figure 6.

p (j .5) |( t ( i ) == -0. else num = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) * cos (2* %pi * Alpha * Bo * t ( i ) ) . i ) = num / den . t = -3:1/100:3. plot (t . x = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ) . ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . Bo = rb /2.4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // p a g e 249 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . Tb =1/ rb . den = 1 -16*( Alpha ^2) *( Bo ^2) *( t ( i ) ^2) +0. rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) .01. t = -3:1/100:3. title ( ’ SINC P u l s e f o r z e r o I S I ’ ) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6.5) ) ) p (j . 7 ( b ) : P r a c t i c a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference // R a i s e d C o s i n e Spectrum // p a g e 250 close . i ) = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) . // I n t i a l i z e d t o z e r o x = t / Tb .7b (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : P r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n : R a i s e d C o s i n e // F i g u r e 6 . for j =1:3 for i =1: length ( t ) if (( j ==3) &(( t ( i ) ==0. x ) xlabel ( ’ t−−−−−−> ’ ) . clc . 51 . Alpha =0. Bo = rb /2.

6 52 .Figure 6.5: Figure6.

children (1) . p (2 .5 ’ . p (3 . 26 plot2d (t . children (1) . 33 poly2 . 9 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y Conversion f i l t e r // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e // Page 254 clear .9 Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f d u o b i n a r y c o n v e r s i o n filter // F i g u r e 6 . 36 title ( ’ RAISED COSINE SPECTRUM − P r a c t i c a l 37 Solution for ISI ’) legend ([ ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0 ’ . foreground =4. Tb =1/ rb . 35 ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) .5. line_style = 3. foreground =2. 30 plot2d (t . p (1 . 32 po1y2 . clc .:) ) 28 poly1 = a . 29 poly1 . close . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =1 ’ ]) 38 xgrid (1) 39 // R e s u l t 40 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6.:) ) 31 poly2 = a . 34 xlabel ( ’ t /Tb−−−−−−> ’ ) . children (1) . // B i t d u r a t i o n 53 . 24 end 25 a = gca () .21 end 22 end 23 Alpha = Alpha +0.:) ) 27 plot2d (t . children (1) . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0. rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) .

Figure 6.7 54 .6: Figure6.

Amplitude_Response . children (1) .1) a = gca () .2) poly1 = a . poly1 . Phase_Response . a . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) subplot (2 . plot2d (f .5) poly1 = a . plot2d (f .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . thickness = 2. 1 5 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f M o d i f i e d duobinary conversion f i l t e r 3 // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e 4 // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e 1 55 . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* cos ( %pi * f .* Tb ) ) . thickness = 2. children (1) .1 . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 f = . children (1) .2) a = gca () . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 Scilab code CF 6. Phase_Response = -( %pi * f . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .15 Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f m o d i f i e d d u o b i n a r y conversion f i l t e r 2 // F i g u r e 6 . poly1 . a . subplot (2 . a .* Tb ) .1 . children (1) . a . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .

Figure 6.7: Figure6.9 56 .

y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . Phase_Response = -(2* %pi * f .5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 // p a g e 259 clear . Amplitude_Response . Tb =1/ rb .5) poly1 = a .* Tb ) . thickness = 2. xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) subplot (2 . // B i t d u r a t i o n f = . plot2d (f . children (1) .2) poly1 = a . children (1) .1) a = gca () . plot2d (f . thickness = 2. children (1) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* sin (2* %pi * f .2) a = gca () . a . Phase_Response . poly1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . poly1 . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . a .1 . a .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . close . children (1) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .* Tb ) ) . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 57 . subplot (2 . clc .1 .

8: Figure6.Figure 6.15 58 .

end S1 =[].Chapter 7 Digital Modulation Techniques Scilab code Exa 7.:) ].001:1.1 .sin (2* %pi *2* t ) * sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) .0 . end 59 . for i = 1: M s1 (i .1 . t = 0:0. S = [].:) ]. m = [3 .1 . S2 = [].0 .0]. M =4.1 . 1 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear . s2 (i . S2 = [ S2 s2 ( m ( i ) . close .2].1 QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques // Example7 . Input_Sequence =[0 .:) = cos (2* %pi *2* t ) * cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) .0 . clc . i = 1: M . for i =1: length ( m ) S1 = [ S1 s1 ( m ( i ) .1 .:) = .

60 .22 S = S1 + S2 . 27 plot ( S1 ) 28 title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Odd−numbered b i t s 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 of input sequence ’) subplot (3 . plot ( S ) title ( ’QPSK waveform ’ ) //− s i n ( ( 2 ∗ i −1) ∗ %pi / 4 ) ∗ %i .1 . // a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . − 1 . 1 . // a =g c a ( ) . imag ( y ( 1 ) ) .1) 25 a = gca () .1 . l o g 2 (M) ) . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) // d i s p ( annot . // a n n o t = d e c 2 b i n ( [ 0 : l e n g t h ( y ) −1] .2) a = gca () . −5) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 4 ) ) . a . y l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . −9) // x l a b e l ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // d i s p ( y . // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 1 ) ) . imag ( y ( 3 ) ) . 26 a . −2) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 2 ) ) . imag ( y ( 2 ) ) . 23 figure 24 subplot (3 . imag ( y ( 4 ) ) . // y l a b e l ( ’ Quadrature ’ ) . 1 ] . x l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . −4) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 3 ) ) .3) a = gca () . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Even−numbered b i t s o f input sequence ’) subplot (3 . // a . ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) // f i g u r e . a . // a .1 . d a t a b o u n d s = [ − 1 .

5 ) Scilab code CF 7. ’ message p o in t 4 ( d i b i t 11) ’ ] .Figure 7. ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ .1: Example7. FSK and PSk Waveforms 1 61 . ’ m e s s a g e p o i nt 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ .1 54 55 // t i t l e ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) // l e g e n d ( [ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ .1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques 2 // F i g u r e 7 . 1 3 // D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s 4 //To P l o t t h e ASK.

x1 ]. x2 = sin (2* %pi *(2* f ) * t ) . // G e n e r a t i o n o f ASK Waveform Xask = []. length ( x ) ) .sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . zeros (1 . elseif (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . 7 close . I = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a ’ ) . x2 = . 8 f = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y i n Hz ’ 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 ). elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f PSK Waveform Xpsk = []. x = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . t = 0:1/512:1. x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) 62 . elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . for n = 1: length ( I ) if (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [x . end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f FSK Waveform Xfsk = [].5 clear . elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [ zeros (1 . length ( x ) ) ]. Xask ]. x2 ]. for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . Xask ]. x ]. 6 clc .

0 . 0 .2 MSK waveforms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // Example7 . x ) 49 xtitle ( ’ Analog C a r r i e r S i g n a l 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 f o r D i g i t a l Modulation ’) xgrid figure plot ( Xask ) xtitle ( ’ A m p l i t u d e S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xfsk ) xtitle ( ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xpsk ) xtitle ( ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid // Example // E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y 2 // E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a [ 0 . 63 . 1 ] Scilab code Exa 7. t1 = . close . 43 elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) 44 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . 1 . 1 . 45 end 46 end 47 figure 48 plot (t . 1 .42 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . x2 ]. 0 . M =2.01: Tb .Tb :0. x1 ]. Tb =1. 2 : S e q u e n c e and Waveforms f o r MSK s i g n a l // T a b l e 7 . 2 s i g n a l s p a c e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f MSK clear clc .

Figure 7.2: Figure7.1a 64 .

1b 65 .Figure 7.3: Figure7.

4: Figure7.Figure 7.1c 66 .

01:2* Tb .sin ( . s1 (1) .%pi /2]. disp (y . S2 = [ S2 s2 (1) * phi2 ]. phi2 = sin (2* %pi * t2 ) . . 67 .sin ( .1 .* sin (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t2 ) .0]. S = [].%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. s2 (1) . teta_tb = [ %pi /2 . S2 = []. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S1 = [].sin ( . end Input_Sequence =[1 . end for i = M : -1:1 S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ]. s2 ( i ) = . s2 (1) . s2 (2) ].%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ].0 .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. phi1 = cos (2* %pi * t1 ) .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].sin ( teta_tb ( i ) ) .1 . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) figure subplot (3 . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . t = 0:0.0 .1) a = gca () .sin ( . for i = 1: M s1 ( i ) = cos ( teta_0 ( i ) ) . S2 = [ S2 s2 (2) * phi2 ]. s2 (2) . %pi ]. s1 (2) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . s1 (2) .1 .* cos (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t1 ) .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 t2 = 0:0. teta_0 = [0 .0 . y = [ s1 (1) .01:1. S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .

a . M =2. ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure .2) a = gca () . -2. 2 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK system clear clc . imag ( y (1) ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . close . a .1 .1 . a . a . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .2 . disp (y . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot ( S1 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot ( S ) title ( ’ O b t a i n e d by a d d i n g s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t )+s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) on a b i t −by−b i t b a s i s ’ ) Scilab code CF 7. log2 ( M ) ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) .2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // F i g u r e 7 .42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 a . a = gca () . imag ( y (2) ) .3) a = gca () . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . -5) xlabel ( ’ 68 . a . i = 1: M . y = cos (2* %pi +( i -1) * %pi ) . data_bounds = [ -2 . -9) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . annot = dec2bin ([ length ( y ) -1: -1:0] . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2].

Figure 7.5: Example7.2 69 .

6: Figure7.3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal 1 21 22 // C a p t i o n : I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK s i g n a l 70 . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] .Figure 7. 20 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ .5) Scilab code Tab 7.2 In−Phase ’ ) .

3 G e n e r a t i o n o f D i f f e r e n t i a l Phase s h i f t keying s i g n a l clc . // i n p u t d i g i t a l s e q u e n c e for i = 1: length ( bk ) if ( bk ( i ) ==1) bk_not ( i ) =~1.0 .1 . 3 I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e G e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK Signal ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( bk . elseif ( dk ( i ) ==0) dk_radians ( i ) = %pi .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 // T a b l e 7 . ’ ( bk ) ’ ) bk_not = bk_not ’. dk_1_not (1) ) // f i r s t b i t o f dpsk encoder for i =2: length ( bk ) dk_1 ( i ) = dk (i -1) . end end disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . bk = [1 .1]. end for i =1: length ( dk ) if ( dk ( i ) ==1) dk_radians ( i ) =0.0 . ’ ( b k n o t ) ’ ) dk = dk ’. // i n i t i a l v a l u e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l encoded sequence dk_1_not (1) =0& bk_not (1) .0 . 71 29 30 31 32 .0 .1 . end end dk_1 (1) = 1& bk (1) . dk (1) = xor ( dk_1 (1) . else bk_not ( i ) = 1. dk_1_not ( i ) = ~ dk (i -1) . disp ( bk_not .( dk_1_not ( i ) & bk_not ( i ) )). dk ( i ) = xor (( dk_1 ( i ) & bk ( i ) ) .

2) .y (1 . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] .5) 72 . ’ D i f f e r e n t i a l l y e n c o d e d s e q u e n c e ( dk ) ’ ) dk_radians = dk_radians ’. a . M =2.1) . ’ T r a n s m i t t e d p h a s e i n r a d i a n s ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7. data_bounds = [ -2 . disp ( dk_radians . log2 ( M ) ) . -9) plot2d ( y (2 .2) .1]. ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot .2]. ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure .4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK // F i g u r e 7 .2 . plot2d ( y (1 . 20 title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BFSK ’ ) 21 legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ .1) . a .y (2 . disp (y . y = [1 . close . -5) xlabel ( ’ In−Phase ’ ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 19 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). a . 4 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK system clear clc . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a = gca () .0 .0.33 34 35 36 disp ( dk . -2. annot = dec2bin ([ M -1: -1:0] .

7: Figure 7.Figure 7.4 73 .

’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ . a = gca () . a . close .6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l s p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK waveform // F i g u r e 7 . imag ( y (1) ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 4 ( d i b i t 1 1 ) ’ ] . -1. imag ( y (3) ) . y = cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . imag ( y (2) ) . 6 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear clc . a . a .5) Scilab code Tab 7.1 .6 Bndwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals 23 24 74 . -4) plot2d ( real ( y (3) ) . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) . -5) plot2d ( real ( y (4) ) . data_bounds = [ -1 . -9) xlabel ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . -2) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) .Scilab code CF 7.sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) * %i . M =4. disp (y . ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) figure . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . log2 ( M ) ) .1]. ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . imag ( y (4) ) . i = 1: M . annot = dec2bin ([0: M -1] .

Figure 7.8: Figure7.6 75 .

8 . ’M’ ) disp ( ’ 10 11 ’) 12 disp ( Ruo . disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 .64].32 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // T a b l e 7 .32 . close . 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp (M .8 . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s / Hz disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 .4 . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code Tab 7. 6 M = [2 . 6 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals clear . 5 close ./2. 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a signals ’) 11 disp ( ’ 8 9 10 76 . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s /Hz //M = M’ . 7 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a 3 clear .16 . 4 clc . clc .64]./ M .4 . //M r y −a Ruo = log2 ( M ) .16 . M = [2 . // Ruo = Ruo ’ .7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals 1 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK s i g n a l s −a 2 // T a b l e 7 . //M r y −a 7 Ruo = 2* log2 ( M ) .

Figure 7.9: Figure7.12 ’) 12 disp (M . ’M’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( Ruo .29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals 77 . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7.

plot ( f * Tb . 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f QPSK and MSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . end a = gca () .30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals. f = 0:1/100:8/ rb . 3 0 : Comparison o f QPSK and MSK Power 78 . foreground = 6. 2 9 : Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f BPSK // and BFSK clc . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . children (1) . end SB_PSK ( i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . children (1) . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’PSK Vs FSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ . poly1 . SB_PSK /(2* Eb ) ) poly1 = a . // B i t d u r a t i o n for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==(1/(2* Tb ) ) ) SB_FSK ( i ) = Eb /(2* Tb ) . ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. SB_FSK /(2* Eb ) ) plot ( f * Tb . Tb = 1/ rb .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f BPSK and BFSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . else SB_FSK ( i ) = (8* Eb *( cos ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) ) /(( %pi ^2) *(((4*( Tb ^2) *( f ( i ) ^2) ) -1) ^2) ) .

Figure 7.10: Figure7.29 79 .

Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : ’ ) . SB_MSK /(4* Eb ) ) . poly1 = a .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Spectrums // c l e a r . plot ( f * Tb . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : ’ ) . // b i t d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==0. f = 0:1/(100* rb ) :(4/ rb ) . end SB_QPSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * sinc_new ((2* Tb * f ( i ) ) ) ^2.31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power s p e c t r a o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // F i g u r e 7 . // c l c .5) SB_MSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * f ( i ) . poly1 . children (1) . else SB_MSK ( i ) = (32* Eb /( %pi ^2) ) *( cos (2* %pi * Tb * f ( i ) ) /((4* Tb * f ( i ) ) ^2 -1) ) ^2. foreground = 3. Tb = 1/ rb . plot ( f * Tb . end a = gca () . children (1) . ’QPSK ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. SB_QPSK /(4* Eb ) ) . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’QPSK Vs MSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ Minimum S h i f t Keying ’ . // c l o s e . 3 1 Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a 80 .

11: Figure7.Figure 7.30 81 .

g ) ) . 4 1 // Matched F i l t e r Output clear . g = 2* ones (1 . SB_PSK (2 . ’M=4 ’ . plot2d ( f * Tb . SB_PSK (3 . h = abs ( convol (g . a =2. // B i t d u r a t i o n M = [2 .:) /(2* Eb ) .8]. Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . Tb = 1/ rb .2) plot2d ( f * Tb . SB_PSK (1 . clc . T =4.4 . ’M=8 ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. f = 0:1/100: rb .41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t o f r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e // F i g u r e 7 .:) /(2* Eb ) ) plot2d ( f * Tb .5) xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a o f M r y s i g n a l s f o r M = 2 . i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb * log2 ( M ( j ) ) ) ^2) * log2 ( M ( j ) ) . T +1) . t = 0: T . for i = 1: length ( h ) 82 . 4 . end end a = gca () .:) /(2* Eb ) . 8 ’ ) −a legend ([ ’M=2 ’ . for j = 1: length ( M ) for i = 1: length ( f ) SB_PSK (j .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) .

Figure 7.31 83 .12: Figure7.

a . figure a = gca () . t1 = 0: length ( h ) -1.0. plot2d (t .01) h ( i ) =0.4].h . a =2 ’ ) figure plot2d ( t1 .6 .g . data_bounds = [0 .12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 if ( h ( i ) <0. end end h = h-T.5) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ g ( t )−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ R e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e d u r a t i o n T = 4 .6) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) title ( ’ Output o f f i l t e r matched t o r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e g( t ) ’) 84 .

41a 85 .13: Figure7.Figure 7.

14: Figure7.Figure 7.41b 86 .

// m e s s a g e b i t s l e n g t h 87 . ’ p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x ’ ) .Chapter 8 Error-Control Coding Scilab code Exa 8. // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x H = [ I P ’]. 2 : Hamming c o d e s 3 clear . ’ c o d e word f o r b i n a r y one i n p u t ’ ) .k ) . // b l o c k o f i d e n t i c a l ’ n ’ b i t s k =1. // one b i t m = 1. Scilab code Exa 8.2 Hamming Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes 2 // Example8 . 4 clc . 1 : R e p e t i t i o n Codes clear . ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x ’ ) . // p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x G = [ P 1]. clc .n .1 Repetition Codes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : R e p e t i t i o n Codes // Example8 . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x x = m . 5 k = 4.* G . disp (x .n . n =5. // I d e n t i t y m a t r i x P = ones (1 . disp (H . // b i t v a l u e = 1 I = eye (n -k .k ) . // c o d e word disp (G .

2) . ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x G ’ ) H = [ eye (k -1 .0 . // Number o f p a r i t y b i t s I = eye (k . G (3 . g * D ^3].0 .0 .1. p = coeff ( r ) .0 . // i d e n t i t y m a t r i x disp (I .0 .1.1 . q ] = pdiv (m . disp (r .0 .1 .:) . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r . g * D . ’ p a r i t y c h e c h k m a t r i x H ’ ) // m e s s a g e b i t s m = [0 .0 . D = poly (0 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) .1 . ’ i d e n t i t y m a t r i x I k ’ ) P =[1 .3 Hamming Codes Revisited 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes R e v i s i t e d // Example8 .1 .0 . 21 disp (C .1. ’D ’ ) .1].0.0 . 3 : ( 7 . ’ c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x P ’ ) G = [ P I ]. disp (G . ’G ’ ) G (3 .:) = modulo ( G (3 .:) = G (3 . ’ Code words o f ( 7 .:) + G (1 .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 n = 7.0 .0.k -1) P ’]. ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p .1 .1.1 .0 .0 .0.0 . 4 ) Hamming Code R e v i s i t e d // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 . clc .1 .1 .2) . G = coeff ( G ) .1 .1 18 // 19 C = m * G .1.0.1 .:) .0. k ) .1 .0 .1 . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x disp (P .0 . g * D ^2. // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x disp (G . 4 ) Hamming c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. 20 C = modulo (C . 88 . // p a r i t y c h e c k m a t r i x disp (H .k . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3.0 .0 . 0 . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) G = [ g .1. 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 .D) . // b l o c k l e n g t h m = n .1 . g ) . 0 .

2) . disp (r . disp (H .2) .:) . g ) .:) = H (1 .4 Encoder for the (7.:) + H (3 .:) = modulo ( H (1 . H (1 . H = coeff ( H_num ) . ’ P a r t i y Check m a t r i x H = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. p = coeff ( r ) .:) . H_D = [ D ^4* h . q ] = pdiv (m .18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 G (4 . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 . H (1 .:) . 3 C o n t e n t s o f t h e S h i f t R e g i s t e r i n t h e E n c o d e r o f f i g 8 .D) .:) + G (4 . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3.:) + G (2 . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) disp ( ’ T a b l e 8 . D = poly (0 . 0 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p . D ^5* h . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) .:) = modulo ( G (4 . ’D ’ ) . disp (G . 4 : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 . 4 ) C y c l i c hamming code // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 . D ^6* h ]. 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 . G (4 . 7 f o r Me ss age S e q u e n c e ( 1 0 0 1 ) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( ’ S h i f t Contents ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) 16 disp ( ’ 1 17 disp ( ’ 2 Input Register 1 0 89 1 1 0 ’) 0 1 1 ’) . H_num = numer ( H_D ) .:) = G (1 . ’ G e n e r a t o r M a t r i x G = ’ ) h = 1+ D ^ -1+ D ^ -2+ D ^ -4. 0 .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 .:) . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r .

18 19 20 disp ( ’ 3 disp ( ’ 4 disp ( ’ ’) 0 1 1 1 1 ’) 0 1 1 ’) Scilab code Exa 8. 1 . 5 m =2. S2 = modulo ( S2 . 1 ] clc . q1 ] = pdiv ( C1 . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) [ r2 . 0 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp ( S1 . S1 = modulo ( S1 . q2 ] = pdiv ( C2 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form f o r e r r o r e d codeword ’ ) disp ( S2 . D = poly (0 .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r f o r t h e ( 7 . 0 . g ) . // e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d C2 = 0+ D + D ^2+0+0+0+ D ^6. ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r e d c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. 6 : Reed−Solomon Codes 3 // S i n g l e −e r r o r −c o r r e c t i n g RS c o d e w i t h a 2− b i t b y t e 4 clc . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. disp ( r2 . 1 . 5 : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 0 . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 .6 Reed-Solomon Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Reed−Solomon Codes 2 // Example8 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l C1 = 0+ D + D ^2+ D ^3+0+0+ D ^6. g ) .2) . // m i d d l e b i t i s e r r o r [ r1 . //m i t symbol −b 90 . S1 = coeff ( r1 ) .5 Syndrome calculator for the(7. 1 . S2 = coeff ( r2 ) . disp ( r1 . ’D ’ ) .2) .

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 k = 1^2. x2 = modulo ( x2 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .k . ’ I t can c o r r e c t any e r r o r u p t o = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. 1 ] // x = // ! 1 1 ! 91 . // p a r i t y b i t s l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e r = k / n .:) =[ x1 (N . 7 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n // Time Domain Approach close .2) . x2 (N . m ) ) . ’ Code r a t e : r = k / n = ’ ) disp (2* t .7 Convolutional Encoding .i +1) ]. // c o d e r a t e disp (n . 1 . 0 .Time domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g − Time domain approach // Example8 . 1 .i +1) . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . // number o f m e s s a g e b i t s t =1. // s i n g l e b i t e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n n = 2^ m -1. // c o d e word l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e p = n . clc . x1 = modulo ( x1 . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . 0 . g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 .2) . N = length ( x1 ) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 0 . end x = string ( x ) disp ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . ’ n−k ’ ) disp (r . m ) ) . ’ n ’ ) disp (p .

// m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e p o l y n o m i a l representation x1D = g1D * mD . 1. 1. 1. // bottom o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x1 = coeff ( x1D ) . 0. // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 2 mD = 1+0+0+ D ^3+ D ^4. disp ( modulo ( x1 .8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g T r a n s f o r m domain approach // Example8 . 1. 0. 1. ’D ’ ) . // t o p o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x2D = g2D * mD . 1. 1. g1D = 1+ D + D ^2.2) .2) . x2 = coeff ( x2D ) . // // bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. 0. ’ bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. ’ t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) disp ( modulo ( x2 . 1. 8 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e − T r a n s f o r m domain approach clc .25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code Exa 8. // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 1 g2D = 1+ D ^2. 1. 92 . D = poly (0 .

// b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one correct recption gamma_3 = 2* log2 ( pe ) +1. ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t recption ’) disp ( gamma_3 . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r correct reception gamma_2 = log2 ( pe * p ) +1.2877124 93 . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’ ) disp ( gamma_2 .7027499 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // − 8. // c o d e r a t e n =2.04. // t r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y p = 1 . 1 1 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e f o r b i n a r y symmetric channel clc .Scilab code Exa 8. ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’) // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // 0.r ) .8822126 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t r e c p t i o n // − 3. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n gama_1 = 2* log2 ( p ) +2*(1 . r = 1/2.pe . // number o f b i t s pe = 0. // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no correct reception disp ( gama_1 .11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Fano m e t r i c f o r b i n a r y s y m m e t r i c c h a n n e l using c o n v o l u t i o n a l code // Example8 .

disp (x . x1 = x0 .Chapter 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation Scilab code Exa 9. x3 ) . x1 = 0.19]. 1 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e generator // Program t o g e n e r a t e Maximum Length Pseudo N o i s e Sequence // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 clc .11 .9 . x0 = xor ( x1 . ’ x= ’ ) end m = [7 .8 . x2 =0. ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r x0 = 1. x3 =0.12 . disp (i .13 . 1 and F i g u r e 9 . 94 .1 PN sequence generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : PN s e q u e n c e g e n e r a t i o n // Example9 .10 . x2 = x1 . N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) for i =1: N x3 = x2 .17 .

0. Scilab code Exa 9. 2 and F i g u r e 9 . 95 . 23 disp ( ’ T a b l e 9 . 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 5. 1 Range o f PN S e q u e n c e l e n g t h s ’ ) 24 disp ( ’ 25 26 27 28 29 ’) disp ( ’ Length o f s h i f t r e g i s t e r (m) ’ ) disp ( m ) disp ( ’PN s e q u e n c e Length (N) ’ ) disp ( N ) disp ( ’ ’) // RESULTEnter t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l 7 // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 1. 1.2 Maximum length sequence property 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 1 // C a p t i o n : Maximum l e n g t h s e q u e n c e p r o p e r t y 2 // Example9 . 1. 8 x1 = 0. 0. 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 7. 1. 1. // x= 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 2. 2 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 3 // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 4 // P r o p e r i t e s o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 5 clc . // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 6. 1. // x= 0. 1. // x= 1. // x= 0. 6 // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r 7 x0 = 1. 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 3. 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 4.22 N = 2^ m -1. // x= 0. // x= 1. 0. 1. // x= 1.

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 x2 =0. x3 ) . x3 =0. for i =1: N x3 = x2 . ’ Output S e q u e n c e l e v e l s ’ ) // r e f e r equation 9. // figure a = gca () . 4 disp ( C_level .5 if ( zero_count < one_count ) disp ( one_count . ’ Output S e q u e n c e ’ ) // r e f e r e q u a t i o n 9 . N ) . x0 = xor ( x1 . if ( C ( i ) ==1) C_level ( i ) =1. N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) one_count = 0. end end disp (C . zero_count = 0. ’ x= ’ ) C ( i ) = x3 . ’ Number o f 1 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( zero_count . ’ Number o f 0 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( ’ P r o p e r t y 1 ( B a l a n c e p r o p e r t y ) i s s a t i s i f i e d ’ ) end Rc_tuo = corr ( C_level . elseif ( C ( i ) ==0) C_level ( i ) = -1. x2 = x1 . zero_count = zero_count +1. disp (i . disp (x . 96 . x1 = x0 . t = 1:2* length ( C_level ) . ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. one_count = one_count +1.

// P r o c e s s i n g g a i n disp ( PG . 50 a . close . 51 a .3 Processing gain. C_level ]) 45 xlabel ( ’ t ’) 46 title ( ’ Waveform o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e [ 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1] ’) 47 // 48 figure 49 a = gca () . PN sequence length. PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h . ’ The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : ’ ) 97 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .095*10^ -3. // f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h disp (N . ’ The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : ’ ) disp (m .0: length ( Rc_tuo ) -1] . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . Rc_tuo ] . ’ The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : ’ ) N = PG .[ C_level . Jamming m a r g i n i n dB // Example9 .length ( Rc_tuo ) +1: -1 . 52 plot2d ([ . Jamming margin in dB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n . clc . 44 plot2d (t .[ 53 Rc_tuo ( $ : -1:2) . //PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h m = log2 ( N +1) .5) xlabel ( ’ tuo ’ ) 54 ylabel ( ’ Rc ( t u o ) ’ ) 55 title ( ’ A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 9. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 3 : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n and Jamming Margin clear . //PN c h i p d u r a t i o n PG = Tb / Tc . // I n f o r m a t i o n b i t d u r a t i o n Tc = 1*10^ -6.43 a . Tb = 4.

1: Example9.2a 98 .Figure 9.

2: Example9.Figure 9.2b 99 .

5 Slow and Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y h o p p i n g : FH/MFSK // Example9 . 21 // Jamming Margin i n dB : 2 6 . ’ Number o f MFSK t o n e s M ’ ) = disp (N . // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = 1 5 . 4 and Example9 . // Jamming Margin 16 disp (10* log10 ( J_P ) . clc . close . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = 3 . ’ number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = ’ ) disp (M . 19 // The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : 4 0 9 5 . // Number o f MFSK t o n e s N = 2^ M -1. ’ l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = ’ ) disp (2^ k . 5 : P a r a m e t e r s o f FH/MFSK signal // Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y Hopping clear . // Energy t o n o i s e d e n s i t y r a t i o 15 J_P = PG / Eb_No . ’ T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = ’ ) // R e s u l t // number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = 2 . // Number o f MFSK t o n e s M = 4 . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop disp (K . // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e k = 3.14 Eb_No = 10. Scilab code Fig 9. 1 2 2 5 3 9 Scilab code Exa 9. // number o f b i t s p e r symbol M = 2^ K . // T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = 8 . K =2. ’ Jamming Margin i n dB : ’ ) 17 // R e s u l t 18 // The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : 4095.6 Direct Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK 1 // C a p t i o n : D i r e c t S e q u e n c e S p r e a d C o h e r e n t BPSK 100 . 20 // The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : 1 2 . ’ P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = ’ ) disp (k .4Figure9.4Example9.

wt = 0:0.5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ Data b ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . -2.2) a = gca () .1 .* ct_polar . st = []. for i = 1: length ( mt ) st = [ st mt ( i ) * Carrier ].1 .20 .1 . -1 .1]. 4 : G e n e r a t i o n o f w a v e f o r m s i n DS/BPSK spread spectrum t r a n s m i t t e r clear . -1 .1 . ct_polar .1 . -1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .0 . N = 7. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .0 . a .1 . Carrier = 2* sin ( wt *2* %pi ) . end // figure subplot (3 .20 . a .1 .1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 101 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 .1 . close .1 . t = 0:13.01:1. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . N ) ]. -1 . data_bounds = [0 .1 . -2.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 // F i g u r e 9 . ct_polar = [ -1 .1].1 .1) a = gca () . mt = bt .1 .0 .0 .1 . N ) -1* ones (1 .1 . bt . data_bounds = [0 . a . bt = [1* ones (1 .2]. a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d2 (t . ct = [0 . a . a . -1 .1 . clc .2].0 . plot2d2 (t .

x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a .1 . plot ( Carrier ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ C a r r i e r S i g n a l ’ ) subplot (3 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .3) a = gca () .2]. plot2d2 (t .1) a = gca () .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . a . 102 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 . a . a . data_bounds = [0 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . data_bounds = [0 .20 . plot2d2 (t .20 . -2.20 . a . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -2.20 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -2.35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 title ( ’ S p r e a d i n g c o d e c ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -2. a .1 .2) a = gca () .1 . a . data_bounds = [0 .3) a = gca () . a .2].1 . mt . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . mt . a . a .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) // figure subplot (3 .2]. a . data_bounds = [0 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2].

Figure 9.3: Figure9. A ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n //A−law : A−law n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n 103 . Xmax ] = Alaw (x .6a 67 68 plot ( st ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 69 title ( ’DS/BPSK s i g n a l s ( t ) ’ ) 70 // Scilab code ARC 1 Alaw 1 2 3 function [ Cx .

4: Figure9.6b 104 .Figure 9.6b Figure9.

5: Figure10.Figure 9.12 105 .

end for n = 1: N for k = 1: N if ( n >= k ) 106 . N ) . elseif ( x ( i ) / Xmax > 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = (1+ log ( A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) ) ) . endfunction Scilab code ARC 2 auto correlation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 function [ Rxx ] = auto_correlation ( x ) // A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f a g i v e n I n p u t S e q u e n c e // F i n d i n g o u t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l u s i n g autocorrelation technique L = length ( x ) ./(1+ log ( A ) ) . end end Cx = Cx / Xmax .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // x = i n p u t v e c t o r //Cx = A−law c o m p r e s s o r o u t p u t //Xmax = maximum o f i n p u t v e c t o r x Xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . h = zeros (1 . for i = 1: L h (L . L ) . for i = L +1: N h ( i ) = 0. Rxx = zeros (1 . for i = 1: length ( x ) if ( x ( i ) / Xmax < = 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) . // n o r m a l i z a t i o n o f o u t p u t v e c t o r Cx = Cx ’. end for i = L +1: N x ( i ) = 0.i +1) = x ( i ) ./(1+ log ( A ) ) . end N = 2* L -1.

1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 0 .2) . 0 . 1 . m ) ) .21 Rxx ( n ) = Rxx ( n ) + x (n . x1 = modulo ( x1 . n ] = max ( Rxx ) disp ( ’ P e r i o d o f t h e g i v e n s i g n a l u s i n g Auto C o r r e l a t i o n Sequence ’ ) n endfunction Scilab code ARC 3 Convolutional Coding 1 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n 2 // Time Domain Approach 3 close . 1 . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i .i +1) . 22 end 23 end 24 end 25 disp ( ’ Auto C o r r e l a t i o n R e s u l t i s ’ ) 26 Rxx 27 disp ( ’ C e n t e r V a l u e i s t h e Maximum o f a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n 28 29 30 31 result ’) [m .k +1) * h ( k ) . 4 clc . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .2) . x2 = modulo ( x2 . x2 (N . 0 . N = length ( x1 ) . end x = string ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .:) =[ x1 (N . 5 g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) 6 g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 .i +1) ]. 1 ] // x = 107 . m ) ) .

0 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word [ 1 . 1 . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . clc . ’ Hamming D i s t a n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word [ 0 . end disp ( Hamming_Distance . 1 . Hamming_Distance = 0. code2 ( i ) ) . 0 . Scilab code ARC 5 Hamming Encode 108 . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . close . code2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word ’ ) . 1 . 0 . 0 . 1 . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . 0 . // G e t t i n g Code Words code1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word ’ ) . for i = 1: length ( code1 ) Hamming_Distance = Hamming_Distance + xor ( code1 ( i ) .22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code ARC 4 Hamming Distance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Weight and Hamming D i s t a n c e //H( 7 . 1 . 1 ] // Hamming D i s t a n c e 4.

close . m3 ( i ) ) ) . m2 ( i ) ) ) . b1 ( i ) = xor ( m1 ( i ) . m0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . end disp ( ’ ’) // d i s p (m b C) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word 109 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 .:) .:) . ’ P a r i t y B i t s ’ ) disp ( C (i .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Hamming E n c o d i n g //H( 7 . b (i . xor ( m1 ( i ) . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . m2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . xor ( m3 ( i ) . xor ( m2 ( i ) . m1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . ’ CodeWord ’ ) disp ( ” ”).:) = [ b2 ( i ) b1 ( i ) b0 ( i ) ]. disp ( ” ”). Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 .:) .:) = [ m3 ( i ) m2 ( i ) m1 ( i ) m0 ( i ) ]. // G e t t i n g M es sag e Word m3 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . m1 ( i ) ) ) . // G e n e r a t i n g P a r i t y b i t s for i = 1:(2^4) b2 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . m (i . b0 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . end C = [ b m ]. ’ Mes sa ge Word ’ ) disp ( b (i . disp ( ’ ’) for i = 1:2^4 disp ( i ) disp ( m (i . clc .

word .1 . c = zeros ( length ( x ) .1 . .1 . mu ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n // invmulaw : i n v e r s e mulaw n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n // x = o u t p u t v e c t o r // y = i n p u t v e c t o r ( u s i n g mulaw n o n l i n e a r comression ) 6 x = (((1+ mu ) .0 .0 .1 .1 .0 .1 .[0 .0 .1].1 .1 .0 .0 .0 .1 .1 .0 .1 .1 .0 .0 .0 Scilab code ARC 5 invmulaw 1 2 3 4 5 .0 .1 .0 .0 .1]. .0 .1]. end end end disp ( c ) 110 .1 .1 .0 .0 .1 .0 .1 . en_code ) // E n c o d i n g : C o n v e r t i n g Q u a n t i z e d d e c i m a l s a m p l e values in to binary // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s // e n c o d e = n o r m a l i z e d i n p u t s e q u e n c e n = log2 ( L ) .1 .L .1 .1 .( n .1 .0 .1 36 // E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e [0 .n ) . function x = invmulaw (y .1]. for i = 1: length ( x ) for j = n : -1:0 if ( fix ( en_code ( i ) /(2^ j ) ) ==1) c (i ./ mu ) 7 endfunction Scilab code ARC 6 PCM Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 function [ c ] = PCM_Encoding (x .0 .0 .j ) ) =1.1 34 // E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .0 .0 .0 .1 .1 .0 .1 .0 .1 35 // E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .0 .1 .^( abs ( y ) ) -1) .0 . en_code ( i ) = en_code ( i ) -2^ j .

// S t e p 2 c = PCM_Encoding (x . 3 x ( i ) = 1. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . s c e ) // T h i s program i s a s a m p l e program f o r P u l s e Code Modulation t r a n s m i s s i o n // s t e p 1 : The g i v e n a n a l o g s i g n a l c o n v e r t e d i n t o quantized sample value // s t e p 2 : Then t h e q u a n t i z e d s a m p l e v a l u e c o n v e r t e d into binary value clc .5) ./( %pi * x ) . // From LS : don ’ t n e e d t h i s i s /0 warning i s o f f 4 y = sin ( %pi * x ) . // S t e p 1 [ SQNR .Scilab code ARC 7 PCM Transmission 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n :PCM T r a n s m i s s i o n ( i n c l u d e s f u n c t i o n s : u n i f o r m p c m . 5 y ( i ) = 1. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . en_code ) . a . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . x ) . L = 16. xq . L ) . 6 endfunction 111 . a . PCM encoding . x = sin (2* %pi * t ) . a = gca () . t = 0:0. title ( ’ Q u a n t i z a t i o n o f Sampled a n a l o g s i g n a l ’ ) legend ([ ’ Analog s i g n a l ’ .001:1. xq . s c e . close .L . ’ Q u a n t i z e d S i g n a l ’ ]) Scilab code ARC 8 sinc new 1 function [ y ]= sinc_new ( x ) 2 i = find ( x ==0) .

else value = 1.xq ) ) . L ) // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . q = d *[0: L -1]. length ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) ) . end endfunction 112 . en_code = xq . xq . SQNR = 20* log10 ( norm ( x ) / norm (x . B ) if ( A == B ) value = 0. xq = x / xmax . q = q -(( L -1) /2) * d . end xq = xq * xmax . q ( i ) .* ones (1 .Scilab code ARC 9 uniform pcm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 function [ SQNR .. length ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) ) . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x .* ones (1 .. for i = 1: L xq ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) =. endfunction Scilab code ARC 10 xor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 function [ value ] = xor (A . en_code ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) = (i -1) . d = 2/ L .

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