Scilab Code for Digital Communication, by Simon Haykin 1

Created by Prof. R. Senthilkumar Institute of Road and Transport Technology rsenthil signalprocess@in.com Cross-Checked by Prof. Saravanan Vijayakumaran, IIT Bombay sarva@ee.iitb.ac.in 23 August 2010

by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT, http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Text Book Companion and Scilab codes written in it can be downlaoded from the website www.scilab.in

1 Funded

Book Details
Authors: Simon Haykins Title: Digital Communication Publisher: Willey India Edition: Wiley India Edition Year: Reprint 2010 Place: Delhi ISBN: 9788126508242

1

Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the above book. Prb Problem (Unsolved problem) Exa Example (Solved example) Tab Table ARC Additionally Required Code (Scilab Code that is not part of the above book but required to solve a particular Example) AE Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular Example of the above book) CF Code for Figure(Scilab code that is used for plotting the respective figure of the above book ) For example, Prb 4.56 means Problem 4.56 of the above book. Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

2

Contents
List of Scilab Codes 1 Introduction 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance 3 Detection and Estimation 4 Sampling Process 5 Waveform Coding Techniques 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission 7 Digital Modulation Techniques 8 Error-Control Coding 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation 4 2 5 14 27 31 39 59 87 94

3

List of Scilab Codes
CF 1.2 Exa 2.1 Exa 2.2 Exa 2.3 Exa 2.4 Exa 2.5 Exa 2.6 Exa 2.7 Exa 3.1 Exa 3.2 Exa 3.3 Exa 3.4 Exa 3.6 CF 3.29 Exa 4.1 Exa 4.3 Exa 5.1 Exa 5.2 Digital Representation of Analog signal . . . . . . . . Entropy of Binary Memoryless source . . . . . . . . . Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Binary Symmetric Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel . . Significance of the Channel Coding theorem . . . . . . Orthonormal basis for given set of signals . . . . . . . M ARY Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for RF pulse . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal . . . . . . . Linear Predictor of Order one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm . . Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse . . Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect . . . . . . . . Average Transmitted Power for PCM . . . . . . . . . Comparision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 5.3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM . . . . . . Exa 5.5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier . . . . . . . CF 6.1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format . . . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.2 Duobinary Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 5 5 7 8 9 10 10 14 16 19 20 22 24 27 28 31 31 32 34 36 36 39 40 40 42 44

Exa 6.3 CF 6.4 CF 6.6b CF 6.7b CF 6.9 CF 6.15

Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder . . . Power Spectra of different binary data formats . . . . (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine . . . . . . . . . Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter . . . Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 7.1 QPSK Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques . Exa 7.2 MSK waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK . . . . . . . Tab 7.3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal . . . . . . . CF 7.4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK . . . . . . . CF 7.6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform . . Tab 7.6 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals . . . . . . Tab 7.7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals . . . . . . CF 7.29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse . . . . . . Exa 8.1 Repetition Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.2 Hamming Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.3 Hamming Codes Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.4 Encoder for the (7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code . . . . . . Exa 8.5 Syndrome calculator for the(7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code Exa 8.6 Reed-Solomon Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.7 Convolutional Encoding - Time domain approach . . . Exa 8.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach Exa 8.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.1 PN sequence generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.2 Maximum length sequence property . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.3 Processing gain, PN sequence length, Jamming margin in dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.4Example9.5 Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK . . . . Slow and Fig 9.4Figure9.6 Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK . . . . . . . . Direct ARC 1 Alaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARC 2 auto correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

47 48 49 51 53 55 59 61 63 68 70 72 74 74 76 77 78 80 82 87 87 88 89 90 90 91 92 93 94 95 97 100 100 103 106

. .ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 Convolutional Coding Hamming Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . uniform pcm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCM Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 108 108 110 110 111 111 112 112 6 . invmulaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xor . . sinc new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCM Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hamming Encode . . .

. . . . . . .2 .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example3. . . . . . . .1 . . . . .7 . . . . .1b . . . Example3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13a . .1a . Figure5. . . . Example3. . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1a Figure6. . . . . . . . .4 Figure6. . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . 3 4 6 11 13 16 17 19 21 23 26 28 30 33 37 38 41 43 45 50 52 54 56 58 Example4. .2 5. . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 . . . . . . .4 6.15 . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example2. . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Figure6. . . . . Example5. . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . .4 3. . . . . . . Example2. . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure6.8 Figure1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 4. . . .3 6. . Example2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Figure6. . . . . . . . . Example3. . .6 Figure6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2b . . .6 6. .1c Figure6.1 5. . . . . . . .2a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13b . . . .5 6. . . .1b Figure6. . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . Figure5. . . . . . . . . . . . . Example3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . .1 9.29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . .2b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . Figure 7. . . . .8 7. . . . . Figure10. . . . . . . . .11 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . .6b . . . . . . . . 61 64 65 66 69 70 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 86 98 99 103 104 105 Example9. . . .5 7.1c . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . Figure7. . . . . . . . .30 . . . . . . . . . .2 . . .2a . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . .2 Figure7. . .5 Example7. . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . .10 7. . . . . . . .9 7. . . . . . . .41a Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . .1a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . . . Example9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 7. . . . . . . . . .6 . . . . . . . . .4 7. . . . . . . . . . . . Figure9. . . . . . . . . . . Figure9. . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . .7 7.4 .41b . .3 7. . . . .1b . . . . .6a . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . .14 9. . . . .1 Figure7. . .

sqrt (2) . -1 .5 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -3.0 . a . 2 : Analog t o D i g i t a l C o n v e r s i o n clear . x ) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .0 .1 .1 .2 Digital Representation of Analog signal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Analog s i g n a l // F i g u r e 1 .0. -2 . -0.0 .1 .0 . clc . data_bounds =[ -2 .0 .2 .1 .1 .5 .1] // figure a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . t = -1:0.0 .2 .0 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .0 .01:1.0 . close . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . x = 2* sin (( %pi /2) * t ) . a . -9) xlabel ( ’ Time ’ ) 21 ylabel ( ’ 2 . sqrt (2) .Chapter 1 Introduction Scilab code CF 1.1 . a .0 .3] plot (t .0 .0 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . dig_data = [0 .0 . .

1: Figure1.Figure 1.2a 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Voltage ’) title ( ’ Analog Waveform ’ ) // figure a = gca () .5]. data_bounds = [0 .21 .0.5) title ( ’ D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n ’ ) 3 . a . dig_data . plot2d2 ([1: length ( dig_data ) ] .

2: Figure1.Figure 1.2b 4 .

Po ( i )). 9 for i = 2: length ( Po ) -1 10 H_Po ( i ) = .Po ( i ) ) * log2 (1 . 7 Po = 0:0.0. H_Po ) 14 xlabel ( ’ Symbol P r o b a b i l i t y . 11 end 12 // p l o t 13 plot2d ( Po . length ( Po ) ) .1) Scilab code Exa 2. Po ’ ) 15 ylabel ( ’H( Po ) ’ ) 16 title ( ’ Entropy f u n c t i o n H( Po ) ’ ) 17 plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . 5 close .5 .Po ( i ) * log2 ( Po ( i ) ) -(1 . 8 H_Po = zeros (1 . 1 : Entropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e 3 // p a g e 18 4 clear .01:1.Chapter 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance Scilab code Exa 2.2 Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source 5 . 6 clc .1 Entropy of Binary Memoryless source 1 // C a p t i o n : Ent ropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e 2 // Example 2 .

Figure 2.1: Example2.1 6 .

’ P r o b a b i l i t y p ( s i g m a ) . i = 0 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S0 P1 = 1/4. end disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . P2 * P0 . 2 : Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e // p a g e 19 clear . disp ( ’ Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S1 P2 = 1/2. clc . . P1 * P2 . . ’H( R u o S q u a r e )= ’ ) disp ( ’H( R u o S q u a r e ) = 2∗H( Ruo ) ’ ) 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 7 . P2 * P2 ]. P1 * P0 . P0 * P2 . H_Ruo_Square . P0 * P1 . 1 . H_Ruo ) // S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f d i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s source P_sigma = [ P0 * P0 . . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S2 H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) . . disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . 1 A l p h a b e t P a r t i c u l a r s o f Second−o r d e r Extension o f a D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ S e q u e n c e o f Symbols o f r u o 2 : ’ ) disp ( ’ S0 ∗ S0 S0 ∗ S1 S0 ∗ S2 S1 ∗ S0 S1 ∗ S1 S1 ∗ S2 S2 ∗ S0 S2 ∗ S1 S2 ∗ S2 ’ ) disp ( P_sigma . P2 * P1 . for i = 1: length ( P_sigma ) H_Ruo_Square = H_Ruo_Square + P_sigma ( i ) * log2 (1/ P_sigma ( i ) ) . P0 = 1/4.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // c a p t i o n : S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source // Example 2 . P1 * P1 . 8 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ ’) H_Ruo_Square =0.

’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Entropy .L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 . ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . P0 = 0. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 ’ L0 = 2. A v e r a g e l e n g t h .L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 .2.3 Entropy. Average length. disp ( sigma_1 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 0 ’ L1 = 2.L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 1 ’ L2 = 2.2.L . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g 8 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 3. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 .L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g // Example 2 . A v e r a g e l e n g t h .1.Average length. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0.Scilab code Exa 2. ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) disp ( ’ p e r c e n t ’ . clc . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0.1. H_Ruo .4 Entropy.4. disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .H_Ruo ) / H_Ruo ) *100 . H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) . 3 : Huffman E n c o d i n g : C a l c u l a t i o n o f // ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ // ( b ) E ntropy ’H’ clear . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 3. Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : Entropy . ’ A v e r a g e code − word l e n g t h L e x c e e d s t h e e n t r o p y H( Ruo ) by o n l y ’ ) sigma_1 = P0 *( L0 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0.((L .L ) ^2.

4 : I l l u s t r a t i n g n o n u n i q u e s s o f t h e Huffman E n c o d i n g // C a l c u l a t i o n o f ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ ( b ) Entr opy ’H’ clear . H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) .L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 .L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . 5 : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 3 clear .L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 .L .L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 0 ’ L2 = 3. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 ’ L1 = 2. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 4. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0. disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .5 Binary Symmetric Channel 1 // C a p t i o n : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 2 // Example2 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0. 4 clc . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 .2. ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0. ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) sigma_2 = P0 *( L0 . ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. clc . e ) transition probility 8 disp (p . ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t= ’ ) 9 . P0 = 0.4. H_Ruo .1.2.4.1. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 ’ L0 = 1. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 4. disp ( sigma_2 .p . // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r r e c e p t i o n ( i . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n 7 pe = 1 .L ) ^2. 5 close . 6 p = 0.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // Example2 .

7 : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c h a n n e l c o d i n g theorem 3 // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r o f R e p e t i t i o n Code 1 2 10 . for i =1: length ( p ) if ( i ~=1) C ( i ) = 1+ p ( i ) * log2 ( p ( i ) ) +(1 . 6 : Channel C a p a c i t y o f B i n a r y Symmetri Channel clear .5) xlabel ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n P r o b i l i t y .5.6 Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Channel C a p a c i t y o f a B i n a r y Symmetric Channel // Example2 . p ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Channel C a p a c i t y .p ( i ) ) ) . end end plot2d (p .C . close . 1 0 V a r i a t i o n o f c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y o f a binary symmetric channel with t r a n s i t i o n probility p ’) Scilab code Exa 2.p ( i ) ) * log2 ((1 .7 Significance of the Channel Coding theorem // C a p t i o n : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Channel Coding t h e o r e m // Example2 . C ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 . ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t= ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. p = 0:0. clc . elseif ( i ==1) C ( i ) =1. elseif ( i == length ( p ) ) C ( i ) =0.9 10 disp ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y ’ ) disp ( pe .01:0.

2: Example2.6 11 .Figure 2.

pe . r =1/n ’ .1/7].4 clear .pe . 15 a .1 . 13 pe = [ pe_1 . // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/7 12 r = [1 .p ) ^3+(42/2) * p ^5*(1 . Pe ’ ) 25 disp ( ’ ’) 12 . pe_5 .p ) + p ^7. 1 2 I l l u s t r a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e channel coding theorem ’ ) 20 legend ( ’ R e p e t i t i o n c o d e s ’ ) 21 xgrid (1) 22 disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 .p ) + p ^3. 6 close .1/3 . 14 a = gca () .1/5 . Pe ’ ) 19 title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 . r ’ ) 18 ylabel ( ’ A v e r a g e P r o b a b i l i t y o f e r r o r .0. 16 plot2d (r . data_bounds =[0 .0. pe_3 . // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/5 11 pe_7 = ((7*6*5) /(1*2*3) ) * p ^4*(1 .p ) + p ^5. pe_7 ].p ) ^2+5* p ^4*(1 .p ) ^2+7* p ^6*(1 . // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r code r a t e r = 1 9 pe_3 = 3* p ^2*(1 . // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/3 10 pe_5 = 10* p ^3*(1 . ’ Code Rate .01]. 8 pe_1 = p . 5 clc .5) 17 xlabel ( ’ Code r a t e . 7 p =10^ -2. ’ A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r . 3 A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r f o r R e p e t i t i o n Code ’ ) 23 disp ( ’ ’) 24 disp (r .

3: Example2.Figure 2.7 13 .

ones (1 .01: T . length ( t7 ) -2) . ones (1 . s1t = [0 .0]. ones (1 . close . ones (1 .0].01:2* T /3. 1 : F i n d i n g o r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r t h e g i v e n signals // u s i n g Gram−Schmidt o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e clear .01: T /3. length ( t6 ) -2) . length ( t5 ) -2) .1 Orthonormal basis for given set of signals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : O r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r g i v e n s e t o f s i g n a l s // Example3 .01:2* T /3.Chapter 3 Detection and Estimation Scilab code Exa 3. ones (1 .0]. clc . t1 = 0:0. s3t = [0 . length ( t1 ) -2) . length ( t2 ) -2) .0]. t2 = 0:0. length ( t4 ) -2) .0]. ones (1 . s4t = [0 . ones (1 . phi1t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . t3 = T /3:0.0]. phi3t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . length ( t3 ) -2) . t7 = 2* T /3:0. // 14 . s2t = [0 . phi2t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 .01: T /3.01: T . T = 1.01: T . t6 = T /3:0.0]. t4 = 0:0. t5 = 0:0.

data_bounds = [0 . s2t . data_bounds = [0 .2].5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 3 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 . data_bounds = [0 .2].2) 15 . a .0.1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 . a .0. s3t .1 . plot2d2 ( t4 . plot2d2 ( t2 .2) a = gca () . 4 ( a ) S e t o f s i g n a l s t o be orthonormalized ’) subplot (4 .2 .1 . plot2d2 ( t3 . plot2d2 ( t1 . a . plot2d2 ( t5 . s1t .0.0.1) a = gca () . s4t .1 .1) a = gca () . phi1t .1 . data_bounds = [0 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 4 ( t ) ’ ) // figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .4) a = gca () .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . 4 ( b ) The r e s u l t i n g s e t o f o r t h o n o r m a l functions ’) subplot (3 .2 . data_bounds = [0 . a . a .2 .0.1 .2 .3) a = gca () .23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .2].2 .2].4].

5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .0. data_bounds = [0 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 3 ( t ) ’ ) 16 .1 . phi2t .4].1: Example3. plot2d2 ( t7 .Figure 3. a . a .0.1a 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 a = gca () .3) a = gca () .2 . data_bounds = [0 . phi3t . plot2d2 ( t6 .4].2 .

1b 17 .Figure 3.2: Example3.

a = gca () . o f meg .0] .[0 . a =1. // a m p l i t u d e =1 T =1. s q r t ( 18 . close .2 . p o i n t | ( −3/2) a s q r t (T) | ( − 1 / 2 ) a s q r t ( T) | ( 3 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) | ( 1 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ T r a n s m i t t e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . // Symbol d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s // Four m e s s a g e p o i n t s Si1 = [( -3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .2 M ARY Signaling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n :M −ARY S i g n a l i n g // Example3 . 2 : M −ARY SIGNALING // S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n and R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d i b i t s clear .Scilab code Exa 3. -0.0. R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s m i t t e d dibits ’) disp ( ’ Loc .( -1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) . s q r t (T) |− a .5.(3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .0 . -10) xlabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . 8 ( b ) . 8 ( c ) .5] plot2d ( Si1 . a . D e c i s i o n i n t e r v a l s f o r received dibits ’) disp ( ’ R e c e i v e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ 20 21 22 23 24 25 01 01 ’) 26 disp ( ’ I n t e r v a l on p h i 1 ( t ) | x1 < −a . clc .0 .(1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) ]. 8 ( a ) S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n ’ ) xgrid (1) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . data_bounds = [ -2 .

Figure 3. clc .3 Matched Filter output for RF pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r RF p u l s e // Example3 . 19 . 3 : MATCHED FILTER FOR RF PULSE clear . // c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y i n Hz T =1.3: Example3. s q r t (T)<x1 ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3.01: T . t1 = 0:0. s q r t (T) | a . fc =4. close .2 T)<x1 <0| 0<x1<a .

a .1 . subplot (2 . t2 = 0:0. hopt = phit .2) a = gca () . a . phiot = phiot / max ( phiot ) . phiot ) . a . -1. xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .4 Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r N o i s e − l i k e signal 2 // Example3 .01:2* T . 1 3 ( a ) RF p u l s e i n p u t ’ ) subplot (2 .1) a = gca () . phiot = convol ( phit . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . phit ) .1 . data_bounds = [0 . plot2d ( t1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . data_bounds = [0 . a . plot2d ( t2 . 1 3 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3.9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 phit = sqrt (2/ T ) * cos (2* %pi * fc * t1 ) .1]. -1. a .1].1 . hopt ) . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 4 : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r n o i s e l i k e 1 20 .

Figure 3.4: Example3.3 21 .

phi0t = convol ( phit . -1.6 Linear Predictor of Order one 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 22 . a .1 . phit ) . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . 1 6 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. data_bounds = [0 . clc .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . a .1].1 . close . phi0t = phi0t / max ( phi0t ) . 1 6 ( a ) N o i s e L i k e i n p u t s i g n a l ’ ) subplot (2 . phi0t ) . phit =0. a .1) a = gca () . hopt ) . -1.1]. subplot (2 . ’ u n i f o r m ’ ) . plot2d ([1: length ( phit ) ] . plot2d ([1: length ( phi0t ) ] .10 . data_bounds = [0 . a .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 input clear . hopt = phit . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2) a = gca () .1 .1* rand (1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .

5: Example3.4 23 .Figure 3.

t =0:0. close . ’ P r e d i c t o r i n p u t v a r i a n c e ’ ) if ( sigma_X > sigma_E ) disp ( ’ The p r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e i s l e s s t h a n the variance of the p r e d i c t o r input ’ ) end Scilab code CF 3. x = sin (2* %pi *5* t ) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 // C a p t i o n : L i n e a r P r e d i c t o r o f Order one // Example3 . Rxx ( 3 ) = Rxx ( 1 ) sigma_E = Rxx (2) . clc . close . x_n = x + noise . w = zeros ( order .6 1 0.h01 * Rxx (3) . desired ( i ) = x_n ( i ) .order -1 buffer = ref_noise ( i : i + order -1) .^2) / length ( x ) ) . disp ( sigma_E . mu = 0. length ( x ) ) .6]. order = 18. sigma_X = Rxx (2) . clc . for k =1:1010 for i = 1: N .01:1. Rxx = [0. ’ P r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e ’ ) disp ( sigma_X .01*( sum ( x . 24 . 6 : LINEAR PREDICTION : P r e d i c t o r o f Order One clear . N = length ( x ) .29 Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f LMS ADAPTIVE FILTER // For n o i s e c a n c e l l a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n clear . noise = rand (1 . // Rxx ( 2 ) = Rxx ( 0 ) .1) .buffer * w . ref_noise = noise * rand (10) . h01 = Rxx (3) / Rxx (2) .

2) 27 title ( ’ random n o i s e ’ ) 28 subplot (4 .1 .1 .5) 30 title ( ’ S i g n a l+n o i s e ’ ) 31 subplot (4 .1 .19 w = w +( buffer * mu * desired ( i ) ) ’. x_n .1 . noise .4) 32 plot ( desired ) 33 title ( ’ n o i s e removed s i g n a l ’ ) 25 .2) 26 plot2d (t .3) 29 plot2d (t .1) 23 plot2d (t . x ) 24 title ( ’ O r i g n a l I n p u t S i g n a l ’ ) 25 subplot (4 . 20 end 21 end 22 subplot (4 .

Figure 3.6: Figure3.29

26

Chapter 4 Sampling Process
Scilab code Exa 4.1 Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

// C a p t i o n : Bound on A l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r Time− s h i f t e d sinc pulse // Example4 . 1 : Maximum bound on a l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r sinc pulse clc ; close ; t = -1.5:0.01:2.5; g = 2* sinc_new (2* t -1) ; disp ( max ( g ) , ’ A l i a s i n g e r r o r c a n n o t e x c e e d max | g ( t ) | ’ ) f = -1:0.01:1; G = [0 ,0 ,0 ,0 , ones (1 , length ( f ) ) ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0]; f1 = -1.04:0.01:1.04; subplot (2 ,1 ,1) a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -3 , -1;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d (t , g ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ g( t ) ’) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( a ) S i n c p u l s e g ( t ) ’ ) subplot (2 ,1 ,2) 27

Figure 4.1: Example4.1
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -2 ,0;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d2 ( f1 , G ) xlabel ( ’ f ’) ylabel ( ’ G( f ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( b ) A m p l i t u d e s p e c t r u m |G( f ) | ’ ) Scilab code Exa 4.3 Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect

1

// C a p t i o n : E q u a l i z e r t o c o m p e n s a t e A p e r t u r e e f f e c t 28

1 6 N o r m a l i z e d e q u a l i z a t i o n ( t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r a p e r t u r e e f f e c t ) p l o t t e d v e r s u s T/ Ts ’ ) 29 .5) xlabel ( ’ Duty c y c l e T/ Ts ’ ) ylabel ( ’ 1/ s i n c ( 0 . //E = 1 / ( s i n c n e w ( 0 .8. for i = 2: length ( T_Ts ) E ( i ) = (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) /( sin (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) ) . 3 : E q u a l i z e r t o Compensate f o r a p e r t u r e effect clc .0.0.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 // Example4 . close . 5 ∗ T Ts ) ) .6.01:0. E (1) =1. a .2].01:0.E . end a = gca () . T_Ts = 0.1.8 . data_bounds = [0 . plot2d ( T_Ts . 5 ( T/ Ts ) ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 .

Figure 4.2: Example4.3 30 .

Chapter 5 Waveform Coding Techniques Scilab code Exa 5. 1 : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power o f PCM 3 // Page 187 4 clear . disp ( ’ The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : ’ ) P = ( k ^2) *( sigma_N ) *(( M ^2) -1) /12. 5 clc . 6 sigma_N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e ’ ) . 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 Scilab code Exa 5.2 Comaprision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) 31 . 7 k = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 s i g n a l i n g ’ ).1 Average Transmitted Power for PCM 1 // C a p t i o n : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power f o r PCM 2 // Example5 . disp ( P ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e 10ˆ −6 // E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f s i g n a l i n g 7 // E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r 2 // The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : 0 . M = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r ’ ) .

line_style = 4. data_bounds = [ -30 . a .3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM 1 2 3 4 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n N o i s e R a t i o o f PCM // Example5 . 2 : Comparison o f M r y PCM s y s t e m −a // Channel C a p a c i t y t h e o r e m clear . children (1) . 9 Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h t h e −a i d e a l ssytem ’ ) legend ([ ’ I d e a l System ’ .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h i d e a l s y s t e m −a ( Channel C a p a c i t y Theorem ) // Example5 . clc . children (1) . // f o r M r y PCM s y s t e m . // I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/ NoB .5) plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . Rb/B . k =7. 3 : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n n o i s e r a t i o // Channel Bandwidth B clear . // i d e a l s y s t e m a c c o r d i n g t o Shannon ’ s c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y t h e o r e m // p l o t a = gca () .0. thickness =2. poly1 . C_B . plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . 32 . // bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s e c /Hz C_B = log2 (1+ P_NoB ) . ’PCM ’ ]) Scilab code Exa 5.40 . b i t s p e r s e c o n d per hertz ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 5 . poly1 . xlabel ( ’ I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/NoB . d e c i b e l s P_NoB = 10^( P_NoB_dB /10) . d e c i b e l s ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y . −a Rb_B = log2 (1+(12/ k ^2) * P_NoB ) . Rb_B .5) poly1 = a .10]. P_NoB_dB = [ -20:30]. close .

1: Example5.Figure 5.2 33 .

5 clc . 22 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 6 . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : ’ ) 7 W = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 8 B = n*W. 11 disp ( SNRo . 6 n = input ( ’ E n t e r no . 9 disp (B . 8 23 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 24 // C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 i f 25 number o f b i t s i n c r e a s e d by 1 // c o r r e s p o n d i n g o u t p u t s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n PCM i n c r e a s e d by 6 dB . ’ Channel w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 10 SNRo = 6* n .2. a0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : ’ ). clc . 16 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 0 . 34 . 8 17 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 18 // R e s u l t 2 i f n = 9 b i t s 19 // E n t e r no .5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 // Example 5 : D e l t a M o d u l a t i o n − t o a v o i d s l o p e overload distortion //maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o f o r s i n u s o i d a l modulation // p a g e 207 clear . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 9 20 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 21 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 3 6 0 0 0 .7. o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 8 14 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 15 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 32000. Scilab code Exa 5. ’ Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : ’ ) 12 // R e s u l t 1 i f n = 8 bits 13 // E n t e r no .

7 f0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f

sinusoidal signal

i n Hz : ’ ) ;
8 fs = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s

per s e c o n d s : ’ );
9 Ts = 1/ fs ; // S a m p l i n g i n t e r v a l 10 delta = 2* %pi * f0 * a0 * Ts ; // S t e p 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

s i z e to avoid s l o p e

overload Pmax = ( a0 ^2) /2; //maximum p e r m i s s i b l e o u t p u t power sigma_Q = ( delta ^2) /3; // Q u a n t i z a t i o n e r r o r o r n o i s e variance W = f0 ; //Maximum m e s s a g e bandwidth N = W * Ts * sigma_Q ; // A v e r a g e o u t p u t n o i s e power SNRo = Pmax / N ; // Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e ratio SNRo_dB = 10* log10 ( SNRo ) ; disp ( SNRo_dB , ’ Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r Delta Modualtion : ’ ) // R e s u l t 1 f o r f s = 8 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :8000 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : −5.1717849 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// R e s u l t 2 f o r f s = 1 6 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 27 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :16000 28 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : 3 . 8 5 9 1 1 5 29 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
24 25 26

35

// C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 , i f the sampling frequency 31 // i s d o u b l e d t h e s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n c r e a s e d by 9 dB
30

Scilab code CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

15

// C a p t i o n : u−Law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( a ) Mulaw companding N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g mulaw c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f mu clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t mu = [0 ,5 ,255]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f mu for i = 1: length ( mu ) [ Cx (i ,:) , Xmax ( i ) ] = mulaw (x , mu ( i ) ) ; end plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) , Cx (1 ,:) ,2) plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) , Cx (2 ,:) ,4) plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) , Cx (3 ,:) ,6) xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : u−Law companding ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) ; legend ([ ’ u =0 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=5 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=255 ’ ]) Scilab code CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// C a p t i o n : A−law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( b )A−law companding , N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g A−law c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f A clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t A = [1 ,2 ,87.56]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f A for i = 1: length ( A ) 36

Figure 5.2: Figure5.13a

37

Cx (3 .Figure 5.3: Figure5. ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ .2) 12 plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) .13b 9 [ Cx (i . Xmax ( i ) ] = Alaw (x . ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) . 10 end 11 plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) . Cx (2 .:) . Cx (1 .:) .:) .6) 14 xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : A−Law companding ’ .:) . 5 6 ’ ]) 38 . A ( i ) ) .[ ’A= 8 7 . 15 legend ([ ’A =1 ’ ] .4) 13 plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) .[ ’A=2 ’ ] .

1 : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 Carrier // Page 251 clear . clc .1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 c a r r i e r // Example6 .f1 . ’ T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m i n Hz : ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l :0.alpha ) .647∗10ˆ −6 // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m 39 .Chapter 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission Scilab code Exa 6. disp (B . // minimum t r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth o f T1 system // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m ’B ’ alpha = 1. B = 2* Bo . Tb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l : ’) Bo = 1/(2* Tb ) . // c o s i n e r o l l − o f f f a c t o r f1 = Bo *(1 .

for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . children (1) . total_duration = L * L . else plot ([ i *L . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]. children (1) .1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o u n i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . binary_one ) .L +1: i * L ] . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . clc . 1 ( a ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 1 ] . thickness =3.1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format 1 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o p o l a r f o r m a t 40 . poly1 = a . thickness =3. children (1) . L1 = length ( binary_zero ) . 1 Scilab code CF 6. L * L1 2]. poly1 . poly1 . children (1) . binary_zero ) .i n Hz : 1 5 4 5 5 9 5 . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ U n i p o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. L = length ( x ) . poly1 = a . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. U n i p o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . binary_one = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. a . close . data_bounds =[0 -2.L +1: i * L ] .

Figure 6.1a 41 .1: Figure6.

poly1 . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. clc . children (1) . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . close . P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . children (1) . 1 ( c ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 3 ] . poly1 . thickness =3. poly1 = a . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1].L +1: i * L ] .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // F i g u r e 6 . data_bounds =[0 -2. children (1) . close . thickness =3. a .L +1: i * L ] . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . poly1 = a . total_duration = L * L1 . binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. binary_negative ) . L = length ( x ) . binary_positive ) . 1 ( b ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 2 ] . children (1) . L * L1 2].1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o b i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. else plot ([ i *L . B i P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . 42 .

Figure 6.1b 43 .2: Figure6.

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 clc . children (1) .0 . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () .1 . children (1) . x = [0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. children (1) .0]. binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. a . poly1 = a . L = length ( x ) . total_duration = L * L1 . binary_positive ) .L +1: i * L ] . data_bounds =[0 -2. children (1) . binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1].2 Duobinary Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : D u o b i n a r y E n c o d i n g 2 // Example6 . elseif (( x ( i ) ==1) &( x (i -1) ~=1) ) plot ([ i *L . poly1 = a . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . poly1 . else plot ([ i *L . 5 b = [0 . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ B i P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code Exa 6. binary_negative ) . thickness =3. thickness =3. children (1) . thickness =3.0 . children (1) . poly1 . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : p r e c o d e r input 44 . L * L1 2]. binary_zero ) . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0].1 . poly1 = a . poly1 . 2 : P r e c o d e d D u o b i n a r y c o d e r and d e c o d e r 3 // Page 256 4 clc .L +1: i * L ] .L +1: i * L ] .1 .

1c 45 .3: Figure6.Figure 6.

end c = c ’.b ( k ) ) . b (1) ) . a_volts = a_volts ’. ’ D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y d e c o d e r o u t p u t by a p p l y i n g d e c i s i o n rule for k =1: length ( c ) if ( abs ( c ( k ) ) >1) b_r ( k ) = 0. if ( a ( k ) ==1) a_volts ( k ) =1. else a_volts ( k ) = -1. ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s c (1) = 1+ a_volts (1) . else b_r ( k ) = 1. ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : ’ ) disp ( a_volts . end end b_r = b_r ’.6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 a (1) = xor (1 . disp (c . end end a = a ’. if ( a (1) ==1) a_volts (1) = 1. disp (a . end for k =2: length ( b ) a ( k ) = xor ( a (k -1) . for k =2: length ( a ) c ( k ) = a_volts (k -1) + a_volts ( k ) . ’ R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t d e t e c t o r oupupt : ’ ) // R e s u l t // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : // 46 . disp ( b_r .

’ D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : ’ ) for k = 1: length ( y_delay ) z ( k ) = y ( k +1) .3 Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : G e n e r a t i o n o f b i p o l a r o u t p u t f o r d u o b i n a r y coder // Example6 . 2. 1. Scilab code Exa 6. 1. 0.0 . 0. // // R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t // // 0 .y_delay ( k ) . : 0.0 . − // // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // // 2 . 0. x = [0 .0 . 0. 47 . 0. − 1. 0. ’ Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : ’ ) disp ( y_delay .1 .1]. end y_delay = y (1: $ -1) . − 2. − 2. 1.1 . for k =2: length ( x ) +1 y ( k ) = xor ( x (k -1) . 1. 0. − 1. 1. 3 : O p e r a t i o n o f C i r c u i t i n f i g u r e 6 .y (k -1) ) .1 . disp (y . 1. 0.0 . 1.1 . 4 clc . 1 3 // f o r g e n e r a t i n g b i p o l a r f o r m a t // p a g e 256 and p a g e 257 // R e f e r T a b l e 6 . y = y ’. // // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : // // 1 . d e t e c t o r oupupt : 1. end z = z ’. y_delay = y_delay ’.42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 // 1 . − 1. 0. // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : precoder input y (1) = 1.

1. Scilab code CF 6. 0. 1. volts 0. NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t [ 4 ] . 1. 0. // b i t d u r a t i o n f = 0:1/(100* Tb ) :2/ Tb . if ( i ==1) Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) +( a ^2) /4. 4 : Power S p e c t a l D e n s i t i e s o f // D i f f e r e n t L i n e Coding T e c h n i q u e s // [ 1 ] . for i = 1: length ( f ) Sxxf_NRZ_P ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . Tb = 1/ fb . // d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // 0. fb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . 0. 1. 1. 1. 0.21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 disp (z . 0. 1. // D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : // 1. else 48 . : 0. 0. NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t // [ 3 ] .4 Power Spectra of different binary data formats 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f d i f f e r e n t b i n a r y d a t a formats // F i g u r e 6 . 0. 0. // [ 1 ] . 1. 0. Sxxf_NRZ_BP ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) *(( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . − 1. 0. NRZ P o l a r f o r m a t a = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : ’ ) . 0. 1. 1. M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t // Page 241 close . ’ d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n : ’) // R e s u l t // Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : // 1. clc . − 1. 0. 0. NRZ P o l a r Format [ 2 ] . − 1.

children (1) . plot2d (f . 6 ( b ) : I d e a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference 3 // SINC p u l s e 1 2 49 . children (1) .5) poly1 = a .20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . plot2d (f . poly1 . children (1) . children (1) . plot2d (f .6b (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI // C a p t i o n : I d e a l s o l u t i o n f o r z e r o I S I // F i g u r e 6 . thickness = 2. thickness = 2. ’NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ . plot2d (f . poly1 . Sxxf_NRZ_BP .2) poly1 = a . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . Sxxf_Manch . Sxxf_NRZ_P ) poly1 = a . children (1) . end // P l o t t i n g a = gca () . Sxxf_NRZ_UP . poly1 . poly1 . children (1) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) . thickness = 2. end Sxxf_Manch ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) *( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) . ’NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ .9) poly1 = a . xlabel ( ’ f ∗Tb−−−−−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Sxx ( f )−−−−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f D i f f e r e n t L i n e Codinig Techniques ’ ) xgrid (1) legend ([ ’NRZ P o l a r Format ’ . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . thickness = 2. // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : 1 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. ’ M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t ’ ]) . children (1) .

4 50 .Figure 6.4: Figure6.

7b (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : P r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n : R a i s e d C o s i n e // F i g u r e 6 . Alpha =0. p (j . // I n t i a l i z e d t o z e r o x = t / Tb . x = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ) .5) ) ) p (j . t = -3:1/100:3. 51 . 7 ( b ) : P r a c t i c a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference // R a i s e d C o s i n e Spectrum // p a g e 250 close . Bo = rb /2. for j =1:3 for i =1: length ( t ) if (( j ==3) &(( t ( i ) ==0. den = 1 -16*( Alpha ^2) *( Bo ^2) *( t ( i ) ^2) +0. i ) = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // p a g e 249 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) .5) |( t ( i ) == -0. else num = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) * cos (2* %pi * Alpha * Bo * t ( i ) ) . t = -3:1/100:3. Bo = rb /2. x ) xlabel ( ’ t−−−−−−> ’ ) . i ) = num / den .01. title ( ’ SINC P u l s e f o r z e r o I S I ’ ) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . plot (t . Tb =1/ rb . clc .

Figure 6.6 52 .5: Figure6.

5. 35 ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . 34 xlabel ( ’ t /Tb−−−−−−> ’ ) .21 end 22 end 23 Alpha = Alpha +0. 29 poly1 . p (1 . foreground =4. children (1) . // B i t d u r a t i o n 53 . 32 po1y2 . Tb =1/ rb . 9 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y Conversion f i l t e r // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e // Page 254 clear .:) ) 31 poly2 = a . 33 poly2 . 30 plot2d (t . clc . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =1 ’ ]) 38 xgrid (1) 39 // R e s u l t 40 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. close .5 ’ . 36 title ( ’ RAISED COSINE SPECTRUM − P r a c t i c a l 37 Solution for ISI ’) legend ([ ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0 ’ . p (3 . children (1) .:) ) 28 poly1 = a . children (1) . 26 plot2d (t . children (1) . p (2 . line_style = 3.:) ) 27 plot2d (t . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . foreground =2. ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0.9 Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f d u o b i n a r y c o n v e r s i o n filter // F i g u r e 6 . 24 end 25 a = gca () .

6: Figure6.Figure 6.7 54 .

1) a = gca () . plot2d (f . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 f = . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a .1 .* Tb ) ) . a .2) poly1 = a .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . Phase_Response . children (1) . children (1) .15 Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f m o d i f i e d d u o b i n a r y conversion f i l t e r 2 // F i g u r e 6 . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* cos ( %pi * f .2) a = gca () . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 Scilab code CF 6. xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) subplot (2 . a .5) poly1 = a . thickness = 2. 1 5 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f M o d i f i e d duobinary conversion f i l t e r 3 // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e 4 // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e 1 55 . subplot (2 . plot2d (f .* Tb ) . Phase_Response = -( %pi * f . poly1 . thickness = 2. // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) . Amplitude_Response . children (1) . poly1 .

Figure 6.7: Figure6.9 56 .

xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) subplot (2 .2) a = gca () . children (1) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . plot2d (f . poly1 . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . close . // B i t d u r a t i o n f = . a .* Tb ) .* Tb ) ) . subplot (2 . Phase_Response . children (1) . thickness = 2. Phase_Response = -(2* %pi * f . plot2d (f .2) poly1 = a .1) a = gca () .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . clc . Amplitude_Response . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . children (1) . a . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) . thickness = 2.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 // p a g e 259 clear .1 . Tb =1/ rb . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* sin (2* %pi * f . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 57 . poly1 . a .5) poly1 = a .

Figure 6.15 58 .8: Figure6.

M =4. Input_Sequence =[0 .1 .:) ]. t = 0:0.:) = cos (2* %pi *2* t ) * cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . clc .1 .0 . for i = 1: M s1 (i .2]. i = 1: M .0 . for i =1: length ( m ) S1 = [ S1 s1 ( m ( i ) .Chapter 7 Digital Modulation Techniques Scilab code Exa 7. 1 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear .1 . s2 (i . end S1 =[]. S2 = [ S2 s2 ( m ( i ) .0].0 . close .:) = .1 . m = [3 .001:1.:) ].1 QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques // Example7 .sin (2* %pi *2* t ) * sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . S2 = []. S = []. end 59 .1 .

// a n n o t = d e c 2 b i n ( [ 0 : l e n g t h ( y ) −1] . imag ( y ( 1 ) ) . −2) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 2 ) ) . x l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . 27 plot ( S1 ) 28 title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Odd−numbered b i t s 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 of input sequence ’) subplot (3 . − 1 . // a =g c a ( ) . −5) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 4 ) ) . 23 figure 24 subplot (3 . 1 ] . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . 26 a . imag ( y ( 2 ) ) . a . −4) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 3 ) ) . −9) // x l a b e l ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) // f i g u r e . // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 1 ) ) .3) a = gca () . d a t a b o u n d s = [ − 1 . imag ( y ( 3 ) ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1) 25 a = gca () . // y l a b e l ( ’ Quadrature ’ ) .1 . plot ( S ) title ( ’QPSK waveform ’ ) //− s i n ( ( 2 ∗ i −1) ∗ %pi / 4 ) ∗ %i . // a .22 S = S1 + S2 . // d i s p ( y .1 . 60 . 1 . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) // d i s p ( annot . // a .1 . imag ( y ( 4 ) ) .2) a = gca () . y l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . l o g 2 (M) ) . // a . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Even−numbered b i t s o f input sequence ’) subplot (3 .

1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques 2 // F i g u r e 7 . 1 3 // D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s 4 //To P l o t t h e ASK. ’ message p o in t 4 ( d i b i t 11) ’ ] . FSK and PSk Waveforms 1 61 . ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ .Figure 7. 5 ) Scilab code CF 7. ’ m e s s a g e p o i nt 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ .1: Example7.1 54 55 // t i t l e ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) // l e g e n d ( [ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ .

sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . // G e n e r a t i o n o f ASK Waveform Xask = []. for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) 62 . elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . elseif (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . zeros (1 . t = 0:1/512:1. 8 f = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y i n Hz ’ 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 ). Xask ]. x = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . 7 close . I = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a ’ ) . x1 ]. x ]. for n = 1: length ( I ) if (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [x .5 clear . x2 = . length ( x ) ) . for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . length ( x ) ) ]. Xask ]. end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f FSK Waveform Xfsk = []. elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [ zeros (1 . elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . 6 clc . end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f PSK Waveform Xpsk = []. x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . x2 ]. x2 = sin (2* %pi *(2* f ) * t ) .

x ) 49 xtitle ( ’ Analog C a r r i e r S i g n a l 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 f o r D i g i t a l Modulation ’) xgrid figure plot ( Xask ) xtitle ( ’ A m p l i t u d e S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xfsk ) xtitle ( ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xpsk ) xtitle ( ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid // Example // E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y 2 // E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a [ 0 . 0 . close .2 MSK waveforms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // Example7 . 2 s i g n a l s p a c e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f MSK clear clc . 1 ] Scilab code Exa 7. x1 ]. 0 . 1 . Tb =1. 2 : S e q u e n c e and Waveforms f o r MSK s i g n a l // T a b l e 7 . x2 ].01: Tb . 0 . t1 = .Tb :0. 1 .42 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . 43 elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) 44 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . M =2. 45 end 46 end 47 figure 48 plot (t . 63 . 1 .

2: Figure7.1a 64 .Figure 7.

1b 65 .3: Figure7.Figure 7.

Figure 7.1c 66 .4: Figure7.

S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .sin ( .* sin (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t2 ) . s1 (2) . s2 (2) ].01:2* Tb . S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .* cos (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t1 ) .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. end Input_Sequence =[1 .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. s2 (1) .sin ( . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .1 .0].1) a = gca () .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. s1 (2) . S = []. . end for i = M : -1:1 S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ].0 . s1 (1) .sin ( .1 . S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ].10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 t2 = 0:0. 67 . phi1 = cos (2* %pi * t1 ) . S2 = [ S2 s2 (2) * phi2 ].%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. phi2 = sin (2* %pi * t2 ) . teta_tb = [ %pi /2 . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . s2 (1) . disp (y . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . %pi ].sin ( . S2 = [ S2 s2 (1) * phi2 ]. for i = 1: M s1 ( i ) = cos ( teta_0 ( i ) ) .sin ( teta_tb ( i ) ) . teta_0 = [0 .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].01:1. S2 = []. t = 0:0. ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) figure subplot (3 . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .0 . s2 (2) . s2 ( i ) = .1 . S1 = [].0 .%pi /2]. y = [ s1 (1) .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -2.2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // F i g u r e 7 . imag ( y (2) ) . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . log2 ( M ) ) . i = 1: M . a .2].1 .3) a = gca () . plot ( S ) title ( ’ O b t a i n e d by a d d i n g s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t )+s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) on a b i t −by−b i t b a s i s ’ ) Scilab code CF 7. data_bounds = [ -2 . M =2. disp (y . a . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2 . -5) xlabel ( ’ 68 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) . annot = dec2bin ([ length ( y ) -1: -1:0] . y = cos (2* %pi +( i -1) * %pi ) . a . imag ( y (1) ) .2) a = gca () . close . -9) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . 2 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK system clear clc . a . plot ( S1 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . a = gca () .

Figure 7.2 69 .5: Example7.

’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] .3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal 1 21 22 // C a p t i o n : I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK s i g n a l 70 . 20 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ).5) Scilab code Tab 7.Figure 7. title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ .2 In−Phase ’ ) .6: Figure7.

’ ( bk ) ’ ) bk_not = bk_not ’. ’ ( b k n o t ) ’ ) dk = dk ’.1]. dk ( i ) = xor (( dk_1 ( i ) & bk ( i ) ) .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 // T a b l e 7 . // i n i t i a l v a l u e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l encoded sequence dk_1_not (1) =0& bk_not (1) . end end dk_1 (1) = 1& bk (1) . 71 29 30 31 32 .1 .0 . 3 G e n e r a t i o n o f D i f f e r e n t i a l Phase s h i f t keying s i g n a l clc . 3 I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e G e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK Signal ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( bk .1 . dk_1_not ( i ) = ~ dk (i -1) . bk = [1 . // i n p u t d i g i t a l s e q u e n c e for i = 1: length ( bk ) if ( bk ( i ) ==1) bk_not ( i ) =~1. end end disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . end for i =1: length ( dk ) if ( dk ( i ) ==1) dk_radians ( i ) =0. disp ( bk_not .0 . dk_1_not (1) ) // f i r s t b i t o f dpsk encoder for i =2: length ( bk ) dk_1 ( i ) = dk (i -1) . dk (1) = xor ( dk_1 (1) . else bk_not ( i ) = 1.( dk_1_not ( i ) & bk_not ( i ) )).0 .0 . elseif ( dk ( i ) ==0) dk_radians ( i ) = %pi .

a . 4 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK system clear clc .1) .4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK // F i g u r e 7 .33 34 35 36 disp ( dk .1) . -9) plot2d ( y (2 . M =2.2) . a = gca () . a .2 .2) .5) 72 . ’ T r a n s m i t t e d p h a s e i n r a d i a n s ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7. ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] . plot2d ( y (1 .2]. y = [1 . -2.1]. ’ D i f f e r e n t i a l l y e n c o d e d s e q u e n c e ( dk ) ’ ) dk_radians = dk_radians ’. close . a . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . 20 title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BFSK ’ ) 21 legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ .0. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . log2 ( M ) ) .y (2 .0 . disp (y . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 19 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). data_bounds = [ -2 .y (1 . annot = dec2bin ([ M -1: -1:0] . disp ( dk_radians . -5) xlabel ( ’ In−Phase ’ ) .

7: Figure 7.Figure 7.4 73 .

close . title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ . a = gca () . ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ . -9) xlabel ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . y = cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . imag ( y (3) ) . M =4. i = 1: M . ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) figure . data_bounds = [ -1 . log2 ( M ) ) . a . a . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) . imag ( y (1) ) . 6 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear clc . -1. ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ . imag ( y (2) ) . a .6 Bndwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals 23 24 74 .1]. disp (y . -5) plot2d ( real ( y (4) ) .Scilab code CF 7.5) Scilab code Tab 7. annot = dec2bin ([0: M -1] .1 . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 4 ( d i b i t 1 1 ) ’ ] . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot .6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l s p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK waveform // F i g u r e 7 . -2) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . -4) plot2d ( real ( y (3) ) . imag ( y (4) ) .sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) * %i .

Figure 7.6 75 .8: Figure7.

64].32 .16 . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code Tab 7. 6 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals clear . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s / Hz disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 .4 . // Ruo = Ruo ’ . 6 M = [2 ./ M . M = [2 . 5 close . //M r y −a Ruo = log2 ( M ) . disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . close . clc .7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals 1 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK s i g n a l s −a 2 // T a b l e 7 .64]. 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp (M .32 .8 .8 . 7 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a 3 clear . ’M’ ) disp ( ’ 10 11 ’) 12 disp ( Ruo . 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a signals ’) 11 disp ( ’ 8 9 10 76 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // T a b l e 7 . 4 clc . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s /Hz //M = M’ . //M r y −a 7 Ruo = 2* log2 ( M ) ./2.16 .4 .

’M’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( Ruo . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7.Figure 7.12 ’) 12 disp (M .9: Figure7.29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals 77 .

// B i t d u r a t i o n for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==(1/(2* Tb ) ) ) SB_FSK ( i ) = Eb /(2* Tb ) . plot ( f * Tb . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f QPSK and MSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . foreground = 6. SB_FSK /(2* Eb ) ) plot ( f * Tb . ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7.30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals. f = 0:1/100:8/ rb . children (1) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f BPSK and BFSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’PSK Vs FSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ . SB_PSK /(2* Eb ) ) poly1 = a . end a = gca () . poly1 . 2 9 : Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f BPSK // and BFSK clc . Tb = 1/ rb . end SB_PSK ( i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . 3 0 : Comparison o f QPSK and MSK Power 78 . else SB_FSK ( i ) = (8* Eb *( cos ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) ) /(( %pi ^2) *(((4*( Tb ^2) *( f ( i ) ^2) ) -1) ^2) ) . children (1) .

10: Figure7.Figure 7.29 79 .

else SB_MSK ( i ) = (32* Eb /( %pi ^2) ) *( cos (2* %pi * Tb * f ( i ) ) /((4* Tb * f ( i ) ) ^2 -1) ) ^2. children (1) . plot ( f * Tb . poly1 . end SB_QPSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * sinc_new ((2* Tb * f ( i ) ) ) ^2. children (1) . SB_QPSK /(4* Eb ) ) .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Spectrums // c l e a r . end a = gca () . ’QPSK ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : ’ ) . Tb = 1/ rb .5) SB_MSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * f ( i ) . poly1 = a . // c l c . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’QPSK Vs MSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ Minimum S h i f t Keying ’ . 3 1 Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a 80 . // c l o s e . SB_MSK /(4* Eb ) ) . plot ( f * Tb .31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power s p e c t r a o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // F i g u r e 7 . // b i t d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==0. foreground = 3. f = 0:1/(100* rb ) :(4/ rb ) . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : ’ ) .

30 81 .11: Figure7.Figure 7.

SB_PSK (3 . plot2d ( f * Tb . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . 8 ’ ) −a legend ([ ’M=2 ’ . h = abs ( convol (g . // B i t d u r a t i o n M = [2 . 4 .5) xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a o f M r y s i g n a l s f o r M = 2 . t = 0: T . SB_PSK (1 . Tb = 1/ rb . end end a = gca () . g ) ) . T =4.:) /(2* Eb ) . ’M=8 ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. for j = 1: length ( M ) for i = 1: length ( f ) SB_PSK (j .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . for i = 1: length ( h ) 82 .4 . g = 2* ones (1 . 4 1 // Matched F i l t e r Output clear .:) /(2* Eb ) . i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb * log2 ( M ( j ) ) ) ^2) * log2 ( M ( j ) ) . a =2. ’M=4 ’ .:) /(2* Eb ) ) plot2d ( f * Tb .8]. SB_PSK (2 . T +1) . clc . f = 0:1/100: rb .41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t o f r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e // F i g u r e 7 .2) plot2d ( f * Tb .

Figure 7.31 83 .12: Figure7.

t1 = 0: length ( h ) -1.12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 if ( h ( i ) <0.4].6 . figure a = gca () . a .5) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ g ( t )−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ R e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e d u r a t i o n T = 4 . plot2d (t .6) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) title ( ’ Output o f f i l t e r matched t o r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e g( t ) ’) 84 . data_bounds = [0 .g . a =2 ’ ) figure plot2d ( t1 .01) h ( i ) =0. end end h = h-T.0.h .

13: Figure7.41a 85 .Figure 7.

Figure 7.41b 86 .14: Figure7.

// g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x x = m . 2 : Hamming c o d e s 3 clear .* G . 5 k = 4.1 Repetition Codes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : R e p e t i t i o n Codes // Example8 .Chapter 8 Error-Control Coding Scilab code Exa 8. // c o d e word disp (G . n =5. // b l o c k o f i d e n t i c a l ’ n ’ b i t s k =1. ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x ’ ) . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x H = [ I P ’].n .n .2 Hamming Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes 2 // Example8 . 1 : R e p e t i t i o n Codes clear .k ) . ’ c o d e word f o r b i n a r y one i n p u t ’ ) . disp (H . // I d e n t i t y m a t r i x P = ones (1 . 4 clc . Scilab code Exa 8. ’ p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x ’ ) .k ) . // one b i t m = 1. clc . // p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x G = [ P 1]. // b i t v a l u e = 1 I = eye (n -k . disp (x . // m e s s a g e b i t s l e n g t h 87 .

4 ) Hamming c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8.1 .2) . G = coeff ( G ) .0 .1 .1 .1 .0 .:) + G (1 .0 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) .1 .0 .0.1. // p a r i t y c h e c k m a t r i x disp (H . ’ p a r i t y c h e c h k m a t r i x H ’ ) // m e s s a g e b i t s m = [0 .1 18 // 19 C = m * G . ’G ’ ) G (3 . g * D ^3]. p = coeff ( r ) . ’ Code words o f ( 7 .0 . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) G = [ g .1 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p .0 . 3 : ( 7 .0 . // i d e n t i t y m a t r i x disp (I .1 .0. 21 disp (C .3 Hamming Codes Revisited 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes R e v i s i t e d // Example8 .0 . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 . 4 ) Hamming Code R e v i s i t e d // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 .0.0 .:) . g ) . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r . disp (r . 20 C = modulo (C .1.1 . clc . g * D ^2. 0 .1. ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x G ’ ) H = [ eye (k -1 .0 .0 .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 n = 7. g * D . D = poly (0 .:) = G (3 .1.0 . // Number o f p a r i t y b i t s I = eye (k .k -1) P ’].k .0 .0.1 .:) .2) . ’ c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x P ’ ) G = [ P I ]. g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3.0 .1 . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x disp (P .1 . q ] = pdiv (m .0 . 0 . k ) . disp (G .:) = modulo ( G (3 .D) .0 . // b l o c k l e n g t h m = n . G (3 . ’D ’ ) .1 .1].1.1 .1. 88 . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x disp (G . ’ i d e n t i t y m a t r i x I k ’ ) P =[1 .0.0 .

0 .18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 G (4 . H (1 . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r . H = coeff ( H_num ) . q ] = pdiv (m . H_num = numer ( H_D ) . 3 C o n t e n t s o f t h e S h i f t R e g i s t e r i n t h e E n c o d e r o f f i g 8 .:) + H (3 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p .:) + G (4 . 0 .:) = modulo ( H (1 .:) . p = coeff ( r ) .:) . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. ’D ’ ) .:) .:) + G (2 . D ^5* h . disp (H . 7 f o r Me ss age S e q u e n c e ( 1 0 0 1 ) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( ’ S h i f t Contents ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) 16 disp ( ’ 1 17 disp ( ’ 2 Input Register 1 0 89 1 1 0 ’) 0 1 1 ’) . ’ G e n e r a t o r M a t r i x G = ’ ) h = 1+ D ^ -1+ D ^ -2+ D ^ -4.:) . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 .:) = G (1 . D = poly (0 . G (4 . disp (G . disp (r .D) . ’ P a r t i y Check m a t r i x H = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. H (1 . H_D = [ D ^4* h . D ^6* h ]. 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 . g ) . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) disp ( ’ T a b l e 8 .4 Encoder for the (7.4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 . 4 : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 .:) = H (1 .:) = modulo ( G (4 .2) .2) . 4 ) C y c l i c hamming code // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 .

2) . 5 m =2. ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) [ r2 . 1 . g ) . S1 = modulo ( S1 . S1 = coeff ( r1 ) . 1 ] clc . // m i d d l e b i t i s e r r o r [ r1 . q1 ] = pdiv ( C1 .6 Reed-Solomon Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Reed−Solomon Codes 2 // Example8 . disp ( r1 .18 19 20 disp ( ’ 3 disp ( ’ 4 disp ( ’ ’) 0 1 1 1 1 ’) 0 1 1 ’) Scilab code Exa 8. S2 = modulo ( S2 .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r f o r t h e ( 7 . 0 . 1 . // e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d C2 = 0+ D + D ^2+0+0+0+ D ^6. 0 . q2 ] = pdiv ( C2 . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r e d c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form f o r e r r o r e d codeword ’ ) disp ( S2 . //m i t symbol −b 90 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp ( S1 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l C1 = 0+ D + D ^2+ D ^3+0+0+ D ^6. ’D ’ ) . D = poly (0 . disp ( r2 . 6 : Reed−Solomon Codes 3 // S i n g l e −e r r o r −c o r r e c t i n g RS c o d e w i t h a 2− b i t b y t e 4 clc . 1 .2) .5 Syndrome calculator for the(7. 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 . 5 : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 0 . g ) . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. S2 = coeff ( r2 ) .

// c o d e word l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e p = n . N = length ( x1 ) . x1 = modulo ( x1 .i +1) . 0 . m ) ) .7 Convolutional Encoding . 1 . // s i n g l e b i t e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n n = 2^ m -1.k .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 k = 1^2. // p a r i t y b i t s l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e r = k / n . ’ n ’ ) disp (p .Time domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g − Time domain approach // Example8 . g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . x2 (N .2) .:) =[ x1 (N .i +1) ]. for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . ’ n−k ’ ) disp (r . m ) ) . 7 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n // Time Domain Approach close . 1 ] // x = // ! 1 1 ! 91 . 0 . 1 . // c o d e r a t e disp (n . 0 . end x = string ( x ) disp ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . clc . ’ Code r a t e : r = k / n = ’ ) disp (2* t . // number o f m e s s a g e b i t s t =1.2) . x2 = modulo ( x2 . ’ I t can c o r r e c t any e r r o r u p t o = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 .

’ bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1.25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code Exa 8. 1. 1. disp ( modulo ( x1 . D = poly (0 . 8 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e − T r a n s f o r m domain approach clc . 1. 1. 1.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g T r a n s f o r m domain approach // Example8 . g1D = 1+ D + D ^2. // // bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. ’D ’ ) . 0.2) . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 2 mD = 1+0+0+ D ^3+ D ^4.2) . // t o p o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x2D = g2D * mD . 1. 92 . ’ t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) disp ( modulo ( x2 . 1. 1. x2 = coeff ( x2D ) . 0. // bottom o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x1 = coeff ( x1D ) . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e p o l y n o m i a l representation x1D = g1D * mD . 0. 1. // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 1 g2D = 1+ D ^2.

’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’ ) disp ( gamma_2 .Scilab code Exa 8.04.pe .7027499 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // − 8. // t r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y p = 1 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n gama_1 = 2* log2 ( p ) +2*(1 . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t recption ’) disp ( gamma_3 . // number o f b i t s pe = 0.2877124 93 . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’) // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // 0. r = 1/2.8822126 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t r e c p t i o n // − 3. // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one correct recption gamma_3 = 2* log2 ( pe ) +1.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Fano m e t r i c f o r b i n a r y s y m m e t r i c c h a n n e l using c o n v o l u t i o n a l code // Example8 . // c o d e r a t e n =2.r ) . 1 1 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e f o r b i n a r y symmetric channel clc . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no correct reception disp ( gama_1 . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r correct reception gamma_2 = log2 ( pe * p ) +1.

N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) for i =1: N x3 = x2 . 1 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e generator // Program t o g e n e r a t e Maximum Length Pseudo N o i s e Sequence // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 clc . x3 ) .1 PN sequence generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : PN s e q u e n c e g e n e r a t i o n // Example9 .13 . 1 and F i g u r e 9 . x0 = xor ( x1 .11 .12 .10 .Chapter 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation Scilab code Exa 9.8 .9 . x3 =0. ’ x= ’ ) end m = [7 . x2 =0.19].17 . ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. x2 = x1 . // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r x0 = 1. disp (x . x1 = 0. x1 = x0 . 94 . disp (i .

// The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 5.22 N = 2^ m -1. 0. 0. // x= 0. 0. 1. // x= 1. 1 Range o f PN S e q u e n c e l e n g t h s ’ ) 24 disp ( ’ 25 26 27 28 29 ’) disp ( ’ Length o f s h i f t r e g i s t e r (m) ’ ) disp ( m ) disp ( ’PN s e q u e n c e Length (N) ’ ) disp ( N ) disp ( ’ ’) // RESULTEnter t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l 7 // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 1. 23 disp ( ’ T a b l e 9 . // x= 1. Scilab code Exa 9. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 3. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 7. 1.2 Maximum length sequence property 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 1 // C a p t i o n : Maximum l e n g t h s e q u e n c e p r o p e r t y 2 // Example9 . 2 and F i g u r e 9 . // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 4. 1. 6 // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r 7 x0 = 1. // x= 0. // x= 1. 0. 1. 1. // x= 1. 1. 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 2. 0. 95 . 1. 8 x1 = 0. 2 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 3 // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 4 // P r o p e r i t e s o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 5 clc . // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 6. 0. // x= 0.

end end disp (C . ’ Number o f 0 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( ’ P r o p e r t y 1 ( B a l a n c e p r o p e r t y ) i s s a t i s i f i e d ’ ) end Rc_tuo = corr ( C_level . N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) one_count = 0. N ) . one_count = one_count +1.5 if ( zero_count < one_count ) disp ( one_count . 4 disp ( C_level . t = 1:2* length ( C_level ) . if ( C ( i ) ==1) C_level ( i ) =1. disp (i . for i =1: N x3 = x2 . ’ Output S e q u e n c e ’ ) // r e f e r e q u a t i o n 9 . zero_count = zero_count +1. 96 . disp (x . ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. x3 ) . ’ Number o f 1 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( zero_count . zero_count = 0. x2 = x1 . x1 = x0 . x0 = xor ( x1 . // figure a = gca () .9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 x2 =0. ’ Output S e q u e n c e l e v e l s ’ ) // r e f e r equation 9. elseif ( C ( i ) ==0) C_level ( i ) = -1. ’ x= ’ ) C ( i ) = x3 . x3 =0.

3 : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n and Jamming Margin clear . 50 a . C_level ]) 45 xlabel ( ’ t ’) 46 title ( ’ Waveform o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e [ 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1] ’) 47 // 48 figure 49 a = gca () .[ 53 Rc_tuo ( $ : -1:2) . ’ The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : ’ ) disp (m . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .095*10^ -3.5) xlabel ( ’ tuo ’ ) 54 ylabel ( ’ Rc ( t u o ) ’ ) 55 title ( ’ A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 9. clc . // I n f o r m a t i o n b i t d u r a t i o n Tc = 1*10^ -6.length ( Rc_tuo ) +1: -1 . PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h . Tb = 4. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : ’ ) 97 .43 a .3 Processing gain. Jamming m a r g i n i n dB // Example9 . Rc_tuo ] . ’ The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : ’ ) N = PG . close . //PN c h i p d u r a t i o n PG = Tb / Tc . PN sequence length. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 44 plot2d (t . // P r o c e s s i n g g a i n disp ( PG . Jamming margin in dB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n . // f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h disp (N . 52 plot2d ([ .[ C_level .0: length ( Rc_tuo ) -1] . //PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h m = log2 ( N +1) . 51 a .

Figure 9.2a 98 .1: Example9.

Figure 9.2b 99 .2: Example9.

19 // The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : 4 0 9 5 . // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e k = 3.5 Slow and Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y h o p p i n g : FH/MFSK // Example9 .14 Eb_No = 10.6 Direct Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK 1 // C a p t i o n : D i r e c t S e q u e n c e S p r e a d C o h e r e n t BPSK 100 . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop disp (K . 5 : P a r a m e t e r s o f FH/MFSK signal // Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y Hopping clear .4Example9. ’ P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = ’ ) disp (k . ’ l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = ’ ) disp (2^ k . 20 // The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : 1 2 . close .4Figure9. // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = 3 . // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = 1 5 . 4 and Example9 . ’ T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = ’ ) // R e s u l t // number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = 2 . // Number o f MFSK t o n e s M = 4 . ’ number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = ’ ) disp (M . ’ Jamming Margin i n dB : ’ ) 17 // R e s u l t 18 // The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : 4095. // number o f b i t s p e r symbol M = 2^ K . // Number o f MFSK t o n e s N = 2^ M -1. Scilab code Fig 9. // Jamming Margin 16 disp (10* log10 ( J_P ) . ’ Number o f MFSK t o n e s M ’ ) = disp (N . // T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = 8 . clc . 1 2 2 5 3 9 Scilab code Exa 9. K =2. // Energy t o n o i s e d e n s i t y r a t i o 15 J_P = PG / Eb_No . 21 // Jamming Margin i n dB : 2 6 .

1 .1 . a .20 .1 . a .1 .1 . mt = bt . t = 0:13.1 .20 . N ) -1* ones (1 . plot2d2 (t . -1 . ct_polar .1 .1].0 . data_bounds = [0 . ct = [0 . st = [].2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 // F i g u r e 9 .1) a = gca () . ct_polar = [ -1 . plot2d2 (t .2].1 . for i = 1: length ( mt ) st = [ st mt ( i ) * Carrier ].1 .1 . end // figure subplot (3 . 4 : G e n e r a t i o n o f w a v e f o r m s i n DS/BPSK spread spectrum t r a n s m i t t e r clear .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .0 .1 .2) a = gca () .0 . -2.0 . a . clc . -1 .01:1. a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . -2. bt = [1* ones (1 . bt . wt = 0:0. a . data_bounds = [0 .1 . -1 .* ct_polar . a . close . -1 .1]. -1 .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ Data b ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .2]. N ) ]. N = 7.5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 101 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . Carrier = 2* sin ( wt *2* %pi ) .1 .0 .

2]. mt .20 .3) a = gca () .20 .1 .20 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2]. -2. plot ( Carrier ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ C a r r i e r S i g n a l ’ ) subplot (3 .20 .3) a = gca () . -2. a . a . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) // figure subplot (3 . a .1) a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . data_bounds = [0 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . data_bounds = [0 . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d2 (t .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . a . 102 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 . mt . data_bounds = [0 . data_bounds = [0 . -2. a . -2. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2) a = gca () .2].1 .1 .1 . plot2d2 (t . a .35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 title ( ’ S p r e a d i n g c o d e c ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a .2]. a .

A ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n //A−law : A−law n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n 103 . Xmax ] = Alaw (x .Figure 9.6a 67 68 plot ( st ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 69 title ( ’DS/BPSK s i g n a l s ( t ) ’ ) 70 // Scilab code ARC 1 Alaw 1 2 3 function [ Cx .3: Figure9.

4: Figure9.6b Figure9.6b 104 .Figure 9.

Figure 9.12 105 .5: Figure10.

/(1+ log ( A ) ) .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // x = i n p u t v e c t o r //Cx = A−law c o m p r e s s o r o u t p u t //Xmax = maximum o f i n p u t v e c t o r x Xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . elseif ( x ( i ) / Xmax > 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = (1+ log ( A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) ) ) . end end Cx = Cx / Xmax . end N = 2* L -1. for i = 1: L h (L . for i = L +1: N h ( i ) = 0.i +1) = x ( i ) . end for i = L +1: N x ( i ) = 0. N ) . h = zeros (1 . end for n = 1: N for k = 1: N if ( n >= k ) 106 . for i = 1: length ( x ) if ( x ( i ) / Xmax < = 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) ./(1+ log ( A ) ) . Rxx = zeros (1 . // n o r m a l i z a t i o n o f o u t p u t v e c t o r Cx = Cx ’. L ) . endfunction Scilab code ARC 2 auto correlation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 function [ Rxx ] = auto_correlation ( x ) // A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f a g i v e n I n p u t S e q u e n c e // F i n d i n g o u t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l u s i n g autocorrelation technique L = length ( x ) .

k +1) * h ( k ) . 22 end 23 end 24 end 25 disp ( ’ Auto C o r r e l a t i o n R e s u l t i s ’ ) 26 Rxx 27 disp ( ’ C e n t e r V a l u e i s t h e Maximum o f a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n 28 29 30 31 result ’) [m . 5 g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) 6 g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . x1 = modulo ( x1 . 1 . 1 .21 Rxx ( n ) = Rxx ( n ) + x (n . 0 .i +1) ]. for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 .2) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 1 ] // x = 107 . 0 . N = length ( x1 ) .2) .:) =[ x1 (N . x2 (N . m ) ) . m ) ) . n ] = max ( Rxx ) disp ( ’ P e r i o d o f t h e g i v e n s i g n a l u s i n g Auto C o r r e l a t i o n Sequence ’ ) n endfunction Scilab code ARC 3 Convolutional Coding 1 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n 2 // Time Domain Approach 3 close .i +1) . 4 clc . 0 . end x = string ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . x2 = modulo ( x2 .

0 . Hamming_Distance = 0. // G e t t i n g Code Words code1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word ’ ) . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word [ 1 . 1 . 0 . clc . 1 .22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code ARC 4 Hamming Distance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Weight and Hamming D i s t a n c e //H( 7 . 0 . for i = 1: length ( code1 ) Hamming_Distance = Hamming_Distance + xor ( code1 ( i ) . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . 1 . code2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word ’ ) . 1 ] // Hamming D i s t a n c e 4. ’ Hamming D i s t a n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word [ 0 . Scilab code ARC 5 Hamming Encode 108 . 0 . close . 1 . code2 ( i ) ) . 1 . 0 . end disp ( Hamming_Distance .

xor ( m1 ( i ) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Hamming E n c o d i n g //H( 7 . // G e n e r a t i n g P a r i t y b i t s for i = 1:(2^4) b2 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) .:) = [ m3 ( i ) m2 ( i ) m1 ( i ) m0 ( i ) ]. m0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . m1 ( i ) ) ) . disp ( ” ”). end C = [ b m ]. close . end disp ( ’ ’) // d i s p (m b C) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word 109 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 . ’ P a r i t y B i t s ’ ) disp ( C (i . ’ Mes sa ge Word ’ ) disp ( b (i . m2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . xor ( m3 ( i ) . b (i .:) . m (i . m1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) .:) . b1 ( i ) = xor ( m1 ( i ) . m2 ( i ) ) ) .:) = [ b2 ( i ) b1 ( i ) b0 ( i ) ]. m3 ( i ) ) ) . clc . xor ( m2 ( i ) . b0 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . ’ CodeWord ’ ) disp ( ” ”). disp ( ’ ’) for i = 1:2^4 disp ( i ) disp ( m (i .:) . // G e t t i n g M es sag e Word m3 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 .

( n . function x = invmulaw (y .0 . mu ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n // invmulaw : i n v e r s e mulaw n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n // x = o u t p u t v e c t o r // y = i n p u t v e c t o r ( u s i n g mulaw n o n l i n e a r comression ) 6 x = (((1+ mu ) . .0 .0 .0 .L .1 .1 35 // E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 . for i = 1: length ( x ) for j = n : -1:0 if ( fix ( en_code ( i ) /(2^ j ) ) ==1) c (i .0 .0 .1 .1 . en_code ( i ) = en_code ( i ) -2^ j . word .0 .j ) ) =1.1 .1 36 // E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e [0 .0 .0 . c = zeros ( length ( x ) .1 .1].1 .0 .1 .1 .1 . en_code ) // E n c o d i n g : C o n v e r t i n g Q u a n t i z e d d e c i m a l s a m p l e values in to binary // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s // e n c o d e = n o r m a l i z e d i n p u t s e q u e n c e n = log2 ( L ) .^( abs ( y ) ) -1) .0 .0 .1 .0 .[0 .0 .1 .1 . end end end disp ( c ) 110 .1].0 Scilab code ARC 5 invmulaw 1 2 3 4 5 .0 .1 .1 34 // E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .0 .0 . .1 .0 .1 .0 .0 .0 .0 .1 .1 .1 .1].0 .1 .1 .1 .n ) .0 .0 .1 .1 ./ mu ) 7 endfunction Scilab code ARC 6 PCM Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 function [ c ] = PCM_Encoding (x .0 .1 .1 .1].0 .

x = sin (2* %pi * t ) . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . xq . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . L ) . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . // S t e p 2 c = PCM_Encoding (x . title ( ’ Q u a n t i z a t i o n o f Sampled a n a l o g s i g n a l ’ ) legend ([ ’ Analog s i g n a l ’ . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ Q u a n t i z e d S i g n a l ’ ]) Scilab code ARC 8 sinc new 1 function [ y ]= sinc_new ( x ) 2 i = find ( x ==0) . xq .Scilab code ARC 7 PCM Transmission 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n :PCM T r a n s m i s s i o n ( i n c l u d e s f u n c t i o n s : u n i f o r m p c m . 3 x ( i ) = 1./( %pi * x ) .5) . // S t e p 1 [ SQNR . s c e . 5 y ( i ) = 1. t = 0:0. close .001:1. en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . x ) . s c e ) // T h i s program i s a s a m p l e program f o r P u l s e Code Modulation t r a n s m i s s i o n // s t e p 1 : The g i v e n a n a l o g s i g n a l c o n v e r t e d i n t o quantized sample value // s t e p 2 : Then t h e q u a n t i z e d s a m p l e v a l u e c o n v e r t e d into binary value clc . a = gca () . a . en_code ) . 6 endfunction 111 . // From LS : don ’ t n e e d t h i s i s /0 warning i s o f f 4 y = sin ( %pi * x ) . L = 16.L . PCM encoding .

for i = 1: L xq ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) =. endfunction Scilab code ARC 10 xor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 function [ value ] = xor (A . B ) if ( A == B ) value = 0. end endfunction 112 . q = d *[0: L -1]. xq = x / xmax .. length ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) ) .xq ) ) . d = 2/ L . en_code = xq .* ones (1 .* ones (1 . else value = 1. end xq = xq * xmax . en_code ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) = (i -1) . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . q = q -(( L -1) /2) * d . L ) // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . SQNR = 20* log10 ( norm ( x ) / norm (x .. q ( i ) . length ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) ) .Scilab code ARC 9 uniform pcm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 function [ SQNR . xq .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.