Scilab Code for Digital Communication, by Simon Haykin 1

Created by Prof. R. Senthilkumar Institute of Road and Transport Technology rsenthil signalprocess@in.com Cross-Checked by Prof. Saravanan Vijayakumaran, IIT Bombay sarva@ee.iitb.ac.in 23 August 2010

by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT, http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Text Book Companion and Scilab codes written in it can be downlaoded from the website www.scilab.in

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Book Details
Authors: Simon Haykins Title: Digital Communication Publisher: Willey India Edition: Wiley India Edition Year: Reprint 2010 Place: Delhi ISBN: 9788126508242

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Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the above book. Prb Problem (Unsolved problem) Exa Example (Solved example) Tab Table ARC Additionally Required Code (Scilab Code that is not part of the above book but required to solve a particular Example) AE Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular Example of the above book) CF Code for Figure(Scilab code that is used for plotting the respective figure of the above book ) For example, Prb 4.56 means Problem 4.56 of the above book. Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

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Contents
List of Scilab Codes 1 Introduction 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance 3 Detection and Estimation 4 Sampling Process 5 Waveform Coding Techniques 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission 7 Digital Modulation Techniques 8 Error-Control Coding 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation 4 2 5 14 27 31 39 59 87 94

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List of Scilab Codes
CF 1.2 Exa 2.1 Exa 2.2 Exa 2.3 Exa 2.4 Exa 2.5 Exa 2.6 Exa 2.7 Exa 3.1 Exa 3.2 Exa 3.3 Exa 3.4 Exa 3.6 CF 3.29 Exa 4.1 Exa 4.3 Exa 5.1 Exa 5.2 Digital Representation of Analog signal . . . . . . . . Entropy of Binary Memoryless source . . . . . . . . . Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Binary Symmetric Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel . . Significance of the Channel Coding theorem . . . . . . Orthonormal basis for given set of signals . . . . . . . M ARY Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for RF pulse . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal . . . . . . . Linear Predictor of Order one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm . . Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse . . Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect . . . . . . . . Average Transmitted Power for PCM . . . . . . . . . Comparision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 5.3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM . . . . . . Exa 5.5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier . . . . . . . CF 6.1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format . . . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.2 Duobinary Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 5 5 7 8 9 10 10 14 16 19 20 22 24 27 28 31 31 32 34 36 36 39 40 40 42 44

Exa 6.3 CF 6.4 CF 6.6b CF 6.7b CF 6.9 CF 6.15

Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder . . . Power Spectra of different binary data formats . . . . (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine . . . . . . . . . Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter . . . Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 7.1 QPSK Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques . Exa 7.2 MSK waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK . . . . . . . Tab 7.3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal . . . . . . . CF 7.4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK . . . . . . . CF 7.6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform . . Tab 7.6 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals . . . . . . Tab 7.7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals . . . . . . CF 7.29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse . . . . . . Exa 8.1 Repetition Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.2 Hamming Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.3 Hamming Codes Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.4 Encoder for the (7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code . . . . . . Exa 8.5 Syndrome calculator for the(7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code Exa 8.6 Reed-Solomon Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.7 Convolutional Encoding - Time domain approach . . . Exa 8.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach Exa 8.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.1 PN sequence generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.2 Maximum length sequence property . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.3 Processing gain, PN sequence length, Jamming margin in dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.4Example9.5 Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK . . . . Slow and Fig 9.4Figure9.6 Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK . . . . . . . . Direct ARC 1 Alaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARC 2 auto correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

47 48 49 51 53 55 59 61 63 68 70 72 74 74 76 77 78 80 82 87 87 88 89 90 90 91 92 93 94 95 97 100 100 103 106

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 108 108 110 110 111 111 112 112 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCM Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . invmulaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCM Encoding . . . . uniform pcm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sinc new . .ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 Convolutional Coding Hamming Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hamming Encode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . Example2.4 Figure6.29 .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example2. . . . . .5 3. . .2b . . .1c Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure5. 7 . . .13a . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example2. . . . . .1b Figure6. .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example3.4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . Figure1. . . . . . . . . . .9 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. .2 . . .3 6. . . . . 3 4 6 11 13 16 17 19 21 23 26 28 30 33 37 38 41 43 45 50 52 54 56 58 Example4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure3. . . . . . Example3. . . . . .1a Figure6. . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . .1 1. . . . . . . .4 . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .2a . . . Example3. . . . . . . . . Example4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . Figure5. . . . . . . . .7 . . . . . . . . . . .1b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 4. . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . .13b .1 6. . . . .3 .8 Figure1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . Example3. . . . . . . . . . . Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example5. . . . . . . . Example3.4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . .11 7. . . . . . . .2 Figure7.4 9. .31 . . . . . . . . . .10 7. . . . . . . . .2 7. . . . . . Figure9. . . . . . . . . . .6 . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . .1b .2 . . Figure7. Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 7. . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . .30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . .6b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example9. . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 9. . . . Figure 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 .1 9. . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2a . . . . .2b . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . Figure7. . .3 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 64 65 66 69 70 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 86 98 99 103 104 105 Example9. .6 7. . . . .9 7. . . . . . . . . .1c . . . . . . . . . . .41b . . . . . . . . . .5 7. . . . . . .12 . . . . . Figure7. .1 7. . . . . . . . . . Figure9. . . . . .6a . . . . .1a . . . .41a Figure7. . . Figure10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example7. . . . . .5 Example7. . . . . Figure7. . . . .7 7. . .29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 7. . . . . . . . .

x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .0 . -9) xlabel ( ’ Time ’ ) 21 ylabel ( ’ 2 .1 .0. -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .1] // figure a = gca () .1 .sqrt (2) . clc . a .1 .0 .0 .1 . -2 .01:1. -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .0 .Chapter 1 Introduction Scilab code CF 1.2 Digital Representation of Analog signal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Analog s i g n a l // F i g u r e 1 .0 .0 .2 .0 . a .0 .5 .2 . t = -1:0. dig_data = [0 .1 .1 .0 . data_bounds =[ -2 .3] plot (t . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . -0.0 . x ) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . . -3.0 . x = 2* sin (( %pi /2) * t ) . -1 . a .0 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . sqrt (2) . 2 : Analog t o D i g i t a l C o n v e r s i o n clear .0 .5 . close .

5) title ( ’ D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n ’ ) 3 . dig_data . a .5].1: Figure1.21 . plot2d2 ([1: length ( dig_data ) ] .2a 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Voltage ’) title ( ’ Analog Waveform ’ ) // figure a = gca () . data_bounds = [0 .Figure 1.0.

Figure 1.2: Figure1.2b 4 .

5 close . H_Po ) 14 xlabel ( ’ Symbol P r o b a b i l i t y .2 Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source 5 .1 Entropy of Binary Memoryless source 1 // C a p t i o n : Ent ropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e 2 // Example 2 . 6 clc .0. 11 end 12 // p l o t 13 plot2d ( Po . length ( Po ) ) .Po ( i )).1) Scilab code Exa 2.01:1. 7 Po = 0:0.Po ( i ) ) * log2 (1 .Chapter 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance Scilab code Exa 2.Po ( i ) * log2 ( Po ( i ) ) -(1 . 8 H_Po = zeros (1 . Po ’ ) 15 ylabel ( ’H( Po ) ’ ) 16 title ( ’ Entropy f u n c t i o n H( Po ) ’ ) 17 plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .5 . 1 : Entropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e 3 // p a g e 18 4 clear . 9 for i = 2: length ( Po ) -1 10 H_Po ( i ) = .

Figure 2.1: Example2.1 6 .

1 A l p h a b e t P a r t i c u l a r s o f Second−o r d e r Extension o f a D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ S e q u e n c e o f Symbols o f r u o 2 : ’ ) disp ( ’ S0 ∗ S0 S0 ∗ S1 S0 ∗ S2 S1 ∗ S0 S1 ∗ S1 S1 ∗ S2 S2 ∗ S0 S2 ∗ S1 S2 ∗ S2 ’ ) disp ( P_sigma . P1 * P0 . P0 = 1/4.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // c a p t i o n : S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source // Example 2 . disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S1 P2 = 1/2. P2 * P1 . ’H( R u o S q u a r e )= ’ ) disp ( ’H( R u o S q u a r e ) = 2∗H( Ruo ) ’ ) 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 7 . P0 * P2 . 1 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S2 H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) . H_Ruo_Square . disp ( ’ Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . . clc . P1 * P2 . 8 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ ’) H_Ruo_Square =0. P2 * P0 . P1 * P1 . . H_Ruo ) // S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f d i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s source P_sigma = [ P0 * P0 . for i = 1: length ( P_sigma ) H_Ruo_Square = H_Ruo_Square + P_sigma ( i ) * log2 (1/ P_sigma ( i ) ) . 2 : Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e // p a g e 19 clear . P2 * P2 ]. i = 0 . . . end disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . ’ P r o b a b i l i t y p ( s i g m a ) . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S0 P1 = 1/4. P0 * P1 .

H_Ruo . Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Entropy . Average length. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 3. Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : Entropy . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 ’ L0 = 2.Scilab code Exa 2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0.L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0. 3 : Huffman E n c o d i n g : C a l c u l a t i o n o f // ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ // ( b ) E ntropy ’H’ clear .L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 .L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 1 ’ L2 = 2. clc .Average length. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 .4.L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 . A v e r a g e l e n g t h . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0. A v e r a g e l e n g t h . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g 8 .3 Entropy. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 0 ’ L1 = 2.L . ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. P0 = 0.2.4 Entropy. ’ A v e r a g e code − word l e n g t h L e x c e e d s t h e e n t r o p y H( Ruo ) by o n l y ’ ) sigma_1 = P0 *( L0 . H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) .2. disp ( sigma_1 .1.L ) ^2. disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 3. V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g // Example 2 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0. ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) disp ( ’ p e r c e n t ’ .H_Ruo ) / H_Ruo ) *100 .1.((L .

’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t= ’ ) 9 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 . H_Ruo . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0. ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. 5 : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 3 clear . e ) transition probility 8 disp (p . ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) sigma_2 = P0 *( L0 .L ) ^2.4.4. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 4. // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r r e c e p t i o n ( i . H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) . ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . 4 : I l l u s t r a t i n g n o n u n i q u e s s o f t h e Huffman E n c o d i n g // C a l c u l a t i o n o f ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ ( b ) Entr opy ’H’ clear . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 4.1. disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .2. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n 7 pe = 1 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 ’ L1 = 2.1. 6 p = 0.L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 .L . 4 clc . clc . disp ( sigma_2 . 5 close .L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 .2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0.5 Binary Symmetric Channel 1 // C a p t i o n : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 2 // Example2 . P0 = 0.L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 .L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 .p . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // Example2 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 ’ L0 = 1. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 0 ’ L2 = 3.

6 : Channel C a p a c i t y o f B i n a r y Symmetri Channel clear .p ( i ) ) * log2 ((1 .6 Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Channel C a p a c i t y o f a B i n a r y Symmetric Channel // Example2 .9 10 disp ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y ’ ) disp ( pe . p ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Channel C a p a c i t y . elseif ( i == length ( p ) ) C ( i ) =0.5) xlabel ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n P r o b i l i t y . close .7 Significance of the Channel Coding theorem // C a p t i o n : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Channel Coding t h e o r e m // Example2 . end end plot2d (p . for i =1: length ( p ) if ( i ~=1) C ( i ) = 1+ p ( i ) * log2 ( p ( i ) ) +(1 . C ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 . clc .5.p ( i ) ) ) . elseif ( i ==1) C ( i ) =1.C . p = 0:0.01:0. 7 : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c h a n n e l c o d i n g theorem 3 // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r o f R e p e t i t i o n Code 1 2 10 . 1 0 V a r i a t i o n o f c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y o f a binary symmetric channel with t r a n s i t i o n probility p ’) Scilab code Exa 2. ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t= ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2.

6 11 .Figure 2.2: Example2.

1/3 . // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/3 10 pe_5 = 10* p ^3*(1 . Pe ’ ) 19 title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 .p ) + p ^3. ’ A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r . 3 A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r f o r R e p e t i t i o n Code ’ ) 23 disp ( ’ ’) 24 disp (r .p ) + p ^5.1 . // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/5 11 pe_7 = ((7*6*5) /(1*2*3) ) * p ^4*(1 .1/5 . Pe ’ ) 25 disp ( ’ ’) 12 . pe .p ) + p ^7. 6 close . pe_7 ].p ) ^2+7* p ^6*(1 .1/7]. 15 a . 14 a = gca () .5) 17 xlabel ( ’ Code r a t e . 5 clc . 16 plot2d (r . ’ Code Rate .0. r ’ ) 18 ylabel ( ’ A v e r a g e P r o b a b i l i t y o f e r r o r .pe . data_bounds =[0 .01]. r =1/n ’ . // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/7 12 r = [1 . // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r code r a t e r = 1 9 pe_3 = 3* p ^2*(1 . pe_3 . pe_5 .p ) ^2+5* p ^4*(1 .4 clear . 1 2 I l l u s t r a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e channel coding theorem ’ ) 20 legend ( ’ R e p e t i t i o n c o d e s ’ ) 21 xgrid (1) 22 disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 .p ) ^3+(42/2) * p ^5*(1 . 7 p =10^ -2.0. 13 pe = [ pe_1 . 8 pe_1 = p .

Figure 2.7 13 .3: Example2.

ones (1 . 1 : F i n d i n g o r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r t h e g i v e n signals // u s i n g Gram−Schmidt o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e clear . length ( t1 ) -2) . length ( t2 ) -2) . ones (1 . s3t = [0 . phi1t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . ones (1 . length ( t4 ) -2) .01: T /3. t6 = T /3:0. T = 1. t4 = 0:0. ones (1 . t2 = 0:0.1 Orthonormal basis for given set of signals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : O r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r g i v e n s e t o f s i g n a l s // Example3 .01: T . clc .0]. s2t = [0 .0]. close .01: T /3.Chapter 3 Detection and Estimation Scilab code Exa 3.0].01: T . length ( t7 ) -2) . s4t = [0 . t1 = 0:0. phi3t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 .01:2* T /3. t3 = T /3:0. length ( t6 ) -2) . // 14 .0].01: T . length ( t5 ) -2) . phi2t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . s1t = [0 .01:2* T /3. t5 = 0:0.0].0]. t7 = 2* T /3:0. ones (1 . ones (1 . length ( t3 ) -2) . ones (1 .0].

2].0. data_bounds = [0 . data_bounds = [0 .1 .1) a = gca () .2 .2) a = gca () .0. plot2d2 ( t4 .2) 15 .0.2]. data_bounds = [0 . s2t . s3t . data_bounds = [0 .4) a = gca () . phi1t .2 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .0.2]. data_bounds = [0 . 4 ( a ) S e t o f s i g n a l s t o be orthonormalized ’) subplot (4 .0. a .2].23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . 4 ( b ) The r e s u l t i n g s e t o f o r t h o n o r m a l functions ’) subplot (3 .4].1 .1 . a .3) a = gca () . a .2 . s1t . a . plot2d2 ( t2 . a .1) a = gca () . plot2d2 ( t1 . s4t .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 4 ( t ) ’ ) // figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1 .2 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 3 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 . plot2d2 ( t5 . plot2d2 ( t3 .2 .1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .1 .

a .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 3 ( t ) ’ ) 16 .4].Figure 3. data_bounds = [0 .1a 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 a = gca () .0.0. a .2 . phi3t .1 . phi2t .3) a = gca () . plot2d2 ( t7 . plot2d2 ( t6 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .1: Example3.4].2 . data_bounds = [0 .

2: Example3.Figure 3.1b 17 .

0 .( -1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .(1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) ]. s q r t ( 18 . o f meg .[0 .0. a . // a m p l i t u d e =1 T =1. a =1. 8 ( a ) S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n ’ ) xgrid (1) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .2 . // Symbol d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s // Four m e s s a g e p o i n t s Si1 = [( -3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .5] plot2d ( Si1 . D e c i s i o n i n t e r v a l s f o r received dibits ’) disp ( ’ R e c e i v e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ 20 21 22 23 24 25 01 01 ’) 26 disp ( ’ I n t e r v a l on p h i 1 ( t ) | x1 < −a . close . clc .Scilab code Exa 3. -0. 2 : M −ARY SIGNALING // S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n and R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d i b i t s clear .0] . 8 ( b ) . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s m i t t e d dibits ’) disp ( ’ Loc . a = gca () .5.(3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) . 8 ( c ) . s q r t (T) |− a . -10) xlabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . p o i n t | ( −3/2) a s q r t (T) | ( − 1 / 2 ) a s q r t ( T) | ( 3 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) | ( 1 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ T r a n s m i t t e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .0 .2 M ARY Signaling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n :M −ARY S i g n a l i n g // Example3 . data_bounds = [ -2 .

fc =4.Figure 3. // c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y i n Hz T =1. t1 = 0:0.01: T .2 T)<x1 <0| 0<x1<a . s q r t (T) | a .3: Example3. clc .3 Matched Filter output for RF pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r RF p u l s e // Example3 . 19 . s q r t (T)<x1 ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. 3 : MATCHED FILTER FOR RF PULSE clear . close .

01:2* T . a . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1].1 .1 . t2 = 0:0. phiot ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . hopt = phit . a .1 . data_bounds = [0 . phiot = phiot / max ( phiot ) . plot2d ( t2 . data_bounds = [0 . hopt ) . a .2) a = gca () . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . subplot (2 . 1 3 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3.4 Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r N o i s e − l i k e signal 2 // Example3 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . a .1]. 1 3 ( a ) RF p u l s e i n p u t ’ ) subplot (2 .9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 phit = sqrt (2/ T ) * cos (2* %pi * fc * t1 ) . plot2d ( t1 . -1. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . phiot = convol ( phit .1) a = gca () . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . 4 : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r n o i s e l i k e 1 20 .1 . -1. phit ) .

3 21 .Figure 3.4: Example3.

a . clc . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1].1) a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . hopt = phit . hopt ) . a .6 Linear Predictor of Order one 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 22 .1* rand (1 . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . data_bounds = [0 . plot2d ([1: length ( phi0t ) ] . 1 6 ( a ) N o i s e L i k e i n p u t s i g n a l ’ ) subplot (2 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . phit =0. xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1].1 .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 input clear . phit ) . close . data_bounds = [0 . ’ u n i f o r m ’ ) . phi0t = phi0t / max ( phi0t ) .1 .2) a = gca () . phi0t ) .1 . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . a . a . a . plot2d ([1: length ( phit ) ] . subplot (2 . -1.10 . phi0t = convol ( phit . 1 6 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. -1.

5: Example3.Figure 3.4 23 .

h01 = Rxx (3) / Rxx (2) . 6 : LINEAR PREDICTION : P r e d i c t o r o f Order One clear . order = 18.buffer * w . disp ( sigma_E . noise = rand (1 . N = length ( x ) .1) . for k =1:1010 for i = 1: N . ’ P r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e ’ ) disp ( sigma_X . t =0:0. mu = 0. x_n = x + noise . ref_noise = noise * rand (10) .h01 * Rxx (3) . Rxx = [0. sigma_X = Rxx (2) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 // C a p t i o n : L i n e a r P r e d i c t o r o f Order one // Example3 .01:1.^2) / length ( x ) ) . clc .01*( sum ( x . close . // Rxx ( 2 ) = Rxx ( 0 ) .order -1 buffer = ref_noise ( i : i + order -1) . Rxx ( 3 ) = Rxx ( 1 ) sigma_E = Rxx (2) . w = zeros ( order . desired ( i ) = x_n ( i ) . x = sin (2* %pi *5* t ) . clc .6]. 24 . length ( x ) ) .6 1 0.29 Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f LMS ADAPTIVE FILTER // For n o i s e c a n c e l l a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n clear . ’ P r e d i c t o r i n p u t v a r i a n c e ’ ) if ( sigma_X > sigma_E ) disp ( ’ The p r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e i s l e s s t h a n the variance of the p r e d i c t o r input ’ ) end Scilab code CF 3. close .

1 .4) 32 plot ( desired ) 33 title ( ’ n o i s e removed s i g n a l ’ ) 25 .1 .19 w = w +( buffer * mu * desired ( i ) ) ’.1 .3) 29 plot2d (t .1 .1) 23 plot2d (t . noise .2) 26 plot2d (t .2) 27 title ( ’ random n o i s e ’ ) 28 subplot (4 . x ) 24 title ( ’ O r i g n a l I n p u t S i g n a l ’ ) 25 subplot (4 . 20 end 21 end 22 subplot (4 . x_n .5) 30 title ( ’ S i g n a l+n o i s e ’ ) 31 subplot (4 .

Figure 3.6: Figure3.29

26

Chapter 4 Sampling Process
Scilab code Exa 4.1 Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

// C a p t i o n : Bound on A l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r Time− s h i f t e d sinc pulse // Example4 . 1 : Maximum bound on a l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r sinc pulse clc ; close ; t = -1.5:0.01:2.5; g = 2* sinc_new (2* t -1) ; disp ( max ( g ) , ’ A l i a s i n g e r r o r c a n n o t e x c e e d max | g ( t ) | ’ ) f = -1:0.01:1; G = [0 ,0 ,0 ,0 , ones (1 , length ( f ) ) ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0]; f1 = -1.04:0.01:1.04; subplot (2 ,1 ,1) a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -3 , -1;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d (t , g ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ g( t ) ’) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( a ) S i n c p u l s e g ( t ) ’ ) subplot (2 ,1 ,2) 27

Figure 4.1: Example4.1
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -2 ,0;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d2 ( f1 , G ) xlabel ( ’ f ’) ylabel ( ’ G( f ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( b ) A m p l i t u d e s p e c t r u m |G( f ) | ’ ) Scilab code Exa 4.3 Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect

1

// C a p t i o n : E q u a l i z e r t o c o m p e n s a t e A p e r t u r e e f f e c t 28

1.8.0. for i = 2: length ( T_Ts ) E ( i ) = (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) /( sin (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) ) . 5 ( T/ Ts ) ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . //E = 1 / ( s i n c n e w ( 0 .01:0. E (1) =1. plot2d ( T_Ts . a . close . end a = gca () .2]. data_bounds = [0 .6.5) xlabel ( ’ Duty c y c l e T/ Ts ’ ) ylabel ( ’ 1/ s i n c ( 0 .01:0. 5 ∗ T Ts ) ) . 3 : E q u a l i z e r t o Compensate f o r a p e r t u r e effect clc .E . 1 6 N o r m a l i z e d e q u a l i z a t i o n ( t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r a p e r t u r e e f f e c t ) p l o t t e d v e r s u s T/ Ts ’ ) 29 . T_Ts = 0.0.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 // Example4 .8 .

2: Example4.3 30 .Figure 4.

6 sigma_N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e ’ ) .2 Comaprision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) 31 .Chapter 5 Waveform Coding Techniques Scilab code Exa 5.1 Average Transmitted Power for PCM 1 // C a p t i o n : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power f o r PCM 2 // Example5 . 7 k = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 s i g n a l i n g ’ ). 5 clc . 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 Scilab code Exa 5. M = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r ’ ) . disp ( ’ The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : ’ ) P = ( k ^2) *( sigma_N ) *(( M ^2) -1) /12. disp ( P ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e 10ˆ −6 // E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f s i g n a l i n g 7 // E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r 2 // The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : 0 . 1 : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power o f PCM 3 // Page 187 4 clear .

children (1) . thickness =2. children (1) . line_style = 4. Rb/B . k =7. close .0. d e c i b e l s ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y . Rb_B . P_NoB_dB = [ -20:30]. a .40 . −a Rb_B = log2 (1+(12/ k ^2) * P_NoB ) . // i d e a l s y s t e m a c c o r d i n g t o Shannon ’ s c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y t h e o r e m // p l o t a = gca () . 9 Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h t h e −a i d e a l ssytem ’ ) legend ([ ’ I d e a l System ’ .10].5) poly1 = a . // bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s e c /Hz C_B = log2 (1+ P_NoB ) . data_bounds = [ -30 . poly1 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h i d e a l s y s t e m −a ( Channel C a p a c i t y Theorem ) // Example5 .5) plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . 2 : Comparison o f M r y PCM s y s t e m −a // Channel C a p a c i t y t h e o r e m clear . b i t s p e r s e c o n d per hertz ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 5 .3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM 1 2 3 4 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n N o i s e R a t i o o f PCM // Example5 . d e c i b e l s P_NoB = 10^( P_NoB_dB /10) . C_B . ’PCM ’ ]) Scilab code Exa 5. poly1 . // f o r M r y PCM s y s t e m . clc . 32 . xlabel ( ’ I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/NoB . // I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/ NoB . 3 : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n n o i s e r a t i o // Channel Bandwidth B clear . plot2d ( P_NoB_dB .

2 33 .1: Example5.Figure 5.

clc . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 9 20 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 21 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 3 6 0 0 0 .5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 // Example 5 : D e l t a M o d u l a t i o n − t o a v o i d s l o p e overload distortion //maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o f o r s i n u s o i d a l modulation // p a g e 207 clear . 6 n = input ( ’ E n t e r no .5 clc . 8 23 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 24 // C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 i f 25 number o f b i t s i n c r e a s e d by 1 // c o r r e s p o n d i n g o u t p u t s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n PCM i n c r e a s e d by 6 dB . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : ’ ) 7 W = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 8 B = n*W. 34 . 16 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 0 . 9 disp (B . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 8 14 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 15 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 32000. ’ Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : ’ ) 12 // R e s u l t 1 i f n = 8 bits 13 // E n t e r no . Scilab code Exa 5.7. 22 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 6 . a0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : ’ ).2. 11 disp ( SNRo . 8 17 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 18 // R e s u l t 2 i f n = 9 b i t s 19 // E n t e r no . ’ Channel w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 10 SNRo = 6* n .

7 f0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f

sinusoidal signal

i n Hz : ’ ) ;
8 fs = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s

per s e c o n d s : ’ );
9 Ts = 1/ fs ; // S a m p l i n g i n t e r v a l 10 delta = 2* %pi * f0 * a0 * Ts ; // S t e p 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

s i z e to avoid s l o p e

overload Pmax = ( a0 ^2) /2; //maximum p e r m i s s i b l e o u t p u t power sigma_Q = ( delta ^2) /3; // Q u a n t i z a t i o n e r r o r o r n o i s e variance W = f0 ; //Maximum m e s s a g e bandwidth N = W * Ts * sigma_Q ; // A v e r a g e o u t p u t n o i s e power SNRo = Pmax / N ; // Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e ratio SNRo_dB = 10* log10 ( SNRo ) ; disp ( SNRo_dB , ’ Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r Delta Modualtion : ’ ) // R e s u l t 1 f o r f s = 8 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :8000 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : −5.1717849 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// R e s u l t 2 f o r f s = 1 6 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 27 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :16000 28 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : 3 . 8 5 9 1 1 5 29 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
24 25 26

35

// C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 , i f the sampling frequency 31 // i s d o u b l e d t h e s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n c r e a s e d by 9 dB
30

Scilab code CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

15

// C a p t i o n : u−Law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( a ) Mulaw companding N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g mulaw c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f mu clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t mu = [0 ,5 ,255]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f mu for i = 1: length ( mu ) [ Cx (i ,:) , Xmax ( i ) ] = mulaw (x , mu ( i ) ) ; end plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) , Cx (1 ,:) ,2) plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) , Cx (2 ,:) ,4) plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) , Cx (3 ,:) ,6) xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : u−Law companding ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) ; legend ([ ’ u =0 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=5 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=255 ’ ]) Scilab code CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// C a p t i o n : A−law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( b )A−law companding , N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g A−law c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f A clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t A = [1 ,2 ,87.56]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f A for i = 1: length ( A ) 36

Figure 5.2: Figure5.13a

37

10 end 11 plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) . ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) .:) . Xmax ( i ) ] = Alaw (x .:) . ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ .6) 14 xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : A−Law companding ’ . Cx (2 . Cx (3 . 5 6 ’ ]) 38 .[ ’A= 8 7 .13b 9 [ Cx (i .[ ’A=2 ’ ] .4) 13 plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) . 15 legend ([ ’A =1 ’ ] . A ( i ) ) .:) .3: Figure5.2) 12 plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) .Figure 5. Cx (1 .:) .

’ T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m i n Hz : ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l :0. 1 : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 Carrier // Page 251 clear .f1 .1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 c a r r i e r // Example6 . // minimum t r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth o f T1 system // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m ’B ’ alpha = 1.alpha ) . Tb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l : ’) Bo = 1/(2* Tb ) .647∗10ˆ −6 // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m 39 .Chapter 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission Scilab code Exa 6. clc . B = 2* Bo . disp (B . // c o s i n e r o l l − o f f f a c t o r f1 = Bo *(1 .

1 ( a ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 1 ] . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ U n i p o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. poly1 = a . U n i p o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . L1 = length ( binary_zero ) . else plot ([ i *L . thickness =3. poly1 . binary_zero ) . data_bounds =[0 -2. binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0].L +1: i * L ] . clc . L = length ( x ) . close . binary_one ) . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . total_duration = L * L . thickness =3. L * L1 2]. children (1) .1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format 1 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o p o l a r f o r m a t 40 . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. poly1 = a . binary_one = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1].L +1: i * L ] .i n Hz : 1 5 4 5 5 9 5 .1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o u n i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . 1 Scilab code CF 6. children (1) . poly1 . a . children (1) . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . children (1) .

Figure 6.1: Figure6.1a 41 .

1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o b i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . thickness =3. poly1 = a . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. close . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . poly1 = a . binary_negative ) . data_bounds =[0 -2. B i P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . close .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // F i g u r e 6 . L = length ( x ) . 1 ( b ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 2 ] . binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. binary_positive ) . 42 . children (1) . clc . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . poly1 .L +1: i * L ] . else plot ([ i *L . children (1) . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . children (1) . P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . a .L +1: i * L ] . children (1) . L * L1 2]. total_duration = L * L1 . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. thickness =3. poly1 . 1 ( c ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 3 ] .

1b 43 .Figure 6.2: Figure6.

poly1 .2 Duobinary Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : D u o b i n a r y E n c o d i n g 2 // Example6 .0 . binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. L * L1 2]. thickness =3. end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ B i P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code Exa 6. binary_zero ) .L +1: i * L ] . data_bounds =[0 -2.L +1: i * L ] . poly1 = a . x = [0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1].0 .1 . binary_negative ) . children (1) . else plot ([ i *L . children (1) . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]. 5 b = [0 . children (1) . thickness =3. // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . total_duration = L * L1 .0]. 2 : P r e c o d e d D u o b i n a r y c o d e r and d e c o d e r 3 // Page 256 4 clc . binary_positive ) . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . poly1 . poly1 .L +1: i * L ] . // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : p r e c o d e r input 44 . children (1) . elseif (( x ( i ) ==1) &( x (i -1) ~=1) ) plot ([ i *L . children (1) . a .1 . poly1 = a . poly1 = a . children (1) .1 . thickness =3. L = length ( x ) . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1].7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 clc . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L .

3: Figure6.Figure 6.1c 45 .

end end b_r = b_r ’. ’ R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t d e t e c t o r oupupt : ’ ) // R e s u l t // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : // 46 . a_volts = a_volts ’. else a_volts ( k ) = -1. end c = c ’. b (1) ) .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 a (1) = xor (1 . if ( a ( k ) ==1) a_volts ( k ) =1. if ( a (1) ==1) a_volts (1) = 1. disp (a . ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s c (1) = 1+ a_volts (1) . ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : ’ ) disp ( a_volts . else b_r ( k ) = 1.b ( k ) ) . end end a = a ’. disp (c . ’ D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y d e c o d e r o u t p u t by a p p l y i n g d e c i s i o n rule for k =1: length ( c ) if ( abs ( c ( k ) ) >1) b_r ( k ) = 0. disp ( b_r . for k =2: length ( a ) c ( k ) = a_volts (k -1) + a_volts ( k ) . end for k =2: length ( b ) a ( k ) = xor ( a (k -1) .

1. − 1. ’ D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : ’ ) for k = 1: length ( y_delay ) z ( k ) = y ( k +1) . 0. − 1.3 Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : G e n e r a t i o n o f b i p o l a r o u t p u t f o r d u o b i n a r y coder // Example6 . 1. 1 3 // f o r g e n e r a t i n g b i p o l a r f o r m a t // p a g e 256 and p a g e 257 // R e f e r T a b l e 6 .0 . 0. ’ Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : ’ ) disp ( y_delay .0 . 0. Scilab code Exa 6. − 2.0 . end z = z ’. 0. : 0. 1. 1. y_delay = y_delay ’. 3 : O p e r a t i o n o f C i r c u i t i n f i g u r e 6 . // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : precoder input y (1) = 1. d e t e c t o r oupupt : 1. 47 . for k =2: length ( x ) +1 y ( k ) = xor ( x (k -1) . 1. 0. // // R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t // // 0 . 1.1 .1]. end y_delay = y (1: $ -1) .y (k -1) ) .42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 // 1 . // // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : // // 1 . 0. − // // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // // 2 . 0. 0. 1.1 . − 2.y_delay ( k ) . x = [0 .0 . 2. 0. disp (y . − 1. y = y ’.1 . 4 clc .1 .

else 48 . // D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : // 1. 1. 0. for i = 1: length ( f ) Sxxf_NRZ_P ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . 1. 0.21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 disp (z . 0. 0. 1. 0. Sxxf_NRZ_BP ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) *(( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . NRZ P o l a r f o r m a t a = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : ’ ) . 0. M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t // Page 241 close . 1. Tb = 1/ fb . NRZ P o l a r Format [ 2 ] . 0. 1. 1. − 1. 1. 0. clc . 0. 0. Scilab code CF 6. 1. NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t // [ 3 ] . fb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . 4 : Power S p e c t a l D e n s i t i e s o f // D i f f e r e n t L i n e Coding T e c h n i q u e s // [ 1 ] . NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t [ 4 ] . if ( i ==1) Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) +( a ^2) /4. 0.4 Power Spectra of different binary data formats 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f d i f f e r e n t b i n a r y d a t a formats // F i g u r e 6 . 0. // b i t d u r a t i o n f = 0:1/(100* Tb ) :2/ Tb . 1. − 1. // d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // 0. ’ d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n : ’) // R e s u l t // Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : // 1. : 0. volts 0. // [ 1 ] . − 1. 0. 1.

Sxxf_NRZ_BP . children (1) . thickness = 2. thickness = 2. xlabel ( ’ f ∗Tb−−−−−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Sxx ( f )−−−−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f D i f f e r e n t L i n e Codinig Techniques ’ ) xgrid (1) legend ([ ’NRZ P o l a r Format ’ .2) poly1 = a . thickness = 2. plot2d (f . plot2d (f . ’ M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t ’ ]) . children (1) .9) poly1 = a . children (1) . children (1) . end Sxxf_Manch ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) *( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) . Sxxf_Manch . children (1) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . Sxxf_NRZ_UP . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . poly1 . poly1 . children (1) . end // P l o t t i n g a = gca () . plot2d (f . // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : 1 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. Sxxf_NRZ_P ) poly1 = a . poly1 . thickness = 2. ’NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ .5) poly1 = a . children (1) .6b (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI // C a p t i o n : I d e a l s o l u t i o n f o r z e r o I S I // F i g u r e 6 . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . plot2d (f . poly1 .20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . 6 ( b ) : I d e a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference 3 // SINC p u l s e 1 2 49 . children (1) . ’NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ .

Figure 6.4 50 .4: Figure6.

p (j .5) |( t ( i ) == -0. Bo = rb /2. Alpha =0.01.5) ) ) p (j . plot (t . den = 1 -16*( Alpha ^2) *( Bo ^2) *( t ( i ) ^2) +0. 7 ( b ) : P r a c t i c a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference // R a i s e d C o s i n e Spectrum // p a g e 250 close . 51 . i ) = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // p a g e 249 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . x ) xlabel ( ’ t−−−−−−> ’ ) . Bo = rb /2. rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) .7b (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : P r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n : R a i s e d C o s i n e // F i g u r e 6 . title ( ’ SINC P u l s e f o r z e r o I S I ’ ) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. clc . ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . Tb =1/ rb . t = -3:1/100:3. // I n t i a l i z e d t o z e r o x = t / Tb . i ) = num / den . t = -3:1/100:3. for j =1:3 for i =1: length ( t ) if (( j ==3) &(( t ( i ) ==0. else num = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) * cos (2* %pi * Alpha * Bo * t ( i ) ) . x = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ) .

Figure 6.6 52 .5: Figure6.

33 poly2 .21 end 22 end 23 Alpha = Alpha +0. 34 xlabel ( ’ t /Tb−−−−−−> ’ ) .:) ) 27 plot2d (t . Tb =1/ rb . 26 plot2d (t . 30 plot2d (t . children (1) .5 ’ . foreground =4.:) ) 28 poly1 = a . 32 po1y2 . 9 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y Conversion f i l t e r // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e // Page 254 clear . 29 poly1 .9 Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f d u o b i n a r y c o n v e r s i o n filter // F i g u r e 6 . p (3 . close . line_style = 3. children (1) . // B i t d u r a t i o n 53 .:) ) 31 poly2 = a . 24 end 25 a = gca () .5. ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0. p (1 . 36 title ( ’ RAISED COSINE SPECTRUM − P r a c t i c a l 37 Solution for ISI ’) legend ([ ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0 ’ . p (2 . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =1 ’ ]) 38 xgrid (1) 39 // R e s u l t 40 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. children (1) . foreground =2. clc . 35 ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . children (1) .

Figure 6.6: Figure6.7 54 .

1) a = gca () .2) a = gca () . thickness = 2. 1 5 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f M o d i f i e d duobinary conversion f i l t e r 3 // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e 4 // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e 1 55 .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . children (1) . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . children (1) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .5) poly1 = a . children (1) .11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 f = . Amplitude_Response .2) poly1 = a . subplot (2 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a .* Tb ) ) . poly1 . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 Scilab code CF 6. // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . plot2d (f . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .1 . a . a . poly1 . plot2d (f . Phase_Response .15 Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f m o d i f i e d d u o b i n a r y conversion f i l t e r 2 // F i g u r e 6 . Phase_Response = -( %pi * f . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) subplot (2 .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. children (1) .* Tb ) . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* cos ( %pi * f . thickness = 2.

9 56 .Figure 6.7: Figure6.

x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .* Tb ) . Phase_Response . Amplitude_Response . a . plot2d (f . a . thickness = 2. // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . Tb =1/ rb . plot2d (f .rb /2:1/100: rb /2.2) a = gca () . poly1 . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 57 . clc . children (1) . a . children (1) .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . thickness = 2. poly1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* sin (2* %pi * f .5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 // p a g e 259 clear .5) poly1 = a . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . subplot (2 .1 . // B i t d u r a t i o n f = .2) poly1 = a . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) subplot (2 .* Tb ) ) . close . children (1) .1) a = gca () . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . Phase_Response = -(2* %pi * f . a . children (1) .

Figure 6.8: Figure6.15 58 .

for i = 1: M s1 (i .:) = cos (2* %pi *2* t ) * cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . end 59 . S = []. i = 1: M .1 QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques // Example7 .1 . S2 = [].0 . t = 0:0. m = [3 . clc .0]. 1 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear .:) = . for i =1: length ( m ) S1 = [ S1 s1 ( m ( i ) . Input_Sequence =[0 . s2 (i . S2 = [ S2 s2 ( m ( i ) .1 .1 .Chapter 7 Digital Modulation Techniques Scilab code Exa 7.:) ].0 . M =4.2]. close .1 .:) ].sin (2* %pi *2* t ) * sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . end S1 =[].0 .001:1.1 .

23 figure 24 subplot (3 .1) 25 a = gca () .3) a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . imag ( y ( 2 ) ) .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . l o g 2 (M) ) . a . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Even−numbered b i t s o f input sequence ’) subplot (3 . −4) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 3 ) ) . imag ( y ( 4 ) ) . x l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . imag ( y ( 1 ) ) . // a n n o t = d e c 2 b i n ( [ 0 : l e n g t h ( y ) −1] . a . 26 a . − 1 . // d i s p ( y .1 .22 S = S1 + S2 . 60 . y l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . // a =g c a ( ) . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) // d i s p ( annot . // y l a b e l ( ’ Quadrature ’ ) . 27 plot ( S1 ) 28 title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Odd−numbered b i t s 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 of input sequence ’) subplot (3 . // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 1 ) ) . imag ( y ( 3 ) ) .1 .2) a = gca () . −5) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 4 ) ) . ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) // f i g u r e . // a . // a . plot ( S ) title ( ’QPSK waveform ’ ) //− s i n ( ( 2 ∗ i −1) ∗ %pi / 4 ) ∗ %i . −9) // x l a b e l ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // a . 1 . 1 ] . d a t a b o u n d s = [ − 1 . −2) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 2 ) ) .

FSK and PSk Waveforms 1 61 . ’ m e s s a g e p o i nt 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ .1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques 2 // F i g u r e 7 .1 54 55 // t i t l e ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) // l e g e n d ( [ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ . ’ message p o in t 4 ( d i b i t 11) ’ ] .1: Example7.Figure 7. 1 3 // D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s 4 //To P l o t t h e ASK. ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ . 5 ) Scilab code CF 7.

elseif (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [ zeros (1 . 6 clc . end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f PSK Waveform Xpsk = []. x1 ]. for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) 62 . I = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a ’ ) .sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . x2 = sin (2* %pi *(2* f ) * t ) . x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . x = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . x2 = . elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . // G e n e r a t i o n o f ASK Waveform Xask = []. x2 ]. x ]. 8 f = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y i n Hz ’ 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 ). elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . t = 0:1/512:1. Xask ]. x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f FSK Waveform Xfsk = []. 7 close . zeros (1 .5 clear . length ( x ) ) . for n = 1: length ( I ) if (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [x . length ( x ) ) ]. Xask ].

42 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . 0 . x1 ].Tb :0. M =2. Tb =1. 1 . 0 . 1 . 2 : S e q u e n c e and Waveforms f o r MSK s i g n a l // T a b l e 7 . 43 elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) 44 Xpsk = [ Xpsk .2 MSK waveforms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // Example7 . x ) 49 xtitle ( ’ Analog C a r r i e r S i g n a l 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 f o r D i g i t a l Modulation ’) xgrid figure plot ( Xask ) xtitle ( ’ A m p l i t u d e S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xfsk ) xtitle ( ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xpsk ) xtitle ( ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid // Example // E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y 2 // E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a [ 0 .01: Tb . 45 end 46 end 47 figure 48 plot (t . 1 ] Scilab code Exa 7. close . x2 ]. 0 . t1 = . 63 . 1 . 2 s i g n a l s p a c e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f MSK clear clc .

1a 64 .Figure 7.2: Figure7.

Figure 7.1b 65 .3: Figure7.

Figure 7.1c 66 .4: Figure7.

t = 0:0. phi1 = cos (2* %pi * t1 ) . teta_0 = [0 .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S2 = [ S2 s2 (2) * phi2 ].sin ( . S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .1 . s2 (2) . phi2 = sin (2* %pi * t2 ) . s1 (2) .1 . s1 (2) .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].01:2* Tb .01:1. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . teta_tb = [ %pi /2 .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. for i = 1: M s1 ( i ) = cos ( teta_0 ( i ) ) .0 . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .1 . s2 (1) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ].sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. s2 (1) .* cos (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t1 ) .sin ( .sin ( teta_tb ( i ) ) . S2 = [ S2 s2 (1) * phi2 ].0 .sin ( .* sin (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t2 ) . S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].%pi /2].1) a = gca () . .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S1 = []. s1 (1) . S2 = []. s2 ( i ) = .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. end Input_Sequence =[1 .0 . s2 (2) ].0]. disp (y . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . %pi ]. ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) figure subplot (3 .sin ( . y = [ s1 (1) . S = []. end for i = M : -1:1 S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ]. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 t2 = 0:0. 67 .

close . disp (y . imag ( y (2) ) . -9) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . a .2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // F i g u r e 7 . plot ( S1 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . M =2. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . i = 1: M . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 a . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure . -2. plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) . data_bounds = [ -2 . annot = dec2bin ([ length ( y ) -1: -1:0] . a . 2 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK system clear clc . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . a .1 .2].1 . imag ( y (1) ) .2 . -5) xlabel ( ’ 68 . a . y = cos (2* %pi +( i -1) * %pi ) . plot ( S ) title ( ’ O b t a i n e d by a d d i n g s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t )+s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) on a b i t −by−b i t b a s i s ’ ) Scilab code CF 7. log2 ( M ) ) . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot .2) a = gca () .3) a = gca () .

2 69 .5: Example7.Figure 7.

6: Figure7. title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ .5) Scilab code Tab 7. 20 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ).2 In−Phase ’ ) . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] .3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal 1 21 22 // C a p t i o n : I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK s i g n a l 70 .Figure 7.

’ ( bk ) ’ ) bk_not = bk_not ’.0 .0 . bk = [1 .( dk_1_not ( i ) & bk_not ( i ) )).2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 // T a b l e 7 .0 . dk (1) = xor ( dk_1 (1) . elseif ( dk ( i ) ==0) dk_radians ( i ) = %pi . end end disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . 3 I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e G e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK Signal ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( bk . // i n p u t d i g i t a l s e q u e n c e for i = 1: length ( bk ) if ( bk ( i ) ==1) bk_not ( i ) =~1.1 .0 . dk ( i ) = xor (( dk_1 ( i ) & bk ( i ) ) . // i n i t i a l v a l u e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l encoded sequence dk_1_not (1) =0& bk_not (1) . disp ( bk_not . dk_1_not (1) ) // f i r s t b i t o f dpsk encoder for i =2: length ( bk ) dk_1 ( i ) = dk (i -1) . else bk_not ( i ) = 1.1].1 . 3 G e n e r a t i o n o f D i f f e r e n t i a l Phase s h i f t keying s i g n a l clc . end end dk_1 (1) = 1& bk (1) . dk_1_not ( i ) = ~ dk (i -1) . 71 29 30 31 32 . end for i =1: length ( dk ) if ( dk ( i ) ==1) dk_radians ( i ) =0. ’ ( b k n o t ) ’ ) dk = dk ’.

a .y (2 .1) . -2. a . disp ( dk_radians . disp (y . log2 ( M ) ) . -5) xlabel ( ’ In−Phase ’ ) . data_bounds = [ -2 .4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK // F i g u r e 7 .2 . annot = dec2bin ([ M -1: -1:0] .1]. close .33 34 35 36 disp ( dk . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . y = [1 . ’ D i f f e r e n t i a l l y e n c o d e d s e q u e n c e ( dk ) ’ ) dk_radians = dk_radians ’. -9) plot2d ( y (2 .5) 72 . 4 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK system clear clc . 20 title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BFSK ’ ) 21 legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ . ’ T r a n s m i t t e d p h a s e i n r a d i a n s ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7. a . M =2. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure . a = gca () .2) . plot2d ( y (1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .y (1 . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] .2) .0 . 19 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ).1) .2].0.

Figure 7.4 73 .7: Figure 7.

-4) plot2d ( real ( y (3) ) . data_bounds = [ -1 . disp (y .6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l s p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK waveform // F i g u r e 7 . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . a . -1. ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) figure . annot = dec2bin ([0: M -1] . M =4.1 . imag ( y (1) ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) * %i . imag ( y (3) ) . title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ . ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). a = gca () . log2 ( M ) ) .5) Scilab code Tab 7. 6 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear clc .1]. i = 1: M . imag ( y (4) ) . y = cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . -5) plot2d ( real ( y (4) ) . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 4 ( d i b i t 1 1 ) ’ ] .Scilab code CF 7.6 Bndwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals 23 24 74 . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) . -9) xlabel ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . imag ( y (2) ) . ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ . close . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ . a . a . -2) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .

8: Figure7.Figure 7.6 75 .

64]. 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp (M . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s / Hz disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 ./2. close . clc . //M r y −a Ruo = log2 ( M ) .7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals 1 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK s i g n a l s −a 2 // T a b l e 7 . //M r y −a 7 Ruo = 2* log2 ( M ) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // T a b l e 7 .64]. // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s /Hz //M = M’ .32 . 4 clc . 5 close .8 . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code Tab 7. 6 M = [2 .4 .4 . M = [2 ./ M .8 . 7 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a 3 clear .16 . disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . // Ruo = Ruo ’ . 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a signals ’) 11 disp ( ’ 8 9 10 76 .32 .16 . 6 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals clear . ’M’ ) disp ( ’ 10 11 ’) 12 disp ( Ruo .

’M’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( Ruo .29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals 77 .9: Figure7.12 ’) 12 disp (M .Figure 7. ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7.

’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. poly1 . SB_PSK /(2* Eb ) ) poly1 = a . children (1) . foreground = 6. f = 0:1/100:8/ rb . Tb = 1/ rb . SB_FSK /(2* Eb ) ) plot ( f * Tb . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . end a = gca () . children (1) . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’PSK Vs FSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ . else SB_FSK ( i ) = (8* Eb *( cos ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) ) /(( %pi ^2) *(((4*( Tb ^2) *( f ( i ) ^2) ) -1) ^2) ) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f BPSK and BFSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f QPSK and MSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . // B i t d u r a t i o n for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==(1/(2* Tb ) ) ) SB_FSK ( i ) = Eb /(2* Tb ) . 2 9 : Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f BPSK // and BFSK clc .30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals. plot ( f * Tb . 3 0 : Comparison o f QPSK and MSK Power 78 . end SB_PSK ( i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) .

29 79 .10: Figure7.Figure 7.

// b i t d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==0. plot ( f * Tb . poly1 . plot ( f * Tb . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’QPSK Vs MSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ Minimum S h i f t Keying ’ . else SB_MSK ( i ) = (32* Eb /( %pi ^2) ) *( cos (2* %pi * Tb * f ( i ) ) /((4* Tb * f ( i ) ) ^2 -1) ) ^2. foreground = 3. SB_QPSK /(4* Eb ) ) . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : ’ ) . end SB_QPSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * sinc_new ((2* Tb * f ( i ) ) ) ^2. // c l o s e .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Spectrums // c l e a r . // c l c . Tb = 1/ rb .5) SB_MSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * f ( i ) . children (1) . ’QPSK ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. children (1) . end a = gca () . poly1 = a . SB_MSK /(4* Eb ) ) . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : ’ ) . f = 0:1/(100* rb ) :(4/ rb ) .31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power s p e c t r a o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // F i g u r e 7 . 3 1 Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a 80 .

Figure 7.11: Figure7.30 81 .

i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb * log2 ( M ( j ) ) ) ^2) * log2 ( M ( j ) ) . T +1) . SB_PSK (2 . 4 . t = 0: T . for j = 1: length ( M ) for i = 1: length ( f ) SB_PSK (j . for i = 1: length ( h ) 82 . ’M=4 ’ .5) xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a o f M r y s i g n a l s f o r M = 2 .:) /(2* Eb ) ) plot2d ( f * Tb .2) plot2d ( f * Tb . 8 ’ ) −a legend ([ ’M=2 ’ .8]. Tb = 1/ rb . clc . plot2d ( f * Tb . f = 0:1/100: rb . h = abs ( convol (g . g ) ) .41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t o f r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e // F i g u r e 7 . SB_PSK (3 .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . // B i t d u r a t i o n M = [2 . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . ’M=8 ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. 4 1 // Matched F i l t e r Output clear . a =2. SB_PSK (1 .:) /(2* Eb ) . g = 2* ones (1 .:) /(2* Eb ) . T =4. end end a = gca () .4 .

Figure 7.12: Figure7.31 83 .

plot2d (t .01) h ( i ) =0. a =2 ’ ) figure plot2d ( t1 .6) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) title ( ’ Output o f f i l t e r matched t o r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e g( t ) ’) 84 .4].6 .g . a . end end h = h-T.12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 if ( h ( i ) <0.5) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ g ( t )−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ R e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e d u r a t i o n T = 4 . data_bounds = [0 .0.h . t1 = 0: length ( h ) -1. figure a = gca () .

41a 85 .13: Figure7.Figure 7.

Figure 7.41b 86 .14: Figure7.

2 Hamming Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes 2 // Example8 .k ) . ’ p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x ’ ) . n =5. 4 clc . clc . // p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x G = [ P 1]. // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x x = m . // c o d e word disp (G .k ) . // m e s s a g e b i t s l e n g t h 87 . Scilab code Exa 8. 1 : R e p e t i t i o n Codes clear .1 Repetition Codes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : R e p e t i t i o n Codes // Example8 . // I d e n t i t y m a t r i x P = ones (1 . // b l o c k o f i d e n t i c a l ’ n ’ b i t s k =1. // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x H = [ I P ’]. 2 : Hamming c o d e s 3 clear . ’ c o d e word f o r b i n a r y one i n p u t ’ ) .n . ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x ’ ) .* G . // one b i t m = 1. disp (x .n . disp (H .Chapter 8 Error-Control Coding Scilab code Exa 8. 5 k = 4. // b i t v a l u e = 1 I = eye (n -k .

:) .1 .1 . 0 .1].1 .0. disp (r .:) = modulo ( G (3 . 4 ) Hamming Code R e v i s i t e d // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 .0 .1 . g * D . // b l o c k l e n g t h m = n . 20 C = modulo (C .k .1 . 0 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p . ’G ’ ) G (3 .2) . ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x G ’ ) H = [ eye (k -1 .0 .0 .1 . // p a r i t y c h e c k m a t r i x disp (H .:) + G (1 .2) .1.1. 21 disp (C .k -1) P ’].1.3 Hamming Codes Revisited 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes R e v i s i t e d // Example8 .1 .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 n = 7.0 . D = poly (0 .0 .1. ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) G = [ g . ’ p a r i t y c h e c h k m a t r i x H ’ ) // m e s s a g e b i t s m = [0 .D) .0 .0 .:) = G (3 . k ) . // Number o f p a r i t y b i t s I = eye (k .1 . g ) . ’ i d e n t i t y m a t r i x I k ’ ) P =[1 . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. clc .0 . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x disp (G .0 . // i d e n t i t y m a t r i x disp (I .0 . g * D ^3]. G (3 .1 . G = coeff ( G ) .0 . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x disp (P .0 .0 .0.1 . disp (G .1 . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 .0.1 . p = coeff ( r ) . ’ Code words o f ( 7 .0.1. 88 .0 .:) . ’ c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x P ’ ) G = [ P I ].0 .0 . ’D ’ ) .1.0. q ] = pdiv (m . g * D ^2. // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) . 4 ) Hamming c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8.1 18 // 19 C = m * G . 3 : ( 7 .1 .0 .

4 : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 . 0 . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r . disp (r . ’ P a r t i y Check m a t r i x H = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8.4 Encoder for the (7. H (1 .:) + G (4 . 4 ) C y c l i c hamming code // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 .:) . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) disp ( ’ T a b l e 8 .:) . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 . H (1 . D = poly (0 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p .:) = modulo ( G (4 .2) .:) . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 . 7 f o r Me ss age S e q u e n c e ( 1 0 0 1 ) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( ’ S h i f t Contents ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) 16 disp ( ’ 1 17 disp ( ’ 2 Input Register 1 0 89 1 1 0 ’) 0 1 1 ’) . H = coeff ( H_num ) . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3.D) .:) + G (2 . D ^5* h . q ] = pdiv (m .:) = G (1 .:) + H (3 . H_num = numer ( H_D ) . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) . D ^6* h ].:) = modulo ( H (1 . disp (G .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 . disp (H . ’ G e n e r a t o r M a t r i x G = ’ ) h = 1+ D ^ -1+ D ^ -2+ D ^ -4. H_D = [ D ^4* h .2) . G (4 . 0 .18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 G (4 .:) = H (1 . p = coeff ( r ) . ’D ’ ) . g ) . 3 C o n t e n t s o f t h e S h i f t R e g i s t e r i n t h e E n c o d e r o f f i g 8 .:) .

’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r e d c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. ’D ’ ) . // m i d d l e b i t i s e r r o r [ r1 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l C1 = 0+ D + D ^2+ D ^3+0+0+ D ^6. 1 . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 . 1 . q2 ] = pdiv ( C2 .2) . 0 . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) [ r2 . // e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d C2 = 0+ D + D ^2+0+0+0+ D ^6. q1 ] = pdiv ( C1 . 6 : Reed−Solomon Codes 3 // S i n g l e −e r r o r −c o r r e c t i n g RS c o d e w i t h a 2− b i t b y t e 4 clc . 5 : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 0 . S1 = coeff ( r1 ) . S2 = modulo ( S2 .2) . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3.5 Syndrome calculator for the(7. 1 ] clc . disp ( r2 . //m i t symbol −b 90 . 0 . 5 m =2. 1 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form f o r e r r o r e d codeword ’ ) disp ( S2 .6 Reed-Solomon Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Reed−Solomon Codes 2 // Example8 . g ) . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp ( S1 . D = poly (0 . disp ( r1 . S2 = coeff ( r2 ) .18 19 20 disp ( ’ 3 disp ( ’ 4 disp ( ’ ’) 0 1 1 1 1 ’) 0 1 1 ’) Scilab code Exa 8. g ) . S1 = modulo ( S1 .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r f o r t h e ( 7 .

2) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . ’ n ’ ) disp (p .Time domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g − Time domain approach // Example8 . end x = string ( x ) disp ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 0 . x1 = modulo ( x1 . 0 . x2 (N . // number o f m e s s a g e b i t s t =1. 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 0 . // c o d e word l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e p = n . 1 . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . 1 .2) .7 Convolutional Encoding . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i .:) =[ x1 (N .i +1) . // s i n g l e b i t e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n n = 2^ m -1. g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . m ) ) .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 k = 1^2.k . m ) ) .i +1) ]. // c o d e r a t e disp (n . N = length ( x1 ) . clc . ’ I t can c o r r e c t any e r r o r u p t o = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. 7 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n // Time Domain Approach close . ’ n−k ’ ) disp (r . // p a r i t y b i t s l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e r = k / n . 1 ] // x = // ! 1 1 ! 91 . x2 = modulo ( x2 . ’ Code r a t e : r = k / n = ’ ) disp (2* t .

0. g1D = 1+ D + D ^2. ’D ’ ) . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e p o l y n o m i a l representation x1D = g1D * mD . D = poly (0 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 2 mD = 1+0+0+ D ^3+ D ^4.2) . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 1 g2D = 1+ D ^2. ’ t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) disp ( modulo ( x2 . 1. 1.2) . x2 = coeff ( x2D ) . 1.25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code Exa 8.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g T r a n s f o r m domain approach // Example8 . 1. 1. ’ bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. // bottom o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x1 = coeff ( x1D ) . 0. // // bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. 0. disp ( modulo ( x1 . 8 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e − T r a n s f o r m domain approach clc . 1. 1. // t o p o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x2D = g2D * mD . 1. 1. 92 .

7027499 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // − 8. // number o f b i t s pe = 0. // t r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y p = 1 .8822126 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t r e c p t i o n // − 3. ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t recption ’) disp ( gamma_3 .Scilab code Exa 8. 1 1 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e f o r b i n a r y symmetric channel clc . // c o d e r a t e n =2. // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one correct recption gamma_3 = 2* log2 ( pe ) +1.pe . r = 1/2. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n gama_1 = 2* log2 ( p ) +2*(1 .r ) .2877124 93 .11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Fano m e t r i c f o r b i n a r y s y m m e t r i c c h a n n e l using c o n v o l u t i o n a l code // Example8 . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r correct reception gamma_2 = log2 ( pe * p ) +1. // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no correct reception disp ( gama_1 . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’ ) disp ( gamma_2 . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’) // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // 0.04.

11 . x3 =0.8 . ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ].19]. 1 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e generator // Program t o g e n e r a t e Maximum Length Pseudo N o i s e Sequence // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 clc . x2 =0. x0 = xor ( x1 . disp (i .1 PN sequence generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : PN s e q u e n c e g e n e r a t i o n // Example9 .10 . x1 = x0 . x2 = x1 .9 .12 . ’ x= ’ ) end m = [7 .13 . x1 = 0.Chapter 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation Scilab code Exa 9. x3 ) . 1 and F i g u r e 9 .17 . N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) for i =1: N x3 = x2 . // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r x0 = 1. 94 . disp (x .

1. // x= 1. // x= 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 3. 1. 1. 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 5. 0. 1 Range o f PN S e q u e n c e l e n g t h s ’ ) 24 disp ( ’ 25 26 27 28 29 ’) disp ( ’ Length o f s h i f t r e g i s t e r (m) ’ ) disp ( m ) disp ( ’PN s e q u e n c e Length (N) ’ ) disp ( N ) disp ( ’ ’) // RESULTEnter t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l 7 // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 1. 1. 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 7. 8 x1 = 0. // x= 1. 2 and F i g u r e 9 . 1. 0. 2 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 3 // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 4 // P r o p e r i t e s o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 5 clc . 1. 0. 6 // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r 7 x0 = 1. 95 .2 Maximum length sequence property 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 1 // C a p t i o n : Maximum l e n g t h s e q u e n c e p r o p e r t y 2 // Example9 . 1. // x= 0. 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 4. 23 disp ( ’ T a b l e 9 . // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 6. // x= 0.22 N = 2^ m -1. // x= 0. 0. Scilab code Exa 9. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 2. // x= 1.

x3 =0. x3 ) . // figure a = gca () . t = 1:2* length ( C_level ) . if ( C ( i ) ==1) C_level ( i ) =1. ’ x= ’ ) C ( i ) = x3 . N ) . x2 = x1 . N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) one_count = 0. 4 disp ( C_level . 96 . end end disp (C . x0 = xor ( x1 . ’ Output S e q u e n c e ’ ) // r e f e r e q u a t i o n 9 . one_count = one_count +1. zero_count = 0. ’ Output S e q u e n c e l e v e l s ’ ) // r e f e r equation 9.9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 x2 =0. ’ Number o f 0 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( ’ P r o p e r t y 1 ( B a l a n c e p r o p e r t y ) i s s a t i s i f i e d ’ ) end Rc_tuo = corr ( C_level . disp (x . zero_count = zero_count +1. elseif ( C ( i ) ==0) C_level ( i ) = -1. x1 = x0 .5 if ( zero_count < one_count ) disp ( one_count . ’ Number o f 1 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( zero_count . for i =1: N x3 = x2 . ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. disp (i .

PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h . 52 plot2d ([ . ’ The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : ’ ) N = PG . Tb = 4. 50 a .3 Processing gain. // f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h disp (N .[ 53 Rc_tuo ( $ : -1:2) . 51 a . Jamming m a r g i n i n dB // Example9 . ’ The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : ’ ) disp (m .[ C_level . 44 plot2d (t . PN sequence length.0: length ( Rc_tuo ) -1] . //PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h m = log2 ( N +1) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . Rc_tuo ] . close .5) xlabel ( ’ tuo ’ ) 54 ylabel ( ’ Rc ( t u o ) ’ ) 55 title ( ’ A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 9. // I n f o r m a t i o n b i t d u r a t i o n Tc = 1*10^ -6.43 a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . C_level ]) 45 xlabel ( ’ t ’) 46 title ( ’ Waveform o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e [ 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1] ’) 47 // 48 figure 49 a = gca () . Jamming margin in dB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n . //PN c h i p d u r a t i o n PG = Tb / Tc . clc .095*10^ -3. 3 : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n and Jamming Margin clear . // P r o c e s s i n g g a i n disp ( PG . ’ The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : ’ ) 97 .length ( Rc_tuo ) +1: -1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .

1: Example9.Figure 9.2a 98 .

2: Example9.2b 99 .Figure 9.

19 // The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : 4 0 9 5 . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = 3 . 21 // Jamming Margin i n dB : 2 6 . ’ T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = ’ ) // R e s u l t // number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = 2 . clc . ’ number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = ’ ) disp (M . 5 : P a r a m e t e r s o f FH/MFSK signal // Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y Hopping clear . // Energy t o n o i s e d e n s i t y r a t i o 15 J_P = PG / Eb_No .5 Slow and Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y h o p p i n g : FH/MFSK // Example9 . // Number o f MFSK t o n e s M = 4 . // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e k = 3.4Example9. 4 and Example9 .6 Direct Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK 1 // C a p t i o n : D i r e c t S e q u e n c e S p r e a d C o h e r e n t BPSK 100 . // number o f b i t s p e r symbol M = 2^ K .14 Eb_No = 10. ’ l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = ’ ) disp (2^ k . 20 // The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : 1 2 .4Figure9. // Jamming Margin 16 disp (10* log10 ( J_P ) . // T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = 8 . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop disp (K . ’ P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = ’ ) disp (k . // Number o f MFSK t o n e s N = 2^ M -1. // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = 1 5 . 1 2 2 5 3 9 Scilab code Exa 9. ’ Jamming Margin i n dB : ’ ) 17 // R e s u l t 18 // The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : 4095. close . ’ Number o f MFSK t o n e s M ’ ) = disp (N . K =2. Scilab code Fig 9.

y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . t = 0:13. plot2d2 (t .01:1.1 . mt = bt .1 . end // figure subplot (3 .1 . -2. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . data_bounds = [0 . a .1 . ct = [0 . a .1 .0 . for i = 1: length ( mt ) st = [ st mt ( i ) * Carrier ].1].0 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . bt .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ Data b ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . wt = 0:0.0 . -2. ct_polar = [ -1 . plot2d2 (t . ct_polar .1 . -1 .0 . a . Carrier = 2* sin ( wt *2* %pi ) . N ) ].2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 // F i g u r e 9 . a . data_bounds = [0 .* ct_polar .1 .20 . a .1 . close .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 101 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 . st = [].0 .20 .2].1 . -1 .2].1 . clc .1].1 . -1 . N = 7. bt = [1* ones (1 . N ) -1* ones (1 .1 . -1 . a .1 .1 .1) a = gca () .2) a = gca () .1 . 4 : G e n e r a t i o n o f w a v e f o r m s i n DS/BPSK spread spectrum t r a n s m i t t e r clear . -1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .

2]. a .20 .2]. data_bounds = [0 . a . data_bounds = [0 .3) a = gca () . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . mt .35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 title ( ’ S p r e a d i n g c o d e c ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -2.20 . plot ( Carrier ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ C a r r i e r S i g n a l ’ ) subplot (3 .20 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . -2.2) a = gca () .2]. a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .20 . -2. 102 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -2. a .1 .2].3) a = gca () .1 . a .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) // figure subplot (3 . a . data_bounds = [0 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1) a = gca () .1 . data_bounds = [0 . mt . a . a . a . plot2d2 (t . plot2d2 (t .

6a 67 68 plot ( st ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 69 title ( ’DS/BPSK s i g n a l s ( t ) ’ ) 70 // Scilab code ARC 1 Alaw 1 2 3 function [ Cx .3: Figure9. A ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n //A−law : A−law n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n 103 . Xmax ] = Alaw (x .Figure 9.

6b 104 .Figure 9.4: Figure9.6b Figure9.

5: Figure10.12 105 .Figure 9.

Rxx = zeros (1 . for i = L +1: N h ( i ) = 0. for i = 1: L h (L . end for i = L +1: N x ( i ) = 0. elseif ( x ( i ) / Xmax > 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = (1+ log ( A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) ) ) .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // x = i n p u t v e c t o r //Cx = A−law c o m p r e s s o r o u t p u t //Xmax = maximum o f i n p u t v e c t o r x Xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . L ) . endfunction Scilab code ARC 2 auto correlation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 function [ Rxx ] = auto_correlation ( x ) // A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f a g i v e n I n p u t S e q u e n c e // F i n d i n g o u t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l u s i n g autocorrelation technique L = length ( x ) .i +1) = x ( i ) . for i = 1: length ( x ) if ( x ( i ) / Xmax < = 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) . // n o r m a l i z a t i o n o f o u t p u t v e c t o r Cx = Cx ’./(1+ log ( A ) ) . end for n = 1: N for k = 1: N if ( n >= k ) 106 . end end Cx = Cx / Xmax ./(1+ log ( A ) ) . N ) . h = zeros (1 . end N = 2* L -1.

:) =[ x1 (N . 1 ] // x = 107 . 4 clc .i +1) .21 Rxx ( n ) = Rxx ( n ) + x (n .2) . 0 . end x = string ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . m ) ) . n ] = max ( Rxx ) disp ( ’ P e r i o d o f t h e g i v e n s i g n a l u s i n g Auto C o r r e l a t i o n Sequence ’ ) n endfunction Scilab code ARC 3 Convolutional Coding 1 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n 2 // Time Domain Approach 3 close . 5 g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) 6 g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . x2 = modulo ( x2 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 1 . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i .k +1) * h ( k ) . 22 end 23 end 24 end 25 disp ( ’ Auto C o r r e l a t i o n R e s u l t i s ’ ) 26 Rxx 27 disp ( ’ C e n t e r V a l u e i s t h e Maximum o f a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n 28 29 30 31 result ’) [m . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .i +1) ]. x2 (N . 0 . 0 .2) . N = length ( x1 ) . m ) ) . x1 = modulo ( x1 . 1 .

0 . 1 . // G e t t i n g Code Words code1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word ’ ) . 1 . 1 . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . ’ Hamming D i s t a n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word [ 0 . clc . code2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word ’ ) . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 .22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code ARC 4 Hamming Distance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Weight and Hamming D i s t a n c e //H( 7 . Hamming_Distance = 0. 0 . 1 ] // Hamming D i s t a n c e 4. 0 . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . close . 0 . 0 . code2 ( i ) ) . Scilab code ARC 5 Hamming Encode 108 . 1 . for i = 1: length ( code1 ) Hamming_Distance = Hamming_Distance + xor ( code1 ( i ) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word [ 1 . end disp ( Hamming_Distance . 1 .

close .:) = [ b2 ( i ) b1 ( i ) b0 ( i ) ].:) = [ m3 ( i ) m2 ( i ) m1 ( i ) m0 ( i ) ]. xor ( m3 ( i ) . disp ( ” ”).:) . b1 ( i ) = xor ( m1 ( i ) . m2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . m0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . b (i . m1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . end disp ( ’ ’) // d i s p (m b C) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word 109 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 . end C = [ b m ]. // G e n e r a t i n g P a r i t y b i t s for i = 1:(2^4) b2 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . ’ Mes sa ge Word ’ ) disp ( b (i .:) . m1 ( i ) ) ) . b0 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . disp ( ’ ’) for i = 1:2^4 disp ( i ) disp ( m (i . ’ P a r i t y B i t s ’ ) disp ( C (i . clc . // G e t t i n g M es sag e Word m3 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . m3 ( i ) ) ) . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . xor ( m2 ( i ) .:) . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . ’ CodeWord ’ ) disp ( ” ”).1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Hamming E n c o d i n g //H( 7 . xor ( m1 ( i ) . m2 ( i ) ) ) . m (i .

0 .1 .1 35 // E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .0 . function x = invmulaw (y .0 .1 .1 .( n . for i = 1: length ( x ) for j = n : -1:0 if ( fix ( en_code ( i ) /(2^ j ) ) ==1) c (i .j ) ) =1. mu ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n // invmulaw : i n v e r s e mulaw n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n // x = o u t p u t v e c t o r // y = i n p u t v e c t o r ( u s i n g mulaw n o n l i n e a r comression ) 6 x = (((1+ mu ) .1 .0 .1 .1 .0 .1 .1 .1].1 34 // E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .1]. word .1 .0 .1 .0 .0 .1 .0 .0 . . en_code ) // E n c o d i n g : C o n v e r t i n g Q u a n t i z e d d e c i m a l s a m p l e values in to binary // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s // e n c o d e = n o r m a l i z e d i n p u t s e q u e n c e n = log2 ( L ) .0 .0 .1 36 // E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e [0 . .1].0 ./ mu ) 7 endfunction Scilab code ARC 6 PCM Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 function [ c ] = PCM_Encoding (x .0 .0 .0 .0 .[0 .0 .1].1 .0 .0 . c = zeros ( length ( x ) .1 . end end end disp ( c ) 110 .1 .1 .0 .0 .1 .L .0 .0 .0 Scilab code ARC 5 invmulaw 1 2 3 4 5 .1 .0 .1 .0 .1 .1 .1 .1 .1 .1 .^( abs ( y ) ) -1) .n ) .0 . en_code ( i ) = en_code ( i ) -2^ j .1 .

y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . en_code ) . // S t e p 2 c = PCM_Encoding (x . xq . close . a = gca () . t = 0:0. plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi .001:1. 5 y ( i ) = 1. 3 x ( i ) = 1. en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . // S t e p 1 [ SQNR . // From LS : don ’ t n e e d t h i s i s /0 warning i s o f f 4 y = sin ( %pi * x ) .5) . s c e . title ( ’ Q u a n t i z a t i o n o f Sampled a n a l o g s i g n a l ’ ) legend ([ ’ Analog s i g n a l ’ . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . L = 16. 6 endfunction 111 . a . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi ./( %pi * x ) . xq . ’ Q u a n t i z e d S i g n a l ’ ]) Scilab code ARC 8 sinc new 1 function [ y ]= sinc_new ( x ) 2 i = find ( x ==0) . x = sin (2* %pi * t ) . s c e ) // T h i s program i s a s a m p l e program f o r P u l s e Code Modulation t r a n s m i s s i o n // s t e p 1 : The g i v e n a n a l o g s i g n a l c o n v e r t e d i n t o quantized sample value // s t e p 2 : Then t h e q u a n t i z e d s a m p l e v a l u e c o n v e r t e d into binary value clc .L . a . x ) . L ) .Scilab code ARC 7 PCM Transmission 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n :PCM T r a n s m i s s i o n ( i n c l u d e s f u n c t i o n s : u n i f o r m p c m . PCM encoding .

. q = q -(( L -1) /2) * d . endfunction Scilab code ARC 10 xor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 function [ value ] = xor (A . en_code ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) = (i -1) . else value = 1. SQNR = 20* log10 ( norm ( x ) / norm (x .Scilab code ARC 9 uniform pcm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 function [ SQNR . q ( i ) . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x .* ones (1 . xq = x / xmax . end xq = xq * xmax . length ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) ) . for i = 1: L xq ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) =. end endfunction 112 . length ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) ) . B ) if ( A == B ) value = 0. d = 2/ L .. q = d *[0: L -1]. en_code = xq . xq . L ) // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) .xq ) ) .* ones (1 .

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