Scilab Code for Digital Communication, by Simon Haykin 1

Created by Prof. R. Senthilkumar Institute of Road and Transport Technology rsenthil signalprocess@in.com Cross-Checked by Prof. Saravanan Vijayakumaran, IIT Bombay sarva@ee.iitb.ac.in 23 August 2010

by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT, http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Text Book Companion and Scilab codes written in it can be downlaoded from the website www.scilab.in

1 Funded

Book Details
Authors: Simon Haykins Title: Digital Communication Publisher: Willey India Edition: Wiley India Edition Year: Reprint 2010 Place: Delhi ISBN: 9788126508242

1

Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the above book. Prb Problem (Unsolved problem) Exa Example (Solved example) Tab Table ARC Additionally Required Code (Scilab Code that is not part of the above book but required to solve a particular Example) AE Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular Example of the above book) CF Code for Figure(Scilab code that is used for plotting the respective figure of the above book ) For example, Prb 4.56 means Problem 4.56 of the above book. Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

2

Contents
List of Scilab Codes 1 Introduction 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance 3 Detection and Estimation 4 Sampling Process 5 Waveform Coding Techniques 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission 7 Digital Modulation Techniques 8 Error-Control Coding 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation 4 2 5 14 27 31 39 59 87 94

3

List of Scilab Codes
CF 1.2 Exa 2.1 Exa 2.2 Exa 2.3 Exa 2.4 Exa 2.5 Exa 2.6 Exa 2.7 Exa 3.1 Exa 3.2 Exa 3.3 Exa 3.4 Exa 3.6 CF 3.29 Exa 4.1 Exa 4.3 Exa 5.1 Exa 5.2 Digital Representation of Analog signal . . . . . . . . Entropy of Binary Memoryless source . . . . . . . . . Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Binary Symmetric Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel . . Significance of the Channel Coding theorem . . . . . . Orthonormal basis for given set of signals . . . . . . . M ARY Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for RF pulse . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal . . . . . . . Linear Predictor of Order one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm . . Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse . . Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect . . . . . . . . Average Transmitted Power for PCM . . . . . . . . . Comparision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 5.3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM . . . . . . Exa 5.5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier . . . . . . . CF 6.1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format . . . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.2 Duobinary Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 5 5 7 8 9 10 10 14 16 19 20 22 24 27 28 31 31 32 34 36 36 39 40 40 42 44

Exa 6.3 CF 6.4 CF 6.6b CF 6.7b CF 6.9 CF 6.15

Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder . . . Power Spectra of different binary data formats . . . . (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine . . . . . . . . . Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter . . . Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 7.1 QPSK Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques . Exa 7.2 MSK waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK . . . . . . . Tab 7.3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal . . . . . . . CF 7.4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK . . . . . . . CF 7.6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform . . Tab 7.6 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals . . . . . . Tab 7.7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals . . . . . . CF 7.29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse . . . . . . Exa 8.1 Repetition Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.2 Hamming Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.3 Hamming Codes Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.4 Encoder for the (7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code . . . . . . Exa 8.5 Syndrome calculator for the(7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code Exa 8.6 Reed-Solomon Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.7 Convolutional Encoding - Time domain approach . . . Exa 8.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach Exa 8.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.1 PN sequence generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.2 Maximum length sequence property . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.3 Processing gain, PN sequence length, Jamming margin in dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.4Example9.5 Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK . . . . Slow and Fig 9.4Figure9.6 Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK . . . . . . . . Direct ARC 1 Alaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARC 2 auto correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

47 48 49 51 53 55 59 61 63 68 70 72 74 74 76 77 78 80 82 87 87 88 89 90 90 91 92 93 94 95 97 100 100 103 106

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 108 108 110 110 111 111 112 112 6 . . . invmulaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCM Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hamming Encode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCM Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 Convolutional Coding Hamming Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sinc new . . . . . . . xor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . uniform pcm . . .

. . . . . . . . Example3.6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . .3 3. . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Figure1. . . . .1 1. . . . .2 3. . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . .1b Figure6. . . . . . . .15 . . . . . Example3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Figure6. . . . . . . .2 2. .2 5. . . . . . . . . . 3 4 6 11 13 16 17 19 21 23 26 28 30 33 37 38 41 43 45 50 52 54 56 58 Example4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6. . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example5. . .2b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13a . . . . . . . .13b . . .7 Figure6. . Figure1. . . . . . . . .1a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 .6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Figure6. . . . .2 . . . . . . . .5 6. . . .2 . . . Example3. . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . .1a Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example2. . . . . .9 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . Figure5. . . . . . . . . . . Example3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . .4 3. . . . . . .2a . . . . . . . . . . . .1b . . Figure3. . . . Example3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . .29 . . . . . .7 . .3 6. Example4. . . . . . . . . .3 3. . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . Example2.3 . . . . . .1c Figure6. . . . . Figure5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. Example2. .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . .3 7. . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . .9 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7.2 9. . .6 7. . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . .4 . . . . . . . . .13 7. . . . . . . . . . . 61 64 65 66 69 70 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 86 98 99 103 104 105 Example9. . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 7. . . . . . . . . .3 9. .2a . . . . . . . . . . . .8 7. . . .2 7. . . Figure7.2b .41a Figure7. . . . . . . Example7. . . . Figure 7. . . .10 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 9. .5 Example7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . Figure7. . . . . . . .11 7. . . . .7 7. . . . . . . . . .30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6a . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Figure7. . . . . . . .2 Figure7. Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9.12 . .1b . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 .41b . . . .29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure9. . .1a . . Figure7.1c . . . . . . . . . . . . Example9. . . . . . . . . . . . Figure9. . . . . . . . . . . Figure7.31 . . . . . . . . .6b .12 7. .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 . a .0 .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .0 . a . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .5 .0 .1 .0 .0 .0 . -0.sqrt (2) .1 .0 .0 .2 .0 . x = 2* sin (( %pi /2) * t ) .0 .3] plot (t .0 .2 Digital Representation of Analog signal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Analog s i g n a l // F i g u r e 1 . dig_data = [0 .Chapter 1 Introduction Scilab code CF 1.1 . a . 2 : Analog t o D i g i t a l C o n v e r s i o n clear . close . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .5 . clc . -1 .2 . -9) xlabel ( ’ Time ’ ) 21 ylabel ( ’ 2 . -3. t = -1:0. -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .0 .0 . sqrt (2) . .1] // figure a = gca () .01:1. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .0. x ) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .1 . data_bounds =[ -2 . -2 .

Figure 1.21 . data_bounds = [0 . dig_data .2a 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Voltage ’) title ( ’ Analog Waveform ’ ) // figure a = gca () . a .1: Figure1.5) title ( ’ D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n ’ ) 3 .0.5]. plot2d2 ([1: length ( dig_data ) ] .

2b 4 .Figure 1.2: Figure1.

H_Po ) 14 xlabel ( ’ Symbol P r o b a b i l i t y . 6 clc .2 Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source 5 .Po ( i ) ) * log2 (1 .01:1. length ( Po ) ) . 1 : Entropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e 3 // p a g e 18 4 clear . 8 H_Po = zeros (1 .Po ( i ) * log2 ( Po ( i ) ) -(1 . Po ’ ) 15 ylabel ( ’H( Po ) ’ ) 16 title ( ’ Entropy f u n c t i o n H( Po ) ’ ) 17 plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . 9 for i = 2: length ( Po ) -1 10 H_Po ( i ) = . 11 end 12 // p l o t 13 plot2d ( Po . 5 close .Po ( i )).0.1 Entropy of Binary Memoryless source 1 // C a p t i o n : Ent ropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e 2 // Example 2 .5 .1) Scilab code Exa 2. 7 Po = 0:0.Chapter 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance Scilab code Exa 2.

Figure 2.1 6 .1: Example2.

// p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S1 P2 = 1/2. clc . P0 = 1/4. P2 * P2 ]. ’H( R u o S q u a r e )= ’ ) disp ( ’H( R u o S q u a r e ) = 2∗H( Ruo ) ’ ) 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 7 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S0 P1 = 1/4. P1 * P0 . ’ P r o b a b i l i t y p ( s i g m a ) . . 2 : Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e // p a g e 19 clear . H_Ruo_Square .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // c a p t i o n : S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source // Example 2 . P0 * P1 . P2 * P0 . disp ( ’ Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . P1 * P2 . P1 * P1 . P0 * P2 . for i = 1: length ( P_sigma ) H_Ruo_Square = H_Ruo_Square + P_sigma ( i ) * log2 (1/ P_sigma ( i ) ) . end disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S2 H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) . . . i = 0 . disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . 8 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ ’) H_Ruo_Square =0. H_Ruo ) // S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f d i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s source P_sigma = [ P0 * P0 . 1 . 1 A l p h a b e t P a r t i c u l a r s o f Second−o r d e r Extension o f a D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ S e q u e n c e o f Symbols o f r u o 2 : ’ ) disp ( ’ S0 ∗ S0 S0 ∗ S1 S0 ∗ S2 S1 ∗ S0 S1 ∗ S1 S1 ∗ S2 S2 ∗ S0 S2 ∗ S1 S2 ∗ S2 ’ ) disp ( P_sigma . P2 * P1 . .

disp ( sigma_1 . Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : Entropy . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g 8 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 0 ’ L1 = 2.1.4 Entropy. H_Ruo . clc . disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .L .L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 .L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 . ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) disp ( ’ p e r c e n t ’ . A v e r a g e l e n g t h . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g // Example 2 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 1 ’ L2 = 2.H_Ruo ) / H_Ruo ) *100 . 3 : Huffman E n c o d i n g : C a l c u l a t i o n o f // ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ // ( b ) E ntropy ’H’ clear . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0.L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 .2.((L . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 ’ L0 = 2.Average length. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 3. P0 = 0.3 Entropy. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0.L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 .Scilab code Exa 2.2. Average length. ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. ’ A v e r a g e code − word l e n g t h L e x c e e d s t h e e n t r o p y H( Ruo ) by o n l y ’ ) sigma_1 = P0 *( L0 .L ) ^2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 .1. H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) .4. Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Entropy . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0. A v e r a g e l e n g t h . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 3.

// p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 4. P0 = 0. H_Ruo .p . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0. e ) transition probility 8 disp (p . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 ’ L0 = 1. 5 close . ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n 7 pe = 1 . ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) sigma_2 = P0 *( L0 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 4.L .5 Binary Symmetric Channel 1 // C a p t i o n : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 2 // Example2 .4. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 0 ’ L2 = 3.L ) ^2. 4 : I l l u s t r a t i n g n o n u n i q u e s s o f t h e Huffman E n c o d i n g // C a l c u l a t i o n o f ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ ( b ) Entr opy ’H’ clear . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0. 4 clc .1. // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r r e c e p t i o n ( i .1. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0. disp ( sigma_2 . 6 p = 0. clc .L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 . ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t= ’ ) 9 .L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 . disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // Example2 .4.2.2.L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 ’ L1 = 2. 5 : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 3 clear . H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) . ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 .

C . close . C ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 .p ( i ) ) * log2 ((1 .5) xlabel ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n P r o b i l i t y . 7 : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c h a n n e l c o d i n g theorem 3 // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r o f R e p e t i t i o n Code 1 2 10 .7 Significance of the Channel Coding theorem // C a p t i o n : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Channel Coding t h e o r e m // Example2 . end end plot2d (p . clc . for i =1: length ( p ) if ( i ~=1) C ( i ) = 1+ p ( i ) * log2 ( p ( i ) ) +(1 .p ( i ) ) ) .9 10 disp ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y ’ ) disp ( pe . elseif ( i == length ( p ) ) C ( i ) =0.6 Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Channel C a p a c i t y o f a B i n a r y Symmetric Channel // Example2 . p ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Channel C a p a c i t y . 1 0 V a r i a t i o n o f c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y o f a binary symmetric channel with t r a n s i t i o n probility p ’) Scilab code Exa 2.5. 6 : Channel C a p a c i t y o f B i n a r y Symmetri Channel clear . ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t= ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2.01:0. p = 0:0. elseif ( i ==1) C ( i ) =1.

2: Example2.Figure 2.6 11 .

pe_5 .p ) + p ^7.4 clear .p ) + p ^3. 7 p =10^ -2.1/5 .0. pe_7 ]. // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/5 11 pe_7 = ((7*6*5) /(1*2*3) ) * p ^4*(1 . // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/7 12 r = [1 . 16 plot2d (r . 5 clc . ’ Code Rate .p ) ^3+(42/2) * p ^5*(1 .1/7].p ) + p ^5.0. 6 close . Pe ’ ) 25 disp ( ’ ’) 12 . Pe ’ ) 19 title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 . 1 2 I l l u s t r a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e channel coding theorem ’ ) 20 legend ( ’ R e p e t i t i o n c o d e s ’ ) 21 xgrid (1) 22 disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . 3 A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r f o r R e p e t i t i o n Code ’ ) 23 disp ( ’ ’) 24 disp (r . 15 a .pe . 14 a = gca () . pe .01].1/3 . // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/3 10 pe_5 = 10* p ^3*(1 . // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r code r a t e r = 1 9 pe_3 = 3* p ^2*(1 . data_bounds =[0 .p ) ^2+5* p ^4*(1 . 13 pe = [ pe_1 . r ’ ) 18 ylabel ( ’ A v e r a g e P r o b a b i l i t y o f e r r o r . ’ A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r . r =1/n ’ .5) 17 xlabel ( ’ Code r a t e .p ) ^2+7* p ^6*(1 . 8 pe_1 = p . pe_3 .1 .

Figure 2.7 13 .3: Example2.

// 14 . ones (1 . s3t = [0 . length ( t1 ) -2) .01: T . length ( t7 ) -2) . 1 : F i n d i n g o r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r t h e g i v e n signals // u s i n g Gram−Schmidt o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e clear . length ( t6 ) -2) . s2t = [0 .0]. t7 = 2* T /3:0.0]. length ( t3 ) -2) . ones (1 . s4t = [0 .0]. ones (1 . length ( t5 ) -2) .0]. ones (1 .01: T /3. t5 = 0:0.1 Orthonormal basis for given set of signals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : O r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r g i v e n s e t o f s i g n a l s // Example3 .01:2* T /3.Chapter 3 Detection and Estimation Scilab code Exa 3.0]. t3 = T /3:0. length ( t2 ) -2) . length ( t4 ) -2) . t6 = T /3:0. phi3t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 .0]. s1t = [0 . T = 1.01: T .01:2* T /3. t2 = 0:0. ones (1 . close .01: T . ones (1 . phi2t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 .01: T /3.0]. clc . t1 = 0:0. t4 = 0:0. ones (1 . phi1t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 .

0.1 . a . data_bounds = [0 .2 .1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .1) a = gca () .2 . s3t .2) 15 .1 .2].2]. a .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .1 . s1t .0.5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 3 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 . 4 ( b ) The r e s u l t i n g s e t o f o r t h o n o r m a l functions ’) subplot (3 . s2t .3) a = gca () .1 .2 .2) a = gca () . data_bounds = [0 .0. plot2d2 ( t1 . plot2d2 ( t3 .4].5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .2 . phi1t .1) a = gca () . s4t . a . data_bounds = [0 .0. data_bounds = [0 .2].5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 4 ( t ) ’ ) // figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . plot2d2 ( t5 . plot2d2 ( t2 . plot2d2 ( t4 .2 . data_bounds = [0 .4) a = gca () . a .1 .23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . 4 ( a ) S e t o f s i g n a l s t o be orthonormalized ’) subplot (4 .0. a .2].

1a 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 a = gca () .2 . data_bounds = [0 .2 .1 . data_bounds = [0 . phi3t .0. phi2t . a .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .Figure 3.4].5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 3 ( t ) ’ ) 16 . a .1: Example3. plot2d2 ( t6 .3) a = gca () .0.4]. plot2d2 ( t7 .

1b 17 .Figure 3.2: Example3.

close . 8 ( c ) . clc .2 . D e c i s i o n i n t e r v a l s f o r received dibits ’) disp ( ’ R e c e i v e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ 20 21 22 23 24 25 01 01 ’) 26 disp ( ’ I n t e r v a l on p h i 1 ( t ) | x1 < −a .2 M ARY Signaling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n :M −ARY S i g n a l i n g // Example3 .5. a = gca () . -10) xlabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .(1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) ].Scilab code Exa 3. 2 : M −ARY SIGNALING // S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n and R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d i b i t s clear .0] . data_bounds = [ -2 . // a m p l i t u d e =1 T =1. p o i n t | ( −3/2) a s q r t (T) | ( − 1 / 2 ) a s q r t ( T) | ( 3 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) | ( 1 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ T r a n s m i t t e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .0 .(3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) . s q r t (T) |− a . // Symbol d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s // Four m e s s a g e p o i n t s Si1 = [( -3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .0. a =1. 8 ( b ) . o f meg . s q r t ( 18 . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s m i t t e d dibits ’) disp ( ’ Loc .5] plot2d ( Si1 . -0.( -1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .0 . a .[0 . 8 ( a ) S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n ’ ) xgrid (1) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .

s q r t (T)<x1 ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. close . clc . // c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y i n Hz T =1. s q r t (T) | a .3: Example3. 19 . fc =4.01: T .2 T)<x1 <0| 0<x1<a .3 Matched Filter output for RF pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r RF p u l s e // Example3 . 3 : MATCHED FILTER FOR RF PULSE clear .Figure 3. t1 = 0:0.

01:2* T . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . phiot = phiot / max ( phiot ) . a . plot2d ( t1 . plot2d ( t2 . 1 3 ( a ) RF p u l s e i n p u t ’ ) subplot (2 . hopt = phit . a . phiot ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 1 3 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3.1) a = gca () . a . data_bounds = [0 . 4 : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r n o i s e l i k e 1 20 . data_bounds = [0 .4 Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r N o i s e − l i k e signal 2 // Example3 . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . a . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1]. -1.2) a = gca () . hopt ) .1 . a .1].1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . subplot (2 .1 . t2 = 0:0. -1. phiot = convol ( phit . phit ) .9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 phit = sqrt (2/ T ) * cos (2* %pi * fc * t1 ) .

Figure 3.3 21 .4: Example3.

1]. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ u n i f o r m ’ ) . phi0t ) . data_bounds = [0 . a . plot2d ([1: length ( phi0t ) ] .2) a = gca () . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -1.1) a = gca () . hopt = phit . phit ) . clc . -1.1]. hopt ) .1* rand (1 . a . 1 6 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. subplot (2 .10 .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 input clear . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1 . data_bounds = [0 . phi0t = convol ( phit .6 Linear Predictor of Order one 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 22 . plot2d ([1: length ( phit ) ] . a . phi0t = phi0t / max ( phi0t ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a .1 . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . close .1 . a . 1 6 ( a ) N o i s e L i k e i n p u t s i g n a l ’ ) subplot (2 . phit =0.

Figure 3.5: Example3.4 23 .

buffer * w . Rxx = [0. mu = 0. disp ( sigma_E .h01 * Rxx (3) . t =0:0. close .^2) / length ( x ) ) . Rxx ( 3 ) = Rxx ( 1 ) sigma_E = Rxx (2) . order = 18. ’ P r e d i c t o r i n p u t v a r i a n c e ’ ) if ( sigma_X > sigma_E ) disp ( ’ The p r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e i s l e s s t h a n the variance of the p r e d i c t o r input ’ ) end Scilab code CF 3.1) . x_n = x + noise .6]. // Rxx ( 2 ) = Rxx ( 0 ) . 6 : LINEAR PREDICTION : P r e d i c t o r o f Order One clear . length ( x ) ) . sigma_X = Rxx (2) . 24 . for k =1:1010 for i = 1: N .01*( sum ( x . ref_noise = noise * rand (10) . x = sin (2* %pi *5* t ) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 // C a p t i o n : L i n e a r P r e d i c t o r o f Order one // Example3 . close . clc . desired ( i ) = x_n ( i ) .29 Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f LMS ADAPTIVE FILTER // For n o i s e c a n c e l l a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n clear . h01 = Rxx (3) / Rxx (2) . N = length ( x ) . ’ P r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e ’ ) disp ( sigma_X .01:1. noise = rand (1 .6 1 0. w = zeros ( order .order -1 buffer = ref_noise ( i : i + order -1) . clc .

2) 26 plot2d (t . 20 end 21 end 22 subplot (4 .1 .1 .1 .1 . noise . x_n .3) 29 plot2d (t . x ) 24 title ( ’ O r i g n a l I n p u t S i g n a l ’ ) 25 subplot (4 .5) 30 title ( ’ S i g n a l+n o i s e ’ ) 31 subplot (4 .2) 27 title ( ’ random n o i s e ’ ) 28 subplot (4 .4) 32 plot ( desired ) 33 title ( ’ n o i s e removed s i g n a l ’ ) 25 .1) 23 plot2d (t .19 w = w +( buffer * mu * desired ( i ) ) ’.

Figure 3.6: Figure3.29

26

Chapter 4 Sampling Process
Scilab code Exa 4.1 Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

// C a p t i o n : Bound on A l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r Time− s h i f t e d sinc pulse // Example4 . 1 : Maximum bound on a l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r sinc pulse clc ; close ; t = -1.5:0.01:2.5; g = 2* sinc_new (2* t -1) ; disp ( max ( g ) , ’ A l i a s i n g e r r o r c a n n o t e x c e e d max | g ( t ) | ’ ) f = -1:0.01:1; G = [0 ,0 ,0 ,0 , ones (1 , length ( f ) ) ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0]; f1 = -1.04:0.01:1.04; subplot (2 ,1 ,1) a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -3 , -1;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d (t , g ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ g( t ) ’) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( a ) S i n c p u l s e g ( t ) ’ ) subplot (2 ,1 ,2) 27

Figure 4.1: Example4.1
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -2 ,0;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d2 ( f1 , G ) xlabel ( ’ f ’) ylabel ( ’ G( f ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( b ) A m p l i t u d e s p e c t r u m |G( f ) | ’ ) Scilab code Exa 4.3 Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect

1

// C a p t i o n : E q u a l i z e r t o c o m p e n s a t e A p e r t u r e e f f e c t 28

3 : E q u a l i z e r t o Compensate f o r a p e r t u r e effect clc .6. a .E . E (1) =1. data_bounds = [0 . plot2d ( T_Ts . T_Ts = 0. close .01:0.8.0.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 // Example4 . 5 ( T/ Ts ) ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 1 6 N o r m a l i z e d e q u a l i z a t i o n ( t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r a p e r t u r e e f f e c t ) p l o t t e d v e r s u s T/ Ts ’ ) 29 . //E = 1 / ( s i n c n e w ( 0 .5) xlabel ( ’ Duty c y c l e T/ Ts ’ ) ylabel ( ’ 1/ s i n c ( 0 .1.01:0.0. end a = gca () . for i = 2: length ( T_Ts ) E ( i ) = (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) /( sin (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) ) .8 .2]. 5 ∗ T Ts ) ) .

3 30 .2: Example4.Figure 4.

0 0 0 0 1 2 2 Scilab code Exa 5. disp ( P ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e 10ˆ −6 // E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f s i g n a l i n g 7 // E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r 2 // The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : 0 . 6 sigma_N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e ’ ) . 7 k = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 s i g n a l i n g ’ ).1 Average Transmitted Power for PCM 1 // C a p t i o n : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power f o r PCM 2 // Example5 . 1 : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power o f PCM 3 // Page 187 4 clear .2 Comaprision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) 31 . M = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r ’ ) . disp ( ’ The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : ’ ) P = ( k ^2) *( sigma_N ) *(( M ^2) -1) /12. 5 clc .Chapter 5 Waveform Coding Techniques Scilab code Exa 5.

Rb/B . 3 : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n n o i s e r a t i o // Channel Bandwidth B clear . plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . P_NoB_dB = [ -20:30]. d e c i b e l s ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y . line_style = 4.10]. d e c i b e l s P_NoB = 10^( P_NoB_dB /10) .3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM 1 2 3 4 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n N o i s e R a t i o o f PCM // Example5 . b i t s p e r s e c o n d per hertz ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 5 . clc . thickness =2. data_bounds = [ -30 . k =7. // bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s e c /Hz C_B = log2 (1+ P_NoB ) . ’PCM ’ ]) Scilab code Exa 5. children (1) . // f o r M r y PCM s y s t e m . 9 Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h t h e −a i d e a l ssytem ’ ) legend ([ ’ I d e a l System ’ .0. 32 . close . a . children (1) . xlabel ( ’ I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/NoB .5) poly1 = a . C_B .40 . // i d e a l s y s t e m a c c o r d i n g t o Shannon ’ s c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y t h e o r e m // p l o t a = gca () .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h i d e a l s y s t e m −a ( Channel C a p a c i t y Theorem ) // Example5 . Rb_B . −a Rb_B = log2 (1+(12/ k ^2) * P_NoB ) . poly1 . 2 : Comparison o f M r y PCM s y s t e m −a // Channel C a p a c i t y t h e o r e m clear .5) plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . poly1 . // I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/ NoB .

2 33 .Figure 5.1: Example5.

o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 8 14 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 15 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 32000. 11 disp ( SNRo .2. o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : ’ ) 7 W = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 8 B = n*W. Scilab code Exa 5. 6 n = input ( ’ E n t e r no .7. clc .5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 // Example 5 : D e l t a M o d u l a t i o n − t o a v o i d s l o p e overload distortion //maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o f o r s i n u s o i d a l modulation // p a g e 207 clear . 16 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 0 . ’ Channel w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 10 SNRo = 6* n . 22 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 6 . 9 disp (B . 34 . ’ Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : ’ ) 12 // R e s u l t 1 i f n = 8 bits 13 // E n t e r no .5 clc . 8 17 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 18 // R e s u l t 2 i f n = 9 b i t s 19 // E n t e r no . 8 23 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 24 // C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 i f 25 number o f b i t s i n c r e a s e d by 1 // c o r r e s p o n d i n g o u t p u t s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n PCM i n c r e a s e d by 6 dB . a0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : ’ ). o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 9 20 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 21 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 3 6 0 0 0 .

7 f0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f

sinusoidal signal

i n Hz : ’ ) ;
8 fs = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s

per s e c o n d s : ’ );
9 Ts = 1/ fs ; // S a m p l i n g i n t e r v a l 10 delta = 2* %pi * f0 * a0 * Ts ; // S t e p 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

s i z e to avoid s l o p e

overload Pmax = ( a0 ^2) /2; //maximum p e r m i s s i b l e o u t p u t power sigma_Q = ( delta ^2) /3; // Q u a n t i z a t i o n e r r o r o r n o i s e variance W = f0 ; //Maximum m e s s a g e bandwidth N = W * Ts * sigma_Q ; // A v e r a g e o u t p u t n o i s e power SNRo = Pmax / N ; // Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e ratio SNRo_dB = 10* log10 ( SNRo ) ; disp ( SNRo_dB , ’ Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r Delta Modualtion : ’ ) // R e s u l t 1 f o r f s = 8 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :8000 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : −5.1717849 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// R e s u l t 2 f o r f s = 1 6 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 27 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :16000 28 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : 3 . 8 5 9 1 1 5 29 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
24 25 26

35

// C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 , i f the sampling frequency 31 // i s d o u b l e d t h e s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n c r e a s e d by 9 dB
30

Scilab code CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

15

// C a p t i o n : u−Law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( a ) Mulaw companding N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g mulaw c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f mu clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t mu = [0 ,5 ,255]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f mu for i = 1: length ( mu ) [ Cx (i ,:) , Xmax ( i ) ] = mulaw (x , mu ( i ) ) ; end plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) , Cx (1 ,:) ,2) plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) , Cx (2 ,:) ,4) plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) , Cx (3 ,:) ,6) xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : u−Law companding ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) ; legend ([ ’ u =0 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=5 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=255 ’ ]) Scilab code CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// C a p t i o n : A−law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( b )A−law companding , N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g A−law c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f A clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t A = [1 ,2 ,87.56]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f A for i = 1: length ( A ) 36

Figure 5.2: Figure5.13a

37

13b 9 [ Cx (i .Figure 5.4) 13 plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) .:) .:) . Cx (3 . Xmax ( i ) ] = Alaw (x .:) .[ ’A=2 ’ ] .3: Figure5. ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ . 5 6 ’ ]) 38 .2) 12 plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) . Cx (2 . 15 legend ([ ’A =1 ’ ] . Cx (1 . A ( i ) ) . 10 end 11 plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) .:) .[ ’A= 8 7 . ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) .6) 14 xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : A−Law companding ’ .

clc . ’ T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m i n Hz : ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l :0. 1 : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 Carrier // Page 251 clear . // minimum t r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth o f T1 system // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m ’B ’ alpha = 1.1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 c a r r i e r // Example6 .alpha ) . // c o s i n e r o l l − o f f f a c t o r f1 = Bo *(1 . Tb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l : ’) Bo = 1/(2* Tb ) . B = 2* Bo .Chapter 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission Scilab code Exa 6.647∗10ˆ −6 // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m 39 . disp (B .f1 .

thickness =3. binary_one = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. total_duration = L * L . children (1) . clc . close . L = length ( x ) .L +1: i * L ] . binary_zero ) . a . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ U n i p o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. 1 ( a ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 1 ] . data_bounds =[0 -2. poly1 . children (1) . children (1) . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]. L1 = length ( binary_zero ) .1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format 1 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o p o l a r f o r m a t 40 . 1 Scilab code CF 6. poly1 = a . thickness =3. else plot ([ i *L . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. poly1 = a . U n i p o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear .i n Hz : 1 5 4 5 5 9 5 . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . poly1 .L +1: i * L ] .1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o u n i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . L * L1 2]. children (1) . binary_one ) .

1: Figure6.1a 41 .Figure 6.

// p l o t t i n g a = gca () . else plot ([ i *L . total_duration = L * L1 . 42 . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. thickness =3. binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. a . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // F i g u r e 6 . clc . L * L1 2]. children (1) . poly1 = a . close . poly1 = a . binary_negative ) .L +1: i * L ] .1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o b i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . children (1) .L +1: i * L ] . L = length ( x ) . 1 ( c ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 3 ] . data_bounds =[0 -2. children (1) . close . binary_positive ) . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . children (1) . poly1 . poly1 . 1 ( b ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 2 ] . B i P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . thickness =3.

1b 43 .2: Figure6.Figure 6.

0]. L * L1 2]. binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. L = length ( x ) . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]. // p l o t t i n g a = gca () .7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 clc . children (1) . elseif (( x ( i ) ==1) &( x (i -1) ~=1) ) plot ([ i *L . binary_zero ) .1 . total_duration = L * L1 . poly1 = a .L +1: i * L ] . 5 b = [0 . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. data_bounds =[0 -2. x = [0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : p r e c o d e r input 44 . else plot ([ i *L . children (1) . poly1 . thickness =3. poly1 = a . binary_positive ) .L +1: i * L ] . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ B i P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code Exa 6. poly1 = a . a . thickness =3. children (1) .1 .1 . thickness =3. children (1) . poly1 .0 . poly1 . children (1) . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L .L +1: i * L ] .0 .2 Duobinary Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : D u o b i n a r y E n c o d i n g 2 // Example6 . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . 2 : P r e c o d e d D u o b i n a r y c o d e r and d e c o d e r 3 // Page 256 4 clc . binary_negative ) . children (1) .

3: Figure6.1c 45 .Figure 6.

disp (c . else a_volts ( k ) = -1.6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 a (1) = xor (1 . disp (a .b ( k ) ) . else b_r ( k ) = 1. if ( a (1) ==1) a_volts (1) = 1. end end a = a ’. ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s c (1) = 1+ a_volts (1) . if ( a ( k ) ==1) a_volts ( k ) =1. for k =2: length ( a ) c ( k ) = a_volts (k -1) + a_volts ( k ) . ’ D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y d e c o d e r o u t p u t by a p p l y i n g d e c i s i o n rule for k =1: length ( c ) if ( abs ( c ( k ) ) >1) b_r ( k ) = 0. disp ( b_r . a_volts = a_volts ’. end end b_r = b_r ’. ’ R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t d e t e c t o r oupupt : ’ ) // R e s u l t // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : // 46 . b (1) ) . end for k =2: length ( b ) a ( k ) = xor ( a (k -1) . end c = c ’. ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : ’ ) disp ( a_volts .

y_delay = y_delay ’. 1 3 // f o r g e n e r a t i n g b i p o l a r f o r m a t // p a g e 256 and p a g e 257 // R e f e r T a b l e 6 . 0. // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : precoder input y (1) = 1.y (k -1) ) . end z = z ’.0 . − 1. d e t e c t o r oupupt : 1.y_delay ( k ) . 0. 4 clc . x = [0 .1 .1]. 0.0 . − 2.3 Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : G e n e r a t i o n o f b i p o l a r o u t p u t f o r d u o b i n a r y coder // Example6 . 1. 3 : O p e r a t i o n o f C i r c u i t i n f i g u r e 6 . 0. y = y ’. 0. Scilab code Exa 6. − 1.0 . : 0. 1. 2. for k =2: length ( x ) +1 y ( k ) = xor ( x (k -1) .1 . − 1.42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 // 1 . − 2. − // // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // // 2 . 1. 1. // // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : // // 1 .1 . disp (y . 0. ’ D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : ’ ) for k = 1: length ( y_delay ) z ( k ) = y ( k +1) .0 . 0. 0. 47 . // // R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t // // 0 . 1. 1. 1. end y_delay = y (1: $ -1) . ’ Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : ’ ) disp ( y_delay . 0.1 .

1. 1. fb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . 0. 1. 0. − 1. Sxxf_NRZ_BP ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) *(( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . : 0. 0. − 1. volts 0. // [ 1 ] . 0. 4 : Power S p e c t a l D e n s i t i e s o f // D i f f e r e n t L i n e Coding T e c h n i q u e s // [ 1 ] . 0.21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 disp (z . if ( i ==1) Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) +( a ^2) /4. Scilab code CF 6. 1. 0. NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t [ 4 ] . Tb = 1/ fb . NRZ P o l a r Format [ 2 ] . // D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : // 1. 1. 0. 0. 0. else 48 . for i = 1: length ( f ) Sxxf_NRZ_P ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . // d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // 0. 0. 1. 0. 1. 1. − 1. M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t // Page 241 close . // b i t d u r a t i o n f = 0:1/(100* Tb ) :2/ Tb . NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t // [ 3 ] .4 Power Spectra of different binary data formats 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f d i f f e r e n t b i n a r y d a t a formats // F i g u r e 6 . NRZ P o l a r f o r m a t a = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : ’ ) . 0. 0. clc . ’ d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n : ’) // R e s u l t // Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : // 1. 1. 1.

end Sxxf_Manch ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) *( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) .6b (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI // C a p t i o n : I d e a l s o l u t i o n f o r z e r o I S I // F i g u r e 6 . thickness = 2. children (1) . plot2d (f . ’ M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t ’ ]) . xlabel ( ’ f ∗Tb−−−−−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Sxx ( f )−−−−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f D i f f e r e n t L i n e Codinig Techniques ’ ) xgrid (1) legend ([ ’NRZ P o l a r Format ’ . ’NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ .20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . plot2d (f . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) . children (1) . children (1) . poly1 . poly1 . 6 ( b ) : I d e a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference 3 // SINC p u l s e 1 2 49 . // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : 1 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6.9) poly1 = a .2) poly1 = a . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . poly1 . Sxxf_NRZ_BP . children (1) . poly1 . children (1) .5) poly1 = a . end // P l o t t i n g a = gca () . plot2d (f . ’NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ . Sxxf_NRZ_P ) poly1 = a . thickness = 2. // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) . thickness = 2. Sxxf_Manch . children (1) . Sxxf_NRZ_UP . thickness = 2. plot2d (f .

4 50 .Figure 6.4: Figure6.

Bo = rb /2. i ) = num / den .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // p a g e 249 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . 7 ( b ) : P r a c t i c a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference // R a i s e d C o s i n e Spectrum // p a g e 250 close . clc . p (j . Alpha =0.01. else num = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) * cos (2* %pi * Alpha * Bo * t ( i ) ) .5) |( t ( i ) == -0. Bo = rb /2. Tb =1/ rb . for j =1:3 for i =1: length ( t ) if (( j ==3) &(( t ( i ) ==0. rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . // I n t i a l i z e d t o z e r o x = t / Tb . x = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ) . 51 . den = 1 -16*( Alpha ^2) *( Bo ^2) *( t ( i ) ^2) +0. i ) = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) . t = -3:1/100:3. ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . title ( ’ SINC P u l s e f o r z e r o I S I ’ ) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. t = -3:1/100:3.7b (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : P r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n : R a i s e d C o s i n e // F i g u r e 6 . x ) xlabel ( ’ t−−−−−−> ’ ) .5) ) ) p (j . plot (t .

6 52 .5: Figure6.Figure 6.

:) ) 27 plot2d (t . close . 24 end 25 a = gca () . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =1 ’ ]) 38 xgrid (1) 39 // R e s u l t 40 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6.5 ’ . children (1) . foreground =2. 26 plot2d (t . 32 po1y2 . 35 ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . children (1) . // B i t d u r a t i o n 53 . children (1) .:) ) 28 poly1 = a . clc . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . 30 plot2d (t . 36 title ( ’ RAISED COSINE SPECTRUM − P r a c t i c a l 37 Solution for ISI ’) legend ([ ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0 ’ . foreground =4. line_style = 3. Tb =1/ rb .5. 33 poly2 . 34 xlabel ( ’ t /Tb−−−−−−> ’ ) . p (3 .9 Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f d u o b i n a r y c o n v e r s i o n filter // F i g u r e 6 . 29 poly1 .21 end 22 end 23 Alpha = Alpha +0. p (2 .:) ) 31 poly2 = a . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0. children (1) . p (1 . 9 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y Conversion f i l t e r // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e // Page 254 clear .

7 54 .6: Figure6.Figure 6.

a . thickness = 2. plot2d (f .1 . children (1) . a .1) a = gca () . poly1 . Amplitude_Response . children (1) . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* cos ( %pi * f . Phase_Response = -( %pi * f . children (1) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .* Tb ) . thickness = 2. children (1) . subplot (2 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . poly1 . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) subplot (2 . 1 5 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f M o d i f i e d duobinary conversion f i l t e r 3 // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e 4 // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e 1 55 . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 Scilab code CF 6.2) a = gca () .* Tb ) ) .11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 f = .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. plot2d (f . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .5) poly1 = a .2) poly1 = a . Phase_Response .15 Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f m o d i f i e d d u o b i n a r y conversion f i l t e r 2 // F i g u r e 6 . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .

9 56 .Figure 6.7: Figure6.

a . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . Tb =1/ rb . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* sin (2* %pi * f .5) poly1 = a . a . children (1) .* Tb ) . children (1) . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 57 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) subplot (2 . clc . // B i t d u r a t i o n f = .1) a = gca () .1 . poly1 .* Tb ) ) . children (1) .5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 // p a g e 259 clear . plot2d (f . thickness = 2. Phase_Response = -(2* %pi * f . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . poly1 . plot2d (f . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . a . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . children (1) .2) a = gca () . Phase_Response . subplot (2 . close . a . Amplitude_Response . thickness = 2.2) poly1 = a .

Figure 6.15 58 .8: Figure6.

t = 0:0.2]. close . for i = 1: M s1 (i .0]. 1 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear .1 .Chapter 7 Digital Modulation Techniques Scilab code Exa 7. S2 = []. m = [3 .1 . S = []. M =4.:) ].:) ].001:1. end S1 =[]. Input_Sequence =[0 .1 .1 QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques // Example7 . s2 (i .:) = . end 59 .1 .0 .1 . clc . S2 = [ S2 s2 ( m ( i ) . i = 1: M .:) = cos (2* %pi *2* t ) * cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) .sin (2* %pi *2* t ) * sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) .0 .0 . for i =1: length ( m ) S1 = [ S1 s1 ( m ( i ) .

22 S = S1 + S2 . imag ( y ( 3 ) ) .2) a = gca () . imag ( y ( 2 ) ) . y l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . 26 a . ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) // f i g u r e . imag ( y ( 1 ) ) . x l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . − 1 . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Even−numbered b i t s o f input sequence ’) subplot (3 . d a t a b o u n d s = [ − 1 . −4) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 3 ) ) . a . −5) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 4 ) ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // a . // a n n o t = d e c 2 b i n ( [ 0 : l e n g t h ( y ) −1] . 1 ] . imag ( y ( 4 ) ) . 27 plot ( S1 ) 28 title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Odd−numbered b i t s 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 of input sequence ’) subplot (3 . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) // d i s p ( annot . // d i s p ( y . // y l a b e l ( ’ Quadrature ’ ) .3) a = gca () . −2) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 2 ) ) . −9) // x l a b e l ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . // a . plot ( S ) title ( ’QPSK waveform ’ ) //− s i n ( ( 2 ∗ i −1) ∗ %pi / 4 ) ∗ %i . 1 . l o g 2 (M) ) .1 . 23 figure 24 subplot (3 .1 . 60 . // a =g c a ( ) . // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 1 ) ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . // a .1) 25 a = gca () .

1: Example7.Figure 7. 5 ) Scilab code CF 7.1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques 2 // F i g u r e 7 . ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ . FSK and PSk Waveforms 1 61 . 1 3 // D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s 4 //To P l o t t h e ASK.1 54 55 // t i t l e ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) // l e g e n d ( [ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ . ’ message p o in t 4 ( d i b i t 11) ’ ] . ’ m e s s a g e p o i nt 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ .

x2 = .5 clear . elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f FSK Waveform Xfsk = []. for n = 1: length ( I ) if (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [x . x1 ]. t = 0:1/512:1. for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) 62 . x = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) .sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . 7 close . length ( x ) ) ]. elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [ zeros (1 . elseif (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . x2 = sin (2* %pi *(2* f ) * t ) . Xask ]. x ]. for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . 6 clc . I = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a ’ ) . end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f PSK Waveform Xpsk = []. length ( x ) ) . x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . x2 ]. elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . zeros (1 . x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . 8 f = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y i n Hz ’ 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 ). // G e n e r a t i o n o f ASK Waveform Xask = []. Xask ].

2 MSK waveforms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // Example7 . 43 elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) 44 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . M =2. t1 = . 1 . 45 end 46 end 47 figure 48 plot (t . 2 s i g n a l s p a c e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f MSK clear clc . 0 . close . x ) 49 xtitle ( ’ Analog C a r r i e r S i g n a l 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 f o r D i g i t a l Modulation ’) xgrid figure plot ( Xask ) xtitle ( ’ A m p l i t u d e S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xfsk ) xtitle ( ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xpsk ) xtitle ( ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid // Example // E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y 2 // E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a [ 0 . 1 . 0 . 63 . x2 ]. 0 . 2 : S e q u e n c e and Waveforms f o r MSK s i g n a l // T a b l e 7 .42 Xpsk = [ Xpsk .Tb :0. x1 ]. Tb =1. 1 .01: Tb . 1 ] Scilab code Exa 7.

2: Figure7.1a 64 .Figure 7.

3: Figure7.1b 65 .Figure 7.

4: Figure7.Figure 7.1c 66 .

S2 = [ S2 s2 (2) * phi2 ]. teta_0 = [0 .1 .sin ( . S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .%pi /2]. t = 0:0. s2 ( i ) = .1 . %pi ].%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . s2 (1) . S2 = [ S2 s2 (1) * phi2 ]. phi2 = sin (2* %pi * t2 ) . .0 . teta_tb = [ %pi /2 . S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ].1 .1) a = gca () . for i = 1: M s1 ( i ) = cos ( teta_0 ( i ) ) .sin ( .sin ( teta_tb ( i ) ) . end for i = M : -1:1 S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ].sin ( . S2 = [].0]. s2 (2) ].01:1. 67 .10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 t2 = 0:0. phi1 = cos (2* %pi * t1 ) . s1 (1) . y = [ s1 (1) . s1 (2) . s2 (1) .sin ( .0 . S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .* sin (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t2 ) .01:2* Tb . s1 (2) . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) figure subplot (3 . end Input_Sequence =[1 . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .0 . S1 = [].sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. disp (y .* cos (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t1 ) . s2 (2) .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S = [].

annot = dec2bin ([ length ( y ) -1: -1:0] . imag ( y (2) ) .2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // F i g u r e 7 . 2 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK system clear clc . imag ( y (1) ) . -9) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a = gca () .42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 a . a . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . log2 ( M ) ) .3) a = gca () . plot ( S1 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . a . i = 1: M . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . -2. disp (y . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot ( S ) title ( ’ O b t a i n e d by a d d i n g s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t )+s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) on a b i t −by−b i t b a s i s ’ ) Scilab code CF 7. M =2. ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure .2) a = gca () .1 . y = cos (2* %pi +( i -1) * %pi ) . -5) xlabel ( ’ 68 . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . close . data_bounds = [ -2 .2].1 . a .2 .

2 69 .Figure 7.5: Example7.

5) Scilab code Tab 7.2 In−Phase ’ ) . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] .6: Figure7. 20 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ .Figure 7.3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal 1 21 22 // C a p t i o n : I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK s i g n a l 70 .

bk = [1 .0 . ’ ( bk ) ’ ) bk_not = bk_not ’.0 .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 // T a b l e 7 . dk (1) = xor ( dk_1 (1) .0 . end end dk_1 (1) = 1& bk (1) . end for i =1: length ( dk ) if ( dk ( i ) ==1) dk_radians ( i ) =0.1].1 . // i n p u t d i g i t a l s e q u e n c e for i = 1: length ( bk ) if ( bk ( i ) ==1) bk_not ( i ) =~1. else bk_not ( i ) = 1. dk ( i ) = xor (( dk_1 ( i ) & bk ( i ) ) . 3 I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e G e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK Signal ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( bk . elseif ( dk ( i ) ==0) dk_radians ( i ) = %pi . disp ( bk_not .0 . // i n i t i a l v a l u e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l encoded sequence dk_1_not (1) =0& bk_not (1) . dk_1_not ( i ) = ~ dk (i -1) . ’ ( b k n o t ) ’ ) dk = dk ’. 71 29 30 31 32 . dk_1_not (1) ) // f i r s t b i t o f dpsk encoder for i =2: length ( bk ) dk_1 ( i ) = dk (i -1) . end end disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . 3 G e n e r a t i o n o f D i f f e r e n t i a l Phase s h i f t keying s i g n a l clc .( dk_1_not ( i ) & bk_not ( i ) )).1 .

20 title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BFSK ’ ) 21 legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ . a . a . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot .0 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .33 34 35 36 disp ( dk . -2. disp ( dk_radians .1) .1].2]. 19 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). log2 ( M ) ) . -9) plot2d ( y (2 . 4 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK system clear clc . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK // F i g u r e 7 .1) . M =2. ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] .2) .y (2 . disp (y . annot = dec2bin ([ M -1: -1:0] . y = [1 .2 .y (1 .2) . data_bounds = [ -2 .5) 72 . ’ T r a n s m i t t e d p h a s e i n r a d i a n s ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7. -5) xlabel ( ’ In−Phase ’ ) . a . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure .0. a = gca () . close . ’ D i f f e r e n t i a l l y e n c o d e d s e q u e n c e ( dk ) ’ ) dk_radians = dk_radians ’. plot2d ( y (1 .

7: Figure 7.Figure 7.4 73 .

Scilab code CF 7.5) Scilab code Tab 7. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -1. ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . y = cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . imag ( y (1) ) . disp (y . -2) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) .6 Bndwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals 23 24 74 . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ . M =4. log2 ( M ) ) . -9) xlabel ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) .6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l s p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK waveform // F i g u r e 7 .sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) * %i . imag ( y (2) ) . a .1 . data_bounds = [ -1 . a = gca () . ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) figure . a . 6 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear clc . i = 1: M . ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). -5) plot2d ( real ( y (4) ) . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 4 ( d i b i t 1 1 ) ’ ] . close . annot = dec2bin ([0: M -1] . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) .1]. imag ( y (3) ) . imag ( y (4) ) . title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ . ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ . a . -4) plot2d ( real ( y (3) ) .

6 75 .Figure 7.8: Figure7.

64].4 .16 . close .16 . 4 clc . ’M’ ) disp ( ’ 10 11 ’) 12 disp ( Ruo . 7 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a 3 clear .4 . disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . //M r y −a 7 Ruo = 2* log2 ( M ) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // T a b l e 7 ./2. 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp (M . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s / Hz disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . clc . 6 M = [2 . 5 close . // Ruo = Ruo ’ . //M r y −a Ruo = log2 ( M ) .32 . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s /Hz //M = M’ . 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a signals ’) 11 disp ( ’ 8 9 10 76 ./ M .32 . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code Tab 7.64]. 6 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals clear .8 .7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals 1 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK s i g n a l s −a 2 // T a b l e 7 .8 . M = [2 .

Figure 7.9: Figure7. ’M’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( Ruo .29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals 77 .12 ’) 12 disp (M . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7.

poly1 . children (1) .30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals. rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . 2 9 : Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f BPSK // and BFSK clc . // B i t d u r a t i o n for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==(1/(2* Tb ) ) ) SB_FSK ( i ) = Eb /(2* Tb ) . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’PSK Vs FSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ . f = 0:1/100:8/ rb . else SB_FSK ( i ) = (8* Eb *( cos ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) ) /(( %pi ^2) *(((4*( Tb ^2) *( f ( i ) ^2) ) -1) ^2) ) . ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . plot ( f * Tb . 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f QPSK and MSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . Tb = 1/ rb . SB_FSK /(2* Eb ) ) plot ( f * Tb .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f BPSK and BFSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . end SB_PSK ( i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . 3 0 : Comparison o f QPSK and MSK Power 78 . foreground = 6. end a = gca () . children (1) . SB_PSK /(2* Eb ) ) poly1 = a .

29 79 .Figure 7.10: Figure7.

5) SB_MSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * f ( i ) .31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power s p e c t r a o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // F i g u r e 7 . else SB_MSK ( i ) = (32* Eb /( %pi ^2) ) *( cos (2* %pi * Tb * f ( i ) ) /((4* Tb * f ( i ) ) ^2 -1) ) ^2. ’QPSK ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. poly1 . // b i t d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==0. end a = gca () . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : ’ ) . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’QPSK Vs MSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ Minimum S h i f t Keying ’ . poly1 = a . plot ( f * Tb . SB_MSK /(4* Eb ) ) . children (1) . f = 0:1/(100* rb ) :(4/ rb ) . // c l c . end SB_QPSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * sinc_new ((2* Tb * f ( i ) ) ) ^2. plot ( f * Tb . 3 1 Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a 80 . children (1) . Tb = 1/ rb .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Spectrums // c l e a r . SB_QPSK /(4* Eb ) ) . foreground = 3. Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : ’ ) . // c l o s e .

11: Figure7.30 81 .Figure 7.

:) /(2* Eb ) .:) /(2* Eb ) . 4 . SB_PSK (1 . g ) ) . T =4. a =2. f = 0:1/100: rb . 4 1 // Matched F i l t e r Output clear . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . SB_PSK (3 .8].4 . for i = 1: length ( h ) 82 .:) /(2* Eb ) ) plot2d ( f * Tb .5) xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a o f M r y s i g n a l s f o r M = 2 . end end a = gca () .41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t o f r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e // F i g u r e 7 . 8 ’ ) −a legend ([ ’M=2 ’ . i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb * log2 ( M ( j ) ) ) ^2) * log2 ( M ( j ) ) . for j = 1: length ( M ) for i = 1: length ( f ) SB_PSK (j . T +1) . SB_PSK (2 . g = 2* ones (1 . ’M=4 ’ . // B i t d u r a t i o n M = [2 . ’M=8 ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. clc .2) plot2d ( f * Tb . t = 0: T . h = abs ( convol (g . Tb = 1/ rb . plot2d ( f * Tb .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) .

Figure 7.12: Figure7.31 83 .

data_bounds = [0 .g .01) h ( i ) =0. a . end end h = h-T. a =2 ’ ) figure plot2d ( t1 .6) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) title ( ’ Output o f f i l t e r matched t o r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e g( t ) ’) 84 .0.h . t1 = 0: length ( h ) -1.4]. plot2d (t .5) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ g ( t )−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ R e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e d u r a t i o n T = 4 .12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 if ( h ( i ) <0.6 . figure a = gca () .

13: Figure7.Figure 7.41a 85 .

14: Figure7.41b 86 .Figure 7.

// b i t v a l u e = 1 I = eye (n -k . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x H = [ I P ’]. // p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x G = [ P 1]. ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x ’ ) . disp (H . 5 k = 4. clc .Chapter 8 Error-Control Coding Scilab code Exa 8. ’ p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x ’ ) . // m e s s a g e b i t s l e n g t h 87 .* G .k ) . // b l o c k o f i d e n t i c a l ’ n ’ b i t s k =1. 1 : R e p e t i t i o n Codes clear . Scilab code Exa 8.k ) . // one b i t m = 1. // c o d e word disp (G .n .n . ’ c o d e word f o r b i n a r y one i n p u t ’ ) . 2 : Hamming c o d e s 3 clear . n =5. 4 clc .1 Repetition Codes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : R e p e t i t i o n Codes // Example8 . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x x = m . disp (x . // I d e n t i t y m a t r i x P = ones (1 .2 Hamming Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes 2 // Example8 .

clc .k .1 . 4 ) Hamming Code R e v i s i t e d // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 . 4 ) Hamming c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. G = coeff ( G ) . ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x G ’ ) H = [ eye (k -1 .0 . // p a r i t y c h e c k m a t r i x disp (H .1 .0. // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x disp (P . 21 disp (C . ’ p a r i t y c h e c h k m a t r i x H ’ ) // m e s s a g e b i t s m = [0 . ’G ’ ) G (3 .1 . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r .0.0. g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) .0 .0 .0 .1.0 .1 .1.0 . g * D ^2.1.0 . 88 .1.0 .1 . ’ i d e n t i t y m a t r i x I k ’ ) P =[1 .0 . // b l o c k l e n g t h m = n . 3 : ( 7 .1 . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) G = [ g . // i d e n t i t y m a t r i x disp (I .3 Hamming Codes Revisited 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes R e v i s i t e d // Example8 .2) . 20 C = modulo (C . q ] = pdiv (m .0 .k -1) P ’].0.:) = modulo ( G (3 .1 18 // 19 C = m * G . g * D ^3].0 .2) .0 .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 n = 7. ’D ’ ) .1 . D = poly (0 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p .1 . disp (G .1 . k ) . ’ Code words o f ( 7 .0 . 0 .1 .0 .:) + G (1 .:) = G (3 . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x disp (G . disp (r . g ) . g * D . p = coeff ( r ) .:) .D) .1].1 .1 . G (3 .0. 0 .1 .0 .0 .0 .1.1. ’ c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x P ’ ) G = [ P I ]. 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 . // Number o f p a r i t y b i t s I = eye (k .:) .

H (1 .18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 G (4 . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 . D ^5* h .:) = modulo ( H (1 .:) . 4 ) C y c l i c hamming code // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 . disp (r .D) . disp (H . ’ G e n e r a t o r M a t r i x G = ’ ) h = 1+ D ^ -1+ D ^ -2+ D ^ -4. H_num = numer ( H_D ) .2) .4 Encoder for the (7. D = poly (0 . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) disp ( ’ T a b l e 8 . H (1 . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. H = coeff ( H_num ) . g ) . p = coeff ( r ) . D ^6* h ]. 0 . G (4 .:) + G (4 . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 .:) = modulo ( G (4 . disp (G . ’D ’ ) .:) . H_D = [ D ^4* h . q ] = pdiv (m .2) . 4 : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 .:) + H (3 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r . 7 f o r Me ss age S e q u e n c e ( 1 0 0 1 ) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( ’ S h i f t Contents ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) 16 disp ( ’ 1 17 disp ( ’ 2 Input Register 1 0 89 1 1 0 ’) 0 1 1 ’) .:) + G (2 . ’ P a r t i y Check m a t r i x H = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8.:) = H (1 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) .:) . 0 .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 .:) .:) = G (1 . 3 C o n t e n t s o f t h e S h i f t R e g i s t e r i n t h e E n c o d e r o f f i g 8 .

S1 = modulo ( S1 .5 Syndrome calculator for the(7. //m i t symbol −b 90 . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. disp ( r1 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l C1 = 0+ D + D ^2+ D ^3+0+0+ D ^6. // e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d C2 = 0+ D + D ^2+0+0+0+ D ^6. g ) . 5 m =2. 1 ] clc .2) . S1 = coeff ( r1 ) . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) [ r2 . S2 = modulo ( S2 . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 .2) .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r f o r t h e ( 7 . 6 : Reed−Solomon Codes 3 // S i n g l e −e r r o r −c o r r e c t i n g RS c o d e w i t h a 2− b i t b y t e 4 clc . 5 : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 0 . 1 . S2 = coeff ( r2 ) . q2 ] = pdiv ( C2 . g ) . // m i d d l e b i t i s e r r o r [ r1 . 0 . 0 . ’D ’ ) . 1 . disp ( r2 . q1 ] = pdiv ( C1 . D = poly (0 . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r e d c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. 1 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form f o r e r r o r e d codeword ’ ) disp ( S2 .6 Reed-Solomon Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Reed−Solomon Codes 2 // Example8 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp ( S1 .18 19 20 disp ( ’ 3 disp ( ’ 4 disp ( ’ ’) 0 1 1 1 1 ’) 0 1 1 ’) Scilab code Exa 8.

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 k = 1^2. x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . // p a r i t y b i t s l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e r = k / n . 1 ] // x = // ! 1 1 ! 91 . g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . // c o d e word l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e p = n . 1 . x1 = modulo ( x1 . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . // c o d e r a t e disp (n . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . // s i n g l e b i t e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n n = 2^ m -1. 1 . N = length ( x1 ) .i +1) . clc .7 Convolutional Encoding . x2 = modulo ( x2 . ’ n ’ ) disp (p . 0 .2) . end x = string ( x ) disp ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 7 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n // Time Domain Approach close . ’ n−k ’ ) disp (r .k .Time domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g − Time domain approach // Example8 . m ) ) . ’ I t can c o r r e c t any e r r o r u p t o = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. // number o f m e s s a g e b i t s t =1. m ) ) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .i +1) ]. ’ Code r a t e : r = k / n = ’ ) disp (2* t . x2 (N .2) .:) =[ x1 (N . 0 . 0 .

// bottom o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x1 = coeff ( x1D ) . g1D = 1+ D + D ^2. 0. 1. ’ t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) disp ( modulo ( x2 . 0.2) . 1. 1. ’D ’ ) . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 2 mD = 1+0+0+ D ^3+ D ^4.25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code Exa 8. // // bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. 1. 0. ’ bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. D = poly (0 . 8 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e − T r a n s f o r m domain approach clc . 1. x2 = coeff ( x2D ) . 1. 1. // t o p o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x2D = g2D * mD . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 1 g2D = 1+ D ^2. disp ( modulo ( x1 .8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g T r a n s f o r m domain approach // Example8 . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e p o l y n o m i a l representation x1D = g1D * mD . 1.2) . 1. 92 .

’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’ ) disp ( gamma_2 .r ) .Scilab code Exa 8.04.pe .2877124 93 . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’) // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // 0. ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t recption ’) disp ( gamma_3 . // number o f b i t s pe = 0. // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r correct reception gamma_2 = log2 ( pe * p ) +1.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Fano m e t r i c f o r b i n a r y s y m m e t r i c c h a n n e l using c o n v o l u t i o n a l code // Example8 .7027499 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // − 8. // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no correct reception disp ( gama_1 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n gama_1 = 2* log2 ( p ) +2*(1 . r = 1/2. // c o d e r a t e n =2. 1 1 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e f o r b i n a r y symmetric channel clc . // t r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y p = 1 . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one correct recption gamma_3 = 2* log2 ( pe ) +1.8822126 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t r e c p t i o n // − 3.

x1 = 0.1 PN sequence generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : PN s e q u e n c e g e n e r a t i o n // Example9 . N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) for i =1: N x3 = x2 . 1 and F i g u r e 9 . x3 =0. ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. x1 = x0 . x2 =0.13 . x0 = xor ( x1 .8 . disp (i .10 . 1 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e generator // Program t o g e n e r a t e Maximum Length Pseudo N o i s e Sequence // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 clc .9 . ’ x= ’ ) end m = [7 .17 . // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r x0 = 1. disp (x . x2 = x1 . x3 ) .11 .Chapter 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation Scilab code Exa 9.19].12 . 94 .

// The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 6. 8 x1 = 0.2 Maximum length sequence property 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 1 // C a p t i o n : Maximum l e n g t h s e q u e n c e p r o p e r t y 2 // Example9 . // x= 0. 1. 23 disp ( ’ T a b l e 9 . 2 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 3 // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 4 // P r o p e r i t e s o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 5 clc . 6 // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r 7 x0 = 1. 1. 0. 0. 95 . // x= 1. 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 3. Scilab code Exa 9. 1. 1. 1 Range o f PN S e q u e n c e l e n g t h s ’ ) 24 disp ( ’ 25 26 27 28 29 ’) disp ( ’ Length o f s h i f t r e g i s t e r (m) ’ ) disp ( m ) disp ( ’PN s e q u e n c e Length (N) ’ ) disp ( N ) disp ( ’ ’) // RESULTEnter t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l 7 // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 1. 2 and F i g u r e 9 . // x= 1. 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 7. 0. 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 2. // x= 1. 1. // x= 0. // x= 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 5. // x= 1. 0. 0. 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 4.22 N = 2^ m -1.

disp (i . 96 . 4 disp ( C_level . N ) . ’ Number o f 0 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( ’ P r o p e r t y 1 ( B a l a n c e p r o p e r t y ) i s s a t i s i f i e d ’ ) end Rc_tuo = corr ( C_level . t = 1:2* length ( C_level ) . ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. if ( C ( i ) ==1) C_level ( i ) =1. ’ Number o f 1 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( zero_count . x0 = xor ( x1 . one_count = one_count +1.5 if ( zero_count < one_count ) disp ( one_count .9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 x2 =0. ’ Output S e q u e n c e ’ ) // r e f e r e q u a t i o n 9 . ’ Output S e q u e n c e l e v e l s ’ ) // r e f e r equation 9. N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) one_count = 0. zero_count = 0. x2 = x1 . ’ x= ’ ) C ( i ) = x3 . for i =1: N x3 = x2 . x3 ) . x3 =0. // figure a = gca () . end end disp (C . zero_count = zero_count +1. elseif ( C ( i ) ==0) C_level ( i ) = -1. disp (x . x1 = x0 .

length ( Rc_tuo ) +1: -1 . Tb = 4. 50 a . // f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h disp (N . ’ The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : ’ ) N = PG . Jamming m a r g i n i n dB // Example9 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . //PN c h i p d u r a t i o n PG = Tb / Tc . PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h .0: length ( Rc_tuo ) -1] .3 Processing gain. // I n f o r m a t i o n b i t d u r a t i o n Tc = 1*10^ -6. 3 : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n and Jamming Margin clear . 52 plot2d ([ . 51 a . clc . PN sequence length. ’ The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : ’ ) 97 . ’ The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : ’ ) disp (m . //PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h m = log2 ( N +1) .095*10^ -3.[ 53 Rc_tuo ( $ : -1:2) .5) xlabel ( ’ tuo ’ ) 54 ylabel ( ’ Rc ( t u o ) ’ ) 55 title ( ’ A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 9. Rc_tuo ] . 44 plot2d (t .[ C_level . // P r o c e s s i n g g a i n disp ( PG . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . C_level ]) 45 xlabel ( ’ t ’) 46 title ( ’ Waveform o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e [ 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1] ’) 47 // 48 figure 49 a = gca () .43 a . close . Jamming margin in dB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n .

1: Example9.2a 98 .Figure 9.

Figure 9.2: Example9.2b 99 .

5 Slow and Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y h o p p i n g : FH/MFSK // Example9 . // Energy t o n o i s e d e n s i t y r a t i o 15 J_P = PG / Eb_No . // number o f b i t s p e r symbol M = 2^ K . 19 // The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : 4 0 9 5 .4Figure9. 5 : P a r a m e t e r s o f FH/MFSK signal // Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y Hopping clear . ’ T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = ’ ) // R e s u l t // number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = 2 . 21 // Jamming Margin i n dB : 2 6 . // Jamming Margin 16 disp (10* log10 ( J_P ) . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop disp (K . 4 and Example9 . ’ l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = ’ ) disp (2^ k . ’ P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = ’ ) disp (k . // T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = 8 .6 Direct Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK 1 // C a p t i o n : D i r e c t S e q u e n c e S p r e a d C o h e r e n t BPSK 100 . // Number o f MFSK t o n e s N = 2^ M -1. 1 2 2 5 3 9 Scilab code Exa 9. 20 // The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : 1 2 . ’ Jamming Margin i n dB : ’ ) 17 // R e s u l t 18 // The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : 4095. ’ Number o f MFSK t o n e s M ’ ) = disp (N .4Example9. // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e k = 3. // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = 1 5 . close . clc . K =2.14 Eb_No = 10. // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = 3 . ’ number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = ’ ) disp (M . Scilab code Fig 9. // Number o f MFSK t o n e s M = 4 .

a . mt = bt .1 . data_bounds = [0 .1 . clc .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 // F i g u r e 9 .1 .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .0 .20 . bt . st = []. Carrier = 2* sin ( wt *2* %pi ) . N ) -1* ones (1 . -2.01:1. N = 7. a .0 . -1 .1 .1].1 . -1 .0 . for i = 1: length ( mt ) st = [ st mt ( i ) * Carrier ]. a .2]. ct_polar .1 . a . 4 : G e n e r a t i o n o f w a v e f o r m s i n DS/BPSK spread spectrum t r a n s m i t t e r clear . plot2d2 (t . a .1 . N ) ]. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -1 .1 .1 . ct = [0 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 101 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 .* ct_polar . t = 0:13. data_bounds = [0 .1 .2]. bt = [1* ones (1 .1 .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ Data b ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .2) a = gca () . end // figure subplot (3 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ct_polar = [ -1 . wt = 0:0. plot2d2 (t .20 .1 .1]. a . close .0 .1 .0 . -1 . -1 .1) a = gca () . -2.

data_bounds = [0 . a .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2]. a .3) a = gca () . data_bounds = [0 . a . data_bounds = [0 .20 . -2. -2.1 .35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 title ( ’ S p r e a d i n g c o d e c ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . a . a .1) a = gca () . -2.2].2]. plot2d2 (t . data_bounds = [0 .20 . a . a . 102 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) // figure subplot (3 .20 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2) a = gca () .2]. a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . mt . a . a . -2. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . plot ( Carrier ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ C a r r i e r S i g n a l ’ ) subplot (3 .3) a = gca () . plot2d2 (t . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .20 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . mt . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .

Xmax ] = Alaw (x .Figure 9.6a 67 68 plot ( st ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 69 title ( ’DS/BPSK s i g n a l s ( t ) ’ ) 70 // Scilab code ARC 1 Alaw 1 2 3 function [ Cx .3: Figure9. A ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n //A−law : A−law n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n 103 .

6b Figure9.Figure 9.6b 104 .4: Figure9.

5: Figure10.12 105 .Figure 9.

/(1+ log ( A ) ) . // n o r m a l i z a t i o n o f o u t p u t v e c t o r Cx = Cx ’.4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // x = i n p u t v e c t o r //Cx = A−law c o m p r e s s o r o u t p u t //Xmax = maximum o f i n p u t v e c t o r x Xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . end for n = 1: N for k = 1: N if ( n >= k ) 106 . elseif ( x ( i ) / Xmax > 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = (1+ log ( A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) ) ) . for i = 1: length ( x ) if ( x ( i ) / Xmax < = 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) . L ) . end end Cx = Cx / Xmax ./(1+ log ( A ) ) . for i = 1: L h (L . Rxx = zeros (1 . end for i = L +1: N x ( i ) = 0. h = zeros (1 .i +1) = x ( i ) . endfunction Scilab code ARC 2 auto correlation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 function [ Rxx ] = auto_correlation ( x ) // A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f a g i v e n I n p u t S e q u e n c e // F i n d i n g o u t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l u s i n g autocorrelation technique L = length ( x ) . for i = L +1: N h ( i ) = 0. end N = 2* L -1. N ) .

x2 = modulo ( x2 . m ) ) . 1 . N = length ( x1 ) .i +1) ].21 Rxx ( n ) = Rxx ( n ) + x (n . end x = string ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 0 . 0 . 5 g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) 6 g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i .i +1) . 0 . n ] = max ( Rxx ) disp ( ’ P e r i o d o f t h e g i v e n s i g n a l u s i n g Auto C o r r e l a t i o n Sequence ’ ) n endfunction Scilab code ARC 3 Convolutional Coding 1 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n 2 // Time Domain Approach 3 close .:) =[ x1 (N .2) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . x2 (N . 22 end 23 end 24 end 25 disp ( ’ Auto C o r r e l a t i o n R e s u l t i s ’ ) 26 Rxx 27 disp ( ’ C e n t e r V a l u e i s t h e Maximum o f a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n 28 29 30 31 result ’) [m .k +1) * h ( k ) . 1 . 1 ] // x = 107 . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . 4 clc .2) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . x1 = modulo ( x1 . m ) ) .

code2 ( i ) ) . ’ Hamming D i s t a n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word [ 0 . 0 . 1 . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . close . Hamming_Distance = 0. 1 ] // E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word [ 1 . 1 . Scilab code ARC 5 Hamming Encode 108 . 1 .22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code ARC 4 Hamming Distance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Weight and Hamming D i s t a n c e //H( 7 . 0 . 0 . for i = 1: length ( code1 ) Hamming_Distance = Hamming_Distance + xor ( code1 ( i ) . 0 . code2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word ’ ) . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . end disp ( Hamming_Distance . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . clc . 1 ] // Hamming D i s t a n c e 4. 0 . // G e t t i n g Code Words code1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word ’ ) . 1 . 1 .

b1 ( i ) = xor ( m1 ( i ) . end C = [ b m ]. xor ( m2 ( i ) . m (i . m1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . // G e t t i n g M es sag e Word m3 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . disp ( ” ”). ’ CodeWord ’ ) disp ( ” ”). xor ( m1 ( i ) . m2 ( i ) ) ) . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . m2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . ’ Mes sa ge Word ’ ) disp ( b (i .:) .:) = [ m3 ( i ) m2 ( i ) m1 ( i ) m0 ( i ) ].:) = [ b2 ( i ) b1 ( i ) b0 ( i ) ].:) . end disp ( ’ ’) // d i s p (m b C) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word 109 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 . // G e n e r a t i n g P a r i t y b i t s for i = 1:(2^4) b2 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . b (i .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Hamming E n c o d i n g //H( 7 .:) . ’ P a r i t y B i t s ’ ) disp ( C (i . xor ( m3 ( i ) . close . clc . m0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . m3 ( i ) ) ) . m1 ( i ) ) ) . b0 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . disp ( ’ ’) for i = 1:2^4 disp ( i ) disp ( m (i .

1 .1 . function x = invmulaw (y .1 .1 .0 . en_code ( i ) = en_code ( i ) -2^ j .0 .0 Scilab code ARC 5 invmulaw 1 2 3 4 5 .0 .1 .1 .1 .0 . .1 .0 .1 .1 .1 .1 34 // E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .L .0 . .1 .1].0 .0 . mu ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n // invmulaw : i n v e r s e mulaw n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n // x = o u t p u t v e c t o r // y = i n p u t v e c t o r ( u s i n g mulaw n o n l i n e a r comression ) 6 x = (((1+ mu ) .1 .1].0 .1 35 // E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .1 .0 .1 .1 .1 .0 . c = zeros ( length ( x ) . word .( n .1 .1 .0 .0 .0 .1 .0 .1].0 .1 .0 .1 . en_code ) // E n c o d i n g : C o n v e r t i n g Q u a n t i z e d d e c i m a l s a m p l e values in to binary // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s // e n c o d e = n o r m a l i z e d i n p u t s e q u e n c e n = log2 ( L ) .j ) ) =1.0 .1 . end end end disp ( c ) 110 . for i = 1: length ( x ) for j = n : -1:0 if ( fix ( en_code ( i ) /(2^ j ) ) ==1) c (i .0 .0 .^( abs ( y ) ) -1) .1].0 .0 ./ mu ) 7 endfunction Scilab code ARC 6 PCM Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 function [ c ] = PCM_Encoding (x .[0 .1 .0 .0 .0 .0 .n ) .1 36 // E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e [0 .0 .1 .

L .5) . PCM encoding . ’ Q u a n t i z e d S i g n a l ’ ]) Scilab code ARC 8 sinc new 1 function [ y ]= sinc_new ( x ) 2 i = find ( x ==0) . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . L ) . en_code ) . s c e . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // S t e p 1 [ SQNR . a . xq . 6 endfunction 111 . // From LS : don ’ t n e e d t h i s i s /0 warning i s o f f 4 y = sin ( %pi * x ) . x ) ./( %pi * x ) . t = 0:0. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . 5 y ( i ) = 1.Scilab code ARC 7 PCM Transmission 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n :PCM T r a n s m i s s i o n ( i n c l u d e s f u n c t i o n s : u n i f o r m p c m . L = 16. // S t e p 2 c = PCM_Encoding (x . a = gca () . x = sin (2* %pi * t ) . a . 3 x ( i ) = 1. close .001:1. title ( ’ Q u a n t i z a t i o n o f Sampled a n a l o g s i g n a l ’ ) legend ([ ’ Analog s i g n a l ’ . xq . s c e ) // T h i s program i s a s a m p l e program f o r P u l s e Code Modulation t r a n s m i s s i o n // s t e p 1 : The g i v e n a n a l o g s i g n a l c o n v e r t e d i n t o quantized sample value // s t e p 2 : Then t h e q u a n t i z e d s a m p l e v a l u e c o n v e r t e d into binary value clc . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi .

SQNR = 20* log10 ( norm ( x ) / norm (x . endfunction Scilab code ARC 10 xor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 function [ value ] = xor (A . length ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) ) . q ( i ) .* ones (1 . q = q -(( L -1) /2) * d .xq ) ) .Scilab code ARC 9 uniform pcm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 function [ SQNR . for i = 1: L xq ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) =. length ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) ) . end endfunction 112 . en_code = xq . end xq = xq * xmax . en_code ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) = (i -1) .. L ) // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . xq = x / xmax .* ones (1 . q = d *[0: L -1]. en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x .. d = 2/ L . else value = 1. xq . B ) if ( A == B ) value = 0.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful