Scilab Code for Digital Communication, by Simon Haykin 1

Created by Prof. R. Senthilkumar Institute of Road and Transport Technology rsenthil signalprocess@in.com Cross-Checked by Prof. Saravanan Vijayakumaran, IIT Bombay sarva@ee.iitb.ac.in 23 August 2010

by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT, http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Text Book Companion and Scilab codes written in it can be downlaoded from the website www.scilab.in

1 Funded

Book Details
Authors: Simon Haykins Title: Digital Communication Publisher: Willey India Edition: Wiley India Edition Year: Reprint 2010 Place: Delhi ISBN: 9788126508242

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Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the above book. Prb Problem (Unsolved problem) Exa Example (Solved example) Tab Table ARC Additionally Required Code (Scilab Code that is not part of the above book but required to solve a particular Example) AE Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular Example of the above book) CF Code for Figure(Scilab code that is used for plotting the respective figure of the above book ) For example, Prb 4.56 means Problem 4.56 of the above book. Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

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Contents
List of Scilab Codes 1 Introduction 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance 3 Detection and Estimation 4 Sampling Process 5 Waveform Coding Techniques 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission 7 Digital Modulation Techniques 8 Error-Control Coding 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation 4 2 5 14 27 31 39 59 87 94

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List of Scilab Codes
CF 1.2 Exa 2.1 Exa 2.2 Exa 2.3 Exa 2.4 Exa 2.5 Exa 2.6 Exa 2.7 Exa 3.1 Exa 3.2 Exa 3.3 Exa 3.4 Exa 3.6 CF 3.29 Exa 4.1 Exa 4.3 Exa 5.1 Exa 5.2 Digital Representation of Analog signal . . . . . . . . Entropy of Binary Memoryless source . . . . . . . . . Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Binary Symmetric Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel . . Significance of the Channel Coding theorem . . . . . . Orthonormal basis for given set of signals . . . . . . . M ARY Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for RF pulse . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal . . . . . . . Linear Predictor of Order one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm . . Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse . . Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect . . . . . . . . Average Transmitted Power for PCM . . . . . . . . . Comparision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 5.3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM . . . . . . Exa 5.5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier . . . . . . . CF 6.1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format . . . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.2 Duobinary Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 5 5 7 8 9 10 10 14 16 19 20 22 24 27 28 31 31 32 34 36 36 39 40 40 42 44

Exa 6.3 CF 6.4 CF 6.6b CF 6.7b CF 6.9 CF 6.15

Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder . . . Power Spectra of different binary data formats . . . . (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine . . . . . . . . . Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter . . . Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 7.1 QPSK Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques . Exa 7.2 MSK waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK . . . . . . . Tab 7.3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal . . . . . . . CF 7.4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK . . . . . . . CF 7.6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform . . Tab 7.6 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals . . . . . . Tab 7.7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals . . . . . . CF 7.29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse . . . . . . Exa 8.1 Repetition Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.2 Hamming Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.3 Hamming Codes Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.4 Encoder for the (7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code . . . . . . Exa 8.5 Syndrome calculator for the(7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code Exa 8.6 Reed-Solomon Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.7 Convolutional Encoding - Time domain approach . . . Exa 8.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach Exa 8.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.1 PN sequence generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.2 Maximum length sequence property . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.3 Processing gain, PN sequence length, Jamming margin in dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.4Example9.5 Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK . . . . Slow and Fig 9.4Figure9.6 Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK . . . . . . . . Direct ARC 1 Alaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARC 2 auto correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

47 48 49 51 53 55 59 61 63 68 70 72 74 74 76 77 78 80 82 87 87 88 89 90 90 91 92 93 94 95 97 100 100 103 106

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sinc new . . . . . . . . . . . . uniform pcm . . . . . . . . . PCM Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCM Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hamming Encode . . . . . . 107 108 108 110 110 111 111 112 112 6 .ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 Convolutional Coding Hamming Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . invmulaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1a Figure6.2 2. . . . . . . . . . .1b Figure6. . . . . .6 Figure6.5 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . .List of Figures 1. .13b . . . . . .2b . . . . . . .7 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . .1 . . . . Figure1. . . . .4 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 3. .1c Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example5. . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3. . . .7 . . . . . 3 4 6 11 13 16 17 19 21 23 26 28 30 33 37 38 41 43 45 50 52 54 56 58 Example4. . . . . . . . Example2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 . . . . . . . . . . .4 Figure6. .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1b . Example4. . . . . .1 2. . . . . . . . . Example3.1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example2. . . Figure3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2a .13a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 6.3 3. . . . . . .15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure6. . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1a . .3 . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. Figure5. . . . . . . . . .4 .6 4. Example3. . . . . . . . . . Example3. . . . . . . .6 .3 6. . Figure5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . . Example3. . . . . .9 Figure6. . .8 Figure1.2 3. . . . . . . . . . . Example2. . . . . . . . . .5 6. .

. . . . . . . .6 . . . . . . . .7 7. . . . . . . . . .3 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 7.4 7.31 . . . .3 9.10 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . Figure10. . Figure7. . . . . Figure9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 64 65 66 69 70 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 86 98 99 103 104 105 Example9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 . . . . .41b . Figure 7.12 . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . . . . . .1b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 7. . . . .2 7.11 7. . . . . .4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . .41a Figure7. . . . . . .1a . . . . . . .12 7. . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . .5 Example7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2b .2 Figure7. . Figure9.1 9. . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example9. . .6a . . . . . . . . . .6b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . .2a . .1c . . . . . .29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . .1 Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . .9 7. . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . Figure7. . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example7. . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . .13 7.7. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 .2 .0 .0 . a . close .1 .1 .1 .0 .0 .0 . . a .0 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .0 . -2 . -0.0 .0.0 .0 .1 .Chapter 1 Introduction Scilab code CF 1. sqrt (2) .0 . data_bounds =[ -2 .01:1.0 .sqrt (2) .2 . t = -1:0.1 . -9) xlabel ( ’ Time ’ ) 21 ylabel ( ’ 2 .1] // figure a = gca () . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . dig_data = [0 . -3. clc . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .0 .5 . a .1 . x = 2* sin (( %pi /2) * t ) .2 Digital Representation of Analog signal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Analog s i g n a l // F i g u r e 1 . 2 : Analog t o D i g i t a l C o n v e r s i o n clear . x ) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .3] plot (t . -1 .

Figure 1.1: Figure1.5) title ( ’ D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n ’ ) 3 .21 .2a 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Voltage ’) title ( ’ Analog Waveform ’ ) // figure a = gca () . data_bounds = [0 .5]. a . plot2d2 ([1: length ( dig_data ) ] . dig_data .0.

2: Figure1.Figure 1.2b 4 .

6 clc .Chapter 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance Scilab code Exa 2.Po ( i )). H_Po ) 14 xlabel ( ’ Symbol P r o b a b i l i t y .Po ( i ) ) * log2 (1 .1) Scilab code Exa 2. length ( Po ) ) . 11 end 12 // p l o t 13 plot2d ( Po .01:1. Po ’ ) 15 ylabel ( ’H( Po ) ’ ) 16 title ( ’ Entropy f u n c t i o n H( Po ) ’ ) 17 plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .5 .2 Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source 5 . 7 Po = 0:0. 1 : Entropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e 3 // p a g e 18 4 clear . 9 for i = 2: length ( Po ) -1 10 H_Po ( i ) = . 5 close .0.Po ( i ) * log2 ( Po ( i ) ) -(1 .1 Entropy of Binary Memoryless source 1 // C a p t i o n : Ent ropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e 2 // Example 2 . 8 H_Po = zeros (1 .

1 6 .Figure 2.1: Example2.

2 : Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e // p a g e 19 clear . . P0 * P2 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S1 P2 = 1/2. P0 = 1/4. ’H( R u o S q u a r e )= ’ ) disp ( ’H( R u o S q u a r e ) = 2∗H( Ruo ) ’ ) 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 7 . P2 * P0 . P1 * P1 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S0 P1 = 1/4. disp ( ’ Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // c a p t i o n : S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source // Example 2 . P1 * P0 . P2 * P2 ]. . for i = 1: length ( P_sigma ) H_Ruo_Square = H_Ruo_Square + P_sigma ( i ) * log2 (1/ P_sigma ( i ) ) . end disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . 1 A l p h a b e t P a r t i c u l a r s o f Second−o r d e r Extension o f a D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ S e q u e n c e o f Symbols o f r u o 2 : ’ ) disp ( ’ S0 ∗ S0 S0 ∗ S1 S0 ∗ S2 S1 ∗ S0 S1 ∗ S1 S1 ∗ S2 S2 ∗ S0 S2 ∗ S1 S2 ∗ S2 ’ ) disp ( P_sigma . P2 * P1 . i = 0 . clc . 8 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ ’) H_Ruo_Square =0. disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . ’ P r o b a b i l i t y p ( s i g m a ) . . 1 . P1 * P2 . P0 * P1 . . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S2 H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) . H_Ruo_Square . H_Ruo ) // S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f d i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s source P_sigma = [ P0 * P0 .

’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g // Example 2 . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g 8 . H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 . Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : Entropy .((L .L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) disp ( ’ p e r c e n t ’ .L ) ^2.4. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0. disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 3.L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 .1. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 0 ’ L1 = 2. clc . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 ’ L0 = 2.4 Entropy. A v e r a g e l e n g t h .Average length.3 Entropy.1. P0 = 0. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0.Scilab code Exa 2.L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 . Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Entropy .L . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 3. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0. ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2.H_Ruo ) / H_Ruo ) *100 . Average length. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 1 ’ L2 = 2.2. H_Ruo . disp ( sigma_1 . A v e r a g e l e n g t h . ’ A v e r a g e code − word l e n g t h L e x c e e d s t h e e n t r o p y H( Ruo ) by o n l y ’ ) sigma_1 = P0 *( L0 .2. 3 : Huffman E n c o d i n g : C a l c u l a t i o n o f // ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ // ( b ) E ntropy ’H’ clear .

’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) sigma_2 = P0 *( L0 . ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t= ’ ) 9 . H_Ruo . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0. 6 p = 0. 4 clc . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n 7 pe = 1 .L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 . P0 = 0.L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . disp ( sigma_2 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0.4. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 ’ L1 = 2. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 0 ’ L2 = 3.L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0.4. 4 : I l l u s t r a t i n g n o n u n i q u e s s o f t h e Huffman E n c o d i n g // C a l c u l a t i o n o f ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ ( b ) Entr opy ’H’ clear . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 4. ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) .L .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // Example2 .p . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 ’ L0 = 1.1.L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 . disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .L ) ^2. clc . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 . 5 close .2.2. 5 : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 3 clear . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 4.5 Binary Symmetric Channel 1 // C a p t i o n : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 2 // Example2 . e ) transition probility 8 disp (p .1. // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r r e c e p t i o n ( i .

7 : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c h a n n e l c o d i n g theorem 3 // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r o f R e p e t i t i o n Code 1 2 10 .p ( i ) ) * log2 ((1 . close .C . clc . elseif ( i ==1) C ( i ) =1. 6 : Channel C a p a c i t y o f B i n a r y Symmetri Channel clear . ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t= ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2.p ( i ) ) ) .5. p ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Channel C a p a c i t y . C ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 .9 10 disp ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y ’ ) disp ( pe .7 Significance of the Channel Coding theorem // C a p t i o n : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Channel Coding t h e o r e m // Example2 . 1 0 V a r i a t i o n o f c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y o f a binary symmetric channel with t r a n s i t i o n probility p ’) Scilab code Exa 2. elseif ( i == length ( p ) ) C ( i ) =0.01:0.6 Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Channel C a p a c i t y o f a B i n a r y Symmetric Channel // Example2 . end end plot2d (p . p = 0:0. for i =1: length ( p ) if ( i ~=1) C ( i ) = 1+ p ( i ) * log2 ( p ( i ) ) +(1 .5) xlabel ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n P r o b i l i t y .

Figure 2.2: Example2.6 11 .

5 clc . Pe ’ ) 19 title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 . pe_5 . pe_7 ].1/7].p ) + p ^5.p ) ^2+7* p ^6*(1 . // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r code r a t e r = 1 9 pe_3 = 3* p ^2*(1 . 13 pe = [ pe_1 . data_bounds =[0 . 1 2 I l l u s t r a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e channel coding theorem ’ ) 20 legend ( ’ R e p e t i t i o n c o d e s ’ ) 21 xgrid (1) 22 disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 .p ) + p ^7. pe .p ) ^2+5* p ^4*(1 .p ) + p ^3. 14 a = gca () .1/5 . ’ Code Rate .p ) ^3+(42/2) * p ^5*(1 . r ’ ) 18 ylabel ( ’ A v e r a g e P r o b a b i l i t y o f e r r o r .1 . // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/5 11 pe_7 = ((7*6*5) /(1*2*3) ) * p ^4*(1 .0. 6 close .pe . 8 pe_1 = p . ’ A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r . 3 A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r f o r R e p e t i t i o n Code ’ ) 23 disp ( ’ ’) 24 disp (r .01]. pe_3 . r =1/n ’ .4 clear .1/3 . // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/7 12 r = [1 . // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/3 10 pe_5 = 10* p ^3*(1 . 7 p =10^ -2. Pe ’ ) 25 disp ( ’ ’) 12 . 15 a . 16 plot2d (r .0.5) 17 xlabel ( ’ Code r a t e .

3: Example2.7 13 .Figure 2.

t5 = 0:0.01: T . t6 = T /3:0.01: T .0]. phi2t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . ones (1 .01: T /3.01: T /3.01: T .0]. ones (1 .0].01:2* T /3. ones (1 . s1t = [0 . length ( t5 ) -2) . s4t = [0 . t4 = 0:0.0]. t2 = 0:0. t7 = 2* T /3:0.0]. length ( t2 ) -2) . close . length ( t3 ) -2) . clc . 1 : F i n d i n g o r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r t h e g i v e n signals // u s i n g Gram−Schmidt o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e clear . ones (1 .0].1 Orthonormal basis for given set of signals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : O r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r g i v e n s e t o f s i g n a l s // Example3 .0]. s2t = [0 . length ( t4 ) -2) . ones (1 .Chapter 3 Detection and Estimation Scilab code Exa 3. t3 = T /3:0. ones (1 . phi3t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . T = 1. // 14 . s3t = [0 . length ( t6 ) -2) . phi1t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . ones (1 . length ( t7 ) -2) .01:2* T /3. length ( t1 ) -2) . t1 = 0:0.

a .4].5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 3 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 . s1t .2 . a .1 .2].5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . plot2d2 ( t5 .2]. a .1 . s4t .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .2 . plot2d2 ( t2 . plot2d2 ( t3 . s2t .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 4 ( t ) ’ ) // figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .2]. data_bounds = [0 .3) a = gca () .2 . data_bounds = [0 .2]. plot2d2 ( t4 .1 . a . data_bounds = [0 .23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .2) 15 .0.0. data_bounds = [0 .0.1) a = gca () . 4 ( b ) The r e s u l t i n g s e t o f o r t h o n o r m a l functions ’) subplot (3 .0. phi1t . a . plot2d2 ( t1 .1 .2 .1 .1) a = gca () .0.2 .4) a = gca () . s3t .2) a = gca () . data_bounds = [0 .1 . 4 ( a ) S e t o f s i g n a l s t o be orthonormalized ’) subplot (4 .

phi3t . data_bounds = [0 . data_bounds = [0 .2 .1a 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 a = gca () .3) a = gca () .4]. a .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .Figure 3. plot2d2 ( t7 . phi2t .1 .2 . a .0.0.4]. plot2d2 ( t6 .1: Example3.5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 3 ( t ) ’ ) 16 .

1b 17 .2: Example3.Figure 3.

8 ( c ) .0] . -0.0 . s q r t ( 18 . a = gca () . D e c i s i o n i n t e r v a l s f o r received dibits ’) disp ( ’ R e c e i v e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ 20 21 22 23 24 25 01 01 ’) 26 disp ( ’ I n t e r v a l on p h i 1 ( t ) | x1 < −a .2 M ARY Signaling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n :M −ARY S i g n a l i n g // Example3 . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s m i t t e d dibits ’) disp ( ’ Loc . -10) xlabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .2 . clc .5. // Symbol d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s // Four m e s s a g e p o i n t s Si1 = [( -3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .[0 . // a m p l i t u d e =1 T =1. 8 ( b ) .(1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) ]. close .0 . 2 : M −ARY SIGNALING // S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n and R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d i b i t s clear . a =1. o f meg .0. s q r t (T) |− a .(3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) . 8 ( a ) S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n ’ ) xgrid (1) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .( -1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) . a . data_bounds = [ -2 .5] plot2d ( Si1 .Scilab code Exa 3. p o i n t | ( −3/2) a s q r t (T) | ( − 1 / 2 ) a s q r t ( T) | ( 3 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) | ( 1 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ T r a n s m i t t e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .

01: T . close .3 Matched Filter output for RF pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r RF p u l s e // Example3 . fc =4. 3 : MATCHED FILTER FOR RF PULSE clear . s q r t (T)<x1 ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. clc . // c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y i n Hz T =1. t1 = 0:0.Figure 3.3: Example3.2 T)<x1 <0| 0<x1<a . 19 . s q r t (T) | a .

-1. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1].1].1 . -1. xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .1 . hopt ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d ( t1 . phiot = convol ( phit . a .01:2* T .9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 phit = sqrt (2/ T ) * cos (2* %pi * fc * t1 ) . a . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . phit ) . 1 3 ( a ) RF p u l s e i n p u t ’ ) subplot (2 . plot2d ( t2 .1) a = gca () .1 . data_bounds = [0 . 1 3 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a .2) a = gca () . a . a . data_bounds = [0 .4 Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r N o i s e − l i k e signal 2 // Example3 . subplot (2 . hopt = phit . phiot ) . t2 = 0:0. 4 : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r n o i s e l i k e 1 20 . phiot = phiot / max ( phiot ) .1 . a .

Figure 3.4: Example3.3 21 .

1].1) a = gca () . a . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . hopt ) . ’ u n i f o r m ’ ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .10 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 input clear .2) a = gca () . plot2d ([1: length ( phi0t ) ] .1* rand (1 .1]. phi0t ) . phit ) . phit =0. phi0t = phi0t / max ( phi0t ) . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . 1 6 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. data_bounds = [0 . hopt = phit . -1.1 . clc . a . 1 6 ( a ) N o i s e L i k e i n p u t s i g n a l ’ ) subplot (2 .1 . a . subplot (2 . phi0t = convol ( phit . data_bounds = [0 . a .6 Linear Predictor of Order one 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 22 . plot2d ([1: length ( phit ) ] . close . -1.

Figure 3.5: Example3.4 23 .

x = sin (2* %pi *5* t ) .buffer * w . Rxx = [0. mu = 0.29 Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f LMS ADAPTIVE FILTER // For n o i s e c a n c e l l a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n clear . sigma_X = Rxx (2) . length ( x ) ) . order = 18.6 1 0. w = zeros ( order . close . disp ( sigma_E . clc .h01 * Rxx (3) . clc . noise = rand (1 . ref_noise = noise * rand (10) . N = length ( x ) . ’ P r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e ’ ) disp ( sigma_X . x_n = x + noise .^2) / length ( x ) ) . 24 .order -1 buffer = ref_noise ( i : i + order -1) . t =0:0. Rxx ( 3 ) = Rxx ( 1 ) sigma_E = Rxx (2) .01:1.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 // C a p t i o n : L i n e a r P r e d i c t o r o f Order one // Example3 . ’ P r e d i c t o r i n p u t v a r i a n c e ’ ) if ( sigma_X > sigma_E ) disp ( ’ The p r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e i s l e s s t h a n the variance of the p r e d i c t o r input ’ ) end Scilab code CF 3. // Rxx ( 2 ) = Rxx ( 0 ) . h01 = Rxx (3) / Rxx (2) . 6 : LINEAR PREDICTION : P r e d i c t o r o f Order One clear . for k =1:1010 for i = 1: N .01*( sum ( x .1) . close .6]. desired ( i ) = x_n ( i ) .

5) 30 title ( ’ S i g n a l+n o i s e ’ ) 31 subplot (4 .2) 26 plot2d (t .2) 27 title ( ’ random n o i s e ’ ) 28 subplot (4 .1 .1 . x ) 24 title ( ’ O r i g n a l I n p u t S i g n a l ’ ) 25 subplot (4 . x_n .1 .1 .3) 29 plot2d (t .4) 32 plot ( desired ) 33 title ( ’ n o i s e removed s i g n a l ’ ) 25 .19 w = w +( buffer * mu * desired ( i ) ) ’. 20 end 21 end 22 subplot (4 . noise .1) 23 plot2d (t .

Figure 3.6: Figure3.29

26

Chapter 4 Sampling Process
Scilab code Exa 4.1 Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

// C a p t i o n : Bound on A l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r Time− s h i f t e d sinc pulse // Example4 . 1 : Maximum bound on a l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r sinc pulse clc ; close ; t = -1.5:0.01:2.5; g = 2* sinc_new (2* t -1) ; disp ( max ( g ) , ’ A l i a s i n g e r r o r c a n n o t e x c e e d max | g ( t ) | ’ ) f = -1:0.01:1; G = [0 ,0 ,0 ,0 , ones (1 , length ( f ) ) ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0]; f1 = -1.04:0.01:1.04; subplot (2 ,1 ,1) a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -3 , -1;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d (t , g ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ g( t ) ’) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( a ) S i n c p u l s e g ( t ) ’ ) subplot (2 ,1 ,2) 27

Figure 4.1: Example4.1
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -2 ,0;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d2 ( f1 , G ) xlabel ( ’ f ’) ylabel ( ’ G( f ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( b ) A m p l i t u d e s p e c t r u m |G( f ) | ’ ) Scilab code Exa 4.3 Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect

1

// C a p t i o n : E q u a l i z e r t o c o m p e n s a t e A p e r t u r e e f f e c t 28

1 6 N o r m a l i z e d e q u a l i z a t i o n ( t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r a p e r t u r e e f f e c t ) p l o t t e d v e r s u s T/ Ts ’ ) 29 . E (1) =1.5) xlabel ( ’ Duty c y c l e T/ Ts ’ ) ylabel ( ’ 1/ s i n c ( 0 . a .8 . data_bounds = [0 .2]. plot2d ( T_Ts .1.6.01:0.01:0. 5 ( T/ Ts ) ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 .E . close . 5 ∗ T Ts ) ) .0.8. 3 : E q u a l i z e r t o Compensate f o r a p e r t u r e effect clc .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 // Example4 . T_Ts = 0. end a = gca () . for i = 2: length ( T_Ts ) E ( i ) = (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) /( sin (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) ) .0. //E = 1 / ( s i n c n e w ( 0 .

3 30 .2: Example4.Figure 4.

7 k = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 s i g n a l i n g ’ ). M = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r ’ ) . disp ( ’ The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : ’ ) P = ( k ^2) *( sigma_N ) *(( M ^2) -1) /12.1 Average Transmitted Power for PCM 1 // C a p t i o n : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power f o r PCM 2 // Example5 . disp ( P ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e 10ˆ −6 // E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f s i g n a l i n g 7 // E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r 2 // The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : 0 . 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 Scilab code Exa 5. 6 sigma_N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e ’ ) .2 Comaprision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) 31 . 5 clc . 1 : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power o f PCM 3 // Page 187 4 clear .Chapter 5 Waveform Coding Techniques Scilab code Exa 5.

10].5) plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . poly1 . b i t s p e r s e c o n d per hertz ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 5 . 2 : Comparison o f M r y PCM s y s t e m −a // Channel C a p a c i t y t h e o r e m clear . clc . // f o r M r y PCM s y s t e m .5) poly1 = a .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h i d e a l s y s t e m −a ( Channel C a p a c i t y Theorem ) // Example5 . ’PCM ’ ]) Scilab code Exa 5. Rb_B . −a Rb_B = log2 (1+(12/ k ^2) * P_NoB ) . // I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/ NoB . 3 : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n n o i s e r a t i o // Channel Bandwidth B clear . children (1) . line_style = 4. poly1 . 32 . P_NoB_dB = [ -20:30].0.40 . children (1) . thickness =2.3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM 1 2 3 4 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n N o i s e R a t i o o f PCM // Example5 . xlabel ( ’ I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/NoB . close . a . d e c i b e l s P_NoB = 10^( P_NoB_dB /10) . k =7. 9 Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h t h e −a i d e a l ssytem ’ ) legend ([ ’ I d e a l System ’ . plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . d e c i b e l s ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y . // bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s e c /Hz C_B = log2 (1+ P_NoB ) . C_B . Rb/B . data_bounds = [ -30 . // i d e a l s y s t e m a c c o r d i n g t o Shannon ’ s c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y t h e o r e m // p l o t a = gca () .

Figure 5.2 33 .1: Example5.

5 clc . 22 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 6 . clc . 34 . 8 23 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 24 // C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 i f 25 number o f b i t s i n c r e a s e d by 1 // c o r r e s p o n d i n g o u t p u t s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n PCM i n c r e a s e d by 6 dB . 9 disp (B . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 8 14 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 15 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 32000.7. 11 disp ( SNRo . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 9 20 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 21 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 3 6 0 0 0 .2. Scilab code Exa 5. a0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : ’ ). ’ Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : ’ ) 12 // R e s u l t 1 i f n = 8 bits 13 // E n t e r no .5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 // Example 5 : D e l t a M o d u l a t i o n − t o a v o i d s l o p e overload distortion //maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o f o r s i n u s o i d a l modulation // p a g e 207 clear . 16 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 0 . 6 n = input ( ’ E n t e r no . 8 17 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 18 // R e s u l t 2 i f n = 9 b i t s 19 // E n t e r no . ’ Channel w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 10 SNRo = 6* n . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : ’ ) 7 W = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 8 B = n*W.

7 f0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f

sinusoidal signal

i n Hz : ’ ) ;
8 fs = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s

per s e c o n d s : ’ );
9 Ts = 1/ fs ; // S a m p l i n g i n t e r v a l 10 delta = 2* %pi * f0 * a0 * Ts ; // S t e p 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

s i z e to avoid s l o p e

overload Pmax = ( a0 ^2) /2; //maximum p e r m i s s i b l e o u t p u t power sigma_Q = ( delta ^2) /3; // Q u a n t i z a t i o n e r r o r o r n o i s e variance W = f0 ; //Maximum m e s s a g e bandwidth N = W * Ts * sigma_Q ; // A v e r a g e o u t p u t n o i s e power SNRo = Pmax / N ; // Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e ratio SNRo_dB = 10* log10 ( SNRo ) ; disp ( SNRo_dB , ’ Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r Delta Modualtion : ’ ) // R e s u l t 1 f o r f s = 8 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :8000 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : −5.1717849 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// R e s u l t 2 f o r f s = 1 6 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 27 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :16000 28 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : 3 . 8 5 9 1 1 5 29 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
24 25 26

35

// C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 , i f the sampling frequency 31 // i s d o u b l e d t h e s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n c r e a s e d by 9 dB
30

Scilab code CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

15

// C a p t i o n : u−Law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( a ) Mulaw companding N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g mulaw c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f mu clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t mu = [0 ,5 ,255]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f mu for i = 1: length ( mu ) [ Cx (i ,:) , Xmax ( i ) ] = mulaw (x , mu ( i ) ) ; end plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) , Cx (1 ,:) ,2) plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) , Cx (2 ,:) ,4) plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) , Cx (3 ,:) ,6) xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : u−Law companding ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) ; legend ([ ’ u =0 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=5 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=255 ’ ]) Scilab code CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// C a p t i o n : A−law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( b )A−law companding , N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g A−law c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f A clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t A = [1 ,2 ,87.56]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f A for i = 1: length ( A ) 36

Figure 5.2: Figure5.13a

37

Xmax ( i ) ] = Alaw (x .4) 13 plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) .:) .3: Figure5.13b 9 [ Cx (i . Cx (2 . ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) . ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ . 10 end 11 plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) .:) .:) . A ( i ) ) .Figure 5. Cx (3 . Cx (1 .[ ’A=2 ’ ] . 15 legend ([ ’A =1 ’ ] . 5 6 ’ ]) 38 .6) 14 xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : A−Law companding ’ .:) .2) 12 plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) .[ ’A= 8 7 .

disp (B . // minimum t r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth o f T1 system // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m ’B ’ alpha = 1.f1 . clc .1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 c a r r i e r // Example6 . ’ T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m i n Hz : ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l :0.647∗10ˆ −6 // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m 39 . // c o s i n e r o l l − o f f f a c t o r f1 = Bo *(1 . 1 : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 Carrier // Page 251 clear . Tb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l : ’) Bo = 1/(2* Tb ) .alpha ) . B = 2* Bo .Chapter 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission Scilab code Exa 6.

1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format 1 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o p o l a r f o r m a t 40 . children (1) . thickness =3. U n i p o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . a . close .1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o u n i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . children (1) . poly1 .i n Hz : 1 5 4 5 5 9 5 . L = length ( x ) . total_duration = L * L .L +1: i * L ] . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . data_bounds =[0 -2. L * L1 2]. children (1) . 1 ( a ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 1 ] . else plot ([ i *L . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . poly1 = a . L1 = length ( binary_zero ) . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]. 1 Scilab code CF 6. x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. binary_one ) . children (1) . binary_one = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. binary_zero ) .L +1: i * L ] . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ U n i p o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. poly1 . thickness =3. clc . poly1 = a .

1a 41 .1: Figure6.Figure 6.

children (1) . close . 1 ( c ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 3 ] . 42 . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . thickness =3. binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. children (1) . clc . 1 ( b ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 2 ] . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . a . binary_positive ) . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . B i P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . else plot ([ i *L . thickness =3. L * L1 2].L +1: i * L ] .1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o b i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . children (1) . poly1 . binary_negative ) .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // F i g u r e 6 . close . total_duration = L * L1 . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. poly1 = a . P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear .L +1: i * L ] . poly1 . data_bounds =[0 -2. L = length ( x ) . children (1) . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. poly1 = a .

2: Figure6.1b 43 .Figure 6.

children (1) . children (1) . total_duration = L * L1 . thickness =3.0 .L +1: i * L ] . 5 b = [0 . data_bounds =[0 -2. L = length ( x ) . else plot ([ i *L . binary_positive ) . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) .0 .1 . binary_negative ) .L +1: i * L ] . x = [0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. thickness =3. a . elseif (( x ( i ) ==1) &( x (i -1) ~=1) ) plot ([ i *L . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1].1 . children (1) . binary_zero ) .1 . poly1 = a .L +1: i * L ] . L * L1 2]. // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : p r e c o d e r input 44 .0]. // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . thickness =3. binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. children (1) . children (1) . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]. children (1) . poly1 .7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 clc . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ B i P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code Exa 6. poly1 = a .2 Duobinary Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : D u o b i n a r y E n c o d i n g 2 // Example6 . 2 : P r e c o d e d D u o b i n a r y c o d e r and d e c o d e r 3 // Page 256 4 clc . poly1 = a . poly1 . poly1 .

3: Figure6.Figure 6.1c 45 .

’ D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y d e c o d e r o u t p u t by a p p l y i n g d e c i s i o n rule for k =1: length ( c ) if ( abs ( c ( k ) ) >1) b_r ( k ) = 0. ’ R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t d e t e c t o r oupupt : ’ ) // R e s u l t // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : // 46 . if ( a ( k ) ==1) a_volts ( k ) =1. disp (a . end c = c ’.6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 a (1) = xor (1 . end end a = a ’. else a_volts ( k ) = -1. a_volts = a_volts ’. end end b_r = b_r ’. end for k =2: length ( b ) a ( k ) = xor ( a (k -1) . ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s c (1) = 1+ a_volts (1) .b ( k ) ) . disp (c . ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : ’ ) disp ( a_volts . b (1) ) . disp ( b_r . else b_r ( k ) = 1. for k =2: length ( a ) c ( k ) = a_volts (k -1) + a_volts ( k ) . if ( a (1) ==1) a_volts (1) = 1.

Scilab code Exa 6. 2. 1.42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 // 1 . − 1. − 1. 1. 0. 0.1 . 0.0 . d e t e c t o r oupupt : 1. 0. // // R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t // // 0 . // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : precoder input y (1) = 1. 0. end z = z ’.0 . 1. // // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : // // 1 . 0. end y_delay = y (1: $ -1) . for k =2: length ( x ) +1 y ( k ) = xor ( x (k -1) . 1. ’ Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : ’ ) disp ( y_delay . : 0. 1. − // // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // // 2 . 0.0 . ’ D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : ’ ) for k = 1: length ( y_delay ) z ( k ) = y ( k +1) . 47 .y_delay ( k ) . y = y ’.1 .3 Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : G e n e r a t i o n o f b i p o l a r o u t p u t f o r d u o b i n a r y coder // Example6 . y_delay = y_delay ’.1 .1 .0 . disp (y .y (k -1) ) . 1 3 // f o r g e n e r a t i n g b i p o l a r f o r m a t // p a g e 256 and p a g e 257 // R e f e r T a b l e 6 .1]. 1. − 2. x = [0 . 1. 3 : O p e r a t i o n o f C i r c u i t i n f i g u r e 6 . 4 clc . 0. − 2. 0. − 1.

− 1.21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 disp (z . Tb = 1/ fb . 0. 1. 1. 1. for i = 1: length ( f ) Sxxf_NRZ_P ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t // Page 241 close . ’ d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n : ’) // R e s u l t // Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : // 1. fb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . else 48 . volts 0. 0. NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t [ 4 ] . 0. 0. 0. − 1. 1. 0. 1. 0. Scilab code CF 6. 1. Sxxf_NRZ_BP ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) *(( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . 0. 0. // D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : // 1. 0. 0. 1. 1. 0. NRZ P o l a r f o r m a t a = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : ’ ) . : 0. clc . // [ 1 ] .4 Power Spectra of different binary data formats 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f d i f f e r e n t b i n a r y d a t a formats // F i g u r e 6 . // d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // 0. NRZ P o l a r Format [ 2 ] . 1. 4 : Power S p e c t a l D e n s i t i e s o f // D i f f e r e n t L i n e Coding T e c h n i q u e s // [ 1 ] . 0. if ( i ==1) Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) +( a ^2) /4. // b i t d u r a t i o n f = 0:1/(100* Tb ) :2/ Tb . 1. NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t // [ 3 ] . − 1.

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . end // P l o t t i n g a = gca () . children (1) .6b (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI // C a p t i o n : I d e a l s o l u t i o n f o r z e r o I S I // F i g u r e 6 .5) poly1 = a . plot2d (f .9) poly1 = a . thickness = 2. thickness = 2. // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : 1 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. poly1 . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . poly1 . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . Sxxf_Manch . children (1) . xlabel ( ’ f ∗Tb−−−−−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Sxx ( f )−−−−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f D i f f e r e n t L i n e Codinig Techniques ’ ) xgrid (1) legend ([ ’NRZ P o l a r Format ’ . children (1) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . Sxxf_NRZ_BP . Sxxf_NRZ_UP .2) poly1 = a . thickness = 2. // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . ’ M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t ’ ]) . ’NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ . children (1) . 6 ( b ) : I d e a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference 3 // SINC p u l s e 1 2 49 . plot2d (f . poly1 . plot2d (f . end Sxxf_Manch ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) *( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) . children (1) . children (1) . poly1 . Sxxf_NRZ_P ) poly1 = a . children (1) . children (1) . thickness = 2. plot2d (f . ’NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ .

4: Figure6.Figure 6.4 50 .

5) ) ) p (j . Bo = rb /2.7b (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : P r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n : R a i s e d C o s i n e // F i g u r e 6 . t = -3:1/100:3. Bo = rb /2. // I n t i a l i z e d t o z e r o x = t / Tb . den = 1 -16*( Alpha ^2) *( Bo ^2) *( t ( i ) ^2) +0. ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . i ) = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) . else num = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) * cos (2* %pi * Alpha * Bo * t ( i ) ) . 7 ( b ) : P r a c t i c a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference // R a i s e d C o s i n e Spectrum // p a g e 250 close . x ) xlabel ( ’ t−−−−−−> ’ ) . Alpha =0. t = -3:1/100:3. 51 . plot (t .5) |( t ( i ) == -0. p (j . for j =1:3 for i =1: length ( t ) if (( j ==3) &(( t ( i ) ==0. Tb =1/ rb .01. rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . x = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ) .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // p a g e 249 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . title ( ’ SINC P u l s e f o r z e r o I S I ’ ) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. i ) = num / den . clc .

5: Figure6.Figure 6.6 52 .

line_style = 3. foreground =4.:) ) 27 plot2d (t . p (1 . p (3 . 30 plot2d (t . clc .5. p (2 . // B i t d u r a t i o n 53 . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =1 ’ ]) 38 xgrid (1) 39 // R e s u l t 40 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. 36 title ( ’ RAISED COSINE SPECTRUM − P r a c t i c a l 37 Solution for ISI ’) legend ([ ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0 ’ .:) ) 28 poly1 = a . children (1) . foreground =2. Tb =1/ rb . 32 po1y2 .:) ) 31 poly2 = a . 9 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y Conversion f i l t e r // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e // Page 254 clear . 33 poly2 . 35 ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) .5 ’ . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0.9 Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f d u o b i n a r y c o n v e r s i o n filter // F i g u r e 6 . close . 34 xlabel ( ’ t /Tb−−−−−−> ’ ) . 24 end 25 a = gca () . children (1) .21 end 22 end 23 Alpha = Alpha +0. children (1) . 29 poly1 . 26 plot2d (t . children (1) . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) .

Figure 6.7 54 .6: Figure6.

children (1) . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 Scilab code CF 6. a . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) subplot (2 . Phase_Response = -( %pi * f . thickness = 2.* Tb ) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .5) poly1 = a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2) a = gca () . poly1 . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* cos ( %pi * f . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . poly1 . a .rb /2:1/100: rb /2.11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 f = . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . subplot (2 . plot2d (f . Amplitude_Response .* Tb ) ) . plot2d (f . children (1) . a .2) poly1 = a . thickness = 2. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .1) a = gca () . 1 5 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f M o d i f i e d duobinary conversion f i l t e r 3 // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e 4 // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e 1 55 . children (1) . Phase_Response . a .1 .15 Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f m o d i f i e d d u o b i n a r y conversion f i l t e r 2 // F i g u r e 6 . children (1) .

9 56 .Figure 6.7: Figure6.

close .5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 // p a g e 259 clear .1 . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 57 . plot2d (f . a .1 . a . plot2d (f .2) a = gca () . thickness = 2. // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . Amplitude_Response . poly1 .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. children (1) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .* Tb ) ) . a .5) poly1 = a . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* sin (2* %pi * f . thickness = 2. xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) subplot (2 . Phase_Response . Tb =1/ rb . subplot (2 .2) poly1 = a . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . Phase_Response = -(2* %pi * f .* Tb ) . children (1) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1) a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . poly1 . children (1) . clc . a . // B i t d u r a t i o n f = .

15 58 .Figure 6.8: Figure6.

s2 (i .001:1. end 59 .sin (2* %pi *2* t ) * sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) .0 .1 . S2 = [ S2 s2 ( m ( i ) . close .0 . m = [3 .0 . for i = 1: M s1 (i .:) ]. Input_Sequence =[0 . M =4. 1 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear .1 .:) = cos (2* %pi *2* t ) * cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) .1 QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques // Example7 .:) = . S = []. end S1 =[].1 .Chapter 7 Digital Modulation Techniques Scilab code Exa 7.1 . for i =1: length ( m ) S1 = [ S1 s1 ( m ( i ) .0]. S2 = [].:) ]. i = 1: M .1 . clc . t = 0:0.2].

x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // a . // d i s p ( y . // a . plot ( S ) title ( ’QPSK waveform ’ ) //− s i n ( ( 2 ∗ i −1) ∗ %pi / 4 ) ∗ %i .1 . imag ( y ( 2 ) ) . l o g 2 (M) ) . 23 figure 24 subplot (3 .3) a = gca () . x l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . imag ( y ( 4 ) ) . imag ( y ( 3 ) ) . −9) // x l a b e l ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) // d i s p ( annot . −4) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 3 ) ) . 60 . 26 a .22 S = S1 + S2 . 1 . − 1 . // y l a b e l ( ’ Quadrature ’ ) . a . imag ( y ( 1 ) ) . // a =g c a ( ) .2) a = gca () .1) 25 a = gca () . y l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . −5) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 4 ) ) . a . 1 ] . −2) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 2 ) ) . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Even−numbered b i t s o f input sequence ’) subplot (3 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 1 ) ) . d a t a b o u n d s = [ − 1 . // a n n o t = d e c 2 b i n ( [ 0 : l e n g t h ( y ) −1] . 27 plot ( S1 ) 28 title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Odd−numbered b i t s 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 of input sequence ’) subplot (3 . ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) // f i g u r e . // a .

1 3 // D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s 4 //To P l o t t h e ASK.1 54 55 // t i t l e ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) // l e g e n d ( [ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ . FSK and PSk Waveforms 1 61 . ’ message p o in t 4 ( d i b i t 11) ’ ] .Figure 7.1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques 2 // F i g u r e 7 . 5 ) Scilab code CF 7. ’ m e s s a g e p o i nt 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ . ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ .1: Example7.

x2 ]. for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) 62 . for n = 1: length ( I ) if (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [x . for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk .sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . elseif (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . zeros (1 . t = 0:1/512:1. 8 f = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y i n Hz ’ 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 ). x1 ]. x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f FSK Waveform Xfsk = []. x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . x2 = sin (2* %pi *(2* f ) * t ) . Xask ]. 7 close . x ]. length ( x ) ) . I = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a ’ ) . x2 = . elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [ zeros (1 . elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . Xask ]. end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f PSK Waveform Xpsk = []. // G e n e r a t i o n o f ASK Waveform Xask = []. 6 clc . length ( x ) ) ].5 clear . elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . x = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) .

M =2. 0 . 1 ] Scilab code Exa 7.42 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . x2 ]. 0 . close . 43 elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) 44 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . 45 end 46 end 47 figure 48 plot (t .2 MSK waveforms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // Example7 . 1 .Tb :0. 2 s i g n a l s p a c e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f MSK clear clc . x ) 49 xtitle ( ’ Analog C a r r i e r S i g n a l 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 f o r D i g i t a l Modulation ’) xgrid figure plot ( Xask ) xtitle ( ’ A m p l i t u d e S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xfsk ) xtitle ( ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xpsk ) xtitle ( ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid // Example // E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y 2 // E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a [ 0 . 1 . Tb =1. t1 = . x1 ]. 0 . 2 : S e q u e n c e and Waveforms f o r MSK s i g n a l // T a b l e 7 . 63 .01: Tb . 1 .

2: Figure7.1a 64 .Figure 7.

1b 65 .Figure 7.3: Figure7.

Figure 7.4: Figure7.1c 66 .

sin ( .%pi /2]. y = [ s1 (1) .1 .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. t = 0:0. S2 = [ S2 s2 (2) * phi2 ]. S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S1 = [].sin ( teta_tb ( i ) ) .10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 t2 = 0:0. s2 ( i ) = . end for i = M : -1:1 S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ].01:2* Tb .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].sin ( . s2 (1) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .0 . s2 (2) ].sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].sin ( .0 . phi1 = cos (2* %pi * t1 ) .sin ( .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .* cos (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t1 ) .1 . %pi ].sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. s2 (1) .0]. disp (y . S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) figure subplot (3 . teta_0 = [0 . end Input_Sequence =[1 . s2 (2) . S = []. phi2 = sin (2* %pi * t2 ) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .1) a = gca () . s1 (1) .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S2 = []. S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ].1 . . s1 (2) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . 67 . s1 (2) .01:1. for i = 1: M s1 ( i ) = cos ( teta_0 ( i ) ) .0 . S2 = [ S2 s2 (1) * phi2 ].* sin (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t2 ) . teta_tb = [ %pi /2 .

2]. -9) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . a = gca () . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure .2 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // F i g u r e 7 . -2. plot ( S ) title ( ’ O b t a i n e d by a d d i n g s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t )+s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) on a b i t −by−b i t b a s i s ’ ) Scilab code CF 7. imag ( y (1) ) . a .1 . 2 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK system clear clc .3) a = gca () . i = 1: M . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 a . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . M =2. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . -5) xlabel ( ’ 68 . imag ( y (2) ) . y = cos (2* %pi +( i -1) * %pi ) .2) a = gca () . close . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . log2 ( M ) ) . disp (y . annot = dec2bin ([ length ( y ) -1: -1:0] . plot ( S1 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . data_bounds = [ -2 . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . a . a .1 .

Figure 7.2 69 .5: Example7.

3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal 1 21 22 // C a p t i o n : I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK s i g n a l 70 .5) Scilab code Tab 7. title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ .6: Figure7.2 In−Phase ’ ) .Figure 7. 20 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] .

dk ( i ) = xor (( dk_1 ( i ) & bk ( i ) ) .0 . else bk_not ( i ) = 1. end for i =1: length ( dk ) if ( dk ( i ) ==1) dk_radians ( i ) =0. 71 29 30 31 32 . bk = [1 . dk_1_not ( i ) = ~ dk (i -1) . ’ ( bk ) ’ ) bk_not = bk_not ’. // i n i t i a l v a l u e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l encoded sequence dk_1_not (1) =0& bk_not (1) .1 . dk_1_not (1) ) // f i r s t b i t o f dpsk encoder for i =2: length ( bk ) dk_1 ( i ) = dk (i -1) . elseif ( dk ( i ) ==0) dk_radians ( i ) = %pi . ’ ( b k n o t ) ’ ) dk = dk ’.0 .1].2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 // T a b l e 7 . dk (1) = xor ( dk_1 (1) . // i n p u t d i g i t a l s e q u e n c e for i = 1: length ( bk ) if ( bk ( i ) ==1) bk_not ( i ) =~1. 3 G e n e r a t i o n o f D i f f e r e n t i a l Phase s h i f t keying s i g n a l clc . end end disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . disp ( bk_not .1 . 3 I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e G e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK Signal ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( bk .0 .0 .( dk_1_not ( i ) & bk_not ( i ) )). end end dk_1 (1) = 1& bk (1) .

’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] .33 34 35 36 disp ( dk . plot2d ( y (1 . y = [1 . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure .1) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .y (2 .y (1 .2 . a = gca () .0 . a . 4 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK system clear clc . annot = dec2bin ([ M -1: -1:0] . M =2. disp (y . disp ( dk_radians .1].2) .2]. ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot .4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK // F i g u r e 7 . -5) xlabel ( ’ In−Phase ’ ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 19 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). ’ D i f f e r e n t i a l l y e n c o d e d s e q u e n c e ( dk ) ’ ) dk_radians = dk_radians ’. 20 title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BFSK ’ ) 21 legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ . log2 ( M ) ) . a .1) . ’ T r a n s m i t t e d p h a s e i n r a d i a n s ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7. -9) plot2d ( y (2 .2) . -2.0. close . data_bounds = [ -2 . a .5) 72 .

7: Figure 7.4 73 .Figure 7.

6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l s p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK waveform // F i g u r e 7 . -1.5) Scilab code Tab 7.6 Bndwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals 23 24 74 . disp (y . a . data_bounds = [ -1 . imag ( y (4) ) . i = 1: M . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) . -4) plot2d ( real ( y (3) ) . imag ( y (2) ) . -5) plot2d ( real ( y (4) ) . close . log2 ( M ) ) . 6 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear clc . ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ . imag ( y (3) ) .sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) * %i .1]. a .Scilab code CF 7. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ . y = cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . imag ( y (1) ) . annot = dec2bin ([0: M -1] . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 4 ( d i b i t 1 1 ) ’ ] . -2) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . M =4.1 . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ . a . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) figure . -9) xlabel ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . a = gca () .

Figure 7.8: Figure7.6 75 .

7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp (M .64]. // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s /Hz //M = M’ . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s / Hz disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 .16 .8 .4 . ’M’ ) disp ( ’ 10 11 ’) 12 disp ( Ruo . disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a signals ’) 11 disp ( ’ 8 9 10 76 .64].16 . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code Tab 7. 4 clc . 5 close . close . // Ruo = Ruo ’ . //M r y −a 7 Ruo = 2* log2 ( M ) . 6 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals clear .7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals 1 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK s i g n a l s −a 2 // T a b l e 7 .8 . //M r y −a Ruo = log2 ( M ) .4 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // T a b l e 7 .32 ./2.32 . clc . 7 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a 3 clear . 6 M = [2 ./ M . M = [2 .

Figure 7.9: Figure7. ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7. ’M’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( Ruo .29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals 77 .12 ’) 12 disp (M .

poly1 . end SB_PSK ( i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) .30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals. SB_FSK /(2* Eb ) ) plot ( f * Tb . ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. else SB_FSK ( i ) = (8* Eb *( cos ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) ) /(( %pi ^2) *(((4*( Tb ^2) *( f ( i ) ^2) ) -1) ^2) ) . end a = gca () . 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f QPSK and MSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . children (1) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f BPSK and BFSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . // B i t d u r a t i o n for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==(1/(2* Tb ) ) ) SB_FSK ( i ) = Eb /(2* Tb ) . plot ( f * Tb . f = 0:1/100:8/ rb . 3 0 : Comparison o f QPSK and MSK Power 78 . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . 2 9 : Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f BPSK // and BFSK clc . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’PSK Vs FSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ . children (1) . foreground = 6. Tb = 1/ rb . SB_PSK /(2* Eb ) ) poly1 = a .

29 79 .10: Figure7.Figure 7.

3 1 Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a 80 . // c l c . plot ( f * Tb . else SB_MSK ( i ) = (32* Eb /( %pi ^2) ) *( cos (2* %pi * Tb * f ( i ) ) /((4* Tb * f ( i ) ) ^2 -1) ) ^2. ’QPSK ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. // c l o s e . f = 0:1/(100* rb ) :(4/ rb ) . poly1 = a . children (1) . children (1) . SB_MSK /(4* Eb ) ) . plot ( f * Tb . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’QPSK Vs MSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ Minimum S h i f t Keying ’ . Tb = 1/ rb . foreground = 3.5) SB_MSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * f ( i ) . SB_QPSK /(4* Eb ) ) . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : ’ ) . end a = gca () . end SB_QPSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * sinc_new ((2* Tb * f ( i ) ) ) ^2. // b i t d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==0.3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Spectrums // c l e a r .31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power s p e c t r a o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // F i g u r e 7 . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : ’ ) . poly1 .

11: Figure7.30 81 .Figure 7.

f = 0:1/100: rb . for j = 1: length ( M ) for i = 1: length ( f ) SB_PSK (j . SB_PSK (3 . 8 ’ ) −a legend ([ ’M=2 ’ . g ) ) . ’M=4 ’ . T +1) .:) /(2* Eb ) ) plot2d ( f * Tb . end end a = gca () . t = 0: T . T =4. // B i t d u r a t i o n M = [2 . for i = 1: length ( h ) 82 .5) xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a o f M r y s i g n a l s f o r M = 2 .:) /(2* Eb ) .4 .2) plot2d ( f * Tb . g = 2* ones (1 . clc . SB_PSK (2 . h = abs ( convol (g . 4 1 // Matched F i l t e r Output clear .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . ’M=8 ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. plot2d ( f * Tb . i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb * log2 ( M ( j ) ) ) ^2) * log2 ( M ( j ) ) .41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t o f r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e // F i g u r e 7 .:) /(2* Eb ) . Tb = 1/ rb . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . a =2. SB_PSK (1 . 4 .8].

Figure 7.31 83 .12: Figure7.

01) h ( i ) =0.5) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ g ( t )−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ R e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e d u r a t i o n T = 4 .4].h .12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 if ( h ( i ) <0. figure a = gca () .0.g . a =2 ’ ) figure plot2d ( t1 .6) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) title ( ’ Output o f f i l t e r matched t o r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e g( t ) ’) 84 . end end h = h-T. data_bounds = [0 . a .6 . plot2d (t . t1 = 0: length ( h ) -1.

Figure 7.41a 85 .13: Figure7.

14: Figure7.41b 86 .Figure 7.

’ c o d e word f o r b i n a r y one i n p u t ’ ) .k ) . 2 : Hamming c o d e s 3 clear .n .n . 5 k = 4. disp (H . 4 clc . disp (x . Scilab code Exa 8. clc .2 Hamming Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes 2 // Example8 . // p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x G = [ P 1]. // b i t v a l u e = 1 I = eye (n -k .* G . ’ p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x ’ ) .Chapter 8 Error-Control Coding Scilab code Exa 8. n =5. // c o d e word disp (G . // I d e n t i t y m a t r i x P = ones (1 . // b l o c k o f i d e n t i c a l ’ n ’ b i t s k =1.k ) . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x x = m . // m e s s a g e b i t s l e n g t h 87 .1 Repetition Codes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : R e p e t i t i o n Codes // Example8 . // one b i t m = 1. // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x H = [ I P ’]. ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x ’ ) . 1 : R e p e t i t i o n Codes clear .

0 . // Number o f p a r i t y b i t s I = eye (k .1 18 // 19 C = m * G .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 n = 7.2) . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. // b l o c k l e n g t h m = n .1 .0 .1 .1.1 .1 .1. ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) G = [ g . G (3 . ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x G ’ ) H = [ eye (k -1 . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 .0 .1.2) .k -1) P ’]. disp (G .0.1. // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r .0 .1 . 0 . g ) . // i d e n t i t y m a t r i x disp (I . 3 : ( 7 .0 .0 .1 . // p a r i t y c h e c k m a t r i x disp (H .k .0 .1 .1 .:) + G (1 .0 . ’ c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x P ’ ) G = [ P I ].:) .0 . k ) .0 . g * D . 20 C = modulo (C . disp (r .1 . ’ i d e n t i t y m a t r i x I k ’ ) P =[1 . q ] = pdiv (m .1 . G = coeff ( G ) .0 .0.1 . clc . 21 disp (C .:) = modulo ( G (3 . ’ p a r i t y c h e c h k m a t r i x H ’ ) // m e s s a g e b i t s m = [0 .1 .0. // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) .1 .D) .1]. ’ Code words o f ( 7 . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x disp (G .0 .:) . 88 .0 . ’G ’ ) G (3 . ’D ’ ) .0 .0 .0 .3 Hamming Codes Revisited 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes R e v i s i t e d // Example8 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p . p = coeff ( r ) .:) = G (3 . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x disp (P . g * D ^2.0 .1. D = poly (0 .1. g * D ^3]. 4 ) Hamming Code R e v i s i t e d // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 .0. 0 . 4 ) Hamming c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8.0.

G (4 . D ^6* h ]. ’D ’ ) . 3 C o n t e n t s o f t h e S h i f t R e g i s t e r i n t h e E n c o d e r o f f i g 8 .:) = modulo ( H (1 . H = coeff ( H_num ) . p = coeff ( r ) .2) . disp (H . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 . disp (r . 4 ) C y c l i c hamming code // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 . H (1 . q ] = pdiv (m . 0 .:) + H (3 .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) disp ( ’ T a b l e 8 .18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 G (4 . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3.4 Encoder for the (7. g ) . ’ G e n e r a t o r M a t r i x G = ’ ) h = 1+ D ^ -1+ D ^ -2+ D ^ -4.2) .:) .D) . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r .:) .:) + G (4 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p . H_D = [ D ^4* h .:) = modulo ( G (4 .:) + G (2 .:) . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 .:) . 4 : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 .:) = G (1 . 0 . disp (G . H (1 . D ^5* h . ’ P a r t i y Check m a t r i x H = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. H_num = numer ( H_D ) . 7 f o r Me ss age S e q u e n c e ( 1 0 0 1 ) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( ’ S h i f t Contents ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) 16 disp ( ’ 1 17 disp ( ’ 2 Input Register 1 0 89 1 1 0 ’) 0 1 1 ’) . D = poly (0 .:) = H (1 .

’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) [ r2 . 0 . 5 : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 0 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form f o r e r r o r e d codeword ’ ) disp ( S2 . // m i d d l e b i t i s e r r o r [ r1 . 1 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp ( S1 . //m i t symbol −b 90 .2) . q1 ] = pdiv ( C1 . 6 : Reed−Solomon Codes 3 // S i n g l e −e r r o r −c o r r e c t i n g RS c o d e w i t h a 2− b i t b y t e 4 clc . S2 = coeff ( r2 ) . g ) . 5 m =2. ’D ’ ) .2) . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r e d c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3.6 Reed-Solomon Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Reed−Solomon Codes 2 // Example8 .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r f o r t h e ( 7 . D = poly (0 . // e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d C2 = 0+ D + D ^2+0+0+0+ D ^6. S2 = modulo ( S2 . 0 . 1 . S1 = modulo ( S1 . disp ( r2 . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 .5 Syndrome calculator for the(7. S1 = coeff ( r1 ) . q2 ] = pdiv ( C2 .18 19 20 disp ( ’ 3 disp ( ’ 4 disp ( ’ ’) 0 1 1 1 1 ’) 0 1 1 ’) Scilab code Exa 8. 1 ] clc . disp ( r1 . 1 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l C1 = 0+ D + D ^2+ D ^3+0+0+ D ^6. g ) .

for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . ’ n ’ ) disp (p . // p a r i t y b i t s l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e r = k / n .2) . g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . 0 . // s i n g l e b i t e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n n = 2^ m -1. end x = string ( x ) disp ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . x1 = modulo ( x1 .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 k = 1^2.k . 0 . x2 (N . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . // number o f m e s s a g e b i t s t =1.:) =[ x1 (N . // c o d e word l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e p = n . 1 ] // x = // ! 1 1 ! 91 .7 Convolutional Encoding . ’ I t can c o r r e c t any e r r o r u p t o = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. x2 = modulo ( x2 .i +1) . clc . ’ Code r a t e : r = k / n = ’ ) disp (2* t . 7 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n // Time Domain Approach close . // c o d e r a t e disp (n .i +1) ].2) . 0 . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . N = length ( x1 ) . 1 . m ) ) .Time domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g − Time domain approach // Example8 . 1 . m ) ) . ’ n−k ’ ) disp (r .

0. 1.2) . 1. // // bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. 1. 1. 1. 0. 0. 1. ’ bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. D = poly (0 . disp ( modulo ( x1 . // bottom o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x1 = coeff ( x1D ) . 1. // t o p o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x2D = g2D * mD . ’D ’ ) . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 2 mD = 1+0+0+ D ^3+ D ^4. 1. // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e p o l y n o m i a l representation x1D = g1D * mD . 1. 8 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e − T r a n s f o r m domain approach clc .25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code Exa 8. x2 = coeff ( x2D ) .8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g T r a n s f o r m domain approach // Example8 . ’ t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) disp ( modulo ( x2 . 92 . g1D = 1+ D + D ^2.2) . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 1 g2D = 1+ D ^2.

// t r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y p = 1 . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’) // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // 0.Scilab code Exa 8. 1 1 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e f o r b i n a r y symmetric channel clc . // number o f b i t s pe = 0.2877124 93 . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r correct reception gamma_2 = log2 ( pe * p ) +1.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Fano m e t r i c f o r b i n a r y s y m m e t r i c c h a n n e l using c o n v o l u t i o n a l code // Example8 . r = 1/2. // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no correct reception disp ( gama_1 .r ) .7027499 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // − 8. // c o d e r a t e n =2. // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one correct recption gamma_3 = 2* log2 ( pe ) +1.pe . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’ ) disp ( gamma_2 . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t recption ’) disp ( gamma_3 .8822126 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t r e c p t i o n // − 3.04. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n gama_1 = 2* log2 ( p ) +2*(1 .

x1 = x0 .19]. disp (i . 1 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e generator // Program t o g e n e r a t e Maximum Length Pseudo N o i s e Sequence // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 clc . disp (x . N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) for i =1: N x3 = x2 . x2 = x1 . x0 = xor ( x1 . 94 . x3 ) .17 .11 . ’ x= ’ ) end m = [7 .10 .1 PN sequence generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : PN s e q u e n c e g e n e r a t i o n // Example9 . // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r x0 = 1. x3 =0.8 .12 . x2 =0. ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ].Chapter 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation Scilab code Exa 9.13 . 1 and F i g u r e 9 .9 . x1 = 0.

// x= 1. // x= 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 2. 0. // x= 0. 0. 0. 1.22 N = 2^ m -1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 5. // x= 1. 2 and F i g u r e 9 . 1. 0. 6 // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r 7 x0 = 1. 1. 1. // x= 1. Scilab code Exa 9. // x= 1. 8 x1 = 0. 1. 2 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 3 // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 4 // P r o p e r i t e s o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 5 clc . 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 4. 0. 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 7. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 3. 95 .2 Maximum length sequence property 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 1 // C a p t i o n : Maximum l e n g t h s e q u e n c e p r o p e r t y 2 // Example9 . 1. 1. // x= 0. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 6. 1 Range o f PN S e q u e n c e l e n g t h s ’ ) 24 disp ( ’ 25 26 27 28 29 ’) disp ( ’ Length o f s h i f t r e g i s t e r (m) ’ ) disp ( m ) disp ( ’PN s e q u e n c e Length (N) ’ ) disp ( N ) disp ( ’ ’) // RESULTEnter t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l 7 // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 1. 23 disp ( ’ T a b l e 9 .

if ( C ( i ) ==1) C_level ( i ) =1. zero_count = 0. N ) . elseif ( C ( i ) ==0) C_level ( i ) = -1. disp (i . 4 disp ( C_level . end end disp (C . x0 = xor ( x1 . ’ Number o f 1 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( zero_count . x1 = x0 . // figure a = gca () . ’ Output S e q u e n c e ’ ) // r e f e r e q u a t i o n 9 . 96 . ’ Output S e q u e n c e l e v e l s ’ ) // r e f e r equation 9. x3 =0. disp (x .5 if ( zero_count < one_count ) disp ( one_count . for i =1: N x3 = x2 . N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) one_count = 0. x3 ) . ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ].9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 x2 =0. t = 1:2* length ( C_level ) . zero_count = zero_count +1. ’ Number o f 0 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( ’ P r o p e r t y 1 ( B a l a n c e p r o p e r t y ) i s s a t i s i f i e d ’ ) end Rc_tuo = corr ( C_level . x2 = x1 . ’ x= ’ ) C ( i ) = x3 . one_count = one_count +1.

52 plot2d ([ . // I n f o r m a t i o n b i t d u r a t i o n Tc = 1*10^ -6. Jamming m a r g i n i n dB // Example9 . 50 a .5) xlabel ( ’ tuo ’ ) 54 ylabel ( ’ Rc ( t u o ) ’ ) 55 title ( ’ A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 9. 51 a .[ 53 Rc_tuo ( $ : -1:2) . ’ The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : ’ ) disp (m . Jamming margin in dB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n .length ( Rc_tuo ) +1: -1 . Rc_tuo ] . PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h . PN sequence length. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .43 a . //PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h m = log2 ( N +1) . // P r o c e s s i n g g a i n disp ( PG . Tb = 4. //PN c h i p d u r a t i o n PG = Tb / Tc . C_level ]) 45 xlabel ( ’ t ’) 46 title ( ’ Waveform o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e [ 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1] ’) 47 // 48 figure 49 a = gca () . ’ The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : ’ ) 97 . close . ’ The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : ’ ) N = PG .[ C_level . 44 plot2d (t .0: length ( Rc_tuo ) -1] . // f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h disp (N . 3 : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n and Jamming Margin clear . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .3 Processing gain. clc .095*10^ -3.

Figure 9.2a 98 .1: Example9.

2b 99 .Figure 9.2: Example9.

14 Eb_No = 10. // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = 1 5 . 1 2 2 5 3 9 Scilab code Exa 9. // Jamming Margin 16 disp (10* log10 ( J_P ) . 4 and Example9 . ’ T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = ’ ) // R e s u l t // number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = 2 . ’ l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = ’ ) disp (2^ k .5 Slow and Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y h o p p i n g : FH/MFSK // Example9 . ’ P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = ’ ) disp (k .4Example9. ’ number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = ’ ) disp (M . // Number o f MFSK t o n e s N = 2^ M -1. K =2.6 Direct Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK 1 // C a p t i o n : D i r e c t S e q u e n c e S p r e a d C o h e r e n t BPSK 100 . 21 // Jamming Margin i n dB : 2 6 . // T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = 8 . ’ Number o f MFSK t o n e s M ’ ) = disp (N . 19 // The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : 4 0 9 5 . 20 // The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : 1 2 . // Energy t o n o i s e d e n s i t y r a t i o 15 J_P = PG / Eb_No . Scilab code Fig 9. // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e k = 3.4Figure9. ’ Jamming Margin i n dB : ’ ) 17 // R e s u l t 18 // The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : 4095. // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop disp (K . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = 3 . // Number o f MFSK t o n e s M = 4 . clc . 5 : P a r a m e t e r s o f FH/MFSK signal // Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y Hopping clear . // number o f b i t s p e r symbol M = 2^ K . close .

0 . N ) ]. -2.1 .1 .1]. bt = [1* ones (1 .01:1.1 . N ) -1* ones (1 .1 . ct_polar .1 .1 .2]. bt .1 . -1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . -2.1 . wt = 0:0.0 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ Data b ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . ct_polar = [ -1 . mt = bt . st = [].1 . plot2d2 (t . a .1) a = gca () . close . a .2].1 . clc . a .0 . ct = [0 .1 .1 .1 .2) a = gca () . a .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 // F i g u r e 9 . t = 0:13.0 . data_bounds = [0 .1].1 . a . N = 7. -1 .1 .0 . end // figure subplot (3 . 4 : G e n e r a t i o n o f w a v e f o r m s i n DS/BPSK spread spectrum t r a n s m i t t e r clear . plot2d2 (t .20 .* ct_polar . data_bounds = [0 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 101 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 . Carrier = 2* sin ( wt *2* %pi ) . for i = 1: length ( mt ) st = [ st mt ( i ) * Carrier ]. -1 .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -1 . -1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .20 .

20 . -2. a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 .20 . a . a . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . data_bounds = [0 .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . mt .2].1 . -2. a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2) a = gca () . data_bounds = [0 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) // figure subplot (3 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . a . plot2d2 (t .2]. a . 102 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 .1) a = gca () . a .35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 title ( ’ S p r e a d i n g c o d e c ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .3) a = gca () . -2. plot ( Carrier ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ C a r r i e r S i g n a l ’ ) subplot (3 . mt .2].20 .20 . data_bounds = [0 . a .3) a = gca () .1 .2]. -2. data_bounds = [0 . plot2d2 (t . a . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .

3: Figure9. Xmax ] = Alaw (x .Figure 9.6a 67 68 plot ( st ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 69 title ( ’DS/BPSK s i g n a l s ( t ) ’ ) 70 // Scilab code ARC 1 Alaw 1 2 3 function [ Cx . A ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n //A−law : A−law n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n 103 .

6b 104 .4: Figure9.Figure 9.6b Figure9.

12 105 .5: Figure10.Figure 9.

for i = 1: length ( x ) if ( x ( i ) / Xmax < = 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) . h = zeros (1 . Rxx = zeros (1 . endfunction Scilab code ARC 2 auto correlation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 function [ Rxx ] = auto_correlation ( x ) // A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f a g i v e n I n p u t S e q u e n c e // F i n d i n g o u t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l u s i n g autocorrelation technique L = length ( x ) . elseif ( x ( i ) / Xmax > 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = (1+ log ( A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) ) ) . for i = L +1: N h ( i ) = 0. N ) ./(1+ log ( A ) ) . end N = 2* L -1.i +1) = x ( i ) . end end Cx = Cx / Xmax . end for i = L +1: N x ( i ) = 0. end for n = 1: N for k = 1: N if ( n >= k ) 106 .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // x = i n p u t v e c t o r //Cx = A−law c o m p r e s s o r o u t p u t //Xmax = maximum o f i n p u t v e c t o r x Xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . for i = 1: L h (L ./(1+ log ( A ) ) . // n o r m a l i z a t i o n o f o u t p u t v e c t o r Cx = Cx ’. L ) .

i +1) ]. x2 = round ( convol ( g2 .i +1) . 22 end 23 end 24 end 25 disp ( ’ Auto C o r r e l a t i o n R e s u l t i s ’ ) 26 Rxx 27 disp ( ’ C e n t e r V a l u e i s t h e Maximum o f a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n 28 29 30 31 result ’) [m . 1 . 0 . 0 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . end x = string ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 1 . x1 = modulo ( x1 .:) =[ x1 (N . 0 . m ) ) . x2 = modulo ( x2 . 4 clc . 5 g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) 6 g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . n ] = max ( Rxx ) disp ( ’ P e r i o d o f t h e g i v e n s i g n a l u s i n g Auto C o r r e l a t i o n Sequence ’ ) n endfunction Scilab code ARC 3 Convolutional Coding 1 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n 2 // Time Domain Approach 3 close .k +1) * h ( k ) . N = length ( x1 ) .21 Rxx ( n ) = Rxx ( n ) + x (n . 1 ] // x = 107 .2) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . m ) ) . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . x2 (N .2) .

for i = 1: length ( code1 ) Hamming_Distance = Hamming_Distance + xor ( code1 ( i ) . 1 . 0 . clc . 1 .22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code ARC 4 Hamming Distance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Weight and Hamming D i s t a n c e //H( 7 . 1 ] // Hamming D i s t a n c e 4. P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . 0 . 1 . close . // G e t t i n g Code Words code1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word ’ ) . 0 . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . 1 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word [ 1 . 0 . end disp ( Hamming_Distance . ’ Hamming D i s t a n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word [ 0 . Scilab code ARC 5 Hamming Encode 108 . code2 ( i ) ) . Hamming_Distance = 0. 0 . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . 1 . code2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word ’ ) .

m0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) .:) = [ b2 ( i ) b1 ( i ) b0 ( i ) ]. xor ( m2 ( i ) .:) . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . disp ( ” ”).1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Hamming E n c o d i n g //H( 7 . m2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . m1 ( i ) ) ) . // G e n e r a t i n g P a r i t y b i t s for i = 1:(2^4) b2 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . close . b (i . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . m (i . b1 ( i ) = xor ( m1 ( i ) . clc . ’ CodeWord ’ ) disp ( ” ”).:) = [ m3 ( i ) m2 ( i ) m1 ( i ) m0 ( i ) ]. disp ( ’ ’) for i = 1:2^4 disp ( i ) disp ( m (i . end C = [ b m ]. m3 ( i ) ) ) . b0 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . ’ Mes sa ge Word ’ ) disp ( b (i . m1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) .:) . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . m2 ( i ) ) ) . end disp ( ’ ’) // d i s p (m b C) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word 109 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 . xor ( m1 ( i ) . ’ P a r i t y B i t s ’ ) disp ( C (i . xor ( m3 ( i ) . // G e t t i n g M es sag e Word m3 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) .:) .

1 36 // E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e [0 .0 .1 34 // E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .1 .n ) .0 .0 .1 .0 .1 .0 .0 . en_code ( i ) = en_code ( i ) -2^ j .0 .1 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .1 . for i = 1: length ( x ) for j = n : -1:0 if ( fix ( en_code ( i ) /(2^ j ) ) ==1) c (i .1 .0 .1 .1 . c = zeros ( length ( x ) .1 .j ) ) =1.0 .0 .1]. word . end end end disp ( c ) 110 .0 Scilab code ARC 5 invmulaw 1 2 3 4 5 .1].0 .1 ./ mu ) 7 endfunction Scilab code ARC 6 PCM Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 function [ c ] = PCM_Encoding (x .1 .1]. function x = invmulaw (y .0 .0 .[0 . mu ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n // invmulaw : i n v e r s e mulaw n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n // x = o u t p u t v e c t o r // y = i n p u t v e c t o r ( u s i n g mulaw n o n l i n e a r comression ) 6 x = (((1+ mu ) .1 . en_code ) // E n c o d i n g : C o n v e r t i n g Q u a n t i z e d d e c i m a l s a m p l e values in to binary // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s // e n c o d e = n o r m a l i z e d i n p u t s e q u e n c e n = log2 ( L ) .1 .0 .1 35 // E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .1 .0 .1].0 .0 .( n .1 .1 .1 . .1 .0 .0 .0 .1 .^( abs ( y ) ) -1) .1 .L .1 .1 .1 .0 .1 . .1 .

5) . x = sin (2* %pi * t ) . L ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // S t e p 2 c = PCM_Encoding (x .Scilab code ARC 7 PCM Transmission 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n :PCM T r a n s m i s s i o n ( i n c l u d e s f u n c t i o n s : u n i f o r m p c m . a = gca () . t = 0:0. 5 y ( i ) = 1. xq .L . a . close . // From LS : don ’ t n e e d t h i s i s /0 warning i s o f f 4 y = sin ( %pi * x ) .001:1. en_code ) . x ) . a ./( %pi * x ) . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . s c e ) // T h i s program i s a s a m p l e program f o r P u l s e Code Modulation t r a n s m i s s i o n // s t e p 1 : The g i v e n a n a l o g s i g n a l c o n v e r t e d i n t o quantized sample value // s t e p 2 : Then t h e q u a n t i z e d s a m p l e v a l u e c o n v e r t e d into binary value clc . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . 3 x ( i ) = 1. 6 endfunction 111 . title ( ’ Q u a n t i z a t i o n o f Sampled a n a l o g s i g n a l ’ ) legend ([ ’ Analog s i g n a l ’ . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . PCM encoding . ’ Q u a n t i z e d S i g n a l ’ ]) Scilab code ARC 8 sinc new 1 function [ y ]= sinc_new ( x ) 2 i = find ( x ==0) . L = 16. s c e . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . // S t e p 1 [ SQNR . xq .

d = 2/ L .. end endfunction 112 . length ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) ) . end xq = xq * xmax . endfunction Scilab code ARC 10 xor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 function [ value ] = xor (A . en_code = xq . xq . q = q -(( L -1) /2) * d . length ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) ) .xq ) ) .. q = d *[0: L -1]. B ) if ( A == B ) value = 0.Scilab code ARC 9 uniform pcm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 function [ SQNR .* ones (1 . for i = 1: L xq ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) =. else value = 1. en_code ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) = (i -1) . q ( i ) . xq = x / xmax . SQNR = 20* log10 ( norm ( x ) / norm (x .* ones (1 . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . L ) // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) .

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