Scilab Code for Digital Communication, by Simon Haykin 1

Created by Prof. R. Senthilkumar Institute of Road and Transport Technology rsenthil signalprocess@in.com Cross-Checked by Prof. Saravanan Vijayakumaran, IIT Bombay sarva@ee.iitb.ac.in 23 August 2010

by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT, http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Text Book Companion and Scilab codes written in it can be downlaoded from the website www.scilab.in

1 Funded

Book Details
Authors: Simon Haykins Title: Digital Communication Publisher: Willey India Edition: Wiley India Edition Year: Reprint 2010 Place: Delhi ISBN: 9788126508242

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Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the above book. Prb Problem (Unsolved problem) Exa Example (Solved example) Tab Table ARC Additionally Required Code (Scilab Code that is not part of the above book but required to solve a particular Example) AE Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular Example of the above book) CF Code for Figure(Scilab code that is used for plotting the respective figure of the above book ) For example, Prb 4.56 means Problem 4.56 of the above book. Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

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Contents
List of Scilab Codes 1 Introduction 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance 3 Detection and Estimation 4 Sampling Process 5 Waveform Coding Techniques 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission 7 Digital Modulation Techniques 8 Error-Control Coding 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation 4 2 5 14 27 31 39 59 87 94

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List of Scilab Codes
CF 1.2 Exa 2.1 Exa 2.2 Exa 2.3 Exa 2.4 Exa 2.5 Exa 2.6 Exa 2.7 Exa 3.1 Exa 3.2 Exa 3.3 Exa 3.4 Exa 3.6 CF 3.29 Exa 4.1 Exa 4.3 Exa 5.1 Exa 5.2 Digital Representation of Analog signal . . . . . . . . Entropy of Binary Memoryless source . . . . . . . . . Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Entropy, Average length, Variance of Huffman Encoding Binary Symmetric Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel . . Significance of the Channel Coding theorem . . . . . . Orthonormal basis for given set of signals . . . . . . . M ARY Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for RF pulse . . . . . . . . . . Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal . . . . . . . Linear Predictor of Order one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm . . Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse . . Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect . . . . . . . . Average Transmitted Power for PCM . . . . . . . . . Comparision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 5.3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM . . . . . . Exa 5.5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier . . . . . . . CF 6.1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format . . . . . . . . . . . CF 6.1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format . . . . . . . . . . Exa 6.2 Duobinary Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 5 5 7 8 9 10 10 14 16 19 20 22 24 27 28 31 31 32 34 36 36 39 40 40 42 44

Exa 6.3 CF 6.4 CF 6.6b CF 6.7b CF 6.9 CF 6.15

Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder . . . Power Spectra of different binary data formats . . . . (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine . . . . . . . . . Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter . . . Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 7.1 QPSK Waveform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques . Exa 7.2 MSK waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK . . . . . . . Tab 7.3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal . . . . . . . CF 7.4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK . . . . . . . CF 7.6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform . . Tab 7.6 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals . . . . . . Tab 7.7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals . . . . . . CF 7.29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals . . . . . . . CF 7.31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals . . . . . . . . . . CF 7.41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse . . . . . . Exa 8.1 Repetition Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.2 Hamming Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.3 Hamming Codes Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.4 Encoder for the (7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code . . . . . . Exa 8.5 Syndrome calculator for the(7,4) Cyclic Hamming Code Exa 8.6 Reed-Solomon Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 8.7 Convolutional Encoding - Time domain approach . . . Exa 8.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach Exa 8.11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.1 PN sequence generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.2 Maximum length sequence property . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.3 Processing gain, PN sequence length, Jamming margin in dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exa 9.4Example9.5 Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK . . . . Slow and Fig 9.4Figure9.6 Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK . . . . . . . . Direct ARC 1 Alaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARC 2 auto correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

47 48 49 51 53 55 59 61 63 68 70 72 74 74 76 77 78 80 82 87 87 88 89 90 90 91 92 93 94 95 97 100 100 103 106

. . . . . . . . . . PCM Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCM Transmission . . . . . . . . . invmulaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sinc new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC ARC 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 Convolutional Coding Hamming Distance . . . 107 108 108 110 110 111 111 112 112 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . uniform pcm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hamming Encode . . xor . . . .

3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . .7 . . . . . .4 3. . .1a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example4. . . . . . . Figure3. Example2. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 . . Example3. . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . .2b . . . . 3 4 6 11 13 16 17 19 21 23 26 28 30 33 37 38 41 43 45 50 52 54 56 58 Example4. . .2 5. . 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6.6 6. . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . .13a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure6. . . . .1 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .1c Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3. . . . . . . .13b . . . . . . . . .1b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 5. . Example3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . Example2. . . . Example3. . . . . . . .5 6. .1a Figure6. . . . .3 3. . . . . . .1 1.1 2. . . . . . . . Example2. . . Figure5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1b Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . Example3. .6 Figure6. . . . . . . .4 6. . .29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . .3 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 . . . . . . .2a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 .4 Figure6. . . . Example5. . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . .1 3. . . .7 6. . . . . .7 Figure6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . . . . . . . .6 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. Figure5. . . . . . . . . . . . Example3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Figure1. .

. . . Figure7. . . .41b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 7. . . .2 7. . . . . .11 7. . . . . . . . . .3 9. .12 . . . . . . . . . . .29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . .13 7. . . . . . .3 7. . . .1 Figure7. .2a .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . Figure7. . . . . 61 64 65 66 69 70 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 86 98 99 103 104 105 Example9. . . . . . . . . . .1 9. Figure7. . . . . . .6 . . . . . . . . .14 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Example7. . . . . . .30 . . . . . .41a Figure7.1c . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 7.1b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example9. . . . . . . . .8 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure10. . . . . .31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 7.9 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .6 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1a . . . . . . .4 7. . . . . . . . . . . . Figure9. .6a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . .6b . . . . . . . Figure7. Example7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure9. .2b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 . . . . Figure7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . .12 . . .12 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

x = 2* sin (( %pi /2) * t ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . x ) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . -0.01:1.5 .1 .3] plot (t . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .1 .1 .0 .5 .0. close . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -9) xlabel ( ’ Time ’ ) 21 ylabel ( ’ 2 .0 .2 Digital Representation of Analog signal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f Analog s i g n a l // F i g u r e 1 . -2 .1 .1 . a . a .Chapter 1 Introduction Scilab code CF 1.0 .0 .1 .1] // figure a = gca () . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .0 . . sqrt (2) . t = -1:0.2 .0 .0 .sqrt (2) . dig_data = [0 .0 . -1 .0 .0 .0 . data_bounds =[ -2 . -9) plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ . -3. clc .2 . 2 : Analog t o D i g i t a l C o n v e r s i o n clear .0 .0 . a .

1: Figure1.5) title ( ’ D i g i t a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n ’ ) 3 .2a 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Voltage ’) title ( ’ Analog Waveform ’ ) // figure a = gca () .5].21 . plot2d2 ([1: length ( dig_data ) ] .Figure 1. data_bounds = [0 . a .0. dig_data .

2: Figure1.Figure 1.2b 4 .

5 close . 6 clc . length ( Po ) ) .1 Entropy of Binary Memoryless source 1 // C a p t i o n : Ent ropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e 2 // Example 2 . Po ’ ) 15 ylabel ( ’H( Po ) ’ ) 16 title ( ’ Entropy f u n c t i o n H( Po ) ’ ) 17 plot2d3 ( ’ gnn ’ .Po ( i ) ) * log2 (1 . 7 Po = 0:0.Po ( i ) * log2 ( Po ( i ) ) -(1 .Chapter 2 Fundamental Limit on Performance Scilab code Exa 2. 9 for i = 2: length ( Po ) -1 10 H_Po ( i ) = .01:1. 11 end 12 // p l o t 13 plot2d ( Po .5 .2 Second order Extension of Discrete Memoryless Source 5 . 1 : Entropy o f B i n a r y M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e 3 // p a g e 18 4 clear . 8 H_Po = zeros (1 .1) Scilab code Exa 2.0. H_Po ) 14 xlabel ( ’ Symbol P r o b a b i l i t y .Po ( i )).

1 6 .1: Example2.Figure 2.

2 : Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s s o u r c e // p a g e 19 clear . i = 0 . . 1 . P0 = 1/4. disp ( ’ Entropy o f D i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s S o u r c e ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . for i = 1: length ( P_sigma ) H_Ruo_Square = H_Ruo_Square + P_sigma ( i ) * log2 (1/ P_sigma ( i ) ) . P2 * P1 . H_Ruo ) // S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f d i s c r e t e M e m o r y l e s s source P_sigma = [ P0 * P0 . . P1 * P1 . P1 * P0 . clc . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S0 P1 = 1/4. P0 * P1 . H_Ruo_Square . . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S1 P2 = 1/2. P2 * P0 . P0 * P2 . P1 * P2 . 1 A l p h a b e t P a r t i c u l a r s o f Second−o r d e r Extension o f a D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ S e q u e n c e o f Symbols o f r u o 2 : ’ ) disp ( ’ S0 ∗ S0 S0 ∗ S1 S0 ∗ S2 S1 ∗ S0 S1 ∗ S1 S1 ∗ S2 S2 ∗ S0 S2 ∗ S1 S2 ∗ S2 ’ ) disp ( P_sigma .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // c a p t i o n : S e c o n d o r d e r E x t e n s i o n o f D i s c r e t e Memoryless Source // Example 2 . ’ P r o b a b i l i t y p ( s i g m a ) . 8 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ ’) H_Ruo_Square =0. end disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . P2 * P2 ]. ’H( R u o S q u a r e )= ’ ) disp ( ’H( R u o S q u a r e ) = 2∗H( Ruo ) ’ ) 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 7 . disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f s o u r c e a l p h a b e t S2 H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) . .

A v e r a g e l e n g t h . A v e r a g e l e n g t h . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0.2.L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 .4 Entropy. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 . ’ A v e r a g e code − word l e n g t h L e x c e e d s t h e e n t r o p y H( Ruo ) by o n l y ’ ) sigma_1 = P0 *( L0 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 1 ’ L2 = 2. Average length. ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ .4.L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g // Example 2 . H_Ruo .3 Entropy. Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Entropy .Scilab code Exa 2. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 0 ’ L1 = 2. ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) disp ( ’ p e r c e n t ’ . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0.1.L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 . H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) . disp ( sigma_1 . ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2.L ) ^2. disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0. clc .1.2. 3 : Huffman E n c o d i n g : C a l c u l a t i o n o f // ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ // ( b ) E ntropy ’H’ clear . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 3. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 ’ L0 = 2.L .((L . V a r i a n c e o f Huffman E n c o d i n g 8 .Average length.H_Ruo ) / H_Ruo ) *100 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 3. P0 = 0. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0.L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . Variance of Huffman Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : Entropy .

2. 5 close . H_Ruo = P0 * log2 (1/ P0 ) + P1 * log2 (1/ P1 ) + P2 * log2 (1/ P2 ) + P3 * log2 (1/ P3 ) + P4 * log2 (1/ P4 ) . ’ A v e r a g e code −word Length L ’ ) disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S2 P3 = 0. disp ( sigma_2 . // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 1 ’ L4 = 4. ’ Entropy o f Huffman c o d i n g r e s u l t H’) sigma_2 = P0 *( L0 . disp ( ’ b i t s ’ . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S0 P1 = 0. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 1 ’ L1 = 2. // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S1 P2 = 0.L ) ^2.L ) ^2+ P2 *( L2 . P0 = 0.2. ’ V a r i n a c e o f Huffman c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2. 4 : I l l u s t r a t i n g n o n u n i q u e s s o f t h e Huffman E n c o d i n g // C a l c u l a t i o n o f ( a ) A v e r a g e code −word l e n g t h ’ L ’ ( b ) Entr opy ’H’ clear . H_Ruo .L ) ^2+ P1 *( L1 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 1 ’ L0 = 1. 4 clc . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S4 L = P0 * L0 + P1 * L1 + P2 * L2 + P3 * L3 + P4 * L4 .4. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 0 ’ L2 = 3.4. // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n 7 pe = 1 .5 Binary Symmetric Channel 1 // C a p t i o n : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 2 // Example2 .1. 6 p = 0.L .p .L ) ^2+ P3 *( L3 .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // Example2 . 5 : B i n a r y Symmetric Channel 3 clear . clc . // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r r e c e p t i o n ( i .1. e ) transition probility 8 disp (p . // l e n g t h o f c o d e w o r d S3 P4 =0. // p r o b i l i t y o f c o d e w o r d ’ 0 0 1 0 ’ L3 = 4. ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t= ’ ) 9 .L ) ^2+ P4 *( L4 .

elseif ( i ==1) C ( i ) =1.p ( i ) ) * log2 ((1 .01:0.5) xlabel ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n P r o b i l i t y .6 Channel Capacity of a Binary Symmetric Channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Channel C a p a c i t y o f a B i n a r y Symmetric Channel // Example2 . p ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Channel C a p a c i t y . for i =1: length ( p ) if ( i ~=1) C ( i ) = 1+ p ( i ) * log2 ( p ( i ) ) +(1 . elseif ( i == length ( p ) ) C ( i ) =0.7 Significance of the Channel Coding theorem // C a p t i o n : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Channel Coding t h e o r e m // Example2 .9 10 disp ( ’ T r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y ’ ) disp ( pe . 7 : S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c h a n n e l c o d i n g theorem 3 // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r o f R e p e t i t i o n Code 1 2 10 .C . clc . 1 0 V a r i a t i o n o f c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y o f a binary symmetric channel with t r a n s i t i o n probility p ’) Scilab code Exa 2. 6 : Channel C a p a c i t y o f B i n a r y Symmetri Channel clear . end end plot2d (p .5. C ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 . close . ’ p r o b i l i t y o f 0 r e c e i v i n g i f a 1 i s s e n t = p r o b i l i t y o f 1 r e c e i v i n g i f a 0 i s s e n t= ’ ) Scilab code Exa 2.p ( i ) ) ) . p = 0:0.

2: Example2.6 11 .Figure 2.

// e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/5 11 pe_7 = ((7*6*5) /(1*2*3) ) * p ^4*(1 . // p r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/3 10 pe_5 = 10* p ^3*(1 .1/5 .0. pe_5 . 1 2 I l l u s t r a t i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e channel coding theorem ’ ) 20 legend ( ’ R e p e t i t i o n c o d e s ’ ) 21 xgrid (1) 22 disp ( ’ T a b l e 2 .01]. 15 a . 14 a = gca () .pe .1/7]. ’ A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r .p ) ^3+(42/2) * p ^5*(1 . 7 p =10^ -2. r =1/n ’ .p ) ^2+5* p ^4*(1 . pe_3 . // e r r o r f o r c o d e r a t e r =1/7 12 r = [1 . r ’ ) 18 ylabel ( ’ A v e r a g e P r o b a b i l i t y o f e r r o r . 8 pe_1 = p . 6 close . 5 clc . data_bounds =[0 . Pe ’ ) 19 title ( ’ F i g u r e 2 .1/3 .p ) + p ^3. 3 A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f E r r o r f o r R e p e t i t i o n Code ’ ) 23 disp ( ’ ’) 24 disp (r . 13 pe = [ pe_1 .p ) + p ^5. ’ Code Rate .5) 17 xlabel ( ’ Code r a t e . pe . 16 plot2d (r .1 .p ) + p ^7.4 clear . Pe ’ ) 25 disp ( ’ ’) 12 . pe_7 ]. // A v e r a g e P r o b i l i t y o f e r r o r f o r code r a t e r = 1 9 pe_3 = 3* p ^2*(1 .0.p ) ^2+7* p ^6*(1 .

3: Example2.Figure 2.7 13 .

ones (1 .01:2* T /3. s3t = [0 .0].0]. ones (1 .0]. length ( t2 ) -2) .01: T /3. phi3t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 .0].0]. 1 : F i n d i n g o r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r t h e g i v e n signals // u s i n g Gram−Schmidt o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e clear . t3 = T /3:0. length ( t7 ) -2) . // 14 . s1t = [0 . ones (1 . length ( t6 ) -2) . t1 = 0:0.01: T /3. length ( t4 ) -2) . t2 = 0:0. clc . close . T = 1. s2t = [0 .Chapter 3 Detection and Estimation Scilab code Exa 3.01:2* T /3.01: T . ones (1 . t4 = 0:0. phi1t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 . ones (1 . s4t = [0 . length ( t1 ) -2) . t5 = 0:0.0]. t6 = T /3:0. ones (1 . t7 = 2* T /3:0. phi2t = sqrt (3/ T ) *[0 .1 Orthonormal basis for given set of signals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : O r t h o n o r m a l b a s i s f o r g i v e n s e t o f s i g n a l s // Example3 .0]. ones (1 .01: T .01: T . length ( t3 ) -2) . length ( t5 ) -2) .

5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .0. data_bounds = [0 .1 . plot2d2 ( t3 . a .1 .1 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .1 .2) 15 .1 .0. data_bounds = [0 .2]. s3t . a .2]. plot2d2 ( t5 . a .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 3 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 . a .0.2 .2].1) a = gca () .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (4 .0.1) a = gca () .4) a = gca () .1 .2 .2 . plot2d2 ( t4 . 4 ( a ) S e t o f s i g n a l s t o be orthonormalized ’) subplot (4 .2 . plot2d2 ( t2 . a .23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .2) a = gca () .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ s 4 ( t ) ’ ) // figure title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . data_bounds = [0 . data_bounds = [0 . 4 ( b ) The r e s u l t i n g s e t o f o r t h o n o r m a l functions ’) subplot (3 . s4t .3) a = gca () . s1t .2].4].0. phi1t .2 . data_bounds = [0 . s2t . plot2d2 ( t1 .

data_bounds = [0 .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 3 ( t ) ’ ) 16 . a . plot2d2 ( t7 . plot2d2 ( t6 . data_bounds = [0 . a .1: Example3.4].Figure 3. phi3t .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’ ) ylabel ( ’ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .1a 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 a = gca () . phi2t .2 .0.4].1 .2 .0.3) a = gca () .

Figure 3.2: Example3.1b 17 .

2 . clc .0. // a m p l i t u d e =1 T =1.(1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) ]. a =1.(3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) . 2 : M −ARY SIGNALING // S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n and R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d i b i t s clear . // Symbol d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s // Four m e s s a g e p o i n t s Si1 = [( -3/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) .Scilab code Exa 3. a = gca () . data_bounds = [ -2 .0 . a .[0 . D e c i s i o n i n t e r v a l s f o r received dibits ’) disp ( ’ R e c e i v e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ 20 21 22 23 24 25 01 01 ’) 26 disp ( ’ I n t e r v a l on p h i 1 ( t ) | x1 < −a . 8 ( a ) S i g n a l c o n s t e l l a t i o n ’ ) xgrid (1) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . o f meg . s q r t (T) |− a .5] plot2d ( Si1 . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a n s m i t t e d dibits ’) disp ( ’ Loc .0] .0 . 8 ( b ) . -10) xlabel ( ’ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . close . -0. 8 ( c ) .5.( -1/2) * a * sqrt ( T ) . p o i n t | ( −3/2) a s q r t (T) | ( − 1 / 2 ) a s q r t ( T) | ( 3 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) | ( 1 / 2 ) a s q r t (T) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( ’ T r a n s m i t t e d d i b i t | 00 | | 11 | 10 ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ ’ ) disp ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .2 M ARY Signaling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n :M −ARY S i g n a l i n g // Example3 . s q r t ( 18 .

01: T . 3 : MATCHED FILTER FOR RF PULSE clear . close . t1 = 0:0.Figure 3. s q r t (T)<x1 ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. clc . // c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y i n Hz T =1.3: Example3. s q r t (T) | a . 19 .2 T)<x1 <0| 0<x1<a .3 Matched Filter output for RF pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r RF p u l s e // Example3 . fc =4.

hopt = phit . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . phit ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . -1. plot2d ( t2 . plot2d ( t1 . a .2) a = gca () . 1 3 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3.1) a = gca () . 4 : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r n o i s e l i k e 1 20 . a . data_bounds = [0 . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . phiot ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . subplot (2 . phiot = phiot / max ( phiot ) .1].1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . hopt ) . t2 = 0:0. -1. data_bounds = [0 . 1 3 ( a ) RF p u l s e i n p u t ’ ) subplot (2 . a .1].01:2* T . phiot = convol ( phit .1 . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . a .4 Matched Filter output for Noise-like signal 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t f o r N o i s e − l i k e signal 2 // Example3 . a .9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 phit = sqrt (2/ T ) * cos (2* %pi * fc * t1 ) . a .

4: Example3.3 21 .Figure 3.

hopt ) .1 . a . 1 6 ( b ) Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) Scilab code Exa 3. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1]. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d ([1: length ( phi0t ) ] . a .1 .2) a = gca () . close . ’ u n i f o r m ’ ) . phi0t ) . a .6 Linear Predictor of Order one 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 22 . phi0t = phi0t / max ( phi0t ) . xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi0 ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 . phit =0.1 . 1 6 ( a ) N o i s e L i k e i n p u t s i g n a l ’ ) subplot (2 . data_bounds = [0 .1* rand (1 . phit ) . a . a . data_bounds = [0 . subplot (2 . -1. xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ phi ( t ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 3 .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 input clear .10 .1) a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . clc . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . hopt = phit .1]. phi0t = convol ( phit . plot2d ([1: length ( phit ) ] . -1.

5: Example3.4 23 .Figure 3.

length ( x ) ) . order = 18. x = sin (2* %pi *5* t ) . close .1) . x_n = x + noise . disp ( sigma_E .h01 * Rxx (3) . h01 = Rxx (3) / Rxx (2) . sigma_X = Rxx (2) . ’ P r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e ’ ) disp ( sigma_X . for k =1:1010 for i = 1: N .buffer * w . // Rxx ( 2 ) = Rxx ( 0 ) . clc .6 1 0. Rxx = [0. Rxx ( 3 ) = Rxx ( 1 ) sigma_E = Rxx (2) .order -1 buffer = ref_noise ( i : i + order -1) .01:1. 24 . ’ P r e d i c t o r i n p u t v a r i a n c e ’ ) if ( sigma_X > sigma_E ) disp ( ’ The p r e d i c t o r −e r r o r v a r i a n c e i s l e s s t h a n the variance of the p r e d i c t o r input ’ ) end Scilab code CF 3. w = zeros ( order . t =0:0. ref_noise = noise * rand (10) . close . mu = 0. desired ( i ) = x_n ( i ) . 6 : LINEAR PREDICTION : P r e d i c t o r o f Order One clear . N = length ( x ) .29 Implementation of LMS Adaptive Filter algorithm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f LMS ADAPTIVE FILTER // For n o i s e c a n c e l l a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n clear .6].01*( sum ( x . clc .^2) / length ( x ) ) . noise = rand (1 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 // C a p t i o n : L i n e a r P r e d i c t o r o f Order one // Example3 .

1 . x ) 24 title ( ’ O r i g n a l I n p u t S i g n a l ’ ) 25 subplot (4 .3) 29 plot2d (t .19 w = w +( buffer * mu * desired ( i ) ) ’. noise .1 . 20 end 21 end 22 subplot (4 .2) 27 title ( ’ random n o i s e ’ ) 28 subplot (4 . x_n .1 .1 .5) 30 title ( ’ S i g n a l+n o i s e ’ ) 31 subplot (4 .4) 32 plot ( desired ) 33 title ( ’ n o i s e removed s i g n a l ’ ) 25 .1) 23 plot2d (t .2) 26 plot2d (t .

Figure 3.6: Figure3.29

26

Chapter 4 Sampling Process
Scilab code Exa 4.1 Bound on Aliasing error for Time-shifted sinc pulse
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

// C a p t i o n : Bound on A l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r Time− s h i f t e d sinc pulse // Example4 . 1 : Maximum bound on a l i a s i n g e r r o r f o r sinc pulse clc ; close ; t = -1.5:0.01:2.5; g = 2* sinc_new (2* t -1) ; disp ( max ( g ) , ’ A l i a s i n g e r r o r c a n n o t e x c e e d max | g ( t ) | ’ ) f = -1:0.01:1; G = [0 ,0 ,0 ,0 , ones (1 , length ( f ) ) ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0]; f1 = -1.04:0.01:1.04; subplot (2 ,1 ,1) a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -3 , -1;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d (t , g ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) ylabel ( ’ g( t ) ’) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( a ) S i n c p u l s e g ( t ) ’ ) subplot (2 ,1 ,2) 27

Figure 4.1: Example4.1
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

a = gca () ; a . data_bounds =[ -2 ,0;2 ,2]; a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” plot2d2 ( f1 , G ) xlabel ( ’ f ’) ylabel ( ’ G( f ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 . 8 ( b ) A m p l i t u d e s p e c t r u m |G( f ) | ’ ) Scilab code Exa 4.3 Equalizier to compensate Aperture effect

1

// C a p t i o n : E q u a l i z e r t o c o m p e n s a t e A p e r t u r e e f f e c t 28

close .5) xlabel ( ’ Duty c y c l e T/ Ts ’ ) ylabel ( ’ 1/ s i n c ( 0 .2]. E (1) =1. plot2d ( T_Ts .8. data_bounds = [0 . 1 6 N o r m a l i z e d e q u a l i z a t i o n ( t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r a p e r t u r e e f f e c t ) p l o t t e d v e r s u s T/ Ts ’ ) 29 .E .0.0.01:0. end a = gca () . 3 : E q u a l i z e r t o Compensate f o r a p e r t u r e effect clc . 5 ( T/ Ts ) ) ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 4 .1. for i = 2: length ( T_Ts ) E ( i ) = (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) /( sin (( %pi /2) * T_Ts ( i ) ) ) .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 // Example4 . 5 ∗ T Ts ) ) . T_Ts = 0.6.8 . //E = 1 / ( s i n c n e w ( 0 . a .01:0.

Figure 4.3 30 .2: Example4.

6 sigma_N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e ’ ) .2 Comaprision of M-ary PCM with ideal system (Channel Capacity Theorem) 31 .Chapter 5 Waveform Coding Techniques Scilab code Exa 5.1 Average Transmitted Power for PCM 1 // C a p t i o n : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power f o r PCM 2 // Example5 . M = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r ’ ) . 7 k = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 s i g n a l i n g ’ ). disp ( ’ The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : ’ ) P = ( k ^2) *( sigma_N ) *(( M ^2) -1) /12. 1 : A v e r a g e T r a n s m i t t e d Power o f PCM 3 // Page 187 4 clear . 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 Scilab code Exa 5. 5 clc . disp ( P ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e n o i s e v a r i a n c e 10ˆ −6 // E n t e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n s t a n t f o r on− o f f s i g n a l i n g 7 // E n t e r t h e number o f d i s c r e t e a m p l i t u d e l e v e l s f o r NRZ p o l a r 2 // The a v e r a g e t r a n s m i t t e d power i s : 0 .

Rb/B .40 . // bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s e c /Hz C_B = log2 (1+ P_NoB ) . poly1 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 // C a p t i o n : Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h i d e a l s y s t e m −a ( Channel C a p a c i t y Theorem ) // Example5 .3 Signal-to-Quantization Noise Ratio of PCM 1 2 3 4 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n N o i s e R a t i o o f PCM // Example5 . 3 : S i g n a l −to −Q u a n t i z a t i o n n o i s e r a t i o // Channel Bandwidth B clear . poly1 . // i d e a l s y s t e m a c c o r d i n g t o Shannon ’ s c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y t h e o r e m // p l o t a = gca () . k =7. children (1) . 2 : Comparison o f M r y PCM s y s t e m −a // Channel C a p a c i t y t h e o r e m clear . clc . plot2d ( P_NoB_dB .5) poly1 = a . line_style = 4. −a Rb_B = log2 (1+(12/ k ^2) * P_NoB ) . ’PCM ’ ]) Scilab code Exa 5. C_B . // f o r M r y PCM s y s t e m . P_NoB_dB = [ -20:30]. close .0. d e c i b e l s P_NoB = 10^( P_NoB_dB /10) . 32 . Rb_B . xlabel ( ’ I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/NoB .5) plot2d ( P_NoB_dB . // I n p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o P/ NoB .10]. 9 Comparison o f M r y PCM w i t h t h e −a i d e a l ssytem ’ ) legend ([ ’ I d e a l System ’ . thickness =2. data_bounds = [ -30 . a . children (1) . b i t s p e r s e c o n d per hertz ’ ) title ( ’ F i g u r e 5 . d e c i b e l s ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y .

1: Example5.2 33 .Figure 5.

16 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 0 . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 9 20 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 21 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 3 6 0 0 0 . 8 17 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 18 // R e s u l t 2 i f n = 9 b i t s 19 // E n t e r no . 22 // Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : 4 6 . 34 . 11 disp ( SNRo . ’ Channel w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 10 SNRo = 6* n . 9 disp (B .7. a0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : ’ ). Scilab code Exa 5. 6 n = input ( ’ E n t e r no .5 clc .2. 8 23 // / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 24 // C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 i f 25 number o f b i t s i n c r e a s e d by 1 // c o r r e s p o n d i n g o u t p u t s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n PCM i n c r e a s e d by 6 dB . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : ’ ) 7 W = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : ’ ) 8 B = n*W. ’ Output S i g n a l t o n o i s e r a t i o i n dB : ’ ) 12 // R e s u l t 1 i f n = 8 bits 13 // E n t e r no .5 Output Signal-to-Noise ratio for Sinusoidal Modulation 1 2 3 4 5 6 // Example 5 : D e l t a M o d u l a t i o n − t o a v o i d s l o p e overload distortion //maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e r a t i o f o r s i n u s o i d a l modulation // p a g e 207 clear . o f b i t s u s e d t o e n c o d e : 8 14 // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s i g n a l b a n w i d t h i n Hz : 4 0 0 0 15 // Channel w i d t h i n Hz : 32000. clc .

7 f0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f

sinusoidal signal

i n Hz : ’ ) ;
8 fs = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s

per s e c o n d s : ’ );
9 Ts = 1/ fs ; // S a m p l i n g i n t e r v a l 10 delta = 2* %pi * f0 * a0 * Ts ; // S t e p 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

s i z e to avoid s l o p e

overload Pmax = ( a0 ^2) /2; //maximum p e r m i s s i b l e o u t p u t power sigma_Q = ( delta ^2) /3; // Q u a n t i z a t i o n e r r o r o r n o i s e variance W = f0 ; //Maximum m e s s a g e bandwidth N = W * Ts * sigma_Q ; // A v e r a g e o u t p u t n o i s e power SNRo = Pmax / N ; // Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o i s e ratio SNRo_dB = 10* log10 ( SNRo ) ; disp ( SNRo_dB , ’ Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r Delta Modualtion : ’ ) // R e s u l t 1 f o r f s = 8 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :8000 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : −5.1717849 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

// R e s u l t 2 f o r f s = 1 6 0 0 0 H e r t z // E n t e r t h e a m p l i t u d e o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l : 1 // E n t e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s i n u s o i d a l s i g n a l i n Hz :4000 27 // E n t e r t h e s a m p l i n g f r e q u e n c y i n s a m p l e s p e r seconds :16000 28 //Maximum o u t p u t s i g n a l −to −n o s i e i n dB f o r D e l t a Modualtion : 3 . 8 5 9 1 1 5 29 // //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
24 25 26

35

// C o n c l u s i o n : c o m p a r i n g r e s u l t 1 w i t h r e s u l t 2 , i f the sampling frequency 31 // i s d o u b l e d t h e s i g n a l t o n o i s e i n c r e a s e d by 9 dB
30

Scilab code CF 5.13a (a) u-Law companding
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

15

// C a p t i o n : u−Law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( a ) Mulaw companding N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g mulaw c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f mu clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t mu = [0 ,5 ,255]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f mu for i = 1: length ( mu ) [ Cx (i ,:) , Xmax ( i ) ] = mulaw (x , mu ( i ) ) ; end plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) , Cx (1 ,:) ,2) plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) , Cx (2 ,:) ,4) plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) , Cx (3 ,:) ,6) xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : u−Law companding ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ , ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) ; legend ([ ’ u =0 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=5 ’ ] ,[ ’ u=255 ’ ]) Scilab code CF 5.13b (b) A-law companding

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

// C a p t i o n : A−law companding // F i g u r e 5 . 1 3 ( b )A−law companding , N o n l i n e a r Quantization // P l o t t i n g A−law c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t // V a l u e s o f A clc ; x = 0:0.01:1; // N o r m a l i z e d i n p u t A = [1 ,2 ,87.56]; // d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s o f A for i = 1: length ( A ) 36

Figure 5.2: Figure5.13a

37

Figure 5.6) 14 xtitle ( ’ C o m p r e s s i o n Law : A−Law companding ’ .3: Figure5. 10 end 11 plot2d ( x / Xmax (1) . 5 6 ’ ]) 38 .13b 9 [ Cx (i . Cx (2 .[ ’A=2 ’ ] .:) . Cx (3 . 15 legend ([ ’A =1 ’ ] .:) .:) .2) 12 plot2d ( x / Xmax (2) . ’ N o r m a l i z e d Output | c ( x ) | ’ ) . ’ N o r m a l i z e d I n p u t | x | ’ . Cx (1 . Xmax ( i ) ] = Alaw (x .[ ’A= 8 7 .4) 13 plot2d ( x / Xmax (3) . A ( i ) ) .:) .

Chapter 6 Baseband Shaping for Data Transmission Scilab code Exa 6.alpha ) .647∗10ˆ −6 // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m 39 .1 Bandwidth Requirements of the T1 carrier 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 c a r r i e r // Example6 .f1 . 1 : Bandwidth R e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e T1 Carrier // Page 251 clear . disp (B . // c o s i n e r o l l − o f f f a c t o r f1 = Bo *(1 . Tb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l : ’) Bo = 1/(2* Tb ) . // minimum t r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth o f T1 system // T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m ’B ’ alpha = 1. B = 2* Bo . ’ T r a n s m i s s i o n bandwidth f o r r a i s e d c o s i n e s p e c t r u m i n Hz : ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t d u r a t i o n o f t h e TDM s i g n a l :0. clc .

children (1) . children (1) . a . binary_one = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. clc . binary_zero ) . thickness =3.i n Hz : 1 5 4 5 5 9 5 . children (1) .L +1: i * L ] .1b (b) Nonreturn-to-zero polar format 1 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o p o l a r f o r m a t 40 . L = length ( x ) . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. poly1 = a . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . binary_one ) .1a (a) Nonreturn-to-zero unipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o u n i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . else plot ([ i *L . U n i p o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear .L +1: i * L ] . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ U n i p o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6. total_duration = L * L . poly1 . poly1 . L * L1 2]. L1 = length ( binary_zero ) . thickness =3. children (1) . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . 1 ( a ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 1 ] . close . poly1 = a . 1 Scilab code CF 6. data_bounds =[0 -2. binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0].

1a 41 .Figure 6.1: Figure6.

binary_positive ) . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code CF 6.L +1: i * L ] . x = [0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. clc . L * L1 2]. close . B i P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . children (1) . binary_negative ) . P o l a r NRZ // p a g e 235 clear . close . a . else plot ([ i *L . children (1) . binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. 1 ( c ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 3 ] . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . data_bounds =[0 -2. poly1 .1c (c) Nonreturn-to-zero bipolar format 1 2 3 4 5 6 // C a p t i o n : N o n r e t u r n −to −z e r o b i p o l a r f o r m a t // F i g u r e 6 . children (1) . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . L = length ( x ) .L +1: i * L ] . 1 ( b ) : D i s c r e t e PAM S i g n a l s G e n e r a t i o n // [ 2 ] . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1]. poly1 = a . total_duration = L * L1 . poly1 = a . thickness =3. 42 . children (1) . poly1 . thickness =3.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // F i g u r e 6 .

2: Figure6.1b 43 .Figure 6.

poly1 = a .1 . poly1 .2 Duobinary Encoding 1 // C a p t i o n : D u o b i n a r y E n c o d i n g 2 // Example6 . thickness =3. // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : p r e c o d e r input 44 . poly1 = a . elseif (( x ( i ) ==1) &( x (i -1) ~=1) ) plot ([ i *L . children (1) . binary_positive ) . children (1) .7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 clc . binary_zero = [0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0].1 . L1 = length ( binary_negative ) . total_duration = L * L1 . 5 b = [0 . else plot ([ i *L . // p l o t t i n g a = gca () . L * L1 2]. end end xgrid (1) title ( ’ B i P o l a r NRZ ’ ) Scilab code Exa 6. children (1) . thickness =3.L +1: i * L ] . children (1) . data_bounds =[0 -2. binary_zero ) . poly1 .1 . for i =1: L if ( x ( i ) ==0) plot ([ i *L . thickness =3. L = length ( x ) . 2 : P r e c o d e d D u o b i n a r y c o d e r and d e c o d e r 3 // Page 256 4 clc . poly1 = a .L +1: i * L ] . children (1) .L +1: i * L ] . poly1 .0 . binary_positive = [1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1]. children (1) .0]. a . x = [0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1]. binary_negative ) . binary_negative = [ -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1].0 .

Figure 6.3: Figure6.1c 45 .

end c = c ’. end end b_r = b_r ’. end for k =2: length ( b ) a ( k ) = xor ( a (k -1) . else b_r ( k ) = 1. ’ D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y d e c o d e r o u t p u t by a p p l y i n g d e c i s i o n rule for k =1: length ( c ) if ( abs ( c ( k ) ) >1) b_r ( k ) = 0. if ( a (1) ==1) a_volts (1) = 1. b (1) ) . ’ R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t d e t e c t o r oupupt : ’ ) // R e s u l t // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : // 46 . a_volts = a_volts ’. if ( a ( k ) ==1) a_volts ( k ) =1. for k =2: length ( a ) c ( k ) = a_volts (k -1) + a_volts ( k ) . disp ( b_r .b ( k ) ) . disp (a . end end a = a ’. disp (c . ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : ’ ) // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s c (1) = 1+ a_volts (1) . else a_volts ( k ) = -1. ’ P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n b i n a r y form : ’ ) disp ( a_volts .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 a (1) = xor (1 .

for k =2: length ( x ) +1 y ( k ) = xor ( x (k -1) . // i n p u t b i n a r y s e q u e n c e : precoder input y (1) = 1. − 1. 0. : 0.1]. 2.y (k -1) ) . − 1.y_delay ( k ) . ’ D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : ’ ) for k = 1: length ( y_delay ) z ( k ) = y ( k +1) . 3 : O p e r a t i o n o f C i r c u i t i n f i g u r e 6 . 1. 1. d e t e c t o r oupupt : 1. 1.1 . Scilab code Exa 6. 0. − 2. end y_delay = y (1: $ -1) . 0. 4 clc . end z = z ’. 1. // // P r e c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s : // // 1 . 0. − 1. 1 3 // f o r g e n e r a t i n g b i p o l a r f o r m a t // p a g e 256 and p a g e 257 // R e f e r T a b l e 6 . 0. y = y ’. // // R e c o v e r e d o r i g i n a l s e q u e n c e a t // // 0 . 1. x = [0 . − // // D u o b i n a r y c o d e r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // // 2 .0 .3 Generation of bipolar output for duobinary coder 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : G e n e r a t i o n o f b i p o l a r o u t p u t f o r d u o b i n a r y coder // Example6 . 0. y_delay = y_delay ’. ’ Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : ’ ) disp ( y_delay .0 . − 2. 0. 47 . 0.1 .42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 // 1 .0 .0 . disp (y . 1. 0.1 . 1.1 .

Scilab code CF 6. NRZ P o l a r Format [ 2 ] . 0. 1. 0. 0. // D e l a y e l e m e n t o u t p u t : // 1. 0. : 0. − 1. 0. 0. volts 0. 1. 0. NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t [ 4 ] . 1.21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 disp (z . 1. 0. M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t // Page 241 close . 4 : Power S p e c t a l D e n s i t i e s o f // D i f f e r e n t L i n e Coding T e c h n i q u e s // [ 1 ] . 0. else 48 . Tb = 1/ fb . Sxxf_NRZ_BP ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) *(( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . − 1. // [ 1 ] . 1. 0. NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t // [ 3 ] . 0. NRZ P o l a r f o r m a t a = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : ’ ) . clc .4 Power Spectra of different binary data formats 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f d i f f e r e n t b i n a r y d a t a formats // F i g u r e 6 . 1. 1. fb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . // d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n v o l t s // 0. if ( i ==1) Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) +( a ^2) /4. for i = 1: length ( f ) Sxxf_NRZ_P ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . ’ d i f f e r e n t i a l e n c o d e r b i p o l a r o u t p u t i n : ’) // R e s u l t // Modulo −2 a d d e r o u t p u t : // 1. 1. // b i t d u r a t i o n f = 0:1/(100* Tb ) :2/ Tb . 1. 1. − 1. 0. 0.

9) poly1 = a . plot2d (f . thickness = 2. end // P l o t t i n g a = gca () . poly1 . children (1) . poly1 . children (1) . thickness = 2. plot2d (f . plot2d (f .5) poly1 = a . // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e A m p l i t u d e v a l u e : 1 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) .6b (b) Ideal solution for zero ISI // C a p t i o n : I d e a l s o l u t i o n f o r z e r o I S I // F i g u r e 6 . ’NRZ B i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ . ’NRZ U n i p o l a r f o r m a t ’ . children (1) . thickness = 2. end Sxxf_Manch ( i ) = ( a ^2) * Tb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) *( sin ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb /2) ^2) . plot2d (f . Sxxf_NRZ_UP . ’ M a n c h e s t e r f o r m a t ’ ]) .20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Sxxf_NRZ_UP ( i ) = ( a ^2) *( Tb /4) *(( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ) ^2) . children (1) . Sxxf_Manch . poly1 . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . poly1 . thickness = 2. xlabel ( ’ f ∗Tb−−−−−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Sxx ( f )−−−−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f D i f f e r e n t L i n e Codinig Techniques ’ ) xgrid (1) legend ([ ’NRZ P o l a r Format ’ . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .2) poly1 = a . children (1) . 6 ( b ) : I d e a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference 3 // SINC p u l s e 1 2 49 . children (1) . Sxxf_NRZ_BP . children (1) . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . Sxxf_NRZ_P ) poly1 = a .

4: Figure6.Figure 6.4 50 .

t = -3:1/100:3. i ) = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) . x ) xlabel ( ’ t−−−−−−> ’ ) .5) ) ) p (j . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . Bo = rb /2.7b (b) Practical solution: Raised Cosine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n : P r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n : R a i s e d C o s i n e // F i g u r e 6 . ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . t = -3:1/100:3. den = 1 -16*( Alpha ^2) *( Bo ^2) *( t ( i ) ^2) +0. Alpha =0.4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // p a g e 249 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : ’ ) . Tb =1/ rb . i ) = num / den . clc . for j =1:3 for i =1: length ( t ) if (( j ==3) &(( t ( i ) ==0. 7 ( b ) : P r a c t i c a l S o l u t i o n f o r I n t e r s y m b o l Interference // R a i s e d C o s i n e Spectrum // p a g e 250 close . // I n t i a l i z e d t o z e r o x = t / Tb . x = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ) .01. plot (t . else num = sinc_new (2* Bo * t ( i ) ) * cos (2* %pi * Alpha * Bo * t ( i ) ) .5) |( t ( i ) == -0. title ( ’ SINC P u l s e f o r z e r o I S I ’ ) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. 51 . Bo = rb /2. p (j .

5: Figure6.6 52 .Figure 6.

26 plot2d (t . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =1 ’ ]) 38 xgrid (1) 39 // R e s u l t 40 // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e : 1 Scilab code CF 6. children (1) . 9 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y Conversion f i l t e r // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e // Page 254 clear . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) .21 end 22 end 23 Alpha = Alpha +0. p (2 .5 ’ . foreground =2. children (1) . 33 poly2 .9 Frequency response of duobinary conversion filter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f d u o b i n a r y c o n v e r s i o n filter // F i g u r e 6 . p (1 . 24 end 25 a = gca () .:) ) 28 poly1 = a . line_style = 3. 35 ylabel ( ’ p ( t )−−−−−−−> ’ ) . 30 plot2d (t . children (1) . Tb =1/ rb .5. 36 title ( ’ RAISED COSINE SPECTRUM − P r a c t i c a l 37 Solution for ISI ’) legend ([ ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0 ’ .:) ) 31 poly2 = a . // B i t d u r a t i o n 53 . foreground =4. close . clc . 32 po1y2 .:) ) 27 plot2d (t . 29 poly1 . 34 xlabel ( ’ t /Tb−−−−−−> ’ ) . children (1) . p (3 . ’ R O l l o f f F a c t o r =0.

Figure 6.6: Figure6.7 54 .

2) a = gca () .15 Frequency response of modified duobinary conversion filter // C a p t i o n : F r e q u e n c y r e s p o n s e o f m o d i f i e d d u o b i n a r y conversion f i l t e r 2 // F i g u r e 6 .1 . poly1 . Phase_Response . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . thickness = 2. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . plot2d (f .1) a = gca () .* Tb ) . 1 5 : F r e q u e n c y R e s p o n s e o f M o d i f i e d duobinary conversion f i l t e r 3 // ( a ) A m p l i t u d e R e s p o n s e 4 // ( b ) Phase R e s p o n s e 1 55 . a . a .* Tb ) ) . Phase_Response = -( %pi * f . a . thickness = 2. xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) subplot (2 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . Amplitude_Response . poly1 .11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 f = . subplot (2 .2) poly1 = a .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. children (1) . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* cos ( %pi * f . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . children (1) . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f D u o b i n a r y S i n g a l i n g ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 Scilab code CF 6. children (1) . children (1) . plot2d (f . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .5) poly1 = a . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e .

7: Figure6.Figure 6.9 56 .

a . thickness = 2. Phase_Response . poly1 .5) poly1 = a . a . subplot (2 .2) poly1 = a . a . Amplitude_Response . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // B i t d u r a t i o n f = . plot2d (f . thickness = 2. x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . children (1) . Tb =1/ rb .1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . clc .1) a = gca () .rb /2:1/100: rb /2. a .2) a = gca () . Phase_Response = -(2* %pi * f . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . // t h e t i c k n e s s o f a c u r v e . children (1) . plot2d (f . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ <H( f ) −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Phase R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e =8 57 .1 .5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 // p a g e 259 clear .* Tb ) ) . Amplitude_Response = abs (2* sin (2* %pi * f . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) . close . children (1) .* Tb ) . poly1 . xlabel ( ’ F r e q u e n c y f −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ | H( f ) | −−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ A m p l i t u d e R e p s o n s e o f M o d i f i e d D u o b i n a r y Singaling ’) xgrid (1) subplot (2 . children (1) .

15 58 .Figure 6.8: Figure6.

:) = . clc . S2 = [ S2 s2 ( m ( i ) . 1 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear .sin (2* %pi *2* t ) * sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) .2]. M =4. end S1 =[]. s2 (i . S2 = [].1 . m = [3 .1 .1 .0 .0 . end 59 . i = 1: M . S = [].001:1.1 QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques // Example7 . Input_Sequence =[0 .:) = cos (2* %pi *2* t ) * cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) .0 .0].1 . t = 0:0. close .Chapter 7 Digital Modulation Techniques Scilab code Exa 7. for i = 1: M s1 (i . for i =1: length ( m ) S1 = [ S1 s1 ( m ( i ) .:) ].:) ].1 .

’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) // f i g u r e . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . imag ( y ( 1 ) ) .1 . 26 a . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) // d i s p ( annot .1) 25 a = gca () . plot ( S ) title ( ’QPSK waveform ’ ) //− s i n ( ( 2 ∗ i −1) ∗ %pi / 4 ) ∗ %i . d a t a b o u n d s = [ − 1 . // d i s p ( y .2) a = gca () .22 S = S1 + S2 . a . imag ( y ( 2 ) ) . 27 plot ( S1 ) 28 title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Odd−numbered b i t s 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 of input sequence ’) subplot (3 . 1 . // a . // y l a b e l ( ’ Quadrature ’ ) . imag ( y ( 4 ) ) .1 . −4) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 3 ) ) . −2) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 2 ) ) . l o g 2 (M) ) . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ B i n a r y PSK wave o f Even−numbered b i t s o f input sequence ’) subplot (3 . 23 figure 24 subplot (3 . − 1 . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // a =g c a ( ) . −9) // x l a b e l ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . // a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 1 ) ) . // a n n o t = d e c 2 b i n ( [ 0 : l e n g t h ( y ) −1] . −5) // p l o t 2 d ( r e a l ( y ( 4 ) ) . x l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . y l o c a t i o n = ” o r i g i n ” . 60 .3) a = gca () . 1 ] .1 . // a . imag ( y ( 3 ) ) .

1 54 55 // t i t l e ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) // l e g e n d ( [ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ .Figure 7. 5 ) Scilab code CF 7.1 Waveform of Different Digital Modulation techniques // C a p t i o n : Waveforms o f D i f f e r e n t D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n techniques 2 // F i g u r e 7 .1: Example7. ’ m e s s a g e p o i nt 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ . 1 3 // D i g i t a l M o d u l a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s 4 //To P l o t t h e ASK. ’ message p o in t 4 ( d i b i t 11) ’ ] . FSK and PSk Waveforms 1 61 . ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ .

elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . 7 close . t = 0:1/512:1. I = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a ’ ) . x2 = sin (2* %pi *(2* f ) * t ) . x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . for n = 1: length ( I ) if (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [x . x2 = . elseif (( I ( n ) ==1) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask .sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . x2 ]. end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f FSK Waveform Xfsk = []. x ]. length ( x ) ) ]. x1 = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . 8 f = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y i n Hz ’ 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 ). zeros (1 .5 clear . elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ~=1) ) Xask = [ Xask . end end // G e n e r a t i o n o f PSK Waveform Xpsk = []. 6 clc . for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) 62 . x = sin (2* %pi * f * t ) . Xask ]. Xask ]. elseif (( I ( n ) ==0) &( n ==1) ) Xask = [ zeros (1 . for n = 1: length ( I ) if ( I ( n ) ==1) Xfsk = [ Xfsk . x1 ]. length ( x ) ) . // G e n e r a t i o n o f ASK Waveform Xask = [].

0 . M =2. 0 .01: Tb . 2 : S e q u e n c e and Waveforms f o r MSK s i g n a l // T a b l e 7 . t1 = . 2 s i g n a l s p a c e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f MSK clear clc .2 MSK waveforms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // Example7 . 1 ] Scilab code Exa 7. 1 . x1 ]. 1 .42 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . 45 end 46 end 47 figure 48 plot (t . 43 elseif ( I ( n ) ~=1) 44 Xpsk = [ Xpsk . 63 . 0 . Tb =1. 1 . close . x ) 49 xtitle ( ’ Analog C a r r i e r S i g n a l 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 f o r D i g i t a l Modulation ’) xgrid figure plot ( Xask ) xtitle ( ’ A m p l i t u d e S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xfsk ) xtitle ( ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid figure plot ( Xpsk ) xtitle ( ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ) xgrid // Example // E n t e r t h e Analog C a r r i e r F r e q u e n c y 2 // E n t e r t h e d i g i t a l b i n a r y d a t a [ 0 . x2 ].Tb :0.

1a 64 .2: Figure7.Figure 7.

1b 65 .Figure 7.3: Figure7.

4: Figure7.Figure 7.1c 66 .

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 t2 = 0:0. phi1 = cos (2* %pi * t1 ) . for i = 1: M s1 ( i ) = cos ( teta_0 ( i ) ) .sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S = []. s2 (2) . S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .0 . s2 (1) .sin ( . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . phi2 = sin (2* %pi * t2 ) .1 . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . teta_tb = [ %pi /2 . y = [ s1 (1) .* sin (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t2 ) . . s2 ( i ) = . s2 (2) ].sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. teta_0 = [0 .sin ( .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. S2 = [ S2 s2 (1) * phi2 ].%pi /2]. S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ]. s1 (1) . %pi ]. S2 = [ S2 s2 (2) * phi2 ].0]. S1 = [].sin ( . S2 = [].01:2* Tb . disp (y .0 . s2 (1) .sin ( teta_tb ( i ) ) . s1 (2) .1) a = gca () .1 .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].1 .0 .* cos (( %pi /(2* Tb ) ) * t1 ) . S = [ S cos ( %pi ) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .sin ( . end for i = M : -1:1 S1 = [ S1 s1 ( i ) * phi1 ]. 67 . s1 (2) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) . S = [ S cos (0) * cos (2* %pi * t ) .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].01:1. end Input_Sequence =[1 .%pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ]. ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) figure subplot (3 . t = 0:0.sin ( %pi /2) * sin (2* %pi * t ) ].

’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . y = cos (2* %pi +( i -1) * %pi ) .1 . plot ( S ) title ( ’ O b t a i n e d by a d d i n g s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t )+s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) on a b i t −by−b i t b a s i s ’ ) Scilab code CF 7. a . close .2].2 . -9) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . a . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . imag ( y (2) ) . a .2 Signal Space diagram for coherent BPSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK // F i g u r e 7 . imag ( y (1) ) . 2 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BPSK system clear clc .3) a = gca () . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure . -5) xlabel ( ’ 68 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .2) a = gca () . -2. plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) . disp (y . plot ( S1 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 1 ∗ p h i 1 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . data_bounds = [ -2 . plot ( S2 ) title ( ’ S c a l e d t i m e f u n c t i o n s 2 ∗ p h i 2 ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .1 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . log2 ( M ) ) . M =2. annot = dec2bin ([ length ( y ) -1: -1:0] . i = 1: M . a = gca () .

5: Example7.2 69 .Figure 7.

6: Figure7. title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ .2 In−Phase ’ ) .3 Illustration the generation of DPSK signal 1 21 22 // C a p t i o n : I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK s i g n a l 70 .Figure 7. 20 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] .5) Scilab code Tab 7.

end end dk_1 (1) = 1& bk (1) . dk ( i ) = xor (( dk_1 ( i ) & bk ( i ) ) . 3 I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e G e n e r a t i o n o f DPSK Signal ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp ( bk . dk (1) = xor ( dk_1 (1) .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 // T a b l e 7 . dk_1_not (1) ) // f i r s t b i t o f dpsk encoder for i =2: length ( bk ) dk_1 ( i ) = dk (i -1) .1]. bk = [1 .( dk_1_not ( i ) & bk_not ( i ) )). disp ( bk_not .0 . 71 29 30 31 32 .1 . // i n i t i a l v a l u e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l encoded sequence dk_1_not (1) =0& bk_not (1) .0 . else bk_not ( i ) = 1. 3 G e n e r a t i o n o f D i f f e r e n t i a l Phase s h i f t keying s i g n a l clc .1 . end for i =1: length ( dk ) if ( dk ( i ) ==1) dk_radians ( i ) =0.0 . end end disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 . // i n p u t d i g i t a l s e q u e n c e for i = 1: length ( bk ) if ( bk ( i ) ==1) bk_not ( i ) =~1. dk_1_not ( i ) = ~ dk (i -1) . ’ ( b k n o t ) ’ ) dk = dk ’. elseif ( dk ( i ) ==0) dk_radians ( i ) = %pi .0 . ’ ( bk ) ’ ) bk_not = bk_not ’.

a .2) . 20 title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r BFSK ’ ) 21 legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( b i n a r y 1 ) ’ . data_bounds = [ -2 . 19 ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ).2 . ’ Mes sa ge p o i n t s ’ ) figure . -9) plot2d ( y (2 . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot .y (1 . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( b i n a r y 0 ) ’ ] .1) . -5) xlabel ( ’ In−Phase ’ ) . ’ D i f f e r e n t i a l l y e n c o d e d s e q u e n c e ( dk ) ’ ) dk_radians = dk_radians ’. close .2) .5) 72 .2]. a .y (2 . plot2d ( y (1 .0 .4 Signal Space diagram for coherent BFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l S p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK // F i g u r e 7 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . M =2. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a = gca () . y = [1 . a .0. ’ T r a n s m i t t e d p h a s e i n r a d i a n s ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7. annot = dec2bin ([ M -1: -1:0] .1) . -2.1]. log2 ( M ) ) .33 34 35 36 disp ( dk . disp ( dk_radians . disp (y . 4 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t BFSK system clear clc .

4 73 .Figure 7.7: Figure 7.

6 Signal space diagram for coherent QPSK waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 // C a p t i o n : S i g n a l s p a c e d i a g r a m f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK waveform // F i g u r e 7 .1 . imag ( y (3) ) . title ( ’ C o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r QPSK ’ ) legend ([ ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 1 ( d i b i t 1 0 ) ’ . data_bounds = [ -1 . annot = dec2bin ([0: M -1] . ylabel ( ’ Quadrature ’ ). ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 2 ( d i b i t 00) ’ .sin ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) * %i . -2) plot2d ( real ( y (2) ) . a . log2 ( M ) ) . a . -1. imag ( y (2) ) . close .6 Bndwidth efficiency of M ary PSK signals 23 24 74 .Scilab code CF 7. ’ message p o i nt 3 ( d i b i t 01) ’ . ’ c o o r d i n a t e s o f m e s s a g e p o i n t s ’ ) disp ( annot . a = gca () . ’ m e s s a g e p o i n t 4 ( d i b i t 1 1 ) ’ ] . y = cos ((2* i -1) * %pi /4) . -4) plot2d ( real ( y (3) ) . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -5) plot2d ( real ( y (4) ) . imag ( y (1) ) . ’ d i b i t s v a l u e ’ ) figure .1]. disp (y . imag ( y (4) ) . M =4. 6 S i g n a l S p a c e Diagram f o r c o h e r e n t QPSK system clear clc . i = 1: M .5) Scilab code Tab 7. -9) xlabel ( ’ In− Phase ’ ) . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . plot2d ( real ( y (1) ) .

8: Figure7.6 75 .Figure 7.

64]. //M r y −a 7 Ruo = 2* log2 ( M ) .32 .64]. 7 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a 3 clear . //M r y −a Ruo = log2 ( M ) ./ M . clc . // Ruo = Ruo ’ . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s / Hz disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 .8 . 6 M = [2 .32 . 5 close . 6 : Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals clear .4 . close . M = [2 . 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK −a signals ’) disp ( ’ ’) disp (M . ’M’ ) disp ( ’ 10 11 ’) 12 disp ( Ruo . disp ( ’ T a b l e 7 ./2. 7 Bandwidth E f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK −a signals ’) 11 disp ( ’ 8 9 10 76 .8 .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // T a b l e 7 .16 . 4 clc .4 .7 Bandwidth efficiency of M ary FSK signals 1 // C a p t i o n : Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y o f M r y FSK s i g n a l s −a 2 // T a b l e 7 . // Bandwidth e f f i c i e n c y i n b i t s / s /Hz //M = M’ . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code Tab 7.16 .

9: Figure7. ’M’ ) 13 disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( Ruo . ’ r i n b i t s / s /Hz ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) Scilab code CF 7.29 Power Spectra of BPSK and BFSK signals 77 .12 ’) 12 disp (M .Figure 7.

else SB_FSK ( i ) = (8* Eb *( cos ( %pi * f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) ) /(( %pi ^2) *(((4*( Tb ^2) *( f ( i ) ^2) ) -1) ^2) ) . 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f QPSK and MSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . children (1) . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . ’ Phase S h i f t Keying ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. Tb = 1/ rb . 3 0 : Comparison o f QPSK and MSK Power 78 . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’PSK Vs FSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ F r e q u e n c y S h i f t Keying ’ . // B i t d u r a t i o n for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==(1/(2* Tb ) ) ) SB_FSK ( i ) = Eb /(2* Tb ) . f = 0:1/100:8/ rb . poly1 . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) .30 Power Spectra of QPSK and MSK signals. SB_PSK /(2* Eb ) ) poly1 = a . 2 9 : Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f BPSK // and BFSK clc . foreground = 6. children (1) . end a = gca () .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 // C a p t i o n : Power S p e c t r a o f BPSK and BFSK s i g n a l s // F i g u r e 7 . SB_FSK /(2* Eb ) ) plot ( f * Tb . end SB_PSK ( i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb ) ^2) . plot ( f * Tb .

Figure 7.29 79 .10: Figure7.

else SB_MSK ( i ) = (32* Eb /( %pi ^2) ) *( cos (2* %pi * Tb * f ( i ) ) /((4* Tb * f ( i ) ) ^2 -1) ) ^2.31 Power spectra of M-ary PSK signals 1 2 // C a p t i o n : Power s p e c t r a o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a // F i g u r e 7 . foreground = 3. poly1 . // c l c . end a = gca () . SB_QPSK /(4* Eb ) ) . // c l o s e . xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’QPSK Vs MSK Power S p e c t r a Comparison ’ ) legend ([ ’ Minimum S h i f t Keying ’ . Tb = 1/ rb . // b i t d u r a t i o n i n s e c o n d s for i = 1: length ( f ) if ( f ( i ) ==0. plot ( f * Tb . rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : ’ ) . plot ( f * Tb . poly1 = a . SB_MSK /(4* Eb ) ) . children (1) . 3 1 Comparison o f Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t i e s o f M r y PSK s i g n a l s −a 80 . end SB_QPSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * sinc_new ((2* Tb * f ( i ) ) ) ^2. ’QPSK ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7.5) SB_MSK ( i ) = 4* Eb * f ( i ) . children (1) .3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Spectrums // c l e a r . f = 0:1/(100* rb ) :(4/ rb ) . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : ’ ) .

11: Figure7.30 81 .Figure 7.

end end a = gca () . g = 2* ones (1 . Tb = 1/ rb . t = 0: T . SB_PSK (2 .41 Matched Filter output of rectangular pulse 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 // C a p t i o n : Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t o f r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e // F i g u r e 7 . for i = 1: length ( h ) 82 . f = 0:1/100: rb .2) plot2d ( f * Tb . for j = 1: length ( M ) for i = 1: length ( f ) SB_PSK (j .5) xlabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d F r e q u e n c y −−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ N o r m a l i z e d Power S p e c t r a l D e n s i t y −−−> ’ ) title ( ’ Power S p e c t r a o f M r y s i g n a l s f o r M = 2 . Eb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e e n e r g y o f t h e b i t= ’ ) . ’M=8 ’ ]) xgrid (1) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e i n b i t s p e r s e c o n d : 2 // E n t e r t h e Energy o f b i t : 1 Scilab code CF 7. i ) =2* Eb *( sinc_new ( f ( i ) * Tb * log2 ( M ( j ) ) ) ^2) * log2 ( M ( j ) ) . g ) ) . SB_PSK (1 . 4 . clc . // B i t d u r a t i o n M = [2 .:) /(2* Eb ) ) plot2d ( f * Tb . a =2. SB_PSK (3 .4 . plot2d ( f * Tb . ’M=4 ’ .8]. T =4.3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 rb = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e b i t r a t e= ’ ) .:) /(2* Eb ) . 4 1 // Matched F i l t e r Output clear .:) /(2* Eb ) . 8 ’ ) −a legend ([ ’M=2 ’ . T +1) . h = abs ( convol (g .

12: Figure7.31 83 .Figure 7.

6 .5) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ g ( t )−−−−> ’ ) title ( ’ R e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e d u r a t i o n T = 4 . end end h = h-T. t1 = 0: length ( h ) -1. a . figure a = gca () .g .01) h ( i ) =0. data_bounds = [0 .4]. plot2d (t . a =2 ’ ) figure plot2d ( t1 .12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 if ( h ( i ) <0.h .0.6) xlabel ( ’ t−−−> ’ ) ylabel ( ’ Matched F i l t e r o u t p u t ’ ) title ( ’ Output o f f i l t e r matched t o r e c t a n g u l a r p u l s e g( t ) ’) 84 .

Figure 7.13: Figure7.41a 85 .

Figure 7.41b 86 .14: Figure7.

clc . disp (x .Chapter 8 Error-Control Coding Scilab code Exa 8. ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x ’ ) .k ) . 1 : R e p e t i t i o n Codes clear . Scilab code Exa 8.k ) . 2 : Hamming c o d e s 3 clear . n =5.n .n . ’ p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x ’ ) . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x x = m .1 Repetition Codes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 // C a p t i o n : R e p e t i t i o n Codes // Example8 . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x H = [ I P ’]. // c o d e word disp (G . // one b i t m = 1. ’ c o d e word f o r b i n a r y one i n p u t ’ ) . // b i t v a l u e = 1 I = eye (n -k .* G . // m e s s a g e b i t s l e n g t h 87 . // b l o c k o f i d e n t i c a l ’ n ’ b i t s k =1. 5 k = 4.2 Hamming Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes 2 // Example8 . // I d e n t i t y m a t r i x P = ones (1 . 4 clc . // p a r i t y −c h e c k m a t r i x G = [ P 1]. disp (H .

disp (r .1 .:) . G (3 .0 . // b l o c k l e n g t h m = n . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3.k . // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r .0. 3 : ( 7 .0 .0. g * D ^3]. ’G ’ ) G (3 . // c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x disp (P . 21 disp (C .0 . ’ g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x G ’ ) H = [ eye (k -1 . G = coeff ( G ) . ’ p a r i t y c h e c h k m a t r i x H ’ ) // m e s s a g e b i t s m = [0 .1.1.0 .3 Hamming Codes Revisited 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Codes R e v i s i t e d // Example8 .0 . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) G = [ g . clc .:) = G (3 .1 .1 . 20 C = modulo (C .1 . q ] = pdiv (m . p = coeff ( r ) .1 . // Number o f p a r i t y b i t s I = eye (k .0 .1 .0.1 . g * D .6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 n = 7.1 .0 .0 .0 . ’ Code words o f ( 7 .2) . g ) .0 . disp (G . 0 .1.1 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) . 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 . 4 ) Hamming c o d e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. D = poly (0 .1 . 4 ) Hamming Code R e v i s i t e d // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 . // i d e n t i t y m a t r i x disp (I . g * D ^2. 88 . ’ c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x P ’ ) G = [ P I ].:) + G (1 . // g e n e r a t o r m a t r i x disp (G .0 .0 .0 .1 .2) .1. ’D ’ ) . ’ i d e n t i t y m a t r i x I k ’ ) P =[1 .:) . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p .0.1 18 // 19 C = m * G . 0 .0 .k -1) P ’].0 . k ) .1.1 .1 .D) .1.1].0 .0.0 .:) = modulo ( G (3 . // p a r i t y c h e c k m a t r i x disp (H .

:) .18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 G (4 . ’ G e n e r a t o r M a t r i x G = ’ ) h = 1+ D ^ -1+ D ^ -2+ D ^ -4. 4 : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 . q ] = pdiv (m .:) .:) + G (4 . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 . disp (r . disp (G . ’ P a r t i y Check m a t r i x H = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8. // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e [r .:) = modulo ( H (1 .:) . G (4 . 4 ) C y c l i c hamming code // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 1 .D) . H (1 .:) .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : E n c o d e r f o r t h e ( 7 . 0 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp (p . 7 f o r Me ss age S e q u e n c e ( 1 0 0 1 ) ’ ) disp ( ’ ’) 14 disp ( ’ S h i f t Contents ’ ) 15 disp ( ’ ’) 16 disp ( ’ 1 17 disp ( ’ 2 Input Register 1 0 89 1 1 0 ’) 0 1 1 ’) . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. 3 C o n t e n t s o f t h e S h i f t R e g i s t e r i n t h e E n c o d e r o f f i g 8 .:) = modulo ( G (4 . ’ P a r i t y b i t s a r e : ’ ) disp ( ’ T a b l e 8 .:) = G (1 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l m = ( D ^3) *(1+0+0+ D ^3) . H_D = [ D ^4* h .:) + G (2 . 0 . g ) . D ^5* h . H_num = numer ( H_D ) . D ^6* h ]. 1 ] //D = p o l y ( 0 . ’D ’ ) . disp (H . p = coeff ( r ) .2) . D = poly (0 .:) + H (3 .:) = H (1 . H (1 .4 Encoder for the (7.2) . H = coeff ( H_num ) .

//m i t symbol −b 90 . g = 1+ D +0+ D ^3. S1 = modulo ( S1 . 0 . D = poly (0 .18 19 20 disp ( ’ 3 disp ( ’ 4 disp ( ’ ’) 0 1 1 1 1 ’) 0 1 1 ’) Scilab code Exa 8. ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form f o r e r r o r e d codeword ’ ) disp ( S2 . disp ( r1 . S2 = modulo ( S2 . S1 = coeff ( r1 ) . ’D ’ ) . 1 ] clc . ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r e d c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8.6 Reed-Solomon Codes 1 // C a p t i o n : Reed−Solomon Codes 2 // Example8 . q1 ] = pdiv ( C1 . 1 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l C1 = 0+ D + D ^2+ D ^3+0+0+ D ^6. ’ Syndrome b i t s f o r e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d a r e : ’ ) [ r2 . 5 m =2. g ) . 1 .4) Cyclic Hamming Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r f o r t h e ( 7 . 6 : Reed−Solomon Codes 3 // S i n g l e −e r r o r −c o r r e c t i n g RS c o d e w i t h a 2− b i t b y t e 4 clc . 4 ) C y c l i c Hamming Code // Example8 .2) . 1 . // m i d d l e b i t i s e r r o r [ r1 . 5 : Syndrome c a l c u l a t o r // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e = [ 0 .2) . // e r r o r f r e e c o d e w o r d C2 = 0+ D + D ^2+0+0+0+ D ^6. disp ( r2 . q2 ] = pdiv ( C2 . S2 = coeff ( r2 ) . 0 . ’ r e m a i n d e r i n p o l y n o m i a l form ’ ) disp ( S1 . g ) .5 Syndrome calculator for the(7.

’ n ’ ) disp (p . end x = string ( x ) disp ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .2) .:) =[ x1 (N . 1 ] // x = // ! 1 1 ! 91 . 0 .Time domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g − Time domain approach // Example8 .2) . 0 . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . x2 (N .k . m ) ) . 1 . 7 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n // Time Domain Approach close .i +1) . ’ Code r a t e : r = k / n = ’ ) disp (2* t . m ) ) . x1 = modulo ( x1 . // s i n g l e b i t e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n n = 2^ m -1. // c o d e word l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e p = n . ’ n−k ’ ) disp (r . ’ I t can c o r r e c t any e r r o r u p t o = ’ ) Scilab code Exa 8.i +1) ].6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 k = 1^2. 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .7 Convolutional Encoding . // number o f m e s s a g e b i t s t =1. 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . N = length ( x1 ) . clc . // c o d e r a t e disp (n . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . // p a r i t y b i t s l e n g t h i n 2− b i t b y t e r = k / n . x2 = modulo ( x2 . 0 . 1 .

2) . 1. 0. 1. 1. ’D ’ ) . 92 . x2 = coeff ( x2D ) . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 2 mD = 1+0+0+ D ^3+ D ^4. // t o p o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x2D = g2D * mD . // // bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. // m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e p o l y n o m i a l representation x1D = g1D * mD . 1.8 Convolutional Encoding Transform domain approach 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l E n c o d i n g T r a n s f o r m domain approach // Example8 . // g e n e r a t o r p o l y n o m i a l 1 g2D = 1+ D ^2. 0. 1. ’ bottom o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e // 1. 8 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e − T r a n s f o r m domain approach clc . // bottom o u t p u t p o l y n o m i a l x1 = coeff ( x1D ) . disp ( modulo ( x1 . D = poly (0 . 0. g1D = 1+ D + D ^2. 1.25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code Exa 8.2) . 1. 1. 1. ’ t o p o u t p u t s e q u e n c e ’ ) disp ( modulo ( x2 .

r ) . // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one correct recption gamma_3 = 2* log2 ( pe ) +1. // c o d e r a t e n =2. // number o f b i t s pe = 0. ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’) // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // 0. r = 1/2.Scilab code Exa 8.2877124 93 .7027499 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n // − 8. ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n ’ ) disp ( gamma_2 .8822126 // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t r e c p t i o n // − 3. // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r correct reception gamma_2 = log2 ( pe * p ) +1. // b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r no correct reception disp ( gama_1 .11 Fano metric for binary symmetric channel using convolutional code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 // C a p t i o n : Fano m e t r i c f o r b i n a r y s y m m e t r i c c h a n n e l using c o n v o l u t i o n a l code // Example8 . // t r a n s i t i o n p r o b i l i t y p = 1 . 1 1 : C o n v o l u t i o n a l c o d e f o r b i n a r y symmetric channel clc . ’ b r a n c h m e t r i c f o r any one c o r r e c t recption ’) disp ( gamma_3 . // p r o b a b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t r e c e p t i o n gama_1 = 2* log2 ( p ) +2*(1 .pe .04.

x2 = x1 .10 . x0 = xor ( x1 .17 . disp (i . 1 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e generator // Program t o g e n e r a t e Maximum Length Pseudo N o i s e Sequence // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 clc . x1 = x0 .12 . x3 ) .13 .11 . x1 = 0.1 PN sequence generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : PN s e q u e n c e g e n e r a t i o n // Example9 .19]. ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) for i =1: N x3 = x2 .Chapter 9 Spread-Spectrum Modulation Scilab code Exa 9. x3 =0.8 . ’ x= ’ ) end m = [7 . 1 and F i g u r e 9 . // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r x0 = 1.9 . disp (x . x2 =0. 94 .

// The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 7. 8 x1 = 0. 1.22 N = 2^ m -1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 5. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 6. // x= 0. 1. 1. // x= 1. 6 // A s s i g n I n i t i a l v a l u e f o r PN g e n e r a t o r 7 x0 = 1. 1. 1. 2 : Maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 3 // P e r i o d o f PN S e q u e n c e N = 7 4 // P r o p e r i t e s o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e 5 clc . 0. // x= 1. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 3. // x= 0. 95 . // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 4. // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 2. 1 Range o f PN S e q u e n c e l e n g t h s ’ ) 24 disp ( ’ 25 26 27 28 29 ’) disp ( ’ Length o f s h i f t r e g i s t e r (m) ’ ) disp ( m ) disp ( ’PN s e q u e n c e Length (N) ’ ) disp ( N ) disp ( ’ ’) // RESULTEnter t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l 7 // The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p 1. 0. 1. // x= 0. 1. 2 and F i g u r e 9 . 23 disp ( ’ T a b l e 9 . 0. // x= 1. 0. // x= 1. 0.2 Maximum length sequence property 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 1 // C a p t i o n : Maximum l e n g t h s e q u e n c e p r o p e r t y 2 // Example9 . Scilab code Exa 9. 0. 1.

N = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l ’ ) one_count = 0. x3 =0. ’ Output S e q u e n c e l e v e l s ’ ) // r e f e r equation 9. one_count = one_count +1. t = 1:2* length ( C_level ) . zero_count = zero_count +1.9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 x2 =0. ’ Number o f 1 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( zero_count . ’ Number o f 0 s i n t h e g i v e n PN sequence ’) disp ( ’ P r o p e r t y 1 ( B a l a n c e p r o p e r t y ) i s s a t i s i f i e d ’ ) end Rc_tuo = corr ( C_level . x0 = xor ( x1 . disp (i .5 if ( zero_count < one_count ) disp ( one_count . x3 ) . // figure a = gca () . ’ Output S e q u e n c e ’ ) // r e f e r e q u a t i o n 9 . zero_count = 0. 96 . disp (x . end end disp (C . elseif ( C ( i ) ==0) C_level ( i ) = -1. if ( C ( i ) ==1) C_level ( i ) =1. N ) . x1 = x0 . x2 = x1 . ’ The PN s e q u e n c e a t s t e p ’ ) x = [ x1 x2 x3 ]. 4 disp ( C_level . ’ x= ’ ) C ( i ) = x3 . for i =1: N x3 = x2 .

43 a .0: length ( Rc_tuo ) -1] . // f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h disp (N . C_level ]) 45 xlabel ( ’ t ’) 46 title ( ’ Waveform o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e [ 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1] ’) 47 // 48 figure 49 a = gca () . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 3 : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n and Jamming Margin clear . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .[ 53 Rc_tuo ( $ : -1:2) . Jamming margin in dB 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 // C a p t i o n : P r o c e s s i n g g a i n . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . 50 a . ’ The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : ’ ) disp (m . 52 plot2d ([ . close .length ( Rc_tuo ) +1: -1 .3 Processing gain. Rc_tuo ] . 51 a . Jamming m a r g i n i n dB // Example9 . 44 plot2d (t .5) xlabel ( ’ tuo ’ ) 54 ylabel ( ’ Rc ( t u o ) ’ ) 55 title ( ’ A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f maximum−l e n g t h s e q u e n c e ’ ) Scilab code Exa 9. //PN c h i p d u r a t i o n PG = Tb / Tc . ’ The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : ’ ) N = PG . //PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h m = log2 ( N +1) .[ C_level . ’ The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : ’ ) 97 .095*10^ -3. Tb = 4. // P r o c e s s i n g g a i n disp ( PG . PN sequence length. PN s e q u e n c e l e n g t h . clc . // I n f o r m a t i o n b i t d u r a t i o n Tc = 1*10^ -6.

1: Example9.Figure 9.2a 98 .

2: Example9.Figure 9.2b 99 .

’ Number o f MFSK t o n e s M ’ ) = disp (N . 5 : P a r a m e t e r s o f FH/MFSK signal // Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y Hopping clear . 20 // The f e e d b a c k s h i f t r e g i s t e r l e n g t h : 1 2 . ’ T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = ’ ) // R e s u l t // number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = 2 .4Figure9. // Number o f MFSK t o n e s M = 4 . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = 3 . // number o f b i t s p e r symbol M = 2^ K . 19 // The r e q u i r e d PN s e q u e n c e i s : 4 0 9 5 .14 Eb_No = 10. clc . 4 and Example9 .5 Slow and Fast Frequency hopping: FH/MFSK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Slow and F a s t F r e q u e n c y h o p p i n g : FH/MFSK // Example9 . ’ Jamming Margin i n dB : ’ ) 17 // R e s u l t 18 // The p r o c e s s i n g g a i n i s : 4095. // Number o f MFSK t o n e s N = 2^ M -1. 1 2 2 5 3 9 Scilab code Exa 9. K =2. 21 // Jamming Margin i n dB : 2 6 . close . // T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c y h o p s = 8 . // l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop disp (K . // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e k = 3.6 Direct Sequence Spread Coherent BPSK 1 // C a p t i o n : D i r e c t S e q u e n c e S p r e a d C o h e r e n t BPSK 100 .4Example9. ’ number o f b i t s p e r symbol K = ’ ) disp (M . // P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = 1 5 . Scilab code Fig 9. ’ l e n g t h o f PN s e q u e n c e p e r hop k = ’ ) disp (2^ k . // Jamming Margin 16 disp (10* log10 ( J_P ) . ’ P e r i o d o f t h e PN s e q u e n c e N = ’ ) disp (k . // Energy t o n o i s e d e n s i t y r a t i o 15 J_P = PG / Eb_No .

1]. -1 . -1 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . Carrier = 2* sin ( wt *2* %pi ) . a .1 .1 .1 . end // figure subplot (3 . a .0 . a .1]. ct_polar . close . -1 .1) a = gca () .2) a = gca () . plot2d2 (t .1 .0 .1 .1 . data_bounds = [0 .1 . ct = [0 . a .2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 // F i g u r e 9 . N ) -1* ones (1 .1 . N ) ].1 . a . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -2.0 . clc . a . N = 7.5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ Data b ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . ct_polar = [ -1 .1 .1 . bt = [1* ones (1 .01:1.5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 101 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 . t = 0:13. data_bounds = [0 . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot2d2 (t .20 . mt = bt . for i = 1: length ( mt ) st = [ st mt ( i ) * Carrier ].1 . bt . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” .0 . -1 .1 .1 .0 .2].1 .1 . 4 : G e n e r a t i o n o f w a v e f o r m s i n DS/BPSK spread spectrum t r a n s m i t t e r clear . -1 . st = []. -2.* ct_polar .2].20 . wt = 0:0.

a .2) a = gca () . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 . -2.20 .2]. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . -2. a .1 . 102 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . mt . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . a . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a .2]. a . mt . -2. -2. a .3) a = gca () . a .1) a = gca () . data_bounds = [0 . data_bounds = [0 . a . a .5) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ P r o d u c t S i g n a l m( t ) ’ ) // figure subplot (3 .2]. y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a .2].20 .20 . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . plot ( Carrier ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) title ( ’ C a r r i e r S i g n a l ’ ) subplot (3 .1 .20 . plot2d2 (t . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” .1 . a . data_bounds = [0 . data_bounds = [0 . plot2d2 (t .3) a = gca () .35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 title ( ’ S p r e a d i n g c o d e c ( t ) ’ ) subplot (3 .

Xmax ] = Alaw (x .Figure 9.3: Figure9.6a 67 68 plot ( st ) xlabel ( ’ t ’) 69 title ( ’DS/BPSK s i g n a l s ( t ) ’ ) 70 // Scilab code ARC 1 Alaw 1 2 3 function [ Cx . A ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n //A−law : A−law n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n 103 .

6b 104 .6b Figure9.Figure 9.4: Figure9.

Figure 9.12 105 .5: Figure10.

h = zeros (1 . N ) . end N = 2* L -1. Rxx = zeros (1 . end for n = 1: N for k = 1: N if ( n >= k ) 106 ./(1+ log ( A ) ) . for i = 1: L h (L . elseif ( x ( i ) / Xmax > 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = (1+ log ( A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) ) ) .4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 // x = i n p u t v e c t o r //Cx = A−law c o m p r e s s o r o u t p u t //Xmax = maximum o f i n p u t v e c t o r x Xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . // n o r m a l i z a t i o n o f o u t p u t v e c t o r Cx = Cx ’. L ) . endfunction Scilab code ARC 2 auto correlation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 function [ Rxx ] = auto_correlation ( x ) // A u t o c o r r e l a t i o n o f a g i v e n I n p u t S e q u e n c e // F i n d i n g o u t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s i g n a l u s i n g autocorrelation technique L = length ( x ) ./(1+ log ( A ) ) . for i = 1: length ( x ) if ( x ( i ) / Xmax < = 1/ A ) Cx ( i ) = A * abs ( x ( i ) / Xmax ) . end end Cx = Cx / Xmax .i +1) = x ( i ) . for i = L +1: N h ( i ) = 0. end for i = L +1: N x ( i ) = 0.

0 . 1 . 22 end 23 end 24 end 25 disp ( ’ Auto C o r r e l a t i o n R e s u l t i s ’ ) 26 Rxx 27 disp ( ’ C e n t e r V a l u e i s t h e Maximum o f a u t o c o r r e l a t i o n 28 29 30 31 result ’) [m . x2 = modulo ( x2 . N = length ( x1 ) . x2 = round ( convol ( g2 . end x = string ( x ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . n ] = max ( Rxx ) disp ( ’ P e r i o d o f t h e g i v e n s i g n a l u s i n g Auto C o r r e l a t i o n Sequence ’ ) n endfunction Scilab code ARC 3 Convolutional Coding 1 // C a p t i o n : C o n v o l u t i o n a l Code G e n e r a t i o n 2 // Time Domain Approach 3 close .i +1) ]. 0 .:) =[ x1 (N . 1 ] // x = 107 .21 Rxx ( n ) = Rxx ( n ) + x (n . 1 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e : = [ 1 . 5 g1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Top Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ ) 6 g2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e i n p u t Bottom Adder S e q u e n c e := ’ 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 ) m = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e := ’ ) x1 = round ( convol ( g1 . x2 (N .2) . m ) ) .2) . 4 clc . 0 . m ) ) . for i =1: length ( x1 ) x (i . x1 = modulo ( x1 .k +1) * h ( k ) . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e m e s s a g e s e q u e n c e : = [ 1 .i +1) .

1 . code2 ( i ) ) . 0 . 0 . 1 ] // Hamming D i s t a n c e 4. Hamming_Distance = 0.22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 1 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 0 // ! // ! 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Scilab code ARC 4 Hamming Distance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 // C a p t i o n : Hamming Weight and Hamming D i s t a n c e //H( 7 . // G e t t i n g Code Words code1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word ’ ) . 1 . 0 . 1 . 1 ] // E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word [ 1 . Scilab code ARC 5 Hamming Encode 108 . 0 . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . ’ Hamming D i s t a n c e ’ ) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e f i r s t c o d e word [ 0 . for i = 1: length ( code1 ) Hamming_Distance = Hamming_Distance + xor ( code1 ( i ) . 1 . close . 1 . 0 . clc . end disp ( Hamming_Distance . code2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e s e c o n d c o d e word ’ ) . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r .

xor ( m2 ( i ) . close .:) . m3 ( i ) ) ) . clc . disp ( ” ”).:) .:) = [ m3 ( i ) m2 ( i ) m1 ( i ) m0 ( i ) ].:) = [ b2 ( i ) b1 ( i ) b0 ( i ) ]. ’ Mes sa ge Word ’ ) disp ( b (i . b0 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) . xor ( m3 ( i ) . m2 ( i ) ) ) . b (i . ’ P a r i t y B i t s ’ ) disp ( C (i . ’ CodeWord ’ ) disp ( ” ”). m2 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . 4 ) // Code Word Length = 7 . Me ss ag e Word l e n g t h = 4 . m1 ( i ) ) ) . end C = [ b m ].:) . m0 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . xor ( m1 ( i ) . // G e t t i n g M es sag e Word m3 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) . P a r i t y b i t s =3 // c l e a r . m (i . end disp ( ’ ’) // d i s p (m b C) // R e s u l t // E n t e r t h e 1 b i t (MSb) o f m e s s a g e word 109 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 . b1 ( i ) = xor ( m1 ( i ) . // G e n e r a t i n g P a r i t y b i t s for i = 1:(2^4) b2 ( i ) = xor ( m0 ( i ) .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 // C a p t i o n : Hamming E n c o d i n g //H( 7 . disp ( ’ ’) for i = 1:2^4 disp ( i ) disp ( m (i . m1 = input ( ’ E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word ’ ) .

1].0 .0 .0 .L .1 .0 .0 .0 .1].1 . en_code ) // E n c o d i n g : C o n v e r t i n g Q u a n t i z e d d e c i m a l s a m p l e values in to binary // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s // e n c o d e = n o r m a l i z e d i n p u t s e q u e n c e n = log2 ( L ) .1 .0 . word .0 .1 .1 35 // E n t e r t h e 3 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .1 .1 .1 .0 .( n .1 .0 .1 . for i = 1: length ( x ) for j = n : -1:0 if ( fix ( en_code ( i ) /(2^ j ) ) ==1) c (i .0 Scilab code ARC 5 invmulaw 1 2 3 4 5 .n ) .0 .0 .1 .0 . function x = invmulaw (y .1 .0 .1 .1].1 .0 .j ) ) =1.1 .1 .1 .0 .0 .0 .[0 .^( abs ( y ) ) -1) .0 .1 .1 34 // E n t e r t h e 2 b i t o f m e s s a g e word [0 .1 . c = zeros ( length ( x ) .1 .0 . mu ) // Non− l i n e a r Q u a n t i z a t i o n // invmulaw : i n v e r s e mulaw n o n l i n e a r q u a n t i z a t i o n // x = o u t p u t v e c t o r // y = i n p u t v e c t o r ( u s i n g mulaw n o n l i n e a r comression ) 6 x = (((1+ mu ) .0 .1 .1].0 .1 36 // E n t e r t h e 4 b i t ( LSb ) o f m e s s a g e [0 .1 .1 .0 . . en_code ( i ) = en_code ( i ) -2^ j .1 .0 .0 ./ mu ) 7 endfunction Scilab code ARC 6 PCM Encoding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 function [ c ] = PCM_Encoding (x .1 .0 . . end end end disp ( c ) 110 .0 .1 .

// S t e p 1 [ SQNR . s c e . L ) . 3 x ( i ) = 1. title ( ’ Q u a n t i z a t i o n o f Sampled a n a l o g s i g n a l ’ ) legend ([ ’ Analog s i g n a l ’ . y_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a = gca () . 6 endfunction 111 . // From LS : don ’ t n e e d t h i s i s /0 warning i s o f f 4 y = sin ( %pi * x ) . xq . // S t e p 2 c = PCM_Encoding (x . x_location = ” o r i g i n ” . a . 5 y ( i ) = 1. PCM encoding . en_code ) . a . x = sin (2* %pi * t ) .Scilab code ARC 7 PCM Transmission 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 // C a p t i o n :PCM T r a n s m i s s i o n ( i n c l u d e s f u n c t i o n s : u n i f o r m p c m . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . close .L . s c e ) // T h i s program i s a s a m p l e program f o r P u l s e Code Modulation t r a n s m i s s i o n // s t e p 1 : The g i v e n a n a l o g s i g n a l c o n v e r t e d i n t o quantized sample value // s t e p 2 : Then t h e q u a n t i z e d s a m p l e v a l u e c o n v e r t e d into binary value clc . t = 0:0. ’ Q u a n t i z e d S i g n a l ’ ]) Scilab code ARC 8 sinc new 1 function [ y ]= sinc_new ( x ) 2 i = find ( x ==0) . L = 16.001:1.5) . x ) ./( %pi * x ) . xq . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi . plot2d2 ( t *2* %pi .

q = d *[0: L -1]. end endfunction 112 . en_code = xq . end xq = xq * xmax . B ) if ( A == B ) value = 0. xq = x / xmax .xq ) ) . SQNR = 20* log10 ( norm ( x ) / norm (x . L ) // x = i n p u t s e q u e n c e //L = number o f q u n a t i z a t i o n l e v e l s xmax = max ( abs ( x ) ) . length ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) ) . en_code ] = uniform_pcm (x . length ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) ) . for i = 1: L xq ( find ((( q ( i ) -d /2) <= xq ) &( xq <=( q ( i ) + d /2) ) ) ) =... else value = 1. q ( i ) . endfunction Scilab code ARC 10 xor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 function [ value ] = xor (A . d = 2/ L . xq .* ones (1 . en_code ( find ( xq == q ( i ) ) ) = (i -1) .Scilab code ARC 9 uniform pcm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 function [ SQNR .* ones (1 . q = q -(( L -1) /2) * d .

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