This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Molecules and their Interaction Relevant to Biology Cellular Organization Fundamental Processes Cell Communication and Cell Signaling Developmental Biology System Physiology – Plant System Physiology – Animal Inheritance Biology Diversity of Life Forms Ecological Principles Evolution and Behavior Applied Biology Methods in Biology
F. unique and repetitive DNA. formation of initiation complex. A) FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES DNA replication. glycolysis. extrachromosomal replicons. peroxisomes. repair and recombination (Unit of replication. Cell division and cell cycle (Mitosis and meiosis. electrostatic. colligative properties). C. A) CELLULAR ORGANIZATION Membrane structure and function (Structure of model membrane. lipid bilayer and membrane protein diffusion. Conformation of proteins (Ramachandran plot. DNA damage and repair mechanisms. capping. vacuoles. Metabolism of carbohydrates. Microbial Physiology (Growth yield and characteristics. euchromatin. mechanism of enzyme catalysis. RNA polymerases. Organization of genes and chromosomes (Operon. ion channels. micro-RNA). amino acids nucleotides and vitamins. structure of chromatin and chromosomes. MOLECULES AND THEIR INTERACTION RELAVENT TO BIOLOGY A. secondary structure. mitochondria. enzymes involved. t-RNA. active transport.). chloroplast. oxidative phosphorylation. isozymes G. group transfer.1. B) . reaction kinetics. 2. B Composition. J. Z). homologous and site-specific recombination). nucleus. Conformation of nucleic acids (helix (A. hydrogen bonding. hydrophobic interaction. mechanism of sorting and regulation of intracellular transport.electrical properties of membranes). thermodynamics. coupled reaction. steps in cell cycle. transcription activator and repressor. plastids. endoplasmic reticulum. lipids. their regulation. lipids. Principles of catalysis. Bioenergetics. I. membrane pumps. Stablizing interactions (Van der Waals. lysosomes. replication origin and replication fork. Stability of proteins and nucleic acids. RNA synthesis and processing (transcription factors and machinery. osmosis. enzymes and enzyme kinetics. heterochromatin. B. Structural organization and function of intracellular organelles (Cell wall. motif and folds). biological energy transducers. molecules and chemical bonds. H. domains. interrupted genes. strategies of cell division. proteins. fidelity of replication. regulation and control of cell cycle). stress response) B) C) D) E) 3. gene families. structure & function of cytoskeleton and its role in motility). Golgi bodies. nucleic acids and vitamins). E. etc. Structure of atoms. transposons). structure and function of biomolecules (carbohydrates. buffer. D Principles of biophysical chemistry (pH. enzyme regulation.
inflammation. parasitic (malaria) and viral (HIV) infections. hypersensitivity and autoimmunity. generation of antibody diversity. termination. Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level (regulating the expression of phages. aminoacylation of tRNA. virus-induced cell transformation. structure and function of antibody molecules. vaccines. alteration of host cell behavior by pathogens.elongation. integrins. MHC molecules. role of chromatin in gene expression and gene silencing). initiation factors and their regulation. neurotransmission and its regulation. oncogenes. prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes. Cell signaling Hormones and their receptors. viruses into animal and plant host cells. RNA transport). regulation of signaling pathways. aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. antigenicity and immunogenicity. general principles of cell communication. viruses. therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled cell growth. Cell communication and cell signaling A) Host parasite interaction Recognition and entry processes of different pathogens like bacteria. gap junctions. antigen processing and presentation. congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies. structure and function of different types of RNA. metastasis. formation of initiation complex. bacterial and plant twocomponent systems. antigens. Innate and adaptive immune system Cells and molecules involved in innate and adaptive immunity. RNA editing. apoptosis. cell surface receptor. signaling through G-protein coupled receptors. signal transduction pathways. bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing. extracellular matrix. Post. virus-induced cancer. translational inhibitors. antigen-antibody interactions. light signaling in plants.translational modification of proteins). C) and Protein synthesis and processing (Ribosome. humoral and cellmediated immune responses. tRNA-identity. immune response during bacterial (tuberculosis). cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules. primary and secondary immune modulation. second messengers. interaction of cancer cells with normal cells. B) C) D) E) . D) 4. B and T cell receptors. pathogen-induced diseases in animals and plants. RNA processing. tumor suppressor genes. splicing. cancer and the cell cycle. genetic code. Toll-like receptors. antibody engineering. Cellular communication Regulation of hematopoiesis. B and T cell epitopes. monoclonal antibodies. elongation and elongation factors. and translational proof-reading. and termination. polyadenylation. cell-cell fusion in both normal and abnormal cells. cell-mediated effector functions. activation and differentiation of B and T cells. the complement system. Cancer Genetic rearrangements in progenitor cells.
CO2 fixation-C3. metamorphosis. blastula formation. breakdown and transport. C) Morphogenesis and organogenesis in animals : Cell aggregation and differentiation in Dictyostelium. establishment of symmetry in plants. Plant hormones – Biosynthesis.larval formation. C. embryo sac development and double fertilization in plants. axes and pattern formation in Drosophila. Respiration and photorespiration – Citric acid cycle. storage. amino acid biosynthesis. photoperiodism and biological clocks. D) Morphogenesis and organogenesis in plants: Organization of shoot and root apical meristem. mutants and transgenics in analysis of development B) Gametogenesis. embryonic fields. commitment. physiological effects and mechanisms of action. zygote formation. shoot and root development. alternate oxidase. embryogenesis. . imprinting. cell surface molecules in sperm-egg recognition in animals. determination and differentiation. function and mechanisms of action of phytochromes. post embryonic development. plant mitochondrial electron transport and ATP synthesis. cell fate and cell lineages. sex determination.5. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY A) Basic concepts of development : Potency. floral meristems and floral development in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum E) Programmed cell death. organogenesis – vulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans. stomatal movement.Light harvesting complexes. aging and senescence 6. C4 and CAM pathways. photoprotective mechanisms.Structure. leaf development and phyllotaxy. fertilization and early development: Production of gametes. Nitrogen metabolism . induction. SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY . E. mechanisms of electron transport. photorespiratory pathway. specification. eye lens induction. A. cryptochromes and phototropins. differentiation of neurons. environmental regulation of normal development. genomic equivalence and the cytoplasmic determinants.Nitrate and ammonium assimilation. Sensory photobiology . limb development and regeneration in vertebrates. gastrulation and formation of germ layers in animals. amphibia and chick. seed formation and germination. transition to flowering. competence. stem cells. morphogenetic gradients. D.PLANT Photosynthesis . cleavage. B.
neural and chemical regulation of all above. C. urine formation. haemostasis. Stress and adaptation Digestive system . heart as a pump. micturition. waste elimination. Secondary metabolites . reproductive processes.Neurons.Digestion. regulation of water balance. Respiratory system .Comfort zone. Thermoregulation . gametogenesis. haemoglobin. J.ANIMAL Blood and circulation . chemical. transpiration. blood volume regulation.Endocrine glands. Stress physiology – Responses of plants to biotic (pathogen and insects) and abiotic (water. H. H. hormones and diseases. 7. neural regulation. central and peripheral nervous system.Comparison of respiration in different species. Endocrinology and reproduction .F. ECG – its principle and significance. anatomical considerations. blood pressure. through xylem and phloem. exchange of gases. electrolyte balance. cardiac cycle. blood groups. specialized tissue.Comparative physiology of excretion. myogenic heart. neuroendocrine regulation B. basic mechanism of hormone action. Solute transport and photoassimilate translocation – uptake. temperature and salt) stresses. I. solutes and macromolecules from soil. ions. energy balance.Vision. acclimatization. haemopoiesis and formed elements. absorption. urine concentration. waste elimination. mechanisms of loading and unloading of photoassimilates.Blood corpuscles. neural control of muscle tone and posture. ovulation. body temperature – physical. Sense organs . blood volume. Nervous system . gross neuroanatomy of the brain and spinal cord. neural and chemical regulation of respiration. action potential. acid-base balance.Biosynthesis of terpenes. across membranes. plasma function. D. G. BMR. . A. blood pressure. Cardiovascular System: Comparative anatomy of heart structure. G. transport and translocation of water. SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY . blood volume. Excretory system . F. phenols and nitrogenous compounds and their roles. immunity. E. transport of gases. through cells. kidney. hearing and tactile response.
multiple alleles. QTL mapping. ploidy and their genetic implications. development of mapping population in plants. tetrad analysis. sex linkage. independent assortment. DIVERSITY OF LIFE FORMS: Principles & methods of taxonomy: Concepts of species and hierarchical taxa. duplication. organs & systems. inversion. penetrance and expressivity. mapping genes by interrupted mating. classical & quantititative methods of taxonomy of plants. insertional mutagenesis. G) Human genetics : Pedigree analysis. Levels of organization of tissues. loss of function. fine structure analysis of genes. J) Structural and numerical alterations of chromosomes : Deletion. F) Microbial genetics : Methods of genetic transfers – transformation. adaptive radiation. translocation. D) Gene mapping methods : Linkage maps. lod score for linkage testing. INHERITANCE BIOLOGY A) Mendelian principles : Dominance. transduction and sex-duction. causes and detection. animals and microorganisms. E) Extra chromosomal inheritance : Inheritance of Mitochondrial and chloroplast genes. complementation tests C) Extensions of Mendelian principles : Codominance. B) Concept of gene : Allele. Levels of structural organization: Unicellular. linkage and crossing over. genetic disorders. phenocopy. mapping with molecular markers. segregation. pseudoallele. B. heritability and its measurements. mapping by using somatic cell hybrids. 9. genomic imprinting.8. . conjugation. gene interactions. karyotypes. biochemical. biological nomenclature. adaptive modifications. mutant types – lethal. incomplete dominance. gain of function. I) Mutation : Types. K) Recombination : Homologous and non-homologous recombination including transposition. maternal inheritance. pleiotropy. H) Quantitative genetics : Polygenic inheritance. colonial and multicellular forms. A. sex limited and sex influenced characters. conditional. germinal verses somatic mutants. Comparative anatomy.
marine. grassland) and aquatic (fresh water. geographic origins and migrations of species. changes involved in succession. symbiosis. biotic environment. . D. Seasonality and phenology of the subcontinent. 10. resource partitioning. Organisms of health & agricultural importance: Common parasites and pathogens of humans. carnivory. endangered species. primary production and decomposition. age structured populations. theory of island biogeography. domestic animals and crops. community structure and attributes.P). Organisms of conservation concern: Rare. character displacement. F. Evolutionary relationships among taxa. ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES The Environment: Physical environment. Natural history of Indian subcontinent: Major habitat types of the subcontinent. Habitat and Niche: Concept of habitat and niche. herbivory. Comman Indian mammals.N. mechanisms. fundamental and realized niche. biomes. Species Interactions: Types of interactions. eustarine). concept of metapopulation – demes and dispersal.C. ecosystem function. structure and function of some Indian ecosystems: terrestrial (forest. birds. pollination. Community Ecology: Nature of communities. Outline classification of plants. edges and ecotones. Biogeography: Major terrestrial biogeographical zones of India. animals & microorganisms: Important criteria used for classification in each taxon. niche width and overlap. population growth curves. Ecosystem Ecology: Ecosystem structure. biotic and abiotic interactions. concept of climax. Population Ecology: Characteristics of a population. interdemic extinctions. Conservation strategies. levels of species diversity and its measurement. E. Ecological Succession: Types. population regulation. life history strategies (r and K selection). animals and microorganisms. energy flow and mineral cycling (C. Classification of plants. interspecific competition.
origin of new genes and proteins. Gene frequency. major drivers of biodiversity change. Origins of unicellular and multi cellular organisms. adaptation. F. molecular divergence and molecular clocks. Proximate and ultimate causation. Stages in primate evolution including Homo. C. monitoring and documentation. B. The evolutionary synthesis. Gene pool. Evolution of unicellular eukaryotes.Applied Ecology: Environmental pollution. Neural basis . struggle. Anaerobic metabolism. Molecular tools in phylogeny. Major events in the evolutionary time scale. Speciation. Mendelism. Brain. global environmental change. fitness and natural selection. Biosphere reserves). Origin of cells and unicellular evolution: Origin of basic biological molecules. migration and random genetic drift. Hardy-Weinberg Law. Eras. EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOUR Emergence of evolutionary thoughts Lamarck. Experiement of Miller (1953). Indian case studies on conservation/management strategy (Project Tiger. periods and epoch. Sexual selection. biodiversity management approaches. Paleontology and Evolutionary History: The evolutionary time scale. Allopatricity and Sympatricity. Isolating mechanisms. The first cell. E. Adaptive radiation. D. Altruism and evolution-Group selection. Concept of Oparin and Haldane. Kin selection. Evolution of prokaryotes. Abiotic synthesis of organic monomers and polymers. Behavior and Evolution: Approaches and methods in study of behavior. Spontaneity of mutations. Darwin–concepts of variation. Protein and nucleotide sequence analysis. Co-evolution. Gene duplication and divergence. Molecular Evolution: Concepts of neutral evolution. Conservation Biology: Principles of conservation. biodiversity: status. photosynthesis and aerobic metabolism. classification and identification. Origin of eukaryotic cells. Convergent evolution. Major groups of plants and animals. concepts and rate of change in gene frequency through natural selection. 11. Reciprocal altruism. The Mechanisms: Population genetics – Populations. major approaches to management. A.
orientation and navigation. Breeding in plants and animals. Domestication and behavioral changes. Mating systems. Social dominance. including gene therapy. Tissue and cell culture methods for plants and animals. vaccines. including marker – assisted selection Bioremediation and phytoremediation Biosensors C.of learning. E. . Aggressive behavior. diagnostics. Bioresource and uses of biodiversity. Migration. H. Parental investment and Reproductive success. Development of behavior. B. APPLIED BIOLOGY: A. G. Genomics and its application to health and agriculture. molecular approaches to diagnosis and strain identification. Use of space and territoriality. Biological clocks. Microbial fermentation and production of small and macro molecules. sleep and arousal. Parental care. D. cognition. F. memory. Application of immunological principles. Social communication. Transgenic animals and plants. Habitat selection and optimality in foraging. 12.
Histochemical and Immunotechniques Antibody generation. NMR and ESR spectroscopy Molecular structure determination using X-ray diffraction and NMR. RIA. circular dichroism. Detection of molecules using ELISA. A. cosmid. RAPD and AFLP techniques B. fluocytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. X2 test. Confidence Interval. large scale expression. strategies for genome sequencing. immunoprecipitation. separation and analysis of carbohydrate and lipid molecules RFLP.13. In vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques. Isoelectric focusing gels. Protein sequencing methods. t-test. different types of mass spectrometry and surface plasma resonance methods. animal and plant vectors. etc. Difference between parametric and non-parametric statistics. BAC and YAC vectors. DNA sequencing methods. Regression and Correlation. Expression of recombinant proteins using bacterial. Isolation of specific nucleic acid sequences Generation of genomic and cDNA libraries in plasmid. Analysis of variance. Methods for analysis of gene expression at RNA and protein level. fluorescence. Analysis of RNA. Basic introduction to Muetrovariate statistics. Poisson and normal). detection of post translation modification of proteins. D Statisitcal Methods: Measures of central tendency and dispersal. . Molecular cloning of DNA or RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems. detection of molecules in living cells. METHODS IN BIOLOGY Molecular Biology and Recombinant DNA methods: Isolation and purification of RNA . Sampling distribution. in situ localization by techniques such as and GISH. Biophysical Method: FISH C Molecular analysis using UV/visible.. phage. such as micro array based techniques Isolation. different separation methods. probability distributions (Binomial. western blot. Errors. Levels of significance. gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms. Molecular analysis using light scattering. DNA and proteins by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis. DNA (genomic and plasmid) and proteins.
CAT . Brain activity recording. image processing methods in microscopy. freeze-etch and freezefracture methods for EM. Methods in field biology: Methods of estimating population density of animals and plants. pharmacological testing. Microscopic techniques: Visulization of cells and subcellular components by light microscopy. lesion H. microscopy of living cells. ranging patterns through direct. MRI. resolving powers of different microscopes. incorporation of radioisotopes in biological tissues and cells. sampling methods in the study of behavior. and stimulation of brain. . patch-clamp recording. indirect and remote observations. fMRI. different fixation and staining techniques for EM. F. habitat characterization: ground and remote sensing methods. PET. ECG. safety guidelines. molecular imaging of radioactive material. scanning and transmission microscopes.E. Radiolabeling techniques: Detection and measurement of different types of radioisotopes normally used in biology. G. Electrophysiological methods: Single neuron recording.