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Agro Textiles-A Review
By: Dr.Ruma Chakrabarti, K.Gowri & R.Senthil Kumar
rain and birds. Agro textiles contribute 8% share in the technical textiles break up.Senthil Kumar Department of Textile Technology. elongation.www. horticulture area has realized the need of tomorrow and opting for various technologies to get higher overall yield. water and humidity. This paper emphasizes the application of agro textiles in various areas of agriculture and horticulture.A Review By: Dr. resistance to sunlight and resistance to toxic environment. higher yields fewer damages and bearable losses. bird net windshield. Agro textiles like sunscreen. mulch mat.Ruma Chakrabarti. and extension of the growing season. Crop protection and weed control are the major challenges faced by the farmers in the agriculture industry. harvesting net. where textile structures are used. hail protection net. K. green house and also in open fields to control environmental factors like. weed and insect control. shading. etc can be used for achieving the above goal.com Agro Textiles . Adopting the hi-tech farming technique. stiffness. bio-degradation. could enhance quality and overall yield of agro-products. Textile industry is the second largest industry next to agriculture. porosity.Gowri & R. Agro Textiles: The word “Agro textiles” now is used to classify the woven. The essential properties required are Strength. . quality and tasty agro products. nonwoven and knitted fabrics applied for agricultural and horticultural uses covering livestock protection. The usage of agro textiles will be benefited in terms of products with enhanced quality. It also avoids agro products damage from wind. Coimbatore Introduction: Agriculture is the largest industry in the world. temperature. Textile structures in various forms are used in shade house/ poly house. Kumaraguru College of Technology. Today. agriculture.fibre2fashion.
Novel and Coated fabrics.000 500 0 1995 2000 Year 2005 2010 Chart 1 – Agro textiles-Worldwide Consumption Need for Agro Textiles: • • • • • They prevent the soil from drying out and increases crop yield. Polyolefin. Various Fibres Used in Agro textiles: The various fibers used in agro textiles are Nylon.000 1. They improve product quality.com Agro Textiles –Worldwide Consumption: Agrotextiles . Polyethylene. Among all these fibers the Polyolefin is extensively used where as among natural . Woven. Agro textiles protects farmer from harmful pesticides. Sheets. Different Fabric Forms used in Agro Textiles: The different fabric forms used in agro textiles are Nets.Worldwide Consumption 2. Knitted.www.500 (000 tonnes) 2. Polyester.fibre2fashion.500 1. The best-known products are shade netting and thermal screens. Nonwovens. Their use improves the quality of fruit. the use of which can save up to 40% on energy in heating greenhouses. prevents staining and improves uniformity of color. Jute and Wool.
herb and vegetable crops which are to be healthier and give higher yields when protected from the ravages of hail.www. These fabrics are made up of UV stabilized polyethylene monofilaments both woven and knitted form.fibre2fashion. rip resistant. Areas of Application: 1. Hail Protection: Fig. These fabrics are also used to protect fruit.com jute and wool is used it not only serve the purpose but also after some year it degrades and act as the natural fertilizer. . The fabric offers light shading as well as protection from wind and birds.1 Hail protection Fabric Hail protection fabrics helps shield vines from the fruit damage and defoliation associated with hail yet still lets through plenty of sunlight. The lightweight netting is tough. and highly UV stabilized and has the additional benefit of protecting vines from wind and birds.
www. reach full growth more rapidly. don’t harbor insects. Wind Control Fabrics: Fig. in some cases. These fabrics are also made up of UV stabilized polyethylene mono filaments both woven and knitted form.3 Landscape Covers . and will not compete with crops for water and nutrients. Landscape Covers for Weed Protection: Fig. 3. Wind Break Fabrics protect crops from wind and. UV stabilized fabrics provide years of wind protection for crops. and have higher yield. Windbreak fabrics start blocking wind immediately.com 2.2 Wind Control Fabrics Wind control fabrics can improve fruit quality by minimizing bruising. shoot tip scorching. orchard temperatures can be increased by reducing wind speed. Trees that are protected from wind are generally healthier.fibre2fashion. require little maintenance.
a new group of synthetic materials has been introduced for use with mulches for landscape weed control. and mulches (alone or in combination) to suppress and control weeds. The fabrics made up of polypropylene monofilament strands in both woven and knitted form are used to serve as sunshade fabrics to develop a microclimate for plantation of flowers. 4. but restricts air and water movement. herbicides. DuPont Plantex® is a weed control fabric made up of polypropylene which is thermally bonded by heat and pressure form a strong material that is impenetrable to most weeds and grasses.they permit the exchange of water and air between the soil and the atmosphere. Weeds are undesirable due to aesthetic detraction. Woven .com Suppression or elimination of weed growth is a major component of all landscape maintenance programs. Black plastic (solid polyethylene) provides excellent control of annual weeds and suppresses perennial weeds. competition for light.fibre2fashion.4 – Sunshade Fabrics Shade fabric is absorbing 90% of sunlight. nutrients and space. and possible allelopathic growth suppression. provision of insect and disease habitats. ornamental plants and fruits.www. Within the past few years. water. Most landscape maintenance programs rely on hand weeding. Sunshade Fabrics: Fig. Thermally spun bonded fabrics are much more effective than woven or needle punched geotextiles in preventing fine roots and rhizomes from penetrating the fabric. These geotextiles (also called landscape fabrics or weed barriers) have one major advantage over plastics -.
patio. The fabrics of such kind are stretched across the open-air plantations so that the pests can no longer get to the plants and also the climate will not be disturbed in any way. Knitted Sunshade cloth is made from 100% UV stabilized polyethylene.com sunshade fabric is made from 100% polypropylene monofilament strands. Fig. Woven sunshade fabric is UV stabilized to hold up under the most extreme solar conditions. scale insects attack some ornamental plants and vegetables frequently. Its unique lock stitch construction allows customers the ability to cut the fabric with scissors without further unraveling. dog kennels and solar protection for plants. livestock.www. Knitted shade fabric is available in a variety of colors and stripes. Protection Against Insects-Insect Proof Fabrics: Various pests like Whitefly.5 Insect proof Fabric The invention of insect repellent fabrics has given a way to safeguard the plants and vegetables. Its lightweight and durability make it a superior choice for all types of shade applications.fibre2fashion. shading for sports and recreation. 5. Woven sunshade fabric can be used for a variety of applications such as wind and privacy screen. . The affected leaves of the plants give rises to the formation of black fungus because of the honeydew on the leaves left by the viruses.
spun bonded polyester fabric designed to protect crops from cold. wind. semi-clear fabric allows sunlight. nursery stock and foliage 24 hours a day. air. The covers are strong. insects and a variety of adverse environmental factors.Cold protection tough fabric row covers are perfect for protecting low growing.com 6. Frost and Cold Protection fabric can be laid right on the plants. high value field crops from frosts. The fabrics may have grid structure to serve the purpose of saving from rain. Temperature Control fabric helps captures heat on sunny days and retains heat radiating from the ground at night. The woven. . The fabric can be used alone or over wire hoops. and water through to the plants. frost.6 Cold and Frost Control Fabrics Temperature Control fabric is a nonwoven. unlike plastic covers that can attract frost and burn any leaves that touch them. and can last for many growing seasons. cold. Frost and Cold Protection fabric protects plants from frost kill during unexpected late cold snaps and unseasonably early ones.www. Rain Protection Fabrics: Rain protection fabrics protect the flowers and berries from damage on rainfall. 7. Temperature Controlled Fabrics: Fig. and birds. durable.fibre2fashion. This aids in protecting sensitive ornamentals.
. Harvesting Aids: Fig. Harvesting nets are predominantly grip structures which can be developed using warp knitting technology.fibre2fashion.7 Harvesting Aids Harvesting nets are used to collect the fruits falling from a tree. This helps to keep the cost of cultivation low by eliminating additional labor associated with harvesting.www.com 8.
com 9. They are used to prevent hardscape damage by root encroachment and to separate root systems for nutrient allocation or to isolate diseased root systems. .www. Biobarriers: Fig.8 Biobarriers –Root control fabrics Biobarrier Root Control installations effectively divert lateral root growth.fibre2fashion.
It can be used in sand beds and under trays or containers.resistance to micro-organisms. It is having the following advantages: Limits damage to the plant.www. Weather resistance . . ease of transport. space saving storage and long service life.com 10. It forces the plant to develop its vital root system within the growing device.fibre2fashion. Properties required for Agro textiles products: Man made fibers are preferred for agricultural products than the natural fibers mainly due to their favorable price performance ratio. Root Pruning Fabric: Fig.9 Root Pruning Fabric Root pruning fabric is used for nursery propagation. Prevents root damage during plant removal. Reduces labor costs and Increases production quality.
High potential to retain water This is achieved by means of fiber materials which allow taking in much water and by filling in super-absorbers. Protection property Protection from wind and the creation of a micro-climate between the ground and the nonwovens. Natural polymer gives the advantage of bio-degradation but has low service life when compared to the synthetics. Withstands ultraviolet Radiations: Polyethylene is resistant to radiation in the visible range. cotton are also used where the bio-degradability of product is essential. jute. . These are special types of carbon black which convert the UV radiation into thermal radiation. values between 100 and 500 g/m2 are reached with materials for use on embankments and slopes.www. Hence when used as an outdoor material polyethylene is treated with the appropriate UV stabilizers.fibre2fashion. At the same time. which results in temperature and humidity being balanced out. Bio degradability Natural fibers like wool. While nonwovens meant for the covering of plants show a mass per unit area of 15 to 60 gm/m2.com Withstand solar radiation: Agro textiles are laid over the cultivated areas immediately after sowing or planting. Good potential to reduce the impact of UV radiation on plants by light-absorbing or light-reflecting non wovens (light permeability: 80 to 90% to allow photo synthesis to take place). For such application Agro textiles has to withstand solar radiation with varying surrounding temperature. But UV radiation leads to degradation of molecular chains.
which are produced on raschel machines. Here. .www. Other systems of woven fabric production such as air jet and rapier weaving machines are not preferred for the manufacture of such fabrics. Nonwovens There are many techniques to produce Non woven fabrics. • Woven • Knitting • Non woven Woven Woven products are produced by using weaving machines especially Sulzer projectile weaving machines. The techniques are. The spun bonded fabric has high and constant tensile strength in all directions.com temperature in the root area rise. which avoids soil contamination.fibre2fashion. as they do not have required weaving width. The machines with weaving width of 540cm to 846cm are available for the production of agro textiles. Needle punched fabric plant bags provide advantages over conventional fired clay pots. The nets with a mesh width of 1. dimensional stability and resistance to wetness. Sufficient stiffness. Agro nets are produced in various constructions or lapping. evenness. elasticity. Fungicidal finish (up to 2% of the total mass). bio-degradability. It has also good tearing strength. flexibility. Spun bonding and needle punch techniques are mainly used for the production of non woven Agro textiles. Warp knitted protective nets are used in different sectors. Techniques of producing agro textile products Several techniques of fabric production can be used to produce Agro textiles. The range of light to heavy and wide width fabric production is possible with Sulzer projectile weaving machine. each method offers specific advantages for particular product. This is what causes earlier harvests.8mm to 40mm can be produced. Knitting Warp knitting technique is most widely used compare than the weft knitting. the construction or lapping is a way in which individual yarn systems are converted into fabrics.
. Inc 2001 3.fibre2fashion. Koerner.” Hand Book Of Weaving” Technomic publishing co.S. etc. vegetables and fruits from weather...R.www. Used mainly in planted areas. provides weed suppression and ground moisture conservation. whilst allowing roots to breathe and water. Adanur.” Designing With Geo Synthetics” Prentice Hall 1994 .com All natural fibers offer an added advantage of that the container decomposes after being planted in the ground. “Hand Book Of Industrial Textiles” Technomic publishing co. REFERENCES: 1. maintains higher soil temperatures and promotes more rapid and even plant growth. air and nutrients to permeate through. Even with man made fibers the roots find their way through the fabric. The usage of textiles is also now extended to protect the agro products like plants. Inc 1995 2. Conclusion: Agrotextile improves plant growth and crops in the orchards. weed and birds.. which has given a new dimension to technical textiles. by means of agro textiles. Sabit Adanur. This reduces upkeep.
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