# Drill Bit Hydraulics

Assumptions 1) Change of pressure due to elevation is negligible. 2) Velocity upstream is negligible compared to nozzles. 3) Pressure due to friction is negligible.
2 ΔPB − 8.075 E − 4 ρv n = 0

ΔPB Pressure drop across bit, vn nozzle velocity

Solving for nozzle velocity
vn = ΔPB 8.074 E − 4 ρ

In the field it has been shown that velocity predicted by this equation is off. So it has been modified,
vn = C d ΔPB 8.074 E − 4 ρ

the recommended valve for Cd is .95. If 3 nozzles are present

v=

q1 q 2 q3 = = A1 A2 A3

the velocity is equal in all the jets.

q = q1 + q 2 + q3 = v n A1 + v n A2 + v n A3

That gives us
vn = q At

In field units vn = q 3.117 A t

q in gpm, At in inches2, vn in ft/sec solving for the pressure drop
8.311E − 5 ρq 2 ΔPB = 2 C d At2

ρ is #/gal Flow Exponent α It can be deduced that
Pf = CQα C is a constant
log Pf = log C + α log Q

So the log log plot of this equation is a straight line with a slope of α. α can found if two Pf and Q are known, this can be achieved by measuring the standpipe or surface pressure for 2 pumping rates. Ps=Pf+PB so by using the above equation PB can be calculated and subtracted from Ps to find Pf.
B

Pf = Ps −

8.311E − 5ρq 2 after finding Pf , α can be found by 2 C d At2

⎛P ⎞ log⎜ f 2 Pf 1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ α= log⎛ Q2 ⎞ ⎜ Q ⎟ 1⎠ ⎝

Maximum Drill Bit Hydraulic Horsepower Criterion assumes that optimum hole cleaning is achieved if the hydraulic horsepower across the bit is maximized with respect to the flow rate Q.
H HB = PB Q

Sub in

PB = Ps − CQ α H HB = Ps − CQ α +1

Take the first derivative of H with respect to Q set the result to 0.
gH HB = Ps − (α + 1)CQ α = 0 dQ

Pf = CQα

Ps − (α − 1)Pf = 0

or

Pf =

1 PS α +1

this is the root that makes HHB a maximum. Hence the optimum bit hydraulics will be achieved if friction pressure loss in the system is maintained at an optimum value of
Pfopt = 1 Ps max α +1

across the nozzles
PBopt = Ps max − Pfopt =

α α +1

Ps max

Calculate or measure a Pfqa @ some Qa then knowing Pfopt a Qopt can be calculated by
⎡1 ⎛P Qopt = Qa anti log ⎢ log⎜ fopt ⎜P ⎢α ⎝ fqa ⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎟ ⎠⎥ ⎦

With Qopt known the PBopt can be rewritten
PBopt = 8.3E − 5ρQopt
2 2 Atopt C d

solve for Atopt

Atopt =

8.3E − 5ρQopt
2 C d PBopt

if all nozzles are the same size Atopt =
d nopt = Atopt nπ

π
4

2 nd nopt n is the number of nozzles

solve for dnopt

Example: DP 41/2” 20#/ft, Collars 7” 120.3#/ft 1000’ θ600 29, ρ 15.5 #/gal Mud θ300 21, Pump Pmax 5440 psi HHP 1600hp 80% TD 12,000’ Vamin 85 ft/min Bit 8 7/8” 14-14-14 Hole size 9 7/8” Rate data Q1 300 GPM Q2 400 GPM Find α
8.311E 5ρQ 2 PB = 2 Cd At2
PB1 = 8.311E 5 ⋅ 15.5 ⋅ 300 2 = 631.6 psi .952.45099 2 PB 2 = 8.311E 5 ⋅ 15.5 ⋅ 400 2 = 1122.8 psi .952.45099 2

@ Ps1 2966 psi @ Ps2 4883 psi

Pf 1 = 2966 − 631.6 = 2344.4 psi

Pf 2 = 4883 − 1122 .8 = 3760 .2 psi

⎛P ⎞ log⎜ f 2 Pf 1 ⎟ log 3760.2 2344.4 ⎠= ⎝ α= = 1.66 ⎛ Q2 ⎞ log 400 log⎜ ⎟ 300 ⎝ Q1 ⎠

(

(

)

)

Find Qmax and Qmin
Qmax = 1714 ⋅ .8 1600

(

5440

) = 403gpm
60

Based on pump

Qmin = 2.448(9.8752 − 4.52 )85

= 268 gpm Based on velocity

Optimum friction pressure
⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ Pfopt = ⎜ ⎟ Pp max = ⎜ ⎟5440 = 2047 psi ⎝ α + 1⎠ ⎝ 1.66 + 1 ⎠

Optimum pressure drop at the bit
PB = Pp max − Pfopt = 5440 − 2047 = 3933 psi

Optimum flow rate
⎡1 ⎛P Qopt = Qa anti log ⎢ log⎜ fopt ⎜P ⎢α ⎝ fqa ⎣ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ = 300anti log ⎡ 1 log 2047 ⎤ = 227 gpm ⎢1.66 ⎟ 2334 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎠⎥ ⎦

This is lower than the max and higher than min flow rates. Optimum nozzle area
Atopt =
2 8.311E − 5 ⋅ ρ ⋅ Qopt 2 C d PBopt

=

8.311E − 5 ⋅ 15.5 ⋅ 227 2 = .15in 2 2 .95 3393

For 3 equal sized jets
d nopt = 2 .15 3π = .25in

The maximum jet impact force criterion assumes that the bottom-hole cleaning is achieved by maximizing the jet impact force with respect to the flow rate. The impact force at the bottom of the hole can be derived form Newton’s second law of motion
F j = BQ PB

B = .01823C d ρ

Q in gpm ρ in #/gal

PB = Ps − Pf = Ps − CQ α
F j = BQ Ps − CQ α

limitations 1) maximum pump horsepower 2) maximum surface pressure For the shallow portion of the well Pf is small and the flow rate requirement is large the impact force is limited only by the pump horsepower, therefore, the allowable surface pressure, expressed as
Ps = H p max Q

substituting
F j = BQ H p max Q − CQ α = B H p max Q − CQ α − 2

Differentiate and set to 0
dF j dQ = .5 B H p max − (α + 2)CQ α +1 H p max Q − CQ α + 2

[

]=0

For a valid solution the numerator must be equal to zero.

Solve for the optimum friction pressure
Pfopt = 1 Psopt α +2

then solve for the optimum bit pressure
PBopt = Psopt − Pfopt =

α +1 Psopt α +2

In the deeper sections of the well the friction pressure loss increases, while the flow rate requirement decreases. Therefore the impact force will limited by the maximum allowed pump pressure, Psmax.
Pj = BQ Ps max − CQ α

Differentiate and set to 0
dF j dQ = .5 B Ps max − (α + 2)CQ α +1 Ps max Q − CQ α + 2

[

]=0

For a valid solution the numerator must be equal to zero.
Pfopt = 2 Ps max α +2

Gives
PBopt = Ps max − Pfopt =

α α +2

Ps max

Example Same data as Hydraulic example So α=1.66 Qmax=4.3 gpm Qmin=268 gpm At 12,000 feet the pump pressure is the limiting factor.
Pfopt = 2 2 ⋅ 5440 Ps max = = 2975 psi 1.66 + 2 α +2

PBopt = Ps max − Pfopt = 5440 − 2975 = 2465 psi

⎡1 ⎛ Pfopt Qopt = Qa anti log ⎢ log⎜ ⎜P ⎢α ⎝ fqa ⎣

⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ = 300anti log ⎡ 1 log 2975 ⎤ = 347 gpm ⎢1.66 ⎟⎥ 2334 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎠⎦

It is bounded by the min and max flow rates, so
Atopt =
2 8.311E − 5 ⋅ ρ ⋅ Qopt 2 C d PBopt

=

8.311E − 5 ⋅ 15.5 ⋅ 347 2 = .26in 2 2 .95 ⋅ 2465

d nopt = 2 .26

= .332in = 10.6 / 32"

3 - 11 jets have an area of .27in2.

Section 4.13 in text, pages 156, 157

Cuttings Lifting Rock weights about 21 ppg, so it will fall in any fluid that has a lower density. The rate that the cutting fall in the drilling fluid is the slip velocity. To maintain good hole cleaning the velocity of the drilling fluid has to be greater than the slip velocity of the cuttings. The slip velocity depends on the difference in densities, viscosity of the fluid and the size of the cuttings.
⎡ d p (ρ p − ρ f )⎤ v s = 113.4 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ CD ρ f ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
.5

d p the diameter of the cuttings inches

ρp the density of the cuttings 21 ppg CD Drag coefficient Particle Reynolds number
Rp =
15.47 ρv s d p

μ

which gives
CD = 40 RP

Substituting in the first equation
vs =
2 4980 d p (ρ p − ρ f

)

μ

For values of Rp greater than 1 which means laminar flow around the particle the drag coefficient can be found using
CD =
22 R .p5

So the slip velocity equation becomes
vs = 175d p (ρ p − ρ f

)

.667

ρ .f333 μ .333

Designing the hydraulic system 1) Break the well down into sections, hole size, drilling fluid changes and depth etc. Design the drilling fluids for each. 2) Calculate the maximum pump rate using the pump specifications. 3) Calculate the friction loss in the pipe and annulus for each section using 2 flow rates. From this calculate the flow exponent α for that section. 4) Using this flow exponent optimize the bit hydraulics. 5) When drilling confirm your plan by finding the α by measuring the friction pressure at 2 pump rates. 6) Find the annular velocity at the optimal rate and compare it to the slip velocity, verify that this rate will clean the hole. 7) Calculate the pressures and horsepower required to pump the optimal rate for the bit and verify the equipment can handle it. 8) Trail and error may be required to find the optimal rate and jet sizes.