S E R I E

O R I E N T A L E XXXIII

ROMA

JIKIDO TAKASAKI

A STUDY ON THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHAGA (UTTARATANTRA) Being a Treatise on the Tathagatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism
Including: a critical Introduction, a Synopsis of the text, a Translation from the original Sanskrit text, in comparison with its Tibetan & Chinese versions, critical Notes, Appendixes and Indexes.

ROMA

R O M E
I. II. III. IV. V. VI* VII. VIII. IX. 1.

O R I E N T A L

S E R I E S

Already published:
— Tucci G., The Tombs of the Tibetan Kings. — PETECH L., Northern India according to the Shui-ching-chu. — FRAUWALLNER E., On the date of the Buddhist Master of the Law Vasubandhu. — ROCK J . F., The Na-khi Nāga cult and related ceremonies. Part I and II. — Conferenze, Vol. I. Containing lectures delivered at Is.M.E.O. by — CONZE E., Abhisamayālañkāra. Introduction and Translation from the original text, with Sanskrit-Tibetan Indexes. — Conferenze, Vol. II. Containing lectures delivered at Is.M.E.O. by
H. CORBIN, N. EGAMI, M. ELIADE, J. FĪLLIOZAT, P. HUMBERTCLAUDE, J. MASUI, E. H. DE TSCHARNER. G. CCEDES, J. J. L. DUYVENDAK, C. HENTZE, P. H. POTT.

IX. 2. X.

XI. XII. XIII. XIV.

— FRAUWALLNER E., The earliest Vinaya and the beginnings of Buddhist literature. — Tucci G., Minor Buddhist Texts, Part I. Containing A s a ñ g a ' s commentary on the Vajracchedikā edited and translated; Analysis of the commentary on it by V a s u b a n d h u ; Mahāyānavimśikā of N ā g ā r j u n a ; Navaśloki of K a m b a l a p ā d a ; Catuhstavasamāsārtha of A m r t ā k a r a ; Hetutattvopadeśa of J i t ā r i ; Tarkasopāna of V i d y ā k a r a ś ā n t i . With an appendix containing the Gilgit Text of the Vajracchedikā, edited by N. P. CHAKRAVARTI. — Tucci G., Minor Buddhist Texts, Part I I . First Bhāvanākrāma of Kamalaśūa. — Materials for the study of Nepalese History and Culture: 1. Tucci G., Preliminary Report on two Scientific Expeditions in Nepal. 2. GNOLI R., Nepalese Inscriptions in Gupta characters. Part I, Text and Plates. 3. PETECH L., Mediaeval History of Nepal (c. 750-1480). — GNOLI R., The aesthetic experience according to Abhinavagupta (out of print). — ROCK J . F., The Amnye Ma-chhen range and adjacent regions. A monographic study. — CONZE E., Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā. — Le Symbolisme cosmique des Monuments religieux. Actes du Congres qui a du lieu â Rome sous les auspices de l'ls.M.E.O., avec la collaboration du Musee Guimet, Avril-Mai 1955. Conferences par R. BLOCH, J. DANIELOU, M. ELIADE, M. GRIAULE, C. HENTZE, C. LEVI-STRAUSS, H. C. PUECH,

XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX.

— — — — —

XX.

G. Tucci. WYLIE T. V., A place name index to George N. RoericK's translation of the Blue Annals. FERRARI A., mK'yen brtse's Guide to the holy places of Central Tibet. Completed and edited by L. PETECH, with the collaboration of H. RICHARDSON. Orientalia Romana. 1, Essays and Lectures, by E. BENZ, H. CORBIN, A. GODARD, L . HAMBIS, V . MlNORSKY, S . P . TOLSTOV. ROERICH G., Le parler des Amdo. Etude d'un dialecte archaīque du Tibet. VAN GULIK R. H., Chinese Pictorial Art as viewed by the Connoisseur. Notes on the means and methods of traditional Chinese onnoisseurship based upon a study of the Art of mounting scrolls in China and Japan (about 600 pp. Size 30 X 22 cm.). Limited to 950 copies. MAHLER J . G., The Westerners among the Figurines of the 'Pang Dynasty of China, /•

XXI.

— Un Editto bilingue greco-aramaico di Aśoka. La prima iscxizione gteca scoperta in Afghanistan. Testo, traduzione e note a cura di G. PUGLIESE-

XXII. XXIII. XXIV. XXV. XXVI. XXVII. XXVIII. XXIX. XXX. XXXI. XXXII. XXXIII.

troduzione di U. SCERRATO (out of print). — L E E P. H., Studies in the Saenaennorae: old Korean poetry. — GNOLI R., The Pramānavārttikam of Dharmakīrti. The first chapter with the autocommentary. Text and critical notes. — Tucci G., Deb fer dmar po, Tibetan Chronicles. Text and English translation (with original text) [in the press]. — WYLIE T. V., The Geography of Tibet according to the 'Dzam-glingrgyas-bshad. — CONZE E., The Gilgit manuscript of the AstādaśasāhasrikāprajñāpāramitS. Chapters 55 to 70 corresponding to the 5th Abhisamaya. Text and English translation. — GNOLI R., Udbhata's Commentary on the Kāvyāīamkāra of Bhāmaha. Sanskrit fragments from Pakistan. Edited with critical notes. — ROCK J . F., A Na-khi-English Encyclopedic Dictionary, Part I . — A bilingual Graeco—Aramaic Edict of Aśoka, Text, Translation and Notes by G. PUGLIESE-CARRATELLI and G. GABBINI, Foreword by G. Tucci, Introduction by U. SCERRATO. — GNOLI G.f Le iscrizioni Giudeo--Persiane del Gūr (Afghanistan). Text, Italian Translation and Notes. — AUBOYER J . , Introduction â Vetude de fart de VInde. — SCARCIA G., Sifat-nāma-yi Darvīs Muhammad Hān-i Gāzî. A Muslim Crusade against the Kafirs of Lagmān in A. D. 1532. — TAKASAKI J., A study on the Ratnagotravibhāga (Uttaratantra) Being a Treatise on the TatLāgatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism.

CAHRATELLI e di G. LEVI DELLA VIDA, con prefazione di G. Tucci e in-

Special series:
Orients P oli a no • Studies and lectures delivered at Is.M.E.O. on the occasion of the 7th Centenary of the birth of Marco Polo (1254-1954), by E. BALAZS,
P. DEMIEVILLE, K. ENOKI, L. CABRINGTON GOODRICH, E. HAENISCH, L. HAMBIS, A. MOSTAERT, L. OLSCHKI, A. NILAKANTA SHASTRI, E. H. SCHAFEK, B. SPULER, R. WITTKOWEB.

Forthcoming Works:
TūCCl G., Deb ter dmar po, Tibetan Chronicles. Text and English translation (with original text). ROCK J . F., Na-khi Culture as expressed in their literature: an encyclopedic Dictionary. Part II. RUEGG D. S., The life of Bu Ston Rin Po Che. Orientalia Romana. 2, Essays and Lectures, by V. S. Agrawala, P. Beonio-Brocchieri, P. Corradini, L. Lanciotti.

Works in course of preparation:
PENSA C , - Vimuklisena's Abhisamayālankāravyākhyā. Sanskrit Text. Tucci G. - GARGANO A., The Abhidharmasamuccayakārikā by Sañghatrāta, text and commentary of a hitherto unknown work, the Sanskrit manuscript of which has been found in Tibet. Tucci G. - PETECH L., Grub-mHa-sel^gyl-me-loñ (Crystal mirror of the philosophical and religious systems), translated from the Tibetan. TtJCCl G. - PETECH L., The Fifth Dalai-Lama's Chronicle of Tibet, translated from the Tibetan.

IL

ISTITUTO ITALIANO MEDIO ED ESTREMO ORIENTE

SERIE ORIENTALE ROMA
SOTTO LA DIREZĪONE
DI

GIUSEPPE

TUCCI

VOLUME XXXIII

LA REDAZIONE DELLA SERIE E CURATA DAL PROF. ANTONIO GARGANO

ROMA Is. M. E. O.

S E R I E

O R I E N T A L E XXXIII

R O M A

JIKIDO TAKASAKI

A STUDY ON THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHAGA (UTTARATANTRA) Being a Treatise on the Tathāgatagarbha Theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism
Including: a critical Introduction, a Synopsis of the text, a Translation from the original Sanskrit text, in comparison with its Tibetan & Chinese versions, critical Notes, Appendixes and Indexes.

ROMA
ISTITUTO ITALIANO PER IL MEDIO ED ESTREMO ORIENTE

GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS
PACE

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS PREFACE INTRODUCTION SYNOPSIS OF THE TEXT TRANSLATION AND NOTES

ix xi 1 63 135

APPENDIXES

I. - Supposed form of the Original Sloka-grantha II. - Corrections & Emendations to the Sanskrit Text III. - Description of the Ultimate Reality by Means of the Six Categories .

393 396 400

INDEXES

1. Index of Sanskrit Terms 2. Index of Works, Authors & Schools

411 437

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
(for Synopsis and Notes on the Translation)

= Sanskrit text of the Ratnagotravibhāga ed. by E. H. Johnston Sanskrit term X ' = Tibetan translation of the Ratnagotravibhāga (Sde-dge Edition, Tohoku, No. 4025) Tibetan term Ç = Chinese translation of the Ratnagotravibhāga (Taisho Daizokyo Edition No. 1611) Chinese term O = Sublime Science of the Great Vehicle to Salvation, by E. Obermiller (Ada Orientalia, XI, ii, iii, & iv) J = E. H. Johnston's Preface & Notes on the Ratnagotravibhāga K. = Kārikā v. = verse Taisho = Taisho Edition of the Chinese Tripitaka Tohoku = A Complete Catalogue of the Tibetan Buddhist Canons, ed. by Tohoku University, Japan (1934). BHS = Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit BHSDic.= Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary, ed. by F. Edgerton (1953) M. W. = M. Monier-William's Sanskrit-English Dictionary PTS = Pali Text Society's Edition of the Pali Tipi^aka = Abhisamayâlânkāra of Maitreya, ed. by G. Tucci (Gaekward's Oriental Series No. 62) AAĀ = Abhisamayâlañkārâloka of Haribhadra, ed. by G. Tucci (ibid.) AAN = Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśaparivarta (Taisho, XVI, No. 668) AĀS = * Anuttarâśrayasūtra (Taisho, XVI, No. 669) = AbhidhS = Mahāyānâbhidharmasūtra AcintA = Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatāranirdeśa (Taisho, X, No. 302) AksP = Aksayamatipariprcchā (Taisho, XIII, No. 397 (12)) AN = Añguttara Nikāya (Pali, PTS Edition) ASP = Astasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā (Wogihara's Edition of the Abhisamayâlañkārâloka) AvatS = Avatamsakaśūtra (Taisho, IX, No. 278) BBh = Bodhisattvabhūmi, ed. by U. Wogihara BGŚ = * Buddhagotraśāstra (Taisho, XXXI, No. 1610) DAS = * Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra (Taisho, XXXI, No. 1627) DBS = Daśabhūmikasūtra, ed. by J . Rahder AA

S

1579) = Vajracchedikāsūtra. XII. by S. XIII. XIII. Prof.J. C. Lamotte) = Saddharmapundarîkasūtra. No. No. XVI. ed. Nanjio = Madhyamakakārikā of Nāgārjuna (ed. No. XIII. XXXI. 1595) t = Mahāvyutpatti (Wogihara's Edition) = Prajñâpāramitā = Ratnacūdasūtra (Taisho. 397 (3)) = Ratnagotravibhāga = * Sadāyātanasūtra (or Sadindriyarāśisūtra) = Sāgaramatipariprcchā (Taisho. XI. by E. No. Kern & B. Yamaguchi's commemoration Volume) * = Drdhâdhyāśayaparivarta (Tibetan KG. 374) = Mahāyānasūtrâlañkāra (ed. XII. 397 (11)) = Ratnadhārikāsūtra (Taisho. PTS Edition) = Mahāparinirvānasūtra (Mahāyāna) (Taisho. VIII. XXX. . No. Mūller (Taisho. Nozawa. ed. ed. by J . 310 (23)) = Lañkāvatārasūtra. ed. 235) f = Vimalaklrtinirdeśa (Taisho. by Stael-Holstein. ed. XIII. Taisho. Part I. No. by Paramārtha (Taisho. by M. 666) = Yogācārabhūmi (Skt. 397 (5)) = Āryaśrîmālāsûtra (Taisho. No. PTS Edition) = Sandhinirmocanasūtra (Tib. No. ed. No. Sde-dge Edition Tohoku No. XII. by E. No. XIV. by B. 353) = Samyutta Nikāya (Pali. ed. 224) = Dhāranīśvararājasūtra (Taisho. XIII. 357) = Kāśyapaparivarta (Ratnakūtasūtra) ed. tr. by Poussin) = Majjhima Nikāya (Pali. Levi. 475) = Vijñaptimâtratā-trimśikā. ed. Nanjio = Tathāgatagarbhasūtra (Taisho. by S. No. Tib. Levi = Source unknown (*) Sanskrit titles with the sign * are restored from the Chinese materials. 397 (8)) = Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra (Taisho. Fragment. by Sylvain Levi) (P) = Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya. TAKASAKI = Dharmadharmatāvibhāga (Skt. by V. 397 (1-2)) = Gaganagañjāsūtra (Taisho. No. No. Bhattacharya. No. (Taisho.

G. U. are not touched upon in this volume. but others. while the second consists of a Japanese translation of the Sanskrit text. Nakamura of the University of Tokyo (my faculty adviser in the Post-Graduate Course). R.S. under the auspices of the Indian Government. Ui. H. Fortunately. Gokhale of the Fergusson College (presently of the University of Delhi) during my stay at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute.A. although points on which I disagreed with him are kept intact. Dr. Gokhale who instructed me in reading the Sanskrit and Tibetan versions of the text throughout the two and half years of my stay in India and to Prof. Therefore. Chinese translator. and was submitted to the University of Poona as a doctoral dissertation. but I could not immediately respond to this kind proposal. Poona. Ui on July 14. The first part consists of a critical and detailed studies on the text. V. H.D. Karmarkar of the Bhandarkar Institute from whom I received much guidance on Indian philosophy and the Sanskrit language in general.. author. I owe much to his interpretation in modifying my translation. I also must acknowledge the helpful suggestions given to me by Dr. Dr. who was one of the examiners of my dissertation.PREFACE The present volume was originally prepared under the guidance of Prof. kindly suggested that I publish my work in the Serie Orientale Roma. especially those written after sending the manuscript to Rome for printing. I felt it a great honour. Y. V. When I was awarded the degree in September 1958. since I felt my work inadequate and the presentation of it in English imperfect. Alex Wayman of Berkeley. published the « Hoshoron Kenkyū» (A study of the Ratnagotravibhāga) in 1959. Tucci. kindly made suggestions. Some are involved with the present work. etc.. 1963. I would like to give a list of my articles so far published in order . Prof. I wish to express my gratitude to Prof. an eminent Japanese Indologist. Ten years have passed since I started work on this volume. Dr. from August 1954 to January 1957. Wayman. doctrinal and canonical references. It consists of two parts. V. Prof. It is indeed with deep regret that I must note the passing away of Dr. In the meanwhile I wrote several articles related to the text. and other Japanese scholars too numerous to mention in the matter of doctrinal interpretation. Ui.

etc. 86-109. Buddhism). 14cf. 1958. IS.4). and abhilāsa are traced back to Abhi- . pp. The Journal of Religious Studies. 382. 168-171). Introduction. § 7) 6. Vol. 155. TAKASAKI to cover the shortcomings of the present volume. (This is an article in which the structure and significance of a set of three terms on faith. JIBS. viz. Introduction. Introion. 23. Komazawadaigaku-Kenkiyo (Fac. 163. 1958.) (The Texual cture of the Ratnagotravibhāga and the Supposed Form of Its Ori1 Text). pp. «Structure of the Anuttarâśrayasūtra (Wu-shang-i-ching)». Vol. Translation. Vol. pp. chanda. Chap. (a detailed investigation of the same subject as No.) (Aśrayaparivrtti and āśrayaparāvrtti). JIBS. IV. 89-110. 1964. II and Appendix I). Nihon kyogakkai Nempo. I l l . 22. Chap. >». pp. 1962. Vol. n. 48-53. 1960. pp. Mar. « A Comment on the Term Ārambana in the Ratnagotravibhāga. 25. IX-2. Chap. Mar. Mar.).IV. «Kegon-kyogaku to Nyoraizo-shiso» (in Jap. astitva. No. Mar. p. 1960. VI-1. 275-332. § 7). Kawada. pp. (cf. Jan. 1. pp. compiled by Nakamura and K. prasāda. Kyoto. 24-33. 8. 26-33. JIBS. of.) (On the Meaning be Term amuktajña). gunavattva. adhimukti. 4. 144. pp. (cf. Appendix III). Mar. « Kugyoichijohoshoron no Kozo to Genkei» (in Jap. Mar. No. « Description of the Ultimate Reality by means of the Six Catees in Mahāyāna Buddhism ». « Tenne» (in Jap. p. Chap. and śaktatva [cf. Translation. « AMUKTAJNA no Gogi ni tsuite» (in Jap. «The Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa of the Avatamsaka and Ratnagotravibhāga — with special Reference to the Term ' tathāgataisambhava' — ». 186-190. «Kegon Shiso». 2. 30-37.) (The Hua-yen osophy and the Tathāgatagarbha Theory — Development of the L of gotrasarnbhava in India — ) . V. JIBS. 3.J. 20] in relation to śraddhā. If the reader has further interest on the subject. Introduction. Dec. § 3. pp. Vol. abhisampratyaya. 7. 1958. VIII-2. Translation. X-2.) (The Struce of Faith in the Tathāgatagarbha Theory). (cf. 1960. n. 1961. VII-1. 3 mentioned ye). (cf. Vol. P. « Nyoraizo-setsu ni okeru Shin no Kozo » (in Jap. 9. I hope that they will consult these articles. 5.

.. Antonio Gargano. Introduction. J. 1964.O. V. Yūki for his Sixtieth Birthday. (In this article. In conclusion I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all the professors mentioned above for their valuable assistance and encouragement without which I could never have brought the book to completion. consequently deprived of his authorship on the said parts as well as on the Buddhagotraśāstra. (JIBS = Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies).) 10.E. M. the close relationship between the Ratnagotravibhāga and Paramārtha's said translation is made clear after picking up the parallel passages in both texts. Tokyo.. " Bukkyo Shiso Ronshū " — Commemoration Volume for Prof. the Vij ñaptimātratā-trimśikā--bhāsya. as well as those of the Tathāgatagarbha Theory such as the Ratnagotravighāga. § 2. 241-264.) (The Tathāgatagarbha Theory Appearing in Paramārtha's Translation of the Mahay ānasamgraha-bhāsya of Vasubandhu).3). the author suggested that the additional parts of the Mahāyānasamgrahabhāsya unique to Paramārtha's translation are probably written by Paramārtha himself on the knowledge of the Ratnagotrabvibhāga as he might have done the same with the Buddhagotraśāstra and the Anuttarāśrâyasūtra. especially Prof. Tokyo. « Shintai-yaku Shodaijoron-Seshin-shaku ni okeru Nyoraizo Setsu» Jap.The Ratnagotravibhāga dharma Buddhism. the Abhidharmasamuccaya-vyākhyā. R. might have contributed little to the development of the Tathāgatagarbha theory. and the Buddhagotraśāstra and the Anuttarâśrayasūtra as well. I also wish to acknowledge with many thanks the troubles taken in the past three years by the people at Is. Chap. TAKASAKI. 25 th August 1964. the responsibility of the final result rests solely with the author. However. who set my rather complicated manuscript into print and gave it a nice arrangement. and that Vasubandhu. In conclusion. pp. the Buddhagotraśāstra and Paramārtha's translation of the Mahāyāna samgraha-bhāsya. cf. etc. including works of the Vijñānavāda such as the Mahāyānasamgraha—bhāsya.

INTRODUCTION .

The Lañkāvatāra and the Mahāyānaśraddhotpādaśāstra 53 The Position of the Ratna. Translations & Traditions concerning the Author The Structure of the Text 1. in Mahāyāna Buddhism 1.INTRODUCTION CONTENTS PACK The Ratnagotravibhāga. Cittaprakrti and Agantukakleśa 3. and the Vijñānavāda 3. Text 2. Ratnagotra. The Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa and the Mahāparinirvānasūtra 7. Supposed Form of the Original Text 4. The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra 5. The Ratna. The Âryaśrīmālāsūtra 6. Consideration on the Date and Authorship of the Ratna 54 54 57 61 . The Mahāyānasūtrâlañkāra 5 5 6 . Sources of the Ratnagotravibhāga 2. Translation. 10 10 12 18 19 20 20 23 26 32 32 34 35 36 37 39 40 Works on the Tathāgatagarbha Theory Contemporary with or Succeeding the Ratna 45 1. the Germ of the Three Jewels 2. Buddhajñāna in the Avatamsaka 4. The Buddhagotraśāstra 47 3. The Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra 45 2. Basic Text and Commentary 2. and Traditions concerning the Author 1. The Ratna. . The Commentary and Later Additions Keypoint of the Discourse 1. The Absolute Genealogy of the Tathāgatagarbha Theory 1. V . as a Criticism on the Prajñāpāramitā 2. Chinese Account of the Basic Verses 3. The Anuttarâśrayasūtra 49 4. . 4 Aspects of the Germ 3. its Text.

THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHĀGA. IX. ) The Ratnagotravibhāga Mahāyānottaratantraśāstra. p. being a Manual of Buddhist Monism. About the Mss. suggested the use of " Ratnagotravibhāga " as the proper title showing the main subject of this text 4) . op. Vol. H. XIII-5. W. see JBORS. Johnston.. Johnston. This seems quite reasonable and I followed him in this study. Vol. The first introducer of this text to the world of modern study was Dr. p t . 1935. The reason for this will be made clear afterwards. 3 ) Dr. 31 (III. The reference is to pp. by H. Part 1. parts ii. the discoverer of this fact and the editor of the Sanskrit edition of this text.S. H. D. 2. The Ratnagotravibhāga Mahāyānottaratantraśāśtra. This edition is based upon two Mss. 2 ' " The Sublime Science of the Great Vehicle to Salvation. cit. 3 > " A Fragment of the Uttaratantra in Sanskrit". vol. p. .I. however. v. by E. No. XXI. 242). fn. vol. 43) and XXIII. Salu monastery. Rāhula Sāñkrtyāyana in Tibet. Before then.O. A. Chowdhury. ITS TEXT. Litt. iii & iv. and this title was justified by the discovery of a Sanskrit fragment in Saka script in which we find the title "Ratnagotravibhāga". ed. *' E. the work of Ārya Maitreya with a commentary by Āryâsañga ". ' will be used for this p. VIII. Bailey & E.. found by Rev. Johnston. M. is one of the treatises on the Mahāyāna doctrine written in Sanskrit. E. In China. they used the name " Ratnagotrctr-śāstra" as its title. TRANSLATION. x . It was. AND TRADITIONS CONCERNING THE AUTHOR § 1.. 1931. No. Obermiller who translated the Tibetan version into English and made this text famous under the title of " Uttaratantra" according to the Tibetan tradition 2 ) .. and seen through the press and furnished with indexes by T. quite recently that the Sanskrit manuscripts were discovered and critically edited l j . (hereafter the abbreviation ' J . H. H. however. 1950. 34 (VII. XI-5. S. E. Acta Orientalia. on which this present study is made. 86 & 87. Johnston. D.Text. Salu monastery. it was known only through the Tibetan and Chinese versions. Patna..

will cast some new light on the implications of this text in Mahāyāna Buddhism. TAKASAKI About the manuscripts. Johnston's critical edition. Both were translated. the basic text of my English translation. especially of the latter. Buddhist scholars should regret that Dr. Ratnavajra and Sajjana. in Tibetan Tanjur: 1. however faulty. it will be necessary to refer to the translations in Tibetan and Chinese. has its importance because of its antiquity. . and 3) no mention of the name of the author leaves room for taking the Chinese tradition into consideration.. so that we can further consider the authorship and date of the Ratna. On the other hand. I have found some words and passages to be corrected in the light of the Tibetan and Chinese translations. and consequently the latter. I believe my work. Some notable points for the present study are: 1) they belong to a considerably later period in comparison with the date of the Chinese translation. 2. I have nothing to add here to Johnston's description as I have had no chance to examine them. by Bloldan—śes—rab (Matiprajna) at Srinagar in Kashmir under the guidance of Kashmiri an pandits. Theg-pa-chen-po rgyud-bla-mahi bstan-bcos rnam—par-bśad-pa {Mahāyāna-uttaratantra-śāstra-vyâkhyā). Tohoku Catalogue No. The second one is a full translation of the Sanskrit text. 4025. Johnston passed away before completing his learned analysis of this text. Besides this. the first one consists merely of verses in the Ratna. 2) they are identified almost completely with the Tibetan version. § 2. and should continue to give it critical study. in the absence of any material in the Sanskrit manuscripts. about the end of the 11th . There are two versions of the Ratna. sub-sources of the present work. Prior to describing the contents of the Ratna. though it differs from the Sanskrit edition in several passages.J. Tohoku Catalogue No. Nevertheless. references will be made to traditions about the author in Tibet and China. shows his remarkable skill in editing Sanskrit manuscripts and is an excellent contribution to Buddhist scholarship. Theg-pa-chen-po rgyud-bla-mahi bstan—bcos {Mahay āna-uttaratantra-śāstra). according to the colophon of these translations.Translation and Traditions concerning the Author. although it is called vyākhyā. 4024. probably of the same source as the present manuscripts.

at Lo-yang.D. Chinese tradition offers a different name as to the author. being bis ultimate doctrine based upon the Prajñāpāramitā " 9) . 31. Hereafter. pp. entitled " Chiu— ching yi-cWeng pao—sing-lun " ( 9 ^ Jfa.' or ' T '. in the period between the 8th. This name Sajjana reminds us of the author of the Mahay ānottaratantraśāstropadeśa. G. Tucci who has got another photographic copy of the same Ms. however. not only in Tibet but also in Central Asia. I t was tran- slated by |Ratnamati (*$] ffi | | | Jj|-) in c. 129 a 5. the capital of the Northern Wei dynasty. Patna and to Prof. The Blue Annals. as one of " five treatises written by Bodhisattva Maitreya. 86-89. of which nothing is known except what Johnston tells us. too. Ngor monastery.D. cit. 511 A. there are said to be two translations. one by Ratnamati and the other by Bodhiruci. 33 (IV. see George N. Part I. 81 f. 7) will be assured of its date in the same century . According to the translator's calculation. '—* PPI j § ! f^î pR8 •> ^. 68). 1611).D. (Tohoku University Copy). ' Tib. 1Q ) " A Fragment of the Uttaratantra".). 5 .D. (This is an English translation of a history of Tibetan Buddhism called Deb-ther sñon-po. 8 > Tib. A. of the Ratna. MDO XLIV. > Sde-dge Edition. p . Vol. ) I have intention to edit this work and have already asked for permission to the authority of the Jayaswar Research Institute.D. the references to the Tibetan version are made according to this edition with the abbreviation. See JBORS. given as Satyajñāna by Johnston from the Patna manuscript 6) . 5 ) . an ancient Chinese catalogue of the Tripitaka (730 A. A. will be used for this p. to Ācārya Asañga (Slob—dpon Thogs-med) 8). the verse section of the Ratna.The Ratnagotravibhāga cent. p. Calcutta 1949. The present Chinese Tripitaka retains one translation of the Ratna. 129 a 5 ff. 325-6. and probably in India. and regards the Ratna. XXI. nothing is mentioned anywhere else. to Ārya Maitreya (Hphags-pa Mgon-po byams-pa) and the prose commentary (vyākhyā in the second). Obermiller. 6 ) This work was reported by Rāhula Sāmkrtyāyana as one of three Mss. and 12th cent. According to the K'ai-yuan che—chiao mo-lu (||f] jfc Tpp i^ |=J pf. the Mahāyānottaratantraśāstropadeśa. Roerich. pp. VIII-6.Uttara— ekayāna-ratnagotra-śāstra) (Taisho. Vol. Tibetan tradition attributes the first one. If we can identify both names. This shows that Maitreya was regarded as the author of the Ratna. as the work of Bodhisattva Maitreya 1 0 ) . quotes the opening verse and the first few verses of Chapter I I I in the Ratna. his date is 1059-1109 A.). No.e. This attribution to Maitreya of the verse section is traced in the Saka script fragment referred to above. 328. op. i. 9 ) See. which. (hereafter the abbreviation ' O '. About the authorship of Asañga on the commentary. 347-350.). For the date and personage of Blo-ldan śes-rab. and the point is undecided. No. p.

2154. Avatamsaka) school which emphasizes ' cittamātra ' theory of the Avatamsaka-sûtra along with ' dharmadhātu '. However. T o k y o . 2149. 3-16. Takakusu. Li-tai san- pao-chi. 1959. 714 a. N o .D. 4 vols. 637 6. 13 12 ) H . ) Ibid. 12 vols. 518 A. the Daśabhūmikasūtra-śāstra and the Ratnakūtasūtra-śāstra. as the result of critical examination of this record. a missing catalogue compiled in c. because of the differences of opinions between them.D. TAKASAKI which is lost now n ) . founded by a pupil of Ratnamati. Furthermore it is said that both translators collaborated at the beginning. Vol. caused in later days the rise of the Hua-yen (3J£ Jjg. p p . The record of the K'aiyuan—lu is perhaps created by misreading of these catalogues. Vol. d tne Daśabhūmika. p p . 690 6. 608 c-609 a. it is clarified that the catalogue was not directly based upon the Pao-ch'ung-lu. 866 6-c: + ^ 6 M Iffl + H ^ (DaŚabhū- mikasūtraśāstra. The Essentials of Buddhist Philosophy (First Indian Edition. where the record mentioned above concerned two other works.). Namely. these two ) J. 1956). No. 55. p. . 2034.). fjfjg) school based upon the Daśabhūmikasūtra—śāstra of Vasubandhu divided into two branches. 49. Bodhiruci made his own translation separately 1 2 ) . p. Taisho. the Ta-fang nei-fen-lu (^J^ Jflf p^J jBL Śg|ç . 5|* ^jp^ | a i Sffl 29 ^§? (Ratnakūtasūtraśāstra t_.). _C JH p B PJT j/E l/îît _>C 3Z Î^P (two treatises mentioned above are also translated by R Bodhiruci). at all 1 3 ) . ^ flt M Iw » H %. and there is no evidence of Bodhiruci's translation of the Ratna. and "> Taisho. 540 b.D. 55. 540 b.J . Taisho. the Ti-lun (ifcjfl.). The branch of Southern Path of the Ti-lun school. No.. This record seems reliable at a glance since it is said to be taken from the Pao-cK'ung-lu ( ^ fl|jj sift). 269 b: + ft& M tiffl ? ^ £ S i Pit 5? ft Ira. Cf. 664 A. U i . a few years after the date of translation of the Ratna. 114. Vol. and this division is said to have had its root in the differences of opinions due to the interpretation of the relation between 4 ālayavijñāna' and ' tathāgatagarbha' or ' tathatā'14). proclaiming Bodhiruci and Ratnamati as the nominal founder of each branch. H ^ 1 14 (Hatnagotra-sastra. but later on. but upon the preceding catalogues such as the Li~tai-san~pao~chi (||f /f^ zL 5H $2» ^97 A.. Nai~t'en~lu. Hoshoron-kenkyū ( i n J a p a n e s e ) . 541 a-6. âfî ^ (tnis an §^r I Jffii jlffl " S ΫE TT ^ ^ JC are also translated by Bodhiruci). 4 i i tathāgatagarbha ' against vijñaptimātratā ' and ālayavijñāna ' of the Fahsiang ( ^ ^Q) school founded by a disciple of Hsiiang-chuang ( ^ ^^)« Thus Ratnamati and Bodhiruci were standing opposite to each other. and there might be room for such misreading in the circumstances of Chinese Buddhism in those days.

wrote the Ratnagotravibhāga uttaratantraśāstra. ^ ifsl). heard by Fa-tsang from Devaprajña (%£ ^§g mC ^jrf) the translator of the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra and a monk come from Khotan. the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra and others16>. was thought not to be an orthodox Vijñānavādin such as Asañga and Vasubandhu. we may say Sāramati was believed to be the author of the Ratna. As will be made clear afterwards. takes the theory of the tathāgatagarbha as its basic standpoint and is highly estimated by Fa-tsang O?Jc līJc)' t n e ^rd patriarch of the Hua-yen school. Sāramati ($$ | g ^ jg.D. 1838. in Sanskrit. to settle this problem. in that it omits those verses which seem to be supplementary to the basic verses. an extract of certain verses in the Ratna.The Ratnagotravibhāga this conflict between them led people to imagine that Bodhiruci could translate the Ratna. was ' a Bodhisattva on the first stage ' (jfcjjî. > Taisho. From this fact we feel the need of assuming the existence of. At least. > Ta-cVeng-fa-chieh-wu-cKa-pieh-lun-chu Taisho. 16 15 . was not recognized as the authority for the Chinese Vijñānavādins. This report. he did not do it. Actually however. Still. born in Central India 7 centuries after the Buddha's Mahāparinirvāna as a member of a Ksatriya clan who after learning Buddhism. one heing that of the basic verses and the other the commentator on it. 63 c. A. p. and this translation consists actually of two parts. and 2) the whole work including the prose section but excluding certain number of verses in the Kārikā text. in Central Asia. As far as the Chinese tradition is concerned. namely: 1) the Kārikā text. Vol. and since then the Ratna. But. two authors on the Ratna.. the authorship of Sāramati on the Ratna. This Kārikā text is quite different from that of the Tibetan version. The reason is that there is no name of the author in the Chinese translation nor in any of the old catalogues. Here one may naturally call to mind the Tibetan tradition. Nos. And we cannot find any other tradition concerning the author of the Ratna. is reliable to some extent. till the end of the 7th cent. He said in his commentary on the Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesa-śāstra (yC PPI VC W' vKi : ā i /Vi z Ing) 15> that Bodhisattva Kien-huei ( § ^ jjj).. we should examine the whole contents and characteristics of this Ratna. the Ratna. on the line of the Vijñānavāda. _£. at least. in China. there remains some doubt.). 44. And it was he who left the record on the authorship of the Ratna. seems to be unchangeable. No. We shall now proceed to the next stage. probably due to the fact that the author of the Ratna. 1626 and 1627.

and for this. the Chinese Kārikā text is one of the aids for determining them. beginning with v. we have another additional verse in the Chinese Kārikā text in the last chapter maintaining the respect for the teacher of the Doctrine (dharmabhānaka). this verse. too. let us take an example from the text. I. or something like that. That much is regular in Buddhist literatures. For example. p.. it offers us a fairly good account of the basic verses. is a combination of the basic text and a commentary thereon. in verse and in prose. More precisely. 5 with a prose explanation of it and the latter is again explained in detail by the following three verses and a prose commentary which continues up to p. we find that the Chinese Kārikā text gives a fairly good account of those verses which are basic or original. we may be able to compile the Kārikā-text of the Ratna. is in verse and in prose and the prose section of the commentary which follows the commentary verse or verses explaining their meaning with quotations from various sūtras is quite detailed in Chapter I. To clarify this characteristic. Besides these 18. If we take such verses as I. But we cannot accept the whole text as basic. while the verse section consists again of two parts. including the example given above. Then the text proceeds to the next subject. 4. THE STRUCTURE OF THE TEXT § 1. 10. In most cases.II. 4 which expresses devotion to the ' buddharatna' as the refuge (śarana) is followed by v. The verse I. The peculiarity of the Ratna. and the other supplementary. The fact that Paramārtha's translation of the 17) [ 10 ] . persecution of the Buddhists by the Huns. In other words. I. There are also a C. the present text of the Ratna. They seem to be written by the Chinese translator. 4 & 9 to be typical. but quite scanty for other chapters. 14. 820 c.g. one basic. the first 18 verses in that text are to be omitted from this line as they are not available in either Sanskrit or Tibetan versions. lies in the fact that it consists of two parts. the commentary. e. — Basic Text and Commentary. 1. the basic part of this text is merely of verses. I. the ' dharma-ratna '. while another part. From the structural point of view. seems to be composed by the translator 17>. 9 followed by commentary verses and a prose commentary with a structure similar to that of v. Emphasis on the respect for the ' dharmabhānaka' was probably a reflection of the historical circumstances in those days. As its idea matches that of the 18 introductory verses.

p. have the Anustubh metre except for v. Can we ascribe it to the commentator's caprice or forgetfulness of the rule ? Shall we assume another commentator in order to explain this change of style ? Again. which retains Ratna. but these two are certainly the Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya. which is.9. 73. This limited usage of the word ' śloka ' becomes. 4 as the first basic verse is identical with t h a t in the Chinese Kārikā text (except the 18 verses referred to above). 16-28 at the end of the work (Taisho. i. and I feel no necessity to change my former supposition. Only one thing we can say definitely: those verses which are omitted from the Chinese Kārikā-text are by no means the original ones. can ' śloka ' be construed as one kind of metre. we should seek for other grounds. Prior to v. V. I. Being the explanation of the meaning of śloka. this selection of v. it is said: Ato buddha-ratnād adhikrtya ślokah / dharma-ratna-prabhāvaneti tad-anantaram tad— This word ' śloka ' is not used for the supplementary verses in these cases. I. the commentary seems to be called the ' Slokârthasamgrahavyākhyāna' as appeared in the colophons of Chapters I. e. I. however. and v. but to go beyond this. Anustubh7 when it is used for the commentary verses? 1 8 ) One of these three possibilities must be in point. XXX. ' maharsi ' is used for the Bodhisattva). it is said: Uktah śāstra-sambandhah // Idānīm ślokānām artho vaktavyab J — / atas tat-prathamato buddha— ratnam adhikrtya ślokah / And. because of a unique terminology used in this verse (e. i. So the third assumption has no inconsistency. and V. in the heading to that verse. 270 a-b). . 18 ) All the commentary verses in Chapters II-V. as the heading to v. And. This is no doubt a kind of selection. e. the basic verses.The Ratnagotravibhaga certain number of verses whose originality is doubtful to judge from the contents. II. 4 is the first verse for which the word ' śloka' is applied. Neither the Chinese Kārikā text nor the use of the word i śloka ' can give the final account of the basic verses. which are called ' śloka ' in the text. It shows the fact t h a t the passage up to ' uktah śāstra—sarnbandhah / ' is the introduction by the commentator who thereafter begins to explain the meaning of the ' ślokas'. 1. 4.g. IV. in turn. furthermore. I. and the word ' śloka"1 is used for both basic and supplementary verses. 156-157 where the prose commentary disappears except for headings. confused after vv. missing in the Chinese version. it seems to be a quotation from some old canonical work. omits this verse is another powerful proof in support of this supposition. How to interpret this confusion seems not so simple.

29. and those verses which are found in the Chinese Kārikā text and called ' śloka ' will be accepted as basic. mentioned in the Chinese Kārikā text but called merely ' uddāna' in the Sanskrit text. 79. 66. 1. vv. 35. we shall evaluate all verses in the Chinese Kārikā-text. First of all. the point at issue is whether or not the author of the original text tried such categorization. Furthermore. 62. This question is posed regarding v. 45. require some more careful examination. (1) Chapter IV. (16) In this table. 29. vv. they have independent meaning and are understandable by themselves19). 1-2. there will be no objection if we regard them as the 'basic verses. II. 4. (27) Chapter II. 38-41. we shall try to reconstruct the original text of the Ratna. they are followed by the supplementary verses. 45. It shows. The result is as follows: Chapter I. 30. (4) Chapter V.Chinese Account on the Basic Verses. 8 categories in regard to the ' nirmalā tathatā' i. 49. 19) . 13* 41*. 69. all are doubtless of genuine character in their contents as well as their style.g. 84. 1) v. however. 8. vv.' The verses with the sign ' * '. 1. 42. 23. the subject word is ' jinagarbho 'yam ' in v. On these points. For them.J . of the same character. vv. a series of verses expresses a united meaning under one subject word. all the verses in the Chinese Kārikā text are found in the Sanskrit text. and whose terSometimes. I. . 156-157. 1*. let us pick up those verses which are called ' śloka ' in the Sanskrit text. however. 8 2. 52-63. 47. Except for the 19 verses referred to above. 18-20. vv. TAKASAKI most powerful bases for the selection. (14) Chapter III. 9. i And in this commentary verse called uddāna ' (summary). the * dharmakāya ' and without other supplementary and explanatory verses. Not all of them are. vv. The structure presents no doubt as to its originality. This verse is of doubtful originality for the following reason. 9*. 13. 3. the same categories are repeated in different terminology. 42 & 45. 16-25*. according to the commentator. e. except for verses with the sign ' *'. this verse is followed by the commentary in prose and verse. I. itself has no independent meaning. In this way. Formally. 30. 35. 1-6. e. They express the fundamental doctrine of this text and maintain a fairly archaic metre. Through their classification into certain groups.

Furthermore. I. all of these. p. Ill. yoga. 29. 96-98. II. illustrated in the Tathāgatagarbhasûtra and utilized in Chapter I. 2. and vrtti. phala. I. I. and hence. § |ft H f& . This verse is composed with a view to succeeding detailed explanations of 9 examples of defilements which cover the tathāgatagarbha.verses on the See note on my translation. and are actually taken from the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. karman. II. regardless of the author. svabhāva. expects the existence of detailed explanation which follows this verse. 4 and vv. In the same way. Without a knowledge of those explanations. including v. ' sdom-ni \ C. the commentary verse on v. 9. 13. 13. like v. 2. are identical with those used in the Sūtrâlañkāra (commentary on vv. 1 from the line of original verses. i. however. About its structural character. 9. 361 a). depends on the originality of the latter verses. ' sūtrasthānīya—śloka ' (a stanza based upon the scripture) and the following verses illustrating the examples in detail are called i vistaravibhāganirdeśa '. the first six.The Ratnagotravibhāga urinology is exactly the same as v. II. this v. 4 is called ' uddāna ' according to the Tibetan and Chinese versions though not mentioned in the Sanskrit text 21\ In fact. This seems to show that such categorization was commonly held for any subject. verses to be similarly considered are v. we incline to omit v. there is no scope to treat this as original. See Appendix III. IV. viz. as will be set forth below. Hence. by the commentator. I. As a consequence of denying the originality of v. v. IX. IV. hetu. II. 59-60) and in the Yogācārabhūmi (on 'śabda-vidyā\ Taisho. the commentary sentence preceding this verse says: pūrvataram tu yenârthena sarvatrâviśesena pravacane sarvâkāram tadarthasūcanam bhavati. Of the terms used for such categorization in w . Therefore the question is to be limited to the categorization itself. it cannot be understood independently. although it retains a comparatively old terminology 20) . the categorization of the tathāgatagarbha into 10 aspects also will be denied of originality. 30. 29 and II. XII-11. It is called.' In comparison with v. 2. 2) v. The omission of that verse therefore. II. 3) v. 1. Of them. Ill. A further discussion will be made below along with examination of these illustrations. This verse. tad apy adhikrtya nirdeksyāmi / This ' nirdeksyāmi ' (I will explain) is immediately followed by ' uddānam '. 29 seems clearly to be a commentary verse. there is no doubtful point. al 20) > T. II. . e. in showing 10 categories of the ' tathāgatagarbha. against the Chinese tradition. of rather doubtful originality. And those verses explaining the 9 examples are. are ' uddāna1 .

41. 27. 44-52 (with an additional one which is not found in Sanskrit). the possibility of their being original depends on the originality of the illustrating verses which follow them. & 89-91. 96-98. 67-68. I will divide these verses discussed above into two groups: 'pure'—śloka and ' uddāna—śloka''. 34-35. and because of this characteristic. 5) vv. 27 are included. I. with some hesitation. V. they are no doubt basic. From the structural point [ 14 ] . V. IY. 71-76. I. In the first group." On the other hand. II. This is the three series of verses to be called ' udāharana' taken from certain scriptural passages. The Sanskrit text shows ' śloka ' before this verse. IV. 27-30. 99-126. 16-25. and is so important that we cannot imagine the contents of this text without. these verses differ from those in the first group in their being taken from a scriptural passage. and v. and v. though it follows immediately after v. this one is in the series of verses illustrating 9 examples on the acts of the Buddha. There is one verse to be taken as basic. even though it was kept out of the table. The headings for these verses are missing in the Sanskrit text but the Tibetan and Chinese versions retain them well. 9 remain of doubtful position. ī. is clearly a commentary verse and possibly the original Sanskrit text had a heading between these two verses. the second group includes w . As far as the structure is concerned. v. based upon the Ratnadārikāpariprcchā. 29 and. explanations on the 64 buddhagunas. they are to be termed ' sūtrasthānīya-udâharana '-verses. 2) vv. and 3) vv. taken from the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. 1 are also to be cancelled. It expresses the fundamental idea of the Ratna. 27. 28. There is another kind of verses among the Chinese Kārikā text. 16-25. this verse. 55-57. but the Chinese commentary says in the heading: " a s it is said in the Kārikā text (yathoktam śloka. 13 as being & sūtrasthānīya-uddānaS Verses II. III.or kārikā-granthe).J\. Ill. v. On the other hand. In general. Actually. In this sense. 4) v. and we have no need to discuss its originality separately. In this sense. I. I. I. 88. 64-67 (with an additional one which is not found in Sanskrit). 9 udāharanas on the Buddha's Acts. we cannot call them ' genuine ' to this text in the same degree. Both the Chinese and Tibetan versions have confusion in arranging this passage. those verses mentioned in the table without the sign ' * ' except for vv. 9 udāharanas on the Essence of Buddhahood covered with defilements. 4. It is v.S A JVl illustrations taken from certain scriptures. As the result of examination. but the Tibetan and the Chinese texts do not. taken from the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. They have no original idea of the author but are merely ' newly composed verses' by the author out of the basic scripture. 5—26. I. namely: 1) vv.X J\SS. 41.

53-54 in the 4th. and vv. In this connection. it is difficult to decide whether the verses were added after the Chinese translation was made or whether the Chinese translator omitted them intentionally 2 3 ). attributed to Maitreya. Note that such repetition of the same idea is seen in the udāharana verses in I.1. and verses 59—62 along with a heading are clearly the later additions because of their contents and style. 42-43 in the 3rd. we shall be obliged to suppose the existence of a second author between the author of ' pure ' -ślokas and that of the commentary. sometimes it also changes the order.1. . if not. seem to belong to somewhat later days in comparison with the * pure ''-śloka group. 1 and p. Of those verses contained in this passage. the verses 36-40 along with the passage between p. The first one is. Maitreya was not the author. although it agrees with the Ratnadārikāsūtra22). however. 112. And. In each example these verses have the same contents as those kept in the Chinese Kārikā text. 88 is placed in the Chinese version immediately after v. 1. and vv. v. III. 63 in the 5th. according to the Sanskrit ' note on 23 * Chapter 22 Detailed comparison on each ' mark ' among various scriptures is given in my the equivalent passage in the English translation. It seems to show that even the Ratnadārikāsūtra is composed after Maitreya and as far as this part is concerned. 1. as they are followed by a certain number of verses showing ' udāharanānām pindârthah \ The question is whether the same author of the 4 pure ' —ślokas had a share in composing this group of verses or not. and the Prajñāpāramitāśāstra attributed to Nāgārjuna. 113. 76. vv. 69-70 in the 6th udāharana. at the end of the first udāharana with a heading saying: anutpādânirodhas tathāgata iti. It contains actually more than 32 marks and some of them are not available in works such as the Abhisamayâlañkāra. 89-91. The third case is less simple than the previous ones. 31— 33 in the 2nd.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a of view. The Chinese Kārikā text omits a fairly large number of verses which are kept among the udāharana-xerses in the Sanskrit text and. The second case concerns vv. 4. against Tibetan tradition. vv. In the first case. one thing to be noted is the counting of the 32 ' mahāpurusalaksana ' in Chap. As this part is among the series of i udāharana '. It depends more or less on the reliability of the Chinese Kārikā text as showing the original form of the text. 104. 12. 20 and p. v. furthermore. 14-26 in the first udāharana. all the udāharana groups and hence the uddāna group as well. they seem not to be the commentator's work. vv. Of these omissions. 102. It is in the passage between p. We have another kind of question for Chapter IV. This last point will be proved by the examination of the third case.

the anutpādânirodhatā of the Buddha is repeated at the end of every udāharana up to the 4th. (" The textual structure of the Ratnagotravibhāga and the supposed form of its original text " .). As a whole. cit. and at the end of the 4th ud. i. the second Chinese translation. The Journal of Religious Studies.25) and conI have previously expressed my opinion that the whole of this passage is a later interpolation. 85-87 and v. it poses another question about the omission of v. Verses as such are lacking from the 7th to 9th udāharana in the present Sanskrit text. There must have taken place an artificial selection by the Chinese translator. 88 for the 7th-9th. whether they belong to the Kārikā text as the Chinese version does. If we admit such an omission by the Chinese translator himself. but is kept in the basic text of C. has a similar verse between the udāharanas.. 88 is a verse which shows the significance of the three udāharanas beginning with the 7th. Ui. 88 yields another proof for this supposition MK However. the problem is not of their genuine character but of their place in the text. This verse occupies the same position for the 6th udāharana as v. Difference of metre between vv. and as a result. etc. or to the commentary as in the case of the Sanskrit text. 70 in the Chinese Kārikā text. those omissions in the second case may be added to the Udāharana group. TAKASAKI text. i. Such a kind of verse is observed in every udāharana up to the 6th with a special heading like ' atatprahitānām ātmâparādhe ' before v. 265. v. in Jap. 88 must have represented them in the basic text for the Chinese translation. op. As for the next ones. No. But why was only one of the four kept in the Chinese version ? V. tr. e. this ' udāharana—samgraha seems to be a later addition since its terminology is never seen in other passages and this part is situated after the udāharana—pindârtha of 9 examples.). vv. See H. The Chinese treatment is acceptable for the following reasons: 1) These verses show the significance of the 1st udāharana as v. 25) In the said sūtra. The verse in the said sūtra is as follows: 24) [ 16 ] . 41 (2nd ud. in the absence of the illustrations of dundubhi and the following two. the sūtra has a summarized verse on this point. 155). ' bhājana-vimātratāyārn' before v. Ui's opinion. this summarized verse comes immediately after the 1st ud. 88 as simple summarization of the three udāharanas by a certain Sanskrit copyist of later days. 46 (3rd ud.. 89-91. 41 does for the 2nd: 2) The Jñānâlokâlāñkārasūtra.e. e. the omission in the second case in general will also be ascribed to the Chinese translator and the reliability of the Chinese version will decrease. Here I have corrected it according to Dr. p. i.: and C omitted the three verses by mistake. one of 4 ślokas which show the udāharana—samgraha. Addition of vv. the basic scripture for the 9 udāharanas. 8587 with the heading must be the result of misundertanding of the role of v.J. [In the oldest version of the sūtra.

9.. p . 84 and v. but unless we could reconstruct the original form of v. C. 81: darśanādeśanā vyāptir vikrtir jñānanihsrtih / mano-vāk-kāyaguhyāni prāptiś ca karunâtmānām // M > For v. p. ibid. At the same time. 91. the Chinese version recovers its reliability to some extent. 12.7 ( = Taisho. ) v. 89-91 as the commentary verses. being a part of the udāharana—pindârtha. r T7 1 . however. 1) the subject 'anutpādânirodhatā'' of the Tathāgata is the basic point throughout Chap. we should treat vv.. 84: ayarn ca prakrto ' trârtho navadhā darśanâdikam / janmântardhim rte śāstur anābhogāt pravartate // v. 89-91 along with an additional verse in the Chinese Kārikā text were originally kept at the end of the 1st udāharana but with slightly different terms in the second pāda of v. in the thought that the subject is not exclusive to the 1st udāharana but common to the whole passage. 242 b) (ibid. changing some words as seen in the present text and adding an explanatory heading (p. 2) their contents and wording are quite like to the commentary verses. 84 which expects the existence of v. the Sanskrit copyist shifted them to the commentary. and one perceives this and that appearance (although) the dharmakāya has neither origination nor destruction and is eternal as long as the world exists. Namely. Thus the Sanskrit text also can claim its reasonability of their treatment. 240 6).The Ratnagotrav. especially the term i darśanâdi' in v. IV as well as the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra 26) . 91 is akin to 4 navadhā darśanâdikam ' in v. 18-20). T h e Ratna. p. As far as this point is concerned. 11. 91 2 8 ) . 25). 91. but afterwards. In view of the antiquity of the Chinese version. p . however. 92 as given by the Chinese version seems to be consistent. 81 2 7 ) . the case was most probably as follows: vv. there remain some difficulties in accepting it. 91: ayatnāt krtyam ity evam darśanâdi pravartate / dharmakāyād anutpādânirodhād ā bhavasthiteh jj v. It can be otherwise translated into the following way: This action takes place without effort.ibhāga tinuity between v. Vol. # (Taisho. 112. 1. 251 a) 26) 27 See a b o v e ( n .

all kinds 4 of classification' are deprived of this text. 156-157. which express the ' deśanāprayojana\ can stand for a kind of conclusion and by this passage. 23 of Chapter I from the line of the original verses. udāharana '-group. as it matches the use of the title of the commentary. ' uddāna '-group. II. e. That is why I omitted v. of course. . and 3) those verses retained in the Chinese Kārikā text are to be divided into 3 groups: A. And even if the Chapters after II were the later M) It is. & C. 9. we can get 59 verses as original. Denial of the originality of chapters other than Chapter I consequently means the denial of the idea of the 4 aspects of the ratnagotra. II. however. II. i.J. In this way only 27 verses in Chapter I remain as original. increases the importance of the supposed second author with regard to establishing the system of the tathāgatagarbha theory as appearing in the present Sanskrit text. (v. Strictly speaking. As the result of examination of the Chinese Karikā text.-groups as the secondary addition. ' pure '-ś/o&a-group. even the existence of the Kārikā text of such form at the time when the Chinese translation was made is doubtful. and the form of the original text. Thereby. One way to solve these problems is to treat v. and 5) of these 3 groups. I. B. 23 from the line of original verses. the tathāgatagarbha being the ratnagotra is sufficiently explained. By this. ' ślokârthasamgrahavyākhyāna '. The problems remaining after this examination are the treatment of v.—and the C—group by the second author. in Chapter I. This seems consistent in its form. 9 as an insertion made simultaneously with the B. and regard them along with v.Supposed Form of the Original Text.—group as consisting of the original form of text. we have arrived at the conclusion that 1) the Chinese Kārikā text does not stand for the original text. it leaves us in some doubt regarding the inconsistency of numbers in each chapter or subject 29 ). B. however. . 25) which expresses the faith in the Buddha Amitāyus is not essentially connected with the contents of Chapter I. There is no possibility of abridging the original form of the text more than this. The reasons are 1) w . but 2) it keeps a fairly good account of those verses which are ' not the commentary verses '. 9 and verses in the B. and C. Another way is to cut out all verses. not necessary to presume the existence of a text with 3 chapters. This supposition. starting with those in Chapter II as well as v. I. TAKASAKI S 3 . 4) in Chapter IV some verses among the Sanskrit text are to be added to the C—group. and regard the A. are somewhat of later days. 2) the last verse of Chapter V. & the C.

11. p. One thing to be noticed here are the omissions and additions in the Sanskrit text as compared with the Chinese version. 16 (before samsāraduhkha—) (C.The Commentary and Later Additions.. 825 b) 2) one commentary verse and its prose explanation on p. 15 (before na hi jātu. In this sense. 1.'') — 10 verses and prose commentary. 16. B. 51.The Ratnagotravibhāga addition. 829 c-830 o) 3) a quotation on the parable of a castle taken from the Eatnacūdasūtra after ' nagarddāharaiiam/' on p. 843 c) 4) two commentary verses before v. 1. Its style is consistent throughout the text except for the fact that the prose commentary disappears after Chapter II. being the supposed form of the original text. 27 verses. 1. 1. 10 —p. This fact is construed as indicating that the commentator attached the main importance to Chapter I. 46. r 30) in 1 . 1. 53. 1. which will be referred to in the notes on my English translation. . 12 3) p. 108.18-20. will be mentioned in Appendix I. 20 . groups. 3-12. II. including v. p. Other minor points with respect to the structure of the text will be noticed in each passage of the translation. p. Besides small differences between them. C. 1.p. There seems to be no difficult point to discuss about the commentary. 50. 112. 8 (with a heading 'aparah ślokârthalj. they had been no doubt composed before the commentary was made. 31. 9 as the ' basic verses ' for commenting (it means neither original verses nor ' śloka 's) under the name oîikārikā '30>§ 4. . the passages to be added to the commentary as missing in the Sanskrit text and subtracted from it as additions in later days. 64 (p. 104.) (C. 16 (C. probably 4) p. 1-13. 102. 1. Omissions 1) one commentary verse and its prose explanation on p. 2) p. 832 c) B. Most of these passages were already noticed by the editor of the Sanskrit text. p. and no explanation will be necessary for the present. C. and felt no necessity for detailed comment on other Chapters. I shall treat in my translation all the verses in the A. Additions 1) p. 1. are as follows: A.

This work. we may define the characteristics of this text as a treatise. the Germ of the 3 Jewels. in its philosophical approach.J . But since Buddhism denies the existence of such an eternal substance as Brahman. or form) of the Absolute. the difference of standpoint means: " to which aspect of the Absolute. Nr. or Ultimate Entity from its aspect of ' ratnagotra '. 32) On the other hand. though its character is quite different from that of Brahman and there is no fixed term like Brahman to express it. Mahāyāna Buddhism. TAKASAKI III. 40. 31 . Buddhismus und Gottesidee. and itself has no reality. v. I dared adopt the word ' Absolute ' as a general term for what is immutable in Buddhism. f its being merely an aspect (or face. Geistes und Sozialwissenschaftliche Klasse. KEYPOINT OF THE DISCOURSE } 1. is the emphasis given in the text ? " In this sense. See H. 99 (Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur. In other words. and this difference of standpoint gradually causes the division of various schools within Mahāyāna Buddhism. In this respect. the use of the word' Absolute ' seems quite improper. the so-called Hīnayāna Buddhism whose representative is the doctrine of the Sarvāstivādin may be characterized as Realism declaring each element (dharma) as real. is to be characterized as monistic in its philosophical approach. p. Though monism is one. the Brahman (or Atman) is nearer to the Absolute in Western philosophy in its character than what is corresponding to it in Buddhism. analyzing (vibhāga) the Absolute. through its being i identical' with the Absolute. But. See Th. In the case of the Vedānta Philosophy. Glasenapp. just because . and this variety of forms is due to the different emphasis in each text. — Ratnagotra. Still Buddhism has its own idea of something immutable (asamskrta). there is a variety of forms. > cannot he the Entity different from other phenomena. 8). This > Having come with connotations of Western philosophy. Jahrgang 1954. may generally be characterized as Monism (or Absolutism) which admits the unique Absoiute 3 1 ) or Ultimate Entity. S. being a treatise on Mahāyāna Buddhism. The Conception of Buddhist Nirvana. every phenomenon has the characteristics of being 'real' and is 'identical' with each other as they stand for the Absolute in one of its various ' aspects' 32>. Stcherbatsky. feature. proved through the essential identification [advayatā) of various phenomena. And each phenomenon. the word ' Absolute ' contains an idea somewhat different from that in Indian philosophy and hence it is not perfectly proper to use this word for expressing the idea which is to be discussed here.

In his opinion. 35) Edgerton regards the sense of 'a mine' as uniquely belonging to Buddhist texts. or 'nature'. however. Cambridge. by Vidhushekhara Bhattacharva. Raghavan ("Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit". ' clan ' or ' lineage ' 3 4 ) . ' nidhāna '. a more detailed and thorough investigation on this subject based upon the Pali. 1957). while 'ratnatraya\ its result.. by a common use. Abhidharmakośakārikā. Part 1. it is used in the sense of' germ '. but the basic line of interpretation for this word among the Buddhist literatures is 'gotra' = ' dhātu ' = lhetu\ or ''gotra ' = ibīja' 33>. ' origin '. 34 * ' Gotra ' is originally a term used in the Indo—Aryan society since the pre—Vedic age. Here.' gotra ' means something original.'ground'. ' vamśa' (for lineage).v. 26. gotra s. Chatterjee Jubilee Volume. 1. 3. see Obermiller's introduction to the Uttaratantra. p. Journal of the Linguistic Society of India. The Ratna. ' mine ' or ' matrix ' 3 5 ) . Significance of ' gotra ' in the Brahmanical system was sought for by J. we can get various words such as ' pada '. ' source '. ' hetu' and ibīja'. the sphere of those who have the highest perception from which the pure 3 jewels rise. 'svabhāva\ iprakrti\ 'dharma ' (for ' nature '). p.10 (hetvartho'tra dhātvarthah). and the Phar-phyin skabs brgyad-ka. (ed. this word means ' family'. See Edgerton. and hence it may be translated into English by ' element'. Indian Linguistics. ' nidhi'. an objection is raised by V. a commentary on the Abhisamayâlañkāra by Tsoñ-kha-pa. ' cause '. and besides ' dhātu '. As for the development of the idea of 'gotra'' within Buddhist thought. of Jam-yañ-shad-pa). in the word ' gotra '. BHS Die. 322). p. but as it is merely based upon Tibetan information (the Gser-phreñ. 20 (dhātu means gotra). Sanskrit. Calcutta. and by this the contents of the text is fully expressed. 24). 1953. 23) as ' visayah paramârthadarśinām śubharatnasargako yatah '. Vol. and Chinese sources will be required. The word ' gotra' is one of the special terms difficult to be conveyed by any other language. 1. and explained in the śloka (v.The Ratnagotravibhāga is the significance of the title ' ratnagotravibhāga '. It gives a good summary of the development of the idea from the Vinaya to the Yogācāra system through the Sarvāstivāda and the Sautrāntika. ' āśraya '. " The Early Brahmanical System of Gotra and Pravara. 18-19: bljaparyāyāh punar dhātur gotram prakrtir hetuh satkāya prapañca ālaya upādānam duhkham satkāyadrstyadhisthānam asmimānâdhisthānam cety evam bhāgiyāhparyāyā veditavyâh. ' nidāna ' (for ' cause '). ' sāra ' (for ' essence '). 16. 11. all of these senses are included. and analogically. ' mūla '. Eight Chapters on the Pāramitā. 6: gotram bljam ity apy ucyate. Yogācārabhūmi. Then. 'essence'. p. 'basis'. ' sthāna ' (for ' basis ' or ' ground ' ) . by U. Actually. Wogihara). 33) . the Germ of the 3 jewels. 72. a Translation of the Gotra-pravara-mañjali of Purusottama-Pandita with an Introduction". I. Brough in his work. In India. and signifies usually an exogamous unit of families of the same lineage within the Brahmin clan. as synonyms of 'gotra' with the range of senses. ' yoni\ ' garbha' (for 'matrix'). ' ākara ' (for ' m i n e ' ) . I. Bodhisattvabhūmi (ed. what is ' ratnagotra ' ? This word is interpreted by the commentator as ' gotram ratnatrayasya ' (v.

28). all living beings. and 3) it is the igotra\ through which the result. I. or ' the Buddha ' (v. all living beings) s. 30) which is found in the 4 innate mind ' (cittaprakrti) of living beings (v. sarva—dehinah. despite the existence of purity. 47) 38>. Par excellence. md the other two. e. ' tathāgatadhātu \ 4 budIhadhatu'. 'the ordinary beings'. I. is proved by the all-pervadingness of the Wisdom of the Buddha. i. irrespective of their conditions or appearances. par excellence. common to all living beings. Through the purity of the innate mind. however. ' ratnatraya ' is synonymous with 'buddha'. namely the different degrees with regard to the ' impurity' on the pure innate mind. are identical with each other.nd combining these terms of both sides. in other words. bodhisattva. a name for * sattmdhātu'. 4 ratnatraya ' 9r. called ' tathagatagarbhāh '. i. Thus we know the word ' ratnagotra ' used in the title indicates /vhat is called ' tathāgatagarbha ' and this text is a treatise on the Tathā'}atagarbha theory. it is the ' buddharatna '. and tathāgata '. the living beings differ from each other owing to their appearances. by that of the Body of the Absolute (dharmakāya) (v. sarvasattvāh. but essentially there is no difference between the two kinds of classification (the Saints are par excellence' bodhisattvas ' in the Mahāyāna Buddhism).J . or the object of worship. On the other hand. we can get those terms like tathāgatagarbha '. i. as synonyms of '"ratna\otra '. The point of its identity with the Absolute lies in its 4 essential purity ' (prakrty-asamklistatā) (v. 'the Saints '. the Absolute. This 4 sattvadhātu \ or sattvarāśV (in other words. but merely temporally associated with them as the accidental defilement (āgantukakleśa) and itself has no reality because ' All of these terms are taken from this text. Then again. At the same time. In this ense. itathāgatagotra\ 'buddhgotra\ etc. ' ratna ' or ' rattatraya ' is a name for the Absolute when it is regarded as the ' śarana ' refuge). viz.mployed ? The tathāgatagarbha is. (v. 47) they are classified into ' sattvadhātu. 2) it is by nature identical with purity. just because 1) the Wisdom of the Buddha penetrates it. how are these terms ' tathāgatagarbha ' or ' tathāgatagotra ' . 37 36 . The existence of this purity. the multitude of the living beings. ' tathāgata\ or 4jfma\ \. 7). 3 6 ). 4 buddhagarbha\ ' jinagarbha '. 49). I. I. e. * This point is taken from the Śrlmālāsūtra and is called the ' ekayāna"1 theory being one of the characteristics of Mahāyāna Buddhism. the ' dharmaratna' and 4 sañgharatna ' are merely he 'natural outflow' (dharmatānisyanda) of the former 37> (p. and have various names. in a concrete way. 27). the Tathāgata makes its appearance (v. according to the text. e. I. 38) In another place. those who have the Matrix of the Tathāgata. not essentially connected with them. TAKASAKI parlgraha ' (for ' family ') etc. I. This ' impurity' is.

the sattvadhātu is the ' gotra ' of the Buddha. I. . along with the commentator's introduction 4l>. it is removable from them and when they remove it by realizing its accidental nature. 23 and which show its inconceivability in each respect (v. I. dharmāh. under the titles: 1) Tathāgatagarbha. I. 1) 2) garbha (jñānadhātu-āptinistha). jinakriyā. the last chapter is the conclusion in which the merits of having faith in this doctrine of the tathāgatagarbha are described. nirmalā tathatā. sattvârthakrt. dividing the Chapter on the Tathāgatagarbha into 7. Of these five. 2) Bodhi. and its pure innate mind is regarded as the Buddhahood (buddhatva) or the Essence of the Buddha (buddhadhātu).4 Aspects of the Germ. Those are the essential characteristics of the tathāgatagarbha. The other four stand for the 4 aspects of the gotra. Thus. 3) Guna. e. 23) 39) The whole account of this passage on the [fundamental characteristics of the ' ratnagotra' was taken from what I considered as the original text. i. karman. 24) while Chapter I includes 3 ślokas on the ratnatraya and the commentary thereon. guna. 1) dhātu. § 2 .The Ratnagotravibhāga it is constructed by the ' irregular thought ' (ayoniśomanasikāra) (v. and 5) Anuśamsa. I. agrabodhi (jñānâpti). 41 ) The commentary mentions the 3 Jewels along with 4 aspects of the Germ in its open verse and calls them the 7 vajrapadas. On the basis of the essential characteristics of the tathāgatagarbha referred to above. (v. they become the Buddha. respectively. (v. 4) Tathāgatakrtyakriyā. 60-63). which at the same time constitute the core of the doctrine described in this text 39>. when they accomplish the purification. It would be better to pick up such denominations before analysing their characteristics and significance. I. . (v. 3) samalā tathatā. vimalā buddhagunāh. the text explicates the doctrine in five chapters 4°). Because of this possibility. 40) The Chinese version gives 11 chapters. But this categorization does not have as much significance as the 4 aspects of the gotra. bodhi. 3). which are mentioned in v. Therefore. these 4 aspects of the gotra form the basic frame of this text and the authors refer to them in various places with various denominations. I. But this division has probably no source in the basic text for the Chinese translation.

karman (v. tadgunāh. these two are regarded as 4 aspects ' of the gotra. bodhana. bodhi. and the second. Thus. amuktajña (avinirmuktajñāna) (p. V. i. On the other hand. (gunaprakrtiyogatah). In this respect. The interrelation between these two is that of ' cause' and ' result'. the 4 aspects of gotra are fundamentally reducible to two aspects. 42) [ 24 ] . and for the 'result'-aspect.19 (anādicittavyavadSnadharmasahajâvinirbhāgatā). buddhadharmâh. 42). 155 and v. what is to be called the Absolute. the Absolute as in common with the The relationship between the Absolute and attributes is often expressed by the term ' avinirbhāga. This relationship is expressed in another couple of terms. I. I. 4 c d). tadparāvrtti. the latter two are said to relate to the Absolute as being * attribute ' and ' function ' inseparable from the Absolute or ' substance '. being inseparable from him. &c. ' to be enlightened ' or * capable of getting bodhi'. Tathatā. Gotra is different from the Absolute in its being actually not enlightened {abudha) (v. amalā bodhi. so to say A2\ At the same time. TAKASAKI 4) 5) 6) 7) bodhya. the Absolute. I.4 ff. though it is common to both. V. (v. For the acts of the Buddha. samalā and nirmalā. the acts of the Buddha. I. 42 and commentary thereon (on yogârtha). p. the third aspect signifies the attributes or the qualities of the Buddha. e. 49. Taking an example from the table mentioned above. they are ragarded somehow as the natural outflow of the Buddha's Compassion (karunā) towards living beings (v. (v. 1) vyavadānadhātu. they are to be termed as ' bodhya ' and ' bodhi '. the difference between two aspects is shown by each attribute. Because the Buddha is one aspect of the Absolute. buddhabodhi. I. Here. 26) buddhadhātu. 4). while the identity of both is expressed by the term tathatā. and this capability is sought for in the fact (or postulate) that gotra is (or is to be) essentially identical with the Absolute (tathatâvyatireka). etc. gunāh. 3. is characterized as nirmalā in comparison with gotra. the tathāgatagarbha is said to be endowed with the same qualities and acts as those of the Buddha. 66. 43) V. bodhyañgāni. I. 4 cause ' and ' result '. gotra has obtained its name of i cause '. Because of this capability. but it has a relation to the latter in its being ' bodhya '. I.J. being the natural outflow of the Buddhahood. Here we may notice that there are two aspects of the Absolute. the fourth. the first aspect represents the tathāgatagarbha or the gotra. 43>. V. samalā tathatā and nirmalā tathatā. buddhakrtya. (v. Therefore. 7) Of these four. arthasādhana. these two latter aspects are less independent and less important than the former two and can be included in one of them. because of its identity with the Absolute. 25) āśraya.) and similes of lantern and ocean are used for its explanation (v.

and regarded as ' result'. namely: 1) tathāgatasya ime garbhah sarvasattvāh. Next. and including this aspect. According to the commentator. division of the 3 aspects is what is called svabhāvatraya of gotra (p. Another kind of. and more important. gotra is result ' as well as 4 cause '. I. respectively. respectively. e. and tathāgatagotra. If we apply the same idea of ' medium ' in this case. tathatā. In other words.The Ratnagotravibhāga gotra is the ' ground '. and 3) tathāgatadhātur esām garbhah sarvasattvānām. and tathāgatagotra. in three ways. 3 aspects are often used for analyzing the tathāgatagarbha in this text. 2) tathāgatas tathataîsām garbhah sarvasattvānām. 27. buddha) under the name of bodhi in comparison with the gotra's being hetu. we know. 4 while from the standpoint of the Absolute. as common to both cause and result. (p.17). . tathatā will be regarded as 4 medium '. cause and result are called bodhya and buddha. Here. The names of the 3 aspects are dharmakāya. I. while tathatā is explained as tathāgata in the sense ' tathatā śuddhim āgatā '. dharmakāya is interpreted as the Absolute itself. the Absolute can be established as ' result ' because it is in common with the gotra. is therefore to be regarded as the third aspect which is necessary to establish the relationship of cause and result. i. the Absolute '. It may be termed ' ground'-aspect or 4 medium'aspect. 69. let us examine the characteristics of the Absolute. For ground ' of cause '. if we restrict the observation only to the relationship between dharmakāya and tathāgatagotra. See my translation of each passage. as * result '. 70. Here the third aspect is characterized as 4 medium ' (pratyaya) and on the basis of bodhi as medium. and 4 result ' is considered 4 to become one with 4 4 the ground. This Absolute. The first application of the 3 aspects theory is v. being the 4 ground ' which renders gotra as * cause '. the third aspect is preferably called 4 ground '. 26 where the Absolute is on the one hand regarded as phala under the name of ratnatraya and on the other hand as pratyaya for establishing ratnatraya (i. From the stand 4 4 4 point of gotra'. and dharmakāya as 4 result' since the word dharmakāya stands for one aspect of buddha showing his essential nature. dharmakāya and tathatā are either result' or ground'. tathatā stands again for 4 medium '-aspect. e. the former is to be regarded as 4 cause ' and the latter. In this case. we come to know that these aspects are interchangeable according to the respective standpoint. taking this structure into consideration and subsequently clarifying 4 4 the process from cause' to result'. They correspond to dharmakāya. By examining in this way. tathatā. 17 ff) by the commentator based upon v. 44) Such is the fundamental structure of the Absolute and its aspects in this text. however. 44 ' The word tathāgatagarbha is interpreted in the Ratna.

. Originally and basically the Absolute in Buddhism is dharma. samudaya. nirodha and mārga. being the truth. the universal law. such a division seems possible. in those two points we can find the peculiarity of the Buddhist Absolute. however. or by the terms. Firstly. to the other those doing the same from the ' result '-aspect. the character of being ' attainable ' introduces the ' result '-aspect and is shown by the absolutization of the Buddha caused by veneration and glorification of the Buddha as the founder among Buddhist followers. Thus the all-pervadingness. it penetrates all things or phenomena including the living beings. śūnyatā. and hence. This is nothing but the 4 ground '— aspect of the Absolute. But in its fundamental characteristics. Of course both aspects are interchangeable as has been seen in the case of 'dharmakāya'' and '•tathatā'' in the preceding passage. 45) The following description does not exactly follow a historical development of the idea but is made with a logical approach. or the highest truth (paramârthasatya). this nature is also regarded as the Absolute under the names of ' dharmatā' ( = dharmasvabhāva).J. is introduced into the conception of Buddhist Absolute. is ' impersonal ' and ' attainable '. ' tathatā' or itattva'> (suchness).The Absolute. . which is unchangeable and immutable (asarnskrta) and whose contents are expressed by the 4 āryasatya of duhkha. and hence the universe is called 'dharmadhātu\ the realm of truth which is the essence of the nature (tattvasya laksanam) and is regarded as the Absolute itself in the sense of ' reality '. The Absolute is expressed in various terms in this text. as this 'impersonal' truth shows the real nature of 'things'. the Buddhist Absolute expands its contents in two directions 45>. pratītyasamutpāda. these terms can be divided into two groups: to one group belong those expressing the Absolute from the ' ground 'aspect. and based upon these two characteristics. TAKASAKI § 3. On the other hand. This is a kind of ' personification ' of the Absolute. This truth is to be realized by oneself ('pratyātmavedanīya'') as the Buddha did for the first time. etc. From the standpoint of the development of the idea or from the literal meaning of each term. Sanskrit terms mentioned with quotation marks in the following passage are the technical terms on the Absolute used in the Ratna. Being the nature of things. is characterized as ' adhigamadharma\ Thus the Buddhist Absolute. and hence the oneness of the Absolute.

like ' bodhi'. are postulated to have the same nature as the Buddha. and Nirvana was regarded as synonymous with ' dharmatā'. In the case of ' bodhi '. Introduction of the ' result'-aspect into the Absolute thus effected the absolutization of Buddha. there is another important term for the Buddhist Absolute.The Ratnagotravibhāga but even in this case. anybody can become ' buddha ' if he experiences and practises what the Gautama Buddha did. the state of 'buddha' is attainable as the result of practice. of the attained state. At the same time. Thus the absolutization of the Buddha consists in making the Buddha impersonal and this Buddha as the Absolute is called ' dharmakāya'. or ' dharmakāya'. the emphasis is on the disappearance or extinction (ksaya. Namely. the intuition (prajñā) or wisdom (jñāna) by which the Buddha attained the enlightenment occupies an important place and is elevated to identity with the Absolute under the name of 4 prajñāpāramitā ' or 4 buddhajñāna ' as the essential nature of the Buddha. ' nirvana'' and ' bodhi'. and even of the medium or instrument for such an acquisition. nirodha) of defilements (kleśa) and hence the term nirvana is much related to the purification of mind (cittavyavadāna). the manifestation of the truth. Originally. if one may discuss the matter apart from the religious feeling* the Buddha is regarded as * impersonal'. This term was absolutized even in the Pali and in the Adhidharma Buddhism as an idea contrary to samsāra and is stated to be the realm of peace (' śāntipatha '). it shows the ' result '-aspect of the Absolute. Both of these attainments of ' jñāna' and ' vyavadāna'. in the case of ' nirvana '. For the introduction of such a conception. however. In this sense. and consequently there is no strict distinction of use between both terms. Mahāyāna Buddhism rebelled against the dualistic conception of Nirvana and Satnsāra and emphasized the oneness of both in the sense that Nirvana is the only reality. which is believed commonly in India . the term ' buddha ' is originally applicable to any person as an adjetive. combined in one as the sine qua non for the realization of the Absolute. in other words. are. It is ' nirvana '. Besides ' buddha ' and ' bodhi'. however. the existence of an innumerable number of Buddhas is possible and even ordinary beings. ' dharmadhātu'. On the other hand. since he realized the truth and his essence or nature as being ' buddha ' lies in his realization (' bodhi ') of the truth. This same nature is called ' gotra ' or ' dhātu ' and the existence of this nature is explained by the expression ' dharmakāyapa~ rispharanatā'' or ibuddhajñānântargama''-tva. though they are actually not the Buddha. by ' nirvana' is meant a state 4 attained ' by the Buddha and hence. we cannot overlook a rather primitive and magical idea that to know something is to become itself.

i. and this process is understood as the removal (' visamyoga'') of two kinds of obscuration. e. vi-1-1: yo ha vai jyestham ca śrestham ca veda. it is an inevitable character for all systems which declare their philosophical standpoint as Monism. and the Vijñānavāda). Establishment of the Buddha as the Absolute under the name of dharma46> e. In relation to the term tathāgatagarbha. This theory is in one sense an inevitable result of the development of Mahāyānistic Monism in its religious expression. it could not but take the appearance of Monism as a result of Absolutization of the Buddha. Up. (The Ratna. one thing to be noted here is the development of Buddhology. iii-2-9) is regarded as one of the important authority for the Vedāntavāda. and approach the Upanisadic thinking in its philosophy. the purpose of religious practices was made to be the acquisition of the Buddhahood rather than the Arhatship of Abhidharma Buddhism. § 2. 47 ' 'sayo ha vai tatparamambrahma veda brahmaîva bhavati'. Emphasis was placed on the Buddha rather than the Dharma and effected the ' ekayāna ' theory of the Buddha. however. In relation to the conception of the Absolute in 4 ground ' and ' result ' aspect. And when Buddhism developed itself into Mahāyāna Buddhism. Basically.g. the jewel of the Buddha came to be regarded as the only ultimate refuge. In this last point lies the significance of the tathāgatagarbha theory of this text. which is characterized as ' āśrayaparivrttV (Revolution of the basis. In this characterization the process from cause to result is observed. At the same time. It was also the basic idea for the theory of the oneness of Brahman and Âtman in the philosophy of the Upanisads as well as of the later Vedāntavāda 47>. of knowable things (jñeya-āvarana) and of defilements (kleśa-ā. jyesfhaś caśresthaś ca svānām bhavati. the Monistic philosophy was used as the background. On the other hand absolutization of the Buddha made Mahāyāna Buddhism more religious than Abhidharma Buddhism. And for explaining the possibility of anyone's acquiring the Buddhahood. of the tathāgatagarbha) or jñānâpti. etc. . the Absolute is often spoken of as the dharmakāya of the tathāgata. (Mundaka Up. the stress lies on the purification of mind from the defilements. viz. Brhad. TAKASAKI since the Vedic Age 46>.J.). Among the 3 jewels. * 8) See VI. Rather. observed in the use of terms such as 'samalā tathatā^ and '•nirmalā tathatā\ 'vaimalyadhātu\ 'viśuddhicittaprakrti'' or by the definition of tathāgata as itathatā śuddhim āgatā\ and of tathāgatagarbha as 'sarva kleśakośakotigūdhas tathāgatagarbhah\ Such terminology is characteristic of this tathāgatagarbha theory compared with stress on jñānâpti in the vijñānavāda as the ultimate goal 48>.

On the other hand. However. 27 and 28). i. as has been observed above. 1. but by this term all the Buddhas in ten directions and in three divisions of time.' and hence the dharmakāya's original character as ' result ' is still retained. the Body for other's enjoyment. future and present are signified. An usual nomination for the three is ' svābhāvika\ ' sāmbhogika' and 'nairmānika\ respectively (vv. I l l . 1). the fact of being the Buddha's own nature. the Apparitional Body. Of them.). Therefore. referring respectively to the body for the assembly of Bodhisattvas and to the body for common people in order to lead them towards the Enlightenment. Furthermore these two are said to represent 4svârthasampatti'' and 'parârthasampatti\ respectively (v. Literally sambhoga means enjoyment or bliss of the dharma by the Buddha himself as the ' result' of realization of dharma.151-2. II. however. Why is its Junction limited to para-sambhoga ? If the dharmakāya is regarded as svârthasampatti. e. by dividing the second one into two. i.The Ratnagotravibhāga subsequently caused another aspect of the Buddha to rise besides the dharmakāya. ' svābhāvika' is for the dharmakāya. This triple kāya theory seems to be basic for the Ratna. In turn. II. past. the interpretation of sāmbhogika leaves some doubt with us. the former being lokottara and the latter being laukika. in this text. these latter two are called parârthasampatti. the historical Buddha is defined as 'nairmānika'. Also. r oo . it corresponds to the division of two satyas. Here. to leave the dharmakāya m its pure character of truth or reality. (v. ' buddhajñāna' is replaced by dharmakāya without interpretation (v. paramārtha and samvrti. is ' result ' and the dharmakāya is ' ground' for the second body. This division of two bodies corresponds to the two aspects of the Absolute. the Buddha's own nature means. This was originally a problem of how to treat the historical Buddha in the Buddhist doctrine. It may be more logical to include the dharmakāya's character of jñānâpti or svârthasampatti ln to the second body of sambhoga. the rūpakāya. and is hence included under parârthasampatti. I. this second body is called ' rūpakāya' (v. and the manifestation of these Buddhas is regarded as for the sake of people. e. This double kāya theory is. 43 ff. it is to be called ' svasāmbhogika ' in contrast with the sanibhogika which represents parârthasampatti. That is why. ' bodhi' or ' buddhajñāna. and dharmakāya is called svârthasampatti because of its including jñānâpti within itself. 61). In comparison with the dharmakāya. immediately followed by the triple kāya theory. Here. I l l . 1). and by it. namely. sāmbhogika means para-sāmbhogika. ' sārnbogika' and ' nairmānika' are of conventional character. and called 4 paramārthakāya'' and *samvrtikāya.

and the first body. 21). the natural outflow of dharmadhātu. 70). which is characterized as 'parasattvesu vijñaptiprabhavah '. TAKASAKI In this respect. attention should be paid to the division of dharmakāya by the commentator into ' muktikāya ' and ' dharmakāya ' in regard to its function (v. or separation of the jñāna from the attributes of the dharmakāya. In turn.. in the sense 'the Body which represents the innate liberation'. i. 149). in comparison with the latter. even in the commentary 49>. Namely.. 150). The development had taken place from the double kāya theory in Nāgārjuna's philosophy to the triple kāya theory as in the Ratna. In this description. In Chinese Buddhism reference is often made to these two kinds of the triple kāya theory calling the former ' K'ai-ying-ho-chen (pfj J|/j>|| / py J|l. but it is apparently ' no '. Thus being the case. whose characteristic lies in the division of the dharmakāya into two kāyas. Shall we then consider that the svârthasampatti is represented by this second body. respectively. II. I. Buddhology occupies an important part among its doctrines. and (2) ' tadnisyanda '. the dharmakāya stands for the ' result ' aspect. the commentator divides the dharmakāya into (1) dharmadhātu which. 30). * 9) In Mahāyāna Buddhism. but it may be proven in the light of another commentary passage. but it might well have done so. and in the same way. which constitutes ' deśanādharma ' characterized as ' parasattvesu vijñaptiprabhavah '. It is one of keynotes to decide the date of Mahā- . or to ' prakrtisthagotra ' and ' samudānītagotra ' (v. I. represents ' adhigamadharma '. e. the muktikāya is to be identified with the Absolute Essence characterized as ' dharmadhātu\ ' cittaprakrti ' or ''prakrtisthagotra''. Commenting on the dharmakāya as one of the svabhāvatraya of the tathāgatagarbha (p. the said twofold Body is referred to as the substratum of sva-parârthasampatti. the former might be said to represent svârthasampatti. the muktikāya remains without arthasampatti ? An answer is not clearly given in the text. which it calls ' the realm of avikalpajñāna '. 80). the correspondence between each of the 3 couples of terms is not clearly observed. since it is nothing but the samudānītagotra being the result produced by the prakrtisthagotra (v. svârthasampatti is to be regarded as inherent to the muktikāya or dharmadhātu. which is caused by means o f avikalpajñāna ' and ' tatprsthalabdha-jñāna ' (v.J. and lastly resulted in another kind of the triple kāya theory. These two kāyas correspond to i prakrtiviśuddhi ' and ' vaimalyaviśuddhi ' (p. being the realm of avikalpajñāna. Being 'innate'. the dharmakāya.) ' and the latter ' K'ai-chen-ho-ying S * 'PJ* MH) '» respectively. Here the text does not call the latter the realm of prsthalabdha-jñāna. in contrast with the former. II. Here. it stands for the 'ground' aspect of the dharmakāya. and we may conclude that the complete separation of the ' result ' aspect from the dharmakāya is not observed in the Ratna.

cause and result are dissimilar from each other. But in regard to its contents or its relation to ' cause' or ' ground '. however. representing parârtha. p. Suzuki. is rendered into the Chinese . Namely. In the Ratna. 60) In the Lañkāvatārasūtra (p. i. see D. I. This last usage actually refers to the relation of the rūpakāya to the dharmakāya in the sense that the rūpakāya is merely an aspect of the dharmakāya when it works for parârtha. samvrtikāya. 57. 1). 56. which. cause and result are exactly the same. because this kāya is said to be the incarnation of the dharmakāya50>. 1. Of them. result is the same as cause or is involved within the cause. in the case of visamyoga. II. 7) or the relation of deśanādharma to adhigamadharma as mentioned above (dharmadhātu-nisyanda). 8 & 18. In this case. e. 1. the tathāgatagarbha. and in the case of nisyanda. Namely. * niryanda ' and ' vipāka '. Enlightenment or jñānâpti may also be termed vipākaphala because of its character of svasambhoga. About Buddhology of the triple kāya. the dharmakāya appears in its ' ground ' aspect.The Ratnagotravibhāga There is another thing to be noticed here with reference to the aspects of the dharmakāya. 4»Q I7p). and between avikalpajñāna and tatprsthalabdha-jñāna. On the other hand. are ' visamyoga '. is said to be vipāka-phala. Now the third one. 150).) (c.4 & 11). the first one. in contrast with paramārthakāya as visamyogaphala which represents svârtha. the term nisyanda is used for indicating the relation of dharmaratna and samgharatna to buddharatna (dharmatānisyanda. what is proper to the nirmānakāya is the term nisyanda. 283. If it were so. yāna Sutras and Sāstras. however. in contrast with nairmānika (see BHS Die. =P|X. while to include the nirmānakāya within vipākaphala is improper. while in the case of vipāka. visamyoga-phala is used for characterizing āśrayaparivrtti. This usage seems to relate to the character of sambhogakāya as the ' reward ' of infinite practice (bhāvanā) before Enlightenment. the term nisyanda-buddha is mentioned as indicating the second Body (p. The same relation must be observed between samudānītagotra and the twofold rūpakāya (v. Up to now I have often referred to the i result' aspect without distinction. 308 ff. 80. pp. 8).At the same time.T. vipāka-phala is an entirely different one from the other two in its original character. there is a certain variety. Studies in the Lañkāvatāra Sūtra. or dharmakāya as the result of purification or attainment of Enlightenment (p. 82). this term is used along with visamyoga in the same context as dharmakāya and rūpakāya (v. curiously enough. This is nothing but what I called the ' result' aspect of the dharmakāya whose ' cause ' is gotra or dhātu. 1. The terms which show this variety and which are used in the Ratna. the term vaipākika is used for sāmbhogika.

Sometimes it presents the whole passage by quotations without its own words.18. the Ratna. 4) Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. TAKASAKI IV. from which the 9 examples illustrating the Buddha's Acts are derived (v. sometimes it uses the scriptural passage as if it were its own words without any sign of quotation. the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra is the most important one as it expounds mainly the tathāgatagarbha theory. illustrating how the Germ is covered with defilements are derived (p. 79). 66. however. following ones: 1) Dhāranīśvararājasūtra (or Tathāgatamahākarunāsūtra). In the preceding chapter. tathāgata- . 5 1 ) . from which the 9 examples garbhasūtrodāharananirdeśa) (Chapter I). Of them. according to the commentator. .J. 3) Ratnadārikāsūtra. I l l . 1. For its explanation. IV. Besides the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. the main sources of the Ratna. In one sense. from which the 64 Attributes of the Buddha are derived (v. which seems to be the first treatise exposing this theory systematically and in its pure form. seems merely a collection of scriptural passages concerning the tathāgatagarbha theory. (v. Among the scriptures utilized in the Ratna. 51) ranlrājasūtra). and those frequently quoted are 5) Āryaśrîmālāsūtra and 6) Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśaparivarta. GENEALOGY OF THE TATHĀGATAGARBHA THEORY § 1.Sources of the Ratnagotravibhāga. the Ratna. The number of Scriptures utilized in the Ratna. from which the 7 Vajrapadas are derived as the body of the treatise. is more than 20 and quotations or altered scriptural passages seem to occupy more than one third of the whole text. 7) Avatamsakasūtra {Tathāgatotpattisambhava— Bibliographical information of these scriptures is given in my notes on the English translation under the first occurrence of quotations or name of each scripture. those relating to the Kārikā text and hence assuming important roles in the arrangement of the text are. and its essential doctrine constitutes the core of this text. we have examined the fundamental character of the tathāgatagarbha theory in the Ratna. has been much aided by various scriptures which expound the same theory. ratnasūtra) (Chap. 27. Also. 2 dhā2) Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. III).

two main and basic scriptures of Mahāyāna Buddhism. is an entirely new and later theory of Mahāyāna Buddhism. quotes once from 14) Vajracchedikā and once from 15) Astasāhasrikā altering the sentences into the commentary's own form. of which one is in Prakrit. and the tathāgatagarbha theory. among the quotations. 19) ISadāyatanasūtra (or § adindriyarāsi-sūtra) and from more than eight unknown sources. However. which occupy a unique position in comparison with the former group of Scriptures. They seem to have appeared after Nāgārjuna. are mentioned in the Ratna. tr. much with its ekayāna theory and the doctrine of the eternal Buddha. 9) Sāgaramatipariprcchā.The Ratnagotravibhāga parivarta). 5) 6) and 8) are the representative scriptures on this theory. Besides these scriptures on the tathāgatagarbha theory. the Ratna. 8) Mahāparinirvānasūtra {Mahayāna) {Tathāgatadhātuparivarta). 10) Gaganagañjābodhisattvapariprcchā. as well as in its ascription of the cause to irregular thought (ayoniśo-manasikāra) 52>. 18) Kāśyapaparivarta (Ratnakūtasūtra). which corresponds to the passage. One remarkable point is that all scriptures or parts of scriptures mentioned above are unknown to Nāgārjuna or. (111-53). As for the Prajñāpāramitā. Other quotations are from 16) Drdhâdhyāśayaparivarta. There is no quotation from the Saddharmapundarīka. utilized them only along the lines of the tathāgatagarbha theory and never referred to the Vijñānavāda. but it is necessary and possible for clarifying the tathāgatagarbha theory to trace its genealogy back to its origin by examining these sources. the Ratna. but it is clear that this scripture had influenced the Ratna. not used in the works of Nāgārjuna. There are two works. the names Prajñāpāramitāsūtra and Saddharmapundarīka. and 11) Ratnacūdasūtra are quoted. For this purpose. These two seem to hold a key for solving the problems of the relationship between the tathāgatagarbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. 17) Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatāranirdeśa. . at least. besides its indirect influences on the Tathāgatagarbha theory. in the Ratna. v. 1. we will pick up some important ones and will refer to their historical order. They expound more or less the same theory of tathāgatagarbha. not often but with long passages. and especially nos. 5 2 > See my note on the Engl. This last one is significant in its exposition of how phenomena are originated from one essence (ekadhātu). like the Vijñānavāda. They are 12) Mahāyānâbhidharmasūtra and 13) Mahayānasūtrâlañkāra. as well as of the authorship of the Ratna. 52 onwards. both of which are regarded as the main authorities on the Vijñānavāda. To discuss and examine the character of all the scriptures mentioned above is beyond our present purpose.

not found among those scriptures belonging to the oldest group in the Pali canon and there was a controversy about this characterization among schools of the Abhidharma Buddhism 57) . No. Among other sects of the Abhidharma Buddhism. S5 > e.Cittaprakrti and Agantukakleśa As has been said above. See C. 397 (Vol. AN (ibid. p. are used sometimes in the Pali canons 53>. Characterization of defilements or phenomena in general as ' accidental ' attachment on the mind is. e. This is not an exclusive facture of this theory. p. the following four are known for their acceptance of this theory: 1) the Theravāda of Ceylon—Dhammapadâtthakathā. A Prakrit verse quoted in the Ratna. cittavyavadānād viśuddhyante". etc. etc. the Ratnacūda. 697 b). 3. 3) the Vātsīputrīya—-* Śāriputrâbhidharmaśāstra (Taisho. vol. SN (PTS. This purity of the innate mind is often compared to that of gold 55>. etc. 257). the most important and principal point of the tathāgatagarbha theory is to purify the mind. I.Taisho. or similar ones.J. TAKASAKI § 2. p. and they are probably written by one and the same group who later developed the tathāgatagarbha theory. the Ratnadārikā. 32. 5. 2. 151).. 13). the Aksayamati—pariprcchā. The peculiarity of the tathāgatagarbha theory lies in its emphasis on this point in association with the fundamental identification of living beings with the Buddha under the name of tathāgatagarbha. p. 3. 163 b). 6) seems to belong to the same line of doctrine found in the Pali canons. . 4) the Mahāsamghika—* Laksanânusāraśāstra (|*m >rn PRfl) (Taisho. The term tathāgatagarbha was an entirely new usage but its basic idea is found in the expression " prakrtiprabhāsvaram cittam āgantukair upakleśair upakliśyate. 210 ff. Milindapanhā iv-7-2. 2) the Vaibhāsika—Mahāvibhāsāśāstra (Taisho. 140 b). 1. 27. ". SN (vol. however. seems also to be old and to have its origin in the Pali canons 54>. S4 56) ^ C Jl'^f ^ C M I S . the Gaganagañjā. The Dhāranīśvararājasūtra together with the Sāgaramatipariprcchā. 10).g.g.g. Akanuma: Bukkyo—kyori no Kenkyū (Japanese) (Studies in the Buddhist Doctrine). 1. 1. which form parts of the Mahāsamghātasūtra 56\ are also standing fundamentally on the theory of the cittaprakrti.. vol. Compilation of this big collection of sūtras in the present form has probably taken place after the composition of the Ratna. (p. 53) . Another expression of this same idea of purification of mind. vol. 28. p. but was also the principle of practice from the outset of Buddhism. 9-10 (PTS. p. p. " cittasamkleśāt sattvāh samkliśyante. p. though it is not traced in the present Tripitaka. 57 ' The Sarvāstivāda did not accept this theory of cittaprakrti. > e. 92). AN. for which the same corresponding expression. 5.

no. p. The source of the citta-mātra theory is often sought for in the following passage: tasyaîvam bhavati / cittamātram idam yad idam traidhātukam / yāny apîmāni dvādaśāngāni tathāgatena prabhedaśo vyākhyātāni tāny api sarvāny eva cittasamāśritāni V (Rahder's ed. — " Buddhajñāna " in the Avatamsaka. The passage containing the description of the buddhajñāna (Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa) also seems old. and. 22-24). It is the idea of the penetration of the Buddha's Wisdom into the living beings described in the Avatamsakasûtra and quoted in the Ratna. there is a stage of development with respect to the identification of living beings with the Buddha. 558 b). The tathāgatagarbha theory seems to put the accent on the latter of the two. 49 c. whose first exposition is found in the Daśabhūmikasūtra 58>. this passage teaches only the dependence of the phenomena on the citta. however. (pp. p. Still there is no doubt that the citta-mātra theory and the Vijñānavāda have their starting point in this passage. § 3. the Gandavyûha are important and of early origin. A. is no doubt based upon this theory. Prior to the establishment of the tathāgatagarbha theory by the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. and we can find a frequent use of the above two expressions among the Mahāyānistic scriptures.D. as for the former it has not sufficient explanation to resolve the problem even in the Ratna. The term buddhajñāna is a synonym of buddhatva or buddhatā. 291. Questions which arise pursuant to the idea of cittaprakrti and āgantukakleśa are (1) why and how the phenomena of unreal character are originated and (2) how the cittaprakrti is pure and identical with the Buddha or the immutable Absolute being.. Furthermore. this characterization of defilements led to the idea of non-reality of all the phenomena and resulted in the cittamātra theory. . into Chinese by Dharmaraksa as an independent Sūtra 59 ). which will be observed in the passage expounding the origination of phenomena from the cittaprakrti. Strictly speaking. though it makes no use of the term cittamātra. and was translated early in the 3rd cent. M) 58) ' Ju-lai-hsing-hsien-ching (#P ^ 5 | MB $ S \ Taisho. Taisho 9. It describes only how the defilements come to cover the pure innate mind and how they are to be removed. This Ratna.The R a t n a g o t r a v ib hāga This idea had been fully accepted by the Mahāyāna Buddhism. The Avatamsakasūtra as is seen in the present form is a collection of minor scriptures among which the Daśabhūmika. The first exposition of these two points (consequently the first establishment of the tathāgatagarbha theory) is seen in the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra.

3) Having thus observed. p . 11. with special reference to the term ' tathāgatagotra-sambhava ' (j%\\ yjv '|£n /chi) '\ JIBS. for which the acquisition of jñāna is indispensable. have the buddhajñāna. Vol. are possessed of the tathāgatagarbha which is always unpolluted and. or the Jñānâlokâlañkāra. 11. 73). 457 6-c. Tokyo. This article stresses the development of the idea of ' gotrasambhava '. . (48)-(53). I wrote an article in the Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies: " The Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa of the Avatamsaka and the Ratnagotravibhāga. 10-11) seems to belong to the same group as the two said scriptures in the use of terms: tathāgatadhātur utpanno garbhagatah. and buddhakāya sitting motionless. utpādād vā tathāgatānām anutpādād vā sadaîvaîte sattvās tathāgatagarbhāh6 1 \ On the relationship between the Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa and the Ratna. a Buddha sitting in the interior of every lotus flower: 1) I (the Buddha) observe. the Jñānâlokâlañkāra and the Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatāra seem to be consistent with the Tathāgatotpatisambhavanirdeśa. 60) . anger and ignorance. as it appears from the Ratna. 8-9). In relation to this. they are not different from myself. with the buddhacaksus. This buddhajñāna is often compared to the sun. the Buddha preached the doctrine in order to remove the defilements and manifest the Buddha nature [within the living beings]. In their emphasis of buddhajñāna. pp. 1. with special reference to this idea of the penetration of buddhajñāna. TAKASAKI because the Buddha's nature is represented by his Enlightenment. 26.J. that all living beings. buddhacaksus. (p. (p. 72. 7. No. The last one is quoted in the Ratna. 16. § 4. 61> These four passages are in Taisho. one of the important terms in the Hua-yen philosophy and locates the first use of this compound in the Ratna. though they are among the defilements of hatred. These scriptures expound on one hand the eternity of the Buddha and his acts which corresponds to the all-pervadingness of the buddhajñāna and form the basic idea of the Absolute 60>. (p. one thing to be noticed here is that a scriptural passage of unknown source quoted in the Ratna. 1958. being endowed with the virtuous properties. 2) [Thus] all living beings. The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra is a small scripture whose main part consists merely of the 9 examples illustrating the covering of defilements over the tathāgatagarbha. 4) esā dharmānām dharmatā. though they are abiding in various worlds with bodies full of defilements.The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. The core of its doctrine is stated in the following four sentences in the first example. with respect to the Tathāgatgarbhasūtra.

27. dharmadhātugarbha. & 11. tathatâvyatirekârtha. than any other scripture. and because of this co-existence of purity and impurity on the mind. e. . 59 & 76). In the fourth sentence.. while garbha is aśūnya since it is endowed with. but deepened the idea by the phrase " sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh " •which probably was declared for the first time in this Sūtra. A Sūtra which deeply investigates the characters of the tathāgatagarbha in a more developed form than the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra and has a significant role for establishing the tathāgatagarbha theory is the Āryaśrīmālāsūtra. 7-11). such an observation is regarded as the real conception of śūnyatā. (quotations in pp. tathāgatagarbha. and gotrasambhavârtha (p. 28. what is called the three meanings of the tathāgatagarbha by the Ratna. 15 & 22) It is another expression of the same idea of ' cittaprakrti and āgantukakleśa '. the so-called i 5 meanings of garbha ' (clarified in the Buddhagotraśāstra). the tathāgatagarbha has got its name and is characterized. It is quoted more often in the Ratna. is the whole contents of this Sūtra. than does the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. it occupies a much more important position in the Ratna. The explanation for this is that garbha is śūnya since it is devoid of kleśas "which are of unreal nature. That. in short.The Āryaśrîmālāsūtra. buddhadharmas which are inseparable from the dharmakāya which is the reality. However. dharkāyagarbha. vv. § 5. & prakrtipariśuddhagarbha give the full characteristic of garbha on its pure side. respectively.The Ratnagotravibhāga The first three of those statements are based upon the Avantamsakasūtra. all of these points form the basic idea of the tathāgatagarbha theory and are deepened by the subsequent scriptures. and in relation to this. and as far as the philosophical approach is concerned. as * samalā tathatā \ 2) In relation to those faces. 3) Union of the tathāgatagarbha with innumerable attributes of the Buddha. The original points of thought of the tathāgatagarbha expounded in this Sutra are as follows: 1) Two faces of the mind: prakrtipariśuddhicitta and upaklistacitta. Here is seen the criticism on the sarva-śūnya-vāda. Moreover. in the Ratna. viz. dharmakāya-parispharanârtha. and they represent. which identifies the garbha with the dharmakāya. I. 4) the aśūnya and śūnya character of the garbha (Q in pp. it is expounded how this tathāgatagarbha theory is an eternal truth. i. and to know the tathāgatagarbha is said to be the same as to know śūnyatā. lokottaradharmagarbha. 26. and those ..

33) which is also regarded as being anādikālika. the Sūtra contends t h a t the garbha identical with the dharmakāya of such characters is not the Ātman mentioned by the tirthās 6 3 ) . TAKASAKI adhering to the śūnya-vāda are criticized by being called ' śūnyatāviksiptacittā'' sattvāh. 220 c. Introduction. According to the Tibetan translation. t h a t . Thus we 82 63 > Cf. 6) Another expression of the idea of the śūnya and aśūnya of the garbha is its being the support (ādhāra) of both the samklista. The latter point. 9. while the former has the simple explanation t h a t the samsāra exists owing to the existence of the garbha which is beginningless (anādikālika). § 1. It consequently admits the Nirvana only to the Buddha (Q.and vyavadāna-dharmas. is nirvānadhātu. 12. At the same time. or to become tathāgata. as well as the garbha. e. ātman a*id śubha. 62\ 5) Such criticism of the śūnyavāda naturally leads the Sūtra to describe the dharmakāya. p. the Ratna. (cf. VI. & 20). is probably taken from this term. 72) But it does not give any account of how and why such samsāra or unreal defilements come out and cover over the garbha. 72).. And to realize this ekayāna is said to acquire the anuttarasamyaksambodhi. i. the fundamental standpoint throughout this Sūtra is the ekayāna theory. in p . dhruva. p. 7) Lastly. (Q. the Mahāyāna inclusive of the other two Vehicles of Srāvaka and Pratyekabuddha. This ' extreme of the ekayāna ' is translated into Chinese by title of the Ratna. which is nothing but the ' extreme of the ekayāna ' . i. accepts the buddharatna as the ultimate refuge among 3 jewels. and declares t h a t the tathāgatagarbha is only accessible to the Buddha or those who believe in the buddhayāna. terms ' Chiu-ching-i-ch'eng (^L J?ĪL —* ^R) ' which is identical with the Chinese . However the idea of the Chinese title of the Ratna. or of samsāra and nirvana ( Q . 55 & 84). 222 6. (T. its original word seems to be * ekayānanisthā '. One of such expressions is the tathāgata's possession of 4 gunapāramitās of nitya. p . but its research never goes beyond this. sukha. 57). i. the Sūtra seeks for the basis of origination of defilements in avidyāvāsabhūmi (Q. In another place. > Taisho. e. 35 & 73). the acceptance of One Vehicle of the Buddha. 7. to realize the dharma64) kāya. 12. in pp. 64) Ibid. theg-pa-gcig-gi mthah). in pp. and the problem remains unsolved. is proved by its being endowed with buddhadarmas and its being considered the ground of having intention towards the Nirvana (Q.J. (Q. śiva and śāśvata are used for the dharmakāya. with positive expressions and thereby the character of the dharmakāya or garbha approaches the Atman of the Vedāntavāda. i n p . in pp. Also 4 attributes of nitya. in p . in another word. the garbha's being ādhāra of pure dharmas. e.

p. 1-23. in pp. tr. The Mahāparinirvānasūtra. In most passages. 41) 66 \ About the perception of the garbha as identical with the dharmadhātu. Waldschmidt which is a Sanskrit equivalent for the Pali Mahāparinibbānasuttanta. and consequently the full identification of the sattvadhātu with the dharmakāya of the Buddha. 39).The Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa and the Mahāparinirvānasūtra. whille nos. dhruva. There is a small Sūtra contemporary with the Śrīmālāsūtra named Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa 65>. depends to a great extent on this Sūtra for its fundamental standpoints and that quite a little of its original development is added to this Sūtra. śiva and śāśvata as the 4 attributes of the dharmakāya (Q. bodhisattva and tathāgata (Q. namely in the use of a term ' avinirmuktajñāna '. to its possession of innumerous dharmas or gunas. by E. ' icchantika ' (Q. . in p. of increase and decrease with respect to the sattvadhātu as well as the dharmadhātu or nirvānadhātu. See my note on the Engl. 59 11-14). are 1) inseparability of the dharmakāya and the Buddha's dharmas explained by similes of lantern and gems (cf. and 3) three divisions of the dharmakāya under the names of sattvadhātu. mānatā (^C ^K I S ^ ^§F 'fi A ^ ¥£). to the tathāgatagarbha's being covered with kleśas and to its accessibility only to the Buddha. 3 is explained thruogh the 10 meanings of tathāgatagarbha. in p.. the Ratna.The Ratnagotravibhāga know that the Ratna. 476 6). The main point of its doctrine is the nonincrease and non-decrease of the dharmadhātu. Referring to them. in the Sūtra. which exposes the eternity of the dharmakāya of the Buddha from the standpoint of the Mahāyāna and borrows In one point this Sūtra seems older than the Srlmālāsūtra. p. Special contributions of this Sūtra to the Ratna. the Universe. esp. in p. 67) This work is quite a different one from the Mahāparinirvanasūtra ed. says . The Sūtra has a passage explaining the characteristics of tathāgatagarbha in three points (AAN. 66) In addition. which is abbreviated in the latter to ' amuktajñāna ' or ' amuktajña '. There is however no description of the non-possibility of acquiring Buddhahood on the part of the icchantikas as discussed in the Mahāparinirvānasūtra (of Mahāyāna) 67) . 2) fixation of 4 terms of nitya. and those who have such dual-conception are called. the following fact is to be noted here. 1 & 2 are to be explained by the 9 illustrations on the defilements covering the garbha (S. namely: 1) anādisāmnidhyasambaddhasvabhāva-śubhadharmatā anādisāmnidhyâsambaddhasvabhāva-kleśakośatā y 85) M3 î~F i£)> 2) J%* AH TPJ rf!H ' T* Ypf î^P if3»)> and 3) aparântakotisama-dhruvadharmatā-samvidya- that no. 12 & 54). K 6. the Sūtra ascribes it to the removal of dualistic views of various kinds. Q. 28). it has similar terms as the Srīmālāsūtra with respect to the dharmakāya.

See. TAKASAKI its style of structure from the Mahāparinibbānasuttanta of Primitive Buddhism. 97 a 6 (Photo. 407 b. D. ātman and śubba as the result of the! double negation of misconception (viparyāsa) as the Śrīmālā did but. It is one of key points for distinguishing the pure tathāgatagarbha theory from the Vijñānavāda. It describes the eternity of the dharmakāya by attributing the 4 gunapāramitās of nitya. [ 40 ] . have on the other the same opinion on this problem as the Vijñānavāda. The Sūtrâlañkāra is the only Sāstra quoted in t h e Ratna. KJ. . emphasizes the innate possession of the buddhadhātu in every living being. for example. where the simile of gold hidden under the ground (Cf. tr. Peking Ed. 69 ' Taisho. while exposing the doctrine of tathāgatagarbha on one hand. consisting of 68 ) It is at least sure that the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra is known to the author of the Mahāparinirvānasūtra. p. is regarded as the oldest version of the MPS. as one exposition of the garbha theory. 31. 367). The Sûtrâlañkāra. Such descriptions are sometimes contradicted in various passages. it refers often to the icchantikas who being agotra have absolutely no possibility of attaining Buddhahood. Vol. yjgfaflfccī ? ' — -HJ 3R !?fc © ^ ft tt ft M # *£ • . however. Some Mahāyānists. is enriched by detail with similes (Q. seems to have completed its present form in days a little 68 later than those of the Srīmālā and the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa >. attributed the final agotratva to those icchantikas who abuse the Mahāyāna doctrine..The Mahāyānasūtrâlahkāra. vv. The Ratna. Another point to be noted here is the doctrine of the icchantikas. 37). The Ratna. utilizes this second idea and construes the theory of icchantikas as a conventional teaching to convert people (p. As for its tathāgatagarbha theory. Mdo. . Tu. Vol. 74) and applies to the tathāgatagarbha the term 69 ātman >. No. This version (Taisho. but on the other hand. p. by Fa-hien in 418 A. Such an opinion is often found in the works belonging to the Vijñānavāda. I t is said to be a work of Maitreya with a commentary by Vasubandhu. which was a sort of taboo among early Buddhists. repr.. 12.J. there can hardly be found any new and advanced doctrine. p. 185). 881 6: %\l ^. and the Lañkāvatāra. de-bshin-gśegs-pa sñih-pohi mdo-sde chen-po. but its description is detailed in several points. but the final solution of this problem seems to be the denial of the existence of such people from the ultimate point of view through introducing the idea of the Bodhisattva's compassion or the idea of the long time needed before their achieving Buddhahood. 112-114) is spoken of. 12. in p. Taisho. § 7.(Tib. I. sukha. It may be called a unique point of this Sñtra. The sūtra.

it is inclined to approach the trisvabhāva theory in its interpretation of cittaprakrti. V. according to the Chinese tradition. but at the same time has passages referring to the ta~ thāgatagarbha as seen in the quotations in the Ratna. ' āśrayaparivrtti '. ''parāvrtti'' is used. See note on t h e Engl. the Sūtrâlañkāra has various relevant passages. and the difference lies in what is meant by āśraya. it describes the practices of the Mahāyānistic Bodhisattvas. 4 dharmadhātuviśuddhi '. to the same author. in v. The term tathāgatagarbha is used only once throughout the passages. 31. attributed. 12 we have ' buddhatvam — āśraya70) After p . and āśraya means tathāgatagarbha or gotra nh What is meant by āśrayaparāvrtti and what is meant by āśrayaparivrtti are finally the same Absolute. one notable thing is the use of the term 4 āśrayaparāvftti ' or 4 -parivrtti' and its meaning. [ 41 1 . where. 12 in Chap. This much is clear in regard to the difference between the two theories. ' anābhogâpraśrabdhakriyā' with the simile of the Divine drum. which it regards as the same as parinispanna—svabhāva. In this chapter we come across such terms and subjects as ' buddhatvasya śaranatva '.The Ratnagotravibhāga 21 chapters. IX are said to be referring 4 to āśrayaparāvrtti \ Of them. 4 āśrayaparāvrtti '. treating the subject of buddhatva has a doctrine quite similar to the Ratna. Including one verse preserved only in the Chinese version 70\ all of the three verses of this Śāstra quoted in the Ratna. As for the garbha theory. Rather. the term āśrayaparāvrtti or āśrayasya parāvrtti is used for denoting the anāsravadhātu.. 4 tathāgatagarbha\ and the 4 trikāya'-theory of 4svābhāvika\ *sāmbhogya\ and * nairmānika % with all of which we are acquainted in the Ratna. while in the Ratna. As if to answer this question. the term āśrayaparivrtti is used for characterizing dharmakāya or bodhi. instead of 'parivrtti'. 4 anāsravadhātu '. V I I I (III & IV)-32. however. 7. nor has any systematization on it. t r . and āśraya means ālayavijñāna. The division of chapters has a resemblance to the chapters of the Bodhisattvabhūmi in the Yogâcārabhūmiśāstra. 71) A n exception is found once i n v . this Śāstra has no development to compare with the Sutras referred to above. the chapter on 'bodhi\ This chapter. 4 tathatā '. 1. are found in Chapter IX. 1) 6 verses beginning with v. But whether parāvrtti and parivrtti differ from each other in their sense is somehow questionable. 15 nairātmyameva ātmani krtvā. In relation to this. This point may be called unique in this Śāstra as showing a germ of reciprocal influence between the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. It expounds mainly the theory of the Vijñānavāda. although this Śāstra seems to accept basically the theory of the prakrtiprabhāsvaratā of citta and āgantukakleśa. In the orthodox Vijñānavāda.

This last point is shown in v. the commentator mentions ' āśraya ' as the last of the 5 yogabhūmis and explains that ' āśraya' means here 4 āśrayaparāvrtti \ But v. i. 6) The same amalâśraya is explained in v.. XI. e. 3) Commenting on v. in the sense.e. which causes the disappearance of the manifestation of dvaya. dharmâlambana. 13. 12. 8) In the commentary on v. and that the one who has acquired this state is called ' parāvrttâśraya ' (one whose āśraya has been changed). 42 of the same chapter. tathāgatānām parivrttir isyate\ It is interpreted by the commentator as ' āśraya iti yo sau parivrtty āśrayas tarn darśayati* (that which is parivrtti is that which is āśraya. āśraya is shown in the next verse where it is referred to by the term āryagotra characterized as vimala. e. existing also in the śrāvaka and the pratyekabuddha. i. e. [ 42 ] . ' parāvrtti ^ of i padârtha-deha-nirbhāsa '. which refer to the investigation of samkleśa and vyavadāna. 13) over other kinds of āśrayaparāvrtti is explained. i. 32-33. 33 is the acquisition of ālambanaviśesa (special basis). e. 44 runs as follows: padārtha—deha—nirbhāsa—parāvrttir anāsravah / dhātur. 14 refers to the 10 meanings or characters of āśrayaparāvrtti and says ' āśrayo. due to parāvrtti of 5 indriyas and others. i.. which is quoted in the Ratna. 42 mentions only the first 4 and the 5th bhūmi. grāhya and grāhaka. one obtains ' vibhutva ' (power) and enters upon the amalâśraya of the Buddhas. TAKASAKI syânyathāptih \ Here ' anyathāpti ' seems to be an interpretation of ' parāvrtti '. in turn. 71) 5) Verses IX. 15 with a simile of sky. i.) Here the term āśraya seems to be synonymous with buddhatva as 'sarvagatâtmaka'' (v. which is. 60. bījaparāvrtteh sa ca sarvatragâśrayah \\ and thereon the commentary says that ' bījaparāvrtti ' means ' ālayavijñānaparāvrtti ''. 41—48. ' change of basis from A to B '. viśista. the commentator says that what is taught in v. and anyūnânadhika. 2) The commentary says that by this v. e. of vijñānas (other than ālayavijñāna) is the 4 anāsravadhātu '. 9) v. 14). XI. i. e. IX. v. (p. 77 to be the dharmakāya. sama. ' āśrayaparivrtti ' is explained. 4) V. defined as ' āśrayaparāvrtti-laksana ' in the commentary on v.J . which refers to the ' yogabhūmi' of Bodhisattvas. the ' vimukti \ It ( = anāsravadhātu) is also ' sarvatragâśraya '. IX. the commentator says that by this second verse the superiority of the tathāgata abiding in that state (sthitaś ca tasmin sa tathāgato. referring to ivibhutva\ speak to the effect that. tathatā. i. 7) In the commentary on vv. as the result of fixation {yoga) of mind on svadhātu.

That is the description of āśrayaparāvrtti in the Sūtrâlañkāra. 12) v. anyathâpti is buddhatva). 45 & 46 say that the final āśrayaparāvrtti. IX. āśraya should be compounded only with parivrtti. the acquisition of anuttarapada and sarvâkarajñatā takes place with those Bodhisattvas who practised the tajropama—samādhi. is annihilated or no more exists (akhyāna of asadartha). e. v. e. 60. that there is a variety in usage of the term āśraya: 1) āśraya (in pi.) = caksurvijñāna. the 5 outer-sense-based vijñānas. 49) and the manifestation of the reality (sadartha = tathatā). 13) v. while at the same time there takes place the manifestation [ 43 ] . though it is not brought out clearly by the author. ' āvrtti ' of manas. 2) āśraya = bīja = ālayavijñāna (whose parāvrtti. the former basis. being the substratum of unreal things or phenomena. i. 66). 29 says that āśrayaparāvrtti takes place for the first time in the first Stage of Bodhisattva. udgraha and vikalpa-. in v. i. This use of the term āśraya relates to the characterization of svābhāvika or dharmakāya as the āśraya of the other two kāyas (IX. and this ' āvrtti ' is explained in the commentary to mean parāvrtti. 45) with another expression. i. 49 runs as follows: pratisthā-bhoga-bījam hi nimittam bandhanasya hi j sāśrayāś cittacaitās tu badhyante ''tra sabījakāh fj For the second line. In conclusion. In this third meaning. etc. and vv. and as the result of parāvrtti.The Ratnagotravibhāga 10) The same parāvrtti of vijñānas are referred to in the next verse (v. the commentary says: on these three nimittas are bound citta—caittā accompanied by āśrayas. and not with parāvrtti. and 3) āśraya — āśrayaparāvrtti = tathāgatānām parivrtti = sarvatragâśraya = amalâśraya = anāsravadhātu = dharmakāya = buddhatva = = āryagotra = svadhātu. 54 runs as follows: akhyāna-khyānatā jñeyā asadartha-sadarthayoh / āśrayasya parāvrttir mokso ' sau kāmacāratah Jj Here āśrayaparāvrtti is defined as the non-manifestation of the unreal objects (asadartha = nimitta. etc.. e. 11) In chapter XIV. because parāvrtti means 'change of basis (from A to B)'. Furthermore the ' āśrayas ' are here to be understood as caksurvijñāna. we may say. XIX.

the disappearance of the asad-artha (inclusive of blja) signifies its returning to the reality. was no doubt acquainted with both expressions—parivrtti and parāvrtti—but the Ratna. In these two Śāstras. 72) [ 44 ] . 3) āvrtti. Dharmadharmatāvibhāga. p. 2) akhyāna. gañ kun-nas ñon-moñs-pahi chal dog cih.of the reality (khyāna of sadartha. ' tathatā ' alone manifests itself fully without obscuration. In this sense. And as the result of the ' parāvrtti ' into ' tathatā '. but also in the Vijñaptimātratā-trimśikā. 6. 4 (āśrayaparivrtter) svabhāvapraveśas tathatā' vaimalyam āgantukamala—tathatâprakhyāna—prakhyānāya'. 11. 405. including the Bodhisattvabhūmi. 1. ' āśrayaparāvrtti ' means āśrayasya bijasya tathatāyām amalâśraye parāvrttih ' . because gotra. but not with parāvrt. p. could remain before and after the enlightenment without changing its nature. 73) Bodhisattvabhūmi. and due ' Parāvrtti ' is interpreted in three ways in the Sūtrâlañkâra. The most important one is the third interpretation. Levi. These facts seem to show that the term āśrayaparāvrtti was used for the first time in the Sūtrâlamkāra (kārikā) and has gradually been fixed as a technical term of the Vijñānavāda by Asañga and Vasubandhu. 190. ' tathatā-parivrtti '. (Dharmadh)73) . 6 & 9. that is to say. to disappear (phenomenal sense). Part 1. disappearance. e. rnam-par byañ-bahi char gyur-paho. etc. * tathatāyāh parivrttih ' takes place. ed. p. by V. The commentator of the Ratna. 1) anya~ thâpti (in literal sense). On the other hand. the Lañkāvatārasūtra. being āśraya.. and the Dharmadharmatāvibhāga attributed to Maitreya. that is to say. ed. tathatā) which is a new āśraya. ' —yoginām parivrttâśrayānām sarvaklistadharma-nirbīja āśrayah parivartate* (Yogācārabhūmi. Sde-dge edition. Appendix to the Mahāyāyasūtrâlañkāra. Wogihara's edition. (gshan-gyur-pa — parāvrtti). Bhattacharya. and that before that term was introduced. 11. etc. by S. Yogācārabhūmi. e t c . could not employ the latter expression. with such expressions as 4 — dausthulyasya prahānad āśrayo 4 sya bodhisattvasya parivartate\ i asyâśyayah parivrtto bhavati. fragments. we find āśraya in combination with parivrt.. I I Manobhūmi). Tib. sā câsya niruttarā āśrayaparivrttih ' (Bodhisattvabhāmi). 1-2. respectively. Namely. p. 368. astam prayātam. and the Mahāyānasamgraha of Asañga has probably the same use of āśrayaparāvrtti along with its definition 7 4 ). 74) Mahāyānasamgraha. nirasyate. i. gañ gshan-gyi dbañ-gi Ao-bo-ñid de-ñid-kyi gñen-po skyes-na. returning (doctrinal sense). 11. and it is this ' manifestation ' of the reality that is meant by parivrtti 7 2 ). This last interpretation of āśraya and its combination with parivTtti is supported by the usage of these terms in the Yogācārabhūmi. Ri 36 b 2: gshan-gyur-pa ni. Sthiramati's commentary on the Madhyântavibhāga. 27. not only is the term āśrayaparāvrtti found in the Sūtrâlamkāra. 25-26. defining āśraya as ālayavijñāna. This supposition bears upon the authorship of the Ratna. the term āśrayaparivrtti was commonly used by the Vijñānavādins and in the Tathāgatagarbha theory.

namely: 1) phala. § 1. 3) g ft . this work seems quite consistent with the Ratna. 6) ft . 9) ffi JR. that casts various problems about their authorship. V. The text describes this bodhicitta under 12 divisions. 5) ft 3g &] . 5) abheda. 11) arthakriyā. must be someone other than Asañga or Vasubandhu 75>. 4) paryāya. in their contents. 3) svabhāva. It is the use of the six categories (sat-padârtha) beginning with svabhāva. 6) avasthāprabheda. THE WONKS ON THE TATHĀGATAGARBHA THEORY CONTEMPORARY WITH OR SUCCEEDING THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHĀGA There are many other works on the garbha theory which are never reffered to in the Ratna. As has been referred to above. and hence discussions will be mainly devoted to them in this chapter. and even their originality. and 12) ekatva (or ekadhātu). referred to above is accompanied by a prose commentary whose explanation is exactly the same as Vasubandhu's commentary on this very verse. 9) yoga. and hence is nothing but the tathāgatagarbha. the commentator of the Ratna. The Chinese insertion of one verse from the Sūtrâl. 2) g | . Especially. and is mainly based upon two Sutras. 2) hetu. and these problems are relating to the date and author of the Ratna. 7) asamklista. 8) ^ fi. 10) anarthakriyā.fiS m ? t 11) ft ft M. the Āryaśrīmālā and the Anūnatvāpūrnatvanirdeśa76). this small Śāstra is attributed to Sāramati in the Chinese Tripitaka. Except (4). — The Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra. (3) Anuttarâśrayasūtra. From its contents. As for this. This fact cannot be a fully reliable proof for the present problem but suggests the point to some extent. see Appendix I I I . all these are known only through the Chinese sources. 4) J £ & . date. 10) A. 76 ^ These terms are reconstructed from the Chinese translation which gives the 78) ft (ffi). There is another point which shows the close relationship between the Mahāyānasūtrālañkāra and the Ratna. the first three are in close relation to the Ratna. The Description of the Ultimate Reality. 7) m Ife. (4) Lañkāvatārasūtra and (5) Mahāyānaśraddhotpādaśātra. (2) Buddhagotraśāstra. Among them those to be referred to here are (1) Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra. 8) nitya.The Ratnagotravibhāga to the specialized use of the term āśrayaparivrtti. though regarded as of Indian origin and preserved in the Chinese and the Tibetan Tripitakas. The main point of doctrine in this work is the i bodhicittai which is synonymous with 'cittaprakrtV in the Ratna. 12) — ft[ 45 ] following terms: 1) ^ .

). In this case. and ' tathāgata' seeking for its authority in the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa. 80) or the distinction of prakrtisthagotra and samudānītagotra in the Ratna. did in its explanation on the ' śuddhâvasthāyām avikārârtha ([IX]-c). 3 in the Ratna.'. is called śubhâtmasukhanityapāramitā and so authorized by a quotation from the Srīmālāsūtra. and the 10 characteristics of asambheda under 5) can be traced one by one in various passages in the Ratna. is identical with verses I. with I. under 1) phala.. the text says phala means nirvānadhātu which is nothing but the dharmakāya characterized as āśrayaparivrtti. in its classification of living beings into ' sattvadhātu ' . we may say that the author of this text composed it on the basis of the Ratna. and explains it in the same way as the Ratna.. of neither origination nor destruction (anutpādânirodha). And lastly. 42-c d of the Ratna. prakrtyasamklistatva is said to be the own nature of bodhicitta. seems to have been written from the same standpoint as the commentator of the Ratna. TAKASAKI This division has a resemblance not only in its terminology but also in its contents to the 10 meanings of the gotra described in Chap. explaining that dharmadhātu is. I of the Ratna.. a verse under 7) asamklista resembles v. the text has two verses. 6) avasthāprabheda is fully identical with that in the Ratna. e. dharmâdhimukti. like ākāśadhātu. the tathāgata. 155. II. compressing and revising the form according to his own view. The remaining parts not described above seem to be taken mostly from Chapters II & IV of the Ratna. 53 & 54 of the Ratna. it explains 4 causes. a reference to the 2 sides of bodhicitta under 3) svabhāva. saying that the bodhicitta is nothing but the dharmakāya. In particular. it is possible that the latter is identical with the author of this text. a synonym of bodhicitta in its phala state. and IV of the Ratna. Under 2) hetu. as this text. II. the āryasatya or the Nirvana.. 1. with a verse containing the same idea as v. a verse referring to the śūnya and aśūnya of the gotra. ' bodhisattva '. [ 46 ] . Under 9) yoga. similes used under 10) anarthakriyā and II) arthakriyā are the same as those in Chapters 1 (among 9 illustrations). samādhi and karunā. 34 of the Ratna. in its contents. (pp.J . i. The verse in 8) nitya. and emphasizing oneness of nirvana with buddhatva. Under 3) svabhāva. the second. Besides. prajñā. saying ' śukladharmamayalaksana and vaimalyapariśuddhilaksana reminds us of the characterization of dharmakāya with prakrtiviśudhi and vaimalyaviśuddhi (p. of which the first one is identical with v.. and Sāramati to whom this work is attributed may have been the author of the commentary of the Ratna. Namely. the contents of 12) ekatva are the same as those under 'asambheda'' (X) in the Ratna. 1.. 26 ff. In 4) paryāya. unlike the Sûtralañkāra. Thus examining the contents.

2) (V) yoga includes explanations of ' dharmaratna ' and ' sañgharatna ' which appeared in Chap. like the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra. satkāyadrstipatitā. 1610. . Besides those insertions in the passages on the 10 laksanas of the garbha.. are inserted in (X) asambheda. ' ft ft ffffl '. and sometimes those passages which are in other chapters or other parts of Chap. but this work poses interesting problems for us because of its very close similarity to the Ratna.. are inserted under (IX) avikāra. 72). etc. to the beginning of the work forming the nidānaparivarta' (Chap. in most parts of the text. expounds the 10 meanings of the gotra described in the Ratna. of which the last one treats the subject of the 10 meanings of the gotra under the title: Analysis of the characteristics (laksana) (of the Tathāgatagarbha). 5) descriptions of the ' śūnya and aśūnya ' of the garbha along with the 4 kinds of sattvas.The Ratnagotravibhāga c 2. pp. 4) explanations of (VII) nitya and (VIII) acintya in Chap. are inserted under (IX) avikāra as characteristics of the dharmakāya. No. p. This attribution is rather doubtful. The Buddhagotraśāstra is another work which. and 7) "> Taisho. I). by '^C ^ft '. I (among explanations on the 3 svabhāvas of the gotra. II of the Ratna. important changes of arrangement in this work are 6) shift of the deśanāprayojana ' which is at the end of Chap. according to the Chinese tradition. The whole text consists of 4 chapters. is attributed. tr. I in the Ratna. 66-72) are inserted under (IX) avikāra. by ' j f f$f\ . It is translated into Chinese by Paramârtha. II (under (VI) vrtti) and in Chap. I in the Ratna. to Vasubandhu 7?) and highly esteemed among Chinese Buddhists throughout the centuries as a representative work on the garbha theory. but sometimes doctrines based upon the Vijñānavāda are interwoven among passages. 3) descriptions regarding Buddhology of the trikāya—theory which is taught in two places in the Ratna.The Buddhagotraśāstra. The main differences between the two works as mentioned in the previous paragraph are as follows: 1) 9 illustrations of the garbha taken from the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra along with the explanations of the 9 kinds of defilements and of the 3 svabhāvas of the gotra (Ratna. viz. I of the Ratna. Explanations under each ' laksana ' are in most cases quite equivalent to those in the Ratna. in Chap. even in their wording. but with the same terminology and with explanations much similar to those of the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra. are inserted between lines.

we have 3 which are identical with vv. of the 5 meanings of the garbha taken from the Srīmālāsūtra. some of which are based upon the Vijñānavāda. of the 3 natures of the garbha taught in (I) svabhāva.J. the Ratna. For these. Throughout these passages. Thus examining. which is never quoted in the Ratna. So it is not impossible to imagine that the Ratna. of the āśrayaparivrtti. 21-23) and Chaps. one Tibetan version of the Ratna. Annals of the Nihon Bukkyogaku-kyokai. the name of the source is not mentioned. 154 & 155 of the Ratna. the text expresses the doctrines of the Vijñānavāda such as 4 3-fold nihsvabhāva ' ' 3-fold svabhāva ' and i 5-dharmas '. of the attainment of the Buddhahood by the icchantikas (in [IV] karman). III-V of the Ratna. has a subtitle: Sandhimocana Mahāyāna-uttara-śāstra. I. Thus the Buddhagotraśāstra is based upon two works. and the first one is said to be taken from the Sandhinirmocanasūtra. is also called ' Sandhinirmocana'. in passages other than those referred to above. 51. and 78) "phe Ratna. and one identical with v. An interesting fact is that among these quoted verses. IX. Tsukinowa's information. (K. except for the first one. for which the source is probably the Yogācārabhūmiśāstra. of the 6 meanings of avikāra. 1935). 7. etc. These passages show the more developed doctrines. Furthermore. (See Introduction. [ 48 ] . According to Prof. and nirvana (in [V] yoga). Japanese. as far as the garbha theory is concerned. 23 of the Sūtrâlañkāra which is preserved in the parallel passage in the Chinese version of the Ratna. along with its prose commentary. TAKASAKĪ shift of the explanation of the 3 meanings of the term tathāgatagarbha to Chapter III with detailed explanation. dharmakāya. Tsukinowa. Another point of interest is the use of the Anuttarâśrayasūtra in the Buddhagotraśāstra. but there is no doubt about their being taken from the Ratna. but arranging them more systematically by adding the author's own opinion. This author's opinion appears in descriptions of the ' 5 dosas ' and the 4 5 gunas ' in relation to the purpose of the teaching. as an authority. pp. These two points show that the purpose of this text is to describe the buddhagotra only from its gotra aspect but not from 4 aspects as in the Ratna. this work was composed by borrowing many sentences from the Ratna. Why such a statement is made is not clear 78>. It also indicates that this work was composed after the Ratna. This relates to the fact that the text is lacking those passages on the 4 aspects of gotra (Ratna. has a similar character of being * sandhi—nirmocana ' in its position among the Mahāyāna Buddhism. VI § 1 & 2). we are led to imagine that. of the ' 5 laksanas and 5 gunas ' of dharmakāya as one of trikāya (in [IX] avikāra). vol. though the verse is not found in any edition of that Sūtra. " On the Uttaratantra". the text is written in prose except for a few verses which are quotations.

81) I n Chinese. but their description can be traced word by word in the 79) p o r these problems on the Buddhagotraśāstra discussed above. This standpoint is somewhat similar to that of the Sūtrâlañkāra and hence the author was probably a Vijñānavādin who had a tendency similar to that of Yasubandhu. respectively. Furthermore. jf> pp. being a work on the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. one may notice in this Sūtra. and the Buddhagotraśāstra. 689). Tohoku. t h e pure ' faith i n t h e B u d d h a as often referred to in t h e Ratna. respectively. At a glance. I I I . ^ •$£ p p . Furthermore we have to put the Anūttarâśrayasūtra between the Ratna. Hattori. while C h a p . The term anuttarâśraya8 2 ) seems to mean the Tathāgata that possesses these 4 aspects. the central part of this Sūtra consists of 4 chapters whose titles are II. N o . V I I I Parlndana—parivarta is a n enlargement of t h e conclusion of t h e Adbhutasūtra i n accordance w i t h enlargement of the central p a r t . IV. see M. the Sūtra emphasizes the inconceivability of these 4 subjects. and V. p. the Chinese attribution of this text to Vasubandhu seems quite reasonable. 80) The original of C h a p . 688. vol. at the end of each chapter. we should next examine the Anuttarâśrayasūtra 7 9 ) .The Ratnagotravibhāga ^ke Yogācārabhūmiśāstra. 1955. a n d t h e core of t h e tathâgatagarbha t h e o r y lies in its ekayāna theory. To solve this problem. Tathāgatadhātu-parivarta. V I I is a k i n d of eulogy on the B u d d h a (buddhastotra) a n d Chap. " Busshoron no Ichi—kosatsu "' (Japanese). but a doubt arises about its date because of its being later than the Ratna. which quotes the Sūtrâlañkāra. Tathāgataguna-p. Tathāgatakriyā-p. N a m e l y . As far as this point is concerned. 160 ff. 319. j{\\ < 3$. respectively 8 1 ) . %[i Pfś. Bukkyoshigaku. Leaving aside the first and the last two chapters which form its introduction and conclusion. ) This term is restored from the Chinese * 3PīÇ _fc. & #U ^K •=p 82 p p .e. N o s . and trying to combine both theories. a similarity of its chapter divisions to those of the Ratna. These are quite identical with the 4 aspects of gotra described in the Ratna. a n d whose main subject is t h e a d m i r a t i o n of merits of t h e S t ū p a worship as t h e highest observance of Buddhists. Taisho. Tathāgatabodhi—p. t h e S t ū p a worship a n d the eulogy on t h e B u d d h a h a d originally taken place a m o n g a group of B u d d h i s t from which t h e M a h ā y ā n i s t c o m m u n i t y came i n t o existence. respectively 8°). i. IV.. § 3. T h e connection of t h e tathāgatagarbha theory w i t h t h e S t ū p a worship a n d t h e eulogy on t h e B u d d h a is n o t a merely mechanical and accidental connection a t all.. ^JJ \fâ p p . flX '• [ 49 ] .The Anuttarâśrayasūtra. is t h e Adbhutasūtra whose versions are available in Tibetan a n d Chinese as well ( T i b . I . b u t i t shows t h e existence of a n essential interrelation among t h e m . .

21. p. 22. 470c. Taisho 16. On the other hand. Namely. the six subjects starting with (V) yoga among the 10 meanings of ' gotra ' in the Ratna. 469 c. the Sūtra mentions the 180 āvenikadharmas including the 80 anuvyañjanas which are not in the Ratna. RGV. Tathāgataguna—parivarta. 475 c. Taisho.. 16-17). Although (9) āvenika has no equivalent passage in the Ratna... 16.I Ratna. of which (3) paripantha is included under (III) phala in case of the Ratna.5. as a kind of sutralization of the latter. 83) Ratna. (4) phala. (8) nitya. A passage on the meaning of gotra being sadāyatanaviśesa taken from the Sadāyatanasūtra (Taisho 16 p. whose idea is fundamentally identical with (I) svabhāva of ' bodhi ' in the Ratna. 801 b.9-25. Besides these similarities with the Ratna. I. 469 b. p. This fact does not show that the Ratna. ft ft fw . except for (9) āvenika. while the last six (nos... but quite to the contrary. as if they were its own sentences. This is actually a mixture of the 10 meanings of4 gotra ' and the 8 meanings of ' bodhi ' in the Ratna. 84) fe . but under the chapter on ' bodhi ' . IV. (2)-(4) are identical with (II) hetu and (III) phala among the 10 meanings of ' gotra ' in the Ratna. (5) karman. a passage on anutpādānirodhatā of the Tathāgata taken from the Jñānālokālañkārasūtra (p. it seems to show that this Sūtra was composed after the Ratna. but utilized in the Buddhagotra84). p. [ 50 ] . 476 b-c. a stronger factor which shows that this Sūtra is an imitation of the Ratna. similar to that in the Ratna.8-9.17-18. the Sūtra refers to ' āśrayaparivritti ' with its 4 characteristics which are not in the Ratna. For instance: (Chap. = Anuttarâśraya 473 c. (3) paripantha. Its ten divisions are (1) svabhāva.h 1S $ S . RGV.3. 5-10). 55. in the explanation of (1) svabhāva.J . 24. 2. but names for the 32 mahāpurusalaksanas are identical with those mentioned in the Ratna. This hypothesis will be proven upon examining the contents of the Sūtra. are included in the chapter on tathāgatadhātu in this Sūtra but with a slight difference in arrangement and wording. It is only the chapter on Tathāgatakriyā that differs entirely from the Ratna. (2) hetu. imitated the structure of this Sūtra or borrowed such an idea from this Sūtra.. respectively. As to Chap. (6) yoga. Taisho. However. in its prose commentary on v. p. This Sūtra uses a categorization with respect to the characteristics of gotra or dhātu. TAKASAK. are identical with the last five subjects among the 8 meanings of' bodhi ' in the Ratna. 31. 23 & 24 8 3 ) . II) 1. 6-10). (7) vrtti. is that this Sūtra refers to certain passages which are quotations from other Sutras in the Ratna. (9) āvenika and (10) acintya. its idea is taught here and there. 22. 12. in its contents.. 470 c.

RGV.16-27. a passage on the penetration of tathāgatajñāna into the living beings taken from the Tathāgatopattisambhavanirdeśa of the Avatamsaka ( p .8-9). 471 6. 5. 24. 6. 28. pp. RGV. etc. a passage on the inconceivability of dhātu taken from the same Sūtra (p. 3. 470 a. p.19-31. 469 c.The Ratnagotravibhāga 3. pp. a passage on the Icchantikas taken from the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa (p. 26. 14. amuktajña. 22. a passage on the inconceivability of tathāgatakriyā taken from the Dhāranīśvararājasūtra (p. reshaping its contents into the frame of sūtra style and keeping !ts stress on the bodhi aspect. being an authority for the Triple Jewel taken from the Dhāranīśvararājasūtra (p. pp. RGV. 471 c. 10. 11-12). p. (Chap. RGV. 9-50. 7-48. p. 15. 40. 16-41. the Anuttarâśrayasūtra is clearly a composition based upon the Rotna. 12. a passage on the 3 epithets of the Tathāgata. 470 a.3). 4696-c. 4. 472 a. a description of the Buddha. a simile of the Vaidūrya stone taken from the Sāgaramatipariprcchā (p. p. Ill) 12. a passage on those who are proud of their conception of śūnyatā taken from the Kāśyapaparivarta (p. p. and aparāntakotinistha taken from the Daśabhūmikasūtra (p. 49. r si ] . 16. real and unreal. RGV. viz. 10). 28. RGV. 13). 471 a.1-4).2-5).5). 470 c. 2-6. ātma.3-4). 30. a passage on dhātu being āśraya of all dharmas. sukha. 73. V) 17. 9. pp. 49. p. ākāśadhātuparyavasāna. 470 b. 470 a—6. a passage on tathāgatagarbha covered with millions of defilements taken from the Srīmālāsūtra (p. a parable of a householder with respect to the Bodhisattva's compassion taken from the Sāgaramatipariprcchā (p. 10-14). which is the highest basis {anuttarâśrayd). RGV. nitya) taken from the Śrīmālāsūtra (p. 470 c. 13. RGV. 79. 476 b. (Chap. RGV. RGV. 47. RGV. 5-9). RGV. 469 6. p. 472 a.16). acintya. 18). RGV. his teaching and disciples. pp. taken from the Śrīmālāsūtra (p. p.7). 7. a passage on the 4 gunapāramitās (śubha. 32. 1-2). 11. p. a passage on dharmakāya endowed with the Buddha's properties w are avinirbhāga. a passage on the 3 states of dhātu (avasthāprabheda) taken from the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa (p. p. taken from the Srīmālāsūtra (p. RGV. a passage on cittaprahrîi and āgantukakleśa taken from the same Sūtra (p. 8. RGV. dharmadhātuparama.469 6. Thus.

which has. and the Ratna. i. in turn. p. pp. but it was not intentional nor as clear. 469 b-c = RGV. 41. One is ' ālayavijñāna' and the other is 'gotra'. 31. .e. 55. ft M ! £ . 806 6 ($£ $ | ± 16-41. while interpreting a verse from the Mahāyāna—abhidharmasūtra (Anādikāliko dhātuh) which is quoted also in the Ratna. 806 6 (i\\ $$ _L 13-15 (a commentary passage). This supposition will be supported by the fact that among Chinese translations of the Mahāyānasamgrahabhāsya of Vasubandhu. 7. Attribution of the Buddhagotra to Vasubandhu will be a subsidiary proof of the fact that the Ratna. some insertion between lines. the latter was a great and respected scholar of the Vijñānavāda. p. TAKASAKI But what was the intention of the author in composing this * Sūtra' ? This Sūtra is quoted only in the Buddhagotra. it was probably some one in the circle to which Paramârtha had belonged or rather Paramârtha himself who composed these Sūtra and Śāstra as authorities for the propagation of his unique doctrine. and hence it was not desirable for the Vijñānavādins to use the Ratna. pp. If we may surmise so. p. [ 52 ] . 259 c-260 a = AĀS. 11-50. 812 (#H M _ h ft $ S nft. 469 c = RGV. p. It was after Vasubandhu that the combination again took place. pp.) = AÂS. 2) p. was not written by Asañga or Vasubandhu. The latter interpretation is identical with the Ratna. seems to have tried to purify its standpoint on the garbha theory. Paramârtha's translation gives two meanings for ' dhātu'. . p. 16-17 (a quotation from the Sadāyatanasūtra). a combination of the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. ) = AÂS. 4) p.13-73. the garbha theory is inserted only in Paramârtha's translation 86>. and both are translated into Chinese by Paramârtha 85>. 40. while the orthodox Vijñānavādins like Vasubandhu have gradually deepened their theory on the side of pure Vijñānavāda. . p. Paramârtha's translation of the Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya of Vasubandhu (Taisho.J. but intentionally. Of course. 1595) also quotes the AĀS (Vol.6 (a part of a quotation from the Jñānālokālañkārasūtra). p. As 85) Quotations of the Anuttarâśraya in the Buddhagotraśāstra are as follows: . ) = AĀS. But the quotation is found neither in the Tibetan version nor in Hsūan-chuang's translation of the same text. ft H? I S . p. as an authority. tathāgatagarbha (Taisho. (77. 12. the combination of both theories was already traced in the Sūtrâlañkāra to some extent.. 49. A key to solve this question as well as the question of the author of the Buddhagotra seems to lie in the hands of Paramârtha.. Anūnatvāpūrnatvanirdeśa). More interesting is the fact that the quotation is much more similar to the Ratna. 469 c = RGV. 31. than to the Anuttarâśraya. 469 6 = RGV.. . 156 c). 469 6 = RGV. No.5 (a quotation from the 3) p.8). a quotation from the Sāgaramati-pariprcchā). 86 * For example.

cannot be placed after that year and probably lies in the 4th cent. A. even in those of Vasubandhu. [ 53 ] . _ The Lañkāvatāra and the Mahāyānaśraddhotpāda—śāstra.D. is the expression of faith in the Buddha Amitāyus towards the end of the treatise. to which we will refer at the end of this introduction.D. This is another Sūtra not known to the Ratna. and the Vijñānavāda are prominent. and it is in one sense the most systematic exposition of its kind. Another point which seems to be under the influence of the Ratna. As far as the present problem is concerned. the date of the Ratna.D. the Lañkāvatārasūtra and the Mahāyānaśraddhotpādaśāstra. but in China it was respected by the followers of the Avatamsaka school as well. Some scholars wanted to solve this contradiction by regarding the author as another Aśvaghosa different from the famous poet. is its establishment of tathatā as the ultimate principle that is the basis of both klista and aklista elements. One point of similarity to the Ratna. This latter opinion is not 87) According to old Chinese Catalogues on the Tripitaka. the famous poet contemporary with the King Kaniska. It is attributed to Aśvaghosa.The Ratnagotravibhāga other examples of this combination we have two works. its doctrine is purely of the garbha theory in spite of its use of the term ālayavijñāna. but now missing. It is impossible that such an old poet is the author of this work containing such a new theory. The unique point of these two works with respect to the garbha theory is their identification of the tathāgatagarbha with the ālayavijñāna— an identification which has never been seen in previous works. because of its exposition of the cittamātra and garbha theory. there is no difference even if we accept this tradition. and these two are combined under the theory of cittamātra taught in the Avatamsaka. This is quite significant for determing the fate of the garbha theory. 8 7 ). Therefore. As for the Śraddhotpādaśāstra.. That is why the Lañkāvatāra is regarded by modern scholars as a work produced after Vasubandhu. The Lañkāvatāra is actually a collection of various theories among Mahāyāna Buddhism. Later Vijñānavādins regarded the Lañkāvatāra as one of the authorities. among which the garbha theory. However. It reminds us of the samalā tathatā and nirmalā tathatā of the Ratna. (prior to this translation) there was 6aid to have been another translation done by Dharmaksema (fig ^Sg g||j) between 412-433 A. but some are trying to prove that this work is of Chinese origin in the absence of Sanskrit and Tibetan versions. and it was translated for the first time into Chinese in 433 A. there is some doubt about its authorship. ç 4.

IN MAHĀYĀNA BUDDHISM § 1. saying that the text was exposed in order to establish the existence (astitva) of buddhadhātu so that one could avoid the faults created by the theory of ' śūnyam sarvam ' described in the ' previous ' Sutras (I. 83-86). (Taisho.. no.The Ratna. On the Aryacandrottaradārikāvyākarana—nāma-mahāyāna-sūtra {Japanese). in contrast with the Prajñāpāramitā taken as the * pūrva ' exposition. criticizing the latter. Takata. The second translation was made by Siksānanda who is said to have come from Khotan. As I received this information only recently. as a Criticism on the Prajñāpāramitā. No. criticize the Prajñāpāramitā ? As a matter of terminology.D. the Ratna. But one difficulty in accepting this opinion is how to explain the existence of two versions of this treatise in China. . in its contents. signify the Prajñāpāramitā and the like. The problem is still under consideration. See N. in the history of Mahāyāna Buddhism in the sense " one that comes after the Prajñāpāramitā. but it is at least sure 88 that this work shows the final development of the garbha theory \ VI. calls itself the ' uttara-tantra '. At the end of Chapter I. Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies {īndogaku Bukkyogaku Kenkyū) Vol. V. the Ratna. the subtitle: Uttaratantra denotes the position of the Ratna.J . emphasizes ' asti' in contrast with the ' śūnya ' of the Prajñāpāramitā. the Ratna. detailed examination of this Sūtra could not be pursued up to now. 1. the later exposition. regards itself as the real successor to the ' śūnya-vāda ' of the Prajñāpāramitā declaring that the real meaning of ' śūnyatā ' is to know the ' astitva' of the Germ having within itself both the ' śūnya' of defilements and the ' aśūnya"1 of 88) There is another Sñtra which exposes the garbha theory and bears a resemblance to the Ratna. 480) Its composition seems to be later in date than the Ratna. according to the Tibetan version." On what point does then the Ratna. etc. is Arya— candrottaradārikā-vyākarana (Tohoku no. It is clear that the Sutras which expose the theory of ' śūnyam sarvam ' with similes of megha. TAKASAKI untenable since. But this ' asti-vāda ' does not mean the negation of 'śūnya-vāda\ Rather. being translated by Paramârtha. r si i . 1957 (pp. There is no work which refers to this treatise in Indian literature. expresses its purpose of discourse. 14. Namely. Its name. this work is in the same position as the Buddhagotra. svapna. 191) and it was translated into Chinese in 591 A. and that. this Ratna. THE POSITION OF THE RATNA. 158-9). and there were probably a great deal of influences from the Ratna.

and hence the word ' śūnya' implies ' aśūnya ' of this Germ. some become the ' nāstika ' and never believe in the existence of the dharmakāya but rather abuse such a reality. especially the last three of them. man will have the fault of ' ātmasneha '. This point becomes clear after examining the 5 faults described in the Ratna. but to its short or unclear explanation. Namely. which forms the 4th of the 5 faults. As the Prajñāpāramitā was lacking in a clear explanation of such a kind. These two sides of 'prajñā' are shown in another passage by the terms avikalpajñāna and tatprsthalabdha (jñāna). This seems to be the reason for maintaining ' ātmasneha ' as the last of the 5 faults and ' maitrī ' as the remedy for it. respectively. We may take this statement as an eX planation of ' śūnyam sarvam '. The former have a kind of ' abhūtagrāha '. identical with the Absolute. This [ 55 ] . some regard ' śūnya ' as something substantial. This is exactly what is aimed at by the Prajñāpāramitā. Here the term ' laukika ' signifies the function of jñāna to make known the reality to the ' worldly ' beings. as represented by 4 prajñā' and ' jñāna '. and characterized as lokottara and laukika. karunā or maitrī. the commentary mentions ' jñāna '. the aim of the Ratna.. ' prajñā ' has two functions. to negate the ' abhūtagrāha '. 75). Thus the criticism is directed not to the doctrine of the Prajñāpāramitā itself. Unless this function of jñāna operates. emphasizes karunā along with prajñā as associating inseparably with each other for the acquisition of the Buddhahood. the Ratna.The Ratnagotra\ibhāga the Buddha 's Qualities. and to establish the ' bhūtadharma '. and hence is based upon the Compassion. the 3rd fault: ' abhūtagrāha ' denotes the ' Ātmavāda ' of Heretics or the ' sarvâstivāda ' of the Abhidharma and is said to be removed by ' prajñā '. Here ' jñāna ' has the character of criticizing ' prajñā ' in the sense of affirming the existence of the reality undone by i prajñā \ But the text seems to regard this ''jñāna ' as one side of ''prajñā''. However.e. is to remove such faults in order to make known the real meaning of ' śūnya-vāda '. as a natural outflow of ''prajñā '. on the other hand. many people are likely to misunderstand the meaning of ' śūnya ': on the one hand. 154—5). the latter have the fault of ' bhūtadharmâpavāda '. respectively. The text calls both kind of people those of ' śūnyatāviksiptacitta ' (P. assumes for that reason many faults among the followers of the prajñāpāramitā. In other words. and. for the world. that is to say. Thus the Ratna. when this ' prajñā ' is stated to be the intuition of ' śūnyam sarvam '. As the remedy against this fault. This is nothing but a function of providing benefits for others. i. therefore. (I. defining ' sarvam ' as ' sarvakleśa ' from which all phenomena arise and which excludes the Germ inseparably associated with the Buddha's Qualities.

owing to the practice of karunā. viz. 89) [ 56 ] . This is a kind of revolution in Buddhist thought. the function of prajñā (or prajñāpāramitā) is to establish the correct notions of anitya. etc. adhimukti. sukha. Of them. e. p. And the Bodhisattva is said to be the only one who practises both prajñāpāramitā and mahākarunā and who. these prohibited terms are used as attributes of the dharmakāya but in the reverse order. i. ed. duhkha. samādhi. XV-1: Acintyā kalpasahasrakotyo yāsām pramānam na kadāci vidyate / prāptā mayā esa tadagrabodhir dharmamca deśemy ahu nityakālam // (Bibl. and most scriptures. while that of the latter is the establishment of the dharmakāya to be the ' nityapāramitā ' continuing as far as the limit of time (aparântakotinistha). nitya. In the Prajñāpāramitā. teach the notions of anitya. Another important point to be noted here is the positive expression of the dharmakāya to be the śubha-ātma-sukha-nityagunapāramitā. 323). another expression of the same idea of ' dhātvastitva ' being explained through the characters of the gotra as 4 śūnya ' and i aśūnya '. while here the same term is used for the function of establishing the dharmakāya expressed in the positive way. including the Prajñāpāramitā. These four terms. which declares the eternity of the Buddha89>. Also. ātman and śubha are usually regarded as wrong notions with respect to the phenomena. and mahākarunā. as the cause for attaining the dharmakāya. or in the garbha theory in general. never afflicts the world. the text mentions four kinds of practice. in this Ratna.J . never remains in the Nirvana (apratisthitanirvāna). the ātmavāda of heretics and the like. 27-35) Namely. understands the prajñāe. viz. Saddh. as has been examined above. P. but. but it is. (pp. it is said that the result of the former practice is the establishment of the dharmakāya to be the ' ātmapāramitā ' extending as far as the limit of space (ākāśadhātu—paryavasāna). Special attention is to be paid to the point that the ātmapāramitā is said to be the result of the practice of ' prajñāpāramitā. while the practice of mahākarunā is said to be the remedy for any selfishness whose typical form is found in the Pratyekabuddha. Buddh. the phenomena. Here we see the stress lies more on the karunā than on the prajñā and this standpoint relates to the ekayāna theory whose origin is in the Saddharmapundarīka. anātman and aśubha as the correct view (aviparyāsa) with respect to the dharmas.. TAKASAKI point is also mentioned in the explanation of the process from cause to effect with respect to the Germ. owing to the practice of prajñā. prajñāpāramitā and mahākarunā are relevant to the present discussion. prajñāpāramitā. In contrast. The practice of prajñāpāramitā is said to be the remedy for all kinds of substantial views.g. It seems to show that the Ratna.

Don dam yañ-dag-hphags) on this point. p. by Hsûan-Chuang (Taisho. 90>. (Japanese") Journal of Indian & Buddhist Studies. 85 f. prajñāpāramitā as consisting and jñāna or of prajñā and karunā. Vol. while the Prajñāpāramitā emphasized prajñā as the highest 'practice '. In clarifying such a structure of prajñāpāramitā. Concretely speaking. while the latter signifies what is attained by the former. in other words. op. What is criticized is ' prajñā. while jñāna is the knowledge which forms the contents of bodhi. This is the Vijñānavāda whose authority is sought for in the Sandhinirmocanasūtra. 16. This distinction is of fundamental character throughout the history of Buddhism. pp. . However. Literally and originally. A critical approach to this subject will be one of the big themes in future studies of Buddhist thought. Taisho. (Lamotte. in spite of its similarity to the Sarvāstivāda in its analytical method. Tokyo. pp. that of Mahāyāna Buddhism may be characterized as ' practical'. such an analysis was made for the first time by Pali Abhidhamma Buddhism. Lamotte (1935). " Prajñā and Jñāna ". sought for its basic term in jñāna as the Sarvāstivāda did. Cf. This astivāda was negated by the Prajñāpāramitā and there has been established the śūnyavāda of the MahāBoth terms. Tib. G. Nihsvabitāvalaksanaparivarta.). and in primitive Buddhism there seems to have been no strict distinction in the use of these terms. the Sarvāstivāda laid stress on jñāna in which the function of prajñā is implied. 676) Chap. (Chapitre VII. the Ratna. which changed the character of jñāna to its ground. In contrast with the logical approach of Abhidharma Buddhism. 693 c-697 c. there was taught the doctrine of the āryasatya and on its basis the astivāda of the Abhidharma has been developed. V. 90 J [ 57 ] . is a successor of the Prajñāpāramitā in its introduction of the idea of parârthasampatti into jñāna.The Ratna. I I . 2. and the Vijñānāvāda. Sasaki. No. 91) Sandhinirmocanasūtra tr. by E. No. which. negation of the wrong view and manifestation of prajñā o f the reality. as mentioned above. Diagramatically speaking. prajñā is the intellect or intuition by means of which the Buddha attained the bodhi.f p. the former has a somewhat functional character. prajñā and jñāna are of a great significance in Buddhism since its beginning. 437-439. But a revolutionary point of Mahāyāna Buddhism in comparison with Abhidharma Buddhism is in the emphasis laid on * parārthasampatti'. and the Vijñānavāda. 30-31).The Ratnagotravibhāga paramitā in its two aspects. deserves to be called the successor to the Prajñāpāramitā. The Sūtra says 9 1 ): By the first Turning of the Wheel of Doctrine. § 2. There is another system in Mahāyāna Buddhism that criticizes the Prajñāpāramitā in a manner similar to the way done by the Ratna. which opens with a question by Paramārthasamudayagata Bodhisattva (Tib. in turn. not accompanied by karunā '. or ' prajñā which does not work out in the world as jñāna '. This prajñā of the Prajñāpāramitā and consequently of Nāgārjuna was again analyzed by the Vijñānavāda. ed. This statement is placed towards the end of the chapter. 65 f. and hence on karunā. but this prajñā included both aspects of jñāna and prajñā. cit. ' Sandhinirmocana' on account of ' nihsvabhāva' is the main topic of this chapter. but there was a variant in each school in the usage of both terms.

not acquainted with the Vijñānavāda at all. e. we have already observed in the Sūtrâlañkāra the co-existence of the garbha theory and the doctrine of trisvabhāva and ālayavijñāna. although it criticizes the PrajñāCf. at least on the commentary. Preface. cit.. The quotation of a verse from the Mahāyāna-abhidharmasūtra (anādikāliko dhātuh—) also shows the influence of the Vijñānavāda on the Ratna. E d g e r t o n B H S D i e . v . This standpoint is precisely held in common with the Ratna. is in one sense a sandhinirmocana on account of prajñā94) and the Sandhinirmocana may be termed the uttaratantra as the ultimate exposition of the śūnyavāda described from the two sides. and it is the last and the highest Turning of the Wheel of Doctrine. As the justification for this statement. 67). has many authorities for its doctrine that are. op. Chap. may be observed in the fact that there is no quotation from the Sandhinirmocana. Furthermore the Ratna. For example the Prajñāpāramitā teaches the nihsvabhāvatā in regard to the sarvadharma. 94 ^ See Note on Introduction. to analyze and clarify the significance of the śūnya—vada.ASAKI yāna. or āśrayaparivrtti and the six categories beginning with svabhāva for describing the ultimate reality. the Sūtra continues: The ultimate doctrine of the Mahāyāna is no doubt taught in the Prajñāpāramitā. These facts seem to tell us that the garbha theory. the Disclosure of the Knot or Secret Doctrine.J.and śūnya-vāda is now done by the Sandhinirmocana. in turn. 93) 92) [ 58 ] . samdhi. of śūnya and aśūnya. Such a community of historical background brought the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda to assume a similar appearance of ' astivāda ' and to have common doctrines to a great extent. cit. the Sūtra is called ' sandhi-nirmocana '. He refers to the source of this trisvabhāva in the Prajñāpāramitā {op. Also. as has been referred to above.. i. In spite of such interrelations of both theories. the Ratna. s. The purpose of the Sandhinirmocana is to explain this meaning of nihsvabhāva ' in a clear manner '. & samdhā. but its way of exposition is ' with an esoteric meaning. Indeed. samdhāya. pp. from the Vijñānavāda. The amalgamation of both asti. 3. and lastly resulted in the amalgamation of both theories. V. are. the unique standpoint of the Ratna. or ' with a hidden intention ' 92>. but what is meant by this nihsvabhāvatā is not so clear. the Sūtra establishes the doctrine of the 3 meanings with respect to the nihsvabhāvatā as the basis of the trisvabhāva theory93>. Avikalpajñāna and tatprsthalabdha (jñāna). VII. 14-16). Just because of this standpoint. terms borrowed by the Ratna. IAK. that is to say. the Ratna. Lamotte. cannot be regarded as a work of the Vijñānavada. 3 (p.. nor any use of terms like trisvabhāva or ālayavijñāna: hence. Along this line. in its criticism of the Prajñāpāramitā.

When the Sandhinirmocana established the theory of trisvabhāva as the result of the analysis of nihsvabhāvatā taught in the Prajñāparamitā. or as the basis (āśraya) of phenomena. but as something that manifests kleśa. [ 59 ] . the Ratna. in turn. The starting point of the garbha theory lies in the doctrine of ' cittaprakrti and āgantukakleśa' and the stress is laid on the purification of the mind which is regarded as the attainment of the Enlightenment. but there is no explanation of the reason why such unreal kleśas are originated from the cittaprakrti. the emphasis lies on the identification of gotra or garbha with the dharmakāya and any difference of the garbha or the sattvadhātu from the dharmakāya is rather neglected. never uses the expression of cittamātra. is named ' âlayavijñāna'. in its possession of many Sutras. even for the Vijñānavāda. the Vijñānāvada seeks for the process towards its realization in the acquisition of ' jñāna ' as a result of the conversion of ālayavijñāna. its analytical method found the origin of the nature of sattvadhātu covered with kleśas in vijñāna as the function of distinguishing object from subject. not as pure cittaprakrti. of the real meaning of śūnyatā. karman and janman from cittaprakrti by the force of ' ayoniśomanasikāra' is set forth. but it was the Abhidharma based upon the śūnyavāda of the Prafñāpāramitā. in the passage where the origination of the 3 impurities (samkleśa) of kleśa. is a completely different system from the Vijñānavāda by origin? and. In fact. we may expect the development of the cittamātra theory as exposed in the Avatamsaka or the Lañkâvatāra. exposes its doctrine always from the viewpoint of the dharmakāya or bodhi. This is a weak point of the garbha theory. This cittaprakrti is unconditionally identified with bodhi or dharmakāya and is called ' dhātu ' or ' gotra \ From such a theory of cittaprakrti. the Vijñānavāda was really a successor of the Abhidharma Buddhism. The passage referred to above is used for explaining how the cittaprakrti is real and how the āgantukakleśa is unreal.The Ratnagotravibhāga nāramitā. Nevertheless. On the other hand. or manifestation As regards bodhi. In its methodology. and with this ' jñāna ' acquired. what is done by the Vijñānavāda is the investigation of this very point of difference between sattvadhātu and the Buddha. the ultimate purpose is the realization of bodhi. and ' citta '. In other words. as shown in the title of one scripture. we find a germ of such a theory in the Ratna. Of course. and hence deserves to be called ' mahāyānâbhidharma ' . The term cittamātra is replaced by and explained more concretely as ' vijñaptimātra ' . Thus the standpoint of the Vijñānavāda is the analysis of phenomena from the viewpoint of the sattvadhātu and thereby it stands in a clear contrast with the garbha theory which. somewhat precedes the Vijñānavāda.

namely 'prakrtistha' and *samudānīta ' . failure to introduce the ālayavijñāna made the garbha theory weak in its explanation of the gotra as the substratum (ādhāra) of Samsāra or the phenomenal world.A&AK. in the period when the Vijñānavāda had formed an independent school as the rival of the Mādhyamika. as seen in the Lahkāvatāra and the Mahāyānaśraddhotpāda. This is the reason why the Ratna. the garbha theory was no doubt of an independent character. This point is accepted in the Ratna. One thing to be added here is the similarity of the Ratna. it no longer remains. never introduced the doctrine of ālayavijñāna. At its starting point. 4 avihalpajñāna ' can realize itself in the world. and why the Ratna. gotra involves two sides. [ 60 ] . and kjñānâpti ' is said to be the perfect manifestation (pari-vrtti) of such ' āśraya \ while in the Vijñānavāda. Furthermore. Because of this weak point. was the first systematized and at the same time the last independent and pure exposition of the garbha theory. In other words.j . in spite of its acceptance of the Vijñānavāda in its interpretation of4 jñāna * and others. XAJS. too) to the Upanisadic philosophy in the expression of 95) According to Paramārtha.. probably influenced by the tathāgatagarbha theory. Thus this 4 jñāna ' is characterized as ' laukika ' ' prsthalabdha ' . (and the Vijñānavāda. different from the Vijñānavāda. is that the gotra.1 it is said. e. though being anādikāliko dhātuh and being āśraya of sarvadharma. however. preventing the former from establishing an independent school of its own. but of an essential character. is regarded as fully identical with bodhi or dharmakāya. i. the garbha theory in its later development could not but introduce the doctrine of ālayavijñāna. could remain thereby. i. while ālayavijñāna can never be identical with 4 avikalpajñāna ' and in 4 jñānâpti ' . and hence has the same structure as 4 avikalpajñāna ' and 4 tatprsthalabdha '. being 4anādikāliko dhātuh'' and the ' āśraya of sarvadharma ' . ālayavijñāna. e. ālayavijñāna is said to have a mixed character of real and unreal (JfiÇ -%£ 7(\\ ' o )• This characterization seems to be his unique interpretation of that term. change of basis from ālayavijñāna to jñāna. owing to which function the basic prajñā. and there was an attempt at identification. This absorption seems to have taken place not so long after the Ratna. however. At the same time. The only difference. of garbha with ālayavijñāna. and ' jñānâpti ' is said to be the result of the revolution (parāvrtti) of āśraya. such an innovation of the Vijñānavāda resulted in the absorption of the garbha theory into the Vijñānavāda. in the field of the pure garbha theory. otherwise it cannot. and the Ratna. always remains as a principle of ' samklistadharma ' and is never regarded as identical with dharmakāya 9 5 ) . the * vijñaptimātratā' can be understood.

London. it seems quite necessary to investigate such mutual influences and interrelations between the Brahmanical thought and Mahāyāna Buddhism. S. 52 = Bhagavadgitā XIII. This subject is. Still it is not impossible to suppose that there was an influence from the Upanisadic thought for the astivāda of the Ratna. the text consisting of the basic Kārikās and a commentary on it in verse and prose. At the same time. 3) Completion of the present form of the Ratna. it may not be useless here to have in conclusion a summarized consideration of the date and authorship of the Ratna. i. 90-91). Murti has appeared on this field of comparative study. viz. Vijñānavāda and Vedānta.D. (The Central Philosophy of Buddhism. 96) A verse of the Ratna. To clarify the historical and social background of the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda. and hence at early 5th cent.T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga the Absolute with positive terms 96) . A.D.Consideration on the Date and Authorship of the Ratna. i. so far no work has been done systematically. As far as the historical approach is concerned. As for its date: 1) The upper limit is the date of Nāgārjuna and Âryadeva. 97) Recently. R. quite similar to one of the Bhagavadgītā is pointed out by Prof. V. many scholars have already remarked the influence of the Vijñanavāda on the Vedāntavāda in its change of character from the realistic philosophy of the Brahmasūtra to the idealistic philosophy of the Advaita-vedānta which is established by Śaûkara through the philosophy of Gaudapāda. [ 61 ] . came probably after Asaûga and Vasubandhu but not so far from their time. however. e. when the Lañkāvatāra is translated into Chinese for the first time. XIII of his work is devoted to the subject of the Absolute seen by three systems. e. Kyoto. 1955) Especially. As a result of investigations throughout the previous passage.D. T.. a great work by Prof. Chap. being the manifestation of śūnyatā. it is clear. Yamaguchi's Commemoration Volume. 1955. In its essence. the middle of the 3rd cent. is of a cruite different character from the substantial Absolute of the Upanisad. the Absolute taught in the Ratna. . V. It is common to the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda in general. and I cannot but reserve its investigation for my future studies 97>. Prof. § 3. 2) The lower limit is 433 A. 32. Mādhyamika. Gokhale (A Note on Ratnagotravibhāga I. however. V. to establish its monistic doctrine. pp.. A. too wide to cover here.

TAKASAKI 4) As for the Kārikā text. This is certain through comparison of the Ratna. But against the Tibetan tradition. In the case of the Sūtrâlañkāra. seem fairly old in both their style and contents. This seems to be the most reasonable assumption on the date and author of the Ratna. the garbha theory and the Vijñānavāda are taught side by side. [ 62 ] . For certainty of Maitreya's authorship of the Ratna. both theories may consequently have taken place after Vasubandhu and Sāramati. but before the Sūtrâlañkāra. fore. especially those verses called ' śloka ' and kept in Chapter I. taking the Tibetan tradition into consideration. since the Lañkāvatāra was unknown to either of them. He was no doubt acquainted with the garbha theory Therebut devoted himself to the systematization of the Vijñānavāda. but the Vijñānavāda is likely to have started with Maitreya. pieces of evidence are still not enough.. Sāramati may Amalgamation of have been almost contemporary with Vasubandhu. it is quite doubtful to attribute the Buddhagotraśāstra to him. seems to have been composed next to the Abhisamayâlañkāra This is because the garbha theory precedes Maitreya. Thus it is not impossible that the same author of the above two works composed the original ' śloka' of the Ratna. Because of this similar position. however. with the Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra 2) Most probably the authorship of the original ' śloka ' is to be attributed to Maitreya. and we shall be required to engage in further and detailed examination of all the works attributed to Maitreya. 3) The Vijñānavāda had probably been established in its pure form by Vasubandhu. As for the author: 1) The author of the commentary must be Sāramati. while the Abhisamayâlañkāra expresses no Vijñānavāda. the Ratna. Sāramati was the systematizer of the garbha theory in its pure form. hence its date is no doubt earlier than Asañga's. 4) In the same way.J . after the present investigation.

TRANSLATION .

Only the Buddha is the Refuge from the ultimate Standpoint . . [ 137 ] .TABLE OF CONTENTS (for Translation & Notes thereon) Chapter I. The Meaning of the 3 Jewels The Germ of the 3 Jewels in 4 Aspects 1) Inconceivability of the 4 Aspects 2) The Germ as Cause and Conditions of the 3 Jewels in its 4 Aspects . — THE MATRIX OP THE TATHĀGATA FAGS Introduction 1) The Meaning of the Adamantine Subjects 2) Authorities on the 7 Subjects 3) The Essential Character of the 7 Subjects 4) The Inherent Connection among the 7 Subjects The Jewel of the Buddha 1) The eightfold Quality of the Buddhahood 2) Reference to the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra The Jewel of the Doctrine 1) 2) 3) 4) The Eightfold Quality of the Doctrine Nirodhasatya & Mārgasatya The Doctrine as the Truth of Extinction The Doctrine as the Truth of Path 141 141 143 146 153 155 156 159 163 164 165 165 168 172 173 174 175 176 176 180 180 181 184 185 186 188 194 196 The Jewel of the Community 1) Manner and Extent of Perception a) Right Manner of Perception b) Unlimited Extent of Perception 2) Introspective Character of Bodhisattva's Perception 3) Superiority of Bodhisattva's Community The 3 Jewels as Refuges 1) 2) 3) 4) 3 Refuges from the Empirical Standpoint The Doctrine and the Community are not the ultimate refuge . . . . . . . The Sermon: All Living Beings are possessed of the Tathāgatagarbha .

PAGE

VIII. Analysis of the Germ from 10 Points of View (I) Svabhāva & (II) Hetu 1) The Nature of the Essence of the Tathāgata 2) Obstructions and Causes for Purification (III) Phaîa & (IV) Karman 1) The 4 Supreme Virtues as the Result of Purification 2) Concordance between the 4 Supreme Virtues and the 4 Causes for Purification 3) 4 Impediments to the Attainment of the Supreme Virtues 4) Motives of the 4 Supreme Virtues 4') The Unstable Nirvana 5) Functions of the Germ for its Purification Yoga 1) The Union of the Germ to the Factors of its Purification 2) The Union of the Germ to the Result of Purification Vrtti (Manifestation) Avasthāprabheda (Different States of Manifestation) . . . .

199 200 200 201 207 208 210 214 218 219 221 225 225 227 229 230 233

(V)

(VI) (VII)

(VIII) Sarvatraga (All-pervadingness)

(IX) Avikāra 234 (A) Unchangeability in the Impure State 235 1) Unoriginated Character of the Innate Mind 238 2) Indestructible Character of the Innate Mind 241 (B) Unchangeability in the Pure-and-impure State 243 1) Pure Character and Impure Character of the Bodhisattva 243 2) Defilements endowed with the Virtuous Root 245 3) Bodhisattva's Compassion — The Parable of a Householder . . . . 246 4) Bodhisattva's Perception of the Pure Mind 248 5) ' Samsāra ' in the Case of Bodhisattva 250 6) Bodhisattva in his 6th Stage 250 7) The Pure and Impure State of the Bodhisattva in comparison with the Ordinary Being and the Buddha 253 (C) Unchangeability in the Perfectly Pure Sta;e 256 (X) Asambheda 1) 2) 3) 4) IX. The 1) 2) 3) Synonyms of the Essence of the Tathāgata The Point: Buddhahood is Nirvana The Parable of Painters Similarity of the Buddhahood to the Sun 258 259 261 263 265 268 268 277 281

9 Illustrations on the Germ covered with Defilements The 9 Illustrations according to the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra 9 Kinds of Defilements — the Impurities of the Mind Concordance between the 9 Illustrations and 9 Kinds of Defilements . [ 138 ]

The

Ratnagotravibhāga
PAGE

4) The threefold Nature of the Essence a) Dharmakāya b) Tathatā c) Tathāgatagotra X. The Essential Characteristics of the Matrix of the Tathāgata 1) The Saying: ' All Living Beings are possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata ' is the Highest Logical Truth 2) The 4 Kinds of Individuals to whom the Faith in this Essence is necessary 3) The True Conception of the Matrix of the Tathāgata as representing Non-substantiality XI. The Purpose of Instruction

283 284 287 288 294 294 296 300 305

Chapter II. — THE ENLIGHTENMENT

XII.

General Characteristics of the Reality free from Pollutions

310 314 314 315 318 322 324 326 328 329 331 334

XIII. 8 Points on the Undefiled Reality (I) (III) (IV) (V) (VI) Svabhāva & (II) Hetu Phala Karman Yoga Vrtti

a) The Body of the Absolute Essence b) The Body of Enjoyment c) The Apparitional Body (VII) Nitya (VIII) Acintya

Chapter I I I . —

THE PROPERTIES OF THE BUDDHA

XIV. XV. (I) (II)

General Characteristics of the Buddha's Properties The 64 Properties of the Buddha The 10 Powers The 4 Forms of Intrepidity

336 338 338 339 341 343 347

(III) The 18 Exclusive Properties (IV) The 32 Marks of the Superman (Commentary)

[ 139 ]

j . TAKASAKI

Chapter IV.

— THE ACTS OF THE BUDDHA
PAGE

XVI. XVII.

General Characteristics of the Acts of the Buddha The 9 Illustrations on the Buddha's Acts 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Buddha's Magnanimity The 9 Illustrations taken from the Jñānâlokâlankārasūtra Summary of the Illustrations given by the Commentator Summary of Examples given in the Kārikās Non-origination and Non-extinction of the Buddhahood The Point of Dissimilarity

351 355 355 356 374 375 377 377

Chapter V. — THE MERITS OF FAITH

XVIII. The Merits of Having Faith in the Doctrine of the Essence of Buddhahood 380 1) The Superiority of Faith to other Virtues in regard to their Merits . . 2) Authority, Motive, and Characteristics of this Text being the Correct Doctrine 3) Means of preserving oneself within the Doctrine 4) Causes and Results of the Loss of the Doctrine 5) Conclusion 380 384 386 387 389

[ 140 ]

ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS 1}
(A Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle) 2)

CHAPTER

I.

THE MATRIX OF THE TATHÂGATA (Salutation) I bow to the Saint Vajrasattva 3>.

I. INTRODUCTION - The 7 Vajrapadas § 1. The Meaning of the 7 Vajrapadas. The Buddha, the Doctrine, and the Community *>, The Essence [of the Buddha] 5>, the Supreme Enlightenment 6>, The Virtuous Qualities [of the Buddha], And, last of all, the Act of the Buddha; — These are the 7 Adamantine Subjects, [which show] Briefly, the body of the whole text. // 1 //
*) Ratnagotravibhāga. The word ' vibhāga ' is the correct Skt. form of P a l i ' vibhañga ' which means ' explanation ', ' commentary '. In BHS, however, the form ' vibhañga ' is more often used as in cases of Madhyântavibhañga, Dharmadharmatā-vibhañga and so on. In these cases, ' vibhañga ' is taken in the sense of ' distinction between two '. But here, the meaning ' analysis ' seems more suitable, because the wofd ' ratnagotra * indicates ' dhātu ' or ' tathāgatagarbha ', and not ' ratna & gotra '. Cf. gotram ratnatrayasya S. p. 21.6. 2 ) Mahayāna—uttaratantra—śāstra. About the title, see my Introduction, Ghap. I. 3 ) T. offers salutation to " the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas " . C. om. the salutation, but has 18 verses instead before entering the main text. This salutation to Vajrasattva, who has an important role in the Tantric Buddhism, does not match with this text which has no connection with Tantrism in its doctrine, in spite of the use of the word * tantra' in the title. Probably this is a salutation made by the copyist of the present Skt. text under the influence of later Tantric Buddhism. *) gana, T. tshogs, C. £fc |gj
B

( = sañgha).

) dhātu, T. khams, C.

ft.

• bodhi, T. byañ-chub, C. j l f . ) [ 141 ]

J.

1AKASAKI
7

The word * vajrapada ' (adamantine subject) > means the term (pada), i.e. the basis (sthāna), which expresses the meaning of the Enlightenment (adhigama) which is similar to a thunderbolt [or diamond] (vajra). Here, it 8) being difficult to be penetrated by the knowledge consisting in studying and thinking, the meaning [of the Enlightenment] which is not capable 9 of being explained but is to be realized by oneself >, should be understood as 'like a thunderbolt'. Those letters, which express that meaning by making manifest the way which is favourable for its acquisition, are called 4 pada% just because they are the basis of that meaning. Thus, by both meanings, i.e. being hard to be penetrated and being the basis, the character of 'vajrapada', of the meaning as well as of the letters, is to be understood. 4 4 Now, what is artha ' (the meaning) and what is vyañjana ' (the letter)? 'Artha' is the sevenfold meaning of the Enlightenment, viz. 1) the Buddha (buddha), 2) the Doctrine (dharma), 3) the Community 10 (samgha), 4) the Essence of the Buddha (dhātu) \ 5) the Supreme Enlightenment (bodhi), 6) the Virtuous Qualities of the Buddha (guna), and 7) the Acts of the Buddha (karman)u>. These are called 4 artha ' l2>. The letters, by which this sevenfold meaning of the Enlightenment is indicated or is manifested, are called 4 vyañjana ' 1 3 ) . And this teaching of i vajrapada ' should be understood in detail according to the Sutras.
') T . rdo-rje gnas, C.J
8

) prativedha,

T. phigs-pa

(to m a k e a small hole, to penetrate).
rig-par bya-ba, C. P ^ -5j* ffî£ V2*

9

) pratyātma-vedanīya,

T . so-so-rañ-bshin

10 n

> C. >$* S i ( = sattva).

) For these 7 subjects, T. & C. give the following terms: 1) sañs-rgyas, 7) phyin-las, | i p | .

2) chos, ' ? £ ; 3) dge-hdun, fft'; 4) khams, ft ( ^ >^£); 5) byañ-chub, =§?• 6) yon-tan, SjJ j ^ ;
12

) C. adds here the following scriptural passage: " ^>C 0ft —* |f| ) Instead of this sentence, C. puts the following one: "J^ff ī=f ^ p ^ff

paramârtha satya) gf | g , ifr fâ fig} ^ P f i g f t L f a f f i ^ ^ ^
13

^•i "^F T J "?* » •?- *HJ (phrase), ī=| an (word), jffi\ 5=p (sound), ^tj ^ K (expression), î b 1/u (description), ^ b RrJ (explanation), ^ b / J ^ (indication), JtL ' u *M ^ ^ » And it adds the following scriptural passage: " _^\., THT ^rjj (samvrtisatya) ^ § ,

1 -ft n * 0rffl^ * , ^ ^ . * ^ , Wfs. 0r ft These two passages are quoted from the Aksayamati-parivarta (C. I, M. # • % OP , Taisho, XIII, p. 197 fc). 197 [ 142 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga

8 2. Authorities on the 7 Subjects. 1) ' Buddha ': " Verily, O Ânanda, invisible is the Tathāgata. He cannot be seen by eyes " . 2) ' Dharma ': " Verily, O Ānanda, unutterable is the Doctrine. It cannot be heard by ears ". 3) ' Samgha ': " Verily, O Ânanda, the Holy Community is of an immutable 14> character. It cannot be completely served, either by body or by mind ". These are the [first] 3 vajrapadas, which are to be understood according to the Dfdhâdhyāśaya-parivarta15). 4) ' Dhātu ': " Verily, O Śāriputra, this meaning is a subject for the Tathāgata [and only belongs to] the sphere of the Tathāgata. This meaning, O Śāriputra, can neither be known 16> nor be seen, nor be examined correctly throngh the knowledge of the Śrāvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas. Needless to say, this applies to the case of ignorant and ordinary beings, except when they have faith 17> in the Tathāgata. O Śāriputra, the ultimate truth is really approachable only by faith [in the Tathāgata]. O Śāriputra, the ultimate Truth is a synonym of the mass of living beings (sattva-dhātu) 18>. The mass of living beings is, O Śāriputra, nothing but a synonym of the Matrix of the Tathāgata {tathāgatagarbha) 19\ The Matrix of the Tathāgata is, Śāriputra, nothing but a synonym of the Absolute Body (dharmakāya) " .
14 ) asamskrta, T. hdus-ma-byas-pa, C. 3*9? >w{f» Lit. 'being not created by causes and conditions ', or ' not caused by samskāras (the active forces) ', i. e. ' not belonging to this Phenomenal World '. 15 ) T. Lhag-pahi bsam-pa bstan-pahi lehu. Here, ' brtan-pa' is preferable to ' bstanpa\ Cf. Tohoku No. 224 which gives the Skt title; Sthirâdhyāśaya-parivarta. This sūtra is lacking in Chinese Tripijaka. 16 ) According to T., ' jñātum vā ' should be supplied after ' svaprajñayā ' (T. śes-pa). 17 ) śraddhā-gamana, T. dad-pas rtogs-pa. As for the importance of faith, see S. p . 74 1. 1 f. (v. I. 153).

nVt.
1S

•!_, |33

) T. sems-can-gyi khams, C. ?fc f-^_ -yi*, Here dhātu means ' a group ' (jāti or gotra) and sattvadhātu is used as a collective noun for sattvas. At the same time, however, this word, being synonymous with tathāgatagarbha, maybe interpreted as " t h e Essence of the sattva, being the ' cause ' of the Buddhahood " , according to the special use of the word ' dhātu ' in this text.
19

) T. de-bshin-gśegs-pahi sñiñ-po, C. }$[ yjv |!15c. The meaning of tathāgatagarbha

will be discussed under (VII) & (IX) - 4) (in Chap. I) (S. p. 26, 70 ff.).

[ 143 ]

i.

j . .ri.rv.tvi3i4.JVl

Thus is the fourth ' vajrapada ' and is to be understood according to the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa—parivarta20). 5) * Bodhi ' : " O Lord, the Supreme Perfect Enlightenment {anuttarā • samyaksambodhi) is a synonym of the Sphere of the Nirvana 21>. The Sphere of the Nirvana is nothing but a synonym of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata " . Thus is the fifth Vajrapada which is to be understood according to the Ārya Śrīmālā-sūtra2 2 ) . 6) 4 Guna ': " 0 Śāriputra, that which is called the Absolute Body, preached by the Tathāgata, is of indivisible nature, of qualities inseparable from the Wisdom, that is to say, [indivisible from or endowed] with the properties of the Buddha which far surpass the particles of sands of the Gangā in number "23>.

« C. ^ P if!" A^ $ S H [ , Taisho, No. 668, XVI, 467 a. T. has no translation of > this sūtra. Hereafter, AAN will be used as the abbreviation.
V|~T rftfV \'Jr\

2

) nirvānadhātu, T. mya-ñan-las-hdas-pahi dbyiñs, C. £35 ^ ^ •yf'. T. dbyiñs (for dhātu) means ' a heavenly region '. ' bhagavan ' in the Text is, to be corrected into ' bhagavams '. 22) = Śrîmālādevîsimhanādasūtra. T. Hphags-pa dpal-phreñ-gi mdo (Dpal-phreñ lha-mo señ-gehi sgrahi modo) C. 3g. '^=1 /j/r 3 C ntC. • There are two translations in C :

21

i>* * w ^F ift — ^-k.~n &is'9i M *.by * m &. PB m
(Gunabhadra), Taisho, No. 353. and 2) $$f- " ^ ^ A . *f[. vol. 48 of ^ 5 8 Jf{ jf8£
(Ratnakūta-sūtra), Taisho, No. 310. Hereafter the first one will be used as the reference under the abbreviation of SMS. This passage, SMS, Taisho, XII, 220 c. 23 ) The whole quotation runs as follows: mā,

(S.) j o ' yam, Śāriputra, tathagatanirdisto dharmakāyah, so'yam avinirbhāgadharavinirmuktajñānaguno, yaduta, gañgānadī—vālikā—vyatikrāntais tathāgatadharmaih; (T.) Sārī—bu, de—bshin-gśegs—pas bstan—pahi chos—kyi sku gañ—yin—pa de—ni hdi— Ita-ste, gañgāhi kluñ-gi bye-ma-sñed-las hdas-pahi de-bshin-gśegs-pahi chos-dag-dañ / rnam—par dbyer—med—pahi chos dañ Idan-pa, ma—bral—bahi ye~śes—kyi yon—tan—can yin—no

^

tation, but its additional part is identical with the quotation in S. p. 39 from the same sūtra). dbyer-med-pahi chos dañ Idan-pa ( = . . . chos-can), C. simply A^* pj|t and om. 'dhar-

M ^ JB i £ ft ?£ #ū * ^ S ^J @ (C. has a longer quoFor ' avinirbhāgadharman ' (' -dharman ', ifc. ' of the nature of'), T. mam-par

man* (usually, ^ ^ g ^ g £ ?£).
For ' avinirmuktajñānaguna', T. ma-bral-bahi ye-śes-kyi yon-tan-can, which does aot seem correct (it should be 'ye-śes-dañ ma-bral-bahi yon-tan con'); C. -A^

[ 144 ]

his acts of this kind flow forth without any effort. Taisho. this term ' avinirmuktajñāna ' is an attribute. p. ' -yoga '. 39. 302. 3) ^C ^ f M A #0 3fc ^ . 85. As for the term ' gañgānadivālikā-vyatikrānta ' it is also an adjective. 915 b (No. exclusive to the Buddha's Qualities and often used along with ' amuktajña '. 55. ' amuktajñāna ' or ' amuktajña ' is used as an attribute to ' guna '. Here. forms again a kind of Bahuvrīhi compound. [ 145 ] ibid. Instrumental case-ending of the word ' tathāgatadharma ' (which is translated into T. 2 *) AAN 467 a.9) or ' gañgāsikatā 'tivrtta' (p. And hence. JjjjJ . ' samanvāgama '. p. 42. these are t h e 7 Vajrapadas which should be known as the body of this whole text. 73.The R at n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a This is the sixth Vajrapada and is to be understood according to 24 the Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirdeśa >. by Śiksānanda. pp. the Wisdom. where a simile of lantern is used for clarifying this meaning and lantern is said to be of ' avinirmukta-guna '. and probably the whole sentense could not be understood properly by C. T. by ' dan ') shows the implied meaning of ' -upeta '. b I I « ^ (Jñānagupta).14-15. 2) ^ l p |gt W± i$fr £fl ffi ^m Wi ^ A tW * fl § S JS §i i t # M tr.16). or otherwise is to be related to ' avinirbhāga ' as shown in the present translation. seems to show the latter interpretation. 26 ) uddeśamukha. ' avinirmuktajñāna'. T. (sometimes in the form of ' gañgānadîvālukāvyativrtta ' (S. but -^3 JHfc -Ç/J "f@ is placed at the end. exclusive to the Buddha's Qualities. That is to say. They are nothing but the abbreviated forms of ' avinirmuktajñāna ' and seem to have the same sense as the latter. is a Bahuvrīhi compound. This passage is in Taisho.^ Jf!£ -R/ f^. No. without any imagination or any thought construction " . by which the Buddha has realized ' bodhi '. e . 12. not clear. in l which the former part ' avinirmuktajñāna ' is relating to the latter part guna* as an apposition. In short. being an adjective to 'guna' (which means ' buddhagunāh ' or ' tathāgatadharmāh ' i . 25 J Chinese Tripiçaka retains 3 kinds of translations of this sūtra.12). i. y fH S iSv | H & tr. ' gañgānadivālikā-vyativrtta ' (p.14). 76. being appositional to ' dharmakāya '. offers no help. No. translator. bstan-pahi sgo. omitting the word * jñāna '). the Tathāgata never imagines anything nor distinguishes falsely.2-3. This is the seventh Vajrapada which is to be understood according 25 to t h e Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatāra—nirdeśa >.9. (See S. Therefore. pp. I t should mean ' unreleased from jñāna'. 42. X. 302).. ibid. 80. e. namely: 1) Jg^ (translator unknown). The term ' avinirmuktajñānaguna '. ' gañgātīrarajo 'tīta' (p. C. 55. 304. 303. See S. in t h e sense of being a collection of preliminary 26 explanations >. ' avinirbhāga ' and ' acintya '. 7) ' Karman ' : " 0 Mañjuśri.. In other passages. No. the Qualities of the Buddha).2-3.2. ' jñāna' signifies ' buddhajñāna '. G.

) anugata. See below. (ablative) Also v. 2 (nidānatah). [ 146 ] . One should know respectively the [first] three subjects From the introductory chapter in the Dhāranirāja—sūtra 28\ And the [latter] four from [the chapter on] the distinction Between the qualities of the Bodhisattva and those of the Buddha 29>. Accompanied 2 7 ) by their own characteristics. T . TAKASAKI § 3. has set the wheel of Doctrine going well and has kindly trained numberless disciples " 33>. Beside this independent sūtra. Literally. 409 o). (dañ is probably for Instrumental case-ending). C. Taisho. 29 a7 ) dhīmat ( = bodhisattva). . C. and the " Bodhisattva-tathāgatadharmabheda-(parivarta) " . respecti- vely. So T. the three subjects should be known as being from 3 1 ) the introductory chapter (nidāna—parivarta) of the Holy Dhāranīśvararājasūtra. a n d jina ( = buddha).) (Taisho. under the titles of Chap. and om. 398). But C. 32 ) This sūtra is available in both Tibetan and Chinese Tripitakas. // 2 // [The meaning of this verse is as follows]: And of these seven Vajrapadas. No. anugatāni'. No. It seems that the " Nidāna parivarta " is equivalent to the Alañkāra-parivarta. Therefore. blo—ldan & rgyal—ba. Chap. as well as to ' catvāri [padāni] \ For ' svalaksanenânugatāni '. not clear.. it is said: " The Lord has perfectly realized the equality of all things. rjes-hbrel-ba ( = anubandha). It should be ' nidānaparivartād anugatāni '. p. as if ' svalaksanasyânngatāni '. Of these [seven subjects]. the caseending of ' esām ' (hdi-dag). sl ) The reading ' nidānaparivartânugatāni ' i r rather obscure.J. ' anugata ' is related to ' trlni padāni '. takes it as locative. II " Dhāranīśvararāja-bodhisattva-parivarta " . I " Alañkāra-parivarta " and Chap. accompanied 3 0 ) by the explanation of their own characteristics. The Essential Character of the 7 Subjects. rañ-gi mtshan—ñid bstan—pa dañ / rjes-su hbrel-ba ni. 1-4. 30 For ' dharma '. T. 2S ) == Dhāranîśvararājasūtra. denoting the contents of this chapter. II. has the title ' Tathāgata-mahākarunā—nirdeśa-sūtra '. ( = ^ C ñ « I S . T. and then the remaining four [are to be known] from the chapter on the distinction between the qualities of the Bodhisattva and those of the Buddha respectively 32>. i. to the remaining part. 397). T. T. has another (yC translation of the same sūtra as a part of the Mahāvaipulya-mahāsamnipāta-sūtra y/J "^f y^. which is identical with the title of Chinese translation ' y^. • DRS 1 a. ^ $§£ ' (Taisho. In this Mahāsamnipātasūtra. Jīfc rfT. C.. the Dhāranirājasūtra occupies the vols.e. XIII. ^ ) For ' svalaksananirdeśena (jñāna).

C. ^ ^p\. $ & fffj ^ T • C. On the 9th Stage of Bodhisattva. smrti-i. Ihun-gyis grub. C. so it is said: " He ( = the Lord). The remaining four subjects are to be known as the statement of the accomplishment of the causes which correspond to the origin of the three Jewels 35\ Now. cream '. Therefore. T. i. it is used in the sense of ' essence ' (sāra) ' excellent part'. he is immediately calmed in the Buddha's effortless 40> acts uninterruptedly 41 ).. one who has the qualification for preaching the Doctrine).. T. translation ' sñiñ-po ' shows the same meaning. 36 39 3ā ) vāsanā-anusamdhi. translation. There are 5 indriyas. chos-smra-ba-ñid. hgrub-pa. anu- samdhi). he has well set the wheel of the Doctrine going " . it is said: "Having realized the perfect Enlightenment. In Pali. ( o m . viz. e. C. ' manda ' has originally meant ' the scum of cooked rice.. 37 ) dharmabhānakatva. T . respectively. (T. On the 10th Stage of Bodhisattva. realized perfectly the equality of all things " . or the essence of milk.. j 6 ^ <^\s \7f* fig^.The Ratnagotravibhāga By these three fundamental sentences. as the power of controlling all elements of phenomena has been attained. Therefore ' bodhi-manda ' means literally ' the essence of the Enlightenment'. rim-gyis skye-ba hgrub-pa. one should know the arrangement of the three Jewels [in the aspect of] their successive origination and accomplishment 34>. translation ' f^Jâ $ £ ] j j | | H Iffi ^ / 2 l | t £ ' . " ) anābhoga. / $ Wl)) triratnotpatty-anurūpahetu-samudāgama-nirdeśa. Sometimes ' bodhi-manda ' is explained as denoting Bodhi-tree. T . 38 ) indriya. But in later scriptures. &prajñā-i. Therefore. it denotes ' the excellent place of the Enlightenment' as C. it is said: " H e who has well set the wheel of the Doctrine going has kindly trained number3 *) anupūrva-samutpāda-samudāgama. bag-chags-kyi mtshams-sbyor-ba. sitting in the excellent Seat of the Englightenment 3 6 ) . namely śraddhā-i. on the 8th Stage of Bodhisattva. [ 147 ] 11 . ' the highest state of Enlightenment'. he is endowed with the power of expressing the Highest Doctrine37\ knows very easily the intentions of all living beings. brings all faculties [of living beings] 38) to the highest perfection and becomes an expert in the removal of the chain of Defiling forces39) in all living beings. Here I preferred C. C. T. and is often accompanied by the word 4 vara ' as in the text. -yC 0ft -3£ W /PC 5vC • Here the word ' samudāgama ' (also in the next line) means ' siddhi '. samādhi-i. vlrya-i. T. < £ ptP ( t e a c h e r of t h e D o c t r i n e . ) bodhi-manda. g 41 ) apratipraśrabdha. after attaining the anointment for the prince recognized as the next king in the highest religious empire of the Buddha. C. rgyun mi~hchad-pa(r). Mvyut 41.

Of the two ' vyūhas ' in the text. / J H-\ . For . C. om. ~$t R . .' vipula '. C. as S. Furthermore. And next. immediately after this sentence. b u t seems t o o m . C. shes- 42) A _ yāvat . yon-tan rnam-par dbye-ba. T . ' bkod-pa '. JjJt ^ one. parisad. through his bringing the people together > into the assembly of Tathāgatas. C. the same qualification of having trained numberless disciples is shown in the same text. R/J (/J\ t 148 ] . ' gathers. 5 1 ! Mx. (palace of jewel). khyu-mchog (' the best b u l l ' = rsabha).less disciples " . T. C. C. . through the completion of various kinds of worship with divine things 4 8 \ and through the pouring of rain from the cloud of praises 49>. * 5 l H x ' s e e m s to include the meaning of ' mandala '. T. 45 ) F o r ' gunavibhāga '. step by step.(acintya^ 2 c //'J (gunaprabheda). __ ") pariklrtana. 48 C. t o come t o g e t h e r ) . the first one is translated into T. . . yons-su bsgrags-pa. khyams (court-yard). a-b.v. bkod-ba. > And then. T . as ' vimala '. s. *») DRS 1. The term is often used as an epithet of the Buddha. shes-bya-ba-nas bya-bahi bar. *') samāvartana < samāvartayati (BHS). T. . (decoration). the establishment of the distinguishable qualities > of the Jewel of the Buddha is to be known through the accomplishment of a great palace adorned with circular ornament of jewels >. in the reference to the Buddha's inconceivable leadership > in regard to tranquillity.). T . . BHS Die. F o r samāvartana. immediately after the [passage of the] doctrine on the nature of qualities of Śrāvakas and Bodhisattvas. ^Y* fî£\ g ^ | -sfl. ) C. C.B (beginning w i t h A u p t o B). through the splendid arrangement 5 0 ) of the seat of the Doctrine and its brightness. -^^ ?fc . C. it is said: " Thus being endowed with the virtuous qualities. bkhor—hdus—pa (hdus-pa < hdu—ba. but T. C. . dravya. into T. For parisat—samāvartana. 44 ) vrsabhitā (BHS). 49 ) These passages are extracted from the same sūtra. 80 > vyūha. It runs as follows: " He was together with the assembly of a large number of monks ) and with the assembly of numberless Bodhisattvas " . and through the glorification 51) 47 46 45 44 43 of the name . . «Ç/J j ) vipula-ratna-vyūha-mandala-vyūha-nivrtti. reads it as ' visaya '. and the second vastu). " &c. C. (DRS 1 c-3 c). however. 46 I n t h e following cases. 42 As he has well trained those who are in the enlightenment of the Śrāvaka and up to that of the Buddha. collects ' (viz. and has * J | >fM 1^> ^ C instead (vividha-divyā-pūjā?).

C. the Essence of the Buddha is explained by a description of the sixtyfold appliance as 62 ) dharmaparyāya. 61 w ) avasānagata. om. which translates it twice by JjjP & JJRj. mthah-ñid (avasānatva) C. > D R S 4 e-5 b. immediately after this. after the introductory chapter of this Sūtra. resolving the compound into ' anuttaradharmarāja-jyesthaputra-upaharana ' and ' paramavaiśāradyaupaharana '. C. chos-kyi rnam-grañs. (to give. 60 ) kathāvastu (subject of story). And also therein the introductory chapter of this Sūtra is known to have come to the end 6 3 ). And. in the light of the mutual 54> manifestation of the power of the acting sphere55) of various tranquillities of the Bodhisattvas. C. through the manifestation of the attainment of the highest sovereignty 61 ). respectively. there should be known the establishment of the distinguishable qualities of the Jewel of the Doctrine53). confidence). according to C. jyesthiputra' meaning Bodhisattva. ) upanyasana ( < upa-ni-V as) T. §/£. aiśvarya. through the explanation of the highest praise to the true virtues of the Tathāgata. C. \ J . T. gtam-gyi dños-po. j ^ i Ī3>« As J. C. the highest establishment of the distinguishable qualities of three Jewels is to be understood 62 ). 'anyonya' had better be connected with ' bodhisattva ' in a compound. to offer). T. ^ 1 ^ * j ^ I p J f p f XJ 4a. # P j j f fjj£ ^ (because of the practice of that Mahāyāna by rule). 85 86 ) gocara-visaya. in the reference to the Buddha's presentation 5 7 ) of the highest fearlessness and confidence [in speech] 58) on account of the prince of the supreme religious king [to the Bodhisattvas]. C. For ' tat-pratipatteh '. phan-tshun. 67 ) The reading ' upakaranatā ' is to be corrected into ' upaharanatā '. 68 ) pratibhāna (from P a l i patibhāna. through the description 5 9 ) in the form of discussion 6°) of the highest Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. through the sprinkling of the Buddha's light. besides t h e usual sense of intelligence o r manifestation of m i n d ) .suggested. spobs-pa t a l e n t of speech). <\~f jjf| -TT . t i l Jī^t • [ 149 ] . T . om. as the result of that knowledge. . DRS 3 c-4 d. ' . T. there should be known the establishment of the distinguishable qualities of the Jewel of the Community 5 6 ) . w h i c h h a s t h e special m e a n i n g of ' readiness (cowardless in s p e e c h ' o r ' confidence of s p e e c h ' . seems to omit ' prabhā-samdarśana '. and in the light of the description of their various forms of qualities. C. T. ) C. And next. DRS 5 6-6 c. Then. And again. 64 ) anyonya. 69 (courage. and. {l^ ») Cf. respectively. T. B u t t h i s r e s o l u t i o n of t h e c o m p o u n d is n o t good.The Ratnagotravibhāga and qualities of the variety of doctrines 52) . through these three. e x c e p t t h e t e r m ' upaharana '. ») Cf. C. H e r e t h e t r a n s l a t i o n i s according t o T . . spyod-yul. ne-bar bkod-pa.

' dhātu ' is ' viśodhya—gunavad— artha '. cleaning). In comparison with ' viśuddhi-guna-parikarrnan ' and ' buddhadhātoh sastyākāraviśuddhi—parikarma-gunāh ' in S. jglt / A (sharp a s h ? ) ' khāra ' is a Prakrit form of Skt ' ksāra '. in so far as it has qualities of an object to be purified .e.7 (ratnagotra-puspapratimandite . As t h i s ' unmilya ' is found twice i n Ms. After all. 6. p . 69 ) uiksālya i n t h e t e x t . T h e m e a n i n g of t h i s word is n o d o u b t ' washing '. ' t a k i n g d u s t off i n order t o m a k e jewel or m e t a l m a n i f e s t ' ( i n causative sense). J^A. But in another case. reading. too. yoñs—su sbyoñ-ba (pariśodhana. 1: 11. T. ' yoñs—su sbyoñ-ba '. 71 ) paryavadāpanena paryavadāpayati (lit.4AJ |7Uīi» f° r viśuddhi-parikarma-guna). unless we find o t h e r examples of t h e same u s e . there is illustrated again an analogy In this Sūtra (the Dhāranirāja—sūtra) It runs as follows >: 67 of the purifying process of gold. b u t Ms.samudra-malaya-śikhare). / A (in the sense of ' method '. etc. 186c. C.e. the allegory of unpurified Vaidūrya stone is illustrated. p. i. 68 ) manigotra. C. yoñs-su sbyoñ-bas sbyoñ-ba byed-do. C. T .the purifying factors of that 65) Essence *>. 70 unpurified precious stone from the mine ). T . he then polishes it by rubbing ) with black- ) sasty—ākāra—tad (=dhātu) —viśuddhi-guna—parikarma—nirdeśena. p. . J^K /TJ 3B M=x seems to show the actual process of purification. B reads ' unmîlya \ There seems t o b e no definite reason for changing ' unmilya ' i n t o ' utksālya' against Ms.). A b o u t ' viśuddhi-guna—parikarman''. 188c. nor—bu rin—po—chehi rigs ( = maniratnagotra). ' makes perfectly clean by means of purifying instrument'). 6. 1. T. or ' appliance ') in the former two cases. 64 i. after the description of the Acts of the Buddha. (Cf. 44 O noble youth.. and ' ^ g ' . for ' parikamma ' in the verse quoted in S. [j=ij] p £ I' | [ T ^ ) « Cf. And because of the effect of this meaning. translates it by ' Ypf i~r '» which has the same sense as T. take for instance a skilful jewel-maker who knows Having taken out an 69 71 68 quite well how to purify precious stones. says instead ' i n the Daśabhūmika-sūtra'. we c a n n o t s a y ' unmilya ' is absolutely correct. In other words. 21 c. tad -viśuddhi-parikarma-yogāt. however. 10. A t t h e same t i m e . i t seems r a t h e r difficult t o consider i t as a m i s t a k e . 66) in the 10 Stages of Bodhisattva . in the third case (f^P* Jjp^. and hence. ' viśuddhi—parikarman ' is inherent to ' dhātu ' in the form of ' Sūstyākāra-viśuddhiguna ' . C. So I adopted it in the translation. C. and having washed ) it with acid salt water ). lan—tshvahi chu rnon-pos. 67 ) D R S p . Taisho. C. the most suitable translation for this term is ' process of purification or ' appliance for purification \ 68 ) The significance of this ' daśasu bodhisattvabhūmisu' is not clear.. 6 Because the Essence of the Buddha deserves to be applied the purification. see b e l o w . the meaning seems as follows ' viśuddhi—guna ' is ' viśuddhi—parikarman ' of ' dhātu '. [ 150 ] . For ' parikarman '. p i ^ ^ -»j£ 70 ) tiksena khārodakena. I t sounds better in comparison with ' asminneva ca sūtre'1 in the next sentence. b u t i n t h e special sense of ' m e t a l i n g '. L a n k . 65 ) viśodhye ' rthe gunavati.

jf^ ]£f| 3gc 'KC • ) tlksa āmisa-rasa. v . 79 80 81 C. y\^. i. having washed the stone with meat juice 73) of bitter taste. skrahi re-ba (om. 0 noble youth. After that. krsna). 78 ) abhijāta (' well b o r n '. After that. Even with this much of act. ) khandikā. tfe ^ £ f^. tshul (— nay a). ^Y* Jj^ . zañs—kyi klu—pa rnon—po. C. > sattvadhātu. ^V\ %HI ^ ^ . ' T h e s e a r e called ' caturvidhâviparyāsa—samjñā ) netrl.(against the usual translation. VzC Wffl (dharmacakra). the Tathāgata never ceases to make efforts. ) mahā—vaisajya—rasa.e. T . the giver. p . 82 ) (trini vimoksa—mukhāni). and the gift. Even with this much work.|îr/A &PI £4f» 77 ) apagatakāca ( B a h u v r ī h i c o m p . . having known the unpurified element of living beings 7 9 ) . he never ceases to make efforts. rigs-chen-po 74 75 ( = mahākula). the receiver. 83 ) avivartya-dharmacakra. Similarly. After that. b u t C. ^ . ( = mahā). With this much of act the Buddha never ceases to make efforts.. kāca' s e e m s t o b e a g e n e r a l n a m e for dust or piece of metal and glass mingled within jewels. After that. suffering.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a hair cloth 7 2 ) . C. and causes them to enter the discipline of the sacred Doctrine. T. C. v i z . [ 151 ] . C. the Tathāgata too. p]P: vE|P| jylJj i > • ^ 3p|i[» Wft JÇHU " ^ 3 "5fcf • A c c o r d i n g t o C . lal-gyi la-ba. and signifies 'non-substantiality' (śūnyatā). he makes them realize the guiding manner 8 1 ) of the Tathāgata by the teaching of [the threefold gate to the emancipation 82\ viz. through the teaching of the irreversible wheel of the Doctrine 83> and through the teaching of the ' purification of three circles ' 84>. Cf. J^. as usual. B H S D i e . it is called a precious 78) Vaidūrya stone. C. '. T . 3 0 . ' non-distinction ' (animitta) and ' desirelessness ' (apranihita). T. he polishes it with closely-woven cotton cloth 7 6 \ After having been polished and having been separated from all impure metals mingled with it 77>. ) . T . impersonality and impurity [of this world] 8 0 ). 76 ) sūk'sma-vastra.7|^ (a piece of wood covered with cloth). s.Hl ^fl. Jpflj Ypf r~r )• It means usually the purity of three things in donation. C. . T . having washed it with great medical liquid 7 5 ) . But with this much work. hkhor-gsum yoñs-su dag-pa.IjjC j | / £ J^_ + \ . T. ' noble ' ) . 84 ) trimandala-pariśuddhi. T. he causes those living beings who have 72 73 ) krsna-keśakambala. dri—ma dañ bral—ba(ni). S. he polishes it by rubbing with a woollen blanket 7 4 ). ' b o r n i n t h e noble family '. creates disgust in the mind of those living beings who are attached to the world of transmigration through the teaching of being afraid of the non-eternity.] ' non-substantiality ' {śūnyatā).J . >-*-. he never ceases to make efforts.

9. ^ (manas). Similarly.e. ^ (smrti). (DRS 5 6-8 b). 4 ^^ i l l . (2) 8 kinds of illumination of Bodhisattvas. and (4) 32 kinds of deeds >. (ślla). *££ (dharma). 88 ) According to DRS. yon-gnas (place of gift). ^ (jñāna). is removed: 1. (1) 4 kinds of ornament of Bodhisattva's Essence of Buddhahood? Bodhisattvas. Having entered [the sphere of the Tathāgata]. 4. ignorance about the 12 añgo's of causality.) »7> See above (Note 65).). 5. pratigha—ā. namely. (16 kinds of ' mi11. 86 88 ) daksinlya (worthy to receive ' daksinā \ i. when they have realized the true nature of the Tathāgata. Having in view this Essence of the Tathāgata. 88 ) viśuddhigotra. these gunas are as follows: 1) 4 'alañkāras' ( ^ $§• )jf H ) : 1. adhimāna. & vicikitsā-ā. mānâtimānu. (avidyā—mātsarya—rāga ?). māna. 3) 16 ' karunās '. The source of this Prakrit verse is unknown. JZQ MH j§i] (caturvidha-viparyāsa). mamakāra). i. C. 5. 7. donation). are called unparalleled venerables " 8 5 ). ^ " j \ ^ / | jYu (ahamkāra.iiii> ^ ^ (daśa akuśalāni abhimāna. (durgati). f â ffl (punya-ksetra).J. (3) 16 kinds of Bodhisattva's great compassion. it is said as follows: " Just as gold. 2. H ^ 2.e. 12. but is not found among the present Pali Tripitaka. 2J^L S\ y \ (sadāyatanaasmimāna. Now.. 2. f^ i j § (abhijñā). jfa (pañca—āvarana. 3jp J j ^ (mithyā-drsti). 7. / \ ^|S ^ . gift.e. IHT 1P3..l i ? 8 S (prajñā) & 4. ^ (apratihatajñāna). 10. (loka-mārga ?). those same beings. (DRS 9 a-10 a). & 8. abhiniveśa). to enter the sphere of the Tathāgata. 6. (It is apparently in Pali. yoñs-su dag-pahi rigs. C. y j^c Ypf r~r (as if ' prakrtipariśuddhi '). ^ ^ 4. 3. and sands. T. which is of pure origin 8 6 ) . TJf (satya). auddhatya-kaukrtya-ā. TAKASAKI different kinds of characteristics and origins. Tl. (samādhi).. rāga—ā. H^J): 1. ^ L 1 ^ (sapta-māna. ūnamāna & mithyāmāna). ^ 2) 8 ' avabhāsas' Çjfc. by which each of the following ' mithyās' of the living beings 3. though it is invisible among stones Comes to be seen by the process of purification. in this world of living beings The Tathāgata [becomes visible by purification] " . 3. 8. i. which are the sixtyfold factors of purifying process87) of the They are. | r 152 ] . T. 6. -fT (caryā ?). karmani).. styāna-middha-ā. -Jjv? »yj ilk W^. Pfe J H / £ (dhārani).

fîf ^ / 3. these 7 Vajrapadas should be understood in detail through the indication of their own characters according to the Sūtra. Thus. < C H^ "^Li ^ ^ i oF (śānti. IV (III). T. "Q^ ^ J (safya- pado). ffPJ . T T ^ * ^fJF (tryadhva-samatā). BHS Die. | | | £ (māra). Jj5^ flbc* Taisho. (DRS 10 o-lO c). namely: 1. . the Acts of the Buddha are explained by the indication of 32 kinds of Supreme Acts of the Buddha 91>. 12. affliction to ' tribhava\ 14. 7. In the Community exists the Matrix. 91 ) DRS 26 6-27 b. 15. ^ ^X $ j | (3E I©) (apratisthita). anārambana). 5. . 89 ) The Supreme Enlightenment is said to be accompanied by the following 16 qualiK î? (śuddhi-śānti). 4.. The use of ' anuślesa ' seems to be quite rare. ties. A* ^J f^ / (anabhilāpya). 15. 13. arana?). ^V Jfv (anu-krama). etc. " ^ _L ^ SI ^ ^ C S S . (?) (DRS 11 b-14 a) (Chinese terms in brackets are taken from y^. anupeksā ?. 422 a-425 a). Each of the 32 ' karman's is indistinct. 2. there is explained the Buddha's Virtuous Qualities by the indication of 10 Powers.1^. § ft fpf ffi (prakrtipariśuddhi). 9. DRS 14 c-21 c (there is no description of the 32 Mahāpurusalaksana in DRS). prabhā. 16. 4) 32 acts practised by Bodhisattvas. ignorance about the gate to Nirvana. 4 kinds of Intrepidity and 18 Exclusive Pro90 perties of the Buddha ).The Ratnagotravibhāga Immediately after this statement. 14. ^* "far (anudgraha. 82 ) anuślesa ( < anu-\/ ślis). 11. Tñv ^ÎS S>v Wot {asamjñā.). 10. pp. what is the inherent connection 9 2 ) between these subjects? From the Buddha comes the Doctrine. hbrel-pa ( = sambandha). 8. And then. C. there is explained the Supreme Enlightenment of the Buddha by indicating the 16 kinds of Great Compassion [imparted by] the Supreme Enlightenment a9\ Next to this description. JU tf% ( ^ 0T ^ ) (anāsrava. fj^ ^p§ (kāma ?). 8. § 4. _g|. 13. # ^ # $\> (M ffl te f^) (animitta-akrtrima ?). which are the counterpart of 32 bad behaviours of living beings.. (DRS 10 c-11 6). Here the reason why these qualities are called ' mahākarunā ' is that they are inseparable from ' mahākarunā ' and Buddha's Enlightenment realizes itself in the form of the acts of ' mahākarunā \ Cf. The Inherent Connection between 7 Subjects. 9 °) See Chap. And next. DRS 11 b. jtfif ^ ^ (ākāśavat). }»»§ y H wj i l l (nirvikalpa-padârtha). 5 * (śūnya). ^ Jg M 16. these two are equal and undistinguishable from each other). records only the form of ' aim- [ 153 ] . 6. Owing to the Doctrine there is the Holy Community. ^ ^ . which is thyādrsti').% 3>P? > s | (asamskrta). f^ -^f |(l3 TST 7J Jv'J "• (The Supreme Enlightenment and the Great Compassion.P -»iX.

C. For sambandha. y±. in each case. Which is endowed with the Qualities. T. TAKASAKI The element of Wisdom. g¥^ <āg +Q (dharmârthasvalaksana ?). 93 ) ' jñāna-dhātu-āptinistha '. reads as ' sañghād apratihatadhātuh (-}$$ ijU £ X ) . the ablative for the preceding one. C. T. (' āpti-nistha ' seems to mean 'having (jñāna—)āpti as the end'. dhātor jñānam ' and om. which is indicated by ' tad ' in the next line. For ' nistha '. takes it merely to show the order of succession between each subject and uses.) found in Mahāvastu. C. 'jñāna—dhātu' seems to mean ' garbha '. ślista ' (ppp. v. BHS D i e . hbrel-pa. aiming at its acquisition 9 3 ) . But it is not agreeable. iii-71-14. mthar. & C. 10 Powers and others. (Supreme Enlightenment) 94 ) śāstrasambandha. s. viz.//3// Finished [the explanation of] the relation between each subject in the text 94>. the reading ' sañghe ' in the text.J. Therefore. In comparison with it. is quite correct. And accompanied by altruistic Acts for all living beings. though against T. ' jñānadhātvāptinistha ' & * agrabodhi '. L 1541 . Its acquisition of the Wisdom is the Supreme Enlightenment.

abuddha. sañs-rgyas-ñid. & C omit eka. Cf. who has realized 3) the Buddhahood 4> Which has neither beginning. C. 7 ' vimati. In I. the-tshom (doubt). I. there is one śloka with regard to the Jewel of The Buddha. wrong view). though we have 3 ' verses '. in order to enlighten the ignorant 5\ And who. having in hand the excellent sword and thunderbolt Of Wisdom and Mercy. C. also take refuge in the Doctrine and Community through the faith as the natural outflow of the Reality 2 ). faith. Introduction. jjjjj • * § . especially in Chap. having realized himself. 6) ekacchid. chos~ñid-kyi rgyu-mihun-pahi dvañ-ba. [ 155 ] . SMS 221 a. T.. ' one who has enlightened '. It is used mostly in case of certain verses which I picked up as the basic verses. while taking their refuge in the Tathāgata. = S k t . T.text starts with the following verse (v. -ff^- T»IX ^Q ^ ^ (respecting the Tathāgata). Pali. both T. 3) vibuddha. cuts in pieces 6> all sprouts of Sufferings. And breaks the wall of doubts 7) concealed In the forest of various views s\ // 4 // *) The word śloka has a strict use in this text. dvañs-pa (purity. first of all. THE JEWEL OF THE BUDDHA Hereafter we should explain the meaning of Slokas (basic verses) x). it is clear.II. 4) 6 buddhatva. > abudha (BHS). C. Fearless and eternal. Those living beings who were lead by the Tathāgata. dvañ-ba. Therefore. abhippasāda. reads this passage as follows " and breaks the wrong view and all forests 8> [of defilements] {<yfy iy%) concealed in the mountain of various views " . Sloka-or Kārikā. there is no śloka. and is quiescent. 4). taught the Path. (viparyasta-mati. 2) dharmatānisyandâbhiprasādena. see my Introduction. For abhiprasāda. ljy|{ |3tjj Jf^. C. where emphasis lies on the 'ekaśaranatā' of t h e B u d d h a . (Kārikā 1) I bow to the one. And who. Hereafter I shall use the Sanskrit word śloka without translation when it indicates the basic verses. T . middle nor end. About a detailed discussion on the basic verses. The three jewels as refuges. S e e also V . trust). T.

It is immutable. -7re? >w\j H a î 2) Ihun-gyis-grub-pa. 5) Compassion (karunā) 10\ 6) [supernatural] power (śakti). {3 ^*'J ^gât» 8) gshan-gyi don phun-sum 12) tshogs-pa. hdus-byas-pa. pratyātmam 13) samskrta. C. // 8 // 1) asamskrta: The word i immutable' {asamskrta) should be understood as being opposite to being conditioned or caused (samskrta)lsK Here 9) 10 aparapratyayodita in the verse. 2) being free from any effort (anābhogatā). It is free from any effort. Thus awakened in a threefold way. T. Being the body of quiet character. ^ n) gyi rkyen-gyis mñon-par rtogs-pa ma yin-pa. p ^ -£§' § J î § . Compassion and [supernatural] Power [imparted by both]. benefit for oneself. The Buddhahood has two kinds of benefit. // 7 // It is Power because of destroying Suffering and Defilements by Wisdom and Compassion. * kārunya in the verse. • adhigamya. 5) thugs'|{j^ yî\\ . -^I"* f^ r e J i ^\S>» 6) nus-pa. — thus remembered by tradition // 6 // Being realized by oneself12^. benefit for others [is indicated].J. And by the latter three. 4) ye-śes. j \ . The Eightfold Quality of the Buddhahood. 7) fulfilment of self-benefit (svârthasampad). Q f£v£ î 3) gshan. As having neither beginning. Because of preaching the way. ^ >w§ • [ 156 ] . C. not dependent on others (aparapratyayâbhisambodhi)9\ 4) Wisdom (jñāna). 'ftji >r'J -śnfc. and 8) fulfilment of benefit for others (parârthasampad)11). 1) Immutability (asamskrtatva). free from efforts And not being dependent upon the others. By the first three qualities. TAKASAKI § 1. it is Compassion. It is cognizable without any help of others. Translations of these 8 qualities in T. [Also] Being endowed with Wisdom. 7) rañ-gi don phun-sum tshogs-pa. // 5 // By this verse there has been briefly explained the Buddhahood as being contracted by eight qualities. Which are the 8 qualities? Namely. it is Wisdom. middle nor end by nature. What is shown by this [śloka]? Being immutable. are as follows: 1) hdus ma-byas-pa-ñid. & C. 3) Enlightenment.

gnas—pa. these 3 are implied the beginning. utpāda = tathāgatotpatti. 16 [ 157 ] . 1. C. 'Kyi' of 'hdod-kyi' in the above sentence is a conjunction of two clauses. the Buddhahood should be seen as having neither beginning. 79. mam-par rtog-pa. p . p . though it is immutable and of the characteristic of non-activity. In the Buddhist texts. 1. 4 ( a bhavasthiteh). p £ . C. spros-pa. in which the sense 'origination' is implied17). shows merely a literal translation of the term prapañca (pra-\/pac or -Vpane. 16 ) prapañca (Pali papañca). lasting. 1. Here. C. Abhidharmakośa. respectively. in Buddhist thought. C. we count 4 characteristics of samskrta. T. from the Buddhist point of view. ) vikalpa.e. from somebody else. 32. Ekapuggala-vaggo. ceaselessly and uninterruptedly as far as the world exists18>. as being Tathāgata. as in the śloka. JM. C. i. but having perfectly cognized its unutterable nature 4 by ones e l f (svayam). the whole action of the Perfectly Enlightened One proceeds without any effort. (udaya. i. it catches the significance quite well. 45 and comm. Because of the absence of these characteristics. I. T. ^Rv > p I " > N (from t h e beginningless p a s t ) . 4 a n d p . and being represented as the immutable Absolute Body. Pali AN. hjig—pa. ^T*: . Here the word ' udaya' means 4 perfect enlightenment ' (abhisambodha). any pluralistic view is considered as a false view. 4 (ā samsārāt). inserting anyathātva (C. this term signifies ' pluralistic view '. C. & 6) śakti: Thus. p . JPç) between sthiti and bhañga. Thus. by means of self-born knowledge which needs no tea14 ' utpāda. T. 13. Though it is not a literal translation of Skt. I I .) 17 18 ) ā samsārakoteh.The Ratnagotravibhāga 'being conditioned' (saniskrta) means the thing. sthiti. not having heard the Buddhahood. which shows almost the exact sense of this Buddhist term. Cf. skye—ba. of which origination. 88. 113. 1. to spread out. middle and end. by which the one entity is regarded as plural. T. 112. Cf. That is to say. a view. 2) anābhoga: It is free from efforts because all dualistic views 15) and false discriminations 16> have ceased to exist. to enlarge). by which is meant originally the acquisition of Enlightenment by Sākyamuni. which is a quite marvellous and unthinkable sphere. showing an opposite sense between them. 17 ( ā bhavagateh). 1. ^f)£ pffij • T. p .9 (ā bhavâgratah). S. skye-ba-la ni ma yin-no " means " here the word ' udaya ' is to be understood in the sense of ' abhisambodha ' and not in the sense of ' utpāda ' " . as well as destruction 14> are conceivable. as O translated. T. C. Cf. r e a d i n g " odaya ni hdir mñon-par-rtogs~pa-la hdod-kyi. and bhañga. But. 5) karunā. 3) aparapratyayâbhisambodhi: It is 4 enlightened without any help of others ' (aparapratyayodaya) because it is realized through one's innate knowledge. ^ ^ . 4) Jñāna. means literally 'frivolous talk'. middle nor end. the term is usually accompanied by vikalpa. " 3 ^ 7} ZrJ (sometimes only '/J ArJ )• ) T . Sometimes. manifold ( = prapañca-vacana) and not ' t h e phenomenal world ' as in the Vedānta philosophy.e.

2? [ 158 3 . C. 19 ) anācāryaka ( P a l i anācaryaka). p .hjig-tshogs(& body. C. who are ignorant 20> and blind by birth. Here. mire dañgzugs. false opinion. saikāyadrsti is. C. ston—pa. it is akin to the wall concealed by a thick forest. īj/£ .J . [the Buddha] has preached 21) the path to follow22) that [Buddhahood]. the Suffering. ) satkāya ( P . abuddha. ^i^ $ £ p i P p f ] . As having the character of breaking. mñon-par śen-pa. T. As having the character of cutting it. 1. which is contracted in wrong view and doubt and is to be destroyed by the Path of true perception. sakkāya). by which the individuality is distinguished from each other ' . rjes-su rtogs-pa ( = anubodha). collection perishable). [the Buddha] should be understood as being endowed with the supreme Wisdom and Compassion. o n t h e contrary. vyapadeśa). wrong view and doubt 2 7 ). ' nāma ' means the 4 skandhas other than irūpa\ therefore. srid-rnams-pa. ' m e n t a l e l e m e n t s a n d m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s . the power (śakti) of Wisdom and of Compassion of the Tathāgata. The transcendency is due to its never again being turned back. The Defilement. in short. T . 21 22 ) vyupadeśa ) anugāmin. T . ) There a r e 4 kinds of ' kleśas ' which a r e caused b y t h e wrong discrimination and are t o perish b y darśana-mārga. T . T . ) nāmarūpa. as being contracted in the Individuality. The root of Defilement is anything which is based on the prejudice25) to the individual existence26). 26 ) bhavāh T . i. Therefore.e. ) abhiniveśa (Pali abhinivesa). in order to enlighten the others too.s u t t a ) . one kind of origination of Individuality 23) (nāmarūpa) on the [three] existences24). ^pj -£}". With respect to their abolition of the roots of others' Suffering (duhkha) and Defilement (kleśa). 20 ) abudha = S. C. ZZ. physical T. it should be known that Buddha's Power of both Wisdom and Compassion is illustrated by an example of thunderbolt. superstition. Thence. r e a d s i n s t e a d ' anuttara '. it should be known that the Buddha's power of both Wisdom and Compassion is illustrated by an example of sword. with respect to his comprehension. 24 25 23 c IE. Cf. TAKASAKI cher 1 9 ) . a n i n n a t e defilement. 171 ( Ā r y a p a r i y e s a n a . C. respectively. and. They a r e mithyādrsti. C. Of these. is difficult to be understood and hardly to be overcome by means of mundane knowledge. is explained by means of the examples of sword and thunderbolt. drsti-parāmarśa. should be regarded as having the state of sprout because of its character of origination. P a l i MN vol. a n d is t o p e r i s h b y bhāvanā-mārga. The fearlessness (abhayatva) of Path is due to its transcendency. nāmarūpa is a synonym of pañcaskandhāh. ( B H S ) ( p e r h a p s a wrong form for S k t . ^=J ( t r i b h a v a ) . śīlavrataparāmarśa a n d vicikitsā. the root of Suffering is. ^ J Ç ^ . slob-dpon med-pa.

The R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ā g a fi 2. Mañjuśrī. . 33 ) The term ' vithapati ' is to be corrected into ' vithapeti '.e. it is explained that the Tathāgata is of immutable character. 1.IH tf ñ. see Chap. Cf.). p. 2. it is said as follows: " O Manjuśrī. T.( t h e l l t h cent - A . p. has the epithets) the Tathāgata. the Arhat. 49. vi\)sthā. JAĀ. devoid of thinking 35> and ) ānupūrvl (anupūrvi?). the simplest edition is 2). 32 ) JAĀ. C. 3 °) C. by nine illustrations beginning with the illustration of a reflection of the Indra on the surface of an immaculate Vaidūrya stone 31 ). T. M tr. However.-)> Taisho. he who is of no origination or destruction is (i. go-rims. Caus. 31. See N o t e 1 1 . Taisho No.). No. the Perfectly Enlightenend One " 3°). bsam-du med-pa ( = acintya). He is unimaginable.). JAÂ). S. 357 (12. with reference to this very meaning of the Tathāgata's being neither originated nor destructed. p. Pali. 240 c. the 9 illustrations on the Buddha's Acts utilized in the Ratna. 239-250 a).v. £>. 29 ) We have 3 translations of this sūtra in the Chinese Tripitaka : 28 (Dharmaruci)./ P ^-p Pu*]. the six qualities of the Tathāgata mentioned above should be understood by this very order 28> and wdth detailed and analytical explanation. of Skt. which seems to show the original type of this sūtra. indiscriminative. 34 ) prapañcayati. 1. so. are partly lacking in 2). the Perfectly Enlightened One neither moves nor produces any thought 33>. by ff" -fJO I g H (Samghabhadra)& c.1 5 . it is said as follows 3 2 ) : " Thus. (501 A. (511-520 A. p. neither explains in a dualistic way 34 ) nor imagines falsely nor discriminates. should b e i n s e r t e d after ' acitta '. By this. B anu—). 253 c-265 b). 358 (12. And immediately after this. 3) " j ^ fft ^ C ^ A ^3 ^t H^| rf± M M tr. Of them. according to the Sarvabuddhavisayâvatārajñānâlokâlarnkārasūtra29\ In that Sūtra. 1. sems-par byed-pa. p . 359 D (12. 7: hetvānupurvyā (Ms. vithapanū. A ^ J©» vñV JS> ^ ^ ® » B ^ ' a c m i y a ' [ 159 ] . Reference to the Jñānâlokâlañkāra—sūtra. Cf. D. vithapyante. p. 35 C. See B H S Die. by S nS &c . will be shown according to 1) (abbr. hence hereafter the equivalency in C. the Arhat. > T . Thus. Taisho. IV (S. 250 a-253 c). anupubbī. first of all. the Tathāgata. vithapitā. 31 > About the 9 illustrations. 1. 2) j j —"QJ t f ffî ft •§?. No. s. 99 ff. S. as a hybrid form of vithapayati. 240 b.

e. or smelt. i. •> JAÂ. the Tathāgata is free from efforts. ñe—bar shi—bahi tshig—gi rab—tu dbye—ba (== upa- śamaśabda-prabheda ? ) . 38 > Cf. -observing the nature of all living beings. the Creat Compassion named 4 mastery ' sets in forth on all living beings ". has neither making known nor being made known. " and so forth. The former 3 epithets are translated in an opposite way. or tested. which is equivalent to JAĀ. reading * dños-po med-pahi ño-bo-ñid-du to * nirdistān '. After this. H e r e ' pradeśa ' seems t o m e a n ' a s p e c t ' (visaya o r gocara). there is explained by the remaining texts the Tathāgata's perfect enlightenment realized without any help of others with respect to all the gates to the Perfect Enlightenment of the real nature of all elements 37>. Such is the explanation of various kinds of aspects of quiescence36>. having the nature] as has been said before '. 247 6. 2476. or touched and has no characteristic remark. all dualistic views and false discriminations have ceased to exist. sets forth the Compassion which is 'pure'. (Acc. T .minding. with reference to the Tathāgata's 16 kinds of Enightenment 3 8 \ it is said as follows39>: There. the character of non-existence 40>.. 40 by accepting T. He cannot be seen. of quiescent character. ) ' abhāva-svabhāvāt * in the text should be corrected to ' abhāvasvabhāvān'. O Mañjuśrī.e. C. By this it is indicated that. m • * ^ f t ID ⣠VS W M tfe M IA % a %. as soon as the Tathāgata has enlightened all the elements of such a nature and has observed the essential nature of all living beings as 4 impure ' ' not removing stains ' and 4 blemished '. . 'immaculate'. 'not blemished ' and ' mastery'). There. " all the elements of such a nature " means * [all the elements. of neither origination nor destruction. in his own acts. or heard. And after this. 37 ) C. /fc5£ i ^ ^c. /7'J ^ZL T O ( — upaśama-prabheda-laksana). regards ' sarvataihatâbhisambodhamukhesu ' as a quotation.)-ho ' as an apposition [ 160 ] . i. but it is probably a wrong translation. By this the Tathāgata's possession of Supreme Wisdom and Compassion is demonstrated. M !S >l>. hence. after the explanation of [nine] illustrations. Note 1-89. Having enlightened " means 4 having known truly by means of Buddha's non-discriminative Wisdom \ 44 Of [all] living beings " means 4 of those [living beings] who are in the 36 44 ) upaśamaprabheda—pradeśa.

45 ) Instead of ' tadubhayâniyatama-viśistayā ' in the text. because [the Buddha]. having realized 4 8 ) the characteristics of all living beings through 41 ) T. which is not different from his own quality by nature ' 4 2 ) . impure. & C. t o ' mukha'. For 'avaśistatā'1 ^ \ ^ ' shows nearly the same meaning. (brtse-ba = sneha [affection]. sāñgana. hence the whole means ' taking compassion in various ways ' ?). D i e . enters t h e various gates of that means " . The term vikrldita is often used in the sense of ' having perfect mastery ' in BHS as E. " Blemished (sâñgana) " 44) means ' [blemished nature] of Bodhisattvas '. [The Compassion is * named] mastery (vikrīditā) " 46> because it enters well into * the gates of accomplished means of training in various ways (vividhā) 47>. On the contrary C. T. r e a d as ' vineyopāya '. mentioned (e. " The great Compassion sets forth on all living beings".. etc. S. 44 ) T . lhag-ma. " Not removing stains (avimala) " means * [stainful nature] of the Śravākas and Pratyekabuddhas ' because of obstruction on account of knowable things (jñeyâvarana). s. 43 ) C. being an epithet or an apposition to ' karunā '. Lalitavistara). But here C. C. T . which is usually equivalent to ' vijrmbhita ' (manifestation of the Buddha's power). fZC B S ' (dharmatā. trivimoksamukha—vikrîdito. " Essential nature (dharmadhātu) " 4 1 ) means 4 the Matrix of the Tathāgata. & C. T. Here. " Having observed " i means having perceived all kinds (i. once connecting t o ' upāya' a n d i n t h e second case. IV-1 ' vineyadhātau vinayâbhyupāye '. rnam-par-brtse-ba.' is i n t e r p r e t e d b y ' vividhā'. J/C j3Î in the quotation (instead of the usual ' î ^ -^r '). F o r ' vinayopāya \ b o t h T . chos-kyi dbyiñs. mñoT-par rdsogs- r . in common with S. C. 48 ) T h e reading ' abhisambuddhabodheh ' i n t h e t e x t is doubtful. v . There is no exact concordance between S.v. 46 > T. connects t h i s 'vividhā' t o ' m u M a ' a n d C. e x p l a i n s t h e w o r d s from ' sarvasattvānām ' t o ' avalokya ' t o g e t h e r . because of [their] retaining [the impression of] one of both [obstructions] 45>. h a v i n g k n o w n ( = sampanna ?) t h e various m e a n s b y w h i c h living beings a r e t o b e c o n v e r t e d . the reading should be (remained). T h e prefix ' vi. ^ J j S p cf. and C. translates it by ' § | | Tiiy '. C. has ' fj^ •Jf"' ' along with ' ' ij^ [££. b u t T . ' "p| ' tadubhayânyatamâvaśistatayā'. añgana. t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s passage r u n s as follows: " I t is ' vikrīditā ' because [the B u d d h a ] . g. T . Cf. S.e. dharmasvabhāva ? ) . unconformed (aniyatar-) and wrongly conformed (mithyā-niyata-) groups (rāśi) '. connects it t o ' supravista '. & C . " Impure (aśuddha) " means i [impure nature] of the ignorant and common people ' because of obstruction caused by Moral Defilement (klesâvarana). B u t t h e r e seems t o b e n o t so m u c h difference b e t w e e n b o t h t e r m s as t o t h e i r sense. instead of the usual mam-par rol-pa.The Ratnagotravibhāga state of conformed [in right way] (niyata-). 42 ) (sattvānām) dharmadhātu — svadharmatā-prakrtinirviśista-tathāgatagarbha. O n t h e c o n t r a r y .) through the Buddha's eye to which nothing is obscure' 4 3 ) . the feminine form is used. 47 ) T h e reading of t h i s passage is r a t h e r obvious. skyon-dañ bcas-pa. uses t h i s word twice.. B H S .

Note 11-42. to enlighten the Highest Enlightne- ment).t it is not certain whether it is the translation of this terin or that of ' adhie:amaprāpia ' O e a ds to the acquisition). because of their character of being the basis for set*ng forth the Wheel of the highest and greatest Doctrine. See. 49) samata1. the Enlightenment. is 4 the fulfilment of self-benefit' (svârthasamfd). of these six qualities of the Tatbg ata > according to order [the quality] connected with the first three ualities. the equality. i. the fulfilment of sef"k enent *s designated. i.I. seems to have a double expression ' fjg -4^ £££. C. [it is called ' mahākarunā ' ] . / v r f 4/E ' * s m e r e l y an interpreting word by the Chinese translator. immutable. VII . Cf.e.££.e. 1AJ4. ^ a s t n e intention to lead [the living beings] to the acquisition of thei o w n nature 50). C.. i. By the word ' Wisdom '. so) £_ r e a c the whole passage as follows: " ' mah5!>rui}ū ' [signifies] that. After this.J. and [the quality connected with] the remaining three. having attained the Great Enlightenment. [the Buddha] has no relaxation of activity for effectuatag t n e setting in motion of the Wheel of unparalleled Doctrine.t n e double expression. •=f^' Jg£ ' seems to be connected with ' i!i> wC *^~ īlF AO ' ( to ' ^n orc ^er t 0 ' o r having intention to) as an apposition to ' 3ÎU 7 £ enghten the same as the Buddha. still it is better to be ' abhisambodhibuddhyā '. [the Buddhal o l " n s t n e Great Compassion equally for all living beings with intention to make living eings realize what the Buddha did. to make them enlighten the Great EnlighteJ i e n t < Therefore. Besides [thee *s another meaning].e. upaśāntipada [ 162 ] . a e r ' tuahākarunā iti\ and ' ^gjf y^. ' 3. et( *s ' t n e fulfilment of benefit for others ' (parârthasampad). the fulfilment of benefit fo others is designated. J-[J£'. having aroused the supreme Wisdom an Compassion. because there is another expression *JĪJ5C -4^ . par byañ-chub'as na (abhisambodheh). ) paramatyopaśāntipada.e. eternal and cruiescent plPe 51^ n a s the character of being the basis of his own perfect enlightenmei • By the words ' Compassion ' and ' Power '. Wisdom. Usually. etc. This [activif] should be known as ' power ' of both [Wisdom and Compassion] in egard of acting for the sake of others. If so. id. And even if wc*1006?*. i.AS5AK. " It seems C. in so far as the highest. or the lack of differencp (nirviśistatā) between the Buddha himsel£ n d all sattvas. _5f? signifies ' nirvān • 51 * <g)C p£f" ft^ •£?.I equality 49). The Tathāgatagarbhasūtra the Thāgatopattisambhavanirdeśa (Avat S). i & ' p. takes ' svadharmatā ' i ' Buddha's own nature'. 7) St7âriasa]r?ljPa<^ & 8) parârthasampad: Here.

viz. 7.C. But.III. T. 4-8. 122. Lañkāvatāra p.v. Pali āram- mana — Skt. 1. (Kārikā 2). But. T. I bow before the sun of-the Doctrine. etc. Note VI-70 (for cittârambana. timiranāśana. ^ J ||}£ or »_!?£ pip. W ® ?£ . immediately after [the explanation of] the former. And which. in comparison with the simile of the sun. Which is neither non-being nor being.. Dictionary. ' timira.fa i|> fcj . timirâri. Skt. 2) pratyātmavedya ( = pratyātmavedanīya in comm. Madhyamaka-kârikā I. so-so-ran-gyis rig (-parlj bya-ba). rab-rib. The present transla- . ' 3fT| | P J ' means usually ' vitarka-vicāra ' and I could not trace the use of ' j | ? j Hit' for 'ārambana' in other texts. C. // 9 // This alternative proposition is called ' catuskotikā\ Cf. flji£ |*Jp. cf. from the Jewel of the Buddha. T. what is to be destroyed is timira (the sun is often referred to by such terms as timiracchid. Therefore. we have one śloka concerning the latter. etc. moha or avidyā. Nor both being and non-being together. And neither different from being nor from non-being X). THE JEWEL OF THE DOCTRINE Now. But revealed [only] by introspection 2> and is quiescent. j ^ S f$t ? C. timiranud. 5) ārambana (āramvana in the text is probably a misprint) (BHS fr.C 'li* fft a t SB) and XVII-187 (for ' nirālamba'. T. Pali dosa)..). So ^« /JiE (moha). dmigs-pa. with rays of light of the immaculate Wisdom. translation is curious. 3) 4 dosa (BHS for Skt. ^ C 163 ] ( § ) . timiraripu. C.) and C. hatred 3) and darkness4) with respect to all the basis of cognition 5 ). ālambana). sdañ(-ba) (she-sdañ). seems to show this sense. Destroys passion. Which cannot be speculated upon and is beyond explanation. M. dvesa. s. It means doctrinally the ignorance. J. Mahāyānasūtrâlañkāra VI. W. there arises the Jewel of the Doctrine.

4) purity. 2) non-duality (advayatā). hdod-chags dañ bral-bahi rgyu. 3) niskalpa. î^p". 4) śuddhi. [ 164 ] . — e . „„ - „_. mñonJ £A| )î 6) vipaksa gñen-pohi phyogs- par gsal-bar (byed-pa). translation for the whole line runs as follows: " Destroys several kinds of darkness (H_5£. and 8) cause of Deliverance (virāgahetu) 7 ). hatred and ignorance. ç?^ pip. non-dual. and C. 5) [being] manifest (abhivyaktikarana). (BGŚ ^ ^ î ^ " ) .' seems to be equivalent to vibandha '. v . 6) hostility [against obstacles] (pratipaksatā).ASAKI § 1. and ' j^lj ||p£' to vikalpa or ayoniśomanasikāra.J . translation is more understandable than S. Cf. 7) Terms in v. which is Deliverance and also by which arises Deliverance Has the characteristics of the two Truths. The Doctrine. [V] vrtti. (ārambana 6) & ālambana).. 7) yo virāgah. see below (Note 111-39). 7>fç 73 [A7'Jj. 10 and translations of these 8 in T. pjfl: ^ ^ (BGS pgjt ^ ) . & C.). (śuddhi). pgfl: |AJ (BGS BGŚ 8016. About the use of the term ' ārambana '. 3EJ j p . BHS Die. passions. 3E>|. manifestation and hostility. gñis-su med-pa-ñid. 'i* yf^ "pT* {B |âfe fRPŚ /T^ UT ® B *V . 7) Deliverance [from passions] (virāga). in brief. Cf. and being non-discriminative. 2) advaya. where these 8 categories are explained as the qualities of the Buddha's ' āśrayaparivrtti '). rnam-par rtog- pa med-pa-ñid. hdod chags dañ bral-ba. 5) vyakti. Which are the eight qualities? They are 1) unthinkability (acintyatva). tion is according to T. the Jewel of the Doctrine is explained as being contracted by eight qualities. as well as in BGS are as follows: 1) acintya. ^ ^ / fî\ |2si). dag-pa. Cf. s.researching and investigation (jSjjJ Çpt) [by discriminative mind]. 3) non-discriminativeness (nirvikalpatā). And because of its pureness. Buddhagotraśāstra ( B G Ś ) 801 b ff. ^TJj' M R ^ ^ / (BGS ) j ^ ñid. 1-^)* i>e. & 8) yena virāgah. I V . What is shown by this śloka? Because of its being unthinkable. and all [other] defilements " . (BGS -7HÇ . bsam-du med-pa-ñid. // 10 // By this verse. Eightfold Quality of the Doctrine 6>. TAJK. The C. ( u n d e r C h a p .

rnam-par byañ-bahi bden-pa gñis-kyi mtshanñid. . C. C. unthinkability. mnon-par bsdus te. The Doctrine as the Truth of Extinction. ' pjjft also shows n o t h i n g special. reading. and is opposite to ' duhkhasatya ' and ' samudayasatya '. 9) Which are each to be known By three qualities according to order.. t h e s t a t e of b e i n g virāgin (one w h o is passionless). From this [explanation] it should be known that the Deliverance [itself] is contracted. // 11 // Of these six qualities. C.e. nirodhasatya and mārgasatya. Because of its being beyond speculation and explanation.The Ratnagotravibhāga § 2. translates ' nirodha—mārga—satyābhyām ' as the subject. 11. which are. 8) ' virāgitā '. . -^3 ^gf . H e n c e ' v i r ā g a t ā ' seems here a more natural form than ' virāgitā '. it is explained. T. ' Having joined these two together10>. Extinction and Path. Unthinkability [of the Doctrine should be known]. T . in their turn. . 10) abhisamasya ( g r .vffî iyn ' vyavadānasatyadvaya ' means ' the 2 satyas concerned with purification ' i. i. ' [hdod-]chags [dan] bral[-ba]-ñid ' seems e q u i v a l e n t t o ' virāgatā \ C. T. Deliverance 8) is summarized In both truths. as] the Truth of Extinction. T . Consequently there is no difficulty in C. 9) The reading ' ete ' in the text should be understood in the sense ' yābhyām nirodhatnārgasatyābhyām . ' being of the nature of Deliverance (virāgadharma)u ) ' means ' having characteristic of the two purifying Truths12>. by the first three qualities. and " by which arises the Deliverance " means ' by [the Doctrine as] the Truth of Path. purity.e. 12) vyavadāna-satyadvaya-laksana. w h i c h is t h e c o m m o n n a t u r e of b o t h ' nirodhasatya ' & ' mārgasatya '. to be termed ' samkleśasatyadvaya \ 13 l l j ' ārya. f^p* fZC . te (ete) veditavye '. " That which is Deliverance " means [the Doctrine. C. the Truth of Path is explained. And by the remaining three qualities. and takes ' samgrhita ' as active voice. And because of its being the knowledge of Saints 13>. hphags-pa. manifestation and hostility. non-duality and non-discriminativeness. pij|£ f S • This is an interpretation of the word ' virāgitā ' (or virāgatā) in v. § 3. it should be known that the cause of Deliverance is contracted. the Truth of Extinction is explained. [ 165 ] . Nirodha-satya and Mārga-satya. T h e m e a n i n g of t h i s w o r d is s h o w n below b y t h e t e r m ' virāgadharma '. C. See above.e. ' Q " . i. . and from this. o f abhi-sam-^as).

'karman' is t h e cause of 'janman' (or bhava).. T. T. 20) ° " m ^1 ^ Z2 ITS I S ^ H (what are two. In another passage. ñag-gi yul. samketa. i. see S. 2) advayatā & 3) nirvikalpatā. word a n d t h o u g h t . It seems to be the original reading and is preferable here. Cf. C. speech. t h e former signifies t h e a c t u a l deed b y body. 21) T.^ . About the etymology of ' vyavahāra'. vyavahāra. nirukti. explanation. śiva. T. and neither being nor non-being. vākpatha. p e r h a p s i n t h e sense t h a t ' śiva * is an epithet of ' nirodha '. of which is taught ' non- See below (S. 10 ff. C. 7 ff. 18) dharman (ifc). Equivalency to each term pt in C. tha-sñad. [ 166 ] . ravita (artificial sound). 1) it is not a sphere of speculation even by four categories [of existence] 1 4 \ i. TAKASAKI Because of quiescence it is non-dual and non-discriminative. 13. 13 and p. C. 4 dual ' (dvaya)19) means ' action ' or ' active force ' (karman). conversation [and so forth] 15>. C. 1. " E ī m . in short. being and non-being together. P T S D i e (' kamma ' ) . Whenever 'karman1 and ' kleśa ' a r e mentioned side b y side. I n t h i s sense ' k a r m a n ' should be r e g a r d e d a s t h e ' active force '. [as by deed. B u t i n t h e relation t o ' janman '. ^ J . respectively. the same sentence is quoted changing * dharmā ' into ' dharmatayā '. ^*H g / j j . C. brda.C 2gp (echo ?). 5=p . 2) it cannot be explained by any sound. brjod-pa ( = vacana). And three [qualities]. Vpf i 5 > • ^ u t T . t h e n e x t birth. agreed term. See above. having the nature 18> of being non-dual and non-discriminative " . T. ^\ . designation. How should here be understood nonduality and non-discriminativeness of the Truth of Extinction? It is taught by the Lord as follows1 6 ) : " O Śāriputra.ghosa.J. C. being. sgra (= śabda). mñon-par brjod-pa. 44. way of speech. voice.1.). By knowing deeply that 14 ) So-called ' catuskotikā '. EL abhilāpa. 16) A A N 467 b. ?R ^ ( 4 ^] H S 1H). T. ( B G Ś also quotes t h i s sentence). (S. T. should be known by three causes. 14). C. // 12 // 1) acintyatva: Unthinkability of the Truth of Extinction. By which three? Because. tshul-bshin ma-yin-pa yid-la byed-pa. hgog-pa ( = nirodha). is not sure. 19> 17) dual'?). ñe-tshig. are akin to the sun. C. some kind of energy a n d h a s a sense similar t o ' samskāra '. of which t h e cause is ' kleśa'. p. p. 42.e nonbeing. skad ( = bhāsā). p . word and thought] ' 2 0 ) and ' Defilement (Mesa). . purity etc. _ p . T. Here. C. quiescent l 7 ) is this Absolute Body [of the Buddha]. 16> ruta. see Note VIII-(IX) A-61. As for its being a cause of Defilements and Actions. T.e. and 3) it is to be revealed by the introspection of Saints. 1. i discrimination (vikalpa) means 'Irrational Thought (ayoniśomanasikāra)'21) which is the cause of origination of Action and Defilements.

vv. It is called 4 non-birth(ajfāti) 2 5 ) . and ' vijñāna '. it is [called] the Truth of Extinction of Suffering. Also said [in the scripture]26). ' manas ' ' ādâna-vijñāna '. constant. 10. everlasting28). dhruva. 82. 13. I^J ' t ā Vpf î/K *> S ! ) a r e °f ten u s e d i n this treatise as the modifiers of ' dharmakāya' or the Absolute Truth. mi-skye(-ba). II. of no destruction. the chain of causation (pratītyasamutpāda). See below (S. O Lord. free from destruction. T. nitya. Non-arising of Ignorance means non-arising of the Twelve Parts of Existence (dvādaśa-bhavâñga) 24>. intellect and consciousness never take place 2 3 ) . of no birth. It should never be explained that. "> T. rtag-pa. Wherever no mental action takes place. 20. p .) 24) i. One who applies himself with rational thought never makes Ignorance arise. extinction of Suffering does not mean the disappearance of element. brtan-pa. (in BGS. > anādikālika. however. C. immutable. 4 Extinction of Suffering '. ^ ' H ® tt> respectively (496 b) BGŚ ^ ? ft B S 8 6 $& ( 8 0 1 c ) ' [ 167 ] . It is said as follows 22>: O Mañjuśrī. | P £ jfâ [ ^ jf& i f r ^ ] . Paramārtha interprets that ' citta ' means the ' former ' (i.) Cf. 23) 44 44 citta-mano-vijñāna. for this reason there is absolutely no origination of Suffering. I t is quite against the Vijñānavādin's way of interpretation. J|_j^ ^g. the usual set of) 6 vijñānas. mi-hjig-pa. shi-ba. in case there is neither origination nor extinction. mental actions as mind. AĀS (beginning of Chap. consequently. Cf. 26 > ŚMS 221 c. These three are synonymous with each other and here seem to have no special meaning as in the Vijñānavāda. eternal. starting with ' avidyā '. non-originated. & śāśvata. ^ ^J£ (BGS A^ ^ £ ) . ' ālayavijñāna '. 72. purified by nature. thog-ma med-pahi dus-can. p. 53. sems dañ yid dañ rnam-par śes-pa. there is no false imagination by which they would think irrationally. because of extinction of something. 12 ft. C. śiva. released from covering of 22 > JAĀ 247 a.e. Cf. 81. 27 etc. 1. ^[j* Jlā» JHf« H * (but AĀS & BGS. there is designated the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata which is beginningless 27>. C. By the term. 54.The R at n a g ot r av i b h ā ga this Irrational thought is extinct by nature. (T. 1.. O Lord. C. there is no origination of duality and discrimination. 469 b) BGŚ quotes the first sentence from AĀS and regards the remaining as its own explanation. @^C). quiescent. 28) These 4. This is called the Truth of Extinction of Suffering. AÂS (which has the passage after ' asamskrta ' up to the end of this quotation). ' ajāti ' = ' anutpādânirodha \ The term ' ajāti ' reminds us of the idealistic philosophy of Gaudapāda. p. (BGS 801 c). BGŚ 801 (quotation from ŚMS). ' " and so forth.1. T. e. p. This is usually an adjective to ' dhātu \ See S. p.

93 ff. C.) ' m a k e s t h e i d e a signified b y ' gañgāvālikā tathāgatagarbhah —. sgom-pahi 32) lam. [Namely] 1) through the common characteristic of purity of the disk.. . Similarity of ' jñāna' to the sun is also referred to in S. because. gañgāvālikāvyativrttair avinirbhāgair acintyair buddhadharmaih samanvāgatas . darśana-mārga. brol-bar śes-pa (= muktajña). see Note 1-23. and * bhāvanā-mārga ' those Stages after the second one. the way to attain the Absolute Body of Tathāgata named Extinction of Suffering is the Path of perception and practice 32) based upon the nondiscriminative Wisdom (avikalpa-jñāna) 33\ And this [Path] is to be known as similar to the sun with threefold common characteristics 3 4 ) . § 4. ^ ^ T h e t e r m ' samanvāgata 30) $ ? $fc ^ . j||£ . (sūryavad iti. C. T. T.. because of making manifest knowable things of all kinds. 4) śuddhi. T. & bhāvanā-mārga.all moral defilements. 0 Lord. p. . y@g 3JH. BGŚ 802 a (j|ft $£ 0 ) . p. (C. . and forth). • ' darśana-mārga ' signifies the first Stage of the Bodhisattva. etc. AĀS. J^J.. tathāgatakāyo ' vinirmuktakleśakośas T h i s is a f a m o u s ^\f definition of the term ' tathāgatagarbha \ Chinese refer to this often by ' śf\\ p | | 31 > Cf. . mthoñ-bahi lam. 107 ff. The Doctrine as the Truth of Path 3 1 ). ŚMS. text and T. C. C. ŚMS (both T. 5) abhivyaktikarana & 6) pratipaksatā: Now indeed. TW t=î B^Ś A* -fjjf Jiff ^ ? the last two seem to show the best translation. " Thus all the determination of the Truth of Extinction of Suffering should be understood wholly and in detail according to Sutras.. and endowed with inseparable and unthinkable qualities of the Buddha. ^ ft $1] ^§?. For this expression. q u i t e clear. (quotation from AAN). 34> 33) [ 168 ] . C.e. . 58. vv. which are far more than the sands of the Gañgā in number 29>. all other editions i.. [when it is] unreleased from the covering of moral 30) defilements. have this term. is called the Matrix of Tathāgata. T. & C). 4 N $fc 4 ^ j | | ) . because of being apart from all the minor defilements and stains. except the present Skt. 2) through the common characteristic of being the manifestor of forms. The term ' amuktajñair ' had better be inserted after ' avinirbhāgair '. AÂS & BGŚ. mam-par mi-rtog-pahi ye-śes. and 3) through the common 29) . And this very Absolute Body of the Tathāgata.

m a k e s a B a h u v r ī h i compound. [they regard the unreal thing as the real characteristic] because of its detestable looks (pratighâkārena). 17). C. then it is the same because of its obscure looks (avidyâkārena). yid-la byed-pa.= paryavasthāna 41) T . seems t o regard i t as being appositional. 36 35) C. Indeed. C. C. o m .e. See below. gti—mug.. de-kho-na mthoñ-ba ( = tattva-darśana). respectively. hdod—chags. C. Or ' ayoniśo manasikāra ' = ' abhūtavastu—nimitta—ārambana-manasikāra '. And of those people who T. 17. Hatred and Ignorance 37> preceded by the thought 3 8 ) which takes its basis [of cognition] upon the characteristic of unreal things Z9\ It is due to the union of the state of tendency (anuśaya) with manifested state (paryutthāna) [of defilement] 40>. p. dvesa. i. yañ-dag-pa ma-yin-pahi dños-po rgyu38) mtshan—gyi yul. 7JIJE. T . ārambana '. _fpl. translation as well as by the reading ' sarvâkārasya tattvadarśanavibandhasya ' in S. ^ p ^ A^ t w ( b u t usually |§|f S|^) ' sleeping Idan-pa. On t h e c o n t r a r y . d e t e r m i n i n g t h e characteristic of ' manasikāra '. gegs. T . I n other words. T . 39 ' abhūta-vastu-nimitta-ārambana. And t bondage ' (vibandha) 36> means the origination of Desire. T. ' can ' should be inserted after 'yul'. 12) should be read ' tattva ' instead of ' satya ' inserted by J . because ' arāmbana' is a kind of a c t . F r o m t h e point of S k t . Jjt^ . p. T . C. C. 8 in S. people regard the unreal. fift. As being based upon the unreal feature. C.e. t h e compound ' abhūta . T. If we construe T . but BGS. has no equivalent term. T . See note '. 40) anuśaya. 1. she—sdañ. it should be ayoniśomanasikāra ' in its implied sense. manasikāra. kun-nas (S. a n d for paryutthāna. 37 ' rāga. when Hatred comes forth [from its state of tendency]. /MR -£Ç J) ft'] j]l^ . C. This word > T. bag-la ñal-ba. i. a n d hence is to b e understood i n t h e sense ' [manasikāra] whose ārambana is abhūtavastu—nimitta ' a n d ' ārambana ' c a n be t r a n s l a t e d into ' senseobject '. ( b u t usuIX-77. ' manasikāra ' here is determine d a s ' abhūtavastunimitta-ārambana'. u n d e r s t a n d s 'ārambana'' in t h e sense of ' t a k i n g hold o f or 'grasping '• This v e r b a l sense seems b e t t e r here t h a n t h e nominal sense. (see J. . because of being the enemy of all kinds of obstacles against the true perception35*. ally H I ) . By reason of this T. regards t h e t e r m 'ārambana' as ' visaya'' (sense object) a n d connects i t with ' abhūta-vastu-nimitta ' b y t h e genitive case. . t r a n s l a t i o n i n t h e light of this S k t . B. 67. t h e a c t of t a k i n g hold of ' abhūtavastu-nimitta ' [as real]. C. C p j ^ moha. and when Ignorance conies forth. T . 13. As for t h e relation of this ' ārambana ' t o ' manasikāra '. s t a t e '. fn. J ^ .The Ratnagotravibhāga characteristic of hostility against darkness. >P}A'/1>* Jp|^ "^p" ^ffl. way. BGŚ B|f seems to stand for ' timira ' in the kārikā. ' p o t e n t i a l s t a t e ' . g r a m m a r . 1. however. 0 t f p *?£ (the thing to be dispelled). being appositional t o ' manasikāra '. the uncertain passage in Ms. 'not of its nature (atatsvabhāva) ' thing as the [real] characteristic because of its desirable looks (śubhâkāra)41> when Desire comes forth from its state of tendency. ^ ? F o r ' śubhâkāra [ 169 ] .

58 f. and this ' ayoniśomanasikāra ' is defined as ' vikalpa ' (S. (tattvadarśana-vibandha) pf| . Action Rebirth. . BGS 802 a: -JÇ J ^ Bpf [yp. and the Irrational Thought i3 the cause of associated origination. etc. 43) Here ordinary beings (bala) are said to be ' anuśayavat'. \m M ' l ī l ffiE > ^ C ¥ K ffi • Me t i (anuśaya) M H (ayonisomanasikāra) (The tattvadarśanavibandha means (1) a complexed action of mind. C. (3) karma-samkleśa. come forth because people do not know. e. speech and thought. For those people whose mind is occupied with the Irrational Thought. it is called ' a complexed action of mind '). z?t£ (7P1E ^Rc)« A general term for kleśa. Hatred and Ignorance]. dmigs-pa. (2) kleśa-samkleśa. (C. they make the actions born oi Desire by means of body. the latter two). 12. I rendered it into an adverbal sense. affections towards the five sense-objects are conditions. for ' ārambana '. 39).&• / £ . the action born of Ignorance. 2) or ' abhūtavastunimittârambana-manasikāra ' (S. there takes place the Defilement of any one of Desire. and also [in the same way] they produce the action born of Hatred. from which consequently arises Defilement. Because of the association of these three. In this process. 13. i. Cf. T. the Absolute. karman & janman. khams gcig. 46) About the process of origination of the phenomenal life (samkleśa) see S. Thus these people. mtshan-par hdsin-pa-can. produce the Irrational Thought. Hatred and Ignorance. p. 44) samkleśa. and making it the basis of cognition. (v. Here. kun-nas ñon-moñs-pa. having tendencies [of Desire. The function of ' ayoniśomanasikāra ' is to be compared to that of ' manas ' in the Vijñānavāda. %M. It is also identical with cittaprakrti. from Action there results Rebirth. [Of them].. Here ' ārambana seems to show more clearly the sense of ' an action to hang on '. dharmatā. Hatred and Ignorance as the basis of cognition 4 2 \ the Irrational Thought occupies their mind. i. regarding the [unreal] characteristic [as real]. 1) (see Note 38. there arises Rebirth. 42 f. T. Because of origination of Defilement. and for ' ārambana-carita ' T. but from the context. 1. For ' nimitta-grāhin '. C. TAKASAKI incorrectly take hold of characteristics of Desire. [affectionally] hanging on it 43>. etc. T. ayathābhūtam can be regarded as an adjective to ārambana. all the phenomena^ life. (1) a complexed action of mind is [a mental activity]. > eka-dhātu.J . and (4) janma-samkleśa. p. ' nimitta-grāhin ' and ' ārambana-carita ''. Furthermore. e. from the origination of Action. om. 45 dharmadhātu. And all kinds of impurity (samkleśa) 44> of these Defilements. — ' *gf ft 5?" > ( B G Ś — ' 5^) T. C. Due to this [origination of Defilement].). of which the Defilements in dormant state are causes. It may be termed [ 170 ] . 1. These three show successive activities of mind preceding to ' manasikāra '. as before (-»IA). dmigs-pa-la spyod-pa. î | § . ' ayoniśomanasikāra ' occupies the important role. p. nor perceive the one [real] essence 45) as it is 4 6 \ 42) rāgadvesamoha-nimittam ayathābhūlam ārambanam kurvatām. there arises Action.

jr«-* f o r b o t h e. Here the use of ' ārambana ' is obviously objective. yoñs-su btsal-ba. Astasāhasrikā-Prajñāpāramitā (Wogihara's Edition of AAA pp. 334. C. VIII. /MR 3 C < £ TR (unreal characteristics of things) a'nd om. (Wogihara. 332. this realization of all natures by Wisdom. then can he perceive the Reality 48 ). asamavadhāna. 1. of pari- gavesate. T . where a passage from ASP is quoted. inserts a short quotation. med-pahi rgyu-mtshan-gyi dmigs-pa and C. ' ārambana '. C. running: together. 334. this is to be known as the ' enemy ' (pratipaksa) of all kinds of obstacles against the true perception. case-ending) T. pres.if4iiin3Kjçjn^^ftfj| J5']-.g. 230 ff. bral-ba. i. 1. seeks for. 'ff f 4 . 332. 9-12. but BGŚ —° ~ffl n§ ?£ (sarvadharmāh). 1. C. T. C. 353. 333. 47 > parigavesayat (one who investigates) ( < p. 1. • 60) By the term * iti '. C. when he perceives neither characteristic nor basis. which is the cause of attaining the Absolute Body [of the Tathāgata] and which is to be understood in detail according to the Sñtra named Prajñāpāramitā 53>. which had literally better be translated into ' unreal basis of characteristics '. T. 354. 1. v. tatra bodhisattvayānikah pudgalo yair vastubhih anumodeta yair ārambanair yair ākārais tac cittam utpādayet api nu tāni vastūni tāni vā ārambanāni te vā ākārās tathopalabhyeran yathā nimittîkaroti ". 1. BHS Die. 5-9). . 9-12). rgyu-mtshan nam dmigs-pa. ^ i ^ "\^ ^r.e.The Ratnagotravibhāga [On the other hand] these impurities should be seen in the same manper as by a perfect investigator 47 ) who does not perceive any [unreal] characteristic nor any basis of these impurities. investigates. C. for which the original reading is as follows: " .14 & 17-18. [ 171 ] . p. /fâ\ (as if * nimittârambana ' as in the previous cases). p. Cf. 1. T . B3) M ®#H. US. 12. there is absolutely no association nor harmony 52) of the obstacles. Thus. 4-7 & 11-15. And because of the origination of this enemy. T. [Because]. . 22-335. This is indeed the Path of perception and practice based upon the non-discriminative Wisdom. caus. has the sg. (e. of parigavesayati. AAA (GOS Edition. g. For ' nimittam ārambanam vā '. And thus. 2-5 & 15-16. and we can see the real character of being as the absolute truth. p. these elements 49> are perfectly realized by the Tathāgata as equal through 50 equality ).). s. 52) asamgati. ^yç. the content of realization is shown. as being equal without any addition nor diminution because of these two facts. (Skt. med-pa. $$. 1.). 51) asad nimittârambana. because we cannot see any characteristic nor basis of non-being51). 48 > bhūta. yañ-dag-pa. 335 b). g. *g£ f 4 • «> dharmāh (pi. 1.

-/Sç 0f_ . 3rd. 1. About the equivalence of this state to the Bodhisattva's i bhūmi'' or (vihāra\ there is a variety among the Mahāyāna texts.) I bow before those who. i n t h e 1st line. T. ranking the old 10 stages at the beginning under the name of 10 ' vihâra 's. p. Perceive the Buddhahood 5> penetrating everywhere. C 172 ] . -tā).IV. C. has •§ some misunderstanding on the third line and due to this misunderstanding. Here the commentator seems to have used the term ' avaivartika ' as indicating the Bodhisattva on the 1st bhūmi. And whose eye of Wisdom has its objects In the pureness and infinitude of the living beings. rtogs(-pa). avaivartika & ekajātipratibaddha or abhiseka (of these 4. 7th & 10th. C. C. the division of 10 stages also seems to have an old history and as a result of the combination of both. ^V* ^ g J p | | . 13 i n d i c a t e s ' sarvajagat' m e a n s ' p e o p l e i n t h e world ' . immediately after [the explanation of] the former. At the beginning of the development of the 'bhūmi' theory. being ranked as the 1st. 13). j | j (or ^ P ) . 16. 13. rdsogs-pahi sañs-rgyas (om.1. changes the order of the commentary. Besides this division. Confusion occurred after the apperance of the Avatamsakasūtra which established the 41 stages of Bodhisattva. namely: prathamacittotpādika. T. p. p. caryāpratipanna. T . respectively. there arises the Jewel of the Community of Bodhisattvas who are abiding in the irreversible state 1 ) . as being equivalent sometimes to the 1st bhūmī. (Kārikā 3. 1. we have one śloka referring to the latter. there seems to have been 4 divisions of states on account of the Bodhisattva's rank. 2) prati-vidh. // 13 // *) avaivartika ( = avinivartanīya). 15. having understood 2> perfectly The extremity of non-substantiality of all the worlds as quiescent. and newly creating the 10 ' bhūmi 's. from the Jewel of the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. T. the former 4 have got their place among 10 stages. sometimes to the 7th bhūmi. as the highest group of Bodhisattva's stages. t h e ' j a g a t * asvabhāva. (Cf. Pramuditā & c. phyir mi-ldog-pa. C. See S. it is regarded on one hand as the name for the 7th ' vihāra\ but on another hand. see S. 52. Because of their perception of the unreality 3> of defilements Through the brightness of the innate pure mind of all the world 4) . THE JEWEL OF THE COMMUNITY Now. ' tat' of t h e 2nd line of v . C. 16 ff. S. 4) 3) 6) sambuddhatā. As for ' avaivartika '.). Therefore. ño-bo-med[-pa]. Notes IV-31. Those whose intellect is unobscured. j?fj fī* • * " rlE v r C.

5-9). 1-2. ' is said to relate to the perception of ' tathāgatagarbha-asiitva' in all living beings. . Sandhinirmocana defines them. 258. and yāvadbhāvikatā of dharmas means sarvatā. t\\ 0 f ^ft tt & ffi 0T ~fâ ft (Taisho. as if ' yathāvad-bh. 11). i. respectively. p. but see BGS 802 b where these two are said to be the cause of ' virāgadharma ' representing ' bhāvanā-mārga ' under the names of %\\ K g | ^ & >flj H i \e£ • however. ' kun-nas ñon-moñs-pa dan mampar byañ—bahi chos mams—la rnam—pa rab—tu dbye—ba thams—cad—kyi mthar thug—pa gañ-yin—pa de—ni ji—sñed-yod—pa yin . It seems to show the original sense of these terms. %.C. On the other hand. BBh. XVI. ji-bshin. because of its purity of perception by supermundane knowledge. while ' yathāvadhbāvikatā' signifies the essence or the Absolute (tathatā) inherent in all phenomena.' or ' tatprsthalabdha-jñāna '. 699 c). So far as its manner and extent are concerned 6) . [manner and extent] i. 1. The Community of irreversible Bodhisattvas [Is endowed] with the supreme qualities 7>.\\ J8^ \v£ 'fT & T. yāvat.\ ' samvrti-satya \ This is the traditional way of interpretation in Tibet. As for their meanings. 'being as it i s ' (yathāvad-bhāvikatā and 4 being as far as ' (yāvad-bhāvikatā) 8\ yathāvad-yāvat. a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e s t h e following prose respectively: C. T . XXX. p. While the Bodhisatlvabhūmi says that yathāvadbhāvikatā of dharmas means their ' bhūtatā '. . in brief. T. 7) 8) 6) ji-sñed.e. & ' kun—nas ñon—moñs—pa dañ mam—par byañ-bahi chos de-dag ñid-kyi de~bshin-ñid gañ-yin-pa de-ni ji-lta-ba bshin-du yodpa—ñid yin . p. 39.e. 1-19. ' 'jjg* 4~T ' f° ' bhāvikatā' is probably a misreading. refers o n l y t o ' yathāvat' c o m m e n t a r y before v . the only special feature being that the ' yāvad-bh. ji-lta-ba bshin-du yod-pa-ñid & ji-sñed yod-pa-ñid edition. 15. that the Jewel of the Community of irreversible Bodhisattvas is endowed with supreme qualities. It means ' yāvadbhāvikatā' signifies all phenomena. But as far as this text is concerned. ji-lta-ba-bshin-yod-pa & ji~sñed-yod-pa. i. 11. 14. ' avikalpajñāna' and not to ' laukika. res r ÎM ls> ^"3* ' P. by both of which the two kinds of ' tattvârtha' are represented. 486 b etc. 11. . with respect to two aspects. 1. ^ Cf. 98 & 99). O's way seems an overinterpretation. p. KU ^[ a n d o m . both of these relate to ' lokottara-jñāna'1 or ' lokottara-prajñā ' (S. What is shown by this śloka? Because of its purity of perception by introspective knowledge. AĀS ^ 0 Î J L #H j i t (470 c). Yogācārabhūmi (Bodhisattvabhūmi) #H 0 Î ^ tt S I $ T -ft ft (Taisho. . (Lamotte's Sandhinirmocanasūtra. replaced by ' "^j ' after the next occurrence ($U *3î & This term ' \g£ ' is p 3 & KU JUT J^J ). This is rather close to the original interpretation. ' .' signified p aramârtha-satya '.e.. [ 173 ] . 16. here. C. Therefore. ' . // 14 // By this it is explained. C. C. 0 translates the terms into 'Absolute and Empiric'al character'. 215. pure and impure.The Ratnagotravibhāga § 1. Manner and Extent of the Perception of the Community. 2. while ' yāvad-bh.

' = ādiksaya. And this understanding. C. [with respect to the manner]. nirodha. T. nihsvabhāva. it is said 13>: " 0 Lord. by two causes. T . Here. gdod-nas zad. ksanika. Because they have understood the quiescent nature 9) of the world. Their manner [of perception] is ' as it is ' . the innate brightness of the mind and the defilement on the mind. Namely.J. T. ' i n k. The bad mind is [also] momentary. 12) 13) avināśa.>g5£ jg=p" . 14) C. they (i. # Stiff S ff W*J* 5 p ^hl (Real perception means the perception of the non-existence and quiescence of individuality and separate element from the outset. there is no succession of a second mind because both minds. C. and not such a perception as existing after the realization by dispelling the defilements. // 15 // Here. Bodhisattvas) have understood the extremity of non-substantiality (nairātmyakoti) of the whole world called Individualities and Separate Elements (pudgala—dharma-ākhya) as it is (yathāvat).e. in short. these two. act together as one and the same. g f^ V ^ VT (= prakrtipariśuddhi). relating to the non-annihilation U ) of Individualities and Separate Elements because of their nature of absolute quiescence from the outset. shi-bahi chos-ñid. p. 0 Lord. This is a word for ' śivā nairātmyakoti 10) ādiksaya. 7JC ^ 3>ī£. good and bad. which shows the denial of the conception of destroying something. the extinction of defilements on the mind. it cannot be afflicted by defilements. and because of their perception of * being destroyed from the outset ' (ādiksaya). TAKASAKI a) Right Manner of Perception (yathāvad-bhāvikatā). because of their perception of the innate brightness (prakrtiprabhāsvaratā)1® of the mind. hjig-pa med-pa. has a long interpretation: 11} T . Ś M S 2 2 2 b. 7^lJ J& j j ū . 1. rañ-bshin-gyis hod-gsal-ba(-ñid). And this [understanding] is caused by The purity [of the innate mind] and Their perception of the defilement as being destroyed from the [outset 10 ). skad-cig-ma. [ 174 ] . is produced. 'being as it is {yathāvad-bhāvikatā)' should be understood thus: because. rr-fc j j A —/-•{• H e r e . ittif^ife t * * * g i * t » f t . See S. defilements cannot 9) śānta-dharmatā. . in the immaculate sphere. f£^ .e. a good mind is momentary 14>.j | | . even this [bad] mind cannot be afflicted by defilements. 12. Therefore. 4-5 (on ' nirodha-satya '). C. i. * } ' . 3 .e. ' avināśa T. i. are quite difficult to be understood in relation to the fact that. C.

And this perception of Bodhisattvas takes place in the first Stage of the Bodhisattva. '. // 16 // Here. 'being as far as (yāvadhhāvikatā)' should be understood thus: because [with respect to the extent]. Their extent [of perception] is * as far as '. gpf jtfijj ~\ j Q i * y) Xfc "7T S \ (jñeya-paryantagatayā). [And the mind cannot be touched by the Defilements] 15h O Lord. (sarvasattvesu sarvajñâstitvadarśanāt).) 19) dhl = prajñā (lokottara prajñā). up to those who are in the animal kingdom. Thus. O Lord. & C. still there is defilement and there is defiled mind. sems ñonyañ ma-lags na. 10 ~ 24. can be afflicted by darkness? O Lord. ('dhyā' in t h e 1st line a n d ' d h a r m a t ā ' i n t h e 2nd line a r e omitted). 21) Cf. C. Tathogatotpattisambhavanirdeśa). 20) C. 15) Ace. the meaning that the mind purified by nature is defiled 1 7 ) is difficult to be understood " . p . the Absolute Essence is realized in the sense of all-pervading ' (sarvatraga). 18) sarvajña-dharmatā = tathāgatagarbha ( i n t h e comm. by means of the supermundane intellect (lokottara-prajñā) which reaches as far as the limit of all knowable things 21>. S. 2. with reference to [the manner of] ' being as it is '. the explanation of the meaning ' difficult to be understood ' should be understood in detail according to the Sūtra. because [verily in that Stage]. Because they perceive the existence Of the nature of Omniscience 1 8 ) in all living beings. C. p. T . i n prose: ififfl y@g <fj* (yāvadbhāvikatā) --Q . T.^ * "MJ fc3 WÇ. 9 (Quotation from Avat S. 6) Unlimited Extent of Perception (yāvad-bhāvikatā). S. reg-pahi chos-can ma lags-pa. Jjj'* •'"i x j§gQ !K|| '[pg = nâpi dttam samklistam bhavati. they perceive the existence of the Matrix of the Tathāgata in all living beings. Jfc * ~%JJ J^K £ t î . 1. 22. of untouchable character 16) . how is it possible that the mind. cittasyopaklistatā dusprativedhyā. one sentence should be added here (as in brackets). By the intellect 1 9 ) reaching as far as the limit of the knowable 20>. [ 175 ] . 'A^ }§3y f£C • 17) T h e r e a d i n g ' upakleśârtho ' is preferably t o b e corrected i n t o ' upaklistârtho Cf. to T. Moreover. 22.The Ratnagotravibhāga touch that mind. moñs-pa 16) asparśa-dharmin.

t a k e s i t a s showing (apratigha in t h e verse). %\\ H ^ J jg. BGS 5 ^ | ^flf & fJPJ Ç|j§. 26 ye—śes. apratihata BGS adds some more sentences o n 'yathāvad-bhāvikatā ' a n d ' yāvad-bhāvikatā '. [ 176 ] °> For v. . thogs-pa med-pa.e. through 'being as l l it is ' and being as far as ' . 4 Through the purity of their perception by wisdom2 8 ) .śuddhyā' c a n b e m a d e u p b y 'hi' o r ' e t a ' (śuddhyaiva). in such a way' (ity evam). Thus. C. And this [perception] is called perfectly pure in com24 25 parison with ) the superficial knowledge of everyday life ) because. T . or i n comparison with t h e n a t u r e of ' viśuddhi-hetu of t h e former. l a Itos-nas. what is called understanding' (avabodha) of the supermundane path. Because it is free from attachment 22) and has no hindrance . . i. C. while t h e l a t t e r is ' phala '.. It is superior as [being the same as] Buddha's Wisdom 29> 22 23) ) C. as its field is the innate purity of the essence of living beings through its being as it is. i. / u A /v Tf • 24) upanidhāya. of two reasons. § 3. Introspective Character of Bodhisattva's Perception. respectively. TAKASAKI § 2. but 'jfzr shows it. again i n prose. its field is the unlimited number of knowable objects. (§=jp f4j U=F J x . C. that perception has no hindrance 27>. by this way. T.e. 18 a b. i. 27) T. in brief. T. unco23 mon to others >. Which ones? Because it is 'free from any attachment' (asañga). . UP n i t | 3 ) - * asañga. Superiority of Bodhisattva's Community. T .J. e. what is called understanding in such a way % That is the perception by one's own wisdom. has ' na ' after ' dag-pas '. and through its being as far as. i f ^ ffi ^ ft | ? (jft) (Because of in the commentary . and because it 'has no hindrance' (apratihata)2e\ Here. 28) T h e s h o r t a g e of syllables after ' . C. has no word equivalent to ' anuttarā ' in the verse. // 17 // * Thus. Pratyekabuddhas and ordinary people. /[* ^-> — sv-. 2S * itara—prādeśika—jñāna. therefore. the perception [of the Saints] is free from any attachment. is here intended to be the perception of the Saints by the supermundane wisdom of their own (pratyātmam). uncommon to Srāvakas. chags—pa med—pa. t h e l a t t e r is ' paripūrna-hetu ' (802 b). -j||Ç |«ip. 3H§ PH ( = ^v§ $11). saying t h a t t h e former is ' hetu '. cig—śes ñi-tshe—bahi the knowledge of Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas. It is pure in the Immaculate Sphere. C. 2 their perception of pure ' buddhajñāna ' through the Path of the true intuition). C.

it is said that Bodhisattvas in the irreversible state are worthy of being the refuge of all living beings. because the former is not worthy of being worshipped 35>. 10) Jf^ Ijfjp ^ ^ _C anuttara-phala. sup. 18. etc. 3) g S ^ ^Jg nirvana. [ 177 ] . to both T. ^ < jātis tathāgatakule. ( t f ^ "=ff ^L^ 9^*)' ]j#). 8) ^ £ /fe ^ P ^ <îK iffl vaśitâbhijñāsampad. in purity. 3S ' C. (fpL JJTT). amala. 10 points of superiority mentioned in C.3i\ On account of this purity. 7) $j? J £ ^C SU n P« i their compassionate mind H regarding people equally. and a prose commentary thereon. who The reading ' avaivartyād bhavanty āryāh ' should be corrected into ' avaivartyā bhavanty āryāh ' ace. in the accomplishment being the Supreme Enlightenment. (JrJJ jig* J # f ) . 32) upanisadgata. (letters in parentheses show the terms in commentary). 10 vaśitās. in gunāh. translation. etc.i Nirvana as being obtained after SU salvation of all living beings. the term ' jñānadarśanasiddhi ' has the implied meaning of ' darśanamārga ' as in C. ^/J ffijj. n SU ±jfiS -feo H$£ (ñS ^3 Wr). It seems the present Skt text is lacking one paragraph which was in the original text of C. 5) j|ff JQi bhūmayah. because it approached the highest purity of the perception of Buddha's Wisdom. in their supernatural powers. sup. C. AA III. casting off the new-moon-like Bodhisattvas. 6 abhijñās. 2) ijffj Jyj JJ§1 "TH^t •iī^ Wfe ±>cs£ -fen adhigama. are as follows: 1) ^5āi "^i ' visaya '. superiority in perception of objects. samyag-āsannatoditah (produced by sitting perfectly near). There is no mention of the Jewel of Community of the Śrāvakas. or otherwise 33>. // 18 // Thus. there is no wise man who. sup. ( ^ ^ ) sup./ £ . because it is superior to the other qualities of Bodhisattva. 2. having known the distinction of qualities between Bodhisattvas and Śrāvakas.The Ratnagotravibhāga Therefore. sup. pj ^ 1 j ^ £ B^j |*li J^i ?llL '* X S *^£i ^Pv • I* is clear that avinirvartanîya-bhūmi is here regarded as the 1st bhūmi of Bodhisattva on which stage he accomplishes ' darśana-mārga '. because their birth is ajāti (/JÎÇ f £ ) in its ultimate sense. ( ^ ^ ) . immediately after the Jewel of Community of the Bodhisattvas. 34) The first two of the 6 pāramitās are mentioned. T. moral conduct.-mahākarunā. 9) J^. In this sense.. 6) W M S ^ sampūrnā. Indeed. 3S) vā. (0$ j \ JJTT). T. {] śuddhi. in their birth. 31 30) ' avinivartanlyabhūmi—samārudhānām bodhisattvānām. in qualities. sup. this ' purity of perception by wisdom ' of Bodhisattvas who mounted to the Stage of being irreversible 31> is to be known as 4 the 32) supreme '. Cf. the Saints abiding in the irreversible state 30> Are [worthy of being] the refuge of all living beings. & C. donation. ñe-bar gnas-par hgyur-ba. has one verse on the superiority of bodhisattva—sañga from 10 points. (^rfc ^ § /3ZT)» P . translation of v. (r)am (after phyir) I t denotes another interpretation of ' anutîarā '. (|ffj Jill )3/r)? P« *n their Stages.

regard only the following 43) 44 verse as a quotation (T. indifferent to the nourishment of others 4 2 ) . shows that the following verses belong to the same text. but not to a quotation from another scripture. && * S . t3 Î C £ 5 ) ' Of the 6 pāramitās. . Bodhisattvas and Srāvakas by an example of moon and stars. (Mvyut. 37) / 36) £n bhāra '. while the Srāvakas. T. See BHS. gañ-gi phyir . 45) ' vaksyati hi ' in S. C. the passage only available in C will be ascertained to be the original śāstra passage for which this long quotation is mentioned as the authority. there is no wise man who . om. 10 Controlling Powers. 6) adhimukti—v. 39) The whole passage illustrates the comparison between Buddhas. How much more is the case of the other qualities of Bodhisattvas. although having attained certain limited superficial knowledge 3 8 ) .' for 'posin' is probably a misreading for 'poso'. bsod-nams dañ ye-śes-kyi tshogs. [^K 5 £ fa:] fT ^ W (gahana-samtāna?). sdom-pa (%>\). 40 ' prathamacittotpādika . prajñā-pāramitā is called ' jñānasam'. 2) citta—v. C. 4) karma—v. * ananyaposiganya. & 10) jñāna-v. C. (usually. .. 9) rddhi—v. 38) prādeśika-jñāna. ^1^* ^fjçîj /flj -fifc •ftli ^ ^ . who in their turn. rjes-su brtse-ba med-pa. it will be said 45>: punya-jñāna-sambhāra. bodhisattva.. C.. although having attained perfect purity of immaculate moral conduct and discipline 43>. samvara. (wealth). D. sems dañ—po bskyed—pahi byañ—chub- sems-dpah. Indeed. See BHS Die. 8) pranidhāna—v. which. ? Really. $J jtfe SI © # SI £ *l> f t # K ^ (1PJ M 'fr # īK). C. Though both T. saying that the Buddha is like the full moon. a n d t h e o t h e r 5 a r e called ' punya-s C. 27). 5) upapatti—v. . 44> etc. have light only for their own illumination. If it be so. gshan rgyas—par byed—pa mi—ldan—pa. s. tries to bow before the Śrāvakas. T. . om. See above (Note IV-25). śdasamvara (under samvara [1]). in its turn.. even those Bodhisattvas who have resolved to attain the Enlightenment for the first time 40> by the quality based upon the purity of altruistic intention. TAKASAKI have the lustre-disk of Wisdom and Compassion filling with great accumulation of merits and knowledge 3 6 ) for the Great Enlightenment.. .i } . T. T. v. and are standing in the illumination over the group existence (gana—samtāna) 37) of innumerable living beings and entering the way favourable for going toward the full-moon of the supreme Tathāgata.. ' 10 vaśitās are namely: 1) āyur—vaśitā. has the same sense as ' purusa ' in BHS. & C. T. om..) up to the end of the verse is a long quotation from some Sūtra (source unknown). [ 178 ] . The meaning is clear as being compared with ' svasamtāna ' in case of Srāvakas. Bodhisattvas are like the new moon. .J. The style of these passages seems near to the sūtra style. C. both of them have illumination for others. ' ^ £|£ . 7) dharma—v.. ^ C T~^ r$9 ī î ) > ** seems that the whole passage after ' na hi jātu panditā ' (Indeed. 41) 42 niranukrośa. 3) pariskāra—v. being like stars.^ . T. are standing in the illumination for their own existence (sva-samtāna) like stars 39>. can overcome the holy Śrāvakas who are pitiless 4 1 ) .shes-gśad-do.

48> Such a saint is never called a man of pure conduct. gzugs-brñen. Such a one is a [real] moral man. bdag-ñid rgyas-byed. having aroused the highest Compassion toward others And having accepted the moral conduct. One who. water and earth. J^l @ g J|.fjfc . rnam-rgyas-śiñ (= vivrddhyā?). and others are of sham 49> morality. C. n o u r i s h i n g oneself. ātmambhari. o m . 49 ' pratirūpaka T. | ^ 7 p • [ 179 ] . T . ( l i t . Apart from compassion on the living beings of bad conduct 47>. C. rab-dag-pa. o n e w h o n o u r i s h e s himself) T .The Ratnagotravibhāga One who feeds 46> moral conduct for his own sake. And who is endowed with pure wealth of moral conduct only for his own nourishment. of bhr). \%£ <f7*. 46) 47) 48) bibharti ( P r e s . 3 sg. praśuddha. wind. C. Renders services for others' livelihood like fire. C. T .

B^_] . C. the Teaching and Disciples. s. & * dvipada. T. for what purpose and for the sake teach 2) the 3 Refuges (śarana-traya) ? of whom did the Lord In order to show [the virtues of] 3 ) The Teacher. (= pūjā. j^p ^jjtf J<£ . ) prajñapta (made known = taught). It seems that the term prajñapta' has both senses here. BHS Die. rkañ-gñis rnams. 3 ' arthena = . f^ ^ . however. § 1.e.). s) buddhabhāva (= bodhi). It is interpreted doctrinally that the Buddha is standing on the basis of 'jñāna' and ' karunā '. bstan—shiñ mam—par gshag—go. J $ cfSj ^ 2 \) (for the sake of). 3 Refuges from the Empirical Standpoint. With reference to those who belong to 3 Vehicles And to those who devote themselves to religious observance 4) Three Refuges were taught 2 ) [by the Lord]. But. // 19 // [in 3 forms. in order to show the x) ' adhikrtya' has a more concrete sense than usual here. in order to show the virtue of the Teacher (śāstr). C. VŚJU )/. T. C. (T. Usually this term is accompanied by ' kriyā ' and other forms delivered from kr as in the prose comm. Also. pj*) / £ . it was established 2) . there is used ' deśitam prajñaptam '. guna-udbhāvanârthena (in the comm. In the commentary. it was established. 'homage. T.). T.. v. but C. 19. C. for which T.V. worship') (Cf. ) . for the sake of those people who approached the nature of Buddha 6 ) i. rnam-par gshag-pa (vyavasthita) in the introductory sentence and in v. who belong to the Vehicle of Bodhisattva 7 ) and those [people who] devote themselves to the highest religious observance of the Buddha. sañs-rgyas-kyi dños-po-ñid. [ 180 ] . ' dbah-du byas-nas ' as usual. • 4) kāra (BHS). 7 * The reading is preferably ' bodhisattva-yānikān * instead of * bodhisattvān' in comparison with the uses of ' pratyekabuddhayānikān ' and ' śrāvakayānikān' in the following paragraphs. translation ' byed ' or ' bya-ba byed ' shows nothing special. T. C. The teaching: " the Doctrine is a Refuge because it is the highest of what are devoid of passions ". byañ-chub-seems—dpahi theg-pa-bahi. THE THREE JEWELS AS REFUGES l) Now. The teaching: " the Buddha is a Refuge because he is the highest among human beings " 5 ) .

. rten-hbrel. for these three purposes. i. hjigs-dañ bcas-pa. ' rañ- ñid rten-hbrel-gyi chos zab-mo rje-su rtogs-pa . from being adhimukta to yānika. T. being of deceptive nature. only the Buddha is the Refuge. The teaching: " the Community [of the disciples] is a Refuge because 9 ) it is the highest of communities " . in order to make living beings 11} enter the regular method . equals 'yāna' instead of ' nay a'. the terms used in S. C. ) 10) samvrti-pada-sthānena. n ) anupūrvanaya. C. ) Ms. distinctively did the Lord establish the teaching of these three 10) Refuges from the empirical standpoint . there are 3 Refuges. for the sake of those people who approach the enlightenment of profound Doctrine of the depen8 dent origination by [depending on] themselves *.The Ratnagotravibhāga virtue of the Teaching (śāsana) of the Teacher. /\* "f^ -fjjj yQ f pfc |2y n$i i £ • Here. reading.e. See below. in order to show the virtue of Disciples (śisya) well enrolled in the Teaching of the Teacher. That is to say. ty\.). T. ' . in short. are as follows: 1) tyājya (T. Çf^ . according to the faculties of living beings. Q f^v jfî[. i. 4) sabhaya (T. C. § 2. Thus. 12 ) For these four reasons. • About these three formulae on ' ratna-traya '. from sañga-śarana to buddha-śarana. 2) mosadharma (T.B reading 'svayam gambhīra-pratitya-dharmânubodha' is preferable. who belong to the Vehicle of Śrāvaka. C. Pretyekabuddha is said to be a buddha who enlightened the doctrine of pratītyasamutpāda. [ 181 ] . it was established. and those who are devotees to the highest religious observance in the Community. span. Being non-existence and being possessed of fear12). . for the sake of six kinds of people. & C. of ' span-ba '). but from the highest standpoint. The two kinds of Doctrine and the Community Are ultimately not the highest Refuge. $}£ $]). |2vJ /fâfc) seems to mean 'pratltya samutpāda'. // 20 // 8 [respectively]. see Mvyut. As being abandoned. C. for the sake of those people who approach in order to understand the voice heard from others. The Doctrine and Community are not the Ultimate Refuges. but C. C. ~ñj J £ ) . T. slu-bahi chos-can.e. who belong to the Vehicle of the Pratyekabuddha and those who are devotees to the highest religious observance of the Doctrine. Pf|j "py£). i. 267. from the empirical standpoint. (D.e. * sdañ' is to be corrected into * span' (fut. T. ' The regular method ' means ' from the lower standard to the higher standard. from śrāvakayāna to bodhisattvayāna. med. 'pratitya' (T. /MR 3C)? 3) abhāva (T.

^tî^ paryavasāna. > kola.. 14 ls ) kāya. The Community ' is a term for the community [of the Saints] belonging to three Vehicles21>. For 'koiopama' (kullūpamo dhammoy 16) Cf. Of them. T . 11 (v. tST |HJ ( = loka-nihsarana). 10 a n d comm. Of them. gziñs. JSJP. bstanT . C. I. p . Pali musā-mosa-dhamma. Vaj. deceptive nature is untrue (asatya). i. C. pahi chos & rtogs-pahi chos. [respectively] 1 8 ) .e. Also. 95-97. word. (' mosadharma ' i n v . brdsun-pa Die. njī£ i l l • See S. 134. as learned people. It is synonymous with ' moksa \ [ 182 ] . T. just like the extinction of a lamp. That which is of false. Jmt 3 c > T . the author substitutes Srāvaka for it and never refers to that of Bodhisattva. T . 20). v. 4 by which realized ' and 4 that which in realized ' . p. 145 and comm. *7* •r e s p . And it is said that this Teaching is akin to the boat 1 5 ) because it ends 1 6 ) with the acquisition 17) of the Path. according to the system (naya) of Śrāvaka 2 0 ) . $ p f f l j . See M v y u t . C. translation ' |J_ç£ i l l . the Path. This passage is exactly an extract from that sūtra. see S. That is to say. the Truth of Path and the Truth of Extinction in the sense. **v v$G >?H T £ J Tup ^ J P G ' catches t h e meaning well. TAKASAKI The Doctrine has two kinds. ' mosa ' i n Pali is t h e intenslu-bahi chos-can. And the Extinction realized by this Path also represents. is included in the artificial character. ai) For the following passage. s. they have taken refuge in the Tathāgata and are seeking for deliverance22). abhisamaya.135 J *>G£ *~^^ īt-j-*. § 104. that which is untrue is not eternal. 20). [but still] they have [many] 4 13) On these two categories of ' dharma '. a non-existence (abhāva) cannot be a refuge nor a non-refuge. C. jy\ BJ£ i A & fy\ nS. MN. see SMS 221 o. T. the mere absence of Defilement and Suffering. And they are always possessed of fear (sabhaya). PTS Die. and that which is non-eternal cannot be a refuge. deceptive nature (mrsāmosadharmin)19). 17) 18) 19) (This t e r m is for tyājya i n v . 70 (v. and letter. See B H S sified form of ' musā ' (deceptive). tshogs. C. 20) I t is remarkable in this text that whenever the subject refers to the unworthiness of Dharma or Sañgha. C. The Doctrine as Realization is [again] twofold by the division of cause and result.J. That which is included in the artificial character is of false. the Doctrine as Teaching (deśanādharma) and the Doctrine as Realization (adhigamadharma)1 3 ) .) T. mthar-thug-pa (paryanta). mñon-par rtogs-pa. A s for these three kāyas. because. rEf*.). p. ñe-bar hbyuñ-ba. 23. C. C. the Doctrine as Teaching is [the Doctrine] of sūtra and other teachings and it consists of the collection14) of name. 22) nihsarana.

991: # l j " II 30) śaiksa. So they have not attained the ultimate delightful Just as living beings. . slob-pa. Pali * āsabha ' means a hero or great man and is an epithet of the Buddha. where the negative ' ma ' is not used). 31) On the contrary. T. T . (For the parallel passage in SMS. Hence correct. rtag-tu rgyun mi-hchad-par. the Community. ^ f ^ ^f fâ . coming from a bull. rsabha). khyu-mchog (the highest bull).e. one who has entered upon the Path). T. regards this passage (arhatām api . 26) 27 c •* % % tk ?t i t ffl ft n m & n H i i H # K' is quite satata-samitam (BHS). aśaiksa-sāntānika. and consequently seek by fear they take refuge in the Tathāgata 29) verance. with reference to the destruction of the root of fear. C. T. T. SMS 219 6. but not ' attained [the Enlightenment] '. though having extirpated rebirth Defilements]. The text should have Danda between ' vadakapuruse' and ' tasmāt '. he is 'one who has undertaken ' (pratipannaka) to attain the fearless. highest state 3 2 ) . shugs-pa lags-so. śaranam upagacchati) as a quotation from SMS. Indeed. are for the Deli- . . For this reason. p. C. T. It is used here in the sense of ' gone towards '. and. ŚMS 221 a. om. 1. . ' ārsabha '. Buddha is said to be * aśaiksa'. i. How are they posses- sed of fear? As the Arhats (the Saints of the Vehicle of Śrāvaka).The R a t n a g ot r av ib h ā ga things to be done (sakaranīya) and are approaching (i. and before the quotation has the same commentary passage as the Skt. 39. leadership. As being a learned man. For vadakapurusa. C. the Highest Perfect Enlightenment. C. On the contrary.) 32) ārsabha (Lit. yañ-srid-pa. frightened by this or that fear. and the emphasis is on the approach. will inevitably seek for the deliverance from fear. C. have not yet destroyed the Impression [of constantly26) a strong 27) there therefore exists always and 28) notion of fear in all physical life with raised sword 22 . ' shugs—pa ma yin—no ' is probably due to a misunderstanding of this ' pratipannaka ' for the actual attainment of Enlightenment. jJñq" ^fg.e. is i one who has things to be done ' (sakaranīya) . 26) punarbhava. gśad-mahi skye-bu. the first place. <ffj . cannot be the 23) pratipannaka (Pali patipannaka = maggatthaka. being frightened . T. having Deliverance '. similarly even the Arhats have their fear. ' entered the way '. S. > samskāra. And as being a 31) And thus one who seeks for a refuge because of his being possessed of fear. as if standing in face of the executioner [by itself] never seeks no refuge. ' ārsabha-sthāna ' = Pali āsabhatthāna. (Cf. [that which is] a refuge for refuges [in others]. J\. hdu-byed. 3.. 24 > Cf. 29 ' C. 28) [ 183 ] . T. ^ J J ^ ( = sāsravadharma). have not yet realized) 23) the Highest Perfect Enlightenment 25) 24) . text up to ' pratyupasthitā bhavanti\ Cf. a learned man 30) seeker of deliverance. descendant of Rsabha (name of a former Buddha). being a partial refuge.

. 32 and comm.iSS i=Ef . And because in that the Community sets the ultimate goal 8 5 ) . (T. 1 1 . meaning ' having kāla which has paryanta. limited). Thus these two Refuges. C. 37) nisthâdhigama-paryavasāna. T. C. & C. the Truth of Path and the Truth of Extinction). From the ultimate standpoint 3 4 ) . See S. the Community [of the Saints] belonging to the three Vehicles sets the ultimate goal of acquisition 37) . Both T. 34) pāramārthikam. the Doctrine and the Community). p . the end '. § 3. that which is the imperishable Refuge. „ . mthar—thung—pahi dus—na skyabs rib t^Z -fr.J. In Skt. 36) T. ti. which seems better to grasp the meaning in comparison with the Empirical standpoint in v. About ' sabhayatā ' of the Srāvakas. See below. \ being t h e e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e [ 184 J . Only the Buddha is the Refuge from the Highest Standpoint. it is an adjective to ' buddhatva \ But T. mthar-thug-pa thob-pas mthar phyin-par hgyur-ba. are called ' temporary refuges' 3 3 ) . ' paryantakāla ' is a Bahuvrīhi comp. dus-kyi mthah-mchis-pahi. which lasts as long as the utmost limit 3 8 ) in the unprotected and refugeless world. r e a d s p r o b a b l y ' śivâdvayavirāgadharma). 1. dharmakāya).e. the Sage (muni).being an adjective to buddhatva as S. (i. see v. inserts ' mtshan-ñid ' (laksana) after ' vyavadana-satya-dvaya '. 19. 38) aparântakotisama. from the ultimate standpoint. t-l-~ r^. interpret this term as ' nâtyantakāle śarane '. // 21 // As has been said before. that is to say.. Therefore. 14 (vyavadānasatyadvaya-laksano virāgadharma iti). f ma—yin—pa. . 35) nistha = nisthâdhigama-paryavasāna.ñg. r< iJi^ JfiÇ> •!££. eternal Refuge. (C. T h e s a m e with T . on this verse. 58ç > p ^ r ^ Wf> =P^ J^L ( a s if * pūrvântakotinistha '). liberated from passions and [characterized36*] as the Two Truths of purification (i. and everlasting Refuge. takes it in the adverbial sense.). It is helpful t o m a k e t h e m e a n i n g clear. . represented as neither becoming originated nor disappearing. Also. ^pj pR (having limitation. is endowed with the body of the Doctrine. a n d tannisthatva = dharmakāyaviśuddhinistha. saying ' dam-pahi don-tu ' (paramârthatah). see the prose comm. But it is wrong. putting a negative. I. T . where for * paryantakāla '. Buddhahood is the sole Refuge of the world. adnigama). phyi-mahi mthahi mu-dañ mñam-pa. (ŚMS 221 a).e. C. and in the purity of this Body of the Doctrine ( = the Absolute Body. /fK ^ .T. is [only one] 3 9 ) . ^f~ zHu Ji^L . the Tathā33) paryantakāla-śarana. 39) ' ekam ' should b e inserted after ' pāramārthikam t e r m ' ekatra ' i n t h e verse. TAKASAKI ultimate refuge. Because the Sage has the body of the Doctrine. C. ~7\_t Jjfo t p î i^Jr gtSi (ova.fâīf T$C eSSii' A correct translation is shown in SMS.

49 * prativarnika. Doctrine and Community. ^ f|r|. & 6) āsravaksaya-jñāna. And this teaching of the unique. C. dkon-pa. hbyuñ~ba ^R" ^ f ) . THT | H j | f j £ / fv§ : ( i n v . the 6 Supernatural Powers (abhijñā) 4 7 ) and so forth. C. That is to say. om. i. T h i s ' ekayāna durlabhotpādabhāva. C. 46) 47) prabhā. are called ' Jewel '. And because of their being the ornament of the world. C. So. because they are supermundane. because Their appearance is difficult to obtain. 2) Through the common nature of being immaculate. 1) through the common nature of their appearance being difficult to obtain 4 2 ) . Cf.The Ratnagotravibhāga gata. 40) 41) pi. 4) pūrvanivāsânusmrtijñāna. 14. bsñan—pa. mthu. And being the highest and unchangeable. 5 0 ) . blame etc. And 6) through the common nature of being unchangeable by praise. 2) divyāśrotra. reading ' sarvâkāra ' instead of ' sarvâcāra '. T . if} . T. C. even during a long succession of eaons 4 4 ) . // 22 // In short. yaśas. cf. 5) rddhividdhi-jñāna. 125. because they are endowed with the quality of unthinkable power. translation is * » kalpa. Mvyut. alābha (gain & loss). 3) ceta-paryāya-jñāna. ayaśas (praise and blame). C. eternal. * 45) I accepted T. A^ fjft /f?f (unable to obtain). quiescent and unchangeable Refuge is to be understood in detail according to the Âryaśrīmālā-sūtra41). They are immaculate and powerful. the Perfectly Enlightened one 4 0 ) . these three named Buddha. TfiT \Q\ J\ iS• [ 185 ] . ever-lasting. The Meaning of the 3 ' Jewels \ [They are called] ' Jewels '. S M S 221 a. dge-ba. duhkha. 43) For this passage. Cf. because those people who have not ripened 4 3 ) the root of virtue cannot get any chance to meet them. by the sixfold common nature with Jewels. M v y u t . T.t h e o r y is o n e of i t s m a i n p o i n t s of t e a c h i n g . ma bskrun-pa. bskal-pa. anavāpta. C. 3) Through the common nature of power 4 6 ) . 5) Through the common nature of being superior to the artificial 4 9 ) jewel. C. BGS 808 a.e. because of their non-artificial nature. because they are the cause of beauty 4 8 ) intended by the whole world. T. lābha. 50) These are called ' asta-lokadharmāh. as ' sarva—sāsravadharma '. instead of ' stuti-ninda '. the Arhat. 48) śobhā. T. nindā (blame). 1) divyācaksus. because they are apart from all kinds of45' dust. sukha. praśamsā (praise). 4) Through the common nature of being the ornament of the world. | U ' 42) T . om. 2 2 . § 4. in the text. * stuti' is for praśamsa. ' .

No. etc. The Immaculate Qualities of the Buddha. I l l . skye-bahi gnas. (in v . v.VI. [ 186 ] . (T. I. There is a Sūtra named " Anuttarâśrayasūtra " (AĀS). ?RÇ _£. has been composed after the Ratna. IV. of which now only the Chinese translation is available (C. C. paramârihadarśin = sarvadarśin tta 1/K » XH ^N . Detailed discussion of this problem is given in my Introduction. ) C. I t ) Taisho. This sūtra also men- tions the same 4 subjects with which the main part of the sūtra is formed. in Chap. in what circumstances are there born the Three Jewels. S$) f^ (guna). ^ ^ (bodhi). namely: yf" (dhātu) of the Tathāgata in Chap. Saddharmapundarīka. jffj yjp . [These are the four aspects of] the sphere Of those who perceive the Highest Truth. (paramārthadarśin). o m . // 23 // What is elucidated by this śloka ? The Germ of these Three Jewels 2) Is the sphere of the Omniscience . Cf.V. Each one of these four is treated in each chapter (I-IV). and his Acts. and also these 4 stand for the latter 4 of the 7 vajrapadas. 669). has literal translations).(kriyā) of the Tathāgata in Chap. 1} 2) yoni. mundane and supermundane. there is one śloka with reference to the question. II.. And [the Reality] apart from pollution. 2 ) From which arise the pure Three Jewels 3 ) . and ^fl. probably in order to authorize this theory of the 4 subjects. 24) = sarvajña (in c o m m . (Kārikā 4) The Reality mingled with pollution. 3) This is the stanza by which the basic subjects of this text are shown. what is the birth-place 1} of purity. for the respective case. 97. though it bears the name of ' sūtra '. in Chap. It seems that this Sūtra. THE GERM OF THREE JEWELS IN FOUR ASPECTS Imraediately after the explanation of the Three Jewels. T . \rf\.

a n d this change of basis is called ' parāvrtti \ See my I n t r o d u c t i o n I I I . II). highest act of these Qualities of the Buddha. med-par ma gyur-shiñ* C. unceasingly. IfÇ. as being t h e reality itself. // 24 // Here. i. when it is characterized as the Perfect Manifestation of Basis (āśrayaparivrtti) 6 ) in the Stage of Buddha. c o m m . is regarded as t h e s a m e as ' dharmakāya '. characterized as the Perfect Manifestation of Basis. fift pFfcl î t f • vîfv rfcî 6) T . 8) 9) anisthita. so-so-rañ-gi (of its own). 7). Jp--|! r E p . fixed or completed. which continues to give prophecies 8 ) to Bodhisattvas. respectively. ' ālayavijñāna ' n o longer r e m a i n s t h e same when ' āśrayapāravrtti ' t a k e s place. C. ^flj -""M ?P|£ 5) nirmalā tathatā. luñ-bstan-pahi gtam. y f^ (natural).e. t h e R e a l i t y . ' anisthita' means ' always not coming to an end '. without end9 ) . p .The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā g a And it is inconceivable in fourfold For four reasons. without interruption. [ 187 ] . i. 7) pratisvam. coming to an end. 2) The Reality apart from pollu5) tion ' (nirmaîā tathatā) is a term for the same Essence.e. B y r e m o v ing such ' kleśa '. This point is called ' parivrtti '. C. 10 > Cf. dri(-ma-dañ) bcas(-pahi) de-bshin-ñid. So. T h e prophecy vyākarana-kathā. where t h e uses of these t e r m s i n t h e Sūtrâlañkāra a r e discussed. i. C. H e r e ' āśraya ' signifies ' dhātu ' or ' gotra ' i n t h e sense of ' tathāgatagarbha ' (see v . T. ^ ^ ( • ^ ^ $ 3 £ ) p C • on t h e a t t a i n m e n t of t h e Highest E n l i g h t e n m e n t . these four subjects are inconceivable 1 0 ) for four reasons. they are called the Sphere of Omniscience 1 ] ) . unreleased from the sheath of defile4 ments'.. T . C.e. for which four reasons ? 4) samalā tathatā. T. And also. A n d here ' dhātu '. T. 10 Powers. 1) * The Reality mingled with pollution (samalā tathatā) ' 4 ) is a term for 4 the Essence (dhātu). this dhātu becomes manifested fully. T h e difference is p r o b a b l y d u e t o w h a t is m e a n t b y ' āśraya '. V. AĀS 469 6 (beginning of Chap.e. ^ (?) ' nisthita ' means ' being done. i t c a n n o t manifest itself fully. dri-ma med-pahi de-bshin~ñid. Only because of ' āgantukakleśa ' a t t a c h e d t o i t . n > See note VI-2. ready. T . while i n case of ' āśrayaparāvrtti '. Then. 73. gnas yoñs-su gyur-pa. C. ' āśraya ' signifies also ' dhātu ' b u t i n t h e sense of ' ālayavijñāna ' (see S. therefore. O n t h e c o n t r a r y . etc. 4) ' The Buddha's Act ' means the automatic 7 ) . T h e t e r m ' āśraya-parivrtti ' seems t o h a v e somehow a different sense t h a n t h e ' āśrayaparāvrtti ' often used a m o n g t h e Vijñānav ā d i n . i. respectively. 3) ' Immaculate Qualities of the Buddha ' means Supermundane Qualities of the Buddha—10 Powers and so on—in this Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. o n t h e verse q u o t e d from t h e Mahāyānâbhidharmasūtra). being ' cittaprakrti '. the Matrix of Tathāgata. the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. jlM.

p. 0 Goddess. de-ni de-kho—na bshin śes-so (tat tattvavad jñānam. It is difficult to be cognized that the mind is pure by nature. yet it is purified afterwards. ^ p >f|j ^ff* . ( e n d of C h a p . so C. ( = S. [The Absolute Body is] of no impurity. C. O Goddess. these two points are to be understood only through the faith in the Tathāgata "18>. TAKASAKI § 1. pure and defiled. > ŚMS 220 c. p . 12) [The Qualities are] of inseparable nature [from the Absolute [Body]. spyod-yul-du ma gyur-pahi yul. Therefore it is said : [the Tathāgata] perfectly enligh12) 13 avinirbhāgadharma. It seems the following saying is an old aphorism taken from some other source. C. [the Germ is] pure but defiled [at one and the same time]. and yet purified. mentions * śrāvaka ' along with v pratyekabuddha '. Because it is said 1 9 ) : 20) " The mind is clear by nature . £P 'l> tt 20} 41 c in W. 22. Because. // 25// Here. A Ā S 470 c. i 22> prakrti-prabhāsvaram cittam. 16 15) 14) »> DRS 20 6. and [The Acts are] effortless and of no discrimination. at the same time. The doctrine of relativity (pratîtya-samutpāda). III). C. T. too. 17 * Indicating Srīmālādevī. this point is inconceivable 1 3 ) . but DRS itself has this sentence saying ' ^ _ § ( fig llf '. C. AĀS 473 c (end of Chap. [Here. T. 2) ' The Reality apart from pollution '. agocara-visaya. (JtU * . 2 1 . 1. 18) Cf. 17-18). It is also difficult to be cognized that this very mind is defiled. J § . This is the real knowledge as 21) 22) it is . 11. 5). this is not an understandable sphere 1 5 ) . for the other Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas.. So does AĀS. those who can hear these two points [with understanding] are only either yourself or Bodhisattvas who are endowed with the great qualities. pft jA| ^ ^ f £ • C. the heroine of the Sūtra. ' inconceivable ' is] in the sense that even for the Pratyekabuddhas who believe in the way of profound Doctrine 1 4 ) .J. >> * ifijta * in & £p. T . Because it is said 1 6 ) : " O Goddess 1 7 ) . . these two points are quite difficult to be cognized. rnam-par dbye-ba-med chos. I I ) . j$Ç M i J . ( = S. this point is inconceivable. though it is originally not defiled by pollution. Inconceivability of the 4 Subjects. 1) 4 the Reality mingled with pollution ' is always. ^V* i ^ R T P Î PjÎE f2»» > Cf. [ 188 ] . >& * tat tathaîva jñānam.

^JÇf V ^ . makes its appearance again unobstructedly 3 1 ) . T. but both T. No. (-. C.8-9). dar-yug (a narrow ribbonlike piece of silk stuff (Jāschke). 16. Lank. sña—phyir. 14. AĀS 475 c (end of Chap.S. |^f^ . IV). 1. C. IX. lj|f| pel] (viparyasta). Gaudapāda-Kārikā IV. Chap. p. Cf. 29 ' ' tathāgatajñāna ' in this Sūtra is identical with ' dhātu' and igotra\ and shows the origin of the tathāgatagarbha theory. T. self-born Wisdom. 241. 3\U >îs. ' anuttarā '. Tathāgatotpattisambhava—parivarta (itU This Chap. 25 ' paurvâparyena. Taisho. have it. 2 (asañgena tathāgatajñānena). hdu—śes—kyi hdsin—pa. 31 ' asañgatah. ' buddhajñānântargamāt' (v. 28 ^ tt with another independent Sūtra named Tathāgatâtpattisambhavanirdeśa (C. p. 11. & C. [ 189 ] . The use of such silk is for painting. This is a modifier of ' prajñā ' by which the Buddha has attained ' anuttarā samyaksambodhi '. )S PO). T. 22. 291). C. l\j* ^ Q J ^ (citta. 157. this point is inconceivable 27) . " " ^ . Nevertheless. the whole Great 3-thousand thousands of Worlds would be described completely. O Son of the Buddha. mentions the material and C. p. C. of no differentiation through the inseparable nature [from the Absolute Body]. T. Taisho. ')$£. 27). according to the manner peculiar to each country. So do T. Next. T. ^gn ^§f (roll of scripture). ' ekaksana—samāyukta'. |§I| |Σj. 1. skad-cig-ma gcig dan Idan-pa.The Ratnagotravibhāga tened the Supreme 2 3 ) Perfect Enlightenment by the Intellect endowed with contemplation at one moment 2 4 ) .' asañga' is a modifier of [Buddha's] jñāna.). 3) 'Immaculate Qualities of the Buddha' are always 25 ' found? even in the stage of those ordinary people who are absolutely 26) defiled. 96. I. i. he cannot cognize the Buddha's Wisdom [residing in himself]. And indeed. on this big cloth. as taking [wrong] conceptions 3 0 ) . XXXII. ekânta. suppose there would be a big painting cloth 32 '. XXXII is identical 26) 27 > Cf. shows the form of the ' big book '. T. of the size equal to the Great 3-thousand thousands of Worlds. 623 c-624 a (No. gcig-tu.e. ^ t * MM ^EC I tr. thogs-pa med-par. Because it is said 2 8 ': 44 There is no one among the group of living beings in whose body the Wisdom of the Tathāgata does not penetrate at all 2 9 ) . The Great Earth would be described in 23) 24 The text om. 30 ' samjñā—grāha. 278). the Wisdom of Omniscience. T. & C. ' prajñā ' in which both prajñā and dhyāna are associated at one moment. * dar ' & ' j " & ' both mean silk. " [p] . Cf. C. ' The Avatamsakasūtra. 32 ' mahāpusta (big book). C. see S. See my Introduction IV. by Dharmaraksa. instead of laksana). ilaksana'> after 'ekaksana" in the Text should be omitted. By removing this taking of conceptions.

) (T. Mvyut. . (but usually. T. byañ-gi sgra-mi sñan-gyi gliñ. T.. sa—la spyod—pahi 14) kāmâvacara-d. 153-155. the Southern Continent of Jambū. . stoñ-gi hjig-rten-kyi . T. in each of all the other 3 5 ) l particles of atoms. C. yy|)» 12) sumeru. according to the Buddhist cosmology. has ^KÇ I*-1. C. sa chen—po. 1. Suppose there ' This passage describes various worlds. there enters a big cloth of the same size. C. the [Western] Continent of Godāvarī. ^ f 13) bhūmyavacara—devavimāna. śar—gyi lus hphags-kyi gliñ.) after ' rūpâvacara-d. ffity T.). T. ma-lus-pa (aśesa) and om. sarfla. j ^ I y C | T T v r . T. but T. [In the same way] the thousands of Worlds. All the terms mentioned here are as follows: 1) trisāhasra-mahāsāhasra-lokadhātu. C. ri-rab. om. ([/£| ^f* j i [ yTl). 5) sāhasra-lokadhātu. has it). 33 khams. See below (S. the Mount Sumeru. ['y] y\. ^ Uj (~F. T. om. om. the Greai Ocean. om.\ but it is not the case here.Jg£ /T| or mm 9) pūrvavideha—dvīpa. C. 3) mahāprthivī. [§] {-f.. . hdod-pa-na spyod-pahi. hdsam-buhi gliñ. paramânu. rdul-phra-rab. C. ston-gñis-pahi. T. the Four Continents. ' godāniya"1 is preferable.. this very big cloth would enter within one particle of an atom 3 4 ) . and of Gods living in the Sphere of Form 3 3 '. 35) 34} C. & C. anya. 11) uttarakuru-dvîpa. 8) jambudvīpa. . Just as this big cloth lies within one small particle of an atom. too. The 2-thousand Worlds [would be written] in their own full size. [ 190 ] . rgya—mtsho chen—po. 13: tathāśesebhyah paramânubhyas.): lhahi gshal—yas-*khañ. T. from larger one to smaller one. C. 4) dvisāhasra-lokadhatu. 10) godāvarī-dvīpa. 7) mahāsamudra. C. 6) cāturdvīpika. ~y\ Q (ārūpyâvacara-d. W( ^jf|. gliñ bshihi hjig-rten-kyi khams. all of these would be written in their own size. the Eastern Continent of Videha.J. but T. C om. .. T. TAKASAKI the exact size of the Great Earth. om. Furthermore.. C. A ^J^ *af C. ~ | * IHT yf~ '. C. C. Cf. C. 15) (rūpâvacara-d. T. C. . And [thus] this big cloth would have the same size as the expansion of the Great 3-thousand thousands of World's. T. T. that of Gods living in the Sphere of Desire. om.. om. (Hu J'^c i ā . nub-kyi ba-lañ spyod-kyi gliñ ( = avara godānīya-dvîpa).. in the same way. gzugs-na spyod-pahi. anya but retains sorra. '\x\ J \ ^ . khor-yug chen-po. stoñ-gsum-gyi stoñ-chen-pohi hjigrten-gyi khams. the Palace of Gods living cm the earth. C. T. U 2) (mahācakravāla) (S. the Northern Continent of Kuru. T. -'J'* ~~| 1HT T f i |* .

. o m . he would break this small particle of an atom with a subtle diamond 39 ' and would make that great cloth useful for the world as was his intention. C J|7J \ p fj jlcî. (Ātmanepada). ' santāna \ Often ' santāna ' alone is used in the same sense. well learned. om. ma-tshañ-ba med-par (aśesena). T . "> samjñāgrāha. however. being endowed with tathāgatajñāna.. C. o m . A* 5 £ n=j 'Ij* (not producing faith in. o m .. 41> C. (sattvasantāna.. which appears in the next sentence in S. t h i s s e n t e n c e . wise and possessed of the skill 3 6 ) to approach there (i. the Wisdom of the Tathāgata. having observed the state 4 8 ) of all the living beings in all the universal re36) 37) mīmāmsā. thoroughly 4 3 ) penetrates within the mentality 4 4 ) of every living being. 42) 38) C. the profitable wisdom for all living beings 42> . 45) T . is also apramāna. Only the ignorant. t h e whole sentence. [^fC £ £ ] J§[\ See BHS Die.). 44) citta-santāna. And his divine eyes were perfectly pure and clear. ' sūksma—vajrena '. sems-kyi rgyud. anutisthate T . M @| M ( S 38 M 181 . the last bhavana. which is the immeasurable wisdom. C. ' h a b i t ' ) . verb. Therefore. Similarly. instead has ' :J|y? /I'M f=3 HH^» vftv t?(l f^3 ^ H £ ' (animittajñānam T . C. adds ' vajrena '. gnas ( = sthāna). intelligent. o m . But T.The Ratnagotravibhāga should appear one person. being bound by misconceptions 4 6 ) does neither know nor cognize nor understand 4 7 ) nor realize the Wisdom of the Tathāgata [within himself]. . With these divine eyes he would perceive [and say]: Why does this big cloth of such a great nature stay 3 7 ) here in such a limited small particle of an atom! It is of no use to anybody! So he would think: Now. 39 ' C. 48J C. I will break this particle of an atom by the force of great efforts 3 8 ) and let this great cloth become useful for the world. [ 191 ] . reads ' lus-pa med-pa mthah-dag-las\ as S. (upāyena or upāya-sawjanayitvā). the Tathāgata. 43 ' sakalam. A S SI ffil). he would act in the same way 4 1 ) .e. C. T. C. spyod-pa ( = caryā. to the big cloth). Then. producing the strength of great efforts. 40) The reading is preferably ' tathā śesebhyah ' instead of * tathâśesethyah '. asañ- gajñānam). clever. * 7 ) anu-\ bhū. O Son of the Buddha. Not only for one particle of an atom but also for [all] the remaining 40) atoms. And every mental disposition of a living being has the same size as the Buddha's Wisdom 4 5 ) . T.ye-śes dan hdra-bar tshad med-do.

' guna'). S5) DRS 21 c. ^V* p g ^ I N j j | ^ . Now. But cf ' sarvadharmadhātuprasrtam tathāgatajñānam ' (Rāsfrapālapariprcchā. 3). in conformance with their merits 5 3 ) . this point is inconceivable 5 4 ) . T . p. ksūna = dosa (see B H S anugunam. 24. Therefore. T. 1. med-ciñ. are taught as if 49 ' sarvadharmadhātu-sattvabhavanāni. chos-kyi dbyiñs sems-can-gyi gnas thamscad-la. and it makes the meaning clear instead of ' vainaikesu '. . 9.J . Because it is said 5 5 ) : " In order to enroll the living beings [in the Buddha's Doctrine] 5 6 ) the Acts of Tathāgata. 12) C. hphags-pahi lam. And when all the obstacles created by wrong conceptions are withdrawn. p. though they are unlimited. 5S) 64 s2) «> So in C. then this immeasurable Wisdom of the Tathāgata becomes useful to all the world " . gdul-bya) aksūnam. Bj 'j'LJ. V) where the following quotation from DRS is utilized. 66 > I accepted C reading ' ^ — " t $ ^ ^£ A ft V Î tf* (in buddhadharma) \ [ 192 ] . 4) ' the Buddha's Acts ' proceed forth at one time.'[f{ (probably om. regards ' sarva ' as relating to bhavana. T. 24. always. rjes-su mthun-par. cast off the big knot of conceptions and would recognize the Wisdom of the Tathāgata [within themselves]. C. without discrimination. also that they would obtain equality with the Tathāgata '. resolves to be a teacher [and says:] 'What a pity! These [living beings cannot cognize properly the Wisdom of the Tathāgata. ' aksūna'). ' Cf. p. they remove all the obstacles made by wrong conceptions through the teaching of the [Holy] Path of the Tathāgata. 60 ' ' āryena mārgopadeśena ' in the text. (|§t )lH "5J <ffc *fc £}£ fll H i ) . though it penetrates them. in order that they would by themselves. ' dharmadhātu '. mtshañ-ba Die. T. ( = S. But it should be corrected into ' āryamārgopadeśena \ since 'ārya' modifies 'mārga' but not ' upadeśa '). TAKASAK1 gion 4 9 ) by his unobstructed Wisdom. 25. 1. reads jñāna. T. everywhere.3=L iU=L • See below (S. om. C. probably by mistake). 1. 1. without efforts. [In accordance with this declaration]. by accepting the power of the Holy Path. C. O ! I shall try to withdraw all the obstacles made by wrong conceptions for the sake of these living beings through the teaching of 50) [8-fold] Holy Path . according to the intention [of the living beings]. |^|^ . and supports the reading 'yathā ' in the text. according to [the faculty of] the living beings who are to be disciplined 5 1 ) without fault 5 2 ) . 4. T. the reading is preferable ' -vaineyikesu (vaineyika > vineya C. T. 5: āryamārgabalâdhānena. AĀS 476 b (end of Chap. p.) (For this mārga.

tha—dad—du dbyer—med—pa.M>tS} * dharmadhātu-kriyā. Chowdhury in his introductory note to the Skt. karana ' instead of 61) 60 ' . 4 T . -JftÇ J j ^ 5>»T ^yx* Art-. tshad-dañ Idan-par. gnas-pa. Cf. •*) D R S 21 c. But AĀS is apparently correct.). ") See S. T. dus gsum 62 * 6 ) anena paryāyena. difficult to be acquired by others. C. Hereafter t h e reference is to t h e 3 actions. Cf. jifft ^ ^ fJZ -Mf". rnam-grañs hdis. |P~ WL (prob. related to the three divisions of time 6 7 ) . . A^ «]* Hñf (AĀS $ f § ^ ) . precious Vaidūlya stone 6 3 . it is taught as follows 6 4 ) . & C. '•/[* yf. T . 476 b. . text) is acceptable. C. rendered in equality with all the Buddhas. ". > samksepamātrakena. with summarized number 5 8 '. ' shows a different reading (apratipraśrabdha). without casting off the indescribable nature of his 67) 44 68 pramānatah. C. UL dañ rjes-su hbrel-pa (tryadhvânubaddha). Y{\ I t t ^ p R|K (by this example). C. O noble youth. kha-na-ma-tho-ba T . far beyond all works of exertion 6 0 ) . 68) 69) t r i r a t n a . T. C. '. in this manner 6 5 ) . word and mind. Residing in this inconceivable Act of the Tathāgata. S9) adhisthita. but it is preferable to read ' . C. . agree t o p u t one epithet more before ' triratnavamśa. and not interrupting the lineage of the 3 Jewels 6 8 ) . T . 5. as T. indescribable by letters. \~ ^rf (tryadhvasamam). ••> anavadya. C. inconceivable. reading corrected by T. ^ Ç ^ § ( A Ā S _~ZL ^ C I ' ) ' ākāśasvabhāvatā.v a m ś a . AĀS fog. o Noble Youth. om. C. that which is the true act of the Tathāgata is immeasurable. > ābhogakriyā. T.The Ratnagotravibhāga they were somewhat limited 57) . C. nowhere blamable 66) . reading is here accepted. failed to catch this point. C. T . So in T. ^g.""*. ' nānākarana '. [ 193 ] . T.kārana '. dkon-mchog-gsum-gyi gduñ. Then.. of no differentiation 6 1 ) as being the act of the universal essence " 6 2 ) &c. 67) T. C. by deed. ^ ffi f p l f £ . nirnānākāranam (Ms B. this Buddha's inconceivable Act should be known as rendered in equality [with all the Buddhas]. p . f£C |fE « S (dharmadhātu-svabhāva). hbad-rtsol dan bya-ba. T. However. med-pa. uncognizable by all the world. AĀS. ^pj J§T . the Buddha never casts off the sky-like nature of his body 6 9 ) and he shows himself in all the Buddhas' lands.. . 1. C. See B H S Die. *. after showing the example of pure. 9 ff. of no discrimination as being equal to the sky. established 5 9 ) in all Buddhas' lands.

p. The attributes of the enlightenment. sems-kyi spyod-pa dan bsam-pa yah. C. Cf. 71) cittacaritâśayāmś ca. C. therefore it is the Enlightenment.. AÂS J ^ | •§f). the first subject should be known as c the object to be enlightened' (boddhavya)'?4:). 72) Four subjects from the standpoint of Enlightenment (bodhi). = [ 194 ] is as follows: * 0 f ft (bodhya) # j g ££ (bodhi). The act to instruct the enlightenment 7 2 ) . 26. t r a n s l a t i o n of ' ārambana' by f^t or jy\ . āśaya). TAKASAKI speech. he teaches the Doctrine for the sake of living beings through the proper word-communication. Also see S.1. 39. . (Cf. the reading bodhanā is to be corrected into bodhana). The second subject. jffj 'Li"* 4~T" (om. "fife # S | ft (bodhyañga) %\\ . still he can understand the deeds and intentions of the minds 7 1 ) of all living beings. One subject signifies the cause. ' the object to be enlightened '. The Germ as Cause and Conditions of the 3 Jewels in its four Aspects. The object to be enlightened. 9). 4 the attributes of the Enlightenment (bodhyañga)' is to be known. translation of the first line 1 4 !&£ 73 ^&C \Ck (bodhana. in this sense the third subject. Being the portions of enlightenment. otherwise ' ca' is to be removed as a n excess. C. respectively. the Enlightenment. Only through the attributes of Enlightenment is there instruction for others. g^ I|JL» and compare to S. Ace. N o t e C. —" 'fcJJ i^K £ j £ *lj"» jy\ ^^ H I . 74 > 'bodhya* in v. with reference to their inclusion of all knowable objects. 11. ^ f ^ t f ^ J ^ ^ (citta-indriya-āśaya?).e. 73) i. has confusion in its interpretation. See Note III-5. 73): nirālambe (C. t h e reading is preferably corrected into ' cittacaritān āśayāms ca '. 'the Enlightenment' (bodhi) should be known in the sense that the object to be enlightened has been awakened. they are called Buddha's attribute. ' the act to instruct the Enlightenment (bodhana)9 is to be known75). [Of these four]. § 2. It correspond to ' gotra ' itself. to T. in this sense the fourth subject.J. 2 (v. C. // 26 // Indeed. 110 (v. of these four subjects. [The remaining] three are the conditions For the purification of the former 7 3 ) . 76) Of these 4. IV. where ' ārambana ' is translated by ' 3 î L ftp£ '. T . and being apart from all objects of the mind 7 0 ) . 3J9? H ) . Thus with reference to these 70) sarvacittârambana. p. AĀS.

However. applies each phrase for each subject in the prose commentary. Thus " one subject signifies the cause " . but in the verse C. It is obviously wrong. manifests the Act of Tathāgata of 32 features 7 6 ) . the arrangement of the Germ of the 3 Jewels in the state f cause and conditions is to be known. etc. 76) Cf. should be understood as the cause (hetu) of origination of the 3 Jewels with reference to its ( = of the Germ) purification based upon ' each own ' correct thinking. having realized the Supreme Perfect Enlightenment. Hereafter. of these four subjects.The Ratnagotravibhāga four subjects. which corresponds to ' pratyātma ' (each own) with reference to ' hetu '. adds 2 padas showing this. again failed to catch the sense and regards the former two subjects as relating to ' svârtha '. and the remaining two as ' parâr- e last pada ' ^ £|* jfjj . the first one. 10 Powers. of these four subjects. Thus " [the remaining] three are the condition " . Here. 1. C. How are there three conditions ? The Tathāgata. p . C. This is to be understood as the condition (pratyaya) for the origination of the 3 Jewels with reference to the purification of Germ based upon the voice of others 7 7 ) . has no interpretation in the prose commentary. a detailed and analytical explanation will be made known in the remaining chapters. 6. being endowed with the Virtuous Qualities of the Buddha. C. Nevertheless. 77) paratah. by which the people attain the enlightenment'. as being the seed of the supermundane thing. Of this correspondence.^ JH ' should be taken as an *•• Mug mSfermsto [ 195 ] u . t o D R S ) . 16 ( a c e . ^ ^ 9t ^ S '• Tli explanatory adjective to ' bodhana % and be read ' bodhana. S.

Buddha's body sitting firmly in the meditating form).: T. (With Buddha's eyes. The Sūtra. mainly depends. A.D. Taisho. have the Buddha's Wisdom.). Now. This formula runs in C. No. ~}j | | f # 0 ^ ^ ^M ' tr. By which meaning is it said thus 2 ) ? x) This formula shows a principle common to a group of Sutras and Sāstras which express the tathāgatagarbha theory. to%i& & ft 'A* 'H. p. Kg Mdo XXII. I observe that all living beings. TGS. i. 667 ~)\. and by combiNote 2 on foil. No. & C.e. 666 will be used for the reference with the abbreviation. text is missing now. m * Bg. 457 r). the Sūtra says: tū&MM (TGS. it is clear that TGS borrowed this idea from that Sūtra and established the above formula. and my Introduction). THE SERMON: ALL LIVING BEINGS ARE POSSESSED OF THE MATRIX OF THE TATHAGATA. see Note VI—28. it is said: All living beings are possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata X ) . by Buddhabhadra between 408-429 A. After the first sentence.I. 29. as follows: î l ffi H & Prior to this sentence. and No. C. Tohoku No. D. though they are among the defilements of hatred. is retained in both T. (ibid. the Sūtra furthermore says: * I?. 666 ' ^ C ~J^ ^ i # P 3fv ^ ^ ' tr. Hereafter C. of which the Skt. (esā — dharmānām dharmatā. The first appearance of this formula seems to be in the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra on which the Ratna. This shows the reason for the statement mentioned above. SAMALÂ TATHATĀ VII. p. This third one shows that the formula is the eternal truth. Buddha's eye. by Amoghavajra in the 8th cent. 73). 258. " sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh ' and as this idea of the penetration of buddhajñāna is expressed in the Avatamsakasūtra (Tathāgatotpattisambhava—pariv. with reference to ' t h e Reality mingled with pollution'. utpādād vā tathāgatānām anutpādād vā sadaîvaîte sattvās tathāgatagarbhāh) (quoted in S. anger and ignorance. [ 196 ] .

dharmakāya.e. First of all. S. And the Germ [of the Buddha] exists [in the living beings]. ffi. J-TÎ -îdte. the main purpose of the teaching is to emphasize this point and. it is said: all living beings 7) are possessed of the Matrix of the Buddha.\\ |$g /QÎ. 7) sarve dehinah = sarvasattvāh = [sarva] śarīrinah (in t h e following verse). all living beings are always possessed of the Matrix of the Buddha. Is C. translation had this order. // 27 // [What is shown by this śloka ?]8 ) The Buddha's Body penetrates everywhere.. ñer-brtags. Its result 5 ) manifests itself on the Germ of the Buddha 6 ) ./&) 3 ^ . i. 28) like T.The 3> Ratnagotravibhāga (Kārikā 5) The multitudes of living beings are included in the Buddha's Wisdom 4 ) . 22. N o t e V I I . Therefore. B u t T . T. it looks all right and it is imaginable that the text used for C. has clearly confasions in the prose commentary as J suggested. 27 after ' tathāgatagarbhasūtrânusārena nirdeśo bhavisyati ' with the heading: as said in the Kārikā text (V{. equal to all the Buddhas). basing himself upon the TGS. but omits the usual heading before the next commentary verse (v. ' buddhajñānântargamāt sattvarāśeh ' m e a n s g r a m m a t i c a l l y t h a t sattva-rāśi goes into buddhajñāna. starting with the commentary verse (v. 28 is followed by v. 28). (see above. e t c . 29 with no heading. buddhatā. C. on the contrary. reading. // 28 // ning these three sentences together. & C. C.1 ) . it puts v. 3) 4) rāśi. Their immaculateness is non-dual by nature. T. the author analysed and systematized the tathāgatagarbha theory. F o r upacāra. 'A^* p|ji. and v. he next explained its features and functions summarized in 10 points. keeps quite a regular order starting with the Kārikā (v. translation of this line is as follows: fîfc . we can get the main doctrine of the sūtra. 27 was put after the explanation. resides). (In t h e sense of * carati '. This idea is shown i n t h e Avatamsaka q u o t e d i n S. Reality is of undifferentiated nature. the author picked up the fundamental characteristics of tathāgatagarbha in the 3 meanings. Therefore. T.. But from ' pūrvataram tu ' up to ' uddānam ' is missing in C. 8) Inserted according to the conformity. About C. j ^ R t^3 (being n o t separated from B u d d h a ' s W i s d o m ) . 5) T h e result of i m m a c u l a t e n e s s i. p . 27). ' ? J f 4 ^ ' identified with it ? 6) bauddhe gotre tatphalasyopacārāt. and lastly. [ 197 ] . 2 * The order of the text differs among S. v. It is difficult to identify it with the present Skt. (anena kim darśitam /). As regard this point. ffijC \\\ jJ īra DP• f ' \\\ Oj/J īra D P i i^ "^f **-* |_E =^T» (because of the body of real nature. ^ ).e. T . or of sattvarāśi. as t r a n s l a t i o n . the 9 illustrations in order to show how living beings are covered with defilements.. tshogs. C. Here in the Ratna.

e. by three kinds of meaning. there is [another] meaning by which this meaning in all its aspects is indicated in the Scripture 1 2 ) with no variance anywhere l 3 ) . TAKASAKI In short. 10-12. T . 1. ^ P $Q . are applicable to any subject (sarvatrâviśesena) and are already used in the scripture. Significance of this sentence is as follows: The 3 meanings mentioned above are applicable exclusively to Tathāgatagarbha. 1. *ii* IL. These three are the fundamental characteristics of tathāgatagarbha. and 3) there exists the Germ of the Tathāgata (tathāgatagotra) [in every living being] 9 ) . tathatā and tathāgatagotra is also a point of emphasis in the text. it is said by the Lord that all living beings are always possessed of the Matrix of Tathāgata. That is to say. the following meanings. 2) tathāgata-tathatā-'vyatirekârtha. The first one shows the all-pervadingness of' dharmakāya ' the 2nd should be applied to ' samalā tathatā ' in the sense ' sarvakleśakośopagūdho dharmakāyah'. 9) UP p £ ' respectively. as well as the ground of the statement: sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh. 17). the sense ' origination ' or ' manifestation ' is to be implied here. pravacana. p p . 12) [ 198 ] . is the undifferentiated whole. 6 9 . upacārāt ' in v. de-bshin-gśegs-pahi rigs yod-pahi don. p. reads this word as the subject (gsuñ-rab) See below. C. 3) Hb tPRF $lxi'•sattvas possessed of garbha of tathāgata. These are called pahi * trividha-svabhāva ' of tathāgatadhātu (S. beginning with svabhāva. 7-9) as well as in BGŚ (795 c-ff. 2) the Tathāgata being the Reality (tathātā). And of these three subjects 1 0 ) . however.lL. 13) aviśesena. V ^ r% . Cf. 1. T . / > See S.) is also an implication of this same idea. 16-18.. C. 70. BGŚ 808 a. and the 3rd shows the existence of 'gotra'' among sattvas. Prior to it. I shall now explain. de-bshin gśegs-pahi de-bshin-ñid rnampar dbyer med-pahi don. T.J . 2) BH» vīL $$û '• garbha in which tathāgata is ' hidden '. i. uJ I f § | . T . 3) tathāgata-gotra-sambhavârtha. The threefold meaning of the term tathāgatagarbha mentioned below (S. h a s n o e q u i v a l e n t w o r d for e a c h s u b j e c t . of garbha ' enveloping ' tathāgata. 71. p. p. See Note X-139 140 150 151 169 170. Three terms in BGS are as follows: 1) A/T Vvî $& : tathāgata. . p. de-bshin-gśegschos-kyi skus hpho-bahi don. by the following three meanings: 1) the Absolute Body (dharmakāya) of the Tathāgata penetrates all living beings. T. T. as garbha in which sattvas are ' enveloped '. T h e t e r m ' sambhava ' would m e a n b o t h ' b e i n g ' a n d ' b e c o m i n g '. on the other hand. Equality through dharmakāya. 10) n arthapada. With reference to that as well. 72. don-kyi gnas. the [detailed] explanation will be made below n ) according to the Tathāgatagarbha-sūtra. That is to say. 69. 1. b u t i t seems t o b e not enough to express the idea contained here.7 3 . in comparison with the phrase: ' gotre. 'yod—pa' shows t h e first sense. See Appendix I I I . 27. This sentence is missing in C. 1) (sarvasattvesu) tathāgata-dharmakāya-parispharanârtha.

ANALYSIS OF THE GERM FROM 10 POINTS OF VIEW Summary 1 J : The own nature and the cause.e. mam-par gshag-pa. ' J . | f | . 4) las. there should be understood the various aspects 5 ) of the Essence of the Tathāgata. order of the excellent meanings).VIII. What are the 10 meanings ? They are namely : 1) the own nature (svabhāva) [of the Germ].ifctf2) x> 5f? (succeeding paramârtha-dhātu. C. are as follows: 1) Ao-bo. 0 . 4) the function (karman) [towards the purification]. C rendering of tathāgatadhātu here is ' \fç$ |f£ '• 7) sarvagatva i n t h e v e r s e . 4) abhisamdhāya. An explanation of the term para- mârthadhātu in the verse. 5) Idan-pa. 5f? * . gotra). [ 199 ] . dgoñs-don (implied meaning). Artt • v y+. .J i . C. 7) the various states (avasthāprabheda) [of its manifestation]. T. with reference to 4 ) these 10 meanings. 5 § | / . This verse on the 10 meanings (v. there should be known The implication 2) of the Absolute Essence 3) . |f\ . 6) the manifestation (vftti) [of the Germ]. I ventured to omit this verse from the line of Kārikās. f£^ jffE (dhātu in t h e sense vyavasthā. 'tH. // 29 // In short. In these [points of view]. T . Various states and all-pervadingness. 8) all-pervadingness (sarvatraga) 7 ) [of the Germ]. C. Because it follows immediately upon the word ' vaksyāmi ' in the last sentence. & C. 9) unchangeability (avikāra) [of the Germ through various states]. paramalattva — jñānavisayas tathāgatadhātuh. 2) the cause (hetu). i. it seems that this uddāna was composed by the commentator prior to explaining following Kārikās. though it is mentioned in the Kārikā text of C. 5) the union (yoga) [of the Germ]. C. T. arthasamdhi. which is the sphere of the highest true knowledge 6 ) . 8) Corresponding terms for these 10 in T. uddāna. union and manifestation. "jfg īij . 3) the result (phala) [of its purification]. 3) hbras[-bu]. The qualities always unchangeable and non-diiFerentiation. <$? | | | | y\. 3) B) 6) C. Therefoie. 2) rgyu. 29) has a doubtful position as the original Kārikā. T . and 10) non-differentiation (abheda) [of the Germ with the Reality] 8 ) . . The result. of tathāgatadhātu. don-dam-dbyiñs. function. sdom. . ^ .

2) 0 ffi . It follows after n ) the faith in the Doctrine. n ) -anvaya. H ^ 3*[? /j'J (kāla-prabheda). 9) mi-hgyur-ba. 4~r '•> 7) gnas-skabs-kyi rab-tu dbye-ba. (Taisho. C. Identity.BGŚ7966: 1) g f | ffi . T. [ 200 ] . XXX.. rañ-bshin. Also the Mahāyānadharmadhātvaviśesa—śāstra (DAS) mentions 12 categories with respect to ' bo- 6) # ft. T. namely: 1) J|c. T.(I) SVABHÂVA & (II) HETU 9) Now. // 31 // •T0 J/£*» 6) hjug-pa. 56-59. 7) 31 Ife.. IX. comm. which show the cause of purification. // 30 // § 1.. II). Meditation and Compassion 12>. samādhi. respectively. 45. om. See Appendix III. ^ Q f£J. 3) g ft . #'] . adhiprajñā. 10) S ft£ ^ fI]. Here. > Cf.. ii) f£ ^ ^Ij. 9) ffi |K. Like the pure jewel. BGŚ 796 b (I. etc. chos mthun-pa-ñid. y p £ . The highest Intellect. 2. 12 * dharmâdhimukti. svabhāva & II hetu). what is shown by the former half of this śloka ? Because of its own nature of power. the sky and water. See below. C. ^ W$ ffc . (Kārikā 6) 4 own nature' and ' cause * [The Matrix of the Tathāgata] is always undefiled by nature 1 0 ) . 2) g j . A. C. .. 3ή ' %}] | © . 5) jffi 3§il ft J a n ' °^ these 10 categories. with reference to the meaning of there is one śloka. 4) ^ | g ffi . 13) sādharmya. karunā. the first 6 are common to the 8 categories on ' nirmalā tathatā ' (Chap. ft. DAŚ 892 a (3.^ !>§£. from svabhāva to vrtti. the sky and water.las byuñ-ba (come out from. The Nature of the Essence of the Tathāgata. MSA. The subject term for this and the following Kārikās is ' jinagarbha ' in v. 9 10) dhicitta ' (DAŚ 892 a). § prakrty-asamklista. is also observed in YBh. For prakrti.). dbyer-med-pa. and being moist. and the application of the same 6. in these [three points] [The Essence of the Tathāgata has] a resemblance l 3 ) To the quality of the wish-fulfilling jewel. 5) M ^ 12) —* ft. 3) ^ ffi . 8) kun-tu hgro-ba. 8) $T fi. 36 a). Cf. 4) J | | ^ . 0 ) .

19) 20) [ 201 ] . bsam-pahi don. āvarana. ffî ^ (as T. gshan-du ma-yin-pa-ñid-kyi ño-bo. i. w r a t h . T . but it puts ' JS» '/m ' (cmfā £t£) * before ' tathāgatadharmakāye ' and it seems to correspond to ' jQfr fÇ lH? '. by nature. should be known with reference to its particular and common characteristics.e. T. § ft 2) 18 j] . the sky and water is to be understood. & BGŚ (796 6) runs as follows: _ 1) T. grub-pa (= siddhi).). the resemblance of the Essence of the Tathāgata to the purified quality of the wish-fulfilling jewel. Now. 31. § 2. mthuhi ño-bo-ñid.. this very resemblance [of the Essence] to the purified qualities of wish-fulfilling jewel. C. C j^C Wv» BGS ^p^ ^fl* 'KX • > Cf. Obstructions and Causes of Purification 18) . |*!p. A resemblance to water is to be known 1 7 ) of the Germ of the Tathāgata. fulfillment of desired 16) objects etc. ^ ^ . And now. 31 of C. 1B) samrddhi. what is shown by the latter half of the śloka (v. T . C. trividhasvabhāva of tathāgatadhātu. khoñ-khro ( h a t r e d . C. ^ ^ ' j ^ . BGS TfîÇ . which are already mentioned above 1 4 ) . B G Ś 797 a. Now. BGŚ #H ^ rañ-gi XJ f^ f^. s\* ^ ç . C. in v. u ) vv. sgrib. the own nature of powers (prabhāva). first of all. e n m i t y ) . C. the sky and water. 30) ? There are four kinds of Obstructions 1 9 ) : Enmity 2 0 ) to the Doctrine and perception of the Self. pjj (abuse). 17) For these 3 terms showing the similarity in particular characteristics. with reference to its particular l5) characteristic. a resemblance to the wish-fulfilling jewel is to be known of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. ' 0 f ft ' after ' 0 f &% ' is probably a misreading of prabhā for bhāvanā). respectively.e. absolutely. 16) cintitârtha. brlan-pahi rañ-gi ño-bo. but not found in S. A resemblance to the sky is to be known of the Reality. T. of all t hese. T . praligha. C. 28 and its commentary. with reference to their being undefiled always. the innate purity as the common characteristic. 27. C. C. T. 3) T.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga * In these ' three [points]. with reference to its moist nature (snigdhabhāva) of mercy towards living beings as the particular characteristic. with reference to its own nature of identity [everywhere] (ananyathābhāva) as the particular characteristic. has a lacuna after samrddhi up to the end of the commentary on v. 0 f fçj\ (C. i..

A^ ' T. F P <î^ "W î pectively. 3) those who wish neither of both (tadubhayânabhilāsin) 26>. Some of these are hostile to the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. the Iochantika is said to be able to get Enlightenment as taught in this text (S.). TAKASAKI Fear of Suffering in this world. it means one who longs only for worldly pleasure ( = bhavâbhilāsin. With reference to them. But from the viewpoint of the tathāgatagarbha theory. C. Those are only seeking for Phenomenal Life and not for Nirvana. And b) Those people who. . 28 [ 202 ] . 1) those who cling to the worldly life ' should be known as twofold. HR J § . ") Cf. AĀS 471 a. one who abuses the Buddhist doctrine. yoñs-su mya-ñan-las mi-hdah-bahi rigs-can. s. > icchantika. <K l K IH. 23) 22 21 tīrthya. T. Pali idha. res- C j S .J. As a Buddhist technical term. hdod-chen. 1. Of them. 1) T. that of Mahāyāna. v. The capacity for Enlightenment of this Icchantika is usually denied as being ' aparinirvānagotraka '. are The four Causes of purification. rañ-byuñ. v. srid-pa-dañ bral-bar hdod-pa. a) The people whose intention is against the path to Emancipation and who never belong to the family of the perfect Nirvana (aparinirvānagotraka)27).// 32 // [These are respectively] of the Icchantikas 22\ Of the Heretics23) . (—' W] J H ) (of this literal meaning. 24 26) Of these 3. have definitely fallen into the former's way 2 9 ) . 2) T. C. 37. 29) i. [/jQ yj\j {£Z '-p] Pflj :Ja£ JpJ \\L (as same as Icchantika in their position).e. the faith [in the Doctrine] etc. vSÇ /r£ 5 5 I-E • This sentence and the next show the definition of Icchantika. @ 5t£). sems-can don-la Itos med-pa. mu-stegs. 27 ) « de-gñis-ka mñon-par mi-hdod-pa. AA II. ^ 3 T ^ f . the Śfāvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas 24>. C.. The word * iha ' here means ' in this religion ' but not ' in this world '. more strictly. T. ^ $j? ffc ^ (within the Buddhist fold). Cf. which is used in this sense in Vibhañga 245 (PTS Die. chos hdi-pa-ñid. T. s. // 33 // In brief there are those three kinds of living beings among their multitudes 2 5 ) : 1) those who cling to the worldly life (bhavâbhilāsin). > T. And indifference to the profit of living beings 21 ). y\ j g [ ( = anyatîrthika) — ttrthika.). BHS Die. The virtues. ' The reading should be ' sattvârtha—nirapeksatā ' (or -arthe nirape-) instead of * -artham nirapeksatā ' in the text.). esp. p. C. although belonging to this Our Religion (ihadhārmika) 28>. 1 fli. BGŚ 797 b ff. ' sarnsāram eva icchanti na nirvānam '. 6. C. > svayambhū in the text (T. see below). srid-pa hdod-pa. C. Cf. 2) those who seek for deliverance from it (vibhavâbhilāsin). C. C.

This seems to be the original reading. C. kun-tu C. Cf. Here. the Jains 3 7 ) . T. / £ | $ £ |Sfcî ^=f J t £ "j • ' durgrhītagrāhin. & T. With reference to them. C. PP) a s a n example. a) Those who have fallen into a methodless way (anupāyapatita) and 6) i those who are in [the correct] method ' (upāyapatita) 3 2 ) . various kinds of Heretics (anyatīrthya). (lit. T. T. i. mun-pa-las kyañ ches. C. 34) In contrast with ' ihadhārmika '. So do AÂS. regards them as the Vaiśesika (Hi "tit $$). The word ' itobāhya ' is literally an adjective to ' tîrthya '. \ja\ . I say of them that they are chiefly filled with darkness. & BGŚ. C. Of these 2. though being faithful in [Buddhism]. 35) 36) caraka (lit. thabs-la shugs-pa. 37) nirgranthi-putra. l j | | | |33 (viparyāsagrāhin). they are not my pupils. religious wanderer). hdi-las phyi-rol-tu gyur-pa. 33) 32) as well.e. reading is accepted in this translation. 1) T. from gloom to greater 31 gloom ).. but whose conduct is in common with the Heretics 3S\ They. 31 > tamasas tamo * ntaram andhakālān mahândhakālagāminah. mun-pa chen-por hgro-ba. '£<£ j^J y\. ^ | <fc i H /J US. C. etc. Then.The Ratnagotravibhāga the Lord said as follows 3 0 ) : " I am not their teacher. T . C. mentions Vātsīputrīyas (^fH ~J * The source is unknown. what are they ? They are namely. C. ii) & Hi) Insiders of Our Religion. ii) those who have the perception of the substantial Ego (pudgaladrsti) 4 0 ) and have no faith in the Highest Truth. thabs ma-yin-pa-la shugs-pa. combining the latter two in S. take hold of bad conceptions 39>. respectively. 30 > AAN 467 c. 2) i those who seek for deliverance from this worldly life ' are also twofold. (and AAN as well) ' I will call them icchantikas\ instead of ' tamobhūyisthā '. om. C. into one. dkah-bahi Ita-ba hdsin-pa (durdrstigrāhin). wanderer).e. ~^C y\. gcer~bu-ba (naked people). i) Outsiders of this Religion (itobāhya)34>. the Parivrājakas 36 '. T. tsa-ra-ka. the Carakas35). "$£. Next. the Lord said 4 1 ) : " One who has no faith in Non-substantiality is not different from the Heretics " . 'those who are of no method' are again divided into three 3 3 ) . T . [ 203 ] . AĀS 471 a. 38§ ? R i l l ~/J iSl î 2) T. regards t h e m as t h e S ā m k h y a (If rgyu (one who goes everywhere). 39 40) 41 C. i. as migrating from darkness to another darkness."J^C • But T. C. O Śāriputra. ' two '.

T. shugs—pa (to enter). Cf. C. A^ ft VM 5 S A ft Btl S iSS). 146. see Note V—23. C. 4 samatâpti-mārga-pratipannāh). 48) āpatti in the text.'s suggestion. They are not seeking for the Phenomenal Life as the Icchantikas do. 1. 46) samyaktva-niyāma. [Both of them] have proceeded on the fixed way of rightfulness 4 6 ) .This is the highest and ideal feature of nirvana in the Mahāyāna doctrine. 50) prayoga. C.J. T. offers no help). 49 45> * T. Lank. (Taisho. their activities 5 0 ) are based upon Phenomenal Life 5 1 ) but without being defiled by it. talented faculty. but T. 634 a). ^y The same use as in ' ihadhārmika '. i) Those who belong to the Vehicle of the Śrāvaka and ii) those who belong to the Vehicle of the Pratyekabuddha. and their root is perfectly 42) 43) tad-vimoksamukhe. (T. yañ-dag-par ñes-pa-ñid. p. With reference to these. nor are they those who are in no method like Heretics. T T [Mj ' f T . p. 29 1. T. But as they are intoxicated with this Non-substantiality. T. it follows for them that Non-substantiality itself becomes a [wrong] conception 44) . Sumeru is better than the conception of Non-substantiality on the part of those who are proud of it " . om. 11-13. S. thob-pa. Here. really even such a conception which maintains substantial Ego as much as Mt. āpti had better be accepted. And next. (Cf. 2 ff. TAKASAKI Hi) Those who have the conception of the Non-substantiality and are proud of it are doubtless at the door of Emancipation through the Nonsubstantiality 4 2 ) in this religion 4 3 ) . adds brten—pa (āśrita) after nir- vana). This is a passage in Kāśyapa-parivarta of the Ratnakūtasūtra. p. C. p. nor those who are in the correct method [for deliverance] like Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas. he ( = the Lord) said [in the Scripture] 4 5 ) : " O Kāśyapa. b) 'those who are in [the correct] method' are again twofold. brten-pa(= āśrita). but. they intend not to stay fixedly in the Nirvana (apratislhitanirvāna) 4 9 ). jl|£ 4 T • samsāragata. 47 ' pratipanna. See S. BGŚ 797 b (quotation from AĀS). H For ' -gata '. iha. sbyor-ba-can. AĀS 471 6. 35. having entered 47> the Path to obtain 4 8 ) [the intuition of] the equality of this Phenomenal Life with Nirvana. mi—gnas—pahi mya—ñan—las—hdas-pa. C jpÇ >fJi ^ c *y* (Ratnakūtasūtre). the whole compound. (C. C. As by J. XI. 3) ' those who wish neither of both the worldly life and deliverance from it' are the people who are standing firmly amidst the Great Vehicle and are of the highest. 61) [ 204 ] .

And here 5 3 ) . This is the Obstruction of the Heretics. have definitely fallen into the former's way are called (A) the group of people who conform in the wrong way (mithyātvaniyatah sattvarāśih). i. C.The Ratnagotravibhāga pure as being grounded in the firm Compassion and Superior Intention 52) . Y^£ ^ | ' u * (the intention to attain Nirvana). 62) 63 adhyāśaya. keeping aside those people who stand firmly in the Great Vehicle and follow the unobstructed way 56>. Cf. %%. though it is missing in S. * Hereafter. there are four kinds of Obstructions on account of which they cannot understand or realize the Essence of the Tathāgata.e. 84 ' ' ca ' should be inserted before ' ihadhārmikā '. 68 > T. Of 55) these [groups of living beings]. & T. b u t b o t h T . has it. the Icchantikas. 65) Hereafter. the Śrāvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas. T. I preferred C. o m . and its Antidote 5 9 ) is the practice of the faith in the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle (mahāyānadharmâdhimukti-bhāvanā) by the Bodhisattvas. B u t T . reference is m a d e t o t h e 4 kinds of people a n d t h e i r i m p e d i m e n t s . 1) those people who cling to this wordly life. 66) anāvarana-gāmin (one who goes w i t h o u t a n y obstacle). t r a n s l a t i o n .e. 1) the enmity 5 8 ) to the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle (mahāyānadharmapratigha). other people are [fourfold] 57\ i. sgrib-pa med-pa rtogs~pa (one who knows t h e u n o b s t r u c t e d thing) and C. H e r e ' anāvarana ' indicates strictly N i r v a n a . Of these [four groups]. and its Antidote is the practice of Supremacy in the transcendental Intellect (prajñāpāramitābh. BGŚ fff C. the Icchantikas and5 4 ) those who. 3?J fpj .). 3) The notion of Suffering (duhkhasamjñā) [or rather] the fear of Suffering {duljkha-bhlrutva) in Phenomenal Life. & C. What are then the four Obstructions ? That is to say. reference is made to the relation between the 3 kinds of people above mentioned and the 3 groups of people. though belonging to this Our Religion. h a v e i t . 2) The conception of the Self (ātmadarśana) on the separate elements (dharmesu). 2-o) ' Those people who seek for deliverance from the worldly life but have no method ' are called (B) the group of people unconformed (aniyatafi s. pratipaksa. 69) [ 205 ] . T. s?) S. C. lhag-pahi bsam-pa. 2-6) ' Those people who seek for deliverance with the correct method ' and 3) ' those who wish neither of both and have entered the path through which [the intuition of] the equality [of the Phenomenal Life with the Nirvana] is attained are called (C) the group of people who conform in the right way {samyaktvaniyatab s. flfjfc j J L (one who seeks for t h e u n o b s t r u c t e d w a y ) . sñañ-ba. ' caturvidha '.) by the Bodhisattvas. gñen-po. This is the Obstruction of the Icchantikas.). •JC /J^ -/Hfe |*ip. ^ . the Heretics. C.

i. accompanied by these four causes of origination of purity. the idea must be borrowed from an old source. 73X.e. 11: dharmâdhimuktibījāt pāramitāśresthamātrto jātah dhyānamaye sukhagarbhe karunā samvardhikā dhātrî C. AX. Q ~h£> fâffc Jjtftl -nSdu i L . 4) sñih-rje chen-po.). How are they ? It is said 6 2 ) : 6 °) T. ^£? ^ ^ (ākāśagarbha). the faith [in the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle] etc. they become the sons of the Religious King in the Buddha's family. adds ' śūrañgama ' /Ht) as a name of samādhi. the highest truth. Jan. i. This is the Obstruction of those who belong to the Vehicle of the Pratyekabuddha and its Antidote is the practice of Great Compassion {mahâkarunā-bh.e. each of them. C. has no corresponding verse. XXXI. T ». •• ^5 And the terms for the 4 causes of purification. p. The following verse is probably a quotation from some canonical work. the Bodhisattvas attain the highest purity. Yf~f ILL. however. Gaganagañjā 6 0 ) etc. nam-mkhah-mdsod. =g* «pQ. \ IJJC. And having practised the four kinds of Antidotes to these Obstructions. • 1) [thegs-pa chen-pohi] chos-la mos-pa. The terms for the 4 obstructions in T. Q Q ~W* ( J3 f\^r 61) 3) hkhor-ba-la sdug-bsñal hjigs-pa. but in the commentary there is a passage saying: Ā ? L # t [ 206 ] (Taisho. the Absolute Body.) by the Boddhisattvas 61>. by the Bodhisattvas. 4) Aversion to the profit of living beings {sattvārtha-vimukhatā) or Indifference to the profit of living beings (sattvaartha—nirapeksatā).. 9 . And. These are the four kinds of Obstructions of the four kinds of living beings. 1) MSA IV. p5!? ft* • 2) bdag-tu Ita-ba. 4) sems-can-gyi don-la mi-ltos-pa. JJ=J f£C» 2) śes-rab [-kyi pha-rol-tu phyin-pa]. •ffâ fSftt: ^ = * ^j< ^r. >J. 62) ^f. The same idea is expressed with slight difference in the following Sāstras. C. 5 6 6). regards it as its own. y\^ ^ ^ . & C. .. At least. 3) tiñ-ñe-hdsin. are as follows: 1) [thegs-pa chen-pohi] chos-la sñañ-ba. pfjj "p^ \VT J J "Q*.This is the Obstruction of those who belong to the Vehicle of the Śrāvaka and its Antidote is the practice of Meditations (samādhi-bh.

C. i n i t s t u r n . Zl 1fc j h #H Hit Ba » IZQ Jffij jg/fc W -fL 1% (hetu is like pitr. 67) As being i n t h e series of K ā r i k ā s . V T Î 5+S ( = nirvana) and om. T . Aversion to Suffering.). shi thob-pa. A . (Kārikā 7) The Supreme Virtues 65) of Purity. should b e understood essence or t r u t h itself. // 34 // (III) PHALA & (IV) KARMAN Now. of s e p a r a t e elements b e r e a d as ' •. pratyaya garbha. āśraya like ^C ffi ¥L • 63) 64) 3) DAŚ v. translation of the Ratna. ^ ^ = paramâtman. Cf. with reference to the meaning of i result ' and ' function '.: is often called ' buddhamātrka ' T . • guna'jinagarbha' i n v . whose subject or viśisya is 86) 68) śama-prāpti. and siddhi like dhātrl). 35 a b h a d b e t t e r pāramitā-phalah ' ( B a h u v r ī h i comp. Bliss and Eternity. there is one śloka. Whose abiding womb is the blissful meditation And whose nurse is called Mercy. H e r e ' ātman ' in t h e sense of ' dharmakāya ' or ' dharmadhātu ' as t h e universal which r e p r e s e n t s . sMMMcUf prajñāpāramitā anujāta. C. prāpti. [Towards this purification] it has the functions. longing for and praying for the acquisition of Quiescence 68) . C. v . >(0 " H ^ ^ P (together with ' pu«ro ' ) . f in the Prajñāpāramitāsūtra. [These] are its results [of the purification] 67) .s u b s t a n t i a l i t y (nairātmya) and individuals. like mātr. T . yon-tan pha-rol[-tu] phyin-pa.The Ratnagotravibhāga Those whose seed is the faith in the highest Vehicle. r/es[-su] s&yes. [ 207 ] . bdag. Unity 66>. āfman. '$>C _ ^ «Çj} f ^ . // 35 // 2) BGŚ 798 a: — H #[I 3£ ^ 5 h ~~ l # #H f*f. Whose mother is the transcendental Intellect 63 \ On account of the origination of Buddha's Doctrine. C. t h e N o n . 65) guna-pāramitā. 45. T . They are the sons. C. the after-comers 64> of the Buddhas.

Here. [f||£ 4T"j 3?J I O VS « viparyāsa. [nj j|J£). C. 'viparyasta'' used in a bad sense. C. respectively. Now. bśad-pahi. the four kinds of Supreme Virtues {gunapāramitā) of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata are to be understood as i the results' on account of their being Antidotes to the opposites of four kinds of delusion. Or otherwise. 73) The insertion of ' uktāh ' after viśuddhihetu. C. " C. AĀS 471 c. This word does not include the or 'viparyāsa ' is always 70) sense of ' wrong ' or ' mistake '. ' viparyāsa-viparyaya ' and * gunapāramitā '. JjQ t**. instead of ' caturvidha-viparyāsa '. BGŚ 798 a. 74) rūpâdike vastuni. phyin-ci ma log-pa. |$j] (lit. The results of these [4 causes] are. full of sufferings.. & C. the notion of being non-eternal. aviparyāsa. respectively. i. as being correspondent to ' viparyāsa '. as C. viz. The Four Supreme Virtues as the Result of Purification 6 9 ) . Such a notion is called 'the fourfold delusion' (viparyāsa). According to the prose commentary. caturvidha-viparyāsa. T. The context of this verse is not so clear. reversed). these 4 pāramitās should be the antidotes to ' viparyāsa—viparyaya '. On the other hand. as well as C. deceptive). phyin-ci-log (anything wrong. T. 71 [The Purity.J. TAKASAKI § 1. shown as pratipaksa of viparyaya of the 4-fold viparyāsa in dharmakāya. Which four ? That is to say. ( = rūpâdi-vastuni anitye). it will be easier to catch the meaning. translation shows the following meaning: " These results are. respectively. in short. 4 the faith ' etc. and pratipaksaprabhāvita. of no substantial Ego and impure. T. picks up three phrases. of substantial Ego (ātman). blissful {sukha). viparyaya. Being opposite to this notion. l||f| [îi] [<£]. -=^? 38v l ī l "^P" ^P• T. 75) T. C. // 36 // Those terms. though it has no support in T. [ 208 ] . In this sense. See below. 71) pratipaksa. there should be known 4 the fourfold non-delusion (aviparyāsa) 7 5 ) . by the reading ' caturvidha-aviparyāsa '. C. of no substantial Ego. dharmakāye viparyayah (instead of viparyayāt). etc. full of sufferings. of being pure (śubha) regarding the separate things consisting of form and others 7 4 ) wh:ch are really non-eternal. ' Of these [four causes] '. T.] represented as the Antidote > 72) To the four kinds of delusion .e. Chowdhury. C. indicated by T. in short. bzlog-pa. ^ § § @J $£ . there is a notion of being eternal (nitya). is 72) supported by T. in brief. gñen-po (antidote to poison). and impure regarding just those separate 69 > Cf. have been taught 7 3 ) as the causes of purification of the Essence of the Tathāgata. what is shown by the former half of this śloka ? Because of the change of value 7 0 ) in the Absolute Body. (T. this ' caturvidhaviparyāsa'' should be taken as including two kinds of '4~fold delusion'.

etc. 80) upāttesu pañcasûpādāna-skandhesu. And this subject 7 8 ) is to be known in detail according to the Scrip79) ture . and the Supreme Purity (śubha-p. see S. [It runs as follows]: " O Lord. But in the last sentence of this quotation. this very [notion of non-delusion] is implied as ' delusion ' with reference to the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata whose characteristics are eternal. p. bshuñ. thugs-las skyes-pa. That is to say. fâ ] £ ffi 3 i ^ '?£ ft ^fe 1 # V£ tfe M* being as the explanation of the word ' aurasa putra'. o m . 79 > Ś M S 222 a. and have a notion of purity regarding impure things. The meaning is ' skandha in the form of individual or phenomenal things and not in the form of each separate element '. Such a notion is called the fourfold Opposite of delusion (viparyāsaviparyaya) 7 6 ) . So C. 83) aurasa ( < uras) (produced from the heart). the Supreme Eternity (nityapāramitā). sñar ma mthoñ-ba. of substantial Ego regarding non-substantial things. They have a notion of eternity on the non-eternal things. there is established the fourfold Supreme Virtue of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. 81) C t H @] § J }pi (the reading '/f* ' before ' H ffij ' in the Taisho edition. T. O gives the translation: as far as manifesting themselves in an individual. C. and Purity [regarding the Absolute Body]. C. raised). the Supreme Unity (ātma-p-). T . Even all the Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas. 166.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga things of form. AĀS as C. And again. T h e first appearance of this theory is probably in SMS. the Supreme Bliss (sukha-pāramitā). merely ' 'M. this sense is implied. a notion of bliss regarding painful things. Being the Antidote of this notion. slon-pa-ñid-kyi ye-śes. Manu Smrti IX. For upātta (Pali upāta). C. 78) grantha. T. they would be the legal 8 3 ) 76) should be removed). 77) These 4 pāramitās are t a u g h t in SMS. but C.)77>. J ^ . etc. 76 (a quotation from the same Sūtra). also have a miscomprehension in regard to the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata which is the sphere of the Wisdom of Omniscience and has never been seen before 8 1 ) just because of their knowledge of Non-substantiality 82 '. instead 82> has ' jj=3 |9p īfrj B \ ' (because of their believing in the Buddha's word). About this śūnyatā-jñāna. jpl. etc. Bliss. the people have a miscomprehension regarding the phenomenal things consisting of five personality aggregates which cling to existence 80 '.2pC jjyf / j N adrsta-pūrva. 5 ^ ^ 3 . if there would be the people who have the notion of Eternity. O Lord. MPS. śūnyatā-jñāna. T . Cf. and are peculiar t o t h e garbha theory. T. t 209 ] . Usually when ' pañca-upādānaskandha ' is spoken of. . C. Unity. zin-pa (finished. O Lord. | ^ £ fjj '. ~Jr and adds ' ^yt I/P M ^ī^ (produced from the Buddha's mouth).

* 88) abhirati. O Lord. § 2. it should be understood that the acquisition of the Supreme Unity is the result of 4 practice of supremacy in the transcendental Intellect'. ['L*] ^ r c ? a n d adds ' g § •HX ' (graha). those people 8 4 ) who perceive the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata in this way. the legal sons of the Buddhas " &c. perceive perfectly. a d d s 'sarve' after * te'. O Lord. C. (for t h e whole q u o t a t i o n ) . And this very thing as has been perceived by the Heretics does 90 not correspond with ' the [real] characteristic of Ego. T . Cf. }jfi[ -%£ j phyin-pa brñes. regards 'para' as an attribute to ' nairātmya\ [ 210 ] .. 2) Being opposite to the taking of delight in the perception 8 9 ) of unreal Ego by the Heretics who perceive an Ego in the individual things consisting of five personality aggregates. Concordance between 4 Supreme Virtues and 4 Causes of Purification 8 6 ) . 92) So C. the Tathāgata has attained the highest supremacy. Those who perceive perfectly are. And again. C. T. 9 1 ) [knowing 92)] non-substantiality of all the phenomena by means 84) T . T. dgah-ba. T. C. (/JJ. of these four Supreme Virtues of the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. [verily] they would be of perfect perception. AĀS 472 a f. T .. ' para-pārami-prāpta. Here. all the other Heretics consider the things consisting of form. ' para ' in the sense of ' parama '. 89) term 'jjfljl 90) 91 T . mñon-par graha. ^ p . C. mentions t h e actual order Q^p* 3>C ~§§ ^ ). gff ^ X • For ' ātman' (slu-ba. the Supreme Bliss.). 86 > Cf.sons of the Buddhas and be of no miscomprehension. bzlog ste. visamvāditva.85>. H?IJ Çf^ IK. the Supreme Unity and the Supreme Purity. hence it is always non-Ego. slu-ba-daū Idan-pa falsehood). one should know the reversed arrangement 8 7 ) according to the order of causes. B G Ś 798 b f. For what reason ? [Because]. etc. of t h e Heretics. hdsin-pa. A Ā S 471 c f. 85) 87 ) pratiroma-krama. On the contrary. it should be understood that the acquisition of the Supreme Purity is the result of ' Practice of the Faith in the Doctrine of Great Vehicle' by the Bodhisattvas. C. Indeed. the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is verily the Supreme Eternity. ^ ' . uses t h e ^ jilj. 0 Lord. dam-pahi pha-rol-tu C.. as the Ego though they are of the unreal nature. 1) being opposite to the taking of delight in 8 8 ) the ' impure ' Phenomenal Life by the Icchantikas who have hatred against the Doctrine of Great Vehicle. O Lord.

96 ) C. he does exist. C. Because [all phenomena are] of non-substantial nature (?!»Ç T?C ^TH)' °f tne nature of non-being (Tkfç V2* T0)* Hence he cannot be called ' the being '. we cannot say there is no Absolute Body. he himself is absent (flW ^ C ^ ^U 7 £ 38£ W^). > yathābhūta-jñāna. Therefore. S3 (om.. The Buddhas obtained the pure body. the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is not called the being (/^). C. The verse mentioned at the top has a similarity to the verse IX-23 of the [ 211 ] is . C.) in the Immaculate Sphere. by taking non-Egoity {nairātmya) in the meaning of Ego. and adds the explanation of ' nairātmyam eva ' (ts|J 7»ÎÇ T?C) and ' ātmâbhipreta ' ( ^ 3 ^ ^ ^ J ^ > 0 ' saying that the former is in the sense of the absence of the Heretical ātman. Having attained the self-controltn g ot the pure body (Vpf î ^ * ^ " ) . yañ-dag-pa ji-lta-ba-bshin-kyi instrumental case-ending). etc.) ". Because.The Ratnagotravibhāga 93) of his Wisdom perceiving the truth . At the same time. om. And this very non-substantiality 94) has been perceived by the Tathāgata is quite consistent with the a s characteristic of non-ego. sY* fm>. T. as his feature. 3 C » 7 r DUt PR] • 95 93 ye-śes. Here ' attained the great body ' (^Tf y\. the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is not called * non-being ' (TîiÇ). hence there is always the implication of Ego 95) (ātman) . C. while the latter is the Buddha that has attained the ' mighty Ego '. it is said that they attained the great body. when Heretics asked the Buddha whether the Tathāgata would have body (fâ Jf" 1 $ ) after death or not ( ^ J^f* jf|$). 3(0 jH. And furthermore. adds a verse with commentary thereon. as has been said: 44 He stands by application of no standing place" 96) . the Absolute Body (5f| — " VPf î ^ j | . ling body ( y /ffc 1S)> ne ^). he did neither explain (A* ff2) nor reply {/V* ^ . It runs as follows: Having attained the highest Non-substantiality.KU V £ which is the real nature ( gÇ •PC) °f ^11 the Buddhas. As the pure and real emptiness. For this reason. with reference to the same meaning. KN 38Ç ^ C -%3 y«nf ^rl ^ C a n ^ seems to omit ' nairātmyam eva ātmani krtvā'. as his nature. -*T ) means that the Tathāgata has attained the highest pure Reality. > ātmâbhipreta.Hence. Therefore the Buddhas *s are said to have attained the pure controllingfpower] ('frf Vñ Î^F @ 'TE)* ^ n sense the Buddhas could be the highest powerful Ego (5fy * ^]^^ 0 /ffc TA. this quotation whose source is unknown. Because. with reference to this ' supreme Ego '. Only because his body is the Reality itself (J^X PfE ^ 1 I K jl|« KU ^ C WEL). And again. _ 94) avisamvāditva. with reference to this meaning.

71) and the present Skt. 98 ' T. hdu-hdsi med-pa (samsarga means ' company '). but without commentary and regarding it as a ' sūtragāthā ' As for the prose commentary. it should be understood that the result of the practice o" various kinds of meditation. na bhavatîty evam ādir avyākrtanayo matah // (MSA p. however. etc. but we have no definite proof for saying this. is the acquisition of the Supreme Bliss 9 8 ) concerned with all matters. ñe-bar shi-ba. also mentions this verse in the equivalent passage. /JjX. RET ^ or 97) % »). S. which has parallel passages with the Ratna. because practising [for the sake of others] Sūtrâlañkāra. it along with ' abhirati ' and instead has ' b h î r u ' (fear). text has a lacuna of this passage. " ' asamsarga. One strong reason for this supposition is that BGŚ. It runs as follows: " tatra cânāsrave dhātau buddhānām paramâtmā nirdiśyate / him kāranam ? / agranairātmyâtmakatvāt / agram nairātmyam viśuddhā tathatā sā ca buddhānām ātmā svabhâvârthena tasyām viśuddhāyām agram nairātmyam ātmānam buddhā lābhante śuddham / atah śuddha-ātmalābhitvād buddhā ātmamahātmyam prāptā iti paramâtmā vyavasthāpyate I j na bhāvo nâpi câbhāvo buddhatvam tena kathyate / tasmād buddha tathāpraśne avyākrtanayo matah // tenaîva kāranena buddhatvam na bhāva ucyate j pudgaladharmâbhāvalaksanatvāt tādātmakatvāc ca buddhatvasya / nâbhāva ucyate tathatālaksanam bhāvāt j ato buddhatvasya bhāvâbhāvapraśne bhavati tathāgatah param maranān. it was probably not in the original text. upaśama. T. om. we can find a similar passage of the prose commentary mentioned above in the following passage of the Sūtrâlañkāra along with the next verse (IX-24) and the commentary thereon. C. saying: Zl ^ E « ^ tŚic$H$C© (798. which runs as follows: " śūnyatāyām viśuddhāyām nairātmyān mārgalābhatah / buddhāh śuddhâtmalābhitvād gatā ātmamahātmatām // ". (paramasukhapāramitā). 37-38). named Gaganagañjā. fffi 13Ī <J5Σ.g. is a quotation from the MSA by the commentator from the same source he quoted in other passages (e. it should be understood that the Bodhisattvas' practice of Great Compassion has the acquisition of the Supreme Eternity as its result. C. # M 3fe B & S # W (|^ osamsargavihārâbhirati). T. 4) Being opposite to the taking of delight in the isolated 9 9 ) abode by those who belong to the Vehicle of Pratyekabuddha and who are indifferent to the benefits of living beings. p. add parama.). and C. [ 212 ] . Also. mundane and supermundane. Most probably the verse kept in C.3) Being opposite to the taking of delight in the cessation 9 7 ) of Sufferings of the Phenomenal Life alone by those who belong to the Vehicle of Śrāvaka and who have fear of the sufferings of Phenomenal Life. throughout the text.

by J. C 3 £ H i >ft =il • On this passage.The Rat na g o t r a v i b h ā g a 100) as long as the world exists. through the practice of phaligodha in the text. has attained the highest state of the Absolute Essence which is the ultimate purity. Rahder.S u b s t a n t i a l i t y of bhājana-loka ( o m . sbyoñ. T . 14). 101) 102) 100) Cf. Pali paligedha). through the practice of faith in the highest Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. Bliss and Eternity are brought about on the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata as the result of Bodhisattvas' 4 kinds of practices. sattva). the meaning ' attachment ' or ' clinging to ' seems better.) and if we change a letter ' ñ ' into ' r' in T. etc. v. shows a sense similar to ' pariśuddha '. As for the form ' phaligodha ' instead of paligodha. These are used there as modifiers of 'pranidhāna' of Bodhisattvas. hence he has become the highest Absolute Essence. respectively. " dharmadhātu-vipulam ākāśadhātu-paryavasānam aparântakotinistham " % i£ s. the Tathāgata. we get this meaning. s. [the Tathāgata] has realized perfectly the non-substantiality of living beings and of the material world. the Supremacy in the transcendental Intellect. 4 kinds of Supreme Virtues named Purity. but most probbably it is a wrong reading. just as the l04) sky [reaches up to the limit of the world] and. those of Faith [in the Doctrine of Great Vehicle]. same as Ms. but from the context. (' pali ' is a rather common transformation of the prefix ' pari ' in Middle Indie. ^ jtfc 0 f|§ — " g j %\\ ^ ®H^7]t3cffi. reaching u p t o t h e l i m i t ) . C. Unity. AÂS 472 a: tV-XâL^ 103) R i£. Cf. The reading ' sarvatra parama. Indeed. l01) And because of these four [Supreme Virtues in the Absolute Body] it is said.' (in one compound). For this meaning we have a word ' paligodha ' (BHS Die. nam-mkhah Itar) is relating t o nisthâgamana.) T. hence ' yoñs-su sbyor-ba ' might be the translation of ' paligodha ' . p. the Meditations and the Great Compassion.' is to be corrected into lsarvatra-parama. AÂS 472 a. T. r e n d e r s t h i s passage as follows: T h e T a t h ā g a t a completes t h e sky-like dharmakāya through [the 104) realization of] t h e absolute ( ^ L _^L nistha) n o n .). B Ś 7 8 : G 9c « m ft 5f ^ * * *ś nisthâgamana (lit. the Tathāgata is the highest Absolute Essence. Through the practice of the supremacy in 103) the transcendental Intellect. cf. BGŚ 798 c. Daśabhūmikasūtra (ed. without interruption. we should record this form as a varia lectio. ākāśopama ( T . namely. Cf. 545&. yoñs-su sbyoñ-ba (D) (pariśodha. [ 213 ] . mthar~thug-pa-ñid-tu rtogs-pa. B. he reaches up to the limit of the space and he lasts as long as the utmost limit [of the 102) world] . their attachment to the benefits for living beings is perfectly pure. B Jit m H — V) in * T tt^^ft^JI (therefore it is taught by the Buddha). Thus.

|*Jp. he reaches up to the limit of spaci [And lastly]. 2) m B 4 5E. § 3. i$fc 7^. los) prama-dharmaiśvarya. p . 1. U2) «. & C. with reference to 1 0 6 ) this point. through the practice of the Great Compassion. A S l ) 4 ! l l . 3 ) f * . 2) 4 phenomenon of cause' (hetuf laksana)3) 'phenomenon of origination (sambhava-laksana). 4 inpediments to the Attainment of the Supreme Virtues 1 0 7 ) . 274. Lañkāvatāra.. We can regard this ' vaśitāprāpta ' asan epithet for Bodhisattwas in general. Because of these two acquisitions. 4) $£ C 5{{Ç W/j pE «Ha b u t T. t h e Rāstrapālapariprcchā. Pratyekabuddhas and those Bodhisatvas who have obtained [10] Controlling Powers 109) . 3) :# ^f £ 5E. Ā: 4) # & ^ j . I t is e q u i v a l e n t t o ' lokottara ' a n d i t s c o u n t e r p a r t is ' sāsrava ' equivalentto ' laukika '. C. 108) ^ gegs. Here. Cf. That is to say. 107 > f. . there are four Impediments (paripatha) 1 0 8 ) even in case of the Arhats. 2) rgyuhi mtshan-ñid. 110) aāsravadhātu. 3) hbyuñ- bahi mtsha-ñid. it is said he lasts as long as the utmost imit [of the world]. C. j ^ j | | 7^ * * 9i (ffl U 1& B). Eś: i) ^ in 4 5E. 4) hjig-pahi mtshan-ñid. 1 fF. T h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n anāsrava a n d sāsrava will be seen i n t h e following assage. Am now. [he has mercy towards all living beings beyond the limitation of time. 21: sarvabodhisattvahūmisu vaśitāprāptah). 109) zśitāprāpta-bodhisattva. C. y ^ ~J\ pj* ^ 1 • t is not necessary to limit this qualification to those Bodhisattvas who abide on the 10th lūmi as mentioned in the Tibetan commentary. for the acquisition of these four kinds of Supreme Virtues of the absolute Body of the Tathāgata. etc. 1) ' Phenomenon of condi on' means the Dwelling-place of Ignorance (avidyāvāsabhūmi) 1 1 2 ) . r e n d e r i n g of t h i s passage isas * sarvatra sarvadharmesu aiśvarya-prāptatvāt \ 108) pādāya. & C. Therefo3. AĀS 472 b. (Cf. T . 1. T . B G Ś 799 a. chos-kyi dbañ-phyug dam-pa. a r e as follows: 1) kyen-gyi mtshan-ñid. 1) 4 phenomenon < condition' (pratyayar-laksana). i t is m o s t l y concerning t h e obstacles or i m p e d i m e n t s i n B o d h i s j t v a s for a t t a i n i n g bodhi. TAKASAKI various kinds of meditations named Gaganagañjā. ^j£ ^ g . ma-rig-pahi bag-chags-kyi sa (avidyā-vāsanā— [ 214 ] . 2 ) 4 H i . p. show i t b y a b l a t i v e case-ending only. 1 U ) C t h e s e 4 t e r m s . though they are abidng in the Immaculate Sphere 1 1 0 ) . 18. T . dbah-thob-pahi byañ-chub-sems-dpah.J. he has perfectly perceivd the omnipresence 1 0 5 ) of the power of the highest truth everywhere. [ A | 4*0. I n B U S . and 4) 'phenomenon of destruction ' (vibhava-laksana)1U).

. the other is shown in T. .The Ratnagotravibhāga [It is the condition of birth of the Body made of mind for the Saints] just as Ignorance (avidyā) is [the condition] of Predispositions (samskārāh) [for ordinary people]. It relates more or less to the etymology of the term vāsanā (from V r o s » to dwell. ma—rig—pahi gnas—kyi sa) is ' anādikālikā ' and cannot be destroyed except by ' bodhijñāna ' of the Tathāgata. there are traditionally two ways of interpretation: one is shown in C. (*bhavarāgasthita-v. 116) abhinirvrtti. srid-pahi hdod-chags-la gnas-pahi. translation of SMS. C. 33. But it may not be the case here. to SMS (220 a). there are said to be five vāsa—bhūmis. has confusion in interpreting this passage. C. conditioned by the Dwellingplace of Ignorance and caused by the Immaculate Action. Ita-ba gcig-la gnas-pahi gnas-kyi sa (*ekadrstisthita-vāsabhūmi). JZy ^ ī | [ >HX . 7 T ( = tridhātu). C. is compared to samskāras in the sense that karman is the cause of the next birth. The body of the saints is said to be consisting merely of ' mano-skandha '. (*rūparāgasthita-v. instead of 5 upādānaskandhas as in the case of ordinary beings. these four are ' ksanika '. H e r e ' upādāna' is s y n o n y m o u s w i t h The four upādānas are usually.or paryutthāna-kleśa) come out. T . The second interpretation is also shown in this Ratna. 6. B reading. 2) C. translation of the Ratna. I 215 ] . lls) T. just as the origination 116) of the Three-Worlds (tribhava)n7) is conditioned by 4 kinds of Graspings (upādāna)118) and caused by the Passioned Actions bhūmi). srid-pa gsum. v. see S. just as * vijñāna ' is produced from ' samskāra '. of which avidyā—vāsabhūmi is the basic and the strongest. 115) ( _ manomaya-kāya). p. hdod-pahi hdod-chag-la gnaspahi . Furthermore. p. Ace. 117) 118) T. gzugs-kyi hdod-chag-la gnaspahi . In this sense avidyāvāsabhūmi is here related to the defilement existing in Bodhisattvas (in another passage in the Ratna. C. £ £ :£§•. C. 1. and T. J^jf. T. ^ p . and from this samskāra. 130 where the term ' vāsanā * is used for indicating ' avidyāvāsabhūmi '.)t and are said to be the basic Mesas from which all the defilements in the form of intense outburst (paryavasthāna. or from vas.. (*kāmarāgasthita-v. m * C. which agrees with Ms.) 1 1 5 ) . .). says ' hetulaksana ' means ' avidyāvāsabhūmi-pratyayā samskārāh '. 3) C. Here anāsravakarman. of which the exact counterpart is sāsravakarman. ^JÎÇ î^|j ^ ^ . I. Zl. [and it is to be] compared with the Predispositions [of ordinary people] 1 1 4 ) . . 2) drsti.. >^J ^5^ pE J l H . this kîeśa is said to be that of Arhats. See S. 2) 'Phenomenon of cause' means the Immaculate Action (anāsravam karma)ll3) conditioned by the Dwelling-place of Ignorance [as the cause of the Body made of mind]. 17-19). zag-pa med-pahi las. it is the strongest. = kleśa. 3) śīlavrata and 4) ātmavāda. t-L i3< t E -^a» T.. mñon-par grub-pa. n. it is said. ñe-bar len-pa bshi.). The other four are 1) C. As for the meaning of * vāsabūmi*. 3) 4 Phenomenon of origination ' means the origination of the 3-fold Body made of mind (manomayâtmabhāva. T . T. C. 1) kāma. T. * ~LJJ J^a tEE -HHI » T. 'ij/C 2sc 1l£ J u l . yid-kyi rañ-bshin-kyi lus. there is conditioned * anāsravakarman '. 67. seems to regard * samskāra ' of avidyā-vāsabhūmi as something different from * anāsravakarman '. while * avidyāvāsabhūmi * (T. . C. and 4) C. Jrçj. therefore. to perfume).

hdus ma-byas-pa. T h e reading anabhisamskāram is. see SMS 220 a: j \ • • • EH. ^ U » T. T. AH TPî r>V (ñe-bahi ñon-moñs-pa gañ-gāhi kluñ-gi byema-las hdas-pa sñed-kyi rten-du gyur-pa). 122) . have not extirpated the Dwelling-place of Ignorance which is the ground of all the subsequent Defilements121). The counterpart of this death in the case of ordinary beings is called C. About avidyā-vāsa- bhūmi being the ground of all upakleśas. y]C \īf jM. POFE • • • (apakarsâparyantatvāt). on account of that Dwelling-place of Ignorance. hence they cannot attain the Supreme Purity as the end of removal 122) of all the dusts of defilements with their bad-smelling impressions123). drir—bahi bag—chags. ending with the removal of • . . on account of that Dwelling-place of Ignorance and Immaculate Action caused by the arising of the subtle-featured dualistic view conditioned by the Dwellingplace of Ignorance. TAKASAKI (sāsravakarman)119). they cannot attain ultimately 1 2 6 ) the Supreme Unity which is characterized as no accumulation of Active Force 1 2 7 ) . . take ' paryanta ' as ' atyanta ' and attach it to śubhapāramitā as an attribute. But the reading is not clear. SMS 219 c (this term. gives no translation of daurgandhya and has instead ' avidyāvāsabhūmigata-mala '. T. ^ W /f^ ^|)£ pflg . T . rgyun-chad-pahi hchi-hpho (death as the interruption of flowing). but connects drir-ba with mala. Pratyekabuddhas and those Bodhisattvas who have attained (10) Controlling Powers. zag-pa dan bcas-pahi las./yH *|^ (om. T. Both T. C. seems peculiar to SMS). mi-khyab—par yoñs—su bsgyur—pahi hchi-hpho—ba. t o b e corrected into anabhisamskārām. And. anabhisamskāra. It corresponds to the Decrepitude and Death (jarāmarana) conditioned by the Birth (jāti) [in the Three-Worlds]. there is [still] the arising of the Mind-made aggregate 1191 12 T. upa). •^Y* f j j™> g ^ | ^ ^ •zh y^U (cyuti means literally ' fall ').J. C. . C. as an attribute to ātmapāramitā. 5{îÇ yñ?& • C. 124) 125) C. a t J ' s suggestion. J) . . C. Cf. and because of their being accompanied with 1 2 4 ) the arising of the subtle-featured dualistic view 125) . ñe-bahi ñon-moñs-pa. 121) upakleśa. ^J* $ | Jf|. dañ Idan—pahî phyir '. 4) ' Phenomenon of destruction ' means Death as the inconceivable Transformation {acintyā pārināmikī cyuti) 1 2 0 ) conditioned by the origination of the 3-fold Body made of mind. 123 ' daurgandhya—vāsanā. See above (Note VIII-113)- °) T. . reads instead ' bag-chags . apakarsâparyantatvāt ' (7JC -fTf TjC KJ$Q instead of ' yogāt \ sūksmanimitta-prapañca. And. takes this as a n a t t r i b u t e to all t h e 4 pāramitās along w i t h atyanta. takes it probably as an attribute to anabhisamskāra. About apakarsa. . C. Now.J^x. . ) . and C. C. 127) [ 216 ] . the Arhats. . & C. r^y T-f itX _ £ . T. reads as ' . 126) C. apakarsa-paryanta (lit.

for the birth of the 3-fold Body made of mind in these 3 lands 1 3 4 ) and for the origination of the immaculate actions the dwelling-place of Ignorance is the [inevitable] condition. And [lastly]. karman and janman are included. [Thus] O Lord. it is replaced by ' vipāka ' or iskandhadhātv-āyatana \ In all cases what is meant by them is the same Phenomenal Life. Thus. kun—nas ñon—moñs—pa. likewise. 3^S. O Lord. [And] of mind and Death as the to the Impurity of Origi- And this passage is to be understood in detail according to the Scripture 1 3 3 ) . Unity. there are no Supreme Virtues of Purity. . ^ < ) is a general term for all the process of samsāra in which kleśa. gshan—du gyur—pa med—pa. 134 » tisrsu bhūmisu. to be compared with the Impeople]. r i * for the three). T. Actions and Originations. being conditioned by the dwellingplace of ignorance and caused by the immaculate actions. in these 3 Bodies made of mind of the Arhats. Consequently. T. for janman. T. [jfcfc] J H ^ [ 217 ] ^ (the lands of the 3 vehicles). they cannot attain the ultimate Supreme Bliss as the extinction of this Spiritual Aggregate. 129) C.. they cannot attain the absolutely unchangeable 1 3 0 ) Supreme Eternity. but C. \^ • . '/l>* 2 ^ abhisarnskāra.^f jjjg . C. Here. Therefore. (om. also. Sometimes. just as. Pratyekabuddhas Bodhisattvas. &c". [It runs as follows]: " O Lord. C.. °) atyantânanyathābhāvu. . there are produced the three spheres of existence.Pv H a • G. C. Bliss i2s) f>t yid-kyi rañ-bshin-gyi phuñ-po. has instead ' dharmakāya \ 13 and See above (Note VIII-115). duhkha is mentioned (C. 133 > ŚMS 220 a. 131) 132 ^ samkleśa (T. connects atyanta to nityapāramitā. ff£* . the Dwelling-place of Ignorance is purity of Defilements [in the case of ordinary of Immaculate Action corresponds to the the 3-fold origination of the Body made Inconceivable Transformation corresponds nation1 3 2 ) . C. there are born the 3 kinds of body made of mind of the Arhats. om. they cannot remove Death as the Inconceivable Transformation. being conditioned by [4] graspings and caused by passionate actions.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a (rnanomaya-shandha)128). atyanta). regards it as an apposition to anāsravakarman. unless they realize the Essence 129> of the Tathāgata as being arisen from the entire extinction of all impurities in forms of Defilements. Pratyekabuddhas and those Bodhisattvas who have attained the [10] Controlling Powers. The performance 1 3 1 ) Impurity of Actions.

Having destroyed 1 3 8 ) the dualistic view of Ego and non-Ego. it is said1 3 5 ) : " Only the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is the Supreme Eternity. it is the cause (|S|) for the attainment of the highest purity. C. ffj£. J|_ âfc ] g # ] # 1g M flf)136) Cf. G. 139 > prativedha. AĀS 472 b. ( h a v i n g r e m o v e d ) . the Supreme Bliss. should be understood by two reasons : 1) because of the removal of false imagination of Ego by rejecting the extremity peculiar to the Heretics. 138) 137) ksaya. f § . 4) } § 3 C I B (trouble by fault or death). 3) & īft. o m . He is eternal because he has realized 1 3 9 ) The equality of the Phenomenal Life and Nirvana. as the special feature [to the Buddha] 1 4 0 ) . sāmānyalaksana & viśesalaksana. Therefore. as the common feature. treats these two verses in prose and regards them as the commentary on the quotation above mentioned. and 2) through his being perfectly pure by the removal of pollution. Both of them have one passage preceding to it. T . and the Buddha got his appellation because of his attainment of this purity. ātma-. on the 4 troubles (ff]£) corresponding to the respective impediments. as Here ' sāmānya ' means common to all living beings. the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata is pure Because of his innate purity and removal of Impressions. removal of pollution is not innate to living beings. On the other hand. He is the highest Unity because he is quiescent. The Motives of the 4 Supreme Virtues 136) Verily 137) . T . TAKASAKI and Eternity. Ā C. rtogs(-pa). [ 218 ] . too. | A | * R & Jj/T . pjfl. § 4. C. 140) usual. That is to say. o m . it is peculiar to the Buddha and shows the superiority (jffi) of the Buddha. // 38 // In short. Therefore. by two reasons there should be known the Supreme Purity in the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata.T R » r e s p e c t i v e l y . The Supreme Unity.J. T . BGŚ 799 b. namely: 1) %g| '(pśl Ifi î 2) S I SB. the Supreme Unity and the Supreme Purity " . therefore. // 37 // He is blissful because the Mind-made Aggregate And its causes have been removed [completely]. C. . and 2) because of the removal of false imagination concerning non-substantiality by rejecting »»> ŚMS 222 a (C. 1) through his being perfectly pure by nature.

For apakarsana. § 4' (The Unstable Nirvana). this view would be a Nihilistic Perception1 4 6 ) . If someone would perceive that the Nirvana is eternal. C. and 2) because of the realization of all sufferings as well as the realization of extinction of the Mind-made Aggregates142). (a negative particle is required before samāropa. In other words. which means ' t o impose' and is close to samāropa (T. C.T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a the extremity peculiar to the Śrāvakas. It would never be the true perception at all. BGS 799 C nayamukha. therefore. it would be better to consider the annihilation of duhkha and that of vāsanā as ' two reasons '. 141) 146) fa 147) ucchedadrsti 148) & śāśvatadrsti. 143) ^ in) anapakarsana & asamāropana. to annihilate duhkha means to realize that duhkha is extinguished by nature. The Supreme Bliss is to be known likewise by two reasons: 1) because of the abandonment of the origination 141) of o f all suflferings as well as the extirpation of succeeding origination Impressions. [ 219 3 . C f£C \ 4 • For this passage. Hence the reading should be nirvānâsamāropana-).e. being indiscriminative of both [the Phenomenal Life and anusandhi. O Lord. respectively. there is no duhkha in the ultimate sense. 142) Both T. [And finally] by two reasons the Supreme Eternity is to be known: 1) Because he does not fall into the Nihilistic Extremity through his not diminishing143'. Therefore. seems better. 1) shows an actual ' annihilation ' and 2). have kāya instead of skandha. tshul-gyi sgo. It is said as follows 1 4 5 ) : " If someone would perceive that all the Phenomenal Worlds are non-eternal. Logically. 2) nor does he fall into the Eternalistic Extremity through his not intensifying 1 4 4 ) the eternal Nirvana. by this introduction to the theory 1 4 8 ) of the Absolute Essence. This ' vāsanā-anusandhi ' corresponds to manomayakāya of the Saints. has hbrid-pa. snon-pa) in its sense. And it would never be the True Perception at all " . T. i. neglecting the non-eternal Phenomenal Life. T. and similarly ' duhkha ' signifies that of ordinary people. this view would be an Eternalistic Perception 147 '. T. its cause. ^V* $s|ç & sv* -tjA» respectively. shows this way of interpretation. it is said from the highest view-point that the Phenomenal Life itself is Nirvana. mtshams-sbyor-ba. (But the meaning is the same) Of these two columns. From the context. cf. 145 > ŚMS 220 a. & C. BGŚ ' / | > % 3 j | *$% & 3S§ ^W ^Si > resp. om. O Lord. because [the Bodhisattvas] realize the Unstable Nirvana (apratisîhitanirvāna). though it has some confusion on the way. C. the reading in C.

39. 152 ' prayoga. in this world. These facts seem to show that the original text was as C. 39 in its contents. T. Moreover. [At the same time].J. [At the same time]. C. have no further explanation. this apratisthitanirvāna. aparinirvānagotra and śamaîkayānagotra. the explanation will be made merely about how to attain this Unstable stability 1 5 1 ) . 153) T. and perceives the equality of both Nirvana and Phenomenal Life). for the sake of others. having activity 1 5 2 ) in this Phenomenal Life. completely. being deeply intent towards the Nirvana for his own sake.e. shi-ba bgrod-pa gcig-pahi rigs.e. 39. m ' apratislhita—pada. owing to his Great Compassion. 154) This verse seems to be a quotation even if the preceding prose commentary is genuine. This verse has a similarity to some extent with v. But C. he never abandons those suffering people. [ 220 ] . Lit. It signifies śrāvakayānika & pratyekabuddhayānika. By means of the Intellect. C. This is the means for the acquisition of the Supreme Enlightenment of which the Unstability is the essential nature. in whom the mind of Compassion towards living beings is lacking. puts one verse which explains this point: & T. therefore. om. for which two reasons ? Here. the foundation of the Highest Enlightenment. Thus these two qualities (i. the following sentences along with v. i. they are neither entirely involved among all living beings nor remote from them 1 5 0 ) . the Bodhisattva has exterminated without remainder the tendency of desire. sbyor—ba. j J t jfcfc Z l ffi A^ 'ft fy\ tfc • Of this point. but it is difficult to identify both verses. near and remote state. he does not abide in the Nirvana. in the ultimate point. (One who has non-discriminative [Wisdom] distinguishes neither Phenomenal Life nor Nirvana. Bodhisattvas may be termed as ' parinirvānagotraka '. for two reasons. Here. hence. T. he is not remote from them since he never abandons them owing to his Great Compassion. 150) āsanna-dūrl-bhāva. [So it is said] 1 5 4 > : [Though] Having destroyed affection for himself By means of the Intellect. S. (but the verse is a quotation) and that later on that verse was replaced by the following passage along with v. The term pada signifies actually nirvana. Being opposed to either of them. hence. Then. TAKASAK. 149 » ubhayathā'vikalpana.I Nirvana] 1 4 9 ) . mi—gnas-pahi gnas. the Bodhisattva is not entirely involved among all living beings because he has completely rejected all tendencies of desires by means of the Transcendental Intellect. the Intellect and Great Compassion) are the root. indeed. and parinirvāna is. he does not stay in the Phenomenal Life as the lineage of no Nirvana (aparinirvānagotra). as do those who seek only for Quiescence (śamaikayānagotra)153).

e. The Functions of the Germ for its Purification (IV) 1 5 7 ) . Now. i. the perfectly pure Germ 1 6 0 ) . as S. 158) sacet (BHS). even of those people who are fixed in the wrong way 1 6 1 ) has the two kinds 162) of foundation of its actions.The Ratnagotravibhāga The Saint. karman). with reference to the subject of ' function' which is previously maintained (in verse 35). T. (e. 159 155 > ŚMS 222 6. as samsāra and nirvana. 160) viśuddhigotra. insertion of Visarga after ni. There will be no aversion to Suffering. Nor will there be desire nor earnest wish. 6. what is shown by the latter half of that śloka ? jf 158) there is no Essence of the Buddha.' the Icchantikas are implied and this passage does not refer to the Icchantikas. ^ffc . ñe-bar gnas-par byed-de (upasthita). (T.g. // 40 // So it is said 44 159) : O Lord. Yñ î^F I n | 2 | (viśuddhi-hetu). the Essence of the Buddha.before double consonant bearing a sibilant at the head. (aniyata-sattvarāśi) and BGS agree with C. See S. The Saint approaches neither this world nor Nirvana 1 5 6 ) . T. (Cf. f)b I P .This is an apposition to buddhadhātu. Here. nihsyanda for nisyanda). See Note VIII-211. 156) samvrti (covered) and nirvrti (dis-covered) in the text. Nor prayer for Nirvana. mam-par dag-pahi rigs. That is to say. C. Pali sace. being full of Mercy. C. 1. does not approach Quiescence because of his affection for the people. since by the term ' mithyātvaniyata~ s. then there would arise neither aversion to Suffering nor desire for Nirvana. BGS. These two means of Enlightenment.) ' aniyata-' seems to be the original reading. if there were no Matrix of the Tathāgata. it produces disgust * nihśritya.• • ( t o to work). Thus standing on 1 5 5 ) both the Intellect and Mercy. T. T.. 167) Cf. pratyupasthāna. brten—nas. nor earnest wish for it or ptfayer for it ". Ypf }^r* ifE). The form nih—śri is etymologically a wrong reading for ni-śri and probably caused by actual pronunciation. 9. <\* _/£. BGŚ 799 c-800 c (4. lei) F o r mithyātvaniyata-. p. 162) cause [ 221 ] . C. in brief. // 39 // K 5.

. For prârthanā. C. T. desire. hence is the fault. dkar-po [hi] cha / (so J ' s fn. The context shows its necessity. ^ p " JJ (as S. 168) 169) cetanā cittâbhisamskāra. The perception of Phenomenal Life and Nirvana.. C. i t . Cf. ' from pāpa- [ 222 ] . C. ^5t WFC f° r sukhânuśamsa. — this perception belongs to those people who are possessed of good virtues 1 6 9 ) and exists only in case the Germ [of the Tathāgata] exists. Here anuśamsa stands for guna in the following verse and corresponds to dosa in case of samsāra. anuśamsa. de-la hdun-pa ni mñon-par hhod-paho. earnest wish and prayer for the Nirvana. and it calls forth longing. cetanā. . therefore it is the merit. term (3 amśas. {\j^ ^jj* ^ y / f T » b u t T . — The former is full of Suffering. lvi) >phe r e a d i n g should b e corrected i n t o * pāpâsamuccheddayogena samucchedayogena (ace. f o r t u n e . j g 5JC & j j | j fnj . without causes and conditions and were not brought about through the extirpation of sinm > . Thus this perception does not take place without causes or without conditions. 170) gotram antarena. & C. parimārganā is a unique form in B H S for Skt. "jj/Ç *\jf. going ahead). dkar-pohi chos. Indeed. T. has a similar sentence. i«5) This sentence is lacking in S. = C. if it were without Germ 1 7 0 ) . hence it is the fault. ' Prayer' (pranidhi) means ' will ' (cetanā) or 4 manifestation (abhisamskāra) of the mind ' 1 6 8 . The latter is of bliss. /[* | 2 ^ î p § . TAKASAKI witn Phenomenal Life basing itself upon 1 6 3 ) the perception of the fault of Suffering. ) . // 41 // The perception that Phenomenal Life is full of suffering. b u t D. tshol-ba. i S 3t§ fr (adhigama)). The rendering from T. T . P a l i sukkâmsa. Here. śuklâmśa. C. T . f l v . It exists only in case the Germ of the Buddha exists. BGS. phyogs-pa (abhimukha. is as follows: tatra cchando * bhilāsah 166) T .). together with an explanation of this Cf. * longing ' (chanda) means * expectation ' (abhilāsa)165>. T . (śukladharma). om. t o T . E3 *VPV ( kuśalamūla). t o strive t o pro167) cure). parimārgana. jjf R ^ (mukti). and that Nirvana is blissful. o m . C.jjjg f|* ft (punya). ' Earnest Wish ' (prârthanā) means ' searching for ' (parimārganā)167) the means to attain the intended object. don-du gñer-ba (to provide for. it would exist even with 163) 164) nihśrayena. C. hence it is the merit. b r i g h t l o t . But T. * Desire ' (icchā) means 4 unco war dliness ' (asamkoca)166) for the attainment of the intended object. phan-yon.J. C. basing itself upon the perception that happiness is the merit 1 6 4 ) . And does not exist with people of no Germ.

^<j£ JS\ =P Hfc TlE H*-i T ' ī=î (tasmād uktam Avatamsaka-gotrotpattau j tatah paścād . T. 3) a favourable dwelling-place. ' j ^ £ | (to practise). it is called ' JiiJ ā p fjj ' (catuskuśaladharma. is only conventional) 176) It is however said [in the Scripture] 1 7 7 ) : " After this 1 7 8 ) the rays of the disk of the sun-like Tathāgata179> 172 > dharma is here used for yāna.).. 242 c. 3) to contemplate the meaning of the doctrine. chos. to retain what is produced. according to C. as laymen. it cannot take place unless they bring about the Germ which is purified from accidental pollutions and the faith in any one of three Vehicles 1 7 2 ) through being endowed with 1 7 3 ) the 4 kinds of good actions 1 7 4 ) . BGŚ 787 c-788 c ( $ J 2^L 5}" W> H tf* #JÎE '}* =31 î f t p p W> —')» de—hi hog—tu . . 2) the accumulation of virtue. to avoid the bad quality already produced. -îjjj. . to produce good quality which has not been produced. . adds jñāna after tathāgata.). 3) |=} Spo) 1/Ç . 173 * ^ J . The latter fourfold group seems not relevant to this passage.The Ratnagotravibhāga the Icchantikas who are of the lineage of no Nirvana. which are. ) . tion of the term ' cakra '. C. ' anyatamadharma). and 4) mi-dgebahi chos ma—skyes—pa rnams mi—bskyed—pa. and its four items are 1) to approach the personage of high virtue. 177) Avat S. Cf. T . to prevent the generation of bad quality which has not yet appeared). hkhor-lo bshi (catuścakra). 2) j g ^pp TCP |fj£. The third and perhaps the most suitable one is found in the Mahāparinirvānasūtra 174) of Mahāyāna. 1) the reliance upon a saintly personage. 2) to attend and accept the teaching. and C. yañ-dag-par hbyor-ba. 4) fff 7^ ^ y r&i. (as O's note). beginning with having contact with a personage of high virtue 1 7 5 ) . ^ t (C. .. 2) skyes-pa mi-ñams-pa. ' stands for > samavadhāna. BGŚ (Z9 i f } 1= fflg (catur[ārya]cakra as T. according to O. which are 1) # 0 *?£ ft US ~T. 3) mi-dge-bahi chos skyes-pa spoñ-ba. : "•> Cf. 179j T. Really. 3 2 : Tathāgatotpattisambhava-parivarta). and 4) sublime vows and correct appreciation. and 4) to practise according to the teaching. another fourfold group in Tibetan under the name of ' catuhśukladharma (dkar—pohi chos bshi) ' or ' caturākaraśukla (dkar—po mam bshi) ' (they are namely: 1) dge-bahi chos ma skyes-pa bskyed-pa. C. catuhśukla. gañ-gi phyir.^»P H f e ' which includes monks as well where discussion is held around t h e existence of ' buddhagotra ' a m o n g various schools of B u d d h i s m . According to C. however. satpurusa. B u t a sentence closer to this q u o t a t i o n is found i n J A Ā . 616 b (in Chap. . There is. skyes-bu dam-pa. translation. 175) It ha^s an explana- T. T. 178) Tjjg reading ' yatra hy āha / tatra paścād' is somewhat doubtful.•£?. They are the 4 wheels of the great vehicle. (The saying: the Icchantikas are of no Nirvana. T . shes gsuñs—so ' (yata āha I tatah paścād . [ 223 ] . but C. but most probably for catuhśukladharma).

Therefore. Being pure by nature.J . but not forever. \ y. (ifc). p. TAKASAKI fall upon the bodies of even those people who are fixed in the wrong way and make benefits for them 1 8 0 ) . the Lord has said again 1 8 6 ) : " Though being beginningless. ' In the Mahāparinirvānasūtra. And furthermore producing the cause of future [bliss] [in them]. o m . have the possibility 185) of being purified. Just as the gold 1 8 9 ) concealed 1 9 0 ) [in sand and dust] " . It is endowed with Eternity 1 8 8 ) . T. jiv VRÇ ER mf . 13-16. C. with reference to the fact that all living beings. . to T. [ 224 ] . The meaning is that the Icchantikas remain as aparinirvānagotraka only for the certain period of time when they have hatred against the doctrine of Mahāyāna. T . ^j< ^H ^*'J iSfc • iZ^ 182 (śukladhamra). dus-gshan-la dgoñs-nas. Cf. 18 7) avasānika. T. one phrase of ' tān upakurvanti ' should be inserted. indeed. [The Phenomenal Life] has its end 1 8 7 ) . &c. ruñ-pa-ñid. 183) According to O's interpretation. 189) suvarnabimba L i t . & C. 184 185) > -dharman bhavyatā. they cause them to thrive with virtuous qualities 1 8 1 ) . 72 11. It should be noted that samsāra is not endless. / (T. as there exists the Germ which is pure by nature. C. ' t h e shape of gold '. f 4 . And also the saying : " the Icchantikas are by all means of the nature of no Perfect Nirvana " 1 8 2 ) is taught in order to remove the hatred against the Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. de- dag-la phan hdogs-par hgyur shin. C. Indeed. BGŚ 786 c: jj§ j ^ ffi£ tf* . this being the cause of their being Icchantikas and refers to a certain period of time 1 8 3 ) . with no difference. none could be of the absolutely impure nature 1 8 4 ) . This sentence a n d t h e following verse are missing in C. bsgribs ( = vrta). gser-gyi gzugs. • T . see S. Being covered from outside By the beginningless sheath [of defilements]. 180) Ace. 190) paricchādita. 186) Tjjg s o u r c e u n k n o w n . T . 188) dhruvadharma.$K. See Note VIII-242. [This nature] is however invisible. tha-ma dan Idan-pa. T . About this beginningless nature of samsāra.

// 42 // § 1. in the sense of dharmadhātu. here in the sense of ' hetu '. what is shown by the former half of this śloka ? Because it consists of the sources 1 9 4 ) of the Absolute Body. because of its nature of Being endowed with properties indivisible [from it] 1 9 3 ) . inserts ' samādhi ' (>çH. i. That is to say. See commentary. avyatireka. there is one śloka. Lvirtues. BGS 801 a (5. dhātu. sambaddha. The Union of the Germ with the Factors of its Purification. respectively. consequently he is endowed with abhijñā. ^pf . It is akin to the lantern. with reference to the meaning of 4 Union ' {yoga). Through being receptacle. e. jñāna and āsravaksaya. where ' āśrayaparivrtti ' and ' nirvana' are discussed along with this subject. a sattva is called dhātu: and just because he is dhātu. Cf. gnas. with dharmakāya. « A C. Of the Buddha's Wisdom and Compassion 1 9 5 ) . yoga). khams. D Ś 893*: JÎD * ? | ft ft. in the sense of hetu. There is shown the similarity of the Germ with the ocean. C.) between jñāna and karunā. jewels and water. 192 ' ākara. T. ^ ^ ^j£ |5l sattvas are ' dhātu' because of their being ' dharmadhātu-samgraha ' of dharmakāya. being possessed of hetu of dharmakāya. avinirbhāga). [ 225 ] . dhātu. T. And this union is an unseparable accompaniment (samanvāgama. The other is the relation of dhātu. C.The Ratnagotravibñaga (V) YOGA 191) Now. 194) 19sJ 191) »> Cf. with its properties. consisting of prajñā and karunā. the Essence of the Tathāgata has a resemblance to the great ocean in three ways. // 43 // On account of three points. (Kārikā 8) Being the inexhaustible storage 192) of jewels of immeasurable [The Germ of the Buddha is] like the Ocean. phala. and through this Under this subject of 'yoga\ two kinds of ' u n i o n ' are discussed. One is the union of dhātu. * j g ft S f f i . Here.

®: fft-W-fflfflT. B G S s a y s ' XtL H~^ 198> ^ equal to S. and 3) the cause of the manifestation of Buddha's Great Compassion {tathāgatamahākarunāvfttihetu) 198) . T .J . the practice of faith in [the Doctrine] > of the Great Vehicle has a similarity to the ' receptacle' because. 200) Great Compassion 201 . 202 ' samavasarana. has. the accompaniment 196) x. the subject ' Union' should be understood in the sense that the Essence of the Tathāgata is provided with causes [of its purification] (hetu-samanvāgama) 196) .e. The practice of the introduction to the highest Intellect and Meditation has a similarity to ' jewel ' because of its being indiscriminative and being endowed with inconceivable and powerful virtues. About ' pravrtti '. always translates i t into * hjugs ' without prefix. ' prajñāsamādhiratnakarunāvāri—samavasarana '. the practice of the introduction to the highest Intellect and Meditation. T. "$C P 9 ^P? ^ ffi< Wt ' dhātu-samgraha ' in the verse is h e r e explained b y this ' hetii—samanvāgama '. it manifests the highest moisture with the feature of one and the i. 201) T . Here. C. which are the three points ? 197) They are namely: [its being provided with] 1) the cause of purification of the Absolute Body {dharmakāyaviśuddhihetu) . Here. h a s ' dharma ' after ' mahāyāna '. This coherence (sambaddha)204) The practice of Bodbecause. h a s ' ^ f f ' (prāpti) i n s t e a d of ' vrtti '. 200) i ^ distinguishes t h e karunā of t h e B u d d h a from t h a t of t h e Bodhisattva b y using ' thugs—rje ' for t h e former a n d ' sñiñ-rje ' for t h e latter. C. in all the 202 world. T . -dah Idan-pa. hdu—ba (mixing u p ) . hisattva's Compassion has a similarity to ' water' same taste 2 0 3 ) . 41" ( = pravrtti). 2) the cause of the attainment of Buddha's Wisdom (buddhajñānasamudāgamahetu). 203) >p# reads ' its nature of the highest moisture in all the world is endowed with teM^S^C ftaSffi®:. laksana. Here prayoga has the sense of ' presentation or manifestation ' in connection with the term laksana (laksana—prayoga. C. but C. 199) Against J ' s note. and 3) ' t h e cause of the manifestation the practice of Bodhisattva's 199 ' of Buddha's Great Compassion'. 197> Against J ' s n o t e . For prayoga. there is an accumulation > of the jewel of Intellect and Meditation as well as the water of Compassion which are immeasurable and inexhaustible. C. hjug-pa. T . Then. B u t T . 1) ' the cause of purification of the Absolute Body' is to be known as the practice of faith in [the Doctrine of] the Great Vehicle. simply ' tasyām aparimeya—aksayatvāt' a n d o m . /fJEJ 4~T [ 226 ] . in this [receptacle]. ( D ) h a s ' kāya '. (D) has ' tathāgatamahākarunā (de-bshin-gśegs-pahi thugsrje chen-po). which is apparently one taste ' and om. T . which C. TAKASAKI similarity. B u t . rgyu dah Idan-pa. 2) ' t h e cause of the attainment of Buddha's Wisdom'.

2) zag-pa zad-pahi ye-śes. fll ^ vimalâśraya. 210 > 1) rddhi-visaya-jñāna-sāksātkriyā-abhijñā. $j|j ^ff (vaimalya in the verse. ' ^ b ' °f ' Hb <O » Hb /<7§ ' stands for this term and shows the meaning of ' being capable of'. which are the three points ? Namely.-s. heat and colour 208 '. " > Cf. 209) T .-a. etc.-a. and hence. ye-śes. vimalâśraya is synomynous with dharmakāya. Then. [the Essence of the Buddha is endowed with] 1) the Supernatural Faculties (abhijñā). C. ffl 'Û" • A^ ^ $jfl (absolutely inseparable). ^ 5 . and 3) the Extinction of Evil Influence (āsravaksaya)209). 4 Union ' is here to be understood in the sense that the Essence of the Tathāgata is accompanied by the results [of its purification] (phala-samanvāgama). On account of its light. Mvyut. dri-med.. 38§ "Çrî > f ° r respective term.The Ratnagotravibhāga (samanvāgama)2 0 5 ) of these three things (the Absolute Body and others).-a.. T. T. 7Î»Ç 7 0 v r (vimala-dhātu). 14. & 5) pūrvanivāsânusmrti-j. [ 227 ] . for these 3 terms are respectively: 1) mñon-par śes-pa. (āsravaksayajñāna). fp| i § ) . Now. 2) divyacaksuh -j.-a. 206) 207) C. 3) zag-pa zad-pa. i f t | . 3) divyaśrotra-j. •with these three causes. the supernatural faculties.-s. respectively. T. i f s ( = Jjîîp l i s ) . jfcW $|§ īgtf ^ 3 (jñāna in the verse. j^3). C. C. 205 > T. [-dan] hbral-pa. they have a resemblance to a lantern. In C. 2) the Wisdom by which the evil influence is destroyed.-s. is here called ' Union'. T. 4) paracetah-paryāya-j. Therefore. DAŚ 893 b (v. Cf. C. dri-med-gnas. through its similarity to a lantern in three ways on account of three points.-s. 13): #0 * • W 3& fe H j B t § S ffi #H M.. ñe-bar gnas-pa (originally from Pali paccatthāna). // 44 // The subject. Here āśraya is used for dhātu. Here. the 5 Supernatural faculties 210) have a resemblance to ' light of flame ' because they have a characteristic of engaging in 211) the extinction of darkness which is opposite to the know- §2- 204) T. -dan Idan-pa. The Union of the Germ with the Result of Purification. C. 211) pratyupasthāna. what is shown by the latter half of the śloka ? In the immaculate basis 2 0 6 ) . & C. the practice of faith. The Wisdom and Immaculateness 2 0 7 ) are inseparable from Reality.

bud-śiñ). ' \~ -=2f a p ? j ^ ' {samânvāgama ?). It is ' pure ' because it has destroyed the Obstruction on account of knowable things. . the 5 Supernatural Faculties. from light. h a s a peculiar t r a n s l a t i o n . spañs-pa. 21S C. a d d s anāsrava before abhijñā. om. not different [from each other] and coherent with 2 1 7 ) the Absolute. reads ' ftj g ft t f ^ f 1 fL ~ J i ^ 4 S tS ' (its being the body ' aśaiksa—sāntānika. o m . is o m i t t e d . T..j. The Wisdom by which the Evil Influence is destroyed is similar to * heat' because of its characteristic of engaging in consuming the fuel 213) of the Active force and Defilements. the properties of those people who have nothing further to learn 2 1 5 ) summarized in these seven. C. which a p p e a r s i n t h e case of dharmakāya (avinirmuktajñānaguna). The Extinction of Evil Influence as the [result of] the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis has resemblance to ' colour ' because of its characteristic of being perfectly stainless (vimala). just as a lantern is of indivisible nature and its qualities are inseparable from i t 2 l 9 ) . T . heat and colour. In the same way. I n s t e a d of ' sapta '. 216) prahāna. lAiiASAKI ledge which perceives an object 2 1 2 ) . c o u n t s 6 anāsravajñānas a n d prahāna s e p a r a t e l y . That is to say. taking prakrti as cittaprakrti. in brief. Here t h e word jñāna. The precious stone is also [indivisible. Cf. i. 219) avinirmukta-guna. are in the Immaculate Sphere. -JJ^ îrfi -£f . T . T. 313) 212) of innate purity. C. the example of a lantern is to be understood in detail according to the Sūtra 2 1 8 ) . which q u o t e t h e same passage. T. inseparable]. C. And with reference to this subject of 4 Union '. [ 228 ] . from its light. it is ' stainless ' because it has destroyed the 0b» struction caused by moral Defilements. the Wisdom destroying the Evil Influence and the Destruction [of Evil Influence]216). 214) T. inseparable from each other. mi—slob~pahi rgyud. the Absolute Body. they are not the innate character). Here. DAS 893 b. t h e whole p a r a g r a p h after ' esa ca yogârtham. leaving no residue. om. It is 4 radiant ' [by nature] because these two [Obstructions] are merely of an occasional nature 2 1 4 ) . C. pjfl. don ñams-su myoñ-ba. reads as ' tad-ubhaya-āgantukalā-aprakrtitah ' (glo-bur-pa-ñid-kyi rañbshin ma yin-pahi phyir-ro.e. O Śāriputra. taught by the arthânubhava. pure (viśuddha) and radiant (prabhāsvara). C. . indhana (T. these two are occasional defilements). colour and shape. jñāna. 5a£ / f ] ^ p . C. Thus. " O Śāriputra. C. [it is] indivisible [inseparable]. 217) j r o r samanvāgama. '. This point is here called 4 Union '. being āgantukatā. 218) A A N 467 a. 'J£f| TE*I • I t s t a n d s for āśrayaksaya.

the Matrix of the Buddha 222) exists among [all] living beings. also as loca- tive. — Thus it is taught by the perceivers of the Reality. and the Buddhas. The Ordinary People. [the Saints are] the perceivers of the truth. of the qualities inseparable from. it has been taught. 224) 225) mukhâvadāna. b u t regards dhātu as dharmadhātu slight difference in t h e meaning. Being opposite to them. Therefore. [ (3 ] f£C | J (in the sense of dharmamukhâvadāna). in the Prajñāpāramitā. JfjjJ. (VI) VRTTI 220) Now.e. jinagarbha = tathāgatagarbha. ' n ) » T. but C. Consequently. bden-pa mthon-ba. // 45 // What is shown by this śloka ? The Ordinary People are of erroneous conception. as usual. for the Bodhisattvas that the Essence of the Tathāgata 226) has the general charac220 > 221) different 222 * 223) Cf. it shows a [ 229 ] . ^ reads as ' tathatā-vyatirekatah ' and inserts vrtti (manifests the tathatā in way). sgo-la gdams-pa. — They are indivisible from Reality 221) . the Saints.. with reference to the meaning of there is one śloka. drstasatya = tattvadarśin (C. (6. [indivisible. C. // 46 // In connection with the introductory teaching 2 2 5 ) of the Non-discriminative Wisdom. BGŚ 805 c f.The Ratnagotravibhāga Tathāgata is of indivisible nature. in the sense ' with reference to tathāgatadhātu (^jj ^N i S V r T/« '. 2 2 3 ) And being of the perfectly 224) right conception. The Buddhas are apart from the dualistic view. as locative. Wisdom (i. T. from the Properties of the Tathāgata which are far beyond the sand of the Gañgā in number ". etc. ^ Ç yathāvat = samyak. That is to say. inseparable]. Enlightenment). vrtti). C. 226) T. (Kārikā 10) i manifestation' (vrtti).

and 4 of the perfectly right conception 230) and of no dualistic view '.e. ' I J * . Yogācārabhūmiśāstra vol. mind and perception 2315 . ' of the perfectly right conception and of no dualistic view ' is because the Perfectly Enlightened Ones have dispelled the Obstructions of moral defilement and of knowable things along with their Impressions. . I repeated the word tathatā twice in order to make the meaning clear. And perfectly pure — these are said of tathatā. 'Of the right conception ' is because the Saints. om. (VII) AVASTHÂPRABHEDA 232) Hereafter. hdu-śes. ' of the erroneous conception' is because Ordinary People have delusion on account of their conception. 8 (Taisho. Also cf. means ' tatparikalpite chandah. ī£5 . AĀS 469 c. they are ' of the erroneous conception ' (viparyasta). there are threefold different manifestations (pravrtti)228) of three kinds of people:. here samyag-aviparyasta. Cf. of the Saints who perceive the Truth and of the Tathāgata 2 2 9 ) who has attained the ultimate purity. C. C. it should be known in brief. respectively. 231) samjñā. i. other four subjects should be understood through the detailed explanation [on each subject]. TAKASAKI teristic of being Reality. In other words. has the same translation as in the case of vrtti. 227) [ 230 ] . ' different states (avasthāprabheda) ' among these three kinds of people. C. [first of all]. p. On the basis of this general characteristic. [partly] pure and [partly] impure. BGS 806 a. & C. T. there is one śloka. T. means ' abhilasitakleśasya kriyā '. the Suchness227) of all the elements. 314 6): 1) samjñāviparyasta means ' anitye vastuni nitya-parikalpa-pravrttih. In this translation. with reference to this subject of ' manifestation '. the perfect purity. Here. 232 > Cf. of the Ordinary People who do not perceive the Truth. with reference to the subject. XXX.J . and 3) citta-v. drsli. (Kārikā 10) Impure. [And lastly]. BGŚ 806 a. respectively. 229) C. sems. adds dharmakāya after tathāgata. Here. have destroyed the delusion. ' of the right conception ' (aviparyasta). abhilāsah. T. 228) _ Vrtti. Ita-ba. citta. ^ . 2) drsti-v. . 230) G. being opposite to them. T.

1) in the ' impure ' (aśuddha) state [the Essence of the Buddha is named) ' the Ordinary Beings ' (sattvadhātu)239). T. ^ $$. taught by the Lord in detail through various divisions of Scripture 2 3 7 ) is hitherto briefly summarized by six subjects. As for the six padârthas. 239) 2 37 ) C. That is to say. the Bodhisattva. namely. // 48 // Any teaching referring to the immaculate Essence [of the Buddha] 2 3 6 ) . whereas the remaining four subjects are peculiar to the tathāgatadhātu. when it is covered with the limitless 2 4 1 ) sheath of defilements. C. vrtti See note VIII-8. And the Tathāgata. koti (-gūdha). as forming sub-divisions of the sixth category. For dhātu. C. C. 238 ' It shows us that the 6 subjects mentioned above are the fundamental categories by which any kind of teaching can be summarized. and 3) in the ' perfectly pure ' (suviśuddha).. T. ' result ' [of purification]. respectively 234) . f£C 1 J (mukhesu = dvārena). " O Śāriputra. see Appendix. j^K f E • Here sattvadhātu stands for prthagjana. ' own nature '. 'union' [with the cause and result]. this Absolute Body. being carried by the stream of 2 3 p o r ārya in the previous Kārikā. 241) aparyanta.The Ratnagotravibhāga The Ordinary beings. the Bodhisattvas 2 3 3 ) . ^jfī *]§. Is. A Ā S 469 c. V £ |£E. 236) nānādharmaparyāyamukhesu.. in accordance with its 3 states. bye-ba mthah-yas-pas (gtums-pa). ' function ' [towards purification]. Cf. 240) A A N 467 b. C. 2) in the ' [partly] pure and [partly] impure' (aśuddhasuddha) state. the Tathāgata.'tM & ft§ H • • • [0T IK][ 231 ] . ? £ ft f § • anāsravadhātu. beginning with ' own nature '. Ife * # # gl ft ft fit * P 235 » For dhātu. // 47 // What is shown by this śloka ? The Essence [of the Buddha] 2 3 5 ) . ' cause' [of purification]. Here it is specified that ārya is par excellence 3) the Bodhisattvas. (koti is regarded as a unit of number). respectively. Designated by 3 different names. This very Essence of the Buddha is here to be known as being taught through the teaching of 3 different names in accordance with its 3 states. khams. [hitherto briefly explained] By these six subjects. III. and 'manifestation' 2 3 8 '. It has been said by the Lord2 4 0 ) .

. when. 243) ' pranidhi\ ' bala\ and 'jñāna' are counted under this. -JftÇ iSr 'flf (there is nobody superior to him). gñis-su med—pahi skyes—buhi mthu.J. 218) (Cf. r e p r e s e n t e d b y or s u m m a r i z e d i n [ t h e 10 p ā r a m i t ā s ] . ip*. 144. ascending to the stage to be looked upon 2 4 7 ) by all living beings. on'— anu. however. p. 245 » dharmaskandha. C. This same Absolute Body. C. having been perfectly released from all the sheaths of defilements. a prefix of intensitive sense). but from the literal meaning of its Sanskritized form ' anavarâgra '. C. (viz. and. ^ j ^ fft ^ VÎ. ABORI. It is used in nearly the same sense as dharmaparyāya or dharmapitaka. 151. C. ' upāya '. having rejected all stains of subsequent defilements. fj\ H&. 247) 24S ālokanîya. T. doing the practice towards Enlightenment by means of the 10 243) 244) Supreme Virtues as including and representing all of the 84 245) thousands groups of Doctrines . C. Bap at. etc. pūrvakotir na prajñāyata iti II {Prasannapadā. T. P. 193: III. pūrvā prajñāyate kotir nety vāca mahāmunih j samsāro'navarâgro hi nâsyâdir nâpi paścimam j / (MK XI. (an'-amata-agga. . blta-bar bya-ba. As an epithet to samsāra. T.). Here I suppose that the term anamatagga had originally the sense ' pūrvā kotir na prajñāyate '.The number of group is usually counted as 84 thousand. samsaratām . a new interpretation of ' nadir nâpi paścimam ' was added to its meaning. . ^ £ P ^ (= ffi H e . O Śāriputra. antargata. O Sāriputra. chos-kyi phuñ-po. having surpassed all the Sufferings. *j]q£. sattvānām . it has become pure. V. this term was interpreted in two ways. C. V Î S b . 244) daśapāramitāh. We have a good example in Candrakīrti's Prasannapadā. Besides the 6 pāramitās taught in the Prajñāpāramitā. XXXV. * advitīyam paurusam sthāma. perfectly pure. . it has its origin in Pali anamatagga. In Sanskrit sources. has attained the unexcelled. has retained the original sense of this term. vol. 1) uktam hi Bhagavatā j Anavarâgro hi. T. abiding in the Absolute Essence which is the highest point of purity 2 4 6 ) . jātijarāmaranasamsāra iti j avidyā—nivaranānām . which seems to mean ' whose beginning is unknown '. when it has become averse to the Suffering in the stream of Phenomenal Life and become free from all the objects of desire. thog-ma dañ tha-ma med-pa (of neither bottom nor top. this very Absolute Body. manly strength 2 4 8 ) among all 2121 anavarâgra. [ 232 ] . p. Review of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary. On the contrary. . . it is called 'the Bodhisattva'. 246 > paramaviśuddhadharmatā. is called 4 the [ordinary] living beings '. TAKASAKI the Phenomenal Life and moving to and fro between death and birth in the course of the beginningless 2 4 2 ) Phenomenal Life. l i t . Furthermore. bhiksavo. 178. translation shows this sense. without beginning nor end). 234-5). By Sanskrit^ zation. T. 3s*Ç 5 o ^N (°f beginningless time). Poussin. SN II. anamata was changed into anavara (reason unknown) and regarded as the compound of ' an-avara-agra '.

the Perfectly Enlightened One " . (Kārikā 11) Just as being of indiscriminative nature. rañ-bshin dri-med T. which is of no obstruction 249 ' and of no hindrance. gñes-pa. whether clay. Either inferior. sgrib-pa med-pahi chos-can. [ 233 ] . it is all-per249) 260) 254) anāvarana-dharma. as in the Kārikā. C. T. of the Saints and of the Buddhas has a common feature in these three states. C. guna. Similarly all-pervading is the Essence. T. The immaculate nature of the mind 2 5 1 ) . and has attained the Controlling Power on all separate elements.T h e R a cn a g o t r a v i b h ā g a knowable spheres. T. the Arhat. respectively. Space pervades everywhere. 2B1) dbyiñs. mthar-thug. sems-kyi "u)j P-Ip. sarvatraga). Of these three. nisthā is replaced by ' gunaviśuddhinisthā ' in the commentary. irrespective of their being defective. BHS Die. C. s. // 49 // What is shown by this Śloka ? It pervades with common feature The defective. With reference to this meaning. T. £j} jî@ . T. viz. JEJ |_E TRÇ ^ 3 " LJ* (prakrti—vaimolya—citta). (VIII) SARVATRAGA 2 0 5) The Essence of the Tathāgata is ' all-pervading (sarvatraga) ' in these three states. v. middle. see next (IX) Avikāra. silver or gold. 253) rūpagata ( = rūpa). ^ | 5 J ^ . Therefore. virtuous or the ultimate point of pure virtue. JHQ . then it is called the Tathāgata. the virtuous and the ultimate 2 5 2 ) . Just as space occupies all the visible forms 2 5 3 ) . just as space penetrates all the receptacles regardless of material. § ft î H ^ p 'l>. or superior.. C. 264) C. 252) dosa. gzugs-. yon-tan. T. C. cittaprakrti-vaimalyadhātu. AÂS 469 c-470 a. f*^ . nisthā. // 50 // That which is the indiscriminative Innate Mind (cittaprakrti) of the ordinary people. there is one śloka. BGŚ 806 b (8. pijfl: Cf.

connecting nirviśistā with this phrase. ^fc fjf (impurity and purity). sthiti. (IX) AVIKĀRA 257) Now.. BGS 806 c (9. rçç. 259) pindârtha.^ ^ . For dharmatā. P)fy B/£ . These two are non-dual by meaning. For this reason. which are shown by the [first] 12 ślokas and by the [next] one śloka. T. it has been said in the same scripture 2 5 6 ) . It is. 256 > AAN 467 b. the [ordinary] living beings and the Absolute Body are not different from each other. J f f^ | § . respective255) prāptā sarvakālam. Furthermore it adds the 9 illustrations on kleśa there.J. pravrtti. T. pūrva-paryanta. 258) samkleśa-vyavadāna. 25 7) Cf. is. [ 234 ] . equal. and bhañga. the summarized meaning 2 5 9 ) of these ślokas is to be known by the following verse: Being possessed of faults by occasion.We cannot. and different merely by letters " . TAKASAKI vading. immediately after the explanation of different states: " Therefore. the Essence of the Tathāgata. jāti. BGŚ ^ g . being all-pervading in these three states. samkleśa-vyavadāna. bsdus—has-pahi don. it treats ' avikāritva ' from 6 points. unchangeable (avikāra) either by Impurity or through puiification 258) . C. [Prior to the explanation of these ślokas]. all-embracing. 260 > The same vexse appears in BGŚ 806 c: ^ ||| ^ {|| ffi ^f § ft f^ Ā£ #H J 5 ^fe SP IB J § 3S£ 18 JH ffl • It is regarded in BGŚ as a verse from the Sandhinirmocanasūtra ( ^ n 1 ^ @ ^ ® ^ ? ^ ^ t S l S P Î f f i S f l l W). find out any similar verse in the present texts of the Sandhinirmocana. C. 0 Śāriputra. The living beings are nothing but the Absolute Body. With reference to this subject. C. which is quoted in BGŚ (806 b) with a heading ' ]£\\ vRv _Ll YI\ nixi ī=l ' ( a s n a s been said in the Anuttarâśrayasūtra). has ' dus tham—cad—du khyad—par med—par gyur—pa '. ' ' "tj/J ftf ^ . // 51 // In the impure state as well as in the pure and impure state. there are 14 ślokas. however. moreover. C. A quite equivalent passage is found in AÂS (469 c). viz. endowed with virtues by nature. Therefore it is of unchangeable character In the beginning as well as afterwards 2 6 0 ) . and the Absolute Body is nothing but the living beings. Avikāra) Under this subject. however. of no difference and is present always 2 5 5 ) .

This is a special adjective to buddhadharma or -guna. who. [On the contrary]. shown by the 14th śloka. treats this passage in verse. with reference to the subject of ' unchangeability ' [of the Essence of the Tathāgata] in the Impure State. seem to support the reading in loc. Gokhale. as far as the independent use of ' ayam ' is concerned. amuktajñu (BHS. XIII. suggested the reading ' sattvas ' instead of sattve. 32 in the Bhagavadgltā. being the subject noun for ' ayam '. Yamaguchi. indicating the identification of this verse with v.e. Kyoto. what is said in 12 ślokas ? (Kārikās 12-23) Just as space. inconceivable and far greater in number than the sands of Gangā. S. reads the second line as ' sarvasattvesv avasthitas tatha'yam ndpalipyate / Here ' sattva' seems to be used in a collective sense. bodhi. where enam is also used independently. being all-pervading. [the Essence of the Tathāgata] is possessed of faults caused by fundamental and subsequent defilements ' by occasion '. j t #P tt . (So C.). Cannot be polluted because of its subtle nature. Similarly. is of absolutely unchangeable character throughout different states 2 6 4 ) . 90—91). showing inseparability of guna from buddhajñāna. & C. abiding everywhere among living beings 2 6 5 ) . Therefore it is explained that the Essence of the Tathāgata 2 6 3 ) . pp. 265) A doubt about the reading ' sattve ' in the text (for satvo in Ms. C. B) is raised by Prof. T. C. in the perfectly pure state. T. 55 & 76). A similar case is found in v. {A Note on Ratnagotravibhāga I. since this verse is in a series of Kārikās and ayam denotes ' cittaprakrtivaimalyadhātu ' in v. 1955. V. However. ' -M^ /JJu ' (unreleased) does not exactly convey its meaning. 52 = Bhagavadgltā XIII 32. also ' y)p j f £ ' ) . 49. It should be ' ye—śes dan ma bral—ba '. but T. (A) Unchangeability in the Impure State First of all. pp. 263 262) > For dhātu. V. Presented in Honour of Prof. i. denoting the same subject of cittapraknivaimalyadhātu (C. Therefore. adj. This is an abbreviated form of ' avinirmuktajñāna ' which occurred in a quotation from AAN (S. Studies in Indology and Buddhology. buddhadhātu). 3 & 39) and its first use is probably in SMS (see quotations from SMS in S. there seems to be no problem. inseparable from Wisdom 2 6 2 ) . This [Essence265*] remains unpolluted [by defilements]. like space.guna. 261 // 52 // ' dharma —•.The Ratnagotravibhāga ly. it is 4 essentially ' endowed with the Buddha's virtues 261> which are indivisible [from the Absolute Body]. translates ayam into ' j^p '(££ '. the same as sattvadhātu- 264) [ 235 ] . See Note 1—23. bral mi—śes or C. pp. 54.

( = anāsravadhātu). hdus ma-byas dbyiñs. •»)Cf. ^ C. ^Ei * resp. jfj^f .. however. no support Neither in air. prakrti. all the Phenomenal world is indicated. ayoniśomanasikāra. Similarly. // 54 // The earth is supported by water. 61). 8 3 a (v. It seems to indicate cittaprakrti (see v. nor in water. The innate mind has. The sense-organs appear and disappear 2 6 7 ) . Water by air. C.# £n H ft A ^ $3 M Â S in Jb 9 272) skandha-dhātv-indriya — skandhâyatanadhâtavah (vv.^ A ) . And the Active Force and Defilements exist always On the basis of the Irrational Thought 2 7 3 ) .^ IE iâî cittaviśuddhi — cittaprakrti. TAKASAKI Just as the worlds have everywhere Their origination and destruction in space. lE S 'I"S. of illness and decrepitude 2 6 9 ) Cannot consume 2 7 0 ) this [Essence of the Buddha] 271». rga-ba.J. ii). Likewise the fires of death. ^ 274) # S 'fft.DAŚ893«(v. however. // 56 // The Irrational Thought is founded In the [innate] mind which is pure2 7 4 ) . mrtyu. nor in the earth. 58.^ f H ( 1 ^ . C. T. C. 57). l j > . phuñ-po [dañ] kham [dañ] dbaû [-po] ( = skye-mched). By these. T. hchi-ba. By the fire [at the end of the world]. jarā: T. on the basis of the Innate Essence 2 6 6 ) . Vpf ÎT [ 236 ] . . Grammatically the form should be ' pradahanti ' instead of ' pradahati*. // 57 // All the component elements of Phenomenal Life 266) asamskrta-dhātu. Space has.l2):in— 268) 269) S70) -eJffrH dagdha-pūrva. 273) ayonimanaskāra = ayoniśomanaskāra. cittasya prakni. tshul-bshin ma-yin yid[-la] byed[-pa]: C. na-ba. // 53 // Just as space has never been burnt 2 6 8 ) . no support In any [of the worldly] phenomena. PH . T. y Q . vyādhi. // 55 // Similarly all the component elements [of Phenomenal Life] 272) Have their foundation in the Active Force and Defilements. and air by space.

Nor even stability [between two points]. gnas. shows negative sense: ' ñon—moñs mi-hgyur '. JJX. ālīna (ā lī) (c. C. 1. Which are of accident and produced by wrong conception 2 8 1 ) . Originated from the water-like Active Force and Defilements. vivartasthāyin (tī£)> samvarta (JiPI). // 60 // All the component elements of Phenomenal Life. // 58 // The Irrational Thought is known As having resemblance to air. // 63 // 275 > For ' tad '.The Ratnagotravibhāga Are known as akin to the earth. a circle of world process. T. The 4 are namely: vivarta (/PC). ace). ^ 0 'Û* • 280 ' T. T.. 12. *£? fjH iVfff But C. The Innate Mind is like space. It bears. M L ^ 5) Jv\ • It stands for ayoniśomanasikāra. and for vivarta ( = vividham vartate). p. hjig-pa. . Being of no cause or condition. The Active Force and Defilements are produced. like space. C. tshogs-pa. Being of no root and of no support 2 7 5 ) . fl\ . T. ' ayoniśo manasah krtih = ayoniścmanasikāra. however. By the Irrational Action of mind. It has neither origination nor destruction. See Note VIII-305. empty). and samvartasthāyin (£??. T. And the Active Force and Defilements of living beings Are known as akin to water. See S. For samvarta. T. has no transformation at all. (-TrT H& Al^ Negative interpretation of T. This word reminds us of ālayavijñāna. abhūtakalpa. devolution and evolution). tat-samvarta-vivartavat (lit. four periods within one Kalpa. as S. There occurs the irrational action of mind 2 7 7 ) . hchags-pa. has ' de-bshin ' (ladvat). // 59 // Abiding in 2 7 6 ) the Innate Mind. // 61 // The Innate Mind is like space. 281) [ 237 ] . // 62 // The innate nature of the mind is brilliant And. . 279) sāmagrî. j ^ | . etc. T. C. with respect to pollution by āgantukakleśa seems to be the usual way in Tibetan tradition. Or complex [of producing factors] 2 7 9 ) . C. These are two of 276) 277 278> C. Just as [the world repeats its] evolution and devolution 2 7 8 ) . Show their appearance and disappearance [repeatedly]. 3 (vikalpa = ayoniśomanasikāra). the impurity 2 8 0 ) by stains of desires. yañ-dag min rtogs.

By this analogy of space. has other two verses before v. And. run as follows: 283 282 i)*īESt8S ttitfiCtii*. hjig-par byed-pa. C. tshogs. C. 64 as a quotation is not reasonable. as J suggested. 18 component elements or 12 bases of cognition which is founded on t h e accumulation of air-like Irrational Thought and water-like Active Force and Defilements 2 8 9 ) . T. C. however. 286 287) 288) 289 skandha. accumulation). which is. T. how is the unchangeable character of the 282) Essence of the Tathāgata in the impure state explained ? I t is said 283) as follows : The accumulation of water-like Active Force and Defilements 284) Cannot produce this space-like [Innate Mind]. #fl ^R ft • ' C. // 64 // The origination of t h e world classified into [5] elementary groups. 288) of illness and decrepitude arises in order to destroy the world classified into five elementary groups. rluñ-gi dkyir-hkhor. Two verses in C. since this text puts always a certain number of commentary verses after original Kārikā or Kārikās. regards the first sentence in the commentary as the explanation of the first verse. [18] component elements or [12] bases of cognition is conditioned by the accumulation of water-like Active Force and Defilements. 64. jEfc ( = nirodha). of illness and old age Cannot consume [this Innate Mind]. ) vāta—mandala. 284) 285 abhinivartayati.( | j | ft S . ( = samcaya.J. F o r ' vivarto na bhavati '. /5Î\ îpj|j} . But this origination 286) of t h e world never causes the evolution of t h e Innate Mind which has 287) a resemblance to space. inserts ' ft ' (samskāra) after karma. seem to have a lacuna of two verses here. rāśi. C. C. to have failed to catch the contrast between vivarta and samvarta by treating ayoniśomanasikāra and kleśakarma as something of destructive force. [ 238 ] > C. Bñ'^'AQ 'S&fâ. 285) based upon wind-circle of Irrational Thought. And even the growing fires of death. In the same way. Unoriginated Character of the Innate Mind. the term ayoniśomanasikāra is required by the prose commentary and also there might be terms such as loka or skandhāyatanadhātavah in verses. ' Y$~^ >i9fy ' is p r o b a b l y a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . om. & T. a group of fires of death. From the context in the following commentary. ^\* ^ p sY* j r H . f S 7fc). both S. C. astamgama. T. sñiñ-po. But even by this ari> For dhātu. > vivarta = abhinirvarta. J's further suggestion of v. in its turn. and the next sentence as that of the next two. TAKASAKI § 1. T . seems. C.— fe C.

hgrib-pa med-pa). T. C. jj$j ~f" ( ^ ^ "J"). «) vipaśyanā. immovable. chos snañ-bahi sgo. [ 239 ] . f2^ I J» ' dharmâloka' would mean ' dharma as āloka '. 292) Against C. neither increasing nor diminishing 299 '. C. in its turn. C. and ' chavi' here seems to mean 'coloured' or 'dark-coloured' ( = krsnacchavi or black-cloud?). 299) anupacayo '•napacayo. 5»8î H S ( — mārsa. But space. ( = tamas). ^jjj |U" | 0 j (opp. but the Innate Mind is indiscriminative. drañ-sroñ-chen. water or air. mrsa?). from mūla ' to ' parikalpāh kleśāh '. p. T. It is also firm. ^ & ^ $ 1 PO J § A (Taisho. Defilements are of wrong discrimination. Defilements are the darkness . C. earth. of no origination and destruction. T . C. O Honourable Men. attribution. and air is founded on space. But. among these four gross elements. C. dharmâlokamukha. T. 643 b-c). Defilements are of weak power but the 296) correct intuition is powerful. mun-pa JSSL 3 C . ft ^ ^ $ R (usually. ^C M ~X J ^ ^ 293) 294) IK # K ffi PPI M. etc. XIII. translated. = maharsi C. like space. f Defilements. j R ) . XIII. / / P 1 p (neither composing nor scattering himself). neither originated nor dest293) 294) 290) 291) bhājanaloka. rañ—bshin—gyis rnam—par dag—pa ni rsta-baho. the Pure 295) [Mind] is the light. in the impure state. In contrast with ' āloka'. Ihag-mthoñ. And this example of space which refers to the introduction to the light 291) of doctrine on the Innate Purity [of the mind] is to be understood in 292) detail according to the Scripture : " O Honourable Men. it should be known that the Innate Mind Thus. ( = prakrtiviśuddham mūlam).. 124 c). translation is better. A^* fjpt. this quotation is from the Gaganagañjā-pariprcchā as O found. 298) T h e reading ' ball yo ' i n t h e t e x t should b e corrected into ' ballyo ' (comparative degree). Therefore. Thus. Cf.of the fires of death. ' prakrti ' here stands for cittaprakrti. 297 ' mūlaviśuddhā prakrtih. 297) but the Innate Mind is of a pure root . T. C.The Ratnagotravibhāga :na. o m . • . T . snod-kyi hjig-rten. the Innate Essence of the Tathāis. vol. though all the Impurity a nnot be destroyed. kavi (probably chavi is t h e b e t t e r reading). and hence dharmâlokamukha means dharmamukha as C. space is more powerful 298 ' than any of the other three elements. has no foundation. *^ prakrti. it is explait a ned as being absolutely of unchangeable character. ' anupacaya' (for anapacaya. 8 (Taisho. Water is supported by air. For example. Jit jftj 28 ft. to sattvaloka). T. of Active Force and Birth show their appearance and dis290) ppearance like the material world . T. om. ^ j | § § ? Ñ. this great earth has its foundation in water. Defilements are merely accidental.

p. nature). shifts*. in the Mahāprajñāpâramitāśāstra (yK. 697 b). H Z3C pîflî) attributed to Nāgārjuna. The Active Force and Defilements are founded on the Irrational Thought and the latter has its support in the Innate Pure Mind. om. **£*#»!rest. C. . See also ^ ^ ] }$J W % j i g Wft{Śāriputrâbhidharmaśāstra ?) (Taisho. C. adds anitya and nitya after vikāra and avikāra. p. 204 a). being polluted by accidental defilements. or 12 bases of cognition have their support in the Active Force and Defilements. But it seems that not all the Buddhist schools accepted it. mentions it as an opinion of the Vibhajya3fl3) vādin (#• g\\ m. C. 9-10. saying: y/X. interpretation has no foundation in the sūtras as far as its literal sense is concerned. [but it]is polluted by the occasional defilements 3 0 5 ) " . [On the contrary]. > acirasthāyin. IV. it is said: the Mind is radiant by nature. Ñ. the Irrational Thought. C. but we have an example of the same interpretation as T. * #1 'l> tt M W. p. all the component elements [of the Phenomenal Life classified into] 5 elementary groups. unstable 301) and of no long duration3 0 2 \ It will be perceived that these three gross elements are changeable. the Active 300) 301 302 svarasa-yogena. Q f£^ . 18 component elements. and the style looks as the commentator's own explanation. saying:!! . these three gross elements [other than space] are possessed of origination and destruction. yun riñ-du mi-gnas-pa. ^S^SJHISBfSfe (Taisho. 140 b). It is clear that T. M ft JS'l tñ # . it is continued as follows 306) : "Now. 1-2). (Someone. S there o [ 240 ] . but. 3os) ip# «na klisyate ' (ñon ma moñs-paho). T. (Most probably for arranging the style of the Chinese sentence). rañ-gi hañ-gis. the Skt. the quotation seems still to be continuing. T.J. flttt'fr+ewîP. 5. ^IJ Jj\) ^\* pE • C. all these phenomena. from the context and C. After this passage. 306 The reading ' tatra paścād ' is somewhat doubtful.g. Therefore. (rasa = dharmatā. its feature is impure) (Taisho. AN I. mi—gnas—pa. namely whether or not cittaprakrti can be polluted. like the Vibhajyavādin. They say that the mind is pure by nature. XXVIII. where this theory is attributed to the Vātsīputrīya.q£ } U* seem to be two ways of interpretation with respect to ' pollution '. * anavasihita. The Mahāvibhāsāśāstra of Sarvāstivādin. XXV. 304 ' Hereafter. XVIIX. " In a similar manner 3 0 4 ) . has the opinion of viśuddhi cittaprakrti. has simply de-la (tatra). This sermon has its origin in Pali canon (e. JJJÇ f3£ *|§]§? pfc ( = abhūtadharmā ?). but space is by no means changeable 3 0 3 ) . text has no vocative case (mārsāh). respectively. which mentions * mārsāh ' or ' kulaputrā' between sentences. who did not accept this cittaprakrti theory. TAKASAKI royed and is stable with its own essence 3 0 0 ) . T. SP>. the whole. T. But.

the Innate Mind is of no cause nor condition. jflZ.The Ratnagotravibhāga Force and Defilements. § 2. illness and decrepitude to 309) the gross element of fire as being the cause of the annihilation of Life 3l0) and on account of their characteristic of being ' infection ' . T . We have not. the Irrational Thought is like air. So. On the contrary. 310) [ 241 ] . discussed the similarity of the fires of death. respectively. T . on account of their characteristic of ' cause' (hetu). / ^ Q ( a n analogical t r a n s l a t i o n ) . the fire at the end of the world. t o Ms. We have already explained that in the impure state the Innate Mind has a resemblance to space on account of its i unchangeable ' (avikāra) characteristic. rtsa- ba yoñs-su chad-pa. ) . of no root " . the Innate Mind is like space. in its turn. it has no complex [of cause and condition] and hence there is neither origination nor destruction of it. it is said:—. Consequently. T. have a resemblance to the earth on account of their characteristic o f fruit ' (vipāka). Therefore. all phenomena are completely devoid of any root 3 0 8 ) and based upon an unreal and unstable foundation. C. ' vipāka' a n d ' upasarga '. • mūlaparicchinna (which is t o b e inserted ace. Indestructible Character of the Innate Mind. have a resemblance to air and water. as well as T . 3*Et nL> ( c a l a m i t y ) . ^ 78v T P C • ' T ^ • T h e whole saying is as follows: sarvadharmā mālaparicchinnā asāramūlā apratisthānamūlāh śuddhamûlā amūlamūlā iti Cf. however. . being produced from the former two. Here. B . When these causes and conditions lose their complexity 307) they are immediately extinguished. C. a n d all of these stand for the counterpart of ' avikāritva ' of cittaprakrti or tathāgatadhātu. hjig-pa. tcçk. on this point it is said as follows: The three fires. and [lastly] all of the Component Elements of Phenomenal Life. mgohi nad. [because they are of unreal nature. C. but at the same time] they are founded on a pure [essence] which is. T . 309) vibhava. the Irrational Thought and the Active Force and Defilements. 307 308) ) visāmagrî (losing complexity). upasarga. being founded on the Innate Mind. and all of the component elements of the Phenomenal Life are originated by the complex of their causes and conditions. T h r e e aspects of ' vikāra ' i n t h e P h e n o m e n a l W o r l d a r e n a m e d here ' hetu '. AAS 496 b. [dañ] bral. the Active Force and Defilements are like water and all of the component elements of the Phenomenal Life are akin to earth. C.

p. W. T. which means the readiness for the next birth. the sense ' usage' is attached to the term vyavahāra. . C. hgags-pa (— nirodha). 235. 38 'kāranā' 1. lokavyavahāra. origination of new sense organs. The saying something is dead'. C. nirmamī-karana (cause to destroy something conceived as ' mine'). T. PTS Die. O Lord. T. 315) Ś M Ś 222 6. [$£] I t | $ [ R f 8 ] . as the sanskritized form of Pali vohāra. [. C.). A Review of Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary. and 3) [old age] leads the Active Forces to their ripening Even by these fires. 0 316) . we can easily find out the sense. hjig-rten-gyi tha-sñad. T. Cf. om. Lord. 312) 313) 311) vicitra-kāranânubhavana. Prof. and mixing both.J. bdag-gi-ba med-par byed-pa (bdag-gi-ba stands for mamatva). vyāhāra (speech) and vyavahāra (behaviour). that of death. something is dead. being delivered from Pali kārana. the Essence of the Tathāgata in its impure state cannot be changed at all. f t • 318) [ 242 ] . The similarity of death. to destruction ments 3l3) 312) [Which are the three reasons ? the 6 [internal] bases of They are cognition 314 namely]: 1) because [death] leads . C. 'kārana'. Scripture] 315) With reference to this point. sdug-bsñal sna-tshogs myoñ-bar byed-pa. have ' duhkha '. repetition of life in samsāra. 3 b 1 P 'ffi i"M c f • For kāranā. ^ | . prādurbhāva. & C. BHS Die. However. has two senses. y\. V. in the sense to make punishment. to make pain on somebody by torment \ Cf. respectively. (M. thob-pa ( = prāpti). ' to feel pain as a result of experiencing torment. 317) 318) i this means the destruction of sense organs. this phrase and regards the other two as part of a verse. C. I I . prākrta. p. 2) [illness] makes sufferings of various kinds of tor'. vyavahāra. 178. translation shows this meaning. 'punishment'. T. for three reasons.yv] (fire made by human being). and is often used along with kr. has a sense of 'torture' or 'torment'. the Matrix of the Tathāgata is never born. tha-mal-ba. Here in connection with anu-bhū. ABORI. This vyavahāra is also used as a synonym of ' samvrti' in connection with ' satya \ C. The word kāranā (f. 317) 316) 314 uparodha. T. gives the meaning * pain '. Something is born 0 Lord. it is said [in the : " 0 Lord. Bapat. something is born. C. illness and old age to fire should be known. such sayings are merely a worldly usage means. XXXV. never decays. which is picked up from Daśakumālacarita). T. of sickness and old age. TAKASAK1 The fire of hell and the ordinary 311 ' fire. ' samskāra-paripāka. P. // 65 // These are to be known respectively as the analogy For three fires.

C. T . because of the rising of Compassions towards the world. /J> •? -^R _l£ v$C (assume the existence of origi»& nation and destruction). p. T. The Bodhisattvas have no calamity 3 2 2 ) of birth and so forth. is eternal. constant. T. 68). T. See BHS Die. take place. to move from one place (life) to another place (life). O Lord. v . for that reason. The Pure Character and Impure Character of the Bodhisattva. de~yi rgyus for tan-nidānam. i n s t e a d of ' vimuktā \ should b e a d o p t e d . So C. ji-bshin—ñid. regarding this term as an adverbial use. What is shown by this śloka ? The sufferings of death. hpho-ba. (B) Unchangeability in the Pure and Impure State Now there conies one śloka referring to the meaning of Unchangeability ' in the pure and impure state [of Bodhisattvas].The K a t n a g o t r a v i D û a g a never deceases. has ' fj£ y j j ' for janmâdivyasana. C. nidāna seems to mean the existence (bhava) on which janman. tan-nidānam . to C. enam = cittaprakrtim). Ace. illness and decrepitude cyavate ( < cyu). 320 ' ananyathā. I . Cf. never passes away 319) or arises [again]. the Matrix of the Tathāgata. r e a d i n g is n o t clear. 2§^ (to change. however. quiescent and everlasting " . 295 (under ' nidāna ' ) : tan-nidānam. C. Still. 323) [ 243 ] 17 . . 322) 319) vyasana. 3UJ 13^ • ananyatha'vagamya = yathābhūtasya darśanāt (v. . 54 (na pradahanty enam mrtyuvyādijarāgnayah. They assume the cause of calamities 3 2 3 ) . S. etc. T. For what reasons ? Because. (Kārikā 24) Having truly 3 2 0 ) realized the Innate Mind As being released 3 2 1 ) from birth and death As well as from illness and decrepitude. bhajante. being beyond the sphere characterized as being caused and conditioned. phoñs[-pa]. // 66 // § 1. C. 321) jijjg r e a ( i i n g « -vimuktām '.

331) fjjg form samnihśraya for samniśraya is notable. death. Bodhisattvas attach themselves 330) to the Phenomenal World consisting of three spheres. . 332) samcintya 333 ' yathāpi is omitted in T. » dhātu. Jpf # 0 ft f 4 • [ 244 ] . the Active Force and Defilements. ñe-bar len-pa. C. they have truly perceived that the Essence [of the Buddha] 3 3 4 ) is of no birth and of no origination 3 3 5 '.). jJg. om. khams. f f c ' I j * . basing themselves upon 3 3 1 ) the power of origination by their will 332) . in the impure state. of course. ' anābhāsa—gamana. 334 335) I n s tead of ajāty-anutpatti. ^ . decrepitude and illness. bsams-bshin-du. 325 They. C. hdas gyur. just as the fuel [is the causa materialis of ordinary fires]. (References to the Scriptures) 324 325 ' upādāna. T . C. C. ^fC ( = pūrvika). 1AK. adds srid-pa (bhava) before samyojana. illness and decrepitude is the Birth based upon the Irrational Thought. // 68 // Indeed. being full of mercy. make appearance Of birth.ASAKI Are destroyed by the Saints to the root. kun-tu sbyor-ba. 329) 3301 kuśala-mūla. T. C. T.J.. because of their contact 3 2 8 ) with the virtuous root 3 2 9 ) . C. There is a birth by the power of Active Force and Defilements. dge-bahi rtsa-ba. of old age. 7jC v$L «tfg • vinivrtta T . C. Still. snañ—bar med—par gyur—pa. (ind. T. C. of illness and of death. Though they have got rid of327) birth. In the pure and impure state. among them. T. As there is no birth [of such a kind] The saints have no root [of defilements]. Because 333) . the causa materialis 3 2 4 ) of the fires of sufferings ' like death. there are in reality no such phenomena of birth. T . // 67 // Now. etc. Also they make appearance of birth. Because of their perception of the truth. however. flîp ! § ! • T. C. yañ-dag-par sbyor[-ba]. ~7Jj ( t o m a k e a p p e a r a n c e ) . > T . 4§T m • TO sam]/ślis T . has anutpatty-anirodha. 326 3271 328) samyojana (== samprayukta). etc. duhkha. there is also no flame of fires of suffering at all in the Bodhisattvas who have attained the Body made of mind. yi\ . there is no appearance 3 2 6 ) whatever of such a cause that we can know of.

. 1. chos. XIII. O Sāgaramati. & C . T. T. \Lk • ' parigraha. It is said 3 3 6 ) : Which are the Defilements endowed with virtuous root 3 3 7 ) that cause [Bodhisattvas] to reside in the Phenomenal World ? They are namely: ]Non-satisfaction338) in searching for the accumulation of merits 3 3 9 '. T.. bsod-nams-kyi tshogs. O Lord. Unweariness towards the perfect maturity 3 4 2 ) of living beings. ^ flp.. [—' \ĪJ] ^ f»$j] ^ ? ffe • 342) 343 344 kimkaranīya. 13. See S. dam-pahi. paripāka. J. hgrus-pa. C. T. 337 338) 36 3 Taisho.. ^ i l l S ^ I S ^ ī S i i S l f t (Taisho. 46-74). Then [Sāgaramati] asked: Why then. Endeavour 3 4 5 ) after works to be done 3 4 6 ) for the living beings. Efforts for the perfect apprehension 343 ' of the sublime Doctrine3 4 4 ) . ^ § : f § : 4i3< (kuśalamūlāni). ' parigraha. C. yoñs-su smin-pa. ?% î § # K W fri W ^P ?£ ñ & 0*. bsam-pa (intention). C. p. XIII.CJ 339 340 ' punya-sambhāra. C. by these Defilements of such kinds Bodhisattvas attach themselves to the Phenomenal World.. but quite ' kuśalamūla-samprayuktā kleśāh. mi-ñoms-pa. . Non-abandonment of propensity 347 ' of desire for phenomena. the same as above (Note 340). p. C. And this state of Bodhisattvas is to be understood in detail according to the Scripture.. O Sāgaramati. C.. 346 345) > utsukatā. C. T. [The Lord] answered: Because. Nonreluctance from fetters 3 4 8 ) of the Highest Virtues. yoñs-su hdsin-pa. but they are never affected by the fault of Defilements. are the virtuous roots called 'Defilements ' ? . Jj^. •-§* >^|K ^*pi J>E> A§l 'U*I • atrptatā. ^pp *JX • 341 ' samavadhāna. simplified. 347) 348 anuśaya. ?P£ 4^J |ff^ / £ . p.J_4y. 400). . No. This passage is in Taisho. ' 7pi\ ^^T ' i s implying the sense. T. bya-ba ci-yod-pa. And this Phenomenal World is of origination 44 > The Sāgaramati-pariprcchā. C. by I f & of Suang. y. 6. C. Acceptance 340 ' of existence through origination by their own will. 68 a. ^5^. • . R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a Defilements endowed with Virtuous Root. 18. T. phrad—pa. * for the living beings '. T. ' saddharma. ' samyojono r 245 ] . The earnest wish to meet with 3 4 1 ) the Buddhas. C.The S 2. C. T. thus are the Defilements endowed with the virtuous roots by which the Bodhisattvas attach themselves [to this world]. T.

[It is called so] inasmuch as they attach themselves to the Phenomenal World.from Defilements. adhyālambati (BHS). 8. 0 Sāgaramati. to this very Phenomenal World. The word ' hdon-pa ' is used in the preceding sentence for ' adhyālamba '. There. This parable is also found in AĀS (470 a-b). but not because of [actual] defilements on the mind " . Suppose he were beloved. it is called ' Defilements endowed with the roots of virtuous qualities. but it is not the case. take the boy out3 5 6 ) by entering into the pit. Bodhisattvas' Compassion. C. pulling out '. (For the previous three. 1. ' upāya—kauśalya. would fall into a pit of night-soil while playing. T. So ' śrestino vā grhapater vā ' would be a better reading. hdon-pa (pulls out). om. being a child. Therefore. J^j. fzî yj • anvādhāna. 357) T h e r e a d i n g ' ekaputrakâdhyāśaya—premânunīta' is d o u b t f u l as J said. Upon seeing this they would deeply sigh. inserts ' pita '. But C. &J . however. Now suppose this boy. T. The parable of a Householder. C. •fff ||5Ç -|āj" . [^Pç] j ^ \ . lament and would cry out. simply med-pa. handsome. thabs—la mkhas-pa. and would see his only son fallen in the pit of night-soil. Upon seeing that sight. 48. C. p. which reads ' bu gcig-po hdon-par hdod-pahi sred-pas byas '. he being affected by the intention to pull out his only son 3 5 7 ) . yj \J*z. T h i s translation is according to T. not disagreeable). yid-du hoñ-ba. 354 ' apratikūlo darśanena (lit. there should be a Danda. and for ' abhyutksepa ' in S. After darśanena. T. suppose there were an only son of some distinguished person or 3 5 2 ) householder. They could not. affectionate353) quite agreeable in his appearance 354 *. C. T. § 3. insert a word for ' vā '. 352) Both T. 351) Continuation from § 2 (quotation from the same Sūtra). Bodhisattvas attach themselves at their own wishes by their skill of means 3 4 9 ) and through producing 350) the power of virtuous roots. 355) C. Thereupon the mother and relatives355* of this boy would see him fall into the impure pit. skyed-pa. C. in the sense of ' taking out. T.. After that the boy's father would come to that place. seems 356) to omit this word and reads: ^j£ —" -~f~ afl [ 246 ] S i jsc nl> *& (having ekaputraka . mthoñ-na mi-sdug-pa C. 350) 353) 349 manāpa (BHS). " For example 351) . & C.

om. 4p. T. pratisam V dhā.. since they. i The distinguished person or 3 6 0 ) the householder ' is a name for the Bodhisattva who is pure. O Sāgaramati. are distressed and lament. S. but have no capacity to rescue [the living beings]. C. By this explanation of words in the Scripture 3641 . C. but C. (Instead of ' anunīta '. has attained the direct perception of the immutable Absolute 361) . dum-bu. AĀS jg/» " j ^U^ j§[. at the same time. being perfectly free from all bondages. =§f| (artha). 5îw >is\j J^« >flj V £ v r ' (dharmadhātu). as S. unpolluted. & C. > upa\/dā. he is never affected by impurities. 3581 abhy-ut\J ksip. there is explained the pure and impure state of Bodhisattvas who have the Controlling Power through two points: [namely] the Bodhisattva attaches himself at his will to the origination in the world. have it. ' adhyālambanatah ' would be preferable to accept). C. T. T. of unpolluted mind. asamskrta-dharma. 364) [ 247 ] . but T. vā. he again assumes 363) the origination into Existence. Which relation 359) should be known [between illustrations and illustrated meaning]? O Sāgamarati. T. and would take out 3 5 8 ) his only son. om. Being possessed of the skill of means and the Transcendental Intellect. phyuñ-ba. *Jjj. T. he preaches the Doctrine " . C. in order to bring living beings to the maturity. i An only son ' is a name for the living beings. C. For pada. len-pa. nirdeśa. for the sake of others. and. but still. connects himself3621 to the Phenomenal World by his own will. regards this passage as a quotation from the same Sūtra (SāgP. because Bodhisattvas have a notion of the only son towards all living beings. 3591 3601 3611 362) 363 prabandha. ' a pit of night-soil' is a name for the Phenomenal Life. don. he is not polluted by the world owing to the powers of means and the Intellect.The R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a would hurry to enter the pit with full speed without any feeling of disgust. by the powers of virtuous roots and Compassion. O Sāgaramati. having seen the living beings fallen into the world of transmigration.). p j . in order to extirpate all the bondage of Defilements from the living beings. T. this example was made in order to make known a special meaning. mtshams sbyor-ba. samjñā and premâdhyāśaya). ' Mother and relatives ' is a name for those people who belong to the Vehicles of Śrāvaka and Pratyekabuddha. Cf. 4 * . such is the Great Compassion of the Bodhisattva that. but. T.

non-existence. Thus. chos-ñid. • Cf. ' thousand years '). perceive that separate elements are of no real essence. after adjective) (Pali. rab-tu rtogs-par . C. T. no origination. 5k»> | ^ . T .). pham-hdogs-paham gnod-par byed-pa. It is said: '* O Sāgaramati. of caus. bdag-po med-pa-ñid. O Sāgaramati.J. Cf. 373 ' dharmatā. suppose there were an invaluable 376) Vaidūrya stone. go-cha. the Bodhisattva does never produce the feeling of disgust for any phenomenon. t h e s a m e ) . s. when a Bodhisattva has attained the correct perception of the Essence of the Tathāgata as being of no birth. B H S D i e . 367) asvāmikatā. 372) upakāro vā 'pakāro vā. he knows correctly the essential nature 3 7 3 ) of separate elements. After all. 368) vithapyante (pass. of no substance. byed. 36 " samāna ( = sat. and s t a r t s t h e n e x t quotation with t h e parable of t h e Vaidūrya stone. T . AĀS 469 b-c. . these elements are illusorily created 3 6 8 ) according to desire.: ' hundred years '. gshan-du mi-hgyur-bahi chos (ananyathābhāvadharma) is probably caused by a misunderstanding of the term dharma. . 375) C. o m . of vi \f sthā. i t k j ^ ^ M ^ î ^ l f l l f E l t S l (this word of the Sūtra has already been t a u g h t ) . ^} @ f £ H . offers no help to fix the meaning of ' vithapyate '. T . T. u p t o here. Bodhisattva's Perception on the Pure Mind. of no personality and of no owner 3 6 7 ) ! Indeed. Suppose it might be thrown into mud and would remain there for a thousand years 377> . s. Believing in the fact that separate elements are created illusorily sn\ O Sāgaramati. (But the second Chinese translation of the SāgP. o m . > anargha. of no creator. ' tathā vithapyante vithapitāś ca samānā'. C. For example. SāgP. lifeless. 68 a. well cleaned. He will be possessed of the pure and immaculate perception based upon the Wisdom that there is nothing which causes benefit or harm 3 7 2 ) . This point 366) should be understood in detail according to the [same] Scripture.v. they cannot cause [one] to think or to imagine 3 7 0 ) . As being 3 6 9 ) illusorily created. T. 377) 376 has [ 248 ] . then 365) he can obtain this essential quality as a Bodhisattva. T. 36 6 > T. Cf. v . T . T. 374) samnāha. 371) dharma-vithapanā. 3. well polished. C. B H S D i e . For nirātmatā. Cf. p . TAKASAKI § 4. bdag med-pa-ñid. om. 370) prakalpayati. Now. T . 365 > dharmatā. T h e q u o t a t i o n is from SāgP. a h y b r i d form. vistarena. rin thañ-pa (mahārgha). And thus he does never cast off the armour 3 7 4 ' of the Great Compassion 3 7 5 ) . well purified.

in turn. opt. it would never abandon its nature of jewel. C. (MSbh (P) 259 c-260 a). [/JC] f$Q • T. In the same way. T. }Çp }$£. perfectly cleaned and polished. rab-tu hbro-ba (but it should be -hgrol-ba). C. 379) This passage (S. āgantuka and instead has upakleśa. 11. These defilements are [produced] by incorrect discrimination. C. 50. with great intensity. He perceives also that the same mind is defiled by the accidental defilements. though abbreviated. T . he never has his mind demoralized380) and. 3-9). p. A* fJb 'frf )E= (cannot rise). rather closer to the Ratna. pramoksa-citta. IE J€ • 384) 385) na kupyanti. (S. passage than to AĀS. They are powerless. H | jfjQ. ji—lta—ba-bshin—du tshul-bshin—du yid—la byed— 382 > -antike. 7) is quoted in Paramārtha's translation of the Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya as from AĀS. not a good thing to be contaminated 385 '. this stone would be drawn out from mud and would be washed 3 7 8 ) and cleaned. when they are inspected by the real and correct perception 3 8 3 ) . ^ j £ A H ÎP*l C. C. ' | ^ &fâ (timid). 1. P r o b a b l y from Pali ollyanā ( S k t . e t c . om. I can teach the Doctrine for the sake of these living beings in order to remove their accidental 379) defilements. it is a good thing not to be contaminated by defilements. If I were contaminated by 378 > lodyeta (caus. shum-pa. . They should be investigated by us so that they might not contaminate again. s. a n d for t h e former p a r t . . O Sāgaramati. v . p. Then the Bodhisattva thinks as follows: . he gives rise to the intention towards liberation 381) in the case of382) living beings. which has. 1. ?) Cf. These defilements would never penetrate into the radiant Innate Mind of the living beings. T. anavallyanatā. 383) yathābhūta-yoniśomanasikāra. Again he thinks as follows: These defilements have no power and ability. 78. ' na punah ślesah '. these defilements are the production of unreal. Thus. It is notable that Paramārtha's translation is. C. />«. 11. 45. Indeed. 49. Being accidental. thad-tu. insertions equivalent to other passages of the Ratna. T. sbyañ-ba. These defilements. avalīyate. They have no real foundation at all.The Ratnagotravibhāga After the passing of a thousand years [in mud]. A* [ 249 ] . pure and immaculate. 9—p. the Bodhisattva knows the innate radiant nature of the mind of living beings. 17-20. h a s ' £). o m . B H S Die. T. cannot be excited 384) by any means. of V lud). As being washed well. C. of weak power. 380) avalîyana 381) avaliyanā. p. wrong discrimination.

om. inserts ' f ^ 4 T »ff $ £ %&. Here. And here. C... C. S ' ( t0 practise pāramitās). conditioned as well as unconditioned. it is the World of Transmigration because it is manifested 388) under the influence of immaculate roots of virtue. |f| >^C. 386) C.J. hdres-pa. 387) -pratibimbaka. therefore. 0 Lord. ffi i^T • T > ŚMS 221 b. there is the Phenomenal World. C.3% gj [ 250 ] . this is called ' the pure and impure state '. it is the Nirvana because it is not manifested under the influence of the passionate Active Force and Defilements. /Çf\ \tyt \ffli 1 ^ V £ . 388 389 T. There is the Nirvana. TAKASAKI defilements. as C. Indeed. § 5. Because. gzugs-brñan-yid. conditioned as well as unconditioned " . it is said 3 8 9 ': " Therefore. being endowed with the manifestation of mind and mental 390) 391) states mixing both. C. how could I teach the Doctrine for the sake of the living beings who are bound by the bondages of defilements. by which we are bound to the world of transmigration. § 6. which are at the same time endowed with the roots of virtues " . > 390) 391) citta-caitasika. mñon-du gyur-pa. T om > abhisamskrta. And this state is predominantly established in the 6th Stage of Bodhisattva called Abhimukhl (ready for the Enlightenment) 392) . the conditioned and the unconditioned. T. usual. in order to bring the living beings to 386) their maturity. At the same time. Bodhisattva in His 6th Stage. » citta - 892) T. in order to remove these bondages of defilements ? Oh ! really. we shall teach the Doctrine to the living beings in order to remove the bondage of defilements. ' Samsāra ' in the Case of Bodhisattva. being an image similar to that 3 8 7 ) in the Phenomenal World. And moreover. we are not attached to defilements. we should be attached to the defilements . C * Cl» Wi V ^ • samślista. the expression ' World of transmigration' (samsāra) implies the three kinds of Body made of mind in the Immaculate Sphere. With regard to this point.

he would remember his son and think: Why hadn't I accompanied my only son! Who could nourish him and let him get rid of suffering? And rejecting the pleasure in the castle. C. he. without making use of his abhijñā for āsravaksaya. ' Though having the capacity of attaining the Liberation. But when he stepped inside with one leg. According to C. 394) The word abhijñā in both S. om. this is due to [the Bodhisattva's] [ 251 ] . 3fc flś^. ' the other leg remained outside ' is for the Bodhisattva's non-realization of moksa. T. sattva-parivarta). the Bodhisattva is also like him. the Bodhisattva. O noble youth. The illustration of a castle is available only in C. he does never realize the Enlightenment. ' many gates' are for the gates of samādhi. facing the acquisition 393 ' of the Extinction of Evil Influences 3 9 4 ) through his practices of unobstructed Highest Intellect and the Great Compassion395). T. ^ ffi. regards mahākarunā-bhāvanayā as being connected with asāksātkarana. p. O noble youth. and full of dangers. Here. . omission) 3 9 8 ) . but the path towards its gates were steep and dark. . ^p* (C. there were a castle of one square yojana. For the sake of the people. mñon-du phyogs-pa. It runs as follows: (. 11. 396 > sattvadhātu. . ' stepped inside with one leg ' is for [the attainment of] the Wisdom. ' a castle' is the parable for mahāparinirvāna. he accumulated the 5 abhijñās. the other leg remaining outside. 393) -abhimukhī. C. but probably S. 310 (47). C. and ' to go back to his son' is the parable for [the Bodhisattva's] leading of living beings. But it is not the case. have a lacuna here. still does never realize that acquisition in order to protect all living beings 396 '. 80 thausand in number. there is an illustration of a castle 3 9 7 ) in the Scripture. which has many gates. 397) x. & T. namely 1) y\C J] Ç ç 3 ^ ^^ f^| p p _5f$ | * (Mahāsamnipātasūtra. Chi^=f J\. 3 8 » > The Ratnacūda-pariprcchā nese Tripitaka retains two versions of this Sūtra. Having heard of the pleasure within the castle. 47th Parisat) (originally called ^ §i ^ I H l/f |PJ #X> Ratnacūdabodhisattva-pariprcchā). & T. 2) ~fc fl* ^ |§ ^ |5J ~p ~fc Hf ® Us i^T $ * W (Mahāratnakūtasūtra. H ^ | § £ is a mistake for 5 | Iff |§£). is better omitted. 173-184. he would go back to his only son. Why? Because. the people who could enter this castle were enjoying a lot of pleasure. Suppose again there were one person who had an only son and loved him. With reference to this Wisdom for the Extinction of Evil Influences. 395 > C.The Ratnagotravibhāga rjn this Stage]. as usual. does act among the world of ordinary beings. Having accumulated them and being ready for the acquiring of āsravaksaya. Taisho. RatnacūdabodhiChap. he wanted to enter that castle leaving his son behind. due to his compassion towards living beings. 'the steep p a t h ' is for the various actions of demons. the illustration is as follows: " Suppose. Taisho. it and instead has moksa. (D) has mi(= nara) instead of nagara. However. By skilful means. XI. No. he does never realize i t ' . XIII. O noble youth. ' t o reach the gate of the castle ' is for [the attainment of] 5 abhijñās. ' the only son ' is for all living beings wandering in 5 paths (gati): * to remember his son' is for the Great Compassion. . he could pass over the steep path and reach a gate of the castle.

C. Having cultivated the Wisdom for the Extinction of Evil Influences in order to rescue all living beings through the origination of the mind of Compassion. JO . bodhyañga. C. 181 a). T. ^ J H . he becomes ready for the Extinc401) tion of Evil Influences. C. I t is said t h a t b y t h e practice of these four dhyānas. [y an-dag-par] shugs-pa (to enter). yoñs-su sbyoñ-ba. yañ-dag—par rtogs—pa. jâ^ jjjj. C. for the sake of the living beings who are facing the world of transmigration. the Bodhisattva gives rise to the 5 Supernatural Faculties. produces the unobstructed Intellect in the 6th Stage and again becomes ready for the Extinction of Evil Influences. with perfectly purified mind 402>. 401) parijayam krtvā. T. XIII. saying: I will lead the others also to this true practice 4 0 5 ) . T. ^ § * jfvV **-^ 4T« attainment of the 4th and 5th Stages (bhūmi) here. 0 noble youth. the > [samyak-]pratipanna. C . lhag-pahi bsam—pa brtan-pa. 408) (catur)dhyāna. which seems better. §|£ [yj *U\ T. bsam-gtan dag (pi. ' samyakpratipatti. While cultivating the means for the bliss of the Quiescence. p. C. & C. C. one can be born in t h e World of F o r m (rūpa-dhātu). RCP. T. vimukha. T. he. C. 405 406) 407) T . T. C. and the word ' kulaputra ' (S. through the origination of the Great Intention [towards the Nirvana] 3 9 9 ) by great efforts and exertion. ^\* ^ Q " . reads as ' drdhâdhyāśaya-pratipattyā '. ro mi-myañ-ba. he. TAKASAKI Thus. C. owing to the Great Compassion. Thus. [Jll] vipratipanna. read as abhimukhasya. in number. JZ3 f ^ > . though having practised 4 0 3 ) correctly for his own sake. 402) 403 404) 399) »y- -ill- 11 y—*i £ • inserts an explanation on • [eg 47*. unclear. 40 °) parikarma—krta. yoñs—su sbyoñ-ba byas—pa (pariśuddha—krta). log-par shugs-pa. byañ-chub-kyi yan-lag. Having the mind purified 4 0 0 ) by the contemplation and Supernatural faculties. T. clear.). Though abiding [in the desireless World of Form] with [4 kinds of] contemplations 4 0 8 ) in order to accomplish the factors for the acquisition of Enlightenment 409) . [On the other hand]. T. In this way is explained the 4 pure ' state of the Bodhisattva who has obtained the power for realization of the Extinction of Evil Influences in the [6th] Stage of the Bodhisattva named Abhimukhī. but not in order to taste it [by himself] 4 0 6 ) he turns his face 4 0 7 ) away from Nirvana. not anāsvādana. (Cf. But both T.. I ventured to omit this vocative word in this translation and treated the whole passage as an explanation by the commentator. Taisho. the Great Mercy and Compassion of the Bodhisattva is inconceivable " . drdhâdhyāśaya.J. om. & C. The following passage is actually not a quotation. still wishes to save the living beings who are on the wrong way 4 0 4 ) . skilful means (upāya). For parijaya.) is probably an excess. T h e y are said to be 7 r 252 ] . 409) T. suparikarmakrtacetāh.

the whole of the following paragraph. // 70 // Being superior to all kinds of worlds. though having understood 413> that This Absolute Essence is unchangeable. 412) C. {gocara = caryāvisaya). (Another interpretation of the verse 66) 4 1 2 ) . The heading ' aparah ślokârthah' also supports this suggestion. yoñs-su hdsin-pa. 66). // 72 // His intelligence is always burning like fire 415) For bringing about the welfare [to the world]. The son of the Buddha. T . The Highest Means and Compassion. ' yāvad āśu '. T. B. s 7. He is nevertheless not apart from the world.:This is really wonderful! // 69 // Having attained the position of the Saints 4 1 4 ) . C. 52. he is. etc. though having been born in the world He is never polluted by worldly matters. Cf. parigrahana. rtogs-nas (having understood). 413) The reading pratividhya (Ms. 415) krtya-sampādana. The Pure and Impure State of the Bodhisattva in comparison with the Ordinary Being and the Buddha. v. $lHj £ J £ . // 71 // Just as a lotus flower growing in the water Is not polluted by the latter. Similarly. for the friends of all the world. C. o m . He is nevertheless seen among ordinary beings. From these points mentioned above his state is explained as ' not perfectly pure '. BHS Die:'pratividhyati' (Pali pativijjhati). 19: dharmatā—prativedhāt.The Ratnagotravibhāga ke voluntarily assumes 410) again the existence in the World of Desire J wishes to work for the sake of living beings as quickly as posn( sible 411)« [Thus] he has obtained the power for manifesting the body f ordinary beings by assuming various births [even] in the form of anio mals. bya-ba sgrub. There is another meaning of the śloka (Kārikā 24. om. p. as Chawdhuri noted) would be better than prativicya in the text. T. Is still perceived by the ignorant In the appearances of birth. 1. 411) 410) [ 253 ] . Therefore. 414 ) ārya—gocaj a. which is therefore probably a later insertion. See S. He acts in the world for the sake of the world Without being affected by the worldly pollution.

Such difference as lies between the atom and the earth. I I p p . 417) This a n d t h e following 5 verses ( v v . With no effort and with unobstructed Wisdom. T . sbyod-lam. 74-78) were q u o t e d i n A m r t ā k a r a ' s T ī k a on t h e Catuhśubha of N ā g ā r j u n a . T. 1958). TAKASAKI At the same time. //75// In such a way. See B H S Die. //78// Of these ten verses taken respectively. 422) F o r gati^ x . B u t T . // 76 // Having obtained this position4 2 2 ) . Or in [the water] in a foot-print of a bull 424) and in the ocean.e. 419) j?OT deśanyā rūpakāyābhyām. a n d is edited along with t h e T i b e t a n version b y h i m . He does not use any exertion at all For bringing the living beings to their maturity. The Bodhisattva becomes equal to the Tathāgata On account of his act of conveying 423) the living beings In various worlds. sñoms-par shugs-pa. G. sambhoga-k. 418) āvedha.). 424) gospada (BHS. gospada in Skt. 236-246. [the first] 9 verses refer to the comparison [of the state of Bodhisattva] with the absolute impurity of those who rank below the 1st Stage of Bodhisattva named Pramuditā pratipanna. w h i c h suggests t w o rūpakāyas (i. I s M E O . & nirmāna-k). ' pūrvâvedhavaśāt ' or ' pūrvâvedhāt' is t h e usual form. T. 420) īryā-patha. // 74 // The Bodhisattva. A m r t ā k a r a ' s quotation reads deśanā-rūpakāyābhyām. yañ-dag sgrol-ba. 416) [ 254 ] . By conduct [of ordinary life] or by religious observances 4 2 0 ) . mthah Mas (ananta). Tucci. T. Bring benefits for the living beings Among the world. of two apparitional forms 4 1 9 ) . // 73 // Owing to the continuing force 4 1 8 ) of the previous life. hphen-pa (— āksipta). deśanī is a r a r e form. to the other shore. bstan dan gzugs-sku dag dan ni. limitless 4 2 1 ) like the sky. tshul ( = naya).J . of which a Sanskrit M s . he is always practising 416) Meditation and concentration on the Quiescence 4 1 7 ) . 109. 421 ' -paryanta. he does always. knowing who is to be trained In what manner and by what means [Performs it] in the proper manner: By means of teaching. p . was found b y Prof. And because of being free from all discriminations. *23) samtārana. T. āvedha (2). (Minor Buddhist Works. // 77 // There is however a great difference Between Bodhisattvas and the Buddha. R o m e .

both below and above]. 3) phyir mi-ldog-pa. T. because [in this stage] he has understood 4 2 9 ) the highest supermundane Essence which had never been seen before since beginningless time. 425 > T. respectively. mthoñ-bahi phyir (darśanāt for prativedhāt). --jjjfj jgç iU^). the 3rd. the first one is said to be equivalent to darśanamārga and the second to bhāvanāmārga. 2) He who is practising the way towards the acquisition (caryāpratipanna). By the 5th verse. (C. \ j i ) . 3) He who has ascended the irreversible stage (avaivartika). there are explained the pure characteristics of qualities of the Bodhisattva who has got the irreversible next birth (ekajātipratibaddha) 427) . [In mameghā comparison with the states. because [in these stages] he practises the unpolluted practices. prati\/ vyadh). also has ' yon-tan '. there are explained the pure characteristics of qualities 4 2 8 ) of the Bodhisattva who is abiding on the Stage of Pramuditā resolving upon the acquisition for the first time. 429) prativedha (BHS for Skt. 2) spyod-pa-la shugs-pa 428) 427) f< (C. there is explained in brief the purity and impurity of the four kinds of Bodhisattvas in the 10 Stages of Bodhisattva. T. the 7th and the 10th of the 10 vihāras (C. From the point of wiew of the development of the bhūmi theory. 430 > T.e. by the first and second verses. but how to combine both sets is not determined. these four stages are regarded as older than the 10—bhūmis theory of the Daśa bhūmikā. 428) -phg reading ' gana ' in the text is corrected into ' guna \ in comparison with the following three examples. Of these four. 4) He who is expected to be the Buddha in the Here. Often these four are identified with the first. T. For viśuddhi. dri-ma med-pa (C. This is probably a mistake. rab-tu dgah-ba (C. The four kinds of Bodhisattvas are as follows: 1) He who has resolved upon the acquisition for the first time (prathamacittotpādika). ' * ^•p ' j ^ Ifeîi). ^) skye-ba gcig-gis thogs-pa (C.The RatnagotraviDûaga (Joy) 425)> a n d the 10th verse refers to the comparison with the supreme purity of the Stage above the [10th] Stage of Bodhisattva named Dhar(Cloud of Doctrine) 4 2 6 ) (i. The combination of these 4 groups with the 10-bhūmis seems to be the latest development. chos-kyi sprin (C. yoñs-su dag-pa (pariśuddhi). V S j ^ sems dañ-po bskyed-pa (C. By the third and the fourth verses. WK T. [ 255 ] . there are explained the pure characteristics of qualities of the Bodhisattva who is practising the way to the acquisition in the Stages beginning with [the 2nd named] Vimalā 4 3 0 ) up to [the 7th named] Dūramgamā (Far-Going)4 3 1 ) . the Stage of the Buddha). the 8th Stage). T X i a ) . -^1^ ^ S $!r). j n s tead has mi-gyo-ba (acalā. | | 43i) T. and.

Because it is eternal. It is always non-dual Because it is indiscriminative.J. C. T. nor does it die. It does not suffer [from illness]. having attained the ultimate point of means for fulfilling all the benefits for his own as well as for others. anaparântakoti. C. C. because [in this last stage] he. 7th and 8th verses. Now. nor is it decrepit. ananyathâtmā. (C) Unchangeability in the Perfectly Pure State. phyi-mahi mthah-med myur-thug. gshan-hgyur-min-bdag. 79 d. -A^ 2§B J ^ 1 • See v * 66. 3»§? 3i§ |?J> • 433) 434) 438 > For v. TAKASAKI state in the [8th] Stage named Acalā (Immovable). By the 6th. By the 9th and 10th verses. and that of the Buddha's qualities. because [in this stage] he has firmly stood in the meditation as the practice immediately connected with the acquisition of the Great Enlightenment. we have one śloka with reference to the meaning of 4 unchangeability ' in the perfectly pure state [of the Buddha]. is connected with the Stage of the Buddha by one and the last birth 432) on account of the acquisition of the Supreme Perfect Enlightenment. // 79 // What is shown by this śloka ? It is not born. which is difficult to be identified with S. there are explained the pure characteristics of qualities of the Bodhisattva who is abiding on the 10th Stage named Dharmameghā. Also it is of undestructible nature Because its own nature is not created [by conditions] 4 3 5 ) . 432) buddhabhūmy-ekacarama-janma-pratibaddha. f l A^ ^ L . It is the refuge of the world Because it has no limit in the future 4 3 4 ) . T. there are explained the equality and difference between the purity of qualities of the Bodhisattva who has reached the ultimate point with regard to the aim of others and of his own. being expected to be the Buddha in the next birth. [ 256 ] . (Kārikā 25) This [Essence of the Buddha] is of unalterable nature4 3 3 ) Because it is endowed with inexhaustible properties. ^ * fi^ ffl W^ j lj* J] $fc .

it is never born even in the form of Body made of mind. Thus. hdus-ma-byas-kyi dbyiñs. it does not die in the manner of the inconceivable Transformation. C. it never suffers from illness depending on 4 3 9 ) the Dwelling Place of Ignorance. and consequently never becomes decrepit through the transformation brought about by the Passionless Active Force. In regard to the immutable Sphere 4 4 1 ) Is to be known. C. 3) śiva. 2) dhruva. in case it is abiding on the Stage of the Buddha which is absolutely immaculate. Because of the birth in the form of manomayakāya and others. yoñs-su hdsin-pa.w ffi* Si anarthāL_@.^kitst C. ^^ $6m. T. f{3 . phala of bodhicitta) D ^ $fr #fl ^fc ftb ^ —-BJ tt *a ® * % R & * * & £ mm 439 440) 441) w«. are of Bodhisattvas and don't belong to the Buddha. T . C. And. this Essence of the Tathāgata. ^ 437) .The Ratnagotravibhāga Everlasting. ma thog-pa. Bodhisattvas are regarded as ' partly impure '. Being ' quiescent ' in regard to both. (asamskrtadhātu in the prose comm. /\ patita is t o b e resolved i n t o anartha-apatita. C. shi-ba. T. T. respectively. don-med-pa. // 82 // Indeed. it has no suffering From the illness of subtle defiling forces. DAŚ 892 b: (under the item 1. Here.. 4) śāśvata. the meaning of Eternity. manomayakāya. is ' eternal' in regard to its beginning. //80// Being eternal. 5»îv i^H J ^ 9 r (anāsrava-). it does not become decrepit By the accumulation of the Passionless Active Force 4 3 8 ) . it is ' constant '. being constant. etc. A^ 8 § . pure and radiant by its own nature. beginning and end. C. // 81 // Being quiescent. not falling into misery 4 4 0 ) . Being everlasting. By each couple of terms. F o r apatita. C. JMT ( = t h e world of transmigration). etc. T. rtag-pa. fff ^ . gyuñ-druñ. asamskrta-pada. Being ' everlasting ' in regard to its end. [ 257 ] .). // 83 // 436) These 4 terms are as follows: 1) nitya. T. > parigraha. T. Therefore. C. brten-pa. quiescent and costant 4 3 6 ) . y)\ gîpj: (parigrhīta). it is not born Even with [the form of] the Body made of mind 4 3 7 ) . anartha. T. it does not die Even with the Inconceivable Transformation. 438 > Cf.

447) -phe c o m b i n a t i o n of paramârtha w i t h nirvana (nirvrti i n t h e t e x t ) is peculiar. ^v!p. JLAJi-ASAKI Of these four terms. does n o t h a v e t o b e corrected w i t h ' -garbhasya '. according to the Scripture 4 4 3 ) . 0 Śāriputra. B G Ś 8 1 1 c ff. C. // 84 // * 4 2 ' uddeśa & nirdeśa. ^ p | p V S . ' everlasting '. because it exists as far as the farthest limit. of undestructible character ". it is the Tathāgata. respectively. B .J . B. Therefore. 0 Śāriputra. (Kārikā 26) It is the Absolute Body. which are no doubt interpolations. (as well as Ms. ' quiescent ' and ' constant% the distinction of the meaning of each term in regard of the Immutable Sphere is to be understood by each couple of terms showing ' statement ' and 4 explanation ' 4 4 2 ) . o m . & # t mm^—m mm^mm m us at mm mm [ 258 ] ī £ IP J t *D # #U j | . T. DAŚ 893 c (on Ekatva): jft IP M. This Absolute Body. Does i t m e a n Nirvana of the Buddha and not that of Srāvaka and Pratyekabuddha? 445 444) Cf. (10. b e c a u s e i t was t h e u s u a l case t o use t h e t e r m dhātu i n such h e a d i n g s i n this t e x t . the Highest 4 4 7 ) Nirvana. this Absolute Body is Quiescent. respectively. namely ' eternal'. is Eternal since it is of unalterable nature through its inexhaustible properties. this Absolute Body is Constant. apart from the Buddhahood. There is no Nirvana. bstan—pa & bśad— pa. r e n d e r i n g is helpless to fix t h e m e a n i n g a n d C. O Śāriputra. m ) AAN 467 b. With reference to this meaning of ' undifferentiation ' we have one śloka. akrtrima-dharma. Also it is the Holy Truth. C. 446) ^ h e r e a ( J i n g ' tathāgatadhātor ' i n Ms. is Everlasting. A s a m b h e d a ) . T . JQ±.) adds two verses here. Being of uncreated nature 4 4 4 ) . being indivisible from qualities like the sun with its rays. paramârtha. Being of indiscriminative nature. > Cf. 0 Śāriputra. It is said as follows: " This Absolute Body. T . (X) ASAMBHEDA 445) The Essence 448> of the Tathāgata characterized as having reached the ultimate point of perfect purification in this pure state is of undifferentiated (asambheda) nature. the everlasting refuge. a n d t h e r e is no essential difference b e t w e e n b o t h t e r m s . of non-dualistic nature.

The K 1. And it is quiescent from the very outset 4 5 1 ) . Here. B Ś ibid. vv. C. inseparable [from Wisdom] 4 5 4 ) and are greater in number than the sands of the Gangā " .: W < l # G «2» ŚMS 221 c. T. K 1) — '8J ft ?£ f t ^ ^ ffi 81 i amuktajña. It is not of false. unreleased from the wisdom). 464) 2) — 'W m @ £H. 76. 3) # g B M ffll V£. T. there should be known 4 synonyms 4 4 8 ) . T. T. Its Germ has been perfected as it is 4 4 9 ) .^: tathāgamah). miñ—gi rnam-grañs. bral mi-śes-pa. -^f (ft for tadgotrasya "9» tathāgama. tathāgatagarbha is not empty of buddhadharmāh (buddhadharmair aśūnyam). C . In accordance with these 4 meanings. // 86 // 1) The first meaning: [the Essence of the Buddha] is indivisible from the Buddha's properties. the Matrix of the Tathāgata is not empty 4 5 3 ) [because it is endowed] with the Buddha's Properties which are inconceivable. C. ^ ^ ^ ^ . An explanation of the meaning of ' tathāgata '. 4) * ^ 3g P . C. deceptive nature 4 5 0 ) . [ 259 ] . the Absolute Body and others Since [the Germ] in the Immaculate Sphere Has four meanings from different aspects. C. With reference to this meaning. mi-stoñ-pa. there are four meanings in regard to the Matrix of the Tathāgata as the Immaculate Sphere (or Essence). Ratnagotravibhāga Synonyms of the Essence of the Tathāgata. in brief. ^ ^ /0U (lit. 453) aśūnya. JpÇ #H ("$•£ JpÇ $D f. indivisible. 448 * nāmaparyāya. it is said as follows 4 5 2 ) : " O Lord. f 2 * U s ^\* /MM: 3 C • 451 > ādiprakrtiśāntatā. // 85 // In short. further explanation will be given in S. Cf. 450) amrsāmosadharmitva. On this conception. 154-5 and commentary thereon. de-bshin thob-pa. Then which are the 4 meanings ? It is indivisible from the Buddha's Properties. p. Lit. C. what is shown by the former half of the śloka ? It should be known. There are 4 synonyms. § f $ 7J£ ^ ^ 0 J ¥ ' should be ' ^ ' according to the meaning).

Sadāyatanasūtra (or Sadindriyarāśi—sūtra) 458) 455) I a -£*T3 "H^y ^ 7 7 ? ( y \ \\X. 4) The fourth meaning: It is of the nature of absolute quiescence. 3) The third meaning: It is not of false. in the form of various living beings) " . has come down since beginningless time from one existence to another existence 4 5 8 > assuming 4 5 9 ) various forms consisting of six organs of cognitions. [ y \ ^pc] % 4 _/£ . it is said as follows 4 6 2 ) : 44 Being in Nirvana from the very outset. T. 461) T # reading shi-ba(śama) 2§£ H>C (śāśvatadharmatayā). thob-pa. the Tathāgata. someone is expressing his understanding i n front of t h e B u d d h a a n d t h e B u d d h a acknowledges i t . (i. has no literal translation. 11. TAKASAKI 2) The second meaning: Its Germ. I suppose this quotation is also from t h e Sadāyatanasūtra. T. 1 460) The source is uncertain.e. de-hdra-ba (connecting with sadāyatanaviśesah). tādrśah. deceptive nature. jffc. it is said as follows : [This Germ]. does not mention t h e n a m e of t h e source. C. a vocative ' bhagavan ' is also inserted i n t h e previous quotation and t h e S. whose nature For what reason ? Because the Germ is eternal is undeceptive. by its being quiescent " 4 6 1 ) . C. 197 b).J. acintya-prakāra. It stands for tathā in the verse. Cf. a n d I could n o t find t h e exact passage i n SMS. brgyud-nas (from ancestors). C. reference to this point. according t o C . samudāgama. O attributes i t t o SMS. ^EcX which is missing now. bsam-gyis mi-khyab-pahi rnam-pa. With reference to this point. because. i . having attained the Absolute Essence. the Perfectly enlightened One is of neither origination nor destruction " . mentions the name of the source. 3. AĀS 469 b — * %/J ^ flj?^?. The following quotation shows a quite unique interpretation of the word tathāgata. b u t C. a d ā y a t a n a s ū t r a seems t o have h a d a structure similar t o t h e SMS. BBh. 462 > J Ā A 241 c. BGŚ quotes the sentence as from AĀS (812 a) f/S | $ for ? £ Hf). — āgama (in the verse). AksP. 2—4 (on prakrtistha-gotra). T. the Arhat.e. i. 457 ^ C. V s U s ^* 459) . 458) parampara. (Cf. With reference to this 457) point. T. the Innate Nature has been 455) 456) perfected in an inconceivable manner . that which is the Highest Truth is Nirvana. [ 260 ] is preferable from t h e context. it is said as follows 4 6 0 ) : 44 44 With Here.e.

2) the Tathāgata. that which is called ' Buddhahood ' because of its Perfect Enlightenment regarding all kinds of phenomena. Namely. the Tathāgata and the Absolute Body. 220 c. respectively. and 4) the Nirvana. Now. reads ' inseparable from t h e highest truth ' ( / p J|ft I f ? —* ffH). and that which is called 'Nirvana' because of its removal of pollutions along with their remaining forces which takes 467 a . " The Sphere of the Nirvana. there is indicated the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata. the following fact is to be known. O Lord. [ 261 ] . abbhinna. 222 a. O Lord. O Lord. It is said as follows 4 6 3 ) : " The Matrix of the Tathāgata. 1) the Absolute Body. 468 > nayamukhena.The Ratnagotravibhāga For these four meanings. C. respectively. tshul-gyi sgo-nas. § 2. * yq'C (ekarasa). Therefore. T. these both are not different from [each other 4 6 4 > . by means of the Doctrine of non-duality. 468) these four are one in their sense. " Under the name of the Extinction of the Suffering. namely. O Śāriputra. " O Lord. // 87 // These four synonyms of the Immaculate Essence converge into the 467 undifferentiated ' meaning of the Essence of the Tathāgata. and hence. See c o m m e n t a r y . The Absolute Body is. 3) the Highest Truth. 464) 466) 467) C.st o n e j s f or buddhatva a n d t h e n e x t o n e is for nirvana. And being the removal of pollutions along their root4 6 5 ) . 465) T n e fij. Ś M S 220c. is the name for the Absolute Body. being endowed with such properties " . what is shown by the latter half of the śloka ? Being the Perfect Enlightenment in all aspects. [?£] f*^ (' /f* | | 8 — ' V Î f*l 'f* Pjji: * f^ *gg' for advayadharmanayamukhena). A n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e 'na' is t o b e inserted before ' a n y o dharmakāyah' (-gato nānyo dharmakāyah). o m . for which C. Buddhahood and Nirvana Are one and the same in the highest viewpoint 4 6 6 ) . is the name for the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata " . The Point: Buddhahood is Nirvana. nothing but the Tathāgata " . T . there are four synonyms.

that is the Tathāgata ". T. acintya. p. grub-pa. buddhatva & nirvana. B u t T. inconceivability and purity ". 474) dharma-parameśvara. [ 262 ] 1. 478) nispatti (the reading ' nispatsv. O Lord. ^ f^. which makes t h e meaning clear. 470) 469) C. 0. [So it is said] 4 7 1 ) : " Liberation is of the characteristic Indivisible from the properties. [On the other hand] it is said: 4 7 7 ) : " By reason of having attained Nirvana. these two are non-dual. An epithet of the Buddha. nisthāgata (in the quotation). unthinkable and immaculate 4 7 2 ) . the Tathāgatas. asamkhyeya. 9 & 12). This Liberation. adds lhan-cig (together). ap? j^L. hbrog-dgon. 472 473) 476 rfy ī ? atavî. The place in MPS remained untraced. By this passage it is explained that. But C. See S. C. These 4 are called ' caturākāragunanispatti ' in the commentary.J. the Arhats. as S. o m . adds one epithet m o r e : sy* ^*g pjjffc (avinirbhāga).e. it is just like the illusory city in the forest 4 7 5 ) made for the travellers who are tired 4 7 6 ) after their long way [in order to encourage them]. > ŚMS 219 c. sarvākāra. T. C. TAKASAKI place simultaneously with 4 6 9 ) the Perfect Enlightenment. 471 > Both S. dub-pa. respectively. Arhats and Pratyekabuddhas) against retreat. innumerable. . having realized the Nirvana which is characterized as being inseparable from the accomplishment 4 7 8 ) mahâbhisambodhāt. T. are lacking the heading. the Perfectly Enlightened Ones are endowed with properties showing the ultimate point of the entireness. ^ ^ ^ ^ *^§ § S $£ tf1 {yata aha Mahāparinirvānasūtre). 477 > pariśrānta. it is said in the Scripture 4 7 3 ) with reference to the Nirvana of the Arhat and Pratyekabuddha: " [Here]. & T.' in the text should be corrected. the Nirvana is merely a means used by the Tathāgata ". 473 > ŚMS 219 c. indivisible and inseparable 4 7 0 ) in the Immaculate Sphere. By this passage it is explained that this [Nirvana of the Arhats and the Pratyekabuddhas] is a means made by the Perfectly Enlightened Ones who have the highest Controlling Power on [all] phenomena 4 7 4 ) in order to protect them (i. 58. C. amala. C. C. HH 5!*. immeasurebility. which are Of all kinds. Also. O Lord.

So that whatever skill possessed by one of them. as both of these. (having accepted 488) 489) pratiśrutya. vara. 487 > dūsya. T. mñon-par bsgrubs-pa. m i§. 2) aprameya. . ri-mo hdri-byed-pa (for hdri. 481) 482) T. Would start their work of painting. (ffS). TO abhinirhāra. quotes the original account after the verses. 483) 486) avadhārayati (to understand). 485) citra-lekhaka. . the four terms are as follows: 1) sarva. RCS 176 a. C. te (having heard of i t ) . Suppose there were some painters 4 8 5 ) . The others could not understand 4 8 6 ) . This is here to be known through the illustration of the painters 4 8 4 ) . having promised 4 8 9 ) [to the king]. ^ ^ ^J] (_. 479) See Note 471. 484) This illustration of the painters is originally taken from the Ratnacūdasūtra. mchog ( = śrestha). C.m M m m $. hbri. [Each of them] expert in a different sphere. T. // 88 // Then a mighty king would give them A painting cloth 4 8 7 ) with the following commandment: On this [cloth] ye all should draw my portrait 4 8 8 ) . in the Immaculate Sphere. gzugs. 38§ | ^ A —-— (kasyacid . hgah yañ (= kaścid). Cf. Of these [painters] engaged in this work. C. Here (in SMS). Now. /\\. J^. ( U ^ 8 -9J f^ ^ * . — ^ Z —" 'HI % tadātmakam bhavati. Buddhahood and pftrvāna. = # s *i B 480) 3) acintya. C. BGŚ 8 1 2 c : ^ ^ C . om. T. Cf. C. zin-pa (to apprehend). K 3. T . the Perfectly Enlightened Ones identify themselves with Nirvana 4 8 0 ) . are endowed with inseparable properties. 7JN * ^ . The Parable of the Painters. 4) viśuddhi. C. T. no one 4 8 1 ) can realize Nirvana apart from Buddhahood. C. // 89 // Then the painters. [ 263 ] . therefore. C. t h o u g h t h e former is often used). . t o draw. the Buddhas are possessed of all kinds of properties since they have accomplished 4 8 2 ) the Non-substantiahty endowed with all sorts of excellency 4 8 3 ) . na). pratikrti. T . would be b e t t e r in sense. T. ras. j j | (î>£) i t ] H .The o Ratnagotravibhāga f properties of four kinds 4 7 9 ) . thos-gyur t h e c o m m a n d m e n t of t h e king).

> I* . T. 3) dvesa (C. (D) inserts unnecessarily one Pada between c and d of v. f|g). The Non-substantiality is called the picture 492>. // 92 // Here. Bji). 491 492 493) aparimita. TAKASAKI One would have gone abroad 4 9 0 ) . faultless 4 9 8 ) . ' C. C. vīrya. of these [excellent virtues]. etc. // 90 // Because of his absence during his being abroad This picture would remain Without the completion of all parts. 2) kaukrtya (C. 4 9 5 ) . adds one verse saying: ' One painter is absent' means the lack of one ākāra. On the basis 490) viyoga. for which C. on t h e relation of t h e 4 characteristics t o t h e Stages of Bodhisattva. Patience and other dispositions 4 9 1 ) Being endowed with all kinds of these excellencies. dhyāna. // 91 // The painters who are meant here are Charity. 3»W iSk • This is for aprameya. 5) viksepa (C. but C. 258 b. [each virtue] is to be known as being ' pure '. T . 4) kausīdya (C. \X • These are the so-called sat—pāramitāh. through practice by means of Meditation on the Nonsubstantiality endowed with all sorts of excellencies. where they can get the knowledge of the Path which is indiscriminative. ākāra. ma tshan (incomplete). C. T. Now 4 9 6 ) . Because of this realization. anutpattika-dharma. 7^E)î a r e vipaksas of dāna. [Bodhisattvas can] ascend to their 8th Stage called Acalā (Immovable). om. -jftÇ* T. 496) Hereafter. Morals. without any break and bearing its own taste 4 9 9 ) . T. mala. 3RT £ E I S 3o> ( = anutpattika-dharma-ksānti). 92. 49S > 1) mātsarya (C. the Non-origination of [all] the elements 4 9 7 ) is realized. d 6) moha (C. ^ an f ^ ) . ' non-completion of the king's portrait' means the non-endurance of the knowledge of non-substantiality. /f\ PuL). C. BGŚ 8 1 3 > . T. in the form of ' envy '. om. charity and the rest. 5Sv | H i (without interruption). it should be known as being ' inconceivable ' and. Thus the parable is made.J. ksānti. Therefore. śila. each one is differentiated into limitless varieties in accordance with the Buddha's Sphere [of activity]. it should be known as 'immeasurable' 4 9 3 ) . 494 > T. and prajñā. MSbh (P). skyon med-pa (without defect). mi-skye-bahi chos-ñid. saying: de-la mñon-par sbyin rnams-kyi. respectively. â [ 264 ] f£^ (natural). Cf. tshad med-pa. the 2nd of the 4 characteristics. \$f /§»). has it. having exterminated the remaining force of pollutions 4 9 4 ) by its enemies. On account of its number and power. C. 498) 497) niśchidra.

On the basis of this knowledge. ŚMS 219 c (after the explanation of ' caturākāraguna ' of the Tathâgata): C. mthoñ-ba. they are said to be far from the Sphere of the Nirvana 5 0 5 ) characterized as being indivisible from the accomplishment of the properties of the [above mentioned] four kinds. Immediately after this stage. the foundations of these Stages [above Acalā]. reads brgya-stoñ ( = śatasahasra). tha-dad-med. aviparoksa. but C. and clear. is explained to soo) p. [ 265 ] . § 4. radiant. the Wisdom and the Liberation Are [respectively] bright. T.o r samudra. T. C. // 93 // That which is indicated as the Sphere of the Nirvana characterized as being inseparable from the accomplishment of four kinds of properties through the Intellect. On the Stage of Bodhisattva called Sādhumati /perfect Knowledge). The Intellect. the 4 inconceivability' of Buddhas' properties is completed. ' to be '. On the Bodhisattva's [last] Stage called Dharmameghā. the entireness of Buddhas ' properties in the Immaculate Sphere is completed. (as Parasmaipada). and the disk of the sun. Cf. the Wisdom and the Liberation. 504) 605) 506 > abheda. aiming at the acquisition of the Stage of Buddha. T. gsañ-ba. ffî£ . by means of immeasurable forms of Meditation and magic formulas like the ocean 5 0 0 ) . C. calls t h i s jñāna ' śūnya(tā)-j ñāna ' (^-r^ ^ 3 ). 5ft Bill • samdrśyate. Similarity of the Buddhahood to the Sun. C. T. ^ J . The rays. 501) 502) C. they can obtain the knowledge 5 0 1 ) for assuming the immeasurable properties of the Buddha.The Ratnagotravibhāga f this knowledge. they are similar to the light. the highest ' purity ' of Buddhas' properties is completed. As the Arhats and the Pratyekabuddhas cannot perceive 5 0 4 ) these four knowledges. Therefore. T. 603 > guhya. the 4 immeasurability ' of [Buddhas'] properties is completed. Ikog-tu ma gyur-pa. on the basis of knowledge which leads to the liberation from all impediments on account of Defilements and Knowables along with their remaining forces. basing himself upon the knowledge revealing 5 0 2 ) the secret 5 0 3 ) state of all the Buddhas. And they are inseparable 5 0 6 ) from [the Absolute Essence].

tathāgatatva = buddhatva. etc. through its engaging in the destruction of darkness [that hides] the highest true essence of everything cognizable. within the Essence [of the Buddha] which is endowed with 5 1 3 ) the virtuous qualities as its own nature constantly associated 5 1 4 ) since beginningless time. the true introspection 5 1 7 ) by the Intellect 5 1 8 ) free from attachment and of no 507) kārana i n t h e t e x t .. and instead has anāsrava. T. ñe-bar gnas-pa ( = upasthita). There is no attainment of Nirvana. śes-bya thams-cad-kyi ye-śes (sarvajñeyajñāna). 1) The transcendental Intellect which is supermundane and indis criminative is. through its penetrating everything knowable of all kinds. T. by three aspects 507> on account of the Intellect. prsthalabdha. there exists the essential nature 5 1 5 ) of the indivisible properties of Tathāgatas. om. yon-tan mam-par dbyer-med-pahi chos-ñid 613) 512) yin-pa. T. 514) sāmnidhya. without the acquisition of Buddhahood. // 94 // Thus. TAKASAKI have similarity to the sun in four aspects. i. -tva. 508) ( T . has ' § J U ' . sañs-rgyas-kyi rgyud-la mñah-ba. from sāmnidhya up to upahite. J H | P | . 616) avinirbhāga-gunadharmatva. buddhasāntānika. Therefore. nir V vri-> P a n nibbajjeti). nirvrjya (fr. and 4) As these three are undifferentiated from the Absolute Essence. om. om. prajñā. dra-ba.rjes-lathob-pa. T. C. 3) The Liberation of the Innate Mind. T. {J^ =Ef (— dharmakāya).J. Therefore. C. respectively. upahita. darśana. namely. the basis of the above two (Intellect and Wisdom).e. S18 > T. and by one [in general]. Here in the Buddha's body 5 0 8 ) . rnam-pa). spañs-nas. jñāna-darśana. for which C. C. ' tribhir ekena ca kāranena '. C. Avoiding 5 1 2 ) its light and rays. T. om. ye-śes-kyi gzigs-pa. C. 2) The Wisdom of Omniscience 509> 510) which is attained subsequently is. 616) 617) For dharmatva. I t is preferably corrected. has a resemblance to the purity of the disk of the sun through its being perfectly free from pollution and its being radiant. -dañ Idan-pa. there is a similarity to the light and others through their indivisibility [from the sun]. [ 266 ] . C. C. T. Just as it is impossible to see the sun. akin to the radiance of the net 5 1 1 ) of rays. ^ ^ ^^j . into ākāra.T. akin to the light [of the sun]. o m . simply |g (in comparison with prajñā 510) S11 > jāla. C. C. T. without exception. T. unless the Buddhahood 5 1 6 ) . j^p 1 <£C =*7 • * %)J ^t)« 509 > sarvajña-jñāna.

[In other words]. b u t C. with Wisdom 519 523) O Lord. is understood. (DAS 894 a). that there is only one way of the One Vehicle. > ŚMS 220 b. true introspection through the liberation of equality. just as we cannot see the disk of the sun without a 5l9) perceiving its light and rays. ' hina—pranlta—dharmānām (Bahuvrīhi comp. T .The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a hindrance. we cannot say we get one result on the basis of higher or lower causes. therefore she (= Śrlmālādevl) said). there is no acquisition of the Nirvana for [those who maintain] the inferiority or superiority of [all] the elements 5 2 0 ) . it is said : " O Lord. it is for those who have the Wisdom of equality. rig-pa. If there were a difference among the causes. V$ . of equal taste. i. o m . 0 The acquisition of the Nirvana is. It runs as follows: " I t should be known. there should be another nirvana than this.e. has i t . [it is of one and the same] taste and Liberation " . Therefore. or those who have attained the Therefore. 621 * B22) sama—vimukti. How may it be possible for the superior nirvana and the inferior nirvana to exist within one dharmadhātu? Also. 6!!3 > vidyā. there would also be a difference among the results " . That is to say. have the liberation of equality 521) Lord. T . dhātu.). prior to the quotation has an interpretation of this subject. the acquisition will not take place. (Lit. available [only] to [those who know] the equality of all the elements. C. [ 267 ] . O Lord. S20 DAS also quotes the same passage and. If otherwise. it is said the Sphere 5 2 2 ) of the Nirvana is of unique taste. furthermore. the realization of the Sphere of Nirvana characterized as the liberation from ll the impediments. those who .

. Thus have been explained the characteristics Of the Matrix of the Buddha from 10 aspects. 467 6. T. T . rig-par bya-ba-ñid. And hereafter. C. 3) 4 7) 8) 9) So T. 66. with reference to the fact that the covering of defilements is essentially unconnected 5 ) [with the Innate Mind] although associating with 6 ) it since the beginningless time 7 ) . 5) asambaddha. x) 2) 2) 3) C. (f8& # p 1 f r •§?' :$£). T h i s f o r m u l a (aparântakotisama-dhruvadharmatā-samvidyamānatā) is. with reference to the existence of the Essential Nature . ñe-bar gnas-pa (upasthita). this Matrix. n. ^ samvidyamānatā. C. See my Introduction. Now.IX. likewise associating since the beginningless time. 8) sāmnidhya. j [ 268 ] . C. The 9 Illustrations according to the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra. m ® t S 0 Î 1 8 PO I S A • Cf. phyi-mahi mthahi mu dan mtshuñs—pa. TGS 457a-460 6. anādi-. 4) as eternal as the ultimate limit [of the world] . chos-ñid. (thog-ma med-pahi dus-nas) and C. om. by 9 illustrations based upon the Scripture 8 ) . dharmatā. it should be understood. But S. Like honey surrounded by bees. BGŚ 806 c-808 c. C. originally taken from AAN. together with the next two formulae (on kleśakośatā and śubhadharmatā). n o t clear. VzC flU • * aparântakoti—sama. that the Matrix of the Tathāgata is concealed by the limitless 9 ) coverings of defilements. and the pure Essential Nature. For aparyanta . T . // 95 // Thus.. is essentially connected with it [as being its own nature]. T . ' covered ' in the meaning. T. Which are the 9 illustrations? (Kārikās 27-57) Like the Buddha in an ugly lotus flower. koti. C. we have hitherto explained the characteristics of the Matrix of the Tathāgata from 10 points of view. as concealed by the covering of defilements Is to be known by the following illustrations. THE 9 ILLUSTRATIONS ON THE GERM COVERED WITH DEFILEMENTS « § 1. ma hbrel-ba.

C. T. husk. ' jaghanya. Like the bark of a fruit. gold. But still there was the Buddha sitting within each flower. ' jathala. Were abiding in the inside 1 8 ) a faded lotus flower. • - la) 13 14 ' nrpatva. honey. susâra. 12 Like an image of the Buddha wrapped in a tattered ' garment. In such a way. T h e s t o r y given i n t h e S ū t r a is as follows: Once t h e L o r d . Jp|p $flfl -3Î. . etc. (cakravartin). Like gold fallen into impurities.The Like kernels of 10) Ratnagotravibhāga grains covered by the husk.hi khoñ gnas-pa. . the Highest Lord of the world. // 98 // 16) . The (I) excellent Essence has a resemblance to them. C. but all at once they became faded and began to give a bad smell. ^ . They came to blossom at the same time. mi-bdag. Then the Lord started his pronouncement on the Essence of the Tathāgata abiding within each living being. 16 18) 16) garbha-vestita. the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to the Buddha 1 7 ) . Like a woman of misery. ^ ($£ ^ ) . treasure. T . pollutions are like A lotus flower. T. and like earth tormented by the fire of pains. [In these illustrations]. The edible part of grains. ñan ( u g l y ) . shining with a thousand marks [of virtue]. praklinna = pūti (v. Like the kinghood in the womb of a poor And like a precious statue in the earthen mould. And the Buddha. x1 ' alpa—phala. lto[-ba] (belly).. showed a miracle. C. There appeared thousands of lotus flowers having the apparitional Buddha within and shining with splendour fragrant. T . T G S 457 c. Bodhisattvas were surprised at this sight and asked the Lord for the explanation of this miracle. grown from a small fruit U ) . In the living beings obscured by occasional stains of defilements. hrul. 10) sāra. sñiñ-po. {EE • • • T ^ . ^ ^ . T . aīpd). hbras—chuñs. [ 269 ] C. (om. cleaned kernels And a purified precious statue. 98) T . A Nyagrodha tree. T. C. and Suppose the Buddha.. Like a sprout. a precious image. 17) Cf. sitting in the assembly of Bodhisattvas. like a tattered garment. This idea of the origination of the Tathāgata is probably borrowed from the Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa of t h e Avatamsaka. 98). impurities and the ground. there abides this Essence // 97 // 13) 14) 15) // 96 // woman. bees. . The Defilements are like the ugly sheath of lotus flowers. J g ^ Jfjç @ ^ |H!2 (poor a n d u g l y ) . jfr1] j§£ ^ — dvipâgrâdhipa (v. C. Like a treasure under the ground.

Suppose a clever person. ) . 23) 24) And kills its Obscurations because of Compassion. C. rab-tu spoñ-ba ( = prahāna). | M | i3>u (as T . — // 102 // Similarly. hjoms-pa. sgrib-pa ( = āvarana). 23) 24) nivarana. Accomplishes the non-connection 2 7 ) of t h e Essence With t h e bees-like obscurations. reads jalaruha as locative. having seen Honey surrounded b y 2 6 ) cloudy bees. T. C. similar t o T . covered with the sheath of stains. C. T.4 5 8 a . completely. The Matrix of the Buddha.|?§). 26) 27) 28) upagūdha (concealed).(ffl EÎ3 "ftfe = nayuta. TAKASAKI And a man of immaculate divine sight would perceive him And release him from the sheath of p e t a l s 1 9 ) of lotus. standing at the utmost limit 2 0 ) and being full of Compassion He releases them from the obscurations. Would deprive t h e bees completely of it. T . C. C. reads padma instead of pattra. T. // 100 // Just as a person of divine sight perceives A faded 2 1 ) and ugly lotus flower and the Buddha within it. etc. T . Desire. // 101 // (II) The Defilements are like honey-bees. T. 22 > C. Q |* ffi ffl E& "fill. aślesa. bskor (surrounded). t h e Great Sage. 19) 20 pattra. 7fâ Tfp .. ] H ^ 'Q.J. Perceives his own nature even in those who are in the lowest world And. nir\Jhan. In t h e same way. being immaculate. And rends asunder t h e petals [in order to draw him out]. possessed of the eyes of the Omniscience. instead of accusative in S. // 103 // Just as a man who is desirous of getting honey Hidden by thousands. millions 2 8 ) of bees. |Vij£ ( t o r e m o v e ) . bya-ba khrab-khrig ston (niyuta-koti-sahasra). Perceiving this Essence known as akin to honey. as S. > = being eternal (C. C. [ 270 ] . 2l) sammiñjita. and t h e Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to the h o n e y 2 5 ' . "> Cf. T G S 4 5 7 c . with his Buddha's eyes. t h e Lord. ^ g . ' kleśa '. the Lord perceives t h e world. And wishing to get it. sahasra-koti-niyuta. — // 99 / / Similarly. Hatred 22>. Here pattra stands for kośa. T . with skillful means. T. T . reads analogically ' ^ £ ^ ^ ' (petals). for niyuta). thum[-pa] (something packed or wrapped up).

f | $ . Does not become one who can grant the pleasurable taste of the Doctrine. ft § ^ V£ fE • [ 271 ] . In the same way. jfjj . The Buddha. of madhu (neut. (Is i t a special form in some P r a k r i t or m e r e l y a wrong reading of madhunā?). C. which gives a b e t t e r sense. C. p. a r e hbru. As long as it is unreleased from the husk and not cleaned well 3 4 \ Cannot be the sweet edible for the people. C. Those who wish to utilize it as food and the like 3 2 ) Take it out from the husk. like that man. the immaculate Wisdom in the living beings Is like honey. 30) T h e form madhvā as i n s t .// vinihatya (fr. See J's note 1 on S. T h e last o n e . (III) The Defilements are like the outer husk. t h e i r equiv a l e n t s are n o t so clear. T G S 458 a. wheat. 33) kañguka-śāli-kodrava-yava-vrihi. And unless it is freed from the association of stains of Defilements. bra-bo. All these a r e varieties of grains. 62. > dharmûśvara. The kernel of grains covered with the husk Cannot be eaten by any person. and the Defilements are like bees. barley. C. 31 > Cf. the religious king 3 5 ) residing in the living beings. hbru ( t h e second one 29) is a kind of wheat). Similarly. ^ § . B u t T . 32 ' annâdibhir (inst.) is peculiar. t o remove). sālu. sel-ba. sg. It cannot perform the Acts of Buddha in the 3 Spheres. T . and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to the inner kernel 31 '. To the people who are afflicted by the hunger of Defilements. //106// Just as the kernel of grains like rice. nas. the Buddhahood in the living beings Is polluted with the stains of Defilements.3 3 ) . gra-ma-can legs-par ma bgrus (having hairs and not yet cleaned) (bgrus means ' to step on the bag filled with corns in order to remove the husk). knows how to remove the stains. for which T . | f ^ff . etc. Having his feature unreleased from the husk of Defilements. bsal te (fr. //107// 1/104.The R at n a g ot r av i b h ā ga and makes Drives the bees away 2 9 ) use of the honey 3 0 ) as he wishes.) is g r a m m a t i c a l l y peculiar (usually i n l o c ) . ^ %r (killing). ^ 3 5 }§? fâ . vrihi seems t o s t a n d for corn or grain i n general. — // 105 // Similarly. vi-ni\Jhan). T. & C. 34 ' khādy-asusamskrta. respectively.

XII. 42) . Also cf. which is p r o b a b l y a m i s r e a d i n g for ' kun-tu dag-par bya phyir '. C. C. without changing its quality. Suppose a traveller would happen to drop 38) A piece of gold in a place filled with impurities . // 111 // (V) The Defilements are like the underground 43) of the Tathāgata is akin to a treasure of jewels . and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to gold 37) . 42) tola. 0 . T . r e a d s ' kun-tu dgah-bar by a phyir ' (in order t o g l a d d e n them. However this man might not know about that treasure. B u t C. ) . — // 108 // Then a god possessed of immaculate divine eyes Would see it there and tell a man: — Here is a piece of gold. fresh 39) and the highest of precious things. 43 > Cf.g y i s ) i n s t e a d of malāt. T. mthil (depth). // 110 // Just as a god. the most beautiful one. T. T. i t .J . Teaches the Doctrine to the living beings in order to purify the treasure. p. TAKASAKI (IV) The Defilements are like a dirty place 3 6 ) filled with impurities. 36) [ 272 ] . And pours the rain of the Doctrine over the living beings In order to wash off that dirt of defilements. 37 > Cf. Ijan-ljin-kyi gnas. — // 109 // Similarly. om. And the gold would stay there for many hundreds of years As it were. TGS 458 b. simply ' impurities '. Would show it to the people in order to purify 4 0 ) it from dirt 4 1 ) . MPS (Taisho. 40) T . 407 b). Ijan-ljin rul-bahi gnas. You should purify it and make use of it as a treasure. r e a d s ' bālāt' ( n a n . 41) T . samkāra-dhāna. perceiving a piece of gold. 39 > nava. perceiving the treasure of the Buddha in the living beings Which is fallen into a big pit of impurities of defilements. the Buddha perceives the quality of living beings Drowned in the Defilements which are like impurities. TGS 458 a-b. In the same way. Fallen into a dirty place filled with impurities. samkāra is replaced in verses by samkara. o m . & C. the Buddha. as S. and the Essence Suppose there were an inexhaustible treasure Under the ground within the house of a poor man. 38) samkara-pūti-dhāna. dhāna stands here for ādhāna.

The

R at na got r av ib h ā ga

And the latter could not say to him 4 I am here '; — // 112 // Similarly, though there is a treasure of immaculate jewel, The inconceivable, inexhaustible 44) properties in the mind, The living beings of the world, without knowing it, Constantly 4 5 ) experience the suffering of poverty in various ways. // 113 // Just as a treasure of jewels in the house of a poor man Would not say to him 4 1 am here ', Nor the man could know ' here is a treasure of jewels '; Likewise is the treasure of properties dwelling in the house of the mind 4 6 ) , And the living beings are like a poor man; To enable those people to obtain this treasure, The Sage makes his appearance in the world. // 114 // (VI) The Defilements are like the bark-covering [of a seed], and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to the germ within a seed 4 7 ) . Just as the germ of a seed inside the fruit of trees Of Mango, Tāla 4 8 ) , etc. is of an imperishable nature, And, being sowed in the ground, by contact with water, etc., Gradually attains the nature of the king of trees; — // 115 // In the same way, the pure Absolute Essence, abiding in the living beings, Covered by the sheath within the bark of the fruit of ignorance and the like, [Grows] gradually by the help of this and that virtue And obtains [finally] the state of the king of Sages. // 116 // Conditioned by water, by the light of the sun, By air, soil, time and space, From within the husk of the fruit of the Tāla or mango There comes out a tree; Similarly, the germ of the seed of the Buddha, Residing within the bark of the fruit, the defilements of living beings,
44)

aksayya ( = aksaya), ajasram, T . rgyun-tu, C. o m . 46) R e m i n d of a similarity w i t h t h e ālayavijñāna theory. 47 > Cf. T G S 458 c. 48) T . o m . tāla, C. s i m p l y ' v a r i o u s kinds of t r e e '.
45)

[ 273 ]

J. TAKASAKI

Thrives by the help of this and that virtue, Resulting in the tree 49> of the Highest Truth. // 117 // (VII) The Defilements are like a tattered garment, and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to a precious image 5 0 ) . Suppose an image of the Buddha made of precious jewels Wrapped in the tattered garment of bad smell Were cast off51) on the road, and A god, perceiving it, would speak to travellers About this matter 5 2 ) , in order to retrieve it; — // 118 // Similarly, the One who has eyes 5 3 ) of no obstacle Perceives, even among those in the world of animals 5 4 ) , The nature 5 5 ) of the Buddha concealed by the stains 5 6 ) of various kinds of Defilements, And, for the sake of its liberation [from Defilements], Provides the means 5 7 ) [of deliverance]. // 119 // Just as a god with divine eyes, seeing the Buddha's image Wrapped in a bad-smelling garment, and rejected 5 8 ) on the road, Would show it to the people in order to retrieve it; In the same way the Lord, perceiving even among animals, The Essence [of the Buddha] thrown on the road of transmigration,

40) vitapa (small plant), T. hthon (coming out), C. \Jp y C f £ JX1 for dharmavitapa. so) Q£t XGS 458 c-459 a. The story given in the Sūtra is as follows: There was a person who kept one golden image of the Buddha. He was on the way to another country along a dangerous path. For fear of robbers, he wrapped that image in tattered garment so that nobody could notice of it. As this person passed all of a sudden on the way, the image was abandoned in a field and left unknown to travellers who thought it merely a dirty cloth of no value. There happened to come a man of divine eyes, who, recognizing the image within the tattered garment, picked it up out of the garment and saluted it.

61)
62) 63) 64) S5) 66) 87)

F o r ujjhita, T . gnas (placed), C. ^ £ or E J [ / £ £ (fallen) in v. 120.
etam artham (this thing). T . o m . caksuh, w h i c h C. h a s . C. ' in the lowest world (avici) '. ātmabhāva, T. dños-po (nature), C. [KH yjv] -*J" ( = kāya). T. om. mala, which C. has.

abhyupāya, T. thabs, C. ~/J ]§*,. For vidadhāti, T. ston-mdsad, C. fij (preaches the highest doctrine). B8) ujjñita in the text should be corrected into ujjhita.

t 274 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a

With the covering of the tattered garment of Defilements, Taught the Doctrine for the sake of its deliverance. // 120 // (VIII) The Defilements are like a pregnant woman 59 ' and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to an Emperor contained in the Embryonal elements 6 0 ) . Suppose an ugly woman without a protector 6 1 ) Were abiding in an orphanage 62) , And, bearing the glory of royalty as an embryo 6 3 ) , Might not know the king in her own womb 6 4 ) . // 121 // The generation of worldly existence is like an orphanage, Like a pregnant 6 5 ) woman are the impure living beings, And the immaculate Essence in them is like that embryo 6 6 ) , Owing to the existence of which, they become possessed of protection. // 122 // Just as a woman, whose body is covered with a dirty garment And having ugly features, experiences in an orphanage, The greatest pain when the king is in her womb; Similarly the living beings abiding in the house of misery, And whose mind is not quiet by the power of Defilements, Imagine themselves without a protector Though the good protectors 6 7 ) are residing in their own bodies. // 123 //

āpanna-sattva-nārl, T . sems-can shugs-pahi an e m b r y o ) , sattva here m e a n s a n e m b r y o .
60)

59)

mi-mo

(a w o m a n w h o is b e a r i n g kalala is

kalala-mahābhūtagata. For kalala, T. mer-mer-po, C. flf/V #lâ [3&E]« t h e first s t a g e of e m b r y o . Of t h i s e x a m p l e , cf. T G S 459 a.
61)

anātha (Lit. without a protector) T. mgon-med, C. j|J\ $ § • (^* m e a n s 'abandoned by her husband', or ' widow '). 62) anātha-āvasatha, T . mgon-med hbug-gnas, = anātha-śāla ( T . . . . khyim), anātha( T . . . . khañ-pa), C. ^ ^ 3§«J " | § * . garbha, T . mñal. mñal m e a n s ' w o m b ' a n d n o t ' e m b r y o ' , b u t h e r e garbha seems to m e a n e m b r y o . See below. 64) kuksu, T . he (centre), C. ' inside of b o d y '. veśman
63) 65) 66)

antarvat,

T . mñal-ldan

(garbhavat),

C. | f ! t ) j o (possessed of e m b r y o ) . ( = garbha-sthita, t h a t w h i c h is within

tad-garbhavat.

F o r garbha, T . mñal-gnas

t h e w o m b ) , C. ^ ^
67)

T ^ JjP ( e m b r y o w i t h i n t h e w o m b ) . T . mgon-bcas, C. >^J mfi fvC &&. • B o t h t a k e s i t as sanātha.

sannātha,

[ 275 ]

J. TAKASAKI

(IX) The Defilements are like an earthen mould 6 8 ) and the Essence of the Tathāgata is akin to a golden statue 6 9 ) . Suppose a man who knows [how to make a statue], Seeing that the statue, filled with melted gold inside And covered with clay outside, had become cool, Would, for purifying the inner gold, remove the outer covering; — // 124 // Similarly, the One who has got the highest Enlightenment, Perceiving always 7 0 ) the radiance of the Innate Mind And the occasionality of the stains, Purifies the world, which is like a mine of jewels, from obstructions. // 125 // Just as a statue made of pure, shining gold Would become cool within the earthen covering, And, knowing this, a skillful jewel-maker would remove the clay; In the same way the Omniscient perceives that The Mind 71) , which is like pure gold, is quiescent 72) , And, by means of a stroke 73) [called] the method of teaching the He removes the obscurations. // 126 // Doctrine 7 4 ) , The summarized meaning of the illustrations is as follows: Inside a lotus flower, amidst bees, Inside the husk, impurities, and the ground, Within the bark of a fruit, within a tattered garment, In the womb of a woman, and inside clay, respectively, Like the Buddha, like honey, like the kernel of grains, Like gold, like a treasure, and like a tree, Like a precious image, like the Emperor, And like a golden statue, // 128 // The Innate Mind of the living beings Which is pure from beginningless time,
68)

// 127 //

89

mrt-pañka-lepa, T. sahi hdam gos-pa, C. > Cf. TGS 459 a-b. 70) T. om. sadā, which C. has.
71

> manas, T. yid, C. ^fC J 2 . |y|j |zfc • manas here stands for cittaprakrti. ^ (firmly). C. ^*[£ ( h a m m e r ) . prahāra, T . brdeg-spyad,

72

> For Siva, C. f | |

73) 74)

dharmâkhyāna-naya, T. chos-hchad-tshul, C. îpt V S •

[ 276 ]

The

R at n a got r av ib h ā ga

And is not bound by the covering of Defilements, Though being within them from the outset is thus illustrated 7 5 ) . // 129 // In brief, by this explanation of the illustrations given in the Tathāgatagarbha-sūtra, there is shown the fact that, for all living beings, the defiling elements [which cover] over their mind from the beginningless time are [merely] of an accidental nature, whereas the purifying elements existing in the mind since beginningless time were born together [with the mind], and hence, they are of an indivisible nature 7 6 ) . Therefore, it is said 7 7 ) : " Owing to the impurities on the Mind, the living beings are defiled; owing to the Mind [itself], pure [by nature], they are purified ". § 2. 9 Kinds of Defilements — the Impurities on the Mind
78)

.

Here, which are the impurities on the Mind, with reference to which the 9 illustrations, a sheath of lotus flower, &c, have been explained? Desire, Hatred and Ignorance 7 9 ) , and their intense outburst, [Ignorance in] the form of Impression 80>
75)

C. a b b r e v i a t e s t h e s e 3 verses i n t o two b y avoiding r e p e t i t i o n of t h e 9 e x a m p l e s . a n d cittaprakrti b y using ' ^pj ' for t h e former

C. distinguishes t h e s i t u a t i o n of kleśas

and ' -£3- JEp ' (endowed w i t h ) for t h e l a t t e r . 76) H e r e is given t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n citta-samkleśa-dharma and citta-vyavadānadharma, n a m e l y t h e former is merely āgantuka, while t h e l a t t e r is sahaja a n d avinirbhāga, a l t h o u g h b o t h are anādisāmnidhya (S. p . 5 9 , 1 . 12 ff.) w i t h sattvas. This c o n t r a s t is explained in a previous passage b y t h e t e r m s asambaddha a n d sambaddha. 77) T h e source of t h i s q u o t a t i o n is u n k n o w n , b u t we h a v e a similar expression i n the Vimalakîrti-nirdeśa (Taisho, X V , 563 b). This i d e a seems t o be q u i t e old a n d p e r h a p s we c a n t r a c e b a c k i t s origin as far as t h e P a l i N i k ā y a s (e.g. SN I I I , 151). 78 > Cf. B G Ś 806 c.
79)

C. a d d s a word ' ^*y 7fcf| ', of which t h e e q u i v a l e n t in S k t . is n o t clear. P r o b a b l y

it s t a n d s for anuśaya or bandhana (literally ' ^ R f£fp| ' is near t o bandhana, b u t in t h e comm e n t a r y , these t h r e e kleśas are said to be in t h e s t a t e of anuśaya, a n d f u r t h e r m o r e , bandhana is usually rendered in Chinese b y ' /£n 151 % while in this t e x t , t h e same ' flip (JJ^' (or / { | Q ) is often used for anuśaya. If so, even m o r e curious is t h e use of this ' jppf > | | Q ' for tivra-paryavasthāna in this verse. I t seems q u i t e wrong. F o r paryavasthāna, T . has kun-ldan ( = kun-nas Idañ-ba) (— paryutthāna). See v. 137. 80) H e r e vāsanā s t a n d s for avidyāvāsabhūmi. See prose c o m m e n t a r y on this verse. This use of vāsanā seems to s u p p o r t t h e T i b e t a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e t e r m avidyāvāsabhūmi. See N o t e V I I I - 1 1 2 .

[ 277 ]

J. TAKASAKI

The pollutions [which are to be removed by 8 1 ) ] The Path of Perception and that of Practice 8 2 ) , And those remaining in the impure and the pure Stages [of Bodhisattva, respectively], // 130 // These 9 kinds of [defilements] are illustrated By the example of the sheath of a lotus flower and others; In their variety, however, the coverings of Defilements 8 3 ) Extend beyond the limit of extremity in number. // 131 // In brief, these 9 kinds of Defilements make always their appearance [on the Essence of the Tathāgata] as the incidental [attachment]8 4 ) , although the latter is perfectly pure by nature, just like the sheath of a lotus flower [covering] over the Buddha's image, and other examples. What are the 9 Defilements? They are, namely: 1) the Defilement characterized as the dormant state 8 5 ) of Desire (rāgânuśayalaksana-kleśa); 2) the Defilement characterized as the dormant state of Hatred (dvesânuśayalaksana-k.); 3) the Defilement characterized as the dormant state of Ignorance (mohânuśayalaksana~k.); 4) the Defilement characterized as the intense outburst of Desire, Hatred and Ignorance (tīvrarāgadvesamohaparyavasthānalasana-k.); 5) the Defilement contained in the Dwelling Place of Ignorance (avidyāvāsabhūmisamgrhīta-k.); 6) the Defilement to be extirpated by means of Perception (darśanaprahātavya-k.); 7) the Defilement to be extirpated by means of Practice (bhāvanāprahātavya-k.); 8) the Defilement remaining in the impure Stage [of Bodhisattva] (aśuddhabhūmigata-k.); & 9) the Defilement remaining in the pure Stage [of Bodhisattva] (śuddhabhūmigata-k.) 8 6 ) .

81

' T. inserts spoñs (= hey a, prahātavya) after mārga. It is better for understanding. drñ-mārga-bhāvanā. upasamkleśa, But T. & C, in usual order of darśana-bhāvanā-mārga. ñon-moñs, C. , K | | jpSa . T . ñe-bahi

82)

83)

86
86

> anuśaya, T. bag-la ñal, C. ^ (BGŚ |5f| > For these 9, T., C. & BGŚ have as follows (BGŚ in parentheses): 1) hdod—chags bag—la ñal—gyi mtshan—ñid—kyi ñon—moñs—pa, J ^ [§^ J^\ |pq «

m n m. m is*

2) *«*.*, m m ® t i . <ffi BE B« m m*
3) Pi-mug, M fâ. 'JR t i , M SS M ® 1%;

4) hdod-chags dañ she-sdañ dañ gti-mug drag-pos kun-nas Idañ-bahi mtshan-ñid,

S t i , (M B m ^ S S -t 'li'SR* «
[ 278 ]

The

Ratnagotravibhāga

Now first of all, l)-3), there are those Defilements which are in the bodies 8 7 ) of those worldly people who are freed from 8 8 ) Desire, and, being the causes of Forces which accumulate the motionless State 8 9 ', give rise to the Material and the Immaterial Sphere, and which are to be killed 9 0 ) by means of the Supermundane Wisdom. These are here termed the Defilements characterized as the dormant state of Desire, Hatred and Ignorance. 4) Next, we have those Defilements which exist in the bodies of those living beings who indulge in Desire and the rest, and which, being the cause of Forces that accumulate merit and demerit, give rise only to the Sphere of Desire, and are to be killed by means of the Wisdom, [obtained] through the Contemplation of Impurity 9 1 ) , etc. They are called the Defilements characterized as the intense outburst of Desire, Hatred and Ignorance. Then, 5) there are those Defilements which are in the bodies of the Arhats, and, being the cause that produces the Immaculate Actions, result in the birth of the pure Body made of mind, and are to be killed by the Tathāgata's Wisdom of Enlightenment. These are called the Defilements contained in the Dwelling Place of Ignorance 9 2 ) . There are two kinds of individuals who undergo training [on the

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sāntānika, (of santāna, lit. flux, stream), T. rgyud-la yod-pa, C. vita, T. -dan bral-ba. C. failed to catch the sense, but BGŚ {|ft âniñjya-samskārâpacaya T . mi-gyo-bahi hdu-byed-la sogs-pa, ^\.

88) 89)

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jy\ 3^v. About āniñjya ( = anijya, aniñjya, Pali ānejja), see BHS Die. s. v. Along with punya and apunya, this āninjya forms samskāra which accumulates the Phenomenal Existence (bhava). See below.
90) 91

vadhya, T . gshom-par bya-ba, C. Hflf. ' aśuddhabhāvanā (text reading bhāva should be corrected), T. mi sdug-pahi sgom-

pa, C. /f* ^ Î H . See BHS Die. s. v., Mvyut. 52. 92) About avidyāvāsabhūmi, anāsravakarman and manomayakāya, see Note VIII112, 115. (where Bodhisattva is also included in this group).

[ 279 ]

21 & 55). It seems to be a good interpretation of this prathama. these are called the Defilements remaining in the pure Stage [of Bodhisattva]. They may be called ' bodhisattvayānika '. ^ C EĪ JĪ^L *gî ' (anādikālâdrstapūrva) before prathama. i. 8) Those which are in the body of Bodhisattvas who have not reached the ultimate perfection. yathādrsta.J. those which are not exterminated by the Wisdom attained in the first 7 Stages. That is to say. 3?M J^Q J ^ J (yathā-pūrvadrsta). Mahāyānist. and which are the enemy to the Wisdom [attained] on the [first] 7 Stages 9 6 ) and are to be killed by means of the Wisdom [obtained through] the Practice of the 3 Stages beginning with the 8th. See above. But usually the attainment of darśanamārga is said to take place on the 1st Stage of Bodhisattva. ' prathama ' means that this darśana has never been observed by the Hīnayānists and is to be attained ' for the first time ' by the Mahāyānist. in comparison with no. 94 ' T. and which are the enemy to the Wisdom [attained through] the Practice on the (last) 3 Stages beginning with 8th and are to be killed by means of the Wisdom [of the Buddha. i. 'ārya\ here. in comparison with ' yathādrsta ' in the next. 8. [Lastly there are two kinds of Defilements associating with Bodhisattwas].But BGŚ inserts ' 3f|§ $pj I . seems to denote those Bodhisattvas who are below the 1st Stage. C. not a verse at all. T. 7) the Defilements which exist in the body of the Saints training on the Path and which are to be killed by the Wisdom [obtained through] the Transcendental Practice of the Truth according to their [Transcendental] Perception 95> are called the Defilements to be extirpated by Practice. 6) the Defilements which exist in the body of ordinary beings training on the Path and which are to be killed by the Wisdom [obtained through] the first 94> Perception of the Transcendental Truth are termed the Defilements to be extirpated by means of Perception. ^Ts. these are called the Defilements remaining in the impure Stage [of Bodhisattva]. Paramārtha gives a detailed explanation on this subject in his commentary on BGS (BGS 807 b). Now. î | p J\.e. This passage is merely 961 95) 93) [ 280 ] . slob-pa. obtained through] the Meditation called 'the Diamond-like' 9 7 ) . These 9 8 ) śaiksa. 9) The Defilements which exist in the body of Bodhisattvas who have reached the ultimate perfection. C. It is said to be the meditation in the highest stage of practice. 97 * vajropama-samādhi. (Mvyut. as J suggested.e. C repeats lokottara and seems to render this prathama by prathamalokottaracitta ($) pj \jt ffl] 'L^). And. 98 ' The following verse is. TAKASAKI Path] 9 3 ) : a) the ordinary beings and b) the Saints. regards prathama as prathamabhūmi.

to the sheath of a lotus flower and others. Being taken in short. [these Defilements] which are differentiated into 84. The impurity [retained] in the ordinary beings. the individuals in training [on the Path]. the Buddha's image and the rest? an explanation of v. two and two kinds of pollution. it is said that the Matrix of the Tathāgata is concealed by the coverings of Defilements which extend beyond the limit of extremity in number 9 9 ) . [the next] one (the 5th) and two (the 6th & 7th) and again by two (the 8th & 9th) kinds of Pollution. 101) kleśa-mala. T G S ( T h e first f o r m u l a o n tathāgatagarbha). on account of [which they cannot identify themselves with] the Immaculate Sphere. is here explained by [the first] four. 100) Cf. 131 cd. 99) Qf^ T G S ( T h e second f o r m u l a o n tathāgatagarbha). how should the resemblance of 9 Defilements be known. beginning with Desire. 2) the Arhats. C. The Arhats. respectively. Their impurity. By these four. Desire and the rest. // 133 // It has been said by the Lord that all living beings are possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata 1 0 0 ) . one. T. respectively. in short. Now. // 132 // And. if taken in detail. ( T h e r e a d i n g garbha be corrected into garbhā iti). Are illustrated by 9 examples. fourfold: namely. On this point. (Variety of Living Beings according to their Defilements). Here.000 groups. BGŚ 807 c-808 a. 131 ab and the following sentences are those of v. 1) the ordinary beings. That of the sheath of a lotus flower and others. are as infinite as the Wisdom of the Tathāgata. 102 > Cf. § 3. therefore. Concordance between the 9 Illustrations and the 9 Defilements102'. keeps the original form. and how should the similarity be understood between the Essence of the Tathāgata and [the examples].The Ratnagotrav1bñaga Nine Defilements. respectively. 'all living beings ' are said to be. and 4) the Bodhisattvas. mala. And the Bodhisattvas is [explained]. om. 101) respectively. 3) the individuals in training [on the Path]. Perhaps iti is t o [ 281 ] .

T. C. reads ' chags dañ bcas rnams-kyi ' (kāma-avirāgi108 109 nām. egg-shell). So h a v e T . reads as jane (skye-la). T. los > sārârtha. because of their ignorance. ^ ^ . Sting sharply [and cause pain] 1 0 5 ) . And BGŚ has ' jsjP: /y\ tcL. Hatred. vasudhā-antarita. But later on [when it withers]. no) jp o r * kāmā virāginām *. // 137 // Just as the honey-bees 1 0 4 ) . // 137 // Just as the people 111 '. In a similar way. // 136 // Just as the impurities are somewhat disagreeable. 103 ' mano-rama. bsgribs—pa. being excited. C. ' C. Being characterized as devoted to [such] Passion. JQi * " P . yid-dgah. it is no more attractive.). hbras ( = vrîhi. T. T . quite artificial. being aroused. ' andakośa (lit. J\. Cannot obtain the treasure hidden under the ground 112 '. But C. Similarly. which supports the text reading. In the same way. Produces suffering in the heart. U1 ' T. is still close to S. 'nor ni bsgribs-pas na ' for this a n d ' mi-śes gter ' for ajñānād nidhi is a misreading caused b y t h e reading of jane for janāh. being a n adjective for svayambhūtvam. i n comparison with t h e illustration above. T. they bite the flowers '. 107 ' avacchanna = samcanna. Similar to it is the delight of Desire. shows this reading by repeating janāh. C. the perception of the Essential Truth 1 0 8 ) Is hindered by the covering 1091 of ignorance. 113) -phe reading * avidyāvāsabhūmy-āvrtā h a d preferably b e corrected i n t o -âvrtam. // 138 // Just as a sprout and the like.Just as the lotus flower born from the mud Is delightful103) in its first appearance. // 135 // Just as the kernel of rice 1 0 6 ) and others Are concealed 107) by the outside husk. srog-chags sbrañ-ma. C. growing gradually. they cannot obtain the Buddhahood Hindered by the Dwelling Place of Ignorance 113 '.' (virāgin) in the parallel passage. ffp 3*fî. reading ' jfj flp£ J i ^ yS* p$g ' (similar is the case with the wise man's observation of rāga). 106) For śāli. C. J^J ^ ^ . as J suggested). corn). though being far from the literal translation. T. But janāh is the subject word of āpunyur and is used for both illustrating and being illustrated. Likewise those who have got rid of desire 110) [Regard] Passion as something disagreeable. 112) [ 282 ] . 104 The analogies in the following verses seem ' bhramarāh prāninah (pi. The outburst of Passions is repulsive like impurities. & C. interprets: ' when they are making honey.

consisting of 3-fold nature. . 116) anusañga. //141 // The stains connected w i t h 1 1 9 ) the [last] 3 Stages Are known as being like t h e earthen mould. y*C H īff| " S * $ 1 1 . with each of trividha svabhāva. . being the cause for puri122) fying the Mind . Have a resemblance to a lotus flower and others. . 118 > garbha—kośa—mala. Bears a similarity to the Buddha and the rest. . Desire and the rest. j j n fy\ ffijj? . mñal—sbubs dri—ma. i. C. o m . 115) hata-satkāya-sārānām. in 9-fold. // 143 // § 4. And the Essence [of the Buddha]. rjes-hbrel T . by the Intuition of the Truth. says: ' darśanamārga removes the defilements and makes the Stages grow up gradually '. // 140 // The stains remaining in the [first] 7 Stages Are like 1 1 7 ) the impurities of the receptacle of an embryo 1 1 8 ) . mahâtman. T . respectively. their Defilements which are to be rejected By the Wisdom of Practice are said to be like a tattered garment. C. dañ mtshuñs. dañ hbrel-pa T . bdag-ñid ( = anubaddha). And are to be destroyed b y the Wisdom of the Buddhas 1 2 0 ) [Obtained through] Meditation called ' the Diamondlike '. C. C. chen-po. The 3-fold Nature of the Essence. uterus. to the image of the Buddha and so 114) The analogy is not clear. And the non-discriminative Wisdom has a resemblance To the matured form of an embryo delivered from its covering. C. | § # H . Those Defilements are removed which are to be extirpated by 114 Perception ). // 142 // Thus t h e 9 pollutions.The R at n a g ot r av i b h ā ga Break out the husk of the seed. g ft ffl" ^ >\j\ %W ^K j g | ' and connects them [ 283 ] . 7^[J ( k n o w n ) . C. $fj!f *JC • garbhakośa means 117 > prakhyā. Therefore. . ( = sambandha). . which is n o t correct. i»> Cf. "2) C. The resemblance of the Matrix of the Tathāgata. anugata. T . //139// Those who have destroyed t h e ground of conception of personallity 115> 116) Are following in the [Practice of the] Saintly P a t h . hjig-tshogs sniñ-po bcom rnams-kyi. and its Concordance with the 9 Illustrations 1 2 1 ) . sāra. BGŚ 808 a (#0 ^ H fll S tt). the Purifying Element within the Mind. T . 119) 120) C. Similarly. reads *££=(•. T . e.

those of the image of the Buddha. its being of the nature of the Germ (gotrasvabhāva) from which the 3 kinds of Buddha's Body are originated 124) [is to be understood]. & C. 126) [Namely]. how is the Absolute Body? The Absolute Body is to be known in 2 aspects. // 144 // By the 3 examples. honey and the kernel [of grains]. i. is to be understood in the reference to the 3-fold Nature (trividhah svabhāvah) of the Matrix of the Tathāgata 1 2 3 ) . . a) Dharmakāya. the precious image. 24. 124) Cf. and by [the remaining] 5 examples. 28 (S. these two different explanations of gotra are identical. C. the tree.' is t o b e corrected i n t o ' dharmadhātur B o t h T. The Reality.e. 23 (K. this Essence is to be understood as being of the nature of the Absolute Body (dharmakāya-svabhāva).SAJ4. where gotra is explained as the germ of ratnatraya. the teaching Of the profound [truth] and of the diverse guidance. [One] is the Absolute Entity which is perfectly immaculate. Here. [ 284 ] . 26). What is the 3-fold Nature? The Nature of this [Essence] is the Absolute Body. ^"]§î ^p^ HS • The following passage is a detailed explanation of v. Three. and the golden statue. that of gold. (E|[ -ffî* (which is a peculiar translation. 1231 C. as well as the Germ. // 145 // The Absolute Body of the Buddha is to be understood in 2 aspects. 27). S. By one example. . Which is known by the examples. From the viewpoint of ekayāna. p. T. [The other] is its natural outflow125). those of the treasure. v. 125) nisyanda. its being of the nature of Reality (tathathāsvabhāva). * "^r vīîi ')• This is interpreted in the commentary by ' tat-prāpti-hetu '.1 forth. rgyu-mthun. read i t as nominative. one and five. [respectively]. 27 and v. 126) ^jjg r e a d i n g ' dharmadhātor avi. 1) the perfectly pure Absolute Entity itself (dharmadhātu) .XAJVA. p.e. i. Usually. i. the highest Lord of Universe. It is also to be compared with (I) svabhāva (the first of the 10 meanings of tathāgatadhātu. In this sense. avi. 4) & v. ratnatraya is ultimately resolved into one ' buddha-ratna '.e.'.

r e s p . This teaching is again divided into two. These are the first 6 of dvādaśâñga-dharmapravacana (see Mvyut. 62). BGS: ^ ^ . rnam-par rig-pa. p. which produces 1 2 8 ) the communication1 2 9 ) 130 among other living beings according to their faculties in discipline '. the Verse. the Solemn Utterance. dharmavyavasthānanayabhedāt.. Jjfej. C. and this is to be known in the reference to the Truth realized by the Tathāgata through introspection (pratyātmâdhigama—dharma). udāna. Lank. C. T. C. 1$C . Also cf. 2) the natural outflow of the perfectly pure Absolute Entity {dharmadhātu—nisyanda) as the cause for its attainment 1 2 7 ) . the passage on dharmaratna (S. 134) Namely. sūksma.and Pratyekabuddhayānika. the Prophecy. whether subtle or extensive '. it is shown in its similarity 127) 128 In the sense that. the Statement 136) of subject matter. flpffl . respectively. Taisho. Wogihara's Edition. sattvas are led to bodhi. gdul-bya ji-lta-bar. the Mahayānasamgraha-bhāsya (tr. nothing can be given As an example for the Essence. Therefore.) and on śaranatraya (S. (Cf. īf^ (?). byañ—chub—sems—dpahi sde—snod. which are the teaching by various kinds of means for exposition of the Doctrine and are related to the Empirical 137) Truth (samvrti-satya) . vyākarana. [ 285 ] . T . 2)-l) the Code of Bodhisattva . 132) vyavasthāna. P . 137) These two divisions of deśanā-dharma correspond to nītârtha and neyârtha. & audārika. Of these two divisions of dharma. 147. and 2)-2) the Aphorism. by Paramārtha). o m . T. C. hbyuñ. 174). C. BGŚ: j £ ^fff ffi Jj« & I E tSl ' ? £ " % . gāthā. gey a. p. XXXI. And this is to be known in the reference to the Truth as the doctrine 131) to be taught (deśanā—dharma) .). &c. 13 6 ' sūtra. ' yathāvainayika is to be corrected into yathāvaineyika. 129) 130 C. p. . respectively. 0 ^ J\ R>J Jfcfc j f l £gg . the teaching by the profound 135) means for exposition of the Doctrine referring to the Highest Truth (paramārthasatya). 268 c: JÇ #P ?£ & IE t £ Wi. rgya-chen. 1. Being supermundane. the Scripture in prose and verse. They are here regarded as the doctrine for Srāvaka. owing to the difference of 132 133 means for exposition ' of the Doctrine. . om. Also cf. ' bodhisattva—pitaka.The Ratnagotravibhāga which is the acting sphere of Non-discriminative Wisdom. Cf. p f ^ ^ -TZ-C zllxi • 135> T. in this world. T . 133) 134 T . T .. rnam—par hjog—pa. 131 ' See back. C. C. 18. nidāna. phra-ba. 14 ff. > prabhava. { ^ WL for vyavasthāna-naya-deśanā. vyavasthāna. respectively. Abhidharmakośa-vyākhyā. ~>fâ . 171: siddhānta-naya & deśanānaya. And. 10 ff. 5]* f t • So has BGŚ (0f -ft). T. p. vijñapti. by means of deśanā-dharma. gggg.

8 : sarvasattvesu tathāgata-dharmakāya-parispharanârthena. by 3 examples. with no exception. v . all living beings.e. there is no one among the living beings 1 4 1 ) who stands outside the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata 1 4 2 ) . F o r t h e 2 n d and 4th Pada. 27 a : buddhajñānântargamāt sattvarāśeh. & C. inserts ' tathāgatajñānād bahir ' after ' dharmakāyād bahir '. it is said that sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh \ respectively. ' garbha ' means ' interior '. i. & 1. BGŚ calls this 1st meaning ' /3/f $uf UK' (garbha in the sense of samgrhīta). Also. 140) tathāgatasya ime garbhāh sarvasattvāh. 141) sattvadhātu.y | | ^M) J P ^ '*fc (of different t a s t e ) . t h e aggregate of living beings. the penetration of the Absolute into everything from inside and this signifies the all-pervadingness of the Absolute. 252 b. see M S b h ( P ) . Because it is said 1 4 3 ) : " Just as space is considered to be all-pervading always. ( . By the way. As being similar to the kernel of various grains l 3 8 ) . i t 1 4 4 ) is held to be always all-pervading. C. it pervades all the multitudes of living beings " . sbubs-sñiñ ( = kośa-sāra). profound means Is to be known as being akin to honey of one taste. saying: ' similarly. the honey and the kernel. 138) anda-sāra. This is the first way of interpreting the term tathāgatagarbha. as a collective n o u n . v . T . shows no difference between this and the subsequent other two interpretations (^pj >(U -^ $|xî). translates the above sentence into ' de-bshingśegs-pahi sñiñ-po-can (being possessed of the essence of the Tathāgata). TAKASAKI To the [apparitional form of the] Buddha himself. it is explained that 'these. T . 15 (which h a s rūpagana i n s t e a d of rūpagata). C. And taught by various kinds of means. // 146 // [The Doctrine] taught by subtle. C.e. This meaning comes from the idea of ' antargama of buddhajnāna '. regarding this Bahuvrīhi compound as consisting of two words whose interrelation is the dependent determinative (Tatpurusa). the Matrix in which the Tathāgata penetrates). [ 286 ] . C. 28 a: sambuddhakāyaspharanāt. B G S r e g a r d s t h i s p a s s a g e as a q u o t a t i o n from s o m e s c r i p t u r e (808 a ) . Similarly. -5r)» 142) C. sattvakāya is indivisible from buddhajñāna \ & ' therefore. Here. T h e m e a n i n g of anda here is n o t clear. // 147 // Thus. 143) ]V|SA I X . khams. in reference to the meaning that all living beings. a c e .J . are penetrated by the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata 1 3 9 ) . those of the image of the Buddha. 144) " tat " s t a n d s for buddhatva. Just as space pervades all visible forms. has a rather free rendering. t o t h e c o m m e n t a r y o n M S A . Indeed. are the Matrix (interior) of the Tathāgata 1 4 0 ) . T . just as no kind of physical form can exist outside of space. T. 139) £ £ § > p^ 26. as u s u a l (for dhātu. Similarly. and hence the compound has the sense of ' one who is within the Tathāgata '. In this sense. (i.

' nirmalā tathatā ' a n d t h e l a t t e r being ' samalā tathatā '. Therefore. a n d 1. om. v . o m . // 148 // That which is the Mind. For these three qualities. ' anugata. Reality is illustrated By the analogy with a piece of148) gold. 150) £f_ g^ p^ 26. This very Mind gets also the appellation of i the Tathāgata '. BGS calls this second interpretation ' \fâ f § ^ ^ ' (garbha in the form of upagūdha). i.e. 3):MW teH (8086). i. with reference to the sense that Reality is the undifferentiated whole 1 5 0 ) . if t h e r e is a n y . reads this passage curiously as that ' cittaprakrti. therefore. T. is [identical with] the Matrix (i. [ 287 ] . by nature. Thus. 149) viśuddhim āgatas. b e t w e e n tathāgata a n d tathāgatagarbha is m e r e l y i n t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e . Sublime 1 4 5 ) . dharma. tathāgatagarbha is a special n a m e for tathatā w h e n i t is h i d d e n b y (or covered w i t h ) kīeśas.e. being Reality. it is called 'Reality' in the sense of being unchangeable like excellent gold.e. i. H e r e t h e word garbha m e a n s ' essence '. . 2 7 : tam—nairmalyasyâdvayatvāt. it is said by the Lord 1 5 3 ': 145 H f & H . In this sense. o m . 2) J?Fj ) mandalaka. o m . tathatā which is r e p r e s e n t e d b y tathāgata. F r o m this point. since all of them are not different by nature. still is advayadharma by nature.The R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ā g a Tathatā. 148 > T . i n which t h e t w o words tathāgata a n d garbha a r e r e l a t e d a p p o sitionally t o each other. C. T . v. C. 153 > JĀA 247 a. Being unchangeable. T h e difference. See t h e q u o t a t i o n below. 28: tathatā'vyatibhedatah. though it is śuddhi.. 152) C. BGŚ : 1) f^ ^ § J | § Jîl. that ' the Tathāgata. tathāgatagarbha is called ' samalā tathatā '. kalyāna. is unable to be shown as being alterable because of its being radiant by nature. Because of t h i s identification w i t h tathatā. 146 147 > C. the inner essence) of these living beings 1 5 1 ) . garbha being tathāgata. 151 ' tathāgatas tathatā esām garbhah sarvasattvānām. . t h e former being ' śuddhim āgatā tathatā'. and perfectly pure. A n e t y m o l o g y of t h e t e r m tathāgata.e. Having in view [this] Innate Mind. whenever it perfects the purification149' from all accidental pollutions even in the case of those living beings who are ranked among the groups in the definitely wrong way. rjes—su hbrel. gzugs ( = rūpa). the pure and non-dual Essential Nature 1 5 2 ) . t h e whole sentence. This is t h e second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e t e r m tathāgatagarbha. it is explained by the one example of gold. though it is associated with 1 4 7 ) the phenomena 1 4 8 ) of Suffering [caused by] innumerable forms of Defilement. 8: tathāgata-tathatā'vyatibhedârthena.

Cf. T. paripusta or samudānita). yañ-dag blañ-ba. That which is the purity of his own and that which is the purity of the living beings. M4 fSjJfc. rtogs-pa ( = āgata). īfa ffîi ^ • F o r § ^ ^ ) BGŚ ^ parijñātāvin. T. lei) J ? r o m thi s statement. 189 > samudānita (-gotra). p. T. see BBh p. 4. 155) 156) It seems that to know ātma-upādāna means to purify his mind '. C. ' kāro ti ' should g r a m a t i c a l l y b e ' kāreti '. \$£ \ ī [3fP? _L] i f l . the latter two 1 6 1 ) . BGŚ BE E3 piî T_£ • BGS gives 6 points of similarity of prakrtistha-gotra to a treasure. i6o) -pjjg r e a d m g ' matā ' is acceptable in the light of T. As for these two kinds of ' gotra '. T. & C. (prakrtistha. The Germ [of the Buddha] is known to be twofold. the first Body. O Mañjusrī. All living beings are possessed of the Matrix of Buddhahood ". purification. Being like a treasure and like a tree [grown] from a seed. 44 TAKASAKI Here. but they are exactly identical with those in Ratna. MSA I I I . they cannot be divided into two 1 5 6 ) . v. dharmakāya seems to be divided into two: one is dhar' i 288 ] . Through his self. BGŚ I . it is considered 1 6 % The 3 Bodies of the Buddha are obtained . comm. the Tathāgata is one who has the full knowledge about the root of his own substratum 1 5 4 '. C. as ' protected by parijñā '. 20) where ratnatraya is referred to. T. G. these two are one and the same. And. BGŚ *J [ t-M | _ £ . therefore. anugata. § f 4 trt ^ C^. c) Tathāgatagotra. from the second. The Innate 1 5 8 ) [Germ] existing since the beginningless time And that which has acquired the highest development 159) . 22 (S. [Also] it is said 1 5 7 ) : 44 Though being undifferentiated among all. Reality. C. T . he has understood 1 5 5 ) the purity of living beings. 158 > prakrtistha (-gotra). bdag-gi ñe-bar len-pahi gshi-rtsa.J. 3. ^ P . y ^ J . Cf. 157 > M S A I X . thob-par hdod-pa yin (prāptir matā). C.37. // 149 // From this twofold Germ. in case the purification is perfected. From the first one. rañ-bshin gnas-pa. Is [called] Buddhahood. I. // 150 // 154) ātmopādānamūla.

Of them. not eternal) (808 c). om. This point is. byas-min. by these 5 examples. therefore. // 151 // The [Body of] Enjoyment165' is like the Universal Lord Since it is the great Emperor of Religion166). a Lord of the Universe. 3) ^ ^ ^py (having beginning and end. not clear in this text. gzugs-brñan. fP^ j/jtjL . in the refermadhātu or tathatā which is called here the first body. gter ( = nidhi). through which the similarity to pratibimba is observed: 1) ^pj /fQ (having apparitional form). 168 167 ) pratibimba. and a golden statue. T. which is included in the second kāya being (sva-) sambhogakāya. II. i. 165) to gold. just as gold does not belong to any particular person ( ^ P iMl vPi īfîj 3 E •> ^ r t s^ ^ C -T3 ) ( 8 0 8 c )sāmbhoga. made this point clear and regarded sambhogakāya as a part of dharmakāya being svasambhoga. sprul-ba. C. Cf. T. "*) āśraya. dharmakāya as bodhi. and the other. 60: svābhāviko ' t/io sāmbhogah kayo nairmāniko. Since. artificial). BGS gives 4 qualities to this kāya. 2) |±î -Ç/J y j (produced by 'pranidhāna"1 (therefore. it is non-artificial163) And is the substratum 164) of precious properties. It was BGS which. by nature. 166) p o r ' mahādharmâdhirājatvād '. those of a treasure. [ 289 ] . A^ ^ H I (unchangeable). ^ f| ({J§ Sfi | | "ftf f | ) . it signifies the separation of jñāna from dharmakāya remaining the latter as pure reality or truth. BGŚ maintains 3 characteristics of nirHP māraa. C. and in a later passage dharmakāya is spoken of as being the truth inseparable from wisdom (Chaps. In other words. III). namely. T. C. viz. T. 2) [fl £l£ ( = Jrt§ "1 rf > prāptavya). ño-bo-ñid-sku. 3) lK J~p ( = J[£^ •flj. j=( ft ffi ^ 163 (BGŚ ? £ J§«). basing itself on this passage. 1) rK \\\ (based upon the former merit). 59): svabhāva—dharmasambhoga—nirmānair. T... a precious image. The Apparitional Body167) is like a golden statue Since is has the nature of being an image 168) . "fl^ ft. t h e last one is called ' *\* ^ p which means t h a t anybody can obtain dharmakāya. T. ibid. T. Probably it is a better reading. C. » nirmāna. the result of purification of dhātu. (attaining the position of a great religious king). C. C. however.e. 3 ^ i^fc . a tree. // 152 // Thus. BGŚ \\i *§* • The same terminology on trikāya is used in MSA (IX. ^ yV^ <2C ~H \ V. BGŚ J ^ rtf*. prāpta).The Ratnagotravibhâga The Body of the Absolute Essence 162) is pure And is known to be like the precious image. BGS mentions 4 kinds of similarity of dharmakāya fy\ •yîj ' (sama-prāpta). i«2> svābhāvika-kāya. t h e first three are t h e same as those mentioned here. BGŚ 0 f > akrtrima. rdsogs-loñs. C. and 4) I r t *3C / n (sambhoga) and regards each of these qualities as being correspondent to that of cakravartin. reads ' chos chen rgyal-srid-du Idan phyir ' (mahādharmâdhirājyatvād ').

173) fhg s o u r c e o f this quotation is not yet identified. This stands for the original sense of the term tathāgatagarbha. a n d 1. ' •yj"r' is used for dhātu of skandha—dhātv—āyatana. 174 ' garbhagata. p. T. instead of by ' khams' and ' ' p t ' as in this text. those terms. 175) A quotation from the Mahāyāna-abhidharmasūtra. ' universe ' and is usually used for the ' dhātu ' of dharmadhātu. the word * dhātu ' (essence) is especially used in the sense of i hetu' (a cause) 1 7 2 ) . This is the third interpretation of the term tathāgatagarbha. 2 7 : bauddhe gotre tatphalasyopacārāt. 37). (Reference to the Abhidharma-sūtra on the i Essence ' ) 1 7 5 ) . being the cause (hetu) from which the Tathāgata is arisen. Cf. or sattvadhātu.. In the case of C . T . and derivatively. 26. om. S. 2 8 : gotratah. the Buddhahood is usually manifested 1 7 1 ) in the 3 Bodies of the Buddha. C. But as a matter of meaning in each language.J . etc. prabhāvita. TAKASAKI ence to the nature as the Germ from which the 3 Bodies of the Buddha are originated 169) . At the same time. the distinction is not so clear. v. p. -fśf -fo fpfc (has got the appellation). garbha. gatra. and by ' v r ' m C. Hence. the word dhātu is applied to ālāyavijñāna. This last sense|cannot be derived from the Chinese word 'yf*'. * region '. ' yf'' means originally ' boundary ' ' sphere of certain limited extent'. T. ' garbha ' here means inner essence (dhātu).e. par Sylvain Levi. The idea is close to the Avatamsakasūtra. it is said that 4 the Matrix (i. in the form of embryo 1 7 4 ) .. ed. it is quoted in the Mahāyānasamgraha-bhāsya of Vasubandhu (MS bh (P). ' essence' or sex. the cause) of the Tathāgata '170)t Indeed. This Sūtra is regarded as one of the important sources of the Vijñānavāda and often quoted in the works of that theory. p . or C. this quotation. being possessed of the meaning of ' hetu \ And this hetu means ' āśraya ' as will be explained. In these two cases. So it is said 173 ': 44 And now.. Here. of which no S. 170) tathāgatadhātur esām garbhah sarvasattvānām. It is usually used for the tran- [ 290 ] . ill 171) 169) nirvānadhātu.e.e. 8-9: tathāgatagotrasambhavârthena. dhātu is translated by ' dbyiñs ' in T. the inner essence) of these living beings is the Essence (i. C. and dhātu. in the case of Trimśikābhāsya. word dhātu. version is available now. The different way of translation seems to show the difference of meaning implied by these different theories. On the other hand. lokadhātu. BGS gives a name of * fjft •$%% ^llxj' (garbha in the sense of samgrahaka. there exists the Essence of the Tathāgata arisen. v . traidhātuka. are used synonymously. One interesting point to be noted is that. it is said that the Essence of the Tathāgata is the cause for the acquisition of these [3 Bodies]. the Chinese word ' p t ' n a s a sense of ' nature '. As for this verse. in every living being. prthividhātu. sñiñ—por gyur—pa. rab-tu phye-ba. showing the sense of 'element'. * character '. 172) Throughout this text. 157 a) and also in Sthiramati's commentary on the Trirnsikā of Vasubandhu (Skt. But these living beings do not know about it " . but is merely a translation of the Skt. ākāśadhātu. i. that which contains the Tathāgata).

SN. the former is used in the cases of dharmadhātu.) as corresponding to 4 kinds of people. the former shows the meaning of something spatial. regards this whole sentence as a quotation from SMS (cf. (Quotation is a p p a r e n t l y from S N ) . dharmadhātu-garbha. • These four. and prakrtipariśuddha[-dharma]-g. T . But this distinction is not absolutely fixed. of ' •jç'' and ' p £ ' as translations of Skt. On the contrary. (Hfc # . 16 ff. In short. 178 177) > gati. this formula is a n explanation of samsāra (cf. are used in a later passage (S. translations. and also to worldly things in general. of something internal or essential. But it is quite suitable here (' |££ ' is also used for ' gotra ' here. e t c . I I . Both Tibetan words have a similar sense of ' place ' or ' region '.The Ratnagotravibhâga Indeed. 193. perfectly pure by nature ". while the latter. and ākāśadhātu. how is it that 4 it exists since beginningless time ' ? With reference to this very Matrix of the Tathāgata. *f| • _^ C. C. while the latter. As well as the acquisition of Nirvana exists ". Originally ' khams ' seems to relate to the human body in the sense ' physical state of body ' or sometimes ' body ' itself. Here. 76. 121 #H * m ft ffi * P g * "5T ftl'). ' dbyiñs ' always relates to something transcendental or heavenly. BGS mentions them [ 291 ] . and derivatively to things smaller than the human body. hgro. 18 component elements.. In the case of Tibetan. lokottara[-dharma]-g. C. words as ' svabhāva\ 'prakrti* and *-tā'. dhātu. but as the translation of Skt. SMS 222 b:' ~\£2 -H?-. which is usually replaced by ' J x '). dharmakāya-g. like each of 18 elements. it is said [in the Scripture] as follows: " The Essence that exists since beginningless time Is the foundation of all the elements. viz. the Matrix. the distinction between ' dbyiñs ' and ' khams ' is not so clear as between the two C. To translate dhātu into ' p £ ' as in this text is a rather peculiar case. 178) SMS 222 b. j § V£ ^ S | . See Note V I I I (VII)-242. MSbh (P). it has been taught and ascertained by the Lord: " A n initial limit is not to be perceived" 1 7 7 ) . #H $t &. this Matrix of the Tathāgata is the transcendental Matrix. shows a better and clearer distinction between the two senses of the word dhātu. sattvadhātu.. ft T0T | n l . ' . and in this text. Owing to its existence. nirvānadhātu. ^ . 157 a. p . 178. As far as this text is concerned. Originally are mentioned in C. we are now speaking.t _ C #īic > H \~E Vfl î^F %®t. About the 4 Essence '.t r a ' . V£ # ^ . dhātu. in the cases of lokadhātu. p. Cf. all Phenomenal Life176). affixes showing an abstract sense. the tathāgatadhātu of whicL. 1. o n anavarâgra). I t is SMS which has inserted ' tathāgatagarbham adhikrtya ' t o this famous formula for t h e first time in order t o show t h a t t h e tathāgatagarbha is t h e basis of samsāra. it is said as follows 178): u O Lord. the 4 elements other than ākāśadhātu. where two other epithets are given of t h e tathāgatagarbha which £ 5 E * ik ftl * m. station of such Skt.

from ŚMS). the Matrix of the Tathāgata is the foundation the support. mchis-na. C. has one more word ' f3* "J^f ' after ' -frf '. have it. 264 b). and separated from Wisdom 183 '. from ŚMS). hkhor-ba shes mchi-na ni. C.e. C. muktajñāna. Paramārtha makes use of this 5-fold meaning of garbha established in BGŚ twice in his translation of MS-bhāsya: once explaining ' dhātu '. 180 along > niśraya.|Jgxj =J§3$. tr. bral mi-śes-pa. $ £ j£. i. we have another modified application of this set of meanings to the explanation of ' svabhāva ' of trisvabhāva (parikalpita and others) in the Hsien~shih-lun (JHf| Hip? pjflj) translated by him. Also. tshig de rigs-pa [ 292 ] . . vinirbhāgadharma. there is Phenomenal Life. T. The statement 4 Owing to its existence. These terms are used as adjectives to samskrta-dharmas in contrast with sambaddha. On the other hand. C. the support. of ŚMS. differentiated [from the Absolute Essence]. which are by all means disconnected. ādhāra. respectively. and its originality seems to be due to Paramārtha himself. resp. but C. [At the same time]. C. and another. O Lord. 0 Lord. 157 o). T. buddhadharmas. T. f$C . which agrees with C. Cf. *Jvf . pratisthā. gnas. C. MSbh(P) 157 a (Q. explaining ' dharmadhātu ' (ibid. is the proper saying on account of the Phenomenal Life 185 '. gshi. amuktajñāna. 183 182) 185) -pjjg rea d i n g ' iti parikalpam asya vacanāyiti ' is doubtful. the foundation. T. indivisible from [the Absolute Entity]. . lows 1 7 9 ': " Therefore.g£ ^ § c» HAL ' (this is called a good saying). y)\j fA (Buddha's Properties). C. passage (MSbh (P). "*) ŚMS 222 b. and the substratum of the [worldly] elements that are produced by causes and conditions. tr. tr. 0 Lord. amuktajñāna in case of asamskrda-dharmas. and the substratum 1 8 0 ) of the immutable elements (properties) 1 8 1 ) which are essentially connected with. of SMS says: * .. reads ' . there is all the Phenomenal Life ' means as follows 1 8 4 ) : " Owing to the existence of the Matrix of the Tathāgata. 'Y* fljfl: ^ (not separated from jñāna). with tathāgatagarbha as the 5 meanings of garbha ('It. of ŚMS does not 181) For dharma. C. MSbh (P) 157 a (Q. rten. in the passage equivalent to this Ratna. avinirbhāgadharma. ' asambaddha. adds acintya and some more adjectives. de-la hkhorba shes tshig-gis gdags-pa lags-so (samsāra iti vacanena asya prajñaptam) '. T. T. i^e. this.The statement ' The foundation of all the elements ' means as fol. 179 > ŚMS 222 6. and unreleased from Wisdom 182>. 796 6). Cf. This theory is unique to those works translated by Paramārtha. this very Matrix of the Tathāgata is also. reads for the whole sentence ' de-bshin-gśegs~pahi sñiñ^po mchis-na (tathāgatagarbhe sati).

'. or prayer for Nirvana " . samsāra iti yuktam etad vacanam). MSbh(P) 157 a (Q. "•> ŚMS 222 b. &c. But SMS shows better sense.. reading should be corrected into ' iti parikalpitam. laes-so (. or arise desire... so I read it according to SMS. but parikalpitam probably means here ' prajñaptam* as given by T. At least the Skt. . there would not take place aversion to Suffering.The Ratnagotravibhāga The statement ' There is also the acquisition of the Nirvana ' is said the following sense 1 8 6 ) : " 0 Lord. from ŚMS). [ 293 ] . earnest wish. if there were no Matrix of the Tathāgata. Cf.

B > TGS 547 c. If the reading is correct the only meaning which can construe the sentence would be ' not disunited '. M. W. We can get some idea from T. ' ^t s "SL #H Sv ffi ^ ' (probably ' . this word has to express an idea similar to ' parispharana '. T. khyad-par med-pahi tshul-du. T. niravaśesa-yogena. being united with 1 } the Absolute Body. i. such is the essential nature of the elements 6 ) . jlfc ? £ ft f £ f § ffi @ f 4 1?î ffi . reading. ñes—pahi rigs—kyi rañ—bshin. exists everywhere. this Matrix of the Tathāgata. only the truth is the authority for knowledge '. means ' dharmatā is pramāna. i. 3p? _5TL /^ [yp |££ ||_s. THE ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MATRIX OF THE TATHAGATA § 1. having the characteristics inseparable from Reality. 5I»T ^ J 3n£* (' khyad-par med-pa ' nirviśesa. 2 ' niyatagotra—svabhāva. (In this case.^ 2 ~ /7\I ' i connected with tathatā and is a translation of asambhinna). s) « dharmānam dharmatā. It is said 5) : " O noble youth.X. avipralabdha would be better than avipralambha). Whether the Tathāgatas appear in this world.e. C. T. this is indeed to be perceived in the light of the Absolute Essence as the [highest] logical ground 4) . T. and being of the nature of the germ properly fixed [towards the attainment of the Buddhahood] 2) .e. or whether they do avipralambha. chos-ñid tshas-mar byas-nas. C. The Saying: All Living Beings are Possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata — is the Highest Logical Truth. Now. ' united with '. ' -fo^ J^L' (atyanta) is also not the proper translation at all. records a sense of ' disunion ' for vipralambha as taken from Wilson's vocabulary.e. i. C. though it is probably caused by a misreading. those relating to tathatā and gotra which stand for trividhasvabhāva along with dharmakāya. C. at whatever time and without exception3' among the living beings. The reading is not clear.) 4) dharmatām pramānîkrtya. TGS > [ 294 ] . C. reads this passage x) as ' dharmakāya(-vat) vipulah ' and C. In comparison with two other epithets. On the other hand.

adds: ' i t is therefore acintya. in the sense: — such is the real state of things and not otherwise 1 0 ) . where the eternity of truth is called ' dharmadhātu-sthititā '. the emphasis is on idappaccayatā (Skt. 25: " jāti paccayā. uppādā vā tathāgatānam anuppādā vā tathāgatânam. to observe. chos-ñid dbyiñs gnas-pa-ñid gañ-yin-pa de~ni chos-ñid-kyi rigs-pa yin-no) (E. idampratyayatā = pratîtyasamutpāda) as the eternal truth {dhātu. T.). For instance. except for a reference to ' dharmadhātu-sthititā ' being ' dharmatā-naya ' (iZ* pp j JtE3r 3-^F. and om. jarāmaranam. This expression is quite popular since the Pali Canon. pratiśarana. ^L^ _/£." » r$C V A Im '• 12 ' citta—nidhyāpana {nidhyāpana fr. 9) (' ii% *^a ' seems to be a repeated translation of dharmatā).T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga not 7 ) . dharmataîva yuktis '. sems ñe-bar rtogs-pa. rigs-pa. yukti. fi\ (or j ^ ) . however. T. & C. C. p. 13) citta-samjñāpana. C. T. T. f S ^"H JtfE. p. J< {de-la de—bshin—gśegs—pa rnams byuñ yañ ruñjma byuñ yañ run stejchos gnas—par byabahi phyir. V S j ī iffi. So I take it as a predicate.^P. In a similar manner. 2. sems yañ-dag-par śes-pa (T. gives the best sense. thitā va sā dhātu dhamma—tthitatā dhamma—niyāmatā idappaccayatā " . fem. T . we have no equivalent passage in the present text of the Sandhinirmocana. reads for ' dharmataîva X1) pratiśaranam. In this example. where the phrase ' utpādād vā tathāgatānām anuntpādād vā'' is used. C. in Pali). Actually. Lamotte's Ed. {/£ . BGS has a similar quotation regarding it as from the Sandhinirmocanasūtra. meditate). This corresponds to pratiśarana.. takes som. This corresponds to [ 295 ] . ^Ij* {^" {citta-pariśuddha). C.in the sense of somyafe-). That which is meant by this i essential nature ' (dharmatā) is here synonymous for 8 ) the ' argument ' (yukti). the mode of proof (yoga) and the means [of cognition] (upāya) 9 ) . only the Absolute Essence is the argument for the proper understanding 13 ' of utpādād vā tathāgatānām anutpādād vā. these living beings are always possessed of the Matrix of the Tathāgata " . In any case only the Absolute Essence is the resort U ) for the contemplation of the mind 1 2 ) . ' \j\ V S •> tK. sbyor-ba & thabs. 8) paryāya. Also see Lank. 143. C. this expression is here used for emphasizing the garbha theory as the eternal truth. bhikkhave. Both T. ni V dhyai. C. =fg #H 3fc ^ & Ufc 5g ^ & Ufc . p. rtogs-pa (— adhigama). yukti. 10 * evam eva tat syātj anyathā naîva tat syāt. SN vol. saying: 7) g ?£ (812 a). 258) ( f f i f H . have no translation of this word.

C. stoA-pa-ñid-las sems rnam-par gyeñs-pa. to T. anugantavya. theg-pa-la gsar-du shugs-pa. paramârthasatya and nirvana. there are four kinds of individuals who are defined as being blind 1 8 ' with regard to the perception of the Matrix of the Tathāgata.).. ' Ace. the Matrix of the Tathāgata is not the accessible sphere for those who have fallen into the erroneous conception maintaining the existence of individuality 21 '. T. £ acaksumat. cintayitavyā. ^-p |=| J\. C. 22 ' viparyāsâbhirata. C. C. Here the translation is ace. Cf. and om. . T. T. and for those whose mind has deviated from the conception of Non-substantiality" 2 3 '. .ŚMS222«:i|#n£lî'^ . JE^ / fe -fc H H Ç ^ Jīi H $&. and 4) the Bodhisattvas who have recently entered the Vehicle 19 '. It is accessible only to faith 1 4 '. hjig-tshogs-la Ita-bar Ihuñ-ba. This essence itself is not accessible to imagination nor to discrimination. the eyeless one cannot see The blazing disk of the sun 1 ". (Commenting of MSA verse quoted. HJ-£). 20) Ś M S 222 a. TAKASAKI the mind. ^f mñon-par JrçJ. § 2. respectively. The Highest Truth of the Buddhas 1 6 ) Can be understood only by faith. C. T. 19 ' navayāna-samprasthita. 3) the Pratyekabuddhas. tathāgata. viz. to T. 15 ' Cf. phyin-ci-log-la hdod-pa. for those who are attached to delusion 22) .) 16 ' svayambhū. Who are these four ? They are namely: 1) the ordinary beings. (T. om. . na vikalpayitavyā [kevalam tv\ adhimoktavyeti /. hbah-shig—tu. It is said 2 0 ': " O Lord. -^/J -£5f !j>3£ ' u * (nava-bodhicitta). 18) 14 i"Cf. & C. 2) the Śrāvakas. C. reading is uncertain but reads paramârtha as a locative and connects it with śraddhā (paramârthe śraddhā. the reading of this sentence is preferably corrected into the following: . . C. MSbh (P) 258 b-c.J. reads paramârtha as the subject (śraddhyaîvânugantavyah paramârthah svayambhuvām /). // 153 // In brief. T. [ 296 ] . See VIII-(X). 21) satkāyadrsti-patita. i^ 23 ' śūnyatā-viksipta-citta. The 4 Kinds of Individuals to Whom the Faith in this Essence is Necessary 15) . where the 4 kinds of people are connected with the 4 synonyms for dharmakāya. C. dharmakāya. BGS 812 a if. (jātândha). Indeed.

as being the real Ego and its belongings. sāsrava. still they indulge in the contemplation of the 4 suffering ' [of the phenomena] instead of meditating upon the 4 bliss ' of the former. T. C seems to read ' atyantâbhūta—rūpâdi—skandhān dharmān ' ' ahamkāra & mamakāra. ñar-hdsin-pa & ña-yir hdsin-pa. although the Matrix of the Tathāgata is to be considered as 4 eternal' in its transcendental sense 29) . C. C. 26 27 28) C. although the Matrix of the Tathāgata is to be considered as ' blissful' in its transcendental sense. For anāsravadhātu. khas-blañs-nas. (BHS Die. s. J • EX ' C. which are possessed of Evil Influences 2 6 ) . T. Now. Being so. but cannot notice nityatva of tathāgata behind the phenomena. Although the Matrix of the Tathāgata is to be regarded as 4 the [highest] Unity '.T h e R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a Here. 4 those who have fallen into the erroneous conception maintaining the existence of individuality' are the ordinary beings. 29) etc. they devote themselves to the practice of meditation on the notion of the 4 impurity ' [of the Phenomenal World] without doing meditation on 4 Purity' of the former. hjig-tshogs hgag-pa. om. though the Matrix of the Tathāgata is to be considered as 4 pure ' in the transcendental sense. & C. ffPj i ^ fffc. they nevertheless cling to the practice of meditation on the idea of 4 non-Ego ' [of the separate elements] instead of concentrating their mind on the notion of the Unity of the former. they are clinging to the conception of 4 Ego ' and 4 Mine ' 2 7 > . om. ^_ ^ £ ' (amrta-dharma). Indeed. instead of atyanta. they cannot believe even in the Immaculate Essence which represents the annihilation of the [conception of the] existence of real individuality 28 '. T. uttari).in the text. satkāya-nirodha (as an adjective to anāsravadhātu). beyond'. So it seems not to have so important sense in this compound. uttari bhāvayitavya. how is it possible for them to cognize the Matrix of the Tathāgata which is the object accessible only to the Omniscient ? There is [absolutely] no room for it. J ^ j ^ \~$ (T. ' uttari' as a preceding part of a compound has a sense of ' further. they indulge in the contemplation of the 4 evanescence ' [of the phenomena 30) ] instead of meditating upon the 4 eternity' of the former. [ 297 ] . etc. T. And. ' upagamya. and. Likewise. . and adds ' "p ^g. having fully 24 ' admitted 2 5 ' those elements classified into [5] groups and others. bsgom-par bya-ba. 80 ' C. due to this conception. Why ? Because. 24 25 ' The reading should be atyantam (adv. v.). The sense is that those people know only about anityatā of sarvadharma.).P3p: ==r J^L ^f-f v$(t īftp (nirodhasatya represented by the removal of satkâyadrsti.). C. 4 those who are attached to delusion ' represent 2) the Śrāvakas and 3) the Pratyekabuddhas. inserts sarvadharmesu. Thus. C.

one who is experienced and clever would really get the jewel out. the water of that pond would. prasādhita. C. in order to get this Vaidūrya stone. khrus-ras (bath-cloth). gshag-pa. shows a clearer sense. reading. C. . . After having stood 39 ' on the bank of the pond. dañ hgal-ba. leaving aside their ornaments. . (S. and the Supreme Purity. Impersonality and Impurity [as the almighty maximum]. reads as ' drstvâ ' instead of sthitvā. M^ . /J dag-gis. 1. and hence the Essence [of the Tathāgata] which is characterized as the Supreme Eternity. In the same way. Here I followed T. has no literal translation. were playing in the water with various ornaments and equipments for their individual pastime 3 6 '. they would say: O the jewel is still there [in the water]. and seeing that water sparkling. But S. ye who are ignorant of the real 31 32 ' vidhura. salila-bandhana. who have the notion of Evenescence. om. would dive into the water. About 32) this inaccessibility of the Essence to those who are attached to delusion. )ffo ^ i 7Jp $j}£ ^|)£ (playing bathing and boating).e. 19). T. is said not to be accessible to them. 74. T. . ' aho manir iti guna-samjñā pravartate ' and instead has ' just as one sees the moon in the sky '. 37 ' sthāpayati. all the people. putting on the bathing underwear 35 '. rigs dañ Idan-pa. (jlT. T. shine as if water itself were shining. i. 39 38) [ 298 ] . the Lord has made it clear 331 in detail in the Mahāparinirvānasūtra with the example of a jewel in the water of a pond. ' Better to change the paragraph after ' yathā ca sa viparyāsa . They would mistake pebbles and gravels in the pond for the real jewel. someone would cast 3 7 ' into the water the genuine 38 ' Vaidūrya stone. the Supreme Unity. that in the hot season. C. thinking: I have got a jewel. 0 monks. C. 33) > 35 ' to have 36 ' 34 MPS 377c-378a. p. rañ-rañ-gi rgyan dañ ñe-bar spyod-pa T. Suffering.in such a way. ' T. 0 brethren. It runs as follows 3 4 ) : " Suppose. they would notice: It is not the real jewel at all! At that moment. for instance. jātya. But C. y^_ (has lost by mistake). and would notice how that jewel had great quality 4 0 ) . T.). The concrete idea is uncertain. om. 40 ' C. owing to the power of that jewel. Thus. C. . This compound word seems not been recorded anywhere else. all the Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas are attached to the Path which is quite opposite 31 ' to the realization of the Absolute Body. svaih svaih mandanakopabhogair. reads * mandanaka (= alañkāra) and upabhoga (any equipment for pastime) '. too. the people. Suppose then. rab-tu bsgrubs. Thereafter. the Supreme Bliss. T. seize them and draw them out. T.

and on which ye practise the meditation [on that notion] repeatedly and increasingly 43) . But all that was attempted 4 2 ) by you. [since] they are deprived of45) [the cognition of] the Matrix of the Tathāgata in regard to the true meaning of Non-substantiality 4 6 ) . B G S ^ [ 3Jw» This conception a m o u n t s t o t h e nihilistic view. They are the people who look toward Non-substantiality as the medium of Liberation 47) in order to destroy the substance 4 8 ) . i. ?$£. o n e c a n g e t Cf. }=% ( a p p a r e n t l y o m . J l ^ . the meaning that tathāgatagarbha is śūnyata). thinking that the perfect Nirvana means the Extinction. ghatita. artha) as adverbial use and reads ' tathāgatagarbhatah vipranastāh'. Jil 5 ^ I B J | ^B? • ' S U S ^ ' (things changeable) T . 46) tathāgatagarbha-śūnyatârthanaya. T. i\U ^N$g\£ ||=§. dus phyis. ye should become skilful in order not to be determined by this [false conception] like the pebbles and gravels in the pond. dharma). stoñ-pa-ñid-kyi om. 48) 47) C. What is m e a n t here is t h a t t h e garbha theory represents t h e real m e a n i n g of śūnyatā. T. with those elements which ye maintain to be in every case evanescent. suffering. nirvana'. 45) 42) [eg î p | (being accumulated vipranasta. om. reads ' after destroying existence. O monks.e. impersonal. the teaching of the incorrectness with regard to the feature of the highest true nature of the elements. C. 43) C. ñams-pa (disappeared). the Purity 4 4 ) . the Bliss. -~xL. [ 299 ] . C. jy\ by practice). this repetition. Lastly. and that everything is impersonal and impure. Therefore. maintaining the general conception that all things are evanescent. tshul-du (śunyatā-nayena.s u b s t a n t i a l i t y is one of t h e is for bhāva. Thus should be understood in detail. i those whose mind has deviated from the conception of Nonsubstantiality ' denotes 4) the Bodhisattvas who have recently entered the Vehicle. ñe-bar gshags-pa ( = upasthita). There are also some people 41 ' dharma—tattva. C. T . the destruction of the elements [for the Phenomenal Existence] in future 4 9 ) . . that there is only suffering. C. C. a s if ' dharmârtha—tattva \ C.The Ratnagotravibhāga essence of things 4 1 ) . and impure. is [in reality] of no use. /*pp ftfc \ J . 3 vimoksa—muhhas. practise the meditation [on that conception] repeatedly. and increasingly. according to the Scripture. T . (śūnyatā-tathāgatagarbhârtha. [ye should keep in mind]. and the Highest Unity". bhāva-vināśāya. vimoksa-mukha. Cognition of N o n . there exists [an essence which represents] the Eternity. O monks. 49) uttarakālam. 44 ' ' śobha ' in the text is a misprint for ' śubha '.

44. pratisarati. § 3. p. and. 394. s. XIII. saying: [ 300 ] . Cf. Festschrift fur Willibald Kirfel.). 7) Bodhisattva-bhūmi. (prakseptavyam na kimcana). brten-pa. 'fTf. Gokhale. T. v. Cf. C. V.). it is identical with that in the Abhisamayâlañkāra). Bonn. 48. • 53) This is one of the most famous verses in Mahāyanistic literature. We now can add one example to this list. upon which we should meditate. 21. T .. which has a little difference in b. by Nāgārjuna (Ace. fancying 50) Non-substantiality in this way. 8) Madhyântavibhāga-vyākhyā by Sthiramati (as a quotation. TAKASAKI among them who think that there is something substantial called 4 the Non-substantiality' which is quite different from ' f o r m ' and other [elements]. V. Suzuki's tr. Gokhale's report. V. 9) Mahāyāna-śraddhotpāda. part I. See V. 155 as a quotation (812 b). BGS mentions this verse along with v. om. there are 9 occurrences of this verse recorded in Melanges chinois et bouddhiques. dmigs-pa. has merely 5 kārikās. they are persuaded of51) Non-substantiality. S. C. to Prof. v. p. 7. and hence the authorship of Nāgārjuna for this verse is doubtful. They are: 1) Tibetan version of Pratîtyasamutpāda—hrdaya—kārikā. (a similar idea attributed to the Buddha. Studia Indologica. Then how is what is called here i [the cognition of] the Matrix of the Tathāgata in regard to the true meaning of Non-substantiality' ? Here there is nothing to be removed And absolutely nothing to be added. Besides this occurrence in the Ratna. 57 (not in verse). BHS Die. 2) Nāma-samglti (Tib. Wogihara's ed. however. // 154 // upalambha. 1. the original Skt text. This conception represents the eternalistc view. 12. 5) Abhisamayâlañkāra.J . Der Sanskrit-Text von Nāgārjuna's Pratîtyasamutpādahrdayakārikā. 4) Saundaranandakāvya of Aśvaghosa. 52) The following is actually a part of the explanation on ' śūnyatāvikasiptacitta '. attributed to Nāgārjuna. V. Cf. and that is the one which we should understand. 6) Śuklavidarśanā (Bendall Mss.) 6-5. 101 ff.The True Conception of the Matrix of the Tathāgata as Representing Non-substantiality 5 2 ) . (not in verse). The Truth should be perceived as it is. BGŚ ^ ^f.. 3) Sumañgala-visārani of Buddhaghosa (in Pali). BGŚ 812 b. 1955. And he who sees the Truth becomes liberated 60) 51) 53) .

(For sad. *ū * fP ā I i MN - m ' 104 . B4) 55 śūnya. kun—nas ñon—moñs—pahi rgyu—mtshan. gañ—shig lhag—par gyur—pa de—ni de—la rtag—par yod—do. this is observed 58 ' as 'void' (śūnya) in that place (tend). perfectly purified by nature. and hence it is not necessary to regard this v. 154 as a quotation from any particular source. since it is by nature devoid of accidental pollutions. essentially. tr.«te'). yañ-dag-par rjes-su mthoñ(-ba). 69 ' yad yatra nâsti tat tena śūnyam iti samanupaśyati j yat punar atrâvaśistam bhavati tat sad ihâstîti yathābhūtam prajānāti I. See below. Cū- [ 301 ] . gañ—shig gañ—na med—pa de—ni des stoñ~ño . In the case of such a verse of widely applicable idea. inconceivable and far beyond the sands of the Gañgā in number ".The R a t n a g ot r a v ib h ā ga The Essence [of the Buddha] is [by nature] devoid 5 4 ) Of the accidental [pollutions] which differ from it. indivisible from it. of the same in the Ratna. T. sam-anupaśyati. C. As for the second verse. T. ' samkleśa—nimitta. 155). T. 14).= samyak. there is no purifying element which is to be added to it. . C. . since it is by nature indivisible from the pure properties [of the Buddha] 5 6 ) . 4ll &. on account of this verse lies in its application to the explanation of ' garbha—śūnyatā—arthanaya ' shown in the second verse (v. and shows a closer translation of the original than C. B7 > Ś M S 2 2 1 c. 58) reads * .(Suññata-vagga. there was probably a custom in those days to borrow the same expression without permission or mention of the source in order to express one's own idea freely. 56) T. T. C. one knows that this being must exist here 5 9 ) : This is really the true [conception of Non-substantiThis is no doubt a quotation from the Ratna. Also.5 > e t c . But it is by no means devoid of the highest properties Which are. iX i*J ^ |K $«. // 155 // What is explained by this ? There is no defiling element 5 5 ) which is to be removed from this Essence of the Tathāgata. T. 33* . On account of this point. This is an original sense of the term śūnya. stoñ. %\\ ^^_ Jrfj 7»U • sam. Thus. whatever remains there. it is said [in the Scripture] 5 7 ) : " The Matrix of the Tathāgata is devoid of all the sheath of Defilements which are differentiated and separated [from the Absolute Essence]. DAS 813 6 (v. The originality of the Ratna. cf. inseparable [from the Absolute Essence]. The Matrix of the Tathāgata is by no means devoid of the Buddha's Properties which are indivisible. simply ' kleśa '. C *U Jg JJl M ^ S t i . inserts dharmatā after suddhadharma. wherever something is lacking.

ASAKI ality] 6 0 ) . (jjt\\ fS^. .J. tarn santam idam atthûti pajānāti. . for dhātu. absent. we call them by this very reason 4 those whose mind has deviated from [the true conception of] Non-substantiality. sometimes in BHS with instrumental). Implying this point. 67) C. 63) visarati. as used in the aphorism mentioned above. as in the case of ' śūnyo dhātuh '. B3 61) 44 C. >«. The first usage is also observed in the same Pali canon (migāramātu pāsādo suñño hatthi-gavâssa—valavena . r e s " pectively. inserts śuddha between t w o a n d [ 302 ] . — yathābhūtam). . T. yam pana tattha avasittham hoti. turning in various directions . TAK. T. without the introduction 6 5 ) to the knowledge of the highest truth of Non-substantiality. . and. ' śūnya ' is s y no ny mous with ' na asti' (na hoti). mñon-par hdu-bya-ba * ^U*. abhisameti). ' cittatn viksipyate visarati'. ekâgri bhavati. where t h e t e r m ' śūnya' (suñña) is t o be t r a n s l a t e d into ' e m p t y of'. avikalpa-dhātu. I n t h e second usage. a n d this usage relates t o t h e ftieaning of ' śūnya ' i n B u d d h i s t doctrine as appearing i n t h e s t a t e m e n t : śūnyam sarvam '. nobody can attain or realize 6 6 ) the non-discriminative Sphere 6 7 ) [of the Tathāgata]. C. (phyin—ci ma—log—pa) a n d C. mukha. 2) ' B is śūnya (in A) ' (A with locative case-ending. ' true ' represents b o t h . bral-ba. those individuals whose mind has deviated from this principle 63) of Non-substantiality. sāksāt\jkr. Now. Indeed. i n t h e preceding illustration). Jrçj . instead of śūnyatârtha- simply ' /\* ^|īj fjfgi ' (ayogyam). ^ W 7J # ' J *^x V T • T . And lasuññata—sutta) yam hi kho tattha na hoti. . T . 66) (— abhisamayati. tena tarn suññam samanupassati. rnam-par hphrol (hphrol fr. sgro-hgod-pa & skur-pa hdebs-pa. 48. or * devoid o f ' . 60) I n t h e t r a n s l a t i o n . ' sam. 64) * j ^ p 3-Jfī •yf'' (buddhagocaravisayād). neither me64) ditates nor concentrates upon it. See N o t e XI—14. ^ 2 | -Tflv. B B h . Cf. to separate). rtse-gcig-tu . It signifies cittaikâgratā 86 * T. om. ' v o i d of'. dbyiñs. t-tr. p . C. and for nayād. 68 > ŚMS 221 c. [Thus]. There are two kinds of usages of the term ' śūnya' : 1) ' A is śūnya of B ' (B with instrumental case-ending). 62 ' The reading ' aparyantam ' is to be corrected into ' aviparyastam ' according t o T . hgyur-ba. T . by removing the extremities of affirmation and negation 6 1 ) . samāropa & apavāda.' of samanupaśyati a n d ' yathābhūtam '. the real 6 2 ) characteristic of Non-substantiality is explained b-ir these two verses. it has been said 6 8 ) : The Wisdom cognizing the Matrix of the Tathāgata is nothing but the Wisdom about Non-substantiality of the Buddhas. C.

being represented by the Transcendental Absolute Body which is indivisible from them. since the [Buddha's] pure virtuous Properties 71) . and lokottaradharmagarbha are not accessible to viparyāsâbhiratāh. as dharmakāya. object of darśana. in 3) T. to perceive that the Transcendental Absolute Body is perfectly pure by nature. Here. adds ' samyak'' before it. and adds ' J L 3(Q ' (tathatā) as the [ 303 ] . this Matrix of the Tathāgata. or the Matrix of the Transcendental Element. dharmadhātu in place of dharma. & C. are by nature devoid of accidental pollutions.The R at n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a this Matrix of the Tathāgata has never been seen. On account of this perception. T. instead of prakrti. tshul gcig-po. is said to be a sphere not accessible to 4 those who have fallen into the erroneous conception maintaining the existence of individuality '. resolves ' jñānadarśana ' into ' jñānena samdarśanam '. respectively: 1) 2) 3) 4) dharmadhātugarbha is not accessible to satkāyadrstipatitāh. as ' dharmakāya '.\\ Jj^. samarasa). C. dharma. inasmuch as it represents the Matrix of the properties. T . -Mj ^ ^ ekanaya. since the Transcendental Element is spoken of as being an antidote against the mundane elements of such nature as evanescence. $ 0 *J=^ jî. 72) * H^C ^ = f H^C (ekarasa 73) yathābhūta-darśana. yon-tan-gyi chos. But S. 69 For 1) dharmadhātu. and C. because the Absolute Essence is an antidote against such erroneous conception 7 0 ) . C. is identical with those mentioned in SMS. adds a few sentences more which are not available in the present SMS except for the passage ' only the Buddha can obtain it ' and are probably an insertion by the translator. Inasmuch as it represents the Matrix of the Absolute Body. om. C. dharmakāya—[garbha]. implies here the True Intuition 7 3 ) . T. in 4). [the Matrix of the Tathāgata] is said not to be accessible to ' those whose mind has deviated from Non-substantiality '. it is said not to be accessible to ' those who are attached to delusion '. the commentator tries to combine the 4 meanings of tathāgatagarbha mentioned in SMS (see Note IX-178) with the 4 kinds of people to whom the former 4 have the power of being pratipaksa. by means of the cognition of the unique 72) introduction to the Wisdom which is essentially connected with the Absolute Essence. T. 70 * Hereafter. it is said that [even] those Bodhisattvas who are abiding in their 10 Stages ' C. inasmuch as it represents the Matrix of the Absolute Essence. T. etc. perfectly pure by nature. prakrtipariśuddhadharmagarbha is not accessible to śūnyatāviksiptacittāh. See note IX-178 71 ' guna-dharmāh. has never been realized by the Śrāvakas and the Pratyekabuddhas 6 9 ) " &c. . " }f/^. adds śūnya. [Furthermore]. T. tathāgata.

MPS 41 a.3 ^ ( t h i n cloud). sprin-mthon. Since their intellect is still partial. O Lord. The source of this quotation is unknown. T . T. T. Jjut § E f° r t n e whole. dbyiñs (dhâtu). 4 slit. 77) 76) [ 304 ] . TAKASAKI can [but] slightly understand the Matrix of the Tathāgata 7 4 ) .J. C. h e n c e d e r i v a t i v e l y . s m a l l hole ' . Just as here the sun. Even by the Saints. 75) 74) chidrâbhra. ' m t / i o n ' is t o b e c h a n g e d i n t o • mthoñs'. regards this verse as a commentary verse and adds one verse in the middle showing the sense that śrāvaka cannot see the Buddha. T . only those whose Wisdom is illimitable Can completely perceive thy Absolute Body Which pervades everything knowable That is infinite like space " 7 7 ) . Cf. nabhas-tala. C. w h i c h m e a n s ' a n o p e n s p a c e i n a d e n s e f o r e s t ' . e t c . C. in the sky with torn clouds7 6 ) . regards this sentence as a quotation from some Sūtra. C. thou art unable to be seen fully. seems to have failed to catch the meaning of this verse by omitting one pronoun ' te ' in the third Pada. of pure intellectual vision. For tala. Indeed thus it is said 7 5 ) : [ 0 Lord]. ^I|j[ .

165 a b. (Kārikās 58-59) It has been said here and there [in the Scriptures] That all things are to be known everywhere As being 4 unreal'. and illusions 5 ) . igpj. Clinging to things unreal 9 '. C. 1} 2) C. contempt against those who are inferior 8 ) . T . T . C. C. o m . C. See v. which is at the same time the basic scripture of the Mādhyamikas. R7L). we have two ślokas summarizing the purpose of instruction 3 '. C. speaking ill of Truth 1 0 '. 162. See v. T. /zrt deśanâ-prayojana. sañs-rgyas sñiñ-po ( = buddhagarbha). jfP ^ f^. 35: yathā māyā yathā svapno gandharva-nagaram yathā / tathotpādas tathā sthānam tathā bhañga udāhrtam //. bhūtadharmâpavāda. 8 ' hīnasattvesv avajñā. yañ-dag chos-la skur. and the second is the answer 4 ) . 161. Cf. ^ ^ jifâ 3 c V2* • See v. MK. like clouds. VII. g Ç JpÇ J£\\ mt gards this bhūtadharma as tathatā or buddhadhātu. adds: ' i t is accessible only t o sarvajña m §§| tft pp H ! . T. BGŚ 787 a-b (Nidāna-parivarta). ^ C. T. Whereas. 8116. 10) 7 |_E (C re- [ 305 ] .XI. THE PURPOSE OF INSTRUCTION 1 ' [Someone may ask]: If this Essence [of the Buddha] is thus so difficult to be cognized inasmuch as it is not fully accessible even to the Saints of the Highest rank who are abiding on the Stage characterized as being completely free from any attachment 2 ) . lam bstan-pa. See v. 6 ' Especially in the Prajñāpāramitā. sems shum. ījOj* *[§£ |ffj| ^pC 'ffi . then what is the use of this instruction to the ignorant and ordinary beings ? [For replying to this question]. •' abhūtagrāha. 163. '. sems-can dman-la bsñas-pa. T. C. C. rSf. one is the question. bstan-pahi dgos-pa. why has the Buddha declared here That the Essence of the Buddha 6 ) 4 exists ' in every living being ? //156// There are 5 defects [caused by the previous teaching]: The depressed mind 7 ) . Cf. yañ-dag mi-hdsin (bhūta-agraha).t . ' linam cittam. vyākarana (explanation). [visions in] a dream. |2^ IpJ ^L*. [Of them]. {Jftfy I^J 5JS. T. 3) 4) 6) r¥* Aft. buddha-dhātu.

reading seems better. bgag-cag. 165 c d. Undertaking of Actions 1 5 ) is like the enjoyment 1 6 ) in a dream. BGS gives the following terms: kleśa-karma-vipāka. this theory is opposite to that of ' pūrva'. like clouds. Of these 5. uttara tantra. H e r e t h e t e r m ' tantra ' (for which C. I could not trace it anywhere else. in the sense ' separation from kleśas. etc. [ 306 ] . dben-pa (solitary) for vivikta.J. o m . C. The Group of elements are like illusions made by magic 1 7 ) .). deprived of reality 1 4 ) . upabhoga. I. Significance lies more in the word ' uttara' than in ' tantra \ since by the term ' uttara'. 56 ff. declared his aim and the position of this theory in the currency of Buddhist philosophy. These three are the principal factors of samsāra or samskrtadharmas. ^ . and regards bhūtakoti as the subject and reads ' bhūtakoti (the reality) is apart from samskrtam '. C. made by causes and conditions And known in the forms of Defilement.. T . The meaning is simply ' doctrine ' or ' philosophy '. But now. T. )īîfi 3 c f ° r the whole. 13) krtyakriyā. In one sense. Also see vv. pjflj = śāstra) h a s n o t h i n g t o d o with Tantric Buddhism. C. Action and Result 13> Are. T. T. nirmita). From the context. g y Mf ^% }Jîîp 5X ( = ātmadrsti. in this ' u l t i m a t e ' Doctrine 1 8 ) . C. the author of the Ratna. bya-ba-yi las.. māyā-nirmita. 15) 16) 17> 18) 5) $ci*L. It has been said [in the Scriptures] All kinds of phenomena. ātmasneha. T. See v. but it is not the case here). by which is meant here clearly the doctrine of the Prajñāpāramitā and of the Mūlamadhyamaka. since ' bhūtakotisu viviktam ' here stands for śūnyam in the Kārikā (usually vivikta is used for denoting purity of moksa or nirvana. -Jx. sgyu-ma spral-ba. // 158 // The Defilements are like the clouds. TAKASAKI And besides X1 \ affection for one's self*'. 2 J ( o m . C. C. J ^ L pfflj . bla-mahi rgyud. // 157 // The meaning of these two ślokas is briefly to be known by the following ten verses. lhag-pa (which is connected to ' sneha '). // 159 // So has it been ascertained 4 before ' . [The teaching about Essence of the Buddha] has been taught In order that those who are possessed of these defects 1 2 ) Might get rid of their defects. As for the use of bhūtakoti in the plural. 14) viviktam bhūtakotisu. T . where vipāka'* is replaced by skandha-dhātv-āyatana. Being the Results made by Defilements and Actions. fffi f^ C. See Note VIII-132. T h i s is t h e word which gives this work i t s title. ' vipāka ' stands for janman or duhkha. llj 12) adhikah.

it is taught that ' sarva ''-sattvāh tathāgatagarbhāh'' (BGS). Will produce the notion of inferiority for those Whose mind is not aroused towards Enlightenment. Some of them. the Buddha has taught tathāgatagarbha-'' asti '. the word api ' is quite necessary. krtrimatva & āgantukatva. ff^ ^ ' ātmâvajñāna. C. being possessed of depressed 20) mind. //160// Indeed. while ' tasya ' of the next verse can stand for that which is described in this v. unreality of things. in other words. and hence it is the ' ultimate '. In another sense. C. bdag~-la brñas-pa. (such a man of self-pride). T. if [the people] have not heard of this teaching. This ' self-pride ' is the second defect (lack of the notion of ' equality'). khams. and hence. 162 without any relative pronoun. puts the word '** 7»l-I' (does not know) and regards this verse as explaining the 4th defect. T. emphasis lies on the ignorance about tathāgatagarbha. saying: I am superior to [others]. C. T. // 161 // Even if someone has resolved towards Enlightenment 22 '. C. but C. T. The Will towards the Enlightenment does never arise in them. and towards those people having this defect. the defects of living beings are unreal Because they are non-genuine 2 5 ) and accidental since the ' former ' one emphasizes ' śūnyatā \ i. C. BGS: 23) 21 [ 307 ] . shum-pa. // 162 // With him who thinks like that 2 3 '. > nlca. In this 3rd defect. May have a fault of self-depreciation21'. BGS says. but a real successor of the former. this ' buddhadhātvastivāda' is a synthetic śūnyavāda of śūnya and aśūnya.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a In order to remove the 5 defects [caused by the previous teaching]. which causes the affection toward the unreal thing. for removing it. For these two. BGŚ 811 b (after the = Una. J|Ç jflj explanation of buddhakāyatraya). J|p£ | y =Ej*. cf. and hence. 22) For ' bodhicittodaye 'py asya\ T. ^H . i. as being the ' answer '—giver to the problem which has never been explained ' before '. // 163 // [Indeed] 2 4 ) .e. this doctrine is not against the former. This self-depreciation is the first defect. ' hla-ma"1 shows this sense. He clings to unreal things [as if they were real] And does not cognize the true meaning. Then he. H H§ t H A . om. 20 ft^ For these 3 verses. bcos-ma. 25 ' krtrima.e. T. 24 ' This verse expresses the true meaning (bhûtârtha). T. 19) dhātu. while this ' latter * one emphasizes ' astitva ' of buddhadhātu. as we had already known by previous passages. The true knowledge will never arise. however. reads as ' bodhicittâdaye yasya ' and relates this ' yasya ' to ' tasya' of the next verse. It is shown that the Essence of the Buddha 1 9 ) exists. as S. being proud of it. But in relation to the preceding verse.

^ 4 ^ J | ^ ^ ^ C ffi ^ (having aroused the mind of respect 32) prajñā (3) & jñāna (4). ' maitrī. Here ' prajñā ' represents 'prajñāpāramitā'' of the Mādhyamika or iavikalpajñāna'' of the Vijñānavāda. [ 308 ] . a n d this is real. has a function of ' manifesting the reality • ( G ft £ ffl #& © % ffi IS If %• BŚ maitrl (5) = mahākarunā (C. . $Ht $& 1fr ^ T.(1) (BGŚ $j$ 1 ^ 4 J | ) . cf. nairātmya. because of ' mahākarunā '. catches the meaning better. ston-pa-bshin gus. he produces śāstrgaurava. C ^ | S j ] (BGŚ ] E jfj >\j*) . // 165 / / On the contrary 2 9 ) . that is to say. AÂS 469 b-c. // 164 / / If a man of intelligence 2 7 ) perceives [only] That the defects [of living beings] are unreal. But the best explanation is given in AÂS. BGS y C f|2>). pure by nature. Wisdom 321 . which represents ' navayānasamprasthita-bodhisattva '. h e m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e r e is n o t h i n g real. Obtaining equal regard [for every body]. byams-pa. He cannot obtain benevolence 28) by which One regards [other] living beings as equal to oneself. 3 28 26) »> protsaha. spro. T. which runs: Hfc B^f ^ towards living beings. if one hears of this teaching. T. C. " ^ & ^IE* » 0 n a n opposite order). These 5 properties having become originated. m e a n s t h e ' e m p tiness ' of dosa. being free from [self-] depreciation 3 4 ) . About the 5 gunas. is the natural consequence of the 4th defect. a n d hence this conception is nothing but the ' depreciation of reality '. C. T . while ' jñāna '. which is the 5th defect. bdag-med-pa. H e is intelligent because h e c a n perceive ' dosâbhūtatva '. 29) Hereafter. hence BGS interprets that prajñā and mahākarunā (instead of mentioning of jñāna) are the two upāyas by means of which one can attain the state of apratisthitanirvāna. Manifestation of the reality is for the sake of living beings. // 166 // He.J. 34) 33) n For niravajya. J§§ . ' guna ' being opposite t o dosa. referring to the 5 gunas which are the antidotes for the respective 5 dosas. <\* 3J3 f ? (avivarta). This 4th defect seems to be the most important among the 5. And depreciates [their] virtues which are real. There arises in him great exertion 3 0 '. and its function is said to be the intuition of ' śūnyam sarvam '. and great Benevolence33'. the virtues [of living beings]. Intuition. Respect [for all living beings] as for the Teacher 3 1 ) . b u t this knowledge is merely one side of t h e t r u e knowledge. ^ ^ . C. 27) dhîmat. The lack of maitrī. . T. That is. TAKASAKI But the non—substantiality26) of such defects is real. C. (2) 31 > śāstr-gaurava. Consequently. representing ' tatprsthalabha-jñāna ' being laukika jñāna. It clearly implies the defect caused by certain Mādhyamikas whose position gave rise to the appellation of ' nāstika ' for Buddhists.

o m . Attains the State of Buddha 3 6 ) at an early date. a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. Having love. 37) ślokârthasamgraha-vyākhyānatah. 38v _ t (anuttarabuddhabodhi). C. T . C. has no equivalent t e r m . ' ślokârthasamgraha-vyākhyāna ' seems t o b e t h e n a m e for t h e comm e n t a r y . equally for himself and for living beings 3 5 ) .The R at n a g ot r av ib h ā g a Being devoid of defects and possessed of virtues. AĀS ^ K A W f ^ S t ^ t i (bodhi- [ 309 3 . with the commentary [named] ' t h e Summary of Meaning of the ślokas ''37)'. » ' F o r ātmasattvasamasneha.. bodhi). J§. Cf. T . // 167 // Finished is the first Chapter entitled ' the Matrix of the Tathāgata ' in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. C. t h e ablative case-ending. sañs-rgyas-ñid. J\l — " %)] ^ < £f£ f(\\ ^ C ^ all living beings as n o t being different from himself). 36) 6 ?!§? J ^ (regarding \yft ^jjff J(£ buddhatā ( = buddhatva. BGŚ ^ sattva c a n e n t e r t h e avivarta s t a t e ) . while ' śloka ' s t a n d s for t h e basic K ā r i k ā s .

I. . dag. H o w e v e r . . 7) liberation [from obstructions] . GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REALITY FREE FROM POLLUTIONS We have finished the explanation of 4 the Reality mingled with Pollutions '. we shall speak of the undefiled Reality.. the Germ of the Buddha) ' (āśrayaparivrtti).CHAPTER I I . 4) T h e whole of this verse seems t o b e m e r e l y a r o w of t e c h n i c a l t e r m s . (de-)brten. T. 6) 7) 8) 9) svaparârtha. ^Tf. the attainment 6 ) . T.C. C. thob. show the various aspects of ' buddhatva '. C. as all those terms. T. the foundation 9 ) of these two kinds of actions . j j £ ^ This reminds us of the ' jñānâpti' . (2). 470 c-473 c. simply ' don ' (artha). (1). (4).. THE ENLIGHTENMENT i> 2. 8) action in behalf of oneself and others . Now. C. adds ' ^ [ 310 ] ] | S ' (yoga) before . ft i L • • • (5).. śuddhi and so forth. in the Immaculate Sphere of the Buddhas.MALĀ TATHATĀ XII. the term Buddhahood may be suplied here as the subject term. since. rañ-gshan-don. F Cf. bral-ba. C. Then which are the 8 categories ? [The The The And 11 Buddhahood 4 ) is] the purity 5 ) . C. [this Reality] is [absolutely] freed from all kinds of pollutions 21 .*» rfeoj n o \/T% ifcīiī / i • < 5 H T r/J 1&" (' . . t. . in v. 6 • A S 470c: f| ft g f t ] 81 ft $£ M # — tfl W 7}t ft $ | 1$ > Ā » śuddhi.e. And this undefiled Reality is to be known in brief in the reference to the 8 categories3' [which show its characteristics]. . S£ TW 3) For ipadârtha\ T. . ^ I J . T. 3. Hereafter. (tad-) âśraya. (3). {=§ "fty.Hv ' f° r ' āśrayaparivrtti '). }§? . AÂS Chapter III (Bodhi-panvarta). prāpti. visamyoga. what is this ' Reality free from Pollutions ' ? It is that which is called ' the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis (i. NIB. T.

C. magnificent and magnanimous. See m y I n t r o d u c t i o n . ffj . For this 6th category. C #H ^L 0 T ^ (The latter matches S.(karman). Ā 3) H f l S t 31. 1) # gg fit Q!. this verse is t o b e omitted from t h e line of Kārikā text. 5) the union (yoga). See Note VIII-8. C. W i t h t h e same probability as for v . One reason is t h a t this verse is merely a row of certain terms and does n o t m a k e a sentence b y itself. A S 472 c. 10) >5 ~5j S fff . by this verse 12) . better). T. these 8 subjects are indicated according to order. yāvad kalam. is to be understood. while the latter 6 agree in their contents with those (4)-(8) in this chapter (9th is a part of ' yoga ' here). 2) the cause (hetu). used for C. includes i t within t h e Kārikā-text. which mentions 10 categories. T. (paripantha). T. 29 i n Chap. and is to be written without separation from the succeeding ' audārya ' (gāmbhīryaudārya-). zab dañ rgya—che dañ bdag—ñid— chen-po.?f^ (phala).. In a manner as it is U ) . S. It [manifests itself] as long as the world exists. But in the commentary. 5) Idan. yathā ca tat. "Jf^ H i . 7) the eternal (nitya). ' t a t \ These two subjects have the same characters as ' yāvadbhāvikatā ' and ' yathāvadbhāvikatā ' used in the characterization of the Jewel of the Community (IV-§ 1). Cf. 6)hjug-pa. Cf. £ $ t * I . 6) the manifestation (vrtti). ' i n connection with the next subject. 6) ^ P ^ f (yoga). the first 4 are identical with the first 3 subjects of 10 categories on 4 tathāgatadhātu ' in Chap I. (svabhāva). viz. 7) rtag-pa. Of them. G n ) For these two categories. J^. |if|. gāmbhīryaudārya—māhātmya. 5) \ p ^fl.?fc.<6). I . Sctfc.The R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a Being profound 10) .B Ś 811 a. T . 7) ff (acirelya). 4) las. I I . we c a n u n d e r s t a n d the idea expressed i n this Chap. 13) F o r these 8 subjects. 2) J|j . AÂS 470 c. translation. 1) First of all the Essence [of the Buddhahood]. 9) ^ ^ (āvenika). / ji-lta-ñid. om. when it is ' perfectly purifiāśraya. 3) jgj* pjp. // 1 //. |Zi| . 3) the result (phala). 2) Jg| ^ . namely: 1) the own nature (svabhāva). regards it as the term indicating the fifth subject. t h o u g h C. and 8) the inconceivable (acintya) character [of Manifestation]1 3 ) . [ 311 ] | § (vrtti). 8) ^ ft (nitya). 7[f\ lf§| in the Kārikā text. The term ' /f*p J ^ ' has probably no ground in the Ms. 12) I t is quite doubtful whether this verse belongs t o t h e Kārikā-text. ji-srid-dus. 3) ffl # . 4) ^ p . give t h e following terminologies: 1) ño-bo.. and reads ' r$C | 1 . <fj*. S. A* ^ J fâ* § § ! . 4) the function (karman). 10) The reading should be ' gāmbhlrya ' instead of ' gambhīrya ' in the text. which is called by the Lord l the Matrix of the Tathāgata ' when it is unreleased from the sheath of defilements.k. & C. Thus. 2) | 2 | ?rcK (hetu). and 8) mi khyab-pa. Another reason is t h a t these terminologies are n o t utilized i n t h e following Kārikās a t all. a n d also w i t h o u t this verse. . I . 1) # gg. Such is n o t t h e case with Kārikā-verses which we have picked u p i n Chap. and ffif ||j( ^H $L 7 ^ in the commentary. 3) hbras-bu. 1) y 'pf. 2) rgyu.

shall likewise have no doubt about the Absolute Body of the Tathāgata which is 1 6 ) freed from the coverings of all defilements " . 3) JjQ ^ffk j|»^ E . the liberation from the obstructions of defilement. and the liberation from the obstructions on account of the knowable things. . . ^p. AĀS 470 c: ffî Hf£. and is indicated by the word ' attainment' (prāpti). vinirmuktes tathā. for ' . This supermundane and mundane Wisdom is the ' cause ' of the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis 18>. t o T . Jy\ 7^4 f S Trv WC p~ (vipāka-mano-jñeyadharmaphalatvāt). F r o m t h e context. 15) 1 6 ) 4) 3jj£ ^ ^ " ^ * ^ ^ *jX" * ! § WC (pariśuddhadhar- Ś M S 2 2 1 6. There are two kinds of liberation. For ' āśrayaparivrtti prāpyate '. C. i t m a y refer to ' visamyoga-phala ' a n d ' vipāka-phala '. b u t t h e t e r m vipāka is used nowhere in Chap. completely agrees with S. ft l h 4~T • (prāpti means here t h e means of a t t a i n m e n t = prāp- ' neneti prāptih. 18) 19) ace. I I ) . 1) T . . [Here] it is called ' attainment' in the sense ' that by which something is attained '19>. and omits ' dvividham '. The reading should be ' . f$C I^L ir{ •> "f^f ( t m s sentence is to be placed i m m e d i a t e l y after ' ^ £ . dvividham/ '. J^ 2) $9G ^ff /rlK WC (nirodhaniśrayadānatvāt)'.\ 17) ' laukikam ' is t o b e i n s t e r t e d after prsthalabdham. as the 'own nature' of the [Reality] characterized as the 'Perfect Manifestation of the Basis'. T h e reading. reads as ' jñānâdhigamo eva (tat) phalam / '. I l l . C. . one who has no doubt about the Matrix of the Tathāgata as it is concealed under the millions of coverings of all defilements. C. B . madhātusvabhāvatah). (utpattiniśrayadānatvāt). namely 1) *-p jpCt / * C uX. 3) The ' result' [obtained by] these [two kinds of Wisdom] is the 4 liberation ' (visamyoga)20>. 20) p . ' tatphalam dvividham j ' is doubtful. respectively21).T J y ^ 1^1 '• See below).J. W h a t is signified b y t h e t e r m dvividham is quite uncertain. . viz. ffijiC Vpf" ^=p* jg£ £fc jplp j | \ V ^ . (Ace. although T . to v. therefore.q§. . One is the ' Supermundane. the Mundane 1 7 ) Wisdom which is acquired afterwards [based on the former]'. i t is preferable to read ' tatphalam visamyogah/ '. tyupāya. 21) ' yathākramam ' before ' svaparârtha-' should b e connected w i t h t h e preceding [ 312 ] .| f (dhātu) ^C $fe ® tS! ® > 3fe t f t 4 a whereafter. 2 & 3. vinirmukte tathāgatadharmakāye 'pi\ i n s t e a d of ' . characteristics of ' āśrayaparivrttV. 14 > Cf. hdis thob-pas na thob-paho. F o r this. a n d Ms. 80 1. non-discriminative [Wisdom] ' and the other. . . TAKASAKI ed ' (viśuddhi)14). the sūtra mentions 4 -Cz^jt* ~4*J£+ »t _ -t*i~| 3(fJ ^ R $ixi. 2) There are two kinds of knowledge. It is said 1 5 ) : " O Lord.

^mnft#. translation. (<\~X» | ^ i . Pîlfc '• The correct arrangement of these passages in C. C. ($P . It signifies Buddhahood characterized as muktikāya and dharmakāya (v. The function. there is the establishment [of the Essence] 24 In Buddhas' Stages >. but in the light of v. [ 313 ] . acintya a l o n g w i t h vrtti. respectively (gāmbhīrya. 4 4 i. as long as the world exists '.\ g ^ ^ Q ) . The own nature. II. and magnanimity. (-visamyogaś ca yathākramam / sva-). s T.e.I* ^ *î i difficult to render this C. d h ) Here C. ence. |~h "jvf (=āśraya in the verse). and the manifestation. we may interpret it as follows: The union means that the immeasurable qualities which are obtained by svaparârtha (-sampatti) are always and ultimately united with the foundation (yoga iti svaparârthaprāptânumeyagunânām nityam acintyam adhisthāne yogah /). has again confusion in its arrangement. •ffln#. audārya._jMmflimu«vi m. and [manifests] ' eternally '. 23) && 24) buddhabhūmi (pi. m e n t i o n s nitya. and in an inconceivable ' manner.).££©»>«lit. 2 3 6)-8) The ' manifestation > means that [this Perfect Manifestation of the Basis] manifests itself in the forms of three Bodies of the Buddha which are characterized by profundity. ^ ^ Jii. māhātmya). For the whole sentence. // 2 // sentence. reads: u te 22) T 0 J>8' r^f ^ | p JAS WC. the union. 22 5) [The point that] the foundation (adhisthāna) > of this function j s ' provided (samanvāgama) with ' [the inmeasurable properties] is [here called] ' union '. magnificence. the cause. C. C. Its eternal and inconceivable character. should be as follows: ffiifirfHlft±*T%".The 4 R at n agotr av ih h āga 4) The function * is the accomplishment of one's own aim and that of others.q£ ( (There is no correspondence between each of the two kinds of visamyoga and of the two kinds of artha-sampādana).flM#. By these points. and the result. So does C. ' |$g Jff jtSL PāP: Ī5JC » ^fe "IB ' should be placed after ' jîpÇ ^£\ jM. Summary. 30). rten[-pa]. 30.

rab-dbye-ba (prabhinna). (Kārikā 1) Buddhahood has been spoken of as being radiant by nature. style peculiar to the Buddhist text? 5) akalpana & pravicaya-jñâna. . Being endowed with all the the pure properties of the Buddha. dharmânām. [however] as being covered with the net of the multitude of clouds. Buddhahood. 11 2) •Ct D Ś 893« (v.Xin. Therefore. chos-la mi-rtog. i. It stands for 'prāpti' ( = hetu) in the preceding passage. t h e reading ' dharmānām* is somewhat doubtful. has no e q u i v a l e n t word for i t . says instead ' the sun and the moon '. C. & C. however. This Buddhahood is now eternal. respectively] 3). everlasting and constant.e. Just as the sun and the sky 2> [are often interrupted by clouds Though they are radiant and immaculate. B u t b o t h T . 8 POINTS ON THE UNDE FILED REALITY (I) SVABHĀVA & (II) HETU Now. [ 314 ] . C. anāsrava-tattvajñānam āpyate). which is represented by 6> The indivisible virtuous properties. Or is it an irregular Skt. t o t h e two kinds of jñâna. H e r e t h e reference is.^ M (dharmesv avikalpād. And is attained when the elements [of existence] take resort 4 ) To the Non-discriminative and Analytical Wisdom 5) . C. we have one śloka on Buddhahood and the means for its attainment1) referring to the subjects of 'own nature' and 'cause' respectively. T . T . vJyj JO J7IJ Jffj V/^ . C. // 3 // The meaning of this śloka is to be known in brief by the [following] 4 verses. In the form of [obstructions on account of] defilements And knowable things which are of accidental nature. read this dharma as connecting w i t h avikalpa: T . . 6) prabhāvita. āśrayāt. avikalpajñāna a n d tatprsthalabdha-jñāna. mi-rtog & rnam-hbyed ye-śes. 10: « ft tyj îf H ' S g ^ f l T S I f & t i B S ) A 4) prāptyupāya. ' / l > * Ji /jlj l§ff ^ £ -frf 7RÇ $ ī § . for this line.

and 2) 4 the purity. visamyoga is regarded as ' phala'. | 1 \ /(J>C / / î i*f • There is no correspondence between each of t h e t w o obstructions a n d t h e two kinds of wisdom. Which are beyond the sands of the Gañgā in number.e. 15 ' T . and reads ' " Q (jñāna) and Pf . C. T. One is the Non-discriminative [Wisdom] 14) And the other is the knowledge. Of them. ' vimuktir visamyogaś ca ' (C. C. rañ-bshin-gyis [S. $fc ffc V £ . and in the commentary. // 5 // 10 Because of their being unreal by nature ). dbye-med-par hjug-can. Namely. i. sgrib—pa. two kinds of prahāna. p. This purity is here. C. j S . & dri-ma med-pahi rnam-par dag-pa: C 0 & raff Vñ Î R ^ » respectively. T. Vñ ^ rnam-par dag-pa.t #Jffi• [ 315 ] . 1) ' the C. takes ' dvaya ' as ' advaya ' (^^ . in short. '|£E jfpp /J3î & "fvf Ppp /JTJJ)' I n this sense. fS] (to intend. ^ § ^ 5 S T H S • lx 12) ^ āvrti. T . C. F3rt ( = 13) 14) F o r ' isyate '. XXXI. obtained afterwards .). as the result of purification ' (vaimalyaviśuddhi)15). byas-min. -dañ bral-ba.£fc jc (prahāna) are non-dual'. C. u The obstructions > of defilements and of ignorance Are illustrated as being like clouds. rañ-bshin-gyis ni ma-grub. viślesa. Cf. MSA XII. of two kinds. to b e intended).). 9 And whose manifestations are indivisible [from itself] ). visamyoga). // 7 // (III) PHALA It is said that the own nature * of the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis is the * perfect purity ' . C. avinirbhāgavrtti (Bahuvrīhi comp. The former is characterized as ' vimuktir na ca visamyogah '. T. distinguishes both purities by the terms ' Vpî ' & ' Q ')• Also Sīiffl « * fit ÎP. C.The R at nagot r av ib h āga Has a resemblance to the sun and the sky 7) In both its characters. 13 Which is again considered as ) of two kinds. T . // 4 // It is endowed with all the properties of the Buddha. as prahāna-dvaya. and the latter. F o r ' tatprsthalabdha '. 10) svabhāvâparinispatti. |*Jji. T . ^\* $$• /(JJ[ om 9) ~§C HH ( « vrtti). 8 7) i > akrtaka. C. 15: svabhāva-śuddham mala-śuddhitam ca (^ f^ ]& ^ tyfi . 8 And are radiant and of uncreated nature >. Because of their pervadingness and occasionality. // 6 // 12 The cause of dissolving ) these two obstructions is Wisdom. knowledge and removal . Taisho. C. 620 b. 1) the ' innate purity ' (prakrtiviśuddhi).

reads i n n e g a t i v e ( / p ftjfl. etc. DAŚ v. as the result of purification ' with reference to the subject of 4 result' 17>. though being radiant.. C. 13.e. see v . T. TAKASAKI innate purity ' represents that which is essentially free [from all stains] but actually associated with them. 18 (893 c) #0 J Ś 2 § tfl" 20) 8k ffi tfef and in ?S M IS t * $c t t H Bf^ B ^L M St (^93 b. rgyas. 16 liberated from [all pollutions] \ Because. 2) 4 The purity. A simile for the immaculate Wisdom. 17) 18) H e r e again C. impurities. [ 316 ] . fll fll f t $ 5 Hf M * S ^ W Slit suggests the word ' druma ' as in Ms. reads in negative (-^I^ pafc). Like the full moon delivered from the jaws of Rāhu 1 9 ) . C. ' rāhu * (T. for which T. v. Like the sun. (Kārikās 2-3) Like a pond. // 8 // 16) F o r visamyoga. Ct. ^ g OiB^) ^ s a personification of «the phenomenon of eclipse and is counted one of ' nava grahāh \ see Mvyut. 19> A simile for the immaculate compassion liberated from ' dvesa '. A simile for t h e i m m a c u l a t e n a t u r e liberated from ' rāga '. as the result of purification ' represents [that which is] essentially free and actually. Indeed. liberated from ' moha '. Becomes abundant with flowering lotus gradually18). DAŚ t\l I S $D ' j t t ®C I K i grow in dirty water. snañ-ldan (bhāti-yuktam) de-ñid-do. 9i). just as water and the like become purified from dirt. C. ft « W S M* M + ift & # *U H H^ ^ A kt ± m i t f (v. For the second half of this line. filled with pure water. " XJj {j* •> sarvadharmâvisa- myogah). the Innate Mind. too. D Ś 893c: M B * ft. on v. B.).J. Cf. is not [always] separated from the accidental pollutions. B u t t h e 1$L ^ fe M (v. W 21 ' bhāti muktam tad eva. MM >*u J*|-» "iSL l § (probably as S. 16: $f ^ . lotus is usually said to point of similarity is not clear. sgrag-can. the radiant Innate Mind is completely liberated from the accidental pollutions. [i. JZU ft ?$£ ?ffi W ft comm. Cf. see v. Reality mingled with pollutions]. Manifests itself as being liberated 2 l ) . 14. being endowed with pure properties.17)> # 0 ftfc ?K 0 T 1& f S WC ( 8 9 3 c)Rather. 16). whose rays have been released From the covering of clouds and others 20\ This [Buddhahood]. C. The last 5 letters are for ' ādhya'. Now we have two ślokas about c the Purity. 12. 164. see v.

just as avikalpajñāna is immediately followed by tatprsthalabdha-jñāna. C. T. ^ /]<. The meaning of these two ślokas. See my Introduction.The This Like Like Like Like And Ratnagotravibhāga Highest of Sages23). #fl 2J£ -if-. is said to be akin to a pond and others. ?JC (ambu). and hence the originality of this verse is quite doubtful. ~~\ Tl. 1. § 28 ) pūrnavimalendu C. C. f-\. Such is n o t a characteristic of t h e genuine k ā r i k ā s i n this t e x t . [ 317 ] . like a an immaculate precious image of the Highest Lord of the world. like gold. is to be known by the following 8 verses: The result of the Non-discriminative Wisdom In short. is explained As the actual sight of the Buddha's state Possessed of all kinds of excellency25). the Buddha. U 28 > For amśu. C. Buddhahood 22) is [also] like the honey. Attained on the basis of the former. 27 > abhisyandana. And because of its sprinkling 27> the water of meditation On the disciples who are like lotus flowers. ^ JH. munivrsa or C. rgyal-ba-ñid. // 11 // It is like a pond filled with shining water Because of its rejecting the dirtiness 26> of the dust of Desire. // 9 //. C.. in short. like the kernel [of corns]. hod-zer. om. 23) (= munirsabha). a precious store of jewels. this k ā r i k ā c a n n o t b e u n d e r s t o o d b y itself unless there is assumed t h e knowledge of t h e 9 examples on tathāgatagarbha. // 13 // a2 > jinatva. great fruit-tree. it should be TO l7P ( 24) ^A ī. Being pure [as the result of the removal] of Desire and other accidental defilements. 26 > kālusya. like a golden statue 24>. T. T.)- As all of these 9 examples a r e t h e s a m e as those spoken i n C h a p . // 10 // [On the other hand]. ' 9iff£ J Q ' is probably a mistake. but T. hbab. 25 ' The significance expressed in these two verses is as follows: The visamyoga of dhātu is immediately followed by the manifestation of buddhatva accompanied by buddhagunas. // 12 // It has a resemblance to the immaculate full moon 28\ Since it has been released from the Rāhu of Hatred And since it pervades all the world With the rays 29> of Great Love and Compassion. the result of Wisdom.

T. like a treasure. AĀS 472 c. 32 33) 30) C. a king and a golden statue. C. C. . // 16 // By its body's being made of the jewel of the Doctrine 38 '. T .//15// Being pure34). jf£ H f (?). These t h r e e 34) > dravya. T. viw ^vf ^ x (~ osamasama). [respectively] 37). śun-pa ( = tvak). mi-mñam mñam. again misreads this line. It is like gold. pavitra. Bringing forth the essence of the Highest Doctrine31). T. y!y (?). $ | | |§p£ (Pali. nidhi (avaria Indicating lectio i n Taisho edition gives u s t h e reading: f^L ^ ^ -^fr* W\ §īk • The correct reading is therefore ' |f£ ^ 38) ^ HJ" 0 ^ '). respectively. rjas. C. And being free from the outer covering32) [of Defilements]. T . rkañ-gñis bdag-po mchog. prakrtisthagotra a n d samudānita-gotra. obtained afterwards on the basis of the former i2\ are the cause of the Perfect Manifestation of the Basis. like honey and the kernel [of grains]. 36) 37) 3B C o m . TAKASAKI And this Buddhahood is similar to the immaculate sun.. And its having the appearance of the most precious form 40). pheggu). // 14 // Being possessed of the unequalled30) properties. It is like the Buddha33). 40) Indicating nirmāria-kāya.J. the supermundane Non-discriminative Wisdom and the mundane knowledge. and the atulyatulya. But it is absolutely a mistake. 39) dvipada-agrādhipatya. dag[-pa]. «) Cf. And being the giver36) of the fruit of Liberation. f W / £ -i§^ • * dharmakāya. 'smin-byed'' for dāna is t o b e corrected i n t o ' s b y i n . Its being the Highest Lord of the human beings39). i f f _ t I t indicates p r o b a b l y sambhoga-kāya. (5) ff ^ ( #S M ^ [ 318 ] ift «> For these two jñānas. And because of its removing the darkness of the world With the rays of its divine Wisdom. C. reads ' sugata ' as the subject. Because of its being free from the clouds of Ignorance. AĀS M . and a tree. This line stands for > phalgu.b y e d \ s t a n d for tathalā. \iz. C. which is called ' the result of the liberation'. being freed from the poverty By the richness 35) of its properties.. // 17 // (IV) KARMAN 41) It has been said that the two kinds of Wisdom. It is like a precious [image]. C. adhigamadharma. T . 31) It stands for desanādharma.

sadāyatanāni. 28). by means of twofold power43'. C. The correspondence between each of the twofold jñāna and of the twofold arthasarnpatti is not clearly observed here. This "Isatām' (gen. (C. ' kāyadvaya ' here probably means the twofold rūpakāya. About this fulfilment of one's own aim and of that of others. i. // 18 // It gives always the cause [for enjoyment] In showing the miraculous apparitional forms. T . being the foundation 46 '.e. pada. and everlasting. C. Z 2 ^ H $fr ^§* . what is the 4 fulfilment of one's own aim and of that of o others ' ? That which represents the attainment of the undefiled Absolute Body. C. like space.) is c o m m e n t e d on as ' dhīrānām^ (v.The E at n a got r av ib h ā ga * function ' of the Wisdom is the fulfilment of one's own aim and of that f others. -ŚJ-. gandha. fffi. whose account is given in the next verse. with reference to the subject ' function '. 49) sat. The same term is used in v. 1) appearance in the forms of two bodies 44 '. is C. Immaculate and all-pervading. Of unperishable nature. C. śabda. In the pure audition of its perfect preaching. we have three ślokas. hpho-ba.^ ) . [both of] which continue as long as the world exists. T . 28. 44 ' From the context. | ^ f $fa # 0 ^ med-pa.-^g ^ " (dhlmat). C. (Kārikās 4-6) Buddhahood . and 2) the teaching by means of them. and parârthasampatti as caused by tatprsthalabdha-jñāna. Two-fold means ' deśanā & darśanavibhutva '. JEJ ^fc j \ . Quiescent. T . it is called the 'fulfilment of the aim of others'. [ 319 ] . gnas. dbañ-hbyor-ba. T. Is. pi. and represents the manifestation. in t h e sense B u d d h a h o o d itself animitta). 45) 46) 47) 48) 43) 45) tathāgatatva. But AĀS regards svârthasampatti as caused by avikalpajñāna. sparśitavya and dharma. Bo) sadindriya-visaya. constant and unchangeable47). reads ' 5»ÎÇ * p ' for kārana (with a negative. the cause 4 8 ) for the Intelligent 49) To experience the objects through 6 sense-organs 50> . Jgfc . vibhutva. /[* X a * acyuta. ' dag-pa(śuddha)' is probably a corruption. as being freed from the obstructions due to Defilements and knowable things along with their potential forces is called the 4 fulfilment of one's own aim '. And that which comes after the attainment of the fulfilment of one's own aim. rasa. Then. without any effort. namely: rūpa. AĀS ZZ ^ H . viz.

om. f^ •*§". is of no visible mark . ^ £ s M). respectively. phalârtha) is characterized as ' vimuktir visamyogaś ca'. The function of the twofold Wisdom In short. 55) The Tathāgata himself. bde—mdsad (śamkaram). nimitta-varjitam. ) muktikāya. T. profound by its nature. M > naya. ms tit m. respectively. the Absolute itself. So does the AĀS say (472 c fpj ^ § ^ J . From the aspect of ' vimukti '. In tasting 5 1 ) of the taste of the great. 61) vindana. // 21 // The Body of innate liberation and the Absolute Body. J7p pafE }mt. -f^. visamyoga (as the characteristic unique to bodhi). C. for which T. *&$• (giving). grol-bahi sku (hgro-ba in D. C. TAKASAKI In the pure scent of the Buddhas' morality. As far as this characterization is concerned. these two also correspond to the prakrtistha-gotra and the samudānlta-gotra. BU. the thicket of quite subtle 5 thinking *). 53) [But]. U $% $r? JîS =%» * S Nf wm =%. are to be known as one. »we aPPiy [ 320 ] the character of the samudānltagotra to the second function. ^ ^ /^H It should be ' \j\$ /flu. . ^ 53) 64) 5B) T. And in the cognition of doctrine 5 2 ) . T. zxL mm-. its function is characterized as the purification of itself. being the Highest Truth. and the dharmakāya. C. [The other is] the purification of the Absolute Body 56> . // 20 // The meaning of these three ślokas. (dharma). tshul. These two kāyas show the two aspects of the dharmakāya. C. C. like space. is probably a mistake). See my Introduction. C. ^pjj /jyjC. Consequently. while from the aspect of ' visamyoga '. [Although] being two [in their functions]. Here the muktikāya seems to represent vimukti (as the characteristic common to samalā tathatā and nirmalā îathatā). T. C. gahvara. in brief. these two functions represent svârthasampatti. 58 is a misreading (reading ' tathāgato viyomanimitta—varjitah). is to be known by the following 8 verses. rgyu-mtshan rnams dañ bral. the dharmakāya in its result aspect (III.J. the function of the dharmakāya is characterized as the perfection of Enlightenment. ' sūksmacintā-paramârtha-gahvaram ' for the whole line. it may be termed parârthasampatti because the dharmakāya as samudānitagotra is the cause of the rūpakāya which works for parârtha.-« % i*. sublime and highest Doctrine. in regard to its function. paramārtha. // 19 a In the enjoyment of the pleasurable touch of meditation. and dharmakāya. myañ (enjoying). Namely. is to be known as follows: [One is] the fulfilment of the Body of [innate] liberation.

myags. rnam-hgyur. ' quiescent'. Being the counterparts of ' everlasting ' and the rest. bsam mi—khyab—par hpho—ba. C.The Ratnagotravibhāga Because they are free from passions and all-pervading. T. C. 4 59) [Here] imperishability' is a general statement . C. 67 ' anāsravatva (C. // 23 // The ' absolute immutability ' is caused 58) By its nature of imperishability . C. of smells. 63) For kāyadvaya. not untenable. ucchitti. '^L JTL K Cf. ' avināśitva. [They are namely]: ' p u t r i d i t y ' . ' everlasting '. Of things touchable and of substances respectively. T. Is the cause of perceiving. C. and acintya—namana—cyuta. f^ Stf . C. 60 > nāśa. § ^1] ^ F $=| ^ ( | H V} Wi ft" (svârtha is avinirbhāga from $& @ ) . jmjf. 61) ' Annihilation ' and ' death in an inconceivable way ' . shortens this verse omitting many words. On account of its connection with 6 4 ) the undefiled character. of tastes. vikrti. has no equivalent word. T. It may be more natural to regard it as the twofold rūpakāya. since the Kārikā refers only to Buddhatva and the rūpakāya is nothing but a term for buddhatva or dharmakāya when it works for parârtha. C. 'disease'. Which is explained by the words. C.) and asamskrtapadatva (C. AĀS. respectively. // 22 // 4 It is free from passions ' Since the Defilements are resisted along with impressions. 61) pūti. 64 * yogatah. it i& known to be 4 4 Everlasting '. etc. // 25 // Because of their absence. T sbyor-bas (by means of). jffll 3^. 7 V î/ilj) vyāpitva (C. [ 321 ] . Does it mean muktikāya and dharmakāya ? But see Note 44. ' i ^ f*J iilf* jf§)| 2 | * . the twofold [apparitional] Body 6 3 ) . ^Y* 5^C • 69) uddeśa. // 27 // In the same way. C. namely): — " ^ " ^ S Zl ^ *fi $S JIl <§" 3R 3§ . interpretation is. T. T.. 62 > āspada. 68 3 gunas. ^ . chad-pa. being itself of no cause. // 26 // Just as space. however. // 24 // 4 60) The Evanescence ' is to be known as of four kinds. C. rten. hearing and so on Of form. C. T. Wisdom is considered as ' pervading ' Since it has neither attachment nor hindrance. And this immaculate Wisdom is the ' substratum '. Since it is the support 6 2 ) of [all] the pure elements. ' constant' and unchangeable '. of sounds. 7»»Ç ft . hjig-pa med-pa. 57) And are the immaculate substratum . HH . C. y\j. ^P< /$L (fundamental statement).

) T. // 28 // (V) YOGA 66) It is said that the Buddha has the character of space 6 7 ) . TAKASAKI Is the cause for wise men 6 5 ) to give rise to Immaculate virtues in the objects of sense-organs. bstan-pa (śāstr). Taisho. don dam-pahi mtshan-ñid. X I I . 7 2 > See note XIII-55. // 29 // Now. 42-43. Being quiescent. 71 [ 322 ] . constant.J . e. 752 a. 20): tathāgata-vyoma. there is one śloka about the highest character 7 0 ) in reference to the subject of i union '. the 18 E x c l u s i v e Properties). See a b o v e (v. It has neither attachment nor hindrance anywhere. the universal monarch. The [fulfilment of] one's own aim and of that of others 72) Are represented by the Bodies of Liberation and of the Absolute . rtsub. T. (Kārikā 7) Being inconceivable. Being all-pervading and apart from discrimination. /ff\. paramārthalaksana. JĀA 243 c. The pure and immaculate Buddhahood is like space. too. . 67) 68) 66 abhisamdhāya. C. C. C. and perfectly pacified. . the meaning of this śloka is. 65) dhlra (— dhīmat. C. p . So it is said 6 9 ) : " If the Tathāgata could be recognized merely by the 32 marks of a superman. Also see Chap. jffi (J|) > parusa. f i \ (?). (6) ^ g $ H . T.g. I l l (on > Cf. Now. to be known by the following 8 verses. AĀS 472 c . being devoid of rough 7 1 ) sensation. 69) 70) The Vajracchedikāsūtra. And. dgoñs-pas. in short. Skt. p . It can be neither perceived nor cognized. This refers specially68) to the absolute and exclusive character of the Buddha. * =§§. would turn to be a Buddha ". T. eternal and ever-lasting.

And is 'constant' because of endurance of Reality 80 '. btsas-pahi khyim-(g)nas. 80-82). it is to be known as ' inconceivable ' [Even] for those people of intellect 7 5 ) . \ś\ p j "jtr* pfv jf\ (lokottara— For gahvara. zab. i. C.iñe Katnagotraviûnaga On this foundation 73) of one's own aim and of that of others There is the ' u n i o n ' of properties. Cf. C. ( = dhlmai). // 30 // Buddhahood is accessible only to the Wisdom of the Omniscient. C. // 31 // Being of subtle character. regards this ' ārya ' as those Saints who belong to Srāvaka. T. C. T. (vv. It is not accessible to the mundane meditation and the like. it is not the object of study. It is ' all-pervading ' since it cognizes everything . Therefore. trijñāna. om. all these words. It is ' quiescent'. SMS 222 a: $ 0 -\l an a*MBit. ) apratisthāna. //33// It is ' eternal'. gzugs. T. Like the visible forms77) for those who are born blind. 75 ' jñānadehin. ^ . C. to T. And ' has no attachment' since it rejects defilements. nor even by the Saints 78>. [ 323 ] 22 . (depending upon svaparârtha). a n d C.& Pratyekabuddha-yāno. 79) sūtikā-sadma-sthita. 80 81 > As for these 4 epithets. ye—śes—lus—can. // 32 // Because it has never been seen before by ordinary persons. collective of forms). 'inconceivable' and others. And. being the impenetrable Absolute Essence7 6 ) . Like the disk of the sun for infants lying in their mother's bed 7 9 ) . \i\. 73) āśraya. £fc ^4 • gahvaratah). Being the Highest Truth. gnas-pa med[-pa]. see VIII-(IX C). The reading is there- fore to be ' sadma ' instead of ' madhya '. as it is devoid of birth . ace. And is not the object of the 3 [kinds of ordinary] knowledge 7 4 ) . śruti-cintā-bhāvanāmaya-jñāna. I. since it does not disappear. It is ' non-discriminative ' as it has no insistence8 1 ) . 77) So T . T. C. it is not the object of thought. 74) 76 J dharmatā-gahvaratvatah. chos-ñid zab phyir. P r o b a b l y t h e r e a d i n g is ' r ū p a ' i n s t e a d of ' f e ā y a ' (or kāya i n t h e sense of rūpakāya. om. / / 3 4 / / It is ' perfectly pacified ' as being the Truth of Extinction. 78) C. ' / 1 > * {EE .e. // 35 // Being purified from all the obstructions of Ignorance. It ' has no hindrance ' in regard to everything [knowable]. It is 4 everlasting ' . because it is free from dualism.

82) mrdu-karmanya-bhāvatah.Being of soft and light-moving nature 4 82) ./ i'* BJ J ^ (adrśya). B G Ś 809 a . manifests itself. between thabs chen-po and śes-rab. 6) and 16) have no equivalent in the Ratna. » ' parikarman. I 2 ) M î f f i («y«pO. f f fâ . . (In Deva- • For these three. /fr\ī\. the Body of Enjoyment (sāmbhogya)'. without interruption. /ppj • 84 ' AÂS makes 19 dharmas possessed by bodhi out of this passage. it is 'incognizable'. they should be written without separation). 89 88) C. C. with reference to this subject of ' manifestation'. T. // 37 Jj (VI) VRTTI85) Now again it should be known that this Buddhahood. Of them. T. viz. 19) £g^ Ypf (amaîo). it cannot be perceived. ^ fâ ^ #& & ffc # f^ . gñis-med lassu ruñ-bahi phyir (advaya-karmani bhāvatah). ^ ^ . though by means of a manifestation which is inseparable from its immatable qualities like space. pijft. 83 ' animitta. 84) And is ' immaculate ' because of its removal of pollutions . there are 4 ślokas about the distinction of [three kinds of] Buddha's Body. 5) / p prativedha). But for this line. in 89) order to be the support of the welfare and happiness of all living beings. JL7) ^f* S J ^ 18) yV^ ^ * (śufefia). as long as the world exists. 14) ft| " ^ (asa/iga (agrā%a). So. . 2Çc wC ( a s S. and with no effort. 9) S 13 ^ 11) t r t Z S (*""*).8 1 1 a ( u n d e r A v i k ā r a ) . // 36 // Being immaterial. It is devoid of rough sensation '. amalai stribhih' should be corrected into ' . sgrub-pahi rgyu. . without cessation. It is ' pure ' since it is pure by nature. AĀS 4 7 3 a. T. 16) [ ^ |l(M (arausāra?). . (D) has sñiñ-rje ) ādāna-nimitta. 15) ^ ^ ) ^ ^ " J ^ ' J (avikalpa). Great Compassion. and 87) * the Apparitional Body [nairmānika) . yorâs-su sbyoñ-ba. = dharmatā-gahvara?). C. . 3) j Ç flf (paramārtha). 4) j j | Î J | ^ (gambhīrya-naya. and Wisdom. Against J ' s note.. ' the Body of Abso4 lute Essence (svābhāvika)'. 2) ft $ 9 (sūksma). 86) ' . 86) still in the forms of three immaculate bodies. T. (apratigha). due to its possession of properties uncommon to others. [ 324 ] . C. or asa/bta). 6) ffj£ iFfj jig (dus(praśānta). " I & jlf (acintya).). 83> And being of no [visible] mark . . 85) Cf. C. 10) tt3 (śāśvata). with various inconceivable appli88) ances like the Great skilful means. T. ^ ^ . mtshan—ma med. Namely: 1) . 7) ^ (nitya). 8) ^ £ (dhruva?). amalais tribhih\ nāgrī script.

• 91 > tridhā vimuktam. 100) nidāna. C. #j? ^ 96) Jf. to the king of wish-fulfilling gems. sku. Is indivisible 9 0 ) . T . // 39 // One who exerts in concentrating for 9 7 ) the liberation of the world. o m .$«£• amalah. verse (v. rgyu. Immaculate and non-discriminative. unequalled. C. Who are concentrating their mind. 97) 98 For samāhrta-udyamah. middle nor end. T. C. C. Innumerable.and Pratyekabuddha-yānikas). de rtogs-pa (tad-adhigacchanti) ( c o n n e c t i n g tad w i t h ' ) . J t r S S . striving after it 9 4 ) .T. See t h e ' vigraha. And is perceived by the Saints 9 3 ) . » > For abhinna. %W 3fv dhātu. rnam-spañs-pa. Has a resemblance. C. in his acts. regards this verse as referring t o T. T . non-dual. and I guess this was the original reading. T . inconceivable. h a s n o e q u i v a l e n t w o r d . and surpassing the sands of the Gañgā in number And has rooted out9 6 ) all the defects along with impressions. Jfck -^ç pfC < ^ y r ^Tv //T 7»[j (unknown to Śrāvaka. 3tSL PāJH /J^ —\ v T and adds «^p . Which is endowed with properties. That represents the nature of the Absolute Essence 9 2 ) . as S. next verse. . grub-la brtson-pa (siddhyudyamah). 99 ) All bhāvas are of nihsvabhāva.iff ^ unmūlita. Appearing in various forms. For ' yarn dharmadhātu-svabhāvam '. C. H H . liberated in three ways 9 1 ) . M tyfi f § (insertion of ' #j? ^ J§< ' (rūpakāya) suggests that C. 94 ' F o r ' tat-prayatnāh * yarn dharmadhātusvabhāvam 95) > yogin.The Ratnagotravibhāga (Kārikās 8-11) That which has neither beginning. |~f§ 5ñÇ y\f>.^ ^ • b u t a r e inseparable from t h e Absolute. ^ P S i j j | . And this reading is supported by the commentary But C. j S . 9 3 with samāhita). [ 325 ] . 45: kleśa-jñeya-samāpatti-trayāvarana-nihsritam). rnal-hbyor-pa. // 38 // This [Absolute Essence] is nothing but the pure Essence 9 5 ) of the Tathāgatas. //40// That which is the cause l 0 0 ) . in various worlds. dhātuh '. seems b e t t e r . C. T. B u t S. HW . C. however. C. F o r ' tathāgatānām sambhogakāya). which. . .^ i f e S S i n J e A (connectin '.. . With the body 9 8 ) in the form of different coloured rays of the Highest Doctrine. have not their own substance"). dbyiñs. C. . T. 92) (tridhātu-muktam).

103) 104) Which also abides always in the Absolute Essence .. gnas (avasthita. Which is realized through self-introspection. 107 * Commentary on vv. takes paramā separately and Tegards it as indicating ' paramârtha '. both T. and of Magnanimity. the Body of the Absolute Essence Of the Buddha. // 41 // The summarized meaning of these 4 ślokas are to be known by the following 20 verses: That which is called Buddhahood Is the Omniscience of the Self-born. /J»5£ ffjfr Ifefc) means nirvana. [respectively]. ' pratyātmaveditā ' is to be corrected into ' pratyātmaveditam'. sV* j©> jj^l V2* J>© 1?c)» which is to be accepted here. the Body of the Absolute Essence. in short. gzugz.( = nirmānakāya). & C. and the inconceivable Arhatship . ignorance and distraction 1 0 8 ) . And being possessed of five kinds of properties. samāpatty-āvarana means the obstructions on account of samādhi. Represented by the quality of Profundity. is to be known As of five characteristics.J . // 43 // • ) The Body of the Absolute Essence a (svābhāvika-kāya)107). 101) Here. C. 38). The third āvarana. C. mchog-tu mya-Aan-hdas. T . i l l ^ $ j | f 0 Jf. 103) > bimba. And is 4 delivered from the 3 Obstructions ' Of defilement. As the visible forms in the element of space. Consequently. which is peculiar to the Bodhisattva. i. ^\* j*jfi: • atra. bsam-med dgra105) 104) bcom. [•A'* îqjf:] /$• U s • nirvrtih paramā. 39. For bringing to full development and for giving prophecy. i n t h e sense ' i n dharmadhātu-svabhāva ' (v. C. abiding in). 102) That is the Apparitional Form [of the Buddha] . C. TAKASAKI For advancing into the Quiescent P a t h . read as acintyârhattva (T.e. Of Magnificence. • Is 4 devoid of the two extremities'. T. loe) jr o r acintyaprāpti. 40. T. // 44 // It is * immutable ' and 4 indivisible '. 105> 106) The highest Nirvana . [ 326 ] . los) "phis is the first appearance of the ' trayâvarana' theory in the text. //45// 101 102 ' śāntipatha (C. avaruddha (enclosed in). // 42 // This [Buddhahood] manifests itself in the variety Of three Bodies. B u t C. etc.

J j ^ •yp'. AĀS. ' 1) aprameya. 110) t i l l -v* ff- - īfta "5ÇB -I—*11 B 3 -fA* al1 T. 4) J& — W Bl 5) g ft i f ?§* J (473 a). There seems to be confusion of the word arrangement in v. 2) abhinnam. Because it is non—discriminative (2). 3) M H & ffl. dharmadhātusvabhāvatah ( Q '[^ ĪJ3C). (5) respectively. >f> 3t. W 112 (810 b-c). & 5) viśuddhipāramiprātpi. For them. It is ' radiant and pure ' Owing to the nature of the Absolute Essence 1 0 9 ) . Because it is the nature of the Absolute Essence (1). & respectively. 3) antadvayavivarjita. but as it is difficult to establish which is the original reading. • M j \ WC ')• BGS clearly mentions the 5 reasons in accordance with the 5 laksanas: ^ 1) asamskrtam. 4) asama. AĀS: 1 ) « Ā . ^ ~ñf gj( . y\. The Body of the Absolute Essence is endowed With 1 1 0 ' these [5] kinds of virtuous qualities 111 '. 3 ) f f i Z l * .. regards ' prabhāsvaram ' as the fifth laksana and reads ' viśuddha ' in the ablative. 46. Because it is free from stains (vimala). I will suggest below the most reasonable rendering of this verse: And (5) it is ' pure ' (viśuddha). rgya-che. prabhāsvaratayā ( y j^E ^PJ ^ r " ĪW » ^) visuddham. 4) trayâvarana-nihsrta. // 46 // Immeasurable'. adds ' yañ-dag-par ' (samyak) before ' yukta '. C. vaimalyād Ç . For the reference.^. ' incomparable ' And representing ' the highest point of purity'. yogīnām gocaratvatah (. 3) acintya. > udāra. fig ^ . reads as S. except for the omission of ' avikalpatvād ' (the second pada. And because it is radiant by nature (prabhāsvara). should be ' 3 ^ J\. the present translation is done according to the Skt. ' inconceivable '.O (The last two reasons should be interchanged). ) 4) 8 8 PS ffiî 5 ) tpf ^ $=J (809 a-810 b. & 5) prabhāsvaram viśuddham ca. 2) asamkhya. T r H\). T . And being accessible to the Saints. C. and thus makes 5 reasons for these 5 laksanas. 4) āvarananihsitam. namely: 1) asamskrta. but the concordance between each laksana and its reason is uncertain. however. [ 327 ] . 2 ) ^ f f l « | . and BGŚ: 1) ${§ Jg Jg. ' innumerable ' . 2 ftS— M ffl (IS #] S). ^ 3 J ^ . The last one is not clear. 109) These are the 5 laksanas. 2) asambhinna. with a detailed explanation). // 47 // Being magnificent112) and numberless. T. For these 5 gunas. [53i£ ^qp. 4* of j j . avikalpatvāt (TJjft 73 /J'J R5C)' 3) antadvayavivarjitam. text.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a Being free from all stains and thought-construction. (4). Because it is the acting sphere of the Saints (3).

It is 'immeasurable' and so on. 117 118 ' For nisyanda. It manifests itself the Doctrine. adds bhāsa(snañ) > atatb/mra. adds ' / p fijjj. whose meaning is n o t clear to me (' T R ' = sambhoga ?). BGS & AĀS offer no reference. possessed by sāmbhoga-kāya. mam-par gnas. 3) % ^ ^ ^ ff M ^ (sat- ^V* ^ § pfc (dharmakāyâvinirbhāga). C. 115) Commentary on v. AĀS makes 5 gunas. >^C * M T i l <2C W^» /J> 5nL WfJ J(!y cL (vicitradharmarasasambhoga-rūpâvabhāsatah). [By these points] the Body of Enjoyment is characterized118' Due to its power like that of the wish-fulfilling gems. [ ^ t ^ K I7M1 3ÎU /^. 2) M tvārthakriyā). T. It works uninterruptedly for the sake of living beings. C. out of these two verses. in the visible form. It means ' being apart from all \ ' C. C. C. j/fC rfg^ ft^ OC (for which the equivalent in S.J. C. ^ /f* ^ . deśana (teaching) in neuter stem is notable. // 51 // Just as a gem. in uncertain). rañ-bshin (in t h e sense of ' svarūpa'' ^ . being dyed with various colours. /}*> «5Fjj ^ ^ ~^^ *^g. 4) J&| f£ 119) X # ^ ^ ^ (anābhoga). de-yi ño-bo mi-stoñ(-pa). // 49 // It fulfils the aim according to the wish Without thought-construction and with no effort. T . kaivalya for which T. C. and 5) *||0 alt — * ^ F ff ^ N "fjjīf ^j< ^ p (nitya-vyāpi & sattvânupeksā) anabhisamskrti. § /££ [vibhutva ?]. Being unique113) and devoid of the defiling forces. And acting with no artificial effort119*. 116) rūpa. 40. T.Çfy). Does not make manifest its real essence122'. T. [ ^ . these 5 appearances. T. has hbah-shig. ' atatsvabhāvâkhyāna. // 50 // In teaching. [ 328 ] . C. TAKASAKI Being inaccessible to investigation. for this line. in acting ceaselessly. The variety 121) of [its manifestation] is said to be 5-fold. ^fC ^ f^f ^ g ] —• ^ in order to make the meaning clear. sna-tshogs. respectively114'. (thus is sāmbhogya-kāya). mñon-par hdu-byed med-pa. 113 1W ' C. m ) 122 120 For citratā T. =p|X ' after kramāt (^7V . owing to its nature 1 1 6 ) Of enjoying the Doctrine in various forms. namely: ! > $ ! § # • $\ . And in its appearance of illusion120'. / / 4 8 / / 6) The Body of Enjoyment (sâmbhogika-kāya)115). Being the natural outflow117) of pure Compassion. om. ?). W ' vyavasthiti.

T. T . T . dgah-ldan-nas ni hpho-ba. AĀS W W f^ 131) 132 janman BP . these 14 will b e m e n t i o n e d i n t h e N o t e one b y o n e along with t h e i r e q u i v a l e n t i n B G Ś (810 c) a n d A  S (473 a ) . O regards this verse as explaining sambhogakāya. T. // 54 // 133> '. /JP . i p £ . T. ( H Ç£) and BGŚ ( ^ ^ ) seem to [ 329 ] . Commentary on v. BGŚ |gī| JjQ ^ j i g (abiding midway between ^ 5 ^ ~ F . C. AĀS ^ C ^ £ <2. connects ' tusita ' with next one. ^ . T . (5). 126) >phe w o r ( J * darśayati ' is suplied from v . or 18. C. skye-ba. c) The Apparitional Body [The (nairmānika-kāya 124) // 52 // ). ' jātakāny-upapattim ca ' is missing in C. 128) forms. For śilpasthāna the Pali equivalent is sippatthāna (PTS Die. T h e following ( v v . being the knower of the world 126 '. kauśalam C. whose n u m b e r is c o u n t e d 14 according t o 124) B G S ( In J^y -ip-). 12. 0ff y\. arts entertainments among ladies in the harem . khyab-bdag. C. ^ 130) garbhâvakramana (4). according to the conditions of the living beings. 125 Buddha]. 128 T. and descent from i t 132) .). AĀS ^ before (6): fJL ^ 133) support this reading. Hereafter. 125 ' lokavid ( a n e p i t h e t of t h e B u d d h a ) . but connecting with next one and reading ' jātakâbhyupapattim (skye—ba mñon—par skye—ba dan). > vibhu.The R a t n a g ot r a vib h ā g a 123) Similarly. 131 . BGŚ /\. 4 1 . £ j E p q ^ ]>C H ^ » AĀS inserts one more BGŚ ^ ^>t ftb . C. BGŚ ^ £ jfe Jftl $ ^ » A A S H * 9B ^ P ^ • cyutim tatah ( = tusitāt) (3). * ^ ~\" /K ^ñ ^ C. and the birth [in this world] and works . btsun-mohi hkhor-gyis dkyes-rol. Qgç 7 u x v M t 4 (kumārasthāna). # t î 3J£. Though it appears in various forms. 127) jātakāni (1). Manifests himself The ' in various 127) apparitional . ^ \ . p4B P • ' śilpasthānāni (6). [various] previous births The birth in the Tusita-heaven The entrance into the womb The skilfulness in various Pleasurable 123 1301 . with Great Compassion. T. hjig-rten-mkhyen. AĀS ^ T J ^ (18 vidyās). Ihums-su hjug. of which the number is often mentioned as 8. Perceiving fully the world. v. T h e whole verse is missing i n C. s. bstams-pa. antahpuraratikrīdā (7). 54-56) a r e t h e list of B u d d h a ' s ' mahāvastu ' i n t h e world. gzo-yi gnas-la mkhas-pa. C. 56. B G Ś p 4 B P . T. BGŚ /$L ^ £ . AĀS | ^ . the Lord never shows its real natuie. // 53 // 129) Without being separated from his Absolute Body. 129) > upapattim ca tusitesu (2). *f$£ Tusita and this world). Jjp .

j S ^C %$? S 139 # . mya-ñan-hdas-par gśegs-mdsad. TAKASAKI The renouncement of the world134'. (T. all of them He shows in the impure worlds141'. T . ^ gśegs-pa. mya[ 330 ] . ^@ $ 4 'M. C. as long as they exist. 140> nirvānâdhigamakriyā (14). C. y\. |f|J ^\ ^ Q (devoid of desires) for naiskramya shows that this f jf term came out of Pali nekkhamma. T . i§i 'pj ^^ 142> 143) 144) śāntimārga. & C. $ f V£ Iffl . ' renunciation or to become a monk ' is often explained as ' to reject the worldly desire. AĀS & I S ^ $J ^ f £ $ffl (setting d/iarmacafera forth at Varanasi). For ksetra apariśuddha. rab-hjug. dkah-ba spyod-pa. which is. . (T. C. BGŚ Jj% \% . > dharmacakra (13). practice of asceticism135*. In Pali. mārasainyapramadana (11).. ni byañ-chub $11 ^pC . . byañ-chub-sñiñ-por C. And the departure into Nirvana 140) . bdud sde hjoms. C. AĀS ^/î|| ]yp J ^ . 4 suffering '. f f bodhimandopasamkrānti ^ f fif = BGŚ & AĀS. T. the knower of means 142). /ff/t {cj. chos-kyi hkhor-lo. C. since T. F o r bodhimanda. . ñes-hbyuñ. 4 evanescent'. C. lust. C.\ BGŚ & AĀS. agree with it. 4 non-substantial'. Passage to the Excellent Seat of Enlightenment136). niskāma). indicates Kusinagara). x c nJJ JjQ T. byañ-chub- (asking for t h e w a y t o various tīrthikas) sñiñ-po. T . . combined in meaning with nikkāma (S. T. s/uri. /$5£ 145) 'prāpta-nirvāna-samjñinah' would be better. 137) before this.J. C. upāyavid. // 56// [The Buddha]. seems t o have combined this with ^ _ h V£ Iffl . C. // 55 // The [acquisition of] Enlightenment138). And who imagine that they have attained Nirvana 145). (used as an epithet of the Buddha). C. 3tiL 3j%?j . And by the word 4 quiescent'. /] pratārayati. '. T. "«> naiskramya (8). AĀS j ^ ft H . T. // 57 // Those who have entered the way to Quiescence144). T. BGŚ îlSBS ¥ • 138) AĀS om. C. rdsogs-par the next one). y\. he leads143) them into Nirvana. etc. [|9Çl . The conquest over the army of Evil Demons137). in its turn. 13ā > duhkhacārikā (9). 141 ' ksetra. J|fft ^ / ^ $f | t | ^ < . | % f ^ ^ C. BGŚ |f sambodhi (12). T. shi-bahi lam. ^Hç j | ^ lavana.This does n o t m e a n t h e actual obtaining of E n l i g h t e n m e n t . ^T • 136) (10). Setting into motion the wheel of the Doctrine139). creates an aversion To the Three Worlds among the living beings By the words. T.

146 ^ > nivartya. the last. mthu. 153 These latter ' appear on the basis of the former. embracing Wisdom and Skilful Means.fc. > rūpakāya. T. ^ ^ J } . C. ~/^. bzlog ste. AĀS 473 a {% . T. as S. sārtha.rj. we have one śloka. And gives prophecy for them to attain the Highest Enlightenment. ñan-hdas-thob hdu-śes-can. With reference to this subject. From the context. don-mthun. uttamayāna. T. the Magnificent and the Magnanimous. (C. As the Profound. accomplishing the power 150) 151) And toiling excessively for the company of ordinary beings. fZ\\ ~^ ^ 5 • > Denoting the Mahāyāna.t±r J. $ M . T. C. theg-pa mchog. 153J antya. 3tE3 T K I^IE iM. & T. rab-hdren. ^ J3 pfe.).. C. the first Body is the Absolute Body. M E ^ *fo. analogically C. T. interpretation of ativāhana seems better. prabhāva. respectively. // 61 // (VII) NITYA154) Now this threefold Body made manifest in order to be the support for the weal and happiness of the world. And.~J\. 152) And the latter two are the Bodies in visible forms . // 58-59 // 149) Being subtle. sna-tshogs for sampatti is probably a misreading for phun-tshogs. C. BGŚ 811 a-6. [ 331 ] . Makes them mature in the Ultimate Vehicle 148) . (surpassing the treacherous path). As the visible forms appear in space. _ £. gzugs-kyi sku. ^ * £ £ (sattvo). adds ' "^f Up (Sfi A . has an ' eternal' character [in its manifestation]. C. lit. C f=f $C ^flf ffi ^ j | ) . # ffi ^ ft ?£). Therefore.The Ratnagotrav ib hāga 146) Them he diverts from their former prejudice. T. sārtha means a caravan or traders. chos-kyi de-ñid. reads ' J f | Z l ' (the second) for paciśmau. 152 151) 149) "4> Cf. 15 °) ativāhana.^ ^ ~)\. it should be 'the latter two '. C. C. T. For grāha C. 147 148 ) dharmatattva. C. T. — In these points [the Buddha] should be known. C. 147) Through the teaching of the True Doctrines In the Saddharmapundarīka and other Sutras. // 60 // Here.

He fulfills161' his first vow 1 6 2 ) . And representing non-substantiality 158) . T. life and property. F o r (3) kārnya(-yogāt). dañ-pohi dam-bcas. M v y u t . He shows his [four] bases of Miraculous Powers 1 6 4 ) . rddhi-pāda. naihsvābhāvya. TAKASAKI (Kārikā 12) Having infinite causes [for the attainment of his state] 1 5 5 ) . T.. BGS: 160) 163) T h i s s t a n d s for ( 2 ) sattvadhātv—aksayatvāt. This saddharma-samgraha is t h e 1st cause standing for hetv-ānantyāt in the Kārikā. // 63 // In his Buddhahood. ^ipf }\% . reads as if caryā. hjig—rten-mgon—po. which is explained in t h e lokanātha. zhu JñL W\ • . & 4) mīmāmsā. (Az .i p .^ vrW.J. T . 2) citta. Casting off his body. Wisdom and Bliss15?)? Governing all the elements. C. T h e r e are said t o b e 4 . T H " . [ 332 ] . T . 165) 164) So C. as being asamskrta and ādipraśānta. ] f § <J»$£ pj^p" (svabhāva-praśānta comm. n a m e l y : 1) chanda. C. %\\ ^§t • sampatti. The lord of the World 1 5 9 ) is eternal. C. j ^ l {!£ $g§ j [ t B • »•> rddhi. 161) uttarana. For the benefits of all living beings. rfe-yis gnas-par spyod- pahi phyir. // 64 // 166 > hetv-ānantyāt. 40. He has preserved 160) the Highest doctrine. C. jZ!j ^ Q ^ . Miraculous Powers 1 5 6 ) . tair avasthitaśaktitah. C. pure and immaculate 163) . rdsu-hphrul rkañ-ba. T. T. C.. there is made manifest Compassion. Cf. samgraha. T. 162) ādipratijñā. styi ||!f| (pūrvapranidhi). By which power he abides in the world 1 6 5 ) . Having an endless number of living beings to convert. T. t o t h e coinm. T . C. 3) virya. sampatti stands for ' sukha-sampatti through meditation '. hphrul. This is (4) rddhi-(yogāt). For śakti. (J^X 'tK y 7 ' K i t ) - S. hdsin. Being endowed with Compassion. C. C. vanquishing the demon of Death. Cf. phun-tshogs. mthar-hbyin. 159) 168) 157) ?). // 62 // The summarized meaning of this [śloka] is to be known by the following 6 verses. JpC JjyC • Ace.

/$£ ^ it is anutpādânirodha). // 68 // 166) p 167) o r (5) jñāna(-yogāt). " t i t ffc . 4§F ^ î (sugata). // 66 // Being of an immutable nature. reads ' citta-'. The latter 3 demonstrate the eternity From the viewpoint of the Absolute Body. he is liberated from The dualistic conception of Samsāra and Nirvana 1 6 6 ) . jv? 1?A (sadā samādhānânumeya). 5) $ $ 'jf $\ M i t (karunânantya). t o BGS are as follows: 1) 3) [^ 7»v»' ^ Wk ff»§ i f t (hetvānantya). He partakes of the complement of bliss 1 6 8 ) . B G Ś : F o r acintya. He leaves no room for [the activity of] the demon of Death 1 7 0 ) . t h o u g h likewise counting 10 causes. 4) # 0 ft |«§ (avikalpajñānânantya). 169) He is unaffected by the worldly elements . he is 4 eternal'. omits this last one a n d counts ' samādhi' i n d e p e n d e n t l y o u t of sukhasampatti. About sukhasampatti. // 67 // The first 7 of these motives show The eternity of the Preceptor 1 7 3 ' in his Apparitional Body. 178 | ^ ^ ī | £f£ ^ > For sāstr. C. And he gives a refuge for those who have no shelter 172) . ^54 f£r )M ^ ^ T ' U ZM (amrta-śama-prāpti & ^ ^ (being as it is by nature. T h e 10 causes ace. Having attained the state of quiescence and immortality. [ 333 ] . 2) ^ &$ j l l (sattvadhātvaksaya). & 10) . 6) ' ( ^ ^pfc 7$$> /]£. // 65 // While he is acting in the world. 172) This is counted as t h e 1 0 t h cause. o u t of lokanātha. I t seems t h e c o m m e n t a t o r m a d e this m e a n i n g of śarana. 168) This is for (6) sampatti-yogāt. B u t B G S . By his constant practice of the inconceivable 167) meditation.The Ratnagotravibhāga Owing to his Wisdom. 171 ) F o r (9) naihsvabhāvāt. 9) Jj Ug. mrtyumārāvabhañga). as t h e 1 0 t h cause. C. ft (rddhyānantya). This is for (7) dharmaiśvaryāt.4 7 . 170) p o r (3) mrtyumārāvabhañgāt. ^|| fâ (sukha & śiva). 7) g£ %. 8) ff M # iffi A^ Ife A ffi Qoke vicarato f astadharmair anupalepah). b u t has no correspondent t e r m in t h e K ā r i k ā . 169) lokadharma. Because of these [10] points. The Lord is perfectly pacified from the outset 1 7 1 ) . b u t T. See N o t e V . bsam-yas. C.

With reference to this 4 inconceivability '. & S. // 71 // 177) Being subtle by the [first] 5 motives He is inconceivable in his Absolute Body. this method of the attainment [of Buddhahood] by the Buddhas which represents the 4 Perfect Manifestation of the Basis' is to be understood as of inconceivable character. since it cannot be constructed by thought. It is 4 unutterable ' since it is the Highest Truth. we have one śloka. 40: vici- [ 334 ] . ^JSj 4=f Pjpt >[!)• T h o u g h T . AĀS 473 ft. And by the 6th.. 178) atattvabhāvitva. t o C. and relating neither To the Phenomenal World nor to Nirvana 1 7 5 ) . // 69 // The summarized meaning of this [śloka] is to be understood by the following 4 verses. Being the supreme. B G Ś 810 cf. pjff: 175) idea of ' n o t relating t o b o t h ' is t h e expression of ' apratisthita-nirvāna / -r*. 178) He is inconceivable because of no identification 174 > Cf. It is 4 the supreme ' since it is not included [Either in the Phenomenal World or in Nirvana]. yXs <rc ^ f e 176) • =0v • AAS mentions these 6 as t h e causes of inconceivability. 4 Not included ' means the Buddha abides in neither of the two And never regards [in a one-sided manner] That Nirvana is of merit and the other is of defect. It is 4 inconceivable ' since it is unutterable. since i t is supported b y t h e reading i n t h e K ā r i k ā : upamā-nivrttitah. t h e word ' vyupameya ' is more suitable here. Inaccessible to investigation and incomparable. bhava-śānty-anudgraha. 177) F r o m ' u n u t t e r a b l e ' t o ' t h e s u p r e m a c y '. agree i n their reading ' vyanumeya '. TAKASAKI (VIII) ACINTYA174) Now. T. (Kārikā 13) Being unutterable. T. de-yi dños-min [phyir] (— tadbhāvâbhāvāt). v. It is 4 beyond investigation ' as it is incomparable 176) . a n d t h e 6 t h is ' anudgraha '. BGS 3k§. srid-shis ma bsdus. The sphere of Buddha is inconceivable even for the Saints. C. Cf. vyupameya (ace. containing the Highest Truth. on account of his Apparitional Body. *A* JfX -^j V~fc > j ç • This '. It is 4 the Highest Truth '. // 70 // It is 4 incomparable ' since it is the supreme.J.

On this point. The Buddha. this final stage of tuâ Buddha Is unknown even to the Great Sages 179) Who have attained the stage of Initiation 180) . who has attained the ultimate point of virtue. T. / / 7 3 / / Finished is the second chapter entitled 4 the Enlightenment' in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. contrary to the common usage of this term for the Buddha.The R at n a g ot r av i b h ā ga With either Nirvana or Phenomenal World. 180) abhiseka. 73) seems to be an old verse and is probably a quotation. as in the case of the Mahāvastu.1 ". Here 'maharsi 9 . a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. this verse. dbañ. Therefore. With the Great Compassion and other virtues. 179 * maharsi. &c. The different usage of the term ' rsi ' in this verse is also suggestive. trabhāvo na ca tatsvabhāvān. But C. reads ' J^X Tvf p3 ffit y3Ç' (because of his obtaining aiśvarya). // 72 // Being endowed with the Highest Wisdom. This abhisekatā or abhisekaprāpta was regarded in the old fc/iūmi-theory as the 10th and the highest stage of Bodhisattva. denotes the Bodhisattva of the highest rank. Is inaccessible to human tho. om. next to that of the Buddha. [ 335 3 . C. this verse (v.

B u t T. C. Hereafter. B. 10 balas. 6) samvrtikāyatā. text. Therefore3'. N ) . also a d d s ' atah ' ()ŚX . I V (Tathāgataguna-parivarta). AĀS C h a p . dharmas. 2) abhinna-prakrtayah ( B a h u . F o r this. t e x t . r e a d s as a n instru- 3) T. the reading 'paramarthakāyatā'' of Ms. B u t . comp. though one syllable is in excess by adding ' ~tā '. A m o n g t h i s l a s t g r o u p . The t e r m 'vibhāga'' corresponds to iprabheda'< in K 1. before ' anantaram '. kun-rdsob-sku-ñid. immediately after [the exposition of the Reality]. we have one śloka referring to the distinct characteristics 4 ) of the Buddha's Properties. and c o u n t e d besides 36 o t h e r dharmas. i t is n o t necessary to change the Skt. 473 m e n t i o n e d 180 āvenikadharmas i n c l u d i n g 32 mahāpurusalaksanas. C. [ 336 ] . IV. stands for t h e present Skt. I t is sometimes allowable in such an old-style Kārikā to keep an irregular metre. 5) F r o m the point of meaning.CHAPTER III. & 68 18 āvenikadharmas are T . BUDDHA-GUNA l) XIV. < £ =§§| g j ( ) . as we h a v e t h e s a m e construction i n t h e beginning of Chap. 4 vaiśāradyas. \\fr ffc£ jf?|J "HI. dbyer-med-pahi rañ-bshin-ñid-kyis. [Consists in] the Body of the Highest Truth 5 ) And the Worldly Emanations 6) based upon it. 4) guna-vibhāga. (Kārikā 1) The aim of one's own and that of others. m e n t a l case. a d d s ' atas tad '. being indivisible from Reality by nature 2 ) as the brightness. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BUDDHA'S PROPERTIES We have finished the explanation of l the Reality free from Pollutions '. 1} c-475 c. T. pi. colour and shape of the jewel are inseparable from the latter. we shall speak of the ' Properties ' which are based upon the Reality and are perfectly pure. Cf. THE PROPERTIES OF THE BUDDHA 3. is preferable. i n w h i c h a r e 80 anuvyañjanas. p p . m .

T h e R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga Representing the state of Libiration and Maturation 7 ) , The result is endowed with Properties, Which appear in 64 varieties. // 1 // What is told by this śloka ? The Body which represents the Highest Truth Is the support for the completion of one's own [aim] And the support for the fulfilment of others' [aim] 8 ) Is the Emanational Body 9 ' of the Buddha 10>. //2// The first Body is endowed with properties, [10] Powers and so forth, as [the result of] Liberation, And the second one, with [32] marks of superman, As the properties [obtained by] the Maturation [which follows after Liberation] U ) . // 3 //
visamyoga, T . bral[-ba], C. i M . p a t t ; a n d vipāka, T . mam-par smin-pa, C. f = p ;fvV » respectively. Here ' visamyoga-phala ' means the dharmakāya characterized as āvaranadvayavisamyoga in Chap. II, while ' vipāka-phala ' means the rūpakāya characterized as the result obtained by causes (e.g. practices performed in the previous lives as in the case of sambhoga-kāya). 8) T. translates ' para ' by ' pha-rol\ but it should be ' gshan-gyi '. • sāmketikam vapuh, T. brda—yi sku, C. ~|U. \fe- *||j§f ( = samvrtikāya). )
10 7)

> rsi, T. drañ-sroñ, C. #Q 3 ^ ^

^ 1 . Both T. & C. regard * rsi ' as a plural.

vaipākika, T. rnam-smin, C. - ^ ^ 5 £ ^fc ¥ R m l (f° r vaipākika-guna) (that which represents the enjoyment of bliss as the reward of previous practices). As for the attribution of qualities to each of the two kāyas, i.e. paramārthakāya and samvrtikāya, C. says that to the first body, infinite qualities of the Buddha are attributed, while to the second body, the 10 Powers, etc., are attributed. Attribution of the infinite qualities to the paramārthakāya accords with the dharmakāya's ' union' with paramārthalaksanas which are indivisible, unthinkable, etc. as told in Chap. II, but as far as the 64 Proerties are concerned, C. attribution does not match the commentary below.
u)

[ 337 ]

XV.

64 PROPERTIES OF THE BUDDHA

Hereafter, the text refers to which are the [10] Powers and other properties and how they are to be understood1*. Summary 2 '. (Kārikā 2) The Powers [of the Buddha] are like a thunderbolt, In [breaking] the hindrance caused by ignorance, His Intrepidity 3 ) in the assemblage is like that of a lion, The Buddha's exclusive properties are like space, And the two kinds of corporeal forms 4) of the Lord are Like the moon and its reflection in the water. // 4 // (I) THE 10 POWERS It is said that the Buddha is possessed of [10] Powers (balânvita)5). (Kārikās 3-4) The knowledge of the proper and improper place 6 ) , Of the result of former actions 7) , and of the faculties 8) ,
T h e reading should b e ' tathā-tad-adhikrtya T . de—ltar dehi dhañ—du byas—paho.
2)
l j

' i n s t e a d of * tathatām

adhikrtya

'.

T. & C. add t h e word ' uddāna ' before t h e n e x t K ā r i k ā . ( T . sdom-ni,

C. =f=r wL

viśāradatva, T . mi-hjigs-pa, C. 7k(ç fy\ "PC • 4) dvidhā-darśana, T . bstan-pa rnam gñis, C. . >y]§[ Jj^J,. 5) Prior to this sentence, C. inserts one sentence showing the following meaning: " Hereafter, the remaining verses in Chap. I l l expose the 64 properties of the Buddha, 10 Powers and the rest, according to the order mentioned in the previous Kārikā. Its detailed explanation is to be known according to t h e Dharanîśvararājasūtra ". D R S has, however, no explanation about t h e 32 mahāpurusalaksanas. Also C. changes t h e order of verses in the commentary (the K ā r i k ā - t e x t is arranged in t h e same order as t h e Skt. text), namely, the verses showing the similes, vajra, simha, ākāśa & dakacandra, are placed among commentary verses. 6 * (1) sthānâsthāna, T. gnas dan gnas—min, C. )fg& y\"~ Ifeît • About the 10 balas, see M v y u t . & D R S 14 c-18 a, AĀS 475 b, R D S 34 a-b. 7) vipāke ca karmanām = (2) karma-vipāka [-jñāna-bala], T . las rnams-kyi rnamsmin, C. 7fc ? R • • • 3^FC (reads vipāka
8)

~ ®'
3)

:

)

mm

a n d karmanām

separately). C. ffg ^PC •

indriya

= ( 3 ) indriya-parāpara[-jñāna-bala],

T . dbañ-po,

[ 338 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a vib h ā g a
9) 10)

Of the component elements and of the faith , 11} Of the path which leads to everywhere , // 5 // Of the impurity and purity in contemplation, etc. 13) Of the memory of the previous abodes , Of the Divine Eyes 1 4 ) , and of Quiescence 1 5 ) , Such are the ten kinds of Power [of the Buddha]. It is said, [these Powers are] like a thunderbolt (Kārikā 5) [Being the power of knowing] about the proper and the improper, About results, about elements and various faiths of the people, About the p a t h
17) 16) 12)

,

// 6 //

.

, purity and impurity,

About the complex of faculties, the memory of former abodes, About the divine eyes, and how to destroy the Evil Influences; The Powers pierce, break and cut down
18 19)

The armour, the mountain fortress ', and the tree of ignorance, Therefore, they have resemblance to a thunderbolt (II) THE 4 FORMS OF INTREPIDITY 2 ) 0 . // 7 //

It is said that [the Buddha] has attained the 4 kinds of intrepidity (caturvaiśāradyaprāpta). (Kārikās 6-7) [The Buddha's] Intrepidity is of four kinds, namely: In his perfect Enlightenment of all the elements,
9)

dhātu

= (4) nānā-dhātu-j

ñ.-b.,

T . khams

mams,

C. ^lE •

10) n

adhimukti = (5) nānâdhimukti-jñ.-b., T . , mos-pa, C. |]=5 . ' mārga sarvatragāmini = (6) sarvatragāmini—pratipaj—jñ.—b., T . kun—hgrohi lam, ' dhyānâdi—kleśa—vaimalya,
=

12

T . bsam—gtan sogs ñon—moñs dri—ma med—pa, C. pjffc - vimoksa - samādhi - samāpatti - samkleśa ^ vyavadāna-

v P tÎH W$* /$L jñ.-b. (7).

sarvadhyāna

13) nivāsânusmrti, T. gnas-ni rjes-su dran-pa, C. | ^ , ^g^ J © "ZC T T = (8) i>"r" H vanivāsânusmrti-jñ.-b. 14) 15) 16) 17)
18)

divyā-caksus, T. lha-yi mig, C. y C »X = (9) cyuty-upapatti-jñ.-b. śānti, T . shi-ba, C. ^ £ f j p = (10) āsravaksaya-jñ.-b. C. p u t s t h i s verse before v . 2 9 . nay a. I t stands for mārga.

• * na

acala-prākāra, T . go-cha rtsig-brtan, C. l_L| ?||jīf. About t h e simile of ' vajra ', see v. I, 4. 20 > catur-vaiśāradya. Cf. Mvyut. 8, D R S 18 a-19 a, AĀS 475, R D S 34 6.
19)

[ 339 ]

J.

TAJ4.ASAKI

In rejecting all obstacles, In preaching the Path, and in acquiring the Extinction 2 1 ) . // 8 // He himself knows 22) and causes others to know All the things cognizable in all their forms; He destroy everything to be rejected and causes others to reject them 23>; 24) Serves [himself and lets others serve] in the method to be practised; And himself attains and causes others to attain The Highest and Perfectly Pure State which is to be attained; Thus, teaching the Truth 25) on account of himself and of others, The Buddha 2 6 ) , wherever he might be, is not paralyzed by fear 27>.

II 9 II

It is said that [the intrepidity of the Buddha] is like [that of] a lion 28 '. (Kārikā 8) Just as the king of beasts in the forest Has always no fear and acts without fear 2 9 ) among beasts,
21

' The 4 vaiśāradyas are as follows: 1) vaiśāradya in sarvadharmâbhisambodhi, T. chos-kun rdsogs-par byañ-chub, 2) vaiś. in vibandha-pratisedha, T. gegs ni hgog-par byed-pa, C. jlHi lîîj m4 J S . r-?- '•> 3) vaiś. in mārgâkhyāna, T. lam-ston-pa, C. Īf/Q i j j . ; 4) vaiś. in nirodhâpti, T. hgog-thob (D's ston is probably a misreading), C. \*f

v8v vB3 (flnāsravâpti). This order agrees with that in RDS, but Mvyut. and others put the 4th one before vibandha-pratisedha, under the name of āsravaksaya (-jñāna). 22) ' svayam ' should b e connected with ' jñānād ', a n d hence i t is t o b e w r i t t e n with separation from jñāpanād. 23) hāni-kārana-krti, i n t h e sense hāni- & hānikārana-krti, T. spans dan spoñ-mdsad. C. reading in this and the next phrase is not understandable. 24 ' vidhi. T. om. it. C. om. the whole phrase of ' sevye vidhau sevanāt'. About the idea that ' mārga ' is ' sevya', see Chap. IV, v. 52. Also these 4, i.e. jñeya, heya, prāpya and sevya correspond to each of the 4 satyas, respectively. 25) satya, which denotes t h e 4-fold āryasatya. 26) ārya (in plural), T . drañ-sroh ( = rsi), C. o m . Z7) astambhita [-tva], T. thogs-pa med ( = apratigha), C. ^ ^ "p^ ( = abhaya). (Cf. astambhin, adj. not paralyzed by fear, BHS Die). For this, BHS & Pali form is ' acchambhita % which is parallel to ' abhlta', ' asamtrasta ' or ' asamvigna ' (BHS Die. s. v.) and more or less synonymous with ' viśārada '. (chambh Skt. stambh, ' to fix'). a8) C. (in the commentary) puts the following verse before v. 32.
I9) anuttarasta-gati, T. skrag-pa med-par rgyu-ba, C. £3 /p^ (for gati, T. rgyu-ba = carati).

[ 340 ]

T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga Similarly, the lion who is the Lord of Sages Abides among the assembly of attendance, Independently 30) , indifferently31', with firmness and victory 3 2 ) . //10//

(III)

THE 18 EXCLUSIVE PROPERTIES 33)

It is said that the Buddha is endowed with the 18 Exclusive Properties peculiar only to him (astādaśâvenikabuddhadharmasamanvāgata). (Kārikās 9-13) With the Preceptor, There is neither error 3 4 ) nor rough speech3 5 ) , Neither loss of memory 3 6 ) nor distraction of mind 3 7 ) , Also, there is no pluralistic conception 3 8 ) ;— // 11 // He is not indifferent, nor without consideration 39) , He knows no deprivation of his zeal 4 0 ) , and of his energy 4 1 ) , Of his memory 42) , of Transcendental Intellect 4 3 ) , and of Liberation 4 4 ) ,
30)

ll) 32)

svastha, T. legs-gnas ( = susthita), C. n * H (su-sthita). 7T~ E H nirāstha, T. Itos-med, C. A* "PC (without fear). sthira-vikramastha. T . r e g a r d s i t a s o n e a d j e c t i v e (brtan-pahi rtsal . . . ) , but

ace. to comm. verse (v. 34) and C, it is to be read ' sthirastha & vikramastha ', C. ī ! ^ | p | & si
33)

^"TV -, respectively. For these 4 adjectives, see vv. 33-34. F o r t h e 18 āvenikadharmas, see M v y u t . 9, D R S 19 o-21fe, A Ā S 4 7 5 6, R D S 34 6 f. skhalita, ravita, T . hkhrul, T . ca-co, C. 3 © -*• nāsti skhalitam C. p j " -> n. ravitam (2). nams, C. 3 c j3i> " ^ r ^ ^ "*" (^) # ma bshag thugs, C. -^i^ /£. HPC ^LJ^ "*" (^)* (1).

34)

36)

36)

musitā smrti, T . dran-pa

s

' ' asamāhita

citta, T . mñam-par

38)
39)

nānātva-samjñitā, upeksâpratisamkhyā

T . hdu-śes sna-tshogs, C. ^ § | ^g? ^ § i j § -> (5). (apratisamkhyāya is a B H S form for -yāyām (fern, loc.) ft jH[
j

of Skt.), T. ma brtags btañ-sñoms, C. 3S£ f^
40)
41)

^ -»• (6)(or-tah) hānih ( 7 ) .

chanda,

T . hdun-pa,

C. ij/V . . . n ā s t i chandasya

vīryo, T. brtson-hgrus, C. )fpj j £ . . . n. vîryatah h. (8). C. ^ £ t . . . n . smrteh h. ( 9 ) . h. (10). h. (11).

42

> s m r t i , T . dran-pa, prajñā, vimukti,

43)
44)

T . śes-rab, C. 3 § f . . . n . prajñayā T . rnam-grol,

C. J y p jjjjT . . . re. vimukter

[ 341 ]

J . TAKASAKI

And of the intuition of this liberation 45) ; — // 12 // Has [three kinds of] acts 46) are preceded by Wisdom 47) , And his Intuition acts unimpededly in three states of time 48>These 18 and others 49) are the Properties Of the Preceptor, which are not common to others. // 13 // The Sage has neither error 50) nor rough speech, Neither loses [his memory] nor distracts his mind 51) , Has neither pluralistic views52) nor indifference53) to one's own taste, He is never deprived of his zeal, effort and memory, Of pure, immaculate Intellect and Liberation, Of the intuition of freedom 54) and of showing all things knowable; — //14// He makes manifest on the objects the 3 kinds of acts 55 ', Which are preceded by 56) all kinds of knowledge, And brings out the Wisdom, well extensive, without hindrance 57) , Constantly, throughout the 3 states of time; Thus is Buddhahood 58) , endowed with Great Compassion,

*5) vimuktijñānadarśana, T. rnam-grol-gyi ye-śes-gzigs-pa, C. [ppp nju] 7»H J^l ...(12).
46

Mvyut. & DRS instead have ināsti samādher hānih (C. / £ . / 1 ' * XS).

' karman, T. las, C. p p | . There are 3 kinds of ' karman ', i.e. k. by kâya, by vāfc & by manas, and they stand for (13)—(15).
47

' jñāna—pūrvamgama,

T . ye—śes sñon—hgro, C. •J^J i i A , 2 ^ . .

try-adhvan, T . o m . tri a n d s i m p l y , d u s . C. *, "(tr . ijñāna<> acting i n each s t a t e of t i m e , i.e. atīta, anāgata & pratyutpanna, is c o u n t e d separately a n d consists (16)—(18) of t h e āvenikadharma.
48)

anye ca, T . . . . dañ gshan, C. /&. S*R ' ' i ^ īvL -^§ • I t is u n c e r t a i n which are c o u n t e d b y this word ' anye '• 60) praskhalita = skhalita. 61) The reading should be ' musitatâcitte ' (as a Dvandva-comp., dual, nom., i.e. musitatā & acitta) instead of ' musitatā dtte ' in the text. ' acitta* here stands for asamāhita-citta. (T. bsñel dañ thugs-g'yo). 62 ) n o sambhedatah samjñā. {sambhedatah = nānātva-)T. tha-dad-kyi ni hdus-śes. 63) abhyupeksana = upeksā. 64 ' T. om. nidarśana of muktijñāna-nidarśana (reading apparently ' vimuktijñānadarśanāt). SB) I n p l a c e of ' arthesu ', T . h a s ' yasya '.
66)

49)

purojava,

T . sñon-hgro

(— purvamgama),

C. . . . ^fo?{/ -2f£.

67)

aparāhata, T . thogs-med, C. TJJJÇ |*!p. PK] .

68)

ymotā, T . rgyal-pa-ñid,

C. # 0 ^ l ^ . r 312 i

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga

And perfectly realized 5 9 ) by the Buddha; And on account of this realization, he sets in motion in the world The great wheel of the fearless 6 0 ) Supreme Doctrine. // 15 // It is said that [these properties are] like space (Kārikā 14) The nature found in the earth and the rest Is not the nature of space, And the properties of space represented by Non-obstruction, etc., are absent in material things 6 3 ) ; The earth, water, fire, wind and the sky 6 4 ) , likewise, Are common to all the [material] worlds, But the Exclusive Properties of the Buddha Are not in the least 6 5 ) common to those worlds. // 16 //
62) 61)

.

(IV)

THE 32 MARKS OF THE SUPERMAN 66)

It is said that the Buddha is possessed of the corporeal form endowed with the 32 marks of the Superman (dvātrimśanmahāpurusalaksanaTūpadhārin).
B9)

60)

F o r ' avabuddhā ', T . brñes (avalabdha), b u t C. as in t h e t e x t . The reading ' abhayadam' is to be corrected into ' abhayam' (one syllable is in

excess). So T. hjigs-med, and C. ^ ^ "pC [fibu ?& Vz*] (Lit. i t is an adjective to cakra). Cf. v . I. 4. (abhayam mārgam dideśa). 61) C. (in the commentary) puts the following verse before v. 35.
62)

dharmatā, T. chos-ñid, C. ffc .

) rūpin, T. gzugs, C. P-|/ (that which has form). C. om. the word for sky from this line of elements, sothat the sky is to be distinguished from the other elements. Did the author of this Kārikā regard the sky as something material unlike ' space ' which, in its turn, is compared to the Buddha's āvenikadharma in the first two lines ?
88
S4) 65)

āśv api. T. dul phran tsam, C. Jj

- P ^!w — * ^ ^ (even not a single dharma).

T. om. ' buddha ' of ' buddhāvenikatā, for which C. " ^ f$j #fl ^R 0 T ^ft Ifâ -SJ W> •
66

> Of the 32 mahāpurusalaksanas, see Mvyut. 17, AĀS 474 a-b, RDS 37 b-c. Also

cf. AA, AAĀ Chap. VIII, The Prajñāpāramitāśāstra Ç/^, ^ J§£ fpg) attributed to Nāgārjuna. Of those ir the Ratna., see V. S. Agrawala, The Thirty-two Marks of the BuddhaBody, Journal of the Oriental Institute, M. S. University of Baroda, vol. I, No. 1. Sept. 1951, Baroda, pp. 20-22.

[ 343 ]

J. TAKASAKI

(Kārikās 15-23) The feet are firmly placed, marked by circles on the soles, And with broad insteps and leveled heels which hide the ankles67> The fingers are long 6 8 ) , and those of hands and toes alike Are connected with each other by a web 6 9 ) . // 17// His skin is soft and fine like that of youths 7 0 ) , His body is round with 7 elevated parts 7 1 ) , His shanks are like those of the deer 7 2 ) , and The private parts are concealed as with an elephant 7 3 ) . // 18 // The upper part of the body is like that of a lion7 4 ) , The parts between the shoulders are closely set and elevated 7 5 ) ,
67)

supratisthita-cakrâñka-vyāyatotsañga-pādatā (1), which contains actually 4 marks f ^ J ^y* $ § (flat *

on feet, namely: 1) supratisthita-pādatā), T. legs-gnas (loñ), C. / £ ,

the feet); 2) cakrâñka-p., T. hkhor los mtshan-pa, C. -_&• Jç£ ^ " Jp^g !pj|j; 3) vyāyata-p., T. yañs- (cf. AAĀ, āyata-pārsnitā); & 4) utsañga-p., T. mi-mñon (' not evident', ' hidden '),

C. f r 3) & 4)îg 9)t K ± I t (but^^ftfftî o
4) AEÎ 1E?C t^î | f l ) . For ' utsañga ', AAĀ & Mvyut., ucchañka (or ucchañkha), which is an equivalent form of Pali * ussañkha' and which retains the original meaning of this peculiar mark. T. translation ' mi-mñon' matches better ' ucchañka ' than ' utsanga ' . The form ' utsañga ' is, therefore, probably a wrong Sanskritization of Pali ' ussañkha*. C. traditional interpretation of this mark also supports this sense of'hidden ankles'. ,i_īy -I-Ki k l i ^yfcfc fcś 68) dīrghâñgulikatā (2), T . sor-mo riñ, C. g^g" ^ Q ^gj $JPS j ^ . 69) jālapānipādâvanaddhatā (3), T. phyag-shabs riñ dra-ba-yis ni hbrel-pa, C. ^jfjg

/T||
70)

TX

iB
(4), T . pags-hjam gshon-śa-can legs-ñid, C. -f* / £ , J ^

tvañmrduśrltarunatā

ÎTTC W V (instead of ' tvak', C. h a s ' hasta-pāda '. I t agrees w i t h AAÂ & Mvyut.). T . gshon-śa-can (for taruna) h a s t h e meaning, ' one who h a s flesh of y o u t h '.
71)

7 utsadas
72) 73)

saptotsada-śarīratā ( 5 ) , T . sku ni bdun-dag mtho-ba, C. |flf /Çf\ — L | | m /ppj , a r e n a m e l y : 2 hastas, 2 padas, 2 skandhas & 1 grīua. eneya-jañghatā (6), T. byin-pa enaya-hdra, C. f^* nāgakośavad-vastiguhyatā (7), T . gsara glañ-po bshin-du /^ ^ ^ . ^ | ^ [j^]. nub, C. ^ ^ | . i t

sbubs-su

74)
75)

simhapūrvârdha-kāyatva

(8), T . ro-stod señ-ge hdra-ba,

C. _ C . —p ^ ( 0 pījl ~j •

nirantara-citâmśatā (9), T. thal-goñ bar-med rgyas-pa, C. ^ x /Ti h^r Ls| i n î •

Cf. AAĀ citântarâmśatā. T. thal-goñ (for amśa) means the part between shoulder and PFt BTÎC ~ T viffi T collar (goñ-pa, collar). C. often interprets it as indicating ' a r m - p i t ' (|WJ /J$£ p (pft , AĀS).

[ 344 ]

T h e R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga And his shoulders are well heaped arid round 7 6 ) ; His arms are fleshy, tender and of no unevenness 7 7 ) , // 19 // And are hanging low [down to the knees] 7 8 ) . The body has a radiant, pure halo around i t 7 9 ) , His neck is immaculate like a white conch 8 0 ) , And his jaws have a resemblance with those of a lion 8 1 ) . // 20 // He has forty teeth all of which are equal 8 2 ) , And are clear and closely set8 3 ) , pure and straight 8 4 ) , And his eye-teeth are white and of excellent form 8 5 ) . // 21 // His tongue is broad and long 8 6 ) , [by which he tastes] The highest taste, infinite and unthinkable 8 7 ) ; The voice of the Self-Born is like that of the Kalaviñka 88), And has the most excellent sound 89) . // 22 //
76) 77

samvrtta-skandhatā (10), T. dpuñ-pa legs-zlum, C. (Wj ^ JJJJ ' vrttaślaksnânunnāma—bāhutā (11), T. phyag—hjam riñ zlum—shiñ mthon dman—med—

pa, C. f^ fyj _ l l |* /4'ifT • This is n o t m e n t i o n e d i n AAĀ. M v y u t . counts t h i s m a r k along w i t h t h e n e x t o n e saying * sthitânavanata-pralamba-bāhutā.
78)

79)

pralamba-bāhutā (12), T . phyag riñ C. j £ f|fc ^ ^ Jj^r . śuddhaprabhāmandala-gātratā (13), T . yoñs-su dag-pahi hod-kyi

dkyil-hkhor

dag

dañ Idan (om. gātra), C. Jtj- Jf? ^t B |M .
80

'

kambu-grivatvam

amalam (14), T. mgrin—pa dri—med duñ—hdra, C. J j | 3ÎI-I "XL

'g^

~H . This is lacking in AAĀ, Mvyut., as well as in RDS.
81

' mrgendra—hanutā

(15), T . hgram—pa ri—dags rgyal—po hdra, C. |îipl ^ J ^ ^ p i p ~ j . (16), T . tshems ni bshi-bcu mñam-pa, C. |_l ^ i f i y

82)

s o m ā catvārimśad-daśanatā

83)

svacchâvirala-dantatā

(17), T . rab-dañs

tshems

thags bzañ~ba,

C. p f c ^ i | * P 5

84

* viśuddhasama—dantatva

(18), T . rnam—dag

tshems

mñam—ñid,

C.

JL. P | ^ )

¥^.
85)

śukla-pravara-damstratā

(19), T . mche-ba rab-mchog

dkar-ba-ñid,

C.

. ^ J [Zj

]tgij P ^ .
86)

This is lacking in AAĀ & Mvyut.

M"tîā, & * * ± Ifc.
88

prabhūta-jihvatā (20), T. Ijags riñ, C. ^ffl 'p§[ J ^ ; ^ "Q" . 87) anantâcintya-rasarasâgratā (21), T . mthah-med bsam-med-pa ro bro-ba-yi mchogñid (T. seems to regard 'anantâcintya' as adjectives for the previous one), C. jy\ J^.

> kalaviñka-ruta (22), T. kalabiñka-yi sgra, C 3ijū ^ ^ "JJO S •A A A ' RDS om. it. 89) brahma-svaratā (23), T. tshañs-pahi dbyañs-ñid, C. ^ y Q pfC J5L 5

[ 345 ]

J. TAKASAKI

He, the highest of living beings 9 0 ) , is of beautiful eyes, like a bluelotus, with eyelashes like those of a bull9 1 ) , Of handsome face, endowed with the immaculate Urna-hair9 2 ) , Of a head adorned with the Usnīsa 9 3 ) , and of skin, Purified, subtle and of golden colour 9 4 ) ; // 23 // Hairs on the body grow separately from each other, Soft and subtle, turning upward and to the right9 5 ) , Hairs on his head are of pure blue colour like sapphires 9 6 ) , And his figure is fully circular like a Nyagrodha tree 9 7 ) . // 24 // He, the Great Sage, whose body is firm and possessed of The power of Nārāyana 98>, looks sublime and incomparable9 9 ) ;

90)

agrasattva,

which is a s y n o n y m of t h e B u d d h a a n d n o t o n e of t h e * m a r k s '

at all.
91)

nīlotpalaśrī-vrsapaksma-netra (24). This actually consists of two marks, na1) nilotpalalaśrî-netra, T. spyan-bzañs utpala, C. . (3 $fk ft\\ ^ 3 , . . . Sj] "f^

mely:

2) vrsa—paksma—netra, T. khyu—mchog rdsi—hdra[—spyan\, C. o$rp Bp^ Zf^ ~~p* _*T*. .
92

' sltâmalornodita—cāruvaktra

(25), T . shal—mdses

dri—med

mdsod

spu dkar—bar

93

94)

> usnīsa-śīrsa (26), T. gtsug-tor dbu-ldan, C. J j | _ C ^*§ twj MH. vyavadātasūksma-suvarnavarna-cchavih (27), T. dag-ciñ srab-pa dañ pags-pa

gser-gyi mdog-hdra, C. # fe ffi ^ %ñ . S tfc & fe &. & îfc ^ ^ f
AAĀ counts this one as two. 95 * ekaikaviślista—mrdu—ūrdhvadeha—pradaksinâvarta—sūksma—roma (28). T. ba—sphu legs phra, hjam shin, re-re-nas, sku-yi gyen-du g'yas phyogs hkhil-ba, C. C • -jlj — *

^ âî.^^tfc-tJU.ÎK^ffl^fiîl&
translation, i.e. 1) ekaikaviślista;
96

This is

2) ūrdhvadehâvarta; & 3) pradaksinā—āvarta.

originally o 3 m r s a f ak s

* mahendra—nīlâmala—ratnakeśa (29), T. dbu—skra dri—med rin—chen mthor mthiñ—

bshin, C. H ^
97

^ flf ^ , P|? #P H P t M • This is lacking in AAĀ.
(30), T. ñya—gro râsogs—pahi Ijon śin dkyil—

* nyagrodha—pūrnadruma—mandalâbha. ' nārāyanasthāma—drdhâtmabhāva

hkhor hdra, C. # J|Jjf ^g ^ ?#, JP ^ tSj ffi 3E .
98

(31), T. sred—med—bu—yi stobs mñah (sred—med—b.*

means Visnu), C. ^
got this mark.

f^ ^

§ £ [§I , | § jftj SP M J î • AAĀ & Mvyut. have not
(—ātmabhāva) (32), T . kun—tu bzañ—po dpe—med, C. ~ j ^ * - ^ *

" ' samantabhadrâpratima

' • ^ "J 5 ^ (which reads apratigha for apratima). It is doubtful whether this stands for one of the 32 marks or not. C. does not count it among the marks. T. is not clear. And no other text includes it among the 32 marks.

[ 346 ]

The

R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga

These 32 features of infinite splendour are taught By the Preceptor as the marks 1 0 0 ) of the Lord of Men. // 25 // It is said that [the Buddha, with 32 marks] has a resemblance [to the moon and its reflection in the water 1 0 1 ) . (Kārikā 24) Just as, in autumn, the form 1 0 2 ) of the moon is perceived In the cloudless sky, as well as in a big pond, Reflecting this blue sky on its water-surface; Similarly, the disciples of the Buddha Can perceive the manifestations of the Omnipresent On the surface of the pond-like sphere of the Buddha. // 26 // Thus these 10 Powers of the Buddha, 4 kinds of Intrepidity, 18 Exclusive Properties of the Buddha, as well as the 32 Marks of the Superman, being united under one head, make up the number sixty-four. These 64 properties are to be understood, Along with their causes for attainment, One after the other, according to [the same] order, Through the investigation of the Ratna-sūtra103). //27// Now, of these 64 properties of the Buddha, which have been explained above, the detailed exposition is to be known , according to the same order as before, through the investigation of the Ratnadārikā—sūtra. Also, there have been made illustrations of four kinds about these [4] points, respectively, viz. examples of a thunderbolt, a lion, the space, and the moon reflected in the water. Of these examples, the summarized meaning will be given in the following 12 verses.

100)

cihna, T. mtshan, C. 7ft\ ( = laksana).

" 0 dakacandra, C. 7jC *P M , T. chu-zla.
102)

vibhūti,

T . gzugs

( = bimba, rūpa),

C. ^

~j\. C. p u t s t h i s K ā r i k ā before v . 3 7 .

103) _ Ratnadārikāsūtra, T. bu-mo rin-po-chehi mdo, C. jpf >C flEE • There are two translations of this sūtra in C. : samnipātasūtra), Taisho, XIII, pp. 28 6-40 b. This one is used here for reference with the abbreviation of RDS ;
2

I ^ i S t f i S S H

( hp Ill o t e Mahā C a. f h

) 9, ~iC f$\ fBÎ I S (Ratnadārikā-pariprcchā), Taisho, No. 399, vol. XIII,

pp. 452-472.

[ 347 ]

J. TAKASAKI

Being [respectively] impenetrable104', with no misery105', Perfectly unique 106) and indifferent107), [The Buddha's Properties] are illustrated By the examples of the thunderbolt, the lion, the space And of the clear moon with her reflection in the water. // 28 // Of the [10] Powers, six, three, and one, Taken respectively, remove all [the obscurations] On account of the knowable, the concentrations, And of defilements with their potential forces. // 29 // As if they were piercing an armour, Breaking a wall, and cutting down a tree, The Powers of the Sage are like a thunderbolt, Being heavy, solid, firm and unbreakable 108). // 30 // Why are they i heavy ' ? Because they are ' solid '; Why are they ' solid ' ? Because they are 4 firm '; Why are they i firm ' ? Because they are ' unbreakable '. And being 4 unbreakable % they are like a thunderbolt 109). // 31 // Being fearless, being indifferent, Being firm and accomplishing victory, The lion of Sages is like a [real] lion, Has no fear amidst the assembly of audiences110). // 32//

nirvedhikatva, T . mi-phyed-pa, thunderbolt can break everything).
105) nirdainya, translation). 106) 107)

104)

C. iMj J{RJ (breakable, in t h e sense t h a t t h e

T. mi-shan, T. mtshuñs-pa

C. 3ttÇ īiâî ^L* (without m e r c y , which is n o t a proper med, C. sy* 5 Ç |t!i (nib,' i n t h e sense of ' atyanta1).

niskaivalya,

avikalpa

nirlha, T . g'yo-med ( i m m o v a b l e ) , C. ^Sç ^u* (indifferent). a n d nirlhaka (cf. C h a p . I V , v. 19). T . brliñ ( D . gliñ is a m i s t a k e ) , C. j f î ; sāra, T . sñiñ,

T h e reflection is C. gyr ; drdha,

108) guru,

T. brtan, C. \S[ ; & abhedya, T. mi-byed, C. ~A* ^T $jS J H , respectively. 109) C. neglects t h e first 3 padas of v. 3 1 . 110) parsad-gana C. adds one m o r e verse before v . 32, indicating t h e āryasatya, which m a k e s t h e analogy quite clear. I t r u n s as follows:

4-fold

tamisfti® M f t ^ s

m.mm.»m nmmM^-

(The Buddha, having known the duhkha of sickness and its hetu, and having been devoid of duhkha-hetu, preaches the āryamārga, that is an excellent medicine, in order to cause the people to remove sickness and to realize the nirodha).

[ 348 ]

115) ekānta-cārin. And he is i of the highest victory ' Since he has transcended the Dwelling Place of Ignorance. 116 ' C. colour and shape. is 4 indifferent ' [about his superiority]. Because they sustain all the world. mam-par gnas. fire and wind. C. with the Śrāvakas. T. // 36 // These 32 Properties mentioned above Represent the Body of the Absolute. visible and causing delight 117) in the body. * \J)J }fin± s^ ~U<C • 112 ' akutobhaya. the lustre. T.The As He He As R at n a g ot r a v ib h ā g a he has got all the supernatural faculties. C. C. with the Wise. 113) ' Indifference' in the sense that he does not try to see whether he is superior or inferior. [But the Buddha] has a resemblance to space. we have illustrations in five kinds 1 1 6 ) . Since they are indivisible from it. o m . y\^ = pañca-mahâbhūta). And are based on the two Corporeal Bodies The Apparitional Body and the Body enjoying the Truth. T. abides "independently' 111 ' from any fear 112) . mthah-gcig-su spyod. ^f|p | X . C. he is unequal by nature even to the people of purity 1 1 3 '. With those that act in solitude 115 '. // 38 // To those who are far from purity and near to it. T. the Intellect is subtler with one after the [other.It denotes the Pratyekabuddha. the 32 marks are The properties. //33// He stands * firmly ' since his mind is always Concentrated on all the elements of existence. ^ J ^ f S f\j ffe H ^ ^ fpf J ^ J^l ^ ^C ?RÇ ^ T (ātma-asama-darśanatah). // 34 // With the worldlings114). // 37 // [On the other hand]. 117 > ahlādaka. laukika. takes ' -pañcadhā tu ' as if ' pañca-dhātu (Tl. The pure manifestation of the Corporeal Body is twofold. water. Because his characters surpass everything mundane and supermundane. And with the Buddha. // 35 // [The first four are] like the earth. f3? 4T. ' ^ | E ' is p r o b a b l y for ' nirāstha '. 114) C. As with a gem. tshim-byed. £J£ | f t S • [ 349 ] . Therefore. gañ—las kyañ hjigs—med. C. i n ) svastha. For this line.

// 39 // Finished is the third chapter entitled 'the Properties of the Buddha'. in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. 37. a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle. Just as the moon shows her form in both the sky and the water 1 1 8 ) . TAKASAKI [One is] in the World. adds one verse more after v.J. 39. C. and [the other] in the circle of the Buddha. whose content is almost the same as v. the difference is only the use of the word * rūpakāya ' in place of * dharmakāya \ 118) [ 350 ] .

"f^ jj§u ^ p Hvp (in accordance with proper place and time). khyab-bdag. C. T. 2) T . 5) The means of conversion. gdul-byahi khams. (Kārikās 1-2) The acts of the Lord are always effortless 4) With regard to the constitution of the converts . and its functions [In accordance with the capacity] of the converts. ing to associate with RGV in its contents. /£fc J\. C. // 1 // 7) Having completely established the Vehicle . gśegs-pa (going). e. So. S j T U !^fC 3i • F o r ' gamana '. C. 7) Par excellence. ^ \ . reads vineyakriyā for vinayakriyā. and 4 uninterruptedly ' (apraśrabdhitah). phrase. ^Pv • For nispādya. T . F o r the whole taddeśakāle gamane ca. 6) Working in [proper] place and in [proper] time . it denotes the Mahāyāna. i. [Therefore] immediately there follow two 2 1 ślokas referring to the Buddha's Acts which are characterized as ' of no effort and interruption ' (anābhogâpraśrabdha). JINAKRIYĀ XVI. 4 without effort' (anābhogatah). They are said to be manifested in two modes. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ACTS OF THE BUDDHA We have finished the explanation of the 4 Immaculate Properties of the Buddha '. dvau. Now we shall speak of the functions [associated with those Properties].. e. T. o m .CHAPTER IV. T. 4 the Acts of the Buddha '. THE ACTS OF THE BUDDHA I) 4. Iftf j $ j g vineyadhātu. AĀS has a chapter of the same title (Tathāgatakriyā-parivarta). i. I 351 1 . C. 3) 4) 6) 4) x) 3) but it has noth- vibhu.

)* ^ n e compound should be separated after raśmi and before pravisrta. 3) (jñāna) om. respectively. And endowed with the rays of the sun of Merits and Knowledge 9>. 17) [ 352 ] . About these matters. or 'garbha*.(yena jñānena). [this act of conversion is] non-discriminative 8) ratna-svagarbha. C. ^ ^ ī | j | . And 4 where and when '. vinīti-kriyā. * nirviśistam. 14 ) nidhi. 10) 11 12 1S For buddhatva. p f q/£ J C fîii. which stands for ' yatra ' in the next verse. ' yāvat. Because. 9 * punya and jñāna are called the two sambhāras (accumulation that brings about the Enlightenment. // 3 // On account of the action of conversion 15) . C. 15) 16 > For dhātu. As the treasure 1 3 ) of the immaculate virtues. // 2 // The summarized meaning of these two ślokas is to be known by the following two and eight verses. Exists everywhere U) in all living beings 12) . f b & f^ I^t ^ ^E • . 3âBl ' sarvasattva (sattva in a collective sense) = sattvadhātu. Therefore. gter. Blows away the net of the cloud-like [Obscurations] Caused by Defilements and Ignorance. T. $|î£ • It has a sense similar to ' gotra"1 (mine). faculty). C. TAKASAKI The ocean 8 ) of knowledge filled with the multitudes of the excellent virtues. $ § : 7|C _^. by what means. C. T.J. C. 10) And having perceived that Buddhahood .. Pervading extensively and of neither limit nor middle. T. T. the ' place and time ' [of conversion] '. there is no rise of discrimination. y^. • The Ocean is usually said to be the ' treasure of jewels '. gdul-byahi bya. (-^g in v. khyad-med. ^ ^ . C. the Buddha's Act of conversion Is [working] always ' without effort '. ^ Instead of upāya. like wind. C. To whom. like space.. C. chu-mtsho (ocean). how far 1 4 ) . C. The Buddhas' Compassion. bhūrinā. and (constitution. and when. 4 Who ' means 4 the constitution 1 6 ) to be converted % 4 By what means ' 1 7 ) denotes ' the manifold means [of conversion] '. misreads this passage and connects it with the next ' buddhatva '.

& C. T. But T. that which causes ' niryāna '). The Enlightenment has a resemblance to space. yoñs-hdsin. The phrase 4 The condition by which the obscurations are removed And which works for all time ' means Compassion. The highest Vehicle 2 3 ) is like the ocean. -ppf pj !j/E H3^ /»3 \§i* Jāī8 f° r sattva). $qf *\\ ($$ in v. and the latter. // 8 // Being [the treasure] of the water of knowledge And of the jewel of virtuous properties. The former includes those pāramitās of ' dāna. // 7 // These six points are to be known. C. 6) ' parigraha' is here used in the sense of ' nidhi ' (that which contains something). read ' bhūmayah ' (T. C. Hereafter.)' yāna ' in the Kārikā. And to the obscurations [which cover] this receptacle and the condition by which these obscurations are removed.]/grah) the ' bodhi '. C. Like space and like a treasure. the pronoun ' tad ' in each case.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga With regard to Deliverance 18) and its support 1 9 ) . that of iprajñā\ For sambhrti. C. 21 * sambhrti—dvaya. 23) 24 agrayāna. 19 18) I* stands for ' upastambha (in the sense. T. J=J -^3 ' samyaksambuddha-dharmatvāt. T. To the result of [partaking of] this support and the receptacle 2 0 ) which accepts this result. punya—sambhāra & jñāna—s. viz. yañ-dag-rdsogs-sañs-chos-ñid-phyir. C. Jfi (satya). denotes the preceding one. 4 Its cause ' means the 2-fold Accumulation 21) . // 9 // Being extensive and of neither end nor middle. niryāna. ślla. // 5 // [Here] 4 Deliverance ' means the 10-fold Stage [of Bodhisattvas]. T. Like the ocean and like the sun. rton—pa. 4 [Its] receptacle ' means the living beings Who accept the Enlightenment 22) . fff 22) 20) bodheh sattvah parigrahah. As keeping alive all living beings. Like clouds and like the wind. £|& J F $ (to enter the path. byañ-chub-sems-can yoñs-su hdsin. vīrya & dhyāna '. fffj Jffli). sa-rnams. ñes-hbyin. respectively. ksānti. C. Sub-defilements and Impressions. The twofold Accumulation is like the sun. T. parigraha. // 6 // The phrase 4 The obscurations which cover this receptacle ' means The innumerable Defilements. p 4 jJā. C. 4 The result of this Accumulation' is the Highest Enlightenment. [ 353 ] . Here the living beings are called ' bodhisattva ' in the sense of those who accept (pari. 24) Being of the nature of the Perfect Enlightened One .

pervasive. T. the Avatamsakasūtra. // 11 // Performing Deliverance for the sake of others. nidhāna. T . ma-grub. And having works of no termination. jr*-j . // 12 // 25) a8) sattvadhātu. 28) 27) 29) pratyupasthāna. ñer-gnas. 10. jaR 3 C . // 10 // Being accidental. TAKASAKI The living beings 2 5 ) are akin to a treasure 2 6 ) . C. Cf. and unreal 2 7 ) . C. [The Buddha] Acts ' uninterruptedly ' as long as the world exists. And. bringing about 2 8 ) the dispelling of these. ' u)} . an adverb to anispatti (unreal everywhere). C. Their defilements are like a multitude of clouds. Considering the living beings as one's own self29). ^ adding the following phrases before them: ' J § %$ $ £ T 354 ] .J. gter. Compassion is like a strong wind. For vyāpi. J i (treasure under the ground). (note VI-28) C. T . and regards it anispatti. C. puts these two phrases after v.

^ff 4^P î 2) [deva] dundubhi. Being such. without interruption. C. 9) prthivī.. C. 4) names of t h e 9 similes i n S.— is the Buddha [in his acts] 4 ) . the Acts of Buddha manifest in this world. and as long as the world exists ? [To answer this question]. 6) maniratna (cintāmani). space and like the earth. ?*g-. 8) ākāśa. y C ~=P* ( p r o b . are as follows: 1) śakra. without effort. we have one śloka with regard to this magnanimous character of the Buddha. C. how is it possible that from such an immutable Buddhahood. tshañs-pa [chen-po]. C. 4) [mahā] brahman. F o r māhātmya. ñi—ma. C. It was said that Buddhahood is characterized 1} as having neither origination nor extinction. C. T. like an echo. 7) pratiśruti (pratiśrutka-śabda). C.XVII. for mahākriyā). like Brahma. Buddha's Magnanimity. C. ~~Z~~ liJ^f St~~*~ V V s ^ prabhāvita. rab—tu phye—ba. rgya-byin. 9 ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BUDDHA'S ACTS § 1. T . [ 355 ] . T. ^Tv ^ f ! I ' (mahāyāna-kriyā). // 13 // T . sgra-brñan C. says 3) C. T. y\. and like the sun. without discriminination. 2) apravrtti-laksana. sprin. jrjj 5) arka (sūrya). X ¥] tyj? â £ . the wish-fulfilling gem.. nor-bu rin-chen. |Z|. characterized as of no manifestation 2) . T. ' y\. Jm. /EL. T. SY* "^ <fX ^ P l • I n t h e Kārikā t e x t . T. in order to produce the faith in the sphere of the Buddha on the part of those people who have misconception and doubt about the Buddha's nature of magnanimity 3) . Like Like Like Like Such 1 (Kārikā 3) Indra. C. like the divine drum. §iE. nam-mkhah C. ftj. T. [^C 3) megha. T. £ p . sa. -^jj . [lhahi] rña. & C. T. clouds.

lha-gnas. As well as his great place 9 ) called Vaijayanta. T. we have three verses in C. And. Jāschke's Dictionary. T . 528 s. p. lhahi bu—mo. in Chap. 2. has more than three verses which are not available in S. 8 ' For apsaras. For Vaijayanta. in a short time. & S. owing to its clarity. T. 5 // 14 // * sūtrasthānīya [ślokd]. Consequently. mam—man. 9 Illustrations taken from the Jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. // 15 // Suppose then. while C. v. Become like that chieftain of the gods ! " 1 3 ) And. T.). mdohi gnas Ita—buhi [tshigs-su—bcad—pā]. the arrangement of Kārikās varies much between C. Kārikā number starts with No. 13) tridaśâśvara. & 13 in S.J. IV. of this śloka which represents the topics in the Scripture 5 ) a detailed exposition will be given topic by topic in the remaining part of the text according to the same order. in the following passages. Would perceive this vision And make the following prayer : // 16 // 44 May we too. 12) T h e r e a d i n g should b e ' vayam apy acirād ' i n s t e a d of ' adyaiva na cirād ' i n S. rnam—par—rgyal-ba. Text reading i-pratibhāsatvād iti ' is to be corrected into ' -pratibhāsavad iti '. T . (I) It is said that [the Buddha has] a resemblance to the form of Indra6 ) . (Kārikās 4-20) 7) Suppose here were a surface Made of an immaculate Vaidūrya stone. C. Kārikā text which are equivalent to vv. (One whose residence is in heaven). and the verse number in C. the multitudes of men and women Abiding on this surface of the earth. with the multitude of Apsaras 8) .). yañ-dag-blañs te. J E ^ ^& rfflL $13 *vv ī|=§î (Ivy) (sūtrârthasamgraha-śloka). Hereafter. lha-dbañ (devSndra). in order to obtain 1 4 ) that state. II—2) Mention will be done in each case about omission and addition in C . khañ—bzañs. 4). T. 1X 10) [ 356 ] . agrees with S. 14) samādāya. JĀA 240 b-c. Some Kārikās in each simile are missing in C. 1. Other gods 10) and their various dwellings Along with their divine glories U ) . at an early date12) . C. * vibhūti. divaukas. (see my Introduction. (Prior to this passage. T. (T. TAKASAKI § 2. 7) *' prāsāda. C. vv. ñed kyañ riñ-por mi-thogs-par (riñ-por mi-thogs-par — after a little while. 14-26. Kārikā text. Now. T . om. T. 6 > Cf. there were seen on it The chief of the gods.

hchag-pa. hdod-pahi go-hphañ. Of no thought-construction and no activity 1 6 ) . Nevertheless. Nevertheless. W e h a v e a similar expression in Lank. 21) lam. bsheñs-pa. it is an illusion. C. spyod- prātihārya. Still this manifestation of the Buddha's features bhū. nisanna & śayanasthita. ' nirîhaka. // 18 // After all. standing. having brought the factors to development They do attain the desired state 21K // 23 // After all. // 17 // Though having no notice that this is merely a vision. reads as loc). T h e r e a r e said t o b e 3 prātihāryas. // 19 // In the same way. See below. it appears in the world. %~J / Q i ^ HjK). the people who are filled with desire. They. 19) cañkramyamāna. Would perceive in their own minds the vision of the Buddha. Being associated with a great benefit. īpsitam padam. (svacittadrśyamātra. sa-steñ (for abl. T . the living beings.. C. Abiding in concentration of mind and showing The various miracles 2 0 ) .). owing to their virtuous conduct. sgam-pa (bhāvanā). And were endowed with 1 7 ) virtues. Who acts in manifold actual behavior like Walking. T. //21// Preaching the Doctrine of Quiescence. ' laksana-vyañjana ' signifies 32 mahāpurusalakranas a n d t h e 80 anuvyañjanas. it is an illusion.. Undertake the attainment of the Buddhahood. I ? fjt)- [ 357 ] . dpe-byad.. in S. n a m e l y ' bodhi '. T . and who has the great glory. g'yo—ba—med. 17) F o r bhāvita. T . it would appear on the earth. If they were pure in their faith and so forth. faith and the like. 22) T h i s is a n expression of t h e ' cittamātra ' t h e o r y . l6 16) bshugs-pa 20) & gzims-pa (Cf. sitting and sleeping 19) . // 20 // Who is endowed with the visible features and marks 1 8 ) . Would pass away from the earth 1 5 ) and be borne to heaven. These are called ' Iryāpatho ' ( T . Of no thought-construction and no activity. T . tisthat. T. And. // 22 // Having seen him. T . being silent. // 24 // Ordinary people do not notice That this is merely a reflection of their own mind2 2 ) . cho-hphrul.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga They would abide adopting the virtues. Being associated with a great benefit. 18) vyañjana. T .

T . [ 358 ] . muni-pati (= buddha). T . theg-pa (yāna). T . for obtaining the shadow of the Lord of Sages 3 4 ) On their mind which is radiant like the Vaidūrya stone. C. with minds full of delight. would be as clear and white As the Vaidūrya stone. having seen this vision. ' upavāsa-vrata-niyamatayā. Would scatter flowers with minds full of sublime desire 33) . denotes ' mahāyāna '. 30. brtul-shugs (vrata). thub-dbañ. puts this verse after f jc | v. The sons of the Buddha. there would appear on its [surface] The palace of Indra 2 9 ) occupied by gods around him 3 0 ) as a vision. jl^g. T. [because of its] being possessed of The immaculate qualities of jewel and of pure even surface. lha-dag gnas-tshogs lha-dbañ lha-hi gzugs-śar te (which reads bhavana in pi. //26// Suppose. Whose mind intends to perform charity and the rest. T . T. One Avagraha should* be inserted between sthānā and antar-. {cf j-pfj |* . samanta-vyapagatavisamasthāna. the multitudes of men and women. C. The vision [thereof] would subsequently disappear 31 '. those who. 23 ' avandhya (not barren). not clear (lha-dag is a mistake for lha-bdag? 30 ' māhendramarutā. owing to its purity. nañ-gi. %ift. For this passage. y C -F*. having become completely free from unevenness 2 7 ) 28) And having become pure from within . with the eyes of transcendental wisdom. don-yod [hgyur] (sārtha). Through observing rules regarding fast and conduct 3 2 ) . Similarly. T. T. -ñes-par. 25) 26 The Body of the Highest Truth within themselves >. T. C.J . 33) 34) pranihita-manas. K 6. marutā). and seems to om. (sthānā'ntaramalā). the earth. as this earth would gradually lose its qualities. surapati. C. And. ||f£ "JTIJ 31 29) —r * > 32 ) C . It F o r naya. Perceive. 27) 24) There is n o t so m u c h difference i n i t s sense. //27// For obtaining that state. y\[ -f* . 26) madhyastha. 28) antar amalā. bsñen-gnas (upavāsa). C. Have gradually established themselves in this method 2 4 ) . smon-pahi sems. TAKASAKI Is useful for 23) fulfilling their aim. But. kun dman-pahi gnas gshan dan bral (includ- ing antar by reading antara as • other '). // 25 // Indeed. 25) saddharmakāya.

Similarly. in the heaven of the gods. // 32 // Similarly. and probably means ' manomayakāya '. being apart from efforts. 39) 38) [ 359 ] .The Produce various R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga pictures 3 5 ) [showing the Buddha's life. from forms of mind 4 2 ) . this and the following 2 verses (vv. And. There appears the reflection of the body of the highest god.] 3 6 ) // 28 // Just as. C. tffj j g j /i~T«> C. // 30 // 39) (II) It is said that [the word of the Buddha] has a resemblance with the celestial drum 4 0 ) . ¥. Whether it be pure or impure 3 8 ) . This seems to correspond to ' śarlra ' in v. ' dharma-'. of 4 suffering \ Of ' impersonality ' and of ' quiescence '. ( I I I ) megha & (IV) brahmā are lacking). on the pure surface of the Vaidūrya stone. K 7.|0 . etc. reads cittāni for citrāni. namely : ( I I ) devadundubhi. K 4 . om. of which 3 are equivalent t o vv. There appears the reflection of the body of the Highest Sage 3 7 ) . this a n d t h e following t w o similes. Ajid from thought-constructions 4 3 ) . adds 4 verses here with t h e heading: ' anutpādânirodhas tathāgata i t i ' . Owing to the previous. 40 > Cf. as the feature [of Indra or of the Buddha] Is seen only as a vision in this world. on the pure surface of the mind in the world. From a particular place. By producing the sounds of i evanescence '. Teaches the Doctrine by his voice dtra. 31-33). (Kārikās 21-25) Just as. yid-gzugs.'. 43) C. T . // 31 // Alarms all the inattentive gods again and again. K 5. the Buddha who is all-pervading And free from effort and the rest. virtuous experiences. T. //29// The appearance and disappearance of this reflection Occur due to the condition of one's own mind. 34. rñog-med & rñog-pa. C. • / 1"* 4J&1. 42) mano-rūpa. 89-91. T. instead of ' deva. The divine 4 1 ) drum. 37 > C. So one should not see it as either real or unreal. J Ā A 241 a ( I n t h e oldest version of J Ā A . 41 > T . 3 s6) anāvilata & āvilata. in this world. C. [respectively]. C.

Brings forth quiescence. Though it is preached by the Buddha. in the city of gods. C. C. // 35 // 5 5 ) (On the superiority of the drum over the other musical instruments) 5 6 ) . And just as the [celestial] sound. the following prose section along with vv. in the heaven of the gods. // 33 // Just as. C. jSī[ M * E • > pranudana. 41. 50) Mesa. 102. 56) C. T. K 13. 31. > ŚSnti. this Doctrine. svakarma-udbhava. seî-ba. [Buddha's] speech destroys 53) the defilements And pacifies the sufferings in the living beings. 36-40.12) is no doubt an interpolation of later days. the sound Of the divine drum arises due to their own deeds. $5^. TAKASAKI Towards the worthy 4 4 ) without exception. . There is destruction 5 1 ) of the victorious play of the Asuras' army52). as well as for bala. Similarly. in this world. $ 5 . this passage (S. % 61 52) 83) T. T . the Doctrine. Similarly. p. K 12. devoid of those four 4 7 ) . uses g'yul for samgrāma. in preaching the Highest Path. T. skal-ldan. Now. Which is due to various practices like contemplations. T. o m .20-104. pramathana. 48 49 > C . ārūpya[-samāpatti]. 3rC _ £fcE|3?p£ H i • citta. rab-hjoms. in this world. T. kleśa-duhkha-pramathana-śamana = kleśapramathana & duhkha—śamana. om. arises [in fact] Owing to the [previous] own deeds of the people4 5 ) . Concentrations in the Immaterial Sphere54) and the rest. sil-sñon. 67) tūrya. C. why has the sound of the drum of Doctrine alone been referred to and not the cymbals 44) 46) 46) 47 57) and the other kinds of celestial instru- bhavya. which corresponds to ' vikalpa ' in v. Similarly. 56) 54) [ 360 ] . // 34//49> At the time of the trouble 5 0 ) of battle. place. and starts again with v. gzugs-med. C. being devoid of Effort. * N a m e l y : yatna—sthāna—śarira—citta.J. form and thought-construction4 6 ) . From the structural viewpoint. simply /£^ (for ^Sç T / 7£S)C. Brings forth Nirvana 4 8 '. Which is caused by the sound of drum And gives fearlessness [among the gods]. C.

b u t T . dbañ-gis mod kho-nar (because of their being from the power) '. if logically speaking. In short. there is some confusion between illustration and illustrated subject. 2) lack of benefit (ahitatva). but not with tūrya. 1) partiality (prādeśikatva). namely. 64) upadrava & upāyāsa. n o t crossing time). . Furthermore. the comparison is made between dundubhi and tūrya showing the former's superiority to the latter. and owing to its enjoining [them] to take heed. Buddha's voice is said to be compared with dundubhi alone. . Then. owing to its delivering the sounds of ' evanescence '.The Ratnagotravibhāga ment ? These are likewise produced 5 8 ) owing to the previous virtuous deeds made by the gods and make sound agreeable to the ear of deities. its 'beneficiality' is mentioned. an analogy was given between devadundubhi and dharmadundubhi. T . 3) unpleasantness (asukhatva) 5 9 ) . T . Owing to its distinguishing bliss from the pleasure caused by evil enjoyment 63) and to its bringing forth pleasant bliss in taking delight in the Doctrine. SB) Throughout the passage. (BHS Die. [And lastly].) 69 * For these 4. 37 refers to devadundubhi as being inferior to Buddha's voice (the reading tūrya is quite a comtradiction and is to be corrected. s. we should expect the comparison between devadundubhi and divyā-tūrya. bde—ba ma—yin-pa—ñid & ñes-par hbyin-pa ma-yin-pa-ñid. the drum is explained as being 4 conducive to deliverance '. ghatita. [To this. But reference is actually made only to dharmadundubhi and not over devadundubhi. See below). we have one verse. 62) paracakra. v. T. . 4 non-substantiality ' and ' impersonality '. dus-la mi-hdah-bas. it is said to be ' blissful'. First of all. we will answer: They are not referred to] because they have four points of dissimilarity to the Buddha's voice. pha-rol-gyi tshogs (paragana). ghattitā ' in BHS has the same meaning as Skt. though. criticism can be made on this passage to decide that it is a later insertion and not perfectly consistent with the original part. in the following passage. adds sthāna after apramatta. 83 ' asatkāma. In regard to distinguishing the circle of the Buddha's voice. 60 * T. 61) kāla-anatikramanatā (lit. . T . For ' . From this point. [On the other hand] the drum of Doctrine summons the multitudes of inattentive 6 0 ) gods without exception and sounds at the right time 6 1 ) . That is to say. ñi—tshe-ba—ñid.e. dam-pa ma-yin-pahi hdod. the circle of the Buddha's voice is qualified as being similar to the drum of Doctrine through these four points 6 5 ) . Owing to its protecting [gods] from the fear of calamity caused by the invasion 6 2 ) of Asuras and others. and 4) unconduciveness to Deliverance (anairyānikatva). i suffering '. Here. of which the latter is identical with Buddha's voice. respectively. . For this reason it is explained as being 4 not partial'. and to its pacifying all misfortune and perturbation 6 4 ) . ñe-bar htshe-bahi phoñs-pa. Even [ 361 ] .v. 88 ' The reading aghattitā should be corrected into ghattitā. which are these [four] ? They are. vaśād ghattitā eva \ T. ' produced' ' effected by ' or ' made '. i. phan—pa ma—yin—pa—ñid.

however. gives a word for dundubhi (rña). C. though they be pure and pleasant. reads krpātman. is n o t likely t o be a c c e p t e d . though be great. a brief explanation will be given in the following four verses.. cho-hphrul gsum (Cf. The voice of the great 6 9 ) Buddhas. Ms. we may accept Ms. which is t o be a t t r i b u t e d t o dharmadundubhi. T . there is no reason for using tūrya to illustrate the Buddha's voice. The sounds of drums in heaven. and in the absence of Ms. Speaks of the concentration 7 0 ) of mind in meditation. . i n J Ā A . Now. are doubtful of i t s originality. reads ' sambuddhabhūmer upayātV and T. From the context. T h e cause of suffering m e a n s ' kleśa '. I a m inclined t o t r u s t C. // 38 // The sounds of cymbals in heaven. As far as this illustration of ( I I ) devadundubhi is concerned. the divine cymbals of a million kinds Sound only in order to kindle the flame of desire.e. etc. i. 67) T h e reading ' sambuddhatūryasya tu ' given b y J ..J. v. But one voice of those full of Compassion Sounds in order to extinguish the cause 6 8 ) of the fire of suffering.). B reading by making a slight change from bhūmer to bherer (bheri = dundubhi). On t h e contrary. ' tu ' is not essential for giving contrast between Buddha's voice and that of devadundubhi. however. gtoñ-bsam-pa (the t h o u g h t of sending. and rather -it is quite a contradiction.. // 39 // verses 31-33. Here. bringing benefit and bliss. o m . B. J Z ^ ]$$ H § or J Z l 7 J ^ * H ) . of these four points. a r r a n g e m e n t as t h e original. // 36 // 66) . 40. ) . 66) [ 362 ] . . which are lacking i n C. TAKASAKI Being universal. the role of devadundubhi is said t o be t h a t of m a k i n g t h e sound of 4 mudrās. hetu. Cannot reach the ears of those abiding on the earth. T. because. prātihārya-traya. // 37 // In heaven. the sound of the drum 6 7 ) of Buddha Reaches even those in the lowest sphere of Samsāra. And being endowed with the threefold miraculous power The voice of the Buddha is superior To [the sound of] the celestial cymbals. E x p l a n a t i o n is given in detail after v . a n d this illustration is also given i n t h e basic t e x t . anitya. 68) T . 32. There should be a term synonymous with dundubhi. Are the causes for increasing the elation of mind. 69) Instead of mahātman. 35 clearly shows us t h e role of devadundubhi as being t h a t of encouraging gods t o t a k e p a r t o n t h e battle-field against asura. A. T. 70) arpanabhāva (the s t a t e of fixing u p o n . In this world. i n v. From this point.

rtogs-pa.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga In short. And in respect to those 7 3 ) points. & rjes-su (C. there is one śloka8 4 ) . but T. For a[tat]pra- hita. ñes-pa. C. > T . F o r paryāpanna. on earth. j | ^ . 83 84 » aparādha. 74 * vikurvita. with reference to the Path 8 0 ) leading to Deliverance. hdoms-pa cho-hphrul. kun-brjod-pahi cho-hphrul. dbyañs-ñid. f £ pratipad. 71) anantāsu lokadhātusu (f. starts again with this heading (atat—prahitānām ātmâparādhe). T. // 40 // Now. T. not at all the fault 8 3 ) of the circle of the Buddha's voice. M v y u t . sems—kyi rnam—grañs. 72) praghosa. . as involved in the mind 7 7 ) . T . with reference to the self-fault of those who are not attentive. gahana. This is called 4 the manifestation of miracle through instruction ' {anuśāstiprātihārya) 82) Thus the circle of Buddha's voice is. zab-mo (gambhīra).). And. T. In order to explain this point. [the Buddha] preaches and instructs 8 1 ) that Path [to the others] by the example of the utterance of his voice. by knowing the variety of spiritual elements 7 8 ) . Is the voice 72) [of the Buddha] which manifests Pervadingly in the world leaving no residue. 78 * cetah—paryāya. T. rdsu-hphrul-gyi cho-hphrul. however. reads divi and ksitau as a genitive and makes them relate to sukhakārana. thus it is illustrated. it is indicated that the all-pervadingness [of the Buddha] through the manifestation 7 4 ) of body in all the worlds of the ten directions shows [his] 4 manifestation of miracles by the supernatural power ' (rddhiprātihārya) 75)'. T . ma-gtogs-pa ( = na prajñāyate). this is called the ' manifestation of miracle through mind-reading ' (ādeśānā-prātihārya) 7 9 ) . bstan-pahi T . ^ ^ jffJî. ^ bstan-pa. lam. T . as well as In all the other numberless worlds 7 1 ) . but still this voice cannot be caught everywhere or in its full extent. In heaven. (C. T. 76) 79) 80) B1) 82) 75 T. T . 77) tat-paryāpanna (tad d e n o t e s cetas).). & anuśāsana. The illumination of the thicket 7 6 ) of mental conduct of living beings. C. 73) For āgamya. (C. ' C. rab-tu brten-par (prañtya). like space. [ 363 ] . C* 7J> ^ Mvyut. that which is the cause of bliss. unimpeded and acts without interruption. ) . cho—hphrul ( = prātihārya). This is. avavāda T . Jjî^ | § § T J N > J J . ) . pi. rjes-su | | j j ( 7 J N *|§L. M v y u t .

TAKASAKI (Kārikā 26) Just as a deaf person cannot hear a subtle voice. T . 86) 85) avabhrtka. in the rainy season. this a n d t h e n e x t verse (vv. 92) C.) i n t h e sense of ' i n order t o bring h a r v e s t '. For 9 0 ) [bringing] the crops of virtue among the living beings. K 16. // 44 // 93) Bearing Wisdom and Compassion. i n s t e a d of ' āyāntj. The clouds discharge. 43). 89) sasya. 87 > C. of subtle character. . //43// Just as the clouds discharge the rain. o m . has no equivalent word and. without any effort. Similarly. om. J Â A 241 b-c. Agitated by the wind. 88) Cf. upon the earth where The people behave in the path of virtuous actions9 1 ) . āyāti nikhilam '. Or even to a man of divine ears. Not all sounds become audible 8 5 ) . K 14. C. (Kārikās 27-30) Just as. the cloud that is the Buddha Pours the rain of the Highest Doctrine As the virtues are increased in the world 92) Owing to the wind of Compassion. has instead ' chen ' (mahā). // 41 // 8 7 ) (III) It is said that [the mind of the Buddha in its activity] is like a cloud 8 8 ) . Similarly. with no searching thought. The multitudes of water on the earth. becomes audible Only to one whose mind is free from defilements. . // 42 // In a similar manner. . Is it a mistake for ' can' (having) ? C. r e a d s parama as a n indeclinable (mchog-tu). ' i n t h e t e x t . con- 93) [ 364 ] . C. 91) kuśala-karma-patha T. T. karma-.J. T h e r e a d i n g should b e ' . (interchanging the order with the next one). T . 90) . . . . being the object of the most 8 6 ) subtle Wisdom. lo-tog. The Doctrine.sasyesu (loc. the Buddha Discharges the rain of the Highest Doctrine From the clouds of Compassion. reads something like ' pravrtka' (jrtl). 42. r e a d s " sasyahetu ' a n d r e g a r d s i t as a n adjective t o saddharmasalila. T . Causing abundance of harvest 8 9 ) .

»6> C. T . C. ^ ç yjg Jç'J 'u*. (Kārikās 32-34) Those who have faith 1 0 3 ) in the Highest Vehicle. The cloud-like chieftain of sages Causes the pure crops in various worlds. (Kārikā 31) Cool. 103) [ 365 ] . owing to the variety of conditions of individuals 1 0 0 ) . etc. clear. Descending from the cloud.The Ratnagotravibhāga Abiding in the celestial sphere Without affecting anything. 95) dhāranī. T. t h e taste of rain changes '. rgyud. 97 * vimātratā. abhiprasanna. mkhan) and reads this IUJ> ' u * (Having known the ' existence '. T. A . nects ' bhavesu ' (in various worlds) with ' samvit' line as follows: 7»H ^rl r 94 (wisdom. Similar is the rain of the 8-fold Holy Path 9 9 ) . for prasanna. -fcfe. But. But having touched on earth the places filled with salt. ^ ] 100 101 *[j* j | | . But C. ksarâksarâsañga—. I I S • > santāna. ' C. and those who resist the Doctrine. neither perishable nor imperishable 9 4 ) . jj=j . Becomes of tastes of much variety. soft. 102) nirapeksa-pravrtti. K 1 7 . produces the Compassion). T . which seems to be merely an ' alankāra ' in comparison with the 8-fold Holy Path. C. dañ-ba ( b e i n g p u r e ) . T. 98) Of these 5. gzuñs. says ' / V Sjj f^ 7JC' (water endowed with 8 qualities). K 1 5 .. T . T . And being the womb of the pure water Of meditation and mystical formulas 9 5 ) . Itos-pa med-par hjug-pa C. ' depending on bhājanaloka. [ ^ > C. C. "> āryâstâñga. o m . C. // 46 // 101) On the impartial attitude1 0 2 ) . sweet. It assumes many kinds of taste in the living beings. // 45 //9 6 ) With reference to the unequality of receptacles in measure9 7 ) . sna—tshogs—ñid (vicitratā). *frf. and light 9 8 ) Is the rain descending from the cloud. dan = dvañ-ba. C. the womb abundant with Compassion. Those of intermediate nature.

methods and rules. T. C. C.J. The non-arising and the arising of the water of Doctrine From the clouds of Compassion [cause suffering in each turn]. %& <j$& j | ) . peacocks 1 0 4 ) and ghosts 1 0 5 ) . R 107) vyomny—aprâcārāh. T. T. K 20. [Discharging them] with various means. The ghosts in the ground experience sufferings. adds one verse before v. C.y_i_» pel 108) j r o r dharma-ākāñksin. 109 » C . And have similarity with men. > C. // 48 // 109) Discharging the gross drop of rain. C. Whether [in the burst of] egoistic view or in a dormant state 1 1 2 ) . being of no cloud. subtle or gross. C. the one who holds the waters of Wisdom and Compassion. T. [ 366 ] . shows the opposit sense. î S f ^ I f ^ 3 & śaila-deśa-gamika. bdag-lta. T. C. Nor about those who are on a trip in the mountains U 1 ) . khagā (= cātaka). t * . Those desirous of the Doctrine 1 0 8 ) and those hostile to it. The cloud does not care about the subtle living beings. however. 48. is not correct. respectively. hail and lightning 1 1 0 ) . (gamika).£ * # J£ ? £ lit ?B Jl âft £ 5E>. rma—bya. TAKASAKI These are the three kinds of living beings. In the case of the living beings in the world. explaining the 3 groups of sattvas T. 112) fne reading should be ' kleśagatâtmadrsty-anuśayān ' instead of ' kleśagatān drsty-anuśayān ' (one syllable short). C. // 47 //106> Towards the end of the summer. * 110) aśani & vajrâgni. C. Does not mind anywhere those who are of Defilements. & C. ^>£ * P J^l • But the genitive case for ātmadrsti in T. gives a free rendering for this passage. reads ' kleśagata-anuśaya ( Q 113 U1) ^p^) and ātmadrsti. This is the point of similarity. // 49 //113> 104 ' cātaka. C. Both T. J g fj^ :ggî . K 18. K 21. yi-dags. jt^jivj ^** >"t/ • (The peacock is said to be delighted when he sees clouds). 105 108> > preta. In the rainy season. C. i^xsx *fifj ' < IE £ at * £ W « ^ . Men and those birds who cannot fly in the sky 1 0 7 ) Experience sufferings [from lack of rain]. ri-yul soñ-ba^ C. agree with this reading of ' ātmadrstV'. \X J\. rdo-than & rdo-rjehi me. mkhah mi—rgu—bahi bya. Similarly. because of much rainfall.

in whose course 1 1 4 ) there are five Paths. Mvyut. reg-par-bya (D's rig-par-bya is to be corrected). » C. Are to be cognized.— Its suffering is constant and as if produced from The contact with fire. Cf. But. C. The searching for the objects of desire 118) is the suffering. T. its Cause. ^ fl| ^ ) . " This is suffering. Just as excretion has no good smell at all. rab-tu hbebs (pravarsate). 52). for the human beings. C. this is its cause. see Note VIII-242. cyuti-duhkha. the cloud of Compassion Lets fall 115) the great rain of the Highest Doctrine. // 50 //116> Having known that the transmigration [from heaven] 1 1 7 ) Is the suffering among gods. its cause removed. there is no happiness. And [consequently]. to pacify it. C. Health should be attained 1 2 1 '. 119) 120 121 aiśvaryam uttaram. * j | ^ < 1 § (īfc One of the 8 duhkhas. duhkha). T . dbañ-phyug mchog. removed. sevya > F o r prāpya. hgro-ba. |EJ ffi*. T. [ 367 ] . The Wise men never seek for the best glory u 9 ) among gods and men. T. //51//"») Illness is to be cognized. because of their realizing analytically. 124 > C.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga On [the function of] calming the fire of Suffering. K 22. 1 R . |*f . Suffering. (nisevya alike). /§lil • The term is here used in the sense of ' to be experienced '. jg£ ( t o b e p r a c t i s e d ) . > C. salt and so forth. (Kārikās 35-37) The [succession] of birth and death in beginningless time Is the Samsāra. O n ' anavarâgra \ 115) 116 srjan (V srj). It is because of their Transcendental Intellect. o r 122) F 123) sparśitavya. Extinction and the Path. yoñs-tshol-sdug-bsñal. ice. touched 123) and observed. C. Because of their following the faith in the Buddha's words. And in these five Paths. C. K 2 2 . and. swords. K 23 (placing after v. hchi-hpho (om. ^Es nf. // 52 //124). 114) samsrti (course of t r a n s m i g r a t i o n ) . }fj|^ Jpq-y. T. C. C. and a remedy used 122) . Like that. 5+c. C. and this is its extinction " . T. tfAe 117) 118 > paryesti-duhkha. 112.

Comes to the sight of the worthy 1 2 7 '. T . gamana). the Mahayānists. It denotes here. — sarvaloka (v. Birth. C. C. T. // 56// 1 3 3 ) On the invisibility1341 [of the Apparitional form to some people]. in all the worlds. 125 126> > Cf. without moving from his palace. K 2 5 . M . And causes them to remove all the stains 1 3 0 ) forever. C. mthu. ]5j\ç £ £ (in v. (Kārikā 42) Descent from [the Tusita]. T . II. With his apparitional form. ' C. 56 & v . par excellence. mi-snañ-ba (om. without moving from the Absolute Body. 54-56). 55). 135) 136 Merry life [in the harem] . 55). and the arrival at his father's palace. 136) f-\ <f~J* {pT<1' [ 368 ] . 54). 134) 135 C. ^ ^ -A^ y^ (ābhāsânābhāse). this and the next verse (vv. C. // 55 // 131) Because of his own original vow. (Kārikās 38-41) Just as Brahma. always pervading the World of Desire. K 26 (interchanges v . Similarly with the Lord. Similar is the Buddha. 129) visaya-rati-hara. entrance in the womb. C JT§ • 133) ' anubhava.— // 53 // 126) . Manifests his apparition. His sight is seen by the worthy people. though he never moves from his palace. without any effort. 55). see S. Is seen by gods and causes them to remove the desire of objects 1 2 9 ) . the Buddha. T. 87-88 (vv. 127 ' bhavya. His manifestation. / ^ ^ j^f ^ * ^ .(IV) It is said that [the Buddha's apparitional form] is like the great Brahma 1 2 5 ) . In the world of gods everywhere. om. 53. dben-par spyod. skal-ldan. . wandering in solitude '. Brahma manifests his apparition without any effort. 128 ' sarvadhātu. And of the pure experiences 1 3 2 ) of the multitudes of gods. C. C. without any effort. inserts ' śilpasthāna—kauśala ' before rati—hrlda. // 54 // Just as with Brahma. anābhāsa-gamana. C. On these vastus. Similarly. p. HK ^L vf" • 130) m ) 132 F o r mala-hara. divides ' āranyapravicarana ' into plj ^§< (naiskramya) & /\~f vicarana or duhkhacariyā).yC . but T. yul-la dgah-ba spoñ-byed. though not moving from the Absolute Body. JĀA 242 a. n all the worlds 128) . by means of his Apparitional Body.

Does not come to the eye-sight of those who are unhappy 1 3 9 ) . C. For praśamapura. T. inserts cakravartin before this. There are two kinds among the living beings: one is the non-converts and the other is the converts. //57//14<» (Y) It is said that the Buddha [in his Wisdom] is like the sun 1 4 1 ) . 63. The attainment of the Supreme Enlightenment. which is said to open its flower at night. without thought—construction. The Buddha.The R a t n a g o t r a vi b h ā g a The victory over the Evil One 1 3 7 ) . inserts ^Fjj Jj £ yv Ja. —r^ (study under the guidance of tirthas) before [y mārapramathana. jf^a ^ | 3 £ . ¥§. at one and the same time The lotus flowers awake and the Kumuda 1 4 3 ) folds its flowers. C. and this passage be an interpolation. respectively.^ & >p] | J p . simultaneously everywhere 1 4 7 ) . 143) A kind of lotus or water-lily. Lets the lotus flowers come to blossom. Just as the sun. C. Of them. 14 °> C. skal-med (abhavya). om. 139 > For adhanya. ^1* ^ | § . there are the simile of the sun-lotus and the simile of the receptacle of pure ' C. [ 369 ] . (On the two kinds of people compared to the two kinds of waterborn flowers)146>. C. With his own rays. T. But the sun has no discrimination in regard to the water-born flowers Similar is the sun of the Saint [in his acts] in the world In regard to the awakening of virtues and closing of defects 1 4 4 '. J Ā A 242 b. 147) eka-muktābhir. ^ J . K 2 8 . And the teaching of the Path leading to the city of Peace 1 3 8 ) . with reference to the converts. 144) > 146 ' seems to 145 137 Yor guna & dosa. 141 > Cf. gduñ-ba (tapati). though demonstrating such events. water. K 2 7 . hereafter up to the prose commentary before v. C. but C. cig-car spros-pa-yis (ekatra kâlasamaye = sakrt). 142) tapat (<r \Jtap). 138) C. shi-bahi groñ-khyer. (Kārikā 43) When the sun becomes shining 1 4 2 ) . T. T. Jfft . ' muktā ' means ' a flash delivered from the s u n ' .

according to their merit 1 5 5 ) . i n s t e a d of ' śailopamatā '. there is a simile of mountains 1 5 1 ) : (Kārikās 44-45) Although the sun of the Buddha pervades 1 5 2 ) Always and everywhere the sky-like Universe 153 '. but C. 152) f ne r e a ( J i n g S ' visrte ' & ' buddhasūrye ' are to be corrected into ' visrto ' & buddhasūryo '. Appear simultaneously innumerable reflections Of that sun which is the Lord.J. C. 151) T . ji-ltar hos-par. For nipāta. Shines 1 5 7 ) upon the mountains. So T. T. 154) tan-nipāta. T. 156) saptasapti. T . With reference to this order. // 63 // 156) Just as. byañ—chub—sñiñ—po. respectively. Spreading out his thousands of glorious rays. sūryopamatā. // 60 // With the body of the Absolute and that of Apparition. middle. Rising and illuminating the whole world.) and be separated from ' tannipāto '.. 153) dharmadhātu. though they are non-discriminative. [ 370 ] . snod (= bhājana). om. > bodhi—manda. the sun that is the Buddha. (manda = sāra). 149) 157) 148 pratapati. Appears with no thought-construction. hbab. He casts his rays 1 5 4 ) upon the converts Who are like mountains. chos-dbyiñs. }j^ (as in the text). 155) yathāirhatah. hbab (prapatati). Also ' vineyâdri ' should be changed into ' vineyâdrau ' (loc. // 61 // From which. T. TAKASAKI And lets the other come to ripeness. // 62 // Thus the Buddhas. (sūryasya nipāta). everywhere in the [mind of] converts Who are like receptacles 1 5 0 ) of pure water. For this. manifest themselves with visible forms and by teaching among the three categories of living beings according to order. this verse. s a y i n g : ' krame ślokah '. dinakrt. Arising in the sky of the Seat of Enlightenment 148) . T . and low. With the rays of the Highest Doctrine. Upon the converts resembling lotus flowers. gradually. T . The sun 1 4 9 ) of Omniscience pervades the world With the rays of the Transcendental Wisdom. 150) āśaya. the sun . high. C. // 59 // Similarly. s t a r t s w i t h t h i s h e a d i n g . in this world.

C. T . 166) Those who are of no eyes perceive the object . 164) 165) And manifest all things knowable . has no equivalent word and has instead ' A^ Wi ' ( n o t break). 161) gahana. But those who are of the nature of Compassion. And come to perceive the T r u t h 1 6 9 ) unseen before. P e r v a d e s . 169) 17 pada. K 29. K 31. C. t h e B u d d h a is n o t t h e same as t h e s u n ) . ārnava ( B H S ) ( P a l i annava ?). Nor does he show all things knowable [by removing] 161) The thicket of the darkness of ignorance. anarthajāla-vigama. C. adds one verse before this. a p p a r i t i o n a l a n d of W i s d o m . like space.The R a t n a g ot r a vib h ā g a Similar is the sun of the Buddha which shines 158) Upon the groups of living beings. //64// On the superiority of [the Buddha's] light to [that of the sun]. C. F o r jāla. . T . o m . (C. K 30) 166) 167) 168) F o r artha. ' ekaikaroma-udbhavair '. C. Therefore. <gf^ g g &PR 162) visara. 162) Illuminate the world with spreading bands of rays. t o cover. C. tshogs. t h e whole world. l^m . there does not exist the all-pervadingness In all kinds of lands and in the whole sky. And [likewise] even those blinded by ignorance. K 3 2 . // 65 // When the Buddhas enter the city.— (Kārikās 46-47) Of the sun . T. J l l # P C. cognize how to remove the net of h a r m . Manifesting t h e t w o bodies. C. having seen it. 164 > For jñeyârtha. T . Who have fallen into the sea 1 6 8 ) of the Phenomenal World. mtsho. T . s p r e a d ) . And are obscured by the darkness of false views. C. om. 3 i l l /ff! . °J C. 160) parispharanatā. according to their order. which runs as follows: (The one w h o is of t h e n a t u r e of compassion. > bhānu. & C. 163) >p. T . gnas.^ ffâjî $[FJ (abhrajāla). Have their intellect illumined by the light of the sun of the Buddha. C. // 66 // 1 7 0 ) 158 159) 160) 159 > C. 167) And. jjffj (several). $ $ ( ^ g J ^ V ^ . ^ ^ l j ( t h e great benefit). ~} 165) C. hphro. [ 371 ] 25 . tshogs. bkab ( < hgebs. 163 Produced from each hair ' and filled with various colours.

T. in this world. the whole verse as well as the next one along with its heading. K 33. TAKASAKI (VI) It is said that [the Buddha's mind in its act] has a resemblance to the wish-fulfilling gem 1 7 1 ) . T . skal-ñan. having no thought-construction 176) . Come to hear the Truth in its various aspects. hbyuñ-ba ( s t a t e of being). C. brten-nas. avikalpam. Produces the desired treasure. 34. // 70 // 171 > Cf. K. // 69 // It is said that the Buddhas are 1 7 7 ) difficult to obtain. Fulfills all desires of those Living in the same region 1 7 3 ) . 178) pâtâla-stha. 177 * bhāva. those who are of different inclinations. According to their merit. without effort. 179) durbhaga. cintāmaniratna. separately. the sight of Buddha should be known as Not easily achieved in this luckless 179) world " By those whose mind is afflicted by various passions. Similarly. 17S > C. Though itself is of no thought-construction. (Kārikās 48-50) Just as the wish-fulfilling gem. [ 372 ] . reads as ' durlabhaprāptas tathāgatabhāvah '. 176 ' T. om. sa-hog gnas. C. T. Having approached 174) the wish-fulfilling gem of the Buddha. // 67 // 1 7 3 ) Similarly. — " fhj* jpj |j§£ p p . JĀA 243 a. om. cig-car-tu spyod-yul gnas-pa.J. Similarly. (Kārikā 51) Here. T. and for maniratna. even though the people so much 178) Long for it in the depth of the ocean or under the ground . T. C. | p j "££ (living together) and adds ' Jjv jgç >\j*' (on the mind of Compassion). it is quite rare To obtain the pure gem. for others. as long as the world exists. without effort. 173 > C. T. iv2) yugapad—gocara-sthāna. But the Buddha has no discrimination regarding them. 174) sametya. // 68 //175> Just as the precious jewel. the Lord always benefits others.

> Cf. »«) Cf. ' mahîruha (== mahiruh). bzo-med. (IX) //74// 1 9 0 ) . J Ā A p u t s this simile a t the end).). T . 184 ) C. (VIII) It is said that [the Buddha's body is] like space (Kārikās 54-55) Being immaterial Without support 186 . -*p. -jjtfç ftpE- 190 nimnonnata.K3 5 . > C. rnam-rig. om. ' u * ) . But. T . (but in the next verse. 181) vijñapti. C. all kinds of forms are seen in the Buddha. In a similar way. (Kārikās 56-57) Just as all plants 180 192) . T. mtho dañ dmah (high and low). of others effort 182) Is of no discrimination and of no . Formless and incapable of being shown. / | V . K 38. 189) 192 [ 373 ] . T. either inside or outside. cuñ-zad-med. JĀA 243 c. J Ā A 243 c (after t h e simile of prthivl. and without foundation. T. C. 185) Cf. // 72 / / 185) 184) And has no foundation. It is said that [the Buddha as the foundation of all is like the earth 1 9 1 ) . K 37. J ^ J f (as T. sa-las skye—ba. C. the voice of the Buddha Arising through the voice of others Is of no discrimination and of no effort. the Buddha is not like that. the sky is seen as low and high 1 8 9 ) . activities] Though being so. either inside or outside. dmigs—pa med. 186) niskimcana. JĀA 243 b. 183 > C. T. // 71 / / 183) has no foundation. in reality. in reality. C. K. C. $»»£ TW • 187 188 ' nirālamba. it is not like that. Similarly. * > C. ' and invisible. 182) jr o r anābhoga.The (VII) Ratnagotravibhāga 180) It is said that [the Buddha in his voice] is like an echo (Kārikās 52-53) Just as the sound of an echo Arising from the voice And 181) . 36. // 73 / / 1 8 8 ) 187) Surpassing the way of eye-sight. But.

19 7) >phe r e a ( J j n g ' ālokâdy-alañkrtāh ' had better be changed into ' ālokād alañkrtāh '. * 194 > C. J§y[ for vrddhim upayānti). // 79 // For this reason 1 9 8 ) . om. . brtan-pa (become firm). // 77 // Its purpose [of teaching] is explained By the very name of that Scripture. Summarized Meaning of the Illustrations given by the Commentator. n a m e l y t h e Sarvabuddhavisayâvatāra-jñānâlokâlañkārasūtra. // 76 // 195) § 3. Come to grow. K 40. you should know their summarized meaning. n e next verse however. o m . Proceed completely towards growth. C. prayatnam. C. there are nine examples Illustrated by the reflection of Indra On the surface of Vaidūrya stone. the roots of virtues in the world. ' ādi ' gives no sense. C. 196) T. thrive 1 9 3 ) and expand. . dehi (tasya). 199) tasmin. reads as ' kriyām rte"1 and om. according to T. o m .. 195 > C. TAKASAKI Taking resort to the earth Which has no searching thought. The wise men enter rapidly In the whole region of the Buddha. Taking resort to the ground of the Buddha Who has no searching thought. J[jl£ . T . Summarized meaning of these examples is as follows: The performance of actions without effort Connot be seen by us 1 9 6 ) . C. This verse stands for t h e title of t h e s ū t r a . Where these nine illustrations Are demonstrated in detail. // 78 // Adorned with l 9 7 ) this light of the great wisdom Which is the result of study. de-don (tad-artham). K 39.— // 80// 193) vairūdhi. // 75 // 194) Similarly. /PC. which reads ' .J. hdis brgyan-pa ' (etena alañkrtāh). [ 374 ] . T. Therefore. 199) In this sense . connects ikaścid^ with ikriyām\ C. The ninefold examples have been related In order to clear the doubts of the converts. 198) ity artham. and for vaipulya. j$C wu (^ *^ trt F&it** -*-Ji. 3-g . and the rest. T .

in pi. // 82 // The ' proposition ' is here the pacification of effort. rañ-bshin-dow (prakrtyartha). Karunā-ātmā. Ajnd acquisition of those whose nature is of Compassion 2 0 2 ) . T. Summary of examples given in Kārikās 2 0 6 ) . [ 375 ] . 87. Jji^ pîjP. teaching200*. II. but mentions v. 3) ivyāpi'> for megha. as vicitra-artha. T. With reference to this meaning (or subject). pg|fc £|£ Pjflf Jjfljî iffl (janmântarddhim rte). C. These 9 meanings are given to each of the 9 illustrations. 203) dhl (text. respectively. speech and body. & 9) ' prāpti ' for bhūmi. 88 at the end of the illustration of prthivī. . y \ . There are given i examples '.The Ratnagotravibhāga [Namely]: appearance.). Namely: 1) ' darśana ' (darsanā ?) for śakrapratibhāsa. 205) antardhi. the form of Indra. And. thugs. om. But C. C. T . 8) ' kāya-guhyaka ' for ākāśa. 2) ' deśanā' for devadundubhi. (Kārikās 58-61) The one who acts for the sake of others.ft£&ftjjÇ ^y^ SPA •Q faf. =|=§. Secrecy in acts by mind. C. as long as the world exists. sprul. | f | j ^>p| gives n o s u i t a b l e sense. see my Introduction. T. § 2. Shall we accept '•darsanā* as an irregular form for darśana? If so both terms are to be written separately. in order to establish the 'subject in discussion' 204 '. As for the treatment of this group of verses. being the summary of all the examples. // 83 // And here the 4 subject in discussion' is that These nine. beginning with the arising Of the reflection of Indra on the pure Vaidūrya stone. // 81 // [The Buddha's] mind 2 0 3 ) . /p(. 7) ' vāg-guhyaka ' for pratiśrutika. In the next verse. (to establish the meaning) (/PC i s used in the verse for ' susiddha '). 5) ' j ñāna-nihsrti' for sūrya. and emanation of Wisdom. 20 °) darśanādeśanā. A doubtful reading as J suggested. means the Buddha or the Bodhisattva. 201) vikrti.. thugs-rjehi bdag-ñid thob-pa-ñid. ' appearance ' and the rest. C. we have other four ślokas. Without effort. pervasion. Transformation 201 '. this passage up to v. // 84 // § 4. T. 4) 'vikrti' for Brahma. I incline to interpret that this ' karunâtmānām '. 6) ' mano-guhyaka ' for cintāmani. which as a genitive case is connected to all these 9. being of no thought-construction. etc. 202) karunā-ātmānām prāptih. Is such in which all the movements of effort are pacified. 204) prakrtârtha. . The ' logical reason ' is the non-discriminativeness of mind. hchi. As given in the examples. Are manifested without any effort And without birth or death 2 0 5 ) of the Preceptor. î06) C.

209) according to T. Not being expressed by letters211) . 212) 211 buddhabhūmi. J ^ >fa -^p> ^Hç īj/£ wliich gives proper sense. C. 81 °) anāsravāt padād. . rnal-hbyor-rig. C. the remedy 2 1 4 ' of the whole world. āspada. takes de- vadundubhi as relating to this word. Being the seat 213) of all virtues. dharmakāya. i. //86// Like Brahma. TAKASAKI īndra. K 41. the Buddha Shows himself variously with the apparitional forms. . T. the Buddha's bhūmi is āspada of śukladharma. srid-rtsehi bar-du. ' vibho rutam '. sañs-rgyas-sa. Being all-pervading. C. Without moving from the immaculate place 2 1 0 ) . yi-ge-min (om. like the wish-fulfilling gem. Up to the highest limit of existence 209) . like the sky and like the earth. the meaning is ' since the very beginning of the world '. T. . // 87 // Like an echo is the Buddha's voice. YS\. And like the earth is the State of Buddha 2 1 2 ) in this world. The translation is T. and om. spreading the light of Wisdom.e. His voice is like the [sound of] the divine drum. If we take ' agra ' as ' beginning '. \ffi IQ1. — • yJ Wa 7$ Mî 213) 214) and § ^Jr }$ *$£ |j|§ (as the earth is āspada of ausadhi. (as an epithet of the Buddha). // 88 // 215) Like Like Like That 2 0 7) yogavid. The Buddha is sudaiśika. C. . being ausadhi). legs—par hdoms—mdsad.J. T. // 85 // The excellent teacher 2 0 8 ) has an appearance Like the reflection of the chief of gods on the jewel. T. like clouds. an echo. is [the Buddha] who knows a means [of precept]2 0 7 ) . [ 376 ] . He pervades an unlimited number of living beings. gshir gyur-pa. T. which denotes ' anāsravadhātu '. And his mind [acts] like the wish-fulfilling gem. Having the great sphere of the clouds of Wisdom and Mercy. formless and eternal. which shows the proper interpretation of the simile. . T. śukladharma-ausadhī. . he shines always. Like the sun. Brahma. îl6 > C. ' anaksara-ukta. like the divine drum. ā bhavāgratah. dkar-pohi chos-kyi sman. like the sun. T. ukta). 208 ' sudaiśika. Like space is his body.

9. [ 377 ] . dharmakāya. along with one additional verse and with the heading ' anutpādânirodhas tathāgata iti ' at the end of the 1st illustration. the purity in the mind Is the cause of the Buddha's appearance. who is always of neither origination nor extinction. mi-zlogs-pa. which never arises nor disappears. 92 immediately after v. 223) So-called ' vyatirekâlañkāra ( 0 ) . inserts the following 3 verses. From the Absolute Body. § 2. puts v. explained to be seen with appearance and disappearance and as having actions. K 10. C. The forms of the Buddha appear and disappear. II. is the Buddha. > C . 28). //91// 2 2 2 ) § 6. > C. C. 84. K 219) 220 C. C. his actions. > C . // 89 // 218) Owing to the appearance and disappearance of purity. // 90 // 220) Thus. C. But. there are three verses]. in this exposition of examples. 89 is as follows: #H t ā î S ^ S c 217) 218 $£ I asamhārya. in his Body of the Absolute 219) that is like īndra. K 11. then. Are manifested without any effort. And this purity of mind is intensified By the irresistible 217> faculty of faith. The Point of Dissimilarity 223) This is the summarized meaning of similes And this very order is told in order to show That the dissimilarity of the former example 2i6) This passage is again doubtful with regard to its position in the text. The verse added in C before v. As long as the world exists 221 '. -A^ Jsj?t. om. T. 1 Ratnagotravibhāga Non-origination and Non-extinction of the Buddhahood 216) . see my Introduction. to work among all living beings. '^jjj» jf|j |-»rj^. 221 222 ' ā bhavasthiteh. without effort and without interruption ? [To answer this question. Like the Vaidūrya stone. apparition and the rest. The Lord does never appear nor disappear. Why. ' śakrapratibhāsavat' (after v. As for the treatment of this passage.The § 5.

rim—pa yañ sña—ma phyi—mas chos—mi—mthun spans-pahi sgo—nas brjod—pa yin. not being the basis of virtues. 20). Echo cannot be 'durlabdha'l Furthermore. so it is not like him. But the reflection. in another word. ' megha ' cannot distinguish either ' sārtha ' or ' anartha '. having no seed of virtue 225) . '). is not like him. he is like great Brahma. and consequently. [As the darkness-breaker]. But. ^H ^"J? TpQ ||fj ^"Jjl ~jp. is the nearest simile for the Buddha.J . Brahma is not like him. ~J~~ /-\* -fcii 229) C. T. //94// [As the cause of perfect maturity].kramah punah / pūrvakasyottarenokto vaidharmyaparihāratah / ' = punah. [Being of no cause] 2 2 8 ) he has a resemblance to space. // 95 // The Buddha has a resemblance to an echo 2 2 7 ) . 230) In this series of illustrations. ' being acala like Brahma ' % 2 2 7> Here we cannot get the proper similarity of echo to the Buddha by means of the same operation as it is used in former examples. T. he is like a big cloud.. which however does not match him. the author seems to have had an opinion that the earth is the foundation of everything. But it is not the case. quite against the other cases in this text. [Being the root of virtue] 2 2 6 ) . // 97 // ' ' . 226) C. is not like him. 228) £ £ ' tathāgatavyoma nimittavarjitam ' (II. ' durlabdhatva ' of cintāmani was mentioned previously (v. TAKASAKI [With the Buddha] is removed by the latter one 2 2 4 '. . is not like that. being unable to ripen perfectly. however. But the sun cannot remove darkness fully. being a product of causes. [Being endowed with voice. JTQ JlgiJ frf* fî% /fc3t 224 225) sārthabîja. Since it is not everywhere making benefits. don-med-pahi sa-bon spoñ min (for ' na sārtha. pūrvakasya vaidharmyasya uttarena parihāratah '. C. however. Which. is not like him. Which however. // 96 // The Buddha resembles the region of the earth. being a dissimilation of ' prthivl ' with the Buddha. C.. where ' ākāśa ' is [ 378 ] . mundane and supermundane 2 3 0 ) . // 93 // [Being beneficial everywhere]. Since he is the ground and foundation 229) For the achievement of all the virtues Of living beings. he is like the sun. reads ^Y* U *]vf. he is like the wish-fulfilling gem. . Which however. Which. being of no voice. is not as difficult to get as he is. kramo uktah. //92// Buddhahood is like the reflection [of īndra]. 70) as a point of similarity to the Buddha. v. After all J's reading seems correct. the Buddha] is like The divine drum. It is. It shows the sense that ' megha ' cannot remove ' anarthablja '.

There emerges the Path of virtuous actions. Consisting of meditation. Mvyut. /& Pile (Buddhas perform these actions. | p 3fU j$£.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga By resorting to2 3 1 ) the Buddha's Enlightenment. a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle with the commentary [named] ' the Summary of Meaning of the ślokas'. [ 379 ] . without effort. agamy a. and 'ārūpya'. 162). dhyāna. brten-nas. we may be allowed to say that those Udāharana-kārikās in Chap. karunā muditā & upeksa (Cf. the immeasurable mind And the absorption in the Immaterial Sphere 2 3 2 ) . ārūpya. IV were not composed by the same author as that of the Basic verses in Chapter I. // used as the most suitable simile for the Buddha. And as this very ordex was arranged in the Udāharana—kārikās against the order given in JĀA (which puts the simile of ' ākāśa' at the last). 'apramāna'' stands for those. 98. saying: £JL~~ Jl~w |3 Ji f •tit*. 67). C. adds one verse more after v. Mvyut. in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. // 98 // Finished is the fourth chapter entiled ' the Acts of the Buddha'. and hence. respectively. T. abiding always in [various] worlds. There arises the supermundane Path. ' dhyāna"" stands for the 4 kinds of dhyāna (Cf. for the sampatti in 4 kinds of ārūpyadhātu (Cf. | i v ( = āśritya). 232) 231) C. maitrī. 69). Mvyut. apramāna. at one and the same time).

mos—pahi phan-yon. Nirmalā tathatā in Chap. (Kārikās 1-6) The Essence of Buddhahood. I . The Superiority of Faith over Other Virtues in Regard to Their Merits. I * ' adhimukty—anuśamsa. C. T. Hereafter. h a s n o e q u i v a l e n t w o r d . For guriâbhilāsayogāt. Buddhagunāh. Being the exclusive sphere of the Leaders 4 ) . add ' catursu ' before ' sthānesu '. 6) And. the Enlightenment of the Buddha. being possessed of the desire [to obtain] The inconceivable properties [of the Buddha]. we have six ślokas. IV. T. They are inconceivable even to those of the pure mind 3 ) . 3) śuddhasattva. whose intellect 5 ) accepts the faith In this exclusive sphere of the Buddha. B u t T . in Chap. I I . [ 380 ] . YJW • T h e verse c o r r e s p o n d s t o v . I. / / I // But the wise one. and the Buddha's Acts. T. C. with reference to the advantage of faith X ) possessed by those who are believing in these [4] subjects 2 ) which have been duly described above. T . I l l . THE MERITS OF HAVING FAITH IN THE DOCTRINE OF THE ESSENCE OF BUDDHAHOOD § 1. Becomes a receptacle of the whole collection of properties. as if ' buddha '. reads -gunâbhilāsāt. 23 of C h a p . C. [ p j ~|tr] {=p" A - 4) 6) 6) nāyaka. and Buddhakriyā in Chap. hdren-pa. C. • T . buddhi. The Buddha's Properties. THE MERITS OF FAITH (ANUŚAMSA) XVIII. dag-pahi sems. | p | -*A/ \I&& • 2) Namely: Samalā tathatā (or tathāgatagarbha) in Chap.CHAPTER V. & C.

16) svarga. r e a d s ' h a v e n o . C. C. spros-pa. day after day. being anxious to obtain the Enlightenment. C. mtho-ris. if he hear but one word of this teaching. Without effort. tribhuvana. would have faith in this Doctrine. in course of innumerable aeons. . After hearing of it. not clear. samskrta. // 5 // 14> Charity brings people only to [worldly] enjoyment . C. After hearing of it. having been transferred 12 ' to the abode of Brahman in heaven. Would offer golden lands. constructed 8 ) by jewels As innumerable as the sands in the Buddha's lands.p . Which suppresses the fire of defilements in the 3 worlds n '. 15) Morality leads people to the blissful world . T. To the Lord of Doctrine. would have faith in this Doctrine. Another. _ I ^ ^*. 3© / C 4 T 'tK ^ P • F o r acyuta. ito-bāhyas ( S . C. 'fīf ^ g et richness as merits). And meditation is conducive to the removal of Defilements. Suppose one would give himself up to the mystic absorption. . C. (3»>Ç). from t h i s religion.T h e R a t n a g o t r a v i b h ā ga He surpasses the abundance 7 ) of merits of all living beings. C. // 3 // Suppose a wise man. T . Another if he hear but one word of this teaching9 ) . T . Would be irreversible 13 ' from the means of Enlightenment. The latter would reap merits far more than the merits 1 0 ) of an offering. // 2 // Suppose there were one who. always. 2 8 . The latter would reap merits far more than even the merits of the mystic absorption. punya. Would keep pure moral conduct by his body. The latter would reap merits far more than the merits of morality. srid-pa gsum. Cf. T . itah padam. om. 12) 13) For pārami-gata. ^ £ A ^ T3. being desirous of the Highest Enlightenment. And. Another. ' itas '. ] [ 381 . a d d s ' bhāvanā _ ^ ^5( ( to ' (bsgoms). T. o m . speech and mind.. But the Transcendental Intellect can remove 7) 8) 9) 10) X1) prasava. 6 ) . After hearing of it. if he hear but one word of this teaching. 14) For bhoga. would have faith in this Doctrine.

J . ' āryasatya '. (Cf. (e. explaining: " T h e r e f o r e . he quickly attains the potentiality Of acquiring the state That there 16) 4 22) of the Tathāgata. 350 b. 11. is) "plug j s t h g only case w h e r e t h e t e r m ' parāvrtti ' is used i n s t e a d of ' parivrtti (T. probably under the influence of the Ratna. t h e first 3 a r e called ' punyakriyāvastu ' (Cf. adds 3 padas a b o u t t h e merit of having faith W S H S E W itb ^ f a ^ ) "• T h i s arrangement of the 4 pāramitās (which a r e c o n s t r u e d w i t h t h e 6 pāramitās b y t h e c o m m e n t a t o r ) seems t o show t h e p r e vious stage of t h e 'pāramitā' d o c t r i n e . (bhavyatā in the sense of ' excellence ' and is regarded as an apposition to 'tathāgata-padâpti'). but the reference is to ' karma-phala'. TAKASAKI All [the obscurations of] defilements and ignorance. and not to ' gotra'. C. 22 21) > pada. C. BGS makes use of these 3 points in various passages: 794 6. and ' triratna '. Needless t o say. C. M v y u t . gnas. p.£§*. of welfare 19) 18 properties and the performance . bhavyatā. ^pj . J s .). // 8 // Indeed. The Its basis [of Buddhahood] 17) . 795 c-796 a (applied to the 3 meanings of tathāgatagarbha). Intellect is the supreme one [of all virtues] And its very source is the study of this Doctrine . as J . MSbh (P). gyur-pa. C. after hearing of t h e doctrine (. 26. 811 b (as the first 3 of the 5 meanings of garbha explained through 9 illustrations). śruti is t h e supreme. śaktatva & gunavattva. where it is applied to 'gotra-astitva'. power and virtue Therefore. nus-ñid. and BGŚ. T. T . 19) 20) 17) '. This is for ' buddhakriyā '. Hsūangchuang's tr. In these four aspects of the sphere of Buddha's Wisdom. T. astitva. yon-tan-ldan-pa. ffi ft S I • [ 382 ] . as he is full of devotion and faith exists ' this inconceivable sphere. ^+^ JñL i r f » W?f 4AJ îāīlî •> resp. | 5 \ p y f £ * Wf" C. its transformation ). 194 6-200 c. etc. 812 c-813 a (as the 3 fundamental points of discussion of the work). artha-sādhana.).P r o b a b l y t h e original r e a d i n g w a s ' -parivrttau' suggested. Which have been explained above.<j£. The // 7 // 20) 21) wise one has become full of faith . skal-ldan (om. of MSbh. 24-30. counts 4 points of faith). C. /XXr Spfc? T . With regard to its existence. go-hphañ. Taisho 31. don-grub. . B u t t h e r e is n o proof for this suggestion. p. ^ ^ _£. Its application to gotra seems to belong only to the Ratna. // 6 // The summarized meaning of these ślokas should be known*by the following 9 verses. 93) a n d r e p r e s e n t ' punya-sambhāra '. -tā) C. yod[~ñid]. This theory of ' 3 points of faith ' is often found in the works of Vijñānavāda with the order of ' astivta-gunavattva-śaktatva '. Of t h e s e 4. g. T. 16) Therefore. 799 c (adding ' acintyatva ' . I t d e n o t e s ' dhātu' o r 'tathāgatagarbha'. VMT Bhāsya. [yjC\ J y î Tyf. āśraya.

For i 24 > bodhicitta. 12) C. which corresponds to ' punya-sambhāra '. etc. The opponents 2 9 ) [to the 5 Highest Virtues]. )y\ J O V S • T h e reading 'easya' is to be corrected into 'câsyā"1 (being a p r o n o u m for prajñā). ' r e c e i v e r ' F o r vipaksa. the Highest Intellect is the supreme one of all. energy. Being a receptacle of virtues like zeal. // 11 // 4 The [Highest of] Merits ' means the [first] 5 Highest virtues. B o t h are to be t a k e n as c o n n e c t i n g w i t h punyapāramitā '. like me. = p ^ . (mādrsa). contemplation. // 15 // 23 ' lit. Comes to exist always. And this sphere. t h e r e a d i n g ' taccittapratyupasthānād ' is to b e corrected tannityapratyupasthānād'. bsod-nams. Transcendental Intellect. 4 And the perfect purity' is caused by his removal of the opponents. & C . punya-pāramitā. reads vikalpa. Morality is the merit consisting of moral conduct. 26 And he reaches the accomplishment and the perfect purity '. 28) I t is explained in v. // 9 // 24) So in him the mind intent on Enlightenment . [ 383 ] . // 10 // 25) As this mind constantly exists . rdsogs. without the Highest Intellect. C. They are the Obscurations of Defilements. The other 5 cannot be the cause of their removal.t i^T "SI ^ • 25) into ' 26) For 'pūri'. 4 Its accomplishment ' is owing to his being non-discriminative 28) With regard to the three aspects [of activity] . 27) With regard to the Highest of Merits . jealousy. Charity is the merit consisting of granting gift. B u t it is n o t t h e case (see v. According to T. That i$ the Obscuration of Ignorance. 3 S . But Exertion is the merit common to all. etc.The 4 R at n agot r av ib h āga 23) That it can ' be realized by one like him . pūri & pariśuddhi. Memory. And both Patience and Meditation. And. // 14 // But. // 13 // Discrimination regarding the 3 aspects of activity. It is this study that is the most important. 14 as ' trimandala-pariśuddhi. C.. 29) 80) 3 are ' g i v e r ' . T. is that of practice. byaû-chub-sems. T .. as the source of i t 3 0 ) is the study [of this Doctrine]. Therefore. = p J ^ gg JJÎC %A 27) punya\ T. ' endowed with such virtues '. The son of the Buddha becomes irreversible. £j) f^. and ' g i f t ' . T. C. has been attained..

and Characteristics of This Text Being the Correct Doctrine. [ 384 ] . of the moon and the sun 3 6 ) . This one is according to C. Similarly. 'kirn artham » 34) 36) bhāskara. exclusively. seems to divide the first one into ' āpta ' & ' āgama ' and says ' |§f$ jfti yfc ^ £ . kuśalâpasampadā. T. and C . Authority. [Hereafter we have ślokas mentioning on which basis. and how this doctrine has been explained and what characteristics it has. C. however. with the aid of a lamp. (Kārikā 7) Thus. there is one śloka™]. Emendation: (atah. ' kuśalasampad '. this is in order to assist 33) Those intelligent people who are endowed with faith And accomplishment of virtues 3 4 ) . C. ' anugraha. on the basis of the authoritative Scripture and of Logic 32) . Of a precious stone. Those possessed of vision can perceive objects. p. 16-25) and 3 commentary verses (vv. 35) katham (or yathā) udāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah /. TAKASAKI § 2. however. 32) āptâgama & yukti. yid-ches-luñ & rigs-pa. rje-su-gzuñ. T. o m . The topic of each śloka is. including those two. retains all the headings.. f^ j3> ff| ^ Q | | j | ' (' āpta ' in the sense of ' āptavacana '). But C. T. according to T. param yataś ca yannimittam ca yathā ca yadudāhrtam tadārabhya ślokāh /) tatra yamāśraye yannimittam codāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah /. 88 iti. First of all. ^ g . Motive.e. given in the commentary verse. with reference to the basis and motive. for what motive. //16// [Next we have one śloka stating how this treatise is explained] 35) (Kārikā 8) Just as.J. of MSbh (Taisho 31. of lightning. the heading for v. At the same time. 26-28) along with heading thereon is inserted with exact order aVid wording in Paramārtha's tr. 24. C. This treatise is expounded by me in order to attain Perfect purification for myself. has all of them. I have expounded this treatise 31) The headings which are given in brackets are missing in S. The following passage containing 10 Kārikās (vv. Except for this and the last one. 270 a-b). i.

bzlog-pa. ^ Jji] | J C • T i l i s verse is q u o t e d i n t h e Bodhicaryâvatāra-pañjikā (Bibl. B u t T . Such a word is that of the Great Sage 4 3 ) . This term ārsa is. chos ( o m . // 18 // [Next we have one śloka stating by what means this treatise is explained]45>.^ J ī§§$. pada). Ace. And can demonstrate the advantage of Quiescence. gives clearer sense though the original S. the word 40) 37) prabhākara. I have expounded this teaching). flash of idea). \^i~jr^ yT*»l ^I->ft j £ j ^ ] .'yadudāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah '. dharmapada. F o r v . T . was probably as T. T. reading of this verse is r a t h e r 44) [ 385 ] . ~J\Z tj/j (illumination. C. T. to C. drañ-sroñ-gsuñ. T . yenâdāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah. spobs ( O . arthavat. (Kārikā 10) Whatever is spoken by those whose mind is not distracted And who refer to4 6 ) the Lord as the only Preceptor. 38) pratibhā. ffi U . edition. those possessed of vision of intelligence come to see. a n d s e p a r a t e s i t f r o m dharmapada 41) 42) 43) ārsa. C. Is conducive to removing the Defilements in the 3 Worlds. This topic is called ' nisyandaphala ' i n t h e c o m m e n t a r y . C.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā ga // 17 // Relying upon the Lord who is the sun 3 7 ) Manifesting38) the Doctrine of great welfare. T . [Then we have one śloka stating the characteristics of the correct 39 doctrine] >. by the light of the Buddha's doctrine. used originally for the Vedas. p . ( ^ | IpBî* T .B u t T . "j^j jgj£ [ ^ gama. C. I n d . . T . C. C. (Kārikā 9) Whatever that is connected with the scriptural texts41> It pursues the [ultimate] aim [of living beings] 4 2 ) . C. t o T . 17 c d. like āptâ- viparita. 432). And all others are of perverse character 4 4 ) . 46) uddiśat. reads: (Similarly. dbañ-byas (uddiśya or adhikrtya). . hod-mdsad-pa (illuminating). As the doctrine has such a benefit. light) is for either ' prabhākara ' or ' pratibhā '. C. 46) Ace. V ^ / f ī j . gsuñ. 19. p u t s here t h e heading which is t o be p u t before v . don-ldan. 40 39) > vacas. C. (f$C $L $ i i^O. C.

J. etc. the Scripture should not be interpolated 4 9 ) . // 19 // § 3. g ^ . T . T. or [the word spoken b y ] one who accepts a l i t t l e p a r t of t h e B u d d h a ' s doctrine. C. still has vision whose intelligence is covered b y avidyā. C. TAKASAKI And is favourable to the Path of the [2] Accumulations which lead to Emancipation. Which is discoursed 5 0 ) by the Sage himself. rāga. // 20 // difficult to identify with S. a l t h o u g h he preaches t h e dharmapadârtha [in order to] rem o v e t h e kleśas i n t h e tridhātu. t h e d o c t r i n e i n t h e sūtra which is spoken b y t h e B u d d h a s who h a v e r e m o v e d t h e suffering caused b y kleśas a n d are of t h e i m m a c u l a t e Wisdom is to be accepted. gshig ( < hjig-pa). ^ . T. and himself is hindered b y t h e stains. T. spyi-bos. t o T. C. No other who is omniscient and knows completely The highest Truth according to the right method. ' ātmaraksanâpāyam ārabhya dvau ślokau /. 47) mūrdhnā. dharma-raksana. b y t h e head). Otherwise.. (lit. gnod-pa t h e t e a c h i n g of t h e B u d d h a and is opposite to laid down). 19 6 (śāstāram ekam jinam uddiśadbhih). gshag ( < hjog-pa. or t h e beneficial words spoken in t h e worldly books. rgyal-pahi bstan-pa hbah-shiggyis dbañ-byas. even t h o s e words could be accepted [as t h e correct t e a c h i n g ] . 48) Ace. J . tshul. That is also to be accepted with respect 4 7 ) As if it were taught by the Great Sage.§§. F o r v. neya [-artha]. it will do harm 5 1 ) to the Highest Doctrine Because of destroying 52) the teaching 53) of the Buddha. par excellence. 51) pratibādhana. C. 49) vicālya ( < vi— •/cal). 52 » bheda. Therefore. It is as follows: (The [word] of one who. T. ^ī> f§§ ? nlti. 63) [ 386 ] . instead of ātmaraksana. The Means of Preserving Oneself within the Doctrine.. C. 50) fa&ftin* SSSSIfi* mmM^A nīta.. [Here we have two ślokas referring to the means of preserving oneself from becoming deprived (of this Doctrine) 48) ] (Kārikās 11-12) Indeed in this world there is no one wiser than the Buddha. byed-pa. which is. Needless t o say. T .

rañga-vikrtim upaiti. F o r t h i s defect. Greediness 63) . mithyādrsti. ' saddharmaksatim B8) 69) 60 A c e . |§ lobha-gredhatā. dkar-mos bral. Causes and Results of the Loss of the Doctrine. * / l'^' JJ=J j u j / ^ . vyasana. C. dran-don. only clean cloth can be dyed 5 8 ) But not one that is spoiled by oil and dust. t o T . i. ^§5 /|jÇ ^ Ç ^ j ^ TJJ[3( (adherence to worship and respecting). T . ślokah /. T . Indulgence in false pride. brñas. [With reference to the causes of the loss of the Doctrine. J s | t . 67) abhiniveśadarśana. * 4 ) darśana in the sense of drsti. T. rnam-bsgyur. C. " | $ fâ\ f j E . rmoûs. Therefore. T. neyârtha. '.. Interpretation of the conventional sense 6 2 ) as the [ultimate] Truth. T . But it is not the case. [adherence to] false conception 64) . All this is the Defilement of those whose nature is And is created by a prejudiced conception 57) . g Ç . T . tshon-gyis ārabhya C.The R a t n a go t r a v i b h ā g a The fact that people abuse 5 4 ) the Sages And blame 5 5 ) the doctrine taught by the Sages. T . C. C. rñed-la brtam (lābha-gredha. . S\* J == $ (imperfect meaning). [ 387 ] . 5 © ~ £ R5> V A l-^.e. // 21 // foolish56) § 4. C. f p y . t a k e kleśa t o g e t h e r w i t h vimūdhâtmānām a n d m a k e t h e sense of ' of o r b y those whose n a t u r e is afflicted b y kleśa a n d vimūdha'. want of faith in the virtuous Doctrine6 0 ) . greed of 63) 62) 61) attaining something) and C. 64) apa-\Jvad. C. ārabhya. B6) 66) vimūdha. & C . But T. Probably it is merely a repetition for arranging syllables. *3i£ T J . J{§> 7JIJE • T . skur-pa. (Kārikā 13) Want of intelligence. Obscured nature through the rejection 6 1 ) of the Highest Doctrine. there is one śloka]5 9 ) .( O D S C U " ration caused by the dharmâpavāda in the past). phoñs-pa.. Devotion to those who hate the Doctrine. T . C. Both Zofe/ia & gredha have the same sense. C. ksatihetum ' adhimukta-śvkla—viraha. your mind should not be attached To the dirt of the prejudiced conception. V garh. C. shen-lta. Indeed.

& C . C. About this form. C. an enemy. Ace. // 22 // [With reference to the result of this loss. T. father. By all this. See below. TAKASAKI Keeping at distance 6 5 ) from those who convey the Doctrine6 6 ) . adds /X. one becoraes deprived of the Doctrine of the Saint 68>. may deprive one of [this] life But one will not go. 75) [ 388 ] . T . of murder. translator. C. fj^f f$j .. t o T . bya—ba— min = anācarana (vice). ^ ārabhya dvau ślokau / '. T. j£C ( t 0 approach). 66) 67) 8 C. adds sf* \=f j[j§ ^ 69) fī[| as the general cause. As he should be afraid of the loss 7 1 ) of the profound Doctrine72>. C. ™> For aśani. sdig-grogs. gÇ f £ ^U gg)( (blame of those who know the doctrine). dharmabhrt. C. 65) āra ( d i s t a n c e . s t a n d s for hīnayāna. It is probably an intentional addition by the C. there are two ślokas] 69>. Of violent poison of snake. [ [ 3 $fe J S ] | $ B • C. bsriñs. and the Saints 7 7 ) . 24 referring to the necessity of having respect towards ' dharmabhānaka '. (Kārikās 14-15) The wise one need not be so much afraid of fire. Is hostile to the Buddha 7 5 ) . // 23 // Even one who.J. n e a r o r f a r ) T . ' J ' * ^J^t Vz* • hīna. ' mams'1 is a mistake for 'hams' (ksati). 77) arihat (BHS) = arhat (ari-han. And delighting in the inferior Doctrine 6 7 ) . one who kills the enemy. T . C. C. 73) 72) pratisevya. and this addition corresponds to the Introductory verses in C. a snake. thog. bya—ba—min—byed (to do what is not to be done). ^ lj^ p j )ffi ]ffl_ (to injure the Buddha with bad intention. i\±-> 7»P RBX • J 74) buddha -dustâśaya. or of lightning 7 0 ) . and one additional verse after v. ' ksatiphalam « > For arhat. T. To the most terrible world of Avīci. j § L {iijjj§. and commits the acts 7 6 ) Of killing mother. adds |^f 71) T. C. by these causes. 76 ' For ācaranakrt. repeatedly serving 73) bad friends 7 4 ) . Because a fire. pāpa-suhrd. At most. 'dgra-bcom-pa' for Arhat is according to this etymology). and lightning. 4 a %\\ H ^ So C. see J's note on this word. chos-hdsin. here.

M v y u t . the genuine character of this verse as a Kārikā is somewhat doubtful. adds one verse more referring to the necessity of having respect towards the dharmabhānaka. a wise man. ' saddharma '.&nmPfc & [ 389 ] . m m ft st n Cf. T . TJJÇ ( H J | f | i ) . nidhyāna. 122. T h e first one in this t e x t comes a t t h e end a n d is called ' tathāgatasyântike dustacitta-rudirâtpādanam ' as C. T. Even that one can quickly become delivered from that sin If he meditates upon 7 9 ) the meaning 8 0 ) of the Doctrine. turn away from the wrong view and enter the right path). Cf. how would it be possible for the Liberation to arise 81) In one whose mind is hostile to the Doctrine ! // 24 // § 5. . he is as our parents and is a good leader. Conclusion. 81) C. The 3 Jewels. MSbh (P) 270 a: This heading is lacking in T. reads (see N o t e 75). 82) tit * 0rn ?# $ . after the Buddha's parinirvāna. the [Buddha's] Properties and Acts. Ypî Î^P '|~£ • = tathāgatagarbha. C. C. the perfectly pure Essence 8 3 ) . By the merit I have acquired through this. rnam-par-byañ-khams. It runs as follows: 80) 79) (If one lets the people study this doctrine and teaches how to believe in it. T. [Here. 3 i | \ >2/> • I n s t e a d of dharmârtha.The R a t n a g ot r a vi b h ā ga And breaks the unity of the Highest Community 78) . The Immaculate Enlightenment. and is reconstructed according to C. These 7 are called ' vajrapada ' by the commentator in the open verse of this treatise. ñes-par bsams-pa."If. (Kārikā 16) I have thus duly expounded the 7 subjects. (itv ^ s . &. May all living beings come to perceive 78) These 5 are regarded as t h e worst sins for t h e B u d d h i s t . Note that this additional verse is not found in MSbh (P). /si H %)• 3£K^*nSHIt f 83) vyavadānadhātu. at the end we have one śloka in order to turn the merit acquired by the author through this teaching towards the people] 8 2 ) . pancâ- nantaryâni. But. Hi&m. has * dharmatva ' a n d C. because he lets the people. Therefore. (C.

And one. adds the following summary: 91) £ 390 ] . usual translation is ' f^Ç jgf ~J\Z {Jflj ' . 2 3 . These topics are explained by the [first] 4 ślokas85).J. // 5 // 8l) anantadyuti. Instead of samraksana. the first 2 are taught in v. Pfl * K ^ • samsāra-mandala. C. y ^ . An epithet of the Lord Amitāyus. T. And what is the natural outflow [of the Buddha's Doctrine]. ^ 86 ' ātmasamraksanopāya. to the cause of the loss [of the Doctrine]8 7 ) . 18. mthah-yas hod-mnah. which C. dharmârthavāda. for what motive. hkhor-gyi dkyil-hkhor. Obtain the Supreme Enlightenment. And. How and what is expounded [in this treatise]. This prayer to the Lord Amitāyus >Ç is also found in the Mahāyāna-śraddhotpāda-śātra. reads samśodhana. // 27 // And finally. 24. in vv. om. in v. v v . And then.— In short. a Treatise on the Ultimate Doctrine of the Great Vehicle with the commentary [named] 4 the Summary of meaning of the ślokas '. 21. >>f£ ( = sattvāh). owing to the arising Of the immaculate vision of the Doctrine in them. C. respectively. ^ ^ HI* ^Ç/J f^§ ^ . 89) 90) ksānti. 16. 19. T. tshe dpag-med. T . the 4th in v. the [following] two ślokas88) Explain the result of this loss. bzod-pa. these 2 results of teaching of the meaning Of the Doctrine9 1 ) are explained by the last śloka. 85) Of these 5 topics. chos-brjod-pa. v. the third. 24. the acceptance 8 9 ) [of the Doctrine] By those living in the world of Sāmsāra 9 0 ) And their acquisition of Enlightenment. // 28 // Thus is finished the fifth chapter entitled ' the Merits of Faith ' in the ANALYSIS OF THE GERM OF THE JEWELS. T. 3 » jHC "^P 1/P» T. may they. which is one of the treatises on the tathāgatagarbha theory. T. It seems that there is a certain relationship between the Amitāyus—cult and the tathāgatagarbha theory. 17. H [§ 87) 88) "% ~)$ ffi] as S. 16-25) should be known by the following 3 verses. Owing to what basis. C. But C. TAKASAKI The Lord Amitāyus endowed with infinite light 8 4 ) . In accordance with the insertion of one verse after v. // 26 // Two ślokas refer to the means of self-protection86). having seen him. C. 20. This topic. For Amitāyus. 22. and the 5th in v. for But here. C. C. // 25 // The summary of topics discussed in these 10 ślokas (vv.

APPENDIXES .

I. 2 lj [ 393 ] .13)2) (Gotra) Buddhajñānântargamāt sattvarāśes Tannairmalyasyâdvayatvāt prakrtyā / Bauddhe gotre tatphalasyopacārād Uktāh sarve dehino buddhagarbhāh // 4 // (I. 4) Yo nâsan na ca san na câpi sadasan nânyah sato nâsato 'śakyas tarkayitum niruktyapagatah pratyātmavedyah śivah/ Tasmai dharmadivākarāya vimalajñānâvabhāsatvise Sarvârambanarāgadosatimiravyāghātakartre namah // 2 // (I. 3 ) C. we have a śloka (v. 9) Ye samyak pratividhya sarvajagato nairātmyakotim śivām Taccittaprakrtiprabhāsvaratayā kleśâsvabhāveksanāt / Sarvatrânugatām anāvrtadhiyah paśyanti sambuddhatām Tebhyah sattvaviśuddhyanantavisayajñāneksanebhyo namah // 3 // (1. 23) between this and the next one. see Introduction. 27) 3 ) Sadā prakrtyasamklistah śuddharatnâmbarâmbuvat / Dharmâdhimuktyadhiprajñāsamādhikarunânvayah // 5 // (1. puts verse 29 as a ' Karikā * after this. ) In the present text. referring to the 4 aspects of gotra.APPENDIX I RATNAGOTRA-VIBHĀGA (Śloka-grantha) x) (Śarana-traya) Yo Buddhatvam anādimadhyanidhanam śāntam vibuddhah svayam Buddhvā câbudhabodhanârtham abhayam mārgam dideśa dhruvam / Tasmai jñānakrpâsivajravaradhrg-duhkhâñkuraîkacchide Nānādrggahanopagūdha-vimatiprākārabhettre namah // 1 // (v. § 3. I I .30) for t h i s selection.

57) Prthivldhātuvaj jñeyāh skandhâyatanadhātavah / Abdhātusadrśā jñeyāh karmakleśāh sarlrinām // 17 // (I. Ms. 55) Skandhadhātvindriyam tadvat karmakleśapratisthitam / Karmakleśāh sadā 'yonimanaskārapratisthitāh // 15 // (I. pāramitā phalam. 53) Yathā nâgnibhir ākāśam dagdhapūrvam kadācana / Tathā na pradahanty 6 ) en am mrtyuvyādhijarāgnayah // 13 // (I. B. 54) Prthivy ambau jalam vāyau vāyur vyomni pratisthitah / Aprathisthitam ākāśam vāyvambuksitidhātusu // 14 // (I. 63) Nirvrttivyuparamarugjarāvimuktām 7 ) 4) 5) 6) 7) J's Text & T. [ 394 ] .itā // 16 // (I. 60) Karmakleśâmbusambhūtāh skandhâyatanadhātavah / Utpadyante nirudhyante tatsamvartavivartavat // 20 // (I.47) Sarvatrânugatam yadvan nirvikalpâtmakam nabhah / Cittaprakrtivaim.atuh sarvatragas tathā // 10 // (I. 42) Prthagjanâryasambuddhatathatâvyatirekatah / Sattvesu jinagarbho 'yam deśitas tattvadarśibhih // 8 // (I. J's text teads pradahati. 59) Cittaprakrtim āllnā 'yoniśo manasah krtih / Ayoniśomanaskāraprabhave kleśakarmanî // 19 // (I.alyadh. sarvasattvesvavastithas tathâyam nopalipyate. 56) Ayoniśomanaskāraś cittaśuddhipratisthitah / Sarvadharmesu cittasya prakrtis tv apratisth. 62) Cittasya yā 4sau prakrtih prabhāsvarā * Na jātu sā dyaur iva yāti vikriyām / Āgantukai rāgamalâdibhis tv asāv Upaiti samkleśam abhūtakalpajaih // 22 // (I.J. 35) Mahodadhir ivâmeyagunaratnâksayâkarah / Pradīpavad anirbhāgagunayuktasvabhāvatah // 7 // (I. 58) Ayonisomanaskāro vijñeyo vāyudhātuvat / Tad-amūlâpratisthānā prakrtir vyomadhātuvat // 18 // (I. 61) Na hetuh pratyayo nâpi na sāmagrī na codayah / Na vyayo na sthitiś cittaprakrter vyomadhātuvat // 21 // (I. TAKASAKI Śubhâtmasukhanityatvagunapāramitāphalah 4 ) Duhkhanirvicchamaprāpticchandapranidhikarmakah // 6 // (I. J's text reads vimuktā. satvo. 49) Yathā sarvagatam sauksmyād ākāśam nopalipyate / Sarvatrâvasthitah sattve 5) tathā 'yarn nopalipyate // 11 // (I. 52) Yathā sarvatra lokānām ākāśa udayavyayah / Tathaîvâsamskrte dhātāv indriyānām vyayodayah // 12 // (I. T. 45) Aśuddho 'śuddhaśuddho 'tha suviśuddho yathākramam / Sattvadhātur iti prokto bodhisattvas tathāgatah // 9 // (1.

157) iti ratnagotravibhāga-ślokagranthah samāptah // [ 395 ] .The Ratnagotravibhāga Asyaîva prakrtim ananyathâvagamya / Janmâdivyasanam rte 'pi tannidānam Dhlmanto jagati krpodayād bhajante // 23 // (I. 66) Ananyathâtmā 'ksayadharmayogato Jagaccharanyo 'naparântakotitah / Sadā ldvayo lsāv avikalpakatvato 'vināśadharmā 'py akrtasvabhāvatah // 24 // (I. 84) (deśajiāprayoj ana) Śūnyam sarvam sarvathā tatra tatra Jñeyam meghasvapnamāyākrtâbham / Ity uktvaîvam buddhadhātuh punah kim Sattve sattve 'stîti buddhair ihoktam // 26 / / (I. 156) Līnam cittam hīnasattvesv 4 avajñā bhūtagrāho bhūtadharmâpavādah / Âtmasnehaś câdhikah pañca dosā Yesām tesām tatprahānârtham uktam // 27 // (I. 71) Sa dharmakāyah sa tathāgato yatas tad āryasatyam paramârthanirvrtih / Ato na buddhatvam rte 4rkaraśmivad Gunâvinirbhāgatayā 4sti nirvrtih // 25 // (I.

those Mss. C.2 10. S. S. B.7 22. 22.6 16. 11.16 4.2 12. [ 396 ] . line) 2.4 15. S.14) (T.1 5.9 16. S.2 18.2) (T) (T.8) (C) (context) (Ms.4 3.2 12.17) (T. used by Johnston for editing the Sanskrit Text. & B. 49.) -anyatamâvaśisÇaabhisambodhibuddhyā ? sarvāramftana -dhavmatayeti —tattvadarśana nâpi dttam samfeîistam. bhavati syād vadhakapuruse tasmāt vyavadānasatyadvayavirāgadharmap āramārthikamevâtrane sarvâcāra laksana— (grammar) (cf. bhavati j (should be inserted) upaklmârtho -śuddhyaifa (or śuddhyā hi) avaivartyā bhabodhisattvayânifeān gambhīra-pratityadhaTtaa bhavati / syād vadhakapuruse / tasmāt vyavadānasatyadvayaZafesopa— virāgadharma— pāramārthikam ekam euâtrane sarvâfeāra (to be omitted) (mahācakravālapramānena mahācakravālah 1) (Source)*) (T) svaprajñayā drasturn vā bhagavan tathā-dharinā / avi-parivartānugatāni anyonyam bodhisattva upafcaranatām utksālya viçhapati abhāvasvabhāvāt —any atamâvi śista— abhisambuddhabodeh sarvāramwana -dharmā / —saîyadarśana(after) sprśanti / (before) katham upakleśârtho -śuddhyā avaivartyāe? bhabodhisattvān pratītya gambhira-dh. Chinese Version of the Ratnagotravibhāga (Taisho Edition).8 20. Tibetan Version of the Ratnagotravibhāga (Sde-dge Edition).APPPENDIX II CORRECTION & EMENDATION TO THE SANSKRIT TEXT OF THE RATNAGOTRAVIBHAGA (This table excludes those errata which were already corrected by the publisher). Corrigenda (Page.5 15.15 22.9 3. C) (context) (T.C) (cf.15 for read svapraj ñay ājraīium vā drasçum bhagavams tathā[vā —dharmā'vi— -parivartāc? anugatāni anyonya-bodhisattvaup ahar anatām unmīlya ? vithapeti abhāvasvabhāvāra (Ace.14) (T. S. 13.19 15. 12 9.9 19.14 5.11 10.1-2 (T) (Q (T. 44.9 11.) (cf. 39.5 19. Ms. T.6-7 20. S.C) (T) (context) (T) (before) mahāprthivī- ** T.10 20.C) (T) (misprint) (cf. A.2 3.10. C) (context) (Ms.7 10.10 18.

17 25.9 50.13 50. C) insert) bodhisattvānām (T.11 52. C) —'pāiaiaitāphalah / (bahuvr.19 for Ratnagotravibhāga Corrigenda read (Source) tathâśesebhyah -ārye ria-mārgop ade śena vainayikesu nimitāfcāranam (before) triratnavamśabodhanā—padam after v.4-5 27.11 44.17 51. C) bodhano—padam (grammar) (anena kim darśitam) (context) sattvârt/ie nirapeksatā or s attvârf/mnirapeksatā (T) duividhāh (C.14 28.12 36. C) (T) pāpâsamuccheda— nipatanti tān upakurvanty anāgata— (T.13 38. 27 sattvârtham nirapeksatā trividhāh -samatâpatti —patitā ihadhārmikā sattvās tadyathā —pāramitā phalam/ -hetava esām (before nityapāramitā sarvatra parama— -nirvāna-s amārop amithyātva—niyata— (after pranidhim iti / pāposamucchedanipatanti * * * anāgataki -sādharmya avinirbhāgadharmā / avinirmuktagunah / yad-upagūdhah / sarapradahati balī yo (before sarvadharmā esa / —vimuktā asyaiva sresthino grhapater ekadarśanena sa ca ekaputrakâdhy ā śāya— premârcunīto śres^hi grhapatir iti āsravaksaydt/ii//îâ&/wmukhydrdhayā'dhyāśayapratipattyā pratiiHcyemāmbodhisattvaga no tathā śesebhyah (Q —āryamārg opadeśena (T.5 36.AĀS.6 46.2 46.10 24.BGŚ) -samatâpti(T. T. C) vaineyikesu (vineya) nirna/iāfcaranam (T.19 36. context.9 46. C) (C) (T. B. C) tryadhvânubaddha (to be inserted) (T. 30.15 24.6 40.18 48.7 28. S. BGŚ) insert) tatra cchando 'bhilāsah j (T.11 34.The (Page. C) darśanena / sa ca (context) -ipremâlambanatah ? (T) śresçhī vā grhapatir t.17 42. 30.13 45. 29.17 47. T) esa/i/ (grammar) » —vimuktā— masyaiva (vimuktām asya—) (Q sresthino vā grhapater uoîka. 29.17 37. C) (T) sarvatraparama nrvānâsamāropa(C) aniyata— (C.cti āsravaksayâbhimukhydrçf/iod/iyāśayapratipattyā pratired/iyemām— bodhisattvaguno(T. C) (misprint) kim —sādharmyam (misprint) avinirbhāgadharmā'i'i— nirmuktaguno yad— (context) -upagūdhah sara(context) pradahanti (grammar) balīyo (comparative degree) insert) mūlaparicchinnā (Mss.4 24.7 47.4) -patitāś cehadhārmikā (C) s attvāfe caturvidhāh /tadyathā (T.9 26.) (context) -hetava uktā esām (Ms.17 39.2-3 36.. C) (T) (T) [ 397 ] .13 24. line) 23. 32.16 29..(T.2-3 48. 32. p.

B) (insert) laukikam j ātyandharūpavat (T.11 79.6 73.7 55.1 64.15 79. 132 tathāgatagarbha iti —āvrtâ dbidhā vainayikadharmadhātor avivikārā sarve tatra-advaidhīkāro ti mahādharmâdhirdjfatvāt iti parikabpam asya vacanāyeti vikalpayitavyā'dhimoktavyā te'tyantasāsravaread (Source) tathāgatad/iātor kim samadharmatayā tathāgato nânyo nispatty-asamekena câkārena jagatujjTutamrāgâdicbiñmoha (Ms. context) tathāgatagarbhā iti (context) -āvrîam (T.4 67. . C) (T) 75.2 58.9) (T) (misprint) (misprint) (misprint) (Ms.6 70. .13 69.9 71. C) pratyātmaveditam prāptonirvāna(T.19 for tathâgatagarbhasya ki samadharmatayā tathāgato 'nyo ni sp ats v-as amekena ca kāranena jagat ujjñitamrāgâdidviehnoha aśubhâdibAouojñāna(v. context) (context) gāmbhlryaudārya (context) -vinirmukfe fathāgata(T.7 -śabha-aparyantam śūnyatatphalam dvividham / -visamyogaś ca / yathākramam gambhīryaudārya-vinirmuktestathāgata(after)-prsthalabdham j ātyandhafcāy a vat sūtikāmad/iyasthita -amalai stribhih acintyoprāj3ti^ pratyātmaveditā prāpyanirvāna- (context) (misprint) (T.7 79. C) into prose) (C. Ms.15 74.19 56.2 55.6-7 68.3 70.5 71. line) 55. ' and connect 'tad yathā'pi nāma. con.12 71. .8 71.19 85.12 79.16 68. B) (misprint) (T) (context) (S.8 86.3 70.14 72. TAKASAKI Corrigenda (Page. C) vikārā— (misprint) sarve(misprint) tatra (misprint) -advaidhīkāreti (gram.13 84.21 67. . C) (context) (C. C) [ 398 ] . 58.13 61.) dvidhā. C.11 76.3 57. (misprint) vaineyika— (<vineya) dharmadhātur avi(T.7 74. ' after 'prasādhitah/ 'without changing paragraph.13 88.16 79.) śubha aviparyastam śūnyatatphalam visamayogah / -visamyogaś ca yathākramam / (T.J .18 84. C) sūtikāsadmosthita (T) (context) -amalais tribhih (to be connected in Devanāgari) acinty ârhattvam (T.) mahādharmâd/iirā/yatvāt (T) iti parikalpitam asya vacanam iti (context) vikalpayitavyā kevalam tv adhimoktavyā te ' tyanfam sāsrava(change the pargraph from ' yathāca s a . A) aśubhâdib/utvanājûāna(T.5 73.

C) (C) [ 399 ] .15 119. . context) (metre) (context) (T) (context) (T.6 93.13 117.15 92. 23) (before v. context) tathatâmadhikTtya (before v. 17) 18) 19) 20) (before v. context) (context) (T.14 117.16 108.14 106. v. C) (T. 4) svayamj ñāpanā apratisamkhyāpahānir ace. (Source) context) .9 100.6 108.15 108.11 93.1 116.16 111. C) (T) (T) (T) (T) (T. oy (T) (T.3 100.6 115.10 94.5 (before v. line) for 90.3 118. C) (context) (T.10 101.11 102-21 103.16 104. .5 vyanumeyatah 90. v.9 117. v. ms.17 118. 25) tatra yadāśraye yannimittam codāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah / yathodāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah/ yadudāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah/ yenodāhrtam tadārabhya ślokah/ ātmaraksanopāyam ārabhya dvau ślokau / ksatihetum ārabhya ślokah / ksatiphalam ārabhya dvau ślokau/ āptapunyaparinamane ślokafc / (C) (T) (T) (T) (T) (T) (T.2 98. C) (context) (The following headings had better be inserted:) 117.14 91.4 vyanumeyo R a t n a g o t r a v ib hāga Corrigenda read vyupameyatah vyupameyo tatAā-tad-adhikrtya (add) uddānam / svayam jñāpanā— apratisamkhyāya hānir (as in the text) musitaîâcitte abhayam -arkaraśmi pravisrta(to be separated) —vad iti vayam apy acirād —sthânā'ntaramalā -vaśād gha\titā sambuddhafe/ierer upoyāti āyāti nikhilam / kle śagatâtmadsrÇyvisrto buddhasūryo vinetâdrou fannipāto -ālokād-alamkrtāft (insert) catursu tanrutyapratyupasthānād câsyā mūlam (C. v. • v.11 118.6 91. 22) (before v. B. . 69 (C.The (Page. to J's correction) musitatā citte abhayadam —arkara śmipravisrta— -tvād iti adyaiva na cirād -sthānāntaramalā -vaśād agha^çitā sambuddhaîūrya tu yāti āyānti nikhilam / kleśagatān drs£y— visrte buddhasūrye vineyâdri-tannipāto -ālokādy-alamkrtāh (before sthānesv-) taccittapratyupasthānād câsya mūlam .5 117. 16) (before (before (before (before v. context) (T.

Vol.e. 1958. 27 . 1) yenârthena sarvatrâviśesena pravacane sarvâkāram tad ( = tathāgatagarbha)-arthasūcanam bhavati tad api. p . (1) svabhāva. & gotrasambhavârtha. 26. the RGV says in the commentary that there is a (tenfold) category by which all kinds of explanation of the meaning of the tathāgatagarbha exist (i. IX.APPENDIX III DESCRIPTION OF THE ULTIMATE REALITY by Means of the Six Categories in Mahāyāna Buddhism *' To describe the characteristics of the tathāgatagarbha (the matrix of the Tathāgata. After a brief explanation of the threefold 2) meaning of the term tathāgatagarbha made on the basis of v. i. (7) avasthāprabheda.. p. 2) RGV. 5-10. 348-353. vol. 1 0 . No. This statement. 11.e. are made) with no variance anywhere in the scripture 1 } . & (10) asambheda. VII. the commentary says: (3) phala. R G V . I. see my article: The Tathāgatotpattisambhavanirdeśa of the Avatamsaka and the Ratngotravibhāga (Uttaratantra). (6) vrtti. 1. *' This article originally appeared in The Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies. Journal of Indian & Buddhist Studies. About this threefold meaning. the statement mentioned above probably means that these ten categories are commonly used in the scripture for describing the tathāgatagarbha. (5) yoga. Of its eight categories in all. No. the Buddha's nature). 2. namely. (8) sarvatraga. (4) karman. (2) hetu. the phala aspect of the tathāgatagarbha. The Ratnagotravibhāga (RGV) uses in Chap. while the remaining two are (7) nitya and (8) acintya. The 3 meanings are: dharmakāyaparispharanārtha. however.e. [ 400 ] . i. 11. I I I . 26. (1) svabhāva to (6) vrtti. pp. 1961 and is reprinted here with the permission of the editor.e. after explaining the sixth category. tathatâvyatirekârtha. i. vrtti.1 1 . Similar terms are used in Chap. (9) avikāra. § 2. As for the ten categories in Chap. Also see Introduction. with special reference to the term tathāgatagotrasambhava. I I as categories for describing the ultimate reality. the first six categories are the same as those used in Chap. needs to be corrected to some extent by the following descriptions in the same RGV.. while the threefold meaning belongs only to the RGV. I the following ten categories: namely. I. I.

k a r m a k a h /1 ( I . . yoga and vrtti 4 ) . 11. and that the object to which is applied this set of six categories is not the tathāgatagarbha alone. is not the whole of the ten categories. with reference to this very category of vrtti.e. 11. i. Then how is this set of six categories used in the scripture (pravacana) and what is meant by the. [ 401 ] . phala. 79. .The Ratnagotravibhāga After this passage. where the seventh and the eighth categories are said to be included in the sixth. II. . 11. B) tribhir gāmbhiryaudāryamāhātmyaprabhāvitair buddhakāyair nityam ā bhavagater acintyena prakārena vartanam vrttih. but the first six categories beginning with svabhāva. (2) (3) . •' -tā phalam / in the text. I. karman. 3 5 ) (1) . and hence the basic one. but is the Ultimate Reality in every aspect inclusive of the aspect of tathāgatagarbha. p. 12-14. . (4) mahodadhir ivā 'meyagunaratnâksayâkarah / s) atah param etam eva vrttyartham ārabhya tadanye catvāro 'rthāh prabhedanirdeśād eva veditavyāh.term pravacana ? At first. The reason for the correction will be shown below. . we shall see how it is applied in the basic verses (śloka) of the RGV. RGV. RGV. 5—6. RGV. 30) śubhâtmasukhanityatva-gunapārmitā-phalah I 6) d u h k h a n i r v i c . p. hetu.c h a m a p r ā p t i c c h a n d a p r a n i d h i . vrtti 5) . And also: All those teachings on the immaculate Ultimate Reality (anāsravadhātu) taught by the Lord in detail through various forms of doctrines are contracted in brief into these six categories. What we come to know from these passages is that a set of categories which is commonly used. This is proved from the use of the same set of categories in Chap. . p. 40. 4) ye kecid anāsravadhātunirdeśe nānādharmaparyāyamukhesu bhagavatā vistarena nirdistāh sarve te ebhir eva samāsatah sadbhih svabhāva—hetu-phala—karma—yoga—vrttyarthaih . 16-18. 40. sadā prakrty—asamklistah śuddharatnâmbarâmbuvat / dharmâdhimukty—adhiprajñā-samādhi—karunânvayah/ (v. and thirdly that the RGV added four categories to the regular set in order to explain the mode of manifestation (vrtti) of the tathāgatagarbha. as showing special characteristics of the vrtti aspect of the Ultimate Reality characterized as bodhi or āśrayaparivrtti. svabhāva. . the other [remaining] four categories are to be known through separate explanations 3 ) .

59) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 7) Being appositional t o 'jinagarbho 'yam'. the Sages and the Buddhas are not differentiated from the Reality. Meditation and Compassion:— Having the climax of qualities with respect to purity.. t h e reading ' -pāramitā-phalah' as a Bahuvrīhi comp. an imperishable receptacle of treasures of innumerable qualities. 58fy svabhāva-dharmasambhoga-nirmānair bhinnavrttikah / dharmadhātuviśuddho yam buddhānām samudāhrtab // (IX. See also Tib. Having aversion from the Suffering and desire for and vow to the attainment of the Quiescence as its functions. These four verses. See note 6. the sky and water: Following after faith in the [Mahāyāna] doctrine. though they are interrupted by the commentary passages. are no doubt composed in a series. tā phalam/ ' in the text is corrected for the same reason as above. . whose subject word is 4 jinagar~ bha1 in the last verse 7 ) and in which is applied a mode of the set of six categories previously known to the author. as a lantern [is inseparable from its light and others]. happiness and eternity as its result. should b e accepted. 42) pfthagjanârya—sambuddha—tathatâvyatirekatah/ sattvesu jinagarbho '•yam deśitas tattvadarśibhili // (I. 45) (5) (6) (Being always ujidefiled by nature. . unity. 8) ' .— Thus is it taught by those who perceived the Truth). [ 402 ] . which has 'hbras-bu-can''. the excellent intellect. 56) sarvatas tathatājñāna—bhāvanā-samudāgamah/ sarvasatva-dvayâdāna-sarvathâksayatā—phalah// 8 ) (IX. IX. TAKASAKI pradīpavad anirbhāgagunayukta—svabhāvatah // (I. [there exists] this Matrix of the Victor ( = Tathāgata) among the living beings. As being by nature united with its properties inseparably.— And as its [various manifestations in the forms of] ordinary beings. sarvadharmadvayâvara—tathatāviśuddhi—laksanah I vastujñāna-tadālamba-vaśitâksaya—laksanahj/ (v.— Being. like the pure [character] of a treasure. like an ocean.J. 57) kāyavākcittanirmāna-prayogopāya-karmakah/ samādhi-dhāranī-dvāradvayâmeya-samanvitah jj (IX. Quite a similar application of the same mode of description in a series of verses is found in the Mahāyānasūtrâlamkāra (MSA).

Nagoya. studies. p. because according to Prof. the influences of the MSA are scarcely observed except for the application of the six categories mentioned above. it was no doubt the RGV which imitated the MSA. Phi. almost the same ' The same is possibly said. The following is a comparative table of the 4 verses of BBS & MSA in their Tib. Bucchikyoron no kenkyū (in Jap. at the same time. the subject word for the whole sentence. like 'jinagarbha' in the example of the RGV.— Its function is the transformation of body. I. 7) /chos rnams kun-gyi de—bshin—ñidj /sgrib-gñis dag-pahi mtshan-ñid-can j /dños-po śes-pa de-la dmigs / jdbañ zad mi-śes mtshan—ñid do II /de-bshin-ñid śes thams-cad—nas j 9 [ 403 ] ?7 . It is endowed with the gates of meditation and mystical formulae and with the immeasurable accumulation of the two [i. benefit and happiness] by all possible means for the sake of all the living. versions.. about the commentary passage of Chap. But the MSA cannot claim its originality of the use of the six categories.e. bliss and wisdom]. Thus in the application of the same mode of description. Vol. the RGV and the MSA show a close relationship between them.e. and by that of incarnation:— [Thus] is explained this immaculate Ultimate Reality of the Buddhas. but. as for the ślokas or basic verses in Chap. 2 Vols. translation & the Tib. 2-5. Repr. 23) jchos mams kun—gyi de—bshin—ñid/ jsgrib gñis Idan dag mtshan-ñid-can / /dños-po śes-pa de dmigs-pa/ /dbañ tshad mi—śes mtshan—ñid—can// /de-bshin-ñid śes thams-cad-nas/ MSA (Peking Mdo-hgrel. p. the triple kāya theory. II of the RGV which.) (Studies on the BBS and the Buddhabhūmi-vyākhyāna. It is the result of the inexhaustible formation of the two [i. It is especially certain about Chap. though there is no example of application of the same mode in a series of verses as above. And is the inexhaustible controlling power of the knowledge of the nature and the object of its cognition. 9 ) .) These four verses in a series are said to be the ślokas on the topic of tdharmadhātuviśuddhi' which is. I. 10) Kyoyū Nishio. 1940. speech and mind as the means of appliance. 108. 12 b. by that of Enjoyment of the doctrine. Nishio's information 10) . BBS (Nishio's text. avikalpajñāna and tatprstalabdha. texts).The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a (Its characteristic is the purification of the two kinds of obscurations with regard to the Reality of all phenomena.— It is originated from the practices of wisdom with regard to the Reality in all respects. etc.— It manifests itself variously by the Body of its own essence. and as the RGV quotes the MSA in the commentary.g. has many traces of the influences of the MSA on its doctrine (e.

Vol. TAKASAKI verses as in the MSA mentioned above are found in the Buddhabhūmisūtra (BBS) towards the end of the text as a kind of concluding verses. Namely. Now. both of which are the central topics of the BBS. pratyaveksa-jñ. 30. and hence the originality seems better to be ascribed to the BBS. 230 a. in which is also found the mention of the same set of categories U ) .. Vol. it is found in the passage where the science of grammar (śabda-vidyā or vyākarana) is explained as one of the five sciences (vidyā-sthāna). but without any detailed comment. (Repr. Also. are as follows: no-bo-ñid. It is found in a couple of verses /bsgoms-la yan-dag hgrub-pa-can / /bsgoms-pa las ni yañ-dag hbyuñ/ fsems-can kun-la gñis bskyed-pa/ jsems-can kun-la rnam-kun-tuj jrnam—kun mi—bzad hbras—bu—can// /gñis bskyod mi—zad hbras—bu—can// jlus dañ ñag dan sems sprul-pahi/ jsku dañ gsuñ dan thugs sprul-pahi// jsbyor-bahi thabs-kyi las-can yin/ /hbyor-bahi thabs-kyi las-can te / /tiñ—ñe-hdsin dañ gzuñs sgo dañ j jtiñ-ñe-hdsin dañ gzuhs sgo dañ j / dpag-tu med-pa gñis-dañ Idan// /dpag-tu med-pa gñis-dañ Idan// /rañ-bshin chos~rdsogs loñs-spyod dañ/ /rañ-bshin chos-rdsogs loñs-spyod dañ/ /sprul—pas tha—dad hjug—pa—canj /sprul de—dag—gi(s) tha—dad—hjug/ /sañs-rgyas rnams-kyi chos~kyi dbyiñs/ jhdi-ni sañs-rgyas rnam-dag-gi/ /mam dag hdi ni yañ-dag brjod// jchos-dbyiñs rnam-par dag-par bśadj/ u > YB (Tib. hjug-pa.. Dsi.). not necessarily to be affixed to any special scripture or treatise. p. [ 404 ] . ādarśa-ñ. 361 a. krtyânusthāna-jñ. What is meant by the term ' pravacana' in the RGV is. It is however still difficult to regard the BBS as the only source of the set of six categories. therefore.) Peking Mdo-hgrel. bya-ba (kriyā). The six terms in Tib. In this respect. has not such a clear theory as that found in the BBS on the buddhakāya or has no exposition of the four kinds of wisdom (i. 109. rgyu. but is to be understood as 4 the word of predecessor'. Because the Yogācārabhūmi (YB).. samatā-jñ. we shall proceed to examine the extent of application of the said categories. 5-6. p. Furthermore. [khyad-par-du] sbyor-ba (viśesa-yoga). (Ch) Taisho.e. 304). Besides their application to the dharmadhātuviśuddhi. there are other passages in the MSA where the doctrines taught in the BBS are summarized. there is another mode of application in the MSA. curious enough is the manner of mention of the said categories in the YB. hbras-bu. and at present we have no objective proof to fix the order of composition between the two treatises. There seems to be no use of such a set of terms in Sanskrit grammars although most of the terms used for the six categories are the technical terms of grammar.J. I suppose that the set of terms are put or rather inserted in that passage in connection with the word 4 artha ' (meaning) just because there was a traditional usage of those terms as a mode of description among the Vijñāvādins. even in the days of the composition of the YB.

sarvabhūmi-viniJjisrtah / (1. who has attained the highest point among all living beings. Cf. [ 405 ] . inexhaustible and unequalled. 1595). 112. i.e. who has come out of [the practices in] all stages. 13) However. 150 b (No. .Vol. 1592). lokesu drśyase / (5. Tib. 2) saTvasatvâgratām pTāptah. According to the Commentary. . which are a kind of eulogy on the Buddha. 46 b 3-6 (Repr. M X ' h Ś t *¥ ^ H j& ^ Wt M ^ -h (Taisho. adfśyaś c as a r v a t h ā d e v a m ā n u s a i f y // ( 6 1 ) . They run as follow 14): /rtogs-pa des gnas dri—med don j (1) Jgañ çpyod rgya-mtshohi ia pha-rol gśegs / (2) > MS Taisho. 1594).Vyākhyā. ( 6 ) (Thou art the one who is perfect-transcendental. Thou art perceived in various worlds and in the circles [of the assemble of Bodhisattvas through thy two apparitional Bodies]. . 143 b 3-5 (Repr. 31. Li. p. these two verses refer to the characteristics of the Buddha (buddhalaksana). 31. 31. and Vasubandhu's authorship is somehow doubtful. The same verses are quoted in the Mahāyānasamgraha (MS) of Asaûga 12) explaining that they refer to the highest qualities of the Absolute Body (dharmakāya). It seems to show that the use of this set of categories belougs only to the Mahay ana. 113. 111 a (No. this is found only in Paramārtha's translation (No. 141). Śi. Peking Ed. They run as follows: nispanna-paramārtho 'si. 6) mandalesv a>py. not common to the Hīnayāna' 1 3 ) . The third mode of application of the six categories is found in the first two of the dedicative verses placed at the head of the Abhidharmasamuccaya-vyākhā. a commentary on the Abhidharmasamuccaya (AS) of Asaûga. ") AS. and makes them liberate. sarvasatvavimocakah 11 (XX-XXI 60) . Mdo-hgrel. p. p. among which we find the triple Body theory under the category of vftti. 334). 1593).The Ratnagotravibhâga at the end of the work. 4) aksayair asamair yukto gunair. However invisible is thy [Body of Essence] by all means to those who belong to the world of gods and human beings). Vol. 131 a (No. and this is commented upon by Vasubandhu: 'the highest' means 4 belonging only to the Mahāyāna. (3.— And who is endowed with virtues. Peking Mdo-śgrel. Taisho. 258 a).

[ 406 ] . Thus examining. Pradhan. the other is that of terms concerning the interpretation {viniścaya). 765 b-c.e.) ed. one is the collection of terms concerning the phenomena (laksana). and the Sāmkathya") According to Chinese tradition.J . 16) . (Sthiramati) ibid. 693 b. (4) (4) (5) (6) (I bow to the Buddha. TAKASAKI jchos-kun dban-phyug. 5555). He leads [the living beings] by skillful means and in an inconceivable manner. (Skt.. It is divided into two parts. (C. because— He is [by nature] the realization and the immaculate truth established by it.— He is endowed with the immeasurable and marvellous qualities. Commenting on these verses by himself. Having reached the other shore of the ocean of practices.e. 17 ) AS (Tib. hetu etc. however it may be called. Santiniketan. I must lastly refer to the Abhidharmasamuccaya in which is an explanation of this set of categories as one of the seven methods for interpreting a topic in discussion (sāmkathya-viniścaya) under the name of artha-viniścaya17). pp. 1950. 31. the commentator15) says that by the first two there are shown the six categories with respect to the excellent qualities of the Buddha. And is the foundation of the benefits of his own and of others). No. 144 a 2-3. a fairly good account of the idea of the six categories and their applications to the Ultimate Reality. bsam mi—khyab / /hdul-bahi thabs-kyis hdren-pa-can / / Jgshal-med legs gyur yon-tan ni / Iran dan gshan don gñis-la brten / Jsañs-rgyas chos dañ hphags-pa-yi / jtshogs-lahañ de-phyir phyag-htsal-lo // (3). by P. The Abhidharmasamuccaya is a kind of classified lexicon of technical terms of the Mahāyāna Abhidharma. p. le ) AS Vyākhyā. i. This explanation is exactly on the same line as in the MS. And having [attained] the controlling power over the phenomena. in treatises of the Vijñānavada. to Jinaputra (Rgyal-babi sras). Śi 344 a 345 a 8 (Vol. the works of the Yogācāra school or the Vijñānavādins. and to the Doctrine and Holy community as well. 113. I think. & C ) . we have got. it is ascribed to Sthiramati.. the categories of svabāva. while in Tibet. ibid.) Taisho.) Peking. i. 102-103 (This passage is restored from Tib. Before giving a conclusion to this investigation.

3. . so that by using one of them any kind of subject. purusakāra-. 2. of impure or pure character. it modified the six categories according to its own need but without losing their original character. sāmbandhiko y. paratantra. however. there is no example of their application to any subject other than the Ultimate Reality. Actually. we may safely say that there was a traditional use of the set of six categories among the Vijñānavādins for describing the Ultimate Reality. 1. parinispanna. . Being thus situated and in comparison to the other six methods. siddhi-. 2. āvasthiko y. I will give a rough observation on the modified use of this set of categories in the works belonging to the so-called Tathāgatagarbha theory. pra- bheda-. It shows us merely the terms of three to five kinds of each category 18) . because the sub-divisions of the six categories include all the varieties. . phala . commentary (vyākhyā). 2. dialogue or logic (vāda). 5. 5.The Ratnagotravibhāga viniścaya is the last of the four chapters belonging to the latter part. y. vaikāriko (6) 18 svabhāva . The explanation of the six categories in the AS is. [ 407 ] . but not any example of application of the whole set as examined above. 5. it seems difficult to limit the application exclusively to the Ultimate Reality. and taking the explanation in the RGV referred to at the beginning of this article into consideration. however. nisyanda-. . upalabdhi-. questioning (sampraśna). can be described. ... viparyāsa-.. 3.. avasthāna-. It may be natural from the logical point of view as the terminologies used for the six categories do not contain any evaluation in themselves. 1. and implication (abhisandhi). 4. . terms are ace. kāritra-. and to describe its doctrine. Additionally. karman. unsatisfactory for us. pravrtti—. 2. 3. 4. (Skt. utpatti-. 1.. laksana-. . yoga . 4.. to Pradhan's text). summary (samgraha). But the modification was further extend'ed until the character as categories of general use has disappeared by mixing or replacing of the new terms which show the characteristics ) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 5. exhibition of difference (prabhidyasamdarśana). . 3. vrtti .e. this arthaviniścaya is clearly a mode of description or interpretation recognized by the authority of the Vijñānavāda. parikalpita. has established the system of the Tathāgatagarbha theory. parinati-. 1. ānubandhiko y.. 1. visamyoga-. Rather. 2. 1. vipāka-. 3. The RGV. vyāvasāya-. prāpti-. i. hetu . adhipati-. . 2. and that its latest example available to us is observed in the AS Vyākhyā. though it is written by one of the Vijñānavādins (it may be sure at least from his knowledge of the use of the said categories). 3. sāmūhiko y. samskrta or asamskrta. 4. . aviparyāsa-.

32. p. p. 470 c. Taisho. and the twelve categories of the bodhidtta in the Dharmadhātvavis'esaśāstra (DAŚ) 19>. TAKASAKI of the Absolute belonging to the Tathāgatagarbha theory. 892 o. 31. Taisho. DAŚ. 16. 19 [ 408 ] . BGŚ. p. Taisho. As such examples we have the ten categories of the tathāgatabodhi in the Anuttāśrayasūtra (AÂS) . titles are restored from C). the ten categories of the tathāgatagarbha in the Buddhagotraśātra (BGŚ).J. ) AÂS. (All of these works are kept only in the Chinese Tripitaka. and their Skt. 796 6.

INDEXES .

296 acala-prākāra. āvenika-buddhadharma (G III) mahāp. Abbreviations : vajrapada (1-7) VP RG ratnagotra (4 aspects) (I-IV) TG tathāgatagarbha (3 meanings) (a-c) (10 aspects) (I-X) (9 illustrations) (1-9) B bodhi (RG II) (8 aspects) (I-VIII) G guna (RG III) (I-IV) vaiś. 216 acintyârhattva. 258 a-ksaya. 92 aksayya ( = aksaya). 92. 256 a-citta. 4. 112. 92 a-krtrima. 130 acintyatva. 349 a-krtaka. 339 acalā (bhūmi). § XIII (VIII). 240 [ 411 ] . 23. 311 acintyatā. 188 a-gotra. 84. 273 a-ksūnam (ksûna = dosa). 326 acirasthāyin. (B VIII). 74 agra-bodhi (VP 5. 164 acintya-namana-cyuta. for mrtyuvyādhijarā). 92. 82. 2. catur-vaiśāradya (G I) bala daśa-bala (G II) āven. 94. 289 akrtrima-dharma. 192 a-gocara-visaya. 353 agra-sattva ( = buddha). 68. Terms with the mark § refer to the subject matters of the text. Terms in brackets refer to those not found in the Ratna. 346 a—grāhya. 108. 90 agra. 159. § VIII (III-IV)-5\ 40 agni (s. 260 acintyā pārināmikī cyutili. Reference is to the pages in the present work or section numbers applied in the present work. RG II). 154 ~ -aye vyākaranam. 321 acintya-prakāra. 70. 74 aksaya-dharma-yoga[tā].INDEX OF SANSKRIT TERMS 1. 314 a-kuto-bhaya. 317 a-kalpana(-jñāna). mahāpurusalaksana (G IV) karman (RG IV) (9 illustrations) (I-IX) K s. 3. 114 aghosavat. simile amśu. 116 agra-yāna. 76. 315 akrta-svabhāva[tā]. 130 a-caksumat. 342 a-cintya.

114. 114 an-ābhāsa-gamana. 114. 167. 104 ~ -duhkha-anātma-śānti (śānta). 200 adhimukta-śukla-viraha. 205 anāvarana—dharma. (bala 5) 120. 351 an-āvarana-gāmin. 193 anavarâgra (-samsāra). 367 an-avasthita. 92. 286 a-tattva-bhāvitva. 387 adhimukti. 169 atatsvabhāvâkhyāna. 334 a-tat-prahita. 21). 275 anātha-śāla. 74. 401 anāsrava-pada ( = anāsravadhātu. 78. 92. 256 an-abhilāpya. 279 anāsravam karma. 201. 319. § XVIII (IV). 130. 244. 74. 112. 381 ajasram. 217 a-drśya. 328 a-tarkya. 205 an-aksarokta. 373 anābhogatā. 313 ~ -samanvāgama. 130. 209 a-dvaya. 142 adhigama-dharma. 328 an-argha. 84. (-bhāvanā) (TG II hetu 1). 244 a-jñāna. 240 an-avāpta. 182 ~ & deśanā-dharma. 126 [ 412 ] . 182 adhiprajñā ( = prajñā). 104 atyantânanyathābhāva. 273 a-jāti. 239 an-aparânta-koti(tā). 92. 345 ananta-dyuti (amitābha). 376 anantâcintya-rasa-rasâgratā (mahāp. 359 an-āsrava. 214. § XVIII. 108 adhisthita. 376 an-āsvādana(tā). 164 advayatā. 126. 86 açavī. 82. 116.J. 185 an—ācāryaka. 76. 92. 124. 122. 82. 282 anda-sāra. 219 an-apacaya. 256 ananyath£-bhāva (svabhāva) (TG b). 70. 78. 126. 82. 262 anda-kosa. 371 an-avadya. 275 an-ādi-kālika. 232 adhanya. 369 adhika. 297. 118 an-abhisamskāra. 167 anādikāliko dhātuh. 252 a-nitya. 68. 92. TAKASAKI a-cyuta (pada). 363 a-tat-bhāva. 257 "*> -apatita. 116. 128. 86. 193 adhyālambati. 257 anartha-jāla-vigama. 110 a-trptatā. 380 adhisfhāna. 104. 390 ananyathā ( = yathāvat). 180 adhigama. 215 anāsravatva. 321 anāsrava-dhātu. 74 ~ -duhkha-anātma-aśubha. 80. 30. 368 an-ābhoga. 339. 164 a-dvitīyam paurusam sthāma. 382. 130 atyanta-pācaka. 118 ativāhana. 26. 112. 70. 275 anātha—veśman. 243 ananyathā'tmā. 224 an—ādi—madhya-nidhana. 328 a-tat-svabhāva. 116 an-abhisamskrti. 147. 84. 132. 120 ajñānândhakāra-vidhamana. 158 anātma-samjñā. 156 anābhogâpraśrabdha (buddhakārya). 318 atulyatuly a-dharmatva. 130 atyanta-vināśa. 74. 245 atyanta-tamo'paha. 231. 248 an-artha. 217 an-anya-posi-ganya. 216 anabhisamskrta-kriyā. 306 adhikrtya. 178 an-apakarsana. 246 adhyāśaya. 102 anādi-bhūta. 70. 114. 82 a-nātha. 114 adrsta-pūrva. 232. 68 an-ādimadhyânta. 233 an-āvilata. 86 adhimukty-anuśamsa. 331 a-tulya-tulya. 275 anāthâvasatha. 112 anāsrava-karman. dharmakāya).

. 192 anugraha. 327 antar-amala. 327 apravrtti-laksana. 23. 124. 379 a-prameya. 86 a-pariśuddha (ksetra). 15. 147 anubhava. 114 apratisthāna—mūla. 49. 126. 74. 368 anu]/bhū. 354 anugata. 200 anvādhana.The Ratnagotravibhāga antika. 181. 394 antarvat. 334 apratisthita-pada. 68. 361 antadvaya-vivarjita. 176 apramāna (catur-apramānāni). 330 a—parimita. 238 anitya-samjñā. 248 apagata-kāca. 170 anuśāsana. 161 aniyatab. 131. 76. 356 abudha ( = abuddha). 324 animittatā. 197 antargata. 239 an-upāya-patita (sattva). 351 a-prādeśikatva. 147. 147 . 355 a-praśrabdhitah. 232 antardhi. 155. 84. § VIII (III-IV)-4'. 149 —anvaya. 151 a-pratikūlo darśanena. 146. 204. 74. 70. 275 antahpura-rati-krīdā. 112 a-pratipraśrabdha (K). 50. 104 a-parapratyayâbhisambodhi. 158 abhaya-da. 114. 112. 56. 126 apsaras. 334 an-upacaya. 245. 213 aparântako^i-sama. koçi-gūdha. 82 a-nimitta. 118 anuttaram karma. 98 a-nisjhita. 184. 191 an-uttara. 358 antarīksavat ( = ākāśavat) (G III) antargama (buddhajñānântargamāt). 80. 366 anuśaya-vat (bāla). 246 apakarsa. 283. 114 a-niyata-rāśi. 156 aparādha. 76. 302 aprthag-bhāva ( = yoga) (TG V). 207 anutisçhate (anu]/sthā). 227 abhinirvartayati. 363 aparântakoti-nistha. 340 anutpattika-dharma. 387 apavāda. 343 abhayatva. 86. 220 aparinirvānagotraka. 118. 246 a-pratigha ( = apratihata). 363 anuślesa. 124. 249 anya-tīrthya. 205 a-nirodhatā. 72. 144 an-uttrasta-gati. 377 anutpādânirodhatā. 72 [anuttarâsraya]. 222 anuśaya. 264 an-utpādatā. 220 a-pratihata (yāvadbhāvikatā). 151 apaneya. 268 apaj/vad. 203 anyonya(m). 342 a—parinirvāna—gotra. 231. 80. 88. 74. 283 anusandhi (vāsanā-). 158 abhaya. 278. 287 anugāmin. 114 anutpādânirodha (tathāgata). 84. 182 abbijāta. 116. 216 apakāra. 80. 80. . 263. 76 anuttara-tathāgata-jñāna-sama. 202 aparinirvāna-dharma. 264 a-paryanta . 114. 51 anuttarā samyak-sambodhih. 363 anuśāsti-prātihārya. sattvarāśih. 176 apratighāta. 153 anusañga. 329 [ 413 ] . 158 anugunam. 128. 343 abhāva. 114. 185. 82. 68. 323 apratisthānatā. 151 abhijñā. 191 anuśamsa. 169. § XVII-5. 128 an-udgraha. (artha-) 219 a-nairyānikatva. 116.a-pratisthāna. 114 anisthāgata-bodbisattva-sāmtānika. 80. 181 anupūrva-samutpāda-samudāgama. 24. 203 anupūrva-naya. 76. 268 aparāhata. 384 anujāta. 241 apratisthita-nirvāna. 86 a-pranihita (vimoksamukha 3). 156 a-parapratyayodita. 187 a-nispatti.

259 amukta-jñāna ( = amuktajña). 237 abbūta-grāha. 92. 142 artha-pada. 24. 251 abhirati. 305 abhūta-dharma. 118 abhisyandana. 168. 235. 158 abhiniveśa-darśana. 106. 348 abhyutksepa. 222 abhivyakti-karana. 263 a-vandhya. 259 amedhya. 142 ~ & vyañjana. 199. 98 alamkāra. 387 a-bhinna. 388 arūpitva. 82. 70. 24. 124 avikalpa-jñāna. 241 a-mrsā-mosa-dharmitva. 76 avikāra. 165 abhisambuddha. 164 abhiseka. 215 avidyâkāra. 335 abhiseka—labdhā bodhisattvāh. 250 abhisamdhāya. 166. 23. 250. 388 arhat tva. 145. 322 abhisamaya. 152 alpa-phala. 199. 198 artbavat. 222 abhisamskrta. 172. 224 avasthā (a-c). 90. 108. 210 abhilāpa. 94. 132 [artha-viniścaya]. 199 abhedya. 166 abhilāsa. 230 avākyavattva. 72. 199. 98. 88. 108. 152 avabhrtka. 234. 110 avikalpa-dhātu. 274 abhyupeksana. 100 ambuda (kleśa). 385 arthavad-dharmapada-upasamhita. 362 arbat. 199 artba-sādhana (RG IV). 236 ayoniśo manasah krtih. TAKASAKI abhinirvrtti. 247 abhyupāya. 336 abhiprasanna. 110 amitāyus (rsi) (a Buddha). 92 avidyā. 262 amalā bodhi (RG II). 74. 70. 94. 155 abhimukhī (bhūmi). for buddhatva). 168 ~ & tatprsthalabdha. 114 arhat-sāmtānika. 68 abhūta-kalpa. 169 abbeda.J. 70. 363 avaśistatā. 114 arka (s. 241 avikāritva. 114. 145. 108 avikalpatah (K). 236 ayoniśomanaskāra. 355 artha. 182 abhisamaya-paryavasāna. 94 abhisambodha. 342 a-mala. 100. 407 artha-sandhi. 114. 76. 292 amūla-mūla. 114. 263 abhiniveśa. 66. 106 abhūta-vastu-nimittârambaça. 169 a-yoni-manas-kāra. (TG X). 326 avalīyanā. 116 avikalpa(tā) (tva). 325 abhinna—prakrti. 215 abhinirhāra. 24 amalârka (mohavisamyoga). 132. avikalpa-lokottara-jñāna. 82. 58. 302 . 390 amukta-jña (buddbadbarma). 124 a-yathā-bhūta (— atatsvabhāva). 237 ayoniśo-manasikāra. 149 avasānika. 70. 217. 249 avavāda. 176 avabhāsa. 88. 157 abhisambodhi. § VIII (TG IX). 365 abhiprasāda. 74 abhisamasya. 364 avaruddha. 236 aribat ( = arhat). 169 [ 414 ] . 282 avadhārayati. § VIII (IX a-IX c). § III-4. 88. 59. 70. 161 avasāna-gata. 114. 228 arpana-bhāva. § VIII (VII) (TG VII). 317 abhisamskāra. 358 avabodha. 88. 382 arthânubhava. 269 avacchanna. 118 a-vikalpa. § VIII (IX) avasthā-prabheda. 246 abby-ut]/ksip. 130. 252 abhimukhī-bhavati.

82. 231 aśuddha-bhāvanā. 130. 278 a-vināśa. 327 a-samavadhāna. 82 aśuci-samkāra-dhāna (TG 4. 104. 340 astambhitatva. 20. 156. 238 a-stambhita. 382 < ' -gunavattva-śaktatva. 302 a-viparyāsa. 76 a-vivartika (bodhisattva). 177 a—viparoksa. 222 a-samkhya. 72. for jñāna). 112 asaûgatah. 219 asamāhita (citta) (āven. 182 asad-ātmagrahâbhirati. 270 astamyādi-bhñmitraya-bhāvanā-jñāna. 112. 110. 171 asamāropana. 189 a-samgati. 361 asatya. 112. § VIII (IX a). 388 a-śarana. 130. 74 aśuci-samsārâbhirati. 265 a-viparyasta. 321 a-samhārya. § VIII (IX b) 88. 259 aśūnyatā. 143. 228 avinirmukta-jñāna. 92. 211 avaivartika (bodhisattva). 120. 255 avyatibhedatā. 349 r 415 . 172 asvāmikatā. 104. 86. 212 <~ vihārâbhirati. 366. 144 avinirbhāga-dharmatā. 257 asamskrtapadatva. 74. 24. 198 a-visamvāditva. 151 a—viśesana. 266 avinirbhāga-dharma. (TG X) § VIII (X). 98. 145 avinirmuktajñāna—guna. 104. 24. 120 astitva. 279 aśuddha-bhūmi. 26. 38.The R a t n a g ot r a v i b h ā g a avidyā-vāsa-bhūmi. 292 a-sambhinna. 114. § XV (III). 94. 327 a-samkhyeya. 94. 74. 236 asamskrta-pada. 156 asamskrta-dharma. 278 aśuddha-śuddha (avasthā). 114 a-samkoca. 98. 377 a-sakta. 327 asambheda. 86 avinirbhāga-guna-dharmatva. 341 a-sambaddha. 292 avinirbhāga-dharman. 176 (buddha-jñāna). 72. 98 astādaśâvenika-buddhadharma-samanvāgata (buddha). 231 aśubha-samjñā. 68. 90. 112. 82 a-sama. 114. 172. 294 a-vimala (śrāvaka & pratyekabuddha). 171 a-virata. 114. 110 avināśitva. 183 aśaiksa-samtānika. 315 avinirmukta—klesakosa (tathāgatagarbha). 321 avinirbhāga ( = yoga. 382 — asparśa-dharmin. 189 —' & apratigha (apratihata). 212 a-samskrta. 361 ahlādaka. 84. 214 avidyāvāsabhūmi-samgrhīta (-kleśa). 168 avinirmukta—gun a. 161. for kleśa) 96 a-śuddha (bāla-prthagjana). 92 a-vivartya (-dbarma-cakra). 88. 120. 100. 82 aśubhâdi-bhāvanā-jñāna. 82. 106 a-śaiksa (buddha). 208 a—vipralambha. 98 a-śūnya. 297 ahitatva. 262 a-sañga (yathāvadbhāvikatā). 4). 246 asamskrta-dhātu. 172 a—svabhāva. 188. 327 asamskrtatva. 100 a-vyatireka. 98 aśuddhabhūmi-gata-kleśa. 174 avināśa-dharma. 118. 361 astamgama. 258 a-sāra-mūla (sarvadharma). 171 asatkāma. 92 avinā ś a—dharmin. 268. 248 ahamkāra. ~ (-avasthā). 241 asi (s. 68. 144 avinivartanīya-bhūmi. 124. 114. 198 aśani. 76 avinirbhāga-vrtti. 68 asukhatva. 341 a-samsarga. 228 a-ślesa. 230. TG V). 98. 112.

112 ākāśavat (buddha). (G III). 309 ātroa-sneha. 288 ādāna-nimitta. 379 ārūpya (-samāpatti). 86 ālokanīya. 237 āloka (of pradīpa). 377 ābhoga-kriyā. 190 ārnava. 225 ākāra. 112. 370 āśraya. 183 ārsabha-sthāna. 307 ātmopādāna-mūla. 124 āgantuka-kleśa. 274 ātmam-bhari.. 84. 157. 128 ākāśa-svabhāvatā (buddhakāya). 363 ādhāra. 273. 192 ārya-satya. 193 ākāśopama (. 96. 211 ātmâvajñāna-dosa. 266 ākāśa (s. 209 ātma-prapañca. 104 ācarana-krt. 132 āniñjya. 132 [ālaya-vijñāna]. 365 ārsa. 231. 106. 228 āgantuka-mala. 102. 44 /—' & cittaprakrti. 179 [ātma-raksanopāya]. 124 āvenika-dharma. 360 [ārūpyâvacara-devavimāna]. 207. 132 ātma-samraksanopāya. 390 ātma-samjñā. 24. 118. 132. tad-ā. 159 āpanna-sattva-nārī (TG 8. 366 ātma-pāramitā. see cittaprakrti āgantukatā. TAKASAKI ākara. 194 ārambana-carita (bāla). 208. 290 ~ paryavasāna. 376 ā bhava-sthiteh. 332 ādi-praśānta. 82. 306 ātmâparādha. 154 ā bhava-gateh. 323. 124. 310. 122 (for buddhakarman. K VIII). 102. 208 ātroa-sattva-sama-sneha. 60. § XVIII-5. 80. 170 ārambanamykr. animittatva). 8. 315 ~ ksiti-pratyupasthāna. 289. 163. 116 (for āvenikabuddhadharma. 279 ānupūrvī. 94. 292 [ānantaryāni. for kleśa). 126 ātmâbhipreta. 211 ātma-darśana.. 232 ālokād alamkrta. 60. 183 ārsa-vacas. 124. nisthāgamana). 371 ārya. 82. 116. 82. 132 āpti-nistha. 157. 26. 72 ādi-pratijñā. 88 (for dharmakāya). 56. 355 ākāśa-dhātu. 98 ārya-mārga. 275 [āpta-punya-parinamana]. 340 ārya-gocara. 213 ākāśalaksano buddhāh. ( = bodhisattva) (TG VI 6). (ratna-). 66. § XVII-2 (II). 165. 170 ārūpya.). § III-4. 21. 130. 259 ādi-nirodha. 118 ādeśanā-prātihārya. 22. 120 āvedha. 112. 324 ādi-ksaya. 237. 144. (TG III. 368 ārambana. 132 āptâgama. 374 āvarana. § XIII-2 (VIII). 384 ~ & yukti. 151 āra. § XVIII-2. 174 ādi-prakrti-śāntatā. 52. 86. 253 āryapudgala-sāmtānika. for cittaprakrti). 100 (for tathāgata. § XVIII-3. s. 126. 193 āmisa-rasa. 84 ātma-bhāva. 205 ātma-drsti. 382 [ 416 ] . 385 ārsabha. 106. 254 āśaya. 170. 388 āranya-pravicarana. (B V. 40. 279 āniñjya-samskāropacaya. G III). āvaraça 2). 213 āgantuka. 157 ā bhavâgratah. 112. 167. 388 ādhya. pañca-]. § V I I I (I-II)-2.J. 264. ( = buddha). 108. 58/. 128. (RG I) ( = gotra). 386 [ātma-śuddhi]. § XV (III). 359 āvrti. 94. 348 āryâstâñga. 201 āvilata. 86. 132. 290 ālīna (āi/lī). 21. 55. 122. 316 ātman. 106. 108. 53. 80.

321 ucchitti-praty ay a. 299 uttara-kuru-dvīpa. 339 indhana. 219 ujjhita. 80. 82. sattva 1). ~ & tad-parāvrtti. 361 upeksâpratisamkhyā (āven. 241 upastambha. 86. 227 icchantika (TG II-III. 343 āsanna-dūrī-bhāva. 60. 212 upaśama-prabheda-pradeśa. 332 uttara-tantra. 297 utpāda. āśrayasya parāvrttih]. 216 upaVgam. 130. 145 unmīlya. 227 āsrava-ksaya-jñāna. 122 udāharana-samgraha. 376 āsrava-ksaya. 82. 176 upanisad-gata. 175 upakleśa. 258. 202 I îpsitara padam. 248 upaklista (citta). 120. 358 upaśama. 112. § XVII-4. 202 icchā. 266 upātta. 247 upadrava. 254. 187 āśrayaparivrtti. 80. 244 -upādāya. 278 upasarga. 84. 86. 197 upaydā. 190 uttarana. 220 ā samsāra-koteh. 120. 12-13. 124. 118 āśv api. 327 udāharana. 298 uparodha. 116 uttara-kāla(m). 225 upakāra. 357 îryā-patha. 246 upāya-patita (sattva). 209 upādāna. 157 ā samsārāt. 306 uttari-bhāvayitavya. 209 upāttesu pañcasûpādāna-skandhesu. 72. 203 indriya. (RG II) § XII-XIII. 128 uddāna. 114. 106. 228 iha. 401 ā śrayaparivrtti-prāpti-naya. 50. 130 [āśraya-parāvrtti. 86 92. 312. 338 uddiśat. 116. 147 indriya [-parāpara-jñāna-bala] (bala 3). 80. 150 unmūlita. 149 -upahita. 80. 84. 157 utsañga(-pādatā) (mahāp. 162 upasamkleśa. 177 upaneya. 329 upabhoga. § IX. 300 upavāsa. 274 * utksālya. 285 udāra. 37. 16. 157 āspada. 149 upapattim ca tusitesu. 310. 160 upaśānta. 15. 68 upaśānti-pada. 28. 341 āsraya. 176 ito-bāhya. 357 u ucchitti. 102. 60. 14-17 udhāharana-pindârtha. 187. 46. 361 upanidhāya. 330 upāyāsa. 96. 385 uddeśa. 295 upāya-kauśalya. 104 upanyasana.).). 6). 157 udāna. 124 uccheda-drsti. 204 iha-dhārmika. 214 upāya. 353 upaharanatā. 39. XVII (comm. XV. 215. 150 uttama-yāna. 41-44.The Ratnagotravibhāga udaya ( = abhisambodhi). 222 itara-prādeśika-jñāna. 331 uttame yāne paripācana. 344 utsukatā. 321 uddeśa-mukha. 245 [ 417 ] . 112. 41-44. 199. 203 upāya-vid (buddha). 242 upalambha. 297 upagūdha. 270 upacāra.

151 Ū ūrdhva-dehâvarta (roma) (mahāp. 110. 98 kāraâvacara-devavimāna. 319 <--' ena pravrttih. 332 rddhi-pāda. 28). (TG 9. 224 kuśala-mūla. 82 kalala—mahābhūta-gata. 346 R rddhi. 22). 245 kuksu. § XIII-(IV). 367 AU audārika. § VIII (III-IV)-5. 242 kāranânubhavana.). 220 usna (of pradīpa). 72. 118. 255 eka-dhātu. 185 kalyāna. 238. 337 E ekakbana-samāyukta (prajñā). 118. 100. 90 [ekayāna]. 307 krpā (=karunā). 122. 82. 132 kuśalopasampadā. 190 kāya. 118. 384 [kuśala-sampat-sattvânugraha]. 80. for dhātu). 90.) (VP 7) (RG IV). 226. 346 eneya-jañghatā (mahāp. 84. 346 ekaikaviślista-mrdûrdhvadeha-pradaksinâvarta-sūksma-roma (mahāp. 332 rddhi-prātihārya. 345 [ 418 3 . 96 kambu-grīvatvam amalam (mahāp.J. 151 kāma-dhātu. 28. 182 kāya-guhyaka (K 8). (buddha-k. 14). 70. vyañjana-k. 189 eka-jāti-pratibaddha (bodhisattva). 242 kārunya. 145 ubhayatâvikalpana(tā). 26). 199. 70. 122. (B IV). bhāvanā. 124. 249 kumuda. 128. 209 K kañguka-śāli-kodrava-yava-vrīhi. 285 audārya (sambhoga-kāya) (B VI6). 384 krtya-kriyā. 180 kāra-kriyā. 122. 88 karma-vipāka-jñāna-bala. 275 kupyanti. 22. 100. 275 kalaviñka-ruta (mahāp. 166. 302 ekânta. 303 ekaputraka(-samjñā). 287 kāca. 156. 189 ekânta-cārin (=pratyekabuddha). 124. 346 karunā. 332 kālânatikramanatā. 361 kālusya. 120. 313 aurasa. 170 eka—nay a. pada-. 100 ekâgrī (-bhavati). 116 karman. 375 karunā-nisyanda. 245 kuśala-sampad. (TG IV). 86 karunâtman. 200. 122. 253 krtyâsramsana.). 114. 108. 66. 317 kimkaranīya. 344 AI aiśvaryam uttaram. 156. 244 kuśalamūla-samprayukta (kleśa) § VIII (IX b)-2. 363 rsi (=buddha). 364 . 375 kāya—dvaya. 23. 342. 122. 55. 92. 271 kathā-vastu. 38 eka-rasa. 323. 118. 146 kanaka-bimba. (nāma-. kuśala-dharma. 306 krtya-sampādana. 116 krtrima. 180 kāranā. 371 ekaika-viślista (roma). TAKASAKI -up eta. 369 kuśala-karma-patha. § XVIXVII. 68 (jñāna--^) keśa-kambala. 6). 86 usnīsa-śīrsa (mahāp. 180 kāra. s. 311 karma-kleśa. 68. 338 karma-samkleśa. 349 ekaika-romodbhava. 345 kalpa.

for samādhi). 100. 265 grhapati (for bodhisattva) (parable of) § VIII (IX6)-3. 145 gañgā-nadī-vālikā-vyatikrānta (buddhadharma). 100. 382 guna-vibhāga. 158. 118. (RG III). 124 kleśâvarana-prahāna. 116. 269 garbha(-sthāna) (s. -viśuddhiparamatā). 206 gañgā-tīra-rajo 'tīta (buddha-dharma). 262 guna-pāramitā. 74. 366 khandikā. 313 gāmbhīryaudārya-māhātmya. § IX-1 (1-9). 161 ~ & jñeyâvarana. buddha-dharma). 23. 90 geya. 149 gotra (VP 4) (RG I) ( = dhātu) § VI-1 (ratnagotra). 37. 290 garbha-vestita. 210. 108. 108. 36. 328 kola (-upama). 275 garbha-kośa-mala. 271 khārodaka. 145 gañgā-nadī-vālikā-vyativrtta (buddhadharma). 68. 351 garbha (=tathāgata-garbha) (VP 4) (RG I). 371 gahvara. 283 garbha-gata (dhātu). 285 gāmbhīrya (svābhāvika) (B Via). — g. 96 ksaudra ( = madhu) (TG 2. IX-4 (gotra-svabhāva) (TG c) 21 &. 21. 106. 94. 102. (VP 6).tathāgatagarbhâstitva) godāvarī-dvīpa (godānīya-dvīpa). 80 garbhâvakramana. 145 gañgā-sikatâtivrtta (guna). 66. 311 guna ( = buddha-guna. (mani-gotra). 320 gāthā. for dhātu). 76. sukha. nitya) guna-prakrti. 330 KH khaga (vyomny apracārah khagah). 124. 145. 387 gahana 363. 110. 130. 84. 285 gocara-visaya. 96 ksetra (apariśuddha). 100 gotrâstitva (->. 254 grantha. 291 gamana. -aprameyatā. 49. 74 kleśa-nirodha. 70. 94. 190 gospada (=gospada). (B VI). 112 kleśa—mala. 78. (TG III) § VIII (III-IV) (4 — śubha. 348 guhya. 209 graha. 268 klesa-duhkhâbhāva. 174 ksati. -acintyatā. s. s. 259. 128. (TG 2. 150 gotra-svabhāva (TG c). 167 gañgā-nadī-vālukā-vyativrtta (buddhadharma). 254. 86 ksanika. 114. 130. 114 kleśâvarana-visamyoga. for kleśa). 166. ātma. 114. 72 gati. 88 gunavat. 390 ksiti ( = prthivī) -> prthivī-tala ksiti-pati (-> cakra-vartin) ksudra-prānaka. 116. 182 klesa. 331 kaivalya. 218 ksānti. 151 khādy-asusamskrta.—sarvatā. 387 ksaya. (5 g. 369. 178 [ 419 ] . 329 Vgarh. 306 kleśa-kośa. 336 guru. 110 kleśa-samkleśa. 142. 114 (-tva). 122. 28. 281 kleśa-viśuddhi. 233. 145 gana ( = samgha) (VP 3). 2) 114 guna—dharma.) 1) 106. 150 gagana-gañjā (samādhi). 108 kleśendhana—dahana. 141 gana-samtāna. 88. ( ~ & dosa). 150 gunavattva. 303 guna—nispatti (caturākāra—g. 284. 82 kleśâvarana. 148. 222.. 96 kleśa-karma-vipāka.The Ratnagotravibhāga ' ^ avabhāsa. VII (tathāgata-gotra) (TG c).

70. 360 citta-caitasika. 223 caraka. laukika-jñāna). 22.) 227. 100. 156. 152 jāti. 96 cittavyavadāna-dharma-sahajâvinirbhāgatā.J. (for sāmbhogika). 167 [citta-mātra]. 3). 236 citta-vyavadāna. § XV (II). 222 cetah-paryāya. (RG I). 339 [catus-kotikā]. 329 cyuti-duhkha. 308. 359 citratā. 361 ghosa. 344 jina (-buddha). 255 cātaka. 236 cittâbhisamskāra. 347 cetanā. 151 catur-vaiśāradya-prāpta (buddha). 166 cakra-vartin. 277 citta-samjñāpana. 363 cyavate (]/cyu). 329 jāta-rūpa. 328 citra-lekhaka (parable of) § VIII (X)-3. 146 jina-kriyā (VP 7) (RG IV). 82 jambu-dvīpa. 60. 329 janma-samkleśa. 92. 114. 53. (TG 8. 92 jagat. 229. 233 citta-mano-vijñāna. ( = āsravaksaya-j. 250 citta-nidhyāpana. 120. (=buddha-jñāna) 108. 72. 304 jagac-charanya. 216 jala-ruha. (na ~ sya hānih) (āven 7). 357 caturvidhâviparyāsa-samjñā. jñātr. 190 jarā. 402 jinatā. 23. 104. (=tat-prsçhalabdha. 243 cyutim tatah. 239 chidrâbhra. 76. 120. 118. 96 cittasamkleśa-dharmâgantukatva. § XVII (VI). 90. 344 citta. 84. 172. 96 cittavyavadāna-hetu (tathāgatadhātu). 96. 22. s. 106. 299 ghattita. 270 jātakāni. 163. TAKASAKI GH ghatita. 342 jinatva. 216 jātya. 24. 102 cakrâñka (-pādatā) (mahāp. 196 cihna. 128 cintitârtha. 269 jathala. 357 citta-viśuddhi. 203 caryā-pratipanna (bodhisattva). 59. 70. 124 jina-garbha (=tathāgata-garbha). for dhātu). 90 cittaprakrti-vaimalyadhātu. 346 citâmśa. 344 cañkramyamāna (īryā-patha). 341 chavi. 96. for dharmakāya. 298 jāla. 110 jaghanya. 94. 27. 420 ] . 269 janman. § XVI-XVII. 78. 68. TG a). 222. 298 citta-prakrti. 236 jarā-marana. 35. 82. 266 jāla-pāni-pādâvanaddbatā (mahāp. 191 cittasya prakrtih. 166 catuh-śukla. 120. 100 citta-samkleśa. 172 jagat-parispharana (karunā). ~ vat. 88. 22. 367 CH chanda. 76. 263 cintāmani (s. 190 cāru—vaktra. 295 citta-samtāna. 365 cātur-dvīpa.). 230 (-viparyāsa). 116. 236 ~ & āgantuka-kleśa. IX).. 72. 122. 90 jñāna. 34. 317 . § VIII (VIII. 116. 82. 222 citra. 233. 116. 59.

110. 161. 82. 114.#74. 114 jñeyâvarana-visamyoga. 24. IX. (TG 3. VIII. 22. 290 (-> dhātu) tathāgata-bodhi-jñāna. tādrśa. 199. 287. 86. 203 tamo—vidhamana—jñāna. 72 198. 28. 80. 128. 124 tusitesv upapattih. 143. 198 tathāgatatva. 120. 287 tisthat. § II-2. 24. 130 tathāgatagotra-sambhava. tri-bhava. 229 tathāgata (=buddha) (VP 1) (TG IX c). 100. 96. 76 tathāg ata-dharmakāy a-p arisphar an art ha (TG a). 369 tamas. 161 jñeyâvarana-prahāna. 259. 198. (RG IV). 76. 258. 120. 25. 291. sattva 2). trayâvarana-nihsrta. 116 141. 116 tathāgata-kula. 82. IX-4. 94. 287 timira. for kleśa) tathāgata-karman. 230. 382 tathāgata-gotra (VP 4) (RG I) (TG c) § tri-bhūmigata-mala. 21 ff. 104. 196. 72. 100. 202 tathatâvyatibhedatā. 112. 108 tad-ubhayânabhilâsin. 109 tathāgatagarbha-sūtra. 70. 231. 215 tri-bhuvana. 26 taruna. 272 tat-prsthalabdha (jñāna). 315 tathatā (TG b). 80. 286. 356 299 tri-dhātu-samkleśa-nibarhana. 360 tathāgata-krtya-kriyā.. 266 jñānadarśana-śuddhi. 24. 108 jyesçhi-putra. 72. 110 tattva. 198. 68. 181 (TG a-c) § VII. 154 jñāna-nihsrti (K V). 287. tridaśeśvara. 37. 78. 187. 102. 149 tathāgatagotra-sambhavârtha (TG c). 151. 28. 323 jñāna-dhātu. 169 tala. 344 tattva-darśana.). 68. 92 jñāna-darśana. 74 tathâgama. 76. 288 tathāgata-jñāna. s. 114 tattvadarśana-vibandha. 154 jñānadhātv—āptinistha. 202 tapat. XVII jñâpana. 100. 53. 70. 36 421 ] . 400 (^garbha). 100 tīrthika. 325 ^ vipranasta-citta (pudgala). 78. 126 jñeyârtha. 60. 230. 74. 98. 132 tridhā-vimukta. 23. 100. 108. 145 tathāgata-dharmakāya (VP 5) (RG II). 102. 226 tathāgata-śarana-gata. 30. 278 22. 177 jñāna-dehin (=dhîmat). 94. 395 tusa ( = bahistusa). 80 tūrya. 36. 90. 319 tathāgata-dharma (RG III). § VII. 76. ' tīvra-rāga-dvesa-moha-paryavasthānalaksana (kleśa). 381 tathāgatagarbhâstitva. & nirmalā t. 8. 23. 114. 22. 198 tathāgata-dhātu (VP 4) (RG I) § VIII-IX. 78. 23. 371 jñeyâvarana. 70. 124 tathāgata-garbha (VP 4) (RG I) § VII-XI tyājya. 389. 78. 259 tad-āśrayah (B V) ( = yoga). 108. 198 tathāgatagotra-svabhāva. tri-jñāna ( = śruti-cintā-bhāvanāmaya-j. 288 (-> gotra) trimandalâvikalpa. 323 tathāgata-garbha-śūnyatârtha-naya. 122. 292. 340 jñeya (-vastu). 88. 266. 260 tārā-rūpa. 78. 102. 383 IX-4. 288. 98 tathāgata-mahākarunā-vrtti-hetu.. 357 tathatā-svabhāva (TG b) § IX-4. 104. trikāya. 25. 154 jñānâlokâlañkāra-sūtra. 189 tathāgata-tathatā'vyatirekârtha (TG6). 13-15). 163 samalā t. 74. 375 jñāna-pūrvamgama (karma) (āven. 202 tathatâvyatireka. 327 30. 8. 169 tarkâgocara.The R a t n a g ot r a vib h ā g a ~ & karunā. 100 tri-mandala-pariśuddhi. 100 tīrthya (TG II. 342 jñānâpti.

355 durgrhīta-grāhin. § XVIII-2 (VI). 16-18). 98. 203 durbhaga. 193 < . 190 dvīpâgrâdhipa. (K II). 126 duhkha-cārikā. 342 tryadhva-jñāna (āven. 174. 100. 283. 328 deśanā. 375 darśana-prahātavya (kleśa). 74 try-adhvan. 285 deśanā-prayojana. 263 dm-mārga-bhāvanā (=darśana-bhāvanāmārga). 387. 4). 106.). 104 dāna. 128. 116. 232 daśa-bala § XV (I). 98. 96 tvañ-mdru-śrī-tarunatā (mahāp. 190 [tri-svabhāva] (parikalpitâdi). 124 daksinîya. 318 dvaya. 285 [deśanā-naya].J. 48. 70. — -nirodha. (bīja-tvak) (TG 6). 193 tvak-kośa. 216 dravya. 163 dosâgantukatā.anupaccetr. 370 divaukas. ~ -hetu. 356 divyā-caksus (=cyuty-upapatti-jñānabala) (bala 9). 185 durlabhodaya. 128. (for niryāna). 278 darśana-mārga. 158. 110. 278 [ 422 ] . 74. 147 trividdha-svabhāva (of TG) § IX-4. (?). 128 darśanā-deśanā-pravrtti-krama. 108./. (K I). 92 traiyānika-gana. 344 D daka-candra (=ambu-candra) (G IV). 255 dūsya. 84 duhkha-bhīrutva. 367 (duhkha. 70. 126 devadundubhi-vat. 80 drdhâdhyāśaya. 152 dagdha-pûrva. 375 deśanā-dharma. 128 durlabha-prāpata-bhāva (tathāgata). 122. 372 durlabhatva (K VI). 126 deśa-kāla-gamana. 110. TAKASAKĪ tri-ratna-vamśa. mārga). § XV (IV). 70. § XV (IV). 348 drdha—karunâdhyāśaya. 74. 233. 122. § XVII-3. 305 deśanī. 41. 205 duhkha-samjñā. 80. 167 dvidhā darśanam. 269 dvesa. 344 dundubhi. 120 daśa-bhūmi. 343 dvādaśa-bhavâñga. 120. 110 dina-krt. 339 dīpti. 342 tryadhvânubaddha. 84 duhkha-nirvit. 116. § XI. 128 drsti. 122. 347 dakacandra-vat (buddha). 88 daurgandhya-vāsanā. 197 dosa (TG VIII a). 180 dvipadâgrâdhipatya. 88. (5 dosa). 150. 126. 116. 166 dvay a-graha-vimukti. 124 dūramgamā (bhūmi). 167 darśana-heya (-vyāvrtti). 128 durlabh6tpāda-bhāva (of ratna). 205 duhkhâgni-praśamana § XVIII-2 (III). 122. 47. 169 dvesânusaya-lakasana (kleśa). 280 (-viparyāsa) deva-dundubhi (K II). 278 drdha. 122. 229 drstānta. 252 drsta-satya (— tattva-darśin). 130 duhkha. 375 darśanâdi-navadhortha. 118 dvātrimśan-mahāpurusa-laksana-rūpadhārin (buddha). 58 traidhātuka. 236 darśana. 290 ^^ — pratibimbaka (manomayakāya). 82. 193 ~' triratnâtpatty-anurūpa—hetu. 70. 124 daśa-bhūmi-stbita-bodhisattva. 128. 158. 284 trisāhasra-mahāsāhasra-lokadhātu. 254 dehin. 104 dosa (=dvesa). 182. 130 dāridrya-vinivartana(tā). 330 duhkha-nirodha. 351 deśana (nt. 92. 94 dīrghâñgulikatā (mahāp. 318 dvisāhasra-lokadhātu. 2). 100 darśanā. 128 daśa-pāramitā. 98. § XVII-2 (II). 198. 338 dvi-pada.

294. 66 ~ -ātmabhāva. 290. 120. 56. 74. 205. 106. ( = yāna). 104. 72 dharma-ksati-phala. 403 dharmadhātu-samanvāgama. ( = mārga). 390 dharmâloka-mukha. 149 ~ — mukha. 110 dharma-rāja-jyesfa-putra. 112 ~ & (vi-)muktikāya. 112. 224 dharma-pada. 255 dharma-ratna (VP 2). 68 dharma-tattva. 112. 100 dharma-kārakriyā. 344 [ 423 ] . 144. § VIII (IX b)-6. 108. 184. 225. 104. § II. 257 dhruva-dharma.The DH Ratnagotravibhâga dharmabhrd-āra. 167. (TG a) § IX-4. 92. for tathatā). 244. 102.~). 70. 192. 292 dharma-kāya. 110. 314. 76 193 dharmadhātu-garbha. 118. 323 dharmatā—nisyanda. 232 dharma-sthititā. 235. 74. 78. 124 dharmakāya-garbha. 299. 94. 325. 292. 284. for karunā). 26. 126. 102. 320. 146. 295. 291. 160. 70. 21. 7). 72 nava-yāna-samprasthita (bodhisattva). 339 dhruva. 290. 149 dharmarāja-putra. 290 ( = hetu). 352 dhātrī (s. 375 dhīmat (=bodhisattva). 27 dharmakāya-viśuddbihetu. 225 ( = hetu). 339. 126 ' dharma-dvisa-sevana. 339. 70 dharmakāya-parispharanatā. 39. 379 dhyāna-vāry-abhisyandana. 22. 196. 116. 322. 100. 30. 86. 130. 82 [dharmadhātu-viśuddhi]. 100. 46. 187. 132 dharma-meghā (bhūmi). 144. 110 dhyānâdi-kleśa-vaimalya (bala 7). 31. 25. 225. 104. ( = guna) (VP 6) (RG III) 23. (dkāranir āj asūtra) § 1-3. § XVIII-4. 31. 132 dharma-ksati-hetu. 235. 23. 385 dharma-parameśvara.. 252. 285 dharmadhātu-parama. 295. 252. 146 dhī ( = prajñā). 365 dhāranīśvararāja (sūtra). 86 dharmadhātu-svabhāva. 214 dhātu. 102. 66. (VP 4) (RG I). 389 dharma-bhrt. 294 dharmârthavāda. 132 dharma-dhātu. 330 dharmacakra-pravarta. (VP 2) ( = dharma). 122. 261 nava-candra-vat. 116 dharmatā. hetu 1). 239 dharmeśvara. 66. 142. 166. 266 dharma-divākara. 22. 308 dhī—māndya. 405. 10. 8. 74. 29. (VP 5) (RG II) (āśrayaparivrttilaksana . § XVIII-4. 22. 224. 142. 262 dharma-paryāya. 36. 104. 271 dharmaiśvarya. 200 dharmānām dharmatā. 175. 26. 80 dhāranī. 132. 68. 276 dharmâdhimukti (TG II. 28 ff. 78 nabhas-tala. 238. 320 ~ & rūpakāya. 110 ~ -hetu. 118. 116. 268 dharma. 74. 234. 114 dharmâkāñksin. 161. 198 ~ sya śodhanam. 132 dharma-cakra (-pravrtti). 118. 325 -dharman. 72. 322 dhyāna. 94. 56. 21. 248 dharma—skandha. 343 dharmatā-gahvaratva. 171. 219. 303 dharmakāya—prāpti. 147. 231 nabhas (s. 303 dharmadhātu-nisyanda. 331 ~ -prakāśana. 304 naya. 70 <~ -gunavibhāga. (bala 4). 68. 268. 120. 114. 223 ( = yāna). 370 dharmadhātu-kriyā. 155 dharmatva. 70 dharma-dundubhi. 120. 96. 141. (VP 2). 132 dhīra (dhīmat). (catur-). 296 nāga-ko śavad-vasti-guhyatā (mahāp. 92. 80 dharma-viçhapanā. 366 dharmâkhyāna-naya. 88. 226 dharmakāya-svabhāva (TG a). 108. 182 naya-mukha (-ena). 30. 388 N nagara (parable of). 231 dharma-bhānakatva. 320.

śiva. 171 nimitta-grāhin. 221 nirvrtih paramā. 320 nimittârambana. 74. prakrtistha-gotra). 325 nidāna-parivarta. 354 nidbi (=nidhāna). 264 niśraya. 321 nitya. 84. 233 nisthā-gata. 84. 126. RG II). 126. 321. 84. 122 nirīha (G IV). 292 nisanna. TAKASAKI nānātva-samjñitā (na ~ ) (āven. 262 nisthāgata-bodhisattva. 357 nisevya. 370 nimitta. 351 nisyanda. 170. 328 nisyanda-phala. 266 nirvrti ( = nirvana). 102. 27. 170 nimitta-bhūtatva. 222 nihśritya. 243. 112 nimitta-varjita (tathāgata). 161 niyama. 248 nirālamba. 348 nirj/han. 76. 310 nirmāna (-kāya). 373 nirāstha. 167. 86 nirvāna-dhātu. 116. 262 nispādya. § XIII (VII). 122 nirmamī-karana. 389 niravaśesa-yogena. 94. 102 nirvānâdhigama—kriyā. 120. 358 niranukrośa. 70. 165 nirodhâpti (vaiś. 373 niskaivalya. 184 nisthā (-guna) (TG VIII c). 122. 116. 213 nisthâdhigama-paryavasāna. 182 nihsarana-paryesin. 158 nāyaka. 341 nirāsthatva. 171 nimnonnata. 167. 352 nirvrjya. 352 nidhyāna. 348 nirdosa. 108. 118 nirvāna-gotra. 257. 76. 82. 166 niruttara-tathāgata-karman. 102. 289 niryāna (=yāna). 209 nitya-samjñā. 389 nipāta. for sattva. 106 nirnānā-karana. 106. XVI). 258. 294 nirātmatā.~. 348 nirīhaka. for vyādhi). 353 nirvana. 74. 122. 250. 170. 114. 294 niyata-rāśi. 367 niskalpa. 330 nirvikalpatā. 308. 23. 270 nivartya. 365 niravajñā. 21. 9).J . (B VII). 21. 285. 120. 318. śāśvata. 290 nir vānâdhigama. 76 nihsarana. 5). 184 nispatti. 178 nirantara-citâmśatā (mahāp. 122. 84. 27. 284. 261 ~ & samsāra. 116. 4). 82. 341 nāma—paryāya. 146 nidhāna (s. 92. 92 nisthāgatabodhisattva-sāmtānika. 74 nirmalā tathatā (VP 5. 31 nihśrayena. 208 nidāna. 144. 203 nirdeśa. 98 nisthāgamana. 74 [ 424 J . 102. 326 nirvedhika(tva) (G I). 193 nirbhayatva. 373 niyata-gotra-svabhāva. 242 nirmala. (TG 5) (s. 116. 258 nirdainya. 122. 120. 344 nirapeksa-pravrtti § XVII-2 (III). 88. 165 nirodha-satya § III-3. 38. 357 nirukti. 340 nirgranthi-putra. 108. 92. dhruva. 31. 348 nistha. for [dhātu. 270 nivarana. 259 nāma-rūp a. 208. 331 nivāsânusmrti (bala 8). 346 nāśa. 31). 106 niravajya. 39. 164 niskimcana. 311 . 339 niśchidra. § XII-XIII. 257 nitya-pāramitā. 122. 120. 66 nirodha-mārga-satya. 380 nārakâgni (s. 114. 187. 90 nārāyana-sthāma-drdhâtmabhāva (mahāp. 221 nihsamkleśa-visuddhi. 124. 70 nirviśistam. 124.

199 parama-dharmaiśvarya. 169 paryesti-duhkha. 120 parârtha-sampad. 367 pavitra (tā). 214 parama-nirvāça (TG X). 116. 21. 7 8 nairmānika (kāya). 130. 94. 285 parampara. 310 padma-(kośa). 322 parusa-sparśa-rabita. 184 paryavadāpana. 307 nīca-citta. § XIII (VI c). 84 nairmalya. 383 parisat. 21. 308 nairātmya-koti. 210 para-pratyaya-sambhava. 222 parivrtti. 82. 112. 270 patthara-cunna ( = prastara-cūrna). 74. 142. 388 [nihsvabhāvatā]. 26. 361 paratah. 58 mca. 319. 386 [nītârtha]. 346 pañca upādāna-skandhāh. 330 naihsvābhāvya. 132 nairātmya. 72. 104 paramânu. 162 parāvrtti. 130. 214 paripāka. 262 pariśuddhi. 213 pātāla-stha. 124. 156. 371 parusa. 148 parigavesayat. 199 paramârtha—laksana. 285. 24). 187 parivrājaka. 211. 120 "^ & samvrti-kāya. 203 pariśrānta. 263 paryutthāna (=paryavasthāna). 110. 68. 386 nllotpalaśrī-vrsapaksma-netra (mahāp. 353 parigrahana. 102. 151 neyârtha. 74. 245 parimārganā. 322 paramârtha-satya. 122. 116. 294 parispharanatā. sarvajña). 184 paryanta-kāla-śarana. 186 paramârtha-dhātu ( = tathâgata-dhātu). 277 paryāya. 84 paramârtha. 371 padârtha. 193. (TG I. 260 parârtha-sampatti. 128 parama-tattva-jñāna-visaya. 348 paligodha (->• phaligodha). 171 parigraha. 148 parispharana. 150. 66 pada ( = sthāna. 106 nîta. 372 pāpa-suhrd. 387 neyârtha-tattva-graha. 118. 332 nyagrodha (-> vrksa) nyagrodha-pūrna-druma-maçdalâbha (mahāp. 100. 195 para-pārami-prāpta. 114. 126 naiskramya. 324 nairyānikatva. s. 29. 100. 98 para-cakra. 190 paramâtman. 252 parikarman. 254 paryanta-kāla. 324 parikalpita (or parikalpa). 114 parama-bodbi. 336 [ 425 ] . 288 parinirvāna. § VIII (III-IV)-3. 108. 346 nrpatva. 257. 120 paramârthakāyatā. 96. 269 netrī. 258 paramârtha-kāya. 182 paryavasthāna. 29. 112. 295 paryāpanna. 112. 118. 30). āspada). 122. 292 parikīrtana. 104 paripantha. 174 nairātmya-prapañca (-vigama). 124 p arama-vi śuddha-dharmatā. 209 pattra. 112 parârthasampatty-adbisthāna. 150 paryavasāna. 29. 318 parsad-gana. 231 parama-śūnyatârtha. 382 parikarma-krta. 114 -paryanta. 285 nīti. 253 paricchādita. 245. 224 parijaya. 252 parijñātāvin.The Ratnagotravibhâga paramârtha-darśin (== sarvadarśin. for kleśa).

358 pranudana. 190 prthag-jana (TG VI o). 84 -^ & vaimalya-śuddhi. 120 prajñā. 80. 183 pratibaddha. hetu 2). § XVII (IX). 94. 256 pratibādhana. 112. 106 nāsti prajñayā hānih (āven. ( = citta-prakrti) 88. 263 pratigha. 86. 388 pratisvam. 72.) ( = paramārthakāya). 98 prthivī (K IX). 321 pūtivastra (TG 7. 149 pratirūpaka. 27. 110 pūrna-vimalendu. 248 prakrtârtha. 245 puçyâpti. 96. 254 pratipannaka. 120. for kleśa) prthivī-vat. 128 pratipaksa. 308. 72. 108. 205 pratipaksatā. for bodhisattva). 218 pratiśarana. 231 prthagjana-śaiksa-sāmtānika. 94 pindârtha. 128. 132 pudgala-drsti. 264 pratisarati. 57. 169 pratijñā. 189. 300 pratisevya. 74 pārami-gata. 130. 98. 86. 76. 292 prati-samydhā. 375 prakrti. 222 pranihita-manas. (ekaksana-samāyukta . 269. 342 pūti. 187 pratītya-dharma. 303 prakrti-pariśuddhi. 128 prsjha-labdha (jñāna). 189 prakalpayati. s. 80. 106 — & karuna. 207 prajnāpāramitā-bhāvanā (TG II. 203 pudgala-dharmâkhya (jagat). 200 praklinna. 283 praghosa. 330 pratikrti. 165 pratipad. for kleśa). 250 pratibhā. 84 ~ & jñāna. 383 punya-sambhāra. 108. 269 -prakhyā. 174 pudgala-dharmâvināśatva. 130. 179 pratiroma-krama. 266 posa ( = purusa). 55. 178 paurvâparyena. 204. 82. 317 pūrva-videha-dvīpa. 102. 234 pitr (s. 295 pratiśruti (K VII). 128. 124. 185 pratividhya. 94. 102. 30.J. 386 pratibimba. 72. 363 pratipanna. 55. 172. 70. 253 prativedha. 90 puçya. 106. 76 prakrti-pariśuddha-dharma-garbha. 360 pratapati. 239 prakrti-citta-jñāna. 315 prakrti-śuddhi. 355 pratiśrutka-śabdavat. 108 prakrtistha (gotra). 70. 86 ( = avikalpajñāna). 205 pranidhi. 171. 84. 80. 120 pāramārthika (buddha). 370 pratārayati. 21. 181 [ 426 ] . § XVII-2 (VII). 128 pratiśrutya. 27. 263 pratisthā. 112. 102. 183 purojava. 142. s. 174 prakrti-viśuddhi. 74. 188 prakrti-prabhāsvaratā. 201 pratighâkāra. 84. 130 prthivī-dhātu. 381 pāramitā (sac) XVIII-1. 289 pratibimbaka. 80. 178 puçya—pāramitā. 128. 210 prativarnika. TA&ASA&] pāramârtbika(m vapub. 94. 72 punar-bhava. 84. ( = prajñā-pāramitā-bhāvanā). 385 pratibhāna. 22. 341 prajñā-pāramitā. 383 pūrna-candra. 130. 10). 290 prthivî-tala (TG 5. § VIII (I-II)-2. 178 posin. 90.) . 288 ~ & samudānîta. 352. 104. 363 prajñapta. 78 prakrti-prabhāsvara (citta). 104. 381 punya-jñāna-sambhāra. 100 pūri. 288 prakrty-asamklisça. 291. 184 pāramārthika-śarana. 236.

355 prabhāsvara. 331. 308 [pratītya-samutpāda]. 124. 72 pratyātma-vedanīya. § XIII (III). 360 pramānatah. 230 praśama-pura ( = nirvana). § XV (I). for kleśa). 242 prākrtâgni (s. 342 prahāna. 345 pravacana.The Ratnagotravibhāga prasanna. 234 prāpti (B II) ( = prāpty-upāya). 357 prātihārya-traya. 72. 72. 106. 369 praśuddha. 366 protsāha. 361 prādeśika-śarana. 199. 222 prāsāda. 80. 86. 204. 181. 201 prabhāva-sampatti. 12). 314. 227 pbaligodha. 179 bimba (=nirmāna-kāya). 365 prasava. 100. 381 prasādhita. 142. 221. § XVII-2 (V) prabhāva. 80. 294 pramuditā (bbūmi). 338 bahis-tusa (TG 3. 102. § VIII (III-IV). 114. 86 pradeśa. 312. (svabhāva) (TG a). 122. 86. 375 prāpty-upāya (B II). (B III). (TG" III). 82. 110. 326 bīja. 84. 126. 178. sarvakālam. 242 prādeśika-jñāna. 90 prathama. § VIII (V)-2. 254 pramoksa-citta. 310. 20). 80 [ 427 ] . 226. 122. 156. 98 bāla-prthagjana. 74 prāpta-nirvāna-samjñin. 110 B bala (G I). 362 prādurbhāva. § XIII (VI). 66. 367 prārthanā. 21. 26. 326 pratyātma-vedya. 198. 70. sattva 4). 104 bāla-sārtbâtivāhana. 92. for adhimukti). 82. 157 prapañcayati. 312. 220. 227. 213 pbalgu. 108. for prajñā). 248 prabhāsvaram viśuddham ca. 116 prabhāvita. 108. 314 pravrtti (=vrtti) (TG VI). (K IX). for TG V. (s. 298 praskîialita ( = skhalita). § VIII (VI). 130 pratyātmam. 246 prabhava. 178 prādeśikatva. 90 prāni-gana ( = ksudra-prānaka) prātihārya. 98 pradaksinâvarta. 2). 314 pxāpana. 116 bibharti. 82. 108. 249 prayoga. 163 pratyātma-vedita. 94. 285 pratyupasthāna. 195 pratyaya-laksana (paripantha). (s. 228 prahāra. 120 balânvita (buddha). 179 PH phala. 385 prabhā-mandala-viśe&ana. 276 prākrta. 356 preta. 84. 346 pradīpa (s. 345 pramathana. 74. s. 285 prabhā. 92. 26. 108. 160 prapañca. 163 pratyātmâdhigama-dharma. 354 pratyekabuddha (TG II-IIĪ. 311 phala-tvak (-> tvak-kośa) phala-vrksa (-> vrksa) phala-samanvāgama. 255 prathama-lokottara-dharma-darśanajñāna. 185 prabhākara. 120. 120 prāptavya. 280 prathama-cittotpādika (bodhisattva). (B VI). 226 pralambba-bāhutā (mahāp. 188 pratyaya. 193 pramānī-krtya. for jatā). 128. 327 prabhūta-jihvatā (mahāp. 78. 104 pratyekabuddha-yānika. 318 ~ -vyapagama(tā). 330 prāptab. 214 pratyaya-sambhava. 116 prabandha. 96. 290. 120 prāpya. 176 pratyātma-lokottara-jñānadarśana. 159 prapācana-vyākarane nidānam. 401 pravicaya—jñāna.

128. 334 bhavâgra. 98. ( = buddha-bimba) (TG 1. 66. 68 ~ -gunavibhāga. 72 bodhisattvâlamkāra. (X)-3. 355 [<~ & ātman]. 330 bodhi-sattva. 68. 388 buddha-dharma (RG III). 239 bhājana-vimātratā. 256 buddha-mandala. 305 ~ astitva. 243 bhavâbhilāsin. 141. 191 bhava-nir vāna-d vay agr aha-vimukti. 158. § V-3. 23. 197 antargama(tva). (TG VII. 226 buddbatā. 106 buddha-bimba. 299. 76. 23. 142 bodhi-citta. 50. 313. 384 [ 428 ] . 152 bodhisattvâbhāsa. 24. 27. § XVII-2 (III). 168 bhāva-vināśa. 285 bodhisattva-bhūmi. (TG 1. 74. 92. 142. for dhātu) ( ^ buddha) buddha-bodhi (VP 5) (RG II). § XIII (I-II). 331. 106. 124 buddha-ratna (VP 1). 76. 94. 106. 382 bhājana-loka. 370 bodhimandâvakrānti. 152 bodhisattva-yānika. 130 bhāvanā-jñāna-heya. 24. 368 bhavyatā. 130. 96. 66. 96. 118 bhava-śānty-anudgraha. 194 bodhy-aûga (RG III). TAKASAKI bījâñkura (TG 6. 122. § I V-3'. 72 buddha-krtya (RV IV).-7. 80. bodhisattva—mahākarunā. 130. 266 buddhi. XIII (VI) 102 buddha-kāra-kriyā. 24. 197 brahman ( = mahā-brahman. 88. 194 bodhana (RG IV). 299 bhāvita. 128 buddha-garbha (— tathāgata-garbha). 24. 147. 316 bhānu. 180 buddha-bhūmi. 158 bhavya. 100. s. 152 bodhisattva-pitaka. 345 BH bhañga. 353 bodhisattva-karman. 152 bodheh sattvah. 118. 84. 197 buddha-jñāna-samudāgama-hetu.J. 28. 29. 307. 180 bodhisattva-samgha. 309 buddhatva. 372 bhāvanā. § IX-4. 92. 202 bhavana. 66. 80. § VIII (X)-2. 106. 100 bhāvanā-prahātavya (-kleśa). 118 buddha-dharmâvinirbhāga (dharmakāya). 261. 22. 104. 106. 116 bodhimandâpasamkrānti. 124. 94 buddha-dhātu (VP 4) (RG I). 78. § XII-XIII. 59. 235. 157 bhaya-samjñā. 128 buddha-śarana. for dhātu). 98. 104. 404 buddha—sāmtānika. 357 bhāskara. 126 bhāti muktam. 66. 130 buddha-kriyā (RG IV). 194. 45. ( = bodhi) (RG II). 24. § II. 80. 78. 231. 98. 108. 130 buddha-bhāva. § IV-3. for dhātu. 128. 376 <• -ekacarama-janma-pratibaddha (bo"' « dhisattva). 66. 22. s. m) (K IV). 88. 66. 48 (-> bauddha gotra) buddha-jñāna (TG a). VIII (I-II)-2. § XI. 22 buddha-guna (VP 6) (RG III). s. 90. 76. 76. 100. 194 bodhi (VP 5) (RG II). IXc). 360. 376 bhavāh (=tri-bhava). 22. 352 buddha-dustâśaya. 310. 74 bhava. 76. 110 buddha-kāya (-traya). 24. 100. 132 bauddha gotra. 24. 224. 66. 96 buddha (VP 1). 383 bodhi-manda. 22. 35. 24. 380 boddhavya. 72. 94. 336 buddha-gotra. 371 bhāva. 21 brahma-svaratā (mahāp. 353 bodhya (RG I). 72. samudānītagotra). 278 bhāvanā-mārga. § VIII (IXb)-7. 66 buddha-visaya. 72 [buddha-laksana]. 102. VIII (IX 6)-6. 252 bodhy-āpti. 23). 86.

190 bheda. 306 māra-pramathana. § XVII-2 (IV). 126. 66 mahābrahmavat. 368 maharsi (=bodhisattva). 92. 90. 283 mahā-dharmâdhirāja. 241 mūla-pariśuddha. 21 mūla—paricchinna. 80. 357 bhūta. 190 mahâtman ( = buddha). 100. 100. 375 mano-maya-kāya. 80 mahāyāna-dharmâdhimukti-bhāvanā (TG II. 3). 132 muni-pati (=buddha). 120. 369 mukti-kāya (^vimukti-kāya). 355 māhendra-marutā. 191 mīmāmsā. 386 bheri. 340 mārsāh. 246 mano (-guhyaka) (K VI). 358 muni-vrsa ( = buddha). § III-4. 161 mithyâbhimānâśraya. 205 mahāyāna-samprasthita. 15). 317 musitatā. hetu 1). 230 muni. 122. 335 mahā-karunā. 342 musitā smrti (nāsti --w) (āven. 74. for prajñā). 346 mahodadhi. 282 M mani-gotra. 151 mahā-samudra. 80. 80. 289 mahā-purusa-laksana (G IV). 124 mātr (s. 271 madhyastha. 106 mahāyāna-dharma-pratigha. 11. 313. 114 mala-hara. 276 bhū ( = prthivī). 100 manomaya-skandha. 150 mani-ratna. 306 bhūta—dharma. 120. 122. 126 [ 429 ] . 172 (daśa-) § VIII (IX 6)-7. for kieśa). 320 mukhâvadāna. 29). 116. 305 bhūmi. 190 mahî-ruha. 153. 362 bhoga. for dhātu). for cittaprakrti). 191 mukta-jñāna. 165 mārgah sarvatra-gāmini (bala 6). 287 madhu. 104. s. 84. 80 mrgendra-hanutā (mahāp. 372 mandanaka. 128. 206. (TG 2. 98 bhramara-prānin. 189 mahā-prthivī. 94' mandalaka. 369 māra-sainya-pramadana. 190 mahā-bodhi-karunā. 84. c). 106 bhūtadharmâpavāda. 339 mārgâkhyāna (vaiś. 106. 70. 98. 120. 358 manas ( = citta prakrti). 215 mano-rama. 80. 148. 217 manomayâtmabhāva (=manomayakāya). 262 0 mano-rūpa. 3). 122 mahā-pusta (parable of).The Ratnagotravibhāga mahā-maitrī. 90 mātsarya (-ādi). 341 mūrdhnā. hetu 4). 373 mahendra-nīlâmala-ratna-keśa (mahāp. 82. 205 mithyā-niyata-rāśi. 171 bhūta-koti. 114. 297 mala-vigamatā. 30. s. 251 mahā-cakra-vāla. 345 mrt-panka-lepa (TG 9. 292 muktā. (of arka. § VI-1 (III). 359 xnama-kāra. 381 bhramara. 205 mahârya-saddharma-rasâgra-vindana. 276 manasi-kāra 169 manāpa. 132 mīdha-kūpa. 80. 92. 112 mahā-vaisajya-rasa. 386 mūla. 264 māyā-nirmita. 197. 132 mithyātva-niyatah sattva-rāśih. 330 mārga. 279. 255 bhūmy-avacara-devavimāna. 96. s. 359 manomaya-kāya-trayah. 74. 308 mahākarunā-bhāvanā (TG II. 184 muni-prabhākara. 358 (mithyā)darśana. 74 mārga-satya. 239 māhātmya (B VI. (K). 120. 298 mandala. (for śrāvakayānika). 355.

363 loka-nātha. 169 mohânda-kośa.J. 108. 196. 303 yathābhūta-yoniśomanasikāra. 368 ratna. § II-V. 249 yathârhatah. 173 yāvat kālam (B VII). 98 yathâbliiprâya-pūri(tva). 96 ratna-vigraha (TG VII. 96. 290. 412. (TG V) § VIII (V). 29. 106. for jñāna). r. 278 yathā (ca tat) (B VIII). 126. 387 rati-krida. for mrtyu). (B V) § XIII (V). 21 ratna (dārikā) sūtra.bimba. 110 rūpâdikam vastu. 208 rūpârūpya-dhātu. 122. 295. 173. 236 mrtyu-mārâvabhañga. 352 ratnâkara. a). § IV-1. (nāsti ravitam) (āven. 311 yāvad-bhāvikatā. 118 mrtyu-vyādhi-jarā (-agni). 80 mosa-dharma. 295. 333 loka-dhātu. 74. 185. 303 [ 430 ] . ( = r. 166 rūpa. 372 yugânta-(agni) (s. 190 rūpin. (5 laksanāh) (of svābhāvika). 76. 108. 225 rava. 233 rūpa-ratnâkrti. 332 loka-vid (buddha). 118. 70. 72. 169 rāga-rati. 175. 110. 98. 112. 118. TAKASAKI mrtyu. 225. 197 rāhu. 229 yathāvad-bhāvikatā. 341 raśmi (arka—r. 108. 98 lokottara-dharmakāya-prakrti-pariśuddhi. 145. 86. (of mahodadhi).) (s. 124 ravita. 174. 376 yogin. 311 yathā vaineyikesu. 102. 126 meghâdivat (śūnya). 74. 116. s. 98. 242 lokâlañkāra. 20 f. 305 loka-dharma. 94 rāga. 211 yathābhūta-darśana. VI (4 aspects). 166. 98 rāgânuśaya-laksana (-kleśa). 311 yoga-vid. 325 yoni. 110. 182 megha (K III). 254. 20 ratna-traya. § XV. 186 ratna-guna-vibhāga. 120. 328 rūpa-kāya. 173. 311 yathā-drsta. b). 116 yathābhūta-jñāna. 141 ratna-gotra § VI-XVIII. 21. 109. 311 yukti. 343 R rañga-vikrtim upaiti. 70. 98 rūpâvacara-deva-vimāna. 114. 90 mrdu-karmanya-bhāva. 102. 324 msrā-mosa-dharmin. 106 maitrī. 291. § V-4. 355 meghavat. 116. 181 moha. 227 laksana-vyañjana. 112. § XVII-2 (III). 370 yathāvat. 110. § IV-1. 357 līna-citta. 118. 347 ratna-nidhi (-> nidhi). 329 loka-vyavahāra. 141 ratna-gotra-vibhāga. 102 ratna-svagarbha. 114 laksana-prayoga. 72.-ākrti). 76. 72. 74 lokottara-jñāna. 285 yathā'śayesu. 90 yoga. 104 lokottara-dharma-garbha. 74. 124 yāvat. 278 rāśi. 98 rāgâdi-carita-sattva-sāmtānika. 173. 384 yugapad-gocara-sthāna. 76 yāna (-> niryāna). for dhātu). 120 ravi. 280 yathā-drsta-lokottaradharma-bhāvanājñāna. 2). 316 ruta. 86 laksana. 308 moksa-mārga-pratihatâśa. 331 rūpa-kāya-dvaya (see dharmakāya) rūpa-gata. 98 mohânuśaya-laksana (-kleśa).

370 vindana. (daśabalâdi). 86. 325 vicālya. 215 vikāra. 321. 202 vibhāga. 120. 110 vimalâśraya. 338 vipāka-phala. 164. 208 viparyāsâbhirata. 238 vāri (s. 238 vāyu (s. 124. 8. 141. 166 vikurvita. 82. (K IV). 68. 114. § 1-1. 274 vidbi. for āsravaksaya). for TG c). 214 vasudhā. 128. 356 vibhūti-rūpârtha-vidarśana. 166 vāg-guhyaka (K VII). 100 vasudhântarita. 120.). 78. 86. 142. 320 vipaksa. 148 vipratipanna. 267 viydhā. 299 vibandha (tattvadarśana-v. 352 vineya-dhātu. 241 vibhava-laksana (paripantha). 23. 132. 102. for karunā). 228 vimala-gunopeta. 280 vajropama-samādhi-jñāna. 120. 375 vāta-mandala. 100 vicitra-dharma-sambhoga. 94. 70. 329. 296. 297 vinaya-kriyā. (for karma-kleśa). 120 vipula. 88. 285. 351 vinayâbbyupāya. 340 vibuddha. 227 lokottara-prajñā. 31.The Ratnagotravibhāga vithapeti. 385 vajra. 175 lokottara-buddha-dharmāb. 98 vatnśa. 23. 76 lodyeta (ylud). 82. 214 vibhavâbhilāsin. 387 laukika (-jñāna). 86. 178 vaśitā—prāpta—bodhisattva. 155 vibhava. 112. 312 laukika-vītarāga-sāmtānika. 303 viparyāsa-viparyaya. 21 vacas. § XV (I). 252 vipranasta. 386 vicitra-rasa. 351 vineyâdri. 249 lobha-gredhatā. 351 vibhutva. 141 vibhu (=buddha). 59 vitapa (dharma-v. (for karunā-vrttihetu). 112 vimati. 122 vajrâgni. 383 viparîta. 183 vadhya. 239 vipāka. (— avidyāvāsabhūmi). 375 vikrama-stha. (for ayoniśomanasikāra). 76 vimalâmbu. 74. 68. 279 vara. 385 viparyaya. 92. 373 [vijñapti-mātratā]. 292 [viniścaya]. 88 vāsanā. 80. 389 vajravat. 161 vigraha. 209 vipaśyanā. 230 viparyasta-samjñā. 128. 369 vikrti. 124. 124 vikriditā (karunā). 270 vinīti-kriyā. 86 vaśitā. 347. 366 vajropama—samādhi. 263 varna (of pradīpa) (s. 82. 66. 155 ( ~ prākāra) vimala. 255 viroalā buddha-gunāh (RG III). 31. § III-4. 70. 110 vimalā (bhūmi). 319 vibhūti. 341 vikrama-sampad. 98 vadhaka-purusa. 104 viparyāsa. 2). 337. 169 vibandha-pratisedha (vaiś. 124 vinivrtta. 116 vijñapti. 147 vāsa-bhūmi. = timira). 340 vidhura. 282 vāk-patha. 241. 244 vinirbhāgadharma. 241 vikalpa. 248 vidyā. 277 vāsanânusandhi. 407 vinihatya. 274 [ 431 ] . 114 ( ~ ucchitti). 124. 159 vithapyante. 82. 142 vajra-pada. 208 viparyasta. 157.

52. 70. 387 dmoksa-mukha (śūnyatâdi). 315 isaya-rati-hara. 299 dyoga. 161 iśāradatva. 238 ivikta. 165 irāgin. § 1-3. (na ~tah. for parama-bodhi). 328 [ 432 ] . 31. 340 vrksa (TG VII. 192 vaipākika. 184 ~ laksana (virāga-dharma). TAKASAKI dmātratā. 341 dmukti-kāya. § III-2. 389 vyavadāna-satya-dvaya. 110. 310. 108. 375 vyāpitva. 28 vaimalya-pariśuddhi. 315 vaimalya-śuddhi. 24. 252 dmūdha. 337 vaipulya. 166 vyasana. bījâñkura vrtta-ślaksanânunnāma-bāhutā (mahāp. 152. 130. 108. 122. 142. 112. 374 vailāradya. hānih. 86. VIII (IX 6)-4. 114. 279 îrya. 110 << sya pūrnam. 342 (nāsti ~ sya hānih) (āven. ( = virāgatā) ( = nirodhasatya). 150 iśuddhi-gotra. 122. 86. 110 dmukha. 70. 345 vrtti ( = pravrtti) (TG VI). 11). 340 vyakti. 24-2). 164 vyañjana. 1-c). 312. 368 isamyoga (B III). 120. 165 vyavasthā. 311 vrsa-paksma-netra (mahāp. 164 irāga-dharma. 315. § I I I . 150 iśuddhi-pārami-prāpti. 66 vaidharmya. 249. 94. 94. 158 vyupameya. 357 [vyatirekâlañkāra]. 358 vyavadâta-sūksma-suvarna-varna-cchavih (mahāp. for dhātu). 199 vyavasthāna. 31. 218 iśodhya (-artha).J. 374 vaimalya ( = āsravaksaya). § VIII (VI). 337 isamyoga-phala. 342 dmukti-phala-dānatva. 346 vrsabhitā. 204. 229. 328 vyavahāra. 70. 28 iśuddhi-parikarma-guna. 118. 210 isara. 151. 122. 120 isamvāditva.l . 228 <— & samklista. 255 īta. for dhātu) cf. 13 isāmagri. 305 vyākarana-kathā. 315 nāsti vimukter hānih) (āven. 124 vrata. 365 imukti. 76. 338 iśuddha. 122. 148 vaijayanta. 263 iśuddhi-guna-parikarman. 150 iślesa. 356 vaidūrya-mani (parable of). 282 ivarta. 387 vyākarana. 354. 327 iśesa-laksana. § XIII-(VI). 148 vyoman (s. 108. 371 isarati. 11). 108. 90. 346 vyavadāna-dhātu ( = tathāgata-garbha) (RG I). 108. 221 iśuddhi-cittaprakrti. 321 vyāyata (pādatā) (mahāp. 302 istara-vibhāga-nirdeśa. 187 vyādhi. 264 drāga. 241 ihāra. 27). 227 vaimalya-dhātu. 236 vyāpi. (B VI). 377 vyapagata-visama-sthāna. 345 isuddhi. 165 irāga-hetu ( = mārga-satya). 66. 114. (K III). 76 •• iśuddha-sama-dantatva (mahāp. 66. 100. 306 ividhā. 70. 122. 70. 18). 164 irāgitā. 108 vairūdhi. 334 vyūha. 74. 122. 165. 378 vaineyika. 128. 285 vyavasthiti. āven 8). 199. 112 ~ dmukti-jñāna-darśana. 344 vyupadeśa. 112. 237. 172. 285. 84 vaimalya-viśuddhi. 110. (s. 12).

106 śflnyatā. 178 samvarta. 282 śāśvata. 68. 27. 112 śuddha-prabhā-mandala-gātratā (mahāp. 104. 72. 76 śubha-samjñā. § XVII-2 (I). 237 samvit. sattva 3). 72. XVIII-1. 208 śubha-pāramitā. 118 śamaikayāna—gotra. 19). 380 śuddhi. 268. 296. 303 [śūnya-vāda]. 72. 221 [ 433 ] . 185 śraddhā. 54. 118 śarīra. 104 śrāvaka—naya. 359 śarīrin. 112. 13. 82. 122. 54. 169 śubhâtma-sukha-nityatva (-guna-pāramitā) (TG III). 339 śānti-patha ( = nirvana). 68. (B I).The Ratnagotravibhāga śubha. 112. 120. 84. 84 suci-śīla-jighrana. 209 śūnyatā-drsti. 124. § VIII (X)-3. 80. 309 ślokârtha-samgraha-vyākhyāna. 276 śisya. 156. 106. 80. 183. 18. 11. 207 śamâmrtapada-prāpti. 268 samvrti. 74. 181 śīla. 84. 366 śobhā. 264 sad-āyatana-viśesa. 98 śuddha-bhūmi-gata (-mala). 155. 72. 98. 114 śānta-dharmatā. 90 śrāvaka-samgha. 330 śānty-anuśamsa-darśaka. 151 śūnyatā-jñāna. 326 śānti-pathâvatāra(-nidana). 164. 268 śubha-ratnatraya-sargaka (gotra). 13). 357 śarana. 22. 309 śaktatva. 209 śubha-dharmatā. ( = āsravaksaya-jñāna-bala. 54 f śaiksa. 108. 72. 70. 104. 122. 108. 102 śraddhā—gamana. 178 eukla-dharmausadhī. 80 śūnyatā-viksipta-citta (pudgala). 106 śūnya & aśūnya. 50 sad-indriya-visaya. 365 samvidyamānatā. 104. 382 śakti. 104 śūnya. 118 śāsana. 319 samyojana. 72. 166. 360. 106. 154 śiipa-sthāna. 376 sukla-pravara-damsjratā (mahāp. 245 samraksana. 278 śuddha-sattva. 116 śānti-mārga. 104. 74. 231. 180. 390 samvara. 104. 220 śayana-sthita. 257 śāśvata-drsti. 355 śakra-pratibhāsavat. 68. 46. 130 śloka. 310 [sat-padârtha] (svabhāvâdi). 114. 179 śāstr. 74 śruti. 68. 72. 130 śīla—samvara. 98. 126 śama-prāpti. 116. 158 śakra (K 1). 58. 329 śiva. 308 śāstra-sambandha. 57. 244. 329 śilpa-sthānāni kauśalam. 74. 130 śuci. 74 śarana-traya. 130. 333 śāstr-gaurava. 38. 74 śrāvaka-yānika. § V. 132 śāli. 68. 82. 84. 197 śānta. 167. 45. 222 śuklâspada. bala 10). 200. 174 śānti. 82. 301 śūnyam sarvam. 400-408 [sat-pāramitā] (dānâdi). 345 śuklâmśa. 280 śaila-deśa-gamika. 143 śrāvaka (TG II-III. 208 śubhâkāra. 219 » śāśvata-(loka-nātha). 84. 11-17. § 1-4. 180 śaranatrayâbhyupapatti. 345 śuddha-bhūmi. 167.

J . 286. 132 saptâtsada-śarīratā (mahāp. 234 samksepa-mātraka. 106 samalā tathatā (RG I) (VP 4). 272 samketa. 206 sattvârtha-vimukhatā. 39. 66 sacet. 183 sakalam. 230 samjñā-grāha. 84. 248 samnihśraya. 197 sattvâtma-sama-darśikā (maitrī). 340 saddharma. 118 saddharma-salila. 158 satkāya-drsfi-patita (-pudgada). 215 samskāra-paripāka. 100. 332 samgrāma. samatā. TAKASAKI samvrti-kāya. 68. 10). 106 sattvānām dharmadhātu. 23. 16). pratyekabuddha. 142 samgha-kāra-kriyā. 191 8amjñā-citta-drsçi-(viparyāsa). 170. 358 saddharma-rasa-dānatā. 291 ~ & nirvana § VIII (III-IV)-4'. 381 sa-karanīya. 245 saddharma-kāya (=dharmakāya). 360 samgha (VP 3). 92. 217 samkleśa-nimitta. ( = prthag-jana). 313 sama-preksin. 70. 275 samnāha. 122. 265 san-nātha. 143. 132 samsrti. 126. 167 samanvāgama ( = yoga). 110 saddharma-vyasanâvrtâtmaka. 235 (catur-vidha ^ ) (TG II. 72. 88. 80 sattva-dhātu ( = tathāgata-garbha). 104. 22. 72. 68. 183. 82. 367 samskāra. 66. 251. 296. III) (-+ icchantika. 187 samavadhāna. 244 samjñā (-viparyāsa). 354 ~ —aksayatva. 76. 90. 242 samskrta. śrāvaka). 319 satata-samitam. 390 samsāra-mandala-ksānti. 74. § VII-XI. 323 samtāna. 82 samanupaśyati. 132 saddharma-samgraha. 346 samanvāgata. IXo). 23 sattvârtha-kriyā. 303 satkāya-nirodha. 345 samādāya. 118 sattva-rāśi. 193 samgraha. 86. 118 samādhi. 345 samVślis. 285 samvrtta-skandhatā (mahāp. 364 sadma. 82. 301 samkleśa-vyavadāna. 200 [ 434 ] . 227. 72. 250 samsāra. 204 samsāra-duhkhopaśama-mātrâbhirati. 245 samavasarana. 231. 290. 90. 206 sat-purusa. § IV. 122. 5). 116. 158 satkaya-drs^i. 82 samsāra-mandala. ( = sattva-rāśi). 80. 297 sattva. 156. 223 satya ( = āryasatya). 223. 118 samsāra-gata. 182. 80 (trividha). 344 sabhaya. 226 sama-vimukti. 161 sattvârtha-krt (RG IV). 80. 181 samvrti-satya. 267 samā catvārimśad-daśanatā (mahāp. 356 samādhāna. 74. 145. 78. 244 samślisja. 72 <~ -guna-vibhāga. 122. 78. 122. 22. 221 samcintya. 116 sattvârtha-nirapeksatā. 365 samtārana. 84. 100 sapta-sapti. 74. 166 samkleśa (kleśa-. 72 samgha-ratna (VP 3). 250. 189. karma-. 244 sapta-bhūmi-gata (-mala). 336 samvrti-pada-sthāna. 183 eat-kāya. 370 saptârtha-pada (^vajra-padāni sapta). 100. 254 samdrśyate. (TGVII. tīrthya. 272 samkāra-dhāna. 230 sat (-^ dhîra). 104. 181. 22. 74. 32). 191 samkara-pūti-dhāna. 86. 301 samanta-bhadrâpratima (-ātma-bhāva) (mahāp. 202. 120 samvrti-kāyatā. 151. 78. janma-).

270 sāksātykr. 332 sampatti-yoga(tva). 330 sambhava. 197 salila-bandhana. 382 sambhrti (=sambhāra). 248 samāpatti (-āvarana). 82. 282 sārârtha-darśana. 88. 82. 120. 199. 368 sarva-sattva. for G II). 208 sukha-sampatti. 192 sarva-dhātu (=sarva-loka). 266. 186 sarvadarśinām vis ayah (gotra). hetu 3). 94. 199 sarva-cittârambana. 24 (-avinirbhāgatā). 288 samudra. 122 simha-pūrvârdha-kāyatā (mahāp. 98 sârtha. 206 samādhi-samsparśa-sukhânubhūti. 270 samyaktva-niyatah sattva-rāśih. (TG 3 s. 324 sāra. 204 samyak-pratipatti. 175. 148 samāhrtâdyamah. 233 sarvathā 'rthakrt. 177 samāropa. 78 sarvâkāra. 337 sâñgana (bodhisattva). 102. 76 sarva-dharmâbbisambodhi (vaiś. 175 sarvatra. 289 sāmbhogika (kāya) § XIII (VIb). 263 sarvagatva ( = sarvatraga). 237 sāmānya-laksana. 29. 298 sa-vāsana-maloddhrti. § XV (II). 112 sukha. 333 samādhi-bhāvanā (TG II. 82. 268 sāmagrī. 124. 25). 130. 112 samāna. 8). 342 sambhoga-kāya. 302 samāvartana. 76 sarvatraga (TG VIII). 326 samārūdha. 197. 68. 378 sâsrava-karman. 346 sukathā-śuci-śrava. 201 sametya. 68 sarvasattvās tathāgatagarbhāh. 198 sambhava-laksana (paripantha). 124. 118. 122. 353 samyag-aviparyasta. 200 sādhumati (bhūmi). 364 sahaja. 154 sambuddha ( = tathāgata) (TG Vic). 82. 352 sarva-sattvârthakrt. 114 sarvajña-dharmatā. 102. 102 sammiñjita. 172 sambodhi. 214 sambhāra (punya. 260 samudānīta (-gotra). 226. 190 simha (s. 130 sarva-darśin ( = sarvajña). 112 sarvajñatā. 302 sāmketikam vapuh (^samvrti-kāya). 32 ( dvaya) sambhedatah. 344 [siddhānta-naya & deśanā-naya]. for dhātu). 209 sukha-samjñā. 80. 118 sambaddha. 124. 285 sītâmalornodita-c^ru-vaktra (mahāp. 84 sukhatva. 218 sāmbhoga. 86 sambuddhatā. 252 samyak-sambuddha-dharmatva.& jñāna-). 161 sādharmya. 86. 348. 325 samudāgama. 266 sarvajña—jñāna—gocara. 186 sarvajña-jñāna. 80. 331 sârtha-bīja. sahasra-koti-niyuta. 1). 372 sampatti. 82.The Ratnagotravibhāg sarva-dharmadhātu. 94 sāmtānika. 120 simhavat. 279 sāmnidhya. 216 sâsrava-dharma. 114 sarve dehinah ( = sarva-sattvāh). 352. 21.340 [ 435 ] . 194 sarva-jña. § VIII (VIII). (sarvaśarīrinah). 104 sāhasra-lokadhātu. 86. 265 samrddhi. 30. 94 sarvâvabodhitā. 96. 116. 230 sarva. 76. 205 samyaktva-niyāma. 92 sasya. 292 sambandha. 124 sukha-pāramitā. 269 sārârtha. 118. 252 samyak-pratipanna. 262 sarvâkara-gunopeta-śūnyatā. 114. 84. 122. 120. 116.

21. 82. 102 svabhāva-gāmbhīrya-nayâvabodhana. āven. 112 skandha. 216 sūtikā-sadma-sthita. 240 svarasa-vāhin. 367 spharana (of arka). for dhātu. 102. 108. 162 H hata-satkāyasāra. 108. 72 sva-stha (G II). 156. 21. 178 svasamtānâvabhāsa. II). 225. 108. tathatā). § XIII (I-II) svabhāva-kāya ( = svābhāvika). 120 sevya (-viddhi) (mārga). 252 su-pratisthita (-pādatā). 128 srjat. (TG. (B II). 296. 341 sthairyatva. 128 sūryavat. 195 hetu-laksana (paripantha). 285 sūksma—vastra. 340 hitatva. 29. 289. 202 svarasa-yogena. 120. 226 hetv-ānantya (-tva). 367 sauksmya. 349 svābhāvika (kāya). 86. 108 svabhāva (TG I).J . 102. 161 sva-parârtha (B IV). for dhātu). 285 sūtra-sthānīya (-śloka). dhātu). 68. 120. 236 skhalita (nāsti /— m. 72. 236 skandhâyatana-dhātavah. 96. IX-4 (trividdha-). 112 svabhāvâparinispatti. 315 svayam. 147 sthira (-stha). § XIII (VI a). 17). 100 suvarna-bimba. 92. 381 sva-laksana. 122. a. 283 hāni-kārana-krti. 132 hînasattvesv avajñā. 151 sūksma-nimitta-prapañca. āven. 305 hetu. § XVII-2 (V). 367 sevana. 311. 264 svarga. 199. 126. 130 svacchâvirala-dantatā (mahāp. 290 ~ & pratyaya. geya. 88. 356 sūrya (K V). 120. 106. 324 svârtha-sarnpatti. 388 hīna-pranīta-dharma. § VIII (IX c). 126 svakarmodbhava. 124 [ 436 ] . 341 stuti-ninda. § VI-2. 146 sva-samtāna. 360 sva-citta. 318 su—daiśika. 128. 21. ( = gotra. 112 svârthasampatty-adhisthāna. 338 sthiti. 102 hema-mandalaka (-> suvarna) heya (-vastu) (->• duhkha-samudaya). s. 231 su-sāra.). TAKASAKI sugata (=buddha) (TG I. 88. 224 su-viśuddha. 341. 1). 120. 269 sūksma. 13. 122. 29. 344 BU—pratisthita—cakrâñkra—vyāyatâtsañga— pādatā (mahāp. 9). 120 svârtha-sampad. 185 sthāna. 376 su-parikarma-krta-cetas. 78. 241. 282. 76. 120. 108. 310 svaparârtha-sampatti (B IV). (B I). 157 svayam-bhū ( = buddha). 100. 100. 94 smrti (nāsti smrteh hānih. 124 snigdha-bhāva (-svabhāva) (TG c). 358 suvarna (TG 4. 78. 120. § VIII (I-II)-l. 126 bina ( = hīna-yāna). § VIII (I • II). (-avasthā) (TG IX c). 238 skandha-dhātv-indriya. 120. 142 Bthānâsthāna (-jñāna-bala) (bala 1). 114. 190 sura-pati. 1). 332 hema-bimba (-> kanaka-bimba). etc. 201 sparśitavya. 25. 126 svaccha-jala-bhājana. 345 svadharmatā. 267 hīna(yāna)ruci. ( = pratyeka-buddha). 120. 124. 118. 344 sumeru. § XIII (I-II). 214 hetu-samanvāgama (TG V). 341 sva-karman. 323 sūtra ( ~ .

34 Dhāranīśvararāja-sūtra (DRS). 192. 354 Bhagavadgītā. 9 Dhammapadâtthakathā. 232. 192. 193. 263. 32. 35 Drdhâdhyāśaya-parivarta (DrdhP). 186. 61 Aksayamati-pariprcchā (AksP). 37. 8 Hsūang-chuang. 61 Astasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitāsūtra (ASP). 35. 351. 9 Chiu-ching-yi-ch'eng-pao-sing-lun. 408 (Ārya)candrottaradārikā-sūtra. 408 Brhadāranyakopanisad (Brhad. 331. Anūnatvâpūrnatvanirde śa-p arivarta (AAN) 32. 175. 189. 7. 308. 28 Catuhśubha (of Nāgārjuna). 7 Bodhicaryâvatāra-pañjikā. (Vyākhyā). 234. 44. 320. 390 Amrtākara. 334. 189. 324. 204. 260 Amitāyus Buddha. 51. 33. 166. 341. 33. 254 Chien-Hui ( = Sāramati). 312. 210. 233. 288. . 62. 150. 404 •Buddhagotraśāstra (BGŚ). 188. 53 Avatamsaka-sūtra (Tathāgatâtpattisambhavanirdeśa-parivarta) (AvatS). 292. 228. 327. 300. 212. 254 Añguttara-nikāya (AN). 232. 208. 210. 290. 300. 176. 35-36. 21. 221. 177. 46-49. 171 Aśvaghosa. 277-280. 406 Abhisamayâlañkāra (AA). 15. 338. 45. 200. 285. 4952. 6 Blue Annals (Deb-ther sñon-po). 201. 9 Gaganagañjā-sūtra (Gaganagañjābodhisattvaparivarta) (GagS). 214. 225. 261. 290. 200. 338. 146153. 341 Dharmadharmatāvibhāga (DDV). 173. 318. 53. 44. 187. 339. 157. 8 Devaprajña. 57 Jain. 269. 188. 44 *Dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra (->• Mahāyāna-dharmadhātvaviśesaśāstra) Dharmaraksa. 193. 264. 54 Âryadeva.. 194. 234. 213. Up).45. 235 Blo-ldan śes-rab. 223. 260. 203. 167. 329. 315. 218. 329. 239 Gaudapāda. 7 Daśabhūmikasūtra (DBS). 61. 213. 164 ff. 155 [ 437 ] . 61 Ārya-śrīmālā-sūtra -> Srīmāla-sūtra Asaûga (Slob-dpon Thogs-med). 34. 62. 21 Gunabhadra. 234. 385 Bodhiruci. 21 (Vyākhyā of Yaśomitra).INDEX OF WORKS. 336. 324. 167. 173. 170. 33. 333. 406. 305-9. 185. 343. 407. 34. 214. 39. 224. 259. 206. 7. 289. 171 Adbhuta-sūtra (Adbhuta-dharmaparyāya). 281. 9 Bodhisattvabhūmi (BBh). 45. 311. 300. 343 Abhisamayâlañkārâloka (AAA). 334. 8. 331. 34. 382. 327. 240. 143 Fa-hsian (School). 302 Buddhabhūmisūtra (BBS). 28. 286. 258. 51. 258. 322. 189 Gser-phren (of Tsoñ-kha-pa). 204. 310. 283. 203 Jñānagupta. 48. 61. 52. 49 Advaita Vedānta (School). 8. 142. 230. 33. 332. 241. 173. 59 Abhidharmakośa (Kārikā) (AK). 268 *Anuttarâśraya-sūtra (AĀS). 233. 8 Fa-tsang. 285 Abhidharmasamuccaya (AS). 218. 230. 223. 198. 295. 339. 209. 59. 144. 208. 219. 213 Daśabhūmikasūtra—śāstra. 51. 287. 144 Hûa-yen (School). AUTHORS & SCHOOLS (Those with the mark * are the titles restored from C) Abhidharma Buddhism. 296. 260. 52. 260.

300 Rāstrapāla-pariprcchā. 62 Majjhima-nikāya (MN). 204. 236. 372. 293. 312. 54. 56 Sāriputrâbhidharma-śāstra. 240 Maitreya (Hphags-pa Mgon-po byams-pa). 45-46.' 48. 259. 16. 402 Mahâyāna-uttaratantra-śāstra. 57. 290 •Mahāyāna-dharmadhātv-aviśesa-śāstra (DAŚ). 51. 300 Pao-ch'ung-lu. 301. 265. 13. 51. 251 Ratnamati. 218. 34 Saundarananda-kāvya. 295 Śañkara. 37-39. 288. 19. Up. 300 Siksānanda. 60 Madhyântavibhāga (MAV). 39-40. 32. (Parmârtha's translation) (MSbh(P)). 150. 219. 167. 34. 240 Sarvāstivāda. 8. 34 Mundakopanisad (Mund. 286. 303. 163. 61 Sañghabhadra. 173. 240. 341. 44. 302. 374 Ju-lai-hsing-hsien-ching. 50. 7 Mahāvibhāsāśāstra. 33. 9. 45. 227. 295 Li-t'ai-san-pao-chi. 285. 146 Mahāsañgika. 287. 6. 10. 347 Ratnagotraśāstra. 368. 31. 7 Kaniska. 15.ahāsaaghātasūstra (Mahāsamnipātasūtra). 155. 189. 304 [Mahā]prajñāpāramitā [-upadeśa]-śāstra. 5 Ratnagotravibhāga. 33. 235. 9. 32. 17. 291. 292. 14 f. 286. 8 Tathāgatagarbha-sūtra (TCS). 294 Sandhinirmocana-sūtra. 58. 145 Srīmālā [devī-simhanāda]sūtra (SMS). 214 Ratnacūda-pariprcchā (RCP). 33. 33. 263 Ratnadārikāsūtra (Ratnasūtra) (RDS). 52. 305 Mādhyamika. 33. 32. 209 Milindapañhā. 364. 232. 34 Mahāyānâbhidharma-sūtra (AbhidhS). 33. 11. 50. 217. 33. 261. 53. 34. 56. 323 Sthirâdhyāśaya-parivarta ( = Drdhâdhyāśaya-parivarta). 200. 35 K'ai-yuan-che-chiao-mo-lu. 382. 33. 174. 34 Lañkāvatāra-sūtra (Lank). 158. (Bhāsya). 192. 240. 343 M. 291. 338. 53 Kāśyapa-parivarta (KāśP). 61. 382. 262. 4144. 9 Ratnavajra. 59. 322. 228. 207. 159-160. 52. 232. 163. 33. 224. 285. 300 Nāgārjuna. 9 Ta-t'ang-nei-tien-lu. 53. 292. 59. 215. 5 Ratnakūta-sūtra. 45. 22. 300 Ta-ch'ang-fa-chieh-wu-ch'a-pieh . 300. 289. 267. 8 Madhyamaka-kārikā (MK). 44 ~ bhāsya (of Stbiramati). 204. 7. 408 Mahāyānasamgraga (MS). 264. 231. 339. 35. 47. 45. 245 Sajjana. 143 Śuklavidarśanā. 52. 225. 60 Phar-phyin skabs brgyad-pa. 171.lun-chu (of Fa-tsang). 384. 369. 46. 5 Sāmkhya (School). 7 Saka fragments (of Ratnagotravibhāga). 277. 249. 359. 203 Samyutta-nikāya (SN). 159 Sāramati. 204 Laksanânusāra-śāstra. 301. 36. 257. 60. 272. 33. 223. 214. 251. 185. 163. 32. 260 Saddharmapundarīkasūtra (SPS). 62. TAKASAKI Jñānâlokâlañkāra-sūtra (JAA). 51. 48.). 183. 28 Nāmasamgīti.J. 300 Mahāparmirvāna-sūtra (Mahāyāna) (MPS). 267. 188. 182. 298. 34. 296. 316. 60. 53. 7. 211-12. 144. 405. 262. 57. 390 Mahāyānasūtrâlañkāra (MSA). 290. 6 Sadāyatanafrāśi] sūtra (SadS). 260. 34. 343. 373. 315. 242. 206. 167. 44. 54. 389 *Mahāyānaśraddhotpāda (-śāstra). 33. 232 Pratītyasamutpādahrdaya-kārikā (of Nāgārjuna). 209. 356. 8 Paramārtha. 293. [ 438 3 . 61. 21 Prajñāpāramitā-sūtra (PP). 305 Prasannapadā. 216. 40. 291. 182. 52. 15. 186 Sāgaramati-pariprcchā (SāgP). 144. 250. 301 Manusmrti. 5 Mahayānottaratantra śāstropad e śa. 200. 44. 300 Sumangala-visāranī. 10.

38. 47. 5. 8 Tsoñ-kha-pa. 48.The R at n a got r a v i b h ā g a Vasubandhu. 28. 40. 36. 44. 51. 57-61. 294 Tathāgatagunajñānâcintyavisayâvatārasūtra (AcintS). 382 Vimalakīrtinirdeśa (VimN). 189. 44. 8. 404 36-37. 61 Vibhajyavādin. 13. 277 Yogācāra (School). 54 Vaiśesika. 203 Vaibhāsika. 406 Vijñaptimātratā-trimśikā (VMT). 35. 61 Uttaratantra. 290. 20 Vedāntavāda. 200. 61. 322 [ 439 ] . 269 ' Ti-lun School. 33. 62. 39. 147 Tathāgatotpattisambhava-nirdeśa. 196. 33. 21 Upanishad. 33. 240 Vedānta Philospphy. 52. 52. 53. 28. 40. 34. 49. 268-276. 49. 281. 21. 240 Vijñānavāda. 47. 28. 162. 405 Vātsīputrīya. 203. 40. 145 Tathāgatamahākarunā-sūtra. 230. 34 Vajracchedikā-sūtra (Vaj C). 407 Yogācārabhūmi (YB).

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