HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT

LESSON 9: FUNCTIONS OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
Learning Objectives
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Human Resource Development-Functions Roles of an HRD Professional

Today we’ll study the functions of management and the role of an HRD professional

process, conducting general orientation sessions, and beginning the initial skills training. Skills and technical training programs then narrow in scope to teach the new employee a particular skill or area of knowledge. Once new employees have become proficient in their jobs, HRD Activities should focus more on developmental activitiesspecifically, coaching and coun-seling. In the coaching process, individuals are encouraged to accept responsibil-ity for their actions, to address any work-related problems, and to achieve and to sustain superior performance. Coaching involves treating employees as partners in achieving both personal and organizational goals. Counseling techniques are used to help employees deal with personal problems-that may interfere with the achievement of these goals. Counseling programs may address such Issues as sub-stance abuse, stress management, smoking cessation, or fitness, nutrition, and weight control. Human Resource Wheel

Human Resource Development Functions
Human resource development, as we discussed, can be a standalone function, or it can be one of the primary functions within the HRM department. The structure of the HRD function and its scope have been shaped by the needs faced by organ-izations. An ASTD-sponsored study by Pat McLagan sought to identify the HRD. Roles and competencies needed for an effective HRD function. The study identi-fied four trends affecting modern HRD: 1. 2. Greater diversity in the workforce. More people involved in knowledge work, which requires judgment, flexi-bility, and personal commitment rather than submission to procedures. Greater expectations of meaningful work and employee involvement. A shift in the nature of the contract between organizations and their employees.

3. 4.

The ASTD study documented a shift from the more traditional training and de-velopment topics to a function that included career development and organiza-tion development issues as well. The study depicted the relationship between HRM and HRD functions as a “human resource wheel” (see Figure 1-2). The HR wheel identifies three primary HRD functions: 1) training and development, 2) or-ganization development, and 3) career development. We will now discuss these functions in greater detail. Training and Development (T&D) Training and development (T&D) focuses on changing or improving the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of individuals. Training typically involves providing employ-ees the knowledge and skills needed to do a particular task or job, though attitude change may also be attempted (e.g., in sexual harassment training). Developmen-tal activities, in contrast, have a longerterm focus on preparing for future work responsibilities, while also increasing the capacities of employees to perform their current jobs. T&D activities begin when a new employee enters the organization, usually in the form of employee orientation and skills training. Employee orientation is the: process by which new employees learn important organizational values’ and norms, establish working relationships, and learn how to function within their jobs.The HRD staff and the hiring supervisor generally share the responsibility for designing the orientation

SOURCE: From P. A. Me Lagan (1989)_ Models for HRD practice, Training and Development Journal, 41:53. HRD professionals are also responsible for coordinating management training and development programs to ensure that managers and supervisors have the knowledge and skills necessary to be effective in their positions. These programs may include supervisory training, job rotation, one day seminars, or college and university courses.

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it is the effective synergy of everything working together that defines high performance work systems. technology. workforce. Progress has been made in moving toward a more “strategically integrated HRD. as well as increased customer and employee satisfaction and quality of work life. That is. to assess his or her skills and abilities in order to establish a realistic career plan. For example. or organizational performance measures?) Other work practices and systems (e. Some of the desired outcomes of such a high perform-ance work system are increased productivity. as just described. and control. and generally focuses more on what the organization can do to foster employee career development.24 A current challenge (or opportunity) for HRD professionals is to play a more strategic role in the functioning of their organization. and teams.g. Much of their employee training is conducted via inter-active video instruction. and values that characterize the organization. The HRD professional may also become directly involved in carrying out the intervention strategy. A pay-far-knowledge system has been implemented that rewards employees who have completed the video training and passed job knowledge tests. external alignment is nec-essary between the strategic plans of the 11. quality.g. small groups. whereas micro changes are directed at individuals. beliefs. HRD executives should contribute information.g. how “flat” is the organization’s managerial hierarchy?) Human resource systems-how employees are selected. trained. at least in part. Career plans can be implemented. and action concerning strategic human resource management. such as facilitating a meeting of the employees responsible for planning and implementing the actual change process. mission. Federal Express uses several different practices-that foster high performance. Then.. management must identify strategic factors (for exam-ple.672. Finally. to what extent is technology or information systems used to facilitate the work process?) • • • The value of this approach lies in looking at the’ organization as an entire system. how much do employees participate in decision making?) Organizational structure—how the organization is structured (e. how closely is pay linked to individual. and other resources. and 3) providing training to all employees that is aligned with the goals and strategies of the organization. First. To do trust. technology. in light of these assessments. or product mix) that need to be changed or updated. themes. internal alignment is necessary within the organization. two types of fit or alignment are necessary. the strategy of the organization must be aligned with the mission. many organizations have sought to improve organizational effectiveness by introducing employee involvement programs that require fundamental changes in work expectations. each of which is characterized by a relatively unique set of issues. At the formulation level.23 As one example.g.Organization Development Organization development (OD) is defined as the process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and the wellbeing of its members through planned in-terventions that apply behavioral science concepts. reward systems. strategy implementation. The HRD strategy should offer answers to the © Copy Right: Rai University 41 . Career development involves two distinct processes: career planning and career management. appraised. 1 The emphasis has been on more fully -in-tegrating HRM with the strategic needs of the organization. programs. top management must first asseS6 the viability of the current mission. often with the assistance of counselors and others. and an elaborate information system is used to monitor the progress of each item in the FedEx system. there needs to be aligrunent among the various sub-systems that make up the organization. and tasks. and reporting procedures. All of the parts of an organization must work together as a whole to reach the goals of the organization. Second.2° It involves several distinct processes. they must monitor and assess different external environments that may pose a threat or offer potential opportunities. objectives. Facilitating change often requires consulting with and advising line managers on strategies that can be used to effect the desired change.. Career management involves taking the necessary steps to achieve that plan. All of this is comple-mented by a survey feedback process that allows employees to “grade” their man· ager’s leadership skills and suggest solutions for any problems they encounter. compensated. The role of the HRO professional involved in an 00 intervention is to function as a change agent. goals. through an organization’s training programs. Career planning involves activities performed by an individual.1 organization and the external environ· ment that it faces. and so on (e. including strategy formulation. There is a strong relationship between career development and T&O activities. Strategic Management and HRD Strategic management involves a set of managerial decisions and actions that are intended to provide a competitively superior fit with the external environment and enhance the long-run performance of the organization.22 Further. team. HRD executives and professionals should demonstrate the strategic capability of HRD in three primary ways: 1) directly participating in their organization’s strategic management process. and recommenda-tions during strategy formulation and ensure that the organization’s HRD strat-egy is consistent with the overall strategy.. In particular. research. First. A performance management system is in place that allows em-ployees to track service performance. and shorter cycle times. The past decade has seen increasing interest. As you can see. flexibility. policies. Career Development Career development is “an ongoing process by which individuals progress through a series of stages. Some areas that need to be addressed include: • HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT Management practices-how employees are managed and treated (e.18 00 emphasizes both macro and micro organizational changes: macro changes are intended to ultimately improve the effectiveness of the organization. 2) providing education and training to line managers in the concepts and methods of strategic management and planning. ideas.. strategies.

30 In contrast.following questions: Are the organization’s HRD objectives. Using the chart from Figure 1. Especially in smaller organiza-tions. which employees and managers could use to view and retrieve HRrelated information. As we will emphasize throughout this book. These issues are offered as part of the organization’s management development program.). objectives. The Supervisor’s Role in HRD Supervisors play a critical role in implementing many HRD programs and processes. approximately 50 percent of organizations provide training in strategic planning. The goal was to provide information and high quality service to over 500. Alternatively. and an HR Information System. California. address changes. As we will discuss in the later Chap-ter . a call tracking system.672. in re-sponse to a downturn in its business. However. HRD professionals should provide education and training programs that support effective strategic management. a Web site within the organization’s intranet (called HR INFO).”J! Service representatives are carefully selected. like HRM. should be designed to support the organization’s strategy. North Carolina. This example suggests how training can be linked to the strategic goals and strategies of the organization (in this case. IBM has set up a Human Resource Ser-vice Center in Raleigh. went through a major restructuring in 1983. The growing emphasis on strategic HRD is part of this movement to build a stronger business case for HRD programs and interventions. the key factor in the success of this effort was training. Before that they had offered a large number of training and education opportunities. director of worldwide training for Cisco Systems in San Jose. Becton-Dickinson. and programs clearly stated. un-fortunately. HRD professionals are increasingly expected to demonstrate that their efforts are contributing to the viability and financial success of their organizations. According to Bob Gonzales and colleagues. as well as additional training whenever new programs are offered. or merely implied £Tom performance or budg-ets? Are all HRD activities consistent with the organization’s mission. particularly to their managers. As an extreme example. “This is our chance to actually achieve strategic partnerships within the organization. Finally. Fig:1-2 HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT Fig:1-3 © Copy Right: Rai University 11. and then put through three weeks of intensive training. Increasingly. Figure 2 further delineates how the HRD function might be organized within an HRM department.000 active and retired IBM employees. He adds.1 . a shift to a centralized HR Service Center). as well as process certain HR transactions (salary changes. many organizations rely on line supervisors to implement HRD programs and processes such as orienta-tion. Organizational Structure of The HRD Function The HRD function. separate courses (or portions of courses) are emphasizing strategic HR issues and how these relate to organizational strategies and outcomes. poli-cies. “Training Customer Service Representatives well [was} critical to the Center’s suc-cess because they are the initial point of contact with the customer. Second. training. Training in strategic management’ concepts and methods can help line managers to develop a global perspective that is essential for managing in today’s highly competitive environment. HRD professionals must ensure that all training efforts are clearly linked to the goals and strategies of the organization. etc. Refresher training is 42 provided throughout the employee’s career. role playing. a medical products manufacturer. After restruc-turing. and career development. there may be no “training department” (or even an HR department). strategies. While this may seem obvious. An array of technology was put in place to assist Service Center employees. and partnering with an experienced em-ployee. g Man-agement education efforts also place a heavy emphasis on strategic management issues. states that there have been dramatic changes in the HRD field since 1999. and internal and external environment? How well is the HRD function performing in terms of improving the fit between the individual employee and the job? Are appropriate concepts and techniques being used to evaluate and im-prove corporate performance? Tom Kelly. Some have argued that the reason training is frequently the first thing to be cut or re-duced in times of financial stress is that top executives fail to see a link between training and the bottom line. it is not uncommon for the link between training programs and orga-nizational strategy to be far from clear. these education and training programs were completely eliminated. including lectures. Ac-cording to a 1996 survey of HRD professionals by Training magazine. coaching. policies. This included Lotus Suite.so most HRD effort falls upon supervisors and managers.

Outputs include HR strategic plans and strategic planning education and training programs. develops and designs appropriate learning programs. is held by an individual trained in instructional tech-nology and graphic design and involved in designing online learning courses for an information technology firm in Arlington. If senior managers do not understand the value of HRD. it will be difficult for the HRD executive to get their commitment to HRD efforts and to justify the expenditure of funds during tough times. alternative work designs. implementation. which are described below. coaching design. and intervention strategies. The HRD Executive/Manager The HRD executive/manager has primary responsibility for all HRD activities.” 43 HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT Roles of an HRD Professional An HRD professional must perform a wide variety of functional roles. A 1999 article on “hot jobs” in HRD focused on employees in four jobs where there was a high demand for HRD professionals. they grasp the link between workforce learn-ing and performance on the one hand. A func-tional role is a specific set of tasks and expected outputs for a particular job. compete with a line manager who wants to purchase a new piece of equipment? The answer is dear: the executive must demonstrate the benefit the organization receives by offering such a program. Pat McLagan states that contemporary HRD professionals perform nine distinct roles. research findings. multimedia master. for example. But how does an HRD executive who wants to offer a program on stress management. The performance consultant (or coach) advises line management on appropri-ate interventions designed to improve individual and group performance. The fourth job. Me decentralized. Three of those jobs are found in the list above: instructional designer (for consulting firm Arthur Andersen). 3 The HR strategic adviser consults strategic decision makers on HRD issues that directly affect the articulation of organization strategies and performance goals. HRD programs (and HRM. The learning program specialist (or instructional designer) identifies needs of the learner.n33 The HRD executive is in an excellent position to es-tablish the credibility of HRD programs and processes as tools for managing in today’s challenging business environment. the ASTD study results. The outputs of this role include long-range plans and strategies. in general) have been a major target of cost-cutting efforts. Outputs include HR program designs.672. and change reports. the HRD executive must work closely with the HRM executive. quality management. The organization design consultant advises management on work systems de-sign and the efficient use of human resources. if one exists. and prepares materials and other learning aids. quality im-provement. Outputs include program objectives. HRD programs will not receive the support they need. and other HRD activities are centralized. Other HRD Roles and Outputs for HRD Professionals As organizations have adjusted to environmental challenges. lesson plans. The outputs include more efficient work teams. Out-puts include intervention strategies. and implementation of HR programs. intervention strategies. The researcher assesses HRD practices and programs using appropriate statis-tical procedures to determine their overall effectiveness and communicates the re-sults to the organization. The HRD executive often serves as an adviser to the chief executive officer and other execu-tives. HRD executives was $82. and strategic planning. during financial difficulties. We will briefly discuss the roles played by two types of. For more informa-tion on this particular position and individual. The HR systems designer and developer assist HR management in the design and development of HR systems that affect organization performance. A 1999 Training magazine survey found that the average salary for U.1 © Copy Right: Rai University . and implementation. Outputs include the selection of appropriate instruc-tional methods and techniques and the actual HRD program itself . Outputs include individual assessment sessions. when HRD executives” delve deeply into reengineering.S. intervention strategies. California). and recommendations and reports. HRD professionals: the HRD executive/manager and the HRD practitioner. see the nearby box. “Master of Multimedia. former director of educa-tion for IBM. The immediate challenge to HRD executives is to redefine a new role for HRD during this period of unprecedented change. policies. and career guidance. Unless the HRD executive establishes a clear relationship between HRD expenditures and organizational effectiveness (including profits). One of the important tasks of the HRD executive is to promote the value of HRD as a means of ensuring that organizational members have the competencies to meet current and future job demands. the training activities. Historically. According to Jack Bowsher. The instructor/facilitator presents materials and leads and facilitates struc-tured learning experiences. The individual development and career counselor assists individual employ-ees in assessing their competencies and goals in order to develop a realistic career plan.448. The organization change agent advises management in the design and imple-mentation of change strategies used in transforming organizations.Figure 2 depicts how the HRD function might be organized in a multiregional sales organization. except for manage-ment/executive development. the roles played by HRD professionals have changed. and budget allocation schedules.. and normally assumes a leadership role in the executive development’ Program. and executive coach (working as a consultant to teach “soft” skills to executives). Outputs include research designs. Evaluation data are vital to the HRD executive when presenting a case. Virginia. If the organization has both an HRM and an HRD ex-ecutive. change agent (for the city of Carlsbad. This person must integrate the HRD programs with the goals and strategies of the organization. and company performance and profitability on the other. The role of the HRD executive has become more important and visible as or-ganizations make the necessary transition to a global economy. In this example. and implementation. Outputs include intervention strate-gies. workshop facilitation. Based on 11.

42 Some psychology departments offer degree programs and courses in industrial and organizational psychology and personnel psychology with specific courses in HRD. Another way HRD professionals can keep current is to examine the practices of leading organizations. To be certified.1 . In addition to HRD classes.1/43 The best-practices organizations are selected. and organization development. Three developments illus-trate this relationship: 1) since 1990. and education. over 43. psychology. criteria. organization devel-opment. and 12 percent of the SPHR exam covers human resource development. the Academy of Human Resource Development. The Academy of Human Resource Development lists HRD programs (and links) on its Web site. the HRD profession has become better con-nected to and involved with the academic community.41 Certain schools of business (or management) offer majors or minors in HRD.672. adult education. two certification exams are of-fered by the Human Resource Certification Institute (in conjunction with the S0-ciety for Human Resource Management). and provides information about the incidents that led.) that they can be adopted by other organizations. with courses in training and development. and placed this on the SHRM Web site. According to a survey of over 1.40 The content and philosophy of these programs tend to reflect the founding professbrs. These organizations and a description of their practices are published in ASTD reports and highlighted in the professional journal Training & Development. individuals must pass the test and have two years of HR exempt-level work experience. HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT 44 © Copy Right: Rai University 11. and context for practices. To date. such as educational technology. the ASTD has co-published the Human Resource Development Quarterly. The benchmarking procesb involves a questionnaire that “helps to define the focus.500 trainers. but lack the work experience. and career development. and 3) a new organization has been formed. at a biaIU1ual meeting of the ASTD and members of the Bench-marking Forum. Students who pass the test. They are called the Professional in Human Resources (PHR) and Senior Professional in Human Resources (SPHR) exams.000 HR professionals have been certified with either the PHR or SPHR designations.38 Eleven percent of the PHR. approximately 60 percent ex-pressed a preference for some form of certification. The SHRM Foundation has recently published a directory of graduate HR programs. schools of education may offer degrees and courses in fields related to HRD. This response was probably based on an increasing desire to enhance the credibility of the broadening HRD field. to adoptiI1g the practices. an academic research journal focusing on HRD issues. The ASTD has established a Benchmarking Forum for the purpose of identifying and learning about the so-called best practices among member organizations S. Over the past decade or more. 2) the ASTD changed its governance structure to include a Professors’ Net-work and an Academic Relations Committee. to further advance scholarly research concerning human resource development issues.Certification and Education for HRD Professionals One indication of the growth of the HRD field is the push for professional certifi-cation. are certified once they have obtained the relevant work experience. curriculum de-velopment. Both exams consist of 225 multiplechoice items that cover various HRM topicS. HRD programs at colleges and universities are most often found in one of three academic departments: business/ management. For human resource management in general.

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