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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
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AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS
This is a device to control the speed of fan and coolers automatically. During summer nights the temperature is quality high but as time passes temperature starts dropping. So it is required to reduce the speed of a fan or cooler after particular periods. The circuit consist of IC1 (555 Timer IC) which is used as an astable multi vibrator used to generate clock pulses. These are fed to decade dividers or counters formed by IC2 and IC3 (IC CD4017B). These ICs act as divide by 10 and divide by 9 counters respectively. The values of capacitor C1 and resister R1 and R2 are adjusted so that the final output of IC3 goes high after 8 Hours. The device presented here makes the fan run at a full speed for pre- determined time. This speed is decreased to medium after some time and to slow then onwards after a period of 8 hours, the fan or cooler is switched off. By using this device these reducing can be done automatically. This also makes the reduced conception of power.
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AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS
CHAPTER 2 HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
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AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS
Fig.2.1. Block diagram
Block Diagram Description:
The block diagram is shown above the important parts consist of a 555 Timer IC and 1 divide by 9 and divide by 10 counter and relays. Each block in the block diagram is explained in detail in below.
In this block diagram Astable multivibrator which is used as a pulse generator circuit it’s high and low state are both unstable. It provides clock pulses for the working of the decade counter1. The output of the multivibrator toggles with the low and high continuously, infect generating a train of pulses.
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AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS
It accepts the output from the astable multivibrator as clock pulse. And the counter starts counting when there is an output at the astable output.
It accept the output from the decade counter1 and counter start counting till there is an output from the decade counter1 and it act as a divide by 9 counter.
This device simply acts as an electronic switch. When the output from the decade counter 2 reaches the relay terminal it will control the speed of the fan or cooler by switching of relays.
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AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS CHAPTER 3 DESCRITION OF COMPONENTS LIST OF COMPONENTS: SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 6 .
4.500mA BC 548 1 5 5. 50HZ. Diodes IC 555 1N4001 Astable Multivibrator 13 1 8. POWER SUPPLY: SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 7 . Transformer Transistor 230/(9-0-9)V.16V 0. Resistors 22K 1M 10K 2 1 4 COMPONENTS RATING/TYPE QUANTITY 2.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS S . IC 4017B Decade Counter 2 3. Relays SPDT 6V.100Ω 4 6. 7.01µ 1 1 3. Capacitor 220µ.NO 1.1.
230V from the mains supply is step down by the transformer to 12V and is fed to a rectifier. input i.1.2.c voltage. Now. The a. the output voltage from the rectifier is fed to a filter to remove any a. Power supply 3. TRANSFORMER: SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 8 . Fig.c components present even after rectification.c.. So in order to get a pure d.e.3. The output obtained from the rectifier is a pulsating d.c voltage. this voltage is given to a voltage regulator to obtain a pure constant dc voltage.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS The input to the circuit is applied from the regulated power supply.
Faraday performed the first experiments on induction between coils of wire. However. that an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism).2. thus creating the first toroidal closed-core transformer.2 Basic principles: The transformer is based on two principles: first.3. including winding a pair of coils around an iron ring. second that a changing magnetic field within a SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 9 . Faraday was the first to publish the results of his experiments and thus receive credit for the discovery.2. the magnitude of the EMF in volts and ΦB is the magnetic flux through Fig.1 Faraday’s experiment with induction between coils of wires 3.1 History: The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction was discovered independently by Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry in 1831.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS 3. and.2. Where the circuit (in Webers). The relationship between electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" and magnetic flux was formalized in an equation now referred to as "Faraday's law of induction": .
Fig. so that most of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils. Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnetic flux that is developed. such as iron.3. an ideal transformer An ideal transformer is shown in the adjacent figure. Current passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 10 . The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability.2.2.
230V is to be brought down to the required voltage level.2. Iron losses are caused mostly by hysteresis and eddy current effects in the core.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with little loss of power. Thus the a. 3. DC voltages are required to operate various electronic equipment and these voltages are 5V. Transformers work only with AC and this is one of the reasons why mains electricity is AC. A step down power transformer is used to step down the AC voltage from the line voltage of 110 VAC or 220 VAC i. step-down transformers reduce voltage. it converts higher voltage at the input side to a lower voltage at the output. This is done by a transformer.e. a step down transformer is employed to decrease the voltage to a required level.c input available at the mains supply i.e.3 Equivalent circuit: The physical limitations of the practical transformer may be brought together as an equivalent circuit model (shown below) built around an ideal lossless transformer.. Step-up transformers increase voltage. the iron loss can be represented by a resistance RC in parallel with the ideal transformer. and thus can be modeled as reactance of each leakage inductance Xp and Xs in series with the perfectly coupled region. Usually. Power loss in the windings is current-dependent and is represented as in-series resistances Rp and Rs. Flux leakage results in a fraction of the applied voltage dropped without contributing to the mutual coupling. 9V or 12V. and are proportional to the square of the core flux for operation at a given frequency. Since the core Flux is proportional to the applied voltage. Thus.. But these voltages cannot be obtained directly. SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 11 .
4 Step down transformer: SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 12 . The secondary impedance Rs and Xs is frequently moved (or "referred") to the primary side after multiplying the components by the impedance scaling factor (Np/Ns) 2.3. saturation effects cause the relationship between the two to be non-linear. If the secondary winding is made open-circuit. the current I0 taken by the magnetizing branch represents the transformer's no-load current. Rc and Xm are sometimes together termed the magnetizing branch of the model. With a sinusoidal supply. but for simplicity this effect tends to be ignored in most circuit equivalents. Fig.2. The magnetizing current is in phase with the flux. the core flux lags the induced EMF by 90° and this effect can be modeled as a magnetizing reactance (reactance of an effective inductance) Xm in parallel with the core loss component. Transformer equivalent circuit 3.2.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS A core with finite permeability requires a magnetizing current Im to maintain the mutual flux in the core.3.
4. RESISTOR: Resistors (R) are the most fundamental and commonly used of all the electronic components.2. you will need a step down transformer.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Fig. if the secondary voltage is less than the primary. used to couple two or more alternating-current circuits together by employing the induction between the windings.3. to the point where they are almost taken for granted. which enables you to have the correct voltage input for your electrical needs. For example. then its a step-down transformer.3. which decreases the incoming electrical voltage to be compatible with your 110 volt equipment. The product of current times voltage is constant in each set of windings. Step down Transformer Step down transformers can step down incoming voltage. if your equipment has been specified for input voltage of 110 volts. A transformer in which the secondary voltage is higher than the primary is call a step-up transformer. so that in a step-up transformer. and the main power supply is 220 volts. There are many different Types SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 13 . the voltage increase in the secondary is accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the current. 3. A transformer is a electrical device with one winding of wire placed close to one or more other windings.
such as High Stability. Most resistors are linear devices that produce a voltage drop across themselves when an electrical current flow through them because they obey Ohm's Law and different values of resistance produces different values of current or voltage. that is they contain no source of power or amplification but only attenuate or reduce the voltage signal passing through them. High Current etc. This can be very useful in Electronic circuits by controlling or reducing either the current flow or voltage produced across them. Temperature Coefficient. Voltage Coefficient. or are used as general purpose resistors where their characteristics are less of a problem. High Voltage. is measured across the terminals as the circuit current flows through the resistor. The principal job of a resistor within an electrical or electronic circuit is to "resist" (hence the name resistor) or to impede the flow of electrons through them by using the type of material that they are composed from. Then a potential difference is required between the two terminals of a resistor for current to flow. A Typical Resistor Resistors are "Passive Devices". also known as a resistors voltage drop. This potential difference balances out the energy lost.1. Frequency Response. Some of the common characteristics associated with the humble resistor are. of electrons through it. from very small surface mount chip resistors up to large wire wound power resistors. When used in DC circuits the potential difference.3. Fig. Physical Size and Reliability. This attenuation results in electrical energy being lost in the form of heat as the resistor resists the flow There are many thousands of different Types of Resistors and are produced in a variety of forms because their particular characteristics and accuracy suit certain areas of application. Noise.3. Resistors can also act as voltage droppers or voltage dividers within a circuit. Power as well as Temperature Rating.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS of Resistors available to the electronics constructor. SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 14 .
Fixed resistors have only one single value of resistance. and readily available general purpose types of resistors. ( <1Ω ) to well over tens of millions of ohms. Ω. Resistors have fixed resistance values from less than one ohm. To include all types would make this section very large so I shall limit it to the most commonly used. with each one having its own particular characteristics. 3. In all Electrical and Electronic circuit diagrams and schematics. There are a large variety of fixed and variable resistor types with different construction styles available for each group. ( >10MΩ ) in value.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS . Standard Resistor Symbols: The symbol used in schematic and electrical drawings for a Resistor can either be a "zigzag" type line or a rectangular box. 3.3. for example 100Ω'sbut variable resistors (potentiometers) can provide an infinite number of resistance values between zero and their maximum value. Color coding: Color Digits [1-3] Multiplier  Tolerance  TC  Black Brown Red Orange SSCET 0 1 2 3 1 10 100 1k 1% 2% 100ppm 50ppm 15ppm EEE DEPARTMENT Page 15 . the most commonly used symbol for a fixed value resistor is that of a "zig-zag" type line with the value of its resistance given in Ohms.3.1. advantages and disadvantages compared to the others.2.
Resistance color coding 3.25% 25ppm Table.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White Gold Silver 4 5 6 7 8 9 5% 10% 10k 100k 1M 10M 0.1.5% 0.3. Resistance color coding: SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 16 .3.
CAPACITOR: Just like the Resistor.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Fig. sometimes referred to as a Condenser. is a passive device.2. Resistance color coding 126.96.36.199. and one which stores its energy in the form of an electrostatic field producing a SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 17 . the Capacitor.
This flow of electrons to the plates is known as the Charging Current and continues to flow until the voltage across both plates (and hence the capacitor) is equal to the applied voltage Vc.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS potential difference (Static Voltage) across its plates. or be of a cylindrical or spherical shape with the shape and construction of a parallel plate capacitor depending on its application and voltage rating. 3. a capacitor blocks the flow of current through it. In its basic form a capacitor consists of two or more parallel conductive (metal) plates that do not touch or are connected but are electrically separated either by air or by some form of insulating material such as paper. At this point the capacitor is said to be fully charged with electrons with the strength of this charging current at its maximum when the plates are fully discharged and slowly reduces in value to zero as the plates charge up to a potential difference equal to the applied supply voltage and this is illustrated below.4. Capacitor Construction: SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 18 . the current appears to pass straight through it with little or no resistance. When used in a direct-current or DC circuit. but when it is connected to an alternating-current or AC circuit.1. The conductive plates of a capacitor can be either square. If a DC voltage is applied to the capacitors conductive plates. mica or ceramic called the Dielectric. a current flows charging up the plates with electrons giving one plate a positive charge and the other plate an equal and opposite negative charge. circular or rectangular.
Not only that. smaller distance. Altering any two of these values alters the value of its capacitance and this forms the basis of operation of the variable capacitors. 3. the greater will be the charge that the capacitor holds for any given voltage across its plates. By applying a voltage to a capacitor and measuring the charge on the plates. In other words. more capacitance. The maximum amount of voltage that can be applied to the capacitor without damage to its dielectric SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 19 . because capacitors store the energy of the electrons in the form of an electrical charge on the plates the larger the plates and/or smaller their separation.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Fig. The property of a capacitor to store charge on its plates in the form of an electrostatic field is called the Capacitance of the capacitor. larger plates.1. the ratio of the charge Q to the voltage V will give the capacitance value of the capacitor and is therefore given as: C = Q/V this equation can also be re-arranged to give the more familiar formula for the quantity of charge on the plates as: Q = C x V. Also. Capacitor construction The parallel plate capacitor is the simplest form of capacitor and its capacitance value is fixed by the surface area of the conductive plates and the distance or separation between them.188.8.131.52. Voltage Rating of a Capacitor: All capacitors have a maximum voltage rating and when selecting a capacitor consideration must be given to the amount of voltage to be applied across the capacitor. but capacitance is also the property of a capacitor which resists the change of voltage across it.
(DC working voltage). bipolar junction transistor.5.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS material is generally given in the data sheets as: WV. 3. (working voltage) or as WV DC. The current gain may vary between 110 and 800. It is used for amplification and switching purposes. If the voltage applied across the capacitor becomes too great. Another factor which affects the operation of a capacitor is Dielectric Leakage. Dielectric leakage occurs in a capacitor as the result of an unwanted leakage current which flows through the dielectric material. The maximum DC current gain is 800. The working voltage of the capacitor depends on the type of dielectric material being used and its thickness. TRANSISTOR (BC548): BC548 is general purpose silicon. Generally. the dielectric will break down (known as electrical breakdown) and arcing will occur between the capacitor plates resulting in a short-circuit. SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 20 . NPN. it is assumed that the resistance of the dielectric is extremely high and a good insulator blocking the flow of DC current through the capacitor (as in a perfect capacitor) from one plate to the other.
184.108.40.206.5. Junction to Ambient Thermal Resistance. Thermal Characteristics of BC 548: Characteristic Thermal Resistance. Maximum ratings: RATING Collector –Emitter Voltage SSCET SYMBOL BC546 UNIT EEE DEPARTMENT Page 21 .5.3.Pin description of BC 548 3.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Fig.2.3 Unit °C/W °C/W Table.1 BC 548 Fig. Thermal characteristics of BC 548 3.2. Junction to Case Symbol R_JA R_JC Max 200 83.1.
Maximum ratings of BC 548 3.0 625 5.5.5 12 Watt mW/°C TJ . Tstg –55 to +150 °C Table. Electrical Characteristics (TA = 25°C unless otherwise noted): Off Characteristics: Collector –Emitter Breakdown Voltage (IC = 1.0 VDC mW mW/°C 80 VDC 65 VDC P D 1.0 mA.3. IB = 0) V (BR)CEO 65 - - V Collector –Base Breakdown Voltage (IC = 100 µA dc) V (BR)CBO 80 - - V SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 22 .3.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS VCEO Collector-Base voltage VCBO Emitter-Base voltage VEBO Total Device Dissipation @T A = 25°C Derate above 25°C Total Device Dissipation @T C= 25°C Derate above 25°C Operating and Storage Junction Temperature Range P D 6.
Small signal characteristics: Current–Gain — Bandwidth Product (IC = 10 mA.2 15 Ma Table. Electrical characteristics of BC 548 3. VBE=0) (VCE= 30 V.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Emitter –Base Breakdown Voltage (IE = 10 A.4. f = 100 MHz) BC 548 Output Capacitance (VCB = 10 V.5. VCE = 5. IC = 0) V (BR)EBO 6.5 pF SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 23 . TA= 125°C) I CES - 0. f = 1. VBE = 0) (VCE = 35 V.0 V.4. VBE = 0) VCE= 50 V.0 - - V Collector Cutoff Current (VCE = 70 V.7 4.0 MHz) fT 150 300 - Mhz Cobo — 1. I C= 0.
higher voltage. f = 1. BC108 and BC109. The older devices possess a lower Vcebo voltage but similar collector current and frequency characteristics. Other part numbers have different characteristics and ratings. The BC548 is commonly available in European Union and Commonwealth Countries and is often the first type of bipolar transistor young hobbyist’s encounter. the same as what the North American 2N2222 uses. which allows many manufacturers to offer electrically and physically interchangeable parts under one identification. the BC107. Small signal characteristics BC 548 The BC548 is a general purpose silicon NPN BJT transistor found commonly in European electronic equipment. These are generally housed in the TO-18 metal package. A family of older "BC" transistors predates the TO-92 BC54x series. Its complementary. IC = 0. (with complements BC177. The BC548 is often featured in circuit diagrams and designs published in Electronics Magazines such as "Silicon Chip" and "Elektor". The "BC" part of the number designates a low power silicon NPN transistor.5. the part number is assigned by Proelectron.0 MHz) Cibo - 10 - pF Table. BC178 and BC179). As a representative of the large family of bipolar transistors the BC548 provides a "stepping off point" to the use of more esoteric.5 V. These older transistors have similar characteristics as the TO-92 BC5xx devices and are generally electrically interchangeable.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Input Capacitance (VEB = 0. The BC548 is one of many such. SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 24 . PNP transistor with similar characteristics is the BC558. current or frequency devices for beginners.
either the round metal-can called the 'T' package or the more familiar 8-pin DIP 'V' package. The equivalent circuit.6. the 558 is a quad version with four 555's also in a 14 pin DIP case . About 20-years ago the metal-can type was pretty much the standard (SE/NE types). and 2 diodes. triggering. The 556 timer is a dual 555 version and comes in a 14-pin DIP package. when the output is 'high'. and a Rise/Fall time of 100 n Sec. depending of the manufacturer. and power output. in block diagram. discharge. 15 resistors. It can also withstand quite a bit of abuse. The Threshold current determine the maximum value of Ra + Rb. supply current 3 to 6 m A. is typically 1 milli -amp (m A) or less. SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 25 . The supply current. The 555 come in two packages. are the equivalent of over 20 transistors. 3.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS 3. providing the functions of control.6. General Description: The LM555 is a highly stable device for generating accurate time delays or oscillation. stable and user-friendly integrated circuit for both monostable and astable applications. IC 555 TIMER: The 555 timer IC was first introduced around 1971 by the Signe tics Corporation as the SE555/NE555 and was called "The IC Time Machine" and was also the very first and only commercial timer is available.Inside the 555 timer. For 15 volt operation the maximum total resistance for R (Ra + Rb) is 20 Mega-ohm.5 and 18 volt. level sensing or comparison. It provided circuit designers and hobby tinkerers with a relatively cheap. Some of the more attractive features of the 555 timer are: Supply voltage between 4.1.
For astable operation as an oscillator. Features: ➢ Direct replacement for SE555/NE555 ➢ Timing from microseconds through hours ➢ Operates in both astable and monostable modes ➢ Adjustable duty cycle ➢ Output can source or sink 200 m A ➢ Output and supply TTL compatible ➢ Temperature stability better than 0. In the time delay mode of operation. and the output circuit can source or sink up to 200mA or drive TTL circuits. the time is precisely controlled by one external resistor and capacitor.005% per °C ➢ Normally on and normally off output ➢ Available in 8-pin MSOP package Pin diagram: SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 26 .AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Additional terminals are provided for triggering or resetting if desired. The circuit may be triggered and reset on falling waveforms. the free running frequency and duty cycle are accurately controlled with two external resistors and one capacitor.
which in turn causes the output to go high. Since the latch itself is not directly accessible. Pin 2 (Trigger): This pin is the input to the lower comparator and is used to set the latch. Triggering is accomplished by taking the pin from above to below a voltage level of 1/3V+ (or.1.Q24.6.3. This is the beginning of the timing sequence in mono stable operation. this relationship may be best explained SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 27 . and their Darlington connection provides state volts used. The state of the pin reflect will the output always inverse state and a high1. one-half the voltage appearing at pin 5).AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Fig. in general. this fact may be seen by examining. which is normally connected to circuit common (ground) when operated from positive supply voltages. Pin 3 (Output): The output of the 555 comes from a high-current totem-pole stage made up of transistors Q20 .Pin diagram of 555 Timer Pin 1 (Ground):The ground (or common) pin is the most-negative supply potential of the device. Transistors Q21 and Q22 provide drive for source-type loads.7 than level output less voltage about the V+ supply of the logic of the latch.
AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS in terms of latch-input trigger conditions. resetting of the comparator. A dc current.ohm. The action of the threshold pin is level sensitive. etc. the maximum value of resistance is 20 Mega Ohms. it will force the output to a low state regardless of the state of either of the other inputs. but they should be confined within the limits of V+ and ground for reliability. When the 555 timer is used in a voltage-controlled mode. It may thus be used to terminate an output pulse prematurely. Use of this terminal is the option of the user. SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 28 . to gate oscillations from "on" to "off". For either timing configuration operating at V+ = 5 volts. allowing slow rate-of-change waveforms. its voltage-controlled operation ranges from about 1 Volt less than V+ down to within 2 volts of ground (although this is not guaranteed). The reset voltage threshold level is 0. Delay time from reset to output is typically on the order of 0. that is. Voltages can be safely applied outside these limits.5 µS. This current is typically 0. For 15 volt operation. but it does allow extreme flexibility by permitting modification of the timing period. By applying a voltage to this pin. and a sink current of 0. The voltage range that can safely be applied to the threshold pin is between V+ and ground.5 µS. which causes the output to go low. The control voltage may be varied from 45 to 90% of the Vcc in the monostable mode. and will define the upper limit of total resistance allowable from pin 6 to V+. must also flow into this terminal from the external circuit. Pin 6 (Threshold):Pin 6 is one input to the upper comparator (the other being pin 5) and is used to reset the latch. Resetting via this terminal is accomplished by taking the terminal from below to above a voltage level of 2/3 V+ (the normal voltage on pin 5).1µA. making it possible to control the width of the output pulse independently of RC. The reset input is an overriding function. it is possible to vary the timing of the device independently of the RC network. this resistance is 16 Mega. Pin 5 (Control Voltage): This pin allows direct access to the 2/3 V+ voltage-divider point. termed the threshold current. the reference level for the upper comparator. These levels are relatively independent of operating V+ level. The minimum reset pulse width is 0. etc.7 volt. thus the reset input is TTL compatible for any supply voltage.1mA from this pin is required to reset the device. Pin 4 (Reset): This pin is also used to reset the latch and return the output to a low state.
the trigger input falls below +1/3 VCC. Pin 5 is grounded through a 0. It is "on" (low resistance to ground) when the output is low and "off" (high resistance to ground) when the Output is high. The conduction state of this transistor is identical in timing to that of the output stage. When a negative pulse is applied to pin 2. Output is taken from CC pin3.Pin4is usually connected to + V to avoid accidental reset. the output of comparator goes high which resets the flip-flop and SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 29 . A resistor RA is connected between pins 6 and 8.3. Pin 6 (threshold) is shorted to pin 7. this transistor switch is used to clamp the appropriate nodes of the timing network to ground. The device will operate essentially the same over this range of voltages without change in timing period. the transistor is on and capacitor. the circuit is in a stable state. time interval military devices 3. Saturation voltage is typically below 100mV (milli -Volt).C is shorted to ground. Sensitivity of to supply voltage change is low. the emitter of which goes to ground. At pins 7 a discharge capacitor is connected while pin8 is connected to supply VCC. 555 monostable multivibrator operations: (a) The operation of the circuit is explained below: Initially. Actually. Usually the timing capacitor is connected between pin 7 and ground and is discharged when the transistor turns "on". 3. the most significant operational difference is the output drive capability. Supply-voltage operating range for the 555 is +4. In both the monostable and astable time modes. There are special and available that operate at voltages as high as 18 volts. To obtain transition of output from stable state to quasi-stable state. Monostable Multivibrator Circuit details: Pin 1 is grounded.e. when the output at pin 3 is low i.6.5 volts (minimum) to +16 volts (maximum).1% per volt. a negative-going pulse of narrow width (a width smaller than expected pulse width of output waveform) and amplitude of greater than + 2/3 VCC is applied to pin 2. pin 7 is effectively shorted to ground. so that when the transistor is turned "on". In quiescent condition of output this input is kept at + VCC.2.6. which increases for both current and voltage range as the supply voltage is increased.01uF capacitor to avoid noise problem. typically 0.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Pin 7 (Discharge): This pin is connected to the open collector of an NPN transistor (Q14). Trigger input is applied to pin 2. and it is specified for operation between +5 volts and +15 volts. Pin 8 (V +): The V+ pin (also referred to as Vcc) is the positive supply voltage terminal of the 555 timer IC.
AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS consequently the transistor turns off and the output at pin 3 goes high. thereby discharging the capacitor C and the output of the timer goes low. the capacitor C begins charging toward +VCC through resistance RA with a time constant equal to RAC.0986 RAC s 1.1 RAC . the longer it takes for the capacitor voltage to reach +2/3VCC.e-t/RAC) Substituting Vc = 2/3 VCC in above equation we get the time taken by the capacitor to charge from 0 to +2/3VCC.0986RAC Where RA is in ohms and C is in farads. as shown in figure. Vc = VCC (1. Thus the output returns back to stable state from quasi-stable state.RAC loge 3 = 1. The time during which the timer output remains high is given as. This is the transition of the output from stable to quasi-stable state. tp =1. The transistor goes to saturation. = VCC. the output of comparator 1 goes high. Voltage across the capacitor at any instant during charging period is given as. the RC time constant controls the width of the output pulse. The larger the time constant RAC. When the increasing capacitor voltage becomes slightly greater than+2/3VCC. As the discharge transistor is cutoff. which sets the flip-flop.e-t/RAC) or t . So +2/3VCC. tP = 1. (1 . (b) Mono stable Multi vibrator Design Using 555 timer IC: The capacitor C has to charge through resistance R A . In other words. The above relation is derived as below. Then the cycle repeats. The output of the Monostable Multivibrator remains low until a trigger pulse is again applied. SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 30 . Trigger input.0986 RAC So pulse width. output voltage and capacitor voltage waveforms are shown in figure.
AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 31 .
RELAYS: “A relay is an electrically controllable switch widely used in industrial controls.6.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Fig.7. Mono stable Mode Fig.” The relay allows the isolation of two separate sections of a system with two different voltage sources i.220.127.116.11. automobiles and appliances.6. Waveforms generated monostable mode 3. SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 32 .e. a small amount of voltage/current on one side can handle a large amount of voltage/current on the other side but there is no chance that these two voltages mix up..
7. the contacts are closed when the coil is energized. In the NC type.7. SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 33 . The armature’s contact acts like a switch and closes or opens the circuit. a magnetic field are created around the coil i. There are all types of relays for all kinds of applications.e. at this moment the current tries to flow continuously through the coil and it is safely diverted through the diode. the contacts are closed when the coil is not energized. Fig. the following characteristics need to be considered: ➢ The contacts can be normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC). This causes the armature to be attracted to the coil.1 Operation: When current flows through the coil. Relay Operation and use of protection diodes Transistors and ICs must be protected from the brief high voltage 'spike' produced when the relay coil is switched off. The above diagram shows how a signal diode (eg 1N4148) is connected across the relay coil to provide this protection.3. The diode is connected 'backwards' so that it will normally not conduct.2.7. ➢ There can be one or more contacts.7.. i.e.. Without the diode no current could flow and the coil would produce a damaging high voltage 'spike' in its attempt to keep the current flowing. When the coil is not energized.3. Conduction occurs only when the relay coil is switched off. Circuit symbol of a relay 3. In choosing a relay.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Fig. SPDT (single pole double throw) and DPDT (double pole double throw) relay. a spring pulls the armature to its normal state of open or closed. 3.2. different types like SPST (single pole single throw). In the NO type.1. the coil is energized.
below which the coil will not be energized.7.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS ➢ The voltage and current required to energize the coil. This minimum voltage is called the “pull-in” voltage. Advantages & Applications: Advantages: ➢ Automated Load Sharing by transformers ➢ No manual errors ➢ Fit and forget system ➢ Highly sensitive ➢ Low cost and reliable circuit Applications: ➢ Process Industries ➢ Power Distribution Stations ➢ Agriculture Transformers SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 34 . depending on the relay. The relay has a minimum voltage. while the current can be from a few milliamps to 20milliamps. This is in the range of a few volts to hundreds of volts. ➢ The minimum DC/AC voltage and current that can be handled by the contacts. 3.3. The voltage can vary from a few volts to 50 volts. while the current can be from a few amps to 40A or more.
DIODE: In electronics. The voltage drop across a forward biased diode varies only a little with the current. a diode is a type of two-terminal electronic component with a nonlinear current–voltage characteristic. This unidirectional behavior is called rectification. diodes can have more complicated behavior than this simple on–off action. the most common type today. the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS 3. is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material connected to two electrical terminals. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the diode's forward direction). A vacuum tube diode (now rarely used except in some high-power technologies) is a vacuum tube with two electrodes: a plate and a cathode. Semiconductor diodes do not begin conducting electricity until a certain threshold voltage is present in the forward direction (a state in which the diode is said to be forward biased). A semiconductor diode. and to extract modulation from radio signals in radio receivers. this effect can be used as a temperature sensor or voltage reference. SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 35 . and is a function of temperature. while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction).8. However. and is used to convert alternating current to direct current. Thus.
diodes are used to regulate voltage (Zener diodes). which makes them useful in some types of circuits. to electronically tune radio and TV receivers (varactor diodes). to protect circuits from high voltage surges (Avalanche diodes). and a region on the other side that contains positive charge carriers (holes).8. developed around 1906. A modern semiconductor diode is made of a crystal of semiconductor like silicon that has impurities added to it to create a region on one side that contains negative charge carriers (electrons). but not in the opposite direction. were made of mineral crystals such as galena. to generate radio frequency oscillations (tunnel diodes. Tunnel diodes exhibit negative resistance. Gunn diodes.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Semiconductor diodes have non-linear electrical characteristics. The crystal conducts a current of electrons in a direction from the N-type side (called the cathode) to the P-type side (called the anode). Today most diodes are made of silicon.1. The discovery of crystals' rectifying abilities was made by German physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1874. called n-type semiconductor. called p-type semiconductor. is where the action of the diode takes place. but other semiconductors such as germanium are sometimes used. conventional current flows from anode to cathode in the direction of the arrow (opposite to the electron flow. since electrons have negative charge). called a PN junction.1. The boundary within the crystal between these two regions.3. Diodes were the first semiconductor electronic devices. For example. which can be tailored by varying the construction of their P–N junction. SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 36 . However. The diode's terminals are attached to each of these regions. These are exploited in special purpose diodes that perform many different functions. The first semiconductor diodes. called cat's whisker diodes. 3. IMPATRT diodes).8. and to produce light (light emitting diodes). Semiconductor diodes: Fig. Typical diode packages in same alignment as diode symbol.
3 V for Germanium and 0. For silicon diodes. the depletion zone continues to act as an insulator. see photodiode).2.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Another type of semiconductor diode. if an external current is passed through the diode. is formed from the contact between a metal and a semiconductor rather than by a p–n junction. recombination can once again proceed. or I–V graph (see graph below).7 V (0. the built-in potential is approximately 0. and a negatively charged dopant ion is left behind in the P-doped region. As recombination proceeds more ions are created. resulting in substantial electric current through the p–n junction (i. SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 37 . about 0. leaving behind an immobile positively charged donor (dopant) on the N side and negatively charged acceptor (dopant) on the P side. substantial numbers of electrons and holes recombine at the junction). A diode’s 'I–V characteristic' can be approximated by four regions of operation. If an external voltage is placed across the diode with the same polarity as the builtin potential. At this point. a positively charged dopant ion is left behind in the N-doped region.e. the Schottky diode. The region around the p–n junction becomes depleted of charge carriers and thus behaves as an insulator. When a p–n junction is first created. there is a "built-in" potential across the depletion zone.8. Thus. Current–voltage characteristic: A semiconductor diode’s behavior in a circuit is given by its current–voltage characteristic. an increasing electric field develops through the depletion zone which acts to slow and then finally stop recombination. For each electron–hole pair that recombines. When a mobile electron recombines with a hole.7 V will be developed across the diode such that the P-doped region is positive with respect to the N-doped region and the diode is said to be "turned on" as it has a forward bias. for instance. both hole and electron vanish. if the polarity of the external voltage opposes the built-in potential. However. 3. conduction-band (mobile) electrons from the N-doped region diffuse into the P-doped region where there is a large population of holes (vacant places for electrons) with which the electrons "recombine". light. preventing any significant electric current flow (unless electron/hole pairs are actively being created in the junction by.2 V for Schottky). The shape of the curve is determined by the transport of charge carriers through the so-called depletion layer or depletion region that exists at the p–n junction between differing semiconductors. This is the reverse bias phenomenon. the width of the depletion region (called the depletion width) cannot grow without limit. However.
The vast majority of all diodes are the p-n diodes found in CMOS integrated circuits. which operate as described above. cuprous oxide and later selenium was used.2. doping level.4 to 1.7 V per "cell". more rarely. Diode SSCET Zener diode Schottky diode Tunnel diode EEE DEPARTMENT Page 38 . which include two diodes per pin and many other internal diodes.3. germanium.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Fig.3. much larger than a silicon diode of the same current ratings would require. I–V characteristics of a P–N junction diode 3. Types of semiconductor diode: There are several types of junction diodes. with multiple cells stacked to increase the peak inverse voltage rating in high voltage rectifiers). are usually made of doped silicon or.8. Before the development of modern silicon power rectifier diodes. or are really different devices like the Gunn and laser diode and the MOSFET: Normal (p-n) diodes. are just an application of a diode in a special circuit. which either emphasize a different physical aspect of a diode often by geometric scaling. and required a large heat sink (often an extension of the diode’s metal substrate). choosing the right electrodes. its low efficiency gave it a much higher forward voltage drop (typically 1.8.
Applications: ➢ Radio demodulation ➢ Power conversion ➢ Over-voltage protection ➢ Logic gates ➢ Ionizing radiation detectors SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 39 . some diode symbols.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Light-emitting diode Photodiode Varicap Silicon controlled rectifier Fig.3.3.8.
Each output stays high for 1 clock period of the low to high after output 10 goes slow. IC 4017 DECADE COUNTER: The M74HC 4017 is a high speed CMOS decade counter divider fabricated with silicon gate C2 MOS Technology. Each of the decoded outputs is normally low and sequentially goes high on the low to high transition of the clocked input.8. The clock enabled input disables counting when in the high stage. The M74HC 4017 is a five stage Johnson counter with 10 decoded outputs.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS 3. Pin Number & Purpose: SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 40 . All inputs are equipped with protection circuit against static discharge and transient excess voltage. A clear (CLR) input is also provide which when taken high sets all the decoded outputs low. and can be used in conjunction with the clock enable (CKEN) to cascade several stages.
Pin configuration of IC CD4017 Pin Connection: Fig.Pin diagram of IC 4017 SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 41 .6.9. 3.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Tabl e.
AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Ordering Code: Connection Diagram: SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 42 .
3.9.3.Logic diagram of IC CD4017B SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 43 .1.2.Connection diagram of IC CD4017B Logic Diagram: Fig.9.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Fig.
AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 44 .
AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 45 .
9.Timing diagram of IC CD4017B SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 46 .DC&AC Electrical Characteristics Timing Diagrams: Fig.3.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Table.7.3.
AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Features: ➢ Wide supply voltage range: 3V to 15V ➢ High noise immunity: 0.45V ➢ Medium speed operation: 5 MHz ➢ Low power: 10Micro W ➢ Fully static operation Applications: ➢ Automotive ➢ Instrumentation ➢ Medical electronics ➢ Alarm systems ➢ Industrial electronics ➢ Remote metering SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 47 .
AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS CHAPTER 4 WORKING OF AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 48 .
➢ The fan gets A/C through a resistance and its speed drops to medium. thus keeping T5 in saturation and relay RL4 is on. It is used to generate clock pulses. ➢ The bridge rectifier converts AC to pulsating DC supply and is filtered with smoothing capacitor. The method of connecting the gadget of the fan or cooler is given in the figure. At the end of the cycle. pin 11 of the IC is low. When the output Q2 becomes high and Q1 becomes low. relay RL1 is turned off and relay RL2 is turned on. ➢ These ICs act as divide by 10 counters and divide by 9 counters respectively. Relay RL4 is switched off. 50Hz is given to the step down transformer and it is converted to 9V. This continues until output Q4 is high. when pin 11(Q9) becomes high T4 get saturated and T5 is cut off. resister R2 and R2 are so adjusted that the final output of IC3 goes high about 8hours. thus switching of the fan or cooler. ➢ Throughout the process. ➢ In the circuit diagram IC1 (555 timer IC) act as an astable multivibrator. ➢ Initially the fan shall get A/C supply directly so it shall be run at high speed. relay RL2 is activated thus the fan run at low speed. SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 49 . Initially output Q0 is high and there for relay RL1 is energized. The values of capacitors C1. ➢ The first two outputs of IC3 (Q0 and Q1) are connected through diode D1 and D2 to the base of the transistor T1. which is formed by IC2 and IC3. When Q4 goes low and Q5 goes high.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Working: ➢ The circuit for the automatic speed controller for fans and coolers is shown in the figure. The pulses are fed to a decade divider counter. so T4 is cut off. It remains energized when Q1 becomes high. ➢ The supply voltage of 230V.
while at low speed it will run for a much longer time period when any of the four outputs(Q5 to Q8) is high. Circuit Diagram: SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 50 .AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS ➢ Using the given circuit the fan shall run at high speed for a comparatively lesser time when either of Q0 or Q1 output is high. ➢ It has been designed to reduce the amount of electric power. ➢ It is possible to make the fan run at the three speeds for an equal amount of time by connecting three terminal decoded outputs of IC3 to each of the transistors T1 to T3. At medium speed it will run for a moderate time period when any of three outputs(Q2 to Q4) is high. One can also get more than three speeds by using an additional relay transistor and associated components and connecting one or more outputs of IC3 to it.
Existing arrangement for fan speed control Fig. Speed control arrangement for cooler with different windings for various speeds SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 51 . Modified arrangement for speed control Fig.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Fig.
AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS CHAPTER 5 APPLICATIONS&CONCULSION SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 52 .
SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 53 . ➢ This device can be used in bed rooms during night hours. ➢ Electrical energy can be saved to a greater extent. ➢ Only less power is needed for the operation.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS Applications: ➢ Used to control the speed of fans and coolers automatically. ➢ Lifetime of fan or coolers can be increased. ➢ This device can be used as a power saving system for hotels and houses. . Advantages: ➢ No manual support is needed. CONCLUSION: The automatic speed controller for fans or coolers is used to control the speed automatically. it is fully automatic. We can also assign different time periods for each speed by designing the circuit to the need. By using this circuit the electric power can be saved to a greater extent and increase lifespan of fans and coolers.
com ➢ www.AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLLER FOR FANS AND COOLERS BIBLIOGRAPHY: ➢ www.ecelab.com SSCET EEE DEPARTMENT Page 54 .com ➢ Electronics for you – Magazine ➢ www.semiconductor.datasheetarchive.
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