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Emily Meixner MUS 303 --Music History I December 3, 2010

From approximately 1650 to approximately 1750, organ music experienced a golden age, a time when Baroque composers devoted a great deal of time and energy to the organ in composition,

structure, and performance. The main reason for this flourishing was the conclusion of the Thirty Years War, which meant that funds which had once been depleted for the expenses of war were once again directed towards the arts. Although the Lutheran Reform had prohibited many of the arts, it encouraged church music, especially the choir and the organ, as a means of expressing devotion and instructing the faithful in doctrine. For this reason, the Lutheran Church experienced a plethora of German Lutheran composers; men such as Johann Pachelbel, Georg Bhm, Johann Christoph Bach (a first cousin of Johann Sebastian Bachs father) and Dietrich Buxtehude. Hence, the arrival of Johann Sebastian on the scene in 1685 was like a musical seed planted in fertile soil that had long been prepared with the techniques and compositions of devoted musicians, men who helped to cultivate the talent and industry of this aspiring genius, a man whose influence in the musical world has yet to be surpassed. Among these devoted artists was the famed organist and composer of Bachs time, Dietrich Buxtehude. Buxtehude, one of the best known Lutheran composers of the late seventeenth century, served as the organist at St. Marys Church in Lbeck , one of the most prestigious musical positions in northern Germany, and was renowned for his virtuosic playing and his compositions. Buxtehude was a familiar figure in Bachs life from boyhood through his compositions and through the acquaintances he made as a student in Lneburg. At the age of twenty, Bach also traveled 280 miles to visit Buxtehude in Lbeck, where the young man prolonged his visit by several months to further learn and experience the skills of this master of the organ. Exactly what occurred in Lbeck during Bachs stay is unknown, but it can be surmised that Buxtehude had a tremendous impact on Bach, evidenced first of all by the prolonged visit and by the styles he adopted in his performances and his compositions. In this paper, it is my intention to explore Bachs early life as the foundation for Buxtehude, and the influence that Buxtehude had over Bach in his technique and in his composing of organ music.

Life In Eisenach: The Foundation For Buxtehudes Influence

Johann Sebastian Bach was born on March 21, 1685, the eighth and final child of a family where most of its patriarchs made their livelihood through music. In Bachs day, there were three ways that a German musician could earn a living: (1) as the servant of a noble patron as the court or chamber musician; (2) in the service of a town council as town piper; (3) in the service of a municipal or ecclesiastical authority as church organist, music director, or cantor - which included the teaching of music in a school. Sebastian Bachs father, Ambrosius Bach was involved somewhat in each of these musical professions, but his official title was as the Hausmann or the town piper of a small town by the name of Eisenach located in central Germany. Ambrosius duties included performing twice daily at the town hall with a band of five, and performing at worship services before and after the sermon and Afternoon Vespers. He also would have been expected to play at civic events and private occasions such as weddings and funerals. The house of a town-piper was the central establishment of professional music making, filled with musicians, apprentices, instruments, and music, involving the entire household and nearly all who lived under their roof. The musical activities of the Bach family would have varied from teaching, practicing, and performing to collecting and copying music and repairing and maintaining instruments. Bach would have been no exception to this manner of life. It is certain that Sebastian received instruction in several instruments from Ambrosius and his sons. This was merely a part of Bachs broad musical education. While Bachs musical life originated in the home, it was also nourished by outside sources, where his family was also integrally involved. In Eisenach, the four institutions around which the musical culture of the city revolved - namely, the church of St. George, the town hall, St. Georges Latin School, and the court - were all situated within a diameter of no more than an eighth of a mile of each other. All of these institutions played a key role in Bachs life during his formative years as well as in his later career. The town hall served as the location for official and public music events; the ducal castle with its court capelle or orchestra (of which Ambrosius Bach was a member) was the

center of aristocratic musical patronage; St. Georges Latin School served as the center of musical education with its chorus musicus or student choir; St. Georges Church with its organ and choir loft, served in turn as the house of sacred music. The organist who served St. Georges Church was a cousin of Ambrosius by the name of Johann Christoph Bach, a profound composer in Bachs own words. This connection would have given Bach presumably numerous opportunities to explore the intricate mechanical inner workings of the organ, since the organ at St. Georges was in constant need of repair. He would also have been given the chance to experience the music that Christoph Bach composed. Through the court, Sebastian observed the music and person of Johannn Pachelbel, who came to Eisenach in 1677 to serve the court capelle before continuing on to Erfurt to become organist of the Predigerkirche. Johann Pachelbel of Nuremberg(1653-1706), was a contemporary of Buxtehude, and one of the most notable German organ composers of the Baroque period. However, Buxtehude, being from northern Germany, had a completely different style compared to Pachelbel who lived in central Germany. The organs in the north as opposed to the central part of the country were also very different in their sound as well as in their build. These differences in compositional style as well as in the tonal design of the organs would later entice Sebastian as a young man to travel 280 miles to see them for himself. Although Pachelbels stay in Eisenach was brief, he forged a lasting relationship with the Bach family, serving as organ teacher and mentor to Ambrosius Bach oldest son Christoph in 1686. Thus, Pachelbel was another organist whose performance and compositional style Sebastian Bach came into direct contact with at a young age. Sebastian Bach would have more opportunities to learn and experience Pachelbels music when he moved to Ohrdruf. All of Ambrosius Bach sons also attended St. Georges Latin School in Eisenach. The Latin School offered six classes, each lasting two years, moving successively up from level sexta (six) to level prima (one). Scripture, Luthers catechism, music, and Latin formed the basis of the curriculum. The chorus musicus (school choir) rehearsed one hour four days a week. As the town piper, Ambrosius

Bach and his band would have accompanied both vocal soloists and the choir, which consisted of students from the Latin schools chorus musicus. Hence, Ambrosius Bach sons would have regularly performed in vocal-instrumental performances with their father and their great-uncle, the organist Johann Christoph Bach. Bach attributed the musical excellence of his sons to their exposure to good quality music at a young age. The same could be applied to Bachs own childhood. From his birth in 1685 to his fathers death in 1695, he was steeped in a musical world of high quality art in a variety of facets, leading to an immense versatility in Bach that would serve him well as his career progressed. This musical world lay the foundations for his mastery of the art to which his family was so devoted.

II. Life In Ohrdruf Bachs life changed dramatically with the death of first his mother in 1694, then his father in 1695, upon which Sebastian and his brother Jacob were welcomed into the household of their oldest brother, Johann Christoph Bach. Despite this dramatic turn of events, Bach was able to continue in the musical tradition of his family under the guidance of Christoph Bach, who had recently been appointed organist at St. Michaels in Ohrdruf. It was under Christoph Bachs direction that Sebastian flourished as an exceptional keyboardist. Christoph Bach was an ideal guardian and teacher for Bach, having been taught for three years by the renowned organist and composer, Johann Pachelbel in the city of Erfurt. Christoph Bach also worked in Erfurt briefly as an organist before he was called away to assist his uncle Heinrich in his duties as organist of three churches in the city of Arnstadt. A year later he was accepted as organist at St. Michaels Church in Ohrdruf at the age of eighteen. Through Christoph Bach, Bach was able to increase his technological knowledge of the organ. St. Michaels Church had two organs; the larger organ had only been built in 1675 and expanded in

1688, but the instrument was still incomplete and suffered from serious defects, the necessary repairs being delayed for years. In sum, St. Michaels instruments required considerable attention by the organist to be kept in playing condition. That this should be the case precisely during Bachs Ohrdruf years was important, for the boy, who clearly had a knack for musical instruments and their technology, was given an ideal opportunity to gain firsthand experience in organ building. Bach was able to continue his schooling at the Ohrdruf Lyceum Illustre Gleichense, which was then under the direction of cantor Elias Herda. The continuation of Bachs education was only possible through hospitia liberalia - financial aid provided by affluent families for gifted or needy students, as Christoph Bachs salary was quite modest for supporting a growing family. Music was among the chief subjects of study. In addition, as a choral scholar Bach was required to sing in the chorus musicus, which received steady income for its members mainly through Currende singing in the streets three times a year. He also may have been paid as a vocal soloist, which he could have contributed to the household expenses. Bachs excellence as a student and his schooling under Herda would serve him well later when he would be forced to complete his studies elsewhere. While Bach pursued his education at the Lyceum, he also received instruction at home with his brother. The most decisive role in Sebastians musical upbringing must be assigned to his elder brother, Christoph. Not only did he provide a home for his youngest brother, he also furthered Sebastians professional musical development during the most formative years of his life. It was under Christophs schooling that Bach devoted himself to mastery of the keyboard. Cousin Johann Gottfried Walther presents in his 1732 Musicalisches Lexicon a more objective statement when he writes that Sebastian learned the first principia on the clavier from his eldest brother, Mr. Johann Christoph Bach. This statement implies firstly that Bach gained a sound keyboard technique on the standard keyboard instruments of the times-namely, harpsichord and organ, on which he was able to apply both hands and feet. Secondly, it implies experience with the major keyboard genres and styles, whether

improvisatory (prelude, toccata) or strict (fugue, ricercare), free invention or improvisation based on a given subject or chorale tune. Technique and knowledge of genres and styles would have come through composition as well as performance, where Bach would have been required to copy out the exemplary works of various masters, thus teaching him the rules of counterpoint and harmony, melody, voice leading, meter, and rhythm. Thirdly, it implies a familiarity with the various approaches of individual composers. It is likely that Christoph would have used the compositions he had studied under Pachelbel as instructional material for Sebastian. In a notebook owned by another student of Pachelbel, we find an example of the chosen repertoire for study: a series of preludes, fugues, fantasias, capriccios, dance suites, and choral elaborations, most of which are by Pachelbel himself, but also including Johann Jacob Froberger, Johann Caspar Kerll, Johann Krieger, Guillaume Gabriel Nivers, Christian Friedrich Witt, and others. Hence, Bach would have been trained in a number of compositional styles. Pachelbel also sold his students copies of his own music: three fugues, a toccata, a ciaccona, and a selection of chorale elaborations. The music represented a valuable commodity that Pachelbel was interested in protecting. This would explain a story related in Sebastians obituary, in which Bach secretly attempted to copy a similar collection of Pachelbels music in his brothers possession. Christoph had denied him access to this collection before, and when he discovered the copies which Bach had made, he quickly confiscated them. In spite of Bachs loss, copying down of Pachelbel and the works of other composers was an excellent teaching tool for the budding musician for memorizing and emulating the masters. Furthermore, Bach still had access to a broad range of keyboard literature from north, central, and south Germany as well as Italy and France, including composers such as Dietrich Buxtehude, Johann Adam Reinken, Jean-Baptiste Lully, and Georg Bohm. It is possible that Bach may have begun composing his own compositions at this time as well, albeit since he would have had no desire to recommend or preserve these works, no autographed manuscripts have survived.

While his musical foundation in Eisenach was quite broad, Bachs musical education in Ohrdruf concentrated specifically on his keyboard skills. Christoph Bach gave his younger brother a thorough knowledge of keyboard literature that was stylistically diverse and technically challenging while still musically attractive. The Lyceum would have only added to his education. In addition, the constant need to maintain the St. Michael organ broadened Bachs knowledge of organ mechanics. Thus, when the time came for Bach to leave the confines of Ohrdruf, he was adequately prepared for the new musical opportunities that awaited him there.

III. Life in Lneburg In the spring of 1700, Bach and several other boys were forced to leave the Lyceum due to a lack of hospitia (financial aid). Bach had two choices at this point in his musical career: (1) he could complete his education at another school and gain the academic qualifications necessary for a cantor, or (2) he could enter the professional life as an apprentice to a musician. Bach chose the former, and in March of 1700 he set out with his school mate Georg Erdmann to complete his education at the highly reputed St. Michaels in Lneburg, a city over 200 miles north of Ohrdruf. The Lyceum cantor Elias Herda had been a choral scholar at St. Michaels and it is presumed that, after hearing of openings for matins singers, he recommended Bach and Erdmann for positions as choral scholars, which would supply them with the necessary funds to complete their schooling. St. Michaels was a grand complex including a church, a boarding school for the young nobility, a Latin school for the burgher class, and the Collegium Academicum. Bach and Erdmann were both accepted into the Matins choir - a select group of fifteen musically experienced choral scholars which was responsible for singing daily Matins. The Matins choir served as a more advanced group of singers within the chorus musicus, a vocal-instrumental choir which performed at the Saturday Vespers, the Sunday main services, the afternoon Vespers services on significant Sundays and feast

days, and the regular Currende singing on street corners, weddings, and funerals. Bach was accepted as a soprano, but since his voice broke soon after his arrival, he was moved to the bass section. The duties of the Matins Choir would have occupied Bach immensely, but his talent as an instrumentalist particularly as an organist - were certainly utilized by the chorus musicus and the schools official organist. St. Michaels was renowned for its vast music collection, which ranked with that of St. Thomass in Leipzig as among the oldest, largest, and richest choir libraries in Germany. It is uncertain whether a fifteen-year-old choral scholar would have had access to such a large collection, but one can assume that he would have had contact with at least a small piece of it. During his years in Lneburg, Bachs inclination towards keyboard music increased immensely, prompting him to expand his knowledge and improve his skills. St. Michaels offered him the school harpsichords and the church organ, which would have been the largest instrument up to this time upon which Bach had played, with a Oberwerk, Ruckpositiv, Brustwerk, and pedal. The harpsichord had the advantage of not requiring additional assistance for Bach to play, whereas the organ required a paid bellows operator. In addition, the St. Michaels organ was in constant need of repair, a frustrating prospect for the aspiring musician, albeit it gave him yet another opportunity to learn more about the machinery and maintenance of the instrument. Another event which would have sparked Bachs curiosity in the working of the organ was the coming of the organ builder Johann Balthasar Held to St. Michaels in 1701. Held, who had previously worked with Buxtehude, was responsible for renovating the schools positive organ and enlarging it by one stop. Beyond the walls of St. Michaels, Lneburg offered Bach several other opportunities to extend his musical horizons. While in Eisenach he had been exposed mainly to German and Italian repertoire, in Lneburg he discovered the styles of northern Germany and France. Bach was given the opportunity to hear music performed in the French style through the renowned the orchestra kept by the Duke of Celle. The Dukes mistress was the daughter of a French Huguenot refugee, and to please her the Duke

often brought the best French musicians and dancers to the court, where his orchestra gained the reputation of being among the finest in Germany. Thomas de la Selle, the dancing master of the RitterAcademie (the school for the young nobility at St. Michaels), served in the ducal court capelle and could have given the students of St. Michaels access to the restricted ducal castle. Thus, Bach became familiar with the French musical style and performance technique. There were five churches in Lneburg and hence five organists with whom Bach would have become acquainted with in order to access their instruments. Georg Bhm, the organist at St. Johns (the largest church in Lneburg), became a significant mentor for the choral scholar. Bachs study with Bhm began soon after his arrival at St. Michaels.Although there are no records that he received formal lessons with Bhm, Bach would have learned much from the organists experience. The St. Johns organ was also in bad repair, but it was still a remarkable instrument. The compositions which Bach studied under Bhm consisted predominantly of harpsichord suites, especially French ones, but also included preludes, fugues, and chorale partitas. Hence, Bhm was chiefly responsible for Bachs instruction in the genre of stylized dance. He also gave Bach compositional models for preludes, fugues, and chorale variations, a very useful gift for Bach who began composing in these areas at this time. Bachs friendship with Bhm gave him the opportunity to travel to the nearby city of Hamburg, a musical metropolis immersed in the repertory of north German organ music and home to the distinguished organist of St. Catherines, Johann Adam Reinken. As dean of the Hamburg musicians, a master of the strict style of composing, and a renowned virtuoso, Reinken would have served as an imposing albeit fascinating figure to the aspiring musician. During his stay in Lneburg, Bach made several trips to Hamburg to hear the nearly eighty-year-old Reinken ply his trade at St. Catherines Church, which possessed one of the largest and finest instruments of the seventeenth century. The organ consisted of fifty-eight stops on four manuals and pedal, with a beautiful variety of reeds and

excellent thirty-two foot pedal stops. Bach had a tremendous admiration for this instrument, and it played an important role in shaping his theoretical and practical standards for organs. Reinken influenced Bach in several aspects, but most importantly, he introduced Bach to the repertoire of north German organ literature, its principles, its relationship to a specific type of instrument, and its manner of performance. This repertoire included Reinkens own work, which contributed to Bachs part writing skills, the design of closed and rounded movements, the differentiation between thematic expositions and related yet non-thematic episodes, and the integrated use and expansion of sequential patterns. This repertoire also included the works of Dietrich Buxtehude. Reinkens close friendship with the famous organist allowed Bach far more familiarity with Buxtehude. It is possible, even, that Bach may have met him in Reinkens home, his trip to Lbeck in 1705 perhaps resulting from an invitation he was unable to accept until later.

IV. From Weimar to Arnstadt Bachs graduation from St. Michaels School in 1702 at the age of seventeen marked the beginning of Bachs life as a professional musician. In July of that year, Bach applied for his first organ position at St. Jacobis Church in the Thuringian town of Sangerhausen. Although he was unanimously elected by the town council, he lost the position to a more experienced organist through the intervention of the ruling duke. However, Bachs election by the council proved that they thought him exceptionably capable in his performance, improvisation, composition, and knowledge of organ technology. He was also deemed experienced enough to supervise an assistant organist and to direct the Church chorus musicus. In January of 1703, Bach joined the capelle of Duke Johann Ernst of Saxe-Weimar where he served as a lackey for six months. His position required his assistance as a violinist while also involving nonmusical tasks and valet services. The brief employment at the court in Weimar . . . might

be interpreted as a half years ripening time,a waiting period before certification as a master. Meanwhile, in the city of Arnstadt, a new organ had recently been completed by Johann Friedrich Wender at the rebuilt Church of St. Boniface also known as the New Church. Bach was invited in July of 1703 to test this new instrument and strike it for the first time, meaning he also played it at the dedication recital, for which the eighteen-year-old was paid a sum worthy of a professional court organist. This dedication recital must have made a splendid impression on the town and church authorities, for on August 9th, 1703, Bach was appointed the organist at the New Church in Arnstadt. Bachs successful audition but failed appointment as organist at St. Jacobis followed by his successful appointment at St. Bonifaces testifies to his abilities at this time in his life. The repertoire Bach performed at his Sangerhausen and Arnstadt appearances would have displayed his professional command of organ performance, improvisation, and composition so as to impress the audience and especially the jury. His skills were coupled with an extensive knowledge of the mechanics of the instrument which went far beyond what was typical for an organist of his age. Bach was certainly an exceptional musician for his age: an ambitious, independent young man with a devotion to music and, with his new appointment as the organist of the New Church, a desire to now place himself among alongside the masters of his art, men like Reinken, Bhm, and Buxtehude. Bachs position at the New Church required that he play for four services each week: the main service on Sunday at 8:00 a.m., the prayer service on Monday at 7:00 a.m., the vespers service on Wednesday at 2:00 p.m., and the early service on Thursday at 7:00 a.m. His primary responsibility was to play an appropriate chorale prelude introducing each hymn, to lead and accompany the congregation in the singing of the hymns themselves, and to play preludes and postludes at the beginning and end of the service as well as suitable music during Communion. He received a handsome sum for this extraordinarily light work load, thus affording him plenty of time for study, practicing, composing, and the overall advancement of his musical growth.

Bach had one of the finest instruments he had come across in his care. For the first time in his life, he had free reign over a fine instrument with no technical defects, a luxury most organists of the time could only dream of. The Wender organ consisted of twenty-one stops on two manuals and pedal, the manuals extending over four octaves and the pedals over two, and, apart from the missing C-sharp, they did not feature an incomplete bottom octave. The organ was tuned at Andreas Werkmeisters new well-tempered tuning system - very similar to the current equal temperament, allowing the organist to perform in any key without spoiling its distinctive characteristics. Hence, it could be said that Bach had in his possession one of the most up-to-date instruments of the time, perfect for refining his skills and contriving his own musical ideas. It would seem that Bach would have been quite content in Arnstadt with this beautiful instrument, a decent salary, and a relatively easy workload. But Bach soon found that his situation had a major drawback. The musical scene in Arnstadt was quite dull compared to the vibrant musical atmosphere of Luneberg and Hamburg. Up to this point in his life, Bach had been fortunate enough to have had in his vicinity some of the best musical virtuosos in the country with whom he could study. But in Arnstadt, he was the most accomplished musician in the city. Thus, Bach was forced to satisfy his longing to advance on his own initiative. He was able to accomplish this to a certain degree through intensive self-study. But Bach desired the criticism and guidance of another master. This coupled with his new salary made it an ideal time for Bach to fulfill his dream of meeting the great organist, Dietrich Buxtehude.

Buxtehude: His Life in Lbeck Dietrich Buxtehude is among the best-known Lutheran composers of the late seventeenth century. He was born the son of a German organist employed in Denmark, but he moved to Lbeck in 1668 to succeed Franz Tundor as organist at St. Marys Church. This was one of the most prestigious

and most well-paid positions in northern Germany. Buxtehudes duties included playing the morning and afternoon services on Sundays and feast days, where he provided improvised preludes to chorale hymns and provided solo works probably as postludes to the services. He also played for weddings and funerals, provided continuo for the ensemble music performed under his direction, and was responsible for the routine maintenance of the St. Marys organs. St. Marys Church possessed two organs: a large organ for full services and a smaller organ for devotional services and funerals. Both instruments boasted three-manuals, the larger instrument consisting of fifty-two stops and the smaller instrument of about forty. It is probable that Buxtehude had both organs tuned to the well-tempered system when the harmonic language of his organ compositions began to exceed the limits of mean-tone. For Bach, Buxtehude symbolized a type of father figure. First of all, he prefigured the independent composer. It would seem from Buxtehudes responsibilities that his position was typical of a church organist of his time, with two dependable instruments under his care. However, Buxtehude was far more than an organist. He was able to exercise far more freedom then would have been permitted in courtly service due to the bourgeois, liberal character of Lbeck (a free imperial city). In addition to his official duties as organist, he was able to travel, take on pupils, develop as a virtuoso, and play public organ recitals - where he performed his own compositions and set new standards of form, size, texture, and character. He composed several of his own vocal and instrumental works for special events and concerts, such as his famous Abendmusiken. an annual series of evening concerts featured on five Sunday afternoons before Christmas. In sum, Buxtehude exercised his office of church organist similar to that of a municipal capellmeister, serving as a model for Bach when he became cantor at the St. Thomas School in Leipzig. Secondly, Buxtehude exhibited an understanding of the Italian, German, and French styles and a thorough knowledge of the old and new contrapuntal methods. Buxtehude had been introduced to the French style since his youth through the musical trends of the Danish royal court. He had learned

theory from northern German organ masters such as Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, Heinrich Scheidemann (Reinkens predecessor at St. Catherines), and Matthias Weckmann. Weckmann was specifically responsible for Buxtehudes knowledge of the music of the Italian composer Frescobaldi and his German student, Froberger. These north German composers and their contemporaries composed mostly chorale settings but they made a special contribution to the praeludium as art music through the rich resources of the north German organ, particularly its pedal. Buxtehude embellished this northern style with southern virtuosity and contrapuntal art based on thematic variation, which he had found in the toccatas, fantasias, and canzonas of Frescobaldi and Froberger. He was also familiar with the German theorist Christoph Bernhards treatise Tractatus compositionis augmentatus on first species counterpoint (also known as equal or simple counterpoint) and unequal or florid counterpoint, which he further divides into old style and modern style. However, rather then penning theoretical treatises, Buxtehude let his musical compositions demonstrate his proficiency in Italian, German, and French music and contrapuntal styles. Finally, Buxtehude was an organ expert. As the organist of St. Marys, the maintenance of both organs was one of his primary responsibilities. Buxtehude also maintained a close relationship with the leading German organist and theorist, Andreas Werckmeister, and strongly advocated his new system of temperament. Bach already had a strong understanding of German, French, and Italian music, theory, and organ mechanics prior to his visit. Nevertheless, Buxtehude still had much to offer him. Thus, in 1705, he undertook a journey to Lbeck, indeed by foot, in order to listen to the famous Organist of St. Marys Church there, Dietrich Buxtehude.

VI. Bachs Visit It is unknown what exactly occurred during Bachs visit to Buxtehude. It is certain, however,

that while the young musician had received permission from his superiors for a four week absence, he ended up extending his visit by nearly three months. When questioned as to the reason for this delay, Bach responded, to comprehend one thing or another about his art, as recorded in the Arnstadt consistory for February 21, 1706. Although Bach knew that his visit would be an extraordinary experience, it is possible that even he did not realize how much Buxtehude would exceed his expectations. At the earliest, Bach probably arrived in Lbeck in mid-October and stayed until the beginning of February at the latest. Bach timed his visit to Lbeck so that he could attend the performances on December 2 and 3 of Buxtehudes extraordinary Abendmusiken: two oratorios Castrum doloris and Templum honoris. These were grand-scale events, with the former commemorating the death of Emperor Leopold I, and the latter his successor, Joseph I. The two oratorios Buxtehude presented . . . exposed Bach to a vocal genre, style, and manner of performance he had never heard before. Buxtehude composed both works in the modern madrigal form, featuring choruses, recitatives, and arias. Their performance included both organs, several choirs, twenty-five violins playing in unison, trumpets, trombones, drums, French horns, and oboes. It is possible that Bach not only attended but also participated in Buxtehudes ensemble to help finance his visit, offering his services as a keyboardist or violinist. With such an ambitious project, Buxtehude would have taken advantage of every competent musician available. Bach already possessed a basic knowledge of Buxtehudes organ repertoire from his years in Thuringia, Luneburg, and Hamburg. Regardless, Buxtehude still would have been an imposing organist to the young musician in his innovative approach to virtuosic and large scale works in the stylus fantasticus, his development of a pedal technique as both a performing and compositional device, and the extent and probably well-guarded distribution of his major organ works. Bach exploited this opportunity to add to his collection of Buxtehudes work. Several years later he was responsible for the

preservation and transmission of his organ works through the efforts of Bachs relatives and friends. Bach also probably brought some of his own large-scale compositions, his attempts to measure up to the organ masters, to show Buxtehude in the hope of receiving appraisal and encouragement. It thus seems plausible that Bachs multi-sectional works in the direct Buxtehude mold, with their bold but inhibited gestures - such as the Prelude and Fugue in E major, BWV 566 - mostly anticipate or coincide with the Lbeck visit rather than postdate it.

VII. Buxtehudes Influence on Bach Buxtehude influenced Bach in at least three ways in regards to the organ: his performance technique, organ mechanics, and in the compositional style of Bachs preludes and fugues for organ. Buxtehudes effect on Bach in his performance technique can be demonstrated immediately on his return to Arnstadt. It is recorded in the consistory that after his visit, Bach was reproved for having hitherto made many strange variationes in the choral, and mixed many foreign tones into it, so that the Congregation has been confused by it. His accompaniment of the chorales had suddenly become far more ornate, reminiscent of Buxtehudes manner of accompaniment. The organ masters chorale preludes were so elaborate that the ministers of St. Marys decided in December 1701 to hang boards in the Church with the hymn numbers for the congregation. Bachs harmonization of the hymn Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend in his organ chorale BWV 726 (composed around this time) serves as a good example of the showy style he had adopted. Instead of drawing attention to the cantus firmus, Bach explores the chromatic possibilities of a four-part setting of the chorale like a Max Reger before his time. Two years after Bachs visit, Buxtehudes influence on Bachs expertise in organ mechanics is evidenced during his career as organist at St. Blasius in Mhlhausen. Bach had traded his job as church organist in Arnstadt for the same position at one of the largest churches in the free imperial city of

Mhlhausen, the second largest city in Thuringia. The organ at St. Blasius consisted of thirty stops on two manuals and pedal, but had a few small defects. The organ had undergone a large-scale renovation less than twenty years prior to Bachs arrival. Nevertheless, Bach convinced the parish to undertake another major overhaul plus an expansion of the organ, drawing up the plans for the instrument himself. These plans included the addition of a 32 sub-bass to the pedal, modifications to the 16 Posaune, replacing one of the old stops with a 16 Fagotto for use in concerted music, and the addition of a Sesquialtera. Bach also may have suggested a change in temperament, as he insisted that all of the retained stops be retuned. It may be that these specific recommendations were influenced by his recent encounter with Buxtehudes large organ, whose Sesquialtera had been added in 1704. The organist of St. Marys also had a strong impact on Bach in his organ compositions. During his stay, Bach would have made several copies of Buxtehudes music which he took back with him, and is considered one of the three chief figures responsible for the preservation and publication of Buxtehudes music. Thus through copying and listening to Buxtehudes music, Bach became familiar with Buxtehudes composing techniques. This is especially noteworthy in Bachs preludes and fugues when compared to Buxtehudes praeludia. There are many characteristics and styles found in a typical Buxtehude praeludium which are also found in Bachs preludes and fugues.

VIII. Buxtehudes Praeludia Buxtehude s praeludia make up the core of his organ repertoire. The fundamental quality of these organ works is the composers juxtaposition of free, improvisatory sections composed in toccata style with structured, fugal sections. The importance he gives to the free sections or the fugal sections varies greatly. Although no two of the praeludium are alike, Buxtehude uses many of the same styles and characteristics within each piece. All of Buxtehudes praeludia begin with a free flourish in either the manuals or the pedal. The free sections are composed in an idiomatic, irregular, and unpredictable

keyboard style, following the stylus fantasticus. The stylus fantasticus was a subset of the theatrical compositional style which made particularly use of dissonance and improvisation. Bound only to the rules of harmony, its purpose is to show the virtuosity of the musician through artful decoration, contrast, unexpected changes, and variations between free and metered music through imitative counterpoint. Buxtehude demonstrates the unpredictability of the stylus fantasticus in the free segments of his praeludia, as they are composed in a variety of textures and styles. They vary from pedal points to virtuosic pedal lines, from rapid runs of sixteenth and thirty-second scales and arpeggios to homophonic chordal progressions. The free flourish frequently includes a pedal point, a common feature of Buxtehudes praeludia, such as in the opening of the Praeludium in G Minor BuxWV 150: (See Example 1: Praeludium in G Minor BuxWV 150, p. 1, mm. 1-4) The free section then usually becomes more strict and metered, which, while not imitative, serves to contrast with the virtuosic flourishes of the prior segment. Buxtehude then proceeds on to a fugue. From this point on, the praeludium alternates back and forth between fugue subjects and free or strict sections. The importance he gives to the free sections or the fugal sections varies greatly, for no two of the praeludium are alike. The praeludia usually contain one to three fugues, which employ a wide selection of styles and contrapuntal tactics or lack thereof. These fugues contrast strongly with the free segments of the praeludia because of their strong meter and their predominantly contrapuntal character. The fugue subject as a general rule has a clearer melodic character and a livelier rhythm than the toccata theme, and often includes repeated notes (see example 2 [Praeludium in D Major BuxWV 139, mm. 21-23), rests (see example 3 [Praeludium in F Major BuxWV 145 mm. 41-44 ), and octave leaps (see example 4 [Praeludium in D Minor BuxWV 140 mm. 19-22). Sometimes Buxtehude will return to the first fugue subject later in the piece, but this time in triple meter. For example, in the Praeludium in D Minor BuxWV 140, a similar version of the first

fugue subject appears later in the left hand when the meter switches to a triple meter at measure 64 (see Example 5 [Praeludium in D Minor BuxWV 140, mm. 64-68]). This also occurs in the Praeludium in G Minor BuxWV 150 and in the Praeludium in A Minor BuxWV 153. Often in Buxtehudes praeludia when the composer hits on a particular musical idea or harmony that he likes, he will repeat the idea several times for intensification. This may occur in an ostinato bass or repeating bass line, such as in the Praeludium in C Major BuxWV 137 (see Example 6 [mm. 7583]: These various kinds of repetition may also occur in the manuals. The Praeludium in F# Minor BuxWV 146 is full of examples of Buxtehude repeating a particular harmonic, melodic, or rhythmic idea for intensification. The beginning of the piece consists of a sequence of repeated notes emphasizing the tonic and the leading tone (see Example 7, Praeludium in F# Minor BuxWV 146, p. 1 mm. 1-3). There are also uses of repetition to drive the melody forward, such as towards the end of the praeludium at measures 114-120 (see Example 8, Praeludium in F# Minor BuxWV 146, p. 6, mm. 114-120) where there is a series of repeated chords above the melody in the bass line. The repeating of a musical idea or harmony occurs several times within the Praeludium in D Major BuxWV 139. From the beginning of the piece, he uses the same intervallic arpeggiation in the left hand for the first six measures, only changing the chord as the progression proceeds from I to vi to IV to ii to a diminished vii6 and finally to I and thus ends the first sequence (see Example 9, Praeludium in D Major BuxWV 139, p. 1 mm. 1-7). In measures 70-86, he composes an extensive descending sequence consisting of a melodic line and repeated chords which alternate between the right and left hand (see Example 10, Praeludium in D Major BuxWV 139 mm. 70-71.). A selection of Buxtehudes praeludia, including copies of the full scores of each example given above, has been included in Appendix II.

IX. The Influence of Buxtehude in Bachs Preludes and Fugues The typical fashion in which Bachs preludes and fugues are organized is much more predictable than that of Buxtehude. In Buxtehudes organ music the number of free sections and fugal segments varies. By contrast, Bach is more consistent, usually beginning with a prelude or a toccata which is followed by a fugue. However, although the pieces differ structurally, Bach employs many of the same styles and characteristics of Buxtehudes praeludia. I have decided to analyze four of Bachs preludes and fugues to demonstrate the influence of Buxtehude as well as other influences found in these works: the Prelude and Fugue in D Major BWV 532, the Prelude and Fugue in G Minor BWV 535, the Prelude and Fugue in C Major BWV 545, and the Prelude and Fugue in E Major 566. (A copy of the score for each Bach prelude and fugue examined within the paper has been included in Appendix I). Bachs Prelude and Fugue in D Major BWV 532 opens with an ascending D major scale in the pedal punctuated with chords in the manuals to emphasize the tonic. This melodic idea is repeated for the first few measures until a pedal point comes in at measure five, at which point the piece becomes less metered. Measures 12-14 harken especially to Buxtehudes use of repetition to heighten the intensity of a chord progression, as he repeats the fifth and the seventh of a major-minor seventh chord in a series of 32nd notes for three measures before resolving in a F# major chord in measure 15. Then with a rapid flourish of 32nd notes there is a return to D major. The piece continues on at a strict meter, where Bach continues to use Buxtehudes repetitive devices rhythmically and harmonically. The prelude concludes in a free section with several flourishes in the manuals. Thus, Bach also uses the stylus fantasticus found in Buxtehudes praeludium in his preludes fluctuation between free and strict meter. This particular fugue has some notable Buxtehude qualities about it as well. Buxtehudes tendency to hold on to a certain harmony or melodic idea shows itself in the first part of the fugue

subject in which Bach repeats a melodic idea four times. He then pauses with an eighth rest and two quarter rests, another quality of Buxtehudes praeludia, then continues with the rest of the fugue subject. However, while Bach does exhibit these characteristics of Buxtehude in his fugue, Bach does not just replicate Buxtehude, he also puts his own distinctive mark in his preludes and fugues. In the first exposition of Buxtehudes fugues, Buxtehude is quick to state the fugue subject in all of the voices. The remainder of the fugue is spent alternating the subject between the voices, adding various decorations until he tires of the idea and either moves on to a new fugue subject or switches to a free section. Bachs fugues are composed in a decidedly different fashion. When Bach states the fugue subject, he dwells on the fugue subject and explores its musical possibilities. Bach also alternates between the exposition of the fugue subject and developmental episodes. This harkens not to the tradition of Buxtehude but to the ritornello form of the Italian concerto, a modern invention of Bachs day. The Italian concerto was an instrumental form in which a small ensemble or solo instrument is contrasted with a large ensemble or orchestra. Giuseppe Torelli was the first to adapt the form for the fast movement of the concerto from the A-B-A structure of a da capo aria. However, Antonio Vivaldi was chief in developing the standard ritornello form as it is found in Bachs preludes and fugues. The concerto consisted of three movements: an opening fast movement in the tonic followed by a slow movement in the same or closely related key, and ending with another fast movement in the tonic. The fast movements were composed in the ritornello form. The ritornello itself was a recurring musical idea, similar to a refrain, played at the beginning and repeated usually in a varied form throughout the movement and at the end. This ritornello is alternated with episodes which feature the smaller ensemble or solo instrument. These episodes serve to develop or vary the elements from the ritornello and feature virtuosic idiomatic playing, scales, arpeggiations, and other figuration. The prelude from the Prelude and Fugue in G Minor BWV 535 demonstrates the Italian style as

well as the characteristic compositional style of Buxtehude. The opening theme in the manuals harkens to the use of the solo violin in Vivaldis violin concertos. The melodic line ascends and descends, decorated by flourishes and arpeggiations and brief strikes of the pedal until measure 10 where Bach lands on the tonic and repeats it over a moving pedal line which arrives at a pedal point at measure 11. These flourishes in the manuals and lightly struck notes in the pedal followed by a pedal point are characteristics of Buxtehudes praeludium. The repeated arpeggiations of the g minor chord at the opening of the piece are particularly similar to the beginning of the Praeludium in D Major BuxWV 139. In measure 14 Bach begins a a long series of virtuosic runs in the manuals which continue until measure 19 where the piece changes to a strict meter and Bach begins a long series of arpeggiated fully diminished vii chords traveling down the scale. At measure 32 the progression changes. The voices now move upwards, once more punctuated by the pedal only now in the dominant, culminating in a diminished vii-i in the bass decorated accompanied by free ascending thirty-second note runs in the dominant key in the manuals at measures 35-36. The melody comes back down the scale at a slower pace and a stricter meter than it ascended, landing once again on a vii chord (although this time fully diminished), but Bach delays the final cadence until the end of measure 40 in a V#-I. The inclusion of these virtuosic runs in the manuals and the changes between free and strict meter also evoke Buxtehudes style. The fugue reflects the form of the Italian concerto even more so than the prelude, while still showing the influence of Buxtehude. The fugue subject contains repeated notes, rests, and repetition for emphasis, all of which are found in his praeludium. A real answer comes in at measure five in the minor key of the dominant, followed by an answer in the tonic at measure 11, followed by yet another real answer in the minor dominant key at measure 17, completing the first exposition. Thus begins the first episode which is marked by tonal instability, suggesting the minor dominant key but returning to the tonic for the second exposition at measure 25, where the fugue subject is stated in the alto line and

the bass line drops out. There is another brief developmental episode, ending at measure 32 where the fugue subject is given again in the key of v in the soprano line and the tenor line also drops out. A two measure episode follows. The fourth exposition occurs at measure 39, where the tenor voice comes back in with the fugue subject in the tonic. After a three measure episode, the bass line also returns with the fugue subject, but this time on the mediant, and the exposition ends with a cadence in the key of the relative major at measure 51. However, by the end of the following episode at measure 54 the fugue has transitioned into the key of d minor. While the alto gives the fugue subject, there is a descending line in the pedal and the bass drops out once again. The next episode is also transitional as Bach uses a sequence to return to the fugue subject in the tonic at measure 64 in the pedal. However, Bach does something surprising at measure 68 when he introduces of a Neapolitan chord, followed by several measures of tonal instability during which he hints at the dominant key. There is a virtuosic ascending pedal line at measure 70 followed by a thirty-second note scale in the key of the Neapolitan, a V 4-2 (in the key of g minor), and several flourishes in the manuals. The fugue concludes with a brief V7 chord followed by a pedal point beneath a chromatic descent in the soprano finally cadencing in a picardy third. Thus, while the prelude itself and the fugue subject strongly resemble a Buxtehude praeludium, the fashion in which the fugue subject is developed is decidedly Italian in its alternation between expositions (the fugue-version of a ritornello) and developmental episodes. Bachs Prelude and Fugue in C Major BWV 545 also exemplifies both elements of Buxtehude and the Italian concerto. The prelude begins with a descending melodic arpeggiation in the pedal, which is repeated in the left hand and punctuated with chords in the right hand. In the third measure the bass arrives at a pedal point, a common feature of many of Buxtehudes praeludium. With the entrance of the first pedal point, the piece becomes more metered and Bach states the musical idea of the prelude, which is developed for the remainder of the piece as it alternates among the voices. The

prelude ends in a virtuosic coda which is almost a repeat of the beginning of the piece. This alteration between free - strict - free sections is also very similar to Buxtehudes style. The fugue opens with the exposition, where the fugue subject is stated, followed by a real answer in the dominant key, then stated again in the tonic in the pedal. The first exposition ends in measure 21 and the first episode begins, where the bass hints at the subject but it is never completed as the fugue modulates into the dominant, while the upper voices fluctuate in scale-like motions. The fugue subject arrives on the dominant at measure 28 in the tenor line in the dominant key, in the alto line at measure 34, and finally in the pedal at measure 45. The exposition doesnt end until measure 55 after the fugue subject is given in the key of vi, signaling another episode. This episode is more tonally unstable than the first as Bach plays with several different keys and developmental motifs. This goes on for several measures until the fugue returns to the exposition in the dominant at measure 78 in the pedal. Then finally the fugue subject is given in the tonic at measure 79 in the alto. The subject is answered in the subdominant and in the key of ii. There is one final developmental episode from measure 92 to measure 99. The fugue closes with a final exposition, firmly established in the tonic once again as the pedal gets the fugue subject then rests on a pedal point in a four measure cadential six-four resolving into a perfect authentic cadence. However, Bach does not always avoid intermingling the free and the fugal forms. Bachs Prelude and Fugue in E Major BWV 566 is particularly similar in its structure to the praeludia of Buxtehude. (*Please note: The score included in Appendix I is in C Major, but it is the correct score). The piece begins with four measures of sixteenth note scales and arpeggios until measure five where the bass comes in as a pedal point and the voices settle in a chord progression. No sooner has the piece reached this arrival, then Bach writes a virtuosic solo pedal line, which lasts until measure 11. The remainder of the prelude consists of a decorated chord progression where the melody alternates between the manuals and the pedal. The fugue then proceeds, imitative of Buxtehude in its use of

repeated notes in the opening of the subject. The fugue goes on for several measures, switching back and forth between expositions (fugue version of ritornellos) and developmental episodes. Then in measure 89, the fugue ends and Bach enters an improvisatory segment of sixteenth note scales in the manuals ending with lightly struck chords. After a rapid arpeggiation in the pedal, he then proceeds in measure 101 to another fugue, although this fugue subject is much slower paced so as to contrast with the first fugue. The piece concludes in a free section, commencing with a majestic pedal line which proceeds to rest on the pedal point of a cadential six-four. The manuals then make a decorated scaler descent to the final cadence. Bachs preludes and fugues normally do not switch back and forth between free and fugal segments. This may be the reason that this toccata and fugue is believed to have preceded or coincided with Bachs visit to Lbeck, as it seems like a special attempt to imitate Buxtehudes manner of composing. Even so, one can still see Bachs application of the architectural principles of the Italian concerto especially in the first fugue. An examination of these Bach preludes and fugues demonstrates that Bach, although he used many of the compositional devices of Buxtehude, he was very much his own composer. Bach uses the compositional devices of Buxtehude such as virtuosic runs and pedal lines, repeated notes or chords, octave leaps, and pedal points. However, instead of whimsically switching from free to strict meter to fugue, he employs the principle of contrast from the stylus fantasticus through shifts between free and strict meter in his preludes. The fugue receives its own separate form. In each form, rather than stating several ideas in one piece, Bach dwells on one melodic idea, whether it is a melodic line or a particular key or harmony. He proceeds to explore the full potential of this musical idea for the remainder of the piece. He renders several different versions of the same idea, exploring its musical possibilities through various figurations, harmonies, and sequences. In his fugues, this is accomplished particularly through the ritornello form of the Italian concerto. Hence, Bach took the northern German composers styles and ideas and placed them into a completely new structure: a binary form.

X. Conclusion Fifteen years after his visit with Dietrich Buxtehude, Bach auditioned for the organist position at St. Jacobi Church in Hamburg. Reinken was present for the event, and afterwards is recorded to have told him, I thought this art was dead, but I see that in you it still lives. This remark could be applied to the influence Buxtehude had on Bach in his preludes and fugues. The phrase to live does not imply repetition but growth and development, demanding change that looks to the past as well as to the present. Buxtehude died two years after Bach visited him, but thanks to Bach, much of Buxtehudes organ music was preserved and distributed. However, Buxtehudes tradition also survives within Bachs preludes and fugues. After his Lbeck experience, Bach did not simply replicate Buxtehudes works. On the contrary, he applied the techniques of Buxtehude to the already extensive musical education he possessed. Bach not only composed in the styles of Buxtehude, but he also revolutionized them, applying them to a whole new structure. Thus, Buxtehude played a key role in the cultivation of what are now known as the Bach preludes and fugues.

Bibliography Bach, Johann Sebastian. Complete Preludes and Fugues for Organ. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1985. Bach, Johann Sebastian. Toccata und Fugue in C-Dur BWV 566a. International Musical Score Library Project, 2010. PDF file. HYPERLINK "" (Accessed December 3, 2010). Burkholder, J. Peter, Donald Jay Grout, and Claude V. Palisca. A History Of Western Music. 8th ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2010. Buxtehude, Dietrich. Preludes for Organ BuxWV 136-153 (Without BuxWV 138, 147). International Musical Score Library Project, 2006. PDF file. HYPERLINK "" (Accessed November 23, 2010). Erickson, Raymond, ed. The Worlds of Johann Sebastian Bach. Amadeus Press, 2009. Geck, Martin. Johann Sebastian Bach: Life and Work. Translated by John Hargraves. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2006. Snyder, Kerala J. Dietrich Buxtehude: Organist In Lubeck. University Of Rochester Press, 1987. Wilbur, Gregory. Glory And Honor: The Musical And Artistic Legacy Of Johann Sebastian Bach. Cumberland House Publishing, Inc., 2005. Wolff, Christoph. Johann Sebastian Bach: The Learned Musician. W.W. Norton & Company, 2000.

Gregory Wilbur, Glory and Honor: The Musical and Artistic Legacy of Johann Sebastian Bach (Tennessee: Cumberland House Publishing, INc, 2005), 4.

Wilbur, 7. Christoph Wolff, Johann Sebastian Bach: The Learned Musician (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2001), 23. Wolff, 22. Wolff, 23. Martin Geck, Johann Sebastian Bach: Life and Work, trans. John Hargraves (Orlando: Harcourt, Inc., 2000), 37. Wolff, 21. Ibid. Wolff, 28. Wolff, 30. Wolff, 24. J. Peter Burkholder, Donald Jay Grout, Claude V. Palisca, A History Of Western Music, 8th ed. (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2010), 404. Wolff, 24. Wolff, 26. Wilbur, 11. Wolff, 28. Wolff, 50. Wilbur, 13. Geck, 39. Wilbur, 15. Wolff, 37. Wolff, 37. Wilbur, 16. Wolff, 43. Wolff, 44. Ibid. Ibid. Wolff, 48. Wolff, 44. Wolff, 45. Ibid. Geck, 41. Wolff, 46. Geck, 44. Raymond Erickson, ed., The Worlds of Johann Sebastian Bach (New York: Amadeus Press, 2009), 3. Geck, 43. Wolff, 41, 53. Ibid. Geck, 42. Wolff, 55. Ibid. Erickson, 4. Wolff, 59. Wolff, 58. Wolff, 59, 60.

Wolff, 60. Wolff, 93. Erickson, 87. Ibid. Wolff, 65. Geck, 45. Wolff, 61. Wolff, 62. Geck, 44. Wolff, 63. Erickson, 246. Wolff, 63. Wolff, 64. Wolff 65. Wolff, 64. Geck, 46. Wolff, 68. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Geck, 47. Wolff, 69-70. Geck, 48. Wolff, 70. Geck, 48. Wolff, 72. Wolff, 79. Wolff, 82. Wolff, 80. Ibid. Wolff, 81. Burckholder, 403. Burckholder, 404. Snyder, 51. Snyder, 97. Ibid. Snyder, 78. Ibid. Snyder, 84. Wolff, 95. Ibid. Ibid. Burckholder, 404. Wolff, 95. Snyder, 25.

Snyder, 23. Snyder, 26. Ibid. Snyder, 246. Snyder, 246. Snyder, 212. Wolff, 96. Ibid. Snyder, Kerala J., Dietrich Buxtehude: Organist in Lubeck (London: Collier Macmillan Publishers, 1987), 104. Wolff, 96. Ibid. Wolff, 98. Wolff, 96. Geck, 54. Wolff, 98. Geck, 54. Ibid. Wolff, 98. Snyder, 105. Wolff, 97. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Snyder, 105. Snyder, 98. Geck, 51. Wolff, 104. Ibid. Ibid. Ibid. Snyder, 105. Ibid. Ibid. Snyder, 106. Snyder, 239. Ibid. Snyder, 248. Snyder, 212. Geck, 473. Snyder, 239. See BuxWV 150 mm. 16-64, mm. 90-146, BuxWV 153 mm. 21-64, mm.67-104. Burkholder, p. 398. Burkholder, p. 399. Burkholder, p. 423. Burkholder, p. 424.

Wolff, p. 97. Erickson, p. 245. Ibid.

Emily Meixner, Music History I, Dec. 3, 2011 Emily Meixner, Music History I, Dec. 3, 2011