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Industrial Revolution - Presentation Notes

Industrial Revolution - Presentation Notes


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Published by soadquake981
Notes accompanying my PowerPoint slideshow about the expansion of the middle class and the mechanization of everyday life during the Industrial Revolution in Europe.
Notes accompanying my PowerPoint slideshow about the expansion of the middle class and the mechanization of everyday life during the Industrial Revolution in Europe.

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Published by: soadquake981 on Nov 02, 2008
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Industrial Revolution – Presentation Notes

The New Middle Class • • Professionals – political influence expanded exponentially throughout the nineteenth century. Shopkeepers prided themselves on not doing manual work and owning property, even though their income level was far below that of other middle-class people. • Some of the middle class expanded their enterprises and prospered in the growing cities; others did not believe in the industrialization and lost in the end because of their unwillingness to work in cities and “get with the program” • The middle class gained so much power that in the end, their power was largely out of proportion to their population Decline of Aristocracy • • Stimulated growth in wealth and population of middle class From 1750-1850, bourgeoisie “created more massive and more colossal productive forces than had been produced by all generations put together” – Karl Marx • • Placed middle class into position of power because of economic growth Wealth generated by new productive forces placed bourgeoisie into commanding position, enabled leaders to assert significant amount of power Middle Class Drive for Power • Britain, France, and Low Countries – middle class gained power of government by 1830s and 1840s

• •

Central Europe – industrialization was slower, middle class did not gain power until later in the century Middle class drive for power was unstoppable, all European leaders had to recognize them either by granting political representation or changing laws in their favor

Nonconformity of Artisans • • Artisans do not fit perfectly into any one social group; they are neither lower nor middle class Artisans possessed specific traditional skills, which resulted from long apprenticeships and enforcement of high standards of workmanship by artisan guilds • • Normally carried productive operation by themselves or with other artisans Differed from regular factory workers in that they prided themselves on being able to complete an entire product, not just contribute one step toward final product Displacement of Artisans • Many artisans were unaffected by the Industrial Revolution ○ In 1850, there were as many artisans as factory workers in Britain ○ In France, many people were opposed to mass-producing goods ○ Artisans remained an important group • • In some instances, the process of industrialization competed with the artisans’ skills Sometimes, the artisans could not compete with the efficiency of machines ○ Some were forced to work long hours at home ○ Others gave up and worked in factories

Some of the riots and revolutions during the first half of the nineteenth century in Europe were started by artisans

Rhythm of Work • In Britain by 1850, only about 20% of population was employed in agriculture – dramatic decline from 80-90% that was typical in 1750 • • • • • Steady shift of population from countryside to cities Work schedules were governed by the clock instead of by the sun and seasons Employers controlled their workers and efficiency by strict timekeeping Middle class employees carried pocket watches to help follow increasingly time-regulated schedules Time itself became standardized – Greenwich Mean Time was adopted as a universal base zone for the entire globe in 1884 The Advent of Railways • • Europeans viewed railways and locomotives with a sense of wonder and fear “Some authors speculated about the medical risks posed by travel at the previously unheard of speeds of fifteen or twenty miles per hour.” • King Frederick William III of Prussia initially worried about the “democratic” effects of railway travel, but eventually began using trains himself because of their speed and efficiency New Inventions • The 1851 Great Exhibition was held in London ○ Showcased Britain’s technological and economic advancements

• •

It was held in the Crystal Palace, a huge iron and glass building covering 19 acres and reaching a height of 108 feet at its peak Over 14 months, more than 14,000 exhibitors displayed more than 100,000 objects from Britain, its empire, and other parts of the world

More than 6 million visitors of all classes attended from all over Europe, and many of them traveled by means of… you guessed it, the new network of railroads

Alleviation of Famine • • • • Industrialization helped mitigate hunger and famine In the pre-industrial age, European countries suffered from famine due to crop failures In 1847, Prussia and Germany suffered from widespread malnutrition because of poor harvests Between 1845 and 1851, a more serious famine occurred in Ireland, where a potato failure led to about a million deaths and caused about 2 million people to move away • Since the 1850s, Europe has been mostly free of famine because of two major factors: ○ Increase in overall prosperity ○ Improvement of transportation networks • The fact that most Europeans have enough food to feed themselves generously, even in times of rapid population growth, is testimony to the long-term benefits of the Industrial Revolution

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